WorldWideScience

Sample records for nets dead birds

  1. FAQ: West Nile Virus and Dead Birds

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Related Links Mosquito Surveillance Software West Nile Virus & Dead Birds Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir On ... What should I do if I find a dead bird? State and local agencies have different policies ...

  2. Analysis of Insecticides in Dead Wild Birds in Korea from 2010 to 2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Soohee; Park, Mi-Young; Kim, Hyo-Jin; Shin, Jin Young; Ko, Kyung Yuk; Kim, Dong-Gyu; Kim, MeeKyung; Kang, Hwan-Goo; So, ByungJae; Park, Sung-Won

    2016-01-01

    Wild birds are exposed to insecticides in a variety of ways, at different dose levels and via multiple routes, including ingestion of contaminated food items, and dermal, inhalation, preening, and embryonic exposure. Most poisoning by insecticides occurs as a result of misuse or accidental exposure, but intentional killing of unwanted animals also occurs. In this study, we investigated insecticides in the gastric contents of dead wild birds that were suspected to have died from insecticide poisoning based on necropsy. The wild birds were found dead in various regions and locations such as in mountains, and agricultural and urban areas. A total of 182 dead wild birds of 27 species were analyzed in this study, and insecticide residue levels were determined in 60.4% of the total samples analyzed. Monocrotophos and phosphamidon were the most common insecticides identified at rates of 50.0% and 30.7% of the insecticide-positive samples, respectively. Other insecticides identified in dead wild birds included organophosphorous, organochlorine and carbamate insecticides. However, there was limited evidence to conclusively establish the cause of death related to insecticides in this study. Nevertheless, considering the level of insecticide exposure, it is speculated that the exposure was mainly a result of accidental or intentional killing, and not from environmental residue.

  3. Optimizing sampling design to deal with mist-net avoidance in Amazonian birds and bats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Tiago Marques

    Full Text Available Mist netting is a widely used technique to sample bird and bat assemblages. However, captures often decline with time because animals learn and avoid the locations of nets. This avoidance or net shyness can substantially decrease sampling efficiency. We quantified the day-to-day decline in captures of Amazonian birds and bats with mist nets set at the same location for four consecutive days. We also evaluated how net avoidance influences the efficiency of surveys under different logistic scenarios using re-sampling techniques. Net avoidance caused substantial declines in bird and bat captures, although more accentuated in the latter. Most of the decline occurred between the first and second days of netting: 28% in birds and 47% in bats. Captures of commoner species were more affected. The numbers of species detected also declined. Moving nets daily to minimize the avoidance effect increased captures by 30% in birds and 70% in bats. However, moving the location of nets may cause a reduction in netting time and captures. When moving the nets caused the loss of one netting day it was no longer advantageous to move the nets frequently. In bird surveys that could even decrease the number of individuals captured and species detected. Net avoidance can greatly affect sampling efficiency but adjustments in survey design can minimize this. Whenever nets can be moved without losing netting time and the objective is to capture many individuals, they should be moved daily. If the main objective is to survey species present then nets should still be moved for bats, but not for birds. However, if relocating nets causes a significant loss of netting time, moving them to reduce effects of shyness will not improve sampling efficiency in either group. Overall, our findings can improve the design of mist netting sampling strategies in other tropical areas.

  4. Optimizing sampling design to deal with mist-net avoidance in Amazonian birds and bats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marques, João Tiago; Ramos Pereira, Maria J; Marques, Tiago A; Santos, Carlos David; Santana, Joana; Beja, Pedro; Palmeirim, Jorge M

    2013-01-01

    Mist netting is a widely used technique to sample bird and bat assemblages. However, captures often decline with time because animals learn and avoid the locations of nets. This avoidance or net shyness can substantially decrease sampling efficiency. We quantified the day-to-day decline in captures of Amazonian birds and bats with mist nets set at the same location for four consecutive days. We also evaluated how net avoidance influences the efficiency of surveys under different logistic scenarios using re-sampling techniques. Net avoidance caused substantial declines in bird and bat captures, although more accentuated in the latter. Most of the decline occurred between the first and second days of netting: 28% in birds and 47% in bats. Captures of commoner species were more affected. The numbers of species detected also declined. Moving nets daily to minimize the avoidance effect increased captures by 30% in birds and 70% in bats. However, moving the location of nets may cause a reduction in netting time and captures. When moving the nets caused the loss of one netting day it was no longer advantageous to move the nets frequently. In bird surveys that could even decrease the number of individuals captured and species detected. Net avoidance can greatly affect sampling efficiency but adjustments in survey design can minimize this. Whenever nets can be moved without losing netting time and the objective is to capture many individuals, they should be moved daily. If the main objective is to survey species present then nets should still be moved for bats, but not for birds. However, if relocating nets causes a significant loss of netting time, moving them to reduce effects of shyness will not improve sampling efficiency in either group. Overall, our findings can improve the design of mist netting sampling strategies in other tropical areas.

  5. Switching from monoculture to polyculture farming benefits birds in oil palm production landscapes: Evidence from mist netting data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yahya, Muhammad S; Syafiq, Muhamad; Ashton-Butt, Adham; Ghazali, Amal; Asmah, Siti; Azhar, Badrul

    2017-08-01

    Monoculture farming is pervasive in industrial oil palm agriculture, including those RSPO plantations certified as sustainably managed. This farming practice does not promote the maintenance of farmland biodiversity. However, little scientific attention has been given to polyculture farming in oil palm production landscapes. Polyculture farming is likely to increase the floristic diversity and stand structural complexity that underpins biodiversity. Mist nets were used to sample birds at 120 smallholdings in Peninsular Malaysia. At each site, 12 vegetation structure characteristics were measured. We compared bird species richness, abundance, and composition between monoculture and polyculture smallholdings and used predictive models to examine the effects of habitat quality on avian biodiversity. Bird species richness was significantly greater in polyculture than that of monoculture smallholdings. The number of fallen and standing, dead oil palms were also important positive predictors of species richness. Bird abundance was also strongly increased by standing and dead oil palms and decreased with oil palm stand height. Our results indicate that polyculture farming can improve bird species richness in oil palm production landscapes. In addition, key habitat variables that are closely associated with farming practices, such as the removal of dead trees, should and can be managed by oil palm growers in order to promote biodiversity. To increase the sustainability of oil palm agriculture, it is imperative that stakeholders modify the way oil palms are currently planted and managed. Our findings can guide policy makers and certification bodies to promote oil palm production landscapes that will function more sustainably and increase existing biodiversity of oil palm landscapes.

  6. Deadly hairs, lethal feathers--convergent evolution of poisonous integument in mammals and birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plikus, Maksim V; Astrowski, Aliaksandr A

    2014-07-01

    Hairs and feathers are textbook examples of the convergent evolution of the follicular appendage structure between mammals and birds. While broadly recognized for their convergent thermoregulatory, camouflage and sexual display functions, hairs and feathers are rarely thought of as deadly defence tools. Several recent studies, however, show that in some species of mammals and birds, the integument can, in fact, be a de facto lethal weapon. One mammalian example is provided by African crested rats, which seek for and chew on the bark of plants containing the highly potent toxin, ouabain. These rats then coat their fur with ouabain-containing saliva. For efficient toxin retention, the rodents have evolved highly specialized fenestrated and mostly hollow hair shafts that soak up liquids, which essentially function as wicks. On the avian side of the vertebrate integumental variety spectrum, several species of birds of New Guinea have evolved resistance to highly potent batrachotoxins, which they acquire from their insect diet. While the mechanism of bird toxicity remains obscure, in a recently published issue of the journal, Dumbacher and Menon explore the intriguing idea that to achieve efficient storage of batrachotoxins in their skin, some birds exploit the basic permeability barrier function of their epidermis. Batrachotoxins become preferentially sequestered in their epidermis and are then transferred to feathers, likely through the exploitation of specialized avian lipid-storing multigranular body organelles. Here, we discuss wider implications of this intriguing concept. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Windrow composting as an option for disposal and utilization of dead birds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Vinodkumar

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The present study was undertaken to ascertain the feasibility of windrow composting as an environmentally safe and bio-secure disposal method of poultry manure and mortalities. Materials and Methods: Poultry dead birds and cage layer manure were collected from the commercial poultry farms and coir pith was obtained from coir fiber extraction unit. Physical properties and chemical composition of ingredients were analyzed and a suitable compost recipe was formulated. Two treatment windrow groups (T1- Dead birds + Cage layer manure + Coir pith, T2- Cage layer manure + Coir pith in replication were fabricated. Physical chemical and biological parameters of compost were analyzed. Results: Temperature profile ensured maximum pathogen and parasite reduction. Reduction in moisture content, weight, volume, total organic carbon, and progressive increase in total ash, calcium, phosphorus and potassium content as the composting proceeded, were indicative of organic matter degradation and mineralization. Favourable C:N ratio and germination index indicated compost maturity and absence of any phytotoxins in finished compost. The finished compost had undetectable level of Salmonella. There was no odour and fly menace throughout the composting experiment. Conclusion: Windrow composting of poultry waste can be considered as a biologically and environmentally safe disposal option with recycling of nutrients in the form of compost.

  8. The Bird.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hannon, Jean

    2001-01-01

    Students use a dead bird to learn about bird life, anatomy, and death. Students examine a bird body and discuss what happened to the bird. Uses outdoor education as a resource for learning about animals. (SAH)

  9. A GIS-driven integrated real-time surveillance pilot system for national West Nile virus dead bird surveillance in Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aramini Jeff

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background An extensive West Nile virus surveillance program of dead birds, mosquitoes, horses, and human infection has been launched as a result of West Nile virus first being reported in Canada in 2001. Some desktop and web GIS have been applied to West Nile virus dead bird surveillance. There have been urgent needs for a comprehensive GIS services and real-time surveillance. Results A pilot system was developed to integrate real-time surveillance, real-time GIS, and Open GIS technology in order to enhance West Nile virus dead bird surveillance in Canada. Driven and linked by the newly developed real-time web GIS technology, this integrated real-time surveillance system includes conventional real-time web-based surveillance components, integrated real-time GIS components, and integrated Open GIS components. The pilot system identified the major GIS functions and capacities that may be important to public health surveillance. The six web GIS clients provide a wide range of GIS tools for public health surveillance. The pilot system has been serving Canadian national West Nile virus dead bird surveillance since 2005 and is adaptable to serve other disease surveillance. Conclusion This pilot system has streamlined, enriched and enhanced national West Nile virus dead bird surveillance in Canada, improved productivity, and reduced operation cost. Its real-time GIS technology, static map technology, WMS integration, and its integration with non-GIS real-time surveillance system made this pilot system unique in surveillance and public health GIS.

  10. Mercury residues in tissues of dead and surviving birds fed methylmercury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finley, M.T.; Stickel, W.H.; Christensen, R.E.

    1979-01-01

    Concentrations of mercury in passerine birds fed diets containing 40 ppm methylmercury were similar in tissues of birds that died from mercury poisoning and in those that were sacrificed after half the group had died. Residues were higher in tissues of birds that died, but the differences were not statistically significant. Residue levels were highest in livers, followed by kidneys and brains. Levels of mercury were similar in breast muscle, carcass, and whole body. Mercury levels were highest in redwinged blackbirds, lowest in grackles, and intermediate in starlings and cowbirds. Mercury concentrations exceeded 20 ppm in all tissues of all species and were similar to levels reported in wild birds known to have died of mercury poisoning.

  11. Searches for dead birds in Smoela wind-power plant area 2011: annual report; Soek etter doede fugler i Smoela vindpark 2011: aarsrapport

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reitan, Ole

    2012-07-01

    This report describes the searches for dead birds in the Smoela wind-power plant area (SWPPA) in 2011, and compares the results of the dead birds found with 2006-2010.The search effort in 2006-2010 was systematic, as the same method and procedures were followed, with the same effort each week throughout each year. The results of dead birds found could thus be compared between years, seasons, months, and the different parts of the wind-power plant and single turbines. The data could be used to calculate averages found each year, and also now making it possible to estimate total numbers annually colliding with turbines for several species. These data are therefore a good basis for comparing result for later years. To search for dead birds, localize and recording wind turbine victims are the first steps towards estimating real collision numbers in a wind-power plant area. In addition, there are several bi-ases affecting the proportion of dead birds available for searches. Several methods may be used, among them different approaches using dogs. In the SWPPA a feather search dog was used, to search, find and indicate feathers and other remains from dead birds. In 2006-2010 two dogs were used in SWPPA, both with god search qualities. In 2011 the best of these dogs, the giant schnauzer Luna, was used on all turbine searches. The search motivation of Luna has been very good in nearly all searches in 2011. The search results from SWPPA therefore are as reliable as possible today. In 2011 searches were carried out at all turbines five times, three in spring (5-7 April, 29 April to 1 May, 26-28 May) and two in autumn (12-15 September, 21-22 November). In April to May a total of 203 turbine searches were performed. In each of the previous years, the total numbers of turbine searches in the spring (March - 15 June) varied between 359 and 473. In autumn 2011 a total of 136 turbine searches were performed, about 60 % of each of the previous years in the months September

  12. Estimating Net Primary Production of Turfgrass in an Urban-Suburban Landscape with QuickBird Imagery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jindong Wu

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Vegetation is a basic component of urban-suburban environments with significant area coverage. As a major vegetation type in US cities, urban turfgrass provides a range of important ecological services. This study examined the biological carbon fixation of turfgrass in a typical residential neighborhood by linking ground-based measurements, high resolution satellite remote sensing, and ecological modeling. The spatial distribution of turfgrass and its vegetative conditions were mapped with QuickBird satellite imagery. The significant amount of shadows existing in the imagery were detected and removed by taking advantage of the high radiometric resolution of the data. A remote sensing-driven production efficiency model was developed and parameterized with field biophysical measurements to estimate annual net primary production of turfgrass. The results indicated that turfgrass accounted for 38% of land cover in the study area. Turfgrass assimilated 0–1,301 g∙C∙m−2∙yr−1 depending on vegetative conditions and management intensity. The average annual net primary production per unit turfgrass cover by golf course grass (1,100.5 g∙C∙m−2 was much higher than that by regular lawn grass (771.2 g∙C∙m−2. However, lawn grass contributed more to the total net primary production than golf course grass due to its larger area coverage, although with higher spatial variability.

  13. Effects of gill-net fishing on marine birds in a biological hotspot in the northwest Atlantic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davoren, Gail K

    2007-08-01

    Marine biological hotspots, or areas where high abundances of species overlap in space and time, are ecologically important areas because energy flow through marine food webs, a key ecosystem process, is maximized in these areas. I investigated whether top predators aggregated at persistent spawning sites of a key forage fish species, capelin (Mallotus villosus), on the NE coast of Newfoundland during July and August 2000-2003. By examining the distributional patterns of top predators through ship-based surveys at multiple spatial and temporal scales, I found that the biomasses of birds-dominated by Common Murres (Uria aalge)-and mammals-dominated by whale species-were concentrated along the coast, with a biological hotspot forming near two persistent spawning sites of capelin in all years. The formation of this hotspot was well defined in space and time from middle of July to middle of August, likely coinciding with the spawning chronology of capelin. Within this hotspot, there was a high spatial and temporal overlap of Common Murres and gill nets set to capture Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua). This resulted in breeding murres becoming entangled in gill nets while feeding on spawning capelin. Despite an acknowledged uncertainty of bycatch mortality, estimates for the larger regional-scale area (1936-4973 murres/year; 0.2-0.6% of the breeding population) underestimated mortality relative to estimates within the hotspot (3053-14054 murres/year; 0.4-1.7%). Although fishing effort for Atlantic cod has declined substantially since the groundfish moratorium in 1992, chronic, unnatural, and additive mortality through bycatch continues in coastal Newfoundland. Restricted use of gill nets within this and other biological hotspots during the capelin spawning period appears to be a straightforward application of the "ecological and biologically significant area" management framework in Canada's Oceans Act. This protection would minimize murre bycatch and maintain ecosystem

  14. Dead Man or Dead Hand?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ringe, Wolf-Georg

    and potential takeover bids. Recent Delaware case-law suggests that the most extreme, ‘dead hand’ version of such clauses might violate directors’ fiduciary duties. This short article develops some initial thoughts on the phenomenon and evaluates how the new poison pills would be handled under European takeover...

  15. Surveillance for avian influenza viruses in wild birds in Denmark and Greenland, 2007-10.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hulsager, Charlotte Kristiane; Breum, Solvej Østergaard; Trebbien, A Ramona; Handberg, A Kurt Jensen; Therkildsen, Ole Roland; Madsen, Jesper Johannes; Thoru, Kasper; Baroch, John A; Deliberto, Thomas J; Larsen, Lars Erik; Jorgensena, Poul Henrik

    2012-12-01

    In Denmark and Greenland, extensive surveillance of avian influenza (AI) viruses in wild bird populations has been conducted from 2007 through 2010. In Denmark, the surveillance consisted of passive surveillance of wild birds found dead or sick across Denmark and active surveillance of apparently healthy live birds in waterfowl reservoirs and along migratory flyways, birds living in proximity to domestic poultry, and hunted game birds. Dead birds were sampled by oropharyngeal swabbing. Healthy live wild birds were captured with nets, traps, or by hand and were sampled by swabbing of the oropharyngeal and cloacal tracts, or swabs were collected from fresh fecal droppings. Hunted game birds were delivered to game-handling establishments, where each bird was sampled by oropharyngeal and cloacal swabbing. During the 2007-10 period, a total of 11,055 wild birds were sampled in Denmark, of which 396 were birds that were found dead. In Greenland, samples were collected mainly from fecal droppings in breeding areas. Samples from 3555 live and apparently healthy wild birds were tested. All swab samples were tested by pan-influenza reverse transcriptase-PCR (RT-PCR), and the positive samples were further tested by H5/H7 specific RT-PCRs. H5/H7-positive samples were subjected to hemagglutination cleavage site sequencing for pathotyping. In addition, all RT-PCR-positive samples were subjected to virus isolation, and the virus isolates were subsequently subtyped. In Denmark, low pathogenic (LP) H5 viruses were detected throughout the period, in addition to a few LPAI H7 and several other subtypes. In Greenland, very few samples were positive for AI. None of them were found to be of the H5 or H7 subtypes by RT-PCR. Isolation of these viruses in eggs was unsuccessful; thus, they were not subtyped further. The findings did, however, demonstrate the presence of LPAI viruses in Greenland. For several water bird species overwintering in North America and northwest Europe

  16. Raising the Dead without a Red Sea-Dead Sea project? Hydro-economics and governance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. E. Rosenberg

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Seven decades of extractions have dramatically reduced Jordan River flows, lowered the Dead Sea level, opened sink holes, and caused other environmental problems. The fix Jordan, Israel, and the Palestinians propose would build an expensive multipurpose conveyance project from the Red Sea to the Dead Sea that would also generate hydropower and desalinate water. This paper compares the Red-Dead project to alternatives that may also raise the Dead Sea level. Hydro-economic model results for the Jordan-Israel-Palestinian inter-tied water systems show two restoration alternatives are more economically viable than the proposed Red-Dead project. Many decentralized new supply, wastewater reuse, conveyance, conservation, and leak reduction projects and programs in each country can together increase economic benefits and reliably deliver up to 900 MCM yr−1 to the Dead Sea. Similarly, a smaller Red-Dead project that only generates hydropower can deliver large flows to the Dead Sea when the sale price of generated electricity is sufficiently high. However, for all restoration options, net benefits fall and water scarcity rises as flows to the Dead Sea increase. This finding suggests (i each country has no individual incentive to return water to the Dead Sea, and (ii outside institutions that seek to raise the Dead must also offer countries direct incentives to deliver water to the Sea besides building the countries new infrastructure.

  17. Raising the Dead without a Red Sea-Dead Sea project? Hydro-economics and governance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenberg, D. E.

    2011-04-01

    Seven decades of extractions have dramatically reduced Jordan River flows, lowered the Dead Sea level, opened sink holes, and caused other environmental problems. The fix Jordan, Israel, and the Palestinians propose would build an expensive multipurpose conveyance project from the Red Sea to the Dead Sea that would also generate hydropower and desalinate water. This paper compares the Red-Dead project to alternatives that may also raise the Dead Sea level. Hydro-economic model results for the Jordan-Israel-Palestinian inter-tied water systems show two restoration alternatives are more economically viable than the proposed Red-Dead project. Many decentralized new supply, wastewater reuse, conveyance, conservation, and leak reduction projects and programs in each country can together increase economic benefits and reliably deliver up to 900 MCM yr-1 to the Dead Sea. Similarly, a smaller Red-Dead project that only generates hydropower can deliver large flows to the Dead Sea when the sale price of generated electricity is sufficiently high. However, for all restoration options, net benefits fall and water scarcity rises as flows to the Dead Sea increase. This finding suggests (i) each country has no individual incentive to return water to the Dead Sea, and (ii) outside institutions that seek to raise the Dead must also offer countries direct incentives to deliver water to the Sea besides building the countries new infrastructure.

  18. Raising the dead without a Red Sea-Dead Sea canal? Hydro-economics and governance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenberg, D. E.

    2010-12-01

    Seven decades of extractions have dramatically reduced Jordan River flows, lowered the Dead Sea level, opened sink holes, and caused other environmental problems. The fix Jordan, Israel, and the Palestinians propose would build an expensive multipurpose canal from the Red Sea to the Dead Sea that would also generate hydropower and desalinated water. This paper compares the Red-Dead project to alternatives that may also raise the Dead Sea level. Hydro-economic model results for the Jordan-Israel-Palestinian inter-tied water systems show two restoration alternatives are more economically viable than the proposed Red-Dead project. Many decentralized new supply, wastewater reuse, conveyance, conservation, and leak reduction projects and programs in each country can together increase economic benefits and reliably deliver up to 900 MCM/year to the Dead Sea. Similarly, a smaller Red-Dead project that only generates hydropower can deliver large flows to the Dead Sea when the sale price of generated electricity is sufficiently high. However, for all restoration options, net benefits fall and water scarcity rises as flows to the Dead Sea increase. This finding suggests (i) each country has no individual incentive to return water to the Dead Sea, and (ii) outside institutions that seek to raise the Dead must also offer countries direct incentives to deliver water to the Sea besides building the countries new infrastructure.

  19. CASE REPORT OF MISDIAGNOSIS OF AVIAN COLIBACILLOSIS IN LAYING BIRDS

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Madubuike Umunna Anyanwu; Chukwunonso Kenechukwu Ezeasor; Maria Ifeyinwa Ngwu

    2014-01-01

      Two freshly dead 27 weeks old Issa brown laying birds from a population of about 3000 birds with history of blindness, greenish-whitish diarrhoea, symptomatic diagnosis of coccidiosis, treatment...

  20. Long-term dead wood changes in a Sierra Nevada mixed conifer forest: habitat and fire hazard implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eric E. Knapp

    2015-01-01

    Dead trees play an important role in forests, with snags and coarse woody debris (CWD) used by many bird and mammal species for nesting, resting, or foraging. However, too much dead wood can also contribute to extreme fire behavior. This tension between dead wood as habitat and dead wood as fuel has raised questions about appropriate quantities in fire-dependent...

  1. Love the dead, fear the dead

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Seebach, Sophie Hooge

    2017-01-01

    The dead are everywhere in the landscape in Acholi, northern Uganda. In the homes, the dead are present through their gravesites, situated next to houses and huts, and as spiritual presences in their family’s daily lives. In the bush, the dead are present as a constant potentiality, in the form...... of abandoned bones and rootless spirits; the remnants of years of civil war. This chapter deals with these landscapes of death, and explores how consolation is found through tying the dead to the land: to the home. It also explores the constant peril that this way of life poses, as living in such close...

  2. Virginia ESI: BIRDS (Bird Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for wading birds, shorebirds, waterfowl, raptors, diving birds, pelagic birds, passerine birds, and gulls...

  3. Day of the Dead

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dann, Tammy; Murphy, Amy

    2012-01-01

    Foreign Language in Elementary School (FLES) teachers in the West Des Moines schools incorporate the Day of the Dead into the fourth grade curriculum each year. The teachers discuss the Day of the Dead celebration at the Art Center, and many ask for volunteers from fourth grade to participate in the event. Student presentations include a wide…

  4. Investigating Aquatic Dead Zones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Testa, Jeremy; Gurbisz, Cassie; Murray, Laura; Gray, William; Bosch, Jennifer; Burrell, Chris; Kemp, Michael

    2010-01-01

    This article features two engaging high school activities that include current scientific information, data, and authentic case studies. The activities address the physical, biological, and chemical processes that are associated with oxygen-depleted areas, or "dead zones," in aquatic systems. Students can explore these dead zones through both…

  5. Dead Zone Accretion Flows in Protostellar Disks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Neal; Sano, T.

    2008-01-01

    Planets form inside protostellar disks in a dead zone where the electrical resistivity of the gas is too high for magnetic forces to drive turbulence. We show that much of the dead zone nevertheless is active and flows toward the star while smooth, large-scale magnetic fields transfer the orbital angular momentum radially outward. Stellar X-ray and radionuclide ionization sustain a weak coupling of the dead zone gas to the magnetic fields, despite the rapid recombination of free charges on dust grains. Net radial magnetic fields are generated in the magnetorotational turbulence in the electrically conducting top and bottom surface layers of the disk, and reach the midplane by ohmic diffusion. A toroidal component to the fields is produced near the midplane by the orbital shear. The process is similar to the magnetization of the solar tachocline. The result is a laminar, magnetically driven accretion flow in the region where the planets form.

  6. Maryland ESI: BIRDS (Bird Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for wading birds, shorebirds, waterfowl, raptors, diving birds, seabirds, passerine birds, and gulls and...

  7. Alabama ESI: BIRDS (Bird Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for wading birds, shorebirds, waterfowl, raptors, diving birds, seabirds, passerine birds, gulls, and terns...

  8. Derelict fishing nets in Puget Sound and the Northwest Straits: patterns and threats to marine fauna.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Good, Thomas P; June, Jeffrey A; Etnier, Michael A; Broadhurst, Ginny

    2010-01-01

    Derelict fishing gear remains in the marine environment for years, entangling, and killing marine organisms worldwide. Since 2002, hundreds of derelict nets containing over 32,000 marine animals have been recovered from Washington's inland waters. Analysis of 870 gillnets found many were derelict for years; most were recovered from northern Puget Sound and high-relief rocky habitats and were relatively small, of recent construction, in good condition, stretched open, and in relatively shallow water. Marine organisms documented in recovered gillnets included 31,278 invertebrates (76 species), 1036 fishes (22 species), 514 birds (16 species), and 23 mammals (4 species); 56% of invertebrates, 93% of fish, and 100% of birds and mammals were dead when recovered. For all taxa, mortality was generally associated with gillnet effectiveness (total area, age and condition, and suspension in the water). Mortality from derelict fishing gear is underestimated at recovery and may be important for species of economic and conservation concern. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  9. Raptor-Powerline Mortality Data, Snake River Birds of Prey Conservation Area - 1999-2005

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This data set is a spreadsheet resulting from monthly searches for dead birds along randomly selected power line segments in and near the Snake River Birds of Prey...

  10. Dead Sea Scrolls

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-01-01

    A consortium of researchers from Jet Propulsion Laboratory and three other organizations used charged coupled devices (CCDs) and other imaging enhancement technology to decipher previously unreadable portions of the Dead Sea Scrolls. The technique has potentially important implications for archeology.

  11. Cyanide and migratory birds at gold mines in Nevada, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henny, C J; Hallock, R J; Hill, E F

    1994-03-01

    : Since the mid-1980s, cyanide in heap leach solutions and mill tailings ponds at gold mines in Nevada has killed a large but incompletely documented number of wildlife (>9,500 individuals, primarily migratory birds). This field investigation documents the availability of cyanide at a variety of 'typical' Nevada gold mines during 1990 and 1991, describes wildlife reactions to cyanide solutions, and discusses procedures for eliminating wildlife loss from cyanide poisoning. Substantial progress has been made to reduce wildlife loss. About half of the mill tailings ponds (some up to 150 ha) in Nevada have been chemically treated to reduce cyanide concentrations (the number needing treatment is uncertain) and many of the smaller heap leach solution ponds and channels are now covered with netting to exclude birds and most mammals. The discovery of a cyanide gradient in mill tailings ponds (concentration usually 2-3 times higher at the inflow point than at reclaim point) provides new insight into wildlife responses (mortality) observed in different portions of the ponds. Finding dead birds on the tops of ore heaps and associated with solution puddling is a new problem, but management procedures for eliminating this source of mortality are available. A safe threshold concentration of cyanide to eliminate wildlife loss could not be determined from the field data and initial laboratory studies. New analytical methods may be required to assess further the wildlife hazard of cyanide in mining solutions.

  12. Practicing on Newly Dead

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jewel Abraham

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available A newly dead cadaver simulation is practiced on the physical remains of the dead before the onset of rigor mortis. This technique has potential benefits for providing real-life in-situ experience for novice providers in health care practices. Evolving ethical views in health care brings into question some of the ethical aspects associated with newly dead cadaver simulation in terms of justification for practice, autonomy, consent, and the need of disclosure. A clear statement of policies and procedures on newly dead cadaver simulation has yet to be implemented. Although there are benefits and disadvantages to an in-situ cadaver simulation, such practices should not be carried out in secrecy as there is no compelling evidence that suggests such training as imperative. Secrecy in these practices is a violation of honor code of nursing ethics. As health care providers, practitioners are obliged to be ethically honest and trustworthy to their patients. The author explores the ethical aspects of using newly dead cadaver simulation in training novice nursing providers to gain competency in various lifesaving skills, which otherwise cannot be practiced on a living individual. The author explores multiple views on cadaver simulation in relation to ethical theories and practices such as consent and disclosure to family.

  13. Screamy Bird

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tarby, Sara; Cermak, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    Sara Tarby, Daniel Cermak-Sassenrath. Screamy Bird. Digital game. Kulturnatten 2016, Danish Science Ministry, Copenhagen, DK, Oct 14, 2016.......Sara Tarby, Daniel Cermak-Sassenrath. Screamy Bird. Digital game. Kulturnatten 2016, Danish Science Ministry, Copenhagen, DK, Oct 14, 2016....

  14. Dead or alive?

    OpenAIRE

    2006-01-01

    Dead or Alive was a painting and sound exhibition in the National Physical Laboratory (NPL) in Richmond. NPL is the UK’s national standards laboratory for metrology and is one of the world’s leading measurement institutes. \\ud \\ud The exhibition took the form of installations consisting of paintings and soundscapes set up in two spaces, an anechoic chamber (dead) and a reverberation chamber (alive). For the exhibition a new body of work was made including a twenty-seven-metre panoramic painti...

  15. Live and Dead Nodes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Sune Lehman; Jackson, A. D.

    2005-01-01

    In this paper, we explore the consequences of a distinction between `live' and `dead' network nodes; `live' nodes are able to acquire new links whereas `dead' nodes are static. We develop an analytically soluble growing network model incorporating this distinction and show that it can provide...... a quantitative description of the empirical network composed of citations and references (in- and out-links) between papers (nodes) in the SPIRES database of scientific papers in high energy physics. We also demonstrate that the death mechanism alone can result in power law degree distributions for the resulting...... network....

  16. Dead Crow Density and West Nile Virus Monitoring, New York

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmit, Kate; Hagiwara, Yoichiro; Anand, Madhu; Backenson, P. Bryon; Gotham, Ivan; Kramer, Laura

    2005-01-01

    New York State used the health commerce system to monitor the number of West Nile virus (WNV) human disease cases and the density of dead crows. In each year from 2001 to 2003 and for the 3 years combined, persons living in New York counties (excluding New York City) with elevated weekly dead crow densities (above a threshold value of 0.1 dead crows per square mile) had higher risk (2.0–8.6 times) for disease caused by WNV within the next 2 weeks than residents of counties reporting fewer dead crows per square mile. This type of index can offer a real-time, relatively inexpensive window into viral activity in time for prevention and control. Changes in reporting, bird populations, and immunity may require that thresholds other than 0.1 be used in later years or in other areas. PMID:16229764

  17. An intensive field trial to assess hazards to birds and mammals from the use of methiocarb as a bird repellent on ripening cherries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardy, A R; Westlake, G E; Lloyd, G A; Brown, P M; Greig-Smith, P W; Fletcher, M R; Tarrant, K A; Stanley, P I

    1993-03-01

    : A field trial was carried out in Kent, UK, in 1980, to assess the possible hazards to wildlife of methiocarb used as a spray to protect ripening cherries from damage by birds. A broad range of studies was undertaken on a single site subjected to a series of five applications. Ground deposition was measured by analysis of strips of chromatography paper and petri dishes placed between lines of trees. Airborne drift was measured on targets up to 11 m above the ground, and methiocarb residues were measured in samples of cherries. Birds were captured by intensive mist-netting throughout the trial, and breeding success was monitored in nest boxes and natural nest sites. Livetraps were set to catch small mammals in the orchard on five occasions during the trial. Systematic searches for possible casualties were made, resulting in the discovery of 21 birds found dead or incapacitated. Levels of activity of plasma, liver and brain esterases were measured in samples taken from several species, and liver slices from House Sparrows, Starlings and Thrushes were examined histologically for signs of cell damage. Samples of breast muscle tissue from Starlings and House Sparrows were analysed by GLC for residues of methiocarb and its principal breakdown product, methiocarb sulfoxide. Overall, the trial revealed that many birds and mammals were exposed to methiocarb, but its effects were largely transient and sublethal. Even a heavy repeated programme of spray applications did not cause any serious hazard to wildlife populations.

  18. The Dead Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-01-01

    The Dead Sea is the lowest point on Earth at 418 meters below sea level, and also one of the saltiest bodies of water on Earth with a salinity of about 300 parts-per-thousand (nine times greater than ocean salinity). It is located on the border between Jordan and Israel, and is fed by the Jordan River. The Dead Sea is located in the Dead Sea Rift, formed as a result of the Arabian tectonic plate moving northward away from the African Plate. The mineral content of the Dead Sea is significantly different from that of ocean water, consisting of approximately 53% magnesium chloride, 37% potassium chloride and 8% sodium chloride. In the early part of the 20th century, the Dead Sea began to attract interest from chemists who deduced that the Sea was a natural deposit of potash and bromine. From the Dead Sea brine, Israel and Jordan produce 3.8 million tons potash, 200,000 tons elemental bromine, 45,000 tons caustic soda, 25, 000 tons magnesium metal, and sodium chloride. Both countries use extensive salt evaporation pans that have essentially diked the entire southern end of the Dead Sea. With its 14 spectral bands from the visible to the thermal infrared wavelength region, and its high spatial resolution of 15 to 90 meters (about 50 to 300 feet), ASTER images Earth to map and monitor the changing surface of our planet. ASTER is one of five Earth-observing instruments launched December 18, 1999, on NASA's Terra satellite. The instrument was built by Japan's Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry. A joint U.S./Japan science team is responsible for validation and calibration of the instrument and the data products. The broad spectral coverage and high spectral resolution of ASTER provides scientists in numerous disciplines with critical information for surface mapping, and monitoring of dynamic conditions and temporal change. Example applications are: monitoring glacial advances and retreats; monitoring potentially active volcanoes; identifying crop stress; determining

  19. Dead-ice environments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krüger, Johannes; Kjær, Kurt H.; Schomacker, Anders

    2010-01-01

    Kötlujökull transports considerable amounts of supraglacial debris at its snout because of frontal oscillations with frequent ice advances followed by ice-margin stagnation. Kötlujökull provides suitable conditions of studying dead-ice melting and landscape formation in a debris-charged lowland...... under humid, sub-polar conditions? Does this rate differ from rates reported from polar environments of dry continental nature? How will the sedimentary architecture appear in the geological record? How will the final landsystem appear? These key questions are answered in a review of research...... and conclusions on dead-ice melting and landscape formation from Kötlujökull. Processes and landform-sediment associations are linked to the current climate and glacier–volcano interaction....

  20. Resurrecting deadly carrots

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Weitzel, Corinna; Rønsted, Nina; Spalik, Krysztof

    2014-01-01

    Thapsia L. circumscribes a small genus of herbaceous perennials in the taxonomically difficult family Apiaceae. Thapsia occurs around the Mediterranean, extending from the Atlantic coasts of Portugal and Morocco to Crete and other Greek Islands in the East. Thapsia is commonly known as deadly...... the species studied here from Ammodaucus, Distichoselinum, Elaeoselinum, Guillonea and Margotia in Thapsia in correspondence with previous phylogenetic studies of Apiaceae. Elaeoselinum is not monophyletic. Clades within Thapsia correlate well with previous observations of groupings based on the occurrence...

  1. Case report of misdiagnosis of Avian Colibacillosis in laying Birds ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Two freshly dead 27 weeks old Issa brown laying birds from a population of about 3000 birds with history of blindness, greenish-whitish diarrhoea, symptomatic diagnosis of coccidiosis, treatment failure, reduced egg lay and increased mortality was presented for postmortem examination and diagnosis. Postmortem ...

  2. Net Locality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Souza e Silva, Adriana Araujo; Gordon, Eric

    Provides an introduction to the new theory of Net Locality and the profound effect on individuals and societies when everything is located or locatable. Describes net locality as an emerging form of location awareness central to all aspects of digital media, from mobile phones, to Google Maps...... of emerging technologies, from GeoCities to GPS, Wi-Fi, Wiki Me, and Google Android....

  3. Net Neutrality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Savin, Andrej

    2017-01-01

    Repealing “net neutrality” in the US will have no bearing on Internet freedom or security there or anywhere else.......Repealing “net neutrality” in the US will have no bearing on Internet freedom or security there or anywhere else....

  4. Bird guard

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fairchild, Dana M [Armour, SD

    2010-03-02

    The bird guard provides a device to protect electrical insulators comprising a central shaft; a clamp attached to an end of the shaft to secure the device to a transmission tower; a top and bottom cover to shield transmission tower insulators; and bearings to allow the guard to rotate in order to frighten birds away from the insulators.

  5. The Dead Walk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bill Phillips

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Monsters have always enjoyed a significant presence in the human imagination, and religion was instrumental in replacing the physical horror they engendered with that of a moral threat. Zombies, however, are amoral – their motivation purely instinctive and arbitrary, yet they are, perhaps, the most loathed of all contemporary monsters. One explanation for this lies in the theory of the uncanny valley, proposed by robotics engineer Masahiro Mori. According to the theory, we reserve our greatest fears for those things which seem most human, yet are not – such as dead bodies. Such a reaction is most likely a survival mechanism to protect us from danger and disease – a mechanism even more essential when the dead rise up and walk. From their beginnings zombies have reflected western societies’ greatest fears – be they of revolutionary Haitians, women, or communists. In recent years the rise in the popularity of the zombie in films, books and television series reflects our fears for the planet, the economy, and of death itself

  6. The Performing Dead

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sabra, Jakob Borrits

    the surface of Vor Frelsers Cemetery, as the background for affective resonances of the un-seen and un-told networks that connect people with time, places and spaces, through media. By following a non-representational research approach the project tries to enliven this particular cemetery rather than report...... as functional assistant cemetery in 1790, the 1,66 Acre of Vor Frelser Cemetery have had significant cultural and emotional roothold in the citizens of Amager and the adjacent Copenhagen districts. Today it serves as both the traditional ritual space for the interment of the dead (bodies or cremated remains...... that convey a weave of bodies, sites and memories along with a bodily exploration of the city of Copenhagen. Here invisible life-traces and their way through the urban landscape are animated as a meshwork of relations between the real and the fictional, unfolding in the interplay between performance...

  7. Charlie: Dead Laughing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María del Socorro Tuirán Rougeon

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The article addresses the dramatic events of January 2015 in France, from the perspective of humor as an unconscious formation, as described by Freud. The deadly attack targeted the headquarters of Charlie Hebdo, a satirical journal that questions sensitive social issues through caricatures, cartoons, and humor. Considering that censure has always existed, what could explain this bloody act today? Can't we laugh at everything? Can't we laugh with anyone? While Freud suggests the hypothesis that the comic is a formation of spirit vis-à-vis the pain caused by existence, he also proposes that humor is the contribution of the super-ego to the comic. How, then, is it possible to understand that we cannot laugh at everything?

  8. Hawaii ESI: BIRDS (Bird Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for endangered waterbirds and passerine birds, migratory shorebirds and waterfowl, gulls and terns,...

  9. Dead Wolves, Dead Birds, and Dead Trees: Catalysts for Transformative Learning in the Making of Scientist-Environmentalists

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walter, Pierre

    2013-01-01

    This historical study identifies catalysts for transformative learning in the lives of three scientist-environmentalists important to the 20th-century environmental movement: Aldo Leopold, Rachel Carson, and David Suzuki. Following a brief review of theoretical perspectives on transformative learning, the article argues that transformative…

  10. RESTful NET

    CERN Document Server

    Flanders, Jon

    2008-01-01

    RESTful .NET is the first book that teaches Windows developers to build RESTful web services using the latest Microsoft tools. Written by Windows Communication Foundation (WFC) expert Jon Flanders, this hands-on tutorial demonstrates how you can use WCF and other components of the .NET 3.5 Framework to build, deploy and use REST-based web services in a variety of application scenarios. RESTful architecture offers a simpler approach to building web services than SOAP, SOA, and the cumbersome WS- stack. And WCF has proven to be a flexible technology for building distributed systems not necessa

  11. Petri Nets

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Associate Professor of. Computer Science and. Automation at the Indian. Institute of Science,. Bangalore. His research interests are broadly in the areas of stochastic modeling and scheduling methodologies for future factories; and object oriented modeling. GENERAL I ARTICLE. Petri Nets. 1. Overview and Foundations.

  12. Petri Nets

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 4; Issue 8. Petri Nets - Overview and Foundations. Y Narahari. General Article Volume 4 Issue 8 August 1999 pp ... Author Affiliations. Y Narahari1. Department ot Computer Science and Automation, Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore 560 012, India.

  13. Western Alaska ESI: BIRDS (Bird Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for wading birds, shorebirds, waterfowl, raptors, diving birds, seabirds, passerine birds, and gulls and...

  14. Columbia River ESI: BIRDS (Bird Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for wading birds, shorebirds, waterfowl, diving birds, seabirds, passerine birds, gulls, and terns in...

  15. Sentinel birds in wild-bird resting sites as potential indicators for West Nile virus infections in Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziegler, Ute; Seidowski, Diana; Globig, Anja; Fereidouni, Sasan R; Ulrich, Rainer G; Groschup, Martin H

    2010-06-01

    West Nile virus (WNV) is a mosquito-transmitted flavivirus with wild birds as its natural hosts. Ravens, falcons and jays are highly susceptible for WNV and develop deadly encephalitis, while other bird species undergo only subclinical infections. Migratory birds are efficient vectors for geographic spreading of WNV. Until now, WNV infections have not been diagnosed in Germany, but infections in humans and horses have occurred recently in Austria, Hungary and Italy. To investigate potential WNV introduction by infected wild birds, we have monitored the serological status of ducks in three national sentinel stations. No WNV-positive reactions were found, whereas sera from coots from northern Iran were positive.

  16. Factors influencing phototaxis in nocturnal migrating birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Xuebing; Chen, Mingyan; Wu, Zhaolu; Wang, Zijiang

    2014-12-01

    Many migratory bird species fly during the night (nocturnal migrants) and have been shown to display some phototaxis to artificial light. During 2006 to 2009, we investigated phototaxis in nocturnal migrants at Jinshan Yakou in Xinping County (N23°56', E101°30'; 2400 m above sea-level), and at the Niaowang Mountain in Funing County (N23°30', E105°35'; 1400 m above sea-level), both in the Yunnan Province of Southwest China. A total of 5069 birds, representing 129 species, were captured by mist-netting and artificial light. The extent of phototaxis effect on bird migration was examined during all four seasons, three phases of the moon, and under two weather conditions (mist and wind). Data were statistically analyzed to determine the extent to which these factors may impact phototaxis of nocturnal migrants. The results point to phototaxis in birds migrating in the spring and autumn, especially in the autumn. Furthermore, migrating birds were more readily attracted to artificial lights during nights with little moonlight, mist, and a headwind. Regardless of the initial orientation in which birds flew, either following the wind or against the wind, birds would always fly against the wind when flying towards the light. This study broadens our understanding of the nocturnal bird migration, potentially resulting in improved bird ringing practices, increased awareness, and better policies regarding bird protection.

  17. Anthrax, People and Dead Hippos

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2017-11-07

    Epidemiologist, Dr. Melissa Marx, discuses anthrax deaths in people who ate dead hippos.  Created: 11/7/2017 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).   Date Released: 11/7/2017.

  18. Climate change and dead zones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altieri, Andrew H; Gedan, Keryn B

    2015-04-01

    Estuaries and coastal seas provide valuable ecosystem services but are particularly vulnerable to the co-occurring threats of climate change and oxygen-depleted dead zones. We analyzed the severity of climate change predicted for existing dead zones, and found that 94% of dead zones are in regions that will experience at least a 2 °C temperature increase by the end of the century. We then reviewed how climate change will exacerbate hypoxic conditions through oceanographic, ecological, and physiological processes. We found evidence that suggests numerous climate variables including temperature, ocean acidification, sea-level rise, precipitation, wind, and storm patterns will affect dead zones, and that each of those factors has the potential to act through multiple pathways on both oxygen availability and ecological responses to hypoxia. Given the variety and strength of the mechanisms by which climate change exacerbates hypoxia, and the rates at which climate is changing, we posit that climate change variables are contributing to the dead zone epidemic by acting synergistically with one another and with recognized anthropogenic triggers of hypoxia including eutrophication. This suggests that a multidisciplinary, integrated approach that considers the full range of climate variables is needed to track and potentially reverse the spread of dead zones. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Dead Star Rumbles

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Composite of Supernova Remnant Cassiopeia A This Spitzer Space Telescope composite shows the supernova remnant Cassiopeia A (white ball) and surrounding clouds of dust (gray, orange and blue). It consists of two processed images taken one year apart. Dust features that have not changed over time appear gray, while those that have changed are colored blue or orange. Blue represents an earlier time and orange, a later time. These observations illustrate that a blast of light from Cassiopeia A is waltzing outward through the dusty skies. This dance, called an 'infrared echo,' began when the remnant erupted about 50 years ago. Cassiopeia A is the remnant of a once massive star that died in a violent supernova explosion 325 years ago. It consists of a dead star, called a neutron star, and a surrounding shell of material that was blasted off as the star died. This remnant is located 10,000 light-years away in the northern constellation Cassiopeia. An infrared echo is created when a star explodes or erupts, flashing light into surrounding clumps of dust. As the light zips through the dust clumps, it heats them up, causing them to glow successively in infrared, like a chain of Christmas bulbs lighting up one by one. The result is an optical illusion, in which the dust appears to be flying outward at the speed of light. This apparent motion can be seen here by the shift in colored dust clumps. Echoes are distinct from supernova shockwaves, which are made up material that is swept up and hurled outward by exploding stars. This infrared echo is the largest ever seen, stretching more than 50 light-years away from Cassiopeia A. If viewed from Earth, the entire movie frame would take up the same amount of space as two full moons. Hints of an older infrared echo from Cassiopeia A's supernova explosion hundreds of years ago can also be seen. The earlier Spitzer image was taken on November 30, 2003, and the later, on December 2, 2004.

  20. Comparing factors associated with total and dead sooty shearwater bycatch in New Zealand trawl fisheries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Uhlmann, S.S.; Jeschke, J.M.

    2011-01-01

    Incidental capture of seabirds is a conservation concern because such periodic ‘bycatch’ may cause population declines. Not all birds die upon capture, but distinctions between total and dead captures are rarely done. Thus, it is currently unclear whether using total captures is an adequate

  1. 46 CFR 171.117 - Dead covers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Dead covers. 171.117 Section 171.117 Shipping COAST... Dead covers. (a) Except as provided in paragraph (b) of this section, each port light with the sill located below the margin line must have a hinged, inside dead cover. (b) The dead cover on a port light...

  2. Dead sea asphalts: historical aspects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nissenbaum, A.

    1978-05-01

    Asphalts are present in the Dead Sea basin in three forms: (1) huge blocks, up to 100 tons in weight, composed of extremely pure (>99.99%) solid asphalt occasionally found floating on the lake, (2) veins, seepages, and cavity and fissure fillings in Lower Cretaceous to Holocene rocks, and (3) ozocerite veins on the eastern shore of the lake. Dead Sea asphalts probably have been documented over a longer period of time than any other hydrocarbon deposit--from antiquity to the 19th century. Major uses of asphalt from the Dead Sea have been as an ingredient in the embalming process, for medicinal purposes, for fumigation, and for agriculture. The first known war for control of a hydrocarbon deposit was in the Dead Sea area in 312 B.C. between the Seleucid Syrians and the Nabatean Arabs who lived around the lake. Surface manifestations of asphalt are linked closely to tectonic activity. In the lake itself, the asphalt is associated with diapirs During certain historic periods, tectonic and diapiric activity caused frequent liberation to the Dead Sea surface of semiliquid asphalt associated with large amounts of hydrogen sulfide gas. When the tectonic activity was attenuated, as in the 19th and 20th centuries, the rate of asphalt seepage to the bottom sediments of the Dead Sea was much slower and the asphalt solidified on the lake bottom. The release of asphalt to the surface became much more sporadic, and may have resulted in part from earthquakes. Thus, future asphalt prospecting in the Dead Sea area should be conducted along the boundaries of diapirs or their associated faults.

  3. Lead Poisoning in Wild Birds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lahner, Lesanna L.; Franson, J. Christian

    2009-01-01

    Lead in its various forms has been used for thousands of years, originally in cooking utensils and glazes and more recently in many industrial and commercial applications. However, lead is a potent, potentially deadly toxin that damages many organs in the body and can affect all animals, including humans. By the mid 1990s, lead had been removed from many products in the United States, such as paint and fuel, but it is still commonly used in ammunition for hunting upland game birds, small mammals, and large game animals, as well as in fishing tackle. Wild birds, such as mourning doves, bald eagles, California condors, and loons, can die from the ingestion of one lead shot, bullet fragment, or sinker. According to a recent study on loon mortality, nearly half of adult loons found sick or dead during the breeding season in New England were diagnosed with confirmed or suspected lead poisoning from ingestion of lead fishing weights. Recent regulations in some states have restricted the use of lead ammunition on certain upland game hunting areas, as well as lead fishing tackle in areas frequented by common loons and trumpeter swans. A variety of alternatives to lead are available for use in hunting, shooting sports, and fishing activities.

  4. Pribilof Birds (Bering Sea) Zooplankton Data Sets (NODC Accession 0000135)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Various of data on Pribilof birds were collected using net and flow meter casts from the ALPHA HELIX in the Bering Sea. Data were collected from 08 August 1989 to 28...

  5. Assessment and management of dead-wood habitat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagar, Joan

    2007-01-01

    ; Marcot, 2003). For example, by puncturing bark and fragmenting sapwood, woodpeckers create sites favorable for wood-decaying organisms (Farris et al., 2004), which in turn create habitat for other species and facilitate nutrient cycling. Small mammals that use down wood for cover function in the dispersal of plant seeds and fungal spores (Carey et al., 1999). Resident cavitynesting birds may regulate insect populations by preying on overwintering arthropods (Jackson, 1979; Kroll and Fleet, 1979). These examples illustrate how dead wood not only directly provides habitat for a large number of wildlife species, but also forms the foundation of functional webs that critically influence forest ecosystems (Marcot, 2002; Marcot, 2003). The important and far-reaching implications of management of decaying wood highlight the need for conservation of dead-wood resources in managed forests. Consideration of the key ecological functions of species associated with dead wood can help guide management of dead wood in a framework consistent with the paradigm of ecosystem management (Marcot and Vander Heyden, 2001; Marcot, 2002.) As more information is revealed about the ecological and habitat values of decaying wood, concern has increased over a reduction in the current amounts of dead wood relative to historic levels (Ohmann and Waddell, 2002). Past management practices have tended to severely reduce amounts of dead wood throughout all stages of forest development (Hansen et al., 1991). The large amounts of legacy wood that characterize young post-disturbance forests are not realized in managed stands, because most of the wood volume is removed at harvest for economic and safety reasons. Mid-rotation thinning is used to “salvage” some mortality that might otherwise occur due to suppression, so fewer snags are recruited in mid-seral stages. Harvest rotations of 80 years or less truncate tree size in managed stands, and thus limit the production of large-diameter wood. As a

  6. The Right to be Dead

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sabra, Jakob Borrits; Troyer, John Eric

    2018-01-01

    illustrate our essay design arguments through the competition’s history and results. In our paper we argue that designing future cemeteries should focus on how spaces such as Arnos Vale represent a transitional hybrid space. A merger of the Victorian past with the digital present, in order to create a new...... kind of archival future. Future Cemeteries will ultimately become spaces where both dead humans and dead data are stored. The irony, of course, is that given current design conditions and limitations in thinking, Arnos Vale’s granite headstones will remain in situ long after today’s ‘internet’ has...

  7. Resurrecting Dead-water Phenomenon

    CERN Document Server

    Mercier, Matthieu; Dauxois, Thierry

    2011-01-01

    We revisit experimental studies performed by Ekman on dead-water using modern techniques in order to present new insights on this peculiar phenomenon. We extend its description to more general situations such as a three-layer fluid or a linearly stratified fluid in presence of a pycnocline, showing the robustness of dead-water phenomenon. We observe large amplitude nonlinear internal waves which are coupled to the boat dynamics, and we emphasize that the modeling of the wave-induced drag requires more analysis, taking into account nonlinear effects.

  8. 9 CFR 93.104 - Certificate for pet birds, commercial birds, zoological birds, and research birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Certificate for pet birds, commercial birds, zoological birds, and research birds. 93.104 Section 93.104 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL... (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS IMPORTATION OF CERTAIN ANIMALS, BIRDS, FISH, AND POULTRY, AND CERTAIN...

  9. Understorey bird abundance and diversity before and after a forest ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In July 2010 an assessment of abundance and diversity of understorey birds was undertaken in Mangala Forest using mist netting. However, in October 2010 a non-intentional fire burned the entire forest and this event provided a good opportunity to assess the extent to which birds were affected. Assessment, using mist ...

  10. Understorey bird abundance and diversity before and after a forest ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Summary. In July 2010 an assessment of abundance and diversity of understorey birds was un- dertaken in Mangala Forest using mist netting. However, in October 2010 a non-in- tentional fire burned the entire forest and this event provided a good opportunity to assess the extent to which birds were affected. Assessment ...

  11. Migration of birds

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report covers the migration of birds. Topics covered include why birds migrate, when birds migrate, speed, altitude, courses, distance, major flyways and...

  12. 32 CFR 632.4 - Deadly force.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Deadly force. 632.4 Section 632.4 National... INVESTIGATIONS USE OF FORCE BY PERSONNEL ENGAGED IN LAW ENFORCEMENT AND SECURITY DUTIES § 632.4 Deadly force. (a) Deadly force is destructive physical force directed against a person or persons (e.g., firing a lethal...

  13. Global risk of deadly heat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mora, Camilo; Dousset, Bénédicte; Caldwell, Iain R.; Powell, Farrah E.; Geronimo, Rollan C.; Bielecki, Coral R.; Counsell, Chelsie W. W.; Dietrich, Bonnie S.; Johnston, Emily T.; Louis, Leo V.; Lucas, Matthew P.; McKenzie, Marie M.; Shea, Alessandra G.; Tseng, Han; Giambelluca, Thomas W.; Leon, Lisa R.; Hawkins, Ed; Trauernicht, Clay

    2017-07-01

    Climate change can increase the risk of conditions that exceed human thermoregulatory capacity. Although numerous studies report increased mortality associated with extreme heat events, quantifying the global risk of heat-related mortality remains challenging due to a lack of comparable data on heat-related deaths. Here we conducted a global analysis of documented lethal heat events to identify the climatic conditions associated with human death and then quantified the current and projected occurrence of such deadly climatic conditions worldwide. We reviewed papers published between 1980 and 2014, and found 783 cases of excess human mortality associated with heat from 164 cities in 36 countries. Based on the climatic conditions of those lethal heat events, we identified a global threshold beyond which daily mean surface air temperature and relative humidity become deadly. Around 30% of the world's population is currently exposed to climatic conditions exceeding this deadly threshold for at least 20 days a year. By 2100, this percentage is projected to increase to ~48% under a scenario with drastic reductions of greenhouse gas emissions and ~74% under a scenario of growing emissions. An increasing threat to human life from excess heat now seems almost inevitable, but will be greatly aggravated if greenhouse gases are not considerably reduced.

  14. West Nile Virus and Usutu Virus Monitoring of Wild Birds in Germany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Friederike Michel

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available By systematically setting up a unique nation-wide wild bird surveillance network, we monitored migratory and resident birds for zoonotic arthropod-borne virus infections, such as the flaviviruses West Nile virus (WNV and Usutu virus (USUV. More than 1900 wild bird blood samples, from 20 orders and 136 different bird species, were collected between 2014 and 2016. Samples were investigated by WNV and USUV-specific real-time polymerase chain reactions as well as by differentiating virus neutralization tests. Dead bird surveillance data, obtained from organ investigations in 2016, were also included. WNV-specific RNA was not detected, whereas four wild bird blood samples tested positive for USUV-specific RNA. Additionally, 73 USUV-positive birds were detected in the 2016 dead bird surveillance. WNV neutralizing antibodies were predominantly found in long-distance, partial and short-distance migrants, while USUV neutralizing antibodies were mainly detected in resident wild bird species, preferentially with low seroprevalences. To date, WNV-specific RNA has neither been detected in wild birds, nor in mosquitoes, thus, we conclude that WNV is not yet present in Germany. Continued wild bird and mosquito monitoring studies are essential to detect the incursion of zoonotic viruses and to allow risk assessments for zoonotic pathogens.

  15. Is Piaget's epistemic subject dead?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawson, Anton E.

    Niaz (1990) presents arguments in favor of the retention of Piaget's epistemic subject as a theoretical construct to guide research and practice in science education and psychology. The intent of this article is to point out the weaknesses of those arguments and to suggest that the weight of evidence argues against the existence of the logical thinker postulated by Piaget. Therefore, contrary to Niaz's conclusion that the acceptance of Piaget's epistemic subject will facilitate the development of cognitive theories with greater explanatory power, the conclusion is reached that Piaget's epistemic subject is dead and that continued acceptance of this aspect of Piagetian theory would be counterproductive.

  16. Surveillance for highly pathogenic avian influenza virus in wild birds during outbreaks in domestic poultry, Minnesota, 2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jennelle, Christopher S.; Carstensen, Michelle; Hildebrand, Erik C.; Cornicelli, Louis; Wolf, Paul C.; Grear, Daniel A.; Ip, Hon S.; VanDalen, Kaci K.; Minicucci, Larissa A.

    2016-01-01

    In 2015, a major outbreak of highly pathogenic avian influenza virus (HPAIV) infection devastated poultry facilities in Minnesota, USA. To clarify the role of wild birds, we tested 3,139 waterfowl fecal samples and 104 sick and dead birds during March 9–June 4, 2015. HPAIV was isolated from a Cooper’s hawk but not from waterfowl.

  17. NA-NET numerical analysis net

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dongarra, J. [Tennessee Univ., Knoxville, TN (United States). Dept. of Computer Science]|[Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Rosener, B. [Tennessee Univ., Knoxville, TN (United States). Dept. of Computer Science

    1991-12-01

    This report describes a facility called NA-NET created to allow numerical analysts (na) an easy method of communicating with one another. The main advantage of the NA-NET is uniformity of addressing. All mail is addressed to the Internet host ``na-net.ornl.gov`` at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Hence, members of the NA-NET do not need to remember complicated addresses or even where a member is currently located. As long as moving members change their e-mail address in the NA-NET everything works smoothly. The NA-NET system is currently located at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. It is running on the same machine that serves netlib. Netlib is a separate facility that distributes mathematical software via electronic mail. For more information on netlib consult, or send the one-line message ``send index`` to netlib{at}ornl.gov. The following report describes the current NA-NET system from both a user`s perspective and from an implementation perspective. Currently, there are over 2100 members in the NA-NET. An average of 110 mail messages pass through this facility daily.

  18. NA-NET numerical analysis net

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dongarra, J. (Tennessee Univ., Knoxville, TN (United States). Dept. of Computer Science Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)); Rosener, B. (Tennessee Univ., Knoxville, TN (United States). Dept. of Computer Science)

    1991-12-01

    This report describes a facility called NA-NET created to allow numerical analysts (na) an easy method of communicating with one another. The main advantage of the NA-NET is uniformity of addressing. All mail is addressed to the Internet host na-net.ornl.gov'' at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Hence, members of the NA-NET do not need to remember complicated addresses or even where a member is currently located. As long as moving members change their e-mail address in the NA-NET everything works smoothly. The NA-NET system is currently located at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. It is running on the same machine that serves netlib. Netlib is a separate facility that distributes mathematical software via electronic mail. For more information on netlib consult, or send the one-line message send index'' to netlib{at}ornl.gov. The following report describes the current NA-NET system from both a user's perspective and from an implementation perspective. Currently, there are over 2100 members in the NA-NET. An average of 110 mail messages pass through this facility daily.

  19. Bird Avoidance Model

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This is an unpublished report on the bird avoidance model to predict bird strike hazards with low flying aircraft. Included is peak periods for different species of...

  20. Outbreak of type C botulism in captive wild birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raymundo, Djeison L; Von Hohendorf, Raquel; Boabaid, Fabiana M; Both, Maria C; Sonne, Luciana; Assis, Ronnie A; Caldas, Rogerio P; Driemeier, David

    2012-06-01

    In late summer 2010, an outbreak of type C botulism affected the birds kept in a dam at a southern Brazilian zoo. A total of 14(10 black-necked swans, Cygnus melancoryphus; 3 Muscovy ducks, Cairina moschata; and 1 fulvous whistling-duck, Dendrocygna bicolor) out of 100 birds died after showing flaccid paralysis of the skeletal muscles characterized by general locomotion deficit, flight and swimming disorders, dropped neck, and severe dyspnea. Carcasses of dead birds (some infested by larvae of sarcophagus fly) scattered in the bird enclosure, and oxygen-free, organically rich mud and/or shallow standing waters present at the edges of the weir were identified as possible toxin sources. Postmortem examinations revealed no significant pathological changes. Epidemiologic and clinical findings indicated the diagnosis of type C botulism toxin, which was confirmed by mouse bioassay and seroneutralization.

  1. Bird community composition

    Science.gov (United States)

    T.J. Antrobus; M.P. Guilfoyle; W.C. Barrow; Paul B. Hamel; J.S. Wakeley

    2000-01-01

    Neotropical migrants are birds that breed in North America and winter primarily in Central and South America. Longterm population studies of birds in the Eastern United States indicated declines of some forest-dwelling birds, many of which winter in the Neotropics (Peterjohn and others 1995). These declines were attributed to loss of wintering and breeding habitat due...

  2. Birds and music

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L Amini

    2009-03-01

    Through research in old mythological narrations, and literary texts, one could assume an intrinsic relationship between music and such sweet-singing mythological birds as phoenix, sphinx, Song-song, holy birds like Kership-tah, and other birds including swan and ring dove.

  3. More Dead than Dead: Perceptions of Persons in the Persistent Vegetative State

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, Kurt; Knickman, T. Anne; Wegner, Daniel M.

    2011-01-01

    Patients in persistent vegetative state (PVS) may be biologically alive, but these experiments indicate that people see PVS as a state curiously more dead than dead. Experiment 1 found that PVS patients were perceived to have less mental capacity than the dead. Experiment 2 explained this effect as an outgrowth of afterlife beliefs, and the…

  4. Net Ecosystem Carbon Flux

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Net Ecosystem Carbon Flux is defined as the year-over-year change in Total Ecosystem Carbon Stock, or the net rate of carbon exchange between an ecosystem and the...

  5. Birds, Montane forest, State of Rio de Janeiro, Southeastern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Foster, A.

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Field surveys in montane Atlantic forest of Rio de Janeiro state, Brazil, provided a list of 82 bird species in four sitesvisited. Our protocol relied on standardized use of mist nets and observations. The birds recorded include 40 Atlanticforest endemics, three globally and two nationally Vulnerable species, and two regionally Endangered species. Data onspecies elevation are included and discussed. This work enhances baseline knowledge of these species to assist futurestudies in these poorly understood, but biologically important areas.

  6. 42 CFR 71.55 - Dead bodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Dead bodies. 71.55 Section 71.55 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES QUARANTINE, INSPECTION, LICENSING FOREIGN QUARANTINE Importations § 71.55 Dead bodies. The remains of a person who died of a communicable disease...

  7. 49 CFR 236.798 - Section, dead.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Section, dead. 236.798 Section 236.798 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION... Section, dead. A section of track, either within a track circuit or between two track circuits, the rails...

  8. Professional Enterprise NET

    CERN Document Server

    Arking, Jon

    2010-01-01

    Comprehensive coverage to help experienced .NET developers create flexible, extensible enterprise application code If you're an experienced Microsoft .NET developer, you'll find in this book a road map to the latest enterprise development methodologies. It covers the tools you will use in addition to Visual Studio, including Spring.NET and nUnit, and applies to development with ASP.NET, C#, VB, Office (VBA), and database. You will find comprehensive coverage of the tools and practices that professional .NET developers need to master in order to build enterprise more flexible, testable, and ext

  9. North Slope, Alaska ESI: BIRDS (Bird Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for diving birds, gulls and terns, seabirds, shorebirds, and waterfowl for the North Slope of Alaska....

  10. American Samoa ESI: BIRDS (Bird Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for seabirds, wading birds, shorebirds, waterfowl, and gulls and terns in American Samoa. Vector polygons...

  11. 9 CFR 82.6 - Interstate movement of dead birds and dead poultry from a quarantined area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... interstate are submitted so that a copy is received by the State animal health official and the veterinarian... manner that ensures that no cross-contamination with potentially infectious materials, such as raw or... received by the State animal health official and the veterinarian in charge for the State of destination...

  12. Surveillance for avian influenza viruses in wild birds in Denmark and Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjulsager, Charlotte Kristiane; Breum, Solvej Østergaard; Trebbien, Ramona

    viruses of both high pathogenic AI (HPAI) subtypes H5 and H7, and low pathogenic AI (LPAI). Captured live wild birds and shot game birds were sampled by swabbing of the oropharyngeal and/or cloacal tracts, or swabs were collected from faecal droppings. In DK, most samples were collected in major staging......Avian influenza (AI) is a disease of major threat to poultry production. Surveillance of AI in wild birds contributes to the control of AI. In Denmark (DK) and Greenland (GL), extensive surveillance of AI viruses in the wild bird population has been conducted. The surveillance aimed at detecting...... dead. During 2007-2010, 2926 live wild birds from GL were tested. Swab samples were tested by RT-PCR and culturing. Positive samples were subtyped and the pathogenicity was determined by HA cleavage site sequencing. HPAI H5N1 was detected only during spring 2006, in 44 wild birds from DK. LPAI H5 and H...

  13. De Plein Fouet: Is Strategy Dead?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-06-01

    10 | Air & Space Power Journal De Plein Fouet: Is Strategy Dead ? Robert Cardillo Richard Szafranski Disclaimer: The views and opinions expressed or...of French Artillery Instructors in the U.S. Army.”1 Let’s fire directly at the idea of strategy. The hypothesis is that strategy is dead , and that’s...TYPE 3. DATES COVERED 00-00-2015 to 00-00-2015 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE De Plein Fouet: Is Strategy Dead ? 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c

  14. Aerodynamics of Bird Flight

    OpenAIRE

    Dvořák Rudolf

    2014-01-01

    Unlike airplanes birds must have either flapping or oscillating wings (the hummingbird). Only such wings can produce both lift and thrust – two sine qua non attributes of flying.The bird wings have several possibilities how to obtain the same functions as airplane wings. All are realized by the system of flight feathers. Birds have also the capabilities of adjusting the shape of the wing according to what the immediate flight situation demands, as well as of responding almost immediately to c...

  15. Open ocean dead zones in the tropical North Atlantic Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karstensen, J.; Fiedler, B.; Schütte, F.; Brandt, P.; Körtzinger, A.; Fischer, G.; Zantopp, R.; Hahn, J.; Visbeck, M.; Wallace, D.

    2015-04-01

    Here we present first observations, from instrumentation installed on moorings and a float, of unexpectedly low (zones are created at shallow depth, just below the mixed layer, in the euphotic zone of cyclonic eddies and anticyclonic-modewater eddies. Both types of eddies are prone to high surface productivity. Net respiration rates for the eddies are found to be 3 to 5 times higher when compared with surrounding waters. Oxygen is lowest in the centre of the eddies, in a depth range where the swirl velocity, defining the transition between eddy and surroundings, has its maximum. It is assumed that the strong velocity at the outer rim of the eddies hampers the transport of properties across the eddies boundary and as such isolates their cores. This is supported by a remarkably stable hydrographic structure of the eddies core over periods of several months. The eddies propagate westward, at about 4 to 5 km day-1, from their generation region off the West African coast into the open ocean. High productivity and accompanying respiration, paired with sluggish exchange across the eddy boundary, create the "dead zone" inside the eddies, so far only reported for coastal areas or lakes. We observe a direct impact of the open ocean dead zones on the marine ecosystem as such that the diurnal vertical migration of zooplankton is suppressed inside the eddies.

  16. The responses of understorey birds to forest fragmentation, logging and wildfires: An Amazonian synthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    J. Barlow; C. A. Peres; L. M. P. Henr¡ques; P. C. Stouffer; J. M. Wunderle

    2006-01-01

    We combine mist-net data from 24 disturbance treatments taken from seven studies on the responses of understorey Amazonian birds to selective logging, single and recurrent wildfires, and habitat fragmentation. The different disturbance treatments had distinct effects on avian guild structure, and fire disturbance and the isolation of forest patches resulted in bird...

  17. WaveNet

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-10-30

    Coastal Inlets Research Program WaveNet WaveNet is a web-based, Graphical-User-Interface ( GUI ) data management tool developed for Corps coastal...generates tabular and graphical information for project planning and design documents. The WaveNet is a web-based GUI designed to provide users with a...data from different sources, and employs a combination of Fortran, Python and Matlab codes to process and analyze data for USACE applications

  18. Coloured Petri Nets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Kurt

    1991-01-01

    This paper describes how Coloured Petri Nets (CP-nets) have been developed — from being a promising theoretical model to being a full-fledged language for the design, specification, simulation, validation and implementation of large software systems (and other systems in which human beings and...... use of CP-nets — because it means that the function representation and the translations (which are a bit mathematically complex) no longer are parts of the basic definition of CP-nets. Instead they are parts of the invariant method (which anyway demands considerable mathematical skills...

  19. Game Coloured Petri Nets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Westergaard, Michael

    2006-01-01

    This paper introduces the notion of game coloured Petri nets. This allows the modeler to explicitly model what parts of the model comprise the modeled system and what parts are the environment of the modeled system. We give the formal definition of game coloured Petri nets, a means of reachability...... analysis of this net class, and an application of game coloured Petri nets to automatically generate easy-to-understand visualizations of the model by exploiting the knowledge that some parts of the model are not interesting from a visualization perspective (i.e. they are part of the environment...

  20. Programming NET Web Services

    CERN Document Server

    Ferrara, Alex

    2007-01-01

    Web services are poised to become a key technology for a wide range of Internet-enabled applications, spanning everything from straight B2B systems to mobile devices and proprietary in-house software. While there are several tools and platforms that can be used for building web services, developers are finding a powerful tool in Microsoft's .NET Framework and Visual Studio .NET. Designed from scratch to support the development of web services, the .NET Framework simplifies the process--programmers find that tasks that took an hour using the SOAP Toolkit take just minutes. Programming .NET

  1. Annotating Coloured Petri Nets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindstrøm, Bo; Wells, Lisa Marie

    2002-01-01

    -net. An example of such auxiliary information is a counter which is associated with a token to be able to do performance analysis. Modifying colour sets and arc inscriptions in a CP-net to support a specific use may lead to creation of several slightly different CP-nets – only to support the different uses...... a method which makes it possible to associate auxiliary information, called annotations, with tokens without modifying the colour sets of the CP-net. Annotations are pieces of information that are not essential for determining the behaviour of the system being modelled, but are rather added to support...

  2. Extreme Heat in Southwest a Deadly Threat

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_166797.html Extreme Heat in Southwest a Deadly Threat Here's how to ... t take off in Phoenix on Tuesday, the heat wave scorching the Southwest for the next week ...

  3. Surviving Sepsis: Taming a Deadly Immune Response

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Issues Subscribe August 2014 Print this issue Surviving Sepsis Taming a Deadly Immune Response En español Send ... Mouth? Looking at Lupus Wise Choices Signs of Sepsis Sepsis can be hard to spot, because its ...

  4. Dead cell phagocytosis and innate immune checkpoint

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Kyoung Wan

    2017-01-01

    The human body loses several billions of cells daily. When cells die in vivo, the corpse of each dead cell is immediately cleared. Specifically, dead cells are efficiently recognized and cleared by multiple types of neighboring phagocytes. Early research on cell death focused more on molecular mechanisms of cell death regulation while the cellular corpses were merely considered cellular debris. However, it has come to light that various biological stimuli following cell death are important for immune regulation. Clearance of normal dead cells occurs silently in immune tolerance. Exogenous or mutated antigens of malignant or infected cells can initiate adaptive immunity, thereby inducing immunogenicity by adjuvant signals. Several pathogens and cancer cells have strategies to limit the adjuvant signals and escape immune surveillance. In this review, we present an overview of the mechanisms of dead cell clearance and its immune regulations. PMID:28768566

  5. The dead donor rule: a defense.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birch, Samuel C M

    2013-08-01

    Miller, Truog, and Brock have recently argued that the "dead donor rule," the requirement that donors be determined to be dead before vital organs are procured for transplantation, cannot withstand ethical scrutiny. In their view, the dead donor rule is inconsistent with existing life-saving practices of organ transplantation, lacks a cogent ethical rationale, and is not necessary for maintenance of public trust in organ transplantation. In this paper, the second of these claims will be evaluated. (The first and third are not addressed.) The claim that the dead donor rule lacks a cogent ethical rationale will be shown to be an expression of the contemporary rejection of the moral significance of the traditional distinction between killing and allowing to die. The moral significance of this traditional distinction, and the associated norm that doctors should not kill their patients, will be defended, and this critique of it shown to be unsuccessful.

  6. Fentanyl Patch Can Be Deadly to Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Products For Consumers Home For Consumers Consumer Updates Fentanyl Patch Can Be Deadly to Children Share Tweet ... from accidental exposure to a skin patch containing fentanyl, a powerful pain reliever. As a result of ...

  7. Could 'Safer' Filtered Cigarettes Be More Deadly?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... gov/news/fullstory_165825.html Could 'Safer' Filtered Cigarettes Be More Deadly? New report suggests they're ... 2017 MONDAY, May 22, 2017 (HealthDay News) -- Filtered cigarettes might be even more lethal than unfiltered ones, ...

  8. Dead pixel replacement in LWIR microgrid polarimeters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratliff, Bradley M; Tyo, J Scott; Boger, James K; Black, Wiley T; Bowers, David L; Fetrow, Matthew P

    2007-06-11

    LWIR imaging arrays are often affected by nonresponsive pixels, or "dead pixels." These dead pixels can severely degrade the quality of imagery and often have to be replaced before subsequent image processing and display of the imagery data. For LWIR arrays that are integrated with arrays of micropolarizers, the problem of dead pixels is amplified. Conventional dead pixel replacement (DPR) strategies cannot be employed since neighboring pixels are of different polarizations. In this paper we present two DPR schemes. The first is a modified nearest-neighbor replacement method. The second is a method based on redundancy in the polarization measurements.We find that the redundancy-based DPR scheme provides an order-of-magnitude better performance for typical LWIR polarimetric data.

  9. Coastal Resources Atlas: Long Island: BIRDS (Bird Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for wading birds, shorebirds, waterfowl, raptors, diving birds, seabirds, passerine birds, and gulls and...

  10. Guam and the Northern Mariana Islands ESI: BIRDS (Bird Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for pelagic birds, shorebirds, wading birds, waterfowl, gulls, terns, and passerine birds in Guam and the...

  11. Aquatic bird disease and mortality as an indicator of changing ecosystem health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newman, Scott H.; Chmura, Aleksei; Converse, Kathy; Kilpatrick, A. Marm; Patel, Nikkita; Lammers, Emily; Daszak, Peter

    2007-01-01

    We analyzed data from pathologic investigations in the United States, collected by the USGS National Wildlife Health Center between 1971 and 2005, into aquatic bird mortality events. A total of 3619 mortality events was documented for aquatic birds, involving at least 633 708 dead birds from 158 species belonging to 23 families. Environmental causes accounted for the largest proportion of mortality events (1737 or 48%) and dead birds (437 258 or 69%); these numbers increased between 1971 and 2000, with biotoxin mortalities due to botulinum intoxication (Types C and E) being the leading cause of death. Infectious diseases were the second leading cause of mortality events (20%) and dead birds (20%), with both viral diseases, including duck plague (Herpes virus), paramyxovirus of cormorants (Paramyxovirus PMV1) and West Nile virus (Flavivirus), and bacterial diseases, including avian cholera (Pasteurella multocida), chlamydiosis (Chalmydia psittici), and salmonellosis (Salmonella sp.), contributing. Pelagic, coastal marine birds and species that use marine and freshwater habitats were impacted most frequently by environmental causes of death, with biotoxin exposure, primarily botulinum toxin, resulting in mortalities of both coastal and freshwater species. Pelagic birds were impacted most severely by emaciation and starvation, which may reflect increased anthropogenic pressure on the marine habitat from over-fishing, pollution, and other factors. Our study provides important information on broad trends in aquatic bird mortality and highlights how long-term wildlife disease studies can be used to identify anthropogenic threats to wildlife conservation and ecosystem health. In particular, mortality data for the past 30 yr suggest that biotoxins, viral, and bacterial diseases could have impacted >5 million aquatic birds.

  12. Spring Bird Migration Phenology in Eilat, Israel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reuven Yosef

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Analysis of the mean date of first captures and median arrival dates of spring migration for 34 species of birds at Eilat, Israel, revealed that the earlier a species migrates through Eilat, the greater is the inter-annual variation in the total time of its passage. Birds arrive during spring migration in Eilat in four structured and independent waves. The annual fluctuation in the initial arrival dates (initial capture dates and median dates (median date of all captures, not including recaptures, did not depend on the length of the migratory route. This implies that migrants crossing the Sahara desert depart from their winter quarters on different Julian days in different years. We suggest that negative correlations between the median date of the spring migration of early and late migrants depends upon the easterly (Hamsin wind period. Moreover, we believe that the phenology of all birds during spring migration in Eilat is possibly also determined by external factors such as weather conditions on the African continent or global climatic processes in the Northern hemisphere. Orphean Warblers (Sylvia hortensis show a strong positive correlation (rs=-0.502 of initial capture date with calendar years, whereas other species such as Barred Warbler (S. nisoria; rs = -0.391 and Spotted Flycatcher (Muscicapa striata; rs = -0.398 display an insignificant trend. The Dead Sea Sparrow (Passer moabiticus and Red-Backed Shrike (Lanius collurio are positively correlated regarding initial arrival date and medians of spring migration.

  13. Urban bird conservation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Snep, Robbert P.H.; Kooijmans, Jip Louwe; Kwak, Robert G.M.; Foppen, Ruud P.B.; Parsons, Holly; Awasthy, Monica; Sierdsema, Henk L.K.; Marzluff, John M.; Fernandez-Juricic, Esteban; Laet, de Jenny

    2016-01-01

    Following the call from the United Nations Convention on Biological Diversity “Cities & Biodiversity Outlook” project to better preserve urban biodiversity, this paper presents stakeholder-specific statements for bird conservation in city environments. Based upon the current urban bird

  14. Understanding how birds navigate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Solov'yov, Ilia; Schulten, Klaus

    2009-01-01

    A proposed model for migrating birds' magnetic sense can withstand moderate orientational disorder of a key protein in the eye.......A proposed model for migrating birds' magnetic sense can withstand moderate orientational disorder of a key protein in the eye....

  15. The healing bird

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    said that it comes out at night hiding itself during the day. Aristophanes (444 - 380 BC) in The Birds mentioned the caladrius twice: '... did the hoopoe go into the thicket and utter its cry in imitation of the charadrius' and then later classed it with the water-birds '... the charadrie and other river-fowl bore water from below into the ...

  16. The healing bird

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Greek mythology it was a nondescript bird but in the medieval bestiaries it became pure white. The caladrius is used in the coats of arms of the South African Medical and Dental Council and also the Medical University of Soufhern Africa. These appear to be the first use of this medically significant bird in modern heraldry.

  17. Migratory Birds. Issue Pac.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fish and Wildlife Service (Dept. of Interior), Washington, DC.

    The materials in this educational packet are designed for use with students in grades 4 through 7. They consist of an overview, teaching guides and student data sheets for three activities, and a poster. The overview discusses why, how, where, and when birds migrate as well as problems birds encounter while migrating; the importance of research…

  18. Condition varies with habitat choice in postbreeding forest birds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott H. Stoleson

    2013-01-01

    Many birds that are experiencing population declines require extensive tracts of mature forest habitat for breeding. Recent work suggests that at least some may shift their habitat use to early-successional areas after nesting but before migration. I used constant-effort mist netting in regenerating clearcuts (4-8 years postcut) and dense mature-forest understories to...

  19. Survival rates in West African savanna birds | Stevens | Ostrich ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Despite widespread interest in life histories and the comparison of parameters between tropical and temperate regions, there are still relatively few multispecies studies assessing annual survival in Afrotropical species. We used data from systematic mist-netting of savanna birds in Nigeria, between 2001 and 2008, ...

  20. Net zero water

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Lindeque, M

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Is it possible to develop a building that uses a net zero amount of water? In recent years it has become evident that it is possible to have buildings that use a net zero amount of electricity. This is possible when the building is taken off...

  1. SolNet

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jordan, Ulrike; Vajen, Klaus; Bales, Chris

    2014-01-01

    SolNet, founded in 2006, is the first coordinated International PhD education program on Solar Thermal Engineering. The SolNet network is coordinated by the Institute of Thermal Engineering at Kassel University, Germany. The network offers PhD courses on solar heating and cooling, conference...

  2. Kunstige neurale net

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hørning, Annette

    1994-01-01

    Artiklen beskæftiger sig med muligheden for at anvende kunstige neurale net i forbindelse med datamatisk procession af naturligt sprog, specielt automatisk talegenkendelse.......Artiklen beskæftiger sig med muligheden for at anvende kunstige neurale net i forbindelse med datamatisk procession af naturligt sprog, specielt automatisk talegenkendelse....

  3. A geographic study of West Nile virus in humans, dead corvids and mosquitoes in Ontario using spatial scan statistics with a survival time application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas-Bachli, A L; Pearl, D L; Berke, O; Parmley, E J; Barker, I K

    2017-11-01

    Surveillance of West Nile virus (WNv) in Ontario has included passive reporting of human cases and testing of trapped mosquitoes and dead birds found by the public. The dead bird surveillance programme was limited to testing within a public health unit (PHU) until a small number of birds test positive. These dead corvid and mosquito surveillance programmes have not been compared for their ability to provide early warning in geographic areas where human cases occur each year. Spatial scan statistics were applied to time-to-event survival data based on first cases of WNv in found dead corvids, mosquitoes and humans. Clusters identified using raw data were compared to clusters based on model-adjusted survival times to evaluate whether geographic and sociodemographic factors influenced their distribution. Statistically significant (p space-time clusters of PHUs with faster time to detection were found using each surveillance data stream. During 2002-2004, the corvid surveillance programme outperformed the mosquito programme in terms of time to WNv detection, while the clusters of first-positive mosquito pools were more spatially similar to first human cases. In 2006, a cluster of first-positive dead corvids was located in northern PHUs and preceded a cluster of early human cases that was identified after controlling for the influence of geographic region and sociodemographic profile. © 2017 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  4. A broad scale analysis of tree risk, mitigation and potential habitat for cavity-nesting birds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brian Kane; Paige S. Warren; Susannah B. Lerman

    2015-01-01

    Trees in towns and cities provide habitat for wildlife. In particular, cavity-nesting birds nest in the deadand decayed stems and branches of these trees. The same dead and decayed stems and branches alsohave a greater likelihood of failure, which, in some circumstances, increases risk. We examined 1760trees in Baltimore, MD, USA and western MA, USA, assessing tree...

  5. Heavy fall of migrating land-birds on board of a ship off Central America

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roselaar, C.S.

    1976-01-01

    Between 4 and 7 October 1973, during a spell of unfavourable weather, 85 North American migratory birds were found dead on board a ship sailing between Costa Rica and Belize and in the roads of Belize. They were donated to the Institute of Taxonomic Zoology, University of Amsterdam, where they were

  6. Mesh size and bird capture rates in Mato Grosso do Sul State, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piratelli A.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Mist-nets alternating 36-mm and 61-mm mesh in woods and low vegetation of "cerrado" (Brazilian savanna tested bird-capture efficiency relative to bird length and mass. Of 1,296 birds captured and 102 species, 785 (93 species were with 36-m mesh and 511 (69 species with 61-mm mesh. The 61-mm mesh improved capture rates only for some larger species; so, in general, 36-mm mesh mist-nets are more appropriate for field work in "cerrado" areas.

  7. Mesh size and bird capture rates in Mato Grosso do Sul State, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Piratelli

    Full Text Available Mist-nets alternating 36-mm and 61-mm mesh in woods and low vegetation of "cerrado" (Brazilian savanna tested bird-capture efficiency relative to bird length and mass. Of 1,296 birds captured and 102 species, 785 (93 species were with 36-m mesh and 511 (69 species with 61-mm mesh. The 61-mm mesh improved capture rates only for some larger species; so, in general, 36-mm mesh mist-nets are more appropriate for field work in "cerrado" areas.

  8. Bird mortality during nocturnal migration over Lake Michigan: A case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diehl, Robert H.; Bates, John M.; Willard, David E.; Gnoske, Thomas P.

    2014-01-01

    Millions of birds die each year during migration. Most of this mortality goes unobserved and conditions surrounding the actual events are often not thoroughly documented. We present a case study of substantial migrant casualties along the shores of southwestern Lake Michigan during May 1996 when we found 2,981 dead birds of 114 species, mostly migrant passerines. An unusual sequence of events allowed us to document the circumstances surrounding this migratory bird kill. Bird carcasses appeared on the southwestern shores of Lake Michigan in the days following storm systems that produced high rain and in one case, hail. Encounters between birds and precipitation over open water were recorded by weather radar, and were followed by winds that drifted dead birds toward highly populated shorelines where the kill was observed and documented. Climatologically, May 1996 was exceptional for producing weather conditions that both killed birds en masse and allowed the mortality to be documented. As a result, this is one of the more thoroughly documented instances of a weather-related mass mortality event during migration.

  9. Fungal life in the dead sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oren, Aharon; Gunde-Cimerman, Nina

    2012-01-01

    The waters of the Dead Sea currently contain about 348 g/l salts (2 M Mg(2+), 0.5 M Ca(2+), 1.5 M Na(+), 0.2 M K(+), 6.5 M Cl(-), 0.1 M Br(-)). The pH is about 6.0. After rainy winters the surface waters become diluted, triggering development of microbial blooms. The 1980 and 1992 blooms were dominated by the unicellular green alga Dunaliella and red Archaea. At least 70 species (in 26 genera) of Oomycota (Chromista), Mucoromycotina, Ascomycota, and Basidiomycota (Fungi) were isolated from near-shore localities and offshore stations, including from deep waters. Aspergillus and Eurotium were most often recovered. Aspergillus terreus, A. sydowii, A. versicolor, Eurotium herbariorum, Penicillium westlingii, Cladosporium cladosporioides, C. sphaerospermum, C. ramnotellum, and C. halotolerans probably form the stable core of the community. The species Gymnascella marismortui may be endemic. Mycelia of Dead Sea isolates of A. versicolor and Chaetomium globosum remained viable for up to 8 weeks in Dead Sea water; mycelia of other species survived for many weeks in 50% Dead Sea water. Many isolates showed a very high tolerance to magnesium salts. There is no direct proof that fungi contribute to the heterotrophic activity in the Dead Sea, but fungi may be present at least locally and temporarily, and their enzymatic activities such as amylase, protease, and cellulase may play a role in the lake's ecosystem.

  10. Pro NET Best Practices

    CERN Document Server

    Ritchie, Stephen D

    2011-01-01

    Pro .NET Best Practices is a practical reference to the best practices that you can apply to your .NET projects today. You will learn standards, techniques, and conventions that are sharply focused, realistic and helpful for achieving results, steering clear of unproven, idealistic, and impractical recommendations. Pro .NET Best Practices covers a broad range of practices and principles that development experts agree are the right ways to develop software, which includes continuous integration, automated testing, automated deployment, and code analysis. Whether the solution is from a free and

  11. Getting to Net Zero

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2016-09-01

    The technology necessary to build net zero energy buildings (NZEBs) is ready and available today, however, building to net zero energy performance levels can be challenging. Energy efficiency measures, onsite energy generation resources, load matching and grid interaction, climatic factors, and local policies vary from location to location and require unique methods of constructing NZEBs. It is recommended that Components start looking into how to construct and operate NZEBs now as there is a learning curve to net zero construction and FY 2020 is just around the corner.

  12. Instant Lucene.NET

    CERN Document Server

    Heydt, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Filled with practical, step-by-step instructions and clear explanations for the most important and useful tasks. A step-by-step guide that helps you to index, search, and retrieve unstructured data with the help of Lucene.NET.Instant Lucene.NET How-to is essential for developers new to Lucene and Lucene.NET who are looking to get an immediate foundational understanding of how to use the library in their application. It's assumed you have programming experience in C# already, but not that you have experience with search techniques such as information retrieval theory (although there will be a l

  13. mathematical model for bird flu disease transmission with no bird ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Admin

    In this paper a mathematical model for the transmission dynamics of bird flu among birds and humans is presented. The model assumes that there is no migration of birds in the susceptible bird population immediately the disease starts. The model formulated is analyzed using dynamical systems theory. The analysis of the ...

  14. Mathematical model for bird flu disease transmission with no bird ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this paper a mathematical model for the transmission dynamics of bird flu among birds and humans is presented. The model assumes that there is no migration of birds in the susceptible bird population immediately the disease starts. The model formulated is analyzed using dynamical systems theory . The analysis of the ...

  15. Virtually Dead: Digital Public Mortuary Archaeology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Howard Williams

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Over recent decades, the ethics, politics and public engagements of mortuary archaeology have received sustained scrutiny, including how we handle, write about and display the archaeological dead. Yet the burgeoning use of digital media to engage different audiences in the archaeology of death and burial have so far escaped attention. This article explores categories and strategies by which digital media create virtual communities engaging with mortuary archaeology. Considering digital public mortuary archaeology (DPMA as a distinctive theme linking archaeology, mortality and material culture, we discuss blogs, vlogs and Twitter as case studies to illustrate the variety of strategies by which digital media can promote, educate and engage public audiences with archaeological projects and research relating to death and the dead in the human past. The article then explores a selection of key critical concerns regarding how the digital dead are currently portrayed, identifying the need for further investigation and critical reflection on DPMA’s aims, objectives and aspired outcomes.

  16. Dead sea transform fault system reviews

    CERN Document Server

    Garfunkel, Zvi; Kagan, Elisa

    2014-01-01

    The Dead Sea transform is an active plate boundary connecting the Red Sea seafloor spreading system to the Arabian-Eurasian continental collision zone. Its geology and geophysics provide a natural laboratory for investigation of the surficial, crustal and mantle processes occurring along transtensional and transpressional transform fault domains on a lithospheric scale and related to continental breakup. There have been many detailed and disciplinary studies of the Dead Sea transform fault zone during the last?20 years and this book brings them together.This book is an updated comprehensive coverage of the knowledge, based on recent studies of the tectonics, structure, geophysics, volcanism, active tectonics, sedimentology and paleo and modern climate of the Dead Sea transform fault zone. It puts together all this new information and knowledge in a coherent fashion.

  17. Net Zero Energy Buildings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marszal, Anna Joanna; Bourrelle, Julien S.; Musall, Eike

    2010-01-01

    and identify possible renewable energy supply options which may be considered in calculations. Finally, the gap between the methodology proposed by each organisation and their respective national building code is assessed; providing an overview of the possible changes building codes will need to undergo......The international cooperation project IEA SHC Task 40 / ECBCS Annex 52 “Towards Net Zero Energy Solar Buildings”, attempts to develop a common understanding and to set up the basis for an international definition framework of Net Zero Energy Buildings (Net ZEBs). The understanding of such buildings...... parameters used in the calculations are discussed and the various renewable supply options considered in the methodologies are summarised graphically. Thus, the paper helps to understand different existing approaches to calculate energy balance in Net ZEBs, highlights the importance of variables selection...

  18. PhysioNet

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The PhysioNet Resource is intended to stimulate current research and new investigations in the study of complex biomedical and physiologic signals. It offers free...

  19. NetSig

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Horn, Heiko; Lawrence, Michael S; Chouinard, Candace R

    2018-01-01

    Methods that integrate molecular network information and tumor genome data could complement gene-based statistical tests to identify likely new cancer genes; but such approaches are challenging to validate at scale, and their predictive value remains unclear. We developed a robust statistic (Net......Sig) that integrates protein interaction networks with data from 4,742 tumor exomes. NetSig can accurately classify known driver genes in 60% of tested tumor types and predicts 62 new driver candidates. Using a quantitative experimental framework to determine in vivo tumorigenic potential in mice, we found that Net......Sig candidates induce tumors at rates that are comparable to those of known oncogenes and are ten-fold higher than those of random genes. By reanalyzing nine tumor-inducing NetSig candidates in 242 patients with oncogene-negative lung adenocarcinomas, we find that two (AKT2 and TFDP2) are significantly amplified...

  20. Exploiting Scanning Behavior for Predators Can Reduce Rice Damage Caused by Birds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takeshi Honda

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Rice is often damaged by birds, especially sparrows, in Asia. Bird nets are sometimes used as countermeasures; however this approach is expensive and labor intensive. For this reason, farmers generally eschew bird nets, even though no alternative countermeasures are available. This study focused on exploiting the bird behavior of scanning for predators to reduce crop damage. When birds forage for seeds on the ground they often stop pecking and briefly raise their heads, apparently to scan for predators. Low visibility habitats increase scanning behavior and increased scanning behavior reduces habitat quality from the bird’s perspective; therefore, this study tested the relationship between rice damage rate and visibility at the periphery of rice fields, where tree sparrows rest after feeding. Overall, low visibility reduced damage to rice. Because visibility was mainly affected by weeds, weed management techniques contribute to crop damage management. To reduce damage, weeding can be decreased; therefore, this technique is cost- and labor-efficient.

  1. TideNet

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-10-30

    query tide data sources in a desired geographic region of USA and its territories (Figure 1). Users can select a tide data source through the Google Map ...select data sources according to the desired geographic region. It uses the Google Map interface to display data from different sources. Recent...Coastal Inlets Research Program TideNet The TideNet is a web-based Graphical User Interface (GUI) that provides users with GIS mapping tools to

  2. Building Neural Net Software

    OpenAIRE

    Neto, João Pedro; Costa, José Félix

    1999-01-01

    In a recent paper [Neto et al. 97] we showed that programming languages can be translated on recurrent (analog, rational weighted) neural nets. The goal was not efficiency but simplicity. Indeed we used a number-theoretic approach to machine programming, where (integer) numbers were coded in a unary fashion, introducing a exponential slow down in the computations, with respect to a two-symbol tape Turing machine. Implementation of programming languages in neural nets turns to be not only theo...

  3. Interaction Nets in Russian

    OpenAIRE

    Salikhmetov, Anton

    2013-01-01

    Draft translation to Russian of Chapter 7, Interaction-Based Models of Computation, from Models of Computation: An Introduction to Computability Theory by Maribel Fernandez. "In this chapter, we study interaction nets, a model of computation that can be seen as a representative of a class of models based on the notion of 'computation as interaction'. Interaction nets are a graphical model of computation devised by Yves Lafont in 1990 as a generalisation of the proof structures of linear logic...

  4. Programming NET 35

    CERN Document Server

    Liberty, Jesse

    2009-01-01

    Bestselling author Jesse Liberty and industry expert Alex Horovitz uncover the common threads that unite the .NET 3.5 technologies, so you can benefit from the best practices and architectural patterns baked into the new Microsoft frameworks. The book offers a Grand Tour" of .NET 3.5 that describes how the principal technologies can be used together, with Ajax, to build modern n-tier and service-oriented applications. "

  5. Bird Communities of Southern Forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    William C. Hunter; James G. Dickson; David N. Pashley; Paul B. Hamel

    2002-01-01

    Birds constitute a high-profile group of species that attract a great deal of attention as watchable wildlife. Also, birds are important as indicators of habitat conditions and environmental health. Compared to other groups of animals and plants, birds are relatively conspicuous and can be easily monitored. Available information on bird ecology is substantial, but...

  6. Birds - Breeding [ds60

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Department of Resources — This data set provides access to information gathered on annual breeding bird surveys in California using a map layer developed by the Department. This data layer...

  7. Awesome Audubon Birds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahler, Laura

    2010-01-01

    In this article, the author describes a watercolor art lesson on Audubon birds. She also discusses how science, technology, writing skills, and the elements and principles of art can be incorporated into the lesson.

  8. Nuisance Birds Webinar Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    All over the nation, birds of all shapes and sizes attempt to make schools a their favorite hangout. Their arrival can lead to sanitation issues, added facility degradation, distracted students and health problems.

  9. Birds as biodiversity surrogates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Frank Wugt; Bladt, Jesper Stentoft; Balmford, Andrew

    2012-01-01

    1. Most biodiversity is still unknown, and therefore, priority areas for conservation typically are identified based on the presence of surrogates, or indicator groups. Birds are commonly used as surrogates of biodiversity owing to the wide availability of relevant data and their broad popular...... and applications.?Good surrogates of biodiversity are necessary to help identify conservation areas that will be effective in preventing species extinctions. Birds perform fairly well as surrogates in cases where birds are relatively speciose, but overall effectiveness will be improved by adding additional data...... from other taxa, in particular from range-restricted species. Conservation solutions with focus on birds as biodiversity surrogate could therefore benefit from also incorporating species data from other taxa....

  10. Bird Flu (Avian Influenza)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... be cooked until the yolks and whites are firm. Risk factors The greatest risk factor for bird ... and proceeds from Web advertising help support our mission. Mayo Clinic does not endorse any of the ...

  11. Breeding bird survey data

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The data are maintained by the USGS (https://www.pwrc.usgs.gov/bbs/RawData/) and provides information on the trends and status of North American bird populations...

  12. Avian Influenza in Birds

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... terns and shorebirds or waterfowl such as ducks, geese and swans. These wild birds are often viewed ... human health. FAO and OIE are concerned with issues affecting animals, food and agriculture. Top of Page ...

  13. Sponge erosion under acidification and warming scenarios: differential impacts on living and dead coral.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stubler, Amber D; Furman, Bradley T; Peterson, Bradley J

    2015-11-01

    Ocean acidification will disproportionately impact the growth of calcifying organisms in coral reef ecosystems. Simultaneously, sponge bioerosion rates have been shown to increase as seawater pH decreases. We conducted a 20-week experiment that included a 4-week acclimation period with a high number of replicate tanks and a fully orthogonal design with two levels of temperature (ambient and +1 °C), three levels of pH (8.1, 7.8, and 7.6), and two levels of boring sponge (Cliona varians, present and absent) to account for differences in sponge attachment and carbonate change for both living and dead coral substrate (Porites furcata). Net coral calcification, net dissolution/bioerosion, coral and sponge survival, sponge attachment, and sponge symbiont health were evaluated. Additionally, we used the empirical data from the experiment to develop a stochastic simulation of carbonate change for small coral clusters (i.e., simulated reefs). Our findings suggest differential impacts of temperature, pH and sponge presence for living and dead corals. Net coral calcification (mg CaCO3  cm(-2)  day(-1) ) was significantly reduced in treatments with increased temperature (+1 °C) and when sponges were present; acidification had no significant effect on coral calcification. Net dissolution of dead coral was primarily driven by pH, regardless of sponge presence or seawater temperature. A reevaluation of the current paradigm of coral carbonate change under future acidification and warming scenarios should include ecologically relevant timescales, species interactions, and community organization to more accurately predict ecosystem-level response to future conditions. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Modeling birds on wires.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aydoğdu, A; Frasca, P; D'Apice, C; Manzo, R; Thornton, J M; Gachomo, B; Wilson, T; Cheung, B; Tariq, U; Saidel, W; Piccoli, B

    2017-02-21

    In this paper we introduce a mathematical model to study the group dynamics of birds resting on wires. The model is agent-based and postulates attraction-repulsion forces between the interacting birds: the interactions are "topological", in the sense that they involve a given number of neighbors irrespective of their distance. The model is first mathematically analyzed and then simulated to study its main properties: we observe that the model predicts birds to be more widely spaced near the borders of each group. We compare the results from the model with experimental data, derived from the analysis of pictures of pigeons and starlings taken in New Jersey: two different image elaboration protocols allow us to establish a good agreement with the model and to quantify its main parameters. We also discuss the potential handedness of the birds, by analyzing the group organization features and the group dynamics at the arrival of new birds. Finally, we propose a more refined mathematical model that describes landing and departing birds by suitable stochastic processes. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. High mortality in laying hen pullets caused by crop and gizzard impactions associated with ingestion of bale net wrap

    OpenAIRE

    Schlegel, Benjamin J.; Brash, Marina L.

    2015-01-01

    High mortality was observed in young replacement layers. Balls of bale net wrap strings were found in the crop and/or gizzard of birds causing impaction and traumatic injury. Some birds experienced loss of portions or the entire tongue secondary to ischemic necrosis. Mortality stopped with the removal of strings from the environment.

  16. High mortality in laying hen pullets caused by crop and gizzard impactions associated with ingestion of bale net wrap.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlegel, Benjamin J; Brash, Marina L

    2015-06-01

    High mortality was observed in young replacement layers. Balls of bale net wrap strings were found in the crop and/or gizzard of birds causing impaction and traumatic injury. Some birds experienced loss of portions or the entire tongue secondary to ischemic necrosis. Mortality stopped with the removal of strings from the environment.

  17. Low level exposure to crude oil impacts avian flight performance: The Deepwater Horizon oil spill effect on migratory birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez, Cristina R; Moye, John K; Cacela, Dave; Dean, Karen M; Pritsos, Chris A

    2017-12-01

    In 2010, the Deepwater Horizon oil spill released 134 million gallons of crude oil into the Gulf of Mexico making it the largest oil spill in US history. The three month oil spill left tens of thousands of birds dead; however, the fate of tens of thousands of other migratory birds that were affected but did not immediately die is unknown. We used the homing pigeon as a surrogate species for migratory birds to investigate the effects of a single external oiling event on the flight performance of birds. Data from GPS data loggers revealed that lightly oiled pigeons took significantly longer to return home and spent more time stopped en route than unoiled birds. This suggests that migratory birds affected by the oil spill could have experienced long term flight impairment and delayed arrival to breeding, wintering, or crucial stopover sites and subsequently suffered reductions in survival and reproductive success. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Rehabilitation of birds oiled on two mid-Atlantic estuaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, M.C.; Ferrigno, F.; Settle, F.H.

    1978-01-01

    An estimated 52,500 birds died as a result of 7 major oil spills on 2 mid-Atlantic estuaries between 1973-78. Ruddy ducks (Ox.l'urajamaicen.l'is) constituted 98% of 12,500 birds known to have died from 5 spills on the Delaware River. Seventy-six percent of 40,000 dead birds from 2 Chesapeake Bay spills were horned grebes (Podicep.l' auritus) and oldsquaw (Clan~ula hyemalis). Oiled waterfowl that were captured alive (6% of the estimated mortality) were cleaned with a variety of cleaning agents and techniques. High mortality occurred during and shortly after cleaning, and was apparently due to hypothermia and to toxicity of solvent cleaning agents. Eighty-two percent of the 3,113 birds that were cleaned died prior to or at time of release. The fate of the remaining 18% is unknown. Petroleum solvents used as cleaning agents were toxic to the birds. Most detergents left a surfactant (wetting agent) on the feathers which resulted in subsequent

  19. 7 CFR 322.29 - Dead bees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Dead bees. 322.29 Section 322.29 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE BEES, BEEKEEPING BYPRODUCTS, AND BEEKEEPING EQUIPMENT Importation and Transit of...

  20. Cheatgrass Dead Zones in Northern Nevada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reports of areas of cheatgrass die-off are becoming more frequent. In 2009, we investigated cheatgrass die-off in north-central Nevada. Dead zones ranged from several to hundreds of acres in size and were largely unvegetated and covered by cheatgrass litter with a distinct gray cast. We collected re...

  1. Tunnel Diode Discriminator with Fixed Dead Time

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Diamond, J. M.

    1965-01-01

    A solid state discriminator for the range 0.4 to 10 V is described. Tunnel diodes are used for the discriminator element and in a special fixed dead time circuit. An analysis of temperature stability is presented. The regulated power supplies are described, including a special negative resistance...

  2. Dinosaurs of India: Dead but Alive

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Table of contents. Dinosaurs of India: Dead but Alive · Fossils · Evolution and O2 PAL · The Science in Dinosaurs · Origin/ Extinction of Dinosaurs · PowerPoint Presentation · India –94my + 50my · Icehouse /Greenhouse through time · Global Mean Annual Temperature Distributions at 100 my · Global Mean Annual ...

  3. ATLANTIC BIRDS: a data set of bird species from the Brazilian Atlantic Forest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasui, Érica; Metzger, Jean Paul; Pimentel, Rafael G; Silveira, Luís Fábio; Bovo, Alex A D A; Martensen, Alexandre C; Uezu, Alexandre; Regolin, André L; Bispo de Oliveira, Arthur Â; Gatto, Cassiano A F R; Duca, Charles; Andretti, Christian B; Banks-Leite, Cristina; Luz, Daniela; Mariz, Daniele; Alexandrino, Eduardo R; de Barros, Fabio M; Martello, Felipe; Pereira, Iolanda M D S; da Silva, José N; Ferraz, Katia M P M D B; Naka, Luciano N; Dos Anjos, Luiz; Efe, Márcio A; Pizo, Marco Aurélio; Pichorim, Mauro; Gonçalves, Maycon Sanyvan S; Cordeiro, Paulo Henrique Chaves; Dias, Rafael A; Muylaert, Renata D L; Rodrigues, Rodolpho C; da Costa, Thiago V V; Cavarzere, Vagner; Tonetti, Vinicius R; Silva, Wesley R; Jenkins, Clinton N; Galetti, Mauro; Ribeiro, Milton C

    2018-02-01

    South America holds 30% of the world's avifauna, with the Atlantic Forest representing one of the richest regions of the Neotropics. Here we have compiled a data set on Brazilian Atlantic Forest bird occurrence (150,423) and abundance samples (N = 832 bird species; 33,119 bird individuals) using multiple methods, including qualitative surveys, mist nets, point counts, and line transects). We used four main sources of data: museum collections, on-line databases, literature sources, and unpublished reports. The data set comprises 4,122 localities and data from 1815 to 2017. Most studies were conducted in the Florestas de Interior (1,510 localities) and Serra do Mar (1,280 localities) biogeographic sub-regions. Considering the three main quantitative methods (mist net, point count, and line transect), we compiled abundance data for 745 species in 576 communities. In the data set, the most frequent species were Basileuterus culicivorus, Cyclaris gujanensis, and Conophaga lineata. There were 71 singletons, such as Lipaugus conditus and Calyptura cristata. We suggest that this small number of records reinforces the critical situation of these taxa in the Atlantic Forest. The information provided in this data set can be used for macroecological studies and to foster conservation strategies in this biodiversity hotspot. No copyright restrictions are associated with the data set. Please cite this Data Paper if data are used in publications and teaching events. © 2017 by the Ecological Society of America.

  4. Sufficient and Necessary Condition to Decide Compatibility for a Class of Interorganizational Workflow Nets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guanjun Liu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Interorganizational Workflow nets (IWF-nets can well model many concurrent systems such as web service composition, in which multiple processes interact via sending/receiving messages. Compatibility of IWF-nets is a crucial criterion for the correctness of these systems. It guarantees that a system has no deadlock, livelock, or dead tasks. In our previous work we proved that the compatibility problem is PSPACE-complete for safe IWF-nets. This paper defines a subclass of IWF-nets that can model many cases about interactions. Necessary and sufficient condition is presented to decide their compatibility, and it depends on the net structures only. Finally, an algorithm is developed based on the condition.

  5. Various causes related to dead-in-shell embryos of crossbred (PB-2 x Indigenous chicken egg

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Kalita,

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The present study was undertaken to study the etiopathology of dead-in-shell embryos of PB-2 male x Indigenous female crossbred chicken egg.Materials and Methods: A total of 1377 eggs were incubated which was collected from a flock of crossbreed bird (PB-2xIndigenous chicken. Out of which 568 (41.25 % egg failed to pip out, were utilized for further study. All the dead in shell embryos were examined for different anomalies and pathological condition thorough necropsy examination. For bacteriological isolation a piece of liver, lung and yolk sac contents were collected from 25 nos. of dead in shell embryos and send to the Department of Microbiology for further examination.Results: A total of 241 (42.42 % egg were recorded as dead-in-shell embryos out of 568 eggs which were fail to pip out. The percentage of dead-in-shell was higher on 21st day (61.34% than 18th day (38.66 % of incubation. Out of 241 nos. of dead in shell embryos, 47 (19.50% cases showed malpositions,19 (7.88% malformation, 6 (2.49% adhesion,4 (1.66% dehydra-tion, 67 (27.80% pathological condition and 98 (40.66% cases showed no definite abnormalities and 327 (57.57% numbers of egg were found as infertile.Conclusion: The dead in shell embryo may be due to genetic factor, breed, some pathological condition, frequent power failure, lack of proper hygiene etc.

  6. Sex Reversal in Birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Major, Andrew T; Smith, Craig A

    2016-01-01

    Sexual differentiation in birds is controlled genetically as in mammals, although the sex chromosomes are different. Males have a ZZ sex chromosome constitution, while females are ZW. Gene(s) on the sex chromosomes must initiate gonadal sex differentiation during embryonic life, inducing paired testes in ZZ individuals and unilateral ovaries in ZW individuals. The traditional view of avian sexual differentiation aligns with that expounded for other vertebrates; upon sexual differentiation, the gonads secrete sex steroid hormones that masculinise or feminise the rest of the body. However, recent studies on naturally occurring or experimentally induced avian sex reversal suggest a significant role for direct genetic factors, in addition to sex hormones, in regulating sexual differentiation of the soma in birds. This review will provide an overview of sex determination in birds and both naturally and experimentally induced sex reversal, with emphasis on the key role of oestrogen. We then consider how recent studies on sex reversal and gynandromorphic birds (half male:half female) are shaping our understanding of sexual differentiation in avians and in vertebrates more broadly. Current evidence shows that sexual differentiation in birds is a mix of direct genetic and hormonal mechanisms. Perturbation of either of these components may lead to sex reversal. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  7. Aerodynamics of bird flight

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dvořák Rudolf

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Unlike airplanes birds must have either flapping or oscillating wings (the hummingbird. Only such wings can produce both lift and thrust – two sine qua non attributes of flying.The bird wings have several possibilities how to obtain the same functions as airplane wings. All are realized by the system of flight feathers. Birds have also the capabilities of adjusting the shape of the wing according to what the immediate flight situation demands, as well as of responding almost immediately to conditions the flow environment dictates, such as wind gusts, object avoidance, target tracking, etc. In bird aerodynamics also the tail plays an important role. To fly, wings impart downward momentum to the surrounding air and obtain lift by reaction. How this is achieved under various flight situations (cruise flight, hovering, landing, etc., and what the role is of the wing-generated vortices in producing lift and thrust is discussed.The issue of studying bird flight experimentally from in vivo or in vitro experiments is also briefly discussed.

  8. La plataforma .NET

    OpenAIRE

    Fornas Estrada, Miquel

    2008-01-01

    L'aparició de la plataforma .NET Framework ha suposat un canvi molt important en la forma de crear i distribuir aplicacions, degut a que incorpora una sèrie d'innovacions tècniques i productives que simplifiquen molt les tasques necessàries per desenvolupar un projecte. La aparición de la plataforma. NET Framework ha supuesto un cambio muy importante en la forma de crear y distribuir aplicaciones, debido a que incorpora una serie de innovaciones técnicas y productivas que simplifican mucho...

  9. Biological Petri Nets

    CERN Document Server

    Wingender, E

    2011-01-01

    It was suggested some years ago that Petri nets might be well suited to modeling metabolic networks, overcoming some of the limitations encountered by the use of systems employing ODEs (ordinary differential equations). Much work has been done since then which confirms this and demonstrates the usefulness of this concept for systems biology. Petri net technology is not only intuitively understood by scientists trained in the life sciences, it also has a robust mathematical foundation and provides the required degree of flexibility. As a result it appears to be a very promising approach to mode

  10. Environmental characteristics drive variation in Amazonian understorey bird assemblages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menger, Juliana; Magnusson, William E; Anderson, Marti J; Schlegel, Martin; Pe'er, Guy; Henle, Klaus

    2017-01-01

    Tropical bird assemblages display patterns of high alpha and beta diversity and, as tropical birds exhibit strong habitat specificity, their spatial distributions are generally assumed to be driven primarily by environmental heterogeneity and interspecific interactions. However, spatial distributions of some Amazonian forest birds are also often restricted by large rivers and other large-scale topographic features, suggesting that dispersal limitation may also play a role in driving species' turnover. In this study, we evaluated the effects of environmental characteristics, topographic and spatial variables on variation in local assemblage structure and diversity of birds in an old-growth forest in central Amazonia. Birds were mist-netted in 72 plots distributed systematically across a 10,000 ha reserve in each of three years. Alpha diversity remained stable through time, but species composition changed. Spatial variation in bird-assemblage structure was significantly related to environmental and topographic variables but not strongly related to spatial variables. At a broad scale, we found bird assemblages to be significantly distinct between two watersheds that are divided by a central ridgeline. We did not detect an effect of the ridgeline per se in driving these patterns, indicating that most birds are able to fly across it, and that differences in assemblage structure between watersheds may be due to unmeasured environmental variables or unique combinations of measured variables. Our study indicates that complex geography and landscape features can act together with environmental variables to drive changes in the diversity and composition of tropical bird assemblages at local scales, but highlights that we still know very little about what makes different parts of tropical forest suitable for different species.

  11. Environmental characteristics drive variation in Amazonian understorey bird assemblages.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Menger

    Full Text Available Tropical bird assemblages display patterns of high alpha and beta diversity and, as tropical birds exhibit strong habitat specificity, their spatial distributions are generally assumed to be driven primarily by environmental heterogeneity and interspecific interactions. However, spatial distributions of some Amazonian forest birds are also often restricted by large rivers and other large-scale topographic features, suggesting that dispersal limitation may also play a role in driving species' turnover. In this study, we evaluated the effects of environmental characteristics, topographic and spatial variables on variation in local assemblage structure and diversity of birds in an old-growth forest in central Amazonia. Birds were mist-netted in 72 plots distributed systematically across a 10,000 ha reserve in each of three years. Alpha diversity remained stable through time, but species composition changed. Spatial variation in bird-assemblage structure was significantly related to environmental and topographic variables but not strongly related to spatial variables. At a broad scale, we found bird assemblages to be significantly distinct between two watersheds that are divided by a central ridgeline. We did not detect an effect of the ridgeline per se in driving these patterns, indicating that most birds are able to fly across it, and that differences in assemblage structure between watersheds may be due to unmeasured environmental variables or unique combinations of measured variables. Our study indicates that complex geography and landscape features can act together with environmental variables to drive changes in the diversity and composition of tropical bird assemblages at local scales, but highlights that we still know very little about what makes different parts of tropical forest suitable for different species.

  12. Dark Skin No Shield from Deadly Skin Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 166194.html Dark Skin No Shield From Deadly Skin Cancer Death rates from melanoma are higher for people ... deadly melanomas, an expert warns. This type of skin cancer can be affected by genetics and is far ...

  13. Gulf of Mexico dead zone - the last 150 years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osterman, Lisa; Swarzenski, P.W.; Poore, R.Z.

    2006-01-01

    'Gulf of Mexico Dead Zone-The Last 150 Years' discusses the dead zone that forms seasonally in the northern Gulf of Mexico when subsurface waters become depleted in dissolved oxygen and cannot support most life.

  14. Aging in Birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Travin, D Y; Feniouk, B A

    2016-12-01

    Rodents are the most commonly used model organisms in studies of aging in vertebrates. However, there are species that may suit this role much better. Most birds (Aves), having higher rate of metabolism, live two-to-three times longer than mammals of the same size. This mini-review briefly covers several evolutionary, ecological, and physiological aspects that may contribute to the phenomenon of birds' longevity. The role of different molecular mechanisms known to take part in the process of aging according to various existing theories, e.g. telomere shortening, protection against reactive oxygen species, and formation of advanced glycation end-products is discussed. We also address some features of birds' aging that make this group unique and perspective model organisms in longevity studies.

  15. Cook Inlet and Kenai Peninsula, Alaska ESI: BIRDS (Bird Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains biological resource data for alcids, shorebirds, waterfowl, diving birds, pelagic birds, gulls and terns in Cook Inlet and Kenai Peninsula,...

  16. Biomechanics of bird flight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tobalske, Bret W

    2007-09-01

    Power output is a unifying theme for bird flight and considerable progress has been accomplished recently in measuring muscular, metabolic and aerodynamic power in birds. The primary flight muscles of birds, the pectoralis and supracoracoideus, are designed for work and power output, with large stress (force per unit cross-sectional area) and strain (relative length change) per contraction. U-shaped curves describe how mechanical power output varies with flight speed, but the specific shapes and characteristic speeds of these curves differ according to morphology and flight style. New measures of induced, profile and parasite power should help to update existing mathematical models of flight. In turn, these improved models may serve to test behavioral and ecological processes. Unlike terrestrial locomotion that is generally characterized by discrete gaits, changes in wing kinematics and aerodynamics across flight speeds are gradual. Take-off flight performance scales with body size, but fully revealing the mechanisms responsible for this pattern awaits new study. Intermittent flight appears to reduce the power cost for flight, as some species flap-glide at slow speeds and flap-bound at fast speeds. It is vital to test the metabolic costs of intermittent flight to understand why some birds use intermittent bounds during slow flight. Maneuvering and stability are critical for flying birds, and design for maneuvering may impinge upon other aspects of flight performance. The tail contributes to lift and drag; it is also integral to maneuvering and stability. Recent studies have revealed that maneuvers are typically initiated during downstroke and involve bilateral asymmetry of force production in the pectoralis. Future study of maneuvering and stability should measure inertial and aerodynamic forces. It is critical for continued progress into the biomechanics of bird flight that experimental designs are developed in an ecological and evolutionary context.

  17. BIRD ATTACK OCULAR INJURIES.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabatabaei, Seyed Ali; Soleimani, Mohammad; Behrouz, Mahmoud Jabbarvand

    2017-03-29

    To report 30 patients with bird attack-related eye injuries. This study was performed among patients coming to Farabi Eye Hospital, Tehran, Iran, from 2010 to 2015 with a history of bird attack causing eye injury. The inclusion criteria were a history of bird attack by pecking causing eye injury and having treatment and follow-up record for at least 6 months after treatment. The primary eye examinations included a full ophthalmic examination including evaluation of uncorrected visual acuity and best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA), anterior segment slit lamp biomicroscopy, and photography. For all patients with penetrating injury, primary repair was undertaken. Thirty patients (10 females and 20 males) with a mean age of 23.3 ± 18.5 years entered the study. The most common zone of injury was zone 1 (P < 0.001), and lensectomy was not needed in majority of patients (P < 0.001). The most common bird causing the injury was mynah (P < 0.001). Those patients with baseline BCVA of less than 20/200 or those with endophthalmitis had statistically worse final BCVA after treatment. Patients attacked by mynah bird had significantly better pretreatment uncorrected visual acuity and BCVA. The most common bird causing the eye injury among the sample of patients from Iran was mynah, which differs with previous studies indicating the rooster attack as the most common cause of eye injury. The authors also found that the most common zone of injury was zone 1, and the presence of endophthalmitis and lower baseline BCVA were significant risk factors for worse visual outcomes.

  18. Ghosts of Gone Birds

    OpenAIRE

    Scott, Linda

    2011-01-01

    GHOSTS OF GONE BIRDS is an ongoing art project dedicated to breathing life back into the birds we have lost – so we don’t lose anymore.\\ud \\ud After shows in Liverpool, London, Brighton and Swansea we have raised a creative army for conservation of over 200 artists, writers and musicians.\\ud \\ud Donations, plus a percentage of the profits from the sale of the original art and prints and 50% of the royalties from the book will go directly to help frontline conservation projects fighting to sav...

  19. Petri Nets-Applications

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 4; Issue 9. Petri Nets - Applications. Y Narahari. General Article Volume 4 Issue 9 September 1999 pp 44-52. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link: http://www.ias.ac.in/article/fulltext/reso/004/09/0044-0052. Author Affiliations. Y Narahari ...

  20. Safety nets or straitjackets?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ilsøe, Anna

    2012-01-01

    Does regulation of working hours at national and sector level impose straitjackets, or offer safety nets to employees seeking working time flexibility? This article compares legislation and collective agreements in the metal industries of Denmark, Germany and the USA. The industry has historically...

  1. Coloured Petri Nets

    CERN Document Server

    Jensen, Kurt

    2009-01-01

    Coloured Petri Nets (CPN) is a graphical language for modelling and validating concurrent and distributed systems, and other systems in which concurrency plays a major role. This book introduces the constructs of the CPN modelling language and presents the related analysis methods. It provides a comprehensive road map for the practical use of CPN.

  2. Boom Booom Net Radio

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grimshaw, Mark Nicholas; Yong, Louisa; Dobie, Ian

    1999-01-01

    of an existing Internet radio station; Boom Booom Net Radio. Whilst necessity dictates some use of technology-related terminology, wherever possible we have endeavoured to keep such jargon to a minimum and to either explain it in the text or to provide further explanation in the appended glossary....

  3. Game Theory .net.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shor, Mikhael

    2003-01-01

    States making game theory relevant and accessible to students is challenging. Describes the primary goal of GameTheory.net is to provide interactive teaching tools. Indicates the site strives to unite educators from economics, political and computer science, and ecology by providing a repository of lecture notes and tests for courses using…

  4. Coloured Petri Nets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Kurt; Kristensen, Lars Michael

    Coloured Petri Nets (CPN) is a graphical language for modelling and validating concurrent and distributed systems, and other systems in which concurrency plays a major role. The development of such systems is particularly challenging because of inherent intricacies like possible nondeterminism...

  5. 10 CFR 1047.7 - Use of deadly force.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Use of deadly force. 1047.7 Section 1047.7 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (GENERAL PROVISIONS) LIMITED ARREST AUTHORITY AND USE OF FORCE BY PROTECTIVE FORCE OFFICERS General Provisions § 1047.7 Use of deadly force. (a) Deadly force means that force which a...

  6. 14 CFR 1203b.106 - Use of deadly force.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Use of deadly force. 1203b.106 Section... AUTHORITY AND USE OF FORCE BY NASA SECURITY FORCE PERSONNEL § 1203b.106 Use of deadly force. Deadly force shall be used only in those circumstances where the security force officer reasonably believes that...

  7. The zero inflation of standing dead tree carbon stocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christopher W. Woodall; David W. MacFarlane

    2012-01-01

    Given the importance of standing dead trees in numerous forest ecosystem attributes/processes such as carbon (C) stocks, the USDA Forest Service’s Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) program began consistent nationwide sampling of standing dead trees in 1999. Modeled estimates of standing dead tree C stocks are currently used as the official C stock estimates for the...

  8. 46 CFR 111.10-7 - Dead ship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Dead ship. 111.10-7 Section 111.10-7 Shipping COAST... REQUIREMENTS Power Supply § 111.10-7 Dead ship. (a) The generating plant of each self-propelled vessel must provide the electrical services necessary to start the main propulsion plant from a dead ship condition...

  9. Standing dead tree resources in forests of the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christopher W. Woodall; Karen L. Waddell; Christopher M. Oswalt; James E. Smith

    2013-01-01

    Given the importance of standing dead trees to numerous forest ecosystem attributes/ processes such as fuel loadings and wildlife habitat, the Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) Program of the Forest Service, U.S. Department of Agriculture, initiated a consistent nationwide inventory of standing dead trees in 1999. As the first cycle of annual standing dead tree...

  10. BirdsEyeView (BEV: graphical overviews of experimental data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Lifeng

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Analyzing global experimental data can be tedious and time-consuming. Thus, helping biologists see results as quickly and easily as possible can facilitate biological research, and is the purpose of the software we describe. Results We present BirdsEyeView, a software system for visualizing experimental transcriptomic data using different views that users can switch among and compare. BirdsEyeView graphically maps data to three views: Cellular Map (currently a plant cell, Pathway Tree with dynamic mapping, and Gene Ontology http://www.geneontology.org Biological Processes and Molecular Functions. By displaying color-coded values for transcript levels across different views, BirdsEyeView can assist users in developing hypotheses about their experiment results. Conclusions BirdsEyeView is a software system available as a Java Webstart package for visualizing transcriptomic data in the context of different biological views to assist biologists in investigating experimental results. BirdsEyeView can be obtained from http://metnetdb.org/MetNet_BirdsEyeView.htm.

  11. Some Alaska Peninsula bird notes

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The wandering bird lover if fortunate sometimes find himself in a bird paradise - such was my good luck last Spring when I landed in Stepovak Bay on the south side...

  12. Antibiotic resistance in wild birds

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bonnedahl, Jonas; Järhult, Josef D

    2014-01-01

    .... Antibiotic-resistant bacteria have been isolated from a multitude of wild bird species. Several studies strongly indicate transmission of resistant bacteria from human rest products to wild birds...

  13. Surviving deadness in the analytic experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koritar, Endre

    2014-12-01

    The transference/countertransference (third space) analysis is considered to be central in the therapeutic effectiveness of the analytic process. Less emphasis has been placed on the actual experiences of analyst and analysand in the conflictual reenactment of third space experience and its resolution. This paper recounts the shared experience of a patient who was silent throughout most of the analysis, and my reaction, in fantasy and enactment, to this disturbing experience-both for him and for myself. I argue that it is the affective re-experiencing of past repressed trauma in the analytic space that has a therapeutic impact, leading to growth in the patient and also the therapist. I contrast Freud's emphasis on insight, making the unconscious conscious, with Ferenczi's suggestion that the therapeutic impact lies in the repetition of past traumatic experience in the analysis but with the possibility of a different outcome with a more benign object, leading to symbolic representation of repressed trauma. Re-experiencing and symbolization, in the third space, of past traumatic experience can be an exit point from the endless repetition of trauma in internal and external object relations, leading to a new beginning in the patient's life. Immersed in the experience of deadness in the analysis, which had become a dead womb, the struggle to remain alive and thinking led to a rupture out of the dead womb, like the Caesura of birth, into aliveness and the ability to mentalize what had previously remained unmentalized.

  14. Birds, behavior, and anatomical evolution.

    OpenAIRE

    Wyles, J S; Kunkel, J.G.; Wilson, A. C.

    1983-01-01

    Study of more than 200 species suggests that the anatomical differences among birds are as big as those among other vertebrates of comparable taxonomic rank. The result is notable because, for more than 100 years, many biologists have believed that birds are more uniform anatomically than other classes of vertebrates. Furthermore, assessment of biochemical and geological evidence suggests that the time scale for bird evolution could be quite short. Hence, birds may share with placental mammal...

  15. Timber and forest birds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brian Roy Lockhart

    2009-01-01

    Many years ago, I had an epiphany that I would like to share. Several students and I were installing research plots in the forests on Pittman Island, Issaquena County, Mississippi, an island adjacent to the Mississippi River, near the borders of Arkansas, Mississippi, and Louisiana. While eating lunch, we watched a bird, more specifically a prothonotary warbler (

  16. [Anesthesia in birds].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grimm, F

    1987-01-01

    Anaesthesia in birds is ordered by law and is also necessary for various operations and manipulations. Anaesthesia by injection of Ketamin, which in special cases may be combined with Diazepam, has been found useful. Anaesthesia by inhalation with Halothan, Methoxyfluran or Isofluran is the most careful method. Local anaesthesia has few indications.

  17. Climate change impacts: birds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tomotani, B.M.; Ramakers, J.J.C.; Gienapp, P.

    2016-01-01

    Climate change can affect populations and species in various ways. Rising temperatures can shift geographical distributions and lead to (phenotypic or genetic) changes in traits, mostly phenology, which may affect demography. Most of these effects are well documented in birds. For example, the

  18. Breeding Ecology of Birds

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    http://www.ias.ac.in/article/fulltext/reso/008/07/0022-0032. Keywords. Birds. nesting. territory; coloniality; heronries. ecology; nesting strategies. Author Affiliations. Abdul Jamil Urfi1. Department of Environmental Biology, School of Environmental Studies, University of Delhi, Delhi 110007. Resonance – Journal of Science ...

  19. Birds Kept as Pets

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Patients Infants and Young Children Publications & Materials Healthy Families and Flocks Pet Food Safety Trouble with Tiny Turtles Trouble with Tiny ... before purchase. Ask your veterinarian about the proper food, care, and enclosure or environment that is best for the bird you are ...

  20. Birds of Prey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irwin, Harriet

    Introducing students to different hawks and owls found in Wisconsin and building a basis for appreciation of these birds in their own environment is the purpose of this teacher's guide. Primarily geared for upper elementary and junior high grades, the concepts presented could be used in conjunction with the study of ecology. A filmstrip is…

  1. Nanoscale magnetoreceptors in birds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Solov'yov, Ilia; Greiner, Walter

    2012-01-01

    The Earth's magnetic field provides an important source of directional information for many living organisms, especially birds, but the sensory receptor responsible for magnetic field detection still has to be identified. Recently, magnetic iron oxide particles were detected in dendritic endings ...

  2. Bird community composition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antrobus, T.J.; Guilfoyle, M.P.; Barrow, W.C.; Hamel, P.B.; Wakeley, J.S.

    2000-01-01

    Neotropical migrants are birds that breed in North America and winter primarily in Central and South America. Long-term population studies of birds in the Eastern United States indicated declines of some forest-dwelling birds, many of which winter in the Neotropics (Peterjohn and others 1995). These declines were attributed to loss of wintering and breeding habitat due to deforestation and fragmentation, respectively. Many species of Nearctic migrants--birds that breed in the northern regions of North America and winter in the Southern United States--are also experiencing population declines. Because large areas of undistrubed, older, bottomland hardwood forests oftern contain large numbers of habitat specialists, including forest-interior neotropical migrants and wintering Nearctic migrants, these forests may be critical in maintaining avian diversity. This study had two primary objectivs: (1) to create a baseline data set that can be used as a standard against which other bottomland hardwood forests can be compared, and (2) to establish long-term monitoring stations during both breeding and wintering seasons to discern population trends of avian species using bottomland hardwood forests.

  3. Sensor fusion for the localisation of birds in flight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millikin, Rhonda Lorraine

    -band surveillance radar. They also emit a species-specific call, which provides identification and a second opportunity for tracking using an acoustic array. Radar images and acoustic signals were digitised and stored directly to computer tape. Software written for this research was used to locate and identify birds from these data. The system was field calibrated to an altitude of 1523 m using an aircraft as a known target. Birds were tracked over altitudes of 127 m to 670 m. The digital signals were verified against traditional methods of migration research. Mist net captures and visual and audio censuses of birds were taken each morning within the study area. Correspondence between these data and the electronic data demonstrated that this experiment was a successful attempt to identify tracks of nocturnal migrant birds using sensor fusion.

  4. Fire effects on the composition of a bird community in an amazonian Savanna (Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Cintra

    Full Text Available The effects of fire on the composition of a bird community were investigated in an Amazonian savanna near Alter-do-Chão, Pará (Brazil. Mist-net captures and visual counts were used to assess species richness and bird abundance pre- and post-fire in an approximately 20 ha area. Visual counts along transects were used to survey birds in an approximately 2000 ha area in a nearby area. Results using the same method of ordination analysis (multidimensional scaling showed significant effects of fire in the 20 ha and 2000 ha areas and strongly suggest direct effects on bird community composition. However, the effects were different at different spatial scales and/or in different years, indicating that the effects of fire vary spatially and/or temporally. Bird community composition pre-fire was significantly different from that found post-fire. Using multiple regression analysis it was found that the numbers of burned and unburned trees were not significantly related to either bird species richness or bird abundance. Two months after the fire, neither bird species richness nor bird abundance was significantly related to the number of flowering trees (Lafoensia pacari or fruiting trees (Byrsonima crassifolia. Since fire is an annual event in Alter-do-Chão and is becoming frequent in the entire Amazon, bird community composition in affected areas could be constantly changing in time and space.

  5. Fire effects on the composition of a bird community in an Amazonian savanna (Brazil).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cintra, R; Sanaiotti, T M

    2005-11-01

    The effects of fire on the composition of a bird community were investigated in an Amazonian savanna near Alter-do-Chão, Pará (Brazil). Mist-net captures and visual counts were used to assess species richness and bird abundance pre- and post-fire in an approximately 20 ha area. Visual counts along transects were used to survey birds in an approximately 2000 ha area in a nearby area. Results using the same method of ordination analysis (multidimensional scaling) showed significant effects of fire in the 20 ha and 2000 ha areas and strongly suggest direct effects on bird community composition. However, the effects were different at different spatial scales and/or in different years, indicating that the effects of fire vary spatially and/or temporally. Bird community composition pre-fire was significantly different from that found post-fire. Using multiple regression analysis it was found that the numbers of burned and unburned trees were not significantly related to either bird species richness or bird abundance. Two months after the fire, neither bird species richness nor bird abundance was significantly related to the number of flowering trees (Lafoensia pacari) or fruiting trees (Byrsonima crassifolia). Since fire is an annual event in Alter-do-Chão and is becoming frequent in the entire Amazon, bird community composition in affected areas could be constantly changing in time and space.

  6. Birding--Fun and Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    McIntosh, Phyllis

    2014-01-01

    This feature article presents the basics of birding, or bird watching, and discusses its appeal, especially to serious birders. A section on "citizen scientists" explains organizations that collect data on birds and describes projects they organize. Other sections discuss the legacy of John James Audubon and the bald eagle.

  7. Birds of Prey of Wisconsin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamerstrom, Frances

    This copiously illustrated document is designed to be a field quide to birds of prey that are common to Wisconsin, as well as to some that enter the state occasionally. An introduction discusses birds of prey with regard to migration patterns, the relationship between common names and the attitudes of people toward certain birds, and natural signs…

  8. Visualization of deuterium dead layer by atom probe tomography

    KAUST Repository

    Gemma, Ryota

    2012-12-01

    The first direct observation, by atom probe tomography, of a deuterium dead layer is reported for Fe/V multilayered film loaded with D solute atoms. The thickness of the dead layers was measured to be 0.4-0.5 nm. The dead layers could be distinguished from chemically intermixed layers. The results suggest that the dead layer effect occurs even near the interface of the mixing layers, supporting an interpretation that the dead layer effect cannot be explained solely by electronic charge transfer but also involves a modulation of rigidity. © 2012 Acta Materialia Inc. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Food Safety Nets:

    OpenAIRE

    Haggblade, Steven; Diallo, Boubacar; Staatz, John; Theriault, Veronique; Traoré, Abdramane

    2013-01-01

    Food and social safety nets have a history as long as human civilization. In hunter gatherer societies, food sharing is pervasive. Group members who prove unlucky in the short run, hunting or foraging, receive food from other households in anticipation of reciprocal consideration at a later time (Smith 1988). With the emergence of the first large sedentary civilizations in the Middle East, administrative systems developed specifically around food storage and distribution. The ancient Egyptian...

  10. Net technical assessment

    OpenAIRE

    Wegmann, David G.

    1989-01-01

    Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. The present and near term military balance of power between the U.S. and the Soviet Union can be expressed in a variety of net assessments. One can examine the strategic nuclear balance, the conventional balance in Europe, the maritime balance, and many others. Such assessments are essential not only for policy making but for arms control purposes and future force structure planning. However, to project the future military balance, on...

  11. Using WordNet for Building WordNets

    CERN Document Server

    Farreres, X; Farreres, Xavier; Rodriguez, Horacio; Rigau, German

    1998-01-01

    This paper summarises a set of methodologies and techniques for the fast construction of multilingual WordNets. The English WordNet is used in this approach as a backbone for Catalan and Spanish WordNets and as a lexical knowledge resource for several subtasks.

  12. Winter bird population studies and project prairie birds for surveying grassland birds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniel J. Twedt; Paul B. Hamel; Mark S. Woodrey

    2008-01-01

    We compared 2 survey methods for assessing winter bird communities in temperate grasslands: Winter Bird Population Study surveys are area-searches that have long been used in a variety of habitats whereas Project Prairie Bird surveys employ active-flushing techniques on strip-transects and are intended for use in grasslands.

  13. Pathology of mycobacteriosis in birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shivaprasad, H L; Palmieri, Chiara

    2012-01-01

    Avian mycobacteriosis is a disease that affects companion, captive exotic, wild, and domestic birds. The disease in birds is generally caused by Mycobacterium avium subsp avium but more than 10 other species of mycobacteria infect birds. Oral route of infection appears to be the primary mode of transmission. In some cases, the extensive involvement of the respiratory system suggests an airborne mode of transmission. Molecular diagnostic techniques have improved the ability to confirm the disease. Avian mycobacteriosis is an important veterinary and economic risk in birds and mammals. Exposure of humans to infected birds may cause a zoonotic infection.

  14. Proof nets for lingusitic analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moot, R.C.A.

    2002-01-01

    This book investigates the possible linguistic applications of proof nets, redundancy free representations of proofs, which were introduced by Girard for linear logic. We will adapt the notion of proof net to allow the formulation of a proof net calculus which is soundand complete for the

  15. Teaching Tennis for Net Success.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Bryce

    1989-01-01

    A program for teaching tennis to beginners, NET (Net Easy Teaching) is described. The program addresses three common needs shared by tennis students: active involvement in hitting the ball, clearing the net, and positive reinforcement. A sample lesson plan is included. (IAH)

  16. Net4Care Ecosystem Website

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Henrik Bærbak; Hansen, Klaus Marius; Rasmussen, Morten

    2012-01-01

    is a tele-monitoring scenario in which Net4Care clients are deployed in a gateway in private homes. Medical devices then connect to these gateways and transmit their observations to a Net4Care server. In turn the Net4Care server creates valid clinical HL7 documents, stores them in a national XDS repository...

  17. Maternal immunization with vaccines containing recombinant NetB toxin partially protects progeny chickens from necrotic enteritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keyburn, Anthony L; Portela, Ricardo W; Ford, Mark E; Bannam, Trudi L; Yan, Xu X; Rood, Julian I; Moore, Robert J

    2013-11-13

    Avian necrotic enteritis is a major economic and welfare issue throughout the global poultry industry and is caused by isolates of Clostridium perfringens that produce NetB toxin. Previously we have shown that birds directly vaccinated with inactivated C. perfringens type A culture supernatant (toxoid) combined with recombinant NetB (rNetB) protein were significantly protected from homologous and heterologous challenge. In the present study the protective effect of maternal immunization was examined. Broiler breeder hens were injected subcutaneously with genetically toxoided rNetB(S254L) alone, C. perfringens type A toxoid and toxoid combined with rNetB(S254L). Vaccination resulted in a strong serum immunoglobulin Y response to NetB in hens immunized with rNetB(S254L) formulations. Anti-NetB antibodies were transferred to the eggs and on into the hatched progeny. Subclinical necrotic enteritis was induced experimentally in the progeny and the occurrence of specific necrotic enteritis lesions evaluated. Birds derived from hens immunized with rNetB(S254L) combined with toxoid and challenged with a homologous strain (EHE-NE18) at either 14 or 21 days post-hatch had significantly lower levels of disease compared to birds from adjuvant only vaccinated hens. In addition, birds from hens immunized with rNetB(S254L) alone were significantly protected when challenged at 14 days post-hatch. These results demonstrate that maternal immunization with a NetB-enhanced toxoid vaccine is a promising method for the control of necrotic enteritis in young broiler chickens.

  18. Autopsies of the real: Resurrecting the dead

    OpenAIRE

    Valis, Noël

    2011-01-01

    The sense of the real, or the material—the dead body—as an inextricable part of the sacred does not disappear in the secular environment of the nineteenth and twentieth centuries. This article analyzes specific humanitarian narratives centered on the practice of autopsy and mummification, in which the traces of Catholicism act as a kind of spectral discourse of the imagination, where the real is configured in forms of the uncanny, the monstrous or the sacred.

    El sentido de ...

  19. [A case of lycanthropy with deadly violence].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bénézech, M; De Witte, J; Etchepare, J J; Bourgeois, M

    1989-01-01

    After a short historical review of the contemporary medical literature, the authors analyze a new and original observation of lycanthropy. He is a 28 years old man, imprisoned for deadly violence, who has been showing, for many years, the belief of being transformed into a werewolf during depersonalization episodes when he presents a lycanthropic behaviour. Our observation is closer to hysteria and mythomania on an antisocial personality, although it seems difficult to place the mental pathology of this alcoholic recidivist delinquent into a nosographical frame.

  20. Dead time optimization method for power converter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deselaers, C.; Bergmann, U.; Gronwald, F.

    2013-07-01

    This paper introduces a method for dead time optimization in variable speed motor drive systems. The aim of this method is to reduce the conduction time of the freewheeling diode to a minimum without generation of cross conduction. This results in lower losses, improved EMC, and less overshooting of the phase voltage. The principle of the method is to detect beginning cross currents without adding additional components in the half bridge like resistors or inductances. Only the wave shape of the phase voltage needs to be monitored during switching. This is illustrated by an application of the method to a real power converter.

  1. Master Robotic Net

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir Lipunov

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The main goal of the MASTER-Net project is to produce a unique fast sky survey with all sky observed over a single night down to a limiting magnitude of 19-20. Such a survey will make it possible to address a number of fundamental problems: search for dark energy via the discovery and photometry of supernovae (including SNIa, search for exoplanets, microlensing effects, discovery of minor bodies in the Solar System, and space-junk monitoring. All MASTER telescopes can be guided by alerts, and we plan to observe prompt optical emission from gamma-ray bursts synchronously in several filters and in several polarization planes.

  2. Art/Net/Work

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Christian Ulrik; Lindstrøm, Hanne

    2006-01-01

    The seminar Art|Net|Work deals with two important changes in our culture. On one side, the network has become essential in the latest technological development. The Internet has entered a new phase, Web 2.0, including the occurrence of as ‘Wiki’s’, ‘Peer-2-Peer’ distribution, user controlled...... the praxis of the artist. We see different kinds of interventions and activism (including ‘hacktivism’) using the network as a way of questioning the invisible rules that govern public and semi-public spaces. Who ‘owns’ them? What kind of social relationships do they generate? On what principle...

  3. Role of birds of prey as carriers and spreaders of Cryptococcus neoformans and other zoonotic yeasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cafarchia, C; Romito, D; Iatta, R; Camarda, A; Montagna, M T; Otranto, D

    2006-09-01

    In the last 20 years, cases of human cryptococcosis, have increased in immunocompromised patients. In several instances, the cases have been associated with the exposure of the patients to bird droppings. In order to investigate birds of prey as potential carriers and spreaders of Cryptococcus neoformans and other yeasts of importance in human infections, 182 swab samples were collected from the cloacae of several species of birds of prey (Group I) and 32 faecal samples from aviaries in which the birds were housed (Group II). Samples were also taken from digestive tract of 60 dead birds (Group III). A total of 454 samples were cultured from which 215 colonies of yeastlike fungi were recovered and identified. Cryptococcusneoformans var. grubii was isolated from three cloacae samples (4.8%) collected from Falco tinnunculus and from one sample (3.1%) obtained from Buteo buteo, as well as from samples collected at the aviaries in which these birds were kept. Overall, 18 samples (9.9%) from Group I, 13 (40.6%) from Group II, 12 crops (20%), three proventriculi (5%) and 12 cloacae (20%) from Group III yielded positive cultures for yeasts. The results indicate that birds of prey and in particular, F. tinnunculus and B. buteo, may act as carriers and spreaders of C. neoformans and other zoonotic yeasts.

  4. Epidemiological evidence that garden birds are a source of human salmonellosis in England and Wales.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Becki Lawson

    Full Text Available The importance of wild bird populations as a reservoir of zoonotic pathogens is well established. Salmonellosis is a frequently diagnosed infectious cause of mortality of garden birds in England and Wales, predominantly caused by Salmonella enterica subspecies enterica serovar Typhimurium definitive phage types 40, 56(v and 160. In Britain, these phage types are considered highly host-adapted with a high degree of genetic similarity amongst isolates, and in some instances are clonal. Pulsed field gel electrophoresis, however, demonstrated minimal variation amongst matched DT40 and DT56(v isolates derived from passerine and human incidents of salmonellosis across England in 2000-2007. Also, during the period 1993-2012, similar temporal and spatial trends of infection with these S. Typhimurium phage types occurred in both the British garden bird and human populations; 1.6% of all S. Typhimurium (0.2% of all Salmonella isolates from humans in England and Wales over the period 2000-2010. These findings support the hypothesis that garden birds act as the primary reservoir of infection for these zoonotic bacteria. Most passerine salmonellosis outbreaks identified occurred at and around feeding stations, which are likely sites of public exposure to sick or dead garden birds and their faeces. We, therefore, advise the public to practise routine personal hygiene measures when feeding wild birds and especially when handling sick wild birds.

  5. 'Operation recovery'--the Atlantic coastal netting project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baird, J.; Robbins, C.S.; Bagg, A.M.; Dennis, J.V.

    1958-01-01

    In August and September, 1957, 22 netting stations were operated on and near the Atlantic coast from Nova Scotia to North Carolina. Two were manned for the entire two-month period, half of the others from 1 to 5 weeks, and the remainder for only a few days. Total bandings amounted to 11,613 individuals of 130 species, of which passerine birds made up 97 per cent of the total individuals. Nearly half the birds handled belonged to two families, Parulidae and Fringillidae. The 3 top species, Catbird, Song Sparrow, and Swainson's Thrush, comprised 30 percent of the total. A brief summary of location, habitat, and principal species banded is given for each station. At Middletown, R. I., 92 specimens of 3 species of Hippoboscidae were collected from netted birds. Eleven direct recoveries were reported in 1957, as compared with one each in the 2 preceding years. Two of the 11 were subsequently taken at another coastal netting station, and a third was trapped at a feeding station. The shortest interval of recovery was 5 days for a Northern Waterthrush that was banded at Plum Island, Mass., on September 2 and recaptured at Island Beach, N. J., on September 7, 1957. Observed direction of migration and of local movement at netting stations is discussed, as is distribution of recovery records. Three of the first four recovery records came from north or east of the netting station, quite contrary to the expected direction of fall migration. All cold-frontal passages during August and September are discussed, together with a brief review of their effects on migration at various coastal netting stations. The movement of a high pressure cell from the Great Lakes toward the Maritime Provinces results in a sustained northerly (southward) flow of polar air for two or more days after passage of a cold front; this produces several days of migratory activity, the second frequently being the best. If, however, the High drifts southeastward, stations to the north of its center soon

  6. Tissue residues of dieldrin in relation to mortality in birds and mammals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stickel, W.H.; Stickel, L.F.; Spann, J.W.; Miller, M.W.; Berg, G.G.

    1969-01-01

    An experiment was performed with Coturnix to learn what residue levels were indicative of death from dieldrin poisoning. Birds were fed diets containing 250, 50, 10, and 2 ppm dieldrin for periods up to 158 days. The dieldrin was 95% pure HEOD, which is 1,2,3,4,10,10-hexachloro-6, 7.epoxy. l,4,4a,5,6,7,8,8a-octahydro-l,4-endo,exo-5,8- dimethanonaphthalene. When half of a group was dead, the other half was sacrificed for comparison of residues in dead and survivors. Dosage levels controlled time to death, but did not control residue levels in the dead. Residues in liver and carcass proved to be misleading and complicated by changes in lipid content. Brain residues correlated well with death although residues in dead and survivors overlapped. Brain residues of animals killed by dieldrin in the field and in other experiments are listed. Data agree in general for several species of birds and mammals. There is evidence, however, for species differences in average lethal brain residues. It is concluded that brain residues of 4 or 5 ppm (wet weight) or higher indicate that the animal was in the known danger zone and may have died from dieldrin. Brain residues averaged lower in wild than in experimental animals. Possible explanations include species differences, more stress and exertion in the wild, and overrepresentation in the field series of individuals that will die with low but lethal brain residues. The latter is supported by the fact that the first Coturnix to die in each sex and treatment group had the lowest brain residue of its group. Birds receiving 2 ppm dieldrin, and some receiving 10 ppm, were able to maintain low brain residues throughout the experiment. However, birds of the 10 ppm group could withstand little stress and mobilization of toxicant, for a few micrograms in the brain were lethal and bodies contained hundreds or thousands of micrograms.

  7. Spatial dynamics of understorey insectivorous birds and arthropods in a southeastern Brazilian Atlantic woodlot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MA. Manhães

    Full Text Available Spatial distribution and spatial relationships in capture rates of understorey insectivorous birds and density of arthropods were investigated in a patch of upper montane rain forest in Minas Gerais state, southeastern Brazil, from January to December 2004. The composition of the arthropod fauna collected was similar to that reported for other tropical forests, with predominance of Araneae, Coleoptera, Hymenoptera and Hemiptera non-Heteroptera. A total of 26 bird species were captured, among which the more common were Dysithamnus mentalis, Conopophaga lineata, Platyrinchus mystaceus, Basileuterus culicivorus and Sclerurus scansor. Variation in the bird capture rates among sampling net lines were not correlated with arthropod density. Rather, individual analyses of some bird species suggest that spatial distribution of understorey insectivorous birds is better explained by habitat type.

  8. Reservoir competence of native North American birds for the Lyme disease spirochete, Borrelia burgdorferi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ginsberg, Howard S.; Buckley, P.A.; Balmforth, Maxon G.; Zhioua, Elyes; Mitra, Shaibal; Buckley, Francine G.

    2005-01-01

    Reservoir competence for the Lyme disease spirochete, Borrelia burgdorferi, was tested for six species of native North American birds: American robin, gray catbird, brown thrasher, eastern towhee, song sparrow, and northern cardinal. Wild birds collected by mist netting on Fire Island, NY, were held in a field laboratory in cages over water and locally collected larval ticks were placed on the birds, harvested from the water after engorgement, and tested for infection by direct fluorescent-antibody staining after molting to the nymphal stage. American robins were competent reservoirs, infecting 16.1% of larvae applied to wild-caught birds, compared with 0% of control ticks placed on uninfected laboratory mice. Robins that were previously infected in the laboratory by nymphal feeding infected 81.8% of applied larvae. Wild-caught song sparrows infected 4.8% of applied larvae and 21.1% when infected by nymphal feeding. Results suggest moderate levels of reservoir competence for northern cardinals, lower levels for gray catbirds, and little evidence of reservoir competence for eastern towhees or brown thrashers. Lower infection rates in larvae applied to wild-caught birds compared with birds infected in the laboratory suggest that infected birds display temporal variability in infectiousness to larval ticks. Engorged larvae drop from birds abundantly during daylight, so the abundance of these bird species in the peridomestic environment suggests that they might contribute infected ticks to lawns and gardens.

  9. When the dead are alive! The influence of the living dead in the letter of Jude

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephan J. Joubert

    2002-11-01

    Full Text Available This essay investigates the impact of the deceased on  the audience to which the letter of Jude was originally addressed. A construct of the influence of the “living dead” in ancient Babylon, Israel, the Graeco-Roman world and in African tradition serves as a basic cognitive map to come to terms with Jude’s views on the dead. It is argued that, since the wicked dead, who are being physically punished in  the underworld,  are kept alive  in the collective memory of Jude’s community and since their deeds are re-enacted in the sinful behavior  of intruders in their midst, their lives are influenced by  the “presence” of these living dead. On the other hand and, although Jude does not deal with the physical whereabouts of the righteous death, he and his readers know that their postmortem honour is still intact. The righteous in this community is assured that God protects the integrity of the faithful dead.

  10. Helminth.net: expansions to Nematode.net and an introduction to Trematode.net

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, John; Rosa, Bruce A.; Ozersky, Philip; Hallsworth-Pepin, Kymberlie; Zhang, Xu; Bhonagiri-Palsikar, Veena; Tyagi, Rahul; Wang, Qi; Choi, Young-Jun; Gao, Xin; McNulty, Samantha N.; Brindley, Paul J.; Mitreva, Makedonka

    2015-01-01

    Helminth.net (http://www.helminth.net) is the new moniker for a collection of databases: Nematode.net and Trematode.net. Within this collection we provide services and resources for parasitic roundworms (nematodes) and flatworms (trematodes), collectively known as helminths. For over a decade we have provided resources for studying nematodes via our veteran site Nematode.net (http://nematode.net). In this article, (i) we provide an update on the expansions of Nematode.net that hosts omics data from 84 species and provides advanced search tools to the broad scientific community so that data can be mined in a useful and user-friendly manner and (ii) we introduce Trematode.net, a site dedicated to the dissemination of data from flukes, flatworm parasites of the class Trematoda, phylum Platyhelminthes. Trematode.net is an independent component of Helminth.net and currently hosts data from 16 species, with information ranging from genomic, functional genomic data, enzymatic pathway utilization to microbiome changes associated with helminth infections. The databases’ interface, with a sophisticated query engine as a backbone, is intended to allow users to search for multi-factorial combinations of species’ omics properties. This report describes updates to Nematode.net since its last description in NAR, 2012, and also introduces and presents its new sibling site, Trematode.net. PMID:25392426

  11. Asteroid 'Bites the Dust' Around Dead Star

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    NASA's Spitzer Space Telescope set its infrared eyes upon the dusty remains of shredded asteroids around several dead stars. This artist's concept illustrates one such dead star, or 'white dwarf,' surrounded by the bits and pieces of a disintegrating asteroid. These observations help astronomers better understand what rocky planets are made of around other stars. Asteroids are leftover scraps of planetary material. They form early on in a star's history when planets are forming out of collisions between rocky bodies. When a star like our sun dies, shrinking down to a skeleton of its former self called a white dwarf, its asteroids get jostled about. If one of these asteroids gets too close to the white dwarf, the white dwarf's gravity will chew the asteroid up, leaving a cloud of dust. Spitzer's infrared detectors can see these dusty clouds and their various constituents. So far, the telescope has identified silicate minerals in the clouds polluting eight white dwarfs. Because silicates are common in our Earth's crust, the results suggest that planets similar to ours might be common around other stars.

  12. Breathing Life Into Dead-Zones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gressel Oliver

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The terrestrial planet formation regions of protoplanetary disks are generally sufficiently cold to be con- sidered non-magnetized and, consequently, dynamically inactive. However, recent investigations of these so-called “Dead-Zones” indicate the possibility that disks with strong mean radial temperature gradients can support instabilities associated with disk-normal gradients of the basic Keplerian shear profile. This process, known as the Goldreich-Schubert-Fricke (GSF instability, is the instability of short radial wavelength inertial modes and depends wholly on the presence of vertical gradients of the mean Keplerian (zonal flow. We report here high resolution fully nonlinear axisymmetric numerical studies of this instability and find a number of features including how, in the nonlinear saturated state, unstable discs become globally distorted, with strong vertical oscillations occurring at all radii due to local instability. We find that nonaxisymmetric numerical experiments are accompanied by significant amounts angular momentum transport (α ~ 0001. This instability should be operating in the Dead-Zones of protoplanetary disks at radii greater than 10-15 AU in minimum mass solar nebula models.

  13. NETS FOR PEACH PROTECTED CULTIVATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evelia Schettini

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper was to investigate the radiometric properties of coloured nets used to protect a peach cultivation. The modifications of the solar spectral distribution, mainly in the R and FR wavelength band, influence plant photomorphogenesis by means of the phytochrome and cryptochrome. The phytochrome response is characterized in terms of radiation rate in the red wavelengths (R, 600-700 nm to that in the farred radiation (FR, 700-800 nm, i.e. the R/FR ratio. The effects of the blue radiation (B, 400-500 nm is investigated by the ratio between the blue radiation and the far-red radiation, i.e. the B/FR ratio. A BLUE net, a RED net, a YELLOW net, a PEARL net, a GREY net and a NEUTRAL net were tested in Bari (Italy, latitude 41° 05’ N. Peach trees were located in pots inside the greenhouses and in open field. The growth of the trees cultivated in open field was lower in comparison to the growth of the trees grown under the nets. The RED, PEARL, YELLOW and GREY nets increased the growth of the trees more than the other nets. The nets positively influenced the fruit characteristics, such as fruit weight and flesh firmness.

  14. Serological evidence of continuing high Usutu virus (Flaviviridae) activity and establishment of herd immunity in wild birds in Austria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meister, Tanja; Lussy, Helga; Bakonyi, Tamás; Sikutová, Silvie; Rudolf, Ivo; Vogl, Wolfgang; Winkler, Hans; Frey, Hans; Hubálek, Zdenek; Nowotny, Norbert; Weissenböck, Herbert

    2008-03-18

    Usutu virus (USUV), family Flaviviridae, has been responsible for avian mortality in Austria from 2001 to 2006. The proportion of USUV-positive individuals among the investigated dead birds decreased dramatically after 2004. To test the hypothesis that establishment of herd immunity might be responsible, serological examinations of susceptible wild birds were performed. Blood samples of 442 wild birds of 55 species were collected in 4 consecutive years (2003--2006). In addition, 86 individuals from a birds of prey rehabilitation centre were bled before, at the peak, and after the 2005 USUV transmission season in order to identify titre dynamics and seroconversions. The haemagglutination inhibition test was used for screening and the plaque reduction neutralization test for confirmation. While in the years 2003 and 2004 the proportion of seropositive wild birds was 50% in 2005 and 2006. At the birds of prey centre, almost three quarters of the owls and raptors exhibited antibodies before the 2005 transmission season; this percentage dropped to less than half at the peak of USUV transmission and raised again to almost two thirds after the transmission season. These data show a from year to year continuously increasing proportion of seropositive wild birds. The owl and raptor data indicate significant viral exposure in the previous season(s), but also a number of new infections during the current season, despite the presence of antibodies in some of these birds. Herd immunity is a possible explanation for the significant decrease in USUV-associated bird mortalities in Austria during the recent years.

  15. Photographic Study Of A Dead-Pressed Explosive

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swallowe, G. M.; Field, J. E.

    1983-03-01

    High speed photography in conjunction with electron microscopy and a pressure measuring technique have been used to investigate the differences between dead-pressed and non-dead-pressed samples of the primary explosive Mercury Fulminate (Hg Ful). Photographs of reaction propagation were taken in transmitted light using a specially adapted drop-weight machine with transparent anvils. The results of these experiments suggested a mechanism for dead-pressing in Hg Ful based on the microscopic internal structure of the compacted explosive.

  16. The equivalency between logic Petri workflow nets and workflow nets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jing; Yu, ShuXia; Du, YuYue

    2015-01-01

    Logic Petri nets (LPNs) can describe and analyze batch processing functions and passing value indeterminacy in cooperative systems. Logic Petri workflow nets (LPWNs) are proposed based on LPNs in this paper. Process mining is regarded as an important bridge between modeling and analysis of data mining and business process. Workflow nets (WF-nets) are the extension to Petri nets (PNs), and have successfully been used to process mining. Some shortcomings cannot be avoided in process mining, such as duplicate tasks, invisible tasks, and the noise of logs. The online shop in electronic commerce in this paper is modeled to prove the equivalence between LPWNs and WF-nets, and advantages of LPWNs are presented.

  17. Tropical birds take small risks

    OpenAIRE

    Anders Pape Møller; Wei Liang

    2013-01-01

    The life history of tropical birds differs from that of their temperate counterparts by late start of reproduction, small clutch sizes, and high rates of adult survival. Thus, tropical species should have greater residual reproductive value than temperate species. Therefore, tropical birds can be predicted to take smaller risks than closely related temperate birds in order not to jeopardize their prospects of survival, which is the single most important component of fitness, and which is grea...

  18. Epidemic Spread of Usutu Virus in Southwest Germany in 2011 to 2013 and Monitoring of Wild Birds for Usutu and West Nile Viruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziegler, Ute; Jöst, Hanna; Müller, Kerstin; Fischer, Dominik; Rinder, Monika; Tietze, Dieter Thomas; Danner, Klaus-Jürgen; Becker, Norbert; Skuballa, Jasmin; Hamann, Hans-Peter; Bosch, Stefan; Fast, Christine; Eiden, Martin; Schmidt-Chanasit, Jonas; Groschup, Martin H

    2015-08-01

    Mosquito-borne viruses are becoming an increasing threat for Europe. One of these viruses is Usutu virus (USUV), a single-stranded RNA virus belonging to the Japanese encephalitis virus group within the family Flaviviridae. Since the occurrence of USUV among wild birds in June, 2011, infected Blackbirds (Turdus merula) have frequently been found dead in southwest Germany, cumulating in a massive die-off. Moreover, other bird species (Strigiformes) in this region have been affected. In a first study, 209 of over 600 dead birds (wild birds and birds kept in aviaries) collected from 2011 to 2013 carried USUV, more than 88% of them Blackbirds. USUV had already been detected in 2010, one year before the epizooty, in a mosquito-based surveillance program in Germany. The main epidemic area of the USUV outbreak in wild birds in southwest Germany has been similar for the last three years. In a second study during 2011 to 2013, 902 live migratory and resident birds (representing 87 bird species belonging to 14 bird orders) from four different sampling sites were bled and tested serologically and by qPCR for West Nile virus (WNV) and USUV infections. No USUV or WNV genomes were detected. Some migratory birds (mainly long-distance migrants and some partial migrants) carried neutralizing antibodies against WNV as discriminated by USUV and WNV cross-neutralization tests. Only few resident birds showed relevant USUV-specific neutralizing antibodies. The occurrence of USUV in the Upper Rhine valley area of southwest Germany is a proof of principle for the incursion and spread of other arthropod-borne (arbo)-viruses along these routes. Therefore, monitoring studies in birds and mosquitoes for the presence of arboviruses in these areas are indispensable.

  19. Coloured Petri Nets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Kurt; Kristensen, Lars Michael

    studies that illustrate the practical use of CPN modelling and validation for design, specification, simulation, verification and implementation in various application domains. Their presentation primarily aims at readers interested in the practical use of CPN. Thus all concepts and constructs are first......Coloured Petri Nets (CPN) is a graphical language for modelling and validating concurrent and distributed systems, and other systems in which concurrency plays a major role. The development of such systems is particularly challenging because of inherent intricacies like possible nondeterminism...... and the immense number of possible execution sequences. In this textbook, Jensen and Kristensen introduce the constructs of the CPN modelling language and present the related analysis methods in detail. They also provide a comprehensive road map for the practical use of CPN by showcasing selected industrial case...

  20. Sensitivity of Coastal Environments and Wildlife to Spilled Oil: Central California: BIRDS (Bird Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for alcids, diving birds, gulls, terns, passerine birds, pelagic birds, raptors, shorebirds, wading birds,...

  1. Rhode Island, Connecticut, New York, and New Jersey ESI: BIRDS (Bird Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for wading birds, shorebirds, waterfowl, raptors, diving birds, pelagic birds, passerine birds, gulls and...

  2. Sensitivity of Coastal Environments and Wildlife to Spilled Oil: South Florida: BIRDS (Bird Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for diving birds, gulls, terns, passerine birds, pelagic birds, raptors, shorebirds, wading birds, and...

  3. Sensitivity of Coastal Environments and Wildlife to Spilled Oil: Upper Coast of Texas: BIRDS (Bird Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for diving birds, gulls, terns, passerine birds, pelagic birds, raptors, shorebirds, wading birds,...

  4. Deadly Poisonous Turkish Mushrooms Containing Alpha Amanitin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilgaz Akata

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Mushroom poisoning is still a serious health problem for Turkey. The mushroom species which cause fatal mushroom poisoning have been reported to contain at least 98% alpha-amanitin. The knowledge of the poisonous mushroom species including alpha- amanitin is important for the treatment and prevention of these poisonings. In this review, the mushrooms containig alpha-amanitin and causing deadly mushroom poisinings were listed and given information about their poisonus effects. According to literature, nine poisonous mushroom species which include alpha-amanitin have so far been reported from Turkey. These are Lepiota brunneoincarnata; Lepiota castanea; Lepiota helveola; Lepiota subincarnata; Amanita phalloides; Amanita verna; Amanita virosa; Conocybe filaris and Galerina marginata.

  5. Trichomonads in birds--a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amin, Aziza; Bilic, Ivana; Liebhart, Dieter; Hess, Michael

    2014-05-01

    Members of the family Trichomonadidae, mainly Trichomonas gallinae and Tetratrichomonas gallinarum, represent important parasites in birds with worldwide presence, since being reported in the 19th century. Especially Columbiformes, Falconiformes and Strigiformes can be severely affected by trichomonads, whereas the majority of infections in Galliformes and Anatiformes are subclinical although severe infections are occasionally reported. With the recent appearance of deadly infections in wild Passeriformes the protozoan parasite T. gallinae obtained greater attention which will be addressed in this review. Although light microscopy remains the method of choice to confirm the presence of trichomonads molecular studies were introduced in recent years, in order to characterize the parasites and to establish relationships between isolates. Isolation of trichomonads is a prerequisite for detailed in vitro and in vivo studies and different media are reported to obtain suitable material. The limited information about virulence factors will be reviewed in context with the pathogenicity of trichomonads which varies greatly, indicating certain strain heterogeneity of the parasites. Options for treatment characterized by the leading role of imidazoles whose activity is sometimes hampered by resistant parasites remains a challenge for the future. Introducing more standardized genetic studies and investigations concentrating on the host-pathogen interaction should be helpful to elucidate virulence factors which might lead to new concepts of treatment.

  6. Tuberculosis in wild birds: implications for captive birds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Converse, K. A.; Dein, F. J.

    1990-01-01

    The geographic distribution of avian tuberculosis is widespread but the lack of visible epizootics makes assessment of its impact on wild birds difficult. Generally a low prevalence, widely-scattered, individual animal disease, avian tuberculosis is caused by the same agent in wild and domestic birds. Thus there exists the potential for disease transfer between these two groups in situations that result in direct contact such as wild animals newly captured or transferred from rehabilitation centers, and wild and captive animals intermingling in exhibit areas. During the past 7 yr, tuberculosis caused by Mycobacterium avium, was diagnosed in 64 birds submitted to the National Wildlife Health Research Center from 16 states; avian tuberculosis was the primary diagnosis in 52 of the 64 birds, while the remaining 12 isolates were incidental findings. Twenty-eight of these birds were picked up during epizootics caused by other disease agents including avian cholera, botulism type C, and lead, organophosphorus compound, and cyanide poisoning. Twelve birds were found incidental to birds collected during disease monitoring programs and research projects, and 10 birds were collected by hunters or found sick and euthanatized. Tuberculosis lesions occurred (in order of decreasing frequency) in the liver, intestine, spleen, lung, and air sacs. Several unusual morphological presentations were observed in the gizzard, shoulder joint, jugular vein, face, nares and bill, ureter and bone marrow. Infected birds were collected during all 12 mo of the yr from a variety of species in the Anseriformes, Podicipediformes, Gruiformes, and Falconiformes. Nine of the 46 known age birds were immature indicating that lesions can develop during the first year.

  7. Wanted dead or alive: A state-space mark-recapture-recovery model incorporating multiple recovery types and state uncertainty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hostetter, Nathan; Gardner, Beth; Evans, Allen F.; Cramer, Bradley M.; Payton, Quinn; Collis, Ken; Roby, Daniel D.

    2017-01-01

    We developed a state-space mark-recapture-recovery model that incorporates multiple recovery types and state uncertainty to estimate survival of an anadromous fish species. We apply the model to a dataset of out-migrating juvenile steelhead trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) tagged with passive integrated transponders, recaptured during outmigration, and recovered on bird colonies in the Columbia River basin (2008-2014). Recoveries on bird colonies are often ignored in survival studies because the river reach of mortality is often unknown, which we model as a form of state uncertainty. Median outmigration survival from release to the lower river (river kilometer 729 to 75) ranged from 0.27 to 0.35, depending on year. Recovery probabilities were frequently >0.20 in the first river reach following tagging, indicating that one out of five fish that died in that reach was recovered on a bird colony. Integrating dead recovery data provided increased parameter precision, estimation of where birds consumed fish, and survival estimates across larger spatial scales. More generally, these modeling approaches provide a flexible framework to integrate multiple sources of tag recovery data into mark-recapture studies.

  8. Dead time corrections using the backward extrapolation method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gilad, E., E-mail: gilade@bgu.ac.il [The Unit of Nuclear Engineering, Ben-Gurion University of the Negev, Beer-Sheva 84105 (Israel); Dubi, C. [Department of Physics, Nuclear Research Center NEGEV (NRCN), Beer-Sheva 84190 (Israel); Geslot, B.; Blaise, P. [DEN/CAD/DER/SPEx/LPE, CEA Cadarache, Saint-Paul-les-Durance 13108 (France); Kolin, A. [Department of Physics, Nuclear Research Center NEGEV (NRCN), Beer-Sheva 84190 (Israel)

    2017-05-11

    Dead time losses in neutron detection, caused by both the detector and the electronics dead time, is a highly nonlinear effect, known to create high biasing in physical experiments as the power grows over a certain threshold, up to total saturation of the detector system. Analytic modeling of the dead time losses is a highly complicated task due to the different nature of the dead time in the different components of the monitoring system (e.g., paralyzing vs. non paralyzing), and the stochastic nature of the fission chains. In the present study, a new technique is introduced for dead time corrections on the sampled Count Per Second (CPS), based on backward extrapolation of the losses, created by increasingly growing artificially imposed dead time on the data, back to zero. The method has been implemented on actual neutron noise measurements carried out in the MINERVE zero power reactor, demonstrating high accuracy (of 1–2%) in restoring the corrected count rate. - Highlights: • A new method for dead time corrections is introduced and experimentally validated. • The method does not depend on any prior calibration nor assumes any specific model. • Different dead times are imposed on the signal and the losses are extrapolated to zero. • The method is implemented and validated using neutron measurements from the MINERVE. • Result show very good correspondence to empirical results.

  9. Quantifying carbon stores and decomposition in dead wood: A review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthew B. Russell; Shawn Fraver; Tuomas Aakala; Jeffrey H. Gove; Christopher W. Woodall; Anthony W. D’Amato; Mark J. Ducey

    2015-01-01

    The amount and dynamics of forest dead wood (both standing and downed) has been quantified by a variety of approaches throughout the forest science and ecology literature. Differences in the sampling and quantification of dead wood can lead to differences in our understanding of forests and their role in the sequestration and emissions of CO2, as...

  10. Day of the Dead: A Mexican-American Celebration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoyt-Goldsmith, Diane

    This children's book describes how a Mexican-American family celebrates the traditional Mexican holiday, Day of the Dead (Dia de Muertos). The book centers on 10-year-old twins, Ximena and Azucena, who live in Sacramento, California, with their two brothers, older sister, and parents. The Day of the Dead takes place on the first and second day of…

  11. 37 CFR 1.42 - When the inventor is dead.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false When the inventor is dead. 1.42 Section 1.42 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights UNITED STATES PATENT AND TRADEMARK OFFICE... for A Patent § 1.42 When the inventor is dead. In case of the death of the inventor, the legal...

  12. 37 CFR 1.422 - When the inventor is dead.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false When the inventor is dead. 1.422 Section 1.422 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights UNITED STATES PATENT AND TRADEMARK OFFICE... File An International Application § 1.422 When the inventor is dead. In case of the death of the...

  13. Modelling chemistry over the Dead Sea: bromine and ozone chemistry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. von Glasow

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Measurements of O3 and BrO concentrations over the Dead Sea indicate that Ozone Depletion Events (ODEs, widely known to happen in polar regions, are also occuring over the Dead Sea due to the very high bromine content of the Dead Sea water. However, we show that BrO and O3 levels as they are detected cannot solely be explained by high Br levels in the Dead Sea water and the release of gas phase halogen species out of sea borne aerosol particles and their conversion to reactive halogen species. It is likely that other sources for reactive halogen compounds are needed to explain the observed concentrations for BrO and O3. To explain the chemical mechanism taking place over the Dead Sea leading to BrO levels of several pmol/mol we used the one-dimensional model MISTRA which calculates microphysics, meteorology, gas and aerosol phase chemistry. We performed pseudo Lagrangian studies by letting the model column first move over the desert which surrounds the Dead Sea region and then let it move over the Dead Sea itself. To include an additional source for gas phase halogen compounds, gas exchange between the Dead Sea water and the atmosphere is treated explicitly. Model calculations indicate that this process has to be included to explain the measurements.

  14. COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF TECHNILOGIES OF CHITOSAN PRODUCTION FROM DEAD BEES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina Abramova

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The aim of this work is to study the characteristics of technology of chitosan obtaining from unconventional sources, namely from dead bees. Methods: The article considers three methods of chitosan obtaining from dead bees, namely the technology with the usage of dead bees with low degree of drying; the technology with the usage of dead bees with high degree of drying; the technology with the usage of dead bees with high degree of drying but without separation of deproteination and deacetylation stages. Results: It is proved that the technology with the usage of dead bees with high degree of drying but without separation of deproteination and deacetylation stages does not require high temperatures and long time. Yield of chitosan with the use of this technology is 21-24%. Discussion: The expediency of dead bees usage as raw material for the production of chitosan in Ukraine is shown. The technologies of chitosan obtaining from dead bees are compared, the most efficient one is chosen, which provide the highest yield of the finished product, so it is the most promising for the application in practice.

  15. Recipe for Hypoxia: Playing the Dead Zone Game

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kastler, Jessica A.

    2009-01-01

    Dead zones--areas experiencing low levels of dissolved oxygen--are growing in shallow ocean waters around the world. Research has shown that dead zones form as a result of a specific type of pollution, called nutrient enrichment or eutrophication, and are found in almost every coastal zone where humans have large populations. Concepts related to…

  16. Dead wood inventory and assessment in South Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jong-Su Yim; Rae Hyun Kim; Sun-Jeong Lee; Yeongmo. Son

    2015-01-01

    Dead wood (DW) plays a critical role not only in maintaining biodiversity but also in stocking carbon under UNFCCC. From the 5th national forest inventory (NFI5; 2006-2010) in South Korea, field data relevant to the DW including standing and downed dead trees by four decay class, etc. were collected. Based on the NFI5 data,...

  17. 9 CFR 314.8 - Dead animal carcasses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... received with livestock for slaughter at an official establishment, no dead animal or part of the carcass... circumstances shall the carcasses of any animal which has died otherwise than by slaughter, or any part thereof... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Dead animal carcasses. 314.8 Section...

  18. Modeling and clinical diagnosis of dead regions in the cochlea

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Warnaar, B.

    2013-01-01

    This thesis attempts to establish, using a model framework, a relationship between the psychophysical measurement of off-frequency listening and the functional auditory loss caused by dead regions in the cochlear. The results are used to evaluate the clinical value of dead region diagnosis with PTCs

  19. Laboratory Animal Management: Wild Birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Academy of Sciences - National Research Council, Washington, DC. Inst. of Lab. Animal Resources.

    This is a report on the care and use of wild birds in captivity as research animals. Chapters are presented on procurement and identification, housing, nutrition, health of birds and personnel, reproduction in confinement, and surgical procedures. Also included are addresses of federal, state, and provencial regulatory agencies concerned with wild…

  20. Bird Migration Across the Himalayas

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Prins, Herbert H.T.; Namgail, Tsewang

    2017-01-01

    Birds migrating across the Himalayan region fly over the highest peaks in the world, facing immense physiological and climatic challenges. The authors show the different strategies used by birds to cope with these challenges. Many wetland avian species are seen in the high-altitude lakes of the

  1. Breeding Ecology of Birds -22 ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    ogy, conservation biology and popular science writing. Keywords. Birds. nesting. territory, coloniality, heronries. ecology, nesting strate- gies. Abdul Jamil Urli. One of the most fascinating aspects in the life of birds is their breeding phase, which is intimately tied to the distri- bution and abundance of food resources in their ...

  2. 'WORLD OF BIRDS' WILDLIFE SANCTUARY

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    and animal hospital. For nine years this service was rendered and up to 300 birds and animals in need of help were cared for each month. When the financial ... pact. Many problems are encountered which can only be overcome with time. One example is the identifi- cation plaques for the birds on view. Only pictures.

  3. Bird records from the Moluccas

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mees, G.F.

    1982-01-01

    INTRODUCTION For the past thirty years I have, from time to time, come across bird material and literature records which have added localities and in a few instances have added new species, to Van Bemmel's (1948) list of birds of the Moluccan Islands and its supplement, published five years later

  4. Repeats, returns, and estimated flight ranges of neotropical migratory birds in Utah riparian habitat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dan A. Roberts; Jimmie R. Parrish; Frank P. Howe

    2005-01-01

    We present data on capture and recapture of neotropical migrants at constant-effort mist net sampling locations in Utah between 1994 and 2002. Data were collected in accordance with MAPS (Monitoring Avian Productivity and Survivorship) protocols. Since 1994, a total of 23,789 birds have been captured (i.e., total captures include new captures, recaptures, and unbanded...

  5. Surveillance for Avian Influenza Viruses in Wild Birds in Denmark and Greenland, 2007–10

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjulsager, Charlotte Kristiane; Breum, Solvej Østergaard; Trebbien, Ramona

    2012-01-01

    In Denmark and Greenland, extensive surveillance of avian influenza (AI) viruses in wild bird populations has been conducted from 2007 through 2010. In Denmark, the surveillance consisted of passive surveillance of wild birds found dead or sick across Denmark and active surveillance of apparently...... viruses were detected throughout the period, in addition to a few LPAI H7 and several other subtypes. In Greenland, very few samples were positive for AI. None of them were found to be of the H5 or H7 subtypes by RT-PCR. Isolation of these viruses in eggs was unsuccessful; thus, they were not subtyped...... further. The findings did, however, demonstrate the presence of LPAI viruses in Greenland. For several water bird species overwintering in North America and northwest Europe, respectively, Greenland constitutes a common breeding area. This raises the possibility that viruses could be transmitted to North...

  6. Case histories of organophosphate pesticides killing birds of prey in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henny, C.J.; Kolbe, E.J.; Hill, E.F.; Blus, L.J.

    1985-01-01

    Since 1982 when secondary. poisoning of Red-tailed Hawks (Buteo jamaicensis) was documented following the recommended use of famphur on cattle, the Patuxent Wildlife Research Center has tested for organophosphate (OP) poisoning in selected birds of prey found dead. This report documents the circumstances for a number of. cases where birds of prey were killed by OP pesticides in the United States. Many of the cases were brought to our attention by the U S. Fish and Wildlife Service Division of Law Enforcement The cases may be divided into three categories: misuse, approved use, and unknown. Now that we are looking for OP poisoning of birds of prey, we are finding it more frequently than previously suspected.

  7. Winter habitat occurrence patterns of temperate migrant birds in Belize

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawson, D.K.; Robbins, C.S.; Sauer, J.R.

    1992-01-01

    We used mist nets and point counts to sample bird populations in 61 sites in Belize during January-March of 1987-1991. Sites were classified as forest, second growth, woody agricultural crops (citrus, mango, cacao, and cashew), or non-woody agricultural crops (rice and sugar cane). We evaluated patterns of occurence of wintering temperate migrant bird species in these habitats. Mist net captures of 22 of 31 migrant species differed significantly among habitats. Of these, 13 species were captured more frequently in the agricultural habitats. American Redstart (Setophaga ruticilla), Black-and-white Warbler (Mniotilta varia), and Magnolia Warbler (Dendroica magnolia) were among the species captured most frequently in woody agricultural habitats; captures of Common Yellowthroat (Geothlypis trichas), Indigo Bunting (Passerina cyanea), and Northern (lcterus galbula) and Orchard orioles (I. spur/anus) were highest in the non-woody agricultural sites. We relate these occurrence patterns to trends in breeding populations in North America. While count data provide a wide picture of winter habitat distribution of migrants, more intensive work is necessary to assess temporal and geographic variation of migrant bird use of agricultural habitats.

  8. The Effects of Different Forest Loggings on Forest Birds Community Composition in Shastkolateh Forest, Gorgan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Parsaei

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The species composition of a bird community is dependent upon many factors. Within any geographic area, vegetation structure may be the most important factor. The changes of bird community composition based on foraging behavior in relation to 3 different harvesting systems, including strip cutting, group selection logging, and single tree selection logging, was evaluated in a virgin area in this study. Birds and environmental variables were detected within 103 circle sampling plots with 25m radius. Based on the results, 4 groups of birds were observed in treatments based on the foraging behavior. Group 1 was ground foragers, group 2 consisted of foliage gleaning, group 3 included flycatchers, and group 4 represented bark foraging. The first group had the highest abundance in the strip treatment. The second group in group selection treatment, and the third and fourth groups had the highest abundance in the virgin area and then, in single tree selection treatment. The first group showed the highest correlation with shrub and herb or grass layer, stone cover and the number of trees 10-20m in height. The second, third and fourth groups showed the highest correlation with the number of trees>20m in height, basal areas, dead trees number, and the number of fagus trees. The results showed the single cutting treatment had a relatively minor effect on mature forest bird species and were more appropriate and sustainable methods to reduce the negative effects of forest harvesting on the birds.

  9. Status and conservation of old-growth forests and endemic birds in the pine-oak zone of the Sierra Madre Occidental, Mexico

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lammertink, J.M.; Rojas-Tomé, J.A.; Casillas-Orona, F.M.; Otto, R.L.

    1996-01-01

    The pine-oak forests of the Sierra Madre Occidental, a mountain range in NW Mexico, have recently been recognized as an area of high endemism and biodiversity. Selective logging threatens three bird species endemic to this habitat, who depend on standing dead trees (snags). This report is based on

  10. Unzipping bird feathers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovalev, Alexander; Filippov, Alexander E; Gorb, Stanislav N

    2014-03-06

    The bird feather vane can be separated into two parts by pulling the barbs apart. The original state can be re-established easily by lightly stroking through the feather. Hooklets responsible for holding vane barbs together are not damaged by multiple zipping and unzipping cycles. Because numerous microhooks keep the integrity of the feather, their properties are of great interest for understanding mechanics of the entire feather structure. This study was undertaken to estimate the separation force of single hooklets and their arrays using force measurement of an unzipping feather vane. The hooklets usually separate in some number synchronously (20 on average) with the highest observed separation force of 1.74 mN (average force 0.27 mN), whereas the single hooklet separation force was 14 μN. A simple numerical model was suggested for a better understanding of zipping and unzipping behaviour in feathers. The model demonstrates features similar to those observed in experiments.

  11. Tracking migrating birds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Willemoes, Mikkel

    Migratory movements of birds has always fascinated man and led to many questions concerning the ecological drivers behind, the necessary adaptations and the navigational abilities required. However, especially for the long-distance migrants, basic descriptions of their movements are still lacking...... and many experiments are only becoming possible with the current development of tracking technologies. During this thesis work I have been tracking the poorly known movements of several species of long-distance migrants and document highly complex migration patterns. In three manuscripts these movements...... were related to the yearly progression of an environmental surrogate for food availability along the course of migration. In one species, with multiple, different non-breeding staging sites, environmental conditions explain movements well and also how yearly differences explain differences in timing...

  12. Cost-benefit trade-offs of bird activity in apple orchards

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebecca K. Peisley

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Birds active in apple orchards in south–eastern Australia can contribute positively (e.g., control crop pests or negatively (e.g., crop damage to crop yields. Our study is the first to identify net outcomes of these activities, using six apple orchards, varying in management intensity, in south–eastern Australia as a study system. We also conducted a predation experiment using real and artificial codling moth (Cydia pomonella larvae (a major pest in apple crops. We found that: (1 excluding birds from branches of apple trees resulted in an average of 12.8% more apples damaged by insects; (2 bird damage to apples was low (1.9% of apples; and (3 when trading off the potential benefits (biological control with costs (bird damage to apples, birds provided an overall net benefit to orchard growers. We found that predation of real codling moth larvae was higher than for plasticine larvae, suggesting that plasticine prey models are not useful for inferring actual predation levels. Our study shows how complex ecological interactions between birds and invertebrates affect crop yield in apples, and provides practical strategies for improving the sustainability of orchard systems.

  13. Linear Logic on Petri Nets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engberg, Uffe Henrik; Winskel, Glynn

    This article shows how individual Petri nets form models of Girard's intuitionistic linear logic. It explores questions of expressiveness and completeness of linear logic with respect to this interpretation. An aim is to use Petri nets to give an understanding of linear logic and give some apprai...

  14. Reference Guide Microsoft.NET

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zee M van der; Verspaij GJ; Rosbergen S; IMP; NMD

    2003-01-01

    Developers, administrators and managers can get more understanding of the .NET technology with this report. They can also make better choices how to use this technology. The report describes the results and conclusions of a study of the usability for the RIVM of this new generation .NET development

  15. Net neutrality and audiovisual services

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Eijk, N.; Nikoltchev, S.

    2011-01-01

    Net neutrality is high on the European agenda. New regulations for the communication sector provide a legal framework for net neutrality and need to be implemented on both a European and a national level. The key element is not just about blocking or slowing down traffic across communication

  16. No Time for Dead Time: Use the Fourier Amplitude Differences to Normalize Dead-time-affected Periodograms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bachetti, Matteo; Huppenkothen, Daniela

    2018-02-01

    Dead time affects many of the instruments used in X-ray astronomy, by producing a strong distortion in power density spectra. This can make it difficult to model the aperiodic variability of the source or look for quasi-periodic oscillations. Whereas in some instruments a simple a priori correction for dead-time-affected power spectra is possible, this is not the case for others such as NuSTAR, where the dead time is non-constant and long (∼2.5 ms). Bachetti et al. (2015) suggested the cospectrum obtained from light curves of independent detectors within the same instrument as a possible way out, but this solution has always only been a partial one: the measured rms was still affected by dead time because the width of the power distribution of the cospectrum was modulated by dead time in a frequency-dependent way. In this Letter, we suggest a new, powerful method to normalize dead-time-affected cospectra and power density spectra. Our approach uses the difference of the Fourier amplitudes from two independent detectors to characterize and filter out the effect of dead time. This method is crucially important for the accurate modeling of periodograms derived from instruments affected by dead time on board current missions like NuSTAR and Astrosat, but also future missions such as IXPE.

  17. Epidemic of salmonellosis in passerine birds in Switzerland with spillover to domestic cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giovannini, S; Pewsner, M; Hüssy, D; Hächler, H; Ryser Degiorgis, M-P; von Hirschheydt, J; Origgi, F C

    2013-07-01

    A die-off of passerine birds, mostly Eurasian siskins (Carduelis spinus), occurred in multiple areas of Switzerland between February and March 2010. Several of the dead birds were submitted for full necropsy. Bacteriological examination was carried out on multiple tissues of each bird. At gross examination, common findings were light-tan nodules, 1 to 4 mm in diameter, scattered through the esophagus/crop. Histologically, a necroulcerative transmural esophagitis/ingluvitis was observed. Bacterial cultures yielded Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serovar Typhimurium. At the same time, 2 pet clinics reported an unusual increase of domestic cats presented with fever, anorexia, occasionally dolent abdomen, and history of presumed consumption of passerine birds. Analysis of rectal swabs revealed the presence of S. Typhimurium in all tested cats. PFGE (pulsed field electrophoresis) analysis was performed to characterize and compare the bacterial isolates, and it revealed an indistinguishable pattern between all the avian and all but 1 of the feline isolates. Cloacal swabs collected from clinically healthy migrating Eurasian siskins (during autumn 2010) did not yield S. Typhimurium. The histological and bacteriological findings were consistent with a systemic infection caused by S. Typhimurium. Isolation of the same serovar from the dead birds and ill cats, along with the overlapping results of the PFGE analysis for all the animal species, confirmed a spillover from birds to cats through predation. The sudden increase of the number of siskins over the Swiss territory and their persistency during the whole winter of 2009-2010 is considered the most likely predisposing factor for the onset of the epidemic.

  18. Sperm competition in birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birkhead, T R

    1998-05-01

    Sperm competition in birds occurs when a female is inseminated by more than one male during a single breeding cycle. Despite most birds being socially monogamous, sperm competition is widespread and results in frequent extra-pair paternity. Sperm competition is a fundamental part of sexual selection since it results in differential reproductive success among males. Male adaptations to sperm competition include relatively large testes, large sperm stores and long spermatozoa, mate guarding and frequent pair copulations. Females show no obvious morphological adaptations to sperm competition but, by controlling whether copulations are successful, they probably determine its frequency and extent. Despite this, the evolutionary benefits females acquire from extra-pair fertilizations are poorly understood. Experiments in which females are inseminated with equal numbers of spermatozoa from two males usually show last male sperm precedence. Understanding the mechanism of sperm competition requires understanding of why the last male to inseminate a female fertilizes a disproportionate number of eggs. The data from sperm competition studies on the domestic fowl, turkeys and zebra finches are consistent only with a passive sperm loss model of sperm competition. The mechanism is as follows: after insemination, spermatozoa enter the sperm storage tubules located in the oviduct, from which they are lost at a constant rate over days or weeks. All else being equal, the interval between two inseminations determines the probability of fertilization: the second of two inseminations fertilizes most eggs simply because, by the time fertilization occurs, fewer of these spermatozoa have been lost. Other factors also affect the outcome of sperm competition: the timing of insemination relative to oviposition, the differential fertilizing capacity of males and differences in the numbers of spermatozoa inseminated; as a consequence, last male sperm precedence is not automatic. On the basis

  19. Continuous CO2 escape from the hypersaline Dead Sea caused by aragonite precipitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golan, Rotem; Lazar, Boaz; Wurgaft, Eyal; Lensky, Nadav; Ganor, Jiwchar; Gavrieli, Ittai

    2017-06-01

    Chemical precipitation of CaCO3 occurs in diverse marine and lacustrine environments. In the hypersaline Ca-chloride lakes that have been occupying the Dead Sea basin since the late Pleistocene, CaCO3 precipitated, mostly as aragonite. The aragonite sediments precipitated mainly during periods of high lake level stands as a result of mixing of bicarbonate-rich freshwater runoff with Dead Sea brine, that is Ca-rich and have high Mg/Ca ratio. During periods of arid conditions with limited freshwater inflow, water level declined, salinity increased and gypsum and halite became the dominant evaporitic minerals to precipitate. The present study investigates the carbon cycle of the Dead Sea under the current limited water and bicarbonate supply to the brine, representing periods of extremely arid conditions. The decrease of inflows to the Dead Sea in recent years stems mainly from diversion of freshwater from the drainage basin and results in dramatic water level decline and massive halite precipitation. During 2013-2014, bi-monthly depth profiles of total alkalinity, dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) and its isotopic composition (δ13C) were conducted in the Dead Sea, from surface down to the bottom of the lake (290 m). Mass balance calculations conducted for the period 1993-2013 show that while inventories of conservative ions such as Mg2+ remained constant, the net DIC inventory of the lake decreased by ∼10%. DIC supply to the lake during this period, however, amounted to ∼10% of lake's inventory indicating that during 20 years, the lake lost ∼20% of its 1993s inventory. Compilation of historical data with our data shows that during the past two decades the lake's low DIC (∼1 mmol kg-1) and very high PCO2 (1800 ppm V) remained relatively constant, suggesting that a quasi-steady-state situation prevails. In spite of the surprisingly stable DIC and CO2 concentrations, during this 20 year period δ13CDIC increased significantly, from 1.4‰ to 2.7‰. An isotopic

  20. A Small Universal Petri Net

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dmitry A. Zaitsev

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available A universal deterministic inhibitor Petri net with 14 places, 29 transitions and 138 arcs was constructed via simulation of Neary and Woods' weakly universal Turing machine with 2 states and 4 symbols; the total time complexity is exponential in the running time of their weak machine. To simulate the blank words of the weakly universal Turing machine, a couple of dedicated transitions insert their codes when reaching edges of the working zone. To complete a chain of a given Petri net encoding to be executed by the universal Petri net, a translation of a bi-tag system into a Turing machine was constructed. The constructed Petri net is universal in the standard sense; a weaker form of universality for Petri nets was not introduced in this work.

  1. Second generation anticoagulant rodenticides in predatory birds: Probabilistic characterisation of toxic liver concentrations and implications for predatory bird populations in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Philippe J; Mineau, Pierre; Shore, Richard F; Champoux, Louise; Martin, Pamela A; Wilson, Laurie K; Fitzgerald, Guy; Elliott, John E

    2011-07-01

    Second-generation anticoagulant rodenticides (SGARs) are widely used to control rodent pests but exposure and poisonings occur in non-target species, such as birds of prey. Liver residues are often analysed to detect exposure in birds found dead but their use to assess toxicity of SGARs is problematic. We analysed published data on hepatic rodenticide residues and associated symptoms of anticoagulant poisoning from 270 birds of prey using logistic regression to estimate the probability of toxicosis associated with different liver SGAR residues. We also evaluated exposure to SGARs on a national level in Canada by analysing 196 livers from great horned owls (Bubo virginianus) and red-tailed hawks (Buteo jamaicensis) found dead at locations across the country. Analysis of a broader sample of raptor species from Quebec also helped define the taxonomic breadth of contamination. Calculated probability curves suggest significant species differences in sensitivity to SGARs and significant likelihood of toxicosis below previously suggested concentrations of concern (red-tailed hawks and the liver residue levels were also higher. Using our probability estimates of effect, we estimate that a minimum of 11% of the sampled great horned owl population is at risk of being directly killed by SGARs. This is the first time the potential mortality impact of SGARs on a raptor population has been estimated. Crown Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. The net return from animal activity in agro-ecosystems: trading off benefits from ecosystem services against costs from crop damage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luck, Gary W

    2013-01-01

    Animals provide benefits to agriculture through the provision of ecosystem services, but also inflict costs such as damaging crops. These benefits and costs are mostly examined independently, rather than comparing the trade-offs of animal activity in the same system and quantifying the net return from beneficial minus detrimental activities. Here, I examine the net return associated with the activity of seed-eating birds in almond orchards by quantifying the economic costs and benefits of bird consumption of almonds. Pre-harvest, the consumption of harvestable almonds by birds cost growers AUD$57.50 ha (-1) when averaged across the entire plantation. Post-harvest, the same bird species provide an ecosystem service by removing mummified nuts from trees that growers otherwise need to remove to reduce threats from fungal infection or insect pest infestations. The value of this ecosystem service ranged from AUD$82.50 ha (-1)-$332.50 ha (-1) based on the replacement costs of mechanical or manual removal of mummified nuts, respectively. Hence, bird consumption of almonds yielded a positive net return of AUD$25-$275 ha (-1) averaged across the entire plantation. However, bird activity varied spatially resulting in positive net returns occurring primarily at the edges of crops where activity was higher, compared to negative net returns in crop interiors. Moreover, partial mummy nut removal by birds meant that bird activity may only reduce costs to growers rather than replace these costs completely. Similar cost-benefit trade-offs exist across nature, and quantifying net returns can better inform land management decisions such as when to control pests or promote ecosystem service provision.

  3. Study on bird's & insect's wing aerodynamics and comparison of its analytical value with standard airfoil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Md. Nesar; Alam, Mahbubul; Hossain, Md. Abed; Ahmed, Md. Imteaz

    2017-06-01

    Flight is the main mode of locomotion used by most of the world's bird & insect species. This article discusses the mechanics of bird flight, with emphasis on the varied forms of bird's & insect's wings. The fundamentals of bird flight are similar to those of aircraft. Flying animals flap their wings to generate lift and thrust as well as to perform remarkable maneuvers with rapid accelerations and decelerations. Insects and birds provide illuminating examples of unsteady aerodynamics. Lift force is produced by the action of air flow on the wing, which is an airfoil. The airfoil is shaped such that the air provides a net upward force on the wing, while the movement of air is directed downward. Additional net lift may come from airflow around the bird's & insect's body in some species, especially during intermittent flight while the wings are folded or semi-folded. Bird's & insect's flight in nature are sub-divided into two stages. They are Unpowered Flight: Gliding and Soaring & Powered Flight: Flapping. When gliding, birds and insects obtain both a vertical and a forward force from their wings. When a bird & insect flaps, as opposed to gliding, its wings continue to develop lift as before, but the lift is rotated forward to provide thrust, which counteracts drag and increases its speed, which has the effect of also increasing lift to counteract its weight, allowing it to maintain height or to climb. Flapping flight is more complicated than flight with fixed wings because of the structural movement and the resulting unsteady fluid dynamics. Flapping involves two stages: the down-stroke, which provides the majority of the thrust, and the up-stroke, which can also (depending on the bird's & insect's wings) provide some thrust. Most kinds of bird & insect wing can be grouped into four types, with some falling between two of these types. These types of wings are elliptical wings, high speed wings, high aspect ratio wings and soaring wings with slots. Hovering is used

  4. Autopsies of the real: Resurrecting the dead

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valis, Noël

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The sense of the real, or the material—the dead body—as an inextricable part of the sacred does not disappear in the secular environment of the nineteenth and twentieth centuries. This article analyzes specific humanitarian narratives centered on the practice of autopsy and mummification, in which the traces of Catholicism act as a kind of spectral discourse of the imagination, where the real is configured in forms of the uncanny, the monstrous or the sacred.

    El sentido de lo real, de lo material —el cuerpo sin vida— como una inextricable parte de lo sagrado, no desaparece del ambiente secular de los siglos XIX y XX. En los relatos analizados en este artículo se estudia cómo en determinadas narrativas humanitarias centradas en la práctica de la autopsia y la momificación, las huellas del catolicismo actúan como una suerte de discurso espectral de la imaginación, en que lo real se configura en formas de lo siniestro, lo monstruoso o lo sagrado.

  5. Personal Identity and Resurrection from the Dead

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gasparov Igor

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The paper examines arguments of the “Christian materialist” Trenton Merricks that he provided in support of the claim that the Christian doctrine of resurrection from the dead is compatible with the materialist understanding of the nature of human beings. In his paper The Resurrection of the Body, Merricks discussed two aspects of the materialist interpretation of the traditional religious doctrine of the bodily resurrection. On the one hand, he analyses and tries to overcome objections against the possibility of the general resurrection in case the materialist understanding of the nature of human personality should be true (mainly the problem of the temporal gap. On the other hand, he provides some reasons why the materialist understanding of human nature is more relevant than its dualist counterpart to the doctrine of the bodily resurrection. The present paper evaluates his arguments and discusses the suggestion that the doctrine of resurrection is not only compatible with materialism, but is also tenable if human beings are identical with their physical bodies. The conclusion of the paper is that Merricks’ apologetic arguments achieve their aims in defending the doctrine of resurrection only partially; the resurrection doctrine appears more tenable if we accept the dualistic conception of human nature.

  6. Dead Time of Single Photon Avalanche Diodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neri, L., E-mail: lorenzo.neri@ct.infn.it [INFN Laboratori Nazionali del Sud, via S.Sofia 62, I-95125, Catania (Italy); Universita degli Studi di Catania, via S.Sofia 64, I-95123, Catania (Italy); Tudisco, S. [INFN Laboratori Nazionali del Sud, via S.Sofia 62, I-95125, Catania (Italy); Musumeci, F.; Scordino, A. [Universita degli Studi di Catania, via S.Sofia 64, I-95123, Catania (Italy); Fallica, G.; Mazzillo, M. [ST-Microelectronics, stradale Primosole 50, I-95100, Catania (Italy); Zimbone, M. [Universita degli Studi di Catania, via S.Sofia 64, I-95123, Catania (Italy)

    2011-06-15

    Single Photon Avalanche Diode (SPAD) is the new generation of Geiger-Muller counter device developed in semiconductor technology [S. Privitera et al. Sensors Journal, vol 8 Iss. 8 (2008) 4636; S. Tudisco et al. IEEE Sensors Journal vol 8 ISS 7-8 (2008) 1324; S. Cova et al. Applied Optics 35 (1996) 1956]. Physical dead time model and noise production process has been analyzed and their corrections have been performed [S.H. Lee, R.P. Gardner, M. Jae, Nucl. Instr. and Meth. in Phys. Res. B 263 (2007) 46]. We have been able to extract the real amount of incident photon rate up to 10{sup 7}cps using a device with 0.97{mu}s total deadtime. We also developed the equation of the noise count rate vs incoming photon rate, supported by Montecarlo simulation and experimental data. We marked the difference between dark rate and noise count rate, and introduced the noise rate inside the hybrid deadtime equation used for SPAD device.

  7. Quantifying Responses of Spectral Vegetation Indices to Dead Materials in Mixed Grasslands

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Yang, Xiaohui; Guo, Xulin

    2014-01-01

    ... by the confounding effects from external factors, such as soil properties, dead materials, and shadowing of vegetation canopies. Dead materials refer to the dead component of vegetation, including fallen...

  8. Do the 'brain dead' merely appear to be alive?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nair-Collins, Michael; Miller, Franklin G

    2017-11-01

    The established view regarding 'brain death' in medicine and medical ethics is that patients determined to be dead by neurological criteria are dead in terms of a biological conception of death, not a philosophical conception of personhood, a social construction or a legal fiction. Although such individuals show apparent signs of being alive, in reality they are (biologically) dead, though this reality is masked by the intervention of medical technology. In this article, we argue that an appeal to the distinction between appearance and reality fails in defending the view that the 'brain dead' are dead. Specifically, this view relies on an inaccurate and overly simplistic account of the role of medical technology in the physiology of a 'brain dead' patient. We conclude by offering an explanation of why the conventional view on 'brain death', though mistaken, continues to be endorsed in light of its connection to organ transplantation and the dead donor rule. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  9. Dead pixel correction techniques for dual-band infrared imagery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Chuong T.; Mould, Nick; Regens, James L.

    2015-07-01

    We present two new dead pixel correction algorithms for dual-band infrared imagery. Specifically, we address the problem of repairing unresponsive elements in the sensor array using signal processing techniques to overcome deficiencies in image quality that are present following the nonuniformity correction process. Traditionally, dead pixel correction has been performed almost exclusively using variations of the nearest neighbor technique, where the value of the dead pixel is estimated based on pixel values associated with the neighboring image structure. Our approach differs from existing techniques, for the first time we estimate the values of dead pixels using information from both thermal bands collaboratively. The proposed dual-band statistical lookup (DSL) and dual-band inpainting (DIP) algorithms use intensity and local gradient information to estimate the values of dead pixels based on the values of unaffected pixels in the supplementary infrared band. The DSL algorithm is a regression technique that uses the image intensities from the reference band to estimate the dead pixel values in the band undergoing correction. The DIP algorithm is an energy minimization technique that uses the local image gradient from the reference band and the boundary values from the affected band to estimate the dead pixel values. We evaluate the effectiveness of the proposed algorithms with 50 dual-band videos. Simulation results indicate that the proposed techniques achieve perceptually and quantitatively superior results compared to existing methods.

  10. Anatomy of a Bird

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-12-01

    Using ESO's Very Large Telescope, an international team of astronomers [1] has discovered a stunning rare case of a triple merger of galaxies. This system, which astronomers have dubbed 'The Bird' - albeit it also bears resemblance with a cosmic Tinker Bell - is composed of two massive spiral galaxies and a third irregular galaxy. ESO PR Photo 55a/07 ESO PR Photo 55a/07 The Tinker Bell Triplet The galaxy ESO 593-IG 008, or IRAS 19115-2124, was previously merely known as an interacting pair of galaxies at a distance of 650 million light-years. But surprises were revealed by observations made with the NACO instrument attached to ESO's VLT, which peered through the all-pervasive dust clouds, using adaptive optics to resolve the finest details [2]. Underneath the chaotic appearance of the optical Hubble images - retrieved from the Hubble Space Telescope archive - the NACO images show two unmistakable galaxies, one a barred spiral while the other is more irregular. The surprise lay in the clear identification of a third, clearly separate component, an irregular, yet fairly massive galaxy that seems to be forming stars at a frantic rate. "Examples of mergers of three galaxies of roughly similar sizes are rare," says Petri Väisänen, lead author of the paper reporting the results. "Only the near-infrared VLT observations made it possible to identify the triple merger nature of the system in this case." Because of the resemblance of the system to a bird, the object was dubbed as such, with the 'head' being the third component, and the 'heart' and 'body' making the two major galaxy nuclei in-between of tidal tails, the 'wings'. The latter extend more than 100,000 light-years, or the size of our own Milky Way. ESO PR Photo 55b/07 ESO PR Photo 55b/07 Anatomy of a Bird Subsequent optical spectroscopy with the new Southern African Large Telescope, and archive mid-infrared data from the NASA Spitzer space observatory, confirmed the separate nature of the 'head', but also added

  11. Bristol Bay, Alaska Subarea ESI: BIRDS (Bird Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for shorebirds, waterfowl, raptors, diving birds, and seabirds in the Bristol Bay Subarea. The Subarea...

  12. Coordinated bird monitoring: Technical recommendations for military lands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bart, Jonathan; Manning, Ann; Fischer, Richard; Eberly, Chris

    2012-01-01

    the end of Chapter 1. DoD has agreed to consider implementing these recommendations; however, final decisions will be based upon such factors as the availability of resources and military mission considerations. These recommendations from USGS can be summarized into 6 major themes: A major report on monitoring was released in 2007 by the U.S. North American Bird Conservation Initiative (http://www.nabci-us.org/main2.html). DoD can be consistent with this report by establishing policy that monitoring will be explicitly acknowledged as an integral element of bird management and conservation (Recommendation 1). The design of monitoring and assessment programs for birds should include the following steps: Preparation of a document describing the program's goals, objectives, and methods similar to a format we provide (Recommendation 2, Chapter 4). Selection of field methods using an "expert system" developed in this project (Recommendation 3, Chapter 5) or another well-documented system. Preparation and storage of metadata describing the monitoring program in the Natural Resources Monitoring Partnership (NRMP), and other appropriate databases Recommendation 4, Chapter 6). Entry of the survey data using eBird (http://ebird.org/content/dod) or the Coordinated Bird Monitoring Database (CBMD) and long-term storage of the data in the CBMD and the Avian Knowledge Network (AKN; Recommendation 5, Chapter 6; http://www.avianknowledge.net/). Submission of major results from the monitoring program for publication in a peer reviewed journal (Recommendation 6). The DoD Legacy Resource Management Program (Legacy; https://www.dodlegacy.org), Environmental Security Technology Certification Program (ESTCP; http://www.serdp.org/), and Strategic Environmental Research and Development Program (SERDP; http://www.serdp.org/) should be encouraged to continue their significant contributions to the foundations of bird monitoring (Recommendation 7, Chapters 1 and 3). Appropriate monitoring should

  13. Birds of the Mongol Empire

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eugene N. Anderson

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The Mongol Empire, the largest contiguous empire the world has ever known, had, among other things, a goodly number of falconers, poultry raisers, birdcatchers, cooks, and other experts on various aspects of birding. We have records of this, largely in the Yinshan Zhengyao, the court nutrition manual of the Mongol empire in China (the Yuan Dynasty. It discusses in some detail 22 bird taxa, from swans to chickens. The Huihui Yaofang, a medical encyclopedia, lists ten taxa used medicinally. Marco Polo also made notes on Mongol bird use. There are a few other records. This allows us to draw conclusions about Mongol ornithology, which apparently was sophisticated and detailed.

  14. High-level Petri Nets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    High-level Petri nets are now widely used in both theoretical analysis and practical modelling of concurrent systems. The main reason for the success of this class of net models is that they make it possible to obtain much more succinct and manageable descriptions than can be obtained by means...... of low-level Petri nets - while, on the other hand, they still offer a wide range of analysis methods and tools. The step from low-level nets to high-level nets can be compared to the step from assembly languages to modern programming languages with an elaborated type concept. In low-level nets...... there is only one kind of token and this means that the state of a place is described by an integer (and in many cases even by a boolean). In high-level nets each token can carry a complex information/data - which, e.g., may describe the entire state of a process or a data base. Today most practical...

  15. BirdVis: visualizing and understanding bird populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Nivan; Lins, Lauro; Fink, Daniel; Kelling, Steve; Wood, Chris; Freire, Juliana; Silva, Cláudio

    2011-12-01

    Birds are unrivaled windows into biotic processes at all levels and are proven indicators of ecological well-being. Understanding the determinants of species distributions and their dynamics is an important aspect of ecology and is critical for conservation and management. Through crowdsourcing, since 2002, the eBird project has been collecting bird observation records. These observations, together with local-scale environmental covariates such as climate, habitat, and vegetation phenology have been a valuable resource for a global community of educators, land managers, ornithologists, and conservation biologists. By associating environmental inputs with observed patterns of bird occurrence, predictive models have been developed that provide a statistical framework to harness available data for predicting species distributions and making inferences about species-habitat associations. Understanding these models, however, is challenging because they require scientists to quantify and compare multiscale spatialtemporal patterns. A large series of coordinated or sequential plots must be generated, individually programmed, and manually composed for analysis. This hampers the exploration and is a barrier to making the cross-species comparisons that are essential for coordinating conservation and extracting important ecological information. To address these limitations, as part of a collaboration among computer scientists, statisticians, biologists and ornithologists, we have developed BirdVis, an interactive visualization system that supports the analysis of spatio-temporal bird distribution models. BirdVis leverages visualization techniques and uses them in a novel way to better assist users in the exploration of interdependencies among model parameters. Furthermore, the system allows for comparative visualization through coordinated views, providing an intuitive interface to identify relevant correlations and patterns. We justify our design decisions and present case

  16. Dead-Time Generation in Six-Phase Frequency Inverter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aurelijus Pitrėnas

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper control of multi-phase induction drives is discussed. Structure of six-phase frequency inverter is examined. The article deals with dead-time generation circuits in six-phase frequency inverter for transistor control signals. Computer models of dead-time circuits is created using LTspice software package. Simulation results are compared with experimental results of the tested dead-time circuits. Parameters obtained in simulation results are close to the parameters obtained in experimental results.

  17. Adaptive control with variable dead-zone nonlinearities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orlicki, D.; Valavani, L.; Athans, M.; Stein, G.

    1984-01-01

    It has been found that fixed error dead-zones as defined in the existing literature result in serious degradation of performance, due to the conservativeness which characterizes the determination of their width. In the present paper, variable width dead-zones are derived for the adaptive control of plants with unmodeled dynamics. The derivation makes use of information available about the unmodeled dynamics both a priori as well as during the adaptation process, so as to stabilize the adaptive loop and at the same time overcome the conservativeness and performance limitations of fixed-dead zone adaptive or fixed gain controllers.

  18. Pro asynchronous programming with .NET

    CERN Document Server

    Blewett, Richard; Ltd, Rock Solid Knowledge

    2014-01-01

    Pro Asynchronous Programming with .NET teaches the essential skill of asynchronous programming in .NET. It answers critical questions in .NET application development, such as: how do I keep my program responding at all times to keep my users happy how do I make the most of the available hardware how can I improve performanceIn the modern world, users expect more and more from their applications and devices, and multi-core hardware has the potential to provide it. But it takes carefully crafted code to turn that potential into responsive, scalable applications.With Pro Asynchronous Programming

  19. Conformal Nets II: Conformal Blocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartels, Arthur; Douglas, Christopher L.; Henriques, André

    2017-08-01

    Conformal nets provide a mathematical formalism for conformal field theory. Associated to a conformal net with finite index, we give a construction of the `bundle of conformal blocks', a representation of the mapping class groupoid of closed topological surfaces into the category of finite-dimensional projective Hilbert spaces. We also construct infinite-dimensional spaces of conformal blocks for topological surfaces with smooth boundary. We prove that the conformal blocks satisfy a factorization formula for gluing surfaces along circles, and an analogous formula for gluing surfaces along intervals. We use this interval factorization property to give a new proof of the modularity of the category of representations of a conformal net.

  20. From plants to birds: higher avian predation rates in trees responding to insect herbivory.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elina Mäntylä

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: An understanding of the evolution of potential signals from plants to the predators of their herbivores may provide exciting examples of co-evolution among multiple trophic levels. Understanding the mechanism behind the attraction of predators to plants is crucial to conclusions about co-evolution. For example, insectivorous birds are attracted to herbivore-damaged trees without seeing the herbivores or the defoliated parts, but it is not known whether birds use cues from herbivore-damaged plants with a specific adaptation of plants for this purpose. METHODOLOGY: We examined whether signals from damaged trees attract avian predators in the wild and whether birds could use volatile organic compound (VOC emissions or net photosynthesis of leaves as cues to detect herbivore-rich trees. We conducted a field experiment with mountain birches (Betula pubescens ssp. czerepanovii, their main herbivore (Epirrita autumnata and insectivorous birds. Half of the trees had herbivore larvae defoliating trees hidden inside branch bags and half had empty bags as controls. We measured predation rate of birds towards artificial larvae on tree branches, and VOC emissions and net photosynthesis of leaves. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS AND SIGNIFICANCE: The predation rate was higher in the herbivore trees than in the control trees. This confirms that birds use cues from trees to locate insect-rich trees in the wild. The herbivore trees had decreased photosynthesis and elevated emissions of many VOCs, which suggests that birds could use either one, or both, as cues. There was, however, large variation in how the VOC emission correlated with predation rate. Emissions of (E-DMNT [(E-4,8-dimethyl-1,3,7-nonatriene], beta-ocimene and linalool were positively correlated with predation rate, while those of highly inducible green leaf volatiles were not. These three VOCs are also involved in the attraction of insect parasitoids and predatory mites to herbivore-damaged plants

  1. 21 CFR 1240.65 - Psittacine birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Psittacine birds. 1240.65 Section 1240.65 Food and... DISEASES Specific Administrative Decisions Regarding Interstate Shipments § 1240.65 Psittacine birds. (a) The term psittacine birds shall include all birds commonly known as parrots, Amazons, Mexican double...

  2. North American Breeding Bird Survey

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This protocol framework provides guidance for conducting surveys of North American bird populations at multiple stations within two or more regions. The BBS is a...

  3. Barrier Infrared Detector (BIRD) Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — JPL will design, fabricate, and fully characterize a 640x512 format HOT-BIRD FPA with increased quantum efficiency and extended spectral coverage. Unlike the small...

  4. Low mass planet migration in magnetically torqued dead zones - I. Static migration torque

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNally, Colin P.; Nelson, Richard P.; Paardekooper, Sijme-Jan; Gressel, Oliver; Lyra, Wladimir

    2017-12-01

    Motivated by models suggesting that the inner planet forming regions of protoplanetary discs are predominantly lacking in viscosity-inducing turbulence, and are possibly threaded by Hall-effect generated large-scale horizontal magnetic fields, we examine the dynamics of the corotation region of a low-mass planet in such an environment. The corotation torque in an inviscid, isothermal, dead zone ought to saturate, with the libration region becoming both symmetrical and of a uniform vortensity, leading to fast inward migration driven by the Lindblad torques alone. However, in such a low viscosity situation, the material on librating streamlines essentially preserves its vortensity. If there is relative radial motion between the disc gas and the planet, the librating streamlines will no longer be symmetrical. Hence, if the gas is torqued by a large-scale magnetic field so that it undergoes a net inflow or outflow past the planet, driving evolution of the vortensity and inducing asymmetry of the corotation region, the corotation torque can grow, leading to a positive torque. In this paper, we treat this effect by applying a symmetry argument to the previously studied case of a migrating planet in an inviscid disc. Our results show that the corotation torque due to a laminar Hall-induced magnetic field in a dead zone behaves quite differently from that studied previously for a viscous disc. Furthermore, the magnetic field induced corotation torque and the dynamical corotation torque in a low viscosity disc can be regarded as one unified effect.

  5. The role of citizen science in bird conservation: The Christmas Bird Count and Breeding Bird Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sauer, John R.; Butcher, Gregory S.

    2014-01-01

    Many birders in the United States, Canada, and Mexico are critical participants in bird monitoring and conservation activities. This linkage between recreational birders and avian conservation surveys is not new. It was established long before the internet and long before any fast communication facilitated the connection of birders to scientists. It started because a few key individuals realized that birding with a purpose added a new and important dimension to a recreational activity—and birders loved the idea that they were helping to study and conserve the birds they watch. And they still do today.

  6. Orientation and navigation in birds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Bouwman

    1998-07-01

    Full Text Available How birds orientate and navigate over long distances, remains one of the subjects of ornithology eliciting much interest. Birds use combinations of different sources of information to find direction and position. Some of these are the geomagnetic field, celestial bodies, mosaic and gradient maps, sound, smell, idiotetic information and others. Different species use different combinations of sources. This ability is partially inherent and partially learned.

  7. Trypanosomes of some Fennoscandian birds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gordon F. Bennett

    1994-12-01

    Full Text Available Linear measurements and derived indices of trypanosomes from species of Fennoscandian birds were compared to those reported form Trypanosoma avium, T. everetti, T. ontarioensis and T. paddae. The trypanosomes encountered in the Fennoscandian birds were identified as T. avium from Tengmalm's owl Aegolius funereus and the pied flycatcher Ficedula hypoleuca, T. everetti from the great tit Parus major and collared flycatcher F. albicollis and T. ontarioensis from the collared flycatcher; T. paddae was not seen.

  8. Petri Net Tool Overview 1986

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Kurt; Feldbrugge, Frits

    1987-01-01

    This paper provides an overview of the characteristics of all currently available net based tools. It is a compilation of information provided by tool authors or contact persons. A concise one page overview is provided as well....

  9. Understanding Net Zero Energy Buildings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Salom, Jaume; Widén, Joakim; Candanedo, José

    2011-01-01

    Although several alternative definitions exist, a Net-Zero Energy Building (Net ZEB) can be succinctly described as a grid-connected building that generates as much energy as it uses over a year. The “net-zero” balance is attained by applying energy conservation and efficiency measures...... and by incorporating renewable energy systems. While based on annual balances, a complete description of a Net ZEB requires examining the system at smaller time-scales. This assessment should address: (a) the relationship between power generation and building loads and (b) the resulting interaction with the power grid....... This paper presents and categorizes quantitative indicators suitable to describe both aspects of the building’s performance. These indicators, named LMGI - Load Matching and Grid Interaction indicators, are easily quantifiable and could complement the output variables of existing building simulation tools...

  10. PolicyNet Publication System

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — The PolicyNet Publication System project will merge the Oracle-based Policy Repository (POMS) and the SQL-Server CAMP system (MSOM) into a new system with an Oracle...

  11. KM3NeT

    CERN Multimedia

    KM3NeT is a large scale next-generation neutrino telescope located in the deep waters of the Mediterranean Sea, optimized for the discovery of galactic neutrino sources emitting in the TeV energy region.

  12. Net Neutrality: Background and Issues

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Gilroy, Angele A

    2006-01-01

    .... The move to place restrictions on the owners of the networks that compose and provide access to the Internet, to ensure equal access and nondiscriminatory treatment, is referred to as "net neutrality...

  13. 76 FR 44729 - Migratory Bird Hunting; Proposed Frameworks for Early-Season Migratory Bird Hunting Regulations...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-26

    ... Bird Hunting; Proposed Frameworks for Early Season Migratory Bird Hunting Regulations; Notice of... Migratory Bird Hunting; Proposed Frameworks for Early-Season Migratory Bird Hunting Regulations; Notice of...-season hunting regulations for certain migratory game birds. We annually prescribe frameworks, or outer...

  14. 77 FR 23093 - Migratory Bird Hunting; Proposed 2012-13 Migratory Game Bird Hunting Regulations (Preliminary...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-17

    ... Bird Hunting; Proposed 2012-13 Migratory Game Bird Hunting Regulations (Preliminary) With Requests for Indian Tribal Proposals and Requests for 2014 Spring and Summer Migratory Bird Subsistence Harvest... Migratory Bird Hunting; Proposed 2012-13 Migratory Game Bird Hunting Regulations (Preliminary) With Requests...

  15. 76 FR 19875 - Migratory Bird Hunting; Proposed 2011-12 Migratory Game Bird Hunting Regulations (Preliminary...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-08

    ... Bird Hunting; Proposed 2011-12 Migratory Game Bird Hunting Regulations (Preliminary) With Requests for Indian Tribal Proposals and Requests for 2013 Spring and Summer Migratory Bird Subsistence Harvest... Migratory Bird Hunting; Proposed 2011-12 Migratory Game Bird Hunting Regulations (Preliminary) With Requests...

  16. 78 FR 45375 - Migratory Bird Hunting; Proposed Frameworks for Early-Season Migratory Bird Hunting Regulations...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-26

    ... Bird Hunting; Proposed Frameworks for Early-Season Migratory Bird Hunting Regulations; Notice of... Bird Hunting; Proposed Frameworks for Early-Season Migratory Bird Hunting Regulations; Notice of...-season hunting regulations for certain migratory game birds. We annually prescribe frameworks, or outer...

  17. 77 FR 58657 - Migratory Bird Hunting; Migratory Bird Hunting Regulations on Certain Federal Indian Reservations...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-21

    ... Bird Hunting; Migratory Bird Hunting Regulations on Certain Federal Indian Reservations and Ceded Lands... Part 20 RIN 1018-AX97 Migratory Bird Hunting; Migratory Bird Hunting Regulations on Certain Federal..., Interior. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: This rule prescribes special late-season migratory bird hunting...

  18. 78 FR 47135 - Migratory Bird Hunting; Proposed Migratory Bird Hunting Regulations on Certain Federal Indian...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-02

    ... Bird Hunting; Proposed Migratory Bird Hunting Regulations on Certain Federal Indian Reservations and... 20 RIN 1018-AY87 Migratory Bird Hunting; Proposed Migratory Bird Hunting Regulations on Certain...) proposes special migratory bird hunting regulations for certain Tribes on Federal Indian reservations, off...

  19. 77 FR 29515 - Migratory Bird Hunting; Supplemental Proposals for Migratory Game Bird Hunting Regulations for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-17

    ... Bird Hunting; Supplemental Proposals for Migratory Game Bird Hunting Regulations for the 2012-13... RIN 1018-AX97 Migratory Bird Hunting; Supplemental Proposals for Migratory Game Bird Hunting... in an earlier document to establish annual hunting regulations for certain migratory game birds for...

  20. Tick-borne pathogens in ticks collected from birds in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuo, Chi-Chien; Lin, Yi-Fu; Yao, Cheng-Te; Shih, Han-Chun; Chung, Lo-Hsuan; Liao, Hsien-Chun; Hsu, Yu-Cheng; Wang, Hsi-Chieh

    2017-11-25

    A variety of human diseases transmitted by arthropod vectors, including ticks, are emerging around the globe. Birds are known to be hosts of ticks and can disperse exotic ticks and tick-borne pathogens. In Taiwan, previous studies have focused predominantly on mammals, leaving the role of birds in the maintenance of ticks and dissemination of tick-borne pathogens undetermined. Ticks were collected opportunistically when birds were studied from 1995 to 2013. Furthermore, to improve knowledge on the prevalence and mean load of tick infestation on birds in Taiwan, ticks were thoroughly searched for when birds were mist-netted at seven sites between September 2014 and April 2016 in eastern Taiwan. Ticks were identified based on both morphological and molecular information and were screened for potential tick-borne pathogens, including the genera Anaplasma, Babesia, Borrelia, Ehrlichia and Rickettsia. Finally, a list of hard tick species collected from birds in Taiwan was compiled based on past work and the current study. Nineteen ticks (all larvae) were recovered from four of the 3096 unique mist-netted bird individuals, yielding a mean load of 0.006 ticks/individual and an overall prevalence of 0.13%. A total of 139 ticks from birds, comprising 48 larvae, 35 nymphs, 55 adults and one individual of unknown life stage, were collected from 1995 to 2016, and 11 species of four genera were identified, including three newly recorded species (Haemaphysalis wellingtoni, Ixodes columnae and Ixodes turdus). A total of eight tick-borne pathogens were detected, with five species (Borrelia turdi, Anaplasma sp. clone BJ01, Ehrlichia sp. BL157-9, Rickettsia helvetica and Rickettsia monacensis) not previously isolated in Taiwan. Overall, 16 tick species of five genera have been recorded feeding on birds, including nine species first discovered in this study. Our study demonstrates the paucity of information on ticks of birds and emphasizes the need for more research on ticks of birds

  1. Petri Nets in Cryptographic Protocols

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Crazzolara, Federico; Winskel, Glynn

    2001-01-01

    A process language for security protocols is presented together with a semantics in terms of sets of events. The denotation of process is a set of events, and as each event specifies a set of pre and postconditions, this denotation can be viewed as a Petri net. By means of an example we illustrate...... how the Petri-net semantics can be used to prove security properties....

  2. The Economics of Net Neutrality

    OpenAIRE

    Hahn, Robert W.; Wallsten, Scott

    2006-01-01

    This essay examines the economics of "net neutrality" and broadband Internet access. We argue that mandating net neutrality would be likely to reduce economic welfare. Instead, the government should focus on creating competition in the broadband market by liberalizing more spectrum and reducing entry barriers created by certain local regulations. In cases where a broadband provider can exercise market power the government should use its antitrust enforcement authority to police anticompetitiv...

  3. Addicts Try to Avoid Deadly Fentanyl, but Many Tragically Fail

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... fullstory_166663.html Addicts Try to Avoid Deadly Fentanyl, But Many Tragically Fail Potent synthetic opioid now ... may be caused by the potent synthetic opioid fentanyl. But most opioid addicts are not actively seeking ...

  4. Dead time effects in laser Doppler anemometry measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Velte, Clara Marika; Buchhave, Preben; George, William K.

    2014-01-01

    frequency range, starting around the cutoff frequency due to the finite size of the MV. Using computer-generated data mimicking the LDA data, these effects have previously been shown to appear due to the effect of dead time, i.e., the finite time during which the system is not able to acquire new...... measurements. These dead times can be traced back to the fact that the burst-mode LDA cannot measure more than one signal burst at a time. Since the dead time is approximately equal to the residence time for a particle traversing a measurement volume, we are dealing with widely varying dead times, which......, however, are assumed to be measured for each data point. In addition, the detector and processor used in the current study introduce a certain amount of fixed processing and data transfer times, which further contribute to the distortion of the computed spectrum. However, we show an excellent agreement...

  5. Dead zone area at the downstream flow of barrages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed F. Sauida

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Flow separation is a natural phenomenon encountered at some cases downstream of barrages. The main flow is divided into current and dead zone flows. The percentage area of dead zone flow must be taken into consideration downstream of barrages, due to its negative effect on flow characteristics. Experimental studies were conducted in the Hydraulic Research Institute (HRI, on a physical regulator model with five vents. Theoretically the separation zone is described as a part of an ellipse which is practically verified by plotting velocity vectors. The results show that the percentage area of dead zone to the area through length of separation depends mainly on the expansion ratio [channel width to width of opened vents], with maximum value of 81% for operated side gates. A statistical analysis was derived, to predict the percentage area of dead zone flow to the area through length of separation.

  6. The dead and gone: Preparations and final repose

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The relations between the living and the dead are sanctioned by specific departure ceremonies and a series of maintenance operations that vary in their elaboration...

  7. [The role of dead bacteria in streptococcus sanguis biofilm reformation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Rui; Zhu, Min; Liu, Zheng

    2002-03-01

    To investigate the role of dead bacteria in Streptococcus sanguis biofilm reformation. Vital fluorescent staining technique and Confocal laser Scanning Microscopy (CLSM) were combined to observe Streptococcus sanguis biofilm on the saliva-coated glass (SCG) in an artificial mouth model, the thickness and bacterial density were compared between biofilm reformed on saliva covered slide with dead cells (test group) and biofilm reformed on saliva coated slide without dead cells (control group) at different times. At 30 min, the bacterial density rather than biofilm thickness of test group was significantly higher than that of control group (P<0.05), whereas at 60 min, 120min, 240min, the biofilms were significantly thicker in test group than that (P<0.05). The dead cells may help biofilm reformation during the formation of biofilm.

  8. Forensic-odontological age determination in living and dead persons

    OpenAIRE

    Olze, Andreas

    2010-01-01

    Forensic-odontological determination of the age-at-death of dead, unknown persons is a traditional element of forensic odonto-stomatology. Besides the comparison of documents on ante- and post-mortem findings, an age estimate that is as accurate as possible is an important tool for identifying unknown dead persons, because it allows limiting the group of persons in question. Age estimation is, in principle, possible by measuring the degree of root dentin transparency; it yields good result...

  9. The DEAD-box helicase eIF4A

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andreou, Alexandra Z.; Klostermeier, Dagmar

    2013-01-01

    DEAD-box helicases catalyze the ATP-dependent unwinding of RNA duplexes. They share a helicase core formed by two RecA-like domains that carries a set of conserved motifs contributing to ATP binding and hydrolysis, RNA binding and duplex unwinding. The translation initiation factor eIF4A is the founding member of the DEAD-box protein family, and one of the few examples of DEAD-box proteins that consist of a helicase core only. It is an RNA-stimulated ATPase and a non-processive helicase that unwinds short RNA duplexes. In the catalytic cycle, a series of conformational changes couples the nucleotide cycle to RNA unwinding. eIF4A has been considered a paradigm for DEAD-box proteins, and studies of its function have revealed the governing principles underlying the DEAD-box helicase mechanism. However, as an isolated helicase core, eIF4A is rather the exception, not the rule. Most helicase modules in other DEAD-box proteins are modified, some by insertions into the RecA-like domains, and the majority by N- and C-terminal appendages. While the basic catalytic function resides within the helicase core, its modulation by insertions, additional domains or a network of interaction partners generates the diversity of DEAD-box protein functions in the cell. This review summarizes the current knowledge on eIF4A and its regulation, and discusses to what extent eIF4A serves as a model DEAD-box protein. PMID:22995829

  10. Dead Zones and the Origin of Planetary Masses

    OpenAIRE

    Matsumura, Soko; Pudritz, Ralph E.

    2004-01-01

    Protoplanets accrete material from their natal protostellar disks until they are sufficiently massive to open a gap in the face of the disk's viscosity that arises from the magneto-rotational instability (MRI). By computing the ionization structure within observationally well-constrained disk models, we demonstrate that poorly ionized, low viscosity "dead zones" stretch out to 12 AU within typical disks. We find that planets of terrestrial mass robustly form within the dead zones while massiv...

  11. Traffic noise affects forest bird species in a protected tropical forest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Edgardo Arévalo

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The construction of roads near protected forest areas alters ecosystem function by creating habitat fragmentation and through several direct and indirect negative effects such as increased pollution, animal mortality through collisions, disturbance caused by excessive noise and wind turbulence. Noise in particular may have strong negative effects on animal groups such as frogs and birds, that rely on sound for communication as it can negatively interfere with vocalizations used for territorial defense or courtship. Thus, birds are expected to be less abundant close to the road where noise levels are high. In this study, we examined the effects of road traffic noise levels on forest bird species in a protected tropical forest in Costa Rica. Data collection was conducted in a forest segment of the Carara National Park adjacent to the Coastal Highway. We carried out 120 ten minute bird surveys and measured road noise levels 192 times from the 19th to the 23rd of April and from the 21st to the 28th of November, 2008. To maximize bird detection for the species richness estimates we operated six 12m standard mist nets simultaneously with the surveys. The overall mist-netting effort was 240net/h. In addition, we estimated traffic volumes by tallying the number of vehicles passing by the edge of the park using 24 one hour counts throughout the study. We found that the relative abundance of birds and bird species richness decreased significantly with the increasing traffic noise in the dry and wet season. Noise decreased significantly and in a logarithmic way with distance from the road in both seasons. However, noise levels at any given distance were significantly higher in the dry compared to the wet season. Our results suggest that noise might be an important factor influencing road bird avoidance as measured by species richness and relative abundance. Since the protected forest in question is located in a national park subjected to tourist visitation

  12. Do evergreen and deciduous trees have different effects on net N mineralization in soil?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller, Kevin E; Hobbie, Sarah E; Oleksyn, Jacek; Reich, Peter B; Eissenstat, David M

    2012-06-01

    Evergreen and deciduous plants are widely expected to have different impacts on soil nitrogen (N) availability because of differences in leaf litter chemistry and ensuing effects on net N mineralization (N(min)). We evaluated this hypothesis by compiling published data on net N(min) rates beneath co-occurring stands of evergreen and deciduous trees. The compiled data included 35 sets of co-occurring stands in temperate and boreal forests. Evergreen and deciduous stands did not have consistently divergent effects on net N(min) rates; net N(min) beneath deciduous trees was higher when comparing natural stands (19 contrasts), but equivalent to evergreens in plantations (16 contrasts). We also compared net N(min) rates beneath pairs of co-occurring genera. Most pairs of genera did not differ consistently, i.e., tree species from one genus had higher net N(min) at some sites and lower net N(min) at other sites. Moreover, several common deciduous genera (Acer, Betula, Populus) and deciduous Quercus spp. did not typically have higher net N(min) rates than common evergreen genera (Pinus, Picea). There are several reasons why tree effects on net N(min) are poorly predicted by leaf habit and phylogeny. For example, the amount of N mineralized from decomposing leaves might be less than the amount of N mineralized from organic matter pools that are less affected by leaf litter traits, such as dead roots and soil organic matter. Also, effects of plant traits and plant groups on net N(min) probably depend on site-specific factors such as stand age and soil type.

  13. The dead donor rule: can it withstand critical scrutiny?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Franklin G; Truog, Robert D; Brock, Dan W

    2010-06-01

    Transplantation of vital organs has been premised ethically and legally on "the dead donor rule" (DDR)-the requirement that donors are determined to be dead before these organs are procured. Nevertheless, scholars have argued cogently that donors of vital organs, including those diagnosed as "brain dead" and those declared dead according to cardiopulmonary criteria, are not in fact dead at the time that vital organs are being procured. In this article, we challenge the normative rationale for the DDR by rejecting the underlying premise that it is necessarily wrong for physicians to cause the death of patients and the claim that abandoning this rule would exploit vulnerable patients. We contend that it is ethical to procure vital organs from living patients sustained on life support prior to treatment withdrawal, provided that there is valid consent for both withdrawing treatment and organ donation. However, the conservatism of medical ethics and practical concerns make it doubtful that the DDR will be abandoned in the near future. This leaves the current practice of organ transplantation based on the "moral fiction" that donors are dead when vital organs are procured.

  14. Metagenomic insights into important microbes from the Dead Zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thrash, C.; Baker, B.; Seitz, K.; Temperton, B.; Gillies, L.; Rabalais, N. N.; Mason, O. U.

    2015-12-01

    Coastal regions of eutrophication-driven oxygen depletion are widespread and increasing in number. Also known as dead zones, these regions take their name from the deleterious effects of hypoxia (dissolved oxygen less than 2 mg/L) on shrimp, demersal fish, and other animal life. Dead zones result from nutrient enrichment of primary production, concomitant consumption by chemoorganotrophic aerobic microorganisms, and strong stratification that prevents ventilation of bottom water. One of the largest dead zones in the world occurs seasonally in the northern Gulf of Mexico (nGOM), where hypoxia can reach up to 22,000 square kilometers. While this dead zone shares many features with more well-known marine oxygen minimum zones, it is nevertheless understudied with regards to the microbial assemblages involved in biogeochemical cycling. We performed metagenomic and metatranscriptomic sequencing on six samples from the 2013 nGOM dead zone from both hypoxic and oxic bottom waters. Assembly and binning led to the recovery of over fifty partial to nearly complete metagenomes from key microbial taxa previously determined to be numerically abundant from 16S rRNA data, such as Thaumarcheaota, Marine Group II Euryarchaeota, SAR406, SAR324, Synechococcus spp., and Planctomycetes. These results provide information about the roles of these taxa in the nGOM dead zone, and opportunities for comparing this region of low oxygen to others around the globe.

  15. The dead donor rule, voluntary active euthanasia, and capital punishment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coons, Christian; Levin, Noah

    2011-06-01

    We argue that the dead donor rule, which states that multiple vital organs should only be taken from dead patients, is justified neither in principle nor in practice. We use a thought experiment and a guiding assumption in the literature about the justification of moral principles to undermine the theoretical justification for the rule. We then offer two real world analogues to this thought experiment, voluntary active euthanasia and capital punishment, and argue that the moral permissibility of terminating any patient through the removal of vital organs cannot turn on whether or not the practice violates the dead donor rule. Next, we consider practical justifications for the dead donor rule. Specifically, we consider whether there are compelling reasons to promulgate the rule even though its corresponding moral principle is not theoretically justified. We argue that there are no such reasons. In fact, we argue that promulgating the rule may actually decrease public trust in organ procurement procedures and medical institutions generally - even in states that do not permit capital punishment or voluntary active euthanasia. Finally, we examine our case against the dead donor rule in the light of common arguments for it. We find that these arguments are often misplaced - they do not support the dead donor rule. Instead, they support the quite different rule that patients should not be killed for their vital organs.

  16. Dead time corrections for inbeam γ-spectroscopy measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boromiza, M.; Borcea, C.; Negret, A.; Olacel, A.; Suliman, G.

    2017-08-01

    Relatively high counting rates were registered in a proton inelastic scattering experiment on 16O and 28Si using HPGe detectors which was performed at the Tandem facility of IFIN-HH, Bucharest. In consequence, dead time corrections were needed in order to determine the absolute γ-production cross sections. Considering that the real counting rate follows a Poisson distribution, the dead time correction procedure is reformulated in statistical terms. The arriving time interval between the incoming events (Δt) obeys an exponential distribution with a single parameter - the average of the associated Poisson distribution. We use this mathematical connection to calculate and implement the dead time corrections for the counting rates of the mentioned experiment. Also, exploiting an idea introduced by Pommé et al., we describe a consistent method for calculating the dead time correction which completely eludes the complicated problem of measuring the dead time of a given detection system. Several comparisons are made between the corrections implemented through this method and by using standard (phenomenological) dead time models and we show how these results were used for correcting our experimental cross sections.

  17. Memorial service: A means of communication with the dead

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivanović-Barišić Milina M.

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available A specific relationship toward the dead characterizes the traditional Serbian culture; this cult exists even today, in somewhat changed form. A death is always followed by the appropriate, traditional, ritual obligations that served to regulate behavior of a family, or even wider community members that has lost one of its members. The relationship with the dead does not cease after the funeral, but it continues to be maintained during general holidays dedicated to the dead-memorial service. These are the days dedicated to all dead, and when offerings were made especially for the deceased. The memorial services take place in particular days of the year: most often on Saturdays, on Saturdays before another holiday, the Spirits, and on Saturdays before the holiday Mitrovdan; memorial services are also connected with some other holidays during the year. In addition to the general memorial service dedicated to all dead, there are so-called special memorial services, which take place only in special occasions (on holidays like Petrovdan, Saint Ilija, Velika Gospojina, Trojice and more. Many different rituals performed during memorial services, as well as ritual objects used should provide the deceased with a safe residence in their new environment. The most important rituals that enabled the communication with the dead include: preparing and sharing food and drinks, visits to a cemetery, lighting candles, incense of graves, vine spilling, decoration with flowers and basilica. The most important ritual objects are: graves, food, drinks, candles, incense, vine, flowers and basilica.

  18. A novel tool to mitigate by-catch mortality of baltic seals in coastal fyke net fishery.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sari M Oksanen

    Full Text Available Developing methods to reduce the incidental catch of non-target species is important, as by-catch mortality poses threats especially to large aquatic predators. We examined the effectiveness of a novel device, a "seal sock", in mitigating the by-catch mortality of seals in coastal fyke net fisheries in the Baltic Sea. The seal sock developed and tested in this study was a cylindrical net attached to the fyke net, allowing the seals access to the surface to breathe while trapped inside fishing gear. The number of dead and live seals caught in fyke nets without a seal sock (years 2008-2010 and with a sock (years 2011-2013 was recorded. The seals caught in fyke nets were mainly juveniles. Of ringed seals (Phoca hispida botnica both sexes were equally represented, while of grey seals (Halichoerus grypus the ratio was biased (71% towards males. All the by-caught seals were dead in the fyke nets without a seal sock, whereas 70% of ringed seals and 11% of grey seals survived when the seal sock was used. The seal sock proved to be effective in reducing the by-catch mortality of ringed seals, but did not perform as well with grey seals.

  19. 26 CFR 1.904(f)-3 - Allocation of net operating losses and net capital losses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 9 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Allocation of net operating losses and net....904(f)-3 Allocation of net operating losses and net capital losses. For rules relating to the allocation of net operating losses and net capital losses, see § 1.904(g)-3T. ...

  20. 29 CFR 4204.13 - Net income and net tangible assets tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 9 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Net income and net tangible assets tests. 4204.13 Section....13 Net income and net tangible assets tests. (a) General. The criteria under this section are that either— (1) Net income test. The purchaser's average net income after taxes for its three most recent...

  1. Interspecies variation in orbital bone structure of psittaciform birds (with emphasis on Psittacidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machado, Marcello; dos Santos Schmidt, Elizabeth Moreira; Montiani-Ferreira, Fabiano

    2006-01-01

    This text presents an anatomical study of the normal bony orbital structure of a sample of different bird species belonging to the order Psittaciformes. The bony anatomy of Psittaciformes' skulls was examined and described using cadavers of birds that were presented already dead to the Federal University of Paraná, Brazil or had been euthanized for humane reasons. Dissections of the orbital cavity were performed under 2-4 x magnification, and descriptions of the orbital bones were made from observations of macerated skulls that had been boiled and cleaned. The present paper discusses the main features of the bony orbit of psittaciform birds, describing known anatomical information but also bringing new information, mainly concerning species differences that might help not only veterinary anatomists but also zoologists, clinicians, researchers, and students of veterinary ophthalmology to better comprehend this order of birds. Variations in the anatomic conformation of the bony elements of the orbit were observed in different species of Psittaciformes. Based on these differences, Psittaciformes were classified into two different groups. The first group of Psittaciformes shows an enclosed (complete) bony orbit formed by the junction of the orbital with the postorbital processes, creating a suborbital arch. The second group of Psittaciformes essentially lacked a suborbital arch, presenting an open (incomplete) bony orbit, typical of most modern birds. In the latter group, orbital and postorbital processes are present.

  2. Composition of breeding bird communities in Gulf Coast Chenier Plain marshes: Effects of winter burning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabrey, S.W.; Afton, A.D.

    2004-01-01

    Marsh managers along the Gulf Coast Chenier Plain frequently use winter burns to alter marsh vegetation and improve habitat quality for wintering waterfowl. However, effects of these burns on marsh avifauna are not well documented. We recorded abundances of breeding bird species and vegetation structure in burned and unburned control marshes during one breeding season before (1996) and two breeding seasons after (1997, 1998) experimental winter burns. We used non-metric multidimensional scaling analysis to assess the extent and direction of changes in bird community compositions of burned and unburned control marshes and to investigate the influence of vegetation structure on bird community composition. Overall, we found that Seaside Sparrows (Emberizidae: Ammodramus maritimus [Wilson]) and Red-winged Blackbirds and Boat-tailed Grackles (Icteridae: Agelaius phoeniceus [L.] and Quiscalus major Vieillot, respectively) comprised > 85% of observed birds. In burned marshes during the first breeding season following experimental burns (1997), icterid abundance increased while Seaside Sparrow abundance decreased relative to pre-burn (1996) conditions. This pattern was reversed during the second breeding season post-burn. No obvious patterns of change in avian abundance were detected in unburned control marshes over the 3-year period. Qualitative changes in breeding bird community composition were related to effects of winter burning on percent cover of dead vegetation and Spartina patens (Aiton) Muhl.

  3. Fatal columbid herpesvirus-1 infections in three species of Australian birds of prey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phalen, D N; Holz, P; Rasmussen, L; Bayley, C

    2011-05-01

    We document columbid herpesvirus-1 (CoHV-1) infection in two barking owls (Ninox connivens), a powerful owl (Ninox strenua) and an Australian hobby (Falco longipennis). Antemortem signs of infection were non-specific and the birds either died soon after they were identified as ill or were found dead unexpectedly. Gross postmortem findings were also not specific. Microscopically, marked to massive splenic and hepatic necrosis with the presence of eosinophilic inclusion bodies in remaining splenocytes and hepatocytes was found in all birds. Herpesvirus virions were identified in liver sections from one of the boobook owls by electron microscopy. Using CoHV-1-specific primers and polymerase chain reaction, CoHV-1 DNA was amplified from tissue samples from all birds. A comparison of these sequences to previously reported sequences of CoHV-1 found them to be identical or to vary by a single base pair. These findings increase the number of known species of birds of prey that are susceptible to CoHV-1 infection and indicate that rock pigeons (Columbia livia) should not be included in the diet of captive Australian birds of prey. © 2011 The Authors. Australian Veterinary Journal © 2011 Australian Veterinary Association.

  4. Living with the Dead or Communicating with the dead: media practices of continuing bonds among bereaved parents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sandvik, Kjetil; Christensen, Dorthe Refslund

    for this paper analyzing bereaved parent’ communicational practices in order to create continuing bonds (Klass et.al. 1996) to their dead children. The use of media and materialities ascribed with media qualities allows us to “deal with and come to terms with death without being dead ourselves” (Christensen...... in the shape of everyday parental activities such as playing with the child, reading bedtime stories, celebrating birthdays or just bearing the dead child in mind, the purpose of which are to keep the dead child as a present part of the parents’ and family’s continuing life. We argue that these practices...... are best understood as parents’ everyday practices relating to a child we have rather than to a child we had or a child we did not get. The child’s continuing existence and presence is inscribed in everyday life through uses of digital media, physical objects working as media – even the parents own bodies...

  5. Lab-on-a-bird: biophysical monitoring of flying birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gumus, Abdurrahman; Lee, Seoho; Ahsan, Syed S; Karlsson, Kolbeinn; Gabrielson, Richard; Guglielmo, Christopher G; Winkler, David W; Erickson, David

    2015-01-01

    The metabolism of birds is finely tuned to their activities and environments, and thus research on avian systems can play an important role in understanding organismal responses to environmental changes. At present, however, the physiological monitoring of bird metabolism is limited by the inability to take real-time measurements of key metabolites during flight. In this study, we present an implantable biosensor system that can be used for continuous monitoring of uric acid levels of birds during various activities including flight. The system consists of a needle-type enzymatic biosensor for the amperometric detection of uric acid in interstitial fluids. A lightweight two-electrode potentiostat system drives the biosensor, reads the corresponding output current and wirelessly transfers the data or records to flash memory. We show how the device can be used to monitor, in real time, the effects of short-term flight and rest cycles on the uric acid levels of pigeons. In addition, we demonstrate that our device has the ability to measure uric acid level increase in homing pigeons while they fly freely. Successful application of the sensor in migratory birds could open up a new way of studying birds in flight which would lead to a better understanding of the ecology and biology of avian movements.

  6. Lab-on-a-bird: biophysical monitoring of flying birds.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdurrahman Gumus

    Full Text Available The metabolism of birds is finely tuned to their activities and environments, and thus research on avian systems can play an important role in understanding organismal responses to environmental changes. At present, however, the physiological monitoring of bird metabolism is limited by the inability to take real-time measurements of key metabolites during flight. In this study, we present an implantable biosensor system that can be used for continuous monitoring of uric acid levels of birds during various activities including flight. The system consists of a needle-type enzymatic biosensor for the amperometric detection of uric acid in interstitial fluids. A lightweight two-electrode potentiostat system drives the biosensor, reads the corresponding output current and wirelessly transfers the data or records to flash memory. We show how the device can be used to monitor, in real time, the effects of short-term flight and rest cycles on the uric acid levels of pigeons. In addition, we demonstrate that our device has the ability to measure uric acid level increase in homing pigeons while they fly freely. Successful application of the sensor in migratory birds could open up a new way of studying birds in flight which would lead to a better understanding of the ecology and biology of avian movements.

  7. How does vegetation structure influence woodpeckers and secondary cavity nesting birds in African cork oak forest?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segura, Amalia

    2017-08-01

    The Great Spotted Woodpecker provides important information about the status of a forest in terms of structure and age. As a primary cavity creator, it provides small-medium size cavities for passerines. However, despite its interest as an ecosystem engineer, studies of this species in Africa are scarce. Here, spatially explicit predictive models were used to investigate how forest structural variables are related to both the Great Spotted Woodpecker and secondary cavity nesting birds in Maamora cork oak forest (northwest Morocco). A positive association between Great Spotted Woodpecker and both dead-tree density and large mature trees (>60 cm dbh) was found. This study area, Maamora, has an old-growth forest structure incorporating a broad range of size and condition of live and dead trees, favouring Great Spotted Woodpecker by providing high availability of foraging and excavating sites. Secondary cavity nesting birds, represented by Great Tit, African Blue Tit, and Hoopoe, were predicted by Great Spotted Woodpecker detections. The findings suggest that the conservation of the Maamora cork oak forest could be key to maintaining these hole-nesting birds. However, this forest is threatened by forestry practises and livestock overgrazing and the challenge is therefore to find sustainable management strategies that ensure conservation while allowing its exploitation.

  8. Surveillance potential of non-native Hawaiian birds for detection of West Nile Virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofmeister, Erik K.; Dusek, Robert J.; Brand, Christopher J.

    2015-01-01

    West Nile virus (WNV) was first detected in North America in 1999. Alaska and Hawaii (HI) remain the only U.S. states in which transmission of WNV has not been detected. Dead bird surveillance has played an important role in the detection of the virus geographically, as well as temporally. In North America, corvids have played a major role in WNV surveillance; however, the only corvid in HI is the endangered Hawaiian crow that exists only in captivity, thus precluding the use of this species for WNV surveillance in HI. To evaluate the suitability of alternate avian species for WNV surveillance, we experimentally challenged seven abundant non-native bird species present in HI with WNV and compared mortality, viremia, oral shedding of virus, and seroconversion. For detection of WNV in oral swabs, we compared viral culture, reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction, and the RAMP® test. For detection of antibodies to WNV, we compared an indirect and a competitive enzyme-linked immunoassay. We found four species (house sparrow, house finch, Japanese white-eye, and Java sparrow) that may be useful in dead bird surveillance for WNV; while common myna, zebra dove, and spotted dove survived infection and may be useful in serosurveillance.

  9. Sensitivity of Coastal Environments and Wildlife to Spilled Oil: Mississippi: BIRDS (Bird Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for wading birds, shorebirds, waterfowl, raptors, diving birds, seabirds, passerine birds, and gulls and...

  10. Sensitivity of Coastal Environments and Wildlife to Spilled Oil: Northern California: BIRDS (Bird Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for alcids, diving birds, gulls, terns, passerines, pelagic birds, raptors, shorebirds, wading birds, and...

  11. Sensitivity of Coastal Environments and Wildlife to Spilled Oil: Northwest Arctic, Alaska: BIRDS (Bird Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for wading birds, shorebirds, waterfowl, raptors, diving birds, pelagic birds, and gulls/terns in Northwest...

  12. Sensitivity of Coastal Environments and Wildlife to Spilled Oil: Hudson River: BIRDS (Bird Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for wading birds, shorebirds, waterfowl, raptors, diving birds, passerine birds, and gulls and terns in the...

  13. Sensitivity of Coastal Environments and Wildlife to Spilled Oil: Florida Panhandle: BIRDS (Bird Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for wading birds, shorebirds, waterfowl, raptors, diving birds, seabirds, passerine birds, and gulls and...

  14. Sensitivity of Coastal Environments and Wildlife to Spilled Oil: Southern California: BIRDS (Bird Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for wading birds, shorebirds, waterfowl, raptors, diving birds, seabirds, passerine birds, and gulls and...

  15. Sensitivity of Coastal Environments and Wildlife to Spilled Oil: North Carolina: BIRDS (Bird Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for wading birds, shorebirds, waterfowl, raptors, diving birds, seabirds, passerine birds, and gulls and...

  16. Sensitivity of Coastal Environments and Wildlife to Spilled Oil: New Hampshire: BIRDS (Bird Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for wading birds, shorebirds, waterfowl, raptors, diving birds, seabirds, passerine birds, and gulls and...

  17. Birds as predators in tropical agroforestry systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Bael, Sunshine A; Philpott, Stacy M; Greenberg, Russell; Bichier, Peter; Barber, Nicholas A; Mooney, Kailen A; Gruner, Daniel S

    2008-04-01

    Insectivorous birds reduce arthropod abundances and their damage to plants in some, but not all, studies where predation by birds has been assessed. The variation in bird effects may be due to characteristics such as plant productivity or quality, habitat complexity, and/or species diversity of predator and prey assemblages. Since agroforestry systems vary in such characteristics, these systems provide a good starting point for understanding when and where we can expect predation by birds to be important. We analyze data from bird exclosure studies in forests and agroforestry systems to ask whether birds consistently reduce their arthropod prey base and whether bird predation differs between forests and agroforestry systems. Further, we focus on agroforestry systems to ask whether the magnitude of bird predation (1) differs between canopy trees and understory plants, (2) differs when migratory birds are present or absent, and (3) correlates with bird abundance and diversity. We found that, across all studies, birds reduce all arthropods, herbivores, carnivores, and plant damage. We observed no difference in the magnitude of bird effects between agroforestry systems and forests despite simplified habitat structure and plant diversity in agroforests. Within agroforestry systems, bird reduction of arthropods was greater in the canopy than the crop layer. Top-down effects of bird predation were especially strong during censuses when migratory birds were present in agroforestry systems. Importantly, the diversity of the predator assemblage correlated with the magnitude of predator effects; where the diversity of birds, especially migratory birds, was greater, birds reduced arthropod densities to a greater extent. We outline potential mechanisms for relationships between bird predator, insect prey, and habitat characteristics, and we suggest future studies using tropical agroforests as a model system to further test these areas of ecological theory.

  18. Options for reducing HIV transmission related to the dead space in needles and syringes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zule, William A; Pande, Poonam G; Otiashvili, David; Bobashev, Georgiy V; Friedman, Samuel R; Gyarmathy, V Anna; Des Jarlais, Don C

    2018-01-15

    When shared by people who inject drugs, needles and syringes with different dead space may affect the probability of HIV and hepatitis C virus (HCV) transmission differently. We measured dead space in 56 needle and syringe combinations obtained from needle and syringe programs across 17 countries in Europe and Asia. We also calculated the amounts of blood and HIV that would remain in different combinations following injection and rinsing. Syringe barrel capacities ranged from 0.5 to 20 mL. Needles ranged in length from 8 to 38 mm. The average dead space was 3 μL in low dead space syringes with permanently attached needles, 13 μL in high dead space syringes with low dead space needles, 45 μL in low dead space syringes with high dead space needles, and 99 μL in high dead space syringes with high dead space needles. Among low dead space designs, calculated volumes of blood and HIV viral burden were lowest for low dead space syringes with permanently attached needles and highest for low dead space syringes with high dead space needles. The dead space in different low dead space needle and syringe combinations varied substantially. To reduce HIV transmission related to syringe sharing, needle and syringe programs need to combine this knowledge with the needs of their clients.

  19. Ecosystem services provided by birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whelan, Christopher J; Wenny, Daniel G; Marquis, Robert J

    2008-01-01

    Ecosystem services are natural processes that benefit humans. Birds contribute the four types of services recognized by the UN Millennium Ecosystem Assessment-provisioning, regulating, cultural, and supporting services. In this review, we concentrate primarily on supporting services, and to a lesser extent, provisioning and regulating services. As members of ecosystems, birds play many roles, including as predators, pollinators, scavengers, seed dispersers, seed predators, and ecosystem engineers. These ecosystem services fall into two subcategories: those that arise via behavior (like consumption of agricultural pests) and those that arise via bird products (like nests and guano). Characteristics of most birds make them quite special from the perspective of ecosystem services. Because most birds fly, they can respond to irruptive or pulsed resources in ways generally not possible for other vertebrates. Migratory species link ecosystem processes and fluxes that are separated by great distances and times. Although the economic value to humans contributed by most, if not all, of the supporting services has yet to be quantified, we believe they are important to humans. Our goals for this review are 1) to lay the groundwork on these services to facilitate future efforts to estimate their economic value, 2) to highlight gaps in our knowledge, and 3) to point to future directions for additional research.

  20. Monostatic and bistatic radar measurements of birds and micro-drone

    OpenAIRE

    Ritchie, M. A.; Fioranelli, F.; Torvik, B.; Griffiths, H.

    2016-01-01

    This paper analyses the experimental results from recent monostatic and bistatic radar measurements of multiple birds as well as a quadcopter micro-drone. The radar system deployed for these measurements was the UCL developed NetRAD system. The aim of this work is to evaluate the key differences observed by a radar system between different birds and a micro-drone. Measurements are presented from simultaneous monostatic co/cross polarized data as well as co-polar bistatic data. The results obt...

  1. An outbreak of yolk sac infection and dead-in-shell mortality in common canary (Serinus canaria) caused by Klebsiella pneumoniae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Razmyar, J; Zamani, A H

    2016-01-01

    Yolk sac infection (YSI) and dead-in-shell mortality caused by Enterobacteriaceae in birds are not a rare phenomenon, however there are only a few reports indicating the association between these conditions and Klebsiella spp. among canary chicks (Serinus canaria). There have been reports of high mortality among 1-3 day old canary chicks in an indoor flock of canaries. In order to study the causative agent, yolk sac samples from dead-in-shell and day-old canary chicks were cultured. Klebsiella pneumonia was isolated and identified based on biochemical tests and using genus and species-specific multiplex PCR and later tested for their susceptibility to 13 antimicrobial agents. The isolates showed susceptibility to Gentamycin, Chloramphenicol, Florfenicol and Streptomycin.

  2. TimeNET Optimization Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christoph Bodenstein

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper a novel tool for simulation-based optimization and design-space exploration of Stochastic Colored Petri nets (SCPN is introduced. The working title of this tool is TimeNET Optimization Environment (TOE. Targeted users of this tool are people modeling complex systems with SCPNs in TimeNET who want to find parameter sets that are optimal for a certain performance measure (fitness function. It allows users to create and simulate sets of SCPNs and to run different optimization algorithms based on parameter variation. The development of this tool was motivated by the need to automate and speed up tests of heuristic optimization algorithms to be applied for SCPN optimization. A result caching mechanism is used to avoid recalculations.

  3. Invasive alien birds in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fox, Anthony David; Heldbjerg, Henning; Nyegaard, Timme

    2015-01-01

    Avian Introduced Alien Species (IAS) constitute a threat to the integrity of native biodiversity, the economy and human health, so here we briefly review some of the problems posed by such species around the world in relation to such bird species in Denmark. A new European Union Regulation...... on Invasive Alien Species implemented in January 2015 establishes a framework for actions to combat alien species, which requires Member States to prevent the spread of alien species, provide early warning and rapid responses to their presence and management of established alien species where they occur. We...... show the importance of mechanisms such as DOF’s (Dansk Ornitologisk Forening, BirdLife Denmark) Atlas project, Common Bird Census (breeding and wintering species) and DOFbasen to contribute data on the current geographical and numerical distribution of the few serious alien avian species already...

  4. Invasive alien birds in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nyegaard, Timme; Heldbjerg, Henning; Fox, Anthony David

    Avian Introduced Alien Species (IAS) constitute a threat to the integrity of native biodiversity, the economy and human health, so here we briefly review some of the problems posed by such species around the world in relation to bird species in Denmark. A new European Union Regulation on Invasive...... Alien Species implemented in January 2015 requires a framework for actions to combat alien species, which requires Member States to prevent the spread of alien species, provide early warning and rapid responses to their presence and management of established alien species where they occur. We show...... the importance of mechanisms such as DOFs (Danish Ornithological Society, BirdLife Denmark) Atlas project, Common Bird Monitoring (breeding and wintering species) and DOFbasen to contribute data on the current geographical and numerical distribution of the few serious alien avian species already present...

  5. Implementing NetScaler VPX

    CERN Document Server

    Sandbu, Marius

    2014-01-01

    An easy-to-follow guide with detailed step-by step-instructions on how to implement the different key components in NetScaler, with real-world examples and sample scenarios.If you are a Citrix or network administrator who needs to implement NetScaler in your virtual environment to gain an insight on its functionality, this book is ideal for you. A basic understanding of networking and familiarity with some of the different Citrix products such as XenApp or XenDesktop is a prerequisite.

  6. Net4Care PHMR Library

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2014-01-01

    The Net4Care PHMR library contains a) A GreenCDA approach for constructing a data object representing a PHMR document: SimpleClinicalDocument, and b) A Builder which can produce a XML document representing a valid Danish PHMR (following the MedCom profile) document from the SimpleClinicalDocument......The Net4Care PHMR library contains a) A GreenCDA approach for constructing a data object representing a PHMR document: SimpleClinicalDocument, and b) A Builder which can produce a XML document representing a valid Danish PHMR (following the MedCom profile) document from the Simple...

  7. Pro DLR in NET 4

    CERN Document Server

    Wu, Chaur

    2011-01-01

    Microsoft's Dynamic Language Runtime (DLR) is a platform for running dynamic languages such as Ruby and Python on an equal footing with compiled languages such as C#. Furthermore, the runtime is the foundation for many useful software design and architecture techniques you can apply as you develop your .NET applications. Pro DLR in .NET 4 introduces you to the DLR, showing how you can use it to write software that combines dynamic and static languages, letting you choose the right tool for the job. You will learn the core DLR components such as LINQ expressions, call sites, binders, and dynami

  8. Hierarchies in Coloured Petri Nets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huber, Peter; Jensen, Kurt; Shapiro, Robert M.

    1991-01-01

    The paper shows how to extend Coloured Petri Nets with a hierarchy concept. The paper proposes five different hierarchy constructs, which allow the analyst to structure large CP-nets as a set of interrelated subnets (called pages). The paper discusses the properties of the proposed hierarchy...... constructs, and it illustrates them by means of two examples. The hierarchy constructs can be used for theoretical considerations, but their main use is to describe and analyse large real-world systems. All of the hierarchy constructs are supported by the editing and analysis facilities in the CPN Palette...

  9. H5N1 surveillance in migratory birds in Java, Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoops, Arthur C; Barbara, Katie A; Indrawan, Mochamad; Ibrahim, Ima N; Petrus, Wicaksana B; Wijaya, Susan; Farzeli, Arik; Antonjaya, Ungke; Sin, Lim W; Hidayatullah, N; Kristanto, Ige; Tampubolon, A M; Purnama, S; Supriatna, Adam; Burgess, Timothy H; Williams, Maya; Putnam, Shannon D; Tobias, Steve; Blair, Patrick J

    2009-12-01

    We sought to elucidate the role of migratory birds in transmission of H5N1 in an enzoonotic area. Resident, captive, and migratory birds were sampled at five sites in Java, Indonesia. Mist nets were used to trap birds. Birds were identified to species. RNA was extracted from swabs and reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) conducted for the HA and M genes of H5N1. Antibodies were detected by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and hemagglutination inhibition test. Between October 2006 and September 2007, a total of 4,067 captive, resident, and migratory birds comprising 98 species in 23 genera were sampled. The most commonly collected birds were the common sandpiper (6% of total), striated heron (3%), and the domestic chicken (14%). The overall prevalence of H5N1 antibodies was 5.3%. A significantly higher percentage of captive birds (16.1%) showed antibody evidence of H5N1 exposure when compared to migratory or resident birds. The greatest number of seropositive birds in each category were Muschovy duck (captive), striated heron (resident), and the Pacific golden plover (migratory). Seven apparently well captive birds yielded molecular evidence of H5N1 infection. Following amplification, the HA, NA, and M genes were analyzed. Phylogenetic analysis of the HA gene showed that the isolates were 97% similar to EU124153.1 A/chicken/West Java/Garut May 2006, an isolate obtained in a similar region of West Java. While no known markers of neuraminidase inhibitor resistance were found within the NA gene, M segment analysis revealed the V27A mutation known to confer resistance to adamantanes. Our results demonstrate moderate serologic evidence of H5N1 infection in captive birds, sampled in five sites in Java, Indonesia, but only occasional infection in resident and migratory birds. These data imply that in an enzoonotic region of Indonesia the role of migratory birds in transmission of H5N1 is limited.

  10. Drivers of Bird Species Richness within Moist High-Altitude Grasslands in Eastern South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maphisa, David H; Smit-Robinson, Hanneline; Underhill, Les G; Altwegg, Res

    2016-01-01

    decrease in vegetation cover compared to transects that were not burned. Grass height increased over time. Bird species richness was highest in summer compared to other seasons and increased over time. Overall bird species richness increased over the three summer surveys but species richness of birds that prefer heavily grazed habitat showed little change over the three years. Changes in bird species richness were best explained by the model with grass height for combined species richness of grassland depended birds but also for birds that prefer heavy grazing when treated alone. On one hand birds that prefer moderate grazing were best explained by a null model. However, overall bird species richness was better positively correlated to grass height than grass cover or dead grass. We conclude that frequent burning alone with relatively reduced grazing led to higher but less dense grass, which benefited some species and disadvantaged others. We suggest that management of this grassland use combination of fire and grazing and leave some areas unburned to accommodates birds of various habitat needs.

  11. Birds have paedomorphic dinosaur skulls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhullar, Bhart-Anjan S; Marugán-Lobón, Jesús; Racimo, Fernando; Bever, Gabe S; Rowe, Timothy B; Norell, Mark A; Abzhanov, Arhat

    2012-07-12

    The interplay of evolution and development has been at the heart of evolutionary theory for more than a century. Heterochrony—change in the timing or rate of developmental events—has been implicated in the evolution of major vertebrate lineages such as mammals, including humans. Birds are the most speciose land vertebrates, with more than 10,000 living species representing a bewildering array of ecologies. Their anatomy is radically different from that of other vertebrates. The unique bird skull houses two highly specialized systems: the sophisticated visual and neuromuscular coordination system allows flight coordination and exploitation of diverse visual landscapes, and the astonishing variations of the beak enable a wide range of avian lifestyles. Here we use a geometric morphometric approach integrating developmental, neontological and palaeontological data to show that the heterochronic process of paedomorphosis, by which descendants resemble the juveniles of their ancestors, is responsible for several major evolutionary transitions in the origin of birds. We analysed the variability of a series of landmarks on all known theropod dinosaur skull ontogenies as well as outgroups and birds. The first dimension of variability captured ontogeny, indicating a conserved ontogenetic trajectory. The second dimension accounted for phylogenetic change towards more bird-like dinosaurs. Basally branching eumaniraptorans and avialans clustered with embryos of other archosaurs, indicating paedomorphosis. Our results reveal at least four paedomorphic episodes in the history of birds combined with localized peramorphosis (development beyond the adult state of ancestors) in the beak. Paedomorphic enlargement of the eyes and associated brain regions parallels the enlargement of the nasal cavity and olfactory brain in mammals. This study can be a model for investigations of heterochrony in evolutionary transitions, illuminating the origin of adaptive features and inspiring

  12. DEAD-box proteins as RNA helicases and chaperones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarmoskaite, Inga; Russell, Rick

    2010-01-01

    DEAD-box proteins are ubiquitous in RNA-mediated processes and function by coupling cycles of ATP binding and hydrolysis to changes in affinity for single-stranded RNA. Many DEAD-box proteins use this basic mechanism as the foundation for a version of RNA helicase activity, efficiently separating the strands of short RNA duplexes in a process that involves little or no translocation. This activity, coupled with mechanisms to direct different DEAD-box proteins to their physiological substrates, allows them to promote RNA folding steps and rearrangements and to accelerate remodeling of RNA-protein complexes. This review will describe the properties of DEAD-box proteins as RNA helicases and the current understanding of how the energy from ATPase activity is used to drive the separation of RNA duplex strands. It will then describe how the basic biochemical properties allow some DEAD-box proteins to function as chaperones by promoting RNA folding reactions, with a focus on the self-splicing group I and group II intron RNAs. PMID:21297876

  13. Indoor Dead Reckoning Localization Using Ultrasonic Anemometer with IMU

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Woojin Seo

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Dead reckoning is an important aspect of estimating the instantaneous position of a mobile robot. An inertial measurement unit (IMU is generally used for dead reckoning because it measures triaxis acceleration and triaxis angular velocities in order to estimate the position of the mobile robot. Positioning with inertial data is reasonable for a short period of time. However, the velocity, position, and attitude errors increase over time. Much research has been conducted in ways to reduce these errors. To position a mobile robot, an absolute positioning method can be combined with dead reckoning. The performance of a combined positioning method can be improved based on improvement in dead reckoning. In this paper, an ultrasonic anemometer is used to improve the performance of dead reckoning when indoors. A new approach to the equation of an ultrasonic anemometer is proposed. The ultrasonic anemometer prevents divergence of the mobile robot’s velocity. To position a mobile robot indoors, the ultrasonic anemometer measures the relative movement of air while the robot moves through static air. Velocity data from the ultrasonic anemometer and the acceleration and angular velocity data from the IMU are combined via Kalman filter. Finally we show that the proposed method has the performance with a positioning method using encoders on a good floor condition.

  14. The value of rehabilitating logged rainforest for birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, David P; Ansell, Felicity A; Ahmad, Abdul H; Nilus, Reuben; Hamer, Keith C

    2009-12-01

    The recent advent of carbon crediting has led to a rapid rise in biosequestration projects that seek to remove carbon from the atmosphere through afforestation and forest rehabilitation. Such projects also present an important potential opportunity to reverse biodiversity losses resulting from deforestation and forest degradation, but the biodiversity benefits of different forms of biosequestration have not been considered adequately. We captured birds in mist nets to examine the effects of rehabilitation of logged forest on birds in Sabah, Borneo, and to test the hypothesis that rehabilitation restores avian assemblages within regenerating forest to a condition closer to that seen in unlogged forest. Species richness and diversity were similar in unlogged and rehabilitated forest, but significantly lower in naturally regenerating forest. Rehabilitation resulted in a relatively rapid recovery of populations of insectivores within logged forest, especially those species that forage by sallying, but had a marked adverse effect on frugivores and possibly reduced the overall abundance of birds within regenerating forest. In view of these results, we advocate increased management for heterogeneity within rehabilitated forests, but we strongly urge an increased role for forest rehabilitation in the design and implementation of a biodiversity-friendly carbon-offsetting market.

  15. Bird watching and estimation of bird diversity – not always ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Some occurrences of rare or unusual bird species reported by us in a previous paper (Ostrich 86(3): 267–276, 2015) are considered to be doubtful by Hogg and Vande weghe (Ostrich 88(1): 83–88, 2017). We believe that some of the problems raised are taxonomic. The main objective of our study was to obtain reliable ...

  16. NNR-MORVEL56: No-net-rotation model of geologically current plate motions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Argus, D.; Gordon, R. G.; Demets, C.; Zheng, L.

    2010-12-01

    We determine NNR-MORVEL56, a set of estimates of the velocities of 56 plates relative to the reference frame yielding no net rotation of the plates. We furthermore determine the full 168 by 168 covariance matrix describing uncertainties in the 56 velocities. 25 plate velocities are from geologically current plate motion model MORVEL [DeMets et al. 2010]; 31 plate velocities are from Bird [2003]. We calculate the 31 plate velocities relative to the MORVEL plates in the same manner by which Bird [2003] calculated them relative to NUVEL-1A. Because the 31 plates from Bird [2003] comprise just 2.8% of Earth’s surface, NNR-MORVEL56, they contribute insignificantly to the no-net-rotation frame; The estimates of the 31 plates from Bird [2003] relative to the 25 plates in MORVEL are nevertheless useful. The velocity of the Pacific plate differs between NNR-MORVEL56 and hotspot model HS3B-MORVEL [Zheng et al., abstract in GP session] on plate motion and reference frames] by a highly significant 0.34 °/Myr, which is up to 38 mm/y on Earth’s surface. This difference is 23 per cent smaller than our prior estimate of the difference from NNR-NUVEL1A [Argus and Gordon 2001] and HS3-NUVEL1A [Gripp and Gordon 2002].

  17. D.NET case study

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    lremy

    developing products, marketing tools and building capacity of the grass root telecentre workers. D.Net recognized that it had several ideas worth developing into small interventions that would make big differences, but resource constraints were a barrier for scaling-up these initiatives. More demands, limited resources.

  18. Surgery for GEP-NETs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knigge, Ulrich; Hansen, Carsten Palnæs

    2012-01-01

    Surgery is the only treatment that may cure the patient with gastroentero-pancreatic (GEP) neuroendocrine tumours (NET) and neuroendocrine carcinomas (NEC) and should always be considered as first line treatment if R0/R1 resection can be achieved. The surgical and interventional procedures for GEP...

  19. Net Neutrality in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Eijk, N.

    2014-01-01

    The Netherlands is among the first countries that have put specific net neutrality standards in place. The decision to implement specific regulation was influenced by at least three factors. The first was the prevailing social and academic debate, partly due to developments in the United States. The

  20. Complexity Metrics for Workflow Nets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lassen, Kristian Bisgaard; van der Aalst, Wil M.P.

    2009-01-01

    Process modeling languages such as EPCs, BPMN, flow charts, UML activity diagrams, Petri nets, etc.\\ are used to model business processes and to configure process-aware information systems. It is known that users have problems understanding these diagrams. In fact, even process engineers and system...

  1. Vegetation composition and structure influences bird species ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Vegetation composition and structure influences bird species community assemblages in the highland agricultural landscape of Nyandarua, Kenya. ... Bird species diversity increased with increasing density of woody plant species and vegetation structural heterogeneity. Two gradients of increasing vegetation structural ...

  2. Cape Romain National Wildlife Refuge Bird List

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This bird list includes 293 species of birds which have been recorded on the refuge, principally on Bulls Island, and is based on observations by refuge personnel...

  3. Birds–Dead and Deadly: Why Numeracy Needs to Address Social Construction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joel Best

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Sociologists use the term social construction to refer to the processes by which people assign meaning to their world. This paper argues that numeracy education needs to address social construction. In particular, thinking critically about the statistics the news media report regarding social issues requires understanding the competitive nature of the social problems marketplace, and the social forces that allow questionable numbers to receive widespread public attention. Such critiques must incorporate more than assessing how the numbers were calculated; they must consider the social construction of particular statistics. Two recent examples—claims about the number of birds killed flying into windows, and warnings about the threat of an avian flu pandemic—are presented to illustrate the need to incorporate social construction into numeracy education.

  4. Deadly Choices empowering Indigenous Australians through social networking sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McPhail-Bell, Karen; Appo, Nathan; Haymes, Alana; Bond, Chelsea; Brough, Mark; Fredericks, Bronwyn

    2017-04-05

    The potential for health promotion through social networking sites (SNSs) is widely recognized. However, while health promotion prides itself in focusing on the social determinants of health, its partiality for persuading individuals to comply with health behaviours dominates the way health promotion utilizes SNSs. This paper contributes to an understanding of collaborative ways SNSs can work for health promotion agendas of self-determination and empowerment in an Indigenous Australia context. An ethnographic study was undertaken with Deadly Choices, an Indigenous-led health promotion initiative. The study involved participant observation of interactions on Deadly Choices SNSs between Deadly Choices and its online community members. Deadly Choices provides an example of SNSs providing a powerful tool to create a safe, inclusive and positive space for Indigenous people and communities to profile their healthy choices, according to Indigenous notions of health and identity. The study found five principles that underpin Deadly Choices' use of SNSs for health promotion. These are: create a dialogue; build community online and offline; incentivise healthy online engagement; celebrate Indigenous identity and culture; and prioritize partnerships. Deadly Choices SNSs empowers Indigenous people and communities to be health promoters themselves, which represents a power shift from health promotion practitioner to Indigenous people and communities and more broadly, an enactment of Indigenous self-determination on SNSs. Mainstream health promotion can learn from Indigenous health promotion practice regarding the use of SNSs for health promotion agendas. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  5. Response of bird community structure to habitat management in piñon-juniper woodland-sagebrush ecotones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knick, Steven T.; Hanser, Steve; Grace, James B.; Hollenbeck, Jeff P.; Leu, Matthias

    2017-01-01

    Piñon (Pinus spp.) and juniper (Juniperus spp.) woodlands have been expanding their range across the intermountain western United States into landscapes dominated by sagebrush (Artemisia spp.) shrublands. Management actions using prescribed fire and mechanical cutting to reduce woodland cover and control expansion provided opportunities to understand how environmental structure and changes due to these treatments influence bird communities in piñon-juniper systems. We surveyed 43 species of birds and measured vegetation for 1–3 years prior to treatment and 6–7 years post-treatment at 13 locations across Oregon, California, Idaho, Nevada, and Utah. We used structural equation modeling to develop and statistically test our conceptual model that the current bird assembly at a site is structured primarily by the previous bird community with additional drivers from current and surrounding habitat conditions as well as external regional bird dynamics. Treatment reduced woodland cover by >5% at 80 of 378 survey sites. However, habitat change achieved by treatment was highly variable because actual disturbance differed widely in extent and intensity. Biological inertia in the bird community was the strongest single driver; 72% of the variation in the bird assemblage was explained by the community that existed seven years earlier. Greater net reduction in woodlands resulted in slight shifts in the bird community to one having ecotone or shrubland affinities. However, the overall influence of woodland changes from treatment were relatively small and were buffered by other extrinsic factors. Regional bird dynamics did not significantly influence the structure of local bird communities at our sites. Our results suggest that bird communities in piñon-juniper woodlands can be highly stable when management treatments are conducted in areas with more advanced woodland development and at the level of disturbance measured in our study.

  6. The Bird Box Survey Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willis, Patrick

    2014-01-01

    When high school students are asked what's the best part of science class, many will say it's the field trips. Students enjoy engaging in authentic, community-based science outside the classroom. To capitalize on this, Patrick Willis created the Bird Box Survey Project for his introductory field biology class. The project takes students…

  7. Physiological adaptation in desert birds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Williams, JB; Tieleman, BI; Williams, Joseph B.

    We call into question the idea that birds have not evolved unique physiological adaptations to desert environments. The rate at which desert larks metabolize energy is lower than in mesic species within the same family, and this lower rate of living translates into a lower overall energy requirement

  8. Notes on some Sumatran birds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Junge, G.C.A.

    1948-01-01

    During the war I was able to identify some collections of birds from Sumatra, present in the Leiden Museum. These collections were brought together by E. Jacobson and W. C. van Heurn in the Padang Highlands in 1013; by W. Groeneveldt in the same area in 1914 and 1915; bij L. P. Cosquino de Bussy and

  9. Fuglene. Audubon: Birds of America

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schlichtkrull, Torsten

    2010-01-01

    The Royal Library owns one of the most exceptional works in book history, an original edition of John James Audubon Birds of America. This edition, in a format called “double elephant folio” was published from 1827 to 1838. On basis of existing literature, this article briefly describes the work...

  10. Chemical compass for bird navigation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Solov'yov, Ilia; Hore, Peter J.; Ritz, Thorsten

    2014-01-01

    increased interest following the proposal in 2000 that free radical chemistry could occur in the bird's retina initiated by photoexcitation of cryptochrome, a specialized photoreceptor protein. In the present paper we review the important physical and chemical constraints on a possible radical...

  11. Microbiology as if Bird Watching

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 1; Issue 10. Microbiology as if Bird Watching. Milind G Watve. Classroom Volume 1 Issue 10 October 1996 pp 78-81. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link: http://www.ias.ac.in/article/fulltext/reso/001/10/0078-0081. Author Affiliations.

  12. Homer and the cult of the dead in Helladic times

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Odysseus Tsagarakis

    1980-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses the Homeric bothros (Odyssey X 517 ff. as a possible source of information for the ritual and function of various bothroi (grave pits which are considered to be an important archaeological source. It seems that the bothroi were, by their nature, best suited to a cult of the dead and served as altars. The paper also discusses the possible reasons for the existence of the cult and argues against the view that fear of the dead motivated the cult in Helladic times.

  13. Intrapulmonary gas mixing and dead space in artificially ventilated dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schrikker, A C; Wesenhagen, H; Luijendijk, S C

    1995-09-01

    In this study we have investigated the effects of breath holding and of the physical properties of gases on four different respiratory dead spaces (VD): the Fowler, the physiological, the washout and the inert gas dead space. The experiments were performed with dogs which were ventilated artificially with breathing patterns with different post-inspiratory breath holding times (ta) of 0, 0.5, 1.0 and 2.0 s. Tracer amounts of acetone, ether and enflurane were infused continuously into a peripheral vein and a bolus of a mixture of krypton, Freon12 and SF6 was introduced into the peritoneal cavity. After reaching steady state, samples of arterial blood, mixed venous blood and mixed expired air were taken simultaneously. From the partial pressures (Pa, PV and PE respectively) we determined the excretion (E = PE/PV), retention (R = Pa/PV) and the physiological dead space fraction (VD,phys/VT = (1- PE/Pa)) for each gas, where VT is tidal volume. Further, we recorded the expirograms of the six tracer gases and of CO2 from which the Fowler dead space fractions (VD,Fowler/VT) of the different gases were determined. Also the washout dead space fractions (VD,washout/VT) for He and SF6 were determined as well as the inert gas dead space fraction (VD,MIGET/VT) with the use of the multiple inert gas elimination technique (MIGET). With the exception of VD,phys/VT for SF6, all dead space fractions decreased with increasing ta. VD,phys/VT for the poorly soluble gas SF6 was considerably larger than VD,phys/VT for the remaining gases. For the highly soluble acetone VFowler/VT was considerably smaller than VD,Fowler/VT for the other gases. VD,washout,SF6/VT was always larger than VD,washout,He/VT and VD,Fowler,SF6/VT. Further, VD,phys/VT was larger than VD,Fowler/VT for SF6 and acetone. However, for gases with intermediate solubility in blood VD,phys/VT tended to be smaller than VD,Fowler/VT. We conclude that the respiratory dead spaces are affected by the breathing pattern and by the

  14. The Dynamics of the Skin Temperature of the Dead Sea

    OpenAIRE

    Roni Nehorai; Nadav Lensky; Steve Brenner; Itamar Lensky

    2013-01-01

    We explored the dynamics of the temperature of the skin layer of the Dead Sea surface by means of in situ meteorological and hydrographic measurements from a buoy located near the center of the lake. The skin temperature is most highly correlated to air temperature (0.93–0.98) in all seasons. The skin temperature is much less correlated to the bulk surface water temperature in the summer (0.80), when the lake is thermally stratified, and uncorrelated in the winter, when the Dead Sea is vertic...

  15. 76 FR 48693 - Migratory Bird Hunting; Proposed Migratory Bird Hunting Regulations on Certain Federal Indian...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-08

    ... August 8, 2011 Part V Department of the Interior Fish and Wildlife Service 50 CFR Part 20 Migratory Bird Hunting; Proposed Migratory Bird Hunting Regulations on Certain Federal Indian Reservations and Ceded... RIN 1018-AX34 Migratory Bird Hunting; Proposed Migratory Bird Hunting Regulations on Certain Federal...

  16. 77 FR 49679 - Migratory Bird Hunting; Proposed Migratory Bird Hunting Regulations on Certain Federal Indian...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-16

    ... August 16, 2012 Part V Department of the Interior Fish and Wildlife Service 50 CFR Part 20 Migratory Bird Hunting; Proposed Migratory Bird Hunting Regulations on Certain Federal Indian Reservations and Ceded... 20 RIN 1018-AX97 Migratory Bird Hunting; Proposed Migratory Bird Hunting Regulations on Certain...

  17. 76 FR 54051 - Migratory Bird Hunting; Final Frameworks for Early-Season Migratory Bird Hunting Regulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-30

    ... Bird Hunting; Final Frameworks for Early-Season Migratory Bird Hunting Regulations; Final Rule #0;#0... OF THE INTERIOR Fish and Wildlife Service 50 CFR Part 20 RIN 1018-AX34 Migratory Bird Hunting; Final Frameworks for Early-Season Migratory Bird Hunting Regulations AGENCY: Fish and Wildlife Service, Interior...

  18. 75 FR 59041 - Migratory Bird Hunting; Migratory Bird Hunting Regulations on Certain Federal Indian Reservations...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-24

    ... Interior Fish and Wildlife Service 50 CFR Part 20 Migratory Bird Hunting; Migratory Bird Hunting...; ] DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Fish and Wildlife Service 50 CFR Part 20 RIN 1018-AX06 Migratory Bird Hunting; Migratory Bird Hunting Regulations on Certain Federal Indian Reservations and Ceded Lands for the 2010-11...

  19. 75 FR 52398 - Migratory Bird Hunting; Proposed Frameworks for Late-Season Migratory Bird Hunting Regulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-25

    ... Service 50 CFR Part 20 Migratory Bird Hunting; Proposed Frameworks for Late-Season Migratory Bird Hunting... No. FWS-R9-MB-2010-0040; [91200-1231-9BPP-L2] RIN 1018-AX06 Migratory Bird Hunting; Proposed Frameworks for Late-Season Migratory Bird Hunting Regulations AGENCY: Fish and Wildlife Service, Interior...

  20. 78 FR 52337 - Migratory Bird Hunting; Proposed Frameworks for Late-Season Migratory Bird Hunting Regulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-22

    ... Bird Hunting; Proposed Frameworks for Late Season Migratory Bird Hunting Regulations; Proposed Rule #0...; ] DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Fish and Wildlife Service 50 CFR Part 20 RIN 1018-AY87 Migratory Bird Hunting; Proposed Frameworks for Late-Season Migratory Bird Hunting Regulations AGENCY: Fish and Wildlife Service...

  1. 76 FR 58681 - Migratory Bird Hunting; Final Frameworks for Late-Season Migratory Bird Hunting Regulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-21

    ... Bird Hunting; Final Frameworks for Late-Season Migratory Bird Hunting Regulations; Final Rule #0;#0...; ] DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Fish and Wildlife Service 50 CFR Part 20 RIN 1018-AX34 Migratory Bird Hunting; Final Frameworks for Late-Season Migratory Bird Hunting Regulations AGENCY: Fish and Wildlife Service...

  2. 76 FR 69223 - Migratory Bird Permits; Definition of “Hybrid” Migratory Bird

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-08

    ... Fish and Wildlife Service 50 CFR Part 21 RIN 1018-AX90 Migratory Bird Permits; Definition of ``Hybrid'' Migratory Bird AGENCY: Fish and Wildlife Service, Interior. ACTION: Proposed rule. SUMMARY: We, the U.S... birds protected under the Migratory Bird Treaty Act. At present, the definition applies only to hybrids...

  3. 77 FR 58443 - Migratory Bird Hunting; Final Frameworks for Late-Season Migratory Bird Hunting Regulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-20

    ... Bird Hunting; Final Frameworks for Late-Season Migratory Bird Hunting Regulations; Final Rule #0;#0...; ] DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Fish and Wildlife Service 50 CFR Part 20 RIN 1018-AX97 Migratory Bird Hunting; Final Frameworks for Late-Season Migratory Bird Hunting Regulations AGENCY: Fish and Wildlife Service...

  4. Birds and Bird Habitat: What Are the Risks from Industrial Wind Turbine Exposure?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sprague, Terry; Harrington, M. Elizabeth; Krogh, Carmen M. E.

    2011-01-01

    Bird kill rate and disruption of habitat has been reported when industrial wind turbines are introduced into migratory bird paths or other environments. While the literature could be more complete regarding the documentation of negative effects on birds and bird habitats during the planning, construction, and operation of wind power projects,…

  5. 77 FR 49867 - Migratory Bird Hunting; Proposed Frameworks for Late-Season Migratory Bird Hunting Regulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-17

    ... Bird Hunting; Proposed Frameworks for Late-Season Migratory Bird Hunting Regulations; Proposed Rule #0... OF THE INTERIOR Fish and Wildlife Service 50 CFR Part 20 RIN 1018-AX97 Migratory Bird Hunting; Proposed Frameworks for Late-Season Migratory Bird Hunting Regulations AGENCY: Fish and Wildlife Service...

  6. 77 FR 54451 - Migratory Bird Hunting; Migratory Bird Hunting Regulations on Certain Federal Indian Reservations...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-05

    ... Migratory Bird Hunting; Migratory Bird Hunting Regulations on Certain Federal Indian Reservations and Ceded.... SUMMARY: This rule prescribes special early-season migratory bird hunting regulations for certain tribes...: The Migratory Bird Treaty Act (MBTA) of July 3, 1918 (40 Stat. 755; 16 U.S.C. 703 et seq.), authorizes...

  7. 77 FR 53117 - Migratory Bird Hunting; Final Frameworks for Early-Season Migratory Bird Hunting Regulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-30

    ... Bird Hunting; Final Frameworks for Early-Season Migratory Bird Hunting Regulations; Final Rule #0;#0...; ] DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Fish and Wildlife Service 50 CFR Part 20 RIN 1018-AX97 Migratory Bird Hunting; Final Frameworks for Early-Season Migratory Bird Hunting Regulations AGENCY: Fish and Wildlife Service...

  8. 76 FR 59298 - Migratory Bird Hunting; Migratory Bird Hunting Regulations on Certain Federal Indian Reservations...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-26

    ... Fish and Wildlife Service 50 CFR Part 20 RIN 1018-AX34 Migratory Bird Hunting; Migratory Bird Hunting... migratory bird hunting regulations for certain tribes on Federal Indian reservations, off-reservation trust.... SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Background The Migratory Bird Treaty Act of July 3, 1918 (40 Stat. 755; 16 U.S.C. 703...

  9. 78 FR 52657 - Migratory Bird Hunting; Final Frameworks for Early-Season Migratory Bird Hunting Regulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-23

    ... Bird Hunting; Final Frameworks for Early Season Migratory Bird Hunting Regulations; Final Rule #0;#0... OF THE INTERIOR Fish and Wildlife Service 50 CFR Part 20 RIN 1018-AY87 Migratory Bird Hunting; Final Frameworks for Early-Season Migratory Bird Hunting Regulations AGENCY: Fish and Wildlife Service, Interior...

  10. 76 FR 54675 - Migratory Bird Hunting; Migratory Bird Hunting Regulations on Certain Federal Indian Reservations...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-01

    ... September 1, 2011 Part VI Department of the Interior Fish and Wildlife Service 50 CFR Part 20 Migratory Bird Hunting; Migratory Bird Hunting Regulations on Certain Federal Indian Reservations and Ceded Lands for the... 20 RIN 1018-AX34 Migratory Bird Hunting; Migratory Bird Hunting Regulations on Certain Federal Indian...

  11. 75 FR 47681 - Migratory Bird Hunting; Proposed Migratory Bird Hunting Regulations on Certain Federal Indian...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-06

    ... Interior Fish and Wildlife Service 50 CFR Part 20 Migratory Bird Hunting; Proposed Migratory Bird Hunting... INTERIOR Fish and Wildlife Service 50 CFR Part 20 RIN 1018-AX06 Migratory Bird Hunting; Proposed Migratory Bird Hunting Regulations on Certain Federal Indian Reservations and Ceded Lands for the 2010-11 Season...

  12. Caught in the Net: Perineuronal Nets and Addiction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Megan Slaker

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Exposure to drugs of abuse induces plasticity in the brain and creates persistent drug-related memories. These changes in plasticity and persistent drug memories are believed to produce aberrant motivation and reinforcement contributing to addiction. Most studies have explored the effect drugs of abuse have on pre- and postsynaptic cells and astrocytes; however, more recently, attention has shifted to explore the effect these drugs have on the extracellular matrix (ECM. Within the ECM are unique structures arranged in a net-like manner, surrounding a subset of neurons called perineuronal nets (PNNs. This review focuses on drug-induced changes in PNNs, the molecules that regulate PNNs, and the expression of PNNs within brain circuitry mediating motivation, reward, and reinforcement as it pertains to addiction.

  13. Neoplasms identified in free-flying birds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegfried, L.M.

    1983-01-01

    Nine neoplasms were identified in carcasses of free-flying wild birds received at the National Wildlife Health Laboratory; gross and microscopic descriptions are reported herein. The prevalence of neoplasia in captive and free-flying birds is discussed, and lesions in the present cases are compared with those previously described in mammals and birds.

  14. 14 CFR 29.631 - Bird strike.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Bird strike. 29.631 Section 29.631... STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Design and Construction General § 29.631 Bird strike. The... safe landing (for Category B) after impact with a 2.2-lb (1.0 kg) bird when the velocity of the...

  15. 14 CFR 35.36 - Bird impact.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Bird impact. 35.36 Section 35.36... STANDARDS: PROPELLERS Tests and Inspections § 35.36 Bird impact. The applicant must demonstrate, by tests or... 4-pound bird at the critical location(s) and critical flight condition(s) of a typical installation...

  16. Simulating the Risk of Bird Strikes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Metz, I.C.; Ellerbroek, J.; Muhlhausen, Thorsten; Kügler, D.; Hoekstra, J.M.

    2017-01-01

    This paper presents a fast-time simulation environment for assessing the risk of bird strikes in aviation. An existing air traffic simulator was enhanced in order to simulate air and bird traffic simultaneously and to recognize collisions between birds and aircraft. Furthermore, a method was

  17. Birds of isolated small forests in Uganda

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    degraded or even clear-cut. We examine data from three naturally isolated forests, and compare them with data from Ziika, to evaluate what value such forests—they range from 12 to c.700 ha—may have for forest birds. We also look at the stability of the bird communities within these forests. Previous studies of birds in ...

  18. Army Net Zero Prove Out. Army Net Zero Training Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-11-20

    sensors were strategically placed throughout the installation by magnetically attaching them to water main valve stems. The sensors check sound...Recycle Wrap  Substitutes for Packaging Materials  Re-Use of Textiles and Linens  Setting Printers to Double-Sided Printing Net Zero Waste...can effectively achieve source reduction. Clean and Re-Use Shop Rags - Shop rags represent a large textile waste stream at many installations. As a

  19. Army Net Zero Prove Out. Net Zero Waste Best Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-11-20

    Anaerobic Digesters – Although anaerobic digestion is not a new technology and has been used on a large-scale basis in wastewater treatment , the...technology and has been used on a large-scale basis in wastewater treatment , the use of the technology should be demonstrated with other...approaches can be used for cardboard and cellulose -based packaging materials. This approach is in line with the Net Zero Waste hierarchy in terms of

  20. DNA barcoding of Dutch birds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mansour Aliabadian

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The mitochondrial cytochrome c-oxidase subunit I (COI can serve as a fast and accurate marker for the identification of animal species, and has been applied in a number of studies on birds. We here sequenced the COI gene for 387 individuals of 147 species of birds from the Netherlands, with 83 species being represented by >2 sequences. The Netherlands occupies a small geographic area and 95% of all samples were collected within a 50 km radius from one another. The intraspecific divergences averaged 0.29% among this assemblage, but most values were lower; the interspecific divergences averaged 9.54%. In all, 95% of species were represented by a unique barcode, with 6 species of gulls and skua (Larus and Stercorariusat least one shared barcode. This is best explained by these species representing recent radiations with ongoing hybridization. In contrast, one species, the Lesser Whitethroat Sylvia curruca showed deep divergences, averaging 5.76% and up to 8.68% between individuals. These possibly represent two distinct taxa, S. curruca and S. blythi, both clearly separated in a haplotype network analysis. Our study adds to a growing body of DNA barcodes that have become available for birds, and shows that a DNA barcoding approach enables to identify known Dutch bird species with a very high resolution. In addition some species were flagged up for further detailed taxonomic investigation, illustrating that even in ornithologically well-known areas such as the Netherlands, more is to be learned about the birds that are present.

  1. Mesh size and bird capture rates in shasha forest reserve, ile-ife ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Few studies have been conducted to verify how mist net mesh size affects the capture rates of birds in Nigeria. This research was undertaken from 06.30 to 18.30 hours between February 2010 and January 2011 at Shasha Forest Reserve (4º20' to 4º40' E, 7º00' to 7º 10' N) near Ile-Ife in southwestern Nigeria, to verify how ...

  2. The net return from animal activity in agro-ecosystems: trading off benefits from ecosystem services against costs from crop damage [v2; ref status: indexed, http://f1000r.es/3c4

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gary W Luck

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Animals provide benefits to agriculture through the provision of ecosystem services, but also inflict costs such as damaging crops. These benefits and costs are mostly examined independently, rather than comparing the trade-offs of animal activity in the same system and quantifying the net return from beneficial minus detrimental activities. Here, I examine the net return associated with the activity of seed-eating birds in almond orchards by quantifying the economic costs and benefits of bird consumption of almonds. Pre-harvest, the consumption of harvestable almonds by birds cost growers AUD$57.50 ha-1 when averaged across the entire plantation. Post-harvest, the same bird species provide an ecosystem service by removing mummified nuts from trees that growers otherwise need to remove to reduce threats from fungal infection or insect pest infestations. The value of this ecosystem service ranged from AUD$82.50 ha-1–$332.50 ha-1 based on the replacement costs of mechanical or manual removal of mummified nuts, respectively. Hence, bird consumption of almonds yielded a positive net return of AUD$25–$275 ha-1 averaged across the entire plantation. However, bird activity varied spatially resulting in positive net returns occurring primarily at the edges of crops where activity was higher, compared to negative net returns in crop interiors. Moreover, partial mummy nut removal by birds meant that bird activity may only reduce costs to growers rather than replace these costs completely. Similar cost-benefit trade-offs exist across nature, and quantifying net returns can better inform land management decisions such as when to control pests or promote ecosystem service provision.

  3. HANPP Collection: Human Appropriation of Net Primary Productivity as a Percentage of Net Primary Productivity

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Human Appropriation of Net Primary Productivity (HANPP) as a Percentage of Net Primary Productivity (NPP) portion of the Human Appropriation of Net Primary...

  4. Hydrodynamic characteristics of plane netting used for aquaculture net cages in uniform current

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    DONG, SHUCHUANG; HU, FUXIANG; KUMAZAWA, TAISEI; SIODE, DAISUKE; TOKAI, TADASHI

    2016-01-01

      The hydrodynamic characteristics of polyethylene (PE) netting and chain link wire netting with different types of twine diameter and mesh size for aquaculture net cages were examined by experiments in a flume tank...

  5. Chlorinated herbicides in fish, birds and mammals in the Baltic Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reindl, Andrzej R; Falkowska, Lucyna; Grajewska, Agnieszka

    The aim of the present work was to determine the concentration levels, as well as accumulation and magnification coefficients, of triazine derivatives in herring gulls and Baltic grey seals 11 years after a ban on their use in the EU and eight after their exclusion in Poland. Dead birds were collected in the coastal zone of the Gulf of Gdansk in the years 2010-2012. The grey seals, on the other hand, were from before 2007, when s-triazine derivatives were still in use. Triazine herbicides (atrazine, simazine, propazine, terbutrine, prometrone, prometrine and ametrine) were found in the muscles and livers of birds and mammals and also in fish. The obtained results indicated the presence of all the assayed triazines in whole Baltic herring and their livers, while fish muscles were found to be free of prometrone and ametrine. In the muscles and liver of the grey seal, no ametrine, propazine or terbutrine were found, while prometrine was found in the liver of only one specimen. Research showed that simazine did not accumulate and magnify in marine birds and mammals. Atrazine became accumulated in the liver of birds and mammals while magnification was determined in their muscles. The accumulation of ametrine was found in the muscles of seals.

  6. Causes of mortality and unintentional poisoning in predatory and scavenging birds in California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Terra R; Poppenga, Robert H; Woods, Leslie A; Hernandez, Yvette Z; Boyce, Walter M; Samaniego, Francisco J; Torres, Steve G; Johnson, Christine K

    2014-01-01

    We documented causes of mortality in an opportunistic sample of golden eagles, turkey vultures and common ravens, and assessed exposure to several contaminants that have been found in carrion and common prey for these species. Dead birds were submitted for testing through wildlife rehabilitation centres and a network of wildlife biologists in California from 2007 to 2009. The leading causes of mortality in this study were collision-related trauma (63 per cent), lead intoxication (17 per cent) and anticoagulant rodenticide poisoning (8 per cent). Elevated liver lead concentration (≥2 µg/g) and bone lead concentration (>6 µg/g) were detected in 25 and 49 per cent of birds tested, respectively. Approximately 84 per cent of birds tested had detectable rodenticide residues. The majority of rodenticide exposure occurred in peri-urban areas, suggesting that retail sale and use of commensal rodent baits, particularly in residential and semi-residential areas in California, may provide a pathway of exposure. Monitoring anthropogenic causes of mortality in predatory and scavenging bird species provides important data needed to inform on mitigation and regulatory efforts aimed at reducing threats to these populations.

  7. Bird population density estimated from acoustic signals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawson, D.K.; Efford, M.G.

    2009-01-01

    Many animal species are detected primarily by sound. Although songs, calls and other sounds are often used for population assessment, as in bird point counts and hydrophone surveys of cetaceans, there are few rigorous methods for estimating population density from acoustic data. 2. The problem has several parts - distinguishing individuals, adjusting for individuals that are missed, and adjusting for the area sampled. Spatially explicit capture-recapture (SECR) is a statistical methodology that addresses jointly the second and third parts of the problem. We have extended SECR to use uncalibrated information from acoustic signals on the distance to each source. 3. We applied this extension of SECR to data from an acoustic survey of ovenbird Seiurus aurocapilla density in an eastern US deciduous forest with multiple four-microphone arrays. We modelled average power from spectrograms of ovenbird songs measured within a window of 0??7 s duration and frequencies between 4200 and 5200 Hz. 4. The resulting estimates of the density of singing males (0??19 ha -1 SE 0??03 ha-1) were consistent with estimates of the adult male population density from mist-netting (0??36 ha-1 SE 0??12 ha-1). The fitted model predicts sound attenuation of 0??11 dB m-1 (SE 0??01 dB m-1) in excess of losses from spherical spreading. 5.Synthesis and applications. Our method for estimating animal population density from acoustic signals fills a gap in the census methods available for visually cryptic but vocal taxa, including many species of bird and cetacean. The necessary equipment is simple and readily available; as few as two microphones may provide adequate estimates, given spatial replication. The method requires that individuals detected at the same place are acoustically distinguishable and all individuals vocalize during the recording interval, or that the per capita rate of vocalization is known. We believe these requirements can be met, with suitable field methods, for a significant

  8. Campylobacter spp. and birds of prey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dipineto, Ludovico; De Luca Bossa, Luigi Maria; Russo, Tamara Pasqualina; Cutino, Eridania Annalisa; Gargiulo, Antonio; Ciccarelli, Francesca; Raia, Pasquale; Menna, Lucia Francesca; Fioretti, Alessandro

    2014-06-01

    A total of 170 birds of prey admitted to two Wildlife Rescue and Rehabilitation Centers of Italy were examined. Birds were divided by diurnal (n = 15) and nocturnal (n = 7) species, sampled by cloacal swabs, and examined for Campylobacter spp. by cultural and molecular methods. Campylobacter spp. were isolated in 43 out of the 170 (25.3%) birds of prey examined. Among these, 43/43 (100%) were identified as Campylobacter jejuni and 10/43 (23.3%) were identified as Campylobacter coli recovered from mixed infections. Diurnal birds of prey showed a significantly higher prevalence value (P = 0.0006) for Campylobacter spp. than did nocturnal birds of prey.

  9. Antimicrobial properties of Dead Sea black mineral mud.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma'or, Zeev; Henis, Yigal; Alon, Yaacov; Orlov, Elina; Sørensen, Ketil B; Oren, Aharon

    2006-05-01

    The unique, black, hypersaline mud mined from the Dead Sea shores is extensively used in mud packs, masks, and topical body and facial treatments in spas surrounding the lake, and in cosmetic preparations marketed worldwide, but little is known about its antimicrobiological properties. We performed detailed microbial and chemical analysis of Dead Sea mineral mud compounded in dermatological and cosmetic preparations. Using conventional bacteriological media (with or without salt augmentation), we found surprisingly low numbers of colony-forming microorganisms in the mud. The highest counts (up to 20,000 colonies per gram, mostly consisting of endospore-forming bacteria) were obtained on sheep blood agar. Test microorganisms (i.e. Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Propionibacterium acnes, Candida albicans) rapidly lost their viability when added to the mud. Zones of growth inhibition were observed around discs of Dead Sea mud placed on agar plates inoculated with Candida or with Propionibacterium, but not with Staphylococcus or Escherichia. The effect was also found when the mud was sterilized by gamma irradiation. Using (35)S-labeled sulfate as a tracer, bacterial dissimilatory sulfate reduction could be demonstrated at a low rate (0.13 +/- 0.03 nmol/cm(3).d). The antibacterial properties of Dead Sea mud are probably owing to chemical and/or physical phenomena. Possible modes of antimicrobial action of the mud in relation to its therapeutic properties are discussed.

  10. New Testament Textual Criticism is dead! Long live New Testament ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This article explores the notion that some of the basic assumptions upon which textual criticism is built, like the quest for an “original text”, have serious flaws and that much of what has been attempted the last 300 years is actually an exercise in futility. In this sense New Testament textual criticism can be declared dead.

  11. Piecing Together the Past: The Dead Sea Schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulrich, Eugene; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Illustrates the astonishing coordination of archaeological and scholarly activities surrounding the Dead Sea Scrolls. First discovered by Bedouin nomads in 1947, the Scrolls consist of a few complete manuscripts and over 80,000 fragments. Discusses the early Christian sect that produced the Scrolls, and provides current perspectives on the…

  12. The relevance of the Dead Sea scrolls for New Testament ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The article demonstrates why the Dead Sea Scrolls are important for NT scholarship. After a sketch of the main periods of Qumran research, the author discusses four patterns of relating Qumran with the NT which he considers problematic. Neither was the Qumran community a prototype of Early Christianity, nor do Qumran ...

  13. Literary Genres in Poetic Texts from the Dead Sea Scrolls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pickut, William Douglas

    2017-01-01

    Among the texts of the Dead Sea Scrolls, there are four literary compositions that bear the superscriptional designations shir and mizmor. These designations correspond directly to superscriptional designations provided many times in both the now-canonical Psalter and the various witnesses to those texts unearthed at Qumran. On its face, this fact…

  14. Stylistic Variation In Three English Translations Of The Dead Sea ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Since the discovery of the Dead Sea Scrolls in 1947 different English translations were published. In this article the stylistic variation of three of these translations are analysed. It is suggested that the issue of stylistic variation boils down to linguistically inscribed preference in the choice and construction of discourses in the ...

  15. Pablo Remembers: The Fiesta of the Day of the Dead.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ancona, George

    This children's book describes how Pablo, a young Mexican boy, and his family celebrate the Day of the Dead (El Dia de Los Muertos). This holiday takes place on the first and second day of November and honors relatives and friends who have died. The holiday celebrates their spiritual return to Earth to share a special feast with the living, and…

  16. Assessment of biofuel potential of dead neem leaves (Azadirachta ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    TIZE

    2016-08-24

    Aug 24, 2016 ... the forest in the Sahel region. Therefore, the surface area which could be preserved through the year and in 10 years is illustrated in Table 3. From Table 3, the valorisation of the biogas as cooking energy from dead neem biomass quantified in Maroua town could allow the preservation of 567.45 ha/year of.

  17. Skeletal muscle mitochondrial respiration in AMPKa2 kinase dead mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Steen; Kristensen, Jonas Møller; Stride, Nis

    2012-01-01

    AIM: To study if the phenotypical characteristics (exercise intolerance; reduced spontaneous activity) of the AMPKa2 kinase-dead (KD) mice can be explained by a reduced mitochondrial respiratory flux rates (JO(2) ) in skeletal muscle. Secondly, the effect of the maturation process on JO(2...

  18. Giving Thanks: Observing Thanksgiving, Kwanzaa, and Day of the Dead.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dever, Martha T.; Barta, James J.

    1997-01-01

    Describes a primary-grade curriculum unit organized around the theme of "giving thanks" and encompassing the holidays of Thanksgiving, Kwanzaa, and Day of the Dead. Provides historical background and cultural context for each holiday, engagement activities, investigation activities, sharing activities, and a short list of related…

  19. Comparison of burning characteristics of live and dead chaparral fuels

    Science.gov (United States)

    L. Sun; X. Zhou; S. Mahalingam; D.R. Weise

    2006-01-01

    Wildfire spread in living vegetation, such as chaparral in southern California, often causes significant damage to infrastructure and ecosystems. The effects of physical characteristics of fuels and fuel beds on live fuel burning and whether live fuels differ fundamentally from dead woody fuels in their burning characteristics are not well understood. Toward this end,...

  20. Personal Reflection: Teaching in the Shadow of a Dead God

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corrigan, Paul T.

    2013-01-01

    Potter (2013) argues that even though many college teachers have adopted constructivist practices and perspectives, the "foundations" of Western higher education remain objectivist through and through. In the title metaphor of his essay, "objectivism" is the dead god. Constructivism killed it conceptually. But materially and…

  1. Gastric necrosis four years after fundoplication causing a dead foetus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thinggaard, Ebbe; Skovsen, Anders Peter; Kildsig, Jeppe

    2014-01-01

    A 31-year-old pregnant woman was admitted and treated for diabetic ketoacidosis. As the patient deteriorated and the viability of the foetus was uncertain a CT scan was done which showed free fluid and air intraabdominally. Surgery was performed. A dead foetus was delivered and a 2 × 5 cm necrotic...

  2. Dead Metaphor in Selected Advertisements in Nigerian Dailies ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dead metaphors and images are often enlivened and empowered by advertisers to help their commUlzication and to achieve bewitching effects. It is interesting to see words and phrases that may be presumed to have been drained of their linguistic strength being brought back to currency and made to act fast in aiding ...

  3. Dynamic optimization of dead-end membrane filtration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blankert, B.; Betlem, Bernardus H.L.; Roffel, B.; Marquardt, Wolfgang; Pantelides, Costas

    2006-01-01

    An operating strategy aimed at minimizing the energy consumption during the filtration phase of dead-end membrane filtration has been formulated. A method allowing fast calculation of trajectories is used to allow incorporation in a hierarchical optimization scheme. The optimal trajectory can be

  4. Simulating psychophysical tuning curves in listeners with dead regions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Warnaar, Bastiaan; Jepsen, Morten L.; Dreschler, Wouter A.

    2013-01-01

    This study investigates the relation between diagnosis of dead regions based on the off-frequency psychophysical tuning curve (PTC) tip and the frequency and level of the probe tone. A previously developed functional model of auditory processing was used to simulate the complete loss of inner hair

  5. Remembering Important People On The Day Of The Dead

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curriculum Review, 2005

    2005-01-01

    This article describes a project that can help students learn more about historic figures-or remember lost loved ones--with this Day of the Dead project from Frida Kahlo and Diego Rivera. The purpose is to remember the wonderful things the person did, and to celebrate his or her life. Directions for construction, as well as a suggested list of…

  6. The permeability of dead plant cells for some enzymes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gorin, N.

    1969-01-01

    The penetration of α-chymotrypsin and/or pancreatic lipase into dead cells of soybean cotyledons, of yeast and of algae was studied using the enzymic activity as a parameter. In addition a fluorescent antibody technique was applied for the localization of α-chymotrypsin within the soybean

  7. "The Northern Lights" Investigative Reporting Covers Deadly Decisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srour, George

    2001-01-01

    Presents a story package from the high school newspaper "The Northern Lights," called "Deadly Decisions." Includes an editorial, an eyewitness account, a timeline of the coverage itself, an interview with a local TV reporter, photographs, and a graph of the events the stories covered. (SR)

  8. Assessment of biofuel potential of dead neem leaves ( Azadirachta ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dead leaves of neem trees in the Sahelian urban zone are among the wastes that are underutilized, since it is either buried or burnt, and thus, contribute to increased environmental pollution. Unfortunately, the lack of information on the biomass and energy potentials of these wastes empedes any initiative for its industrial ...

  9. Bacteria of living and dead larvae of Porthetria dispar (L.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    John D. Podgwaite; Benjamin J. Cosenza

    1966-01-01

    A preliminary study of the bacteria associated with living and dead larvae of the gypsy moth (Porthetria dispar (L.)) was undertaken to determine what types of micro-organisms may be associated with disease in this insect. Specific objectives of this study were to enumerate the types of aerobic bacteria, and if possible to further elucidate the role...

  10. On H∞ control for dead-time systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meinsma, Gjerrit; Zwart, Heiko J.

    2000-01-01

    A mixed sensitivity H∞ problem is solved for dead-time systems. It is shown that for a given bound on the H∞-norm causal stabilizing controllers exist that achieve this bound if and only if a related finite-dimensional Riccati equation has a solution with a certain nonsingularity property. In the

  11. Michoacan People, Customs, and the Day of the Dead.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maulhardt, Mary

    This curriculum guide is intended: (1) to expose students to the people and customs of Michoacan, Mexico; (2) to explore the meaning of traditional Day of the Dead customs through hands-on experiences; and (3) to build the self-esteem of second language learners of Mexican descent. During the study, students whose primary language is Spanish read…

  12. [Forensic Analysis of 20 Dead Cases Related to Heroin Abuse].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, W Q; Li, L H; Li, Z; Hong, S J

    2016-08-01

    To perform retrospective analysis on 20 dead cases related to heroin abuse, and to provide references for the forensic assessment of correlative cases. Among 20 dead cases related to heroin abuse, general situation, using method of drug, cause of death and result of forensic examination were analyzed by statistical analysis for summarizing the cause of death and pathologic changes. The dead were mostly young adults, with more male than female. The results of histopathological examinations showed non-specific pathological changes. There were four leading causes of death, including acute poisoning of heroin abuse or leakage (13 cases, 65%), concurrent diseases caused by heroin abuse (3 cases, 15%), inspiratory asphyxia caused by taking heroin (2 cases, 10%), and heroin withdrawal syndrome (2 cases, 10%). The forensic identification on dead related to heroin abuse must base on the comprehensive autopsy, and combine with the qualitative and quantitative analysis of heroin and its metabolites in death and the case information, as well as the scene investigation.

  13. Eating the dead in Madagascar | Campbell | South African Medical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    It was, for example, noted in Madagascar during the imperial campaigns of Ranavalona I in the period 1829 - 1853. Two types of cannibalism have been described: exocannibalism, where enemies were consumed, and endocannibalism, where dead relatives were eaten to assist their passing to the world of the ancestors, ...

  14. Bipolar disorder, childhood bereavement, and the return of the dead ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Upon its head, with red extended mouth and solitary eye of fire, sat the hideous beast whose craft had seduced me into murder ...' From 'The Black Cat', written c. age 35 (Poe 1975:230). Keywords: Edgar Allan Poe; bipolar disorder, childhood bereavement, and the return of the dead; literary criticism; American poetry; ...

  15. Hypoalbuminaemia in brain-dead donors for liver transplantation

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nicky

    We retrospectively reviewed the charts of the 37 brain-dead patients referred to the organ transplant unit at Groote. Schuur Hospital in 2001 and 2002 as potential donors for liver transplantation. All potential donors were assessed, investigated and man- aged according to standard protocols. The assessment con- sisted of ...

  16. Isolated unit tests in .Net

    OpenAIRE

    Haukilehto, Tero

    2013-01-01

    In this thesis isolation in unit testing is studied to get a precise picture of the isolation frameworks available for .Net environment. At the beginning testing is discussed in theory with the benefits and the problems it may have been linked with. The theory includes software development in general in connection with testing. Theory of isolation is also described before the actual isolation frameworks are represented. Common frameworks are described in more detail and comparable informa...

  17. Urban Bird Feeding: Connecting People with Nature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cox, Daniel T C; Gaston, Kevin J

    2016-01-01

    At a time of unprecedented biodiversity loss, researchers are increasingly recognizing the broad range of benefits provided to humankind by nature. However, as people live more urbanized lifestyles there is a progressive disengagement with the natural world that diminishes these benefits and discourages positive environmental behaviour. The provision of food for garden birds is an increasing global phenomenon, and provides a readily accessible way for people to counter this trend. Yet despite its popularity, quite why people feed birds remains poorly understood. We explore three loosely defined motivations behind bird feeding: that it provides psychological benefits, is due to a concern about bird welfare, and/or is due to a more general orientation towards nature. We quantitatively surveyed households from urban towns in southern England to explore attitudes and actions towards garden bird feeding. Each household scored three Likert statements relating to each of the three motivations. We found that people who fed birds regularly felt more relaxed and connected to nature when they watched garden birds, and perceived that bird feeding is beneficial for bird welfare while investing time in minimising associated risks. Finally, feeding birds may be an expression of a wider orientation towards nature. Overall, we found that the feelings of being relaxed and connected to nature were the strongest drivers. As urban expansion continues both to threaten species conservation and to change peoples' relationship with the natural world, feeding birds may provide an important tool for engaging people with nature to the benefit of both people and conservation.

  18. Mapping global diversity patterns for migratory birds.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marius Somveille

    Full Text Available Nearly one in five bird species has separate breeding and overwintering distributions, and the regular migrations of these species cause a substantial seasonal redistribution of avian diversity across the world. However, despite its ecological importance, bird migration has been largely ignored in studies of global avian biodiversity, with few studies having addressed it from a macroecological perspective. Here, we analyse a dataset on the global distribution of the world's birds in order to examine global spatial patterns in the diversity of migratory species, including: the seasonal variation in overall species diversity due to migration; the contribution of migratory birds to local bird diversity; and the distribution of narrow-range and threatened migratory birds. Our analyses reveal a striking asymmetry between the Northern and Southern hemispheres, evident in all of the patterns investigated. The highest migratory bird diversity was found in the Northern Hemisphere, with high inter-continental turnover in species composition between breeding and non-breeding seasons, and extensive regions (at high latitudes where migratory birds constitute the majority of the local avifauna. Threatened migratory birds are concentrated mainly in Central and Southern Asia, whereas narrow-range migratory species are mainly found in Central America, the Himalayas and Patagonia. Overall, global patterns in the diversity of migratory birds indicate that bird migration is mainly a Northern Hemisphere phenomenon. The asymmetry between the Northern and Southern hemispheres could not have easily been predicted from the combined results of regional scale studies, highlighting the importance of a global perspective.

  19. Green Light for Nocturnally Migrating Birds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanneke Poot

    2008-12-01

    Laboratory experiments have shown the magnetic compass to be wavelength dependent: migratory birds require light from the blue-green part of the spectrum for magnetic compass orientation, whereas red light (visible long-wavelength disrupts magnetic orientation. We designed a field study to test if and how changing light color influenced migrating birds under field conditions. We found that nocturnally migrating birds were disoriented and attracted by red and white light (containing visible long-wavelength radiation, whereas they were clearly less disoriented by blue and green light (containing less or no visible long-wavelength radiation. This was especially the case on overcast nights. Our results clearly open perspective for the development of bird-friendly artificial lighting by manipulating wavelength characteristics. Preliminary results with an experimentally developed bird-friendly light source on an offshore platform are promising. What needs to be investigated is the impact of bird-friendly light on other organisms than birds.

  20. Diffusion of Clostridium perfringens NetB positive strains in healthy and diseased chickens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luca Bano

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available For over 30 years α toxin was considered the key virulence factor responsible for the appearance of necrotic enteritis (NE in chickens but, recently, a new toxin related to the occurrence of NE, called NetB, has been described. The aim of this work was to evaluate the CP toxin-type and the NetB gene presence in strains collected from chickens affected or not by enteric diseases. 107 strains were tested: 30 isolated from chickens affected by NE, 54 from subjects affected by other enteric pathologies and 22 from healthy animals. All strains resulted toxin-type A and 26.17% of these was positive also for β2 toxin gene. No strains were positive for cpe gene. 27% (29/107 of CP was NetB positive and 93% (27/29 of these was isolated from birds affected by intestinal disorders. 16 NetB positive strains were obtained from chickens affected by NE (16/30, 9 from animals affected by other intestinal disorders (9/54 and 4 from healthy animals (4/22. A significant difference between the number of NetB positive strains isolated from animals affected by NE and healthy chickens has been observed (P=0.014. However, the finding that the 17.4% of strains isolated from healthy chickens was also positive for NetB, confirm that other virulence factors could play an important role on NE appearance.

  1. Event hierarchies in DanNet

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Bolette Sandford; Nimb, Sanni

    2008-01-01

    Artiklen omhandler udarbejdelsen af et verbumshierarki i det leksikalsk-semantiske ordnet, DanNet.......Artiklen omhandler udarbejdelsen af et verbumshierarki i det leksikalsk-semantiske ordnet, DanNet....

  2. The Uniframe .Net Web Service Discovery Service

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Berbeco, Robert W

    2003-01-01

    Microsoft .NET allows the creation of distributed systems in a seamless manner Within NET small, discrete applications, referred to as Web services, are utilized to connect to each other or larger applications...

  3. Long Term RadNet Quality Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This RadNet Quality Data Asset includes all data since initiation and when ERAMS was expanded to become RadNet, name changed to reflect new mission. This includes...

  4. Palaearctic-African Bird Migration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iwajomo, Soladoye Babatola

    Bird migration has attracted a lot of interests over past centuries and the methods used for studying this phenomenon has greatly improved in terms of availability, dimension, scale and precision. In spite of the advancements, relatively more is known about the spring migration of trans......-Saharan migrants than autumn migration. Information about the behavior and interactions of migrants during the nonbreeding season in sub-Saharan Africa is also scarce for many species. Furthermore, very little is known about intra-African migration. This thesis summarizes my research on the autumn migration...... of birds from Europe to Africa and opens up the possibility of studying intra-African migration. I have used long-term, standardized autumn ringing data from southeast Sweden to investigate patterns in biometrics, phenology and population trends as inferred from annual trapping totals. In addition, I...

  5. Cranial kinesis in palaeognathous birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gussekloo, Sander W S; Bout, Ron G

    2005-09-01

    Cranial kinesis in birds is induced by muscles located caudal on the cranium. These forces are transferred onto the moveable parts of the skull via the Pterygoid-Palatinum Complex (PPC). This bony structure therefore plays an essential role in cranial kinesis. In palaeognathous birds the morphology of the PPC is remarkably different from that of neognathous birds and is thought to be related to the specific type of cranial kinesis in palaeognaths known as central rhynchokinesis. We determined whether clear bending zones as found in neognaths are present in the upper bill of paleognaths, and measured bending forces opposing elevation of the upper bill. A static force model was used to calculate the opening forces that can be produced by some of the palaeognathous species. We found that no clear bending zones are present in the upper bill, and bending is expected to occur over the whole length of the upper bill. Muscle forces are more than sufficient to overcome bending forces and to elevate the upper bill. The resistance against bending by the bony elements alone is very low, which might indicate that bending of bony elements can occur during food handling when muscles are not used to stabilise the upper bill. Model calculations suggest that the large processi basipterygoidei play a role in stabilizing the skull elements, when birds have to resist external opening forces on the upper bill as might occur during tearing leafs from plants. We conclude that the specific morphology of the palaeognathous upper bill and PPC are not designed for active cranial kinesis, but are adapted to resist external forces that might cause unwanted elevation of the upper bill during feeding.

  6. Comparative Phylogeography of Neotropical Birds

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-05-01

    Variation of Protein and Mitochondrial DNA Evolution as Revealed by Sea Urchins Separated by the Isthmus of Panama. Proceedings of the National Academy of...Pearse. 2001. Population structure and speciation in tropical seas : Global phylogeography of the sea urchin Diadema. Evolution 55:955-975. Levey, D. J...between understory and canopy forest birds. However, current taxonomy is based primarily on morphology and may not adequately reflect patterns of

  7. Critical Care of Pet Birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenkins, Jeffrey Rowe

    2016-05-01

    Successful care of the critical pet bird patient is dependent on preparation and planning and begins with the veterinarian and hospital staff. An understanding of avian physiology and pathophysiology is key. Physical preparation of the hospital or clinic includes proper equipment and understanding of the procedures necessary to provide therapeutic and supportive care to the avian patient. An overview of patient intake and assessment, intensive care environment, and fluid therapy is included. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. PsychoNet: a psycholinguistc commonsense ontology

    OpenAIRE

    Mohtasseb, Haytham; Ahmed, Amr

    2010-01-01

    Ontologies have been widely accepted as the most advanced knowledge representation model. This paper introduces PsychoNet, a new knowledgebase that forms the link between psycholinguistic taxonomy, existing in LIWC, and its semantic textual representation in the form of commonsense semantic ontology, represented by ConceptNet. The integration of LIWC and ConceptNet and the added functionalities facilitate employing ConceptNet in psycholinguistic studies. Furthermore, it simplifies utilization...

  9. SlDEAD31, a Putative DEAD-Box RNA Helicase Gene, Regulates Salt and Drought Tolerance and Stress-Related Genes in Tomato.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mingku Zhu

    Full Text Available The DEAD-box RNA helicases are involved in almost every aspect of RNA metabolism, associated with diverse cellular functions including plant growth and development, and their importance in response to biotic and abiotic stresses is only beginning to emerge. However, none of DEAD-box genes was well characterized in tomato so far. In this study, we reported on the identification and characterization of two putative DEAD-box RNA helicase genes, SlDEAD30 and SlDEAD31 from tomato, which were classified into stress-related DEAD-box proteins by phylogenetic analysis. Expression analysis indicated that SlDEAD30 was highly expressed in roots and mature leaves, while SlDEAD31 was constantly expressed in various tissues. Furthermore, the expression of both genes was induced mainly in roots under NaCl stress, and SlDEAD31 mRNA was also increased by heat, cold, and dehydration. In stress assays, transgenic tomato plants overexpressing SlDEAD31 exhibited dramatically enhanced salt tolerance and slightly improved drought resistance, which were simultaneously demonstrated by significantly enhanced expression of multiple biotic and abiotic stress-related genes, higher survival rate, relative water content (RWC and chlorophyll content, and lower water loss rate and malondialdehyde (MDA production compared to wild-type plants. Collectively, these results provide a preliminary characterization of SlDEAD30 and SlDEAD31 genes in tomato, and suggest that stress-responsive SlDEAD31 is essential for salt and drought tolerance and stress-related gene regulation in plants.

  10. 78 FR 72451 - Net Investment Income Tax

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-02

    ... Revenue Service 26 CFR Part 1 RIN 1545-BL74 Net Investment Income Tax AGENCY: Internal Revenue Service...). These regulations provide guidance on the computation of net investment income. The regulations affect... lesser of: (A) The individual's net investment income for such taxable year, or (B) the excess (if any...

  11. 47 CFR 69.302 - Net investment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Net investment. 69.302 Section 69.302... Apportionment of Net Investment § 69.302 Net investment. (a) Investment in Accounts 2001, 1220 and Class B Rural...) Investment in Accounts 2002, 2003 and to the extent such inclusions are allowed by this Commission, Account...

  12. 47 CFR 65.450 - Net income.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Net income. 65.450 Section 65.450... OF RETURN PRESCRIPTION PROCEDURES AND METHODOLOGIES Exchange Carriers § 65.450 Net income. (a) Net income shall consist of all revenues derived from the provision of interstate telecommunications services...

  13. 47 CFR 65.500 - Net income.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Net income. 65.500 Section 65.500... OF RETURN PRESCRIPTION PROCEDURES AND METHODOLOGIES Interexchange Carriers § 65.500 Net income. The net income methodology specified in § 65.450 shall be utilized by all interexchange carriers that are...

  14. NetBeans IDE 8 cookbook

    CERN Document Server

    Salter, David

    2014-01-01

    If you're a Java developer of any level using NetBeans and want to learn how to get the most out of NetBeans, then this book is for you. Learning how to utilize NetBeans will provide a firm foundation for your Java application development.

  15. Characterizing behavioural congruences for Petri nets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Mogens; Priese, Lutz; Sassone, Vladimiro

    1995-01-01

    We exploit a notion of interface for Petri nets in order to design a set of net combinators. For such a calculus of nets, we focus on the behavioural congruences arising from four simple notions of behaviour, viz., traces, maximal traces, step, and maximal step traces, and from the corresponding...

  16. 27 CFR 4.37 - Net contents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... the volume of wine within the container, except that the following tolerances shall be allowed: (1... THE TREASURY LIQUORS LABELING AND ADVERTISING OF WINE Labeling Requirements for Wine § 4.37 Net contents. (a) Statement of net contents. The net contents of wine for which a standard of fill is...

  17. Bird species richness is associated with phylogenetic relatedness, plant species richness, and altitudinal range in Inner Mongolia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Chenxia; Feng, Gang; Si, Xingfeng; Mao, Lingfeng; Yang, Guisheng; Svenning, Jens-Christian; Yang, Jie

    2018-01-01

    Bird species richness is mediated by local, regional, and historical factors, for example, competition, environmental heterogeneity, contemporary, and historical climate. Here, we related bird species richness with phylogenetic relatedness of bird assemblages, plant species richness, topography, contemporary climate, and glacial-interglacial climate change to investigate the relative importance of these factors. This study was conducted in Inner Mongolia, an arid and semiarid region with diverse vegetation types and strong species richness gradients. The following associated variables were included as follows: phylogenetic relatedness of bird assemblages (Net Relatedness Index, NRI), plant species richness, altitudinal range, contemporary climate (mean annual temperature and precipitation, MAT and MAP), and contemporary-Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) change in climate (change in MAT and change in MAP). Ordinary least squares linear, simultaneous autoregressive linear, and Random Forest models were used to assess the associations between these variables and bird species richness across this region. We found that bird species richness was correlated negatively with NRI and positively with plant species richness and altitudinal range, with no significant correlations with contemporary climate and glacial-interglacial climate change. The six best combinations of variables ranked by Random Forest models consistently included NRI, plant species richness, and contemporary-LGM change in MAT. Our results suggest important roles of local ecological factors in shaping the distribution of bird species richness across this semiarid region. Our findings highlight the potential importance of these local ecological factors, for example, environmental heterogeneity, habitat filtering, and biotic interactions, in biodiversity maintenance.

  18. Lead poisoning in upland-foraging birds of prey in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, A J; Scheuhammer, A M

    2003-01-01

    We examined the degree of lead exposure, based on tissue-lead concentrations, in 184 raptors of 16 species found dead across Canada. The most prevalent species available for examination were Red-tailed hawks, Great horned owls, and Golden eagles (n = 131). The majority of individuals examined had very low lead accumulation, however 3-4% of total mortality in these 3 most commonly encountered species was attributed to lead poisoning. In addition, 1 of 9 Bald Eagles found dead far from aquatic environments was lead poisoned; and a single Turkey Vulture had a highly elevated bone-lead concentration (58 microg/g dry weight). Evidence from our study, along with other published research, indicates that upland-foraging birds of prey and scavengers that typically include game birds and mammals in their diets, are at risk for lead poisoning from the ingestion of lead projectiles from ammunition used in upland hunting. The use of non-lead ammunition for hunting upland game would effectively remove the only serious source of high lead exposure and lead poisoning for upland-foraging raptors.

  19. Smoking Out a Deadly Threat: Tobacco Use in the LGBT Community

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Out a Deadly Threat: Tobacco Use in the LGBT Community Disparities in Lung Health Series "Smoking Out a Deadly Threat: Tobacco Use in the LGBT Community" is part of the American Lung Association's ...

  20. 76 FR 63341 - Culturally Significant Objects Imported for Exhibition Determinations: “The Dead Sea Scrolls...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-12

    ... for Exhibition Determinations: ``The Dead Sea Scrolls: Life and Faith in Biblical Times'' SUMMARY... objects to be included in the exhibition ``The Dead Sea Scrolls: Life and Faith in Biblical Times...

  1. Analysis of archaeal communities in Gulf of Mexico dead zone sediments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sediments may contribute significantly to Louisiana continental shelf “dead zone” hypoxia but limited information hinders comparison of sediment biogeochemistry between norm-oxic and hypoxic seasons. Dead zone sediment cores collected during hypoxia (September 2006) had higher l...

  2. NET 40 Generics Beginner's Guide

    CERN Document Server

    Mukherjee, Sudipta

    2012-01-01

    This is a concise, practical guide that will help you learn Generics in .NET, with lots of real world and fun-to-build examples and clear explanations. It is packed with screenshots to aid your understanding of the process. This book is aimed at beginners in Generics. It assumes some working knowledge of C# , but it isn't mandatory. The following would get the most use out of the book: Newbie C# developers struggling with Generics. Experienced C++ and Java Programmers who are migrating to C# and looking for an alternative to other generic frameworks like STL and JCF would find this book handy.

  3. The Net Reclassification Index (NRI)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pepe, Margaret S.; Fan, Jing; Feng, Ziding

    2015-01-01

    The Net Reclassification Index (NRI) is a very popular measure for evaluating the improvement in prediction performance gained by adding a marker to a set of baseline predictors. However, the statistical properties of this novel measure have not been explored in depth. We demonstrate the alarming...... marker is proven to erroneously yield a positive NRI. Some insight into this phenomenon is provided. Since large values for the NRI statistic may simply be due to use of poorly fitting risk models, we suggest caution in using the NRI as the basis for marker evaluation. Other measures of prediction...

  4. 20 CFR 404.721 - Evidence to presume a person is dead.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Evidence to presume a person is dead. 404.721... person is dead. If you cannot prove the person is dead but evidence of death is needed, we will presume... person is presumed to be dead as set out in Federal law (5 U.S.C. 5565). Unless we have other evidence...

  5. Quantifying Responses of Spectral Vegetation Indices to Dead Materials in Mixed Grasslands

    OpenAIRE

    Xiaohui Yang; Xulin Guo

    2014-01-01

    Spectral vegetation indices have been the primary resources for characterizing grassland vegetation based on remotely sensed data. However, the use of spectral indices for vegetation characterization in grasslands has been challenged by the confounding effects from external factors, such as soil properties, dead materials, and shadowing of vegetation canopies. Dead materials refer to the dead component of vegetation, including fallen litter and standing dead grasses accumulated from previous ...

  6. Phylogenetic Distribution and Evolutionary History of Bacterial DEAD-Box Proteins

    OpenAIRE

    López-Ramírez, Varinia; Alcaraz, Luis D; Moreno-Hagelsieb, Gabriel; Olmedo-Álvarez, Gabriela

    2011-01-01

    DEAD-box proteins are found in all domains of life and participate in almost all cellular processes that involve RNA. The presence of DEAD and Helicase_C conserved domains distinguish these proteins. DEAD-box proteins exhibit RNA-dependent ATPase activity in vitro, and several also show RNA helicase activity. In this study, we analyzed the distribution and architecture of DEAD-box proteins among bacterial genomes to gain insight into the evolutionary pathways that have shaped their history. W...

  7. Tamarisk biocontrol using tamarisk beetles: Potential consequences for riparian birds in the southwestern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paxton, Eben H.; Theimer, Tad C.; Sogge, Mark K.

    2011-01-01

    The tamarisk beetle (Diorhabda spp.), a non-native biocontrol agent, has been introduced to eradicate tamarisk (Tamarix spp.), a genus of non-native tree that has become a dominant component of riparian woodlands in the southwestern United States. Tamarisk beetles have the potential to spread widely and defoliate large expanses of tamarisk habitat, but the effects of such a widespread loss of riparian vegetation on birds remains unknown. We reviewed literature on the effects of other defoliating insects on birds to investigate the potential for tamarisk beetles to affect birds positively or negatively by changing food abundance and vegetation structure. We then combined data on the temporal patterns of tamarisk defoliation by beetles with nest productivity of a well-studied riparian obligate, the Southwestern Willow Flycatcher (Empidonax traillii extimus), to simulate the potential demographic consequences of beetle defoliation on breeding riparian birds in both the short and long term. Our results highlight that the effects of tamarisk biocontrol on birds will likely vary by species and population, depending upon its sensitivity to seasonal defoliation by beetles and net loss of riparian habitat due to tamarisk mortality. Species with restricted distributions that include areas dominated by tamarisk may be negatively affected both in the short and long term. The rate of regeneration and/or restoration of native cottonwoods (Populus spp.) and willows (Salix spp.) relative to the rate of tamarisk loss will be critical in determining the long-term effect of this large-scale ecological experiment.

  8. [Diversity of birds in the Agricultural Center Cotové, Santa Fe de Antioquia, Colombia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Bravo, Caty Milena; Mancera-Rodríguez, Néstor Javier; Buitrago-Franco, Germán

    2013-12-01

    Fragmentation of natural habitats is a central concern of biodiversity conservation and is considered a significant factor contributing to species loss and populations decline. We studied this in Cotové Agricultural Center in the municipality of Santa Fe de Antioquia (Colombia),where the conversion of natural forests to different land use systems, has limited the amount of available habitat. With the aim to describe the effect of habitat loss on bird presence in five land uses (fruiting trees, silvopastoral systems, secondary forest, pasture low density of trees and grass cutting) in this area, we studied bird diversity using two methods: fixed point counts and mist nets to analyze the influence of land use in the composition, richness and abundance of birds present were studied. A total of 6633 individuals of 101 species were observed of which 11 species were migratory. The insectivorous and frugivorous foraging guilds were better represented. The Shannon index indicated the highest values of alpha diversity for the silvopastoral system, and the fruit with the lowest. The grazing and silvopastoral land systems shared more species with low tree density. The importance of the environmental heterogeneity found is highlighted as a positive factor for bird species richness, mostly of low and middle habitat specificity, and preferably from edge habitats and open areas. In order to preserve natural regeneration and connectivity between different land use types, and to promote stability of bird species populations, some management actions should be implemented in the area.

  9. PBDEs and other POPs in urban birds of prey partly explained by trophic level and carbon source.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elliott, John E; Brogan, Jason; Lee, Sandi L; Drouillard, Ken G; Elliott, Kyle H

    2015-08-15

    As urban sprawl and agricultural intensification continue to invade prime wildlife habitat, some animals, even apex predators, are managing to adapt to this new environment. Chemical pollution is one of many stressors that wildlife encounter in urban environments. Predators are particularly sensitive to persistent chemical pollutants because they feed at a high trophic level where such pollution is biomagnified. To examine levels of pollution in urban birds of prey in the Lower Mainland region of British Columbia, Canada, we analyzed persistent organic contaminants in adult birds found dead of trauma injury. The hepatic geometric mean concentration of sum polybrominated diphenyl ethers (∑PBDEs) in 13 Cooper's hawks (Accipiter cooperii) from Greater Vancouver was 1873 ng/g (lipid weight) with one bird reaching 197,000n g/g lipid weight, the highest exposure reported to date for a wild bird. Concentrations of ∑PBDEs, ∑PCBs (polychlorinated biphenyls) and, surprisingly, cyclodiene insecticides were greatest in the urban environment while those of DDE (1,1-dichloroethylene bis[p-chlorophenyl) were highest in a region of intensive agriculture. The level of most chlorinated and brominated contaminants increased with trophic level (δ(15)N). The concentrations of some contaminants, PBDEs in particular, in these birds of prey may have some toxicological consequences. Apex predators in urban environments continue to be exposed to elevated concentrations of legacy pollutants as well as more recent brominated pollutants. Crown Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. 78 FR 16565 - Culturally Significant Objects Imported for Exhibition Determinations: “The Dead Sea Scrolls...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-15

    ... Culturally Significant Objects Imported for Exhibition Determinations: ``The Dead Sea Scrolls: Life and Faith in Ancient Times'' Formerly Titled ``The Dead Sea Scrolls: Life and Faith in Biblical Times'' ACTION... exhibition ``The Dead Sea Scrolls: Life and Faith in Biblical Times.'' The referenced notice was corrected on...

  11. 78 FR 62354 - Culturally Significant Objects Imported for Exhibition Determinations: “The Dead Sea Scrolls...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-18

    ... Culturally Significant Objects Imported for Exhibition Determinations: ``The Dead Sea Scrolls: Life and Faith in Ancient Times'' Formerly Titled ``The Dead Sea Scrolls: Life and Faith in Biblical Times'' ACTION... exhibition ``The Dead Sea Scrolls: Life and Faith in Biblical Times.'' The referenced notice was corrected on...

  12. 77 FR 64373 - Culturally Significant Objects Imported for Exhibition Determinations: “The Dead Sea Scrolls...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-19

    ... Culturally Significant Objects Imported for Exhibition Determinations: ``The Dead Sea Scrolls: Life and Faith in Ancient Times,'' Formerly Titled ``The Dead Sea Scrolls: Life and Faith in Biblical Times... the exhibition ``The Dead Sea Scrolls: Life and Faith in Biblical Times.'' The referenced notice is...

  13. 78 FR 24462 - Culturally Significant Objects Imported for Exhibition; Determinations: “The Dead Sea Scrolls...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-25

    ... Culturally Significant Objects Imported for Exhibition; Determinations: ``The Dead Sea Scrolls: Life and Faith in Ancient Times'' Formerly Titled ``The Dead Sea Scrolls: Life and Faith in Biblical Times... the exhibition ``The Dead Sea Scrolls: Life and Faith in Biblical Times.'' The referenced notice was...

  14. El Dia de los Muertos -- Libreto. (The Day of the Dead -- Notebook.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espinoza, Delia; Lopez, Santiago, III

    On November 2, all Mexican Americans remember their dead as Mexico does on that same day. Called "El Dia de los Muertos" (Day of the Dead), the dead are remembered posthumously with flowers, candles, music, prayers, chants, and wreaths. The people go to cemeteries to clean tombs, lay fresh or artificial flowers on them, and pray for…

  15. 9 CFR 309.3 - Dead, dying, disabled, or diseased and similar livestock.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Dead, dying, disabled, or diseased and... AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION ANTE-MORTEM INSPECTION § 309.3 Dead, dying, disabled, or diseased and similar livestock. (a) Livestock found to be dead or in a dying condition on the premises of...

  16. Microclimate and habitat heterogeneity as the major drivers of beetle diversity in dead wood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sebastian Seibold; Claus Bassler; Roland Brandl; Boris Buche; Alexander Szallies; Simon Thorn; Michael D. Ulyshen; Jorg Muller; Christopher Baraloto

    2016-01-01

    1. Resource availability and habitat heterogeneity are principle drivers of biodiversity, but their individual roles often remain unclear since both factors are usually correlated. The biodiversity of species dependent on dead wood could be driven by either resource availability represented by dead-wood amount or habitat heterogeneity characterized by dead-wood...

  17. Proportional Derivative Control with Inverse Dead-Zone for Pendulum Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Rubio, José de Jesús; Zamudio, Zizilia; Pacheco, Jaime; Mújica Vargas, Dante

    2013-01-01

    A proportional derivative controller with inverse dead-zone is proposed for the control of pendulum systems. The proposed method has the characteristic that the inverse dead-zone is cancelled with the pendulum dead-zone. Asymptotic stability of the proposed technique is guaranteed by the Lyapunov analysis. Simulations of two pendulum systems show the effectiveness of the proposed technique.

  18. 14 CFR 1203b.105 - Use of non-deadly physical force when making an arrest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... believes to be the use or threat of imminent use of non-deadly physical force by the offender. Verbal abuse... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Use of non-deadly physical force when... Use of non-deadly physical force when making an arrest. When a security force officer has the right to...

  19. Determinants of Mammal and Bird Species Richness in China Based on Habitat Groups.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haigen Xu

    Full Text Available Understanding the spatial patterns in species richness is a central issue in macroecology and biogeography. Analyses that have traditionally focused on overall species richness limit the generality and depth of inference. Spatial patterns of species richness and the mechanisms that underpin them in China remain poorly documented. We created a database of the distribution of 580 mammal species and 849 resident bird species from 2376 counties in China and established spatial linear models to identify the determinants of species richness and test the roles of five hypotheses for overall mammals and resident birds and the 11 habitat groups among the two taxa. Our result showed that elevation variability was the most important determinant of species richness of overall mammal and bird species. It is indicated that the most prominent predictors of species richness varied among different habitat groups: elevation variability for forest and shrub mammals and birds, temperature annual range for grassland and desert mammals and wetland birds, net primary productivity for farmland mammals, maximum temperature of the warmest month for cave mammals, and precipitation of the driest quarter for grassland and desert birds. Noteworthily, main land cover type was also found to obviously influence mammal and bird species richness in forests, shrubs and wetlands under the disturbance of intensified human activities. Our findings revealed a substantial divergence in the species richness patterns among different habitat groups and highlighted the group-specific and disparate environmental associations that underpin them. As we demonstrate, a focus on overall species richness alone might lead to incomplete or misguided understanding of spatial patterns. Conservation priorities that consider a broad spectrum of habitat groups will be more successful in safeguarding the multiple services of biodiversity.

  20. Food abundance does not determine bird use of early-successional habitat.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Champlin, Tracey B.; Kilgo, John C.; Moorman, Christopher E.

    2009-06-01

    Abstract. Few attempts have been made to experimentally address the extent to which temporal or spatial variation in food availability influences avian habitat use. We used an experimental approach to investigate whether bird use differed between treated (arthropods reduced through insecticide application) and control (untreated) forest canopy gaps within a bottomland hardwood forest in the Upper Coastal Plain of South Carolina, USA. Gaps were two- to three-year-old group selection timber harvest openings of three sizes (0.13, 0.26, and 0.50 ha). Our study was conducted during four bird use periods (spring migration, breeding, post-breeding, and fall migration) in 2002 and 2003. Arthropods were reduced in treated gaps by 68% in 2002 and 73% in 2003. We used mist-netting captures and foraging attack rates to assess the influence of arthropod abundance on avian habitat use. Evidence that birds responded to arthropod abundance was limited and inconsistent. In 2002, we generally captured more birds in treated gaps of the smallest size (0.13 ha) and fewer birds in treated gaps of the larger sizes. In 2003, we recorded few differences in the number of captures in treated and control gaps. Foraging attack rates generally were lower in treated than in control gaps, indicating that birds were able to adapt to the reduced food availability and remain in treated gaps. We conclude that arthropod abundance was not a proximate factor controlling whether forest birds used our gaps. The abundance of food resources may not be as important in determining avian habitat selection as previous research has indicated, at least for passerines in temperate subtropical regions.