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Sample records for nettles urtica dioica

  1. Study of stinging nettle (urtica dioica l.) Fibers reinforced green composite materials : a review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agus Suryawan, I. G. P.; Suardana, N. P. G.; Suprapta Winaya, I. N.; Budiarsa Suyasa, I. W.; Tirta Nindhia, T. G.

    2017-05-01

    Stinging Nettle (Urtica dioica L., latin) is a wild plant that grows in Indonesia, Asia, and Europe. Nettle in Bali, Indonesia is called as Lateng, Jelatang. Nettle plant has a very strong fiber and high fixed carbon. Nettle plants are covered with fine hairs, especially in the leaves and stems. When it is touched, it will release chemicals, sting and trigger inflammation that causes redness, itching, bumps and irritation to the skin. Nettle plants grow in the wild, regarded as a weed in the agricultural industry, easy to grow and snatch food from the parent plant. The main objective of this paper is to review of the potential nettle fibers and then explain about the potential of local nettle plant in Indonesia. Nettle is a plant group at the end of bast. Its plant fibers taken from the bark, as reinforcement in composite materials. Nettle fibers have three main advantages such as strong, lightweight and low environmental impact.

  2. Mineral Properties and Dietary Value of Raw and Processed Stinging Nettle (Urtica dioica L.)

    OpenAIRE

    Rutto, Laban K.; Yixiang Xu; Elizabeth Ramirez; Michael Brandt

    2013-01-01

    Stinging nettle (Urtica dioica L.) has a long history of usage and is currently receiving attention as a source of fiber and alternative medicine. In many cultures, nettle is also eaten as a leafy vegetable. In this study, we focused on nettle yield (edible portion) and processing effects on nutritive and dietary properties. Actively growing shoots were harvested from field plots and leaves separated from stems. Leaf portions (200 g) were washed and processed by blanching (1 min at 96–98°C) o...

  3. Effect of ecological surface treatment method on friction strength properties of nettle (urtica dioica) fibre yarns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Şansal, S.; Mıstık, S. I.; Fettahov, R.; Ovalı, S.; Duman, M.

    2017-10-01

    Over the last few decades, more attention is given to lignocellulose based fibres as reinforcement material in the polymer composites owing to the environmental pollution caused by the extensive usage of synthetic and inorganic fibres. Developing new natural fibre reinforced composites is the focus of many researches nowadays. They are made from renewable resources and they have less environmental effect in comparison to inorganic fibre reinforced composites. The interest of consumers in eco-friendly natural fibres and textiles has increased in recent years. Unlike inorganic fibres, natural fibres present light weight, high strength/density ratio and are readily available, environmentally friendly and biodegradable. Many different types of natural fibres are exploited for the production of biodegradable polymer composites. The nettle (Urtica dioica L.) is a well-known plant growing on rural sites of Europe, Asia, and North America. Nettle plant contains fibre similar to hemp and flax. However, similar to other natural fibres, nettle fibres are poorly compatible with the thermoplastic matrix of composites, due to their hydrophilic character which reduces mechanical properties of nettle fibre reinforced thermoplastics. In order to improve the fibrematrix adhesion of the natural fibre reinforced composites, surface treatment processes are applied to the lignocellulose fibres. In this study nettle (urtica dioica) fibre yarns were treated with NaOH by using conventional, ultrasonic and microwave energy methods. After treatment processes tensile strength, elongation, friction strength and SEM observations of the nettle fibre yarns were investigated. All treatment processes were improved the tensile strength, elongation and friction strength properties of the nettle fibre yarns. Also higher tensile strength, elongation and friction strength properties were obtained from treated nettle fibre yarns which treated by using microwave energy method.

  4. AROMA PROFILE AND ANTIMICROBIAL PROPERTIES OF ALCOHOLIC AND AQUEOUS EXTRACTS FROM ROOT, LEAF AND STALK OF NETTLE (Urtica dioica L.)

    OpenAIRE

    Razzagh Mahmoudi; Kiumars Amini; Omid Fakhri; Mahsa Alem

    2014-01-01

    Medicinal plant can be considered as a great source of new antimicrobial agents due to their enormous therapeutic potential and limited side effects. Nettle (Urtica dioica L.) is a widespread and common medicinal plant widely used in traditional medicine. The present study investigates the antimicrobial potency of alcoholic and aqueous extracts of Urtica dioica on some gram positive and negative bacteria and also a particular type of fungi and analyzes the extracts to find the active ingredie...

  5. Mineral Properties and Dietary Value of Raw and Processed Stinging Nettle (Urtica dioica L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rutto, Laban K; Xu, Yixiang; Ramirez, Elizabeth; Brandt, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Stinging nettle (Urtica dioica L.) has a long history of usage and is currently receiving attention as a source of fiber and alternative medicine. In many cultures, nettle is also eaten as a leafy vegetable. In this study, we focused on nettle yield (edible portion) and processing effects on nutritive and dietary properties. Actively growing shoots were harvested from field plots and leaves separated from stems. Leaf portions (200 g) were washed and processed by blanching (1 min at 96-98°C) or cooking (7 min at 98-99°C) with or without salt (5 g·L(-1)). Samples were cooled immediately after cooking and kept in frozen storage before analysis. Proximate composition, mineral, amino acid, and vitamin contents were determined, and nutritive value was estimated based on 100 g serving portions in a 2000 calorie diet. Results show that processed nettle can supply 90%-100% of vitamin A (including vitamin A as β-carotene) and is a good source of dietary calcium, iron, and protein. We recommend fresh or processed nettle as a high-protein, low-calorie source of essential nutrients, minerals, and vitamins particularly in vegetarian, diabetic, or other specialized diets.

  6. Mineral Properties and Dietary Value of Raw and Processed Stinging Nettle (Urtica dioica L.

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    Laban K. Rutto

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Stinging nettle (Urtica dioica L. has a long history of usage and is currently receiving attention as a source of fiber and alternative medicine. In many cultures, nettle is also eaten as a leafy vegetable. In this study, we focused on nettle yield (edible portion and processing effects on nutritive and dietary properties. Actively growing shoots were harvested from field plots and leaves separated from stems. Leaf portions (200 g were washed and processed by blanching (1 min at 96–98°C or cooking (7 min at 98-99°C with or without salt (5 g·. Samples were cooled immediately after cooking and kept in frozen storage before analysis. Proximate composition, mineral, amino acid, and vitamin contents were determined, and nutritive value was estimated based on 100 g serving portions in a 2000 calorie diet. Results show that processed nettle can supply 90%–100% of vitamin A (including vitamin A as β-carotene and is a good source of dietary calcium, iron, and protein. We recommend fresh or processed nettle as a high-protein, low-calorie source of essential nutrients, minerals, and vitamins particularly in vegetarian, diabetic, or other specialized diets.

  7. Characterization of antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of nettle leaves (Urtica dioica L.

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    Kukrić Zoran Z.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Samples of stinging nettle or common nettle (Urtica dioica L. were collected from the area of Banja Luka. To measure and evaluate the content of chlorophyll (a and b, carotenoids, and soluble proteins, as well as peroxidase activity (POD, EC 1.11.1.7., fresh nettle leaves of different developmental stages were used. Dried nettle leaves were used to obtain ethanol extract. The dry residue of ethanol extract was dissolved in methanol and the obtained solution was used to determine the content of total phenols, flavonoids, flavonols, as well as non-enzymatic antioxidant activity and antimicrobial activity. The non-enzymatic antioxidant activity was determined by different methods: FRAP, DPPH, and ABTS. The results were compared to those of standard substances like vitamin C, BHT, and BHA. Antimicrobial activity was screened by using macrodilution method. The obtained results showed insignificantly higher content of chlorophyll, carotenoids, and proteins in young nettle leaves as well as an increase in the soluble peroxidase activities. Native electrophoresis of the soluble fraction showed the presence of two peroxidase isophorms in the soluble protein fraction of nettle leaves. The total phenolic content in nettle extracts amounted to 208.37 mg GAE/gdw, the content of total flavonoids was 20.29 mg QE/gdw, and the content of total flavonols was 22.83 mg QE/gdw. The antioxidant activity determined by FRAP method was 7.50 mM Fe(II/gdw, whereas the antioxidant activity measured by using DPPH and ABTS methods, with IC50 values, were 31.38 and 23.55 μg mL-1, respectively. These results showed the weak and moderate antioxidant capacity of stinging nettle. Extract of Urtica dioica L. was tested for antibacterial acivity against various Grampositive and Gram-negative bacteria: Bacillus subtilis IP 5832, Lactobacillus plantarum 299v (Lp299v, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Escherichia coli isolated from food and Escherichia coli isolated from urine samples

  8. Immunological responses and disease resistance of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) juveniles following dietary administration of stinging nettle (Urtica dioica).

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    Saeidi Asl, Mohammad Reza; Adel, Milad; Caipang, Christopher Marlowe A; Dawood, Mahmoud A O

    2017-12-01

    The present study investigated the effects of dietary supplementation of stinging nettle (Urtica dioica) on growth performance, skin mucus, immune response and disease resistance of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) fed with diets supplemented with U. dioica at 0, 1, 2 and 3%. After 8 weeks of feeding, the addition of U. dioica at 3% level resulted in improved weight gain, specific growth rate and feed conversion ratio significantly when compared to the other groups (P dioica enhanced growth and stimulated fish immunity; thus, enabling the fish to be more resistant against bacterial infections. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Comparison of nutritional properties of Stinging nettle (Urtica dioica) flour with wheat and barley flours.

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    Adhikari, Bhaskar Mani; Bajracharya, Alina; Shrestha, Ashok K

    2016-01-01

    Stinging nettle (Urtica dioica. L) is a wild, unique herbaceous perennial flowering plant with Stinging hairs. It has a long history of use as a food sources as a soup or curries, and also used as a fiber as well as a medicinal herb. The current aim was to analyze the composition and bioactive compounds in Nepalese Stinging nettle. Chemical analysis showed the relatively higher level of crude protein (33.8%), crude fiber (9.1%), crude fat (3.6%), total ash (16.2%), carbohydrate (37.4%), and relatively lower energy value (307 kcal/100 g) as compared to wheat and barley flours. Analysis of nettle powder showed significantly higher level of bioactive compounds: phenolic compounds as 129 mg Gallic acid equivalent/g; carotenoid level 3497 μg/g; tannin 0.93 mg/100 g; anti-oxidant activity 66.3 DPPH inhibition (%), as compared to wheat and barley. This study further established that nettle plants as very good source of energy, proteins, high fiber, and a range of health benefitting bioactive compounds.

  10. Effects of Various Doses of Selenite on Stinging Nettle (Urtica dioica L.

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    Miroslava Beklova

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of selenium (Se on the growth, accumulation and possible mechanisms of Se transport in certain parts (roots, leaves, stamp and apex of nettle (Urtica dioica L. plants. Se was supplemented by one-shot and two repeated doses to the soil (2.0 and 4.0 mg Se per kg of substrate. Selenium content in roots increased linearly with dose and was significantly higher compared to other plant parts of interest. However, growth of the above-ground parts of plant as well as roots was slightly inhibited with increasing selenium concentration in comparison to the untreated plants. The content of phytochelatin2, a low molecular mass peptide containing a sulfhydryl group, correlated well with the Se content. This suggests a possible stimulation of synthesis of this plant peptide by Se.

  11. Effects of various doses of selenite on stinging nettle (Urtica dioica L.).

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    Krystofova, Olga; Adam, Vojtech; Babula, Petr; Zehnalek, Josef; Beklova, Miroslava; Havel, Ladislav; Kizek, Rene

    2010-10-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of selenium (Se) on the growth, accumulation and possible mechanisms of Se transport in certain parts (roots, leaves, stamp and apex) of nettle (Urtica dioica L.) plants. Se was supplemented by one-shot and two repeated doses to the soil (2.0 and 4.0 mg Se per kg of substrate). Selenium content in roots increased linearly with dose and was significantly higher compared to other plant parts of interest. However, growth of the above-ground parts of plant as well as roots was slightly inhibited with increasing selenium concentration in comparison to the untreated plants. The content of phytochelatin2, a low molecular mass peptide containing a sulfhydryl group, correlated well with the Se content. This suggests a possible stimulation of synthesis of this plant peptide by Se.

  12. The distribution of macronutrients, anti-nutrients and essential elements in nettles, Laportea peduncularis susp. peduncularis (River nettle) and Urtica dioica (Stinging nettle).

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    Mahlangeni, Nomfundo T; Moodley, Roshila; Jonnalagadda, Sreekantha B

    2016-01-01

    Laportea peduncularis and Urtica dioica, which are popularly known as "Nettles" belong to the plant family Urticaceae and are consumed as green vegetables or used for their medicinal benefit in many countries in Africa, Asia, Europe and America. This study aimed at investigating the effect of cooking on the macronutrient, anti-nutrient and elemental composition of L. peduncularis and U. dioica leaves. The results showed a decrease in the crude fat, ash, carbohydrate and vitamin C content with cooking, but an increase in the vitamin E content. The anti-nutrient content (cyanides, phytates and saponins) increased slightly with cooking, while the oxalate content has decreased. The concentration of essential elements in cooked L. peduncularis leaves were found to be in decreasing order of Ca > Mg > Fe > Mn > Zn > Cu > Cr > Ni > Co. Both raw and cooked leaves of nettles were found to be rich sources of macronutrients and essential elements and may be used as alternatives to commercially available nutrient supplements. Statistical analyses (principal component analysis and correlations) indicated that certain elements taken up by these plants were from common sources. Both positive and negative relationships between nutrients, anti-nutrients and elements were observed in the plant leaves.

  13. Evaluation of antioxidant properties, elemental and phenolic contents composition of wild nettle (Urtica dioica L.) from Tunceli in Turkey.

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    Yildirim, N C; Turkoglu, S; Ince, O K; Ince, M

    2013-11-03

    Wild nettle (Urtica dioica L.) types were sampled from different geographical regions in Tunceli (Turkey) to determine their mineral, vitamin, phenolic contents and their antioxidant properties. The total phenol varied from 37.419 ± 0.380 to 19.182 ± 1.00 mg of GAEs g(-1) of dry nettle. The highest radical scavenging effect was observed in Mazgirt parting of the ways 7.5 km with 33.70 ± 0.849 mg mL(-1). The highest reducing power was observed in the nettles from Mazgirt parting of the ways 7.5 km. Among the various macronutrients estimated in the plant samples, potassium was present in the highest quantity followed by calcium and phosphate. Kaempferol and resveratrol were not determined in some nettle samples but rutin levels were determined in all samples. Vitamin A concentrations were ranged between 13.64 ± 1.90 and 5.74 ± 1.00 (mg kg(-1) dry weight). These results show that Urtica dioica L. collected from Tunceli in Turkey could be considered as a natural alternative source for food, pharmacology and medicine sectors.

  14. Ameliorative effects of stinging nettle (Urtica dioica) on testosterone-induced prostatic hyperplasia in rats.

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    Nahata, A; Dixit, V K

    2012-05-01

    The present study investigated the effects of stinging nettle (Urtica dioica L.) (UD) on benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) induced by testosterone. In vitro studies were conducted to assess the 5α-reductase inhibitory potential of UD. Two biochemical markers viz., β-sitosterol and scopoletin, were isolated and characterised in the extracts utilising High-performance thin layer chromatographic, FTIR, NMR and overlain UV spectral studies. Hyperplasia was induced in rats by subcutaneous administration of testosterone (3 mg kg(-1) s.c.) for 28 days in all the groups except the vehicle-treated group. Simultaneous administration of petroleum ether and ethanolic extracts (10, 20 and 50 mg kg(-1) p.o.) and isolated β-sitosterol (10 and 20 mg kg(-1) p.o.) was undertaken. Finasteride was used as a positive control (1 mg kg(-1) p.o.). Measurement of prostate/body weight ratio, weekly urine output and serum testosterone levels, prostate-specific antigen levels (on day 28) and histological examinations carried out on prostates from each group led us to conclude that UD can be used as an effective drug for the management of BPH. © 2011 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  15. Biochemical and hemato-immunological parameters in juvenile beluga (Huso huso) following the diet supplemented with nettle (Urtica dioica).

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    Binaii, Mohammad; Ghiasi, Maryam; Farabi, Seyed Mohammad Vahid; Pourgholam, Reza; Fazli, Hasan; Safari, Reza; Alavi, Seyed Eshagh; Taghavi, Mohammad Javad; Bankehsaz, Zahra

    2014-01-01

    The present study investigated the effects of different dietary nettle (Urtica dioica) levels on biochemical, hematological and immunological parameters in beluga (Huso huso). Fish were divided into 4 groups before being fed for 8 weeks with 0%, 3%, 6% and 12% of nettle. The blood samples were collected on week 4 and 8. The use of nettle did not significantly change the mean cell volume, mean cell haemoglobin, lymphocytes, eosinophils, albumin, glucose, alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, alkaline phosphatase and lysozyme activity on week 4 and 8. After 4 weeks, the total red blood cell (RBC) and hematocrit (Ht) showed a significant increase in 12% nettle group compared to the 3% nettle and control groups but haemoglobin (Hb) had a significant change in 12% nettle compared to the control. At the same time was not found a significant change in the mean cell haemoglobin concentration (MCHC), total white blood cell (WBC), neutrophils, respiratory burst activity (RB), total immunoglobulin (Ig) and total protein (TP), triglyceride (Tri) and cholesterol (Chol). After 8 weeks, the fish treated with nettle exhibited significantly increase in neutrophil and Hb levels compared to the control and between treatment groups, 12% nettle group shown the highest Hb while RBC and Hct values significantly rose in fish fed by 12% compared to the control. Supplementing 6% and 12% nettle increased the WBC and MCHC compared to the other groups. The group fed 12% showed a highly significant difference in RB, TP and Ig after 8 weeks. However, Tri and Chol were significantly decreased in the juvenile beluga fed by the 6% and 12% nettle diet compared to the other groups. The results suggest that by using this herb there will be an improvement in hemato-biochemical parameters and immune function of juvenile beluga.

  16. The effect of stinging nettle (Urtica dioica) seed oil on experimental colitis in rats.

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    Genc, Zeynep; Yarat, Aysen; Tunali-Akbay, Tugba; Sener, Goksel; Cetinel, Sule; Pisiriciler, Rabia; Caliskan-Ak, Esin; Altıntas, Ayhan; Demirci, Betul

    2011-12-01

    This study investigated the effect of Urtica dioica, known as stinging nettle, seed oil (UDO) treatment on colonic tissue and blood parameters of trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid (TNBS)-induced colitis in rats. Experimental colitis was induced with 1 mL of TNBS in 40% ethanol by intracolonic administration with a 8-cm-long cannula with rats under ether anesthesia, assigned to a colitis group and a colitis+UDO group. Rats in the control group were given saline at the same volume by intracolonic administration. UDO (2.5 mL/kg) was given to the colitis+UDO group by oral administration throughout a 3-day interval, 5 minutes later than colitis induction. Saline (2.5 mL/kg) was given to the control and colitis groups at the same volume by oral administration. At the end of the experiment macroscopic lesions were scored, and the degree of oxidant damage was evaluated by colonic total protein, sialic acid, malondialdehyde (MDA), and glutathione levels, collagen content, tissue factor activity, and superoxide dismutase and myeloperoxidase activities. Colonic tissues were also examined by histological and cytological analysis. Pro-inflammatory cytokines (tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin-1β, and interleukin-6), lactate dehydrogenase activity, and triglyceride and cholesterol levels were analyzed in blood samples. We found that UDO decreased levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines, lactate dehydrogenase, triglyceride, and cholesterol, which were increased in colitis. UDO administration ameliorated the TNBS-induced disturbances in colonic tissue except for MDA. In conclusion, UDO, through its anti-inflammatory and antioxidant actions, merits consideration as a potential agent in ameliorating colonic inflammation.

  17. AROMA PROFILE AND ANTIMICROBIAL PROPERTIES OF ALCOHOLIC AND AQUEOUS EXTRACTS FROM ROOT, LEAF AND STALK OF NETTLE (Urtica dioica L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Razzagh Mahmoudi

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Medicinal plant can be considered as a great source of new antimicrobial agents due to their enormous therapeutic potential and limited side effects. Nettle (Urtica dioica L. is a widespread and common medicinal plant widely used in traditional medicine. The present study investigates the antimicrobial potency of alcoholic and aqueous extracts of Urtica dioica on some gram positive and negative bacteria and also a particular type of fungi and analyzes the extracts to find the active ingredients by gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy (GC-MS method. Results from disc diffusion assay indicated that water extract of root, leaf and stalk had the highest antimicrobial activity respectively and caused significant inhibition zones in P. vulgaris, L. monocytogenes and K. pneumoniae cultures. Antimicrobial efficacy of ethanol extracts was higher in root extract which caused high growth inhibition zones in P. vulgaris, K. pneumoniae and S. aureus cultures. MBC and MIC experiments of the ethanol extract illustrated that the most powerful antimicrobial effect was related to the stem organ extract on K. pnuomonae and S. aureus bacteria. Highest level of antibacterial effects in root can be due to its higher concentration of contents compared to other organs. Based on these results it can be suggested that Urtica dioica and its water and ethanol extracts have noticeable antimicrobial effects against gram negative, positive and Candida albicans fungi that may be applicable as a prophylactic or therpeutic antimicrobial agent in both human and animals.

  18. Decomposition of heavy metal contaminated nettles (Urtica dioica L.) in soils subjected to heavy metal pollution by river sediments.

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    Khan, Khalid Saifullah; Joergensen, Rainer Georg

    2006-11-01

    Two incubation experiments were conducted to evaluate differences in the microbial use of non-contaminated and heavy metal contaminated nettle (Urtica dioica L.) shoot residues in three soils subjected to heavy metal pollution (Zn, Pb, Cu, and Cd) by river sediments. The microbial use of shoot residues was monitored by changes in microbial biomass C, biomass N, biomass P, ergosterol, N mineralisation, CO(2) production and O(2) consumption rates. Microbial biomass C, N, and P were estimated by fumigation extraction. In the non-amended soils, the mean microbial biomass C to soil organic C ratio decreased from 2.3% in the low metal soil to 1.1% in the high metal soils. In the 42-d incubation experiment, the addition of 2% nettle residues resulted in markedly increased contents of microbial biomass P (+240%), biomass C (+270%), biomass N (+310%), and ergosterol (+360%). The relative increase in the four microbial properties was similar for the three soils and did not show any clear heavy metal effect. The contents of microbial biomass C, N and P and ergosterol contents declined approximately by 30% during the incubation as in the non-amended soils. The ratios microbial biomass C to N, microbial biomass C to P, and ergosterol to microbial biomass C remained constant at 5.2, 26, and 0.5%, respectively. In the 6-d incubation experiment, the respiratory quotient CO(2)/O(2) increased from 0.74 in the low metal soil to 1.58 in the high metal soil in the non-amended soils. In the treatments amended with 4% nettle residues, the respiratory quotient was constant at 1.13, without any effects of the three soils or the two nettle treatments. Contaminated nettle residues led generally to significantly lower N mineralisation, CO(2) production and O(2) consumption rates than non-contaminated nettle residues. However, the absolute differences were small.

  19. Purification and characterization of polyphenol oxidase from nettle (Urtica dioica L.) and inhibitory effects of some chemicals on enzyme activity.

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    Güllçin, Ilhami; Küfrevioğlu, O Irfan; Oktay, Münir

    2005-06-01

    Polyphenol oxidase (PPO) of nettle (Urtica dioica L.) was extracted and purified through (NH4)2SO4 precipitation, dialysis, and CM-Sephadex ion-exchange chromatography and was used for its characterization. The PPO showed activity to catechol, 4-methylcatechol, L-3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine (L-DOPA), L-tyrosine, p-cresol, pyrogallol, catechin and trans-cinnamic acid. For each of these eight substrates, optimum conditions such as pH and temperature were determined and L-tyrosine was found to be one of the most suitable substrates. Optimum pH and temperature were found at pH 4.5 and 30 degrees C respectively and Km and Vmax values were 7.90 x 10(-4) M, and 11290 EU/mL for with L-tyrosine as substrate. The inhibitory effect of several inhibitors, L-cysteine chloride, sodium azide, sodium cyanide, benzoic acid, salicylic acid, L-ascorbic acid, glutathione, thiourea, sodium diethyl dithiocarbamate, beta-mercaptoethanol and sodium metabisulfite were tested. The most effective was found to be sodium diethyl dithiocarbamate which acted as a competitive inhibitor with a Ki value of 1.79 x 10(-9)M. In addition one isoenzyme of PPO was detected by native polacrylamide slab gel electrophoresis.

  20. Effect of nettle (Urtica dioica extract on gentamicin induced nephrotoxicity in male rabbits

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    Nadia Abdulkarim Salih

    2015-09-01

    Conclusions: Therefore, it can be assumed that the nephroprotective effect shown by nettle in gentamicin-induced nephrotoxicity can reserve intracellular levels of biological pathways and supportively enhance excretion of toxic levels of gentamicin.

  1. Treatment of musculoskeletal pain with the sting of the stinging nettle: Urtica dioica

    OpenAIRE

    Randall, Colin F

    2001-01-01

    Introduction The author's interest in the therapeutic potential of the sting of nettles began with the presentation of two patients in his general practice surgery who were self-prescribing nettle sting for their arthritis pain. The publication of these two case reports produced responses from four other doctors about similar cases. Historical and contemporary research An extensive literature and database review produced few references from the medical literature but numero...

  2. Antifungal activity of nettle (Urtica dioica L.), colocynth (Citrullus colocynthis L. Schrad), oleander (Nerium oleander L.) and konar (Ziziphus spina-christi L.) extracts on plants pathogenic fungi.

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    Hadizadeh, I; Peivastegan, B; Kolahi, M

    2009-01-01

    Anti-mycotic activity of the ethanol extracts from Nettle (Urtica dioica L.), Colocynth (Citrullus colocynthis L. Schrad), Konar (Ziziphus spina-christi L.) and Oleander (Nerium oleander L.) floral parts were screened in vitro against four important plant pathogenic fungi viz.; Alternaria alternate, Fusarium oxysporum, Fusarium solani and Rizoctonia solani using agar dilution bioassay. Extracts showed antifungal activity against all the tested fungi. Among the plants, Nettle and Colocynth were the most effective against A. alternate and R. solani while Oleander possesses the best inhibition on F. oxysporum and F. solani. Konar was the most effective extract by reducing the growth of Rizoctonia solani than other fungi. These results showed that extracts could be considered suitable alternatives to chemical additives for the control of fungal diseases in plants.

  3. Modeling the accumulation of As, Cd, Cu, Pb and Zn in grasses (Agrotis sp. and Poa sp. and stinging nettle (Urtica dioica on selected sites taking into account soil physico-chemical properties

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    Boshoff M. C.

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The effect of soil properties on the accumulation of metals in two vegetation types was evaluated at 10 sites with a wide variation in soil physicochemical properties pH, organic carbon, clay percentage , total soil metal concentration and exchangeable soil metal content. Accumulation modeling was conducted for grasses (Agrostis sp. and Poa sp. and stinging nettle (Urtica dioica.

  4. Modeling the accumulation of As, Cd, Cu, Pb and Zn in grasses (Agrotis sp. and Poa sp. and stinging nettle (Urtica dioica on selected sites taking into account soil physico-chemical properties

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    Boshoff M.C.

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The effect of soil properties on the accumulation of metals in two vegetation types was evaluated at 10 sites with a wide variation in soil physicochemical properties pH, organic carbon, clay percentage , total soil metal concentration and exchangeable soil metal content. Accumulation modeling was conducted for grasses (Agrostis sp. and Poa sp. and stinging nettle (Urtica dioica.

  5. Chemical Composition and Immuno-Modulatory Effects of Urtica dioica L. (Stinging Nettle) Extracts.

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    Francišković, Marina; Gonzalez-Pérez, Raquel; Orčić, Dejan; Sánchez de Medina, Fermín; Martínez-Augustin, Olga; Svirčev, Emilija; Simin, Nataša; Mimica-Dukić, Neda

    2017-08-01

    The purpose of this work was to determine the chemical profile of stinging nettle and to provide an insight into the mechanisms by which it ameliorates the immune response. Qualitative and quantitative liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry analyses indicated that phenolic acids (5-O-caffeoylquinic acid as dominant) and flavonol glycosides (rutin, isoquercitrin, and kaempferol 3-O-glucoside) are present in the aerial parts, while lignans (secoisolariciresinol, 9,9'-bisacetyl-neo-olivil and their glucosides) were detected in the root. Herb and root extracts expressed selective inhibition toward cyclooxygenase and lipoxygenase branches in human platelets: root extracts were better at inhibiting thromboxane production, while herb extracts were more specific toward inhibition of 12-lipoxygenase pathway. Stinging nettle extracts mildly increased monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 and growth-related oncogene release from nonstimulated intestinal epithelial cells, stimulating MyD88/NF-κB/p38 signaling, hence preserving the epithelial integrity and enhancing intestinal steady-state defense. Additionally, root extract reduced lipopolysaccharide-induced monocyte chemoattractant protein-1/growth-related oncogene secretion and cyclooxygenase-2 expression in intestinal epithelial cells, thus showing the potential protective effect against tissue damage caused by inflammation processes. These observations suggest that stinging nettle is an interesting candidate for the development of phytopharmaceuticals or dietary supplements for cotreatment of various inflammatory diseases, particularly inflammatory bowel diseases. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  6. Stinging Nettle (Urtica dioica L. Attenuates FFA Induced Ceramide Accumulation in 3T3-L1 Adipocytes in an Adiponectin Dependent Manner.

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    Diana N Obanda

    Full Text Available Excess dietary lipids result in the accumulation of lipid metabolites including ceramides that can attenuate insulin signaling. There is evidence that a botanical extract of Urtica dioica L. (stinging nettle improves insulin action, yet the precise mechanism(s are not known. Hence, we examined the effects of Urtica dioica L. (UT on adipocytes.We investigated the effects of an ethanolic extract of UT on free fatty acid (palmitic acid induced inhibition of insulin-stimulated Akt serine phosphorylation and modulation of ceramidase expression in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. Adipocytes were exposed to excess FFAs in the presence or absence of UT. Effects on adiponectin expression, ceramidase expression, ceramidase activity, ceramide accumulation and insulin signaling were determined.As expected, FFAs reduced adiponectin expression and increased the expression of ceramidase enzymes but not their activity. FFA also induced the accumulation of ceramides and reduced insulin-stimulated phosphorylation of Akt in adipocytes. The effects of FFA were partially reversed by UT. UT enhanced adiponectin expression and ceramidase activity in the presence of excess FFAs. UT abated ceramide accumulation and increased insulin sensitivity via enhanced Akt phosphorylation. A siRNA knockdown of adiponectin expression prevented UT from exerting positive effects on ceramidase activity but not Akt phosphorylation.In adipocytes, the ability of UT to antagonize the negative effects of FFA by modulating ceramidase activity and ceramide accumulation is dependent on the presence of adiponectin. However, the ability of UT to enhance Akt phosphorylation is independent of adiponectin expression. These studies demonstrate direct effects of UT on adipocytes and suggest this botanical extract is metabolically beneficial.

  7. Stinging Nettle (Urtica dioica L.) Attenuates FFA Induced Ceramide Accumulation in 3T3-L1 Adipocytes in an Adiponectin Dependent Manner.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obanda, Diana N; Zhao, Peng; Richard, Allison J; Ribnicky, David; Cefalu, William T; Stephens, Jacqueline M

    2016-01-01

    Excess dietary lipids result in the accumulation of lipid metabolites including ceramides that can attenuate insulin signaling. There is evidence that a botanical extract of Urtica dioica L. (stinging nettle) improves insulin action, yet the precise mechanism(s) are not known. Hence, we examined the effects of Urtica dioica L. (UT) on adipocytes. We investigated the effects of an ethanolic extract of UT on free fatty acid (palmitic acid) induced inhibition of insulin-stimulated Akt serine phosphorylation and modulation of ceramidase expression in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. Adipocytes were exposed to excess FFAs in the presence or absence of UT. Effects on adiponectin expression, ceramidase expression, ceramidase activity, ceramide accumulation and insulin signaling were determined. As expected, FFAs reduced adiponectin expression and increased the expression of ceramidase enzymes but not their activity. FFA also induced the accumulation of ceramides and reduced insulin-stimulated phosphorylation of Akt in adipocytes. The effects of FFA were partially reversed by UT. UT enhanced adiponectin expression and ceramidase activity in the presence of excess FFAs. UT abated ceramide accumulation and increased insulin sensitivity via enhanced Akt phosphorylation. A siRNA knockdown of adiponectin expression prevented UT from exerting positive effects on ceramidase activity but not Akt phosphorylation. In adipocytes, the ability of UT to antagonize the negative effects of FFA by modulating ceramidase activity and ceramide accumulation is dependent on the presence of adiponectin. However, the ability of UT to enhance Akt phosphorylation is independent of adiponectin expression. These studies demonstrate direct effects of UT on adipocytes and suggest this botanical extract is metabolically beneficial.

  8. The landsnail Cepaea nemoralis regulates internal Cd levels when fed on Cd-enriched stinging nettle (Urtica dioica) leaves at low, field-relevant concentrations.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Notten, M.J.M.; Oosthoek, A.; Rozema, J.; Aerts, R.

    2006-01-01

    We studied Cd accumulation in Cepaea nemoralis snails at low, but field-relevant Cd concentrations in the diet (Urtica dioica leaves). Six treatments of U. dioica plants were grown, resulting in leaf Cd concentrations between 0 and 2.6 μg g

  9. Effects of dietary administration of stinging nettle (Urtica dioica) on the growth performance, biochemical, hematological and immunological parameters in juvenile and adult Victoria Labeo (Labeo victorianus) challenged with Aeromonas hydrophila.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngugi, Charles C; Oyoo-Okoth, Elijah; Mugo-Bundi, James; Orina, Paul Sagwe; Chemoiwa, Emily Jepyegon; Aloo, Peninah A

    2015-06-01

    We investigated effects of dietary administration of stinging nettle (Urtica dioica) on growth performance, biochemical, hematological and immunological parameters in juvenile and adult Victoria Labeo (Labeo victorianus) against Aeromonas hydrophila. Fish were divided into 4 groups and fed for 4 and 16 weeks with 0%, 1%, 2% and 5% of U. dioica incorporated into the diet. Use of U. dioica in the diet resulted in improved biochemical, hematological and immunological parameters. Among the biochemical parameters; plasma cortisol, glucose, triglyceride and cholesterol decreased while total protein and albumin in fish increased with increasing dietary inclusion of U. dioica. Among the haematology parameters: red blood cell (RBC), white blood cell (WBC) counts, haematocrit (Htc), mean cell haemoglobin (MCH), mean cell haemoglobin concentration (MCHC) and netrophiles increased with increasing dietary inclusion levels of U. dioica, some depending on the fish age. Serum immunoglobulins, lysozyme activity and respiratory burst were the main immunological parameters in the adult and juvenile L. victorianus measured and they all increased with increasing herbal inclusion of U. dioica in the diet. Dietary incorporation of U. dioica at 5% showed significantly higher relative percentage survival (up to 95%) against A. hydrophila. The current results demonstrate that using U. dioica can stimulate fish immunity and make L. victorianus more resistant to bacterial infection (A. hydrophila). Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Screening antimicrobial activity of various extracts of Urtica dioica

    OpenAIRE

    Amir Modarresi-Chahardehi; Darah Ibrahim; Shaida Fariza-Sulaiman; Leila Mousavi

    2012-01-01

    Urtica dioica or stinging nettle is traditionally used as an herbal medicine in Western Asia. The current study represents the investigation of antimicrobial activity of U. dioica from nine crude extracts that were prepared using different organic solvents, obtained from two extraction methods: the Soxhlet extractor (Method I), which included the use of four solvents with ethyl acetate and hexane, or the sequential partitions (Method II) with a five solvent system (butanol). The antibacterial...

  11. Does stinging nettle (Urtica dioica) have an effect on bone formation in the expanded inter-premaxillary suture?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irgin, Celal; Çörekçi, Bayram; Ozan, Fatih; Halicioğlu, Koray; Toptaş, Orçun; Birinci Yildirim, Arzu; Türker, Arzu; Yilmaz, Fahri

    2016-09-01

    To determine whether systemically given stinging nettle (SN) has an effect on bone formation in response to expansion of the rat inter-premaxillary suture. A total of 28 male Wistar albino rats were randomly divided into 4 equal groups: control (C), only expansion (OE), SN extract given only during the expansion and retention periods (SN group; a total of 17days), and SN extract given during the nursery phase before expansion (a period of 40days) and during the expansion and retention periods (N+SN group; a total of 57days). After the 5-day expansion period was completed, the rats in the OE, SN, and N+SN groups underwent 12days of mechanical retention, after which they were sacrificed, and their premaxilla were dissected and fixed. A histologic evaluation was done to determine the number of osteoblasts, osteoclasts, and capillaries, as well as the number and intensity of inflammatory cells and new bone formation. Statistically significant differences were found between the groups in all histologic parameters except the ratio of intensities of inflammatory cells. New bone formation and the number of capillaries were significantly higher in the SN groups than in the other groups. The statistical analysis also showed that the numbers of osteoblasts, osteoclasts, and capillaries were highest in the N+SN group. Systemic administration of SN may be effective in accelerating new bone formation and reducing inflammation in the maxillary expansion procedure. It may also be beneficial in preventing relapse after the expansion procedure. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. The effect of hydro alcoholic Nettle (Urtica dioica) extracts on insulin sensitivity and some inflammatory indicators in patients with type 2 diabetes: a randomized double-blind control trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Namazi, N; Esfanjani, A T; Heshmati, J; Bahrami, A

    2011-08-01

    Type 2 diabetes is a metabolic disorder that is strongly associated with cardiovascular risk. Inflammation is a potential risk factor for cardiovascular disease. In this study, hydro alcoholic extract of Nettle (Urtica dioica) on insulin sensitivity and some inflammatory indicators in type 2 diabetic patients were studied. A randomized double-blind clinical trial on 50 men and women with type 2 diabetes was done for 8 weeks. Patients were adjusted by age, sex and duration of diabetes, then randomly divided into two groups, an intervention and control group. They received, 100 mg kg-1nettle extract or placebo in three portions a day for 8 weeks. Interleukin 6 (IL-6), Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha (TNF-alpha), High Sensitive C-Reactive protein (hs-CRP) and Fasting Insulin concentration were measured. Insulin Sensitivity was calculated, at the beginning and the end of the study. The data were analyzed by SPSS version 18, peffects on IL-6 and hs-CRP in patients with type 2 diabetes after eight weeks intervention.

  13. Urtica dioica pollen allergy: Clinical, biological, and allergomics analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiotiu, Angelica; Brazdova, Andrea; Longé, Cyril; Gallet, Patrice; Morisset, Martine; Leduc, Virginie; Hilger, Christiane; Broussard, Cédric; Couderc, Rémy; Sutra, Jean-Pierre; Sénéchal, Hélène; Poncet, Pascal

    2016-11-01

    The most emblematic members of Urticaceae at allergic risk level are wall pellitories (Parietaria), whereas nettle (Urtica) pollen is considered as poorly allergenic. No allergen from nettle pollen has yet been characterized, whereas 4 are listed for Parietaria pollen by the International Union of Immunological Societies. Clinical and biological profiles of 2 adult men who developed symptoms against nettle pollen and/or leaves were studied. To characterize the allergic reaction and identify the potential nettle pollen sensitizing allergens. IgE-mediated reaction to nettle pollen extract was evaluated by skin prick test, immunoassay, nasal provocation, and basophil activation test. To characterize specific nettle pollen allergens, an allergomic (IgE immunoproteomic) analysis was performed combining 1- and 2-dimensional electrophoresis, IgE immunoblots of nettle pollen extract, identification of allergens by mass spectrometry, and database queries. The results of biological and immunochemical analyses revealed that the allergic rhinitis was due to Urtica dioica pollen in both patients. The allergomic analysis of nettle pollen extract allowed the characterization of 4 basic protein allergens: a thaumatin-like protein (osmotin) with a relative molecular mass of 27 to 29 kDa, a pectinesterase (relative molecular mass, 40 kDa), and 2 other basic proteins with relative molecular masses of 14 to 16 kDa and 43 kDa. There is no or only very weak allergen associations between pellitory and nettle pollen. Exposure to nettle pollen can be responsible of allergic symptoms, and several allergens were characterized. Unravelling the allergens of this underestimated allergy might help to improve diagnosis and care for patients, to predict cross-reactivities and design adapted specific immunotherapy. Copyright © 2016 American College of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. The landsnail Cepaea nemoralis regulates internal Cd levels when fed on Cd-enriched stinging nettle (Urtica dioica) leaves at low, field-relevant concentrations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Notten, M.J.M. [Institute of Ecological Science, Department of Systems Ecology, Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam, De Boelelaan 1085, 1081 HV, Amsterdam (Netherlands)]. E-mail: martje.notten@ecology.falw.vu.nl; Oosthoek, A.J.P. [Institute of Ecological Science, Department of Systems Ecology, Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam, De Boelelaan 1085, 1081 HV, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Rozema, J. [Institute of Ecological Science, Department of Systems Ecology, Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam, De Boelelaan 1085, 1081 HV, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Aerts, R. [Institute of Ecological Science, Department of Systems Ecology, Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam, De Boelelaan 1085, 1081 HV, Amsterdam (Netherlands)

    2006-01-15

    We studied Cd accumulation in Cepaea nemoralis snails at low, but field-relevant Cd concentrations in the diet (Urtica dioica leaves). Six treatments of U. dioica plants were grown, resulting in leaf Cd concentrations between 0 and 2.6 {mu}g g{sup -1} dw. Seven snails per treatment were fed for 38 days. Leaf Cd concentrations did not affect food consumption rates, and consequently Cd intake rates increased with increasing leaf concentrations. No differences were detected among treatments in the final soft tissue Cd concentrations and body burdens in the snails. Regression analyses showed no positive relationship between either snail Cd concentrations or body burdens and total Cd intake. This suggests a regulation of internal Cd concentrations at low food Cd concentrations. Our data suggest that Cd excretion via the mucus plays a substantial role in this regulation, in addition to Cd excretion via the faeces. Snail shells were no sinks for Cd. - Cd excretion via the mucus plays a substantial role in the regulation of C. nemoralis soft tissue Cd concentrations at low, but field-relevant Cd concentrations in the food.

  15. Extracts from fruits of saw palmetto (Sabal serrulata) and roots of stinging nettle (Urtica dioica): viable alternatives in the medical treatment of benign prostatic hyperplasia and associated lower urinary tracts symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koch, E

    2001-08-01

    Benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) and associated lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) are very common disorders in aging men. Despite the great clinical importance, many aspects of their aetiology remain uncertain although it is generally accepted that advanced age and testicular androgens are important requirements for the development of these complaints. The currently available therapeutic options include watchful waiting, changes of life style, medical treatments and invasive therapies. In many European countries the use of phytopharmaceuticals for the management of BPH and related LUTS is common and these products represent up to 80 % of all drugs prescribed for this disorder. In particularly, extracts from the fruits of saw palmetto (Sabal serrulata, syn. Serenoa repens) and the roots of stinging nettle (Urtica dioica) are popular. During the last years numerous papers have been published which elaborated on the pharmacological activities and the clinical assessment of these herbal remedies. These investigations have not only broadened the scientific basis for the rational use of phytotherapeutics but have also provided evidence for their therapeutic efficacy and favourable safety profile.

  16. Botanical Extracts from Rosehip (Rosa canina, Willow Bark (Salix alba, and Nettle Leaf (Urtica dioica Suppress IL-1β-Induced NF-κB Activation in Canine Articular Chondrocytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehdi Shakibaei

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to characterize the anti-inflammatory mode of action of botanical extracts from rosehip (Rosa canina, willow bark (Salix alba, and nettle leaf (Urtica dioica in an in vitro model of primary canine articular chondrocytes. Methods. The biological effects of the botanical extracts were studied in chondrocytes treated with IL-1β for up to 72 h. Expression of collagen type II, cartilage-specific proteoglycan (CSPG, β1-integrin, SOX-9, COX-2, and MMP-9 and MMP-13 was examined by western blotting. Results. The botanical extracts suppressed IL-1β-induced NF-κB activation by inhibition of IκBα phosphorylation, IκBα degradation, p65 phosphorylation, and p65 nuclear translocation. These events correlated with downregulation of NF-κB targets including COX-2 and MMPs. The extracts also reversed the IL-1β-induced downregulation of collagen type II, CSPG, β1-integrin, and cartilage-specific transcription factor SOX-9 protein expression. In high-density cultures botanical extracts stimulated new cartilage formation even in the presence of IL-1β. Conclusions. Botanical extracts exerted anti-inflammatory and anabolic effects on chondrocytes. The observed reduction of IL-1β-induced NF-κB activation suggests that further studies are warranted to demonstrate the effectiveness of plant extracts in the treatment of OA and other conditions in which NF-κB plays pathophysiological roles.

  17. Botanical Extracts from Rosehip (Rosa canina), Willow Bark (Salix alba), and Nettle Leaf (Urtica dioica) Suppress IL-1β-Induced NF-κB Activation in Canine Articular Chondrocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shakibaei, Mehdi; Allaway, David; Nebrich, Simone; Mobasheri, Ali

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to characterize the anti-inflammatory mode of action of botanical extracts from rosehip (Rosa canina), willow bark (Salix alba), and nettle leaf (Urtica dioica) in an in vitro model of primary canine articular chondrocytes. Methods. The biological effects of the botanical extracts were studied in chondrocytes treated with IL-1β for up to 72 h. Expression of collagen type II, cartilage-specific proteoglycan (CSPG), β1-integrin, SOX-9, COX-2, and MMP-9 and MMP-13 was examined by western blotting. Results. The botanical extracts suppressed IL-1β-induced NF-κB activation by inhibition of IκBα phosphorylation, IκBα degradation, p65 phosphorylation, and p65 nuclear translocation. These events correlated with downregulation of NF-κB targets including COX-2 and MMPs. The extracts also reversed the IL-1β-induced downregulation of collagen type II, CSPG, β1-integrin, and cartilage-specific transcription factor SOX-9 protein expression. In high-density cultures botanical extracts stimulated new cartilage formation even in the presence of IL-1β. Conclusions. Botanical extracts exerted anti-inflammatory and anabolic effects on chondrocytes. The observed reduction of IL-1β-induced NF-κB activation suggests that further studies are warranted to demonstrate the effectiveness of plant extracts in the treatment of OA and other conditions in which NF-κB plays pathophysiological roles.

  18. Botanical Extracts from Rosehip (Rosa canina), Willow Bark (Salix alba), and Nettle Leaf (Urtica dioica) Suppress IL-1β-Induced NF-κB Activation in Canine Articular Chondrocytes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shakibaei, Mehdi; Allaway, David; Nebrich, Simone; Mobasheri, Ali

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to characterize the anti-inflammatory mode of action of botanical extracts from rosehip (Rosa canina), willow bark (Salix alba), and nettle leaf (Urtica dioica) in an in vitro model of primary canine articular chondrocytes. Methods. The biological effects of the botanical extracts were studied in chondrocytes treated with IL-1β for up to 72 h. Expression of collagen type II, cartilage-specific proteoglycan (CSPG), β1-integrin, SOX-9, COX-2, and MMP-9 and MMP-13 was examined by western blotting. Results. The botanical extracts suppressed IL-1β-induced NF-κB activation by inhibition of IκBα phosphorylation, IκBα degradation, p65 phosphorylation, and p65 nuclear translocation. These events correlated with downregulation of NF-κB targets including COX-2 and MMPs. The extracts also reversed the IL-1β-induced downregulation of collagen type II, CSPG, β1-integrin, and cartilage-specific transcription factor SOX-9 protein expression. In high-density cultures botanical extracts stimulated new cartilage formation even in the presence of IL-1β. Conclusions. Botanical extracts exerted anti-inflammatory and anabolic effects on chondrocytes. The observed reduction of IL-1β-induced NF-κB activation suggests that further studies are warranted to demonstrate the effectiveness of plant extracts in the treatment of OA and other conditions in which NF-κB plays pathophysiological roles. PMID:22474508

  19. Inhibition of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus replication in a lethal SARS-CoV BALB/c mouse model by stinging nettle lectin, Urtica dioica agglutinin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumaki, Yohichi; Wandersee, Miles K; Smith, Aaron J; Zhou, Yanchen; Simmons, Graham; Nelson, Nathan M; Bailey, Kevin W; Vest, Zachary G; Li, Joseph K-K; Chan, Paul Kay-Sheung; Smee, Donald F; Barnard, Dale L

    2011-04-01

    Urtica dioica agglutinin (UDA) is a small plant monomeric lectin, 8.7 kDa in size, with an N-acetylglucosamine specificity that inhibits viruses from Nidovirales in vitro. In the current study, we first examined the efficacy of UDA on the replication of different SARS-CoV strains in Vero 76 cells. UDA inhibited virus replication in a dose-dependent manner and reduced virus yields of the Urbani strain by 90% at 1.1 ± 0.4 μg/ml in Vero 76 cells. Then, UDA was tested for efficacy in a lethal SARS-CoV-infected BALB/c mouse model. BALB/c mice were infected with two LD50 (575 PFU) of virus for 4 h before the mice were treated intraperitoneally with UDA at 20, 10, 5 or 0 mg/kg/day for 4 days. Treatment with UDA at 5 mg/kg significantly protected the mice against a lethal infection with mouse-adapted SARS-CoV (p effectively reduced lung pathology scores. At day 6 after virus exposure, all groups of mice receiving UDA had much lower lung weights than did the placebo-treated mice. Thus, our data suggest that UDA treatment of SARS infection in mice leads to a substantial therapeutic effect that protects mice against death and weight loss. Furthermore, the mode of action of UDA in vitro was further investigated using live SARS-CoV Urbani strain virus and retroviral particles pseudotyped with SARS-CoV spike (S). UDA specifically inhibited the replication of live SARS-CoV or SARS-CoV pseudotyped virus when added just before, but not after, adsorption. These data suggested that UDA likely inhibits SARS-CoV infection by targeting early stages of the replication cycle, namely, adsorption or penetration. In addition, we demonstrated that UDA neutralizes the virus infectivity, presumably by binding to the SARS-CoV spike (S) glycoprotein. Finally, the target molecule for the inhibition of virus replication was partially characterized. When UDA was exposed to N-acetylglucosamine and then UDA was added to cells just prior to adsorption, UDA did not inhibit the virus infection. These

  20. The effect of hydro alcoholic nettle (Urtica dioica) extract on oxidative stress in patients with type 2 diabetes: a randomized double-blind clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Namazi, N; Tarighat, A; Bahrami, A

    2012-01-15

    Diabetes type 2 is a metabolic disorder that characterized by hyperglycemia and insulin resistance. Hyperglycemia and impairment of oxidant/antioxidant balance, can increase oxidative stress and increase risk of cardiovascular disease. In the present study, Effects of hydro alcoholic extract of Nettle on oxidative stress in type 2 diabetes were evaluated. Fifty patients (27 men, 23 women) with type 2 diabetes patients were studied. They received 100 mg kg(-1) of nettle extract of body weight hydro alcoholic for 8 weeks. At the baseline and end of 8th weeks of intervention blood levels of oxidative stress markers were measured. Data was analyzed by SPSS version 18, p effects on TAC and SOD in patients with type 2 diabetes without no changes in Malondialdehyde (MDA) and Glutathione Peroxides (GPX) after eight weeks intervention.

  1. Sex-related differences in photoinhibition, photo-oxidative stress and photoprotection in stinging nettle (Urtica dioica L.) exposed to drought and nutrient deficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simancas, Bárbara; Juvany, Marta; Cotado, Alba; Munné-Bosch, Sergi

    2016-03-01

    Dimorphic plant species can show distinct nutrient needs due to sex-related differences in nutrient allocation to reproductive structures, which can potentially affect their sensitivity to photoinhibition and photo-oxidative stress. Here, we investigated sex-related differences in the extent of photo-oxidative stress in male and female individuals of U. dioica exposed to a combination of severe drought and nutrient starvation. Male and female individuals of U. dioica subject to severe drought stress were exposed to various levels of nutrient availability. First, a set of plants grown under field conditions and exposed to summer drought was used to test the effects of nutrient supply (given as NPK fertilizer). Secondly, the effects of various phosphate concentrations in the nutrient solution were tested in drought-stressed potted plants. The Fv/Fm ratio (maximum efficiency of PSII photochemistry), photoprotection capacity (levels of carotenoids, including the xanthophyll cycle, and vitamins C and E), and the extent of lipid peroxidation (hydroperoxide levels) were measured. Results showed that an application of the NPK fertilizer to the soil had a positive effect on drought-stressed plants, reducing the extent of lipid peroxidation in both males and females. P deficiency led to residual photoinhibition, as indicated by significant reductions in the Fv/Fm ratio, and enhanced lipid peroxidation in females, but not in males. We conclude that (i) increased nutrient availability in the soil can alleviate photo-oxidative stress in drought-stressed U. dioica plants, and (ii) U. dioica plants show sexual secondary dimorphism in terms of photoinhibition and photo-oxidative stress, but this is only apparent when stress infringed on plants is very severe. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. THE PROSPECTS OF THE USE OF DRUGS BASED ON RHIZOMES AND ROOTS OF URTICA DIOICA L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. A. Balagozyan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Stinging nettle (Urtica dioica L. from the Urticaceae family is one of the popular medicinal plants. The leaves of Urtica doica L. are used in our country as a hemostatic agent. The rhizomes and roots are the base for the drugs for prostatic adenoma treatment in foreign countries. Earlier we studied acute toxicity, and diuretic activity of an extract of the rootstock with roots of Urtica doica L. We have conducted a study of antimicrobial activity of water and alcohol-water extracts from the rhizomes and roots of Urtica dioica L. The determination of a minimal inhibiting concentration was conducted by using a method of double series broth dilution. Bacillus cereus, Candida albicans, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus microorganisms were used as testing cultures. The study showed that the broth and liquid extract of the nettle, obtained on the basis of 70% ethanol do not stop the growth of microorganisms. The liquid nettle extract obtained by 40% ethanol is characterized by the weak antimicrobial activity.

  3. Pharmacological and toxicological evaluation of Urtica dioica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dar, Sabzar Ahmad; Ganai, Farooq Ahmad; Yousuf, Abdul Rehman; Balkhi, Masood-Ul-Hassan; Bhat, Towseef Mohsin; Sharma, Poonam

    2013-02-01

    Medicinal plants are a largely unexplored source of drug repository. Urtica dioica L. (Urticaceae) is used in traditional medicine to treat diverse conditions. The present study describes the antidiabetic, antiinflammatory, antibacterial activity, and toxicological studies of Urtica dioica. U. dioica leaves were subjected to solvent extraction with hexane, chloroform, ethyl acetate, methanol, and aqueous, respectively, and screened for antidiabetic (300 mg/kg bw by glucose tolerance test; GTT), antiinflammatory (200 mg/kg bw by rat paw edema assay) and antibacterial activities [by disc-diffusion and minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) assays]. Toxicological studies were carried on Artemia salina and Wistar rats; phytochemical analyses were carried out, using chromatographic and spectroscopic techniques. The aqueous extract of U. dioica (AEUD) significantly (p effective dose of 300 mg/kg bw in dose-dependent studies. High-performance liquid chromatography with photodiode-array detection (HPLC-DAD) analysis showed the presence of hydroxycinnamic acid derivatives and flavonoids in AEUD. Hexane Fraction-2 (HF2) exhibited both antiinflammatory activity (48.83% after 3 h), comparable to that of indomethacin (53.48%), and potent antibacterial activity with MIC values ranging from 31.25-250 µg/mL against all the tested strains. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis showed fatty acid esters and terpenes as the major constituents of HF2. Toxicity tests showed higher safety margin of all the solvent extracts with LC(50) > 1000 μg/mL each on A. salina. Our results showed that the U. dioica leaves are an interesting source of bioactive compounds, justifying their use in folk medicine, to treat various diseases.

  4. Comparative study of the UV spectra of various raw materials OF Urtica dioica L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. A. Balagozyan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Stinging nettle (Urtica dioica L. is one of the famous and popular medicinal plants. In Russia the herbal materials are nettle’s leaves which have haemostatic effect. At the same time abroad the rhizomes and roots of nettle are the source of drugs with antitumor activity. The chemical composition of the rhizomes and roots of nettle is quite complicated and is represented by substances such as polysaccharides, lectins, sterols etc. The aim of the present study is the comparative phytochemical research of various parts of raw nettle by spectrophotometry. The study of extracts from various raw materials of nettle has shown, that the presence of flavonoids is peculiar for leaves, flowers and fruits. Sterols dominate in the rhizomes and roots of nettle. It was also noted that the UV-spectra of extracts of female inflorescences and fruits nettle have the same absorption maxima.

  5. Effect of Urtica dioica L. (Urticaceae) on testicular tissue in STZ-induced diabetic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghafari, S; Balajadeh, B Kabiri; Golalipour, M J

    2011-08-15

    Urtica dioica L. (Stinging nettle) has already been known for a long time as a medicinal plant in the world. This histopathological and morphometrical study was conducted to determine the effects of the hydroalcoholic extract of Urtica dioica leaves on testis of streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. Eighteen male Wistar rats were allocated to equally normal, diabetic and treatment groups. Hyperglycemia was induced by Streptozotocin (80 mg kg(-1)) in animals of diabetic and treatment groups. One week after STZ injection (80 mg kg(-1)), the rats of treatment group received the extract of U. dioica (100 mg/kg/day) IP for 28 days. After 5 weeks of study, all the rats were sacrificed and testes were removed and fixed in bouin and after tissue processing stained with H and E technique. Tubular cell disintegration, sertoli and spermatogonia cell vacuolization and decrease in sperm concentration in seminiferous tubules were seen in diabetic and treatment groups group in comparison with control. External Seminiferous Tubular Diameter (STD) and Seminiferous Epithelial Height (SEH) significantly reduced (p Urtica dioica leaves, after induction of diabetes; has no treatment effect on seminiferous tubules alterations in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats.

  6. Effects of Acute Administration of Urtica dioica on the Novel Object-Recognition Task in Mice

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    Hashemi-Firouzi

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Background Urtica dioica (nettle has a variety of uses in traditional medicine for the treatment of certain urogenital problems, gastrointestinal disorders, and diabetes. Objectives Recent studies have implicated the effect of U. dioica on brain functions such as pain and memory. However, there is no direct evidence of the acute effects of this plant on cognition. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of U. dioica aqueous extract on the novel object-recognition task (NOR in mice. Materials and Methods First, U. dioica aqueous extract was prepared, then adult male mice were randomly divided into four experimental groups. During the training session, the mice were placed in a box and given 5 minutes to explore two identical objects. The next day, they were again placed in the box and allowed to explore one familiar and one novel object. They received intraperitoneal injections of saline or U. dioica aqueous extract (100 mg/kg before or immediately after the training session or before the test session of the NOR task. Results The results showed that there was a preference for the novel object compared to the familiar one in each of the experimental groups. The object-recognition discrimination index in the group of mice that received U. dioica before training was significantly less than in the other experimental groups. There was no significant difference in the discrimination index between the other groups. U. dioica did not decrease the time spent exploring familiar and unfamiliar objects, or the total time spent exploring both objects. Conclusions Acute administration of U. dioica impairs the object-recognition task if it is used only before the training session. This may be due to its modulation on the acquisition processing of object-recognition. U. dioica has no significant effects on the consolidation or retrieval processing stages of the NOR task. These results emphasize the unfavorable effect on cognitive function of pre

  7. The effect of Urtica dioica extract on the number of astrocytes in the dentate gyrus of diabetic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jahanshahi, M; Golalipour, M J; Afshar, M

    2009-05-01

    Diabetes mellitus is associated with cerebral alterations in both human and animal models of the disease. These alterations include abnormal expression of hypothalamic neuropeptides and hippocampal astrogliosis. Urtica dioica (Nettle) is among several species listed for their use against diabetes in folk medicine. The aim of this study was the evaluation of the astrocyte number in the dentate gyrus of diabetic rats after treatment with nettle. A total of 21 male albino Wistar rats were used in the present study. The animals were divided into three groups: control, nettle-untreated diabetic, and nettle treated diabetic. Hyperglycaemia was induced by streptozotocin (80 mg/kg) in the animals of the diabetic and treatment groups. One week after injection of the streptozotocin, the animals in the treatment group received a hydroalcoholic extract of Urtica dioica (100 mg/kg/day) for 4 weeks intraperitoneally. After a 5-week survival period, all the rats were sacrificed and coronal sections were taken from the dorsal hippocampal formation of the right cerebral hemispheres. The area densities of the astrocytes were measured and compared between the three groups (p dioica extract helped compensate for astrocytes in the treatment rats dentate gyrus in comparison with diabetic rats.

  8. Can Urtica dioica supplementation attenuate mercury intoxication in Wistar rats?

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    Wafa Siouda

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The objective of this study was to investigate the possible protective role of nettle Urtica dioica (UD against Hg-induced toxicity. Materials and Methods: A total of 28 rats were equally divided into four groups: the control, the Hg (0.8 g HgCl2/kg in the diet, the UD (1.5 ml UD/rat by gavage, and the Hg+UD group. HgCl2 was daily dissolved in distilled water and immediately mixed with the standard diet. A solution of daily infused fresh nettle leaves in boiling water (16 g in 25 ml was obtained and then it was administrated by gavage. Biochemical and reproductive markers, in addition to glutathione (GSH level (liver, kidney and testis and the histological profiles (testis and epididymis were evaluated after 1 month exposure. Results: Compared to the control, the levels of glucose, triglycerides, urea, creatinine, alanine aminotransferase (ALT, aspartate aminotransferase (AST, and alkaline phosphatase (ALP were significantly raised in the Hg group. In the latter group, the concentrations of Mg, Fe, and Ca were significantly decreased. Besides, Hg+UD group has only showed raised AST activity and reduced Mg level. Concerning the fertility markers, Hg has provoked a significant decrease in the spermatozoa’s concentration and motility and in plasma testosterone level as well. Furthermore, hepatic, renal and testicular GSH concentrations have declined significantly in the Hg treated rat compared to the control. A remarkable enhancement of the GSH level was observed in all organs of the UD group. The histological examinations of the Hg group have revealed marked testicular degeneration of the most seminiferous tubules, and showed few sperms in the lumen of epididymis ducts. However, the Hg+UD rats have demonstrated an improved histological structure with the presence of important numbers of sperms in the lumen. In addition, a clear stabilization of organized seminiferous tubules and an increased sperms’ numbers were noted in the UD

  9. Cardiovascular effects of Urtica dioica L. in isolated rat heart and aorta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Legssyer, Abdelkhaleq; Ziyyat, Abderrahim; Mekhfi, Hassane; Bnouham, Mohamed; Tahri, Abdelhafid; Serhrouchni, Mohamed; Hoerter, Jacqueline; Fischmeister, Rodolphe

    2002-09-01

    Urtica dioica L. or Nettle (Urticaceae) is widely used in oriental Morocco to treat hypertension. Aqueous extract of Nettle (AEN) also exerts a hypotensive action in the rat in vivo. The aim of this work was to characterize the specific cardiac and vascular effects of AEN. In the isolated Langendorff perfused rat heart, AEN (1 and 2 g/l) markedly decreased heart rate and increased left ventricular pressure. Higher concentration (5 g/l) even led to cardiac arrest. Although carbachol mimicked the bradycardiac effect of AEN, atropine (a muscarinic receptor antagonist, 1 micro M) did not modify the response. Beside its action on myocardium, AEN also affected vascular contractility. Indeed, AEN (0.1-5 g/l) produced a dose-dependent increase in basal tone of isolated rat aorta. This effect was endothelium independent and was abolished by 1 micro M prazosin (an alpha1-adrenergic antagonist). AEN had little additional effects when the aorta was precontracted by noradrenaline (1 micro M) or KCl (40 mM). Our data indicate that AEN produces a vasoconstriction of the aorta which is due to activation of alpha1-adrenergic receptors. However, AEN also induces a strong bradycardia through non-cholinergic and non-adrenergic pathways which might compensate for its vascular effect and account for the hypotensive action of Urtica dioica L described in vivo. Copyright 2002 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  10. Phenolic Compounds Analysis of Root, Stalk, and Leaves of Nettle

    OpenAIRE

    Otles, Semih; Yalcin, Buket

    2012-01-01

    Types of nettles (Urtica dioica) were collected from different regions to analyze phenolic compounds in this research. Nettles are specially grown in the coastal part. According to this kind of properties, nettle samples were collected from coastal part of (Mediterranean, Aegean, Black sea, and Marmara) Turkey. Phenolic profile, total phenol compounds, and antioxidant activities of nettle samples were analyzed. Nettles were separated to the part of root, stalk, and leaves. Then, these parts ...

  11. Screening antimicrobial activity of various extracts of Urtica dioica

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    Amir Modarresi-Chahardehi

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Urtica dioica or stinging nettle is traditionally used as an herbal medicine in Western Asia. The current study represents the investigation of antimicrobial activity of U. dioica from nine crude extracts that were prepared using different organic solvents, obtained from two extraction methods: the Soxhlet extractor (Method I, which included the use of four solvents with ethyl acetate and hexane, or the sequential partitions (Method II with a five solvent system (butanol. The antibacterial and antifungal activities of crude extracts were tested against 28 bacteria, three yeast strains and seven fungal isolates by the disc diffusion and broth dilution methods. Amoxicillin was used as positive control for bacteria strains, vancomycin for Streptococcus sp., miconazole nitrate (30µg/mL as positive control for fungi and yeast, and pure methanol (v/v as negative control. The disc diffusion assay was used to determine the sensitivity of the samples, whilst the broth dilution method was used for the determination of the minimal inhibition concentration (MIC. The ethyl acetate and hexane extract from extraction method I (EA I and HE I exhibited highest inhibition against some pathogenic bacteria such as Bacillus cereus, MRSA and Vibrio parahaemolyticus. A selection of extracts that showed some activity was further tested for the MIC and minimal bactericidal concentrations (MBC. MIC values of Bacillus subtilis and Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA using butanol extract of extraction method II (BE II were 8.33 and 16.33mg/mL, respectively; while the MIC value using ethyl acetate extract of extraction method II (EAE II for Vibrio parahaemolyticus was 0.13mg/mL. Our study showed that 47.06% of extracts inhibited Gram-negative (8 out of 17, and 63.63% of extracts also inhibited Gram-positive bacteria (7 out of 11; besides, statistically the frequency of antimicrobial activity was 13.45% (35 out of 342 which in this among 21.71% belongs to

  12. Urtica dioica Induces Cytotoxicity in Human Prostate Carcinoma ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To evaluate the cytotoxic mechanisms of an extract from the leaves of the Urtica dioica (UD) plant in LNCaP prostate cancer cells. Methods: LNCaP cells were exposed to the UD extract for 24hrs and cell viability assessed using the. MTT assay. Reactive oxygen species generation was assessed using the NBT ...

  13. In Vitro Antimicrobial Activity of Iris pseudacorus and Urtica dioica

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    Maryam Ramtin

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: In this study, the effects of antibacterial activity of Urtica dioica and Iris pseudacorus essential oils, native plant northern of Iran, were investigated for some selected bacteria. Material and Methods: The influence of essential oils was tested by the using of disk diffusion and micro-broth dilution methods against standard strains of the picked out bacteria. Gas Chromatography/Mass Spectroscopy (GC/MS analysis, bioactivity determination, Minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC of essential oils were utilized for this goal. Results: This study showed that, Inhibition zone diameter varied from 11 to 19 mm and 9 to 17 mm for Urtica dioica and Iris pseudacorus respectively. In contrast, this figure fluctuated from 19 to 28 mm and 7 to 17 mm for gentamicin and ampicillin separately. By the application of micro-broth dilution technique, MICs for 1% essential oils were 1.8-7.5 μg/ml and 3.75-15 μg/ml for, Urtica dioica and Iris pseudacorus against gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria individually. Furthermore, the MBCs of herbal essences were 1.8-15 μg/ml for, Urtica dioica and 15-30 μg/ml for Iris. Conclusion: The application of essential oils for the bio-control of diseases, as a novel emerging alternative to antimicrobial treatments, lead to safer and more environmental management for infective diseases4T.4T

  14. Urtica dioica Induces Cytotoxicity in Human Prostate Carcinoma ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To evaluate the cytotoxic mechanisms of an extract from the leaves of the Urtica dioica (UD) plant in LNCaP prostate cancer cells. Methods: LNCaP cells were exposed to the UD extract for 24hrs and cell viability assessed using the MTT assay. Reactive oxygen species generation was assessed using the NBT ...

  15. Lamium album or Urtica dioica? Which is more effective in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Which is more effective in decreasing serum glucose, lipid and hepatic enzymes in streptozotocin induced diabetic rats: A comparative study. ... Objectives: Diabetes mellitus, the most common endocrine disorder, is defined by hyperglycaemia. ... Key words: Diabetes, Glucose, Lamium album, Lipids, Rats, Urtica dioica ...

  16. Sex ratio variation and sex determination in Urtica dioica

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Glawe, Grit Anja

    2006-01-01

    This thesis will first document on variation in progeny sex ratios among individual female plants of Urtica dioica at our field site in Meijendel (Chapter 2). Next, we show that there is also considerable sex ratio variation among male and female flowering shoots in 26 natural populations studied

  17. Investigating the effects of using Nettle (Urtica dioica , Menta pulagum (Oreganum valgare and Zizaphora (Thymyus valgaris medicinal plants on performance, carcass quality, blood biochemical parameters and blood cells of broilers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Heydari

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available This experiment was conducted to evaluate the effects of using Nettle,Menta pulagum and ‌‌Zizaphora medicinal plants on performance, carcass quality, blood biochemical parameters and blood cells of broilers. The experiment was conducted in a completely randomized design with 288 broilers (Ross-308 in 8 treatments and 3 replicates (with 12 birds in each replicate from 1 to 42 days and included: 1 control group without using any medicinal plants, 2 1.5% of ‌‌Nettle, 3 1.5% of Menta pulagum, 4 1.5% of Zizaphora, 5 1.5% of Nettle and Menta pulagum, 6 1.5% of  Nettle and Zizaphora, 7 1.5% of Menta pulagum and ‌‌Zizaphora, 8 1.5% of Nettle,Menta pulagum and ‌‌Zizaphora. The results showed that using these medicinal plants and their mixtures had significant effects on performance, carcass traits and blood biochemical parameters of broilers (p

  18. Identification of phytosterins in Urtica dioica L. (overground part

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    G. P. Smoylovska

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Long since Urtica dioica L. was used in folk medicine as vitamin and hemostatic agents. Nowadays hypotensive, diuretic, antitumoral effects of medicines obtained from plant based raw materials from Urtica were experimentally proved. Pharmacologic activity is due to vitamins K1 and C, flavonoids, hydroxycinnamic acids, carbonic acids, polysaccharides containing in the leaves of plant. Using underground organs of plant as antineoplastic drugs is connected with phytosterins accumulation. Studying composition and assessment of phytosterins in overground part of plant is urgent now. The aim of research is to identify components and to assess phytosterins content in leaves and herb of Urtica dioica L. in Ukrainian flora. Materials and Methods. For chromato-mass spectrometry leaves and herb gathered in blossoming period have been used. The samples have been extracted with methylene chloride in presence of tridecane inner standard, and then the samples have been concentrated and submitted to chromatography on chromatograph Agilent Technology 6890N. The components have been identified using register for mass spectra NIST02 and WILEY2007 in combination with identification programs AMDIS and NIST. Results and Discussion. In both types of raw materials from Urtica dioica L. it has been revealed identical compounds related to olefins, higher aliphatic carbohydrates, phytosterins and so on. The total amount of biologically active substances extracted from the leaves is 529.76 mg/kg, from herbs it is 516.91 mg/kg. Untriacontane, nonocosane and trans-neophytadiene were predominant. Phytosterins stigmas-3,5,7-triene, campesterol, β-sitosterol presented in leaves 16.14 mg/kg, in herb they presented 15.42 mg/kg, that forms 3% approximately Conclusions. Composition and amount of phytosterins containing in leaves and herb of Urtica dioica L. study has been performed by chromate-mass-spectrometry. As a result three compounds of steroid nature have been identified

  19. Effects of Urtica dioica extract on lipid profile in hypercholesterolemic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nassiri-Asl, Marjan; Zamansoltani, Farzaneh; Abbasi, Esmail; Daneshi, Mohammad-Mehdi; Zangivand, Amir-Abdollah

    2009-05-01

    To investigate the effects of extract of Urtica dioica, a perennial herb in Iran, on lipid profile in hypercholesterolemic rats. The effects of Urtica dioica extract were tested by using it as a supplement in a high-cholesterol diet. Male rats were fed a high cholesterol diet (10 mL/kg) for 4 weeks with Urtica dioica extract (100 or 300 mg/kg) or 10 mg/kg lovastatin supplementation to study the hypocholesterolemic effects of Urtica dioica on plasma lipid levels, hepatic enzymes activities, and liver histopathological changes. Urtica dioica extract at 100 and 300 mg/kg significantly reduced the levels of total cholesterol (TC), and low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C) and also markedly decreased liver enzymes and weight in animals with a high cholesterol diet. Hematoxylin and eosin staining showed that in the 100 mg/kg extract of Urtica dioica group, the appearance of the liver cells was similar to the control group, and steatosis and inflammation were not found. In the 300 mg/kg extract of Urtica dioica group, mild steatosis was observed but mononuclear inflammatory infiltration was not found. The hepatic histopathological results reflect the correlation of Urtica dioica extract with both liver weight and the levels of plasma TC and LDL-C. These results indicate that Urtica dioica extract has hypocholesterolemic effects in the animal model.

  20. Screening antimicrobial activity of various extracts of Urtica dioica

    OpenAIRE

    Modarresi-Chahardehi, Amir; Ibrahim, Darah; Fariza-Sulaiman, Shaida; Mousavi, Leila

    2012-01-01

    Urtica dioica u ortiga se utiliza tradicionalmente como medicina herbaria en el oeste de Asia. En esta investigación se estudia la actividad antimicrobiana de nueve extractos crudos de U. dioica, los cuales fueron preparados utilizando diferentes disolventes orgánicos y obtenidos a partir de dos métodos de extracción: el extractor Soxhlet (Método I), que incluía el uso de cuatro disolventes con acetato de etilo y hexano, y las particiones secuenciales (Método II) con un sistema de cinco disol...

  1. The uncertainty of the toxic effect of stings from the Urtica nettle on hunting dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edom, Gillian

    2002-02-01

    This paper questions the effect of the sting from the Urtica species of nettle on hunting dogs, particularly in the US. Research in this area is limited and is reflected in the wide use of a particularly unsound literature reference on the subject. A general account is given of which types of "nettle" plant have a toxic sting, how the mechanism of the sting works, and the toxic substances it contains. The effects experienced by hunting dogs appear to represent a condition other than contact urticaria, which is normall the result of being stung by nettles (Urticas in particular). The possibility is discussed that the signs were caused by another plant, also commonly labelled a nettle, or that possibly they were caused by other than the direct stinging of soft tissues. Further research should be done on the toxic elements in the sting of Urtica chamaedryoides, indicated in some literature as the "guilty" plant.

  2. Native Phytoremediation Potential of Urtica dioica for Removal of PCBs and Heavy Metals Can Be Improved by Genetic Manipulations Using Constitutive CaMV 35S Promoter.

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    Jitka Viktorova

    Full Text Available Although stinging nettle (Urtica dioica has been shown to reduce HM (heavy metal content in soil, its wider phytoremediation potential has been neglected. Urtica dioica was cultivated in soils contaminated with HMs or polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs. After four months, up to 33% of the less chlorinated biphenyls and 8% of HMs (Zn, Pb, Cd had been removed. Bacteria were isolated from the plant tissue, with the endophytic bacteria Bacillus shackletonii and Streptomyces badius shown to have the most significant effect. These bacteria demonstrated not only benefits for plant growth, but also extreme tolerance to As, Zn and Pb. Despite these results, the native phytoremediation potential of nettles could be improved by biotechnologies. Transient expression was used to investigate the functionality of the most common constitutive promoter, CaMV 35S in Urtica dioica. This showed the expression of the CUP and bphC transgenes. Collectively, our findings suggest that remediation by stinging nettle could have a much wider range of applications than previously thought.

  3. Native Phytoremediation Potential of Urtica dioica for Removal of PCBs and Heavy Metals Can Be Improved by Genetic Manipulations Using Constitutive CaMV 35S Promoter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viktorova, Jitka; Jandova, Zuzana; Madlenakova, Michaela; Prouzova, Petra; Bartunek, Vilem; Vrchotova, Blanka; Lovecka, Petra; Musilova, Lucie; Macek, Tomas

    2016-01-01

    Although stinging nettle (Urtica dioica) has been shown to reduce HM (heavy metal) content in soil, its wider phytoremediation potential has been neglected. Urtica dioica was cultivated in soils contaminated with HMs or polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). After four months, up to 33% of the less chlorinated biphenyls and 8% of HMs (Zn, Pb, Cd) had been removed. Bacteria were isolated from the plant tissue, with the endophytic bacteria Bacillus shackletonii and Streptomyces badius shown to have the most significant effect. These bacteria demonstrated not only benefits for plant growth, but also extreme tolerance to As, Zn and Pb. Despite these results, the native phytoremediation potential of nettles could be improved by biotechnologies. Transient expression was used to investigate the functionality of the most common constitutive promoter, CaMV 35S in Urtica dioica. This showed the expression of the CUP and bphC transgenes. Collectively, our findings suggest that remediation by stinging nettle could have a much wider range of applications than previously thought. PMID:27930707

  4. Effect of Urtica Dioica Extract on Histological and Histometrical Changes of Testis of Hamster after Testosteron Administration

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    Hassan Morovvati

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Hyperactivity of testosterone is one cause of infertility and its incorrect use can produces reproductive disorders. Nettle (Urtica dioica has antiandrogenic effect and may antagonized effect of testosterone. In present study structure of testes of golden hamster was evaluated after testosterone and extract. Materials and Methods: In this experimental and animal modeling study, twenty male mature hamsters were divided to 4 groups, group 1 was control, group 2 received testosterone at dose 3 mg/kg subcutaneously, group 3 received nettle extract dose 30 mg/kg orally and group 4 received testosterone and nettle for 30 days daily. The hamsters were euthanized and testes were removed and detected macroscopic parameters (weight, height, wide and volume and fixed with formalin. The samples were sectioned and colored with H & E. Results: The volume, weight, length and wide of testes was at least in testosterone group and statistically was lesser than control and testosterone -nettle group (p<0.05, but did not the height epithelium of seminifer tubules, compact of spermatogenic cells and number of serotolli cells in testosterone group was lesser than control group significantly (p<0.05.Conclusion: The nettle extract decreased histological changes of testes by testosterone and improved its structure.

  5. Inhibition of rat platelet aggregation by Urtica dioica leaves extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Haouari, Mohammed; Bnouham, Mohamed; Bendahou, Mourad; Aziz, Mohammed; Ziyyat, Abderrahim; Legssyer, Abdelkhaleq; Mekhfi, Hassane

    2006-07-01

    Platelet hyperactivity plays an important role in arterial thrombosis and atherosclerosis. The present study was undertaken to investigate the effects of different extracts of Urtica dioica leaves on platelet aggregation. Rat platelets were prepared and incubated in vitro with different concentrations of the tested extracts and aggregation was induced by different agonists including thrombin (0.5 U/mL), ADP (10 microm), epinephrine (100 microm) and collagen (5 mg/mL). The crude aqueous extract inhibited thrombin-induced platelet aggregation in a dose-dependent manner. At 1 mg/mL, the percent inhibition was 17.1 +/- 4.2%. Soxhlet extraction of the plant leaves with different successive solvents showed that the ethyl acetate extract exhibited the most antiaggregant effect with an inhibition of 76.8 +/- 6.1% at 1 mg/mL. Flavonoids isolated from the plant leaves, produced a strong inhibitory effect on thrombin-induced platelet aggregation with an IC(50) of 0.25 +/- 0.05 and 0.40 +/- 0.04 mg/mL for genins and heterosidic flavonoids, respectively. Flavonoids also markedly inhibited platelet aggregation induced by ADP, collagen and epinephrine. It is concluded that Urtica dioica has an antiplatelet action in which flavonoids are mainly implicated. These results support the traditional use of Urtica dioica in the treatment and/or prevention of cardiovascular disease.

  6. Aqueous extract of Urtica dioica makes significant inhibition on adenosine deaminase activity in prostate tissue from patients with prostate cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durak, Ilker; Biri, Hasan; Devrim, Erdinç; Sözen, Sinan; Avci, Aslihan

    2004-09-01

    Investigation of possible effects of aqueous extract of Urtica dioica leaves on adenosine deaminase activity in prostate tissue from patients with prostate cancer. Ten prostate tissues from patients with pathologically proven localized prostate cancer (Gleason scores 4 to 7) were used in the study. In the tissues, ADA activities with and without preincubation with different amounts of Urtica dioica extracts were performed. Aqueous extract of Urtica dioica results in significant inhibition on adenosine deaminase (ADA) activity of prostate tissue. ADA inhibition by Urtica dioica extract might be one of the mechanisms in the observed beneficial effect of Urtica dioica in prostate cancer.

  7. Protective Effect of Urtica dioica on Liver Injury Induced By Hepatic Ischemia Reperfusion Injury in Rats

    OpenAIRE

    TERZİ, Alpaslan; YILDIZ, Fahrettin; Sacit ÇOBAN et al.

    2010-01-01

    Background: This study was designed to investigate the effects of Urtica dioica on liverischemia reperfusion injury in rats. Methods: Thirty male Wistar-albino rats were used in this experimental study. Animals weredivided into three groups as sham operated (group 1), control (group 2), and Urtica dioicatreatment group (group 3). Urtica dioica 2ml/kg were administered intraperitoneally beforeischemia and immediately after the reperfusion. The levels of total antioxidant capacity, totalfree su...

  8. Screening antimicrobial activity of various extracts of Urtica dioica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amir Modarresi-Chahardehi

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Urtica dioica or stinging nettle is traditionally used as an herbal medicine in Western Asia. The current study represents the investigation of antimicrobial activity of U. dioica from nine crude extracts that were prepared using different organic solvents, obtained from two extraction methods: the Soxhlet extractor (Method I, which included the use of four solvents with ethyl acetate and hexane, or the sequential partitions (Method II with a five solvent system (butanol. The antibacterial and antifungal activities of crude extracts were tested against 28 bacteria, three yeast strains and seven fungal isolates by the disc diffusion and broth dilution methods. Amoxicillin was used as positive control for bacteria strains, vancomycin for Streptococcus sp., miconazole nitrate (30µg/mL as positive control for fungi and yeast, and pure methanol (v/v as negative control. The disc diffusion assay was used to determine the sensitivity of the samples, whilst the broth dilution method was used for the determination of the minimal inhibition concentration (MIC. The ethyl acetate and hexane extract from extraction method I (EA I and HE I exhibited highest inhibition against some pathogenic bacteria such as Bacillus cereus, MRSA and Vibrio parahaemolyticus. A selection of extracts that showed some activity was further tested for the MIC and minimal bactericidal concentrations (MBC. MIC values of Bacillus subtilis and Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA using butanol extract of extraction method II (BE II were 8.33 and 16.33mg/mL, respectively; while the MIC value using ethyl acetate extract of extraction method II (EAE II for Vibrio parahaemolyticus was 0.13mg/mL. Our study showed that 47.06% of extracts inhibited Gram-negative (8 out of 17, and 63.63% of extracts also inhibited Gram-positive bacteria (7 out of 11; besides, statistically the frequency of antimicrobial activity was 13.45% (35 out of 342 which in this among 21.71% belongs to

  9. Effects of Urtica dioica on hepatic ischemia-reperfusion injury in rats

    OpenAIRE

    Hayati Kandis; Sami Karapolat; Umran Yildirim; Ayhan Saritas; Suat Gezer; Ramazan Memisogullari

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the effects of Urtica dioica on hepatic ischemia‐reperfusion injury. METHODS: Thirty adult male Wistar albino rats were divided into three groups: sham group (group 1), control group (group 2), and Urtica dioica group (group 3). All the rats were exposed to hepatic ischemia for 60 min, followed by 60 min of reperfusion. In group 2, a total of 2 ml/kg 0.9% saline solution was given intraperitoneally. In group 3, a total of 2 ml/kg Urtica dioica was given intraperitoneal...

  10. Diocanol; one new phenol derivative isolated and characterized from Urtica dioica

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ullah, Riaz; Hussain, Iqbal; Ahmad, Shabir

    2017-01-01

    One new benzene derivative Diocanol(1) was isolated from the ethyl acetate soluble portion of the whole plant of Urtica dioica along with known constituents β-amyrin (2), β-sitosterol (3), stigmasterol (4...

  11. Protective effect of Urtica dioica methanol extract against experimentally induced urinary calculi in rats

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    ZHANG, HAIYING; LI, NING; LI, KUN; LI, PENG

    2014-01-01

    .... In the present study, a methanolic extract of aerial parts of Urtica dioica was screened for antiurolithiatic activity against ethylene glycol and ammonium chloride-induced calcium oxalate renal stones in male rats...

  12. Urtica dioica attenuate effect of Doxorobicin‐Induced changes on sperm parameters in the mice

    OpenAIRE

    Zahra Baninameh

    2016-01-01

    Doxorubicin (DXR) is used as an antitumor agent for the treatment of human neoplasm. The use of DXR has adverse effect on reproductive system including testicular toxicity and alteration in semen quality. The aim of this study was to evaluate the protective effects of Urtica dioica against Doxorobicin‐Induced changes on sperm parameters. 24 male mice were randomly divided into 4 groups. Control group received normal saline solution throughout the course of the study. Urtica dioica (UD) contro...

  13. Food-chain transfer of cadmium and zinc from contaminated Urtica dioica to Helix aspersa and Lumbricus terrestris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinnett, Danielle E; Hodson, Mark E; Hutchings, Tony R

    2009-08-01

    The present study examines the potential of Urtica dioica as an ecologically relevant species for use in ecotoxicological testing. It is prevalent in degraded ecosystems and is a food source for invertebrates. Urtica dioica grown in hydroponic solutions containing from less than 0.003 to 5.7 mg Cd/L or from 0.02 to 41.9 mg Zn/L accumulated metals resulting in leaf tissue concentrations in the range of 0.10 to 24.9 mg Cd/kg or 22.5 to 2,772.0 mg Zn/kg. No toxicological effects were apparent except at the highest concentrations tested, suggesting that this species may be an important pathway for transfer of metals to primary plant consumers. Helix aspersa and Lumbricus terrestris were fed the Cd- and Zn-rich leaves of U. dioica for six and four weeks, respectively. Cadmium and Zn body load increased with increasing metal concentration in the leaves (p aspersa and 1:0.002 to 1:3.9 for Cd and 1:0.2 to 1:8.8 for Zn in L. terrestris. Helix aspersa Cd and Zn tissue concentrations (15.5 and 1,220.2 mg/kg, respectively) were approximately threefold those in L. terrestris when both species were fed nettle leaves with concentrations of approximately 23 mg Cd/kg and 3,400 mg Zn/kg. Models demonstrate that L. terrestris Cd tissue concentrations (r2 = 0.74, p aspersa Zn tissue concentrations (r(2) = 0.69, p < 0.001) can be estimated from concentrations of Cd and Zn within the leaves of U. dioica and suggest that reasonably reproducible results can be obtained using these species for ecotoxicological testing.

  14. Antihypoxic activities of Eryngium caucasicum and Urtica dioica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalili, M; Dehdar, T; Hamedi, F; Ebrahimzadeh, M A; Karami, M

    2015-09-01

    Urtica dioica and Eryngium spp. have been used in traditional medicine for many years. In spite of many works, nothing is known about their protective effect against hypoxia-induced lethality. Protective effects of U. dioica (UD) aerial parts and E. caucasicum (EC) inflorescence against hypoxia-induced lethality in mice were evaluated by three experimental models of hypoxia, asphyctic, haemic and circulatory. Statistically significant protective activities were established in some doses of extracts in three models. Antihypoxic activity was especially pronounced in polyphenol fractions in asphyctic model. EC polyphenol fraction at 400 mg/kg prolonged survival time (48.80 ± 4.86, p 0.05). It was the most effective extract in circulatory model, too. It prolonged survival time significantly respect to control group (p < 0.001). UD extracts protected the mice but the response was not dose-dependent. In haemic model, extracts of EP significantly and dose dependently prolonged survival time as compared to control group (p < 0.001). At 600 mg/kg, EP was the most effective one, being capable of keeping the mice alive for 12.71 ± 0.75 min. Only the concentration of 300 mg/kg of UD was effective (p < 0.001). Extracts showed remarkable antihypoxic effects. Pharmacological effects may be attributed to the presence of polyphenols in the extracts.

  15. Improved glycemic control in patients with advanced type 2 diabetes mellitus taking Urtica dioica leaf extract: a randomized double-blind placebo-controlled clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kianbakht, Saeed; Khalighi-Sigaroodi, Farahnaz; Dabaghian, Fataneh Hashem

    2013-01-01

    Advanced type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) needing insulin therapy is common. Most conventional anti-hyperglycemic drugs have limited efficacies and significant side effects, so that better anti-hyperglycemic agents are needed. Urtica dioica L. (nettle) leaves have insulin secretagogue, PPARgamma agonistic, and alpha-glucosidase inhibitory effects. Moreover, nettle leaves are used in traditional medicine as an anti-hyperglycemic agent to treat diabetes mellitus. Thus, efficacy and safety of nettle in the treatment of patients with advanced type 2 diabetes mellitus needing insulin were studied. In this randomized double-blind placebo-controlled clinical trial, we evaluated the effects of taking nettle leaf extract (one 500 mg capsule every 8 hours for 3 months) combined with the conventional oral anti-hyperglycemic drugs on the blood levels of fasting glucose, postprandial glucose, glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c), creatinine and liver enzymes SGOT and SGPT, and systolic and diastolic blood pressures in 46 patients and compared with the placebo group (n = 46). At the endpoint, the extract lowered the blood levels of fasting glucose, 2 hours postprandial glucose, and HbA1c significantly (p effects on the other parameters (p > 0.05) compared with placebo. Nettle may safely improve glycemic control in type 2 diabetic patients needing insulin therapy.

  16. Effect of Using Urtica dioica L. on the Quality of Turkish Sucuk (Turkish Style Dry Sausage)

    OpenAIRE

    AKSU, Muhammet İrfan

    2003-01-01

    Urtica dioica L. has become a very important plant, with beneficial effects on human health all over the world. In this study, the possibility of using U. dioica L. as an ingredient in Turkish sucuk was investigated. Turkish sucuk with U. dioica L. was evaluated in terms of its chemical, physical, and sensory attributes. The results showed that the level of U. dioica L. (0%, 1%, 3% and 5%) and ripening period (0, 3, 7, 10 and 14 days) had a significant effect on the moisture, pH, residual n...

  17. Induction of insulin secretion by a component of Urtica dioica leave extract in perifused Islets of Langerhans and its in vivo effects in normal and streptozotocin diabetic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farzami, Bijan; Ahmadvand, D; Vardasbi, S; Majin, F J; Khaghani, Sh

    2003-11-01

    The blood glucose lowering effect of Urtica dioica (Stinging Nettle) as a medicinal plant has been noted in old writings such as those of Avicenna. Recently, there has also been other investigators that indicated the hypoglycemic effect of Urtica dioica. But so far, the mechanism of this effect has not been deduced. In this report, a perifusion system is arranged in which an exact number of Langerhans Islets were exposed to several fractions of extracts of Urtica dioica by TLC. The active ingredient fraction named F(1), caused a marked increase in insulin secretion. A simultaneous assay of glucose showed that the increase in insulin level was associated with a decrease in glucose level. Furthermore, the active component of Urtica dioica was found to increase the insulin content of blood sera in normal and streptozotocin diabetic rats that were injected intraperitoneally (i.p.) with the active ingredient of the extract. The in vivo studies presented in this report show that not only an increase in insulin level of blood sera was observed in rats after 30 min from the initial point of injection but a simultaneous decrease of blood sugar was detected when similar sera was tested for glucose. The increase in insulin level was six times during the 120 min of our determination. The decrease in blood sugar was found to be similar both in the level and time of initiation. On the basis of our findings, we assume that F(1) is the active ingredient of plant leaves extract. The results show that the blood lowering effect of the extract was due to the enhancement of insulin secretion by Langerhance Isletes.

  18. Urtica dioica extract attenuates depressive like behavior and associative memory dysfunction in dexamethasone induced diabetic mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Sita Sharan; Udayabanu, Malairaman

    2014-03-01

    Evidences suggest that glucocorticoids results in depression and is a risk factor for type 2 diabetes. Further diabetes induces oxidative stress and hippocampal dysfunction resulting in cognitive decline. Traditionally Urtica dioica has been used for diabetes mellitus and cognitive dysfunction. The present study investigated the effect of the hydroalcoholic extract of Urtica dioica leaves (50 and 100 mg/kg, p.o.) in dexamethasone (1 mg/kg, i.m.) induced diabetes and its associated complications such as depressive like behavior and cognitive dysfunction. We observed that mice administered with chronic dexamethasone resulted in hypercortisolemia, oxidative stress, depressive like behavior, cognitive impairment, hyperglycemia with reduced body weight, increased water intake and decreased hippocampal glucose transporter-4 (GLUT4) mRNA expression. Urtica dioica significantly reduced hyperglycemia, plasma corticosterone, oxidative stress and depressive like behavior as well as improved associative memory and hippocampal GLUT4 mRNA expression comparable to rosiglitazone (5 mg/kg, p.o.). Further, Urtica dioica insignificantly improved spatial memory and serum insulin. In conclusion, Urtica dioica reversed dexamethasone induced hyperglycemia and its associated complications such as depressive like behavior and cognitive dysfunction.

  19. Mechanisms underlying the antihypertensive properties of Urtica dioica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qayyum, Rahila; Qamar, Hafiz Misbah-Ud-Din; Khan, Shamim; Salma, Umme; Khan, Taous; Shah, Abdul Jabbar

    2016-09-01

    Urtica dioica has traditionally been used in the management of cardiovascular disorders especially hypertension. The aim of this study was to explore pharmacological base of its use in hypertension. Crude methanolic extract of U. dioica (Ud.Cr) and its fractions (Ud.EtAc, Ud.nHex, Ud.Chl and Ud.Aq) were tested in vivo on normotensive and hypertensive rats under anesthesia for blood pressure lowering effect. In-vitro experiments on rat and rabbit aortae were employed to probe the vasorelaxation mechanism(s). The responses were measured using pressure and force transducers connected to PowerLab Data Acquisition System. Ud.Cr and fractions were found more effective antihypertensive in hypertensive rats than normotensive with remarkable potency exhibited by the ethyl acetate fraction. The effect was same in the presence of atropine. In isolated rat aortic rings, Ud.Cr and all its fractions exhibited L-NAME sensitive endothelium-dependent vasodilator effect and also inhibit K(+) (80 mM)-induced pre-contractions. In isolated rabbit thoracic aortic rings Ud.Cr and its fractions induced relaxation with more potency against K(+) (80 mM) than phenylephrine (1 µM) like verapamil, showing Ud.EtAc fraction the most potent one. Pre-incubation of aortic rings with Ud.Cr and its fractions exhibited Ca(2+) channel blocking activity comparable with verapamil by shifting Ca(2+) concentration response curves to the right. Ud.Cr and its fractions also ablated the intracellular Ca(2+) release by suppressing PE peak formation in Ca(2+) free medium. When tested on basal tension, the crude extract and all fractions were devoid of any vasoconstrictor effect. These data indicate that crude methanolic extract and its fractions possess antihypertensive effect. Identification of NO-mediated vasorelaxation and calcium channel blocking effects explain the antihypertensive potential of U. dioica and provide a potential pharmacological base to its medicinal use in the management of hypertension.

  20. Urtica dioica for treatment of benign prostatic hyperplasia: a prospective, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safarinejad, Mohammad Reza

    2005-01-01

    To determine the effects of therapy with Urtica dioica for symptomatic relief of lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) secondary to benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH). A 6-month, double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized, partial crossover, comparative trial of Urtica dioica with placebo in 620 patients was conducted. Patients were evaluated using the International Prostate Symptom Score (IPSS), the maximum urinary flow rate (Qmax), postvoid residual urine volume (PVR), Serum Prostatic- Specific Antigen (PSA), testosterone levels, and prostate size. At the end of 6-month trial, unblinding revealed that patients who initially received the placebo were switched to Urtica dioica. Both groups continued the medication up to 18 months. 558 patients (90%) completed the study (287/305, 91% in the Urtica dioica group, and 271/315, 86% in the placebo group). By intention- to-treat analysis, at the end of 6-month trial, 232 (81%) of 287 patients in the Urtica dioica group reported improved LUTS compared with 43 (16%) of 271 patients in the placebo group (P Urtica dioica and from 19.2 to 17.7 with placebo (P = 0.002). Peak flow rates improved by 3.4 mL/s for placebo recipients and by 8.2 mL/s for treated patients (P Urtica dioica group, PVR decreased from an initial value of 73 to 36 mL (P Urtica dioica group (from 40.1 cc initially to 36.3 cc; P effects were identified in either group. In the present study, Urtica dioica have beneficial effects in the treatment of symptomatic BPH. Further clinical trials should be conducted to confirm these results before concluding that Urtica dioica is effective.

  1. Assessment of Antidermatophytic Activities of Urtica dioica L against ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    reported for decoction prepared from the leaves of the nettle [1]. In folk medicine, nettle has been used to treat iron deficiency anemia due to its high content of iron and also used to stop excessive menstrual bleeding, hematuria and nosebleeds. The root of nettle has been employed for treating asthma, rheumatism, sciatica ...

  2. Urtica dioica Effect on Malonyl-CoA Decarboxylase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qujeq

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Background The malonyl-CoA decarboxylase (MCD, EC.4.1.1.9 enzyme regulates malonyl-CoA levels. The effect of aerial parts extracts of Urtica dioica (UD on MCD is poorly understood. Objectives The present experiment was undertaken to evaluate the effect of UD aerial parts extracts on MCD level. Materials and Methods In this experimental study, two groups of rats were used: normal and hyperglycemic group. Then UD aerial parts extracts (5 mg /500 µL administrated to the hyperglycemic group of rats and finally, the MCD and insulin levels were measured in both groups. Results Interestingly, we observed that the UD aerial parts extracts powder caused a significant (P < 0.05 increase in insulin level during the experiment, from the base level of 0.36 ± 0.07 μg/L to the peak value of 0.52 ± 0.15 μg/L. Also, it caused a significant (P < 0.05 decrease in MCD level, from the base level of 29.68 ±1.29 pg/mL to the bottom value of 22.12 ± 2.41 pg/mL. Conclusions The results of the present study indicate that UD aerial part extracts would decrease MCD level in hyperglycemic rats.

  3. Effect of Urtica dioica extract on stereological structure of ventral prostate in streptozotocin induced diabetic rats

    OpenAIRE

    HAMIDIAN, Gholamreza; Zangisheh, Mahsa

    2014-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus is a common and important metabolic disorder that can be associated with many functional and structural complications in male sex organs and infertility. Many studies showed that Urtica dioica caused hypoglycemia and prevented diabetes undesirable side effects on the different organs. This study was done to investigate the effects of ethanol extract of Urtica dioica on ventral prostate in streptozotocin induced diabetic rats. In this study, 15 adult male wistar rats were div...

  4. MODELLING OF THIN LAYER SOLAR DRYING KINETICS AND EFFECTIVE DIFFUSIVITY OF Urtica dioica LEAVES

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    A. LAMHARRAR

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Urtica dioica is an endemic plant of Morocco used for its virtues in traditional medicine. The drying kinetics of Urtica dioica leaves in a convective solar dryer was studied. The kinetics of drying is studied for three temperatures (40, 50 and 60 °C, ambient air temperature ranged from 30 to 35 °C. The experimental results are used to determine the characteristic drying curve. Nine mathematical models have been used for the description of the drying curve. The Midilli-Kuck model was found to be the most suitable for describing the drying curves of Urtica dioica leaves. The drying parameters in this model were quantified as a function of the drying air temperature. Moisture transfer from Urtica dioica leaves was described by applying the Fick’s diffusion model. Effective moisture diffusivity of the product was in the range of 9.38 – 72.92×10-11 m2/s. A value of 88,49 kJ/mol was determined as activation energy.

  5. Stimulation of lymphocyte proliferation and inhibition of nitric oxide production by aqueous Urtica dioica extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harput, U Sebnem; Saracoglu, Iclal; Ogihara, Yukio

    2005-04-01

    The immunomodulatory and antiinflammatory activities of aqueous Urtica dioica extract were investigated for their effect on the mitogenic response of murine splenocytes and nitric oxide production by murine peritoneal macrophages in vitro. It was found that this extract stimulated the proliferation of T-lymphocytes and suppressed NO production in lipopolysaccharide-stimulated macrophages without affecting cell viability. (c) 2005 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  6. Effects of Urtica dioica on hepatic ischemia-reperfusion injury in rats

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    Hayati Kandis

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the effects of Urtica dioica on hepatic ischemia-reperfusion injury. METHODS: Thirty adult male Wistar albino rats were divided into three groups: sham group (group 1, control group (group 2, and Urtica dioica group (group 3. All the rats were exposed to hepatic ischemia for 60 min, followed by 60 min of reperfusion. In group 2, a total of 2 ml/kg 0.9% saline solution was given intraperitoneally. In group 3, a total of 2 ml/kg Urtica dioica was given intraperitoneally. At the end of the procedure, liver tissue and blood samples were taken from all rats. Serum aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, lactate dehydrogenase, ceruloplasmin, catalase, paraoxonase, arylesterase, and lipid hydroperoxide levels were measured. Liver tissue histopathologies were also evaluated by light microscopy. RESULTS: Serum aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase and lactate dehydrogenase levels were significantly higher in group 2 than in group 1, and significantly lower in group 3 than in group 2. Also, group 2 had higher serum lipid hydroperoxides and ceruloplasmin levels but lower catalase, paraoxonase, and arylesterase levels than group 1. In group 3, serum lipid hydroperoxides and ceruloplasmin levels were significantly lower, and catalase, paraoxonase, and arylesterase levels were higher than those in group 2. Histopathological examination showed that liver tissue damage was significantly decreased in group 3 compared with group 2. CONCLUSIONS: Urtica dioica has a protective effect on the liver in hepatic ischemia-reperfusion-injured rats.

  7. Effects of Urtica dioica on hepatic ischemia‐reperfusion injury in rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kandis, Hayati; Karapolat, Sami; Yildirim, Umran; Saritas, Ayhan; Gezer, Suat; Memisogullari, Ramazan

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the effects of Urtica dioica on hepatic ischemia‐reperfusion injury. METHODS: Thirty adult male Wistar albino rats were divided into three groups: sham group (group 1), control group (group 2), and Urtica dioica group (group 3). All the rats were exposed to hepatic ischemia for 60 min, followed by 60 min of reperfusion. In group 2, a total of 2 ml/kg 0.9% saline solution was given intraperitoneally. In group 3, a total of 2 ml/kg Urtica dioica was given intraperitoneally. At the end of the procedure, liver tissue and blood samples were taken from all rats. Serum aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, lactate dehydrogenase, ceruloplasmin, catalase, paraoxonase, arylesterase, and lipid hydroperoxide levels were measured. Liver tissue histopathologies were also evaluated by light microscopy. RESULTS: Serum aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase and lactate dehydrogenase levels were significantly higher in group 2 than in group 1, and significantly lower in group 3 than in group 2. Also, group 2 had higher serum lipid hydroperoxides and ceruloplasmin levels but lower catalase, paraoxonase, and arylesterase levels than group 1. In group 3, serum lipid hydroperoxides and ceruloplasmin levels were significantly lower, and catalase, paraoxonase, and arylesterase levels were higher than those in group 2. Histopathological examination showed that liver tissue damage was significantly decreased in group 3 compared with group 2. CONCLUSIONS: Urtica dioica has a protective effect on the liver in hepatic ischemia‐reperfusion‐injured rats. PMID:21340227

  8. Effects of Urtica dioica on hepatic ischemia-reperfusion injury in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kandis, Hayati; Karapolat, Sami; Yildirim, Umran; Saritas, Ayhan; Gezer, Suat; Memisogullari, Ramazan

    2010-01-01

    To evaluate the effects of Urtica dioica on hepatic ischemia-reperfusion injury. Thirty adult male Wistar albino rats were divided into three groups: sham group (group 1), control group (group 2), and Urtica dioica group (group 3). All the rats were exposed to hepatic ischemia for 60 min, followed by 60 min of reperfusion. In group 2, a total of 2 ml/kg 0.9% saline solution was given intraperitoneally. In group 3, a total of 2 ml/kg Urtica dioica was given intraperitoneally. At the end of the procedure, liver tissue and blood samples were taken from all rats. Serum aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, lactate dehydrogenase, ceruloplasmin, catalase, paraoxonase, arylesterase, and lipid hydroperoxide levels were measured. Liver tissue histopathologies were also evaluated by light microscopy. Serum aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase and lactate dehydrogenase levels were significantly higher in group 2 than in group 1, and significantly lower in group 3 than in group 2. Also, group 2 had higher serum lipid hydroperoxides and ceruloplasmin levels but lower catalase, paraoxonase, and arylesterase levels than group 1. In group 3, serum lipid hydroperoxides and ceruloplasmin levels were significantly lower, and catalase, paraoxonase, and arylesterase levels were higher than those in group 2. Histopathological examination showed that liver tissue damage was significantly decreased in group 3 compared with group 2. Urtica dioica has a protective effect on the liver in hepatic ischemia-reperfusion-injured rats.

  9. The efficacy and safety of Urtica dioica in treating Benign Prostatic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    Key words: Urtica dioica, lower urinary tract symptoms, benign prostatic hyperplasia, meta-analysis, Randomized controlled trial. The list of abbreviations: ... associated with postural hypotension, and 5α–reductase inhibitors may cause sexual dysfunction (Russo et al., 2014), there is a great interest in well-tolerated and ...

  10. Allergenic proteins in Urtica dioica, a member of the Urticaceae allergenic family.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vega-Maray, Ana María; Fernández-González, Delia; Valencia-Barrera, Rosa; Suárez-Cervera, María

    2006-09-01

    Allergy to the pollen of flowering plant species significantly affects the health of people in many parts of the world. Pollens of related genera usually share common antigens and are often, but not always, cross-reactive. Several studies have shown that Parietaria pollen is one of the most common causes of pollinosis in the Mediterranean area, whereas Urtica has no allergenic significance. To report on the localization of Parietaria judaica major allergen in Urtica dioica pollen grains and on the detection of allergenic proteins in U. dioica pollen grains during the hydration-activation process. A combination of transmission electron microscopy and immunocytochemical methods was used to locate allergenic proteins in U. dioica pollen grains after different periods of hydration-activation using the anti-Par j 1 (4.1.3.) monoclonal antibody and serum samples from allergic patients. No significant labeling was noted for Parj 1 allergen after 10, 15, and 20 minutes in the walls and cytoplasm. Slight labeling was observed for allergic proteins in the walls of U. dioica after 10 minutes of hydration, and no significant labeling was found after 15 and 20 minutes of hydration. Immunocytochemical methods confirmed the absence of cross-reactivity between 2 related genera, Parietaria and Urtica, and the lowest allergenic potential of U. dioica.

  11. Phenolic Compounds Analysis of Root, Stalk, and Leaves of Nettle

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    Semih Otles

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Types of nettles (Urtica dioica were collected from different regions to analyze phenolic compounds in this research. Nettles are specially grown in the coastal part. According to this kind of properties, nettle samples were collected from coastal part of (Mediterranean, Aegean, Black sea, and Marmara Turkey. Phenolic profile, total phenol compounds, and antioxidant activities of nettle samples were analyzed. Nettles were separated to the part of root, stalk, and leaves. Then, these parts of nettle were analyzed to understand the difference of phenolic compounds and amount of them. Nettle (root, stalk and leaves samples were analyzed by using High-Performance Liquid Chromatography with Diode-Array Detection (HPLC-DAD to qualitative and quantitative determination of the phenolic compounds. Total phenolic components were measured by using Folin-Ciocalteu method. The antioxidant activity was measured by using DPPH (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl which is generally used for herbal samples and based on single electron transfer (SET.

  12. Protective role of Urtica dioica L. (Urticaceae) extract on hepatocytes morphometric changes in STZ diabetic Wistar rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golalipour, Mohammad Jafar; Ghafari, Soraya; Afshar, Mohammad

    2010-09-01

    The present investigation was carried out to evaluate the protective effect of the hydroalcoholic extract of Urtica dioica leaves on the quantitative morphometric changes in the liver of streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. Thirty male Wistar rats were divided into control (G1), diabetic (G2), diabetic + Urtica dioica (G3) groups. The control group received only sham injections of intraperitoneal saline; the diabetic group received intraperitoneal saline for 5 days followed by streptozotocin (80 mg/kg) on the 6th day; and the diabetic + Urtica dioica group received 100 mg/kg Urtica dioica intraperitoneal (7) injections for 5 days and streptozotocin injection on the 6th day. After five weeks, the animals were sacrificed and whole livers removed. Liver specimens were used for quantitative morphometric analysis after hematoxylin and eosin staining. All data were statistically analyzed by one-way ANOVA and expressed as the mean with standard error of means. In the G3 (diabetic + Urtica diocia) group, the mean surface area of hepatocytes in the periportal zone (Z1) was greater than in G2 (diabetic) and G1 (control) groups, but this difference was not significant. No alteration was observed in the surface area of hepatocytes in the perivenous zone (Z3) in the diabetic + Urtica dioica (G3) group compared to the diabetic (G2) group. The mean nuclear area of hepatocytes of the rats in the diabetic + Urtica dioica (G3) group was higher in Z1 and lower in Z3 than that of rats in the diabetic (G2) group. The mean diameter of hepatocyte nuclei in the diabetic + Urtica dioica (G3) group was lower than that of diabetic (G2) and control (G1) groups in both Z1 and Z3. This study revealed that the administration of extract of Urtica dioica leaves before induction of diabetic with streptozotocin has a protective effect on the morphometric alterations of hepatocytes in the periportal and perivenous zones of the liver lobule in rats.

  13. Antimicrobial activity of methanolic extracts of Sambucus ebulus and Urtica dioica against clinical isolates of methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salehzadeh, Ali; Asadpour, Leila; Naeemi, Akram Sadat; Houshmand, Elham

    2014-01-01

    Increase in the emergence of drug -resistant pathogens led to the development of natural antimicrobials. In this study the antimicrobial effect of methanolic extracts of Sambucus ebulus and Urtica dioica on 16 skin and wound infections isolates of methicillin resistant S. aureus have been studied. Solvent extraction procedure was done using soxhlet apparatus for extracting antimicrobial agents from freeze dried plants. Antibacterial activity was measured using agar well diffusion method. The MIC of Sambucus ebulus and Urtica dioica extracts against the standard strain of S. aureus ATCC 6538 were determined using the micro dilution method at 15 mg and 20 mg respectively. All the test bacteria were found sensitive to the Sambucus ebulus extract and only one isolate was resistant to Urtica dioica extract. Extracts of Sambucus ebulus and Urtica dioica possess antibacterial potency against MRSA isolates and may be used as a natural antiseptics and antimicrobial agents in medicine.

  14. Pulling the sting out of nettle systematics - A comprehensive phylogeny of the genus Urtica L. (Urticaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grosse-Veldmann, Bernadette; Nürk, Nicolai M; Smissen, Rob; Breitwieser, Ilse; Quandt, Dietmar; Weigend, Maximilian

    2016-09-01

    The genus Urtica L. is subcosmopolitan, found on all continents (except Antarctica) and most extratropical islands and ranges from Alaska to Patagonia, Spitzbergen to the Cape and Camtschatka to the subantarctic islands. However, throughout its geographical range morphologically nearly indistinguishable species are found alongside morphologically quite disparate species, with the overall diversity of morphological characters extremely limited. The systematics of Urtica have puzzled scientists for the past 200years and no single comprehensive attempt at understanding infrageneric relationships has been published in the past, nor are species delimitations unequivocally established. We here provide the first comprehensive phylogeny of the genus including 61 of the 63 species recognized, represented by 144 ingroup accessions and 14 outgroup taxa. The markers ITS1-5.8S-ITS2, psbA-trnH intergenic spacer, trnL-trnF and trnS-trnG are used. The phylogeny is well resolved. The eastern Asian Zhengyia shennongensis T. Deng, D.G. Zhang & H. Sun is retrieved as sister to Urtica. Within Urtica, a clade comprising the western Eurasian species U. pilulifera L. and U. neubaueri Chrtek is sister to all other species of the genus. The phylogenetic analyses retrieve numerous well-supported clades, suggesting previously unsuspected relationships and implying that classically used taxonomic characters such as leaf morphology and growth habit are highly homoplasious. Species delimitation is problematical, and several accessions assigned to Urtica dioica L. (as subspecies) are retrieved in widely different places in the phylogeny. The genus seems to have undergone numerous dispersal-establishment events both between continents and onto different islands. Three recent species radiations are inferred, one in America centered in the Andes, one in New Zealand, and one in northern Eurasia which includes Urtica dioica s.str. sensu Henning et al. (2014). The present study provides the basis of a

  15. The Urtica dioica extract enhances sensitivity of paclitaxel drug to MDA-MB-468 breast cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammadi, Ali; Mansoori, Behzad; Aghapour, Mahyar; Shirjang, Solmaz; Nami, Sanam; Baradaran, Behzad

    2016-10-01

    Due to the chemo resistant nature of cancer cells and adverse effects of current therapies, researchers are looking for the most efficient therapeutic approach which has the lowest side effects and the highest toxicity on cancer cells. The aim of the present study was to investigate the synergic effect of Urtica dioica extract in combination with paclitaxel on cell death and invasion of human breast cancer MDA-MB-468 cell line. To determine the cytotoxic effects of Urtica dioica extract with paclitaxel, MTT assay was performed. The scratch test was exploited to assess the effects of Urtica dioica, Paclitaxel alone and combination on migration of cancer cells. The expression levels of snail-1, ZEB1, ZEB2, twist, Cdc2, cyclin B1 and Wee1 genes were quantified using qRT-PCR and western blot performed for snail-1expression. The effects of plant extract, Paclitaxel alone and combination on different phases of cell cycle was analyzed using flow cytometry. Results of MTT assay showed that Urtica dioica significantly destroyed cancer cells. Interestingly, Concurrent use of Urtica dioica extract with paclitaxel resulted in decreased IC50 dose of paclitaxel. Moreover, findings of scratch assay exhibited the inhibitory effects of Urtica dioica, Paclitaxel alone and combination on migration of MDA-MB-468 cell line. Our findings also demonstrated that the extract substantially decreased the Snail-1 and related gene expression. Ultimately, Cell cycle arrest occurred at G2/M phase post-treatment by deregulating Cdc2 and wee1. Our results demonstrated that the dichloromethane extract of Urtica dioica inhibit cell growth and migration. Also, Urtica dioica extract substantially increased sensitivity of breast cancer cells to paclitaxel. Therefore, it can be used as a potential candidate for treatment of breast cancer with paclitaxel. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  16. Effects of Urtica dioica supplementation on blood lipids, hepatic enzymes and nitric oxide levels in type 2 diabetic patients: A double blind, randomized clinical trial

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Alidad Amiri Behzadi; Hamid Kalalian-Moghaddam; Amirhossein Ahmadi

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Oxidative stress plays an important role in the development of diabetic complications including metabolic abnormality-induced diabetic micro-vascular and macro-vascular complications. Urtica dioica L. (U. dioica...

  17. Urtica dioica extract suppresses miR-21 and metastasis-related genes in breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansoori, Behzad; Mohammadi, Ali; Hashemzadeh, Shahriar; Shirjang, Solmaz; Baradaran, Ali; Asadi, Milad; Doustvandi, Mohammad Amin; Baradaran, Behzad

    2017-09-01

    Breast cancer has a high prevalence among women worldwide. Tumor invasion and metastasis still remains an open issue that causes most of the therapeutic failures and remains the prime cause of patient mortality. Hence, there is an unmet need to develop the most effective therapeutic approach with the lowest side effects and highest cytotoxicity that will effectively arrest or eradicate metastasis. An MTT assay and scratch test were used to assess the cytotoxicity and migration effects of Urtica dioica on the breast cancer cells. The QRT-PCR was used to study the expression levels of miR-21, MMP1, MMP9, MMP13, CXCR4, vimentin, and E-cadherin. The results of gene expression in tumoral groups confirmed the overexpression of miR-21, MMP1, MMP9, MMP13, vimentin, and CXCR4, and the lower expression of E-cadherin compared to control groups (PUrtica dioica significantly inhibited breast cancer cell proliferation. Moreover, findings from the scratch assay exhibited the inhibitory effects of Urtica dioica on the migration of breast cancer cell lines. Urtica dioica extract could inhibit cancer cell migration by regulating miR-21, MMP1, MMP9, MMP13, vimentin, CXCR4, and E-Cadherin. Moreover, our findings demonstrated that the extract could decrease miR-21 expression, which substantially lessens the overexpressed MMP1, MMP9, MMP13, vimentin, and CXCR4 and increases E-cadherin in the tumoral group. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  18. Protective Effect of Urtica dioica on Liver Injury Induced By Hepatic Ischemia Reperfusion Injury in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alpaslan TERZİ

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: This study was designed to investigate the effects of Urtica dioica on liverischemia reperfusion injury in rats. Methods: Thirty male Wistar-albino rats were used in this experimental study. Animals weredivided into three groups as sham operated (group 1, control (group 2, and Urtica dioicatreatment group (group 3. Urtica dioica 2ml/kg were administered intraperitoneally beforeischemia and immediately after the reperfusion. The levels of total antioxidant capacity, totalfree sulfidril group, Total oxidant status, Oxidative stress index, and myeloperoxidase in livertissues were measured. The serum levels of ALT, AST and LDH were also measuredResults: Total antioxidant capacity and total free sulfidril group in liver tissue were significantlyhigher in group 3 than in group 2. Oxidative stress index and myeloperoxidase in liver tissuewere significantly lower in group 3 than the group 2. The levels of liver enzymes in treatmentgroup were significantly lower than those in the control group. Histological tissue damage wasmilder in the treatment group than that in the control group.Conclusion: It is concluded that Urtica dioica increase the antioxidant capacity and decreaseoxidative stress and liver enzymes in the hepatic ischemi reperfusion injury of rats.

  19. [Anti-inflammatory effect of Urtica dioica folia extract in comparison to caffeic malic acid].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obertreis, B; Giller, K; Teucher, T; Behnke, B; Schmitz, H

    1996-01-01

    Urtica dioica extract is a traditionary used adjuvant therapeutic in rheumatoid arthritis. The antiphlogistic effects of the urtica dioica folia extract IDS 23 (Extractum Urticae dioicae foliorum) and the main phenolic ingredient caffeic malic acid were tested concerning the inhibitory potential on biosynthesis of arachidonic acid metabolites in vitro. The caffeic malic acid was isolated from Urtica folia extract using gel exclusion- and high performance liquid chromatography and identified by mass spectroscopy and nuclear magnetic resonance. Concerning the 5-lipoxygenase products IDS 23 showed a partial inhibitory effect. The isolated phenolic acid inhibited the synthesis of the leukotriene B4 in a concentration dependent manner. The concentration for halfmaximal inhibition (IC50) was 83 microns/ml in the used assay. IDS 23 showed a strong concentration dependent inhibition of the synthesis of cyclooxygenase derived reactions. The IC50 were 92 micrograms/ml for IDS 23 and 38 micrograms/ml for the caffeic malic acid. Calculating the content in IDS 23 the caffeic malic acid is a possible but not the only active ingredient of the plant extract in the tested assay systems. It is demonstrated that the phenolic component showed a different enzymatic target compared with IDS 23. The antiphlogistic effects observed in vitro may give an explanation for the pharmacological and clinical effects of IDS 23 in therapie of rheumatoid diseases.

  20. Protective effect of Urtica dioica L against nicotine-induced damage on sperm parameters, testosterone and testis tissue in mice

    OpenAIRE

    Cyrus Jalili; Mohammad Reza Salahshoor; Ali Naseri

    2014-01-01

    Background: Nicotine consumption can decrease fertility drive in males by inducing oxidative stress and DNA damage. Urtica dioica L (U.dioica) is a multipurpose herb in traditional medicine for which some anti-oxidative and anti-inflammatory properties have been identified. Objective: The main goal is to investigate whether the U.dioica could inhibit nicotine adverse effects on sperm cells viability, count, motility, and testis histology and testosterone hormone. Materials and Methods: In thi...

  1. 2D FTIR correlation spectroscopy and EPR analysis of Urtica dioica leaves from areas of different environmental pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moskal, Paulina; Wesełucha-Birczyńska, Aleksandra; Łabanowska, Maria; Kurdziel, Magdalena; Filek, Maria

    2018-01-15

    Leaves of Urtica dioica collected from two areas of different environmental pollution were analysed by fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy. Analysis of FTIR spectra allows to describe main component of plant like proteins, lipids and carbohydrates. Although the FTIR spectra of plants from these two geographical locations of different environmental pollution appear to be relatively similar, 2D correlation shows completely different patterns. Synchronous and asynchronous correlation maps showed sequences of changes occurring during development of plant, manly in Amide I and Amide II, lignin, lipids and cellulose. In addition, 2D analysis revealed another sequence of changes as the function of plant growth depending on the degree of the environmental pollution. Two various kinds of paramagnetic species, transition metal ions (Mn(II), Fe(III)) and stable organic radicals (chlorophyll, semiquinone, tyrosyl and carbon centered) were found in leaves of nettle collected at different stages of development and growing in clean and polluted environment. In plants growing in polluted area the injuries of protein molecules bonding metal ions and the disturbances of photosynthesis and redox equilibrium in cells, as well as instability of polysaccharide structure of cell walls were observed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. 2D FTIR correlation spectroscopy and EPR analysis of Urtica dioica leaves from areas of different environmental pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moskal, Paulina; Wesełucha-Birczyńska, Aleksandra; Łabanowska, Maria; Kurdziel, Magdalena; Filek, Maria

    2018-01-01

    Leaves of Urtica dioica collected from two areas of different environmental pollution were analysed by fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy. Analysis of FTIR spectra allows to describe main component of plant like proteins, lipids and carbohydrates. Although the FTIR spectra of plants from these two geographical locations of different environmental pollution appear to be relatively similar, 2D correlation shows completely different patterns. Synchronous and asynchronous correlation maps showed sequences of changes occurring during development of plant, manly in Amide I and Amide II, lignin, lipids and cellulose. In addition, 2D analysis revealed another sequence of changes as the function of plant growth depending on the degree of the environmental pollution. Two various kinds of paramagnetic species, transition metal ions (Mn(II), Fe(III)) and stable organic radicals (chlorophyll, semiquinone, tyrosyl and carbon centered) were found in leaves of nettle collected at different stages of development and growing in clean and polluted environment. In plants growing in polluted area the injuries of protein molecules bonding metal ions and the disturbances of photosynthesis and redox equilibrium in cells, as well as instability of polysaccharide structure of cell walls were observed.

  3. Urtica dioica attenuates ovalbumin-induced inflammation and lipid peroxidation of lung tissues in rat asthma model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zemmouri, Hanene; Sekiou, Omar; Ammar, Sonda; El Feki, Abdelfattah; Bouaziz, Mohamed; Messarah, Mahfoud; Boumendjel, Amel

    2017-12-01

    To find bioactive medicinal herbs exerting anti-asthmatic activity, we investigated the effect of an aqueous extract of Urtica dioica L. (Urticaceae) leaves (UD), the closest extract to the Algerian traditional use. In this study, we investigated the in vivo anti-asthmatic and antioxidant activities of nettle extract. Adult male Wistar rats were divided into four groups: Group I: negative control; group II: Ovalbumin sensitized/challenged rats (positive control); group III: received UD extract (1.5 g/kg/day) orally along the experimental protocol; group IV: received UD extract (1.5 g/kg/day) orally along the experimental protocol and sensitized/challenged with ovalbumin. After 25 days, blood and tissue samples were collected for haematological and histopathological analysis, respectively. The oxidative stress parameters were evaluated in the lungs, liver and erythrocytes. Then, correlations between markers of airway inflammation and markers of oxidative stress were explored. UD extract significantly (p effectively suppressed inflammatory cells recruitment in the asthmatic rat model. Besides, the lipid peroxidation generated by allergen administration was significantly (p effects of this extract against airway inflammation.

  4. Influence of plant maturity, shoot reproduction and sex on vegetative growth in the dioecious plant Urtica dioica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oñate, Marta; Munné-Bosch, Sergi

    2009-10-01

    Stinging nettle (Urtica dioica) is a herbaceous, dioecious perennial that is widely distributed around the world, reproduces both sexually and asexually, and is characterized by rapid growth. This work was aimed at evaluating the effects of plant maturity, shoot reproduction and sex on the growth of leaves and shoots. Growth rates of apical shoots, together with foliar levels of phytohormones (cytokinins, auxins, absicisic acid, jasmonic acid and salicylic acid) and other indicators of leaf physiology (water contents, photosynthetic pigments, alpha-tocopherol and F(v)/F(m) ratios) were measured in juvenile and mature plants, with a distinction made between reproductive and non-reproductive shoots in both males and females. Vegetative growth rates were not only evaluated in field-grown plants, but also in cuttings obtained from these plants. All measurements were performed during an active vegetative growth phase in autumn, a few months after mature plants reproduced during spring and summer. Vegetative growth rates in mature plants were drastically reduced compared with juvenile ones (48 % and 78 % for number of leaves and leaf biomass produced per day, respectively), which was associated with a loss of photosynthetic pigments (up to 24 % and 48 % for chlorophylls and carotenoids, respectively) and increases of alpha-tocopherol (up to 2.7-fold), while endogenous levels of phytohormones did not differ between mature and juvenile plants. Reductions in vegetative growth were particularly evident in reproductive shoots of mature plants, and occurred similarly in both males and females. It is concluded that (a) plant maturity reduces vegetative growth in U. dioica, (b) effects of plant maturity are evident both in reproductive and non-reproductive shoots, but particularly in the former, and (c) these changes occur similarly in both male and female plants.

  5. Exploring the Urtica dioica Leaves Hemostatic and Wound-Healing Potential

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karama Zouari Bouassida

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The present paper investigated the efficiency of Urtica dioica (U. dioica on hemostatic and wound healing activities. U. dioica leaf extracts were evaluated for their antibacterial and antioxidant effects as well as their flavonoid and polyphenol content. The hydroethanolic extract (EtOH-H2OE, showing the most potent antibacterial and antioxidant activities in vitro, thanks to its flavonoid and polyphenol richness, was selected for hemostatic and wound healing evaluation. Twenty-four rats completing full-thickness wounds were split into four groups. The wounds were topically treated with saline solution, glycerol, “CICAFLORA,” and U. dioica EtOH-H2OE (50 µL/mm2 until day 11. The wound healing effect was assessed by macroscopic, histological, and biochemical parameters. Rats treated with EtOH-H2OE showed fast wound closure (92.39% compared to the control animals (60.91% on the 11th day of wounding (P<0.01. Histopathological and biochemical explorations showed full epidermal regeneration and an improvement of the hydroxyproline content in the U. dioica EtOH-H2OE treated rats. Analysis of fatty acids and sterols by GC-MS showed the presence of unsaturated fatty acids and a high concentration of lupeol known for their involvement in reepithelialization. These results prove the efficiency of U. dioica EtOH-H2OE in wound healing and supported its traditional use.

  6. Diocanol; one new phenol derivative isolated and characterized from Urtica dioica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riaz Ullah

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available One new benzene derivative Diocanol(1 was isolated from the ethyl acetate soluble portion of the whole plant of Urtica dioica along with known constituents β-amyrin (2, β-sitosterol (3, stigmasterol (4, and oleanolic acid (5. The structures of the isolated compounds were characterized based on 1H and 13C NMR spectra, including two-dimensional NMR techniques like COSY, HMQC, and HMBC and compared with the literature data.

  7. Protective effect of Urtica dioica methanol extract against experimentally induced urinary calculi in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Haiying; Li, Ning; Li, Kun; Li, Peng

    2014-12-01

    Renal calculi formation is one of the most common urological disorders. Urinary stone disease is a common disease, which affects 10‑12% of the population in industrialized countries. In males, the highest prevalence of the disease occurs between the age of 20 and 40 years, while in females, the highest incidence of the disease occurs later. Previous studies have shown that long‑term exposure to oxalate is toxic to renal epithelial cells and results in oxidative stress. In the present study, a methanolic extract of aerial parts of Urtica dioica was screened for antiurolithiatic activity against ethylene glycol and ammonium chloride‑induced calcium oxalate renal stones in male rats. In the control rats, ethylene glycol and ammonium chloride administration was observed to cause an increase in urinary calcium, oxalate and creatinine levels, as well as an increase in renal calcium and oxalate deposition. Histopathological observations revealed calcium oxalate microcrystal deposits in the kidney sections of the rats treated with ethylene glycol and ammonium chloride, indicating the induction of lithiasis. In the test rats, treatment with the methanolic extract of Urtica dioica was found to decrease the elevated levels of urinary calcium, oxalate and creatinine, and significantly decrease the renal deposition of calcium and oxalate. Furthermore, renal histological observations revealed a significant reduction in calcium oxalate crystal deposition in the test rats. Phytochemical analysis of the Urtica dioica extract was also performed using liquid chromatography‑electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry and high-performance liquid chromatography with photodiode array detection, to determine the chemical composition of the extract. The eight chemical constituents identified in the extract were protocatechuic acid, salicylic acid, luteolin, gossypetin, rutin, kaempferol‑3‑O‑rutinoside, kaempferol‑3‑O‑glucoside and chlorogenic acid. In conclusion

  8. Urtica dioica dichloromethane extract induce apoptosis from intrinsic pathway on human prostate cancer cells (PC3).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammadi, A; Mansoori, B; Aghapour, M; Baradaran, B

    2016-03-31

    Prostate cancer is considered as the major cause of death among men around the world. There are a number of medicinal plants triggering apoptosis response in cancer cells, thus have a therapeutic potential. Therefore, further studies to characterize beneficial properties of these plants in order to introduce novel anti-cancer drugs are the interest of recent researches on the alternative medicine. On the other hand, due to traditional uses and availability of Urtica dioica extract, we decided to evaluate the efficacy of this medicinal herb on pc3 prostate cancer cell line. In the present study the cytotoxic effects of Urtica dioica extract were assessed by 3-(4, 5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2, 5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay and trypan blue viability dye. Then, DNA fragmentation and terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL) assay were exploited to measure cell death and apoptosis stage. The expression levels of caspase 3, caspase 9 and Bcl-2 genes were quantified by Real-Time PCR. Finally, Cell cycle was analyzed by flow cytometry. MTT assay showed that dichloromethanolic extract of Urtica dioica significantly inhibited the cell growth. According to the DNA fragmentation and TUNEL assay results, the herbal extract was able to induce apoptosis in prostate cancer cells. Our findings also demonstrated that the plant extract substantially increases the caspase 3 and 9 mRNA expression, while decreases Bcl-2. Cell cycle arrest was occurred in G2 stage, due to the results of flow cytometry. These results indicate that dichloromethanolic extract of Urtica dioica can successfully induce apoptosis in PC3 cells. Therefore, it could be used as a novel therapeutic candidate for prostate tumor treatment.

  9. Effect of Urtica dioica extract intake upon blood lipid profile in the rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daher, Costantine F; Baroody, Karmen G; Baroody, George M

    2006-04-01

    Aqueous (150 mg/kg/day) and to a lesser extent petroleum ether (20 mg/kg/day) extract of Urtica dioica given for 30 days to rats fed with normal or high-fat diet, improved the blood lipid profile. Significant decreases in total cholesterol, LDL cholesterol, LDL/HDL cholesterol ratio and plasma total apo B were observed. Assessment of GOT, GPT and LDH activities showed that no liver damage has occurred during the study period.

  10. Urtica dioica attenuate effect of Doxorobicin‐Induced changes on sperm parameters in the mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahra Baninameh

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Doxorubicin (DXR is used as an antitumor agent for the treatment of human neoplasm. The use of DXR has adverse effect on reproductive system including testicular toxicity and alteration in semen quality. The aim of this study was to evaluate the protective effects of Urtica dioica against Doxorobicin‐Induced changes on sperm parameters. 24 male mice were randomly divided into 4 groups. Control group received normal saline solution throughout the course of the study. Urtica dioica (UD control group, received UD (100 mg/kg body weight thrice in a week and DOX (3 mg/kg body weight once in a week injected intraperitoneally in Doxorubicin (DXR control group and Urtica dioica- Doxorubicin (UD-DXR group, received Urtica dioica (100 mg/kg body weight three times in a week and DOX (3 mg/kg body weight once in a week through the route for a period of 2 weeks. At the end of experimental period, all animal were sacrificed by cervical dislocation, their epididymes were removed and sperm analysis were done. In mice with DXR administration, epididymal sperm motility, progressive motility, sperm count and viability significantly decrease while sperm cells with abnormal morphology significantly increase when compared with control groups. Co-treatment with UD attenuate toxicity effect of DXR and improve sperm parameters. Results of our study showed that UD diminished DXR-induced testicular toxicity and improve semen parameters, thus suggesting its co-administration as a protective agent during doxorubicin treatment. Further studies should be aimed to determine protective effect of UD against chemotherapeutic agents such as DXR.

  11. Renal and vascular studies of aqueous extract of Urtica dioica in rats and rabbits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K.F. Dizaye

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Urtica dioica has a variety of uses in traditional medicine for genitourinary ailments kidney disorders, allergies, diabetes, anemia, gastrointestinal tract ailments, musculoskeletal aches and alopecia. However, only a few of these uses have scientific bases that support their clinical uses. This study was done to evaluate some of the in vivo and in vitro pharmacological actions of this plant. Eighteen local domestic rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus were used for in vitro studies (effect of the plant extract on isolated pulmonary arteries and isolated urinary bladder smooth muscle and in vivo studies (effect of the extract on renal function. Six male albino rats were used for studying the effects of the plant extract on blood pressure and heart rate. Urtica dioica extract produced a significant increase in urine volume and urinary Na+ excretion without significant changes in K+ excretion rates in experimental rabbits. No changes occurred in Glomerular filtration rate and %Na+ reabsorption of filtered load. Neither vasodilatation nor vasoconstriction of isolated pulmonary arteries of the rabbit was seen after applying the aqueous extract of U. dioica. Besides it could not reverse the vasoconstrictor effect of phenylephrine. Urtica dioica has no detectable effects on the isolated bladder; moreover it did not reverse the contraction that was produced by pilocarpine. In experimental rats, the plant extract produced a profound drop in blood pressure associated with decreased heart rate. In conclusion the aqueous extract of U. dioica produced diuretic and natriuretic effects with out significant effect on the K+ excretion rate in rabbits. Moreover it produced a profound drop in blood pressure and heart rate.

  12. Chemical composition and in vitro cytotoxic, genotoxic effects of essential oil from Urtica dioica L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gül, Süleyman; Demirci, Betül; Başer, Kemal Hüsnü Can; Akpulat, H Aşkin; Aksu, Pinar

    2012-05-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the chemical composition of Urtica dioica essential oil, and to evaluate its cytotoxic and genotoxic effects, using cytogenetic tests such as the cytokinesis-block micronucleus assay and chromosomal aberration analysis in human lymphocyte cultures in vitro. GC-MS analysis of U. dioica essential oil identified 43 compounds, representing 95.8% of the oil. GC and GC-MS analysis of the essential oil of U. dioica revealed that carvacrol (38.2%), carvone (9.0%), naphthalene (8.9%), (E)-anethol (4.7%), hexahydrofarnesyl acetone (3.0%), (E)-geranyl acetone (2.9%), (E)-β-ionone (2.8%) and phytol (2.7%) are the main components, comprising 72.2% of the oil. A significant correlation was found between the concentration of essential oil and the following: chromosomal aberrations, micronuclei frequency, apoptotic cells, necrotic cells, and binucleated cells.

  13. Apoptotic Effect of the Urtica Dioica Plant Extracts on Breast Cancer Cell Line (MDA- MB- 468

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Mohammadi

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Background & objectives: Cancer is one of the most causes of mortality in worldwide. Components derived from natural plants that induce apoptosis are used for cancer treatment. Therefore investigation of different herbal components for new anti-cancer drug is one of the main research activities throughout the world. According to low cost, oral consumption and easy access to the public extracts of Urtica dioica, in this study we aimed to investigate the effectiveness of this herb on MDA-MB-468 breast cancer cells.   Methods: Cytotoxic effect of Urtica dioica extract was measured using MTT assays. To show induction of apoptosis by this plant TUNEL and DNA Fragmentation test were performed.   Results: In the present study dichloromethane extracts noticeably killed cancer cells. IC50 values related to human breast adenocarcinoma cell line MDA-MB-468 were 29.46±1.05 µg/ml in 24 hours and 15.54±1.04 µg/ml in 48 hours. TUNEL test and DNA Fragmentation assay showed apoptotic characteristic in the extract treated cells.   Conclusion: The results showed that MDA-MB-468 cells after treatment with dichloromethane extract of Urtica dioica, induces apoptosis in MDA-MB-468 cancer cells which may be useful in the treatment of cancer.

  14. The effects of Urtica dioica L. leaf extract on aniline 4-hydroxylase in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozen, Tevfik; Korkmaz, Halil

    2009-01-01

    The effects of hydroalcoholic (80% ethanol-20% water) extract of Urtica dioica L. on microsomal aniline 4-hydroxylase (A4H) were investigated in the liver of Swiss albino mice (8- 10-weeks-old) treated with two doses (50 and 100 mg/kg body weight, given orally for 14 days ). The activities of A4H showed a significant increase in the liver at both dose levels of extract treatment. The hydroalcoholic extract of Urtica dioica induced the activities of A4H that had been increased by treatment of metal ions (Mg2+ and Ca2+) and the mixture of cofactors (NADH and NADPH). At saturated concentration of cofactor, microsomal A4H exhibited significantly even higher activities in the presence of the mixture of cofactors than NADPH and NADH. Mg2+ and Ca2+ ions acted as stimulants in vitro. The present results suggest that the hydroalcoholic extract of Urtica dioica may have modalatory effect on aniline hydroxylase at least in part and enhance the activity of A4H adding metals ions and cofactors.

  15. Effect of fertilizer application on Urtica dioica and its element concentrations in a cut grassland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müllerová, Vladimíra; Hejcman, Michal; Hejcmanová, Pavla; Pavlů, Vilém

    2014-08-01

    Little is known about the effects of nutrient availability in cut grasslands on growth characteristics of Urtica dioica and its aboveground chemical composition (N, P, K, Ca, Mg, Cu, Fe, Mn and Zn). The effects of N, P and K application on the growth of U. dioica were studied over five years in a Dactylis glomerata grassland cut twice per year under unfertilized control, P, N, NP and NPK treatments (300, 80 and 200 kg of N, P and K ha-1 per year). Nitrogen application in the form of NH4NO3 over five years decreased the soil pH, while P and K application increased P and K availability in the soil. Over five years, cover of U. dioica increased from 1% initially to 7, 9, 58, 83 and 99% in the control, P, N, NP and NPK treatments, respectively. Concentrations of N, P and Ca in the aboveground biomass of U. dioica were very high in comparison to other species and concentrations of Cu, Fe, Mn and Zn were comparable with other grassland species. N and P limitation of U. dioica growth was expected if concentrations of N and P in the aboveground biomass were lower than 25 g N kg-1 and 4 g P kg-1 in the phenological stage of flowering. We concluded that two cuts per year are not sufficient to suppress expansion of U. dioica under high N, P and K availability. This probably explains why U. dioica survive also in frequently cut intensive grasslands under adequately high nutrient supply.

  16. Food-chain transfer of zinc from contaminated Urtica dioica and Acer pseudoplatanus L. to the aphids Microlophium carnosum and Drepanosiphum platanoidis Schrank

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sinnett, Danielle, E-mail: danielle.sinnett@forestry.gsi.gov.u [Centre for Forestry and Climate Change, Forest Research, Alice Holt Lodge, Farnham, Surrey GU10 4LH (United Kingdom); Department of Soil Science, School of Human and Environmental Sciences, University of Reading, Whiteknights, Reading RG6 6DW (United Kingdom); Hutchings, Tony R., E-mail: tony.hutchings@forestry.gsi.gov.u [Centre for Forestry and Climate Change, Forest Research, Alice Holt Lodge, Farnham, Surrey GU10 4LH (United Kingdom); Hodson, Mark E., E-mail: m.e.hodson@reading.ac.u [Department of Soil Science, School of Human and Environmental Sciences, University of Reading, Whiteknights, Reading RG6 6DW (United Kingdom)

    2010-01-15

    This study examines the food-chain transfer of Zn from two plant species, Urtica dioica (stinging nettle) and Acer pseudoplatanus (sycamore maple), into their corresponding aphid species, Microlophium carnosum and Drepanosiphum platanoidis. The plants were grown in a hydroponic system using solutions with increasing concentrations of Zn from 0.02 to 41.9 mg Zn/l. Above-ground tissue concentrations in U. dioica and M. carnosum increased with increasing Zn exposure (p < 0.001). Zn concentrations in A. pseudoplatanus also increased with solution concentration from the control to the 9.8 mg Zn/l solution, above which concentrations remained constant. Zn concentrations in both D. platanoidis and the phloem tissue of A. pseudoplatanus were not affected by the Zn concentration in the watering solution. It appears that A. pseudoplatanus was able to limit Zn transport in the phloem, resulting in constant Zn exposure to the aphids. Zn concentrations in D. platanoidis were around three times those in M. carnosum. - Concentrations of Zn in two aphid species are dependant on species and exposure.

  17. Introducing Urtica dioica, A Native Plant of Khuzestan, As an Antibacterial Medicinal Plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motamedi, Hossein; Seyyednejad, Seyyed Mansour; Bakhtiari, Ameneh; Vafaei, Mozhan

    2014-11-01

    Urtica dioica is a flowering plant with long history of use in folk medicine and as a food source. This study examined in vitro antibacterial potential of alcoholic extracts of U. dioica. Hydroalcoholic extracts from aerial parts were prepared using aqueous solution of ethanol and methanol and their inhibitory effects against clinical isolates was examined by disc diffusion method at different doses. Minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) indexes were also investigated. The scanning electron microscopy (SEM) analysis was also performed to find structural changes of affected bacteria consequent to exposing with extracts. Both extracts were active against Bacillus cereus, Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis, and Escherichia coli with respectively 16, 10, 18, and 14 mm (methanolic) and 11, 9, 17, and 16 mm (ethanolic) inhibition zone. The MIC of ethanolic extract against S. epidermidis and E. coli was respectively 10 and 40 mg/mL. The MIC of methanolic extract against S. aureus and S. epidermidis was 40 and 10 mg/mL, respectively. The MBC was found only for S. epidermidis (20 mg/mL). In SEM analysis the round shape of S. epidermidis was changed and irregular shapes were appeared, which suggest that the main target of these extracts was cell wall. Extracts of U. dioica showed significant antibacterial effect against some clinically important pathogenic bacteria. Based on the obtained results it can be concluded that U. dioica is useful as antibacterial and bactericidal agent in treating infectious diseases.

  18. Heavy metal pollution affects consumption and reproduction of the landsnail Cepaea Nemoralis fed on naturally polluted Urtica dioica leaves.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Notten, M.J.M.; Oosthoek, A.; Rozema, J.; Aerts, R.

    2006-01-01

    This study is one of the very first that investigates the effects of heavy metal pollution on food consumption and reproduction of terrestrial snails under semi-realistic field conditions. Two experiments were carried out using snails (Cepaea nemoralis) and food (Urtica dioica leaves) from different

  19. Protective Effect of Urtica dioica L. (Urticaceae) on Morphometric and Morphologic Alterations of Seminiferous Tubules in STZ Diabetic Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golalipour, Mohammad Jafar; Kabiri Balajadeh, Babak; Ghafari, Soraya; Azarhosh, Ramin; Khori, Vahid

    2011-09-01

    Urtica dioica L. has been known as a medicinal plant in the world. This study was conducted to determine the effects of the hydroalcoholic extract of Urtica dioica leaves on seminiferous tubules of diabetic rats. Animals were allocated to control, diabetic and protective groups. Treated animals received extract of U. dioica (100 mg/ kg/ day) IP for the first 5 days and STZ injection on the 6th day. After 5 weeks, testes removed and stained with H&E technique. Tubular cell disintegration, sertoli and spermatogonia cell vacuolization, and decrease in sperm concentration observed in diabetic in comparison with control and protective groups. External seminiferous tubular diameter and seminiferous epithelial height significantly reduced (Pdioica, before induction of diabetes; has protective role on seminiferous tubules alterations.

  20. Cardiovascular effects of Urtica dioica L. (Urticaceae) roots extracts: in vitro and in vivo pharmacological studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Testai, Lara; Chericoni, Silvio; Calderone, Vincenzo; Nencioni, Giulia; Nieri, Paola; Morelli, Ivano; Martinotti, Enrica

    2002-06-01

    Urtica dioica (Urticaceae) is a plant principally used in the traditional medicine of oriental Marocco as antihypertensive remedy (J. Ethnopharmacol., 58 (1997), 45). The aim of this work was to evaluate a possible direct cardiovascular action of the plant and to investigate its mechanism of action. In aortic preparations with intact and functional endothelial layer, pre-contracted with KCl 20 mM or norepinephrine 3 microM, the crude aqueous and methanolic extracts of the plant roots, as well as purified fractions elicited a vasodilator action. Nevertheless, the vasodilator activity was not present in aortic rings without endothelial layer. In aortic rings with intact endothelial layer, the vasorelaxing effect was abolished by L-NAME, a NO-biosynthesis inhibitor, and ODQ, a guanylate cyclase inhibitor. Furthermore, potassium channel blockers (TEA, 4-aminopyridine, quinine, but not glybenclamide) antagonized the vasodilator action of the purified fraction F1W of U. dioica. The same fraction produced a marked decrease of inotropic activity, in spontaneously beating atria of guinea-pig, and a marked, but transient, hypotensive activity on the blood pressure of anaesthetized rats. It is concluded that U. dioica can produce hypotensive responses, through a vasorelaxing effect mediated by the release of endothelial nitric oxide and the opening of potassium channels, and through a negative inotropic action.

  1. Antioxidant and apoptotic effects of an aqueous extract of Urtica dioica on the MCF-7 human breast cancer cell line.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fattahi, Sadegh; Ardekani, Ali Motevalizadeh; Zabihi, Ebrahim; Abedian, Zeinab; Mostafazadeh, Amrollah; Pourbagher, Roghayeh; Akhavan-Niaki, Haleh

    2013-01-01

    Breast cancer is the most prevalent cancer and one of the leading causes of death among women in the world. Plants and herbs may play an important role in complementary or alternative treatment. The aim of this study was to evaluate the antioxidant and anti-proliferative potential of Urtica dioica. The anti oxidant activity of an aqueous extract of Urtica dioica leaf was measured by MTT assay and the FRAP method while its anti-proliferative activity on the human breast cancer cell line (MCF-7) and fibroblasts isolated from foreskin tissue was evaluated using MTT assay. Mechanisms leading to apoptosis were also investigated at the molecular level by measuring the amount of anti and pro-apoptotic proteins and at the cellular level by studying DNA fragmentation and annexin V staining by flow cytometry. The aqueous extract of Urtica dioica showed antioxidant effects with a correlation coefficient of r(2)=0.997. Dose-dependent and anti-proliferative effects of the extract were observed only on MCF-7 cells after 72 hrs with an IC50 value of 2 mg/ml. This anti proliferative activity was associated with an increase of apoptosis as demonstrated by DNA fragmentation, the appearance of apoptotic cells in flow cytometry analysis and an increase of the amount of calpain 1, calpastatin, caspase 3, caspase 9, Bax and Bcl-2, all proteins involved in the apoptotic pathway. This is the first time such in vitro antiproliferative effect of aqueous extract of Urtica dioica leaf has been described for a breast cancer cell line. Our findings warrant further research on Urtica dioica as a potential chemotherapeutic agent for breast cancer.

  2. In vivo and in vitro evaluation of the effects of Urtica dioica and swimming activity on diabetic factors and pancreatic beta cells

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ranjbari, Abbas; Azarbayjani, Mohammad Ali; Yusof, Ashril; Halim Mokhtar, Abdul; Akbarzadeh, Samad; Ibrahim, Mohamed Yousif; Tarverdizadeh, Bahman; Farzadinia, Parviz; Hajiaghaee, Reza; Dehghan, Firouzeh

    2016-01-01

    Urtica dioica (UD) has been identified as a traditional herbal medicine. This study aimed to investigate the effect of UD extract and swimming activity on diabetic parameters through in vivo and in vitro experiments...

  3. Effect of Urtica dioica on morphometric indices of kidney in streptozotocin diabetic rats--a stereological study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golalipour, Mohammad Jafar; Gharravi, Anneh Mohammad; Ghafari, Sorya; Afshar, Mohammad

    2007-11-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of Urtica dioica on Morphometric indices of kidney in diabetic rats. Thirty male adult albino wistar rats of 125-175 g divided into control, diabetic and Urtica dioica treatment groups. In treatment Group, diabetic rats received 100 mg kg(-1) daily hydroalcoholic extract of U. dioica intraperitoneally for 4 weeks. After the animals had been sacrified, the kidneys were removed and fixed by formaldehyde, cut horizontally into 1 mm slices and processed, Stained with H and E. Stereological study performed using light microscope and the image projected on a table of olysa software. Cavalieri principle was used to estimate the volume of cortex, medulla and whole kidney. All the grouped data statistically evaluated using Student's t-test, expressed as the Mean +/- SE. Ration of kidney weight/body weight in diabetes (0.51) and diabetes-extract group (0.67) were higher then control group (0.42). Ratio of kidney volume/body weight in diabetes (350) and diabetes-extract group (348) were higher then control group (323). Volume Ratio of cortex/medulla in diabetes-extract group (1.65) was higher then control (1.34) and diabetes group (1.33). Glomerular area and diameter and proximal tubule diameter in diabetes-Extract group was higher than control and diabetes groups. This study revealed that Urtica dioica has no effect on renal morphometric indices in induced diabetic rats.

  4. Synergism effects of pioglitazone and Urtica dioica extract in streptozotocin-induced nephropathy via attenuation of oxidative stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Shokrzadeh

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective(s: Hyperglycemia promotes oxidative stress that plays a crucial role in the pathogenesis of Diabetic nephropathy (DN. In this study, we investigated the synergism effects of hydroalcoholic extract of Urtica dioica and pioglitazone (PIO on the prevention of DN in streptozotocin induced-diabetic mice. Materials and Methods: Forty-two mice were divided into six groups as follows: non-diabetic control group, DMSO group (as solvent, diabetic group and four treatment groups which received U. dioica, pioglitazone, U. dioica plus pioglitazone and vitE. Diabetes was induced by a single dose of streptozotocin (STZ (200 mg/kg body wt, IP diluted in citrate buffer (pH= 4.6. After 4 weeks treatment, all animals were anaesthetized and blood was collected for serum urea and creatinine levels assessment in plasma and kidney tissue were excised for evaluation of oxidative stress markers. Results: Treatment with U. dioica significantly inhibited increase in serum urea and creatinine in plasma that were observed in diabetic mice. Furthermore, the elevated level of oxidative stress markers (glutathione oxidation, lipid peroxidation (LPO, protein carbonyl in renal supernatant of diabetic mice was inhibited by U. dioica treatment.  Interestingly, U. dioica promoted beneficial effects of PIO in reducing STZ-induced hyperglycemia, renal damage and oxidative stress markers. Conclusion: Our findings showed that PIO plus U. dioica have synergism protective effects against STZ-induced nephropathy that can be a candidate as a therapeutic approach in order to treatment of DN.

  5. Synergism effects of pioglitazone and Urtica dioica extract in streptozotocin-induced nephropathy via attenuation of oxidative stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shokrzadeh, Mohammad; Sadat-Hosseini, Sara; Fallah, Marjan; Shaki, Fatemeh

    2017-05-01

    Hyperglycemia promotes oxidative stress that plays a crucial role in the pathogenesis of Diabetic nephropathy (DN). In this study, we investigated the synergism effects of hydroalcoholic extract of Urtica dioica and pioglitazone (PIO) on the prevention of DN in streptozotocin induced-diabetic mice. Forty-two mice were divided into six groups as follows: non-diabetic control group, DMSO group (as solvent), diabetic group and four treatment groups which received U. dioica, pioglitazone, U. dioica plus pioglitazone and vitE. Diabetes was induced by a single dose of streptozotocin (STZ) (200 mg/kg body wt, IP) diluted in citrate buffer (pH= 4.6). After 4 weeks treatment, all animals were anaesthetized and blood was collected for serum urea and creatinine levels assessment in plasma and kidney tissue were excised for evaluation of oxidative stress markers. Treatment with U. dioica significantly inhibited increase in serum urea and creatinine in plasma that were observed in diabetic mice. Furthermore, the elevated level of oxidative stress markers (glutathione oxidation, lipid peroxidation (LPO), protein carbonyl) in renal supernatant of diabetic mice was inhibited by U. dioica treatment. Interestingly, U. dioica promoted beneficial effects of PIO in reducing STZ-induced hyperglycemia, renal damage and oxidative stress markers. Our findings showed that PIO plus U. dioica have synergism protective effects against STZ-induced nephropathy that can be a candidate as a therapeutic approach in order to treatment of DN.

  6. Protection of Ischemic and Reperfused Rat Heart by Aqueous Extract of Urtica Dioica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D Shackebaei

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Urtica dioica (U.D has widely been used in traditional medicine for its hypotensive and vasodilatory effects. The objective of this study was to clarify the effects of aqueous extract of Urtica dioica on isolated ischemia- reperfused heart.Methods: The heart of male wistar rats were isolated and perfused according to langendorff method. In the control group (n = 13 the hearts were subjected to three steps of stabilization (30 min, normothermic global ischemia (40 min and reperfusion (45 min. In addition, before and after ischemia, the aqueous extract of U.D (200 mg/ml was added to perfusion solution in the test group (n=14. Different cardiac variables including left ventricular pressure, heart rate and coronary flow were measured and rate pressure product was calculated.Results: Results showed that left ventricular pressure (59.11±4.7 and rate pressure product (13680±1136 in 45th minute of reperfusion in the test group were significantly (P=0.0187 and 0.0321 respectively greater than the control group (39.1±6.0, 9480±1480 respectively. These findings indicated decreased cardiac damage following ischemia in the test group, compared with that of control group.Conclusion: Results of the present study showed that the aqueous extract of U.D, increased the tolerance of isolated rat hearts against ischemic damage. This effect can be explained by potent antioxidant activity of the U.D extract, suggesting its clinical use in ischemic heart disease.

  7. Influence of Heavy Metal Stress on Antioxidant Status and DNA Damage in Urtica dioica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darinka Gjorgieva

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Heavy metals have the potential to interact and induce several stress responses in the plants; thus, effects of heavy metal stress on DNA damages and total antioxidants level in Urtica dioica leaves and stems were investigated. The samples are sampled from areas with different metal exposition. Metal content was analyzed by Inductively Coupled Plasma-Atomic Emission Spectrometer (ICP-AES, for total antioxidants level assessment the Ferric-Reducing Antioxidant Power (FRAP assay was used, and genomic DNA isolation from frozen plant samples was performed to obtain DNA fingerprints of investigated plant. It was found that heavy metal contents in stems generally changed synchronously with those in leaves of the plant, and extraneous metals led to imbalance of mineral nutrient elements. DNA damages were investigated by Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA (RAPD technique, and the results demonstrated that the samples exposed to metals yielded a large number of new fragments (total 12 in comparison with the control sample. This study showed that DNA stability is highly affected by metal pollution which was identified by RAPD markers. Results suggested that heavy metal stress influences antioxidant status and also induces DNA damages in U. dioica which may help to understand the mechanisms of metals genotoxicity.

  8. Influence of heavy metal stress on antioxidant status and DNA damage in Urtica dioica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gjorgieva, Darinka; Kadifkova Panovska, Tatjana; Ruskovska, Tatjana; Bačeva, Katerina; Stafilov, Trajče

    2013-01-01

    Heavy metals have the potential to interact and induce several stress responses in the plants; thus, effects of heavy metal stress on DNA damages and total antioxidants level in Urtica dioica leaves and stems were investigated. The samples are sampled from areas with different metal exposition. Metal content was analyzed by Inductively Coupled Plasma-Atomic Emission Spectrometer (ICP-AES), for total antioxidants level assessment the Ferric-Reducing Antioxidant Power (FRAP) assay was used, and genomic DNA isolation from frozen plant samples was performed to obtain DNA fingerprints of investigated plant. It was found that heavy metal contents in stems generally changed synchronously with those in leaves of the plant, and extraneous metals led to imbalance of mineral nutrient elements. DNA damages were investigated by Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA (RAPD) technique, and the results demonstrated that the samples exposed to metals yielded a large number of new fragments (total 12) in comparison with the control sample. This study showed that DNA stability is highly affected by metal pollution which was identified by RAPD markers. Results suggested that heavy metal stress influences antioxidant status and also induces DNA damages in U. dioica which may help to understand the mechanisms of metals genotoxicity.

  9. Influence of Heavy Metal Stress on Antioxidant Status and DNA Damage in Urtica dioica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kadifkova Panovska, Tatjana; Bačeva, Katerina; Stafilov, Trajče

    2013-01-01

    Heavy metals have the potential to interact and induce several stress responses in the plants; thus, effects of heavy metal stress on DNA damages and total antioxidants level in Urtica dioica leaves and stems were investigated. The samples are sampled from areas with different metal exposition. Metal content was analyzed by Inductively Coupled Plasma-Atomic Emission Spectrometer (ICP-AES), for total antioxidants level assessment the Ferric-Reducing Antioxidant Power (FRAP) assay was used, and genomic DNA isolation from frozen plant samples was performed to obtain DNA fingerprints of investigated plant. It was found that heavy metal contents in stems generally changed synchronously with those in leaves of the plant, and extraneous metals led to imbalance of mineral nutrient elements. DNA damages were investigated by Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA (RAPD) technique, and the results demonstrated that the samples exposed to metals yielded a large number of new fragments (total 12) in comparison with the control sample. This study showed that DNA stability is highly affected by metal pollution which was identified by RAPD markers. Results suggested that heavy metal stress influences antioxidant status and also induces DNA damages in U. dioica which may help to understand the mechanisms of metals genotoxicity. PMID:23862140

  10. Evaluation of alpha- amylase inhibition by Urtica dioica and Juglans regia extracts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahsa Rahimzadeh

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective(s:One strategy for the treatment of diabetes is inhibition of pancreatic α- amylase. Plants contains different chemical constituents with potential for inhibition of α-amylase and hence maybe used as therapeutic. Materials and Methods: Urtica dioica and Juglans regia Linn were tested for α-amylase inhibition. Different concentrations of leaf aqueous extracts were incubated with enzyme substrate solution and the activity of enzyme was measured. For determination of the type of inhibition, Dixon plot was depicted. Acarbose was used as the standard inhibitor. Results: Both plant extracts showed time and concentration dependent inhibition of α-amylase. 60% inhibition was seen with 2 mg/ml of U. dioica and0.4 mg/ml of J. regia aqueous extract. Dixon plots revealed the type of α-amylase inhibition by these two extracts as competitive inhibition. Conclusion: Determination of the type of α-amylase inhibition by these plant extracts could provide by successful use of plant chemicals as drug targets.

  11. Lead uptake, tolerance, and accumulation exhibited by the plants Urtica dioica and Sedum spectabile in contaminated soil without additives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grubor Milena

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Specimens of Urtica dioica and Sedum spectabile collected from plants growing at uncontaminated sites were transplanted in Pb-contaminated soil without additives (EDTA, HEDTA to identify their natural potential for hyper-tolerance and hyperaccumulation of lead. The total content of Pb in the plants was determined by atomic spectroscopy. Our research showed that the concentrated toxic levels of lead (Pb in Sedum spectabile and Urtica dioica were about 100 or more times higher than those of non-accumulator plants. It can be concluded that these plants have a high natural potential for hypertolerance and hyperaccumulation of lead, since they can hyperaccumulate it without addition of any chelating compounds (EDTA, HEDTA to enhance lead uptake. This makes them very promising plants for use in phytoremediation of Pb-contaminated sites.

  12. Effect of Urtica Dioica Decoction on Serum Glucose and Lipid Profile in Stereptozotocin Induced Diabetic Male Rats

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    Mohammad Reza Sahraki

    Full Text Available Background: Since Urtica dioica is a traditional treatment plant and is used for antihypertensive, antilipidemic and antidiabetic agents, this survey was carried out to evaluate the effect of Urtica dioica decoction on serum glucose and lipid profile in diabetic male rats induced by stereptozotocin (STZ. Materials and Methods: This experiment was performed on 30 Wistar-Albino male rats, weighing 200-250 g, which were divided in sham control (A, diabetic control (B and diabetic test groups (C randomly (N=10. Type I diabetes was induced by single intraperitoneal injection of STZ (65 mg/kg. Test group received 0.40-0.60 ml of Urtica dioica decoction for a month by gavages, control group (B received the same volume of distill water. Group (A did not receive any agent during the experiment period. Finally, animals were anesthetized, sacrificed and blood samples were collected from the cervical vein. Then, serum glucose and lipid profiles were measured by ordinary methods. Data were analyzed by SPSS-11, using ANOVA and post hoc Tukey tests. Results were expressed as mean±SD, and statistical difference was considered significant by p<0.05.Results: Results in the present study showed that fasting blood glucose (FBS, total cholesterol (TCho, triglyceride (TG, LDL, food and water intake were significantly decreased in group C compared with those of group B, but body weight gain was significantly increased compared with that of control group (B.Conclusion: These results indicated that Urtica dioica decoction caused decreased FBS and improved serum lipids in diabetic male rats. Some more studies have shown the same mechanism.

  13. Effect of Urtica dioica Leaf Alcoholic and Aqueous Extracts on the Number and the Diameter of the Islets in Diabetic Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qujeq, Durdi; Tatar, Mohsen; Feizi, Farideh; Parsian, Hadi; Sohan Faraji, Alieh; Halalkhor, Sohrab

    2013-01-01

    Urtica dioica has been known as a plant that decreases blood glucose. Despite the importance of this plant in herbal medicine, relatively little research has been down on effects of this plant on islets yet. The objective of the current study was to evaluate the effect of dried Urtica dioica leaf alcoholic and aqueous extracts on the number and the diameter of the islets and histological parameters in streptozocin-induced diabetic rats. Six rats were used in each group. Group I: Normal rats were administered saline daily for 8 weeks. Group II: Diabetic rats were administered streptozotocin, 50 mg/kg of body weight; Group III: Diabetic rats were administered dried Urtica dioica leaf aqueous extracts for 8 weeks; Group IV: Diabetic rats were administered dried Urtica dioica leaf alcoholic extracts for 8 weeks. The animals, groups of diabetic and normal, were sacrificed by ether anaesthesia. Whole pancreas was dissected. The tissue samples were formalin fixed and paraffin embedded for microscopic examination. Histologic examination and grading were carried out on hematoxylin-eosin stained sections. The effects of administration of dried Urtica dioica leaf alcoholic and aqueous extracts to diabetic rats were determined by histopathologic examination. The pancreas from control rats showed normal pancreatic islets histoarchitecture. Our results also, indicate that the pancreas from diabetic rats show injury of pancreas tissue while the pancreas from diabetic rats treated with dried Urtica dioica leaf alcoholic and aqueous extracts show slight to moderate rearrangement of islets. According to our findings, dried Urtica dioica leaf alcoholic and aqueous extracts can cause a suitable repair of pancreatic tissue in streptozocin-induced diabetic experimental model.

  14. Antidiabetic Effect of Hydroalcholic Urtica dioica Leaf Extract in Male Rats with Fructose-Induced Insulin Resistance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akram Ahangarpour

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Urtica dioica has been used as antihypertensive, antihyperlipidemic and antidiabetic herbal medicine. The purpose of this study was to study the effect of hydroalcoholic extract of Urtica dioica on fructose-induced insulin resistance rats. Methods: Forty male Wistar rats were randomly divided into five groups including control, fructose, extract 50, extract 100 and extract 200. The control rat received vehicle, the fructose and extract groups received fructose 10% for eight weeks. The extract groups received single daily injection of vehicle, 50, 100 or 200 mg/kg/day for the two weeks. Blood glucose, insulin, last fasting insulin resistance index (FIRI, serum triglyceride (TG, low-density lipoprotein (LDL, very low-density lipoprotein (VLDL, high-density lipoprotein (HDL, alanin trasaminase (AST and alkaline phosphatase (ALP, leptin and LDL/HDL ratio were determined.Results: Compared to control group, daily administration of fructose was associated with significant increase in FIRI, blood glucose and insulin, significant decrease in lepin, and no significant change in TG, HDL, LDL, LDL/HDL ratio, VLDL, ALT, and ALP. The extract significantly decreased serum glucose, insulin, LDL and leptin, and LDL/HDL ratio and FIRI. It also significantly increased serum TG, VLDL, and AST, but did not change serum ALP.Conclusion: We suggest that Urtica dioica extract, by decreasing serum glucose, and FIRI, may be useful to improve type 2 diabetes mellitus. Also, by positive effect on lipid profile and by decreasing effect on leptin, it may improve metabolic syndrome.

  15. The protective activity of Urtica dioica leaves on blood glucose concentration and beta-cells in streptozotocin-diabetic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golalipour, Mohammad Jafar; Khori, Vahid

    2007-04-15

    This study was done to determine the protective activity of the hydroalcholic extract of Urtica dioica leaves on Hyperglycemia and beta-cells in hyperglycemic rats. Thirty Wistar rats were allocated in groups of normal, Diabetic and treatment. Hyperglycemia in Rats induced by 80 mg kg(-1) streptozotocin. In treatment group, animals received hydroalcholic extract of Urtica dioica 100 mg kg(-1) day(-1) for five days, intraperitoneally and then hyperglycemia induced by streptozotocin. The blood glucose concentration was measured by using a Glucometer in 1st, 3rd and 5th weeks. In the end of 5th weeks the animals in each group were sacrificed by anesthesia and whole pancreas in three groups extracted and fixed in bouin's fluid and stained by chromealum hematoxiline-phloxine and beta cells were counted in three groups by Olympus microscope. Mean +/- SE of blood glucose concentrations in the end of fifth weeks were 99.4 +/-5.0, 454.7 +/- 34.5 and 303.6 +/- 100.6 in control, diabetic and treatment groups, respectively (p Urtica dioica has hypoglycemic effect and protective activity of beta-cells of langerhans in hyperglycemic rats.

  16. Antidiabetic Effect of Hydroalcholic Urtica dioica Leaf Extract in Male Rats with Fructose-Induced Insulin Resistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahangarpour, Akram; Mohammadian, Maryam; Dianat, Mahin

    2012-01-01

    Background: Urtica dioica has been used as antihypertensive, antihyperlipidemic and antidiabetic herbal medicine. The purpose of this study was to study the effect of hydroalcoholic extract of Urtica dioica on fructose-induced insulin resistance rats. Methods: Forty male Wistar rats were randomly divided into five groups including control, fructose, extract 50, extract 100 and extract 200. The control rat received vehicle, the fructose and extract groups received fructose 10% for eight weeks. The extract groups received single daily injection of vehicle, 50, 100 or 200 mg/kg/day for the two weeks. Blood glucose, insulin, last fasting insulin resistance index (FIRI), serum triglyceride (TG), low-density lipoprotein (LDL), very low-density lipoprotein (VLDL), high-density lipoprotein (HDL), alanin trasaminase (AST) and alkaline phosphatase (ALP), leptin and LDL/HDL ratio were determined. Results: Compared to control group, daily administration of fructose was associated with significant increase in FIRI, blood glucose and insulin, significant decrease in lepin, and no significant change in TG, HDL, LDL, LDL/HDL ratio, VLDL, ALT, and ALP. The extract significantly decreased serum glucose, insulin, LDL and leptin, and LDL/HDL ratio and FIRI. It also significantly increased serum TG, VLDL, and AST, but did not change serum ALP. Conclusion: We suggest that Urtica dioica extract, by decreasing serum glucose, and FIRI, may be useful to improve type 2 diabetes mellitus. Also, by positive effect on lipid profile and by decreasing effect on leptin, it may improve metabolic syndrome. PMID:23115450

  17. Protective effect of Urtica dioica L against nicotine-induced damage on sperm parameters, testosterone and testis tissue in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jalili, Cyrus; Salahshoor, Mohammad Reza; Naseri, Ali

    2014-06-01

    Nicotine consumption can decrease fertility drive in males by inducing oxidative stress and DNA damage. Urtica dioica L (U.dioica) is a multipurpose herb in traditional medicine for which some anti-oxidative and anti-inflammatory properties have been identified. The main goal is to investigate whether the U.dioica could inhibit nicotine adverse effects on sperm cells viability, count, motility, and testis histology and testosterone hormone. In this study, hydro-alcoholic extract of U.dioica was prepared and various doses of U.dioica (0, 10, 20, and 50 mg/kg) and U.dioica plus nicotine (0, 10, 20, and 50 mg/kg) were administered intraperitoneally to 56 male mice for 28 consequent days. These mice were randomly assigned to 8 groups (n=7) and sperm parameters (sperm cells viability, count, motility, and morphology), testis and prostate weight, testis histology and testosterone hormone were analyzed and compared. The results indicated that nicotine administration (0.5 mg/kg) significantly decreased testosterone level, count and motility of sperm cells, and testis weight compared to control group (p=0.00). However, increasing the dose of U.dioica significantly boosted motility, count, normal morphology of sperm cells, seminiferous tubules diameter, and testosterone in all groups compared to control (p=0.00) and testis weight in 20 and 50 mg/kg doses in comparison with control group (p=0.00). It seems that U.dioica hydro-alcoholic extract administration could increase the quality of spermatozoa and inhibits nicotine-induced adverse effects on sperm parameters.

  18. [Associating Serenoa repens, Urtica dioica and Pinus pinaster. Safety and efficacy in the treatment of lower urinary tract symptoms. Prospective study on 320 patients].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavone, C; Abbadessa, D; Tarantino, M L; Oxenius, I; Laganà, A; Lupo, A; Rinella, M

    2010-01-01

    Serenoa repens (saw palmetto) has been employed for the treatment of lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) for several years. Its mechanism of action is believed to be due to antiandrogenic, antiproliferative and antinflammatory properties. An association of Serenoa with the nettle "Urtica dioica" showing antiproliferative activity and the pine "Pinus pinaster" derivative, showing antinflammatory action, has been proposed in recent years. Such an action is hoped to act not only by reducing LUTS but also by preventing the development of prostate cancer. During the years 2007 and 2008, 320 patients suffering from LUTS were treated with an association of Serenoa repens 320 mg, Urtica dioica 120 mg and Pinus pinaster 5 mg, named IPBTRE. This treatment was administered to all patients for a minimal duration of 30 days to a maximum of a year, either alone or in association with antibiotics or alpha-blockers, if needed. Outcome analysis was based on evaluation of symptoms, prostate volume and maximum flow rate (Qmax). From a careful analysis of the data collected in our database, the following observations can be made: ages varied between 19 and 78 years. The patients were affected by BPH in 46% of cases, chronic prostatitis syndrome in 43%, chronic genital-pelvic pain in 7% and other conditions in 4%, the absolute numbers being 147, 138, 22 and 7 patients, respectively. No untoward side effect was reported in any case. Variations in symptom score could be fully evaluated only in 80 of 320 patients (25%), of whom 68 (85%) reported a significant benefit, with special reference to an improvement of pain, urgency, strangury and nocturia. Data on variations in prostate volume, as measured by digital rectal examination, were available in 84 (26.5%) patients. No significant change was observed. Qmax after treatment was measured in 83 (26%) patients. It did not show significant changes from the initial values. The association tested in our study appeared to be safe and well

  19. Protective effect of Urtica dioica on liver damage induced by biliary obstruction in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oguz, Serhat; Kanter, Mehmet; Erboga, Mustafa; Ibis, Cem

    2013-10-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the possible protective effects of Urtica dioica (UD) against liver damage in the common bile duct-ligated rats. A total of 24 male Sprague Dawley rats were divided into three groups, namely, control, bile duct ligation (BDL) and BDL + received UD groups, containing eight animals in each group. The rats in UD-treated groups were given UD oils (2 ml/kg) once a day intraperitoneally for 2 weeks starting 3 days prior to BDL operation. The change demonstrating the bile duct proliferation and fibrosis in expanded portal tracts includes the extension of proliferated bile ducts into the lobules; inflammatory cell infiltration into the widened portal areas were observed in BDL group. Treatment of BDL with UD attenuated alterations in liver histology. The α-smooth muscle actin, cytokeratin-positive ductular proliferation and the activity of terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end labeling in the BDL were observed to be reduced with the UD treatment. The data indicate that UD attenuates BDL-induced cholestatic liver injury, bile duct proliferation and fibrosis.

  20. Urtica dioica leaves modulates muscarinic cholinergic system in the hippocampus of streptozotocin-induced diabetic mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Sita Sharan; Parashar, Arun; Udayabanu, Malairaman

    2015-06-01

    Diabetes mellitus is a chronic metabolic disorder and has been associated with cognitive dysfunction. In our earlier study, chronic Urtica dioica (UD) treatment significantly ameliorated diabetes induced associative and spatial memory deficit in mice. The present study was designed to explore the effect of UD leaves extract on muscarinic cholinergic system, which has long been known to be involved in cognition. Streptozotocin (STZ) (50 mg/kg, i.p., consecutively for 5 days) was used to induce diabetes followed by treatment with UD extract (50 mg/kg, oral) or rosiglitazone (5 mg/kg, oral) for 8 weeks. STZ-induced diabetic mice showed significant reduction in hippocampal muscarinic acetylcholine receptor-1 and choline acetyltransferase expressions. Chronic diabetes significantly up-regulated the protein expression of acetylcholinesterase associated with oxidative stress in hippocampus. Besides, STZ-induced diabetic mice showed hypolocomotion with up-regulation of muscarinic acetylcholine receptor-4 expression in striatum. Chronic UD treatment significantly attenuated the cholinergic dysfunction and oxidative stress in the hippocampus of diabetic mice. UD had no effect on locomotor activity and muscarinic acetylcholine receptor-4 expression in striatum. In conclusion, UD leaves extract has potential to reverse diabetes mediated alteration in muscarinic cholinergic system in hippocampus and thereby improve memory functions.

  1. Antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory effects of Urtica dioica leaf extract in animal models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valiollah Hajhashemi

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: This study was aimed to examine the antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory effects of Urtica dioica leaf extract in animal models. Materials and Methods: Hydroalcoholic extract of the plant leaves was prepared by percolation method. Male Swiss mice (25-35 g and male Wistar rats (180-200 g were randomly distributed in control, standard drug, and three experimental groups (n=6 in each group. Acetic acid-induced writhing, formalin test, and carrageenan-induced paw edema were used to assess the antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory effects. Results: The extract dose-dependently reduced acetic acid-induced abdominal twitches. In formalin test, the extract at any of applied doses (100, 200, and 400 mg/kg could not suppress the licking behavior of first phase while doses of 200 and 400 mg/kg significantly inhibited the second phase of formalin test. In carrageenan test, the extract at a dose of 400 mg/kg significantly inhibited the paw edema by 26%. Conclusion: The results confirm the folkloric use of the plant extract in painful and inflammatory conditions. Further studies are needed to characterize the active constituents and the mechanism of action of the plant extract.  

  2. Effects of Urtica dioica on oxidative stress, proliferation and apoptosis after partial hepatectomy in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oguz, Serhat; Kanter, Mehmet; Erboga, Mustafa; Toydemir, Toygar; Sayhan, Mustafa Burak; Onur, Hatice

    2015-05-01

    The present study was performed to investigate the effect of Urtica dioica (UD) on liver regeneration after partial hepatectomy (PH) in rats. A total of 24 male Sprague Dawley rats were divided into three groups: sham-operated, PH and PH + UD; each group contains eight animals. The rats in UD-treated groups were given UD oils (2 ml/kg/day) once a day orally for 7 days starting 3 days prior to hepatectomy operation. At day 7 after resection, liver samples were collected. The levels of malondialdehyde (MDA), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione (GSH) were estimated in liver homogenates. Moreover, histopathological examination, mitotic index (MI), proliferating cell nuclear antigen labeling, proliferation index (PI), transferase-mediated deoxyuridine triphosphate nick end-labeling assay, apoptotic index (AI) were evaluated at day 7 after hepatectomy. As a result, UD significantly increased MI and PI, significantly decreased AI and also attenuated hepatic vacuolar degeneration and sinusoidal congestion in PH rats. UD treatment significantly decreased the elevated tissue MDA level and increased the reduced SOD activity and GSH level in the tissues. These results suggest that UD pretreatment was beneficial for rat liver regeneration after partial hepatectomy. © The Author(s) 2013.

  3. Antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory effects of Urtica dioica leaf extract in animal models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hajhashemi, Valiollah; Klooshani, Vahid

    2013-01-01

    This study was aimed to examine the antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory effects of Urtica dioica leaf extract in animal models. Hydroalcoholic extract of the plant leaves was prepared by percolation method. Male Swiss mice (25-35 g) and male Wistar rats (180-200 g) were randomly distributed in control, standard drug, and three experimental groups (n=6 in each group). Acetic acid-induced writhing, formalin test, and carrageenan-induced paw edema were used to assess the antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory effects. The extract dose-dependently reduced acetic acid-induced abdominal twitches. In formalin test, the extract at any of applied doses (100, 200, and 400 mg/kg) could not suppress the licking behavior of first phase while doses of 200 and 400 mg/kg significantly inhibited the second phase of formalin test. In carrageenan test, the extract at a dose of 400 mg/kg significantly inhibited the paw edema by 26%. The results confirm the folkloric use of the plant extract in painful and inflammatory conditions. Further studies are needed to characterize the active constituents and the mechanism of action of the plant extract.

  4. Protective effects of Urtica dioica L. on experimental testicular ischaemia reperfusion injury in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aktas, C; Erboga, M; Fidanol Erboga, Z; Bozdemir Donmez, Y; Topcu, B; Gurel, A

    2017-05-01

    In this study, it was aimed to examine the effects of Urtica dioica L. (UD) that has antioxidant feature in the experimental testicular I/R model in rats in terms of anti-apoptotic and antioxidative effects. In our study, 24 male rats were divided into three groups: control group, I/R group and I/R + UD (2 mg kg(-1) ) group. Seminiferous tubule calibre measurement, Johnson score, haematoxylin-eosin staining, proliferative cell nucleus antigen (PCNA) immunohistochemical staining and TUNEL as histopathological have been conducted. The structural deterioration in the testicular on I/R group has reduced after the treatment of UD. Our data indicate a significant reduction in the activity of in situ identification of apoptosis using terminal dUTP nick end labelling (TUNEL), and there was a rise in the expression of proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) in testis tissues of UD-treated rats in the I/R group. The I/R + UD group showed a decrease in malondialdehyde levels and an increase in the activities of superoxide dismutase, catalase and glutathione peroxidase in comparison with the I/R group. It could be concluded that protective effects of UD on the I/R testicles are via reduction of histological damage, apoptosis, oxidative stress and lipid peroxidation. © 2016 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  5. Effects of urtica dioica extract on experimental acute pancreatitis model in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yilmaz, Baris; Basar, Omer; Aktas, Bora; Altinbas, Akif; Ekiz, Fuat; Büyükcam, Fatih; Albayrak, Aynur; Ginis, Zeynep; Oztürk, Gülfer; Coban, Sahin; Ucar, Engin; Kaya, Oskay; Yüksel, Osman; Caner, Sedat; Delibasi, Tuncay

    2014-01-01

    Acute pancreatitis is the acute inflammation of pancreas and peripancreatic tissues, and distant organs are also affected. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of Urtica dioica extract (UDE) treatment on cerulein induced acute pancreatitis in rats. Twenty-one Wistar Albino rats were divided into three groups: Control, Pancreatitis, and UDE treatment group. In the control group no procedures were performed. In the pancreatitis and treatment groups, pancreatitis was induced with intraperitoneal injection of cerulein, followed by intraperitoneal injection of 1 ml saline (pancreatitis group) and 1 ml 5.2% UDE (treatment group). Pancreatic tissues were examined histopathologically. Pro-inflammatory cytokines (tumor necrosis factor-α), amylase and markers of apoptosis (M30, M65) were also measured in blood samples. Immunohistochemical staining was performed with Caspase-3 antibody. Histopathological findings in the UDE treatment group were less severe than in the pancreatitis group (5.7 vs 11.7, p = 0.010). TNF-α levels were not statistically different between treated and control groups (63.3 vs. 57.2, p = 0.141). UDE treatment was associated with less apoptosis [determined by M30, caspase-3 index (%)], (1.769 vs. 0.288, p = 0.056; 3% vs. 2.2%, p = 0.224; respectively). UDE treatment of pancreatitis merits further study.

  6. Effect of Urtica dioica on memory dysfunction and hypoalgesia in an experimental model of diabetic neuropathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Sita Sharan; Udayabanu, M

    2013-09-27

    Diabetic neuropathy is considered as a disease of the peripheral nervous system, but recent evidences suggest the involvement of central nervous system as well. In this study we evaluated the effect of Urtica dioica (UD) extract against memory dysfunction and hypoalgesia on a mouse model of streptozotocin (STZ) induced diabetic neuropathy. STZ (50 mg/kg, i.p. consecutively for 5 days) was used to induce diabetes, followed by treatment with the UD extract (50 mg/kg, oral) and rosiglitazone (5 mg/kg, oral) for 8 weeks. Cognitive functions were evaluated using Morris water maze and passive avoidance step through task. Pain thresholds were measured using thermal, mechanical and chemical induced hyperalgesia. We observed that chronic diabetes resulted in a decline in circulating insulin level, elevated blood glucose, reduced body weight, increased water intake, cognitive impairment and hypoalgesia. UD significantly reduced the blood glucose and polydypsia, as well as improved the body weight, insulin level, cognition and insensate neuropathy. In conclusion, UD showed results comparable to rosiglitazone in reversing the long standing diabetes induced complications such as central and peripheral neuronal dysfunction. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory effects of Urtica dioica leaf extract in animal models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hajhashemi, Valiollah; Klooshani, Vahid

    2013-01-01

    Objective: This study was aimed to examine the antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory effects of Urtica dioica leaf extract in animal models. Materials and Methods: Hydroalcoholic extract of the plant leaves was prepared by percolation method. Male Swiss mice (25-35 g) and male Wistar rats (180-200 g) were randomly distributed in control, standard drug, and three experimental groups (n=6 in each group). Acetic acid-induced writhing, formalin test, and carrageenan-induced paw edema were used to assess the antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory effects. Results: The extract dose-dependently reduced acetic acid-induced abdominal twitches. In formalin test, the extract at any of applied doses (100, 200, and 400 mg/kg) could not suppress the licking behavior of first phase while doses of 200 and 400 mg/kg significantly inhibited the second phase of formalin test. In carrageenan test, the extract at a dose of 400 mg/kg significantly inhibited the paw edema by 26%. Conclusion: The results confirm the folkloric use of the plant extract in painful and inflammatory conditions. Further studies are needed to characterize the active constituents and the mechanism of action of the plant extract. PMID:25050274

  8. Effect of Urtica dioica Leaf Alcoholic and Aqueous Extracts on the Number and the Diameter of the Islets in Diabetic Rats

    OpenAIRE

    Qujeq, Durdi; Tatar, Mohsen; Feizi, Farideh; Parsian, Hadi; Sohan Faraji, Alieh; Halalkhor, Sohrab

    2013-01-01

    Urtica dioica has been known as a plant that decreases blood glucose. Despite the importance of this plant in herbal medicine, relatively little research has been down on effects of this plant on islets yet. The objective of the current study was to evaluate the effect of dried Urtica dioica leaf alcoholic and aqueous extracts on the number and the diameter of the islets and histological parameters in streptozocin-induced diabetic rats. Six rats were used in each group. Group I: Normal rats w...

  9. The Effects of Rumex patientia L. and Urtica dioica L. on Some Blood and Urine Parameters, and Liver and Kidney Histology in Diabetic Rats

    OpenAIRE

    GÜNEŞ, Hasan V.

    1999-01-01

    The effects of Rumex patientia and Urtica dioica on levels of blood glucose, plasma amino acids and other parameters, urine excreta, and liver and kidney histology were examined in diabetic rats induced by streptozotocin. Streptozotocin increased blood glucose and changed the levels of amino acids and other parameters, and caused degenerative changes in the liver and kidney. Rumex patientia had some protective effect on these parameters changed by streptozotocin, while Urtica dioci...

  10. Characterization of silver nanoparticles synthesized using Urtica dioica Linn. leaves and their synergistic effects with antibiotics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kumari Jyoti

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available In continuation of the efforts for synthesizing silver nanoparticles (AgNPs by green chemistry route, here we report a facile bottom-up ‘green’ route for the synthesis of AgNPs using aqueous leaves extract of Urtica dioica (Linn.. The synthesized AgNPs were characterized by UV-vis spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction (XRD, Fourier transform-infrared spectroscopy (FTIR, Zeta-sizer and Zeta-potential, Scanning electron microscopy (SEM, Energy dispersive X-ray (EDX spectroscopy, Transmission electron microscopy (TEM and Selected area electron diffraction (SAED. The results obtained from various characterizations revealed that AgNPs were in the size range of 20–30 nm and crystallized in face-centered-cubic structure. The antibacterial activity against Gram-positive (Bacillus cereus, Bacillus subtilis, Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus epidermidis and Gram-negative (Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Serratia marcescens and Salmonella typhimurium bacterial pathogens was demonstrated by synthesized nanoparticles. Further, synergistic effects of AgNPs with various antibiotics were evaluated against above mentioned bacterial pathogens. The results showed that AgNPs in combination with antibiotics have better antibacterial effect as compared with AgNPs alone and hence can be used in the treatment of infectious diseases caused by bacteria. The maximum effect, with a 17.8 fold increase in inhibition zone, was observed for amoxicillin with AgNPs against S. marcescens proving the synergistic role of AgNPs. Therefore, it may be used to augment the activities of antibiotics.

  11. Protective effects of Urtica dioica seed extract in aflatoxicosis: histopathological and biochemical findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uyar, A; Yener, Z; Dogan, A

    2016-04-01

    The ameliorative potential and antioxidant capacity of an extract of Urtica dioica seeds (UDS) was investigated using histopathological changes in liver and kidney, measuring serum marker enzymes, antioxidant defence systems and lipid peroxidation (malondialdehyde (MDA)) content in various tissues of broilers exposed to aflatoxin (AF). A total of 32 broilers were divided randomly into 4 groups: control, UDS extract-treated, AF-treated and AF+UDS extract-treated. Broilers in control and UDS extract-treated groups were fed on a diet without AF. The AF-treated group and AF+UDS extract-treated groups were treated with an estimated 1 mg total AF/kg feed. The AF+UDS extract groups received in addition 30 ml UDS extract/kg diet for 21 d. The AF-treated group had significantly decreased body weight gain when compared to the other groups. Biochemical analysis showed a small increase in the concentrations of serum aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, gamma glutamyl transpeptidase and lactate dehydrogenase in the AF-treated group compared to that of the control group, whereas concentrations of these enzymes were decreased in the AF+UDS group compared to that of the AF-treated group. Administration of supplementary UDS extract helped restore the AF-induced increase in MDA and reduced the antioxidant system towards normality, particularly in the liver, brain, kidney and heart. Hepatorenal protection by UDS extracts was further supported by the almost normal histology in AF+UDS extract-treated group as compared to the degenerative changes in the AF-treated broilers. It was concluded that UDS extract has a protective hepatorenal effect in broilers affected by aflatoxicosis, probably acting by promoting the antioxidative defence systems.

  12. RAPD-PCR and real-time PCR HRM based genetic variation evaluations of Urtica dioica parts, ecotypes and evaluations of morphotypes in Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uzonur, Irem; Akdeniz, Gamze; Katmer, Zeynep; Ersoy, Seyda Karaman

    2013-01-01

    Urtica dioica is an ethnobotanically and medicinally important Complementary and Alternative Medicine (CAM) plant worldwide and in Turkey; 90 % of herbal CAM applications depend on it in Turkey. It has a wide range of habitats in nearly all continents. It is found in all three phytogeographical regions in Turkey (Euro-Siberian, Irano-Turanian, Mediterranean) with high adaptivity to heterogeneous geographies such as climate, soil types and altitudes. This fact in relation to the assessment of chemical constituents of the plant and combining with further genetic and morphological variation data can assist and enhance the works for the utility and reliability of CAM applications in effect and activity of this plant species. In this work we have made some preliminary experiments with novel approaches to reveal the ecotypes and genetic variation of mighty ecotypes of Urtica dioica from different phytogeographical regions of Turkey (Euro-Siberian and Mediterranean). The ecotypes have heterogeneity in both its parts (leaf, stem, root) as revealed by Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA-Polymerase Chain Reaction (RAPD-PCR) using random primers and High-resolution Melt (HRM) analysis using Urtica dioica specific primers and universal chloroplast DNA (cpDNA) primers and morphological traits such as phenolic contents and antioxidant capacities of plants' leaf infusions as used in medicinal applications in Turkey. This work will contribute a lot for the development of molecular markers to detect the genetic variation and heterogeneity of Urtica dioica to further relate with expected phenotypes that are most useful and relevant in CAM applications.

  13. Effects of Urtica dioica dichloromethane extract on cell apoptosis and related gene expression in human breast cancer cell line (MDA-MB-468).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammadi, A; Mansoori, B; Goldar, S; Shanehbandi, D; Khaze, V; Mohammadnejad, L; Baghbani, E; Baradaran, B

    2016-02-29

    Breast cancer is the most common cancer among women in worldwide, especially in developing countries. Therefore, a large number of anticancer agents with herbal origins have been reported against this deadly disease. This study is the first to examine the cytotoxic and apoptotic effects of Urtica dioica in MDA-MB-468, human breast adenocarcinoma cells. The 3-(4,5-dimethylethiazol-2 yl)-2,5- diphenyltetrazolium (MTT) reduction and trypan-blue exclusion assay were performed in MDA-MB-468 cells as well as control cell line L929 to analyze the cytotoxic activity of the dichloromethane extract. In addition, Apoptosis induction of Urtica dioica on the MDA-MB-468 cells was assessed using TUNEL (terminal deoxy transferase (TdT)-mediated dUTP nick- end labeling) assay and DNA fragmentation analysis and real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR). The results showed that the extract significantly inhibited cell growth and viability without inducing damage to normal control cells. Nuclei Staining in TUNEL and DNA fragments in DNA fragmentation assay and increase in the mRNA expression levels of caspase-3, caspase-9, decrease in the bcl2 and no significant change in the caspase-8 mRNA expression level, showed that the induction of apoptosis was the main mechanism of cell death that induce by Urtica dioica extract. Our results suggest that urtica dioica dichloromethane extract may contain potential bioactive compound(s) for the treatment of breast adenocarcinoma.

  14. Glycemic Control by Exercise and Urtica Dioica Supplements in Men With Type 2 Diabetes

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    Dabagh

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background Type 2 diabetes is a metabolic disease in which hyperglycemia is a major symptom, and is associated with numerous vascular and non-vascular complications. People with diabetes use medicinal treatment to exert glycemic control, as well as exercise training and herbal remedies, such as urtica dioica (UD. Objectives This study aimed to compare the effects of 8 weeks of aerobic training and UD supplementation alone, and in combination, on glycemic control in men with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM. Patients and Methods This semi-experimental study was conducted in 2014, in the city of Dezful, Iran. A total of 40 males (aged 30 - 50 years with T2DM were selected and randomly divided into one of four groups in equal numbers (n = 10: 1 - aerobic training (Ae, 2 - UD supplements (UD, 3 - a combination of aerobic training and UD supplements (Ae + UD, and 4 - a control group. Blood samples were taken 24 hours before and 48 hours after the intervention period, following 10 - 12 hours of fasting. A t-test and analysis of variance was used to analyze the changes in the measured parameters, and P ≤ 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results A significant decrease in fasting blood sugar (FBS was observed in the Ae group (-9.50 ± 6.96 mg/dl; P = 0.002, the UD group (-7.60 ± 6.04 mg/dL; P = 0.001, and the Ae + UD group (-18.30 ± 6.63 mg/dL; P < 0.001 after 8 weeks. There was a significant difference in FBS between the three intervention groups and the control group. In addition, a significant difference in FBS (P < 0.05 was shown between the UD and Ae + UD groups. Conclusions The findings confirmed the positive influence of UD supplements and aerobic training on glycemic control in males with T2DM. When aerobic training was combined with a UD supplement, a greater degree of glycemic control was observed.

  15. Protective effect of Urtica dioica L. on renal ischemia/reperfusion injury in rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sayhan, Mustafa Burak; Kanter, Mehmet; Oguz, Serhat; Erboga, Mustafa

    2012-12-01

    Renal ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) injury may occur after renal transplantation, thoracoabdominal aortic surgery, and renal artery interventions. This study was designed to investigate the effect of Urtica dioica L. (UD), in I/R induced renal injury. A total of 32 male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into four groups: control, UD alone, I/R and I/R + UD; each group contain 8 animals. A rat model of renal I/R injury was induced by 45-min occlusion of the bilateral renal pedicles and 24-h reperfusion. In the UD group, 3 days before I/R, UD (2 ml/kg/day intraperitoneal) was administered by gastric gavage. All animals were sacrificed at the end of reperfusion and kidney tissues samples were obtained for histopathological investigation in all groups. To date, no more histopathological changes on intestinal I/R injury in rats by UD treatment have been reported. Renal I/R caused severe histopathological injury including tubular damage, atrophy dilatation, loss of brush border and hydropic epithelial cell degenerations, renal corpuscle atrophy, glomerular shrinkage, markedly focal mononuclear cell infiltrations in the kidney. UD treatment significantly attenuated the severity of intestinal I/R injury and significantly lowered tubulointerstitial damage score than the I/R group. The number of PCNA and TUNEL positive cells in the control and UD alone groups was negligible. When kidney sections were PCNA and TUNEL stained, there was a clear increase in the number of positive cells in the I/R group rats in the renal cortical tissues. However, there is a significant reduction in the activity of PCNA and TUNEL in kidney tissue of renal injury induced by renal I/R with UD therapy. Our results suggest that administration of UD attenuates renal I/R injury. These results suggest that UD treatment has a protective effect against renal damage induced by renal I/R. This protective effect is possibly due to its ability to inhibit I/R induced renal damage, apoptosis and cell proliferation.

  16. Effects of Urtica dioica and Hibiscus sabdariffa on the quality and safety of sucuk (Turkish dry-fermented sausage).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karabacak, Seçil; Bozkurt, Hüseyin

    2008-03-01

    In this study, the effect of Urtica dioica, Hibiscus sabdariffa butylatedhydroxytoluene (BHT) and nitrite/nitrate on the quality (pH, Hunter L-, a- and b-value and sensory attributes) and safety [2-thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) value and biogenic amine] were investigated during the ripening periods of sucuk (Turkish dry-fermented sausage). During the first 2 days of ripening, pH values decreased (Pdioica, H. sabdariffa. TBARS values increased from 0.52 to about 0.95mg/kg significantly (Pdioica was more effective (P0.05) from ripening time and addition of antioxidants into batter. The Hunter a-value increased (P<0.05) during the ripening periods, however, b-values decreased (P<0.05) from 12.58 to about 10.53. Overall sensory quality evaluated from color, flavor and ease of cutting scores increased (P<0.05) from 3.25 to about 9.00.

  17. Effects of water extract of Urtica dioica L. and modified atmosphere packaging on the shelf life of ground beef.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alp, Esen; Aksu, Muhammet Irfan

    2010-10-01

    Effects of lyophilized Urtica dioica L. water extract (LUWE) and modified atmosphere packaging (MAP) on the quality and shelf life of ground beef were investigated. Ground beef was stored as aerobic control, MAP (80%O(2)+20% CO(2)), MAP+250 ppm LUWE and MAP and 500 ppm LUWE at 2+/-0.5 degrees C for 14 days. MAP and LUWE had significant effects on mesophilic, psychrotrophic and lactic acid bacteria and Pseudomonas counts. Depending on the level of LUWE, Pseudomonas and psychrotrophic counts decreased. Treatment with 500 ppm LUWE+MAP showed the lowest TBARS values compared to other groups during storage. 80% O(2)-MAP increased TBARS values. Treatment had no significant effect on L* and b* values of the exterior of the ground beef, but had significant effects on the color of interior sections. Copyright (c) 2010 The American Meat Science Association. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Antiviral activity in vitro of Urtica dioica L., Parietaria diffusa M. et K. and Sambucus nigra L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uncini Manganelli, R E; Zaccaro, L; Tomei, P E

    2005-04-26

    Parietaria diffusa M. et K., Urtica dioica L. (Urticaceae) and Sambucus nigra L. (Caprifoliaceae) are plants usually used in popular medicine of central Italy for treating numerous diseases, first of all Herpes zoster. Several plant products have been described as potential antiviral agents, with special attention being devoted to those having retroviruses as etiological agents, including acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS), in which a retrovirus, the designated human immunodeficiency virus HIV, has been clearly identified as the primary cause of this disease. The present study proposes a preliminary screening of the antiviral activity of Parietaria diffusa, Sambucus nigra and Urtica dioica preparation against the feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) infection. The feline immunodeficiency virus is a widespread lentivirus of domestic cats sharing numerous biological and pathogenic features with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). FIV infection in cats has therefore been proposed as an animal model for AIDS studies with respect to pathogenesis, chemotherapy, and vaccine development [Pedersen, N.C., 1993. Feline immunodeficiency virus infection. In: Levy, J.A. (Ed.), The Retroviridae. Plenum Press, New York; Bendinelli, M., Pistello, M., Lombardi, S., Poli, A., Garzelli, C., Matteucci, D., Ceccherini-Nelli, L., Malvaldi, G., Tozzini, F., 1995. Feline immunodeficiency virus: an interesting model for AIDS studies and an important cat pathogen. Clinical Microbiology Revue 8, 87-112; North, T.W., LaCasse, R.A., 1995. Testing anti-HIV drugs in the FIV model. Nature Medicine 1, 410-411; Matteucci, D., Pistello, M., Mazzetti, P., Giannechini, S., Isola, P., Merico, A., Zaccaro, L., Rizzati, A., Bendinelli, M., 2000. AIDS vaccination studies using feline immunodeficiency virus as a model: immunisation with inactivated whole virus suppresses viraemia levels following intravaginal challenge with infected cells but non-following intravenous challenge with cell

  19. Neuroprotective Effects of Herbal Extract (Rosa canina, Tanacetum vulgare and Urtica dioica) on Rat Model of Sporadic Alzheimer's Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daneshmand, Parvaneh; Saliminejad, Kioomars; Dehghan Shasaltaneh, Marzieh; Kamali, Koorosh; Riazi, Gholam Hossein; Nazari, Reza; Azimzadeh, Pedram; Khorram Khorshid, Hamid Reza

    2016-01-01

    Sporadic Alzheimer's Disease (SAD) is caused by genetic risk factors, aging and oxidative stresses. The herbal extract of Rosa canina (R. canina), Tanacetum vulgare (T. vulgare) and Urtica dioica (U. dioica) has a beneficial role in aging, as an anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidative agent. In this study, the neuroprotective effects of this herbal extract in the rat model of SAD was investigated. The rats were divided into control, sham, model, herbal extract -treated and ethanol-treated groups. Drug interventions were started on the 21(st) day after modeling and each treatment group was given the drugs by intraperitoneal (I.P.) route for 21 days. The expression levels of the five important genes for pathogenesis of SAD including Syp, Psen1, Mapk3, Map2 and Tnf-α were measured by qPCR between the hippocampi of SAD model which were treated by this herbal extract and control groups. The Morris Water Maze was adapted to test spatial learning and memory ability of the rats. Treatment of the rat model of SAD with herbal extract induced a significant change in expression of Syp (p=0.001) and Psen1 (p=0.029). In Morris Water Maze, significant changes in spatial learning seen in the rat model group were improved in herbal-treated group. This herbal extract could have anti-dementia properties and improve spatial learning and memory in SAD rat model.

  20. Effect of Selected Pyrazine Derivatives on the Production of Phenolics and Rutin in Urtica dioica and Fagopyrum esculentum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moravcová, Sárka; Fiedlerová, Vendula; Tůma, Jirí; Musil, Karel; Tůmová, Lenka

    2016-04-01

    The effect of four pyrazine derivatives on the content of phenolic compounds in Urtica dioica L. and rutin in Fagopyrum esculentum Moench was studied. Pyrazine derivatives H1 and H2 were used on U. dioica, and derivatives S1 and S2 on F. esculentum, both separately and in combination with urea. The content of phenolic compounds in the stems of U. dioica after treatment with H2 at a concentration of 10(-3) M significantly increased compared with the control and to a lower concentration of the same pyrazine derivative. In the case of S1 and S2 for F. esculentum, rutin content also increased in stems, mainly after treatment together with urea. By contrast, rutin and phenolics contents in the leaves did not change in comparison with controls after application of H1, H2, S I and S2. Treatment with H1 and H2 in two chosen concentrations resulted in a significant increase in the net photosynthetic rate, transpiration rate and stomatal conductance. A slight increase in the rate of photosynthesis was observed also after application of variants of S1 and S1 with urea. Pyrazine derivatives did not show any effect on either the relative content of chlorophyll or chlorophyll fluorescence. A slight weight reduction of above ground biomass was shown only after application of Si and S2. Dark necrosis on the edges and center of the leaves was observed in all treated plants after pyrazine application. The results suggest that all the pyrazine derivatives possess herbicidal effects.

  1. Effects of Urtica dioica supplementation on blood lipids, hepatic enzymes and nitric oxide levels in type 2 diabetic patients: A double blind, randomized clinical trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alidad Amiri Behzadi

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Oxidative stress plays an important role in the development of diabetic complications including metabolic abnormality-induced diabetic micro-vascular and macro-vascular complications. Urtica dioica L. (U. dioica has been traditionally used in Iranian medicine as an herbal remedy for hypoglycemic or due to its anti-inflammatory properties. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effects of hydro-alcoholic extract of U. dioica on blood lipids, hepatic enzymes and nitric oxide levels in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Materials and Methods: 50 women with type 2 diabetes participated in this study and were randomly divided into two groups namely, control and intervention groups. Control group received placebo and intervention group received hydro-alcoholic extract of U. dioica. Before and after 8 weeks of continuous treatment, some biochemical serum levels including FPG, TG, SGPT, SGOT, HDL, LDL, SOD and NO were measured. Results: The results indicated that after 8 weeks, in the intervention group, FPG, TG, and SGPT levels significantly decreased and HDL, NO and SOD levels significantly increased as compared to the control group. Conclusion: Our results encourage the use of hydro-alcoholic extract of U. dioica as an antioxidant agent for additional therapy of diabetes as hydro-alcoholic extract of U. dioica may decrease risk factors of cardiovascular incidence and other complications in patients with diabetes mellitus.

  2. Effects of Urtica dioica supplementation on blood lipids, hepatic enzymes and nitric oxide levels in type 2 diabetic patients: A double blind, randomized clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amiri Behzadi, Alidad; Kalalian-Moghaddam, Hamid; Ahmadi, Amir Hossein

    2016-01-01

    Oxidative stress plays an important role in the development of diabetic complications including metabolic abnormality-induced diabetic micro-vascular and macro-vascular complications. Urtica dioica L. (U. dioica) has been traditionally used in Iranian medicine as an herbal remedy for hypoglycemic or due to its anti-inflammatory properties. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effects of hydro-alcoholic extract of U. dioica on blood lipids, hepatic enzymes and nitric oxide levels in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. 50 women with type 2 diabetes participated in this study and were randomly divided into two groups namely, control and intervention groups. Control group received placebo and intervention group received hydro-alcoholic extract of U. dioica. Before and after 8 weeks of continuous treatment, some biochemical serum levels including FPG, TG, SGPT, SGOT, HDL, LDL, SOD and NO were measured. The results indicated that after 8 weeks, in the intervention group, FPG, TG, and SGPT levels significantly decreased and HDL, NO and SOD levels significantly increased as compared to the control group. Our results encourage the use of hydro-alcoholic extract of U. dioica as an antioxidant agent for additional therapy of diabetes as hydro-alcoholic extract of U. dioica may decrease risk factors of cardiovascular incidence and other complications in patients with diabetes mellitus.

  3. Effects of Urtica dioica supplementation on blood lipids, hepatic enzymes and nitric oxide levels in type 2 diabetic patients: A double blind, randomized clinical trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amiri Behzadi, Alidad; Kalalian-Moghaddam, Hamid; Ahmadi, Amir Hossein

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Oxidative stress plays an important role in the development of diabetic complications including metabolic abnormality-induced diabetic micro-vascular and macro-vascular complications. Urtica dioica L. (U. dioica) has been traditionally used in Iranian medicine as an herbal remedy for hypoglycemic or due to its anti-inflammatory properties. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effects of hydro-alcoholic extract of U. dioica on blood lipids, hepatic enzymes and nitric oxide levels in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Materials and Methods: 50 women with type 2 diabetes participated in this study and were randomly divided into two groups namely, control and intervention groups. Control group received placebo and intervention group received hydro-alcoholic extract of U. dioica. Before and after 8 weeks of continuous treatment, some biochemical serum levels including FPG, TG, SGPT, SGOT, HDL, LDL, SOD and NO were measured. Results: The results indicated that after 8 weeks, in the intervention group, FPG, TG, and SGPT levels significantly decreased and HDL, NO and SOD levels significantly increased as compared to the control group. Conclusion: Our results encourage the use of hydro-alcoholic extract of U. dioica as an antioxidant agent for additional therapy of diabetes as hydro-alcoholic extract of U. dioica may decrease risk factors of cardiovascular incidence and other complications in patients with diabetes mellitus. PMID:28078249

  4. Nitrogen enrichment of host plants has mostly beneficial effects on the life-history traits of nettle-feeding butterflies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurze, Susanne; Heinken, Thilo; Fartmann, Thomas

    2017-11-01

    Butterflies rank among the most threatened animal groups throughout Europe. However, current population trends differ among species. The nettle-feeding butterflies Aglais io and Aglais urticae cope successfully with the anthropogenic land-use change. Both species are assumed to be pre-adapted to higher nitrogen contents in their host plant, stinging nettle (Urtica dioica). However, it is currently unknown, whether this pre-adaptation enables both Aglais species to cope successfully or even to benefit from the excessive nitrogen availabilities in nettles growing in modern farmlands. For this reason, this study focused on the response of both Aglais species to unfertilized nettles compared to nettles receiving 150 or 300 kg N ha-1 yr-1 (i.e., common fertilizer quantities of modern-day agriculture). Fertilized nettles were characterized by higher nitrogen concentrations and lower C:N ratios compared to the control group. In both Aglais species, the individuals feeding on fertilized nettles had higher survival rates, shorter larval periods and heavier pupae and, in A. urticae also longer forewings. All these trait shifts are beneficial for the individuals, lowering their risk to die before reproduction and increasing their reproductive potential. These responses agree with the well-accepted nitrogen-limitation hypothesis predicting a positive relationship between the nitrogen content of the diet and the performance of herbivorous insects. Furthermore, our findings suggest that the increasing abundance of both Aglais species may result not only from the increasing spread of nettles into the farmland but also from changes in their quality due to the eutrophication of the landscape during recent decades.

  5. Effect of Extract of Aerial Parts of Urtica dioica (Urticaceae) on the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mixing soybean oil with 200 - 800 ppm of extract decreased oil oxidation and formation rate of TBA reacting substances at a level that is almost equivalent to the synthetic antioxidant, BHT, at a concentration of 200 ppm. Conclusion: These findings demonstrate that mixing soybean oil with U. dioica extract can improve the ...

  6. The histological and histometrical effects of Urtica dioica extract on rat's prostate hyperplasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moradi, Hamid Reza; Erfani Majd, Naeem; Esmaeilzadeh, Saleh; Fatemi Tabatabaei, Sayed Reza

    2015-01-01

    Benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) is a common disease in human that gradual overgrowth of the prostate gland leads to impinge on the urethra with impairment in urinary function. Numerous plants improve uncontrolled growth of the prostate gland and improve urinary tract symptoms associated with BPH. In this study, 25 healthy adult male Wistar rats were divided randomly in five groups: G1 (Control group) received ordinary feed without any treatment, G2 received 10 mg kg(-1) testosterone subcutaneously, G3 received 50 mg kg(-1) nettle root extract orally, G4 received 50 mg kg(-1) nettle root extract orally and 10 mg kg(-1) testosterone, G5 received 10 mg kg(-1) almond oil (Almond oil was used as testosterone solvent) subcutaneously. After six weeks, volume and weight of each lobe were measured and samples were taken. The 5 to 6 µm thickness sections were made using paraffin embedding method and stained by hematoxylin and eosin and periodic acid-Schiff. The results showed that prostate volume and ratio of prostate to body weight were increased significantly in the testosterone. Histological and histometrical results showed that dorsal and lateral type 1 and 2 lobes were not changed significantly but the ventral and anterior lobes have changed significantly. Over all, the nettle root could prevent from some of prostatic hyperplasia effects, so that percentage of folded alveoli in ventral lobe reduced insignificantly.

  7. Hepatoprotective potential of antioxidant potent fraction from Urtica dioica Linn. (whole plant in CCl4 challenged rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhuwan Chandra Joshi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to isolate hepatoprotective component from Urtica dioica Linn. (whole plant against CCl4-induced hepatotoxicity in-vitro (HepG2 cells and in-vivo (rats model. Antioxidant activity of hydro alcoholic extract and its fractions petroleum ether fraction (PEF, ethyl acetate fraction (EAF, n-butanol fraction (NBF and aqueous fraction (AF were determined by DPPH and NO radicals scavenging assay. Fractions were subjected to in-vitro HepG2 cell line study. Further, the most potent fraction (EAF was subjected to in-vivo hepatoprotective potential against CCl4 challenged rats. The in-vivo hepatoprotective active fraction was chromatographed on silica column to isolate the bioactive constituent(s. Structure elucidation was done by using various spectrophotometric techniques like UV, IR, 1H NMR, 13C NMR and MS spectroscopy. Ethyl acetate fraction (EAF of hydro-alcoholic extract of U. dioica possessed the potent antioxidant activity viz. DPPH (IC50 78.99 ± 0.17 μg/ml and NO (IC50101.39 ± 0.30 μg/ml. The in-vitro HepG2 cell line study showed that the EAF prevented the cell damage. The EAF significantly attenuated the increased liver enzymes activities in serum and oxidative parameters in tissue of CCl4-induced rats, suggesting hepatoprotective and anti-oxidant action respectively. Column chromatography of most potent antioxidant fraction (EAF lead to the isolation of 4-hydroxy-3-methoxy cinnamic acid (ferulic acid which is responsible for its hepatoprotective potential. Hence, the present study suggests that EAF of hydro-alcoholic extract has significant antioxidant and hepatoprotective potential on CCl4 induced hepatotoxicity in-vitro and in-vivo.

  8. Evaluation of in-vitro Antioxidant Properties of Hydroalcoholic Solution Extracts Urtica dioica L., Malva neglecta Wallr. and Their Mixture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Güder, Aytaç; Korkmaz, Halil

    2012-01-01

    The study was aimed at evaluating the antioxidant activity of hydroalcoholic solution extracts of Urtica dioica L. (UD), Malva neglecta Wallr. (MN) plants and their mixture. In this study, flower (UDF), root (UDR), seed (UDS) and leaf (UDL) parts of UD and flower (MNF) and leaf (MNL) parts of MN were used. The antioxidant properties of hydroalcoholic extracts and their mixture were evaluated using different antioxidant tests such as total antioxidant activity, reducing power, superoxide anion radical scavenging, hydrogen peroxide scavenging, free radical scavenging, and metal chelating activity for comparison. In addition, total phenolic compounds in the extracts of both plants were determined as catechin equivalent. The various antioxidant activities were compared to natural and synthetic standard antioxidants such as BHA, BHT and α-tocopherol. According to FTC method, the both extracts exhibited strong total antioxidant activity. At the concentration of 100 μg/mL, Hydroalcoholic extracts of UDS, UDR, UDF, UDL, MNF, MNL, and UD-MN showed 81.7%, 79.8%, 78.3%, 76.4%, 77.3%, 74.1%, and 80.7%, respectively. Comparable, 100 μg/mL of standard antioxidants BHA, BHT and α-tocopherol exhibited 66.2%, 70.6%, and 50.1% inhibition on peroxidation of linoleic acid emulsion, respectively. In addition, UD-MN showed strong superoxide anion radical scavenging activity comparable with UDR, UDF, UDL, MNF, and MNL. Based on the findings, plants mixture was commonly found to have synergistically higher antioxidant activity.

  9. Screening of analgesic activity of Tunisian Urtica dioica and analysis of its major bioactive compounds by GCMS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhouibi, Raouia; Moalla, Dorsaf; Ksouda, Kamilia; Ben Salem, Maryem; Hammami, Serria; Sahnoun, Zouheir; Zeghal, Khaled Mounir; Affes, Hanen

    2017-11-20

    The present study was aimed to evaluate the analgesic properties of Urtica dioica (UD) and to profile phytochemicals by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The ethanolic extracts were prepared by maceration method and extraction using rotary evaporator. The analgesic activity was analysed by hot plate method, formalin test, acetic acid-induced writhing test and the tail-flick test with different doses of the ethanolic extract. In all tests, the leaf's ethanolic extract exhibited significant analgesic activity (p < .001) at a dose of 400 mg/kg. Even with a low dose, we noticed an analgesic activity with many tests. The GC-MS analysis of the ethanol extract of leaf revealed many compounds; 2-methyltetradecane dodecane, 2,6,11-trimethyl-; 2,6,11-trimethyldodecane, and trimethylhexane which are pharmaceutically the most important. These findings justify that UD can be a valuable natural analgesic source which seemed to provide potential phototherapeutics against various ailments. The analysis of ethanolic extract of UD by GCMS revealed the presence of several compounds including polyphenols, flavonoids, triterpenes which can explain the analgesic effect of UD and its mechanism of action. Hence, UD could be another therapeutic alternative for relieving pain and for minimising the use of drugs that have long-term secondary effects.

  10. Heavy metal pollution affects consumption and reproduction of the landsnail Cepaea nemoralis fed on naturally polluted Urtica dioica leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Notten, Martje J M; Oosthoek, Annelies J P; Rozema, Jelte; Aerts, Rien

    2006-04-01

    This study is one of the very first that investigates the effects of heavy metal pollution on food consumption and reproduction of terrestrial snails under semi-realistic field conditions. Two experiments were carried out using snails (Cepaea nemoralis) and food (Urtica dioica leaves) from different metal polluted locations and one reference location. The first experiment showed that both polluted and reference snails fed on high-metal leaves from a highly polluted location had significantly lower consumption rates than snails consuming leaves from the reference location. In the second experiment, snails from both locations used in the consumption experiment and from two low-polluted locations were kept on native soil and food in order to reproduce. No negative effect of heavy metal pollution on clutch size was found for the snails from the reference location and the low-polluted locations. Snails from the highly polluted location laid no eggs. This suggests that at high levels of metal pollution, reproduction is strongly negatively affected. We suggest that the absence of egg laying by snails from the highly polluted location results from a combination of decreased consumption and an increased demand of energy for the accumulation and detoxification of metals (decreased scope for growth).

  11. Urtica dioica leaves modulates hippocampal smoothened-glioma associated oncogene-1 pathway and cognitive dysfunction in chronically stressed mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Sita Sharan; Mahindroo, Neeraj; Udayabanu, Malairaman

    2016-10-01

    The present study was aimed to evaluate the effect of Urtica dioica (UD) extract against chronic unpredictable stress (CUS)-induced associative memory dysfunction and attempted to explore the possible mechanism. Male Swiss albino mice (25-30g) were divided into six groups, viz. group-I received 0.3% carboxymethyl cellulose and served as control (CTRL), group II was exposed to CUS (21days) and received vehicle (CUS), group III was subjected to CUS and received Hypericum perforatum extract (350mg/kg, p.o.) (CUS+HYP), group IV received Hypericum perforatum extract (350mg/kg, p.o.) (CTRL+HYP); group V was subjected to CUS and received UD extract (50mg/kg, p.o.) (CUS+UD), group VI received UD extract (50mg/kg, p.o.) (CTRL+UD). CUS significantly induced body weight loss (peffects. UD extract might prove to be effective for stress mediated neurological disorders. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  12. Allelopathic effect of preparations of Betula pendula Roth., Chamomilla recutita L. and Urtica dioica L. on the initial growth of Hordeum vulgare L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrzej Dziamski

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The experiment investigated the effect of preparations of Betula pendula, Chamomilla recutita, and Urtica dioica on the initial growth of Hordeum vulgare under laboratory conditions. The experiment involved a water solution of sap from the trunk of B. pendula, an infusion from Ch. recutita, extracts from leaves and rhizomes as well as macerated herbage of U. dioica, at the concentrations of 2.5%; 5%; 10% and 20%. During the first four days of the growth of the test plants, the plant preparations tested had a stimulatory effect on the length of leaves and roots in all the cases. The leaf increases were greater than those of the roots and became smaller with an increase in the concentration of the preparations. Continued watering of H. vulgare seedlings resulted in a further increase in leaf length after the application of U. dioica macerate and Ch. recutita infusion, with a simultaneous increase in root length with the macerate of U. dioica and B. pendula sap used at the concentrations of 2.5–10%. The other extracts made from U. dioica leaves and roots, irrespective of the concentration applied, strongly reduced the increase in leaves and roots from 11 to 27%. The weight of roots and leaves in H. vulgare, over the entire range of the concentrations applied and irrespective of the duration of the experiment, was stimulated only by B. pendula sap. The extracts from Ch. recutita and U. dioica, especially the leaf and root extracts, significantly reduced the root weight of the test plant.

  13. AROMA PROFILE AND ANTIMICROBIAL PROPERTIES OF ALCOHOLIC AND AQUEOUS EXTRACTS FROM ROOT, LEAF AND STALK OF NETTLE (Urtica dioica L.)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Razzagh Mahmoudi; Kiumars Amini; Omid Fakhri; Mahsa Alem

    .... Results from disc diffusion assay indicated that water extract of root, leaf and stalk had the highest antimicrobial activity respectively and caused significant inhibition zones in P. vulgaris, L...

  14. The role of urtica dioica (urticaceae) in the prevention of oxidative stress caused by tourniquet application in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cetinus, Ercan; Kilinc, Metin; Inanc, Fatma; Kurutas, Ergul Belge; Buzkan, Nihal

    2005-03-01

    Tourniquets are used in extremity surgery and provide a relatively bloodless field, thereby minimizing blood loss and helping identify the vital structures. However, they may cause an ischemia-reperfusion injury with potentially harmful local and systemic consequences. Many therapeutic effects such as diuretic, natriuretic, hypotensive, anti-rheumatic, anti-prostatic, and in-vitro anti-oxidant effects of the Urtica dioica (UD) have been determined. In the present study, we aimed to investigate the potential role of UD plant for prevention of oxidative stress in muscle tissues generated by tourniquet application in rats. Wistar rats were used in this study. The UD extract or 1.15% KCl aqueous solution, in which UD leaf samples were homogenized, was given to each group of eight rats once a day for 5 days through an intraesophageal canule. No treatment was applied to untreated group. Tourniquets were applied to the left posterior limb of rats for 1 or 2 h followed by a reperfusion period of 1 h. After the ischemia and reperfusion, the rats were killed with a high dose of anesthetic drug, and malonyldialdehyde (MDA) levels were measured in their tibialis anterior muscles. Basal MDA levels were obtained from tibialis anterior muscles of 8 control rats, which were not exposed to ischemia. MDA levels were lower in the UD-treated rats than those in untreated and KCl-treated rats after either 1 or 2 h of ischemia and 1 h reperfusion. These results indicate that UD has a potential antioxidant effect on ischemic muscle tissues.

  15. Evaluation of in-vitro Antioxidant Properties of Hydroalcoholic Solution Extracts Urtica dioica L., Malva neglecta Wallr. and Their Mixture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Güder, Aytaç; Korkmaz, Halil

    2012-01-01

    The study was aimed at evaluating the antioxidant activity of hydroalcoholic solution extracts of Urtica dioica L. (UD), Malva neglecta Wallr. (MN) plants and their mixture. In this study, flower (UDF), root (UDR), seed (UDS) and leaf (UDL) parts of UD and flower (MNF) and leaf (MNL) parts of MN were used. The antioxidant properties of hydroalcoholic extracts and their mixture were evaluated using different antioxidant tests such as total antioxidant activity, reducing power, superoxide anion radical scavenging, hydrogen peroxide scavenging, free radical scavenging, and metal chelating activity for comparison. In addition, total phenolic compounds in the extracts of both plants were determined as catechin equivalent. The various antioxidant activities were compared to natural and synthetic standard antioxidants such as BHA, BHT and α-tocopherol. According to FTC method, the both extracts exhibited strong total antioxidant activity. At the concentration of 100 μg/mL, Hydroalcoholic extracts of UDS, UDR, UDF, UDL, MNF, MNL, and UD-MN showed 81.7%, 79.8%, 78.3%, 76.4%, 77.3%, 74.1%, and 80.7%, respectively. Comparable, 100 μg/mL of standard antioxidants BHA, BHT and α-tocopherol exhibited 66.2%, 70.6%, and 50.1% inhibition on peroxidation of linoleic acid emulsion, respectively. In addition, UD-MN showed strong superoxide anion radical scavenging activity comparable with UDR, UDF, UDL, MNF, and MNL. Based on the findings, plants mixture was commonly found to have synergistically higher antioxidant activity. PMID:24250519

  16. Rapid flow cytometry analysis of antimicrobial properties of nettle powder and cranberry powder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hattuniemi, Maarit; Korhonen, Johanna; Jaakkola, Mari; Räty, Jarkko; Virtanen, Vesa

    2010-11-01

    Both nettle (Urtica dioica) and cranberry (Vaccinium oxycoccus) are widely known to have good influence on health. The aim of this study was to investigate antimicrobial properties of nettle powder and cranberry powder against Escherichia coli (E. coli) and monitor the growth of the bacteria by a rapid flow cytometry (FCM) method. For FCM measurements samples were stained with fluorescent dyes. The inhibitory effects of plant material on growth of E. coli were estimated by comparing the results of control sample (E. coli) to E. coli samples with plant material. FCM offers both a brilliant tool to investigate the kinetics of the growth of bacterium, since subsamples can be taken from the same liquid medium during the growing period and with fluorescent dyes a rapid method to investigate viability of the bacterium.

  17. Stinging Nettle: the Bad, the Good, the Unknown

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dennis J. Baumgardner

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Stinging nettle (Urtica dioica is native to most of the United States. It has a characteristic description and distribution in the environment. Physical contact with numerous tiny needlelike hairs present on leaves and stems of this plant may result in a contact urticarial dermatitis due to chemical and mechanical irritation triggered by skin penetration of the hairs. The manifestations are self-limited in humans and may be treated by washing the skin, topical preparations and oral antihistamines. Explanation of the natural history of these encounters to the patient is helpful in reducing the sometimes significant anxiety. Preparations and extracts of stinging nettle have been proposed for treatment of a variety of inflammatory and other disorders including osteoarthritis, benign prostatic hypertrophy, allergic rhinitis and asthma, bleeding problems and diabetes. While in vitro studies have shown that stinging nettle possesses a number of potentially beneficial anti-inflammatory and modulating properties, beneficial effects have often not been confirmed by well-designed clinical trials. Further study, perhaps with novel types of extracts, are needed to determine the clinical utility of this plant in human inflammatory-related conditions and diabetes mellitus.

  18. Elevation protective role of Camellia sinensis and Urtica dioica infusion against trichloroacetic acid-exposed in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Celik, Ismail; Tuluce, Yasin

    2007-11-01

    This study was designed to investigate the protective effects of two traditionally used Turkish medicinal plants, Camellia sinensis (CS) and Urtica dioica L. (UD), beverages used against chemical carcinogen trichloroacetic acid (TCA)-exposure in rats. The preventive potential of the plant infusions was evaluated by measuring the level of serum marker enzymes, aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), creatine phosphokinase (CPK), acid phosphatase (ACP), alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH); antioxidant defense systems, reduced glutathione (GSH), glutathione reductase (GR), superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione-S-transferase (GST) and catalase (CAT); and lipid peroxidation (malondialdehyde, MDA) content in various organs of rats. Twenty four healthy rats were randomly allotted into four experimental groups: A (untreated control), B (only TCA-treated), C (TCA+CS treated) and D (TCA+UD treated). At the end of the 50 days, the plant infusions possessed chemoprotective effects, deduced by the remaining TCA-induced increased serum damage marker enzyme, lipid peroxidation and antioxidative system in rats compared with those of the control and TCA-exposed rats. According to the results, while the levels of AST, ALT and CPK increased in group B, no significant changes were observed in groups C and D. The MDA content slightly increased in tissues of all groups, being higher in group B. Antioxidant enzyme activities such as SOD and CAT increased significantly in the brain, liver and kidney of group B while they did not change significantly except for in the kidney in groups C and D. The GSH level and the ancillary enzyme GR activity did not change significantly in organs of all groups. On the other hand, the drug metabolizing enzyme, GST, activity decreased significantly in the brain, liver and kidney of group D while slight changes were observed for the other groups. The results revealed that TCA exposure induced oxidative

  19. Synthesis and characterization of an effective organic/inorganic hybrid green corrosion inhibitive complex based on zinc acetate/Urtica Dioica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salehi, E.; Naderi, Reza [School of Metallurgy and Materials Engineering, College of Engineering, University of Tehran, P.O. Box 11155-4563, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Ramezanzadeh, B., E-mail: ramezanzadeh@aut.ac.ir [Department of Surface Coatings and Corrosion, Institute for Color Science and Technology (ICST), PO 16765-654, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2017-02-28

    Highlights: • An organic/inorganic hybrid green corrosion inhibitive pigment was synthesized and characterized. • Chemical structure and morphology of the hybrid complex were characterized. • Zinc acetate/Urtica Dioica showed effective inhibition action in saline solution on carbon steel. • The synergistic effect between Zn{sup 2+} cations and inhibitive compounds existed in U.D resulted in protective film deposition on the steel surface. - Abstract: This study aims at synthesis and characterization of an effective corrosion inhibitive complex based on zinc acetate/Urtica Dioica (ZnA-U.D) for corrosion protection of mild steel in chloride solution. The chemical structure and morphology of the complex were characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), UV–vis, thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The corrosion protection performance of the mild steel samples dipped in 3.5 wt.% NaCl solutions with and without ZnA-U.D extract was investigated by visual observations, open circuit potential (OCP) measurements, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and polarization test. Results revealed that the ZnA successfully chelated with organic inhibitive compounds (i.e Quercetin, Quinic acid, Caffeic acid, Hystamine and Serotonin) present in the U.D extract. The electrochemical measurements revealed the effective inhibition action of ZnA-U.D complex in the sodium chloride solution on the mild steel. The synergistic effect between Zn{sup 2+} and organic compounds present in the U.D extract resulted in protective film deposition on the steel surface, which was proved by SEM and XPS analyses.

  20. Neuroprotective Effects of Herbal Extract (Rosa canina, Tanacetum vulgare and Urtica dioica) on Rat Model of Sporadic Alzheimer’s Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daneshmand, Parvaneh; Saliminejad, Kioomars; Dehghan Shasaltaneh, Marzieh; Kamali, Koorosh; Riazi, Gholam Hossein; Nazari, Reza; Azimzadeh, Pedram; Khorram Khorshid, Hamid Reza

    2016-01-01

    Background: Sporadic Alzheimer’s Disease (SAD) is caused by genetic risk factors, aging and oxidative stresses. The herbal extract of Rosa canina (R. canina), Tanacetum vulgare (T. vulgare) and Urtica dioica (U. dioica) has a beneficial role in aging, as an anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidative agent. In this study, the neuroprotective effects of this herbal extract in the rat model of SAD was investigated. Methods: The rats were divided into control, sham, model, herbal extract -treated and ethanol-treated groups. Drug interventions were started on the 21st day after modeling and each treatment group was given the drugs by intraperitoneal (I.P.) route for 21 days. The expression levels of the five important genes for pathogenesis of SAD including Syp, Psen1, Mapk3, Map2 and Tnf-α were measured by qPCR between the hippocampi of SAD model which were treated by this herbal extract and control groups. The Morris Water Maze was adapted to test spatial learning and memory ability of the rats. Results: Treatment of the rat model of SAD with herbal extract induced a significant change in expression of Syp (p=0.001) and Psen1 (p=0.029). In Morris Water Maze, significant changes in spatial learning seen in the rat model group were improved in herbal-treated group. Conclusion: This herbal extract could have anti-dementia properties and improve spatial learning and memory in SAD rat model. PMID:27563424

  1. The healing effects of herbal preparations from Sambucus ebulus and Urtica dioica in full-thickness wound models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esmaeil Babaei

    2017-05-01

    Conclusions: Topical ointments prepared from the extracts of U. dioica and S. ebulus and their combination possess strong wound healing properties. It is postulated that a synergistic effect may exist between the two extracts since the combination 2% showed better results than the sole extracts.

  2. Clinical and histopathological evaluation of MDP/collagen induced arthritis rat model (MCIA) after treatment with Urtica dioica, plantago major and Hypericum perforatum L herbal mixture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalifeh, Mohammad S; Hananeh, Wael; Al-Rukibat, Raida; Okour, Omar; Boumezrag, Assia

    2008-04-01

    This study was done to assess the effects of Urtica dioica, Plantago major and Hypericum perforatum L herbal mixture in the MCIA rat model. In addition, a new pathological and clinical arthritis lesion assessment was developed. Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats were immunized with bovine type II collagen and muramyl dipeptide (MDP). Commercial herbal extracts were administered daily to the rats after the immunization for the course of experiment (90 days). Rats were boosted with a second collagen-MDP emulsion 60 days after the first immunization. Paws were daily evaluated macroscopically for redness, swelling, distortion, or ankylosis of the joints. On the day of sacrifice, rat paws were assessed for histopathologic changes. Herbal mixture administration decreased the clinical lesion manifestation in the MCIA rat model and led to development of similar or slightly more severe histopathological lesions compared to rats that did not receive the treatment. The clinical arthritis signs appeared as early as 13 days after the first MDP/collagen injection and with peak incidence at 20 days post-immunization. Histopathologically, animals showed changes ranging from mild to very severe. Administration of the herbal mixture used in this study had a clinical therapeutic effect on the course of the clinical manifestations in the MCIA model, but the herbal treatment had no such effect on the histopathological lesion development and even led to slightly more severe lesions. Rats in the MCIA model developed prominent clinical and histopathological changes that were comparable to rheumatoid arthritis (RA) lesions in humans.

  3. Synthesis and characterization of an effective organic/inorganic hybrid green corrosion inhibitive complex based on zinc acetate/Urtica Dioica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salehi, E.; Naderi, Reza; Ramezanzadeh, B.

    2017-02-01

    This study aims at synthesis and characterization of an effective corrosion inhibitive complex based on zinc acetate/Urtica Dioica (ZnA-U.D) for corrosion protection of mild steel in chloride solution. The chemical structure and morphology of the complex were characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), UV-vis, thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The corrosion protection performance of the mild steel samples dipped in 3.5 wt.% NaCl solutions with and without ZnA-U.D extract was investigated by visual observations, open circuit potential (OCP) measurements, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and polarization test. Results revealed that the ZnA successfully chelated with organic inhibitive compounds (i.e Quercetin, Quinic acid, Caffeic acid, Hystamine and Serotonin) present in the U.D extract. The electrochemical measurements revealed the effective inhibition action of ZnA-U.D complex in the sodium chloride solution on the mild steel. The synergistic effect between Zn2+ and organic compounds present in the U.D extract resulted in protective film deposition on the steel surface, which was proved by SEM and XPS analyses.

  4. Effects of a triplex mixture of Peganum harmala, Rhus coriaria, and Urtica dioica aqueous extracts on metabolic and histological parameters in diabetic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abedi Gaballu, Fereydoon; Abedi Gaballu, Yousef; Moazenzade Khyavy, Omid; Mardomi, Alireza; Ghahremanzadeh, Kazem; Shokouhi, Behrooz; Mamandy, Himan

    2015-08-01

    Several therapeutic effects such as antioxidant and blood glucose-lowering activities have been reported for Peganum harmala L (Zygophyllaceae) (PH) seeds, Rhus coriaria L (Anacardiaceae) (RC) fruits, and Urtica dioica L (Urticaceae) (UD) leaves. This study investigates the effects of a triplex mixture (1:1:1) of these medicinal plants on metabolic and histological parameters in diabetic rats. Aqueous extracts of PH, RC and UD were administered as either monotherapy or in combination at a final dose of 200 mg/kg to alloxan-induced diabetic rats by daily gavage. Biochemical parameters including blood glucose, liver function-related enzymes, lipid profile, and creatinine were estimated by spectrophotometric methods. Tissues from the liver and kidney stained with hematoxylin/eosin were histologically examined. The results obtained from the exposure groups were compared to either healthy or diabetic control groups. Compared with the diabetic control rats, all aqueous extracts (ED50 = 11.5 ± 2.57 mg/ml) led to significant decreases in the levels of ALP (1.39-2.23-fold, p effects.

  5. Effects of Urtica dioica L. seed on lipid peroxidation, antioxidants and liver pathology in aflatoxin-induced tissue injury in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yener, Zabit; Celik, Ismail; Ilhan, Fatma; Bal, Ramazan

    2009-02-01

    This study was carried out to investigate the hepatoprotective and antioxidant properties of Urtica dioica L. seeds (UDS) extract against aflatoxin (AF)-exposure in rats. The preventive potential and antioxidant capacity of the plant's extract was evaluated by liver histopathological changes, measuring serum marker enzymes, antioxidant defense systems and lipid peroxidation (Malondialdehyde, MDA) content in some tissues of rats. Eighteen rats were randomly divided into one of three experimental groups: control, AF-treated group and AF+UDS-treated group. Rats in control group were fed with a diet without AF. Rats in AF-treated group and AF+UDS-treated group received approximately 25 microgr of AF/rat/day. AF+UDS groups also received 2 mL of UDS oils/rat/day by gavage for 90 days. Administration of UDS extract restored the AF-induced imbalance between MDA and antioxidant system towards near normal particularly in liver. Hepatoprotection by UDS is further substantiated by the almost normal histologic findings in AF+UDS-treated group as against degenerative changes in the AF-treated rats. It is concluded that UDS has a hepatoprotective effect in rats with aflatoxicosis, probably acting by promoting the antioxidative defense systems.

  6. An extract of Urtica dioica L. mitigates obesity induced insulin resistance in mice skeletal muscle via protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obanda, Diana N; Ribnicky, David; Yu, Yongmei; Stephens, Jacqueline; Cefalu, William T

    2016-02-26

    The leaf extract of Urtica dioica L. (UT) has been reported to improve glucose homeostasis in vivo, but definitive studies on efficacy and mechanism of action are lacking. We investigated the effects of UT on obesity- induced insulin resistance in skeletal muscle. Male C57BL/6J mice were divided into three groups: low-fat diet (LFD), high-fat diet (HFD) and HFD supplemented with UT. Body weight, body composition, plasma glucose and plasma insulin were monitored. Skeletal muscle (gastrocnemius) was analyzed for insulin sensitivity, ceramide accumulation and the post translational modification and activity of protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A). PP2A is activated by ceramides and dephosphorylates Akt. C2C12 myotubes exposed to excess free fatty acids with or without UT were also evaluated for insulin signaling and modulation of PP2A. The HFD induced insulin resistance, increased fasting plasma glucose, enhanced ceramide accumulation and PP2A activity in skeletal muscle. Supplementation with UT improved plasma glucose homeostasis and enhanced skeletal muscle insulin sensitivity without affecting body weight and body composition. In myotubes, UT attenuated the ability of FFAs to induce insulin resistance and PP2A hyperactivity without affecting ceramide accumulation and PP2A expression. UT decreased PP2A activity through posttranslational modification that was accompanied by a reduction in Akt dephosphorylation.

  7. In vivo and in vitro evaluation of the effects of Urtica dioica and swimming activity on diabetic factors and pancreatic beta cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranjbari, Abbas; Azarbayjani, Mohammad Ali; Yusof, Ashril; Halim Mokhtar, Abdul; Akbarzadeh, Samad; Ibrahim, Mohamed Yousif; Tarverdizadeh, Bahman; Farzadinia, Parviz; Hajiaghaee, Reza; Dehghan, Firouzeh

    2016-03-15

    Urtica dioica (UD) has been identified as a traditional herbal medicine. This study aimed to investigate the effect of UD extract and swimming activity on diabetic parameters through in vivo and in vitro experiments. Adult WKY male rats were randomly distributed in nine groups: intact control, diabetic control, diabetic + 625 mg/kg, 1.25 g/kg UD, diabetic + 100 mg/kg Metformin, diabetic + swimming, diabetic + swimming 625 mg/kg, 1.25 g/kg UD, and diabetic +100 mg/kg Metformin + swimming. The hearts of the animals were punctured, and blood samples were collected for biochemical analysis. The entire pancreas was exposed for histologic examination. The effect of UD on insulin secretion by RIN-5F cells in 6.25 or 12.5 mM glucose dose was examined. Glucose uptake by cultured L6 myotubes was determined. The serum glucose concentration decreased, the insulin resistance and insulin sensitivity significantly increased in treated groups. These changes were more pronounced in the group that received UD extract and swimming training. Regeneration and less beta cell damage of Langerhans islets were observed in the treated groups. UD treatment increased insulin secretion in the RIN-5F cells and glucose uptake in the L6 myotubes cells. Swimming exercises accompanied by consuming UD aqueous extracts effectively improved diabetic parameters, repaired pancreatic tissues in streptozotocin-induced diabetics in vivo, and increased glucose uptake or insulin in UD-treated cells in vitro.

  8. Control in vitro de Botrytis (Botrytis cinerea), Mildiu (Bremia lactucae) Y Esclerotinia (Sclerotinia sclerotiorum) en lechuga (Lactuca sativa), usando extractos de Cola de Caballo (Equisetum arvense), Ortiga (Urtica dioica L.), Ruda (Ruta graveolens) y Tomillo (Thymus vulgaris).

    OpenAIRE

    Tayupanta Rodríguez, Verónica Vanessa

    2013-01-01

    Se realizó el control biológico de Botrytis cinerea, Bremia lactucae y Sclerotinia sclerotiorum, con 4 extractos de plantas: Ruta graveolens, Thymus vulgaris, Urtica dioica, Equisetum arvense y Trichoderma harzianum como tratamiento adicional. Se realizaron ensayos en laboratorio dentro de cajas Petri, donde se inoculó el hongo obtenido previamente en cultivo puro, junto con los extractos de cada planta para evaluar el halo de inhibición y se realizó el conteo del número de UFC (Unidades f...

  9. Lipophilic stinging nettle extracts possess potent anti-inflammatory activity, are not cytotoxic and may be superior to traditional tinctures for treating inflammatory disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Tyler A.; Sohn, Johann; Inman, Wayne D.; Bjeldanes, Leonard F.; Rayburn, Keith

    2012-01-01

    Extracts of four plant portions (roots, stems, leaves and flowers) of Urtica dioica, (the stinging nettle) were prepared using accelerated solvent extraction (ASE) involving water, hexanes, methanol and dichloromethane. The extracts were evaluated for their anti-inflammatory and cytotoxic activity in an NF-κB luciferase and MTT assay using macrophage immune (RAW264.7) cells. A standardized commercial ethanol extract of nettle leaves were also evaluated. The methanolic extract of the flowering portions displayed significant anti-inflammatory activity on par with the standard anti-inflammatory agent celastrol (1) but was moderately cytotoxic. Alternatively, the polar extracts (water, methanol, ethanol) of the roots, stems and leaves plant portions displayed moderate to weak anti-inflammatory activity, while the methanol and especially the water soluble extracts exhibited noticeable cytotoxicity. In contrast, the lipophilic dichloromethane extracts of the roots, stems and leaves exhibited potent anti-inflammatory effects ≥ 1 with minimal cytotoxicity to RAW264.7 cells. Collectively these results suggest that using lipophilic extracts of the roots, stems or leaves of stinging nettle may be more effective then traditional tinctures (water, methanol, ethanol) to undergo clinical evaluations for the treatment of inflammatory disorders including arthritis. A chemical investigation into the lipophillic extracts of stinging nettle to identify the bioactive compound(s) responsible for their observed anti-inflammatory activity is further warranted. PMID:23092723

  10. Modulation of carbon and nitrogen allocation in Urtica dioica and Plantago major by elevated CO{sub 2}. Impact of accumulation of nonstructural carbohydrates and ontogenetic drift

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hertog, J. den; Stulen, I.; Fonseca, F.; Delea, P.

    1996-10-01

    Doubling the atmospheric CO{sub 2} concentration from 350 to 700 {mu} l{sup -1} increased the relative growth rate (RGR) of hydroponically grown Urtica dioica L. and Plantagomajor ssp. pleiospherma Pilger only for the first 10-14 days. Previous experiments with P. major indicated that RGR did not respond i proportion to the rate of photosynthesis. The impact of changes in leaf morphology, dry matter partitioning, dry matter chemical composition and ontogenetic drift on this discrepancy is analysed. Soon after the start of the treatment, carbohydrate concentrations were higher at elevated CO{sub 2}; largely due to starch accumulation. An increase in the percentage of leaf dry matter and decreases in the specific leaf area (SLA) and the shoot nitrogen concentration were correlated with an increase in the total nonstructural carbohydrate concentration (TNC). A combination of accumulation of soluble sugars and starch and ontogenetic drift explains the decrease in SLA at the elevated CO{sub 2} level. A similar ontogenetic effect of elevated CO{sub 2} was observed on the specific root length (SRL). Shoot nitrogen concentration and percentage leaf dry matter were not affected. The net diurnal fluctuation of the carbohydrate pool in P. major was equal for both CO{sub 2} concentrations, indicating that the growth response to elevated CO{sub 2} may be ruled by other variables such as sink strength. Elevated CO{sub 2} did not greatly influence the partitioning of nitrogen between soluble and insoluble, reduced N and nitrate, nor the allocation of dry matter between leaf, stem and root. That the root to shoot ratio (F/S) was not affected by elevated CO{sub 2} implies that, to maintain a balanced activity between roots and shoot, no shift in partitioning of dry matter upon doubling of the atmospheric CO{sub 2} concentration is required. (AB)

  11. Hepatoprotective effects of Nigella sativa L and Urtica dioica L on lipid peroxidation, antioxidant enzyme systems and liver enzymes in carbon tetrachloride-treated rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanter, Mehmet; Coskun, Omer; Budancamanak, Mustafa

    2005-11-14

    To investigate the effects of Nigella sativa L (NS) and Urtica dioica L (UD) on lipid peroxidation, antioxidant enzyme systems and liver enzymes in CCl(4)-treated rats. Fifty-six healthy male Wistar albino rats were used in this study. The rats were randomly allotted into one of the four experimental groups: A (CCl(4)-only treated), B (CCl(4)+UD treated), C (CCl(4)+NS treated) and D (CCl(4)+UD+NS treated), each containing 14 animals. All groups received CCl(4) (0.8 mL/kg of body weight, sc, twice a week for 60 d). In addition, B, C and D groups also received daily i.p. injections of 0.2 mL/kg NS or/and 2 mL/kg UD oils for 60 d. Group A, on the other hand, received only 2 mL/kg normal saline solution for 60 d. Blood samples for the biochemical analysis were taken by cardiac puncture from randomly chosen-seven rats in each treatment group at beginning and on the 60th d of the experiment. The CCl(4) treatment for 60 d increased the lipid peroxidation and liver enzymes, and also decreased the antioxidant enzyme levels. NS or UD treatment (alone or combination) for 60 d decreased the elevated lipid peroxidation and liver enzyme levels and also increased the reduced antioxidant enzyme levels. The weight of rats decreased in group A, and increased in groups B, C and D. NS and UD decrease the lipid per-oxidation and liver enzymes, and increase the anti-oxidant defense system activity in the CCl4-treated rats.

  12. Effects of Nigella sativa L. and Urtica dioica L. on lipid peroxidation, antioxidant enzyme systems and some liver enzymes in CCl4-treated rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanter, M; Meral, I; Dede, S; Gunduz, H; Cemek, M; Ozbek, H; Uygan, I

    2003-06-01

    This study was designed to investigate the effects Nigella sativa L. (NS) and Urtica dioica L. (UD) on lipid peroxidation, antioxidant enzyme systems and some liver enzymes in carbon tetrachloride (CCl4)-treated rats. A total of 60 healthy male Sprague-Dawley rats were utilized in this study. The rats were randomly allotted into one of four experimental groups: A (CCl4-only treated), B (CCl4 + UD treated), C (CCl4 + NS treated) and D (CCl4 + UD + NS treated), each containing 15 animals. All groups received CCl4 [0.8 ml/kg of body weight, subcutaneously, twice a week for 90 days starting day 1]. In addition, B, C and D groups also received daily intraperitoneal injections of 0.2 ml/kg NS or/and 2 ml/kg UD oils for 45 days starting day 46. Group A, on the other hand, received only 2 ml/kg normal saline solution for 45 days starting day 46. Blood samples for the biochemical analysis were taken by cardiac puncture from five randomly chosen rats in each treatment group at beginning, at 45th and at 90th day of the experiment. The CCl4 treatment for 45 days increased the lipid peroxidation and liver enzymes, and also decreased the antioxidant enzyme levels. NS or UD treatments (alone or combination) for 45 days starting day 46 decreased the elevated lipid peroxidation and liver enzyme levels and also increased the reduced antioxidant enzyme levels. Live weights of the rats decreased in group A, and increased in groups B, C and D. It is concluded that NS and UD decrease the lipid peroxidation and liver enzymes, and increase the antioxidant defence system activity in the CCl4-treated rats.

  13. Feeding Behaviour on Host Plants May Influence Potential Exposure to Bt Maize Pollen of Aglais Urticae Larvae (Lepidoptera, Nymphalidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas Lang

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Non-target butterfly larvae may be harmed by feeding on host plants dusted with Bt maize pollen. Feeding patterns of larvae and their utilization of host plants can affect the adverse Bt impact because the maize pollen is distributed unequally on the plant. In a field study, we investigated the feeding of larvae of the Small Tortoiseshell, Aglais urticae, on nettles, Urtica dioica. Young larvae used smaller host plants than older larvae. In general, the position of the larvae was in the top part of the host plant, but older larvae showed a broader vertical distribution on the nettles. Leaf blades and leaf tips were the plant parts most often consumed. Leaf veins were consumed but midribs were fed on to a lesser extent than other plant veins, particularly by young larvae. The feeding behavior of the larvae may increase possible exposure to Bt maize pollen because pollen densities are expected to be higher on the top parts and along leaf veins of nettles.

  14. High-antibacterial activity of Urtica spp. seed extracts on food and plant pathogenic bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Körpe, Didem Aksoy; İşerı, Özlem Darcansoy; Sahin, Feride Iffet; Cabi, Evren; Haberal, Mehmet

    2013-05-01

    The aim of this study was to comparatively evaluate antibacterial activities of methanol (MetOH) and aqueous (dw) leaf (L), root (R) and seed (S) extracts of Urtica dioica L. (Ud; stinging nettle) and Urtica pilulifera L. (Up; Roman nettle) on both food- and plant-borne pathogens, with total phenolic contents and DPPH radical scavenging activities (DRSA). MetOH extracts of leaves and roots of U. dioica had the highest DRSA. Extracts with high antibacterial activity were in the order Up-LMetOH (13/16) > Ud-SMetOH (11/16) > Up-SMetOH (9/16). Results obtained with Up-SMetOH against food spoiling Bacillus pumilus, Shigella spp. and Enterococcus gallinarum with minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) in 128-1024 μg/ml range seem to be promising. Up-SMetOH also exerted strong inhibition against Clavibacter michiganensis with a considerably low MIC (32 μg/ml). Ud-SMetOH and Up-LMetOH were also effective against C. michiganensis (MIC = 256 and 1024 μg/ml, respectively). Ud-SMetOH and Ud-RMetOH had also antimicrobial activity against Xanthomonas vesicatoria (MIC = 512 and 1024 μg/ml, respectively). Results presented here demonstrate high-antibacterial activity of U. pilulifera extracts and U. dioica seed extract against phytopathogens for the first time, and provide the most comprehensive data on the antibacterial activity screening of U. pilulifera against food-borne pathogens. Considering limitations in plant disease control, antibacterial activities of these extracts would be of agricultural importance.

  15. Ralstonia (Pseudomonas) solanacearum race 3 (biovar 2) in surface water and natural weed hosts: First report on stinging nettle (Urtica dioica)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wenneker, M.; Verdel, M.S.W.; Groeneveld, R.M.W.; Kempenaar, C.; Beuningen, van A.R.; Janse, J.D.

    1999-01-01

    The population dynamics of the brown rot bacterium Ralstonia (Pseudomonas) solanacearum in surface water of two selected water-areas were monitored over a two-year period. In some cases during summer, high bacterial numbers (up to 106 cfu l−1) were observed. In a host plant survey a few plants of

  16. Cytotoxic effects of Urtica dioica radix on human colon (HT29) and gastric (MKN45) cancer cells mediated through oxidative and apoptotic mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghasemi, S; Moradzadeh, M; Mousavi, S H; Sadeghnia, H R

    2016-10-15

    Defects in the apoptotic pathways are responsible for both the colorectal cancer pathogenesis and resistance to therapy. In this study, we examined the level of cellular oxidants, cytotoxicity and apoptosis induced by hydroalcoholic extract of U. dioica radix (0-2000 µg/mL) and oxaliplatin (0-1000 µg/mL, as positive control) in human gastric (MKN45) and colon (HT29) cancer, as well as normal human foreskin fibroblast (HFF) cells. Exposure to U. dioica or oxaliplatin showed a concentration dependent suppression in cell survival with IC50 values of 24.7, 249.9 and 857.5 µg/mL for HT29, MKN45 and HFF cells after 72 h treatment, respectively. ROS formation and lipid peroxidation were also concentration-dependently increased following treatment with U. dioica, similar to oxaliplatin. In addition, the number of apoptotic cells significantly increased concomitantly with concentration of U. dioica as compared with control cells, which is similar to oxaliplatin and serum-deprived cancer cells. In conclusion, the present study demonstrated that U. dioica inhibited proliferation of gastric and colorectal cancer cells while posing no significant toxic effect on normal cells. U. dioica not only increased levels of oxidants, but also induced concomitant increase of apoptosis. The precise signaling pathway by which U. dioica induce apoptosis needs further research.

  17. Habitats and traditional uses of species of Urtica l. in the high basin of Rio Ambato, Tungurahua-Ecuador

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pomboza-Tamaquiza Pablo

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available For hundreds of years the people of peasant and indigenous communities in the Andes have used nettle in the treatment of biological and spiritual diseases, nevertheless their uses are little documented in this particular region. The aim of the study was to register the main species of the genus Urtica L. (nettles, in villages in the upper basin of the river Ambato, Tungurahua Province, Ecuador, their uses and the local knowledge around them. Key informants (natural therapists were selected to perform individual and group interviews. Plant samples were collected at specific places well known by the informants. The samples were preserved, soil samples were taken for analysis of pH and organic matter. Traditional uses of each species and the characteristics of the informants were documented. The results show that there are four species of nettles, three natives (U. flabellata, U. leptophylla and U. magellanica and one introduced (U. dioica, growing on soils with pH ranges between 6.16 y 7.68 with a mean percentage of organic matter at 12.37%. Each has a preferential use, the permanence and contribution to the local knowledge is discussed.

  18. Serenoa repens associated with Urtica dioica (ProstaMEV) and curcumin and quercitin (FlogMEV) extracts are able to improve the efficacy of prulifloxacin in bacterial prostatitis patients: results from a prospective randomised study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Tommaso; Mazzoli, Sandra; Bechi, Adriano; Addonisio, Patrizia; Mondaini, Nicola; Pagliai, Roberto Castricchi; Bartoletti, Riccardo

    2009-06-01

    We report the results of a prospective randomised study to evaluate the therapeutic effect of Serenoa repens, Urtica dioica (ProstaMEV), quercitin and curcumin (FlogMEV) extracts associated with prulifloxacin in patients affected by chronic bacterial prostatitis (CBP). From a whole population of 284 patients, 143 patients affected by CBP [National Institutes of Health (NIH) class II prostatitis] were enrolled. All patients received prulifloxacin 600 mg daily for 14 days, in accordance with antibiogram results. Patients were split into two groups: Group A received prulifloxacin associated with ProstaMEV and FlogMEV; Group B received only antibiotic therapy. Microbiological and clinical efficacies were tested by two follow-up visits at 1 month and 6 months, respectively. Quality of life (QoL) was measured using the NIH Chronic Prostatitis Symptom Index (CPSI) and International Prostatic Symptom Score (IPSS) questionnaires. Group A comprised 106 patients and Group B comprised 37 patients. One month after treatment, 89.6% of patients who had received prulifloxacin associated with ProstaMEV and FlogMEV did not report any symptoms related to CBP, whilst only 27% of patients who received antibiotic therapy alone were recurrence-free (P < 0.0001). Significant differences were found between groups in terms of symptoms and QoL (P < 0.0001 for both). Six months after treatment, no patients in Group A had recurrence of disease whilst two patients in Group B did. Questionnaire results demonstrated statistically significant differences between groups (all P < 0.001). The association of S. repens, U. dioica (ProstaMEV), quercitin and curcumin (FlogMEV) extracts is able to improve the clinical efficacy of prulifloxacin in patients affected by CBP.

  19. Functioning of Plantago major and Urtica dioica exposed to elevated CO{sub 2}. Analysis of growth pattern in relation to C and N allocation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Den Hertog, J.

    1997-12-31

    The first part of this thesis deals with the growth response of P. major and U. dioica to a doubling of the ambient CO2 concentration grown with free access to nutrients (chapters 2 and 3). The questions, how relative growth rate (RGR) and other growth variables of wild plants are affected by elevated CO2 and what time course CO2 effects on the various growth variables have, are dealt with in chapter 2 for P. major. This analysis is extended to the relationship between the C and N metabolism in P. major and U. dioica, as affected by the CO2 concentration, in chapter 3. Chapter 4 focuses on the response of P. major to a combination of elevated CO2 and a growth-limiting dose of N. The analysis includes all factors needed to calculate a carbon balance, as well as data on nonstructural carbohydrates and total nitrogen concentrations. The use of fixed exponential addition rates for the supply of nitrate allows to establish relationships between growth variables and total plant nitrogen concentration (N), without interference of differences in plant size, such as often occurs in studies on growth under nutrient-limited conditions. The data from chapter 4 are used in a model study to evaluate the impact of the mode of nutrient limitation, as used in many studies, on the effect of elevated CO2, in combination with nutrient limitation, on plant growth. This chapter elucidates pitfalls in the experimental setup that are often overlooked and indicates possible causes for discrepancies between various studies concerned with the allocation of dry matter in relation to the CO2 treatment. The effect of an increase of the atmospheric CO2 concentration on the rate of respiration has caused controversy over the last ten years. Data on root respiration are presented in chapter 6. The data are related to possible effects of elevated CO, on the degree of stimulation of the RGR and on the concentration of nonstructural carbohydrates. A possible role for CO2 effects on cytochrome and

  20. Finding of No Significant Impact: SLC-4 to SLC-6 Replacement Waterline Vandenberg Air Force Base, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-07-28

    marianum). stinging nettle ( Urtica dioica ). poison hemlock (Conium maculatum). poison oak and introduced grasses dominate the understory. This site is...Hedge nettle * Toxicodendron diversi lobum Poison oak * * * Urtica dioica Stinging nettle * T’erbena californica California vervain * 1...Action. 2) the existing. environmental conditions. and 3) likely effects of the proposed and alternative actions on the natural and human environments

  1. Albino Farelerde Paraben Toksisitesine Karşı Urtica Dioica L. (Urticaceae Özütünün Koruyucu Rolünün Araştırılması

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emine YALÇIN

    2016-09-01

    . Nettle extract selected as protective agent against the toxic effects of HBA and the Nettle extract applied to all treatment groups in two dosage. In this scope, mice were  divided into six groups, each containing 6 mice (Mus musculus, 12–14 week, 25–30 g. In experimental period, group I treated with tap water, group II treated with 125 mg/kg.bw nettle extract, group III treated with 250 mg/kg.bw nettle extract, group IV treated with 150 mg/kg.bw HBA, group V treated with 125 mg/kg.bw nettle extract+ 150 mg/kg.bw HBA, group VI treated with 250 mg/kg.bw nettle extract+ 150 mg/kg.bw HBA. At the end of the experiment, blood samples were collected and then the serum samples were obtained. Alanine transaminase (ALT, Aspartate transaminase (AST, Blood urea nitrogen (BUN and creatinine parameters were investigated in serum samples. Liver and kidney tissues were isolated and then MDA, GSH analysis were performed. As a result of the study, important alterations were observed in ALT, AST, BUN and creatinine levels of HBA treated group. These changes can be explained by potential toxic effects of HBA on cells. MDA levels of HBA treated group were increased and GSH levels were decreased. Some ameliorations were observed in all tested parameters in nettle extract and HBA treated groups compared to HBA treated group. These results demonstrate the protective effect of nettle extract against the toxicity of HBA.Keyword: Paraben, Nettle extract, AST, ALT

  2. Environ: E00795 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available E00795 Nettle Stinging nettle Medicinal herb Quercetin [CPD:C00389], Rutin [CPD:C05...ticaceae Nettle leaves Medicinal herbs [BR:br08322] Dicot plants: rosids Urticaceae (nettle family) E00795 Nettle ... ...PD:C00388] [DR:D08040], Serotonin [CPD:C00780], Choline [CPD:C00114] [DR:D07690] Urtica dioica [TAX:3501] Ur

  3. Prehistory of the Little Blue River Valley, Western Missouri: Archaeological Investigations at Blue Springs Lake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-01-01

    readily observed (Table 4), the most common including Urtica dioica, Impatiens capensis , and Ambrosia trifida. Table 4. Plant species common to the...lupulus (hops) fall Impatiens capensis (jewellweed) summer Phytolacca americana (pokeweed) summer Urtica dioica (nettle) summer Along the banks of the river

  4. Assessment of Antidermatophytic Activities of Urtica dioica L against ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The dorsum of the guinea pigs was infected with M. canis and topically treated as follows: negative control (NC) received no treatment; positive control (PC) received terbinafine 1 %; DMSO group ... PC and SN30% groups showed normal hair growth on day 15 while their skin looked healthy on day 30 post-inoculation.

  5. Ekstrakcija polifenola iz korijena biljke Urtica dioica L.

    OpenAIRE

    Paić-Karega, Matea

    2017-01-01

    Cilj ovog istraţivanja bio je usporediti različite metode ekstrakcije polifenola iz korijena koprive te prinose fenolnih spojeva u ovisnosi o primijenjenim metodama i uvjetima ekstrakcije UsporeĎivane su Soxhlet ekstrakcija te ekstrakcija superkritičnim CO2 Za Soxhlet ekstrakciju kao otapala su korišteni 96%-tni etanol te n-heksan kako bi se prikazao i utjecaj odabira otapala na prinos ekstrakcije. Soxhlet ekstrakcijom uz primjenu 96%-tnog etanola prinos polifenola iznosio je 14,14%, dok je p...

  6. Plant fertilization interacts with life history: variation in stoichiometry and performance in nettle-feeding butterflies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hélène Audusseau

    Full Text Available Variation in food stoichiometry affects individual performance and population dynamics, but it is also likely that species with different life histories should differ in their sensitivity to food stoichiometry. To address this question, we investigated the ability of the three nettle-feeding butterflies (Aglais urticae, Polygonia c-album, and Aglais io to respond adaptively to induced variation in plant stoichiometry in terms of larval performance. We hypothesized that variation in larval performance between plant fertilization treatments should be functionally linked to species differences in host plant specificity. We found species-specific differences in larval performance between plant fertilization treatments that could not be explained by nutrient limitation. We showed a clear evidence of a positive correlation between food stoichiometry and development time to pupal stage and pupal mass in A. urticae. The other two species showed a more complex response. Our results partly supported our prediction that host plant specificity affects larval sensitivity to food stoichiometry. However, we suggest that most of the differences observed may instead be explained by differences in voltinism (number of generations per year. We believe that the potential of some species to respond adaptively to variation in plant nutrient content needs further attention in the face of increased eutrophication due to nutrient leakage from human activities.

  7. Plant fertilization interacts with life history: variation in stoichiometry and performance in nettle-feeding butterflies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Audusseau, Hélène; Kolb, Gundula; Janz, Niklas

    2015-01-01

    Variation in food stoichiometry affects individual performance and population dynamics, but it is also likely that species with different life histories should differ in their sensitivity to food stoichiometry. To address this question, we investigated the ability of the three nettle-feeding butterflies (Aglais urticae, Polygonia c-album, and Aglais io) to respond adaptively to induced variation in plant stoichiometry in terms of larval performance. We hypothesized that variation in larval performance between plant fertilization treatments should be functionally linked to species differences in host plant specificity. We found species-specific differences in larval performance between plant fertilization treatments that could not be explained by nutrient limitation. We showed a clear evidence of a positive correlation between food stoichiometry and development time to pupal stage and pupal mass in A. urticae. The other two species showed a more complex response. Our results partly supported our prediction that host plant specificity affects larval sensitivity to food stoichiometry. However, we suggest that most of the differences observed may instead be explained by differences in voltinism (number of generations per year). We believe that the potential of some species to respond adaptively to variation in plant nutrient content needs further attention in the face of increased eutrophication due to nutrient leakage from human activities.

  8. Chlorophyll catabolites in the frass of the Small Tortoiseshell caterpillars (Aglais urticae L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B Amarsanaa

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Herbivorous insects excrete most of the consumed chlorophyll as partly degraded derivatives lacking the phytol side chain and the central magnesium ion. To study common degradation patterns of chlorophyll in plant-feeding insects, the frass of the Lepidopteran caterpillar, Aglais urticae was analysed for chlorophyll catabolites. The major metabolites were determined as pheohorbide a and pyropheophorbide a by using LC-MS, LC-SPE-NMR and UV. These compounds are not present in fresh leaves of the food plants (Urtica dioica. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5564/mjc.v14i0.198 Mongolian Journal of Chemistry 14 (40, 2013, p46-50

  9. Model of two infectious diseases in nettle caterpillar population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Firdausi, F. Z.; Nuraini, N.

    2016-04-01

    Palm oil is a vital commodity to the economy of Indonesia. The area of oil palm plantations in Indonesia has increased from year to year. However, the effectiveness of palm oil production is reduced by pest infestation. One of the pest which often infests oil palm plantations is nettle caterpillar. The pest control used in this study is biological control, viz. biological agents given to oil palm trees. This paper describes a mathematical model of two infectious diseases in nettle caterpillar population. The two infectious diseases arise due to two biological agents, namely Bacillus thuringiensis bacterium and parasite which usually attack nettle caterpillars. The derivation of the model constructed in this paper is obtained from ordinary differential equations without time delay. The equilibrium points are analyzed. Two of three equilibrium points are stable if the Routh-Hurwitz criteria are fulfilled. In addition, this paper also presents the numerical simulation of the model which has been constructed.

  10. Análisis de la problemática de los pesticidas en el cultivo de frutilla (Fragaria dioica), al norte de la Provincia de Pichincha 2012.

    OpenAIRE

    Castillo Jumbo, Diego Saúl

    2013-01-01

    Los sectores Cusubamba, Ascázubi, El Quinche, Checa, Yaruquí, Tababela y Pifo se dedican en forma intensiva a la producción de frutilla (Fragaria dioica) los que consta de 112 productores que poseen 119,02 hectáreas, afectando como principal plaga Tetranichus urticae y enfermedades Botrytis cinerea utilizando básicamente pesticidas químicos sintéticos, en cantidades de 8053 litros y 7166 kilogramos al año, de estos son extremadamente tóxicos Carbofuran y Metamidophos que se encuentran prohibi...

  11. Final Stormwater Control and Devices Environmental Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-08-18

    wood nettle (Laportea canadensis), stinging nettle ( Urtica dioica ), and beggar ticks (Bidens frondosa) (Grand Forks AFB, 2003). The slopes of the...the water quality of the receiving waters. The proposed flow control structures would effectively reduce the potential impact of discharges from the...Alternative 2, and the No Action Alternative. Feasible alternatives should be low cost so they can be built with available funding; effectively control

  12. Environmental Assessment: Construct Access Road Pave Contractor’s Row Gravel SNG Plant Road Spur at Grand Forks AFB, North Dakota

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-08-11

    common in the under story in this area. Wood nettle (Laportea canadensis), stinging nettle ( Urtica dioica ), beggars’ ticks (Bidens frondosa), and...and the No Action Alternative were analyzed in the EA. The EA also addresses the potential cumulative effects of the associated construction activities...minor positive effect on the local economy. Secondary retail purchases would make an additional contribution to the local communities. The

  13. Environmental Assessment: Construct Miscellaneous Services Recreation Area at Grand Forks AFB, North Dakota

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-03-15

    woodsii) are common in the understory in this area. Wood nettle (Laportea canadensis), stinging nettle ( Urtica dioica ), beggars’ ticks (Bidens frondosa...in the EA. The EA also addresses the potential cumulative effects ofthe associated construction activities along with other concurrent actions at...Alternative were analyzed in the EA. The EA also addresses the potential cumulative effects ofthe associated construction activities along with other

  14. Environmental Assessment Deicer Recovery at Grand Forks AFB, North Dakota

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-12-15

    wood rose (Rosa woodsii) are common in the under story in this area. Wood nettle (Laportea canadensis), stinging nettle ( Urtica dioica ), beggars...Action, the Alternative Actions and the No Action Alternative were analyzed in the EA. The EA also addresses the potential cumulative effects of the...positive effect on the local economy. Secondary retail purchases would make an additional contribution to the local communities. The implementation of the

  15. Environmental Assessment: Building Addition Building 233 at Grand Forks AFB, North Dakota

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-03-22

    Rosa woodsii) are common in the understory in this area. Wood nettle (Laportea 29 canadensis), stinging nettle ( Urtica dioica ), beggars’ ticks...soil erosion, and promote the establishment of native plant species. Socioeconomic Resources - This action would have a minor positive effect on...cumulative effects of the associated construction activities along with other concurrent actions at Grand Forks AFB and the surrounding area. 15

  16. Identification and characterization of a novel legume-like lectin ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    logical research (Pinto et al. 2009). Many lectins are useful for viral inhibitors, such as N-acetylglucosamine-binding lectin extracted from the stinging nettle root of Urtica dioica, which has displayed pronounced antiviral properties (Shibuya et al. 1986). Also, mannose-binding lectins, such as cyanovirin-N derived from the ...

  17. Eskişehir'de Halk Arasında Kullanılan Bazı Bitkilerdeki Ağır Metal ve Besin Elementlerinin Belirlenmesi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hale SEÇİLMİŞ CANBAY

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the leaves of sheep sorrel (Rumex acetosella L, nettle (Urtica dioica L, rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis L. and walnut (Juglansregia L. that are used as medicinal plant and especially as food were collected from the gardens and their commercial samples were purchased from Eskişehir bazaar

  18. Environmental Assessment of Construction of a Security Perimeter Road and Fence at Grand Forks AFB, North Dakota

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-04-01

    canadensis), stinging nettle ( Urtica dioica ), beggars-ticks (Bidens frondosa), and waterleaf (Hydrophyllum viginianum) are typical forbs (319 CES/CEV...Air Mobility Command APE Area of Potential Effect AQCR Air Quality Control Region ARPA Archeological Resources Protection Act AT/FP Anti-Terrorism...4-13 LIST OF TABLES TABLE PAGE Table 5-1. Cumulative Effects to Resources

  19. Nettle as a distinct Bronze Age textile plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergfjord, C; Mannering, U; Frei, K M; Gleba, M; Scharff, A B; Skals, I; Heinemeier, J; Nosch, M-L; Holst, B

    2012-01-01

    It is generally assumed that the production of plant fibre textiles in ancient Europe, especially woven textiles for clothing, was closely linked to the development of agriculture through the use of cultivated textile plants (flax, hemp). Here we present a new investigation of the 2800 year old Lusehøj Bronze Age Textile from Voldtofte, Denmark, which challenges this assumption. We show that the textile is made of imported nettle, most probably from the Kärnten-Steiermark region, an area which at the time had an otherwise established flax production. Our results thus suggest that the production of woven plant fibre textiles in Bronze Age Europe was based not only on cultivated textile plants but also on the targeted exploitation of wild plants. The Lusehøj find points to a hitherto unrecognized role of nettle as an important textile plant and suggests the need for a re-evaluation of textile production resource management in prehistoric Europe.

  20. De novo transcriptome assembly of heavy metal tolerant Silene dioica

    OpenAIRE

    Cegan, Radim; Hudzieczek, Vojtech; Hobza, Roman

    2017-01-01

    Silene dioica is a dioecious plant of the family Caryophyllaceae. In the present study, we used Illumina sequencing technology (MiSeq) to sequence, de novo assembly and annotate the transcriptomes of male and female copper tolerant S. dioica individuals. We sequenced the normalized mRNA of roots, shoots, flower buds and flowers for each sex. Raw reads of the transcriptome assembly project for S. dioica male and female individual have been deposited in NCBI's Sequence Read Archive (SRA) databa...

  1. Evaluation of a root extract gel from Urtica dioica (Urticaceae) as ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The gel exhibited pseudoplastic rheology, as evidenced by shear thinning with increased shear rate. It was non-irritating to the skin in primary skin irritation test in mice and showed 55.05 % inhibition of paw edema in a carrageenan-induced hind rat paw edema model, comparable to that of the standard gel (53.93 %), after ...

  2. Potentiële ziekten en plagen in brandnetel (Urtica dioica) : een beknopt literatuur overzicht

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alebeek, van F.A.N.

    2006-01-01

    Wilde brandnetelvegetaties vormen een biotoop waarin grote aantallen verschillende insecten zich thuis voelen. Slechts een paar soorten bereiken dichtheden die leiden tot zware aantasting van de planten. Het zou kunnen dat bij grootschalige teelten van geselecteerde brandnetelklonen, en door de

  3. Eenhuizigheid en sex-ratio bij Grote brandnetel (Urtica dioica L.)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heemskerk, Martin; Oliehoek, Jan; Jong, de Tom

    1998-01-01

    Bloeiende planten zijn over het algemeen hermafrodiet (elke bloem heeft zowel mannelijke als vrouwelijke delen). Er zijn echter ook eenhuizige (aparte mannelijke en vrouwelijke bloemen op één individu) en tweehuizige planten (aparte mannelijke en vrouwelijke individuen). Tweehuizige planten zijn het

  4. Evaluation of a root extract gel from Urtica dioica (Urticaceae) as ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    prostatic hyperplasia and other androgen- and estrogen-sensitive conditions. UD agglutinin. (UDA), a heat- and acid-resistant lectin found primarily in its root, induces a pattern of T lymphocyte activity not seen with any other known plant lectin [22]. UDA appears to prevent the formation of a systemic lupus erythematosus-.

  5. Effect of Extract of Aerial Parts of Urtica dioica (Urticaceae) on the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    and 800 ppm), BHA and BHT (100 and 200 ppm) were separately added to soybean oil and stored in the oven (60±1 °C) for 25 ... cancer patients [10]. Lipid peroxidation is an important reaction that causes deterioration in food during storage and processing. It not only causes loss in food quality but also is believed to be ...

  6. De novo transcriptome assembly of heavy metal tolerant Silene dioica

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Čegan, R.; Hudzieczek, V.; Hobza, Roman

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 11, MAR (2017), s. 118-119 ISSN 2213-5960 Institutional support: RVO:61389030 Keywords : genome * Silene dioica * RNA-Seq * Transcriptome * Heavy metal tolerance * Sex chromosomes Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology

  7. Biochemically Investigation of the Effects of Nettle Seed Herbal Mixture on Alcohol Damaged Liver

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. ÇELİK

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available It was experimentally investigated in this research how protective Nettle Seed Herbal Mixture is against ethanol which causes oxidative stress in rats and causes toxic effects in the liver with chronic use. 20 4-month-old female Wistar male rats were used in the study. All rats in the study were fed with normal pellet Mouse food during the experiment. 10 week application was done by dividing the rats into four equal groups. Application method is orally drinking method. First group is the control group. The second group is the alcohol group. This group was given 30% ethanol in order to cause chronic alcoholisms. The third group was the alcohol+ Nettle Seed Herbal Mixture group and the rats in this group were given liquid, which was 30% ethanol,+ Nettle Seed Herbal Mixture extract. Fourth group was Nettle Seed Herbal Mixture extract group and the rats in this group were given liquid, which was Nettle Seed Herbal Mixture extract. At the end of ten weeks, within the first 24 hours, blood species were obtained from the animals under anesthesia using appropriate techniques. Serum ALT and AST values of the obtained blood samples were studied by enzymatic methods in "Roche Cobas 6000" device.. Biochemically ALT and AST enzyme values and statistical analysis with SPSS programe were done. No significant difference was found between these four groups at the end of the analysis because p value was bigger than 0,005.

  8. Two-stage agglomeration of fine-grained herbal nettle waste

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obidziński, Sławomir; Joka, Magdalena; Fijoł, Olga

    2017-10-01

    This paper compares the densification work necessary for the pressure agglomeration of fine-grained dusty nettle waste, with the densification work involved in two-stage agglomeration of the same material. In the first stage, the material was pre-densified through coating with a binder material in the form of a 5% potato starch solution, and then subjected to pressure agglomeration. A number of tests were conducted to determine the effect of the moisture content in the nettle waste (15, 18 and 21%), as well as the process temperature (50, 70, 90°C) on the values of densification work and the density of the obtained pellets. For pre-densified pellets from a mixture of nettle waste and a starch solution, the conducted tests determined the effect of pellet particle size (1, 2, and 3 mm) and the process temperature (50, 70, 90°C) on the same values. On the basis of the tests, we concluded that the introduction of a binder material and the use of two-stage agglomeration in nettle waste densification resulted in increased densification work (as compared to the densification of nettle waste alone) and increased pellet density.

  9. Organic parasite control for poultry and rabbits in British Columbia, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Plants used for treating endo- and ectoparasites of rabbits and poultry in British Columbia included Arctium lappa (burdock), Artemisia sp. (wormwood), Chenopodium album (lambsquarters) and C. ambrosioides (epazote), Cirsium arvense (Canada thistle), Juniperus spp. (juniper), Mentha piperita (peppermint), Nicotiana sp. (tobacco), Papaver somniferum (opium poppy), Rubus spp. (blackberry and raspberry relatives), Symphytum officinale (comfrey), Taraxacum officinale (common dandelion), Thuja plicata (western redcedar) and Urtica dioica (stinging nettle). PMID:21756341

  10. Organic parasite control for poultry and rabbits in British Columbia, Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Turner Nancy

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Plants used for treating endo- and ectoparasites of rabbits and poultry in British Columbia included Arctium lappa (burdock, Artemisia sp. (wormwood, Chenopodium album (lambsquarters and C. ambrosioides (epazote, Cirsium arvense (Canada thistle, Juniperus spp. (juniper, Mentha piperita (peppermint, Nicotiana sp. (tobacco, Papaver somniferum (opium poppy, Rubus spp. (blackberry and raspberry relatives, Symphytum officinale (comfrey, Taraxacum officinale (common dandelion, Thuja plicata (western redcedar and Urtica dioica (stinging nettle.

  11. Programmatic Environmental Assessment, 2007 General Plan for the Main Cantonment and the South Base Cantonment at Vandenberg Air Force Base, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-05-05

    a dense, low, closed-canopy, broad- leafed , winter-deciduous riparian forest dominated by arroyo willow (Salix lasiolepis), which can grow as a tree...Wild blackberry (Rubus ursinus), mugwort (Artemisia douglasiana), and stinging nettle (Urtica dioica) are common understory components of...effusus), and toad rush (Juncus bufonius). Sword-leaved rush (Juncus ensifolius), and sickle- leaf rush (Juncus falcatus) may dominate where moisture

  12. Environmental Assessment Beddown of NASA DC-8 at Grand Forks Air Force Base, Grand Forks, North Dakota

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-09-01

    stinging nettle ( Urtica dioica ), and beggar ticks (Bidens frondosa) (Grand Forks AFB 2003). Final Environmental Assessment September 2004 3-5...Environmental Assessment describes alternatives and impacts to the environment. The FONSI describes why the project would not have a significant effect on the...anticipated direct and indirect effects were assessed, considering both short- and long-tenn project impacts. The following paragraph summarizes the

  13. Detailed Project Report for Section 205 Flood Control Project. Dry Run Creek, Fayette County, Oelwein, Iowa with Environmental Assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-06-01

    stinging nettle ( Urtica dioica ), ragweed (Ambrosia sp.), common and swamp milkweed (Asclepias syriaca and Asclepias incarnata), and goldenrod (Solidago...the 5- and 10-year flood events, a backwater effect is created by the twin box culvert under the C&NW Railroad tracks near Second Avenue SW. This...backwater effect extends upstream to a commercial business parking lot located between First Avenue NW. and North Frederick Avenue. Modification of this

  14. Report on Flood Control Alternatives, Crow River at Rockford, Minnesota.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1975-09-01

    millefolium. FF,M A Nettle Urtica dioica H C Cord grass Spartina pectinata FF C RegasElymus canadensis M C Burdock Arctium. minus FH, EF C -Cocklebur...measure the effectiveness of the other alternative solutions. The alternative solutions investigated included the following: Nonstructural No action...the Prenaration of an appropriate floodplain zoning ordinance. This ordinance should be effective in meeting the oblective of reducing the potential

  15. An Assessment of Water Quality Impacts of Maintenance Dredging on the Upper Mississippi River in 1978.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-01-01

    nigra). The understory vege- tation is typical of floodplain islands. The sparse ground cover is dominated by nettle ( Urtica dioica ) and poison ivy...the Upper Mississippi River. DREDGING STUDIES ON THE UPPER MISSISSIPPI RIVER A very limited number of studies are available on the effects of...produced no measurable effects on any of these variables. However, the author did speculate about the reasons for the negligible impacts: the small dredging

  16. Determination of Presence and Habitat Suitability for the Indiana Bat (Myotis sodalis) and Gray Bat (Myotis grisescens) for the Pine Ford Study Area, Jefferson, Washington, St. Louis and Franklin Counties, Missouri,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-01-01

    of poison ivy (Rhus radicans) and stinging nettle ( Urtica dioica ). All permanently flowing tributaries within the study area, as well as several...located that were narrow in width and shallow in depth. 4 J,0 When possible, areas of the stream were also chosen where trees created a tunnel-like effect ...to approximate 100 percent cover between riparian canopies in order to create a tunnel-like effect so that virtually all bats passing through the fly

  17. Organic parasite control for poultry and rabbits in British Columbia, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lans, Cheryl; Turner, Nancy

    2011-07-14

    Plants used for treating endo- and ectoparasites of rabbits and poultry in British Columbia included Arctium lappa (burdock), Artemisia sp. (wormwood), Chenopodium album (lambsquarters) and C. ambrosioides (epazote), Cirsium arvense (Canada thistle), Juniperus spp. (juniper), Mentha piperita (peppermint), Nicotiana sp. (tobacco), Papaver somniferum (opium poppy), Rubus spp. (blackberry and raspberry relatives), Symphytum officinale (comfrey), Taraxacum officinale (common dandelion), Thuja plicata (western redcedar) and Urtica dioica (stinging nettle). © 2011 Lans and Turner; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.

  18. Immunochromatography and cardiotoxicity of sea nettle (Chrysaora quinquecirrha) polyps and cysts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olson, C E; Cargo, D G; Calton, G J; Burnett, J W

    1985-01-01

    The cardiotoxicity and polypeptide content of sea nettle (Chrysaora quinquecirrha) polyps and cysts were studied. Crude polyp preparations were lethal to mice. Both crude polyp and cyst preparations were toxic to embryonic chick cardiocytes. The polyp cardiotoxin factor was purified ten-fold by immunosorbent chromatography using anti-sea nettle or anti-man-o'war (Physalia physalis) monoclonal antibodies. Even though the polyps were incubated at a constant temperature, it appeared that there was an inverse relationship between the presence of proteins of 160,000 and 55,000 mol. wt as winter progressed.

  19. One step method of plantlet regeneration in Trichosanthes dioica ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In order to reduce the cost and time of in vitro raised plants of Trichosanthes dioica Roxb., a minimal medium has been formulated by substituting costly growth regulators from the medium with a cost effective constituent, the coconut milk. A semisolid Murashige and Skoogs's medium supplemented exclusively with 15% ...

  20. Anithyperglycemic activity of Momordica dioica fruits in alloxan ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The chloroform, ethyl acetate and alcohol extracts of Momordica dioica fruit have been tested for their anti-diabetic activity in alloxan-induced diabetic rats following an identified use of the plant as anti-diabetic in traditional medicine. The ethyl acetate and ethanol showed significant antidiabetic activity at a dose of 200 ...

  1. Molecular mechanisms of Tetranychus urticae chemical adaptation in hop fields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piraneo, Tara G; Bull, Jon; Morales, Mariany A; Lavine, Laura C; Walsh, Douglas B; Zhu, Fang

    2015-12-01

    The two-spotted spider mite, Tetranychus urticae Koch is a major pest that feeds on >1,100 plant species. Many perennial crops including hop (Humulus lupulus) are routinely plagued by T. urticae infestations. Hop is a specialty crop in Pacific Northwest states, where 99% of all U.S. hops are produced. To suppress T. urticae, growers often apply various acaricides. Unfortunately T. urticae has been documented to quickly develop resistance to these acaricides which directly cause control failures. Here, we investigated resistance ratios and distribution of multiple resistance-associated mutations in field collected T. urticae samples compared with a susceptible population. Our research revealed that a mutation in the cytochrome b gene (G126S) in 35% tested T. urticae populations and a mutation in the voltage-gated sodium channel gene (F1538I) in 66.7% populations may contribute resistance to bifenazate and bifenthrin, respectively. No mutations were detected in Glutamate-gated chloride channel subunits tested, suggesting target site insensitivity may not be important in our hop T. urticae resistance to abamectin. However, P450-mediated detoxification was observed and is a putative mechanism for abamectin resistance. Molecular mechanisms of T. urticae chemical adaptation in hopyards is imperative new information that will help growers develop effective and sustainable management strategies.

  2. Study of anticancer and antibacterial activities of Foeniculum vulgare, Justicia adhatoda and Urtica dioica as natural curatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batool, R; Salahuddin, H; Mahmood, T; Ismail, M

    2017-09-30

    High-throughput technologies, such as synthetic biology and genomics have paved new paths for discovery and utility of medicinally beneficial plants. Bioactive molecules isolated from different plants have significantly higher biological activities. The present study was done to analyze antibacterial potential of some medicinal plants against multi drug resistant (MDR) pathogens and anticancer effect against MCF-7 cell line. Methanolic and ethanolic extracts were tested for their antibacterial activity by disc diffusion method against six MDR bacterial strains and for cytotoxicity evaluation by MTT assay. Ethanolic extracts of the three tested plants exhibited growth inhibitory effect against Klebsiella pneumonia, Serratia marcescens and Methicillin-resistant S. aureus. Pseudomonas aeruginosa was more resistant to all extracts as its growth was least inhibited by the extracts of all tested plants. Ethanol extract of Foeniculum vulgare exhibited significant inhibition of cancer cells proliferation. Methanol extract of Justicia adhatoda also showed considerable inhibition of cancer cells. Future studies must converge on detailed investigation of modes of action of extracts of tested plants.

  3. Tetranychus urticae allergy in a population without occupational exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, N; Iraola, V; Plácido, J L

    2014-07-01

    Tetranychus urticae is a phytophagus mite found in the leaves of numerous plants. High sensitization rates have been demonstrated, however, provocation tests have only been performed in an occupational setting. To assess accuracy of skin prick tests and clinical relevance of T. urticae sensitization by means of conjunctival provocation tests (CPT) in a population without occupational exposure and to evaluate possible environmental risk factors for T. urticae allergy. Patients ≥ 18 years old sensitized to T. urticae (n = 12) and a non-sensitized control group (n = 12) were invited to perform CPT with T. urticae and fulfill a questionnaire including demographic data, questions on environmental exposure to T. urticae and allergy symptoms/diagnosis. A single-blinded placebo-controlled CPT with T. urticae (Leti®) was performed with increasing concentrations (0.002, 0.02, 0.2 and 2 mg/mL) and considered positive if conjunctival hyperemia, palpebral edema or lacrimation were observed in the tested eye. Of T. urticae sensitized patients (mean wheal 4.4 ± 1.5 mm), 9 had a positive CPT, including 3 monosensitized. A good diagnostic accuracy was found for skin prick tests: AUC = 0.952, sensitivity = 100%, specificity = 80%, positive likelihood ratio = 5 and negative likelihood ratio = 0 for a 3 mm wheal. No differences were found between allergic and non-allergic subjects regarding atopy, allergic disease or farming activities. A high prevalence of allergy to Tetranychus urticae was found in the north of Portugal. Future studies with a larger number of patients are needed to evaluate its relation to clinical symptoms and the impact of environmental factors.

  4. Developing the technology of mayonnaise sauce with sea urchin caviar, laminaria and nettle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grokhovsky V. A.

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Some aspects of consumer demand on mayonnaise production have been found due to marketing researches. The technology of mayonnaise sauce using such valuable ingredients as sea urchin caviar, laminaria and nettle has been scientifically proved and produced. The formula of the new product composition has been developed; the specimens of such mayonnaise sauce have been made; they have been explored during their storage

  5. Do Tetranychus urticae males avoid mating with familiar females?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshioka, T; Yano, S

    2014-07-01

    The two-spotted spider mite, Tetranychus urticae, usually lives in kin groups under common webs. Because only the first mating results in fertilisation in female T. urticae, adult males guard quiescent deutonymph females, those at the stage immediately before maturation, to ensure paternity. Therefore, the cost of precopulatory guarding time seems considerable for males. Moreover, the fitness indices of daughters from intra-population crosses were significantly lower than those of daughters from inter-population crosses, indicating that inbreeding depression exists in T. urticae. Therefore, we hypothesised that T. urticae males should be choosy in guarding familiar females to avoid inbreeding depression. Furthermore, webs should be a key element of the environment shared by familiar individuals. In this study, we demonstrated the inbreeding avoidance mechanism of T. urticae males in relation to webs produced by familiar females (known webs) or unfamiliar females (unknown webs). Regardless of surrounding webs (known or unknown), males preferred unfamiliar to familiar females. We further examined whether males detect unfamiliar females by their webs. When males had experienced a female's web without encountering that female, they subsequently preferred females that did not produce the surrounding webs in which the choice experiment was conducted. Results suggest that putative kin recognition for inbreeding avoidance in T. urticae males is based on the relationship between webs and females, and not on the discrimination of webs in shared environments. © 2014. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  6. Acaricide resistance in Tetranychus urticae (Acari: Tetranychidae) populations from Cyprus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vassiliou, Vassilis A; Kitsis, Pavlos

    2013-08-01

    Five field and greenhouse populations of the twospotted spider mite, Tetranychus urticae Koch (Acari: Tetranychidae), were collected from five different districts across the island of Cyprus, both in field and greenhouse crops, and tested to determine levels of resistance. Standard leaf-disk spray application bioassay procedures were used to determine the LC50s for five chemicals: abamectin, acrinathrin, fenazaquin, pirimiphos methyl, and bifenazate. Selection of these compounds was based on the widespread use by farmers as well as on the frequent control failures against T. urticae reported in the past. Resistance of T. urticae was detected to abamectin, acrinathrin, fenazaquin, and pirimiphos methyl. The resistance ratios were calculated relative to the German susceptible reference strain. The highest resistance ratios at LC50 value were recorded for abamectin in a greenhouse rose population (RR = 3822), followed by a field bean (RR = 1356) and field tomato population (RR = 1320). Significantly high resistance levels were also found for acrinathrin where the highest resistance ratios at LC50 were recorded in a field bean T. urticae population (RR = 903). For fenazaquin, the highest resistance levels were recorded in a field tomato population (RR = 310). Lower resistance levels were found for pirimiphos methyl (13.3 urticae was observed for bifenazate (2.7 urticae populations in indoor and outdoor environments.

  7. Phytochemical, Phytotherapeutical and Pharmacological Study of Momordica dioica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sattya Narayan Talukdar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Momordica dioica is a perennial, dioecious, cucurbitaceous climbing creeper (commonly known as kakrol, spiny gourd or teasle gourd. It is native to Asia with extensive distribution in India and Bangladesh. It is used not only as preventive and curative agent for various diseases but also as vegetable with a significant nutritional value over thousands of years. This review aims to take an attempt to evaluate the phytochemical, ethnobotanical, phytotherapeutical and pharmacological properties of kakrol according to the view of traditional medicinal plant based treatment including ayurveda along with recent scientific observations. Kakrol is considered as an underutilized vegetable, although having significant presence of certain compounds containing higher nutritional value than many frequently consumed vegetables. Moreover, as a traditional medicinal plant, it is still potential for its phytochemical components that increase the demand of further extensive evaluation to justify its other therapeutical roles. Therefore, this effort will be helpful to researchers who interested to disclose the unjustified phytotherapeutical role of Momordica dioica.

  8. Structural Characterization of a Eukaryotic Cyanase from Tetranychus urticae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlachter, Caleb R; Klapper, Vincent; Wybouw, Nicky; Radford, Taylor; Van Leeuwen, Thomas; Grbic, Miodrag; Chruszcz, Maksymilian

    2017-07-12

    The two-spotted spider mite Tetranychus urticae is a polyphagous agricultural pest and poses a high risk to global crop production as it is rapidly developing pesticide resistance. Genomic and transcriptomic analysis has revealed the presence of a remarkable cyanase gene in T. urticae and related mite species within the Acariformes lineage. Cyanase catalyzes the detoxification of cyanate and is potentially an attractive protein target for the development of new acaricides. Phylogenetic analysis indicates that within the Acariformes, the cyanase gene originates from a single horizontal gene transfer event, which precedes subsequent speciation. Our structural studies presented here compare and contrast prokaryotic cyanases to T. urticae cyanase, which all form homodecamers and have conserved active site residues, but display different surface areas between homodimers in the overall decameric structure.

  9. The genome of Tetranychus urticae reveals herbivorous pest adaptations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grbić, Miodrag; Van Leeuwen, Thomas; Clark, Richard M.; Rombauts, Stephane; Rouzé, Pierre; Grbić, Vojislava; Osborne, Edward J.; Dermauw, Wannes; Ngoc, Phuong Cao Thi; Ortego, Félix; Hernández-Crespo, Pedro; Diaz, Isabel; Martinez, Manuel; Navajas, Maria; Sucena, Élio; Magalhães, Sara; Nagy, Lisa; Pace, Ryan M.; Djuranović, Sergej; Smagghe, Guy; Iga, Masatoshi; Christiaens, Olivier; Veenstra, Jan A.; Ewer, John; Villalobos, Rodrigo Mancilla; Hutter, Jeffrey L.; Hudson, Stephen D.; Velez, Marisela; Yi, Soojin V.; Zeng, Jia; Pires-daSilva, Andre; Roch, Fernando; Cazaux, Marc; Navarro, Marie; Zhurov, Vladimir; Acevedo, Gustavo; Bjelica, Anica; Fawcett, Jeffrey A.; Bonnet, Eric; Martens, Cindy; Baele, Guy; Wissler, Lothar; Sanchez-Rodriguez, Aminael; Tirry, Luc; Blais, Catherine; Demeestere, Kristof; Henz, Stefan R.; Gregory, T. Ryan; Mathieu, Johannes; Verdon, Lou; Farinelli, Laurent; Schmutz, Jeremy; Lindquist, Erika; Feyereisen, René; Van de Peer, Yves

    2016-01-01

    The spider mite Tetranychus urticae is a cosmopolitan agricultural pest with an extensive host plant range and an extreme record of pesticide resistance. Here we present the completely sequenced and annotated spider mite genome, representing the first complete chelicerate genome. At 90 megabases T. urticae has the smallest sequenced arthropod genome. Compared with other arthropods, the spider mite genome shows unique changes in the hormonal environment and organization of the Hox complex, and also reveals evolutionary innovation of silk production. We find strong signatures of polyphagy and detoxification in gene families associated with feeding on different hosts and in new gene families acquired by lateral gene transfer. Deep transcriptome analysis of mites feeding on different plants shows how this pest responds to a changing host environment. The T. urticae genome thus offers new insights into arthropod evolution and plant–herbivore interactions, and provides unique opportunities for developing novel plant protection strategies. PMID:22113690

  10. Physico-chemical and antioxidant properties of two medicinal wild plants grown in Moldova region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sorina Ropciuc

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The major objective of this study is to report physico-chemical (moisture, ash, protein, total phenolic compounds and ascorbic acid and the antioxidant properties of methanol extracts of nettle (Urtica dioica L. and typical romaine spice "leurda" (Allium ursinum, wild garlic fresh and dried. The antioxidant properties of methanol extract of medicinal herbs were evaluated using free radical scavenging test. The phenols were extracted from the medicinal plants with methanol solvent and were quantified by the Folin-Ciocalteu method. The ascorbic acid content varied between 77.94 mg/100g in the fresh Urtica dioica L. and 39.55 from fresh Allium ursinum. The results showed that the total phenolic compounds in all medicinal plants decreased along processing. These results suggest that the medicinal plants sample extract with highest polyphenolic content will indicates the possibility of using them  as ingredients in functional foods.

  11. The antioxidant activity of kombucha fermented milk products with stinging nettle and winter savory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vitas Jasmina S.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the antioxidant activity of fermented milk products obtained by kombucha fermentation. Two starter cultures were used as follows: starter obtained after kombucha fermentation on sweetened stinging nettle extract; as well as starter obtained after kombucha fermentation on sweetened winter savory extract. The starters were added to milk with 0.8, 1.6 and 2.8% milk fat. Fermentation was carried out at 37, 40 and 43oC and stopped when the pH reached 4.5. Antioxidant activity to hydroxyl and DPPH radicals was monitored using response surface methodology. Kombucha fermented milk products with stinging nettle (KSN and with winter savory (KWS showed the same antioxidant response to hydroxyl and different response to DPPH radicals. Synergetic effect of milk fat and fermentation temperature to antioxidant activity to hydroxyl radicals for both types of kombucha fermented milk products (KSN and KWS was established. Optimum processing conditions in term of antioxidant activity are: milk fat around 2.8% and process temperature around 41 and 43°C for KSN and KWS respectively.

  12. A procedure for identifying textile bast fibres using microscopy: Flax, nettle/ramie, hemp and jute

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bergfjord, Christian, E-mail: christian.bergfjord@uib.no [Institute for Physics and Technology, University of Bergen, Allegt. 55, 5007 Bergen (Norway); Holst, Bodil, E-mail: bodil.holst@uib.no [Institute for Physics and Technology, University of Bergen, Allegt. 55, 5007 Bergen (Norway)

    2010-08-15

    Identifying and distinguishing between natural textile fibres is an important task in both archaeology and criminology. Wool, silk and cotton fibres can readily be distinguished from the textile bast fibres flax, nettle/ramie, hemp and jute. Distinguishing between the bast fibres is, however, not easily done and methods based on surface characteristics, chemical composition and cross section size and shape are not conclusive. A conclusive method based on X-ray microdiffraction exists, but as the method requires the use of a synchrotron it is not readily available. In this paper we present a simple procedure for identifying the above mentioned textile bast fibres. The procedure is based on measuring the fibrillar orientation with polarised light microscopy and detecting the presence of calcium oxalate crystals (CaC{sub 2}O{sub 4}) in association with the fibres. To demonstrate the procedure, a series of fibre samples of flax, nettle, ramie, hemp and jute were investigated. The results are presented here. An advantage of the procedure is that only a small amount of fibre material is needed.

  13. Data of furfural adsorption on nano zero valent iron (NZVI synthesized from Nettle extract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehdi Fazlzadeh

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Among various water and wastewater treatment methods, adsorption techniques are widely used to remove certain classes of pollutants due to its unique features. Thus, the aim of this data article is to synthesize zero valent iron nanoparticles (NZVI from Nettle leaf extract by green synthesis method as an environmentally friendly technique, and to evaluate it's efficiency in the removal of furfural from aqueous solutions. The data of possible adsorption mechanism and isotherm of furfural on the synthesized adsorbent are depicted in this data article. The data acquired showed that the adsorption trend follows the pseudo-second order kinetic model and that the Langmuir isotherm was suitable for correlation of equilibrium data with the maximum adsorption capacity of 454.4 mg/g. The information of initial furfural concentration, pH, adsorbent dosage and contact time effects on the removal efficiency are presented. Considering the findings data, the developed nanoparticle from Nettle leaf extract, as a low cost adsorbent, could be considered as promising adsorbent for furfural and probably similar organic pollutants removal from aqueous solutions.

  14. Dioecious species and arbuscular mycorrhizal symbioses: The case of Antennaria dioica

    OpenAIRE

    Vega-Frutis, Rocío; Varga, Sandra; Kytöviita, Minna-Maarit

    2013-01-01

    Sex-specific interactions with herbivores and pollinators have been observed in female and male plants of dioecious species. However, only a limited number of studies have revised sex-specific patterns in mycorrhizal symbiosis. To test whether female and male plants of Antennaria dioica differ in their relationship with arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi, we examined the temporal and spatial variation in AM fungi in female, male and non-reproductive A. dioica plants in three natural population...

  15. Antioxidant and Antibacterial Activity of Kombucha Beverages Prepared using Banana Peel, Common Nettles and Black Tea Infusions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Ebrahimi Pure

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Backgrounds and Objective: Kombucha is a several thousand years old traditional fermented beverage originated from East. While black tea infusion is the common substrate for preparing kombucha, other herbal infusions can be applied for this reason too. Common medicinal herbs or even waste herbal materials, like banana peel, could be suitable substrates for preparing kombucha analogues. In this study, kombuchas were fermented using nettles leaf and banana peel infusions. Materials and Methods: Herbal infusions were fermented by kombucha fungi. Folin-Ciocalteu assay was performed to evaluate total phenolic contents; Free radical scavenging activity was evaluated using 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl. Disk diffusion method was performed to measure inhibitory activity against testing bacteria. All data were statistically analyzed by ANOVA test at significant level of p≤0.05. Results and Conclusion: Black tea contained highest amount of phenolics (530.5 ppm gallic acid equivalent and fermentation decomposed approximately 50% of phenolic contents to 265.5 ppm while phenolic content of nettles infusion and fermented beverage were 173 gAE and 188 gAE respectively and for banana peel, 136.5 gAE and 155 gAE; it indicated increase of phenolic contents due to fermentation that may be cause of protein contents of nettles and banana peel gone under fermentation by lactic acid bacteria. Fermented beverage of three herbs had higher antioxidant potent than infusions. Kombucha from banana peel showed the highest antioxidant activity by inhibiting 94.62% of DPPH. While antioxidant activity of fermented beverages of black tea and nettles leaf were more related to their acetic acid content, it was found that a considerable part of antioxidant activity of banana peel kombucha was due to other acids and phenolics. No antibacterial activity was observed from either of samples. Banana peel, as a waste herbal material, and nettles leaf are good ingredients for being

  16. Antidiabetic Activity of Samma ( Urtica simensis Hochst . ex. A. Rich ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Diabetes mellitus is a major public health problem in the world. According to WHO, the number of diabetics in Ethiopia, is expected to increase from about 800,000 cases in the year 2000 to 1.8 million by 2030. In the traditional health care system of Ethiopia, “Samma” (the leaves of Urtica simensis Hochst. ex. A. Rich.

  17. Resistance in Cucumis sativus L. to Tetranychus urticae Koch

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ponti, de O.M.B.

    1980-01-01


    Chapter 1
    The role of plant breeding and particularly of host plant resistance in integrated control is discussed. Host plant resistance to insects and mites, especially to Tetranychus urticae is reviewed. A standard terminology for disease and pest

  18. Adaptation of acaricide stress facilitates Tetranychus urticae expanding against Tetranychus cinnabarinus in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Wencai; Wang, Mengyao; Xu, Zhifeng; Shen, Guangmao; Wei, Peng; Li, Ming; Reid, William; He, Lin

    2017-02-01

    The two-spotted spider mite, Tetranychus urticae, and the carmine spider mite, Tetranychus cinnabarinus, are invasive and native species in China, respectively. Compared with T. cinnabarinus, T. urticae has expanded into most parts of China and has become the dominant species of spider mite since 1983, when it was first reported in China. However, the mechanism of the demographic conversion has not been illuminated. In this study, one T. urticae field population and one T. cinnabarinus field population were isolated from the same plant in the same field, and the toxicological characteristics were compared between these two species. Laboratory bioassays demonstrated that T. urticae was more tolerant to commonly used acaricides than T. cinnabarinus. The activities of detoxification enzymes were significantly greater in T. urticae, and the fold changes of enzymes activities in T. urticae were also greater following exposure to acaricides. Furthermore, more metabolism-related genes were upregulated at a basal level, and more genes were induced in T. urticae following exposure to acaricides. The comparison of proteins and genes between both species led credence to the hypothesis that T. urticae was more resistant to acaricides, which was the reason explaining the expansion of invasive T. urticae against native T. cinnabarinus. Laboratory simulation experiments demonstrated that following the application of acaricides, the composition of a mixed T. urticae/T. cinnabarinus population would change from a T. cinnabarinus-dominant to a T. urticae-dominant population. This study not only reveals that T. urticae possesses stronger detoxification capacity than its sibling species T. cinnabarinus, which facilitated its persistent expansion in China, but also points to the need to accurately identify Tetranychus species and to develop species-specific management strategies for these pests.

  19. Comparative life table analysis of Tetranychus urticae Koch (Acari: Tetranychidae) on ten rose cultivars

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Golizadeh, Ali; Ghavidel, Samira; Razmjou, Jabraeil; Fathi, Syed Ali Asghar; Hassanpour, Mahdi

    2017-01-01

    .... This study compared population growth parameters of Tetranychus urticae Koch on 10 rose cultivars, including Bella Vita, Cool Water, Dolce Vita, Maroussia, Orange Juice, Pink Promise, Roulette, Tea...

  20. Effects of Hydroalcoholic Nettle Extract on Insulin Sensitivity and Some Inflammatory Indicator in type 2 Diabetic Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Namazi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction & Objective: Diabetes mellitus is a common disease that almost 1.5 million people in Iran are affected, Regarding to the adverse effects of chemical drugs, the tendency to use medicinal plants, among which nettle was chosen to be studied, is growing. In this research the effect of hydroalcoholic extract of nettle on insulin sensitivity and some inflammatory factors in type II diabetic patients were studied.Materials & Methods: A blind randomized clinical trial on 50 men and women with type 2 diabetes; (mean age: 52.39±13.75 was designed to determine the aforementioned effect. Patients were randomly divided into intervention and control groups who received 100 mg/kg, Nettle extract or placebo respectively three times a day for 8 weeks. Fasting Insulin and some inflammatory factors (Interleukin-6 (IL-6, Tumor Necrosis Factor-α (TNF-α, and hsCRP (High Sensitive C-Reactive Protein levels at the beginning and end of the study were measured. Results: IL-6 and hsCRP showed a significant decrease (P <0.05, TNF-α, insulin sensitivity and hsCRP showed no significant change at the end of the study in the intervention group compared to the control. Statistical analysis was performed with SPSS software version 18 and P <0.05 was considered significant for all measurements. Conclusion: The hydroalcoholic extract of nettle showed significant decrease in IL-6 and hsCRP after 2 months of intervention in patients with type 2 diabetes. (Sci J Hamadan Univ Med Sci 2012;18(4:10-14

  1. Dioecious species and arbuscular mycorrhizal symbioses: the case of Antennaria dioica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vega-Frutis, Rocío; Varga, Sandra; Kytöviita, Minna-Maarit

    2013-03-01

    Sex-specific interactions with herbivores and pollinators have been observed in female and male plants of dioecious species. However, only a limited number of studies have revised sex-specific patterns in mycorrhizal symbiosis. To test whether female and male plants of Antennaria dioica differ in their relationship with arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi, we examined the temporal and spatial variation in AM fungi in female, male and non-reproductive A. dioica plants in three natural populations in Finland during flowering and after seed production. Our results are consistent with previous studies both under greenhouse and field conditions with the same species showing differences in AM colonization between the sexes linked with allocation to reproduction. Taken together, the results indicate that there is a sex-specific interaction between A. dioica and AM fungi. Overall, females have a greater investment in AM fungi, likely to enhance their uptake of soil nutrients and support the reproduction by seed.

  2. The effect of verapamil on the cardiotoxic activity of Portuguese man-o'war (Physalia physalis) and sea nettle (Chrysaora quinquecirrha) venoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burnett, J W; Gean, C J; Calton, G J; Warnick, J E

    1985-01-01

    Verapamil, a calcium antagonist, is effective in delaying death in mice after i.v. challenge with sea nettle (Chrysaora quinquecirrha) or Portuguese man-o'war (Physalia physalis) crude venom. Death caused by these venoms could also be delayed by prior medication of the animals. Continuous EKG monitoring of sea nettle venom-challenged rats demonstrated that a single rapid injection of verapamil might require 4 min to be effective and that up to four repeated injections may be necessary to counteract the venom-induced abnormalities. Verapamil reduced the sea nettle venom-induced positive inotropic effect on isolated guinea pig atrial strips. These data further indicate the effectiveness of verapamil as a therapeutic agent against jellyfish cardiotoxins.

  3. Hydroalcoholic extract of Urtica circularis: a neuropharmacological profile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anzoise, María Laura; Marrassini, Carla; Ferraro, Graciela; Gorzalczany, Susana

    2013-10-01

    The genus Urtica has been known since ancient times. It has known to be useful for the treatment of different human ailments. The present work evaluated the neuropharmacological effects of a hydroalcoholic extract of Urtica circularis (Hicken) Sorarú (Urticaceae). materials and method: The effect on central nervous system of U. circularis hydroalcoholic extract (from leaves and stems) administered by the intraperitoneal route in mice was evaluated by several tests: Pentobarbital- and midazolam-induced hypnosis, open field, hole board, elevated plus-maze and forced swimming. Phytochemical analysis was performed by high-performance liquid chromatography. A total of 300 mg/kg i.p. of the extract produced a significant prolongation of pentobarbital- (40 mg/kg i.p.; 60.1 min versus 25.4 min) and midazolam- (50 mg/kg i.v.; 53.4 min versus 25.1 min) induced sleeping time. The extract's administration caused a marked reduction of the head-dipping response (DE50: 373 mg/kg i.p.) in the hole-board test. Urtica circularis extract (DE50: 46 mg/kg i.p.) reduced the spontaneous locomotor activity in the open field test. Flumazenil and atropine significantly antagonized the extract's effect on the locomotor activity. No motor coordination disturbance was observed in the rota rod test at any doses. In the forced swimming test, the extract did not produce any change in the immobility time and it had no significant effects in elevated plus maze test. The phytochemical analysis revealed the presence of chlorogenic acid, vanillic acid, caffeic acid, vicenin-2, p-cumaric acid, ferulic acid, vitexin and isovitexin. This study revealed that U. circularis hydroalcoholic extract possesses sedative activity, facilitating GABAergic and cholinergic transmission.

  4. Lignan and flavonoid glycosides from Urtica laetevirens Maxim.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Yuan; Wang, Wei; Tang, Ling; Yan, Xing-guo; Shi, Li-ying; Wang, Yong-qi; Feng, Bao-min

    2009-01-01

    A new compound named pinoresinol 4-O-alpha-L-rhamnopyranosyl (1-->2)-beta-D-glucopyranoside (1) together with six known compounds, isolariciresinol 9-O-beta-D-glucopyranoside (2), apigenin 6,8-di-C-beta-D-glucopyranoside (3), luteolin 7-O-neohesperidoside (4), luteolin 7-O-beta-D-glucopyranoside (5), 5-methoxyluteolin 7-O-beta-D-glucopyranoside (6), and rutin (7), were isolated from the aerial parts of Urtica laetevirens Maxim. All of the above compounds were isolated from this plant for the first time.

  5. Biological control of Tetranychus urticae by Phytoseiulus macropilis and Macrolophus pygmaeus in tomato greenhouses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gigon, Vincent; Camps, Cédric; Le Corff, Josiane

    2016-01-01

    Biological control against phytophagous arthropods has been widely used under greenhouse conditions. Its success is dependent on a number of factors related to the abiotic conditions and to the interactions between pests and biological control agents. In particular, when multiple predator species are introduced to suppress one pest, competitive interactions might occur, including intraguild predation (IGP). In tomato crops, the spider mite Tetranychus urticae Koch is a very problematic phytophagous mite and its control is not yet satisfactory. In 2012 and 2013, the ability of a potential new predatory mite Phytoseiulus macropilis (Banks) was assessed, alone and in the presence of Macrolophus pygmaeus Rambur. Macrolophus pygmaeus is a polyphagous mirid supposed to predate on P. macropilis. Both years, under greenhouse conditions, the effectiveness of the two predators was compared between the following treatments: T. urticae, T. urticae + P. macropilis, T. urticae + M. pygmaeus, and T. urticae + P. macropilis + M. pygmaeus. The number of arthropods per tomato plant over time indicated that P. macropilis well-controlled the population of T. urticae, whereas M. pygmaeus had a very limited impact. Furthermore, there was no evidence of IGP between the two predators but in the presence of M. pygmaeus, P. macropilis tended to have a more clumped spatial distribution. Further studies should clarify the number and location of inoculation points to optimize the control of T. urticae by P. macropilis.

  6. Maize plants produce direct resistance elicited by Tetranychus urticae Koch (Acari: Tetranychidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paulo, P D; Lima, C G; Dominiquini, A B; Fadini, M A M; Mendes, S M; Marinho, C G S

    2017-06-26

    Plants can be attacked by a wide variety of herbivores. Thus, developing protective mechanisms for resistance against these agents is an advantage for survival and reproduction. Over the course of evolution, many resistance mechanisms against herbivory have been developed by the plants. Induced direct and indirect resistance mechanisms can manifest in plants after herbivore attack. The two-spotted spider mite Tetranychus urticae is not a pest of maize crops (Zea mays), despite being reported infesting plants that may have resistances against this herbivore. We tested the hypothesis that maize plants would be able to induce direct resistance against T. urticae after, evaluating the effect of T. urticae infestation in maize plants on the development and reproduction of conspecifics. We tested induced direct resistance performing infestation and measuring biological parameters upon a second infestation. Maize plants, 40 days after sowing, were divided into two groups: 30 not infested by T. urticae (clean plants clean) and, 30 infested by the spider mite. Infestation of maize plants by T. urticae reduced the conspecific female adult survival. However, no change in the survival of immature or reproduction was observed. These results suggest the induction of induced direct resistances in maize by T. urticae. This is first report of direct resistance induction in Z. mays by the two-spotted spider mite T. urticae.

  7. Mechanisms of resistance to three mite growth inhibitors of Tetranychus urticae in hops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adesanya, A W; Morales, M A; Walsh, D B; Lavine, L C; Lavine, M D; Zhu, F

    2018-02-01

    Mite growth inhibitors (MGIs), such as etoxazole and hexythiazox, are valuable IPM tools for Tetranychus urticae control in hops due to their unique mode of action and selectivity. Hence, it is necessary to standardize bioassay methods to evaluate the efficacy of MGIs, monitor resistance, and identify mechanisms underlying MGI resistance in the field. Here, we developed a three-tiered approach for evaluating ovicidal toxicity of MGIs to T. urticae, which simulated different MGI exposure scenarios in the field. The most effective bioassay method was direct exposure of T. urticae eggs to MGIs. With this method, four field-collected T. urticae populations showed low-to-moderate resistance to MGIs. Cross-resistance among MGIs and from MGIs to bifenazate and bifenthrin was detected. Besides target site insensitivity, enhanced cytochrome P450 and esterase activities also contribute to the MGI resistance in hop yard-collected T. urticae populations. Low-to-moderate MGI resistance in T. urticae populations may be mediated by multiple mechanisms. Positive selection pressure on the I1017F mutation is moderate in field-collected T. urticae populations. Further studies are required to identify metabolic detoxification genes that confer resistance to MGIs for precise resistance monitoring.

  8. Maize plants produce direct resistance elicited by Tetranychus urticae Koch (Acari: Tetranychidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. D. Paulo

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Plants can be attacked by a wide variety of herbivores. Thus, developing protective mechanisms for resistance against these agents is an advantage for survival and reproduction. Over the course of evolution, many resistance mechanisms against herbivory have been developed by the plants. Induced direct and indirect resistance mechanisms can manifest in plants after herbivore attack. The two-spotted spider mite Tetranychus urticae is not a pest of maize crops (Zea mays, despite being reported infesting plants that may have resistances against this herbivore. We tested the hypothesis that maize plants would be able to induce direct resistance against T. urticae after, evaluating the effect of T. urticae infestation in maize plants on the development and reproduction of conspecifics. We tested induced direct resistance performing infestation and measuring biological parameters upon a second infestation. Maize plants, 40 days after sowing, were divided into two groups: 30 not infested by T. urticae (clean plants clean and, 30 infested by the spider mite. Infestation of maize plants by T. urticae reduced the conspecific female adult survival. However, no change in the survival of immature or reproduction was observed. These results suggest the induction of induced direct resistances in maize by T. urticae. This is first report of direct resistance induction in Z. mays by the two-spotted spider mite T. urticae.

  9. Antibacterial Activity of Different Plant Extracts and Phenolic Phytochemicals Tested on Paenibacillus Larvae Bacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liviu Mărghitaş

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Paenibacillus larvae, a Gram-positive and spore-forming bacterium is responsible for American foulbrood disease inbees. The antimicrobial activity of different plant extracts and phenolic phytochemical was evaluated onPaenibacillus larvae bacteria. In addition possible correlation with antioxidant activity of the same plant extracts wasstudied. Extracts of the following plants were utilized: Achillea millefolium (yarrow, Ocimum basilicum (basil,Thymus vulgaris (thyme and Urtica dioica (nettle. The extracts that showed antimicrobial activity were later testedto determine the Minimal Inhibitory Concentration (MIC. Although nettle present the lowest polyphenolic contentcompared with the other plant extracts, exhibit the highest antimicrobial activity, measured as the inhibition zoneusing Mueller-Hinton agar plates. Basil presented both polyphenolic content and antimicrobial activity at higherlevels, while thyme had the lowest antimicrobial activity, even it present high amount of polyphenols.

  10. Horizontally transferred fungal carotenoid genes in the two-spotted spider mite Tetranychus urticae

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Altincicek, Boran; Kovacs, Jennifer L; Gerardo, Nicole M

    2012-01-01

    ... that were acquired via horizontal gene transfer from fungi. Our search of available animal transcripts revealed the presence of two related genes in the two-spotted spider mite Tetranychus urticae...

  11. Sublethal effects of spinetoram on the two-spotted spider mite, Tetranychus urticae (Acari: Tetranychidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ling; Zhang, Youjun; Xie, Wen; Wu, Qingjun; Wang, Shaoli

    2016-09-01

    The two-spotted spider mite Tetranychus urticae is a serious pest of many agricultural crops and ornamental plants. The sublethal effects of a new chemical, spinetoram, on T. urticae were investigated by treating adult females and eggs with LC10 and LC20 in the laboratory. The data were assessed based on age-stage, two-sex life table analysis. The results showed that T. urticae developmental time from egg to adult was reduced and that fecundity was increased by treatment with LC10 and LC20 of spinetoram. The LC10 and LC20 of spinetoram also increased the intrinsic and finite rate of increase and the net reproductive rate and reduced the mean generation time, egg duration, and larval duration whether eggs or adult females were treated. These laboratory results suggest that sublethal or lethal doses of spinetoram may cause outbreaks of T. urticae. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Reproductive parameters of Phytoseiulus macropilis (Banks) fed with Tetranychus urticae Koch (Acari: Phytoseiidae, Tetranychidae) in laboratory

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Souza-Pimentel, G C; Reis, P R; Bonatto, C R; Alves, J P; Siqueira, M F

    2016-01-01

    .... Tetranychus urticae Koch, 1836 (Acari: Tetranychidae) is considered to be one of the most important species of mite pests and has been described as attacking over 1,100 species of plants in 140 families with economic value...

  13. Antibacterial and anti-hemolytic activity of tannins from Pimenta dioica against methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reham Al-Harbi

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available High rate of resistance among Staphylococcus infection initiates scientists to discover new antibiotics. The objective of this study is to determine the effect of tannins isolated from the Pimenta dioica leaves on Staphylococcus aureus and methicillin resistant S. aureus as well as to evaluate their effect on hemolysin production. The antimicrobial activity of 4,6-(S-hexahydroxydiphenoyl-(α/β-D-glucopyranose and casuarinin, pedunculagin and nilocitin tannins from P. dioica was examined using agar diffusion method. Moreover, minimum inhibitory concentrations were evaluated by microtiter plate assay method. Pedunculagin and nilocitin exhibited antibacterial and anti-hemolytic effect against S. aureus. This will open the era for in vivo assessment of such compounds for clinical applications.

  14. Biologia de Tetranychus urticae (Acari: Tetranychidae) em Gerbera jamesonii Bolus and Hook (Asteraceae)

    OpenAIRE

    EA. Silva; PR, Reis; TMB. Carvalho; BF. Altoé

    2009-01-01

    Gerbera (Gerbera jamesonii Bolus and Hook,) is an ornamental Asteraceae of great commercial value, and pests can affect adversely its cultivation. More than 20 species of arthropods cause economic damage on gerbera, among them the two spotted mite, Tetranychus urticae Koch, 1836 (Acari: Tetranychidae), considered a key pest for this and other ornamental plants. In this work, some life-cycle aspects of T. urticae on gerbera, considered important for the knowledge of its population dynamics and...

  15. Sex ratio and spatial distribution of male and female Antennaria dioica (Asteraceae) plants

    OpenAIRE

    Varga, Sandra; Kytöviita, Minna-Maarit

    2011-01-01

    Sex ratio, sex spatial distribution and sexual dimorphism in reproduction and arbuscular mycorrhizal colonisation were investigated in the dioecious clonal plant Antennaria dioica (Asteraceae). Plants were monitored for five consecutive years in six study plots in Oulanka, northern Finland. Sex ratio, spatial distribution of sexes, flowering frequency, number of floral shoots and the number and weight of inflorescences were recorded. In addition, intensity of mycorrhizal fungi in the roots wa...

  16. Binomial and enumerative sampling of Tetranychus urticae (Acari: Tetranychidae) on peppermint in California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tollerup, Kris E; Marcum, Daniel; Wilson, Rob; Godfrey, Larry

    2013-08-01

    The two-spotted spider mite, Tetranychus urticae Koch, is an economic pest on peppermint [Mentha x piperita (L.), 'Black Mitcham'] grown in California. A sampling plan for T. urticae was developed under Pacific Northwest conditions in the early 1980s and has been used by California growers since approximately 1998. This sampling plan, however, is cumbersome and a poor predictor of T. urticae densities in California. Between June and August, the numbers of immature and adult T. urticae were counted on leaves at three commercial peppermint fields (sites) in 2010 and a single field in 2011. In each of seven locations per site, 45 leaves were sampled, that is, 9 leaves per five stems. Leaf samples were stratified by collecting three leaves from the top, middle, and bottom strata per stem. The on-plant distribution of T. urticae did not significantly differ among the stem strata through the growing season. Binomial and enumerative sampling plans were developed using generic Taylor's power law coefficient values. The best fit of our data for binomial sampling occurred using a tally threshold of T = 0. The optimum number of leaves required for T urticae at the critical density of five mites per leaf was 20 for the binomial and 23 for the enumerative sampling plans, respectively. Sampling models were validated using Resampling for Validation of Sampling Plan Software.

  17. Repellent effect of santalol from sandalwood oil against Tetranychus urticae (Acari: Tetranychidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roh, Hyun Sik; Park, Kye Chung; Park, Chung Gyoo

    2012-04-01

    Thirty-four essential oils were screened for their repellent activities against the twospotted spider mite, Tetranychus urticae Koch (Acarina: Tetranychidae), at 0.1% concentration level using choice and no-choice laboratory bioassays. Of these, 20 essential oils showed significant repellencies against T. urticae in the choice tests. In subsequent no-choice tests using these 20 essential oils, only sandalwood oil showed significant repellency against T. urticae. Total number of eggs oviposited by T. urticae was significantly lower than controls in the choice tests when the kidney bean leaves were treated with 1 of 14 essential oils. The significant repellency of sandalwood oil against T. urticae lasted at least for 5 h at the 0.1% concentration level. Our GC-MS analysis indicated that the major components of the sandalwood oil were alpha-santalol (45.8%), beta-santalol (20.6%), beta-sinensal (9.4%), and epi-beta-santalol (3.3%). Santanol, a mixture of the two main components in the sandalwood oil, appears to be responsible for the repellency of sandalwood oil against T. urticae.

  18. The triterpenoid fraction from Trichosanthes dioica root exhibits in vitro antileishmanial effect against Leishmania donovani promastigotes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattacharya, Sanjib; Biswas, Moulisha; Haldar, Pallab K.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Trichosanthes dioica Roxb. (Cucurbitaceae), called pointed gourd in English is a dioecious climber found wild throughout the plains of the Indian subcontinent and traditionally used in India for several medicinal purposes. Objective: The present study was aimed at the evaluation of in vitro antileishmanial effect of triterpenoid fraction from T. dioica root (CETD). Materials and Methods: The antileishmanial activity of CETD was evaluated against Leishmania donovani (strain MHOM/IN/83/AG83)) promastigotes by in vitro promastigote cell toxicity assay by using MTT (3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5 diphenyltetrazolium bromide). Potassium antimonyl tartrate was used as reference. Results: Here, CETD markedly inhibited the growth of L. donovani promastigotes in vitro in a concentration dependent manner and demonstrated IC50 value of 18.75 μg/ml. The reference drug potassium antimonyl tartrate exhibited IC50 of 7.52 μg/ml. Conclusion: From the present study it can be inferred that the triterpenoid fraction of T. dioica root exhibited remarkable antileishmanial activity against Leishmania donovani promastigotes in vitro. PMID:23798885

  19. Trophic Interactions between Generalist Predators and the Two Spotted Spide Mite, Tetranychus urticae in, Strawberry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Stine Kramer

    encountering other natural enemies. The study of the tritrophic interaction between entomopathogenic fungi, arthropod predators and T. urticae as influenced by specialization of the natural enemies (Manuscript IV), revealed an effect of fungal specialization on the resulting predator behaviour. Specialist...... confirms the important role of antipredator responses and predator responses to entomopathogenic fungi as affected by specialization. The studies also raise new questions and potential avenues of further studies. These include the contribution by insect predators to control of T. urticae and larger scale...... studies of interactions between T. urticae predators and entomopathogenic fungi, which would expand our knowledge and ultimately benefit biological control of T. urticae in strawberry....

  20. Is Tetranychus urticae suitable prey for development and reproduction of naïve Coleomegilla maculata?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riddick, Eric W; Wu, Zhixin; Rojas, M Guadalupe

    2014-02-01

    The lady beetle Coleomegilla maculata De Geer is an omnivorous predator that could help suppress aphid and spider mite populations on plants in greenhouses, plantscapes or interiorscapes. We are assessing the nutritional requirements and feeding behavior of C. maculata on target prey (spider mites) and factitious (unnatural) food. Our ultimate goal is to develop an efficacious diet to mass produce C. maculata. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that Tetranychus urticae Koch (two-spotted spider mite) is not suitable prey for development and reproduction of naïve C. maculata (i.e., with no prior exposure to T. urticae). Our objectives were to (i) provide baseline data on the effects of consuming T. urticae on C. maculata life history, (ii) to compare the effects of consuming all stages of T. urticae versus eggs of Musca domestica L. (common housefly), and (iii) to determine if the consumption of plant products was beneficial. We used C. maculata from a colony reared only on Ephestia kuehniella Zeller (Mediterranean flour moth) eggs. In experiments, C. maculata larvae were reared from the first instar to adult stage with prey/food in replicated arenas; adult females were paired with a single male with prey/food. The results showed that naïve C. maculata readily attacked and consumed T. urticae. Nevertheless, T. urticae was less suitable than M. domestica eggs for C. maculata development and reproduction. Applying a synthetic pollen-Chlorella alga powder (SPCA) in arenas containing T. urticae appeared to boost C. maculata female development and reproduction. Published 2013. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the U.S.A.

  1. Bacterial origin of a diverse family of UDP-glycosyltransferase genes in the Tetranychus urticae genome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahn, Seung-Joon; Dermauw, Wannes; Wybouw, Nicky; Heckel, David G; Van Leeuwen, Thomas

    2014-07-01

    UDP-glycosyltransferases (UGTs) catalyze the conjugation of a variety of small lipophilic molecules with uridine diphosphate (UDP) sugars, altering them into more water-soluble metabolites. Thereby, UGTs play an important role in the detoxification of xenobiotics and in the regulation of endobiotics. Recently, the genome sequence was reported for the two-spotted spider mite, Tetranychus urticae, a polyphagous herbivore damaging a number of agricultural crops. Although various gene families implicated in xenobiotic metabolism have been documented in T. urticae, UGTs so far have not. We identified 80 UGT genes in the T. urticae genome, the largest number of UGT genes in a metazoan species reported so far. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that lineage-specific gene expansions increased the diversity of the T. urticae UGT repertoire. Genomic distribution, intron-exon structure and structural motifs in the T. urticae UGTs were also described. In addition, expression profiling after host-plant shifts and in acaricide resistant lines supported an important role for UGT genes in xenobiotic metabolism. Expanded searches of UGTs in other arachnid species (Subphylum Chelicerata), including a spider, a scorpion, two ticks and two predatory mites, unexpectedly revealed the complete absence of UGT genes. However, a centipede (Subphylum Myriapoda) and a water flea and a crayfish (Subphylum Crustacea) contain UGT genes in their genomes similar to insect UGTs, suggesting that the UGT gene family might have been lost early in the Chelicerata lineage and subsequently re-gained in the tetranychid mites. Sequence similarity of T. urticae UGTs and bacterial UGTs and their phylogenetic reconstruction suggest that spider mites acquired UGT genes from bacteria by horizontal gene transfer. Our findings show a unique evolutionary history of the T. urticae UGT gene family among other arthropods and provide important clues to its functions in relation to detoxification and thereby host

  2. [Anti-aging Effect of Urtica Polysaccharides in D-galactose Induced Aging Mice].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jing, Bo; Lv, Cheng; Li, Shun-xu; FU, Mei-ling; Yin, Zhong-qiong

    2015-12-01

    To investigate the anti-aging effect of polysaccharides from Urtica lobatifolia (Urtica polysaccharides) on subacute aging mice induced by D-galactose. 90 mice were randomly divided into six groups: normal group, aging mice model group, V(E) group [100 mg/(kg x d), ig], high level of Urtica polysaccharides group [200 mg/(kg x d), ig], medium level of Urtica polysaccharides group [100 mg/(kg x d), ig] and low level of Urtica polysaccharides group [50 mg/(kg x d), ig]. The normal group was injected saline [10 mL/(kg x d), sc], while the other groups were injected D-galactose [150 mg/(kg x d), sc]. After six weeks, all the animals were weighed. After eight arm maze experiment and swimming endurance experiment, serum, liver and brain was collected. The content of protein in serum,liver and brain was detected. Total antioxidant capacity (T-AOC), activities of total superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px), and malondialdehyde (MDA) content in liver and brain samples were evaluated by kits. Compared with the model group, Urtica polysaccharides groups mice had larger body weight, longer swimming time, shorter time out of the maze and fewer numbers of error, as well as higher protein content in serum, liver and brain. The capacity of T-AOC, the activities of SOD and GSH-Px of polysaccharides groups in brain and liver tissue were increased significantly, and the MDA content was decreased significantly. Polysaccharides from Urtica lobatifolia has anti-aging effects on aging model mice, and the mechanism may be related to its antioxidant effect.

  3. Preparation, characterization and usage of molecularly imprinted polymer for the isolation of quercetin from hydrolyzed nettle extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karaman Ersoy, Şeyda; Tütem, Esma; Sözgen Başkan, Kevser; Apak, Reşat; Nergiz, Cevdet

    2016-04-01

    Quercetin (3,3',4',5,7-pentahydroxyflavone, QC) is a health-beneficial flavonoid, widely occurring in leaves, fruits, and flowers of various plants. In this work aiming isolation, purification and pre-concentration of QC, QC imprinted polymers (QC-MIPs) in different molar ratios {template:monomer:cross-linker (1:4:20, 1:5:30, 1:8:40, 1:10:50)} were prepared thermally through bulk polymerization by using QC as the template molecule, 4-vinylpyridine (4-VP), methacrylic acid (MAA), acrylamide (AA) as the functional monomers, ethylene glycol dimethacrylate (EDMA) as the cross-linker and 2,2'-azobisisobutyronitrile (AIBN) as initiator in the porogens of acetone and tetrahydrofuran. Their recognition and selectivity properties were investigated in solutions containing QC and other similar-structure phenolics by equilibrium binding experiments using different proportions of acetonitrile (ACN)-dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO) mixtures and methanol (MeOH) as solvents. The MIP with 1:4:20 molar ratio of QC:4-VP:EDMA was established as the most suitable for recognition of QC. Sorption parameters of the MIP and the NIP (non-imprinted polymer) were calculated by using Freundlich and Langmuir isotherms with QC solutions in ACN:DMSO (98:2, v/v). The mentioned MIP was found to be highly selective for quercetin over other phenolic compounds (rutin, catechin, etc.). Thus, molecularly imprinted solid-phase extraction (MISPE) procedures were applied for selective pre-concentration and purification of QC from synthetic mixtures of phenolic compounds and nettle extract, known as a source of official and folk medicine. The results demonstrated the possibility of direct extraction of certain pharmacophoric constituents such as QC and QC derivatives from nettle by MIP separation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Jasmonic and salicylic acids enhanced phytochemical production and biological activities in cell suspension cultures of spine gourd (Momordica dioica Roxb).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Ill-Min; Rekha, Kaliyaperumal; Rajakumar, Govindasamy; Thiruvengadam, Muthu

    2017-03-01

    In vitro cell suspension culture was established for the production of commercially valuable phytochemicals in Momordica dioica. The influence of elicitors in jasmonic acid (JA) and salicylic acid (SA) increased their effect on phytochemical production and biomass accumulation in M. dioica. The results indicate that compared with non-elicited cultures, JA- and SA-elicited cell suspension cultures had significantly enhanced phenolic, flavonoid, and carotenoid production, as well as antioxidant, antimicrobial, and antiproliferative activities. Furthermore, elicited cultures produced 22 phenolic compounds, such as flavonols, hydroxycinnamic acids, and hydroxybenzoic acids. Greater biomass production, phytochemical accumulation, and biological activity occurred in JA- than in SA-elicited cell cultures. This study is the first to successfully establish M. dioica cell suspension cultures for the production of phenolic compounds and carotenoids, as well as for biomass accumulation.

  5. Qualitative and quantitative variation between volatile profiles induced by Tetranychus urticae feeding on different plants of various families

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boom, van den C.E.M.; Beek, van T.A.; Posthumus, M.A.; Groot, de Æ.; Dicke, M.

    2004-01-01

    Many plant species are known to emit herbivore-induced volatiles in response to herbivory. The spider mite Tetranychus urticae Koch is a generalist that can feed on several hundreds of host plant species. Volatiles emitted by T. urticae-infested plants of 11 species were compared: soybean (Glycine

  6. A burst of ABC genes in the genome of the polyphagous spider mite Tetranychus urticae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dermauw, Wannes; Osborne, Edward John; Clark, Richard M; Grbić, Miodrag; Tirry, Luc; Van Leeuwen, Thomas

    2013-05-10

    The ABC (ATP-binding cassette) gene superfamily is widespread across all living species. The majority of ABC genes encode ABC transporters, which are membrane-spanning proteins capable of transferring substrates across biological membranes by hydrolyzing ATP. Although ABC transporters have often been associated with resistance to drugs and toxic compounds, within the Arthropoda ABC gene families have only been characterized in detail in several insects and a crustacean. In this study, we report a genome-wide survey and expression analysis of the ABC gene superfamily in the spider mite, Tetranychus urticae, a chelicerate ~ 450 million years diverged from other Arthropod lineages. T. urticae is a major agricultural pest, and is among of the most polyphagous arthropod herbivores known. The species resists a staggering array of toxic plant secondary metabolites, and has developed resistance to all major classes of pesticides in use for its control. We identified 103 ABC genes in the T. urticae genome, the highest number discovered in a metazoan species to date. Within the T. urticae ABC gene set, all members of the eight currently described subfamilies (A to H) were detected. A phylogenetic analysis revealed that the high number of ABC genes in T. urticae is due primarily to lineage-specific expansions of ABC genes within the ABCC, ABCG and ABCH subfamilies. In particular, the ABCC subfamily harbors the highest number of T. urticae ABC genes (39). In a comparative genomic analysis, we found clear orthologous relationships between a subset of T. urticae ABC proteins and ABC proteins in both vertebrates and invertebrates known to be involved in fundamental cellular processes. These included members of the ABCB-half transporters, and the ABCD, ABCE and ABCF families. Furthermore, one-to-one orthologues could be distinguished between T. urticae proteins and human ABCC10, ABCG5 and ABCG8, the Drosophila melanogaster sulfonylurea receptor and ecdysone-regulated transporter E

  7. Agroinfiltration-based expression of hairpin RNA in soybean plants for RNA interference against Tetranychus urticae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubey, Vimal Kumar; Lee, Ung Gyu; Kwon, Deok Ho; Lee, Si Hyeock

    2017-10-01

    The coatomer subunit alpha (COPA) and aquaporin 9 (AQ9) genes from the two-spotted spider mite, Tetranychus urticae, were previously determined to exhibit RNA interference (RNAi)-based lethality when their double-stranded RNAs were systemically delivered via multi-unit chambers (Kwon et al., 2016 [8]). In current study, the hairpin RNAs of the COPA and AQ9 were transiently expressed in soybean plants by agroinfiltration. When T. urticae was fed with the soybean plants agroinfiltrated with the COPA and AQ9 hairpin RNA cassettes, the cumulative mortality increased significantly at 6days post-infestation. Quantitative PCR analysis revealed that the transcript level of both COPA and AQ9 was significantly reduced in T. urticae after 2days post-infestation, thereby confirming that the significant increases in mortality resulted from the knockdown of COPA and AQ9 transcripts. Our findings demonstrate the utility of COPA and AQ9 as potential genes for plant host-mediated RNAi control of T. urticae. In addition, we proved the usefulness of agroinfiltration as a rapid validation tool for confirming the RNAi-based lethality of target genes against arthropod pests before producing transgenic plants as agroinfiltration requires less time and skill to validate transgene function. Furthermore, these findings prove the concept that hairpin RNA expressed in plant hosts can also induce RNAi and eventually kill T. urticae, a sap-sucking pest. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Toxicity of spiromesifen and natural acaricides to Tetranychus urticae koch and compatibility with Phytoseiulus macropilis (Banks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Vargas de Oliveira

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The two-spotted spider mite, Tetranychus urticae Koch (Acari: Tetranychidae, is one important pest of cotton crop due to reductions in cotton yield and fiber quality. Thus, this work evaluated the toxicity of the synthetic acaricide spiromesifen and natural products on T. urticae and the compatibility with the predatory mite Phytoseiulus macropilis (Banks (Acari: Phytoseiidae. Spiromesifen and the natural products Azadirachtin A/B, Azadirachtin 1%, Jatropha curcas L. and Ricinus communis L. oils were used at different concentrations; the leaf dipping method was employed. The mortality of T. urticae females and eggs was evaluated 48 and 96 h after treatment to calculate the lethal concentrations. The effect on P. macropilis was studied using the LC50s obtained to T. urticae. All acaricides tested were effective in controlling females and eggs of T. urticae. However, according to the LC50s and LC90s calculated, spiromesifen was the most toxic acaricide to females and J. curcas oil presented the higher toxicity to eggs. Spiromesifen, J. curcas oil and Azadiractina 1% caused side effects on P. macropilis. However, only espiromesifeno was classified as harmful to the predator, whereas Azadirachtin A/B and R. communis oil were slightly harmful. R. communis and Azadirachtin A/B were effective in controlling the two-spotted spider mite and promising for the management of this pest in cotton considering their low toxicity to the predator.

  9. Acaricidal activity of different extracts from Syzygium cumini L. Skeels (Pomposia) against Tetranychus urticae Koch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afify, Abd El-Moneim M R; El-Beltagi, Hossam S; Fayed, Sayed A; Shalaby, Emad A

    2011-10-01

    To investigate the acaricidal activity of different extracts from Syzygium cumini (S. cumini) (Pomposia) againsst Tetranychus urticae Koch (T. urticae) and the biochemical changes in antioxidants enzymes. Six extracts of S. cumini (Pomposia) at concentrations of 75, 150 and 300µg/mL were used to control T. urticae (Koch). The ethanol extract showed the most efficient acaricidal activity agent against T. urticae (98.5%) followed by hexane extract (94.0%), ether and ethyl acetate extract (90.0%). The LC50 values of the promising extract were 85.0, 101.0, 102.0 and 98.0µg/mL, respectively. The activities of enzymes including ascorbate peroxidase (APX), peroxidase (POD), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) in susceptible mites were increased. The activities of all antioxidant enzymes reach the maximum value in mites at LC50 with ethanol and ethyl acetate extracts, respectively. The extract of S. cumini has acaricidal acivity against T. urticae, and the ethanol extract is the most efficient.

  10. Increased activities of peroxidase and polyphenol oxidase enhance cassava resistance to Tetranychus urticae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Xiao; Chen, Qing; Lu, Hui; Wu, Chunling; Lu, Fuping; Tang, Jihong

    2017-03-01

    In order to study the function of peroxidase (POD) and polyphenol oxidase (PPO) in cassava resistance to spider mites, we tested the changes of transcription levels and activities of these two protective enzymes in both cassava and Tetranychus urticae (=T. cinnabarinus) during the interaction. The results showed that after damage of the mite-susceptible cassava cultivar BRA900 by T. urticae for 1 and 8 days, the transcription levels of MePOD and MePPO and the activities of POD and PPO showed no significant difference compared with those in undamaged leaves. However, the corresponding transcription levels and activities in 1- and 8-day-damaged leaves of mite-resistant cassava cultivar C1115 increased to a significant level of approximately twofold. When T. urticae fed on BRA900 for 1 and 8 days, the transcription levels of TcPPO and TcPOD and the activities of PPO and POD showed no significant difference compared with those before feeding. However, the corresponding transcription levels and activities of these two protective enzymes in T. urticae feeding on C1115 significantly decreased by about half. This study preliminarily validates the function of POD and PPO in cassava resistance to T. urticae, and provides candidate gene resource for molecular breeding of spider mite-resistant cassava.

  11. Tetranychus urticae-triggered responses promote genotype-dependent conspecific repellence or attractiveness in citrus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agut, Blas; Gamir, Jordi; Jaques, Josep A; Flors, Victor

    2015-08-01

    The citrus rootstocks sour orange and Cleopatra mandarin display differential resistance against Tetranychus urticae. Sour orange plants support reduced oviposition, growth rates and damage compared with Cleopatra mandarin plants. Jasmonic acid signalling and flavonoid accumulation have been revealed as key mechanisms for the enhanced resistance of sour orange plants. In this study, we observed that the release of T. urticae herbivore-induced plant volatiles (HIPVs) from sour orange plants has a marked repellent effect on conspecific mites associated with the production of the terpenes α-ocimene, α-farnesene, pinene and d-limonene, and the green leaf volatile 4-hydroxy-4-methyl-2-pentanone. By contrast, T. urticae HIPVs from Cleopatra mandarin plants promote conspecific mite attraction associated with an increase in (2-butoxyethoxy) ethanol, benzaldehyde and methyl salicylate levels. HIPVs released from sour orange plants following T. urticae infestation induce resistance in Cleopatra mandarin plants, thereby reducing oviposition rates and stimulating the oxylipin biosynthetic gene lipoxygenase2 (LOX2). Cleopatra HIPVs do not affect the response to T. urticae of these rootstocks. We conclude that sour orange plants promote herbivore-induced resistance in Cleopatra mandarin plants and, despite the weak basal resistance of these rootstocks, herbivore resistance can be induced through the combination of HIPVs, such as α-ocimene and d-limonene. © 2015 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2015 New Phytologist Trust.

  12. High-Resolution Lipidomics of the Early Life Stages of the Red Seaweed Porphyra dioica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Costa, Elisabete; Azevedo, Vitor; Melo, Tânia; Rego, Andreia M; V Evtuguin, Dmitry; Domingues, Pedro; Calado, Ricardo; Pereira, Rui; Abreu, Maria H; Domingues, Maria R

    2018-01-17

    Porphyra dioica is a commercial seaweed consumed all over the world, mostly in the shape of nori sheets used for "sushi" preparation. It is a well-known part of the Asian diet with health benefits, which have been associated, among others, to the high levels of n-3 and n-6 fatty acids in this red alga. However, other highly valued lipids of Porphyra are polar lipids that remain largely undescribed and can have both nutritional value and bioactivity, thus could contribute to the valorization of this seaweed. In this context, the present work aims to identify the lipidome of two life cycle stages of the Atlantic species Porphyra dioica: the early life stage conchocelis produced in an indoor-nursery, and young blades produced outdoors using an integrated multitrophic aquaculture (IMTA) framework. Both the blades (gametophyte) and conchocelis (sporophyte) are commercialized in the food and cosmetics sectors. Liquid chromatography coupled to Q-Exactive high resolution-mass spectrometry (MS) platform was used to gain insight into the lipidome of these species. Our results allowed the identification of 110 and 100 lipid molecular species in the lipidome of the blade and conchocelis, respectively. These lipid molecular species were distributed as follows (blade/conchocelis): 14/15 glycolipids (GLs), 93/79 phospholipids (PLs), and 3/6 betaine lipids. Both life stages displayed a similar profile of GLs and comprised 20:4(n-6) and 20:5(n-3) fatty acids that contribute to n-3 and n-6 fatty acid pool recorded and rank among the molecular species with higher potential bioactivity. PLs' profile was different between the two life stages surveyed, mainly due to the number and relative abundance of molecular species. This finding suggests that differences between both life stages were more likely related with shifts in the lipids of extraplastidial membranes rather than in plastidial membranes. PLs contained n-6 and n-3 precursors and in both life stages of Porphyra dioica the n-6/n

  13. High-Resolution Lipidomics of the Early Life Stages of the Red Seaweed Porphyra dioica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisabete da Costa

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Porphyra dioica is a commercial seaweed consumed all over the world, mostly in the shape of nori sheets used for “sushi” preparation. It is a well-known part of the Asian diet with health benefits, which have been associated, among others, to the high levels of n-3 and n-6 fatty acids in this red alga. However, other highly valued lipids of Porphyra are polar lipids that remain largely undescribed and can have both nutritional value and bioactivity, thus could contribute to the valorization of this seaweed. In this context, the present work aims to identify the lipidome of two life cycle stages of the Atlantic species Porphyra dioica: the early life stage conchocelis produced in an indoor-nursery, and young blades produced outdoors using an integrated multitrophic aquaculture (IMTA framework. Both the blades (gametophyte and conchocelis (sporophyte are commercialized in the food and cosmetics sectors. Liquid chromatography coupled to Q–Exactive high resolution-mass spectrometry (MS platform was used to gain insight into the lipidome of these species. Our results allowed the identification of 110 and 100 lipid molecular species in the lipidome of the blade and conchocelis, respectively. These lipid molecular species were distributed as follows (blade/conchocelis: 14/15 glycolipids (GLs, 93/79 phospholipids (PLs, and 3/6 betaine lipids. Both life stages displayed a similar profile of GLs and comprised 20:4(n-6 and 20:5(n-3 fatty acids that contribute to n-3 and n-6 fatty acid pool recorded and rank among the molecular species with higher potential bioactivity. PLs’ profile was different between the two life stages surveyed, mainly due to the number and relative abundance of molecular species. This finding suggests that differences between both life stages were more likely related with shifts in the lipids of extraplastidial membranes rather than in plastidial membranes. PLs contained n-6 and n-3 precursors and in both life stages of

  14. The Effect of Interval Training and Nettle Supplement on Glycemic Control and Blood Pressure in Men WithType 2 Diabetes

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    Akbar Ghalavand

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Exercise and herbal medicine are therapeutic approaches used to control blood sugar and blood pressure in diabetic patients. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of interval exercise and nettle supplements on blood glucose, and its role on blood pressure control in men with type 2 diabetes. Methods: In this quasi experimental study, 40 men with type 2 diabetes aged 30-50 years old who were qualified based on our inclusion criteria were chosen and randomly divided into 4 groups (interval training [IT], nettle supplement [NS], nettle supplement combined with interval training [IT+NS], and control. Blood pressure (BP and fasting blood glucose (FBS were measured at pre-test and post-test conditions. Paired sample t test and one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA were used as statistical tests. Significance level was considered at P ≤ 0.05. Results: Significant differences were detected regarding FBS levels in the three experimental groups in comparison with the control group (P < 0.05. Diastolic BP of the both IT and IT+NS groups was significantly different from the control group (P < 0.05. We also detected a significant difference in the diastolic BP between the IT+NS and the control group. Conclusion: According to our results, aerobic IT and nettle supplementation are effective methods for controlling blood sugar and BP in patients with type 2 diabetes. We also showed that using the combination of the 2 methods was more effective than using the either method alone.

  15. Kemampuan Predasi Tungau Predator Amblyseius sp. Resisten Temperatur terhadap Tetranychus urticae

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    Budianto Heru Bambang

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available he predation ability of temperature resistant  Amblyseius sp. to Tetranychus urticae. Global warming and climate changes have caused great mortality of the predatory mites Amblyseius sp. that disrupts the natural control of Tetranychus urticae. In contrast, the low humidity and high temperature led to an increase in the population of T. urticae. The purposes of this study were to determine the effect of temperature on population of the predatory mites Amblyseius sp. and to determine the predation ability of temperature resistant Amblyseius sp. on T. urticae. The selection of Amblyseius sp. was conducted at temperatures of 15, 20, 25, 30 and 35 0C. The parental predatory mite Amblyseius sp., and subsequent descendants were exposed to the temperature range until the values of the LT50 fiducial limits (FL of a certain generation did not overlap with that of the previous one. The effectiveness of Amblyseius sp. predation ability was studied using an experimental method  i.e. completely randomized design with four treatments and ten  replications . For this purpose, each stage of T. urticae, i.e. egg, larvae, nymph and adult was set as treatment and  was given to any type of temperature resistant predatory mite Amblyseius sp. The results showed that by using the temperature gradient, we managed to select temperature-resistant  individuals from their  population.  These individuals formed a population that was resistant to temperature of up to 33.3oC without losing their predatory capacity, especially on the egg stage of T.urticae.

  16. Two new 3-oxo-α-ionol glucosides from Urtica laetevirens Maxim.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Yuan; Feng, Bao-Min; Shi, Li-Ying; Wang, Hui-Guo; Tang, Ling; Wang, Yong-Qi

    2011-08-01

    Two new 3-oxo-α-ionol glucoside isomers, (6R,9R)-3-oxo-α-ionol-9-O-β-D-glucopyranosyl (1 → 2)-β-D-glucopyranoside (1) and (6S,9R)-3-oxo-α-ionol-9-O-β-D-glucopyranosyl (1 → 2)-β-D-glucopyranoside (2) were isolated from the aerial parts of Urtica laetevirens Maxim. Their structures, including stereochemistry, were established by spectral analyses (HR-ESI-MS, NMR and CD). Also, 3-oxo-α-ionol glucosides were isolated from Urtica species for the first time.

  17. Oikopleura dioica culturing made easy: a low-cost facility for an emerging animal model in EvoDevo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martí-Solans, Josep; Ferrández-Roldán, Alfonso; Godoy-Marín, Hector; Badia-Ramentol, Jordi; Torres-Aguila, Nuria P; Rodríguez-Marí, Adriana; Bouquet, Jean Marie; Chourrout, Daniel; Thompson, Eric M; Albalat, Ricard; Cañestro, Cristian

    2015-01-01

    The genome sequencing and the development of RNAi knockdown technologies in the urochordate Oikopleura dioica are making this organism an attractive emergent model in the field of EvoDevo. To succeed as a new animal model, however, an organism needs to be easily and affordably cultured in the laboratory. Nowadays, there are only two facilities in the world capable to indefinitely maintain Oikopleura dioica, one in the SARS institute (Bergen, Norway) and the other in the Osaka University (Japan). Here, we describe the setup of a new facility in the University of Barcelona (Spain) in which we have modified previously published husbandry protocols to optimize the weekly production of thousands of embryos and hundreds of mature animals using the minimum amount of space, human resources, and technical equipment. This optimization includes novel protocols of cryopreservation and solid cultures for long-term maintenance of microalgal stocks-Chaetoceros calcitrans, Isochrysis sp., Rhinomonas reticulate, and Synechococcus sp.-needed for Oikopleura dioica feeding. Our culture system maintains partially inbred lines healthy with similar characteristics to wild animals, and it is easily expandable to satisfy on demand the needs of any laboratory that may wish to use Oikopleura dioica as a model organism. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. The Effect of 8 Weeks of Aerobic Training and Consumption of Hydro-alcoholic Extract of Nettle on Apelin and hs-CRP plasma Levels of Overweight and Obese Women

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    M Madadi Jaberi

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Background and aim: The use of exercise along with herbal supplements is one method proposed for controlling obesity and its complications. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of 8 weeks aerobic training and use of hydro-alcoholic extract of nettle on levels apelin and hs-CRP plasma in overweight and obese women. Methods: The present quasi-experimental study was conducted with blind randomized clinical trial. 46 overweight and obese women (body mass index greater than 25 kilograms per square millimeter two, aged 25-45 years were selected purposefully and randomly divided into four groups of: aerobic training + hydro alcoholic extract of nettle, aerobic exercise + placebo extract of nettle and placebo. The intervention group and placebo received 8 mg of hydro alcoholic extract of nettle 8 ml of water-soluble daily for 8 weeks respectively. Aerobic exercise ergometer for 8 weeks, 3 sessions of 16 to 30 minutes with the intensity of 60-75% heart rate was reserved. In two pre and post-test after 14 hours of fasting at the same conditions, blood samples were collected. The ELISA method was use to assess levels of plasma apelin and hs-CRP d. Data obtained were analyzed using the Kolmogorov-Smirnov test, ANOVA, t-test and LSD test. Results: The results showed that the levels of hs-CRP were significantly different in comparison among the groups as well as in groups of aerobic exercise + hydro alcoholic extract of nettle, nettle and hydro-alcholic aerobic exercise + placebo significant reduction was observed (p>0.05. Conclusion: It seems that consumption of Nettle extract along with aerobic exercise through Weight loss, body fat percentage and BMI, play an effective role in control of obesity and reducing of inflammatory Apelin markers and hs-CRP in obese women

  19. Differential competitive ability between sexes in the dioecious Antennaria dioica (Asteraceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varga, Sandra; Kytöviita, Minna-Maarit

    2012-11-01

    Differences in competitive ability between the sexes of dioecious plants are expected as a result of allocation trade-offs associated with sex-differential reproductive costs. However, the available data on competitive ability in dioecious plants are scarce and contradictory. In this study sexual competition was evaluated using the dioecious plant Antennaria dioica in a common garden transplantation experiment. Male and female plants were grown for 3 years either in isolation, or in competition with a plant of the same sex or the opposite sex. Flowering phenology, sexual and asexual reproduction, plant growth, nutrient content and arbuscular mycorrhizal colonization in the roots were assessed. Our results showed little evidence of sexual differences in competitive ability. Both sexes suffered similarly from competition, and competitive effects were manifested in some traits related to fitness but not in others. Survival was unaffected by competition, but competing plants reduced their vegetative growth and reproductive investment compared with non-competing plants. In addition, differences in sexual competitive ability were observed in relation to flowering frequency, an important life history trait not reported in previous studies. The findings indicate that female and male A. dioica plants possess similar intersexual competitive abilities which may be related to the similar costs of reproduction between sexes in this species. Nevertheless, intrasexual competition is higher in females, giving support for asymmetric niche segregation between the sexes.

  20. Ozonation of Indigo Carmine Enhanced by Fe/Pimenta dioica L. Merrill Particles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teresa Torres-Blancas

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Green synthesis of metallic particles has become an economic way to improve and protect the environment by decreasing the use of toxic chemicals and eliminating dyes. The synthesis of metal particles is gaining more importance due to its simplicity, rapid rate of synthesis of particles, and environmentally friendly. The present work aims to report a novel and environmentally friendly method for the synthesis of iron particles using deoiled Pimenta dioica L. Merrill husk as support. The indigo carmine removal efficiency by ozonation and catalyzed ozonation is also presented. Synthesized materials were characterized by N2 physisorption and scanning electron microscopy (SEM/EDS. By UV-Vis spectrophotometry the removal efficiency of indigo carmine was found to be nearly 100% after only 20 minutes of treatment under pH 3 and with a catalyst loading of 1000 mgL−1. Analytical techniques such as determination of the total organic carbon content (TOC and chemical oxygen demand (COD showed that iron particles supported on deoiled Pimenta dioica L. Merrill husk can be efficiently employed to degrade indigo carmine and achieved a partial mineralization (conversion to CO2 and H2O of the molecule. From the results can be inferred that the prepared biocomposite increases the hydroxyl radicals generation.

  1. Competitive interactions are mediated in a sex-specific manner by arbuscular mycorrhiza in Antennaria dioica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varga, S; Vega-Frutis, R; Kytöviita, M-M

    2017-03-01

    Plants usually interact with other plants, and the outcome of such interaction ranges from facilitation to competition depending on the identity of the plants, including their sexual expression. Arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi have been shown to modify competitive interactions in plants. However, few studies have evaluated how AM fungi influence plant intraspecific and interspecific interactions in dioecious species. The competitive abilities of female and male plants of Antennaria dioica were examined in a greenhouse experiment. Females and males were grown in the following competitive settings: (i) without competition, (ii) with intrasexual competition, (iii) with intersexual competition, and (iv) with interspecific competition by Hieracium pilosella - a plant with similar characteristics to A. dioica. Half of the pots were grown with Claroideoglomus claroideum, an AM fungus isolated from the same habitat as the plant material. We evaluated plant survival, growth, flowering phenology, and production of AM fungal structures. Plant survival was unaffected by competition or AM fungi. Competition and the presence of AM fungi reduced plant biomass. However, the sexes responded differently to the interaction between fungal and competition treatments. Both intra- and interspecific competition results were sex-specific, and in general, female performance was reduced by AM colonization. Plant competition or sex did not affect the intraradical structures, extraradical hyphae, or spore production of the AM fungus. These findings suggest that plant sexual differences affect fundamental processes such as competitive ability and symbiotic relationships with AM fungi. © 2016 German Botanical Society and The Royal Botanical Society of the Netherlands.

  2. The evaluation of extraction techniques for Tetranychus urticae (Acari: Tetranychidae) from apple (Malus domestica) and cherry (Prunus avium) leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Adrian L; Ullah, Roshan; Fountain, Michelle T

    2017-08-01

    Tetranychus urticae is a widespread polyphagous mite, found on a variety of fruit crops. Tetranychus urticae feeds on the underside of the leaves perforating plant cells and sucking the cell contents. Foliar damage and excess webbing produced by T. urticae can reduce fruit yield. Assessments of T. urticae populations while small provide reliable and accurate ways of targeting control strategies and recording their efficacy against T. urticae. The aim of this study was to evaluate four methods for extracting low levels of T. urticae from leaf samples, representative of developing infestations. These methods were compared to directly counting of mites on leaves under a dissecting microscope. These methods were ethanol washing, a modified paraffin/ethanol meniscus technique, Tullgren funnel extraction and the Henderson and McBurnie mite brushing machine with consideration to: accuracy, precision and simplicity. In addition, two physically different leaf morphologies were compared; Prunus leaves which are glabrous with Malus leaves which are setaceous. Ethanol extraction consistently yielded the highest numbers of mites and was the most rapid method for recovering T. urticae from leaf samples, irrespective of leaf structure. In addition the samples could be processed and stored before final counting. The advantages and disadvantages of each method are discussed in detail.

  3. Simulating effects of environmental factors on biological control of Tetranychus urticae by Typhlodromus pyri in apple orchards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardman, John Michael; van der Werf, Wopke; Blatt, Suzanne E; Franklin, Jeffrey L; Karsten, Richard; Teismann, Holger

    2013-06-01

    Successful biological control of mites is possible under various conditions, and identifying what are the requirements for robust control poses a challenge because interacting factors are involved. Process-based modeling can help to explore these interactions and identify under which conditions biological control is likely, and when not. Here, we present a process-based model for population interactions between the phytophagous mite, Tetranychus urticae, and its predator, Typhlodromus pyri, on apple trees. Temperature and leaf nitrogen concentration influence T. urticae rates of development and reproduction, while temperature and rate of ingestion of prey and pollen influence T. pyri rates of survival and reproduction. Predator and prey population dynamics are linked through a stage structured functional response model that accounts for spatial heterogeneity in population density throughout the trees. T. urticae biomass-days (BMD's), which account for sizes of larvae, nymphs and adults, indicate level of mite-induced leaf damage. When BMD's exceed 290 per leaf, there are economic losses. When BMD's exceed 350 per leaf, T. urticae population growth is curbed and eventually the population decreases. Simulations were run to determine which conditions would lead to current year economic loss and increased risk of loss in the following year, i.e. where more T. urticae than T. pyri are present at the end of September. Risk was high with one or more of the following initial conditions: a high prey: predator ratio (10:1 or more); a low to intermediate (0.04-0.2 T. urticae per leaf) initial density; T. urticae with a higher initial proportion of adult females than T. pyri; and a delayed first detection of mites, whether in late July, or sometimes in late June, but not in early June. Warm summer weather, higher leaf nitrogen and T. urticae immigration into trees were also risk factors. Causes for these patterns based on biological characteristics of T. urticae and T. pyri

  4. Host-related genetic differentiation in the anther smut fungus Microbotryum violaceum in sympatric, parapatric and allopatric populations of two host species Silene latifolia and S-dioica

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Putten, WF; Biere, A; Van Damme, JMM

    We investigated genetic diversity in West European populations of the fungal pathogen Microbotryum violaceum in sympatric, parapatric and allopatric populations of the host species Silene latifolia and S. dioica, using four polymorphic microsatellite loci. In allopatric host populations, the fungus

  5. Host-related genetic differentiation in the anther smut fungus Microbotryum violaceum in sympatric, parapatric and allopatric populations of two host species Silene latifolia and S. dioica

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Putten, W.F.; Biere, A.; Van Damme, J.M.M.

    2005-01-01

    We investigated genetic diversity in West European populations of the fungal pathogen Microbotryum violaceum in sympatric, parapatric and allopatric populations of the host species Silene latifolia and S. dioica, using four polymorphic microsatellite loci. In allopatric host populations, the fungus

  6. The predatory mite Neoseiulus womersleyi (Acari: Phytoseiidae) follows extracts of trails left by the two-spotted spider mite Tetranychus urticae (Acari: Tetranychidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shinmen, Tsubasa; Yano, Shuichi; Osakabe, Mh

    2010-10-01

    As it walks, the two-spotted spider mite Tetranychus urticae Koch (Acari: Tetranychidae) spins a trail of silk threads, that is followed by the predatory mite, Neoseiulus womersleyi Schicha (Acari: Phytoseiidae). Starved adult female N. womersleyi followed T. urticae trails laid down by five T. urticae females but did not follow a trail of one T. urticae female, suggesting that the amount of spun threads and their chemical components should correlate positively with the number of T. urticae individuals. To examine whether chemical components of T. urticae trails are responsible for the predatory mite's trail following, we collected separate T. urticae threads from the exuviae and eggs, and then washed the threads with methanol to separate chemical components from physical attributes of the threads. Female N. womersleyi did not follow T. urticae trails that had been washed with methanol but contained physical residues, but they did follow the direction to which the methanol extracts of the T. urticae trails was applied. These results suggest that the predatory mite follows chemical, not physical, attributes of T. urticae trails.

  7. Attraction of Phytoseiulus persimilis (Acari: Phytoseiidae) towards volatiles from various Tetranychus urticae-infested plant species

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boom, van den C.W.M.; Beek, van T.A.; Dicke, M.

    2002-01-01

    Plants infested with the spider mite Tetranychus urticae Koch, may indirectly defend themselves by releasing volatiles that attract the predatory mite Phytoseiulus persimilis Athias-Henriot. Several plants from different plant families that varied in the level of spider mite acceptance were tested

  8. Sublethal effects of abamectin and fenpropathrin on the consumption of Tetranychus urticae eggs by Scolothrips longicornis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pakyari, Hajar; Enkegaard, Annie

    2015-01-01

    consumption rates of exposed females of Scolothrips longicornis Priesner and their offspring when fed on Tetranychus urticae Koch eggs. Prey consumption of female thrips was significantly affected by treatment with all concentrations of the two pesticides with the effect of fenpropathrin being more severe...

  9. Control of Tetranychus urticae Koch by extracts of three essential oils of chamomile, marjoram and Eucalyptus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abd El-Moneim, M R Afify; Fatma, S Ali; Turky, A F

    2012-01-01

    To evaluate the acaricidal activity of extracts of three essential oils of chamomile, marjoram and Eucalyptus against Tetranychus urticae (T. urticae) Koch. Extracts of three essential oils of chamomile, marjoram and Eucalyptus with different concentrations (0.5%, 1.0%, 2.0%, 3.0% and 4.0%) were used to control T. urticae Koch. The results showed that chamomile (Chamomilla recutita) represented the most potent efficient acaricidal agent against Tetranychus followed by marjoram (Marjorana hortensis) and Eucalyptus. The LC50 values of chamomile, marjoram and Eucalyptus for adults were 0.65, 1.84 and 2.18, respectively and for eggs 1.17, 6.26 and 7.33, respectively. Activities of enzymes including glutathione-S-transferase, esterase (α-esterase and β-esterase) and alkaline phosphatase in susceptible mites were determined and activities of enzymes involved in the resistance of acaricides were proved. Protease enzyme was significantly decreased at LC50 of both chamomile and marjoram compared with positive control. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometer (GC-MS) proved that the major compositions of Chamomilla recutita are α-bisabolol oxide A (35.251%), and trans-β-farersene (7.758%), while the main components of Marjorana hortensis are terpinene-4-ol (23.860%), p-cymene (23.404%) and sabinene (10.904%). It can be concluded that extracts of three essential oils of chamomile, marjoram and Eucalyptus possess acaricidal activity against T. urticae.

  10. Primeiro registro de Tetranychus urticae (Acari: Tetranychidae em mudas de teca no Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre dos Santos

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available O ácaro fitófago Tetranychus urticae (Kock, 1836 (Acari: Tetranychidae foi relatado e suas injúrias caracterizadas pela primeira vez em viveiro de produção mudas de teca (Tectona grandis no Brasil.

  11. Tetranychus urticae mites do not mount an induced immune response against bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos-Matos, Gonçalo; Wybouw, Nicky; Martins, Nelson E; Zélé, Flore; Riga, Maria; Leitão, Alexandre B; Vontas, John; Grbić, Miodrag; Van Leeuwen, Thomas; Magalhães, Sara; Sucena, Élio

    2017-06-14

    The genome of the spider mite Tetranychus urticae, a herbivore, is missing important elements of the canonical Drosophila immune pathways necessary to fight bacterial infections. However, it is not known whether spider mites can mount an immune response and survive bacterial infection. In other chelicerates, bacterial infection elicits a response mediated by immune effectors leading to the survival of infected organisms. In T. urticae, infection by either Escherichia coli or Bacillus megaterium did not elicit a response as assessed through genome-wide transcriptomic analysis. In line with this, spider mites died within days even upon injection with low doses of bacteria that are non-pathogenic to Drosophila Moreover, bacterial populations grew exponentially inside the infected spider mites. By contrast, Sancassania berlesei, a litter-dwelling mite, controlled bacterial proliferation and resisted infections with both Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria lethal to T. urticae This differential mortality between mite species was absent when mites were infected with heat-killed bacteria. Also, we found that spider mites harbour in their gut 1000-fold less bacteria than S. berlesei We show that T. urticae has lost the capacity to mount an induced immune response against bacteria, in contrast to other mites and chelicerates but similarly to the phloem feeding aphid Acyrthosiphon pisum Hence, our results reinforce the putative evolutionary link between ecological conditions regarding exposure to bacteria and the architecture of the immune response. © 2017 The Authors.

  12. Different metabolic and genetic responses in citrus may explain relative susceptibility to Tetranychus urticae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agut, Blas; Gamir, Jordi; Jacas, Josep A; Hurtado, Mónica; Flors, Victor

    2014-11-01

    Life history parameters of the phytophagous spider mite Tetranychus urticae in citrus depend on the rootstock where the cultivar is grafted. To unveil the mechanisms responsible for this effect, the authors have carried out comparative experiments of T. urticae performance on two citrus rootstocks, the highly T. urticae-sensitive Cleopatra mandarin and the more tolerant sour orange. Sour orange showed reduced leaf damage symptoms, supported lower mite populations and reduced oviposition rates compared with Cleopatra mandarin. Hormonal, metabolomic and gene expression analyses of the main defence pathways suggest a relevant role of the oxylipin and the flavonoid pathways in the response against T. urticae. Sour orange showed an increased activity of the JA pathway, which was hardly active in the most susceptible rootstock. Moreover, treatments with the LOX inhibitor Phenidone abolished the enhanced tolerance of sour orange. Therefore, oxylipin-dependent defence seems to be rootstock dependent. The metabolomic analysis showed the importance of the flavonoid pathway, which is implicated in the interaction between plants and their environment. The findings suggest that sour-orange enhanced tolerance to spider mites can be sustained by a combination of pre-existing and induced responses depending on high levels of flavonoids and a fast and effective activation of the oxylipin pathway. © 2013 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2013 Society of Chemical Industry.

  13. Control of Tetranychus urticae Koch by extracts of three essential oils of chamomile, marjoram and Eucalyptus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abd El-Moneim, MR Afify; Fatma, S Ali; Turky, AF

    2012-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the acaricidal activity of extracts of three essential oils of chamomile, marjoram and Eucalyptus against Tetranychus urticae (T. urticae) Koch. Methods Extracts of three essential oils of chamomile, marjoram and Eucalyptus with different concentrations (0.5%, 1.0%, 2.0%, 3.0% and 4.0%) were used to control T. urticae Koch. Results The results showed that chamomile (Chamomilla recutita) represented the most potent efficient acaricidal agent against Tetranychus followed by marjoram (Marjorana hortensis) and Eucalyptus. The LC50 values of chamomile, marjoram and Eucalyptus for adults were 0.65, 1.84 and 2.18, respectively and for eggs 1.17, 6.26 and 7.33, respectively. Activities of enzymes including glutathione-S-transferase, esterase (α-esterase and β-esterase) and alkaline phosphatase in susceptible mites were determined and activities of enzymes involved in the resistance of acaricides were proved. Protease enzyme was significantly decreased at LC50 of both chamomile and marjoram compared with positive control. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometer (GC-MS) proved that the major compositions of Chamomilla recutita are α-bisabolol oxide A (35.251%), and trans-β-farersene (7.758%), while the main components of Marjorana hortensis are terpinene-4-ol (23.860%), p-cymene (23.404%) and sabinene (10.904%). Conclusions It can be concluded that extracts of three essential oils of chamomile, marjoram and Eucalyptus possess acaricidal activity against T. urticae. PMID:23569829

  14. Differences among plant species in acceptance by the spider mite Tetranychus urticae Koch

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boom, van den C.E.M.; Beek, van T.A.; Dicke, M.

    2003-01-01

    The spider mite Tetranychus urticae Koch has a broad range of host plants. However, the spider mite does not accept all plants to the same degree because of differences in nutritive and toxic constituents. Other factors, such as the induction of secondary metabolites, the morphology of a leaf

  15. Acaricide resistance and resistance mechanisms in Tetranychus urticae populations from rose greenhouses in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Khajehali, J.; Van Nieuwenhuyse, P.; Demaeght, P.; Tirry, L.; Van Leeuwen, T.

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Spider mites are important crop pests that rapidly develop resistance to acaricides. To investigate whether acaricide resistance is a threat to greenhouse rose culture in the Netherlands, the susceptibility of 15 strains of Tetranychus urticae was tested to several currently used

  16. Reproductive parameters of Phytoseiulus macropilis (Banks) fed with Tetranychus urticae Koch (Acari: Phytoseiidae, Tetranychidae) in laboratory/Parâmetros reprodutivos de Phytoseiulus macropilis (Banks) predando Tetranychus urticae Koch (Acari: Phytoseiidae, Tetranychidae) em laboratório

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    G C Souza-Pimentel; P R Reis; C R Bonatto; J P Alves; M F Siqueira

    2017-01-01

    .... Tetranychus urticae Koch, 1836 (Acari: Tetranychidae) is considered to be one of the most important species of mite pests and has been described as attacking over 1,100 species of plants in 140 families with economic value...

  17. Patterns of ambulatory dispersal in Tetranychus urticae can be associated with host plant specialization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguilar-Fenollosa, E; Rey-Caballero, J; Blasco, J M; Segarra-Moragues, J G; Hurtado, M A; Jaques, J A

    2016-01-01

    Dispersal can be an essential factor affecting the biological control of pests. Tetranychus urticae Koch (Acari: Tetranychidae) is a cosmopolitan and polyphagous species that may reach the pest status in many cropping systems including clementine orchards, where it may be found both in the trees and the associated flora. In a previous study, we demonstrated that the use of a ground cover of Festuca arundinacea Schreber (Poaceae) offered a better regulation of T. urticae populations than traditional alternatives (bare soil, multifloral wild cover). Therefore, we decided to study the ambulatory dispersal of mites crawling up and down tree trunks in a clementine mandarin orchard grown in association with a F. arundinacea cover for one season. The highest ambulatory migration rate was upward from the cover to the canopy. Multivariate regressions showed that the dynamics of T. urticae populations in the trees was strongly related to that of Phytoseiidae mites, their main natural predators. Surprisingly, canopy populations were not related to those on the ground cover or to those dispersing from it. When T. urticae individuals collected from the ground cover, the tree trunk, and the canopy were subjected to molecular analyses, the optimal number of genetic clusters (demes) was two. One clustergrouped individuals dispersed from the ground cover (e.g. collected on tree trunks) and 27.5% of individuals collected in the ground cover. The second cluster grouped all the individuals collected from trees and 72.5% of those collected in the cover. Interestingly, none of the individuals collected from the tree canopies was grouped with the first deme. This result may be taken as indicative that grass-adapted T. urticae individuals are unable to satisfactorily colonize and establish on the trees and provides evidence that host adaptation can hamper dispersal and establishment of the ground cover deme on trees, contributing to a better natural regulation of this pest species in

  18. Plant-Herbivore Interaction: Dissection of the Cellular Pattern of Tetranychus urticae Feeding on the Host Plant

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bensoussan, Nicolas; Santamaria, M Estrella; Zhurov, Vladimir; Diaz, Isabel; Grbić, Miodrag; Grbić, Vojislava

    2016-01-01

    The two-spotted spider mite, Tetranychus urticae Koch (Acari: Tetranychidae), is one of the most polyphagous herbivores feeding on cell contents of over 1100 plant species including more than 150 crops...

  19. Selection of strawberry cultivars with tolerance to Tetranychus urticae (Acari: Tetranychidae) and high yield under different managements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, A F; Teodoro, P E; Bhering, L L; Fornazier, M J; Andrade, J S; Martins, D S; Zanuncio Junior, J S

    2017-04-28

    Tetranychus urticae Koch (Acari: Tetranychidae) is considered the main pest of strawberry. Several factors can favor its development, among them the genotype susceptibility and cropping system. The aims of this study were to evaluate the agronomic performance of strawberry cultivars under different managements and to identify strawberry cultivars that meet tolerance to T. urticae and high fruit yield. Thirteen cultivars of strawberry ('Albion', 'Aleluia', 'Aromas', 'Camarosa', 'Camino Real', 'Campinas', 'Diamante', 'Dover', 'Festival', 'Seascape', 'Toyonoka', 'Tudla', and 'Ventana') under three managements (open field, low tunnel, and high tunnel) were evaluated. The T. urticae attack to different cultivars was influenced by managements, being low tunnel the one that provided higher infestations in the most evaluated cultivars. 'Camarosa' was the cultivar with the lower incidence of pest and 'Dover' had the higher infestation. The genotype most suitable for growing under different managements is the 'Festival' genotype, since it meets tolerance to T. urticae, high fruit yield, and phenotypic stability.

  20. Aislamiento y caracterizacion de cepas de Bacillus spp. con actividad contra Tetranychus urticae Koch en cultivos comerciales de rosas

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Isabel Larrea-Izurieta; Carlos Falconí Borja; Andrea Arcos-Andrade

    2015-01-01

      One of the species of mites that cause considerable qualitative and quantitative losses in roses growing under greenhouses in Ecuador is Tetranychus urticae, where conventional agrochemicals control is not effective...

  1. Effects of azadirachtin on Tetranychus urticae (Acari: Tetranychidae) and its compatibility with predatory mites (Acari: Phytoseiidae) on strawberry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernardi, Daniel; Botton, Marcos; da Cunha, Uemerson Silva; Bernardi, Oderlei; Malausa, Thibaut; Garcia, Mauro Silveira; Nava, Dori Edson

    2013-01-01

    The spider mite, Tetranychus urticae, is the major strawberry pest in Brazil. The main strategies for its control comprise synthetic acaricides and predatory mites. The recent register of a commercial formula of azadirachtin (Azamax(®) 12 g L(-1) ) can be viable for control of T. urticae. In this work, the effects of azadirachtin on T. urticae and its compatibility with predatory mites Neoseiulus californicus and Phytoseiulus macropilis in the strawberry crop were evaluated. Azadirachtin was efficient against T. urticae, with a mortality rate similar to that of abamectin. In addition, the azadirachtin showed lower biological persistence (7 days) than abamectin (21 days). Azadirachtin did not cause significant mortality of adult predatory mites (N. californicus and P. macropilis), but it did reduce fecundity by 50%. However, egg viability of the azadirachtin treatments was similar to that of the control (>80% viability). The use of azadirachtin and predatory mites is a valuable tool for controlling T. urticae in strawberry crop. Azadirachtin provided effective control of T. urticae and is compatible with the predatory mites N. californicus and P. macropilis. It is an excellent tool to be incorporated into integrated pest management for strawberry crop in Brazil. Copyright © 2012 Society of Chemical Industry.

  2. Biological control of Eotetranychus lewisi and Tetranychus urticae (Acari: Tetranychidae) on strawberry by four phytoseiids (Acari: Phytoseiidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howell, Anna D; Daugovish, Oleg

    2013-02-01

    The spider mite, Eotetranychus lewisi (McGregor) (Acari: Tetranychidae), is a new emerging pest in California commercial strawberries. The predatory mite Phytoseiulus persimilis (Athias-Henriot) (Acari: Phytoseiidae), typically used for biocontrol of Tetranychus urticae (Koch) (Acari: Tetranychidae), provided growers little to no control of E. lewisi. Four commonly used phytoseiid predatory mites: P. persimilis, Neoseiulus californicus (McGregor), N. fallacis (Garman), and Amblyseius andersoni (Chant), were used in lab studies to investigate which is best at managing E. lewisi populations. We als o investigated t he interactions between T. urticae and E. lewisi and in relation to phytoseiid efficiency given the potential for indirect effects of biocontrol. When E. lewisi and T. urticae are present on the same leaf, T. urticae populations increase and begin displacing E. lewisi. P. persimilis did not feed on E. lewisi, but the other three predatory mites consumed the spider mites and lowered their populations. When both E. lewisi and T. urticae are present on the same leaf, N. fallacis and A. andersoni fed on both types of mites equally and were capable of decreasing both populations. N. californicus fed on E. lewisi first and decreased its population, but allowed T. urticae populations to increase. P. persimilis may be insufficient at controlling E. lewisi and its use may instead enhance E. lewisi populations.

  3. Multigene phylogeny of the scyphozoan jellyfish family Pelagiidae reveals that the common U.S. Atlantic sea nettle comprises two distinct species (Chrysaora quinquecirrha and C. chesapeakei).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayha, Keith M; Collins, Allen G; Gaffney, Patrick M

    2017-01-01

    Species of the scyphozoan family Pelagiidae (e.g., Pelagia noctiluca, Chrysaora quinquecirrha) are well-known for impacting fisheries, aquaculture, and tourism, especially for the painful sting they can inflict on swimmers. However, historical taxonomic uncertainty at the genus (e.g., new genus Mawia) and species levels hinders progress in studying their biology and evolutionary adaptations that make them nuisance species, as well as ability to understand and/or mitigate their ecological and economic impacts. We collected nuclear (28S rDNA) and mitochondrial (cytochrome c oxidase I and 16S rDNA) sequence data from individuals of all four pelagiid genera, including 11 of 13 currently recognized species of Chrysaora. To examine species boundaries in the U.S. Atlantic sea nettle Chrysaora quinquecirrha, specimens were included from its entire range along the U.S. Atlantic and Gulf of Mexico coasts, with representatives also examined morphologically (macromorphology and cnidome). Phylogenetic analyses show that the genus Chrysaora is paraphyletic with respect to other pelagiid genera. In combined analyses, Mawia, sampled from the coast of Senegal, is most closely related to Sanderia malayensis, and Pelagia forms a close relationship to a clade of Pacific Chrysaora species (Chrysaora achlyos, Chrysaora colorata, Chrysaora fuscescens, and Chrysaora melanaster). Chrysaora quinquecirrha is polyphyletic, with one clade from the U.S. coastal Atlantic and another in U.S. Atlantic estuaries and Gulf of Mexico. These genetic differences are reflected in morphology, e.g., tentacle and lappet number, oral arm length, and nematocyst dimensions. Caribbean sea nettles (Jamaica and Panama) are genetically similar to the U.S. Atlantic estuaries and Gulf of Mexico clade of Chrysaora quinquecirrha. Our phylogenetic hypothesis for Pelagiidae contradicts current generic definitions, revealing major disagreements between DNA-based and morphology-based phylogenies. A paraphyletic Chrysaora

  4. Population Genetic Structure of Tetranychus urticae and Its Sibling Species Tetranychus cinnabaribus (Acari: Tetranychidae) in China as Inferred From Microsatellite Data

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ting Li; Xiao-Lin Chen; Xiao-Yue Hong

    2009-01-01

    ABSTRACT The population structure of the twospotted spider mite, Tetranychus urticae Koch, and its sibling species the carmine spider mite, Tetranychus cinnabarinus (Boisduval) (Acari: Tetranychidae...

  5. The flavonoid content and antiproliferative, hypoglycaemic, anti-inflammatory and free radical scavenging activities of Annona dioica St. Hill

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Formagio Anelise S N

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Annona dioica St. Hill (Annonacaeae is a Brazilian plant used in folk medicine for the treatment of several types of rheumatisms and diarrhoea. The focus of this work was to evaluate the in vitro antiproliferative and antioxidant activity and the in vivo hypoglycaemic and anti-inflammatory activity of A. dioica and identify the principal constituents of this plant. Methods The crude methanol extract (EAD and hexane (HF, chloroform (CF, ethyl acetate (EAF and hydromethanol fractions (HMF were evaluated for free radical scavenging activity using the DPPH assay. The EAD and EAF were assayed for hypoglycaemic activity in rats. The EAD was tested in an antiproliferation assay and for anti-inflammatory effects in paw oedema, in addition to myeloperoxidase activity induced by carrageenan (Cg in mice. The EAF was assayed using chromatographic methods. Results The fractionation of the EAF through chromatographic methods identified derivatives of the flavonoids quercetin and kaempferol. Among all the tested fractions, the ethyl acetate and hydromethanol fractions were the most potent, exhibiting an IC50 of 8.53 and 10.57 μg/mL, respectively, which is comparable to that of the commercial antioxidant butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT. The oral administration of the EAD (100 mg/kg and EAF (15 mg/kg inhibited the increase of glucose levels, resulting in a hypoglycaemic effect. The EAD (30 to 300 mg/kg exhibited an anti-oedematogenic effect in Cg-induced paw oedema in a time- and dose-dependent manner. The results showed a reduction of MPO activity by A. dioica 6 h after the induction of paw oedema at all doses tested with maximal inhibition at 300 mg/kg. Conclusions Our results reveal for the first time that compounds contained in the A. dioica leaves exert anti-inflammatory, hypoglycaemic, antiproliferative, and antioxidant effects. The antioxidant activity may be associated with the presence of flavonoids.

  6. Application of Two-spotted Spider Mite Tetranychus urticae for Plant-pest Interaction Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Negrave, Tara; Van Leeuwen, Thomas; Grbic, Vojislava; Grbic, Miodrag

    2014-01-01

    The two-spotted spider mite, Tetranychus urticae, is a ubiquitous polyphagous arthropod herbivore that feeds on a remarkably broad array of species, with more than 150 of economic value. It is a major pest of greenhouse crops, especially in Solanaceae and Cucurbitaceae (e.g., tomatoes, eggplants, peppers, cucumbers, zucchini) and greenhouse ornamentals (e.g., roses, chrysanthemum, carnations), annual field crops (such as maize, cotton, soybean, and sugar beet), and in perennial cultures (alfalfa, strawberries, grapes, citruses, and plums)1,2. In addition to the extreme polyphagy that makes it an important agricultural pest, T. urticae has a tendency to develop resistance to a wide array of insecticides and acaricides that are used for its control3-7. T. urticae is an excellent experimental organism, as it has a rapid life cycle (7 days at 27 °C) and can be easily maintained at high density in the laboratory. Methods to assay gene expression (including in situ hybridization and antibody staining) and to inactivate expression of spider mite endogenous genes using RNA interference have been developed8-10. Recently, the whole genome sequence of T. urticae has been reported, creating an opportunity to develop this pest herbivore as a model organism with equivalent genomic resources that already exist in some of its host plants (Arabidopsis thaliana and the tomato Solanum lycopersicum)11. Together, these model organisms could provide insights into molecular bases of plant-pest interactions. Here, an efficient method for quick and easy collection of a large number of adult female mites, their application on an experimental plant host, and the assessment of the plant damage due to spider mite feeding are described. The presented protocol enables fast and efficient collection of hundreds of individuals at any developmental stage (eggs, larvae, nymphs, adult males, and females) that can be used for subsequent experimental application. PMID:25046103

  7. Application of two-spotted spider mite Tetranychus urticae for plant-pest interaction studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cazaux, Marc; Navarro, Marie; Bruinsma, Kristie A; Zhurov, Vladimir; Negrave, Tara; Van Leeuwen, Thomas; Grbic, Vojislava; Grbic, Miodrag

    2014-07-04

    The two-spotted spider mite, Tetranychus urticae, is a ubiquitous polyphagous arthropod herbivore that feeds on a remarkably broad array of species, with more than 150 of economic value. It is a major pest of greenhouse crops, especially in Solanaceae and Cucurbitaceae (e.g., tomatoes, eggplants, peppers, cucumbers, zucchini) and greenhouse ornamentals (e.g., roses, chrysanthemum, carnations), annual field crops (such as maize, cotton, soybean, and sugar beet), and in perennial cultures (alfalfa, strawberries, grapes, citruses, and plums)1,2. In addition to the extreme polyphagy that makes it an important agricultural pest, T. urticae has a tendency to develop resistance to a wide array of insecticides and acaricides that are used for its control3-7. T. urticae is an excellent experimental organism, as it has a rapid life cycle (7 days at 27 °C) and can be easily maintained at high density in the laboratory. Methods to assay gene expression (including in situ hybridization and antibody staining) and to inactivate expression of spider mite endogenous genes using RNA interference have been developed8-10. Recently, the whole genome sequence of T. urticae has been reported, creating an opportunity to develop this pest herbivore as a model organism with equivalent genomic resources that already exist in some of its host plants (Arabidopsis thaliana and the tomato Solanum lycopersicum)11. Together, these model organisms could provide insights into molecular bases of plant-pest interactions. Here, an efficient method for quick and easy collection of a large number of adult female mites, their application on an experimental plant host, and the assessment of the plant damage due to spider mite feeding are described. The presented protocol enables fast and efficient collection of hundreds of individuals at any developmental stage (eggs, larvae, nymphs, adult males, and females) that can be used for subsequent experimental application.

  8. A Simulation Model of the Mass Rearing of Tetranychus urticae Koch (Acari: Tetranychidae) on Beans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bustos, A; Rodríguez, D; Cure, J R; Cantor, F

    2016-06-01

    The supply of predatory mites as natural enemies is a key component to guarantee the success of biological pest control programs as alternatives to chemical control in commercial crops. To meet the demand for a supply of biologicals, the mass rearing of natural enemies is an option, and the first step must be to develop a standardized system that maximizes the production of prey. One choice for this first step is to use simulation models that can evaluate scenarios that are difficult or complex to address experimentally. In this work, a model was developed to evaluate the current management conditions for the mass rearing of the pest mite Tetranychus urticae Koch. Our aim was to identify alternative scenarios to maximize mite production through mass rearing that could be evaluated in real systems. We assumed that populations of T. urticae were regulated by the conditions of supply-demand theory and modeled the age structure, temperature effects, and individual phenology of T. urticae. The supply-demand theory of resources was used to regulate populations, which involved structured ages and temperature effects for the different stages in the development of individuals. We used the functional response and the paradigm of metabolic pool models to describe resource acquisition and allocation. We demonstrated that 7- to 14-day-old plants infested with 45 or 62 T. urticae/plant could reach 25,000 individuals/plant, being 50% of these preys at the preferred stages by the predator Phytoseiulus persimilis Athias-Henriot. Our theoretical model requires validation in experimental/real systems of mass rearing to better verify the validity of all of the parameters and predictions before commercial implementation.

  9. Cysteine peptidases and their inhibitors in Tetranychus urticae: a comparative genomic approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background Cysteine peptidases in the two-spotted spider mite Tetranychus urticae are involved in essential physiological processes, including proteolytic digestion. Cystatins and thyropins are inhibitors of cysteine peptidases that modulate their activity, although their function in this species has yet to be investigated. Comparative genomic analyses are powerful tools to obtain advanced knowledge into the presence and evolution of both, peptidases and their inhibitors, and could aid to elucidate issues concerning the function of these proteins. Results We have performed a genomic comparative analysis of cysteine peptidases and their inhibitors in T. urticae and representative species of different arthropod taxonomic groups. The results indicate: i) clade-specific proliferations are common to C1A papain-like peptidases and for the I25B cystatin family of inhibitors, whereas the C1A inhibitors thyropins are evolutionarily more conserved among arthropod clades; ii) an unprecedented extensive expansion for C13 legumain-like peptidases is found in T. urticae; iii) a sequence-structure analysis of the spider mite cystatins suggests that diversification may be related to an expansion of their inhibitory range; and iv) an in silico transcriptomic analysis shows that most cathepsin B and L cysteine peptidases, legumains and several members of the cystatin family are expressed at a higher rate in T. urticae feeding stages than in embryos. Conclusion Comparative genomics has provided valuable insights on the spider mite cysteine peptidases and their inhibitors. Mite-specific proliferations of C1A and C13 peptidase and I25 cystatin families and their over-expression in feeding stages of mites fit with a putative role in mite’s feeding and could have a key role in its broad host feeding range. PMID:22784002

  10. De novo biosynthesis of secondary metabolism enzymes in homogeneous cultures of Penicillium urticae.

    OpenAIRE

    Grootwassink, J W; Gaucher, G M

    1980-01-01

    The initiation of patulin biosynthesis in submerged batch cultures of Penicillium urticae NRRL 2159A was investigated at the enzyme level. In contrast to earlier studies, this study achieved a clear temporal separation of growing cells devoid of secondary metabolism-specific enzymes from nongrowing cells, which rapidly produce these enzymes. A spore inoculum, silicone-treated flasks, and two new media which supported a rapid, pellet-free, filamentous type of growth were used. In yeast extract...

  11. Cysteine peptidases and their inhibitors in Tetranychus urticae: a comparative genomic approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santamaría María

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cysteine peptidases in the two-spotted spider mite Tetranychus urticae are involved in essential physiological processes, including proteolytic digestion. Cystatins and thyropins are inhibitors of cysteine peptidases that modulate their activity, although their function in this species has yet to be investigated. Comparative genomic analyses are powerful tools to obtain advanced knowledge into the presence and evolution of both, peptidases and their inhibitors, and could aid to elucidate issues concerning the function of these proteins. Results We have performed a genomic comparative analysis of cysteine peptidases and their inhibitors in T. urticae and representative species of different arthropod taxonomic groups. The results indicate: i clade-specific proliferations are common to C1A papain-like peptidases and for the I25B cystatin family of inhibitors, whereas the C1A inhibitors thyropins are evolutionarily more conserved among arthropod clades; ii an unprecedented extensive expansion for C13 legumain-like peptidases is found in T. urticae; iii a sequence-structure analysis of the spider mite cystatins suggests that diversification may be related to an expansion of their inhibitory range; and iv an in silico transcriptomic analysis shows that most cathepsin B and L cysteine peptidases, legumains and several members of the cystatin family are expressed at a higher rate in T. urticae feeding stages than in embryos. Conclusion Comparative genomics has provided valuable insights on the spider mite cysteine peptidases and their inhibitors. Mite-specific proliferations of C1A and C13 peptidase and I25 cystatin families and their over-expression in feeding stages of mites fit with a putative role in mite’s feeding and could have a key role in its broad host feeding range.

  12. Plantas de milho produz resistência elicitada por Tetranychus urticae Koch (Acari: Tetranychidae)

    OpenAIRE

    Paulo, P. D.; LIMA, C.G. de; Dominiquini, A. B.; FADINI, M. A. M.; MENDES, S. M.; Marinho, C. G. S.

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Plants can be attacked by a wide variety of herbivores. Thus, developing protective mechanisms for resistance against these agents is an advantage for survival and reproduction. Over the course of evolution, many resistance mechanisms against herbivory have been developed by the plants. Induced direct and indirect resistance mechanisms can manifest in plants after herbivore attack. The two-spotted spider mite Tetranychus urticae is not a pest of maize crops (Zea mays), despite being ...

  13. Tingkat pemangsaan Neoseiulus longispinosus Evans (Acari : Phytoseiidae terhadap Tetranychus urticae Koch dan Tetranychus kanzawai Kishida (Acari: Tetranychidae serta perilaku kanibalismenya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edwin Iswella

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Tetranychus urticae Koch and Tetranycus kanzawai Kishida are important pests of various crops of economicall importance in Indonesia. Acaricide ussually used to control these mites. One of the alternative control methods is the use of phytoseiid predatory mites. Most of the phytoseiid mites that are used as biological control agents are exotic mites. For that reasons, it is necessary to study indegenous predatory mites that has the potential to be developed as biological control, such as N. longispinosus. The objective of this study was to determine the predation capacities of N. longispinosus on two red spider mites of T. urticae and T. kanzawai and the effect of predator densities to predator cannibalistic behavior. N. longispinosus were supplied with eggs and adults of T. urticae and T. kanzawai to determine the predation capacities. N. longispinosus were also supplied low number of T. kanzawai eggs as the prey at several predator densities to see its cannibalistic behavior. The results showed that the number of eggs of T. urticae dan T. kanzawai consumed by deutonymphs and adult females of N. longispinosus was higher than the adult female of T. urticae dan T. kanzawai. The number of eggs of T. urticae dan T. kanzawai consumed by adult female N. longispinosus was higher than by the deutonymphs. The number of eggs laid by adult females of N. longispinosus when feed on eggs of T. urticae and T. kanzawai was higher than those feed on adult female. Deutonymph and female adult stage of N. longispinosus showed cannibalistic behavior at several predator densities in low number of prey.

  14. Phytochemistry and insecticidal effect of different parts of Melissa officinalis on Tetranychus urticae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Mahmoudi

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Background and objectives: In recent years, biological control of parasites by essential oils (EOs derived from plants is one of the alternatives to synthetic pesticides.Melissa officinalis from Lamiaceae family is distributed in many parts of Iran. It is known as an excellent source of antioxidants, antibacterial, antiviral and antifungal constituents. The present study investigated the insecticide properties of M. officinalis against Tetranychus urticae tick. Methods: The EO of different parts of plant was extracted and analyzed by gas chromatography and mass spectrometry (GC/MS. The ticks were placed on the filter paper in the bottom of a petri dish (9 mm, and contact toxicity assay was then performed by contacting the extract with the ticks. Results: The EO of leaves showed the most potent insecticidal effect while the stem EO demonstrated the weakest effect. The lowest concentration of EO from the leaves showed more considerable insecticide activity compared to the highest concentration of stem and flower EOs. Conclusion: Melissa officinalis is an effective insecticide with potent effect against T. urticae and it could be suggested as a natural pesticide against T. urticae.

  15. Phenotypic- and Genotypic-Resistance Detection for Adaptive Resistance Management in Tetranychus urticae Koch.

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    Deok Ho Kwon

    Full Text Available Rapid resistance detection is necessary for the adaptive management of acaricide-resistant populations of Tetranychus urticae. Detection of phenotypic and genotypic resistance was conducted by employing residual contact vial bioassay (RCV and quantitative sequencing (QS methods, respectively. RCV was useful for detecting the acaricide resistance levels of T. urticae, particularly for on-site resistance detection; however, it was only applicable for rapid-acting acaricides (12 out of 19 tested acaricides. QS was effective for determining the frequencies of resistance alleles on a population basis, which corresponded to 12 nonsynonymous point mutations associated with target-site resistance to five types of acaricides [organophosphates (monocrotophos, pirimiphos-methyl, dimethoate and chlorpyrifos, pyrethroids (fenpropathrin and bifenthrin, abamectin, bifenazate and etoxazole]. Most field-collected mites exhibited high levels of multiple resistance, as determined by RCV and QS data, suggesting the seriousness of their current acaricide resistance status in rose cultivation areas in Korea. The correlation analyses revealed moderate to high levels of positive relationships between the resistance allele frequencies and the actual resistance levels in only five of the acaricides evaluated, which limits the general application of allele frequency as a direct indicator for estimating actual resistance levels. Nevertheless, the resistance allele frequency data alone allowed for the evaluation of the genetic resistance potential and background of test mite populations. The combined use of RCV and QS provides basic information on resistance levels, which is essential for choosing appropriate acaricides for the management of resistant T. urticae.

  16. Ethanol extract of Cymbopogon winterianus on mortality and number of eggs of Tetranychus urticae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victor Bernardo Vicentini

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Plant extracts have been studied as a promising source of natural insecticides. This study assessed the effect of the ethanol extract of Cymbopogon winterianus Jowitt (citronella grass in comparison with an insecticide containing azadirachtin (ICA on mortality and number of eggs of Tetranychus urticae Koch (Acari: Tetranychidae in laboratory conditions. For the tests, the mites were sprayed with the aid of a Potter spray tower. To assess the mortality of females, LC50 value for extract of citronella grass and ICA was, respectively, 2.63 and 2.83%. With respect to the number of eggs, the greatest reduction was observed at a concentration of 5% for the evaluation period of 120h, both for the extract of citronella grass (86% and for ICA (81%. These results suggest the potential of the ethanol extract of citronella grass to control of T. urticae. However, experiments, under field conditions, involving other populations of T. urticae should be performed to verify the efficacy of this extract as an alternative to be used in pest management programs

  17. Divergent methylation pattern in adult stage between two forms of Tetranychus urticae (Acari: Tetranychidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Si-Xia; Guo, Chao; Zhao, Xiu-Ting; Sun, Jing-Tao; Hong, Xiao-Yue

    2017-02-19

    The two-spotted spider mite, Tetranychus urticae Koch has two forms: green form and red form. Understanding the molecular basis of how these two forms established without divergent genetic background is an intriguing area. As a well-known epigenetic process, DNA methylation has particularly important roles in gene regulation and developmental variation across diverse organisms that do not alter genetic background. Here, to investigate whether DNA methylation could be associated with different phenotypic consequences in the two forms of T. urticae, we surveyed the genome-wide cytosine methylation status and expression level of DNA methyltransferase 3 (Tudnmt3) throughout their entire life cycle. Methylation-sensitive amplification polymorphism (MSAP) analyses of 585 loci revealed variable methylation patterns in the different developmental stages. In particular, principal coordinates analysis (PCoA) indicates a significant epigenetic differentiation between female adults of the two forms. The gene expression of Tudnmt3 was detected in all examined developmental stages, which was significantly different in the adult stage of the two forms. Together, our results reveal the epigenetic distance between the two forms of T. urticae, suggesting that DNA methylation might be implicated in different developmental demands, and contribute to different phenotypes in the adult stage of these two forms. © 2017 Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences.

  18. Efficacy and activity prediction by molecular topology of new drugs against the Tetranychus urticae plague.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mérida, Salvador; Fustero, Santos; Villar, Vincent M; Gálvez, María; Román, Raquel; Amigó, José M

    2013-07-01

    Tetranychus urticae Koch is an important pest affecting citrus, for which biological control has not yet been achieved; therefore, acaricides are commonly used instead. The goal of the work reported in this paper was to measure the efficacy of different new compounds--uracil derivatives--on this mite and conduct a quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR) study based on the results obtained, in order to set up a model capable of predicting the acaricidal activity of further new compounds. Some of the tested new products proved highly effective against T. urticae. Besides, topological indices were used as structural descriptors. The result was a topological model consisting of two discriminant functions for distinguishing between active and inactive compounds, and a predictive equation for the adult mortality percentage on the sixth day. This model was then sequentially applied to a large database of compounds with unknown activity against the Tetranychus urticae plague. Finally, a preliminary toxicity study of the most effective novel compounds supports their non-toxicity, performing even better than commercial referents.

  19. Stability and fitness costs associated with etoxazole resistance in Tetranychus urticae (Acari: Tetranychidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stocco, Rafael Sorrentino Minazzi; Sato, Mário Eidi; Santos, Taiana Lumi

    2016-08-01

    The two-spotted spider mite, Tetranychus urticae Koch, is one of the most important pests on a wide range of crops worldwide. Studies on stability of resistance and possible fitness costs associated with etoxazole resistance were carried out in T. urticae to provide basic information necessary to define effective acaricide resistance management strategies for this pest. Selection for resistance to etoxazole was performed in a population of T. urticae collected from a commercial rose field, in Holambra County, in the State of São Paulo, Brazil. After five rounds of selection for resistance, the resistance ratio (R/S) at the LC50 reached 8739 fold value in comparison with a susceptible strain (Brazabrantes S Strain). The stability of etoxazole resistance was studied under laboratory conditions, using a population with initial frequency of 75 % of resistant mites. The frequencies of etoxazole resistance were evaluated monthly for a period of 13 months. The frequency of etoxazole resistance decreased from 75 to 37 % in this period. Comparison of biological traits between resistant and susceptible strains indicated the presence of fitness costs associated with etoxazole resistance. The resistant strain showed lower fecundity and a higher proportion of males in the population. The figures for net reproductive rate (R 0), intrinsic rate of natural increase (r m) and finite rate of increase (λ) were higher in the susceptible strain. The instability of etoxazole resistance is a favorable aspect for the acaricide resistance management in the spider mite.

  20. Susceptibility of Tetranychus urticae Koch to an ethanol extract of Cnidoscolus aconitifolius leaves under laboratory conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Numa, S; Rodríguez, L; Rodríguez, D; Coy-Barrera, E

    2015-01-01

    One of the main pests of commercial rose crops in Colombia is the phytophagous mite Tetranychus urticae Koch. To manage this pest, synthetic chemicals have traditionally been used, some of which are well known to be potentially toxic to the environment and humans. Therefore, alternative strategies for pest management in greenhouse crops have been developed in recent years, including biological control with natural enemies such as parasitoids, predators and entomopathogenic microorganisms as well as chemical control using plant extracts. Such extracts have shown toxicity to insects, which has positioned them as a common alternative in programs of integrated pest management. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of an unfractionated ethanolic extract of Cnidoscolus aconitifolius leaves on adult females of T. urticae under laboratory conditions. The extract was chemically characterized by recording its metabolic profile via liquid chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry, along with tentative metabolite identification. The immersion technique and direct application to rose leaves were used to evaluate the effects of seven doses (10-2,000 µg/mL) of the ethanol extract of C. aconitifolius leaves on T. urticae females under laboratory conditions. The mortality and oviposition of individuals were recorded at 24, 48 and 72 h. It was found that the C. aconitifolius leaf extract reduced fertility and increased mortality in a dose-dependent manner. The main metabolites identified included flavonoid- and sesquiterpene-type compounds, in addition to chromone- and xanthone-type compounds as minor constituents with potential acaricidal effects.

  1. Factors affecting photoreactivation in UVB-irradiated herbivorous spider mite (Tetranychus urticae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murata, Yasumasa; Osakabe, Masahiro

    2014-06-01

    Ambient ultraviolet-B (UVB) radiation causes lethal damage to spider mites, and the extent of photochemical effects is determined by cumulative irradiance in the two-spotted spider mite, Tetranychus urticae. However, the LD50 values obtained using a UVB lamp were much lower than those elicited by solar UVB radiation. As solar radiation includes intense visible light and UVA, we assumed that a photoreactivation mechanism would play a role to survive under solar radiation. We assessed the capacity for photoreactivation in T. urticae eggs and larvae, and found that the efficacy of photoreactivation was determined by the cumulative irradiance of visible light (VIS) after exposure to UVB radiation. The wavelength range effective for photoreactivation went from UVA to green. Next, we found that an increased time lag between UVB and VIS radiation reduced the photoreactivation efficacy in eggs. In contrast, a time lag ≤4 h did not affect that in larvae. We discussed the possibility that the timing of photoreactivation occurs related with phase-specific UVB vulnerability and outbreak symptoms due to UVB-induced DNA damage. Our results suggest that T. urticae depends on a photoreactivation mechanism, and that the photoreactivation efficiency probably caused the divergence in UVB impact between UV lamp and solar radiation.

  2. Development of microsatellite markers for six Tetranychus species by transfer from Tetranychus urticae genome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jia; Sun, Jing-Tao; Jin, Peng-Yu; Hong, Xiao-Yue

    2016-09-01

    Microsatellite markers are frequently used to explore the population genetic structure of organisms. Spider mites (genus Tetranychus) are important agricultural pests. Several markers have been developed for T. urticae, but for other spider mites, few such markers are available, hampering studies of their population genetics. In this study, we developed and characterized microsatellite markers for six non-model spider mite species (T. truncatus, T. kanzawai, T. ludeni, T. piercei, T. phaselus and T. pueraricola) by cross-species amplification of markers in the T. urticae genome, in order to better understand the population structure of Tetranychus species. Among 228 screened loci, many were polymorphic, including 13 loci in T. urticae, 11 loci in T. truncatus, 15 loci in T. pueraricola, 23 loci in T. kanzawai, 19 loci in T. piercei, 11 loci in T. phaselus and 9 loci in T. ludeni. Sequence analysis determined that the fragment length variations of the transferred microsatellites were mainly due to the variations of the numbers of repeats. These new microsatellite markers should be useful for studying the population genetics of the seven Tetranychus species.

  3. Stably expressed housekeeping genes across developmental stages in the two-spotted spider mite, Tetranychus urticae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Chunxiao; Pan, Huipeng; Liu, Yong; Zhou, Xuguo

    2015-01-01

    Quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) is a reliable and reproducible technique for measuring mRNA expression. To facilitate gene expression studies and obtain more accurate qRT-PCR analysis, normalization relative to stable housekeeping genes is mandatory. In this study, ten housekeeping genes, including beta-actin (Actin) , elongation factor 1 α (EF1A) , glyceralde hyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH) , ribosomal protein L13 (RPL13) , ribosomal protein 49 (RP49) , α-tubulin (Tubulin) , vacuolar-type H+-ATPase (v-ATPase) , succinate dehydrogenase subunit A (SDHA) , 28S ribosomal RNA (28S) , and 18S ribosomal RNA (18S) from the two-spotted spider mite, Tetranychus urticae, were selected as the candidate reference genes. Four algorithms, geNorm, Normfinder, BestKeeper, and the ΔCt method, were used to evaluate the performance of these candidates as endogenous controls across different developmental stages. In addition, RefFinder, which integrates the above-mentioned software tools, provided the overall ranking of the stability/suitability of these candidate reference genes. Among them, PRL13 and v-ATPase were the two most stable housekeeping genes across different developmental stages. This work is the first step toward establishing a standardized qRT-PCR analysis in T. urticae following the MIQE guideline. With the recent release of the T. urticae genome, results from this study provide a critical piece for the subsequent genomics and functional genomics research in this emerging model system.

  4. Phenotypic- and Genotypic-Resistance Detection for Adaptive Resistance Management in Tetranychus urticae Koch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Deok Ho; Kang, Taek-Jun; Kim, Young Ho; Lee, Si Hyeock

    2015-01-01

    Rapid resistance detection is necessary for the adaptive management of acaricide-resistant populations of Tetranychus urticae. Detection of phenotypic and genotypic resistance was conducted by employing residual contact vial bioassay (RCV) and quantitative sequencing (QS) methods, respectively. RCV was useful for detecting the acaricide resistance levels of T. urticae, particularly for on-site resistance detection; however, it was only applicable for rapid-acting acaricides (12 out of 19 tested acaricides). QS was effective for determining the frequencies of resistance alleles on a population basis, which corresponded to 12 nonsynonymous point mutations associated with target-site resistance to five types of acaricides [organophosphates (monocrotophos, pirimiphos-methyl, dimethoate and chlorpyrifos), pyrethroids (fenpropathrin and bifenthrin), abamectin, bifenazate and etoxazole]. Most field-collected mites exhibited high levels of multiple resistance, as determined by RCV and QS data, suggesting the seriousness of their current acaricide resistance status in rose cultivation areas in Korea. The correlation analyses revealed moderate to high levels of positive relationships between the resistance allele frequencies and the actual resistance levels in only five of the acaricides evaluated, which limits the general application of allele frequency as a direct indicator for estimating actual resistance levels. Nevertheless, the resistance allele frequency data alone allowed for the evaluation of the genetic resistance potential and background of test mite populations. The combined use of RCV and QS provides basic information on resistance levels, which is essential for choosing appropriate acaricides for the management of resistant T. urticae.

  5. The Importance of a Taste: A Comparative Study on Wild Food Plant Consumption in Twenty-One Local Communities in Italy

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ghirardini, Maria Pia; Carli, Marco; Vecchio, Nicola del; Rovati, Ariele; Cova, Ottavia; Valigi, Francesco; Agnetti, Gaia; Macconi, Martina; Adamo, Daniela; Traina, Mario; Laudini, Francesco; Marcheselli, Ilaria; Caruso, Nicolò; Gedda, Tiziano; Donati, Fabio; Marzadro, Alessandro; Russi, Paola; Spaggiari, Caterina; Bianco, Marcella; Binda, Riccardo; Barattieri, Elisa; Tognacci, Alice; Girardo, Martina; Vaschetti, Luca; Caprino, Piero; Sesti, Erika; Andreozzi, Giorgia; Coletto, Erika; Belzer, Gabriele; Pieroni, Andrea

    2007-01-01

    ... (Asparagus acutifolius, Reichardia picroides, Cichorium intybus, Foeniculum vulgare, Sambucus nigra, Silene vulgaris, Taraxacum officinale, Urtica dioica, Sonchus and Valerianella spp.). One taxon (Borago officinalis...

  6. Interactions in a tritrophic acarine predator-prey metapopulation system V: Within-plant dynamics of Phytoseiulus persimilis and Tetranychus urticae (Acari: Phytoseiidae, Tetranychidae)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nachman, Gösta; Zemek, Rostislav

    2003-01-01

    Biological control, Bottom-up factor, Phytoseiulus persimilis, Plant condition, Predacious mites, Simulation model, Tetranychus urticae, Top-down factor, Two-spotted spider mites......Biological control, Bottom-up factor, Phytoseiulus persimilis, Plant condition, Predacious mites, Simulation model, Tetranychus urticae, Top-down factor, Two-spotted spider mites...

  7. Ranking Tool Created for Medicinal Plants at Risk of Being Overharvested in the Wild

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisa Marie Castle

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available We developed an adaptable, transparent tool that can be used to quantify and compare vulnerability to overharvest for wild collected medicinal plants. Subsequently, we are creating a list of the most threatened medicinal plants in temperate North America. The new tool scores species according to their life history, the effects of harvest, their abundance and range, habitat, and demand. The resulting rankings, based on explicit criteria rather than expert opinion, will make it easier to discuss areas of vulnerability and set conservation priorities. Here we present scores for 40 species assessed using the At-Risk Tool and discuss the traits that led to different scores for six example species: echinacea (Echinacea angustifolia DC. Asteraceae, peyote (Lophophora williamsii (Lem. ex Salm-Dyck J.M. Coult. Cactaceae, sandalwood (Santalum spp. L. Santalaceae, stinging nettle (Urtica dioica L. Urticaceae, American ginseng (Panax quinquefolius L. Araliaceae and mayapple (Podophyllum peltatum L. Berberidaceae.

  8. Nutritional Evaluation of Raw Materials Entering the Structure to Mixed Fodder for the Specie Poecilia reticulata (Guppy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrian Gruber

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available In the ornamental pisciculture is a especial emphasis on the exterior shape and color to the fishes, issues that are dependent directly to the structure of compound feeds in relation to the nutritional characteristics of the raw materials.Own research or focused on analyzing the crude chemical composition with Weende scheme (water content and dry matter, crude ash, crude protein, crude fat, crude fiber, SEN of raw materials can be used in the structure of a compound feeds for the Poecilia reticulata (guppy species, for most of these materials there are no current data in the literature.These materials were analyzed: gelatin, wheat flour, sunflower meal, soybean meal, meal Spirulina platensis, carrot (Daucus carota, Pangasius fillet, Daphnia pulex, grount dandelion (Taraxacum officinale, grount nettle (Urtica dioica and yeast.

  9. Characterization of some plant extracts by GC-MS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iordache, A.; Culea, M.; Gherman, C.; Cozar, O.

    2009-01-01

    Different types of herbs often used in pharmaceutical, cosmetic and food industry were extracted and then analyzed by gas chromatography and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The method validation parameters showed good linearity, precision and recovery for a standard mixture. Herbs from different zones of Romania were studied: melissa (Melissa officinalis), nettle (Urtica dioica, Lamium album), camomile (Matricaria chamomilla). The study was applied for fingerprint chromatograms to characterize the flavors extracted from herb plants of different sources. The identity and quantity of the measured active compounds was correlated with the expected therapeutic effects. The active principles content was determined for the same herb, and different amounts of the active principles were determined for plants of different origin.

  10. Characterization of some plant extracts by GC-MS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iordache, A. [' Babes-Bolyai' University, Str. M. Kogalniceanu, Nr. 1, Cluj-Napoca 400084 (Romania)], E-mail: andres_iro2002@yahoo.com; Culea, M.; Gherman, C.; Cozar, O. [' Babes-Bolyai' University, Str. M. Kogalniceanu, Nr. 1, Cluj-Napoca 400084 (Romania)

    2009-01-15

    Different types of herbs often used in pharmaceutical, cosmetic and food industry were extracted and then analyzed by gas chromatography and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The method validation parameters showed good linearity, precision and recovery for a standard mixture. Herbs from different zones of Romania were studied: melissa (Melissa officinalis), nettle (Urtica dioica, Lamium album), camomile (Matricaria chamomilla). The study was applied for fingerprint chromatograms to characterize the flavors extracted from herb plants of different sources. The identity and quantity of the measured active compounds was correlated with the expected therapeutic effects. The active principles content was determined for the same herb, and different amounts of the active principles were determined for plants of different origin.

  11. Stage-Specific Expression of Resistance to Different Acaricides in Four Field Populations of Tetranychus urticae (Acari: Tetranychidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Xiaofeng; Zhang, Youjun; Wu, Qingjun; Xie, Wen; Wang, Shaoli

    2014-10-01

    The two-spotted spider mite, Tetranychus urticae Koch, is a worldwide crop pest. The resistance to commonly applied acaricides (in this report, "acaricide" refers to both acaricides and insecticides that are toxic to mites) has seriously impaired T. urticae control in the field. Here, the sensitivity of eggs, larvae, and adults of laboratory and field populations of T. urticae to various acaricides was investigated. Based on data obtained with an acaricide-sensitive laboratory strain collected in 2009, abamectin was the most toxic of the tested acaricides. For each acaricide, susceptibility was greatest for larvae, least for adults, and intermediate for eggs. The egg was the most sensitive stage to abamectin, bifenazate, and hexythiazox; the larva was the most sensitive stage to abamectin, hexythiazox, bifenazate, propargite, and chlorfenapyr; and the adult was the most sensitive stage to abamectin, bifenazate, and chlorfenapyr. Based on the results obtained with the acaricide-sensitive laboratory strain, acaricides were selected to test against eggs, larvae, and adults of four field populations of T. urticae from Beijing, China. Although the field populations differed in their resistance to the acaricides in laboratory bioassays, the eggs, larvae, and adults of the four populations were sensitive to bifenazate and highly resistant to abamectin. Field trials for control of T. urticae in Beijing, China, should be conducted with bifenazate and other acaricides rather than with abamectin. © 2014 Entomological Society of America.

  12. Olfactory response of Phytoseiulus persimilis (Acari: Phytoseiidae) to untreated and Beauveria bassiana-treated Tetranychus urticae (Acari: Tetranychidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seiedy, Marjan; Saboori, Alireza; Zahedi-Golpayegani, Azadeh

    2013-06-01

    Determination of attraction and avoidance behavior of predators is important in concomitant use of multiple natural enemies to control a pest. The olfactory response of the predatory mite Phytoseiulus persimilis was studied to odors related to Tetranychus urticae adults infected by Beauveria bassiana DEBI008 in 0, 24, 48 and 72 h intervals, both in absence and in presence of plants. In plant-present experiments, P. persimilis attraction was neither towards adults of T. urticae infected by 0.02 % Tween 80 (as control), nor to the ones infected by B. bassiana for 0 or 24 h, whereas significant attraction towards the control was observed when tested against T. urticae infected by B. bassiana for 48 or 72 h. In absence of plants, P. persimilis displayed significant avoidance of T. urticae infected by B. bassiana for 48 or 72 h, when their alternative option was 0.02 % Tween 80-infected T. urticae adults. These results indicate that P. persimilis can recognize the presence of B. bassiana and that the predator avoids the fungus. This suggests that the two natural enemy species can be used together in biological control programmes.

  13. Effect of pyroligneous extract of Acacia mearnsii on Tetranychus urticae (Koch, 1836 (Acari, Tetranychidae and Neoseiulus californicus (McGregor, 1954 (Acari, Phytoseiidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana de Castro

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This work aimed to determine the effect of decanted pyroligneous extract (DPE of black Acacia mearnsii on the mites Tetranychus urticae (Koch, 1836 (Acari: Tetranychidae and Neoseiulus californicus (McGregor, 1954 (Acari: Phytoseiidae. Six different concentrations were tested, namely, DPE: water 1:600, 1:300, 1:150, 1:75, 1:38 and 1:19 and a control treatment with distilled water. Five females of T. urticae and N. californicus were transferred to arenas, totaling 50 females per treatment, for a period of eight days. DPE caused high mortality in N. californicus, while in T. urticae, high mortality was observed only at high (1:75, 1:38 and 1:19 and intermediate (1:150 concentrations. Notably, DPE was slightly harmful to T. urticae at lower concentrations and harmful to N. californicus at all concentrations, indicating that it would have little efficacy in the control of T. urticae.

  14. Correlation and path coefficient analysis of quantitative characters in spine gourd (Momordica dioica Roxb.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aliya, F; Begum, H; Reddy, M T; Sivaraj, N; Pandravada, S R; Narshimulu, G

    2014-05-01

    Fifty genotypes of spine gourd (Momordica dioica Roxb.) were evaluated in a randomized block design with two replications at the Vegetable Research Station, Rajendranagar, Hyderabad, Andhra Pradesh, India during kharif, 2012. Correlation and path coefficient analysis were carried out to study the character association and contribution, respectively for twelve quantitative characters namely vine length (m), number of stems per plant, days to first female flower appearance, first female flowering node, days to first fruit harvest, days to last fruit harvest, fruiting period (days), fruit length (cm), fruit width (cm), fruit weight (g), number of fruits per plant and fruit yield per plant (kg) for identification of the potential selection indices. Correlation and path coefficient analyses revealed that fruiting period and number of fruits per plant not only had positively significant correlation with fruit yield but also had positively high direct effect on it and are regarded as the main determinants of fruit yield. Days to first fruit harvest had positively moderate direct effect on fruit yield and its association was negatively significant, days to last fruit harvest had negatively high direct effect on fruit yield and its association was significant positively, hence restricted simultaneous selection can be made for days to first fruit harvest and days to last fruit harvest. The improvement in fruit yield can be effective if selection is based on days to first fruit harvest, days to last fruit harvest, fruiting period and number of fruits per plant.

  15. Effect of Lithium on Thigmomorphogenesis in Bryonia dioica Ethylene Production and Sensitivity 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyer, Nicole; Desbiez, Marie-Odile; Hofinger, Michel; Gaspar, Thomas

    1983-01-01

    Rubbing internodes of Bryonia dioica plants reduced their ethylene production but increased their capacity to convert 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC) to ethylene. These results were explained by the previously shown rubbing-induced decrease of indoleacetic acid, which controls the level of ACC synthase, and by the increase of membrane-associated peroxidases which would participate in the conversion of ACC-ethylene. Pretreatment of the plants with Li had no significant effect on control plants but counteracted the rubbing-induced decrease of ethylene production and diminished the capacity of the internodes to convert ACC to ethylene. Exogenously applied ethylene induced an increase of peroxidase activity similar to that caused by rubbing. Inasmuch as both effects were reduced by Li, it was concluded that Li inhibition of thigmomorphogenetic processes was essentially due to a Li inhibition of the effect of ethylene formed in response to mechanical stimuli. The decreased ethylene production and ACC conversion capacity in the presence of Li were explained by a cellular redistribution of peroxidases. PMID:16663035

  16. Sex ratio and spatial distribution of male and female Antennaria dioica (Asteraceae) plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varga, Sandra; Kytöviita, Minna-Maarit

    2011-09-01

    Sex ratio, sex spatial distribution and sexual dimorphism in reproduction and arbuscular mycorrhizal colonisation were investigated in the dioecious clonal plant Antennaria dioica (Asteraceae). Plants were monitored for five consecutive years in six study plots in Oulanka, northern Finland. Sex ratio, spatial distribution of sexes, flowering frequency, number of floral shoots and the number and weight of inflorescences were recorded. In addition, intensity of mycorrhizal fungi in the roots was assessed. Both sexes flowered each year with a similar frequency, but the overall genet sex ratio was strongly female-biased. The bivariate Ripley's analysis of the sex distribution showed that within most plots sexes were randomly distributed except for one plot. Sexual dimorphism was expressed as larger floral and inflorescence production and heavier inflorescences in males. In addition, the roots of both sexes were colonised to a similar extent by arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi. The female sex-biased flowering ratios reported are not consistent among years and cannot be explained in terms of spatial segregation of the sexes or sex lability. The possible reasons for the female-biased sex ratio are discussed.

  17. Purification and characterization of a novel chitinase from Trichosanthes dioica seed with antifungal activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kabir, Syed Rashel; Rahman, Md Musfikur; Tasnim, Shahnima; Karim, Md Rezaul; Khatun, Nazma; Hasan, Imtiaj; Amin, Ruhul; Islam, Shaikh Shohidul; Nurujjaman, Md; Kabir, Ahmad Humayan; Sana, Niranjan Kumar; Ozeki, Yasuhiro; Asaduzzaman, A K M

    2016-03-01

    Chitinases are a group of enzymes that show differences in their molecular structure, substrate specificity, and catalytic mechanism and widely found in organisms like bacteria, yeasts, fungi, arthropods actinomycetes, plants and humans. A novel chitinase enzyme (designated as TDSC) was purified from Trichosanthes dioica seed with a molecular mass of 39±1 kDa in the presence and absence of β-mercaptoethanol. The enzyme was a glycoprotein in nature containing 8% neutral sugar. The N-terminal sequence was determined to be EINGGGA which did not match with other proteins. Amino acid analysis performed by LC-MS revealed that the protein was rich in leucine. The enzyme was stable at a wide range of pH (5.0-11.0) and temperature (30-90 °C). Chitinase activity was little bit inhibited in the presence of chelating agent EDTA (ethylenediaminetetraaceticacid), urea and Ca(2+). A strong fluorescence quenching effect was found when dithiothreitol and sodium dodecyl sulfate were added to the enzyme. TDSC showed antifungal activity against Aspergillus niger and Trichoderma sp. as tested by MTT assay and disc diffusion method. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Oxidative stability of the meat of broilers supplemented with rosemary leaves, rosehip fruits, chokeberry pomace, and entire nettle, and effects on performance and meat quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loetscher, Y; Kreuzer, M; Messikommer, R E

    2013-11-01

    Prevention of lipid oxidation needs special attention because a high proportion of fatty acids in broiler meat are unsaturated. A feeding experiment was conducted to evaluate the antioxidant effect of dietary addition of rosemary, chokeberry pomace, rosehip, or nettle in comparison with vitamin E. Male Ross PM3 broilers caged in groups of 6 (4 replicated cages per treatment) were fed a balanced diet supplemented with 25 g/kg of herbal additive, 200 IU of α-tocopheryl acetate/kg, or without supplementation from d 7 to 35. Intake, performance, and with the help of excreta samples, apparent fiber digestibility, ME content, and metabolizability of nitrogen and energy were recorded per cage. Feed was analyzed for total phenols and tocopherols. In each bird (n = 24 per treatment), carcass weight and relative organ weights were recorded, and skin and liver color were assessed. Abdominal fat was analyzed for induction time (h) of lipid oxidation (Rancimat). Breast meat was analyzed for total tocopherol content (mg/kg) and development of TBA reactive substances (TBARS; μg of MDA/kg) over 9 d of storage. Data were subjected to ANOVA considering treatment and, where applicable, storage time. Rosemary supplementation reduced oxidation (TBARS d 9: 201; induction time: 2.48) and elevated tocopherol content (5.72) of the meat compared with control (470, 1.87, and 3.53, respectively). Rosemary-treated birds had a slightly lower carcass weight and a reduced nitrogen and energy metabolizability. Rosehip addition numerically decreased TBARS (319) and enhanced carcass weight (1.71 kg) compared with rosemary-treated birds (1.54 kg). Only a trend in antioxidant activity could be ascribed to chokeberry pomace, although dietary phenolic content was highest. Nettle did not improve oxidative stability (TBARS: 506; induction time: 1.91), although tocopherol content was elevated (6.51). Nettle treatment strongly intensified skin yellowness (b* of 20.6) compared with the control treatment

  19. Toxicidade de natuneem sobre Tetranychus urticae Koch (Acari: Tetranychidae e ácaros predadores da família Phytoseiidae Toxicity of the natuneem over the Tetranychus urticae Koch (Acari: Tetranychidae and mites predators from the family Phytoseiidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hilda Maria Brito

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available A toxicidade de diferentes concentrações de Natuneem a Tetranychus urticae Koch e a dois ácaros predadores, Euseius alatus De Leon e Phytoseiulus macropilis (Banks, foi estudada. Foi avaliada a toxicidade sobre ovos, e o efeito residual e repelente, sobre adultos. O tratamento dos ovos consistiu na imersão em diluições de Natuneem por cinco segundos, e o efeito residual e repelente sobre adultos consistiu na imersão de discos de folhas de Canavalia ensiformes (L. DC. também em diluições por cinco segundos. Natuneem foi repelente para T. urticae e E. alatus, quando testado nas concentrações de 0,25; 0,50 e 1,00%, e exibiu efeito neutro para P. macropilis. A toxicidade de Natuneem a ovos e adultos foi maior para T. urticae comparada à toxicidade observada para os ácaros predadores. A fecundidade de T. urticae foi reduzida significativamente por Natuneem em todas as concentrações, enquanto para os ácaros predadores a redução foi significante apenas nas maiores concentrações. Natuneem, nas concentrações testadas, apresentou melhor ação sobre o ácaro-rajado e menor impacto para os ácaros predadores.The toxicity of the Natuneem at different concentrations for both Tetranychus urticae Koch and two predatory mites Euseius alatus De Leon and Phytoseiulus macropilis (Banks were studied. The toxicity on eggs, and the residual and repellent effects on adults was evaluated. Egg treatment consisted on dipping eggs into Natuneem dilutions for five seconds; and residual and repellent effects for adults consisted on dipping leaf discs of Canavalia ensiformes (L. DC. into the dilutions for five seconds. Natuneem was repellent for T. urticae and E. alatus at the concentrations 0.25, 0.50 and 1.0%, and exhibited neutral effect on P. macropilis. The toxicity of Natuneem on eggs and adults was greater for T. urticae compared to the toxicity on predatory mites. The fecundity of T. urticae was reduced significantly by Natuneem in all

  20. Evaluation of site-specific tactics using bifenazate and Neoseiulus californicus for management of Tetranychus urticae (Acari: Tetranychidae) in strawberries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ruohan; Nyoike, Teresia W; Liburd, Oscar E

    2016-10-01

    Greenhouse and field experiments were conducted to evaluate the effectiveness of site-specific tactics for management of the twospotted spider mite, Tetranychus urticae Koch, a major pest of greenhouse and field-grown strawberries (Fragaria x ananassa Duchesne). Two site-specific (spot) treatments, the miticide bifenazate (Acramite(®)) and the predatory mite Neoseiulus californicus McGregor, were compared with whole-plot treatments of bifenazate or N. californicus to determine whether T. urticae could be effectively managed in field-grown strawberry using only site-specific tactics. Additionally, the cost of site-specific tactics was compared with whole-plot treatments to determine the economic value of using site-specific management tactics for T. urticae in strawberries. In the greenhouse, all treatments equivalently reduced the number of T. urticae below control. In the field during the 2011-2012 season, more T. urticae eggs and motiles were in the whole-plot treatments of both N. californicus and bifenazate in the mid-season and late season, respectively, compared with the spot treatments. With the exception of site-specific N. californicus during the 2011-2012 field season, there were no differences in marketable yields between plots with site-specific treatments and whole-plot management. An economic analysis demonstrated a significant cost savings (75.3 %) with site-specific treatments of N. californicus compared with whole-plot application of N. californicus. Similarly, a 24.7 % reduction in cost was achieved in using site-specific bifenazate compared with whole-plot application of bifenazate. The findings indicate that site-specific treatments with N. californicus and bifenazate are competitive alternatives to whole-field application for T. urticae management in strawberries.

  1. Multigene phylogeny of the scyphozoan jellyfish family Pelagiidae reveals that the common U.S. Atlantic sea nettle comprises two distinct species (Chrysaora quinquecirrha and C. chesapeakei

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keith M. Bayha

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Background Species of the scyphozoan family Pelagiidae (e.g., Pelagia noctiluca, Chrysaora quinquecirrha are well-known for impacting fisheries, aquaculture, and tourism, especially for the painful sting they can inflict on swimmers. However, historical taxonomic uncertainty at the genus (e.g., new genus Mawia and species levels hinders progress in studying their biology and evolutionary adaptations that make them nuisance species, as well as ability to understand and/or mitigate their ecological and economic impacts. Methods We collected nuclear (28S rDNA and mitochondrial (cytochrome c oxidase I and 16S rDNA sequence data from individuals of all four pelagiid genera, including 11 of 13 currently recognized species of Chrysaora. To examine species boundaries in the U.S. Atlantic sea nettle Chrysaora quinquecirrha, specimens were included from its entire range along the U.S. Atlantic and Gulf of Mexico coasts, with representatives also examined morphologically (macromorphology and cnidome. Results Phylogenetic analyses show that the genus Chrysaora is paraphyletic with respect to other pelagiid genera. In combined analyses, Mawia, sampled from the coast of Senegal, is most closely related to Sanderia malayensis, and Pelagia forms a close relationship to a clade of Pacific Chrysaora species (Chrysaora achlyos, Chrysaora colorata, Chrysaora fuscescens, and Chrysaora melanaster. Chrysaora quinquecirrha is polyphyletic, with one clade from the U.S. coastal Atlantic and another in U.S. Atlantic estuaries and Gulf of Mexico. These genetic differences are reflected in morphology, e.g., tentacle and lappet number, oral arm length, and nematocyst dimensions. Caribbean sea nettles (Jamaica and Panama are genetically similar to the U.S. Atlantic estuaries and Gulf of Mexico clade of Chrysaora quinquecirrha. Discussion Our phylogenetic hypothesis for Pelagiidae contradicts current generic definitions, revealing major disagreements between DNA-based and

  2. Multigene phylogeny of the scyphozoan jellyfish family Pelagiidae reveals that the common U.S. Atlantic sea nettle comprises two distinct species (Chrysaora quinquecirrha and C. chesapeakei)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaffney, Patrick M.

    2017-01-01

    Background Species of the scyphozoan family Pelagiidae (e.g., Pelagia noctiluca, Chrysaora quinquecirrha) are well-known for impacting fisheries, aquaculture, and tourism, especially for the painful sting they can inflict on swimmers. However, historical taxonomic uncertainty at the genus (e.g., new genus Mawia) and species levels hinders progress in studying their biology and evolutionary adaptations that make them nuisance species, as well as ability to understand and/or mitigate their ecological and economic impacts. Methods We collected nuclear (28S rDNA) and mitochondrial (cytochrome c oxidase I and 16S rDNA) sequence data from individuals of all four pelagiid genera, including 11 of 13 currently recognized species of Chrysaora. To examine species boundaries in the U.S. Atlantic sea nettle Chrysaora quinquecirrha, specimens were included from its entire range along the U.S. Atlantic and Gulf of Mexico coasts, with representatives also examined morphologically (macromorphology and cnidome). Results Phylogenetic analyses show that the genus Chrysaora is paraphyletic with respect to other pelagiid genera. In combined analyses, Mawia, sampled from the coast of Senegal, is most closely related to Sanderia malayensis, and Pelagia forms a close relationship to a clade of Pacific Chrysaora species (Chrysaora achlyos, Chrysaora colorata, Chrysaora fuscescens, and Chrysaora melanaster). Chrysaora quinquecirrha is polyphyletic, with one clade from the U.S. coastal Atlantic and another in U.S. Atlantic estuaries and Gulf of Mexico. These genetic differences are reflected in morphology, e.g., tentacle and lappet number, oral arm length, and nematocyst dimensions. Caribbean sea nettles (Jamaica and Panama) are genetically similar to the U.S. Atlantic estuaries and Gulf of Mexico clade of Chrysaora quinquecirrha. Discussion Our phylogenetic hypothesis for Pelagiidae contradicts current generic definitions, revealing major disagreements between DNA-based and morphology

  3. Greenhouse and Field Evaluation of Two Biopesticides Against Tetranychus urticae and Panonychus ulmi (Acari: Tetranychidae

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    Dejan Marčić

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The mycopesticide Naturalis (based on Beauveria bassiana strain ATCC 74040 andbotanical pesticide Kingbo (based on oxymatrine, an alkaloid from Sophora flavescens, a traditionalChinese herb were tested against the two-spotted spider mite (Tetranychus urticaeon greenhouse vegetables and the European red mite (Panonychus ulmi on apples. Thesebiopesticide products were applied twice at 5-day interval and concentrations of 0.1% and0.2%, and their effectiveness was compared to abamectin-based products and the syntheticacaricides acrinathrin and spirodiclofen, applied once at their recommended rates.The mycopesticide Naturalis, applied at 0.1% concentration against T. urticae on cucumber,reduced mite population density by 85-86%, achieving 91-93% efficacy. In a trial on tomato,efficacy reached some 96%, while population density was reduced by 93%. In a field trialon apple, Naturalis demonstrated an increasing and long-lasting effectiveness against thesummer population of P. ulmi of nearly 100%, and population reduction was achieved inassessments 30 days after the first treatment. Naturalis applied at a double rate achieved asomewhat better effect but only in the first trial. The botanical pesticide Kingbo, applied at0.1% concentration, demonstrated very high control efficacy (≥98% and population densityreduction (≥96% of T. urticae in both trials. A high and long-lasting effectiveness of thisbioacaricide was also achieved in a trial on P. ulmi. Its concentration of 0.2% achieved similareffect. The results in these trials indicate that applications of the mycopesticide Naturalisand the botanical pesticide Kingbo can provide effective control of T. urticae on cucumberand tomato grown in greenhouses, as well as P. ulmi on apple.

  4. Susceptibility of Tetranychus urticae Koch. (Acari: Tetranychidae to Isolates of Entomopathogenic Fungus Beauveria bassiana

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    Slavimira A. Draganova

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Bioassays with five isolates of the entomopathogenic fungus Beauveria bassiana (Bals.- Criv. Vuillemin were conducted under laboratory conditions with a goal to estimate their virulence to the two-spotted spider mite Tetranychus urticae Koch. (Acari: Tetranychidae. Common bean plants with mites were treated by spraying conidial suspensions of isolates at concentrations of 106, 107 and 108 conidia/ml. Lethal effects of the fungal isolates wereevaluated as percentages of cumulative daily mortality due to mycoses, corrected for mortality in the control variant. Virulence of the isolates was estimated based on values of the median lethal time (LT50 calculated by probit analysis for the variants treated with conidial suspensions at the concentration of 106 conidia/ml.The two-spotted spider mite was found susceptible to the examined isolates of the entomopathogenic fungus B. bassiana. Mycosis caused to T. urticae by the B. bassiana isolates 444 Bb and 445 Bb had fast lethal effect after treatment with conidial suspensions even at the concentration of 106 conidia/ml. The mean mortality values of host individuals were 83.78 ± 3.62% and 68.49 ± 4.28% on the first day, respectively, and up to 100% in both variants on the fourth day.The isolates 426 Bb, 444 Bb and 445 Bb of B. bassiana were highly virulent to two-spotted spider mites with values of the median lethal time varied within overlapped narrow confidence intervals from 0.122 to 1.084 days (average value 0.162 days, from 0.117 to 1.398 days (average value 0.146 days and from 0.106 to 1.162 days (average value 0.131 days,respectively. Significant differences regarding virulence of the three isolates at p-level < 0.05 could not been proved. The other two examined isolates were distinctly less virulent to T. urticae than these three B. bassiana isolates.

  5. The Salivary Protein Repertoire of the Polyphagous Spider Mite Tetranychus urticae: A Quest for Effectors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jonckheere, Wim; Dermauw, Wannes; Zhurov, Vladimir; Wybouw, Nicky; Van den Bulcke, Jan; Villarroel, Carlos A; Greenhalgh, Robert; Grbić, Mike; Schuurink, Rob C; Tirry, Luc; Baggerman, Geert; Clark, Richard M; Kant, Merijn R; Vanholme, Bartel; Menschaert, Gerben; Van Leeuwen, Thomas

    2016-12-01

    The two-spotted spider mite Tetranychus urticae is an extremely polyphagous crop pest. Alongside an unparalleled detoxification potential for plant secondary metabolites, it has recently been shown that spider mites can attenuate or even suppress plant defenses. Salivary constituents, notably effectors, have been proposed to play an important role in manipulating plant defenses and might determine the outcome of plant-mite interactions. Here, the proteomic composition of saliva from T. urticae lines adapted to various host plants-bean, maize, soy, and tomato-was analyzed using a custom-developed feeding assay coupled with nano-LC tandem mass spectrometry. About 90 putative T. urticae salivary proteins were identified. Many are of unknown function, and in numerous cases belonging to multimembered gene families. RNAseq expression analysis revealed that many genes coding for these salivary proteins were highly expressed in the proterosoma, the mite body region that includes the salivary glands. A subset of genes encoding putative salivary proteins was selected for whole-mount in situ hybridization, and were found to be expressed in the anterior and dorsal podocephalic glands. Strikingly, host plant dependent expression was evident for putative salivary proteins, and was further studied in detail by micro-array based genome-wide expression profiling. This meta-analysis revealed for the first time the salivary protein repertoire of a phytophagous chelicerate. The availability of this salivary proteome will assist in unraveling the molecular interface between phytophagous mites and their host plants, and may ultimately facilitate the development of mite-resistant crops. Furthermore, the technique used in this study is a time- and resource-efficient method to examine the salivary protein composition of other small arthropods for which saliva or salivary glands cannot be isolated easily. © 2016 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  6. Molecular diagnostics for detecting pyrethroid and abamectin resistance mutations in Tetranychus urticae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ilias, Aris; Vassiliou, Vassilis A; Vontas, John; Tsagkarakou, Anastasia

    2017-01-01

    Avermectin and pyrethroid resistance mutations (the G314D and the G326E in the glutamate gated chloride channels, and the F1538I in the voltage gated sodium channel) have been reported in the spider mite Tetranychus urticae, one of the most devastating pests of protected and open field crops worldwide. We developed three TaqMan molecular diagnostic assays for monitoring the presence and frequency of these mutations in T. urticae field populations. The TaqMan assays were validated against known genotypes and subsequently used to monitor the frequency of the resistance mutations in eleven T. urticae populations from Greece and Cyprus, with variable history of avermectin and pyrethroids applications. The frequency of the F1538I pyrethroid resistance mutation largely varied among samples, with highest frequencies (75%-97%) detected in four populations derived from protected and open field crops from Crete and Peloponnesus, low frequencies in three populations (2.5%-11%) from Attiki, Cyprus and Crete and not detected in four populations from Crete, Peloponnesus and Cyprus. The frequency of the abamectin resistance mutations G314D and G326E also varied across populations (from 0 to 100%), showing fixation in two populations (>97.5% for the G314D and 100% for the G326E), originating from rose greenhouses from Greece, low frequencies in three populations (5%-12.5%) also originating from rose greenhouses (Crete, Peloponnesus and Cyprus) and not detected in six populations from protected and open field vegetable crops. The TaqMan diagnostics showed higher resolution in detecting specific alleles in low frequency, compared to massive quantitative sequencing approaches previously employed. They can be used, together with classical bioassays, to support evidence - based insecticide resistance management strategies. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Global distribution and origin of target site insecticide resistance mutations in Tetranychus urticae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ilias, A; Vontas, J; Tsagkarakou, A

    2014-05-01

    The control of Tetranychus urticae, a worldwide agricultural pest, is largely dependent on pesticides. However, their efficacy is often compromised by the development of resistance. Recent molecular studies identified a number of target site resistance mutations, such as G119S, A201S, T280A, G328A, F331W in the acetylcholinesterase gene, L1024V, A1215D, F1538I in the voltage-gated sodium channel gene, G314D and G326E in glutamate-gated chloride channel genes, G126S, I136T, S141F, D161G, P262T in the cytochrome b and the I1017F in the chitin synthase 1 gene. We examined their distribution, by sequencing the relevant gene fragments in a large number of T. urticae collections from a wide geographic range. Our study revealed that most of the resistance mutations are spread worldwide, with remarkably variable frequencies. Furthermore, we analyzed the variability of the ace locus, which has been subjected to longer periods of selection pressure historically, to investigate the evolutionary origin of ace resistant alleles and determine whether they resulted from single or multiple mutation events. By sequencing a 1540 bp ace fragment, encompassing the resistance mutations and downstream introns in 139 T. urticae individuals from 27 countries, we identified 6 susceptible and 31 resistant alleles which have arisen from at least three independent mutation events. The frequency and distribution of these ace haplotypes varied geographically, suggesting an interplay between different mutational events, gene flow and local selection. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Gene Pyramiding of Peptidase Inhibitors Enhances Plant Resistance to the Spider Mite Tetranychus urticae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santamaria, Maria Estrella; Cambra, Inés; Martinez, Manuel; Pozancos, Clara; González-Melendi, Pablo; Grbic, Vojislava; Castañera, Pedro; Ortego, Felix; Diaz, Isabel

    2012-01-01

    The two-spotted spider mite Tetranychus urticae is a damaging pest worldwide with a wide range of host plants and an extreme record of pesticide resistance. Recently, the complete T. urticae genome has been published and showed a proliferation of gene families associated with digestion and detoxification of plant secondary compounds which supports its polyphagous behaviour. To overcome spider mite adaptability a gene pyramiding approach has been developed by co-expressing two barley proteases inhibitors, the cystatin Icy6 and the trypsin inhibitor Itr1 genes in Arabidopsis plants by Agrobacterium-mediated transformation. The presence and expression of both transgenes was studied by conventional and quantitative real time RT-PCR assays and by indirect ELISA assays. The inhibitory activity of cystatin and trypsin inhibitor was in vitro analysed using specific substrates. Single and double transformants were used to assess the effects of spider mite infestation. Double transformed lines showed the lowest damaged leaf area in comparison to single transformants and non-transformed controls and different accumulation of H2O2 as defence response in the leaf feeding site, detected by diaminobenzidine staining. Additionally, an impact on endogenous mite cathepsin B- and L-like activities was observed after feeding on Arabidopsis lines, which correlates with a significant increase in the mortality of mites fed on transformed plants. These effects were analysed in view of the expression levels of the target mite protease genes, C1A cysteine peptidase and S1 serine peptidase, identified in the four developmental mite stages (embryo, larvae, nymphs and adults) performed using the RNA-seq information available at the BOGAS T. urticae database. The potential of pyramiding different classes of plant protease inhibitors to prevent plant damage caused by mites as a new tool to prevent pest resistance and to improve pest control is discussed. PMID:22900081

  9. Stably expressed housekeeping genes across developmental stages in the two-spotted spider mite, Tetranychus urticae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chunxiao Yang

    Full Text Available Quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR is a reliable and reproducible technique for measuring mRNA expression. To facilitate gene expression studies and obtain more accurate qRT-PCR analysis, normalization relative to stable housekeeping genes is mandatory. In this study, ten housekeeping genes, including beta-actin (Actin , elongation factor 1 α (EF1A , glyceralde hyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH , ribosomal protein L13 (RPL13 , ribosomal protein 49 (RP49 , α-tubulin (Tubulin , vacuolar-type H+-ATPase (v-ATPase , succinate dehydrogenase subunit A (SDHA , 28S ribosomal RNA (28S , and 18S ribosomal RNA (18S from the two-spotted spider mite, Tetranychus urticae, were selected as the candidate reference genes. Four algorithms, geNorm, Normfinder, BestKeeper, and the ΔCt method, were used to evaluate the performance of these candidates as endogenous controls across different developmental stages. In addition, RefFinder, which integrates the above-mentioned software tools, provided the overall ranking of the stability/suitability of these candidate reference genes. Among them, PRL13 and v-ATPase were the two most stable housekeeping genes across different developmental stages. This work is the first step toward establishing a standardized qRT-PCR analysis in T. urticae following the MIQE guideline. With the recent release of the T. urticae genome, results from this study provide a critical piece for the subsequent genomics and functional genomics research in this emerging model system.

  10. Antipredator responses in Tetranychus urticae differ with predator specialization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Stine Kramer; Alexakis, I.; Sigsgaard, Lene

    2016-01-01

    The behavioural response of Tetranychus urticae to chemical cues from specialist predatory mites, Phytoseiulus persimilis, or generalist predatory bugs, Orius majusculus, on either bean or strawberry was studied in experimental arenas. Predators were placed on the leaf disc for 24 h and removed...... and control treatments. No interaction effect was found between plant species and prey fecundity, while significantly more eggs were laid on bean than on strawberry. Predator cues irrespective of predator specialization resulted in more prey dispersal than in the control. Findings emphasize the importance...

  11. Greenhouse and field-based studies on the distribution of dimethoate in cotton and its effect on Tetranychus urticae by drip irrigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Jiangtao; Zhou, Lijuan; Yao, Qiang; Liu, Bo; Xu, Hanhong; Huang, Jiguang

    2018-01-01

    The two-spotted spider mite, Tetranychus urticae Koch is an important pest of cotton. We investigated the efficacy of dimethoate in controlling T. urticae by drip irrigation. Greenhouse and field experiments were carried out to determine the efficacy of dimethoate to T. urticae and the absorption and distribution of dimethoate in cotton. Greenhouse results showed that cotton leaves received higher amounts of dimethoate compared with cotton roots and stems, with higher amounts in young leaves compared with old leaves and cotyledon having the lowest amounts among leaves. Field results showed the efficacy of dimethoate to T. urticae by drip irrigation varied by volume of dripping water, soil pH and dimethoate dosage. Dimethoate applied at 3.00 kg ha -1 with 200 m 3  ha -1 water at weak acidic soil pH (5.70-6.70) through drip irrigation can obtain satisfactory control efficacy (81.49%, 7 days) to T. urticae, without negatively impacting on its natural enemy Neoseiulus cucumeris. The residue of dimethoate in all cotton seed samples were not detectable. These results demonstrate the effectiveness of applying dimethoate by drip irrigation for control of T. urticae on cotton. This knowledge could aid in the applicability of dimethoate by drip irrigation for field management of T. urticae populations. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  12. Sex-specific interaction between arbuscular mycorrhizal and dark septate fungi in the dioecious plant Antennaria dioica (Asteraceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vega-Frutis, R; Varga, S; Kytöviita, M-M

    2013-05-01

    Male and female plants of dioecious species often differ in their resource demands and this has been linked to secondary sexual dimorphism, including sex-specific interactions with other organisms such as herbivores and pollinators. However, little is known about the interaction between dioecious plants and fungal root endophytes. Plants may be simultaneously colonised by arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) and dark septate (DS) fungi. While it is well established that AM mutualism involves reciprocal transfer of photosynthates and mineral nutrients between roots of host plants and these fungi, the role of DS fungi remains controversial. Here, we report the temporal and spatial variation in AM and DS fungi in female, male and non-reproductive Antennaria dioica plants in three natural populations in Finland during flowering and after seed production. Females had higher colonisation by AM fungi, but lower colonisation by DS fungi than male and non-reproductive plants. The higher AM colonisation was observed during flowering, and this difference varied among populations. Our results suggest that females and males of A. dioica interact with AM and DS fungi differently and that this relationship is dependent on soil fertility. © 2012 German Botanical Society and The Royal Botanical Society of the Netherlands.

  13. Antitumor efficacy and amelioration of oxidative stress by Trichosanthes dioica root against Ehrlich ascites carcinoma in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattacharya, Sanjib; Prasanna, Angelene; Majumdar, Piyali; Kumar, R B Suresh; Haldar, Pallab K

    2011-09-01

    Trichosanthes dioica Roxb. (Cucurbitaceae) is a dioecious climber, traditionally used in India for several medicinal purposes. The present study assessed the hydroalcoholic extract of T. dioica root (TDA) for antitumor effect and antioxidant influence against Ehrlich ascites carcinoma (EAC) in Swiss albino mice. Twenty four hours after intraperitoneal inoculation of tumor (EAC) cells in mice, TDA was administered at 5 and 10 mg/kg body weight daily for 9 consecutive days. On the 10th day, half of the mice were sacrificed for estimation of tumor proliferation, hematological, and liver antioxidant parameters viz. lipid peroxidation, reduced glutathione (GSH), glutathione S-transferase (GST), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT); and the rest were kept alive for assessment of increase in life span. The antitumor effect of TDA was assessed by evaluating tumor weight, tumor volume, packed cell volume, viable and non-viable tumor cell counts, median survival time and percentage increase in life span of EAC bearing mice. TDA exhibited dose dependent and significant (p TDA treated mice as compared to EAC control. TDA treatment significantly (p TDA possessed promising antitumor efficacy in mice, plausibly mediated by amelioration of oxidative stress by multiple mechanisms.

  14. Population density and phenology of Tetranychus urticae Koch (Acari: Tetranychidae) is linked to sulfur-induced outbreaks of this pest

    Science.gov (United States)

    The twospotted spider mite, Tetranychus urticae Koch, is a worldwide pest of numerous agronomic and horticultural plants. Sulfur fungicides are known to induce outbreaks of this pest on several crops, although mechanisms associated with sulfur-induced mite outbreaks are largely unknown. Studies were...

  15. Impact of living with kin/non-kin on the life history traits of Tetranychus urticae (Acari: Tetranychidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Goff, Guillaume Jean; Hance, Thierry; Detrain, Claire; Deneubourg, Jean-Louis; Mailleux, Anne-Catherine

    2014-05-01

    In many vertebrates and invertebrates, living in a group may influence the life history traits, physiology and behaviour of its individual members, whereas genetic relatedness affects social interactions among individuals in a group. The two-spotted spider mite Tetranychus urticae is characterised by a communal organization, in which silk production plays a key role. A silken web protects the colony against biotic and abiotic agents such as predators, competitors, humidity, wind, rain and acaricides. To evaluate the potential costs and benefits of being associated with genetically distant vs genetically close individuals in T. urticae, we assessed various fitness indicators (faecal pellet production, fecundity, death rate) in pure and mixed groups of two distinct populations of T. urticae: a red-form population from Tunisia and a green-form population from Belgium. If genetic origin had no influence, the values of fitness indicators in mixed groups composed of green and red individuals, would be intermediate between those of the pure green-form and red-form groups. Our results show that in a mixed group, faecal pellet production and death rate were statistically similar to the values obtained in the pure group of green-form individuals. Therefore, our study suggests that strain recognition ability may occur in T. urticae and that the genetic background of an individual may have a great impact on several of its life history traits.

  16. Effect of Host Plant on the Chemical Composition of Tetranychus urticae (Prostigmata: Tetranychidae): Variability in Soluble Protein, Anions, and Carbohydrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chemical analyses of two-spotted spider mite, Tetranychus urticae (Koch), and 3 of their host plants, Phaseolus vulgaris L., Phaseolus lunatus L., and Vigna unguiculata L. show that the content of total soluble protein, carbohydrates, and anions in the mites varies independently from the concentrat...

  17. Influence of mowing on dynamics of native phytoseiid mites and Tetranychus urticae in apple orchards in northern Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Funayama, Ken

    2016-09-01

    To support practical integrated pest management in commercial apple orchards, I investigated the influence of mowing on the occurrence of Tetranychus urticae and native phytoseiid mites in apple orchards sprayed with selective insecticides in Akita Prefecture, northern Japan, from 2013 to 2015. The orchards were not mown in 2013, and unmown and mown plots were compared in 2014 and 2015. There were significantly fewer Typhlodromus vulgaris on apple leaves and Amblyseius tsugawai in the undergrowth in mown plots than in unmown plots in both years. Conversely, there were significantly more T. urticae on leaves and undergrowth in mown plots than in unmown plots. The reason for the decreased populations of these phytoseiid mites may be a lack of food (pollen) needed for reproduction on apple trees and in the undergrowth due to mowing. These results indicate that mowing strongly influences generalist phytoseiid mites in apple orchards. Moreover, mowing might increase the density of T. urticae in apple trees because increased nitrogen in the leaves increases fecundity; in addition, drought might promote the increase of mite numbers. Thus, retention of undergrowth suppresses T. urticae in apple orchards.

  18. Management of apple orchards to conserve generalist phytoseiid mites suppresses two-spotted spider mite, Tetranychus urticae (Acari: Tetranychidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Funayama, Ken; Komatus, Michiyo; Sonoda, Shoji; Takahashi, Isao; Hara, Kazuko

    2015-01-01

    To improve the success of integrated pest management (IPM) in apple orchards, we investigated whether generalist phytoseiid mites have suppressed the occurrence of Tetranychus urticae. In Akita Prefecture, northern Japan, in 2012 and 2013, two types of experimental plot were compared. Conservation plots had been managed for the conservation of generalist phytoseiid mites by selective chemical spraying without mowing since 2009. Conventional plots were managed by non-selective chemical spraying with regular mowing. The conservation plots had significantly fewer T. urticae adult females per tree in both years. Two species of generalist phytoseiid mites-Typhlodromus vulgaris and Amblyseius tsugawai-were continuously present in the conservation plots, with only a few T. urticae. The conservation plots had significantly more A. tsugawai adult females in the undergrowth in both years, and significantly more T. vulgaris adult females on apple leaves in 2012. Typhlodromus vulgaris was continuously present in the conservation plots but was scarce from late May to early August in the conventional plots. In the presence of T. vulgaris, low numbers of T. urticae did not increase on apple leaves. These results indicate that the generalist phytoseiid mites serve as important biological control agents in IPM in apple orchards.

  19. Development of biological control of Tetranychus urticae (Acari:Tetranychidae) and Phorodon humuli (Hemiptera: Aphididae) in Oregon Hop yards

    Science.gov (United States)

    The temporal development of biological control of arthropod pests in perennial cropping systems is largely unreported. In this study, the development of biological control of twospotted spider mite, Tetranychus urticae Koch and hop aphid, Phorodon humuli (Schrank) in a new planting of hop in Oregon...

  20. Tomato whole genome transcriptional response to Tetranychus urticae identifies divergence of spider mite-induced responses between tomato and Arabidopsis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Martel, C.; Zhurov, V.; Navarro, M.; Martinez, M.; Cazaux, M.; Auger, P.; Migeon, A.; Santamaria, M.E.; Wybouw, N.; Diaz, I.; Van Leeuwen, T.; Navajas, M.; Grbic, M.; Grbic, V.

    2015-01-01

    The two-spotted spider mite Tetranychus urticae is one of the most significant mite pests in agriculture, feeding on more than 1,100 plant hosts, including model plants Arabidopsis thaliana and tomato, Solanum lycopersicum. Here, we describe timecourse tomato transcriptional responses to spider mite

  1. The presence of webbing affects the oviposition rate of two-spotted spider mites, Tetranychus urticae (Acari: Tetranychidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oku, Keiko; Magalhães, Sara; Dicke, Marcel

    2009-11-01

    Several species of tetranychid mites including Tetranychus urticae Koch (Acari: Tetranychidae) construct complicated three-dimensional webs on plant leaves. These webs provide protection against biotic and abiotic stress. As producing web is likely to entail a cost, mites that arrive on a leaf with web are expected to refrain from producing it, because they will gain the benefit of protection from the existing web. Mites that produce less web may then allocate resources that are not spent on web construction to other fitness-enhancing activities, such as laying eggs. To test this, the oviposition rate of T. urticae adult females was examined on leaves with web. As a control, we used leaves where the web had been removed, hence both types of leaves had been exposed to conspecifics previously and were thus damaged. On leaves with web, the oviposition rate of T. urticae females was higher than on leaves where the web had been removed. Therefore, the presence of web constructed by conspecifics enhanced the oviposition rate of T. urticae females. This provides indirect evidence that mites use the web constructed by conspecifics and thereby save resources that can be allocated to other traits that enhance reproductive success.

  2. Spatiotemporal within-plant distribution of the spider mite Tetranychus urticae and associated specialist and generalist predators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walzer, A; Moder, K; Schausberger, P

    2009-10-01

    Predators are important determinants of the spatiotemporal distribution of prey within a given habitat. The predator effects may vary with diet specialisation, the associated risk posed to prey and, if multiple predators are present, the predator-predator interactions. We examined the spatiotemporal distribution of the herbivorous spider mite Tetranychus urticae and the associated specialist and generalist predators Phytoseiulus persimilis and Neoseiulus californicus on bean plants. Tetranychus urticae is a key pest on numerous agricultural crops. Both predators are used singly and in combination for biological control of spider mites. Population development and within-plant distribution of the spider mites and the predators were compared among five treatments: T. urticae without predators, with either predator alone and with both predators in combination at full and half densities. The spider mites were suppressed to zero density in both predator combination treatments but not in the single predator treatments. The predators determined the spatiotemporal distribution of the spider mites through density- and behaviour-mediated effects, and these effects were linked to diet specialisation. The specialist P. persimilis exerted stronger density-mediated effects on the spider mite distribution than did the generalist N. californicus. Either predator induced in the spider mites early upward migration on plants. The predators also affected each other's distribution. The aggregation level of N. californicus was lowered by P. persimilis but not vice versa. In combination, the predators were more dispersed than when alone, reducing the predator-free space and leading to the local extinction of T. urticae.

  3. A phytoseiid predator from the tropics as potential biological control agent for the spider mites Tetranychus urticae Koch (Acari: Tetranychidae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oliveira, H.; Janssen, A.; Pallini, A.; Venzon, M.; Fadini, M.; Duarte, V.

    2007-01-01

    The two-spotted spider mite Tetranychus urticae Koch (Acari: Tetranychidae) is one of the most important pests of many crops in temperate and tropical climates. Chemical control is the main method of combating this mite, but it is less preferred due to the development of resistance as well as

  4. Occurrence of Two-Spotted Spider Mite (Tetranychus urticae Koch on Potentilla fruticosa Cultivars

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    Szafranek Piotr

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Potentilla fruticosa L. (Rosaceae Juss. is one of the most popular deciduous shrubs cultivated in Poland. Among pests identified so far on P. fruticosa, a serious threat is caused by two-spotted spider mite Tetranychus urticae Koch (Acari: Tetranychidae. During three-year study, the occurrence of two-spotted spider mite T. urticae on four cultivars of P. fruticosa: ‘Goldfinger’, ‘McKay’s White’, ‘Uman’ and ‘Pink Beauty’ grown in field conditions was compared. While conducting experiment, weather conditions were monitored. The number of eggs and motile forms of two-spotted spider mite were recorded separately. The most attractive cultivar to spider mite was ‘Goldfinger’. The largest amount of motile forms of mites and their eggs were found on the leaves of this cultivar in all three years of study. The least number of pests occurred on the cv. ‘Pink Beauty’. However, differences in the abundance of this pest on all studied cultivars were variable during the growing seasons.

  5. PATOGENICIDADE DE BEAUVERIA BASSIANA (BALS. VUILL. AO ÁCARO Tetranychus urticae KOCH

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    Tamai Marco Antonio

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available O estudo da patogenicidade de Beauveria bassiana (Bals. Vuill. ao ácaro Tetranychus urticae Koch foi desenvolvido a 25 ± 2°C, 70 ± 5% UR e 12 horas de fotofase, utilizando-se fêmeas recém-emergidas. Os ácaros foram mantidos durante seis dias em discos de folha de Canavalia ensiformis (L. DC. inoculadas com B. bassiana, isolado 447, nas concentrações: 5x106, 1x107, 5x107, 1x108, 5x108 e 1x109 conídios/ml. Este isolado mostrou-se patogênico a T. urticae, apresentando aumento nos valores das mortalidades acumuladas (total, corrigida e confirmada à medida que a suspensão de conídios se tornou mais concentrada. Nas seis concentrações testadas, os valores de mortalidade corrigida ao sexto dia, foram inferiores a 50%, sendo observada apenas na concentração de 1x109 conídios/ml, mortalidade total superior a 50%.

  6. Sublethal Effects of Spirodiclofen on Tetranychus urticae Koch_Pre-Ovipositional Females After Different Exposure Times

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dejan Marčić

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Sublethal effect of spirodiclofen on Tetranychus urticae females that survived different exposure times in the pre-ovipositional period was evaluated calculating two parameters - instantaneous rate of increase and net fertility - after six days of reproduction. The females were exposed to four concentrations/doses of the acaricide: 96 mg /L (0.24 μg/cm2, 48 mg/L(0.12 μg/cm2, 24 mg/L (0.06 μg/cm2 and 12 mg./L (0.03 μg/cm2 for 2, 6 and 24h in a leaf disc bioassay. After 24h exposure to 12 mg/L, instantaneous rate of increase was significantlyreduced (0.545; 0.634 in control, while significant reduction in net fertility (20.61; 28.57 in the control was recorded even after 2h exposure to the same concentration. The effect of all tested concentrations of spirodiclofen on both parameters increased with exposure time. The lowest values of instantaneous rate of increase (0.268 and net fertility (2.58 were recorded after 24h exposure to 96 mg/L. After 24h exposure, the concentration increase from 12 to 24 mg/L significantly reduced both parameters, while a further increase from 24 to 96 mg/L significantly reduced instantaneous rate of increase, but not net-fertility. The results regarding T. urticae population management are discussed.

  7. Screening of target genes for RNAi in Tetranychus urticae and RNAi toxicity enhancement by chimeric genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Deok Ho; Park, Ji Hyun; Ashok, Patil Anandrao; Lee, Unggyu; Lee, Si Hyeock

    2016-06-01

    Due to its rapid development of resistance to nearly all arrays of acaricide, Tetranychus urticae is extremely hard to control using conventional acaricides. As an alternative control measure of acaricide-resistant mites, RNA interference (RNAi)-based method has recently been suggested. A double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) delivery method using multi-unit chambers was established and employed to screen the RNAi toxicity of 42 T. urticae genes. Among them, the dsRNA treatment of coatomer I (COPI) genes, such as coatomer subunit epsilon (COPE) and beta 2 (COPB2), resulted in high mortality [median lethal time (LT50)=89.7 and 120.3h, respectively]. The transcript level of the COPE gene was significantly (F3,9=16.2, P=0.001) reduced by up to 24% following dsRNA treatment, suggesting that the toxicity was likely mediated by the RNAi of the target gene. As a toxicity enhancement strategy, the recombinant dsRNA was generated by reciprocally recombining half-divided fragments of COPE and COPB2. The two recombinant dsRNAs exhibited higher toxicity than the respective single dsRNA treatments as determined by LT50 values (79.2 and 81.5h, respectively). This finding indicates that the recombination of different genes can enhance RNAi toxicity and be utilized to generate synthetic dsRNA with improved RNAi efficacy. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Disruption of a horizontally transferred phytoene desaturase abolishes carotenoid accumulation and diapause in Tetranychus urticae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryon, Astrid; Kurlovs, Andre H; Dermauw, Wannes; Greenhalgh, Robert; Riga, Maria; Grbić, Miodrag; Tirry, Luc; Osakabe, Masahiro; Vontas, John; Clark, Richard M; Van Leeuwen, Thomas

    2017-07-18

    Carotenoids underlie many of the vibrant yellow, orange, and red colors in animals, and are involved in processes ranging from vision to protection from stresses. Most animals acquire carotenoids from their diets because de novo synthesis of carotenoids is primarily limited to plants and some bacteria and fungi. Recently, sequencing projects in aphids and adelgids, spider mites, and gall midges identified genes with homology to fungal sequences encoding de novo carotenoid biosynthetic proteins like phytoene desaturase. The finding of horizontal gene transfers of carotenoid biosynthetic genes to three arthropod lineages was unprecedented; however, the relevance of the transfers for the arthropods that acquired them has remained largely speculative, which is especially true for spider mites that feed on plant cell contents, a known source of carotenoids. Pigmentation in spider mites results solely from carotenoids. Using a combination of genetic approaches, we show that mutations in a single horizontally transferred phytoene desaturase result in complete albinism in the two-spotted spider mite, Tetranychus urticae, as well as in the citrus red mite, Panonychus citri Further, we show that phytoene desaturase activity is essential for photoperiodic induction of diapause in an overwintering strain of T. urticae, consistent with a role for this enzyme in provisioning provitamin A carotenoids required for light perception. Carotenoid biosynthetic genes of fungal origin have therefore enabled some mites to forgo dietary carotenoids, with endogenous synthesis underlying their intense pigmentation and ability to enter diapause, a key to the global distribution of major spider mite pests of agriculture.

  9. Protocols for the delivery of small molecules to the two-spotted spider mite, Tetranychus urticae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Takeshi; España, María Urizarna; Nunes, Maria Andreia; Zhurov, Vladimir; Dermauw, Wannes; Osakabe, Masahiro; Van Leeuwen, Thomas; Grbic, Miodrag; Grbic, Vojislava

    2017-01-01

    The two-spotted spider mite, Tetranychus urticae, is a chelicerate herbivore with an extremely wide host range and an extraordinary ability to develop pesticide resistance. Due to its responsiveness to natural and synthetic xenobiotics, the spider mite is becoming a prime pest herbivore model for studies of the evolution of host range, plant-herbivore interactions and mechanisms of xenobiotic resistance. The spider mite genome has been sequenced and its transcriptional responses to developmental and various biotic and abiotic cues have been documented. However, to identify biological and evolutionary roles of T. urticae genes and proteins, it is necessary to develop methods for the efficient manipulation of mite gene function or protein activity. Here, we describe protocols developed for the delivery of small molecules into spider mites. Starting with mite maintenance and the preparation of the experimental mite populations of developmentally synchronized larvae and adults, we describe 3 methods for delivery of small molecules including artificial diet, leaf coating, and soaking. The presented results define critical steps in these methods and demonstrate that they can successfully deliver tracer dyes into mites. Described protocols provide guidelines for high-throughput setups for delivery of experimental compounds that could be used in reverse genetics platforms to modulate gene expression or protein activity, or for screens focused on discovery of new molecules for mite control. In addition, described protocols could be adapted for other Tetranychidae and related species of economic importance such as Varroa, dust and poultry mites.

  10. Reproductive parameters of Phytoseiulus macropilis (Banks) fed with Tetranychus urticae Koch (Acari: Phytoseiidae, Tetranychidae) in laboratory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souza-Pimentel, G C; Reis, P R; Bonatto, C R; Alves, J P; Siqueira, M F

    2016-07-11

    Predatory mites that belong to the Phytoseiidae family are one of the main natural enemies of phytophagous mites, thus allowing for their use as a biological control. Phytoseiulus macropilis (Banks, 1904) (Acari: Phytoseiidae) is among the main species of predatory mites used for this purpose. Tetranychus urticae Koch, 1836 (Acari: Tetranychidae) is considered to be one of the most important species of mite pests and has been described as attacking over 1,100 species of plants in 140 families with economic value. The objective of the present study was to investigate, in the laboratory, the reproductive parameters of the predatory mite P. macropilis when fed T. urticae. Experiments were conducted under laboratory conditions at 25 ± 2 °C of temperature, 70 ± 10% RH and 14 hours of photophase. In addition, biological aspects were evaluated and a fertility life table was established. The results of these experiments demonstrated that the longevity of adult female was 27.5 days and adult male was 29.0 days. The population was estimated to increase approximately 27 times (Ro) in mean generation time (T), which was 17.7 days. Lastly, the mite population grew 1.2 times/day (λ) and doubled every 3.7 days (TD).

  11. Reproductive parameters of Tetranychus urticae (Acari: Tetranychidae) affected by neonicotinoid insecticides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barati, Reihaneh; Hejazi, Mir Jalil

    2015-08-01

    Two-spotted spider mite is a major pest of many agricultural and ornamental crops worldwide. Some reports have indicated that application of neonicotinoid insecticides may lead to increased fecundity of this pest. If this is found to be true, the use of these pesticides may cause an outbreak of spider mite populations. Sublethal effects of three neonicotinoids, namely thiacloprid, acetamiprid and thiamethoxam were studied on T. urticae adults at field recommended doses. The experiments were carried out using bean leaf pieces in plastic Petri dishes. The adult mites were treated using two methods: (1) drench application and (2) spraying of leaves with Potter Spray Tower. Our results indicated that all neonicotinoids tested increased T. urticae population. In both treatment methods, acetamiprid treated mites had the highest intrinsic rate of population increase (rm) and finite rate of population increase (λ); and the lowest mean generation time (T) and doubling time among the treatments. If similar results are obtained from greenhouse and field trials, the use of these insecticides requires necessary precautions such as avoiding repeated use of neonicotinoid insecticide for controlling insect pests.

  12. Protocols for the delivery of small molecules to the two-spotted spider mite, Tetranychus urticae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takeshi Suzuki

    Full Text Available The two-spotted spider mite, Tetranychus urticae, is a chelicerate herbivore with an extremely wide host range and an extraordinary ability to develop pesticide resistance. Due to its responsiveness to natural and synthetic xenobiotics, the spider mite is becoming a prime pest herbivore model for studies of the evolution of host range, plant-herbivore interactions and mechanisms of xenobiotic resistance. The spider mite genome has been sequenced and its transcriptional responses to developmental and various biotic and abiotic cues have been documented. However, to identify biological and evolutionary roles of T. urticae genes and proteins, it is necessary to develop methods for the efficient manipulation of mite gene function or protein activity. Here, we describe protocols developed for the delivery of small molecules into spider mites. Starting with mite maintenance and the preparation of the experimental mite populations of developmentally synchronized larvae and adults, we describe 3 methods for delivery of small molecules including artificial diet, leaf coating, and soaking. The presented results define critical steps in these methods and demonstrate that they can successfully deliver tracer dyes into mites. Described protocols provide guidelines for high-throughput setups for delivery of experimental compounds that could be used in reverse genetics platforms to modulate gene expression or protein activity, or for screens focused on discovery of new molecules for mite control. In addition, described protocols could be adapted for other Tetranychidae and related species of economic importance such as Varroa, dust and poultry mites.

  13. Reproductive parameters of Phytoseiulus macropilis (Banks fed with Tetranychus urticae Koch (Acari: Phytoseiidae, Tetranychidae in laboratory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. C. Souza-Pimentel

    Full Text Available Abstract Predatory mites that belong to the Phytoseiidae family are one of the main natural enemies of phytophagous mites, thus allowing for their use as a biological control. Phytoseiulus macropilis (Banks, 1904 (Acari: Phytoseiidae is among the main species of predatory mites used for this purpose. Tetranychus urticae Koch, 1836 (Acari: Tetranychidae is considered to be one of the most important species of mite pests and has been described as attacking over 1,100 species of plants in 140 families with economic value. The objective of the present study was to investigate, in the laboratory, the reproductive parameters of the predatory mite P. macropilis when fed T. urticae. Experiments were conducted under laboratory conditions at 25 ± 2 °C of temperature, 70 ± 10% RH and 14 hours of photophase. In addition, biological aspects were evaluated and a fertility life table was established. The results of these experiments demonstrated that the longevity of adult female was 27.5 days and adult male was 29.0 days. The population was estimated to increase approximately 27 times (Ro in mean generation time (T, which was 17.7 days. Lastly, the mite population grew 1.2 times/day (λ and doubled every 3.7 days (TD.

  14. Damage level of the two-spotted spider mite Tetranychus urticae Koch (acari: tetranychidae in soybeans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renato Suekane

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Among phytophagous spider mites, the two-spotted spider mite Tetranychus urticae Koch, 1836 is one of the most important agricultural pests, not only because of the damage it causes, but also because it has a wide host range, infesting many commercial crops such as leafy greens, cotton, beans, and soybeans, among others. This study was carried out in a greenhouse of the Faculdade de Ciências Agrárias (FCA of the Universidade Federal da Grande Dourados (UFGD, located in the city of Dourados, state of Mato Grosso do Sul. The experiment was arranged in a randomized block design with 5 treatments and 4 replicates. The treatments consisted of 5 levels in percentage of chlorotic symptoms (indicating mite damage: 0%, 25%, 50%, 75%, and 100%. All of the characteristics evaluated, except for number of pods per plant, the number of seeds per plant, the total weight (productivity, and the weight of 1000 seeds, were significantly influenced by the different levels of chlorotic symptoms. The economic damage level for the two-spotted spider mite Tetranychus urticae, according to the equation y = 66.63-0.51 x, based on the price of US$ 11.00 per bag of soybeans and a control cost of US$ 16.00, would be 15.80% chlorotic symptoms. At a price of US$ 29.00 per bag with the same control cost, the economic damage level would be 13% of chlorotic symptoms.

  15. Horizontally transferred fungal carotenoid genes in the two-spotted spider mite Tetranychus urticae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altincicek, Boran; Kovacs, Jennifer L; Gerardo, Nicole M

    2012-04-23

    Carotenoids are organic pigments commonly synthesized by plants, algae and some micro-organisms. Through absorption of light energy, carotenoids facilitate photosynthesis and provide protection against photo-oxidation. While it was presumed that all carotenoids in animals were sequestered from their diets, aphids were recently shown to harbour genomic copies of functional carotenoid biosynthesis genes that were acquired via horizontal gene transfer from fungi. Our search of available animal transcripts revealed the presence of two related genes in the two-spotted spider mite Tetranychus urticae. Phylogenetic analyses suggest that the T. urticae genes were transferred from fungi into the spider mite genome, probably in a similar manner as recently suggested for aphids. The genes are expressed in both green and red morphs, with red morphs exhibiting higher levels of gene expression. Additionally, there appear to be changes in the expression of these genes during diapause. As carotenoids are associated with diapause induction in these animals, our results add to recent findings highlighting the importance of eukaryotic horizontal gene transfer in the ecology and evolution of higher animals.

  16. Isolation, characterization and PCR multiplexing of microsatellite loci for a mite crop pest, Tetranychus urticae (Acari: Tetranychidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sauné, Laure; Auger, Philippe; Migeon, Alain; Longueville, Jean-Emmanuel; Fellous, Simon; Navajas, Maria

    2015-06-17

    Tetranychus urticae is a highly polyphagous species with a cosmopolitan distribution that has the status of pest in more than 100 economically significant crops all over the world. Despite a number of previous efforts to isolate genetic markers, only a reduced set of microsatellite loci has been published. Taking advantage of the whole genome sequence of T. urticae that recently became available; we isolated and characterized a new set of microsatellite loci and tested the level of polymorphism across populations originating from a wide geographical area. A total of 42 microsatellite sequences widespread in the T. urticae genome were identified, the exact position in the genome recorded, and PCR amplification of microsatellite loci tested with primers defined here. Fourteen loci showed unambiguous genotype patterns and were further characterized. Three multiplex polymerase chain reaction sets were optimized in order to genotype a total of 24 polymorphic loci, including 10 previously published Tetranychus-specific loci. The microsatellite kits successfully amplified 686 individuals from 60 field populations for which we assessed the level of genetic diversity. The number of alleles per locus ranged from 3 to 16 and the expected heterozygosity values ranged from 0.12 to 0.81. Most of the loci displayed a significant excess of homozygous and did not model the Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium. This can be explained by the arrhenotokous mode of reproduction of T. urticae. These primers represent a valuable resource for robust studies on the genetic structure, dispersal and population biology of T. urticae, that can be used in managing this destructive agricultural pest.

  17. Patterning and morphogenesis of the intricate but stereotyped oikoplastic epidermis of the appendicularian, Oikopleura dioica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kishi, Kanae; Hayashi, Momoko; Onuma, Takeshi A; Nishida, Hiroki

    2017-08-01

    Mechanisms for morphogenetic processes that generate complex patterns in a reproducible manner remain elusive. Live imaging provides a powerful tool to record cell behaviors. The appendicularian, Oikopleura dioica, is a planktonic tunicate that has a rapid developmental speed, small number of cells (less than 3500 cells in a juvenile), and a transparent body. The trunk epidermis, called the oikoplastic epithelium (OE), has elaborate cellular arrangements showing a complex pattern to secrete so-called "house" made of extracellular components. The OE is characterized by invariant number, size, and shape of the monolayer epithelial cells. Pattern formation is achieved during 5h of larval development without growth of the body, making this a suitable system for live imaging of a two-dimensional (2D) sheet. First, we subdivided the OE and defined several domains by cellular resolution, and systematically gave names to the constituent cells, since there is no variation among individuals. Time-lapse imaging of the epidermal cells revealed region-specific pattern formation processes. Each identified domain served as a compartment into which distribution of descendant cells of founder cells is restricted. Regulation of orientation, timing, and the number of rounds of cell divisions, but not cell death and migration, was a critical mechanism for determination of final cell arrangement and size. In addition, displacement of epithelial sheet plates was observed in the Eisen domain. Stem-cell-like cell divisions, whereby large mother stem cells generate a chain of small daughter cells, were involved in formation of the Nasse region and ventral sensory organ. These are the first examples of this kind of stem-cell-like cell division in deuterostomes. Furthermore, labeling of the left or right blastomere of the two-cell-stage embryo, which roughly gives rise to the left or right side of the body, respectively, revealed that the boundary of the descendant cells does not match with

  18. INTERACCIÓN ENTRE DOS ÁCAROS DEPREDADORES DE Tetranychus urticae KOCH (ACARIFORMES: TETRANYCHIDAE EN LABORATORIO Interaction Between Two Predator Mites of Tetranychus urticae Koch (Acariformes: Tetranychidae in Laboratory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ANGÉLICA ARGÜELLES R

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Tetranychus urticae (Acari: Tetranychidae es una de las principales plagas de cultivos ornamentales, entre las especies más utilizadas para su control se encuentran Neoseiulus californicus y Phytoseiulus persimilis (Parasitiformes: Phytoseiidae. En el presente trabajo se propone el manejo de la plaga mediante el empleo de liberaciones simultáneas de los dos fitoseidos. Se evaluaron varias situaciones, por un lado se estudiaron las interacciones cuando un depredador se encuentra en una densidad baja mientras que el otro depredador se presenta en alta densidad (esta situación se analizó tanto en presencia como en ausencia de la presa. Por otro lado, se evaluaron las interacciones cuando los P. persimilis y N. californicus dos están presentes en igual densidad y en presencia de T. urticae. Cuando uno de los depredadores está en mayor densidad y hay presencia de la presa, se observa que al incrementar la edad del depredador que tiene menor densidad, aumenta también la interferencia en el consumo de presas por parte de los depredadores que están en mayor densidad. Además cuando disminuye el consumo de T. urticae se incrementa el consumo intraguilda. Phytoseiulus persimilis en ausencia de T. urticae y en presencia de N. californicus adopta un comportamiento de depredación intraguilda sobre todos los estados de desarrollo de su conespecifico, mientras que N. californicus únicamente consume larvas de conespecíficos en ausencia del fitófago y en presencia de P. persimilis. Cuando se encontraban los dos depredadores en el mismo montaje y la misma densidad de población, no se observó un mayor consumo de T. urticae que cuando cada depredador es empleado por separado.Tetranychus urticae (Acari: Tetranychidae is an important pest of ornamental crops. A species of predatory mite used for its control is Neoseiulus californicus and Phytoseiulus persimilis (Acari: Phytoseiidae. This research proposes the use of joint releases of the two cited

  19. Histone gene complement, variant expression, and mRNA processing in a urochordate Oikopleura dioica that undergoes extensive polyploidization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chioda, Mariacristina; Eskeland, Ragnhild; Thompson, Eric M

    2002-12-01

    Considerable data exist on coding sequences of histones in a wide variety of organisms. Much more restricted information is available on total histone gene complement, gene organization, transcriptional regulation, and histone mRNA processing. In particular, there is a significant phylogenetic gap in information for the urochordates, a subphylum near the invertebrate-vertebrate transition. In this study, we show that the appendicularian Oikopleura dioica has a histone gene complement that is similar to that of humans, though its genome size is 40- to 50-fold smaller. At a total length of 3.5 kb, the H3, H4, H1, H2A, and H2B quintet cluster is the most compact described thus far, but despite very rapid early developmental cleavage cycles, no extensive tandem repeats of the cluster were present. The high degree of variation within each of the complements of O. dioica H2A and H2B subtypes resembled that found in plants as opposed to more closely related vertebrate and invertebrate species, and developmental stage-specific expression of different subtypes was observed. The linker histone H1 was present in relatively few copies per haploid genome and contained short N- and C-terminal tails, a feature similar to that of copepods but different from many standard model organisms. The 3'UTRs of the histone genes contained both the consensus stem-loop sequence and the polyadenylation signals but lacked the consensus histone downstream element that is involved in the processing of histone mRNAs in echinoderms and vertebrates. Two types of transcripts were found, i.e., those containing both the stem-loop and a polyA tail as well as those cleaved at the normal site just 3' of the stem-loop. The O. dioica data are an important addition to the limited number of eukaryotes for which sufficiently extensive information on histone gene complements is available. Increasingly, it appears that understanding the evolution of histone gene organization, transcriptional regulation, and m

  20. Digestive proteases in bodies and faeces of the two-spotted spider mite, Tetranychus urticae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santamaría, María E; González-Cabrera, Joel; Martínez, Manuel; Grbic, Vojislava; Castañera, Pedro; Díaz, Lsabel; Ortego, Félix

    2015-07-01

    Digestive proteases of the phytophagous mite Tetranychus urticae have been characterised by comparing their activity in body and faecal extracts. Aspartyl, cathepsin B- and L-like and legumain activities were detected in both mite bodies and faeces, with a specific activity of aspartyl and cathepsin L-like proteases about 5- and 2-fold higher, respectively, in mite faeces than in bodies. In general, all these activities were maintained independently of the host plant where the mites were reared (bean, tomato or maize). Remarkably, this is the first report in a phytophagous mite of legumain-like activity, which was characterised for its ability to hydrolyse the specific substrate Z-VAN-AMC, its activation by DTT and inhibition by IAA but not by E-64. Gel free nanoLC-nanoESI-QTOF MS/MS proteomic analysis of mite faeces resulted in the identification of four cathepsins L and one aspartyl protease (from a total of the 29 cathepsins L, 27 cathepsins B, 19 legumains and two aspartyl protease genes identified the genome of this species). Gene expression analysis reveals that four cathepsins L and the aspartyl protease identified in the mite faeces, but also two cathepsins B and two legumains that were not detected in the faeces, were expressed at high levels in the spider mite feeding stages (larvae, nymphs and adults) relative to embryos. Taken together, these results indicate a digestive role for cysteine and aspartyl proteases in T. urticae. The expression of the cathepsins B and L, legumains and aspartyl protease genes analysed in our study increased in female adults after feeding on Arabidopsis plants over-expressing the HvCPI-6 cystatin, that specifically targets cathepsins B and L, or the CMe trypsin inhibitor that targets serine proteases. This unspecific response suggests that in addition to compensation for inhibitor-targeted enzymes, the increase in the expression of digestive proteases in T. urticae may act as a first barrier against ingested plant defensive

  1. Functional responses and prey-stage preferences of a predatory gall midge and two predacious mites with twospotted spider mites, Tetranychus urticae, as host.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Yingfang; Osborne, Lance S; Chen, Jianjun; McKenzie, Cindy L

    2013-01-01

    The twospotted spider mite, Tetranychus urticae Koch (Acari: Tetranychidae), is an important pest of vegetables and other economically important crops. This study evaluated the functional responses and prey-stage preferences of three species of predators, a predatory gall midge, Feltiella acarisuga (Vallot) (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae), and two predatory mite species, Neoseiulus californicus (McGregor) (Acari: Phytoseiidae) and Amblyseius swirskii (AnthiasHenriot), with T. urticae as the host, under laboratory conditions. The results showed that F. acarisuga was highly effective and the two species of predacious mites were moderately effective in feeding on T. urticae eggs. Logistic regression analysis suggested Type II (convex) functional responses for all three species. However, based on the estimates of the handling time and the attacking rates, the three predators had different predation capacities. Among the three species, F. acarisuga had the highest predation on T. urticae. The maximum daily predation by a larval F. acarisuga was 50 eggs/day, followed by a female N. californicus (25.6 eggs/day) and a female A. swirskii (15.1 eggs/day). A female N. californicus produced more eggs than a female A. swirskii did when they both fed on T. urticae eggs. In addition, all three predator species had no preystage preference for either prey eggs or nymphs. The findings from this study could help select better biological control agents for effective control of T. urticae and other pests in vegetable productions.

  2. The preliminary assessment and isolation of entomopathogenic fungi to be used in biological control with twospotted spider mite [Tetranychus urticae (acari, tetranychidae)] from East Anatolia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Örtücü, Serkan; Algur, Ömer Faruk

    2017-04-01

    This study was conducted to isolation entomopathogenic fungi for possible use in biocontrol of two-spotted spider mite Tetranychus urticae Koch. and to determine their pathogenicity. For this purpose, plant leaves infected with T. urticae were collected from Erzurum, Kars and Ardahan. At laboratory, the internal and external mycoflora of T.urticae individuals on plant leaves were determined. As a result of isolation, twenty-five different fungi species belonging to the genera Acremonium, Alternaria, Aspergillus, Beauveria, Cladosporium, Gliocladium, Humicola, Penicillium, Trichoderma, Isaria, Ulocladium and Verticillium were obtained. Pathogenicity of this forty-five isolate belonging to twenty-five species were evaluated. As a test organism, T. urticae was used and suspensions (1 × 108conidia ml-1) were prepared in Tween 80. 2ml suspension of a single dose was sprayed onto down side of bean leaf discs using hand sprayer. Mortality was recorded daily for 7 days. A total of twelve isolates belonging to three species were determined to be pathogen against T.urticae. According to scale used: AT020 Isaria farinosa and AT025 Cladosporium cladosporioides were determined as least pathogen, AT037 and AT101 Beauveria bassiana, and AT019 and AT026 C. cladosporioides, and AT035 and AT036 I. farinosa as moderate pathogen, AT007, AT021, AT034 and AT076 B. bassiana as highly pathogen. The other thirty-three isolates found that not pathogenic against T.urticae.

  3. Identification and Validation of a New Male Sex-Specific ISSR Marker in Pointed Gourd (Trichosanthes dioica Roxb.

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    Sinchan Adhikari

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to develop a genetic sex marker for the pointed gourd (Trichosanthes dioica Roxb. to allow gender determination at any stage in the life cycle. Screening of genomic DNA with intersimple sequence repeat (ISSR primers was used to discover sex-specific touch-down polymerase chain reaction (Td-PCR amplification products. Using pooled DNA from male and female genotypes and 42 ISSR primers, a putative male specific marker (~550 bp was identified. DNA marker specific to male is an indication of existence of nonepigenetic factors involved in gender development in pointed gourd. The ISSR technique has proved to be a reliable technique in gender determination of pointed gourd genotypes at the seedling phenophase. The sex marker developed here could also be used as a starting material towards sequence characterization of sex linked genes for better understanding the developmental as well as evolutionary pathways in sexual dimorphism.

  4. Interrelationships between mycorrhizal symbiosis, soil pH and plant sex modify the performance of Antennaria dioica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varga, Sandra; Kytöviita, Minna-Maarit

    2010-05-01

    AM symbiosis is usually beneficial for plants, but the benefits gained may depend on the soil abiotic factors. In dioecious plants, female and male individuals have different resource demands and allocation patterns. As a consequence of these differences, it is logical to assume that female and male plants differ in their relationship with arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi, although this has rarely been examined. We used a factorial greenhouse experiment to investigate whether female and male plants in the dioecious model species Antennaria dioica have a different relationship with their AM symbionts under two soil pH levels. In particular, we asked: (1) Do the sexes in A. dioica have sex-specific benefits from AM symbiosis? (2) If so, which sex gains the highest benefit? (3) How does soil pH affect the sex - AM fungal relationship? Our results indicate that the sexes responded similarly to AM symbiosis and pH when mycorrhizal benefit was examined as growth and phosphorus accumulation. However, the sexes differed in response to AM symbiosis in terms of survival, as mortality was increased due to AM symbiosis in female plants whilst the opposite effect was detected in males. The plant-AM fungus relationship was significantly affected by soil pH as lowering the soil pH decreased the benefits gained by the plants from the mycorrhizal fungus. Taken together, our findings indicate that AM symbiosis is beneficial for plants depending on the life history trait considered. In addition, interactions between plants and their AM symbionts are modified by soil factors and the sex of the plant.

  5. Effect of novel bioactive edible coatings based on jujube gum and nettle oil-loaded nanoemulsions on the shelf-life of Beluga sturgeon fillets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gharibzahedi, Seyed Mohammad Taghi; Mohammadnabi, Sara

    2017-02-01

    Effect of jujube gum (JG; 4, 8 and 12% wt)-based nanoemulsions (NEs) containing nettle essential oil (NEO; 2, 3.5 and 5% wt) as new edible coatings was investigated to preserve Beluga sturgeon fillets (BSFs) during 15 day-refrigerated storage at 4°C. Physical (weight loss, cooking loss, color and texture), chemical (pH, FFA, PV, TBARS and TVB-N), microbiological (total and psychrotrophic bacterial counts), and sensorial characteristics of BSFs were kinetically analyzed. Preliminary studies showed that the NEs formulated with NEO lower than 5% at all JG concentrations were able to form stable coating solutions owing to the highest short-term stability (>90%) and entrapment efficiency (94.4-98.3%). Edible NE coating formulated with 12% JG and 3.5% NEO as a novel antimicrobial and antioxidant biomaterial exhibited the lowest weight and cooking losses, pH changes, textural and color deterioration, lipid oxidation and microbial growth in BSFs refrigerated over a period of 15days (P<0.05). Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Tetranychus urticae (Acari: Tetranychidae on Gerbera jamesonii Bolus and Hook (Asteraceae

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    EA. Silva

    Full Text Available Gerbera (Gerbera jamesonii Bolus and Hook, is an ornamental Asteraceae of great commercial value, and pests can affect adversely its cultivation. More than 20 species of arthropods cause economic damage on gerbera, among them the two spotted mite, Tetranychus urticae Koch, 1836 (Acari: Tetranychidae, considered a key pest for this and other ornamental plants. In this work, some life-cycle aspects of T. urticae on gerbera, considered important for the knowledge of its population dynamics and for pest management programs, were studied. Mites were reared on 3-cm diameter arenas of gerbera leaf discs maintained on distilled water in Petri dishes, under laboratory conditions of 25 ºC, 70 ± 10% RU and 14-hour photophase, with only one egg left per arena, in a total of 262 arenas. Egg viability was 96.5% and 97.1% for unmated and mated females, respectively. Unmated females originated larvae which lived for 3.2 days and the stages of protonymph and deutonymph, 1.9 and 1.6 days, respectively; those from mated females lived 3.5 days and for protonymphs and deutonymphs, 2.0 and 1.6 days, respectively. Except for the duration of one generation (T, with similar values, 18.6 and 19.7 days, respectively for unmated and mated females, the net reproductive rate of increase (Rº, the innate capacity to increase in number (r m and the finite rate of growth (λ were different for mated and unmated females, respectively 11.5 and 24.6 for R0; 0.12 and 0.17 for r m and 1.13 and 1.19 for λ.

  7. Functional characterization of glutathione S-transferases associated with insecticide resistance in Tetranychus urticae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavlidi, Nena; Tseliou, Vasilis; Riga, Maria; Nauen, Ralf; Van Leeuwen, Thomas; Labrou, Nikolaos E; Vontas, John

    2015-06-01

    The two-spotted spider mite Tetranychus urticae is one of the most important agricultural pests world-wide. It is extremely polyphagous and develops resistance to acaricides. The overexpression of several glutathione S-transferases (GSTs) has been associated with insecticide resistance. Here, we functionally expressed and characterized three GSTs, two of the delta class (TuGSTd10, TuGSTd14) and one of the mu class (TuGSTm09), which had been previously associated with striking resistance phenotypes against abamectin and other acaricides/insecticides, by transcriptional studies. Functional analysis showed that all three GSTs were capable of catalyzing the conjugation of both 1-chloro-2,4 dinitrobenzene (CDNB) and 1,2-dichloro-4-nitrobenzene(DCNB) to glutathione (GSH), as well as exhibiting GSH-dependent peroxidase activity toward Cumene hydroperoxide (CumOOH). The steady-state kinetics of the T. urticae GSTs for the GSH/CDNB conjugation reaction were determined and compared with other GSTs. The interaction of the three recombinant proteins with several acaricides and insecticides was also investigated. TuGSTd14 showed the highest affinity toward abamectin and a competitive type of inhibition, which suggests that the insecticide may bind to the H-site of the enzyme. The three-dimensional structure of the TuGSTd14 was predicted based on X-ray structures of delta class GSTs using molecular modeling. Structural analysis was used to identify key structural characteristics and to provide insights into the substrate specificity and the catalytic mechanism of TuGSTd14. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Biochemical analysis of a chlorfenapyr-selected resistant strain of Tetranychus urticae Koch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Leeuwen, Thomas; Van Pottelberge, Steven; Tirry, Luc

    2006-05-01

    Tetranychus urticae Koch has recently developed resistance to chlorfenapyr in Australia and Japan, but no attempt has yet been made to describe the biochemical mechanisms involved in chlorfenapyr resistance. In this study a laboratory-selected chlorfenapyr-resistant strain was investigated. Resistance to chlorfenapyr was associated with a strong increase in esterase activity and P450 mono-oxygenase (MO) activity but a decrease in 3,3',5,5'-tetramethylbenzidine (TMBZ) peroxidation activity. Differences in esterase activities between susceptible and resistant strains increased with increasing carbon number of the aliphatic side-chain of the nitrophenol substrate. A 4.4-fold increase in the O-deethylation of 7-ethoxy-4-trifluoromethyl coumarin (7-EFC) mediated by P450 MOs was detected. Remarkably, the resistant strain showed only half of the total TMBZ peroxidation activity found in the susceptible strain. The activity of these enzymes was further determined on different crosses and back-crosses of both strains. Results indicated that activities correlated with chlorfenapyr susceptibility and could be considered as biochemical markers. Esterase isozymes of both strains and their crosses were separated with isoelectric focusing (IEF) and visualised after activity staining. It was clear that two distinct zones of enhanced esterase activity were present in the chlorfenapyr-resistant strain (EST 11, pI = 4.88 and EST 16, pI = 4.71). EST 11 was identified with inhibitors as a carboxylesterase. The relative presence and intensity of these esterase zones changed in the different crosses and could be seen as a marker for chlorfenapyr resistance. Glutathione-S-transferase and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase activities were not significantly different between strains. A twofold decrease in TMBZ peroxidase activity in the resistant strain could reflect decreased activation of chlorfenapyr. On the basis of these results the involvement of P450 MOs and esterases in the

  9. Isoepoxydon, a new metabolite of the patulin pathway in Penicillium urticae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sekiguchi, Junichi; Gaucher, G. Maurice

    1979-01-01

    A patulin-negative mutant (J1) of Penicillium urticae (N.R.R.L. 2159A) was known to accumulate about 100mg per litre quantities of the 5,6-epoxygentisyl quinone, (−)-phyllostine and another metabolite (UIII). Both were derived from acetate and hence were polyketides. Purified UIII (m.p. 53°C, [α]32D+206°, λmethanolmax. 240nm; ε 3806 litre·mol−1·cm−1) was characterized as a partially reduced derivative of (−)-phyllostine and was found to be a diastereoisomer of the known phytotoxin, (+)-epoxydon. Hence its designation as (+)-iso- or epi-epoxydon. From 1H n.m.r. and c.d. data the stereochemistry of the epoxide ring in (+)-isoepoxydon was determined to be identical with that in (+)-epoxydon (i.e. R,R) but the configuration of the secondary alcohol at C-4 was S rather than R as in (+)-epoxydon. Isoepoxydon (compound UIII) is therefore (4S,5R,6R)-5,6-epoxy-4-hydroxy-2-hydroxymethylcyclohex-2-en-1-one. The boat conformation in which the C-4 hydroxy group is axial is preferred. In the range of 1mm to 5mm, the antibiotic activity of (+)-isoepoxydon against Bacillus subtilis sp. was 56% of that obtained with patulin. Over a period of 1 to 3h, [14C]isoepoxydon was efficiently converted into patulin by a shake culture of the parent strain of P. urticae. The precursor relationship of isoepoxydon to patulin was confirmed by feeding unlabelled isoepoxydon (1mm) to a washed-cell suspension of a mutant (J2) in which, over a period of 3 to 5h, a better than 60% conversion into patulin was attained. The enzymic relationship between isoepoxydon and phyllostine and their positions in the late portion of the patulin biosynthetic pathway are discussed. PMID:508294

  10. Bioactivity of Licaria puchury-major Essential Oil Against Aedes aegypti , Tetranychus urticae and Cerataphis lataniae

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    Sidney G. Azevedo

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available The present study was carried out to evaluate an alternative controlling agent for greenhouse pests and the yellow fever mosquito larvae. The potential bioactivity of Licaria puchury-major (Mart. Kosterm. (“puxuri” was evaluated here against three most common pests in tropical and subtropical countries: Aedes aegypti Linn. Larvae, Tetranychus urticae Koch. mites and Cerataphis lataniae Boisd. aphids. The essential oil from seeds was analyzed by GC-FID and GC-MS. The major compounds were safrole (38.8% and eucalyptol (21.7%. Phenylpropanes (51.7% was the main group of compounds and oxygenated monoterpenes represented 28.8% of the total oil. The essential oil has shown no inhibition of acetylcholinesterase (AChE in the tested concentrations. However, potential antioxidant activities were evaluated by different methods [DPPH: LD 50 = (27.8 ± 1.0 µg/.mL; ABTS: (977.3 ± 25.2 µM TEs/g (Trolox Equivalents; FRAP: (548.2 ± 29.0 µM Fe(II/g]. A significant larvicidal potential for 24 h of exposure was observed with LD 50 = 98.9 µg/mL, being an indicative that the larval mortality may occur by ingestion or contact due to the no inhibition against AChE. Volatile phase effects were evaluated against T. urticae Koch. and C. lataniae Boisd. and LD 50 were found about 30.8 and 13.5 µg/mL , respectively. These results are consistent with an octopaminergic effect , since some phenylpropanoids (such as Safrole, identified as the major compound in this work can block octopamine, a multi-functional, naturally occurring biogenic amine. Then, this study clearly illustrated the efficacy of the investigated seeds, which encourages the development of a new potential natural controlling agent against these common pests due to the abundance of these seeds in the Amazon region and to the high essential oil yield .

  11. Biological and ecological characterization of two mites (Tetranychus Urticae and Phytoseiulus Persimilis) occurring in some agro-ecosystems; Caratterizzazione biologica ed ecologica di due acari (Tetranichus Urticae e Phytoseiulus Persimilis) interagenti in alcuni ecosistemi agrari

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Calvitti, M. [ENEA, Centro Ricerche Casaccia, Roma (Italy). Dip. Innovazione

    1995-12-01

    This work is a brief review of the actual knowledge about biological and ecological characteristics of two species of mites: Tetranychus urticae Koch (Acarina Tetranychidae) (two-spotted spider mite) and the predaceous mite Phytoseiulus persimilis Athias Henriot (Acarina Phytoseiidae). Success obtained in biological control of spider mite, by mass release of P. persimilis, has increased the interest in biological and ecological study of these mites. Particularly, the following biological and ecological aspects of both P. persimilis and T. urticae are hereby discussed: reproductive biology; population dynamics (spider mites outbreaks) and natural regulation of the trophic interaction; feeding behaviour; biological control of two-spotted spider mite by P. persimilis. In this report experimental data obtained in laboratory have been integrated with bibliographic information concerning studies produced in natural conditions.

  12. Standardization of a rearing procedure of Tetranychus urticae Koch (Acari: Tetranychidae) on bean (Phaseolus vulgaris): plant age and harvest time; Padronizacao da criacao de Tetranychus urticae Koch (Acari: Tetranychidae) em feijoeiro (Phaseolus vulgaris): idade da planta e tempo de colheita

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bustos, Alexander; Cantor, Fernando; Cure, Jose R; Rodriguez, Daniel [Universidade Militar Nueva Granada, Bogota (Colombia). Facutad de Ciencias. Programa de Biologia Aplicada], e-mail: fernando.cantor@unimilitar.edu.co

    2009-09-15

    A rearing technique was standardized to produce Tetranychus urticae Koch on Phaseolus vulgaris (ICA Cerinza variety) as a prey of the predatory mite Phytoseiulus persimilis Athias-Henriot. Two assays were conducted to assess the following variables: the most suitable plant age for mite infestation, and the best time to harvest the mites and re infest the plants. In the first experiment, four, five, six, and seven-week-old plants of P. vulgaris were infested with six T. urticae per foliole. The lower plant stratum exhibited the largest number of mites regardless of plant age. However, four-week old plants had the larger average number of individuals. In the second experiment four-week-old plants were infested with 0.5 female mite/cm{sup 2} of leaf. The number of individuals per instar of T. urticae was recorded weekly. The highest mite production occurred between four and five weeks after infestation, indicating this to be the most suitable for mite harvesting and for plant reinfestation. (author)

  13. Identification of Onosma visianii Roots Extract and Purified Shikonin Derivatives as Potential Acaricidal Agents against Tetranychus urticae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sut, Stefania; Pavela, Roman; Kolarčik, Vladislav; Cappellacci, Loredana; Petrelli, Riccardo; Maggi, Filippo; Dall'Acqua, Stefano; Benelli, Giovanni

    2017-06-16

    There is an increasing need for the discovery of reliable and eco-friendly pesticides and natural plant-derived products may play a crucial role as source of new active compounds. In this research, a lipophilic extract of Onosma visianii roots extract containing 12% of shikonin derivatives demonstrated significant toxicity and inhibition of oviposition against Tetranychus urticae mites. Extensive chromatographic separation allowed the isolation of 11 naphthoquinone derivatives that were identified by spectral techniques and were tested against Tetranychus urticae. All the isolated compounds presented effects against the considered mite and isobutylshikonin (1) and isovalerylshikonin (2) were the most active, being valuable model compounds for the study of new anti-mite agents.

  14. The Assessment of Toxic Metals in Plants Used in Cosmetics and Cosmetology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Agnieszka; Brodziak-Dopierała, Barbara; Loska, Krzysztof; Stojko, Jerzy

    2017-10-24

    Heavy metals polluting the natural environment are absorbed by plants. The use of herbs as components of cosmetics may pose a health risk for humans. The aim of the study was to determine the concentrations of Pb, Cd and Hg in selected species of herbs (horsetail Equisetum arvense, nettle Urtica dioica, St. John's wort Hypericum perforatum, wormwood Artemisia absinthium, yarrow Achillea millefolium, cottonwood Solidago virgaurea) self-collected from the natural environment in two different locations, and purchased in stores on the territory of Poland. The concentration of the metals studied was: 4.67-23.8 mg/kg Pb, 0.01-1.51 mg/kg Cd, 0.005-0.028 mg/kg Hg. Different concentrations of metals, depending on species and origin of plants, were found. The mean concentration of all studied metals was the lowest in St. John's wort, and the highest in nettle. In herbs purchased in Polish stores, the concentration of Pb was higher than in plants self-collected in the natural environment.

  15. Antifungal (in vitro activity of plant extracts for the control of anthracnose (Colletotrichum acutatum

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    Villacís-Aldaz Luis Alfredo

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The antifungal effect of five plant extracts: nettle (Urtica dioica, chamomile (Chamaemelum nobile, frame (Artemisia vulgaris, lavender (Lavandula officinalis and chamico (Datura ferox were evaluated at laboratory level for control of anthracnose (Colletotrichum acutatum of the tree tomato (Solanum betaceum, using two methods of extraction (maceration and steam trapping, in the results obtained, statistical differences were observed in the percentage of inhibition of mycelial growth of the fungus, the treatment with lavender extract obtained by the steam trapping method presented the greatest efficiency for anthracnose control (66.23%. The other treatments tested also showed effectiveness against the anthracnose pathogen in the following order of inhibition: chamomile (52.78%, frame (21.63, chamico (24.14%, nettle (12.94, the ability of various species to inhibit certain fungal diseases, taking into account the different content of secondary metabolites that have each of the plant species, constituting new clean production alternatives that reduce the use of chemical pesticides for the control of fungal diseases.

  16. Nutrient uptake and biomass accumulation for eleven different field crops

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    K. HAKALA

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Oil hemp (Cannabis sativa L., quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd., false flax (Camelina sativa (L. Crantz, caraway (Carum carvi L., dyer’s woad (Isatis tinctoria L., nettle (Urtica dioica L., reed canary grass (RCG (Phalaris arundinacea L., buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum Moench, linseed (Linum usitatissimum L., timothy (Phleum pratense L. and barley (Hordeum vulgare L. were grown under uniform conditions in pots containing well fertilised loam soil. Dry matter (DM accumulation was measured repeatedly, and contents of minerals N, P, K, Ca and Mg at maturity. Annual crops accumulated above-ground biomass faster than perennials, while perennials had higher DM accumulation rates below ground. Seeds had high concentrations of N and P, while green biomass had high concentrations of K and Ca. Stems and roots had low concentrations of minerals. Concentrations of K and P were high in quinoa and caraway, and that of P in buckwheat. Hemp and nettle had high Ca concentrations, and quinoa had high Mg concentration. N and P were efficiently harvested with seed, Ca and K with the whole biomass. Perennials could prevent soil erosion and add carbon to the soil in the long term, while annuals compete better with weeds and prevent erosion during early growth. Nutrient balances in a field could be modified and nutrient leaching reduced by careful selection of the crop and management practices.;

  17. Risks and Benefits of Commonly used Herbal Medicines in México

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez-Fragoso, Lourdes; Reyes-Esparza, Jorge; Burchiel, Scott; Herrera-Ruiz, Dea; Torres, Eliseo

    2008-01-01

    In Mexico, local empirical knowledge about medicinal properties of plants is the basis for their use as home remedies. It is generally accepted by many people in Mexico and elsewhere in the world that beneficial medicinal effects can be obtained by ingesting plant products. In this review, we focus on the potential pharmacologic bases for herbal plant efficacy, but we also raise concerns about the safety of these agents, which have not been fully assessed. Although numerous randomized clinical trials of herbal medicines have been published and systematic reviews and meta-analyses of these studies are available, generalizations about the efficacy and safety of herbal medicines are clearly not possible. Recent publications have also highlighted the unintended consequences of herbal product use, including morbidity and mortality. It has been found that many phytochemicals have pharmacokinetic or pharmacodynamic interactions with drugs. The present review is limited to some herbal medicine that are native or cultivated in Mexico and that have significant use. We discuss the cultural uses, phytochemistry, pharmacological and toxicological properties of the following following plant species: Nopal (Opuntia ficus), Peppermint (Mentha piperita), Chaparral (Larrea divaricata), Dandlion (Taraxacum officinale), Mullein (Verbascum densiflorum), Chamomile (Matricaria recutita), Nettle or Stinging Nettle (Urtica dioica), Passionflower (Passiflora incarmata), Linden Flower (Tilia europea), and Aloa (Aloa vera). We conclude that our knowledge of the therapeutic benefits and risks of some herbal medicines used in Mexico is still limited and efforts to elucidate them should be intensified. PMID:18037151

  18. Risks and benefits of commonly used herbal medicines in Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez-Fragoso, Lourdes; Reyes-Esparza, Jorge; Burchiel, Scott W; Herrera-Ruiz, Dea; Torres, Eliseo

    2008-02-15

    In Mexico, local empirical knowledge about medicinal properties of plants is the basis for their use as home remedies. It is generally accepted by many people in Mexico and elsewhere in the world that beneficial medicinal effects can be obtained by ingesting plant products. In this review, we focus on the potential pharmacologic bases for herbal plant efficacy, but we also raise concerns about the safety of these agents, which have not been fully assessed. Although numerous randomized clinical trials of herbal medicines have been published and systematic reviews and meta-analyses of these studies are available, generalizations about the efficacy and safety of herbal medicines are clearly not possible. Recent publications have also highlighted the unintended consequences of herbal product use, including morbidity and mortality. It has been found that many phytochemicals have pharmacokinetic or pharmacodynamic interactions with drugs. The present review is limited to some herbal medicines that are native or cultivated in Mexico and that have significant use. We discuss the cultural uses, phytochemistry, pharmacological, and toxicological properties of the following plant species: nopal (Opuntia ficus), peppermint (Mentha piperita), chaparral (Larrea divaricata), dandlion (Taraxacum officinale), mullein (Verbascum densiflorum), chamomile (Matricaria recutita), nettle or stinging nettle (Urtica dioica), passionflower (Passiflora incarnata), linden flower (Tilia europea), and aloe (Aloe vera). We conclude that our knowledge of the therapeutic benefits and risks of some herbal medicines used in Mexico is still limited and efforts to elucidate them should be intensified.

  19. The Assessment of Toxic Metals in Plants Used in Cosmetics and Cosmetology

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    Agnieszka Fischer

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Heavy metals polluting the natural environment are absorbed by plants. The use of herbs as components of cosmetics may pose a health risk for humans. The aim of the study was to determine the concentrations of Pb, Cd and Hg in selected species of herbs (horsetail Equisetum arvense, nettle Urtica dioica, St. John’s wort Hypericum perforatum, wormwood Artemisia absinthium, yarrow Achillea millefolium, cottonwood Solidago virgaurea self-collected from the natural environment in two different locations, and purchased in stores on the territory of Poland. The concentration of the metals studied was: 4.67–23.8 mg/kg Pb, 0.01–1.51 mg/kg Cd, 0.005–0.028 mg/kg Hg. Different concentrations of metals, depending on species and origin of plants, were found. The mean concentration of all studied metals was the lowest in St. John’s wort, and the highest in nettle. In herbs purchased in Polish stores, the concentration of Pb was higher than in plants self-collected in the natural environment.

  20. Herbal Extracts for Ensuring Pork Meat Quality during Cold Storage

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    Grāmatiņa Ilze

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Oxidation and microbial spoilage have a negative effect on the quality of meat and meat products, causing changes in their sensory and nutritional properties. Herbs contain biologically active compounds, like phenols with antioxidative and antimicrobial properties. Phenols can be used as substitutes for commercial antioxidants to prevent lipid oxidation, thus maintaining the colour and flavour of the product. The aim of the study was to investigate the the potential use of herbal extracts in ethanol/water application for the maintenance of pork meat quality during storage. Four herbs growing in Latvia — nettle (Urtica dioica L., lovage (Levisticum officinale L., oregano (Origanum vulgare, and horseradish (Armoracia rusticana L. were chosen for the study. An optimal ethanol concentration for the extraction of the phenolic compounds was obtained with ethanol 50%/water 50% concentration (v/v. Prepared herbal extracts were added to chilled pork to determine the quality of the pork during storage. Changes in meat quality and its sensory properties for chilled pork without extracts appeared on day 18 of storage. Negative changes in sensory properties of meat samples with nettle extract were observed on day 22 of storage, and with lovage, oregano, and horseradish extracts on day 32. Statistically significant differences (p ≤ 0.05 were observed for microbiological indices between pork samples with herbal extracts and the control sample.

  1. Photo-enzymatic repair of UVB-induced DNA damage in the two-spotted spider mite Tetranychus urticae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murata, Yasumasa; Osakabe, Masahiro

    2017-01-01

    Ambient ultraviolet-B (UVB) radiation induces lethal effects in the two-spotted spider mite Tetranychus urticae, whereas photoreactivation by irradiation with ultraviolet-A and visible light (VIS) plays an important role to increase survival of mites irradiated by UVB. The physiological mechanisms and ecological significance of photoreactivation in terrestrial arthropods have not been shown clearly. We verified the biological impact and accumulation of DNA lesions by UVB irradiation and the repair of them by photoreactivation in T. urticae larvae. Survival of UVB-irradiated larvae decreased with increasing UVB dose, but recovered remarkably with VIS exposure after UVB irradiation (photoreactivation). The DNA lesions, cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers (CPDs) and 6-4 pyrimidine-pyrimidine photoproducts (6-4PPs) linearly increased with the UVB dose. The CPDs were repaired after exposure to VIS, whereas the frequency of 6-4PPs was unaffected by VIS; CPD photolyase genes, but not (6-4) photolyase genes, have been found in the T. urticae genome. Therefore, DNA damage and CPD photo enzymatic repair (PER) is significant for survival in this mite under ambient UVB radiation. Unexpectedly, gene expression of CPD photolyase was unaffected by irradiation with UVB and VIS. Instead, expression of xeroderma pigmentosum A (XPA) was increased by irradiation. XPA is a core factor in nucleotide excision repair (NER), which is a repair system unrelated to photo energy. The relationship between gene expression and enzymatic repair remains unclear. To elucidate the PER process in T. urticae, further study will be necessary on the gene expression patterns and molecular functions of CPD photolyase in PER and of XPA in NER.

  2. Variability in Damage Caused by the Mite Tetranychus urticae (Trombidiformes: Tetranychidae) Koch on Three Varieties of Strawberry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Domínguez, S G; Santillán-Galicia, M T; González-Hernández, V; Suárez Espinosa, J; González-Hernández, H

    2015-06-01

    The strawberry, Fragaria×ananassa Duchesne (Rosales: Rosaceae), is an important crop in Mexico. We evaluated the tolerance of three newly developed Mexican strawberry varieties (CP0615, CPLE-7, and CPJacona) to Tetranychus urticae Koch (Trombidiformes: Tetranychidae), the most important pest of strawberry. We evaluated the effect of three different initial mite densities on population growth, duration of each developmental stage and survival of T. urticae on the three strawberry varieties. We also compared the photosynthetic activity (Pn), sub-stomatal CO2 concentration (Ci), stomatal conductance (gs) and the area of leaf damaged in the three varieties. The largest final density of mites occurred on the variety CP0615, followed by the varieties CPLE-7 and CPJacona. There were no significant differences in the duration of T. urticae developmental stages amongst the varieties, except for larvae where the shortest duration was on variety CPLE-7. The proportion of eggs reaching the adult stage (survival) was significantly lower on the variety CPLE-7. The number and morphology of the trichomes did not play an important role in the outcomes, as they were similar in the three varieties. There were no significant differences in Pn, Ci, and gs values amongst the three varieties in the presence and absence of T. urticae. The area of leaf damaged in variety CPLE-7 was significantly smaller than for the other varieties. Based on these results, and with regard to spider mite tolerance, we believe that the variety CPLE-7 has the greatest potential for further development, and eventually, for use on a commercial scale in Mexico. © The Authors 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  3. Drought stress in tomato increases the performance of adapted and non-adapted strains of Tetranychus urticae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ximénez-Embún, Miguel G; Castañera, Pedro; Ortego, Félix

    2017-01-01

    The performance of the two-spotted spider mite, Tetranychus urticae Koch, on plants depends on the rate of adaptation of mite populations to each particular host and can be influenced by environmental conditions. We have tested the effects of drought stress, caused by water deficiency, in the interaction of tomato plants with tomato adapted (TA) and tomato non-adapted (TNA) strains of T. urticae. Our data revealed that mite performance was enhanced for the TA strain when reared on drought-stressed tomato plants, rising population growth and leaf damage. Population growth in the case of the TNA strain was negative, but they laid more eggs and the number of mobile forms was higher on drought-stressed tomato plants than on control plants. Water stress resulted in tomato plants with increased concentrations of essential amino acids and free sugars, improving the nutritional value of drought-stressed tomato plants for T. urticae. Mite infestation alone had almost no effect on the nutritional composition of tomato leaves, with the exception of an increase of free sugars. Tomato plant defense proteins were induced by both drought stress and mite infestation. However, the induction of protease inhibitors was higher in tomatoes exposed to mites from the TNA strain than in tomatoes that were fed upon by mites from the TA strain. The better performance of the TA strain could be associated to both changes in the digestive (cysteine and aspartyl protease and α-amylase activities) and detoxification (esterase activity) physiology of the mites and the attenuation of some of the plant defenses (protease inhibitors). Taken together, our results suggest that drought stress might favor outbreaks of T. urticae on tomato, by enhancing population growth of adapted populations and increasing the suitability of tomato as a host for non-adapted ones. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Laboratory bioassay of Beauveria bassiana against Tetranychus urticae (Acari: Tetranychidae) on leaf discs and potted bean plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ullah, Mohammad Shaef; Lim, Un Taek

    2015-03-01

    Use of the mycopathogen Beauveria bassiana (strain GHA), marketed as BotaniGard(®) ES, was evaluated as a plant protection strategy against the spider mite Tetranychus urticae Koch, which is considered one of the most economically important and cosmopolitan pests of many crops. Tetranychus urticae were treated with four concentrations of conidia (1 × 10(5), 1 × 10(6), 1 × 10(7), or 1 × 10(8) conidia/ml), and virulence was assessed on mites held at four relative humidity levels (35, 55, 75, and 95 ± 2 % RH) at 25 ± 1 °C. At 1 × 10(8) spores/ml, the LT50 value was 9.7 h at 95 % RH, which was significantly lower than values for other RH levels. At 1 × 10(7) spores/ml, the LT50 value was 43.8 h at 95 % RH, which was significantly different from values at 55 and 35 % RH. The efficacy of B. bassiana product was also verified on mites infesting potted bean plants with a concentration of 1 × 10(8) spores/ml. In double spray treatment where applications were made 2 × on days 5 and 10 after mite infestation, the nymphal and adult population of T. urticae were reduced to zero on days 20 and 15, respectively. With a single spray on day 5, the nymphal population was also greatly reduced, but increased rapidly after day 20. Single and double sprays with B. bassiana reduced leaf damage as measured by image analysis by 33 and 94 % compared to no treatment, respectively. These results suggest that 1 × 10(8) spores/ml was the most effective dose and that two applications, at a 5-day interval, provided control of T. urticae in our laboratory assay.

  5. INFLUENCE OF HERBAL EXTRACTS ON METABOLIC DISTURBANCES IN DIABETES MELLITUS AND INSULIN RESISTANCE MODEL

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    T. V. Yakimova

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research was to assess the influence on metabolic processes of herbal extracts, used in diets with different fat content, in diabetes mellitus and insulin resistance model.Material and methods. The experiments were performing on 90 noninbred male albino rats. Diabetes mellitus was modeling with twice-repeated intraperitoneal streptozotocine (30 mg/kg injections. For the insulin resistance formation animals were fad meal with 30% fat content. Against the background rats were administering into the stomach nettle leafs (Urtica dioica L., 100 mg/kg, burdock roots (Arctium lappa L., 25 mg/kg extracts or intraperitoneal insulin preparation Actrapide HM Penfill (3 mg/kg daily during 10 days. During period of agents introduction one-half of animals continued to receive food with high fat content, the other half received diet with 8% fat content. The third rats group received only food with low fat content without extracts or insulin administration. In blood was measured the glucose, glycosylated hemoglobin, creatinine, urea, uric acid content, in liver homogenates – glycogen, protein content, aminotransferases and glucose-6phosphatase activity, in muscle homogenates – glycogen and protein content.Results. After streptozotocine injections and diet with 30% fat content the blood glucose level became by 4.0–5.3 fold more than level of intact animals, increased the hemoglobin glycosylation, also creatinine, urea, uric acid blood content, in liver and muscle homogenates raised glycogen content, decreased protein quantity, in liver homogenates increased aminotranferases and glucose-6-phosphatase activity. In animals only feeding with 8% fat diminished hyperglycemia, creatinine blood retention, the liver glycogen content and recovered its protein resources. The nettle or burdock extracts administrating to animals that continued to receive high fat meal decreased the blood glucose, glycosylated hemoglobin and creatinine content, the liver

  6. Acaricidal Potentials of the Terpene-rich Essential Oils of Two Iranian Eucalyptus Species against Tetranychus urticae Koch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebadollahi, Asgar; Sendi, Jalal Jalali; Maroufpoor, Mostafa; Rahimi-Nasrabadi, Mehdi

    2017-03-01

    There is a rapid growth in the screening of plant materials for finding new bio-pesticides. In the present study, the essential oils of E. oleosa and E. torquata leaves were extracted using a Clevenger apparatus and their chemical profiles were investigated by Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS). Among identified compounds, the terpenes had highest amount for both essential oils; 93.59% for E. oleosa and 97.69% for E. torquata. 1,8-Cineole (31.96%), α-pinene (15.25%) and trans-anethole (7.32%) in the essential oil of E. oleosa and 1,8-cineole (28.57%), α-pinene (15.74%) and globulol (13.11%) in the E. torquata essential oil were identified as the main components. The acaricidal activity of the essential oils of E. oleosa and E. torquata were examined using fumigation methods against the adult females of Tetranychus urticae Koch. The essential oils have potential acaricidal effects on T. urticae. The essential oil of E. oleosa with LC 50 value of 2.42 µL/L air was stronger than E. torquata. A correlation between log concentration and mite mortality has been observed. Based on the results of present study, it can be stated that the essential oils of E. oleosa and E. torquata have a worthy potential in the management of T. urticae.

  7. Toxicidade de compostos sintéticos e naturais sobre Tetranychus urticae e o predador Phytoseiulus macropilis

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    Bruce Veronez

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a toxicidade de compostos sintéticos e naturais sobre Tetranychus urticae e o predador Phytoseiulus macropilis. A mortalidade e a taxa de crescimento de T. urticae e seu predador foram avaliadas após a aplicação de: abamectina, clofentezina, fenpropatrina, fenpiroximato, propargito, enxofre e espiromesifeno, nas concentrações recomendadas; óleos de nim (Natuneem e Sempre Verde Killer Neem a 1%; e extratos aquosos a 10% de Dieffenbachia brasiliensis, Annona squamosa, Ruta graveolens, Agave angustifolia, Melia azedarach, Sonchus oleraceus, Mentha spicata x M. suaveolens, Allium cepa, Laurus nobilis e Eucalyptus saligna. A toxicidade aguda e a influência dos compostos sobre a taxa de crescimento instantâneo dos ácaros foram avaliadas em laboratório. Extratos de A. cepa, A. angustifolia, produtos à base de óleo de nim, espiromesifeno, propargito, fenpiroximato, abamectina e fenpropatrina causaram mortalidade superior a 83% em T. urticae. Extrato de A. angustifolia, Natuneem e clofentezina não causaram mortalidade significativa em P. macropilis. Agave angustifolia e Natuneem não afetaram significativamente a taxa de crescimento deste predador. Propargito, fenpiroximato, abamectina, fenpropatrina, espiromesifeno e extrato de L. nobilis afetaram severamente a população de P. macropilis.

  8. Screening of papaya accessions resistant to Papaya lethal yellowing virus and capacity of Tetranychus urticae to transmit the virus

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    Marcos Fernando Basso

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to produce a polyclonal antiserum against the coat protein (CP of Papaya lethal yellowing virus (PLYV and to determine its specificity and sensibility in the diagnosis of the virus, as well as to evaluate the genetic resistance to PLYV in papaya (Carica papaya accessions and to investigate the capacity of the two-spotted spider mite Tetranychus urticae to acquire and transmit PLYV to the plants. Sixty-five papaya accessions were evaluated. For each accession, ten plants were mechanically inoculated using PLYV-infected plant extracts, and three plants were mock inoculated with phosphate buffer alone and used as negative controls. Ninety days after inoculation, newly-emerging systemic leaves were collected from the inoculated plants, and viral infection was diagnosed by indirect Elisa, using polyclonal antiserum sensible to the in vitro-expressed PLYV CP. Viral transmission by T. urticae was evaluated in greenhouse. The experiments were repeated twice. Polyclonal antiserum recognized the recombinant PLYV CP specifically and discriminated PLYV infection from infections caused by other plant viruses. Out of the 65 papaya accessions evaluated, 15 were considered resistant, 18 moderately resistant, and 32 susceptible. The two-spotted spider mite T. urticae was capable of acquiring PLYV, but not of transmitting it to papaya.

  9. Laboratory and field evaluation of an entomopathogenic fungus, Isaria cateniannulata strain 08XS‐1, against Tetranychus urticae (Koch)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiaona; Zou, Xiao; Guo, Jianjun

    2016-01-01

    Abstract BACKGROUND The two‐spotted mite, Tetranychus urticae Koch, is one of the most serious mite pests of crops throughout the world. Biocontrol of the mite with fungal agents has long been paid much attention because of the development of insecticide resistance and the severe restriction of chemical pesticides. In this study, the efficacy of submerged conidia of the entomopathogenic fungus Isaria cateniannulata strain 08XS‐1 against T. urticae eggs, larvae and female adults was evaluated at different temperatures and humidity in the laboratory and under field conditions. RESULTS The results showed that a suspension of 2 × 107 submerged conidia mL −1 caused the highest mortalities of mite eggs, larvae and females (100, 100 and 70% respectively) at 100% relative humidity and 25 °C in the laboratory. In the field experiments against the mites, a suspension of 2 × 108 submerged conidia mL −1 achieved significant efficiency – the relative control effects were 88.6, 83.8 and 83%, respectively, in cucumber, eggplant and bean fields after 10 days of treatment. CONCLUSION The results suggest that the I. cateniannulata strain 08XS‐1 is a potential fungal agent, with acceptable production cost of conidia, against T. urticae in the field in an area such as southwestern China with higher air humidity. © 2016 The Authors. Pest Management Science published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of Society of Chemical Industry. PMID:26775712

  10. Survival and Reproductive Strategies in Two-Spotted Spider Mites: Demographic Analysis of Arrhenotokous Parthenogenesis of Tetranychus urticae (Acari: Tetranychidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuan, Shu-Jen; Lin, Yung-Hsiang; Yang, Chung-Ming; Atlihan, Remzi; Saska, Pavel; Chi, Hsin

    2016-04-01

    Tetranychus urticae Koch is a cosmopolitan pest whose rapid developmental rate enables it to produce colonies of thousands of individuals within a short time period. When a solitary virgin female colonizes a new host plant, it is capable of producing male offspring through the arrhenotokous parthenogenesis; once her sons mature, oedipal mating occurs and the female will produce bisexual offspring. To analyze the effect of arrhenotokous reproduction on population growth, we devised and compared separate life tables for arrhenotokous and bisexual populations of T. urticae using the age-stage, two-sex life table theory. For the cohort with bisexual reproduction, the intrinsic rate of increase (r), finite rate (λ), net reproductive rate (R0), and mean generation time (T) were 0.2736 d(−1), 1.3146 d(−1), 44.66 offspring, and 13.89 d, respectively. Because only male eggs were produced during the first 8 d of the oviposition period and the cohort would soon begin bisexual reproduction, it would be theoretically wrong to calculate the population parameters using the survival rate and fecundity of an arrhenotokous cohort. We demonstrated that the effect of arrhenotokous reproduction could be accurately described and evaluated using the age-stage, two-sex life table. We also used population projection based on life table data, quantitatively showing the effect that arrhenotokous reproduction has on the growth potential and management of T. urticae.

  11. Characterization of spatial distribution of Tetranychus urticae in peppermint in California and implication for improving sampling plan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rijal, Jhalendra P; Wilson, Rob; Godfrey, Larry D

    2016-02-01

    Twospotted spider mite, Tetranychus urticae Koch, is an important pest of peppermint in California, USA. Spider mite feeding on peppermint leaves causes physiological changes in the plant, which coupling with the favorable environmental condition can lead to increased mite infestations. Significant yield loss can occur in absence of pest monitoring and timely management. Understating the within-field spatial distribution of T. urticae is critical for the development of reliable sampling plan. The study reported here aims to characterize the spatial distribution of mite infestation in four commercial peppermint fields in northern California using spatial techniques, variogram and Spatial Analysis by Distance IndicEs (SADIE). Variogram analysis revealed that there was a strong evidence for spatially dependent (aggregated) mite population in 13 of 17 sampling dates and the physical distance of the aggregation reached maximum to 7 m in peppermint fields. Using SADIE, 11 of 17 sampling dates showed aggregated distribution pattern of mite infestation. Combining results from variogram and SADIE analysis, the spatial aggregation of T. urticae was evident in all four fields for all 17 sampling dates evaluated. Comparing spatial association using SADIE, ca. 62% of the total sampling pairs showed a positive association of mite spatial distribution patterns between two consecutive sampling dates, which indicates a strong spatial and temporal stability of mite infestation in peppermint fields. These results are discussed in relation to behavior of spider mite distribution within field, and its implications for improving sampling guidelines that are essential for effective pest monitoring and management.

  12. Comparative transcriptomes and reciprocal best hit analysis revealed potential pigment genes in two color forms of Tetranychus urticae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mo, Yi-Dan; Yang, Si-Xia; Zhao, Jing-Yu; Jin, Peng-Yu; Hong, Xiao-Yue

    2017-11-07

    Tetranychus urticae Koch is a worldwide agricultural pest. There are two color forms: red and green. The molecular mechanism underlying this color variation is unknown. To elucidate the mechanism, we characterized differentially expressed pigment pathway genes shared in the transcriptomes of these two forms using RNA sequencing and reciprocal best hit analysis. Differentially expressed pigment pathway genes were determined by qRT-PCR to confirm the accuracy of RNA-Seq. The transcriptomes revealed 963 differentially expressed genes (DEGs), of which 687 DEGs were higher in the green form. KEGG enrichment analysis revealed carotenoid biosynthesis genes in T. urticae. Reciprocal best hit analysis revealed 817 putative pigment pathway genes, 38 of which were differentially expressed and mainly classified into four categories: heme, melanin, ommochrome and rhodopsin. Phylogenetic analysis of homologous ommochrome genes showed that tetur09g01950 is closely related to Ok. This study revealed putative pigment pathway genes in the two forms of T. urticae, and might provide a new resource for understanding the mechanism of color variation.

  13. Laboratory and field evaluation of an entomopathogenic fungus, Isaria cateniannulata strain 08XS-1, against Tetranychus urticae (Koch).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiaona; Jin, Daochao; Zou, Xiao; Guo, Jianjun

    2016-05-01

    The two-spotted mite, Tetranychus urticae Koch, is one of the most serious mite pests of crops throughout the world. Biocontrol of the mite with fungal agents has long been paid much attention because of the development of insecticide resistance and the severe restriction of chemical pesticides. In this study, the efficacy of submerged conidia of the entomopathogenic fungus Isaria cateniannulata strain 08XS-1 against T. urticae eggs, larvae and female adults was evaluated at different temperatures and humidity in the laboratory and under field conditions. The results showed that a suspension of 2 × 10(7) submerged conidia mL(-1) caused the highest mortalities of mite eggs, larvae and females (100, 100 and 70% respectively) at 100% relative humidity and 25 °C in the laboratory. In the field experiments against the mites, a suspension of 2 × 10(8) submerged conidia mL(-1) achieved significant efficiency - the relative control effects were 88.6, 83.8 and 83%, respectively, in cucumber, eggplant and bean fields after 10 days of treatment. The results suggest that the I. cateniannulata strain 08XS-1 is a potential fungal agent, with acceptable production cost of conidia, against T. urticae in the field in an area such as southwestern China with higher air humidity. © 2016 The Authors. Pest Management Science published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of Society of Chemical Industry.

  14. Acaricide resistance mechanisms in the two-spotted spider mite Tetranychus urticae and other important Acari: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Leeuwen, Thomas; Vontas, John; Tsagkarakou, Anastasia; Dermauw, Wannes; Tirry, Luc

    2010-08-01

    The two-spotted spider mite Tetranychus urticae Koch is one of the economically most important pests in a wide range of outdoor and protected crops worldwide. Its control has been and still is largely based on the use of insecticides and acaricides. However, due to its short life cycle, abundant progeny and arrhenotokous reproduction, it is able to develop resistance to these compounds very rapidly. As a consequence, it has the dubious reputation to be the"most resistant species" in terms of the total number of pesticides to which populations have become resistant, and its control has become problematic in many areas worldwide. Insecticide and acaricide resistance has also been reported in the ectoparasite Sarcoptes scabiei, the causative organism of scabies, and other economically important Acari, such as the Southern cattle tick Rhipicephalus microplus, one of the biggest arthropod threats to livestock, and the parasitic mite Varroa destructor, a major economic burden for beekeepers worldwide. Although resistance research in Acari has not kept pace with that in insects, a number of studies on the molecular mechanisms responsible for the resistant phenotype has been conducted recently. In this review, state-of-the-art information on T. urticae resistance, supplemented with data on other important Acari has been brought together. Considerable attention is given to the underlying resistance mechanisms that have been elucidated at the molecular level. The incidence of bifenazate resistance in T. urticae is expanded as an insecticide resistance evolutionary paradigm in arthropods. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Effect of pyroligneous extract of Acacia mearnsii on Tetranychus urticae (Koch, 1836 (Acari, Tetranychidae and Neoseiulus californicus (McGregor, 1954 (Acari, Phytoseiidae

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    Adriana de Castro

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/2175-7925.2015v28n4p99 This work aimed to determine the effect of decanted pyroligneous extract (DPE of black Acacia mearnsii on the mites Tetranychus urticae (Koch, 1836 (Acari: Tetranychidae and Neoseiulus californicus (McGregor, 1954 (Acari: Phytoseiidae. Six different concentrations were tested, namely, DPE: water 1:600, 1:300, 1:150, 1:75, 1:38 and 1:19 and a control treatment with distilled water. Five females of T. urticae and N. californicus were transferred to arenas, totaling 50 females per treatment, for a period of eight days. DPE caused high mortality in N. californicus, while in T. urticae, high mortality was observed only at high (1:75, 1:38 and 1:19 and intermediate (1:150 concentrations. Notably, DPE was slightly harmful to T. urticae at lower concentrations and harmful to N. californicus at all concentrations, indicating that it would have little efficacy in the control of T. urticae.

  16. KEMAMPUAN REPRODUKSI TUNGAU PREDATOR FAMILI PHYTOSEIIDAE PADA BERBAGAI KEPADATAN TETRANYCHUS URTICAE DAN POLEN TANAMAN DI SEKITAR TANAMAN SINGKONG (MANIHOT ESCULENTA CRANTZ

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    Bambang Heru Budianto

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The predatory mite of Phytoseiidae family have extensive cruising range that is not only found in cassava, but also a variety of weeds in cassava plants, such as Ageratum conyzoides and Cyperus cyperus. Extensive cruising range is also well explain the survival rate of the Phytoseiidae family at the time of the density of T. urticae decreased. The research objective is to determine the development period, fecundity and survival rate of Phytoseiidae predatory mite populations at different relative densities T. urticae and pollen. The research method used is an experimental laboratory. The procedure include the provision of A. conyzoides and C. rotundus pollen, the multiplication of predatory mite families Phytoseiidae, the determination of the development period, fecundity and survival rate of predatory mite families Phytoseiidae. The results showed that the length of time the development of predatory mites Amblyseius sp. and Phytoseius sp. faster one day of feeding on egg T. urticae feeding compared to the two types of pollen. Predatory mites survival rate Phytoseius sp. higher than the predatory mites Amblyseius sp. eggs fed T. urticae and both types of pollen. Similarly, the fecundity Phytoseius sp. higher than the mites Amblyseius sp. either fed eggs T. urticae as well as to two types of pollen.

  17. The cys-loop ligand-gated ion channel gene family of Tetranychus urticae: implications for acaricide toxicology and a novel mutation associated with abamectin resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dermauw, W; Ilias, A; Riga, M; Tsagkarakou, A; Grbić, M; Tirry, L; Van Leeuwen, T; Vontas, J

    2012-07-01

    The cys-loop ligand-gated ion channel (cysLGIC) super family of Tetranychus urticae, the two-spotted spider mite, represents the largest arthropod cysLGIC super family described to date and the first characterised one within the group of chelicerates. Genome annotation, phylogenetic analysis and comparison of the cysLGIC subunits with their counterparts in insects reveals that the T. urticae genome encodes for a high number of glutamate- and histamine-gated chloride channel genes (GluCl and HisCl) compared to insects. Three orthologues of the insect γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA)-gated chloride channel gene Rdl were detected. Other cysLGIC groups, such as the nAChR subunits, are more conserved and have clear insect orthologues. Members of cysLGIC family mediate endogenous chemical neurotransmission and they are prime targets of insecticides. Implications for toxicology associated with the identity and specific features of T. urticae family members are discussed. We further reveal the accumulation of known and novel mutations in different GluCl channel subunits (Tu_GluCl1 and Tu_GluCl3) associated with abamectin resistance in T. urticae, and provide genetic evidence for their causality. Our study provides useful toxicological insights for the exploration of the T. urticae cysLGIC subunits as putative molecular targets for current and future chemical control strategies. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Distribution of Oikopleura dioica (Tunicata, Appendicularia associated with a coastal frontal system (39°- 41°S of the SW Atlantic Ocean in the spawning area of Engraulis anchoita anchovy

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    Mariela Spinelli

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Among tunicates, the small planktonic appendicularians generally comprise a significant fraction of the mesozooplankton in frontal systems. The summer 2011 distribution (vertical and spatial of Oikopleura dioica was studied in terms of abundance, biomass, estimation of egg production and population structure in the different sectors of the El Rincón coastal front, in the light of thermal and salinity gradients. Peaks of abundance of Engraulis anchoita larvae were compared to O. dioica patterns. Samples were collected with plankton nets of 67 µm and 200 µm at two layers, below and above the thermocline depth. CTD data profiles were also recorded. During this campaign high salinity waters were predominant in the estuarine area. Conversely, a thermal stratification was found, being more marked at the external stations of the front where the highest densities and biomass of O. dioica coincided with the highest E. anchoita larvae densities. The size structure of O. dioica was also associated with the thermal gradient. The smaller sizes were found in the homogeneous area at the coast where the temperature was higher around 22ºC. This front constitutes a suitable environment for O. dioica reproduction enhancing the survival rate and growth of several small pelagic fishes such as E. anchoita.

  19. The Effect of Spiromesifen on the Reproductive Potential of Tetranychus urticae Koch (Acari: Tetranychidae

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    Dejan Marčić

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Laboratory bioassays were conducted to evaluate the effects of spiromesifen on the fecundity, fertility and population growth of two-spotted spider mite (Tetranychus urticae Koch after treatment of pre-ovipositing females with five acaricide concentrations: 180mg/l (maximum recommended concentration for use in glasshouses against spider mites, 18 mg/l, 1.8 mg/l and 0.18 mg/l (the last one was discriminative for eggs and immatures in preliminary studies, i.e. produced 100% mortality of those stages and 0.018 mg/l. After24h exposure, the percentages of females surviving treatment without visible symptoms of poisoning were 50% (180 mg/l, 45% (18 mg/l, 51% (1.8 mg/l, 74% (0.18 mg/l, 96% (0.018 mg/l and 98% (0 mg/l. Over the first four days after treatment, the females that survived180 mg/l and 18 mg/l laid no eggs. The total number of eggs laid after treatment with these two concentrations was reduced to less than 2% against the control by the end of the trial. The females that survived 1.8 mg/l laid 50% less eggs, compared to the control, while the number of eggs laid by the females treated with 0.18 mg/l and 0.018 mg/l were 19% and 4% lower, respectively. Over the initial four days, egg hatch rates in treatments were 73-87%, and 92-93% in the control. Significant statistical differences between gross fecundity (FCg and gross fertility (FTg values in the control and treatments were detected for females surviving 180 mg/l, 18 mg/l and 1.8 mg/l. On the other hand, only the net fertility (FTn value of females treated with 0.018 mg/l showed no statistically significant difference from the control value. Treatments with 180 mg/l and 18 mg/l significantly reduced the instantaneous rate of increase (ri 6, 8 and 10 days after treatment, compared to the control. The negative ri values in those treatments indicated a declining population. Sublethal effects of spiromesifen and its impact on T. urticae management are discussed.

  20. De novo biosynthesis of secondary metabolism enzymes in homogeneous cultures of Penicillium urticae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grootwassink, J W; Gaucher, G M

    1980-01-01

    The initiation of patulin biosynthesis in submerged batch cultures of Penicillium urticae NRRL 2159A was investigated at the enzyme level. In contrast to earlier studies, this study achieved a clear temporal separation of growing cells devoid of secondary metabolism-specific enzymes from nongrowing cells, which rapidly produce these enzymes. A spore inoculum, silicone-treated flasks, and two new media which supported a rapid, pellet-free, filamentous type of growth were used. In yeast extract-glucose-buffer medium, a marked drop in the specific growth rate (approximately equal to 0.26 h-1) coincided with the appearance of the first pathway-specific enzyme, 6-methylsalicylic acid synthetase, at about 19 h after inoculation. About 3 h later, when replicatory growth had ceased entirely, the sparsely branched mycelia (length, approximately equal to 550 microns) began the rapid synthesis of a later pathway enzyme, m-hydroxybenzyl alcohol dehydrogenase. A similar sequence of events occurred in a defined nitrate-glucose-buffer medium; 12 other strains or isolates of P. urticae, as well as some patulin-producing aspergilli, behaved in a similar manner. The age at which a culture produced m-hydroxybenzyl alcohol dehydrogenase was increased by increasing the nutrient nitrogen content of the medium or by decreasing the size of the spore inoculum. In each instance the appearance of enzyme was determined by the nutritional status of the culture and not by its age. A similar appearance of patulin pathway enzymes occurred when a growing culture was resuspended in a nitrogen-free 4% glucose solution with or without 0.1 M phosphate (pH 6.5). The appearance of both the synthetase and the dehydrogenase was arrested by the addition of cycloheximide (0.4 to 5 micrograms/ml) or actinomycin D (20 to 80 micrograms/ml). This requirement for de novo protein and ribonucleic acid syntheses was confirmed by the incorporation of labeled leucine into the dehydrogenase, and the possibility that

  1. Crystallization and preliminary characterization of a highly thermostable lectin from Trichosanthes dioica and comparison with other Trichosanthes lectins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dharkar, Poorva D.; Anuradha, P.; Gaikwad, Sushama M.; Suresh, C. G., E-mail: cg.suresh@ncl.res.in [Division of Biochemical Sciences, National Chemical Laboratory, Pune 411008 (India)

    2006-03-01

    A lectin from Trichosanthes dioica seeds has been purified and crystallized using 25%(w/v) PEG 2K MME, 0.2 M ammonium acetate, 0.1 M Tris–HCl pH 8.5 and 50 µl 0.5%(w/v) n-octyl β-d-glucopyranoside as thick needles belonging to hexagonal space group P6{sub 4}. A lectin from Trichosanthes dioica seeds has been purified and crystallized using 25%(w/v) PEG 2K MME, 0.2 M ammonium acetate, 0.1 M Tris–HCl pH 8.5 and 50 µl 0.5%(w/v) n-octyl β-d-glucopyranoside as thick needles belonging to hexagonal space group P6{sub 4}. Unit-cell parameters were a = b = 167.54, c = 77.42 Å. The crystals diffracted to a Bragg spacing of 2.8 Å. Both the structures of abrin-a and T. kirilowii lectin could be used as a model in structure determination using the molecular-replacement method; however, T. kirilowii lectin coordinates gave better values of reliability and correlation parameters. The thermal, chemical and pH stability of this lectin have also been studied. When heated, its haemagglutination activity remained unaffected up to 363 K. Other stability studies show that 4 M guanidinium hydrochloride (Gdn–HCl) initiates unfolding and that the protein is completely unfolded at 6 M Gdn–HCl. Treatment with urea resulted in a total loss of activity at higher concentrations of denaturant with no major structural changes. The protein remained stable over a wide pH range, from pH 6 to pH 12, except for partial unfolding at extremely alkaline pH. The role of disulfide bonds in the protein stability was found to be insignificant. Rayleigh light-scattering studies showed no molecular aggregation in any of the extreme treated conditions. The unusual stability of this lectin resembles that of type II ribosome-inactivating proteins (type II RIPs), which is also supported by structure determination. The structural features observed in a preliminary electron-density map were compared with the other two available Trichosanthes lectin structures.

  2. La pimienta de Jamaica [Pimenta dioica (L. Merrill, Myrtaceae] en la Sierra Norte de Puebla (México

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    Macía Barco, Manuel Juan

    1998-12-01

    Full Text Available Pimenta dioica, allspice, is a neotropical Myrtaceae distributed in Mesoamerica and the Caribbean region. Its área of distribution in México ranges along East and Southeast parts of the country. The main use of its dried fruits is as spice, being sold in Mexican nacional markets as well as exported to Germany, the United States, Jamaica and Great Britain. Most of the harvest comes from trees growing wild in tropical forests, although lately there is a trend to domesticate and cultivate the plant. This paper describes the propagation, domestication, harvesting, processing, marketing and socioeconomic importance of allspice in the Sierra Norte de Puebla (México. The fieldwork has been focused on Totonaca indigenous communities from this area. In these communities, allspice has medicinal use, and is used as a condiment for food; other technological and cultural uses have been also recorded. A historical monograph from Casimiro Gómez Ortega is reviewed. It includes information of the history, botany, cultivation and commerce of allspice.Pimenta dioica es una miliacea neotropical de distribución mesoamericana y caribeña. En México vive hacia el este y sudeste. Sus frutos secos se utilizan como condimento, y se trata de un producto del mercado nacional mexicano que también se exporta a Alemania, Estados Unidos, Jamaica y Reino Unido. Aunque la mayoría de la cosecha proviene de la recolección de los frutos en árboles silvestres del bosque tropical, últimamente se tiende a cultivar esta especie en un proceso actual de domesticación. Se exponen datos sobre propagación, domesticación, cosecha, procesado, mercado e importancia socioeconómica de la pimienta de Jamaica en la Sierra Norte de Puebla (México, a partir de los datos de campo obtenidos principalmente en una comunidad indígena totonaca, en donde se usa como medicinal, en alimentación y en tecnología. Además se reseña una obra de carácter histórico sobre la pimienta de G

  3. Acaricide resistance and resistance mechanisms in Tetranychus urticae populations from rose greenhouses in the Netherlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khajehali, Jahangir; Van Nieuwenhuyse, Pieter; Demaeght, Peter; Tirry, Luc; Van Leeuwen, Thomas

    2011-11-01

    Spider mites are important crop pests that rapidly develop resistance to acaricides. To investigate whether acaricide resistance is a threat to greenhouse rose culture in the Netherlands, the susceptibility of 15 strains of Tetranychus urticae was tested to several currently used acaricides, and resistance mechanisms were investigated. Although the observed levels of susceptibility differed between strains and acaricides, resistance was detected in most strains. The activity of detoxifying enzymes was significantly increased in most field-collected strains, and a number of amino acid substitutions known to be involved in resistance were detected. Resistance levels to traditional acaricides such as bifenthrin and abamectin were prominent, and might result in control failure under field conditions. Resistance to more recently registered compounds was detected in several populations. Resistance levels were generally unstable in the laboratory without selection pressure. The toxicological, biochemical and genetic data in this study will be essential in devising an efficient resistant management for Dutch rose culture. Copyright © 2011 Society of Chemical Industry.

  4. Organophosphate insecticides and acaricides antagonise bifenazate toxicity through esterase inhibition in Tetranychus urticae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Leeuwen, Thomas; Van Pottelberge, Steven; Nauen, Ralf; Tirry, Luc

    2007-12-01

    Bifenazate is a carbazate acaricide known for its potency, particularly against tetranychid mite species such as the two-spotted spider mite, Tetranychus urticae Koch (Acari: Tetranychidae). It was recently shown that the compound needs to be activated by an S,S,S-tributyl-phosphorotrithioate (DEF)-sensitive mechanism in spider mites to display full acaricidal efficacy. The ability of well-known organophosphates and carbamates to inhibit the activation of bifenazate and thus compromise its acaricidal potential was tested. Esterase activity determined in vivo after pre-exposure of mites with organophosphates and carbamates revealed--depending on the compound--varying esterase inhibition nicely correlated with the ability of the individual compound to antagonise bifenazate action on mites. The findings illustrate that organophosphates and carbamates interfere with bifenazate efficacy, most probably by inhibiting carboxylesterases responsible for the activation of the pro-drug. As a result of the strong antagonism, mixtures of bifenazate with carbamates or organophosphates should not be used under field conditions. Moreover, there exists a real threat in repeatedly applying organophosphates and bifenazate. The present study again illustrates how important mode of action information is for the proper planning of resistance management strategies. Copyright (c) 2007 Society of Chemical Industry.

  5. Tetranychus urticae (Acari: Tetranychidae) transmits Acidovorax citrulli, causal agent of bacterial fruit blotch of watermelon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Okhee; Park, Jung-Joon; Kim, Jinwoo

    2016-08-01

    The two-spotted spider mite (TSSM) Tetranychus urticae is one of the most important pests of cucurbit plants. If TSSM can act as vector for Acidovorax citrulli (Acc), causal agent of bacterial fruit blotch (BFB), then the movement of mites from infected to healthy plants may represent a potential source of inocula for BFB outbreaks. To confirm the association between Acc and TSSM, we generated a green fluorescent protein-tagged mutant strain (Acc02rf) by transposon mutagenesis and demonstrated that TSSM can transmit Acc from infected to non-infected watermelon plants. Challenge with 10 TSSMs carrying Acc02rf population densities of 1.3 × 10(3) CFU each on freshly grown individual watermelon plants caused disease transmission to 53 %. Incubation periods ranged 7-9 days. Bacteria recovered from symptoms typical of those associated with leaf necrosis were characterized and identified as Acc. To our knowledge, this is the first report showing that TSSM can be a vector of Acc. The results reported here support that the strong association of TSSM with Acc is of particular importance in controlling BFB.

  6. Rapid development of 36 polymorphic microsatellite markers for Tetranychus truncatus by transferring from Tetranychus urticae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ge, Cheng; Sun, Jing-Tao; Cui, Yu-Nan; Hong, Xiao-Yue

    2013-10-01

    Tetranychus truncatus Ehara is a phytophagous spider mite that is now one of the most important pests of agricultural and economic crops in East and Southeast Asia. However, population genetics and other studies of T. truncatus have been impeded by the lack of microsatellite markers, which are expensive and time-consuming to identify. Previous studies indicated a high potential of cross-amplification of microsatellites in Tetranychus species, meaning that the microsatellite flanking sequences are sufficiently homologous among Tetranychus species that the primers for one species may work in another species. Here, we tested 205 primer pairs designed from the whole genome sequence of Tetranychus urticae Koch, a sister species of T. truncatus, for microsatellite markers in three populations of T. truncatus in China (N = 94). About half (102) of these primer pairs yielded the desired PCR products, 36 of which revealed polymorphism in T. truncatus. Each of the 36 markers harbored between 2 and 23 alleles, with a mean polymorphic information content of 0.589 (0.119-0.922 range). The mean observed and expected heterozygosity across loci and the three populations were 0.468 and 0.628, respectively. Of the 36 primer pairs, 22 also worked in Tetranychus piercei, but only a few of them worked in T. ludeni and T. phaselus. Cross-amplification is thus a cost-effective way to develop microsatellite markers, which can be of great value in population genetics studies.

  7. Gamma irradiation used on adult Tetranychus urticae Koch as a quarantine treatment

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    Osouli Shiva

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The effect of gamma radiation with 0, 200, 250, 300, 350, 400, and 450 Gy intensities on the longevity, total number of eggs, and the percent of hatched eggs laid by irradiated females of Tetranychus urticae Koch (Tetranychidae was evaluated. Two different groups (0–24 h old and 48–72 h old of adult females were irradiated. The results showed that 350 and 300 Gy doses significantly reduced the longevity of the 0–24 h old females and the 48–72 h old females. The younger females were more tolerant at lower dose rates than the older females. There was a quadratic relationship between dose rates and young females, while it was linear in older females. The total number of eggs laid by females of both ages was significantly reduced with a linear trend by 250 Gy irradiation. The eggs laid by females of both the 0–24 h olds and the 48–72 h olds lost their hatchability when the dose rate was 350 Gy. It was concluded, that applying a dose rate of 320 Gy on one of the mates (male or female before mating, or a 300 Gy on both of them, would be sufficient to cause sterility in adult mites.

  8. Desiccation tolerance in diapausing spider mites Tetranychus urticae and T. kanzawai (Acari: Tetranychidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghazy, Noureldin Abuelfadl; Suzuki, Takeshi

    2014-05-01

    We investigated the effects of changes in vapor pressure deficit (VPD) on the survival of diapausing (winter form) and non-diapausing (summer form) spider mites Tetranychus urticae Koch and Tetranychus kanzawai Kishida (Acari: Tetranychidae). Adult females of both species were kept without food at VPDs of 0.0, 0.4, 0.7, 1.5, 1.9, or 2.7 kPa for 3, 6, 9, 12, or 15 days at 25 °C. Diapausing females of both species kept at a VPD of ≥0.4 kPa for ≥6 days clearly tolerated desiccation. Under water-saturated conditions (VPD = 0.0 kPa), in which no desiccation occurred, diapausing females showed high starvation tolerance: 90 % survived for up to 15 days. No interspecific differences in tolerance to desiccation or starvation were observed under most conditions. These results indicate that diapause functions increase tolerance to desiccation and starvation. Such multiple tolerances to harsh environments might support winter survival in spider mites.

  9. Parâmetros biológicos e tabela de vida de Tetranychus urticae (Acari: Tetranychidae em cultivares de mamão Biological parameters and life table of Tetranychus urticae (Acari: Tetranychidae at papaya cultivars

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    Larissa Bernardino Moro

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho foi realizado para avaliar o desenvolvimento e reprodução de Tetranychus urticae em cultivares comerciais de mamão Carica papaya. Foram utilizadas cultivares do grupo "Formosa" ("Tainung 01" e "Calimosa" e do grupo "Solo" ("Golden" e "Sunrise". Para iniciar o bioensaio, foi transferida uma fêmea fertilizada por disco de folha (n=50 repetições e retirado após um período de 12h, sendo avaliada a cada 12h, registrando-se o período de incubação, duração do estágio de imaturo, longevidade e fecundidade dos adultos e viabilidade desses estágios. Os resultados indicaram que as cultivares de mamão "Tainung 01", "Calimosa", "Sunrise" e "Golden" são bons hospedeiros para T. urticae. O parâmetro viabilidade não sofreu influência das cultivares em todas as fases de desenvolvimento avaliadas, apresentando valores superiores a 90%. Não houve diferença estatística entre as cultivares nos parâmetros: período de pre-oviposição e viabilidade dos ovos. A cultivar "Tainung 01" apresentou menor potencial hospedeiro, embora houvesse menor duração nos estágios de ovo, larva, protoninfa e ovo-adulto. Nos parâmetros de tabela de vida e fertilidade, apresentou menores valores de Ro, r m e λ e maior valor de Td. Entre as cultivares, o "Sunrise" apresentou um elevado potencial hospedeiro para T. urticae, pois essa cultivar proporcionou a maior produção de ovos por fêmea, maior longevidade das fêmeas, bem como a maior taxa de reprodução (maior Ro, r m e λ e menor valor de Td.The study was conducted to evaluate the Tetranichus urticae development and reproduction in commercial Carica papaya cultivars. The assayed cultivars belongs to the "Formosa" ("Tainung 01" and "Calimosa" and from the "Solo" ("Golden" and "Sunrise" groups. A fertilized female was transferred to a leaf dish (n=50 repetitions and was removed after a period of 12 hours and evaluations were done every 12 hours recording the incubation period, length of

  10. Development and Validation of a Real-Time PCR Assay for Rapid Detection of Two-Spotted Spider Mite, Tetranychus urticae (Acari: Tetranychidae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dongmei Li

    Full Text Available Spider mites of the genus Tetranychus are difficult to identify due to their limited diagnostic characters. Many of them are morphologically similar and males are needed for species-level identification. Tetranychus urticae is a common interception and non-regulated pest at New Zealand's borders, however, most of the intercepted specimens are females and the identification was left at Tetranychus sp. Consequently, the shipments need to be fumigated. DNA sequencing and PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP protocols could be used to facilitate the accurate identification. However, in the context of border security practiced in New Zealand, insect identifications are required to be provided within four hours of receiving the samples; thus, those molecular methods are not sufficient to meet this requirement. Therefore, a real-time PCR TaqMan assay was developed for identification of T. urticae by amplification of a 142 bp Internal Transcribed Spacer (ITS 1 sequence. The developed assay is rapid, detects all life stages of T. urticae within three hours, and does not react with closely related species. Plasmid DNA containing ITS1 sequence of T. uritcae was serially diluted and used as standards in the real-time PCR assay. The quantification cycle (Cq value of the assay depicted a strong linear relationship with T. urticae DNA content, with a regression coefficient of 0.99 and efficiency of 98%. The detection limit was estimated to be ten copies of the T. urticae target region. The assay was validated against a range of T. urticae specimens from various countries and hosts in a blind panel test. Therefore the application of the assay at New Zealand will reduce the unnecessary fumigation and be beneficial to both the importers and exporters. It is expected that the implementation of this real-time PCR assay would have wide applications in diagnostic and research agencies worldwide.

  11. Highly virulent Beauveria bassiana strains against the two-spotted spider mite, Tetranychus urticae, show no pathogenicity against five phytoseiid mite species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Shengyong; Xie, Haicui; Li, Maoye; Xu, Xuenong; Lei, Zhongren

    2016-12-01

    Entomopathogenic fungi and predatory mites can independently contribute to suppressing the two-spotted spider mite, Tetranychus urticae Koch. It is important to assess the risk of possible fungal infections in predators when a combination of them are being considered as a tandem control strategy for suppressing T. urticae. The first part of this study tested 12 Beauveria bassiana isolates for virulence in T. urticae. Strains SCWJ-2, SDDZ-9, LNSZ-26, GZGY-1-3 and WLMQ-32 were found to be the most potent, causing 37.6-49.5% adult corrected mortality at a concentration of 1 × 10(7) m/L conidia 4 days post-treatment. The second part evaluated the pathogenicity of these five strains in five species of predatory phytoseiid mites. The bioassay results indicated that all adult predatory mite mortalities ranged from 7.5 to 9.1% 4 days post-treatment. No viable fungal hyphae were found on predator cadavers. Observations with scanning electron microscopy revealed that conidia were attached to the cuticle of predatory mites within 2-12 h after spraying with strain LNSZ-26, and had germinated within 24-36 h. After 48 h, conidia had gradually been shed from the mites, after none of the conidia had penetrated the cuticular surfaces. In contrast, the germinated conidia successfully penetrated the cuticle of T. urticae, and within 60 h the fungus colonized the mite's body. Our study demonstrated that although several B. bassiana strains displayed a high virulence in T. urticae there was no evident pathogenicity to phytoseiid mites. These findings support the potential use of entomopathogenic fungus in combination with predatory mites in T. urticae control programs.

  12. From repulsion to attraction: species- and spatial context-dependent threat sensitive response of the spider mite Tetranychus urticae to predatory mite cues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández Ferrari, M. Celeste; Schausberger, Peter

    2013-06-01

    Prey perceiving predation risk commonly change their behavior to avoid predation. However, antipredator strategies are costly. Therefore, according to the threat-sensitive predator avoidance hypothesis, prey should match the intensity of their antipredator behaviors to the degree of threat, which may depend on the predator species and the spatial context. We assessed threat sensitivity of the two-spotted spider mite, Tetranychus urticae, to the cues of three predatory mites, Phytoseiulus persimilis, Neoseiulus californicus, and Amblyseius andersoni, posing different degrees of risk in two spatial contexts. We first conducted a no-choice test measuring oviposition and activity of T. urticae exposed to chemical traces of predators or traces plus predator eggs. Then, we tested the site preference of T. urticae in choice tests, using artificial cages and leaves. In the no-choice test, T. urticae deposited their first egg later in the presence of cues of P. persimilis than of the other two predators and cue absence, indicating interspecific threat-sensitivity. T. urticae laid also fewer eggs in the presence of cues of P. persimilis and A. andersoni than of N. californicus and cue absence. In the artificial cage test, the spider mites preferred the site with predator traces, whereas in the leaf test, they preferentially resided on leaves without traces. We argue that in a nonplant environment, chemical predator traces do not indicate a risk for T. urticae, and instead, these traces function as indirect habitat cues. The spider mites were attracted to these cues because they associated them with the existence of a nearby host plant.

  13. Development and Validation of a Real-Time PCR Assay for Rapid Detection of Two-Spotted Spider Mite, Tetranychus urticae (Acari: Tetranychidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Dongmei; Fan, Qing-Hai; Waite, David W; Gunawardana, Disna; George, Sherly; Kumarasinghe, Lalith

    2015-01-01

    Spider mites of the genus Tetranychus are difficult to identify due to their limited diagnostic characters. Many of them are morphologically similar and males are needed for species-level identification. Tetranychus urticae is a common interception and non-regulated pest at New Zealand's borders, however, most of the intercepted specimens are females and the identification was left at Tetranychus sp. Consequently, the shipments need to be fumigated. DNA sequencing and PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) protocols could be used to facilitate the accurate identification. However, in the context of border security practiced in New Zealand, insect identifications are required to be provided within four hours of receiving the samples; thus, those molecular methods are not sufficient to meet this requirement. Therefore, a real-time PCR TaqMan assay was developed for identification of T. urticae by amplification of a 142 bp Internal Transcribed Spacer (ITS) 1 sequence. The developed assay is rapid, detects all life stages of T. urticae within three hours, and does not react with closely related species. Plasmid DNA containing ITS1 sequence of T. uritcae was serially diluted and used as standards in the real-time PCR assay. The quantification cycle (Cq) value of the assay depicted a strong linear relationship with T. urticae DNA content, with a regression coefficient of 0.99 and efficiency of 98%. The detection limit was estimated to be ten copies of the T. urticae target region. The assay was validated against a range of T. urticae specimens from various countries and hosts in a blind panel test. Therefore the application of the assay at New Zealand will reduce the unnecessary fumigation and be beneficial to both the importers and exporters. It is expected that the implementation of this real-time PCR assay would have wide applications in diagnostic and research agencies worldwide.

  14. Particle shape impacts export and fate in the ocean through interactions with the globally abundant appendicularian Oikopleura dioica.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keats R Conley

    Full Text Available Marine microbes exhibit highly varied, often non-spherical shapes that have functional significance for essential processes, including nutrient acquisition and sinking rates. There is a surprising absence of data, however, on how cell shape affects grazing, which is crucial for predicting the fate of oceanic carbon. We used synthetic spherical and prolate spheroid microbeads to isolate the effect of particle length-to-width ratios on grazing and fate in the ocean. Here we show that the shape of microbe-sized particles affects predation by the appendicularian Oikopleura dioica, a globally abundant marine grazer. Using incubation experiments, we demonstrate that shape affects how particles are retained in the house and that the minimum particle diameter is the key variable determining how particles are ingested. High-speed videography revealed the mechanism behind these results: microbe-sized spheroids oriented with the long axis parallel to fluid streamlines, matching the speed and tortuosity of spheres of equivalent width. Our results suggest that the minimum particle diameter determines how elongated prey interact with the feeding-filters of appendicularians, which may help to explain the prevalence of ellipsoidal cells in the ocean, since a cell's increased surface-to-volume ratio does not always increase predation. We provide the first evidence that grazing by appendicularians can cause non-uniform export of different shaped particles, thereby influencing particle fate.

  15. Particle shape impacts export and fate in the ocean through interactions with the globally abundant appendicularian Oikopleura dioica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conley, Keats R; Sutherland, Kelly R

    2017-01-01

    Marine microbes exhibit highly varied, often non-spherical shapes that have functional significance for essential processes, including nutrient acquisition and sinking rates. There is a surprising absence of data, however, on how cell shape affects grazing, which is crucial for predicting the fate of oceanic carbon. We used synthetic spherical and prolate spheroid microbeads to isolate the effect of particle length-to-width ratios on grazing and fate in the ocean. Here we show that the shape of microbe-sized particles affects predation by the appendicularian Oikopleura dioica, a globally abundant marine grazer. Using incubation experiments, we demonstrate that shape affects how particles are retained in the house and that the minimum particle diameter is the key variable determining how particles are ingested. High-speed videography revealed the mechanism behind these results: microbe-sized spheroids oriented with the long axis parallel to fluid streamlines, matching the speed and tortuosity of spheres of equivalent width. Our results suggest that the minimum particle diameter determines how elongated prey interact with the feeding-filters of appendicularians, which may help to explain the prevalence of ellipsoidal cells in the ocean, since a cell's increased surface-to-volume ratio does not always increase predation. We provide the first evidence that grazing by appendicularians can cause non-uniform export of different shaped particles, thereby influencing particle fate.

  16. Flavonoids from Annona dioica leaves and their effects in Ehrlich carcinoma cells, DNA-topoisomerase I and II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vega, Maria R.G.; Esteves-Souza, Andressa; Echevarria, Aurea [Universidade Federal Rural do Rio de Janeiro (UFRRJ), Seropedica, RJ (Brazil). Dept. de Quimica]. E-mail: echevarr@ufrrj.br; Vieira, Ivo J.C.; Mathias, Leda; Braz-Filho, Raimundo [Universidade Estadual do Norte Fluminense (UENF), Campos dos Goytacases, RJ (Brazil). Lab. de Ciencias Quimicas

    2007-07-01

    Chemical investigation of methanol extract leaves from Annona dioica (Annonaceae) resulted in the identification of flavonoids kaempferol (1), 3-O-[3'',6''-di-O-p-hydroxycinnamoyl]-{beta}- galactopyranosyl-kaempferol (2), 6''-O-p-hydroxycinnamoyl-{beta}-galactopyranosyl-kaempferol (3) and 3-O-{beta}-galactopyranosyl-kaempferol (4). The structures were unequivocally characterized by {sup 1}H and {sup 13}C NMR spectroscopic analyses using 1D and 2D experiments. The cytotoxic effects of the flavonoids and flavonoid fraction (FF) were evaluated by MTT (3-(4,5-dimethylthiazole-2- yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide) assay against Ehrlich carcinoma cells. The results indicated that 1, 2, 3 and FF exhibit significant antiproliferative action when compared to quercetin. The inhibitory action on DNA-topoisomerase I and II of all the flavonoids was evaluated by relaxation assays on pBR322 plasmid DNA. The results indicated the inhibitory and non-selective effects of the flavonoids on DNA-topoisomerase I and II. (author)

  17. Influence of leaf pubescence on the behavior of the two-spotted spider mite (Tetranychus urticae and the European red mite (Panonychus ulmi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wojciech Warabieda

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Movement behavior of two mite species: two-spotted spider mite (Tetranychus urticae and European red mite (Panonychus ulmi on leaves of some apple cultivars (´Greensleeves´, ´Spartan' and SA 455-2 selection with different density of pubescence was analysed. Assessment of the leaf pubescence density was performed using an originally developed quick method based on digital pubescence mage analysis. For P.ulmi, both stop time and average speed did not depend on kind of leaf. In contrary. T.urticae revealed higher movement activity on slight pubescent leaves compared to leaves with high leaf hair density.

  18. An improved micropropagation system, ex vitro rooting and validation of genetic homogeneity in wild female Momordica dioica: an underutilized nutraceutical vegetable crop.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choudhary, Sumitra Kumari; Patel, Ashok Kumar; Harish; Shekhawat, Smita; Shekhawat, Narpat S

    2017-07-01

    Momordica dioica Roxb. ex Willd., is a perennial and dioecious (2n = 28) plant of family Cucurbitaceae. Conventional methods of propagation through seeds, stem cuttings and rhizomatous/tuberous roots are inadequate for its mass cultivation as a vegetable crop. This paper reports an improved and efficient micropropagation method for wild female M. dioica using nodal explants. Shoot amplification was achieved using subculturing of in vitro raised shoots on MS medium supplemented with various concentrations of 6-benzylaminopurine (BAP) alone or in combination with indole-3-acetic acid (IAA). The maximum number of shoots (45.30 ± 3.83) with an average length 6.52 ± 0.89 cm were differentiated on MS medium containing 0.5 mg L-1 BAP, 0.1 mg L-1 IAA and additives (50 mg L-1 ascorbic acid, 25 mg L-1 each of adenine sulphate, citric acid and l-arginine). The cloned shoots were rooted ex vitro. Each shoot treated with 250 mg L-1 IBA for 5 min produced 12.3 ± 1.33 with a mean length 5.4 ± 0.73 cm. More than 85% (46 plants) of ex vitro rooted plantlets were successfully hardened in a greenhouse with normal growth characteristics. In order to evaluate the genetic stability of micropropagated plants, the two PCR-based techniques, Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA (RAPD) and Inter Simple Sequence Repeats (ISSR) were used. The amplification patterns of the micropropagated and mother plant were monomorphic thus depicting genetic stability of the micropropagation system. This protocol could be effectively employed for the mass multiplication of wild female M. dioica, a popular summer vegetable crop.

  19. La pimienta de Jamaica [Pimenta dioica (L.) Merrill, Myrtaceae] en la Sierra Norte de Puebla (México)

    OpenAIRE

    Macía Barco, Manuel Juan

    1998-01-01

    Pimenta dioica, allspice, is a neotropical Myrtaceae distributed in Mesoamerica and the Caribbean region. Its área of distribution in México ranges along East and Southeast parts of the country. The main use of its dried fruits is as spice, being sold in Mexican nacional markets as well as exported to Germany, the United States, Jamaica and Great Britain. Most of the harvest comes from trees growing wild in tropical forests, although lately there is a trend to domesticate and cultivate the pl...

  20. Evaluación de la respuesta de la frutilla (fragaria dioica.) Al sistema de cultivo semihidropónico en el Quinche - Pichincha 2012.

    OpenAIRE

    Quishpe Gordon, Jhon Paolo

    2013-01-01

    En la Parroquia de El Quinche, Barrio la Victoria, Provincia de Pichincha a 2533 m.s.n.m., se hizo la investigación .Para determinar la respuesta de 3 variedades de frutilla (Fragaria dioica), al sistema de cultivo Semihidropónico como alternativa para la producción del cultivo en la zona de El Quinche. Específicos: Conocer cuál de las Variedades de Frutilla (San Andreas, Albión, Diamante) responden mejor a este sistema de cultivo Semihidropónico. Determinar el costo beneficio por tratamient...

  1. tuku 'a' village, peddie

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Solanum nif(rum. Black nightshade. UmSobo, umSobosobo. I,F. Sonchus oleraceus. Sow thistle, wild thistle !Rhabe, iHlaba. I. Taraxacum officinale. N/A. UQudalele. I. Urtica urens. Stinging nettle !Rhawu, uRhalijane,. I. uRhalakajane. Unica dioca. Stinging nettle !Rhawurhawu,. I. uRhalakaiane. Xysmalobium undularum.

  2. The formation of collective silk balls in the spider mite Tetranychus urticae Koch.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gwendoline Clotuche

    Full Text Available Tetranychus urticae is a phytophagous mite that forms colonies of several thousand individuals. These mites construct a common web to protect the colony. When plants become overcrowded and food resources become scarce, individuals gather at the plant apex to form a ball composed of mites and their silk threads. This ball is a structure facilitating group dispersal by wind or animal transport. Until now, no quantitative study had been done on this collective form of migration. This is the first attempt to understand the mechanisms that underlie the emergence and growth of the ball. We studied this collective behaviour under laboratory conditions on standardized infested plants. Our results show that the collective displacement and the formation of balls result from a recruitment process: by depositing silk threads on their way up to the plant apex, mites favour and amplify the recruitment toward the balls. A critical threshold (quorum response in the cumulative flow of mites must be reached to observe the emergence of a ball. At the beginning of the balls formation, mites form an aggregate. After 24 hours, the aggregated mites are trapped inside the silk balls by the complex network of silk threads and finally die, except for recently arrived individuals. The balls are mainly composed of immature stages. Our study reconstructs the key events that lead to the formation of silk balls. They suggest that the interplay between mites' density, plant morphology and plant density lead to different modes of dispersions (individual or collective and under what conditions populations might adopt a collective strategy rather than one that is individually oriented. Moreover, our results lead to discuss two aspects of the cooperation and altruism: the importance of Allee effects during colonization of new plants and the importance of the size of a founding group.

  3. The Formation of Collective Silk Balls in the Spider Mite Tetranychus urticae Koch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clotuche, Gwendoline; Mailleux, Anne-Catherine; Astudillo Fernández, Aina; Deneubourg, Jean-Louis; Detrain, Claire; Hance, Thierry

    2011-01-01

    Tetranychus urticae is a phytophagous mite that forms colonies of several thousand individuals. These mites construct a common web to protect the colony. When plants become overcrowded and food resources become scarce, individuals gather at the plant apex to form a ball composed of mites and their silk threads. This ball is a structure facilitating group dispersal by wind or animal transport. Until now, no quantitative study had been done on this collective form of migration. This is the first attempt to understand the mechanisms that underlie the emergence and growth of the ball. We studied this collective behaviour under laboratory conditions on standardized infested plants. Our results show that the collective displacement and the formation of balls result from a recruitment process: by depositing silk threads on their way up to the plant apex, mites favour and amplify the recruitment toward the balls. A critical threshold (quorum response) in the cumulative flow of mites must be reached to observe the emergence of a ball. At the beginning of the balls formation, mites form an aggregate. After 24 hours, the aggregated mites are trapped inside the silk balls by the complex network of silk threads and finally die, except for recently arrived individuals. The balls are mainly composed of immature stages. Our study reconstructs the key events that lead to the formation of silk balls. They suggest that the interplay between mites' density, plant morphology and plant density lead to different modes of dispersions (individual or collective) and under what conditions populations might adopt a collective strategy rather than one that is individually oriented. Moreover, our results lead to discuss two aspects of the cooperation and altruism: the importance of Allee effects during colonization of new plants and the importance of the size of a founding group. PMID:21533150

  4. Indirect selection of industrial tomato genotypes that are resistant to spider mites (Tetranychus urticae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baier, J E; Resende, J T V; Faria, M V; Schwarz, K; Meert, L

    2015-01-16

    Acyl sugars present in the tomato Solanum lycopersicum 'LA-716' accession confer good levels of resistance to arthropod pests. The objective of the present study was to select F₂ plants from the interspecific cross Solanum pennellii 'LA-716' x Solanum lycopersicum 'Redenção' to assess resistance to spider mites (Tetranychus urticae) based on the leaf acyl sugar content and repellence tests. Four genotypes were selected with high leaflet acyl sugar content (RVTA-2010 pl#31, RVTA-2010 pl#75, RVTA-2010 pl#83, and RVTA-2010 pl#94), and an additional three genotypes with low acyl sugar content were also selected (RVTA-2010 pl#33, RVTA-2010 pl#39, and RVTA-2010 pl#73). The results from the in vivo tests used to confirm the selection of plants resistant to mites indicated that the genotypes with high acyl sugars content did not differ from the resistant parent LA-716. The negative correlation between acyl sugar content and the distance run by the mite along the leaflet surface confirmed the association between high and low allelochemical content and resistance. The medium degree of dominance (MDD) was estimated (MDD = -0.83), indicating that the high acyl sugar content was due to incomplete dominance of a recessive allele. A value of 81.85% was found for the broad sense heritability estimate, which suggests that most among-plant variation in the F2 generation is genetically based. Furthermore, 0.69 genes were estimated, which presumably confirms monogenic inheritance. Thus, indirect selection was an efficient method used to obtain industrial tomato plants that are resistant to spider mites.

  5. Repellency and oviposition deterrence of wild tomato leaf extracts to spider mites, Tetranychus urticae Koch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antonious, George F; Snyder, John C

    2015-01-01

    Glandular trichomes on the leaves of wild tomato, Lycopersicon hirsutum f. hirsutum Mull, also known as Solanum habrochaites (Solanaceae) synthesize and accumulate high levels of methyl ketones (MKs). The potential of using MKs as alternatives to synthetic acaricides for controlling the twospotted spider mite, Tetranychus urticae Koch, is explored in this study. Plants of L. hirsutum accession LA 407 having high concentrations of MKs were grown from seeds under greenhouse conditions. The main objective of this investigation was to conduct bioassays that are quick and easy to implement, consistent over time (repeatable) with the ability to utilize small amounts of test material for testing repellency and fecundity (number of eggs laid by a female mite) of MKs in pure forms and in LA 407 crude extracts. Four MKs (2-tridecanone, 2-undecanone, 2-dodecanone, 2-pentadecanone) and their mixture were screened for their repellency and ability to alter fecundity of spider mites. All MKs repelled spider mites at the two periods tested. Following spraying of tomato leaf extracts prepared in ethanol (ethanol extracts), average number of eggs laid per female mite on bean leaf discs dropped from 0.8 to 0.3 and from 0.9 to 0.3 at 4 and 24 h after exposure representing 65 and 68% reduction, respectively. However, spraying of tomato leaf extracts prepared in water (water extracts) reduced number of eggs laid per female mite from 1.7 to 0.7 and from 2.6 to 0.9 at 4 and 24 h after exposure representing 60 and 67% reduction, respectively. We concluded that all MKs have repellent and egg laying deterrence activities against spider mites. This investigation suggests that ethanol and water extracts of LA 407 have a potential for repelling female spider mites and reducing their laid eggs which might be explored under field conditions for managing populations of spider mites, which could reduce reliance on synthetic acaricides.

  6. Functional responses and prey-stage preferences of a predatory gall midge and two predacious mites wtih twospotted spider mites, Tetranychus urticae as host

    Science.gov (United States)

    The twospotted spider mite, Tetranychus urticae (Acari: Tetranychidae), is an important pest of vegetables and other crops. This study was conducted to evaluate and compare the potential role of three commercially available predators, predatory gall midge, Feltiella acarisuga (Vallot) (Diptera: Ceci...

  7. Evaluation of corn plant as potential banker plant for supporting predatory gall Midge, Feltiella acarisuga (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae) against Tetranychus urticae (Acari: Tetranychidae) in greenhouse vegetable production

    Science.gov (United States)

    The twospotted spider mite, Tetranychus urticae Koch (Acari: Tetranychidae), is one of the most important and highly polyphagous pests of vegetables and other crops worldwide. In this study, several experiments were conducted under laboratory and greenhouse conditions to evaluate whether corn plant ...

  8. Confirmation of Neozygites floridana azygospore formation in two-spotted spider mite (Tetranychus urticae) in strains from tropical and temperature regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neozygites floridana is an obligate fungal pathogen of mites in the family Tetranychidae and is an important natural enemy of the two-spotted spider mite (Tetranychus urticae). Until now, information about the formation of azygospores remained to be fully confirmed. In this study, we document the fo...

  9. Tri-trophic level Impact of Host Plant Linamarin and Lotaustralin on Tetranychus urticae (Mesostigmata: Tetranychidae) and its predator Phytoseiulus persimilis (Prostigmata: Phytoseiidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The impact of linamarin and lotaustralin content in the leaves of Phaseolus lunatus L. on the second and third trophic levels was studied in Tetranychus urticae (Koch) and its predator Phytoseiulus persimilis Athias-Henriot. Chemical analyzes showed that the content of linamarin was higher in termin...

  10. A horizontally transferred cyanase gene in the spider mite Tetranychus urticae is involved in cyanate metabolism and is differentially expressed upon host plant chang

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wybouw, N.; Balabanidou, V.; Ballhorn, D.J.; Dermauw, W.; Grbić, M.; Vontas, J.; Van Leeuwen, T.

    2012-01-01

    The genome of the phytophagous two-spotted spider mite Tetranychus urticae was recently sequenced, representing the first complete chelicerate genome, but also the first genome of a highly polyphagous agricultural pest. Genome analysis revealed the presence of an unexpected high number of cases of

  11. The effects of prey patchiness, predator aggregation, and mutual interference on the functional response of Phytoseiulus persimilis feeding on Tetranychus urticae (Acari: Phytoseiidae, Tetranychidae)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nachman, Gösta

    2006-01-01

    The spatial distributions of two-spotted spider mites Tetranychus urticae and their natural enemy, the phytoseiid predator Phytoseiulus persimilis, were studied on six full-grown cucumber plants. Both mite species were very patchily distributed and P. persimilis tended to aggregate on leaves with...

  12. Comparative genome-wide transcriptome analysis of Vitis vinifera responses to adapted and non-adapted strains of two-spotted spider mite, Tetranyhus urticae

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Díaz-Riquelme, J.; Zhurov, V.; Rioja, C.; Pérez-Moreno, I.; Torres-Pérez, R.; Grimplet, J.; Carbonell-Bejerano, P.; Bajda, S.; Van Leeuwen, T.; Martínez-Zapater, J.M.; Grbic, M.; Grbic, V.

    2016-01-01

    Background: The two-spotted spider mite, Tetranychus urticae, is an extreme generalist plant pest. Even though mites can feed on many plant species, local mite populations form host races that do not perform equally well on all potential hosts. An acquisition of the ability to evade plant defenses

  13. Qualitative and quantitative variation among volatile profiles induced by Tetranychus urticae feeding on plants from various families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Boom, Cindy E M; van Beek, Teris A; Posthumus, Maarten A; de Groot, Aede; Dicke, Marcel

    2004-01-01

    Many plant species are known to emit herbivore-induced volatiles in response to herbivory. The spider mite Tetranychus urticae Koch is a generalist that can feed on several hundreds of host plant species. Volatiles emitted by T. urticae-infested plants of 11 species were compared: soybean (Glycine max), golden chain (Laburnum anagyroides), black locust (Robinia pseudo-acacia), cowpea (Vigna unguiculata), tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum), eggplant (Solanum melalonga), thorn apple (Datura stramonium), sweet pepper (Capsicum annuum), hop (Humulus lupulus), grapevine (Vitis vinifera), and ginkgo (Ginkgo biloba). The degree to which the plant species produced novel compounds was analyzed when compared to the odors of mechanically damaged leaves. Almost all of the investigated plant species produced novel compounds that dominated the volatile blend, such as methyl salicylate, terpenes, oximes, and nitriles. Only spider mite-infested eggplant and tobacco emitted a blend that was merely quantitatively different from the blend emitted by mechanically damaged or clean leaves. We hypothesized that plant species with a low degree of direct defense would produce more novel compounds. However, although plant species with a low direct defense level do use indirect defense to defend themselves, they do not always emit novel compounds. Plant species with a high level of direct defense seem to invest in the production of novel compounds. When plant species of the Fabaceae were compared to plant species of the Solanaceae, qualitative differences in spider mite-induced volatile blends seemed to be more prominent in the Fabaceae than in the Solanaceae.

  14. Plant-herbivore interaction: dissection of the cellular pattern of Tetranychus urticae feeding on the host plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolas Bensoussan

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The two-spotted spider mite, Tetranychus urticae Koch (Acari: Tetranychidae, is one of the most polyphagous herbivores feeding on cell contents of over 1,100 plant species including more than 150 crops. It is being established as a model for chelicerate herbivores with tools that enable tracking of reciprocal responses in plant-spider mite interactions. However, despite their important pest status and a growing understanding of the molecular basis of interactions with plant hosts, knowledge of the way mites interface with the plant while feeding and the plant damage directly inflicted by mites is lacking. Here, utilizing histology and microscopy methods, we uncovered several key features of T. urticae feeding. By following the stylet path within the plant tissue, we determined that the stylet penetrates the leaf either in between epidermal pavement cells or through a stomatal opening, without damaging the epidermal cellular layer. Our recordings of mite feeding established that duration of the feeding event ranges from several minutes to more than half an hour, during which time mites consume a single mesophyll cell in a pattern that is common to both bean and Arabidopsis plant hosts. In addition, this study determined that leaf chlorotic spots, a common symptom of mite herbivory, do not form as an immediate consequence of mite feeding. Our results establish a cellular context for the plant-spider mite interaction that will support our understanding of the molecular mechanisms and cell signaling associated with spider mite feeding.

  15. Plant-Herbivore Interaction: Dissection of the Cellular Pattern of Tetranychus urticae Feeding on the Host Plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bensoussan, Nicolas; Santamaria, M Estrella; Zhurov, Vladimir; Diaz, Isabel; Grbić, Miodrag; Grbić, Vojislava

    2016-01-01

    The two-spotted spider mite, Tetranychus urticae Koch (Acari: Tetranychidae), is one of the most polyphagous herbivores feeding on cell contents of over 1100 plant species including more than 150 crops. It is being established as a model for chelicerate herbivores with tools that enable tracking of reciprocal responses in plant-spider mite interactions. However, despite their important pest status and a growing understanding of the molecular basis of interactions with plant hosts, knowledge of the way mites interface with the plant while feeding and the plant damage directly inflicted by mites is lacking. Here, utilizing histology and microscopy methods, we uncovered several key features of T. urticae feeding. By following the stylet path within the plant tissue, we determined that the stylet penetrates the leaf either in between epidermal pavement cells or through a stomatal opening, without damaging the epidermal cellular layer. Our recordings of mite feeding established that duration of the feeding event ranges from several minutes to more than half an hour, during which time mites consume a single mesophyll cell in a pattern that is common to both bean and Arabidopsis plant hosts. In addition, this study determined that leaf chlorotic spots, a common symptom of mite herbivory, do not form as an immediate consequence of mite feeding. Our results establish a cellular context for the plant-spider mite interaction that will support our understanding of the molecular mechanisms and cell signaling associated with spider mite feeding.

  16. Atmospheric Humidity Influences Oviposition Rate of Tetranychus urticae (Acari: Tetranychidae) Through Morphological Responses of Host Cucumis sativus Leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shibuya, T; Itagaki, K; Ueyama, S; Hirai, N; Endo, R

    2016-02-01

    We investigated the effects of morphology of host cucumber, Cucumis sativus L., leaves acclimatized to different atmospheric humidity levels on oviposition by adult females of the twospotted spider mite, Tetranychus urticae Koch. Cucumber seedlings were grown at a vapor pressure deficit (VPD) of 0.4, 1.9, or 3.0 kPa at 28°C (90%, 50%, or 20% relative humidity, respectively) in growth chambers until the second true leaves had expanded. Adult females of T. urticae were released on the adaxial surfaces of leaf squares cut from first and second true leaves in each treatment group, and held in the same humidity condition. Eggs were counted 2 d after release. The lower acclimatization humidity (higher VPD) increased trichome (leaf hair) density of the host leaves and oviposition rate, but the relationship between the trichome and oviposition differed between leaf positions. The leaf mass per area (LMA) was greater in first true leaves than in second true leaves, but was not influenced by VPD. A linear regression model with oviposition rate as the dependent variable and trichome density and LMA as independent variables showed that both variables influenced the oviposition rate approximately equally. We conclude that oviposition was accelerated under low humidity (high VPD) conditions indirectly probably through an increase in the trichome density of host leaves. © The Authors 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  17. Fumigant toxicity of lemon eucalyptus oil constituents to acaricide-susceptible and acaricide-resistant Tetranychus urticae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Jun; Kim, Soon-Il; Choi, Byeoung-Ryeol; Lee, Sang-Guei; Ahn, Young-Joon

    2011-12-01

    This study was aimed at assessing the fumigant toxicity of 14 essential oil constituents from lemon eucalyptus, Eucalyptus citriodora Hook, and another ten known compounds to females of acaricide-susceptible, chlorfenapyr-resistant, fenpropathrin-resistant, pyridaben-resistant and abamectin-resistant strains of Tetranychus urticae Koch. Menthol (LC(50) , 12.9 µg cm(-3) ) was the most toxic compound, followed by citronellyl acetate (16.8 µg cm(-3) ), against the susceptible females. High toxicity was also produced by β-citronellol, citral, geranyl acetate and eugenol (LC(50) , 21.7-24.6 µg cm(-3) ). The fumigant toxicity of these compounds was almost identical against females from either of the susceptible and resistant strains, indicating that the compounds and acaricides do not share a common mode of action or elicit cross-resistance. Global efforts to reduce the level of highly toxic synthetic acaricides in the agricultural environment justify further studies on materials derived from lemon eucalyptus oil, particularly menthol and citronellyl acetate, as potential acaricides for the control of acaricide-resistant T. urticae as fumigants with contact action. Copyright © 2011 Society of Chemical Industry.

  18. The Effects of Salinity on the Herbivorous Crop Pest Tetranychus urticae (Trombidiformes: Tetranychidae) on Soybean and Corn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eichele-Nelson, Jaclyn L; Wick, Abbey F; DeSutter, Thomas M; Harmon, Jason P

    2017-08-01

    Many environmental factors, including soil characteristics, are critical for plants, herbivorous arthropods, and their interactions. Despite increasing evidence that soil salinity drastically impacts plants, little is known about how salinity affects the herbivorous arthropod pests feeding on those plants. We investigated how soil salinity affects the twospotted spider mite (Tetranychus urticae Koch) feeding on corn (Zea mays L.) and soybean (Glycine max L.). We performed two greenhouse studies, one focusing on the impact of salinity on individual mite fecundity over a period of 3 d and the other focusing on population growth of T. urticae over 7 d. Both experiments were performed across varying salinity levels; electrical conductivity values ranged from 0.84 to 8.07 dS m-1. We also performed the 3-d fecundity experiment in the field, across naturally varying saline conditions. Overall, the twospotted spider mite performed better as salinity increased; both fecundity and population growth tended to have a positive linear correlation with salinity. These studies suggest that salinity can be important for herbivores, just as it is for plants. Moreover, the negative effects of soil salinity on crop plants in agroecosystems may be further compounded by a greater risk of pest problems. Salinity may be another important environmental stressor that can directly influence crop production while also indirectly influencing herbivorous pests. © The Authors 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  19. An analysis of potential resistance of the phytophagous mite, Tetranychus urticae Koch (Acari: Tetranychidae to four botanical pesticides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Attia, S.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Description of the subject. Synthetic acaricides have been widely used to manage Tetranychus urticae. Due to the excessive use of biocide and the associated problems of pesticide resistance and environmental pollution, there is an increasing demand for sustainable, environmentally-friendly control methods. Among the current alternative strategies aimed at decreasing the pest populations, the pesticides based on plant extracts are currently one of the most promising methods. Essential oils with acaricidal properties have been categorized as green pesticides because they are biodegradable and predominantly non-toxic to vertebrates. Objectives. With an aim to reduce the use of synthetic pesticides, they represent a promising approach for eco-chemical control of mites. Method. The aim of the present work was to analyze the risk of resistance emergence of T. urticae to repeated treatments with four plant extracts: Deverra scoparia Coss. & Durieu (Araliales: Apiaceae, Hertia cheirifolia (L. Kuntze (Asterales: Ateraceae, Santolina africana Jord. & Fourr. (Asterales: Asteraceae essential oils and garlic distillate Allium sativum L. (Asparagales: Alliaceae after 20 generations. Results. Repeated treatments with S. africana essential oil during 20 generations did not provoke an emergence of resistance while a low development of resistance was observed with H. cheirifolia, A. sativum and D. scoparia extracts. Conclusions. The efficacy of these extracts against the two spotted spider mite and their low development of resistance make them a promising use for pest management.

  20. Plant-Herbivore Interaction: Dissection of the Cellular Pattern of Tetranychus urticae Feeding on the Host Plant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bensoussan, Nicolas; Santamaria, M. Estrella; Zhurov, Vladimir; Diaz, Isabel; Grbić, Miodrag; Grbić, Vojislava

    2016-01-01

    The two-spotted spider mite, Tetranychus urticae Koch (Acari: Tetranychidae), is one of the most polyphagous herbivores feeding on cell contents of over 1100 plant species including more than 150 crops. It is being established as a model for chelicerate herbivores with tools that enable tracking of reciprocal responses in plant-spider mite interactions. However, despite their important pest status and a growing understanding of the molecular basis of interactions with plant hosts, knowledge of the way mites interface with the plant while feeding and the plant damage directly inflicted by mites is lacking. Here, utilizing histology and microscopy methods, we uncovered several key features of T. urticae feeding. By following the stylet path within the plant tissue, we determined that the stylet penetrates the leaf either in between epidermal pavement cells or through a stomatal opening, without damaging the epidermal cellular layer. Our recordings of mite feeding established that duration of the feeding event ranges from several minutes to more than half an hour, during which time mites consume a single mesophyll cell in a pattern that is common to both bean and Arabidopsis plant hosts. In addition, this study determined that leaf chlorotic spots, a common symptom of mite herbivory, do not form as an immediate consequence of mite feeding. Our results establish a cellular context for the plant-spider mite interaction that will support our understanding of the molecular mechanisms and cell signaling associated with spider mite feeding. PMID:27512397

  1. Seleções para resistência e suscetibilidade, detecção e monitoramento da resistência de Tetranychus urticae ao acaricida clorfenapir Selections for resistance and susceptibility, detection and monitoring of resistance to the acaricide chlorfenapyr in Tetranychus urticae koch (Acari: Tetranychidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mário Eidi Sato

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Problemas com resistência de ácaro-rajado, Tetranychus urticae Koch (Acari: Tetranychidae, a acaricidas têm sido registrados em diversos países, inclusive no Brasil. O estudo teve como objetivo caracterizar a resistência de T. urticae ao acaricida clorfenapir e avaliar a freqüência de resistência a esse composto em áreas comerciais de seis culturas no Estado de São Paulo. Seleções para resistência e suscetibilidade a clorfenapir foram realizadas em laboratório, utilizando-se uma população de T. urticae coletada em 2002 de um cultivo comercial de crisântemo em Holambra (SP. Após seis seleções para resistência e cinco seleções para suscetibilidade, foram obtidas as linhagens suscetível (S e resistente (R de T. urticae a clorfenapir. A razão de resistência (CL50 R/ CL50 S obtida alcançou valores de 571 vezes. Estabeleceu-se uma concentração discriminatória de 37,4 mg L-1 de ingrediente ativo (i.a. para o monitoramento da resistência de T. urticae a clorfenapir. O monitoramento foi realizado coletando-se 21 populações de ácaros em áreas comerciais de diferentes culturas (mamão, morango, feijão, tomate, crisântemo, rosa, em vários municípios do Estado de São Paulo. Arenas confeccionadas com folha de feijão foram infestadas com ácaros T. urticae e pulverizadas com clorfenapir, na sua concentração discriminatória, em torre de Potter. Os resultados indicaram grande variabilidade entre as populações com relação à suscetibilidade a clorfenapir. Foram observadas populações com freqüências de resistência entre 0,0 e 65,4%. As maiores freqüências de resistência foram observadas para populações coletadas de crisântemo em Holambra (SP.Problems associated with acaricide resistance in Tetranychus urticae Koch have been recorded in several countries including Brazil. The objective of this study was to characterize the resistance of T. urticae to the acaricide chlorfenapyr and to evaluate the resistance

  2. Sex and parasites: genomic and transcriptomic analysis of Microbotryum lychnidis-dioicae, the biotrophic and plant-castrating anther smut fungus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perlin, Michael H; Amselem, Joelle; Fontanillas, Eric; Toh, Su San; Chen, Zehua; Goldberg, Jonathan; Duplessis, Sebastien; Henrissat, Bernard; Young, Sarah; Zeng, Qiandong; Aguileta, Gabriela; Petit, Elsa; Badouin, Helene; Andrews, Jared; Razeeq, Dominique; Gabaldón, Toni; Quesneville, Hadi; Giraud, Tatiana; Hood, Michael E; Schultz, David J; Cuomo, Christina A

    2015-06-16

    The genus Microbotryum includes plant pathogenic fungi afflicting a wide variety of hosts with anther smut disease. Microbotryum lychnidis-dioicae infects Silene latifolia and replaces host pollen with fungal spores, exhibiting biotrophy and necrosis associated with altering plant development. We determined the haploid genome sequence for M. lychnidis-dioicae and analyzed whole transcriptome data from plant infections and other stages of the fungal lifecycle, revealing the inventory and expression level of genes that facilitate pathogenic growth. Compared to related fungi, an expanded number of major facilitator superfamily transporters and secretory lipases were detected; lipase gene expression was found to be altered by exposure to lipid compounds, which signaled a switch to dikaryotic, pathogenic growth. In addition, while enzymes to digest cellulose, xylan, xyloglucan, and highly substituted forms of pectin were absent, along with depletion of peroxidases and superoxide dismutases that protect the fungus from oxidative stress, the repertoire of glycosyltransferases and of enzymes that could manipulate host development has expanded. A total of 14% of the genome was categorized as repetitive sequences. Transposable elements have accumulated in mating-type chromosomal regions and were also associated across the genome with gene clusters of small secreted proteins, which may mediate host interactions. The unique absence of enzyme classes for plant cell wall degradation and maintenance of enzymes that break down components of pollen tubes and flowers provides a striking example of biotrophic host adaptation.

  3. Carotenoid content of wild edible young shoots traditionally consumed in Spain (Asparagus acutifolius L., Humulus lupulus L., Bryonia dioica Jacq. and Tamus communis L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Herrera, Patricia; Sánchez-Mata, María Cortes; Cámara, Montaña; Tardío, Javier; Olmedilla-Alonso, Begoña

    2013-05-01

    Wild vegetables have traditionally been consumed as part of the Mediterranean diet, being valuable sources of nutrients and bioactive compounds. The objective of this work was to analyse the carotenoid content of the edible young shoots of four species (Asparagus acutifolius L., Humulus lupulus L., Bryonia dioica Jacq. and Tamus communis L.) as part of a wider study on the characterisation of the nutritional composition of wild edible plants commonly consumed in Spain. Samples were gathered from two locations in Central Spain for two consecutive years. Lutein, β-carotene, neoxanthin and violaxanthin were quantified by high-performance liquid chromatography with a photodiode array detector. Median concentration ranges (μg g(-1) edible wet weight) were: β-carotene, 3.39-6.69, lutein, 5.44–19.13;neoxanthin, 5.17-17.37; and violaxanthin, 2.08-8.93. The highest carotenoid content was that of B. dioica (59.01 μg g(-1)) and the lowest was found in A. acutifolius (17.58 μg g(-1)) [corrected]. Our results show that these wild young shoots are richer sources of carotenoids than many of the commercially available leafy vegetables. © 2012 Society of Chemical Industry.

  4. Acaricidal effect and chemical composition of essential oils extracted from Cuminum cyminum, Pimenta dioica and Ocimum basilicum against the cattle tick Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus (Acari: Ixodidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez-Velazquez, Moises; Castillo-Herrera, Gustavo Adolfo; Rosario-Cruz, Rodrigo; Flores-Fernandez, Jose Miguel; Lopez-Ramirez, Julisa; Hernandez-Gutierrez, Rodolfo; Lugo-Cervantes, Eugenia del Carmen

    2011-02-01

    Acaricidal activity of essential oils extracted from cumin seeds (Cuminum cyminum), allspice berries (Pimenta dioica) and basil leaves (Ocimum basilicum) were tested on 10-day-old Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus tick larvae using the LPT. Two-fold dilutions of the three essential oils were tested from a starting dilution of 20% down to 1.25%. Results showed a high toxicological effect for cumin, producing 100% mortality in all tested concentrations on R. microplus larvae. Similarly, allspice essential oil produced 100% mortality at all concentrations with the exception of a dramatic decrease at 1.25% concentration. Conversely, basil essential oil was not shown to be toxic against R. microplus larvae. The most common compounds detected by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry were as follows: cumin: cuminaldehyde (22.03%), γ-terpinene (15.69%) and 2-caren-10-al (12.89%); allspice: methyl eugenol (62.7%) and eugenol (8.3%); basil: linalool (30.61%) and estragole (20.04%). Results clearly indicate that C. cyminum and P. dioica essential oils can be used as an effective alternative for R. microplus tick control, and there is a high probability they can be used for other ticks affecting cattle in Mexico and throughout the world, thereby reducing the necessity for traditional and unfriendly synthetic acaricides.

  5. Comparison of Demographic Parameters and Predation Rates of Orius strigicollis (Hemiptera: Anthocoridae) Fed on Eggs of Tetranychus urticae (Acari: Tetranychidae) and Cadra cautella (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuan, Shu-Jen; Yang, Chung-Ming; Chung, Yi-Ting; Lai, Wei-Han; Ding, Han-Yan; Saska, Pavel; Peng, Shu-Chen

    2016-08-01

    Orius strigicollis (Poppius) is an anthocorid bug with high foraging ability on thrips as well as on mites, and the bug has been considered as a potential biological control agent in Taiwan. Life table and predation studies of O. strigicollis fed on Cadra cautella (Walker) and Tetranychus urticae (Koch) eggs were conducted at 25 ± 1°C. Data were analyzed and compared using TWOSEX-MSChart and CONSUME-MSChart software. O. strigicollis fed on eggs of C. cautella, a substitute prey, showed significantly higher survival rate and developmental rate than individuals fed on their natural prey, T. urticae eggs. The fecundity of O. strigicollis fed on C. cautella eggs was, on average, 13.2 times higher than that of those fed on T. urticae eggs, despite of the fact that during the entire nymphal stage, the consumption rate of O. strigicollis on T. urticae eggs was ca. 9 times higher than on almond moth eggs The conversion rate (i.e., number of prey eggs needed to produce one predator egg) for this predatory bug reared on T. urticae eggs and almond moth eggs were 604.6 and 6.0, respectively, indicating that almond moth eggs served as an effective alternative prey for ensuring the predator's reproduction. This is the first study pertaining to the population parameters and predation rates of O. strigicollis using the age-stage two-sex approach to describe differences between O. strigicollis populations reared on natural and alternative preys. This information may be useful in mass rearing programs and field application involving this biological control agent. © The Authors 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  6. Egg hatching response to a range of ultraviolet-B (UV-B) radiation doses for four predatory mites and the herbivorous spider mite Tetranychus urticae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koveos, Dimitrios S; Suzuki, Takeshi; Terzidou, Anastasia; Kokkari, Anastasia; Floros, George; Damos, Petros; Kouloussis, Nikos A

    2017-01-01

    Egg hatchability of four predatory mites-Phytoseiulus persimilis Athias-Henriot, Iphiseius [Amblyseius] degenerans Berlese, Amblyseius swirskii Athias-Henriot, and Euseius finlandicus Oudemans (Acari: Phytoseiidae)-and the spider mite Tetranychus urticae Koch (Acari: Tetranychidae) was determined under various UV-B doses either in constant darkness (DD) or with simultaneous irradiation using white light. Under