Sample records for netlibrary ebrary ebl

  1. Modelli di acquisto di e-book per le biblioteche dell'università italiana. Tre piattaforme a confronto (EBL, Ebrary, Ebsco)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Giovanna Frigimelica


    ... to the selection and acquisition of ebooks. The article analyzes three platforms (EBL, Ebrary, EBSCO), to find out whether an Italian medium-sized university library can buy foreign titles in electronic rather than paper, and under what conditions...

  2. Modelli di acquisto di e-book per le biblioteche dell'università italiana. Tre piattaforme a confronto (EBL, Ebrary, Ebsco)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Giovanna Frigimelica


    ... to the selection and acquisition of ebooks. The article analyzes three platforms (EBL, Ebrary, EBSCO), to find out whether an Italian medium-sized university library can buy foreign titles in electronic rather than paper, and under what...

  3. Ebrary. Quick Start Guide



    Представлено краткое руководство для работы с электронными книгами на платформе ebrary от компании ProQuest на английском языке.

  4. First light at EBL2 (United States)

    Koster, Norbert; te Sligte, Edwin; Molkenboer, Freek; Deutz, Alex; van der Walle, Peter; Muilwijk, Pim; Mulckhuyse, Wouter; Oostdijck, Bastiaan; Hollemans, Christiaan; Nijland, Björn; Kerkhof, Peter; van Putten, Michel; Westerhout, Jeroen


    TNO is building EBL2 as a publicly accessible test facility for EUV lithography related development of photomasks, pellicles, optics, and other components requiring EUV exposure. EBL2 consists of a EUV Beam Line, a XPS system, and sample handling infrastructure. Recently we finished installation of the source, exposure chamber, handlers and XPS system. This paper describes the integration process and first light of the EUV source.EBL2 accepts a wide range of sample sizes, including EUV masks with or without pellicles. All types of samples will be loaded using a standard dual pod interface. EUV masks returned from EBL2 will retain their NXE compatibility to facilitate wafer printing on scanners after exposure in EBL2. The Beam Line provides high intensity EUV irradiation from a Sn-fueled EUV source from Ushio. EUV intensity, spectrum, and repetition rate are all adjustable. The XPS system is now operational and accepts samples up to reticle size.

  5. A Web-Based Electronic Book (e-book) Library: The netLibrary Model. (United States)

    Connaway, Lynn Silipigni


    Identifies elements that are important for academic libraries to use in evaluating electronic books, including content; acquisition and collection development; software and hardware standards and protocols; digital rights management; access; archiving; privacy; the market and pricing; and enhancements and ideal features. Describes netLibrary, a…

  6. The Current State of EBL (Editorial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lindsay Glynn


    Full Text Available Evidence based librarianship, still in its infancy, is slowly gaining interest and momentum. Increased exposure to the evidence based model of practice is allowing information specialists to learn more about what is involved and how its application can affect practice. Events such as the International Conference on Evidence Based Library and Information Practice and publications such as EBLIP help to increase awareness of EBL as well as increase the body of evidence necessary to fully implement such a practice model. Having said that, barriers remain that hinder the application of evidence based librarianship in its most basic form. Brice, Booth and Bexon established six steps involved in the practice of EBL: specify the problem, find evidence to answer the problem, appraise the evidence, apply the results, evaluate the outcome, and redefine the problem. Without a large body of research from which to draw evidence, information professionals are often forced to replace the step of finding the evidence with designing and performing their own research. What this means is that rather than being able to find, appraise, and implement existing research, practitioners are finding themselves in a position where they have to design and carry out original research in order to obtain applicable evidence. Aside from being time consuming and costly, many are not comfortable with research design or data analysis, and they may lack administrative support or the needed resources available to support research. Until the body of evidence is substantially increased, it is essential that original research be encouraged and published. I recently posted a message to the EBLIG electronic mail list requesting EBL success stories. I hoped to hear how people had used evidence to assist in their decision making as well as whether the applied evidence had a positive or negative result once implemented. The response was minimal, save for three people who had carried out

  7. Evidence-based librarianship: searching for the needed EBL evidence. (United States)

    Eldredge, J D


    This paper discusses the challenges of finding evidence needed to implement Evidence-Based Librarianship (EBL). Focusing first on database coverage for three health sciences librarianship journals, the article examines the information contents of different databases. Strategies are needed to search for relevant evidence in the library literature via these databases, and the problems associated with searching the grey literature of librarianship. Database coverage, plausible search strategies, and the grey literature of library science all pose challenges to finding the needed research evidence for practicing EBL. Health sciences librarians need to ensure that systems are designed that can track and provide access to needed research evidence to support Evidence-Based Librarianship (EBL).

  8. Impact of Enquiry Based Learning (EBL) on student midwife praxis. (United States)

    Byrne, Anita; McNeill, Jennifer; Rogers, Katherine; Porter, Sam


    Midwifery training in Ireland moved to Higher Education in 2006. This shift established a physical and educational separation of theory and practice. The adoption of Enquiry Based Learning (EBL) by one Irish midwifery education institution attempted to address this division. Enquiry Based Learning (EBL) has the potential to develop student reflexivity and evidence assimilation across the career-span and may therefore enhance student praxis. EBL has been championed as an example of an educational model that supports praxis, helping to create competent practitioners through the use of authentic learning scenarios that address the theory practice divide. The current research study represents the first formal evaluation of EBL in undergraduate midwifery education in the South of Ireland. The study was a mixed-methods design that utilised focus groups, interviews and survey to ascertain the opinions of first exposure to EBL amongst a cohort of first year student midwives. Findings demonstrate the value of EBL in enhancing student midwife praxis. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Impact of galactic and intergalactic dust on the stellar EBL (United States)

    Vavryčuk, V.


    Current theories assume that the low intensity of the stellar extragalactic background light (stellar EBL) is caused by finite age of the Universe because the finite-age factor limits the number of photons that have been pumped into the space by galaxies and thus the sky is dark in the night. We oppose this opinion and show that two main factors are responsible for the extremely low intensity of the observed stellar EBL. The first factor is a low mean surface brightness of galaxies, which causes a low luminosity density in the local Universe. The second factor is light extinction due to absorption by galactic and intergalactic dust. Dust produces a partial opacity of galaxies and of the Universe. The galactic opacity reduces the intensity of light from more distant background galaxies obscured by foreground galaxies. The inclination-averaged values of the effective extinction AV for light passing through a galaxy is about 0.2 mag. This causes that distant background galaxies become apparently faint and do not contribute to the EBL significantly. In addition, light of distant galaxies is dimmed due to absorption by intergalactic dust. Even a minute intergalactic opacity of 1 × 10^{-2} mag per Gpc is high enough to produce significant effects on the EBL. As a consequence, the EBL is comparable with or lower than the mean surface brightness of galaxies. Comparing both extinction effects, the impact of the intergalactic opacity on the EBL is more significant than the obscuration of distant galaxies by partially opaque foreground galaxies by factor of 10 or more. The absorbed starlight heats up the galactic and intergalactic dust and is further re-radiated at IR, FIR and micro-wave spectrum. Assuming static infinite universe with no galactic or intergalactic dust, the stellar EBL should be as high as the surface brightness of stars. However, if dust is considered, the predicted stellar EBL is about 290 nW m^{-2} sr^{-1}, which is only 5 times higher than the observed

  10. Enhancing Students' Potential: EBL Projects in Language Teaching (United States)

    Federici, Theresa


    This paper outlines the rationale behind L2 process writing and Enquiry-Based Learning (EBL) approaches adopted in order to design a course within a modern language degree to bridge the gap between language and culture elements of the programme. This was achieved by creating an environment that replicates that of a researcher and by placing…

  11. A transformational analysis of the EBL utility problem

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, J.; Rosenbloom, P.S. [Univ. of Southern California, Marina del Rey, CA (United States)


    Efficiency is a major concern for all problem solving systems. One way of achieving efficiency is the application of learning techniques to speed up problem solving. Accordingly, there has been considerable amount of research on applying explanation-based learning (EBL) techniques to problem solving. However, EBL is known to suffer from the utility problem, where the cost of using the learned knowledge overwhelms its benefit. We show that how the cost increase of a learned rule in an EBL system can be analyzed by characterizing the learning process as a sequence of transformations from a problem solving episode to a learned rule. The analysis of how the cost changes through the transformations can be a useful tool for revealing the sources of cost increase in the learning system. We focus on the Soar problem solving system which uses a variant of EBL called chunking. The chunking process has been decomposed into a sequence of transformations from the problem solving to a chunk (learned rule). By analyzing these transformations, we have identified a set of sources which can make the output chunk expensive.

  12. Ebrary. Краткое руководство



    Представлено краткое руководство для работы с электронными книгами на платформе ebrary от компании ProQuest на русском языке.

  13. Control and eradication programme of enzootic bovine leucosis (EBL) from selected dairy herds in Turkey. (United States)

    Burgu, I; Alkan, F; Karaoglu, T; Bilge-Dagalp, S; Can-Sahna, K; Güngör, B; Demir, B


    Serum samples of 15,909 cattle from 31 dairy herds located in various regions of Turkey were tested for the presence of antibodies against bovine leucosis virus (BLV) using Agar Gel Immuno-diffusion technique (AGID). 48.3% (15/31) of the herds had seropositive animals and positivity rates were detected from 0.5-34.4% in these herds. In an EBL control/eradication programme all seropositive animals were culled in the infected herds. Thereafter, a total of 74,347 sera were tested for the presence of BLV specific antibodies. The serological results and detail of EBL control/eradication programme were shown in this paper.

  14. Exogenously Applied 24-Epibrassinolide (EBL) Ameliorates Detrimental Effects of Salinity by Reducing K+ Efflux via Depolarization-Activated K+ Channels. (United States)

    Azhar, Nazila; Su, Nana; Shabala, Lana; Shabala, Sergey


    This study has investigated mechanisms conferring beneficial effects of exogenous application of 24-epibrassinolides (EBL) on plant growth and performance under saline conditions. Barley seedlings treated with 0.25 mg l-1 EBL showed significant improvements in root hair length, shoot length, shoot fresh weight and relative water content when grown in the presence of 150 mM NaCl in the growth medium. In addition, EBL treatment significantly decreased the Na+ content in both shoots (by approximately 50%) and roots. Electrophysiological experiments revealed that pre-treatment with EBL for 1 and 24 h suppressed or completely prevented the NaCl-induced K+ leak in the elongation zone of barley roots, but did not affect root sensitivity to oxidative stress. Further experiments using Arabidopsis loss-of-function gork1-1 (lacking functional depolarization-activated outward-rectifying K+ channels in the root epidermal cells) and akt1 (lacking inward-rectifying K+ uptake channel) mutants showed that NaCl-induced K+ loss in the elongation zone of roots was reduced by EBL pre-treatment 50- to 100-fold in wild-type Col-0 and akt1, but only 10-fold in the gork1-1 mutant. At the same time, EBL treatment shifted vanadate-sensitive H+ flux towards net efflux. Taken together, these data indicate that exogenous application of EBL effectively improves plant salinity tolerance by prevention of K+ loss via regulating depolarization-activated K+ channels. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Japanese Society of Plant Physiologists. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email:

  15. Measurement of the EBL spectral energy distribution using the VHE γ-ray spectra of H.E.S.S. blazars (United States)

    H. E. S. S. Collaboration; Abdalla, H.; Abramowski, A.; Aharonian, F.; Ait Benkhali, F.; Akhperjanian, A. G.; Andersson, T.; Angüner, E. O.; Arakawa, M.; Arrieta, M.; Aubert, P.; Backes, M.; Balzer, A.; Barnard, M.; Becherini, Y.; Tjus, J. Becker; Berge, D.; Bernhard, S.; Bernlöhr, K.; Blackwell, R.; Böttcher, M.; Boisson, C.; Bolmont, J.; Bonnefoy, S.; Bordas, P.; Bregeon, J.; Brun, F.; Brun, P.; Bryan, M.; Büchele, M.; Bulik, T.; Capasso, M.; Carr, J.; Casanova, S.; Cerruti, M.; Chakraborty, N.; Chaves, R. C. G.; Chen, A.; Chevalier, J.; Coffaro, M.; Colafrancesco, S.; Cologna, G.; Condon, B.; Conrad, J.; Cui, Y.; Davids, I. D.; Decock, J.; Degrange, B.; Deil, C.; Devin, J.; de Wilt, P.; Dirson, L.; Djannati-Ataï, A.; Domainko, W.; Donath, A.; Drury, L. O.'C.; Dutson, K.; Dyks, J.; Edwards, T.; Egberts, K.; Eger, P.; Ernenwein, J.-P.; Eschbach, S.; Farnier, C.; Fegan, S.; Fernandes, M. V.; Fiasson, A.; Fontaine, G.; Förster, A.; Funk, S.; Füßling, M.; Gabici, S.; Gallant, Y. A.; Garrigoux, T.; Giavitto, G.; Giebels, B.; Glicenstein, J. F.; Gottschall, D.; Goyal, A.; Grondin, M.-H.; Hahn, J.; Haupt, M.; Hawkes, J.; Heinzelmann, G.; Henri, G.; Hermann, G.; Hinton, J. A.; Hofmann, W.; Hoischen, C.; Holch, T. L.; Holler, M.; Horns, D.; Ivascenko, A.; Iwasaki, H.; Jacholkowska, A.; Jamrozy, M.; Janiak, M.; Jankowsky, D.; Jankowsky, F.; Jingo, M.; Jogler, T.; Jouvin, L.; Jung-Richardt, I.; Kastendieck, M. A.; Katarzyński, K.; Katsuragawa, M.; Katz, U.; Kerszberg, D.; Khangulyan, D.; Khélifi, B.; King, J.; Klepser, S.; Klochkov, D.; Kluźniak, W.; Kolitzus, D.; Komin, Nu.; Kosack, K.; Krakau, S.; Kraus, M.; Krüger, P. P.; Laffon, H.; Lamanna, G.; Lau, J.; Lees, J.-P.; Lefaucheur, J.; Lefranc, V.; Lemière, A.; Lemoine-Goumard, M.; Lenain, J.-P.; Leser, E.; Lohse, T.; Lorentz, M.; Liu, R.; López-Coto, R.; Lypova, I.; Marandon, V.; Marcowith, A.; Mariaud, C.; Marx, R.; Maurin, G.; Maxted, N.; Mayer, M.; Meintjes, P. J.; Meyer, M.; Mitchell, A. M. W.; Moderski, R.; Mohamed, M.; Mohrmann, L.; Morå, K.; Moulin, E.; Murach, T.; Nakashima, S.; de Naurois, M.; Niederwanger, F.; Niemiec, J.; Oakes, L.; O'Brien, P.; Odaka, H.; Ohm, S.; Ostrowski, M.; Oya, I.; Padovani, M.; Panter, M.; Parsons, R. D.; Pekeur, N. W.; Pelletier, G.; Perennes, C.; Petrucci, P.-O.; Peyaud, B.; Piel, Q.; Pita, S.; Poon, H.; Prokhorov, D.; Prokoph, H.; Pühlhofer, G.; Punch, M.; Quirrenbach, A.; Raab, S.; Rauth, R.; Reimer, A.; Reimer, O.; Renaud, M.; de los Reyes, R.; Richter, S.; Rieger, F.; Romoli, C.; Rowell, G.; Rudak, B.; Rulten, C. B.; Sahakian, V.; Saito, S.; Salek, D.; Sanchez, D. A.; Santangelo, A.; Sasaki, M.; Schlickeiser, R.; Schüssler, F.; Schulz, A.; Schwanke, U.; Schwemmer, S.; Seglar-Arroyo, M.; Settimo, M.; Seyffert, A. S.; Shafi, N.; Shilon, I.; Simoni, R.; Sol, H.; Spanier, F.; Spengler, G.; Spies, F.; Stawarz, Ł.; Steenkamp, R.; Stegmann, C.; Stycz, K.; Sushch, I.; Takahashi, T.; Tavernet, J.-P.; Tavernier, T.; Taylor, A. M.; Terrier, R.; Tibaldo, L.; Tiziani, D.; Tluczykont, M.; Trichard, C.; Tsuji, N.; Tuffs, R.; Uchiyama, Y.; van der Walt, D. J.; van Eldik, C.; van Rensburg, C.; van Soelen, B.; Vasileiadis, G.; Veh, J.; Venter, C.; Viana, A.; Vincent, P.; Vink, J.; Voisin, F.; Völk, H. J.; Vuillaume, T.; Wadiasingh, Z.; Wagner, S. J.; Wagner, P.; Wagner, R. M.; White, R.; Wierzcholska, A.; Willmann, P.; Wörnlein, A.; Wouters, D.; Yang, R.; Zaborov, D.; Zacharias, M.; Zanin, R.; Zdziarski, A. A.; Zech, A.; Zefi, F.; Ziegler, A.; Żywucka, N.


    Very high-energy γ rays (VHE, E ≳ 100 GeV) propagating over cosmological distances can interact with the low-energy photons of the extragalactic background light (EBL) and produce electron-positron pairs. The transparency of the Universe to VHE γ rays is then directly related to the spectral energy distribution (SED) of the EBL. The observation of features in the VHE energy spectra of extragalactic sources allows the EBL to be measured, which otherwise is very difficult. An EBL model-independent measurement of the EBL SED with the H.E.S.S. array of Cherenkov telescopes is presented. It was obtained by extracting the EBL absorption signal from the reanalysis of high-quality spectra of blazars. From H.E.S.S. data alone the EBL signature is detected at a significance of 9.5σ, and the intensity of the EBL obtained in different spectral bands is presented together with the associated γ-ray horizon.

  16. EBL effect on the observation of multi-TeV flaring of 2009 from Markarian 501

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sahu, Sarira; Lemus Yanez, Marco Vladimir; Salvador Miranda, Luis; Rosales de Leon, Alberto [Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Instituto de Ciencias Nucleares (Mexico); Gupta, Virendra [Centro de Investigacion y de Estudios Avanzandos del IPN Unidad Merida, Departamento de Fisica Aplicada, Yucatan (Mexico)


    Markarian 501 is a high-peaked BL Lacertae object and has undergone many major outbursts since its discovery in 1996. As a part of the multiwavelength campaign, in the year 2009 this blazar was observed for 4.5 months from March 9 to August 1 and during the period April 17 to May 5 it was observed by both space and ground based observatories covering the entire electromagnetic spectrum. A very strong high energy γ-ray flare was observed on May 1 by Whipple telescope in the energy range 317 GeV to 5 TeV and the flux was about 10 times higher than the average baseline flux. Previously during 1997 Markarian 501 had undergone another long outburst, which was observed by HEGRA telescopes and the energy spectrum was well beyond 10 TeV. The photohadronic model complemented by the extragalactic background radiation (EBL) correction fits well with the flares data observed by both Whipple and HEGRA. Our model predicts a steeper slope of the energy spectrum beyond 10 TeV, which is compatible with the improved analysis of the HEGRA data. (orig.)

  17. Formation of 2D-PhCs with missing holes based on Si-layers by EBL (United States)

    Utkin, D. E.; Shklyev, A. A.; Tsarev, A. V.; Latyshev, A. V.


    The fabrication of the periodic structures, that is two-dimensional photonic crystals (2D PhCs) based on Si-materials by electron beam lithography (EBL) technique has been studied. We have investigated basic lithography processes such as designing, exposition, development, etching and others. The developed top-down approach allows close-packed arrays of elements and holes to be formed in nanometre range. This can be used to produce 2D PhCs with emitting micro-cavities (missing holes) with lateral size parameters with an accuracy of about 2% in the Si (100) substrate and in silicon-on-insulator structures. Such accuracy is expected to be sufficient for obtaining the cavities-coupling radiation interference from large areas of 2D PhCs.

  18. Draft Genome Sequence of Bacillus amyloliquefaciens EBL11, a New Strain of Plant Growth-Promoting Bacterium Isolated from Rice Rhizosphere (United States)

    Wang, Yinghuan; Greenfield, Paul; Jin, Decai


    Bacillus amyloliquefaciens strain EBL11 is a bacterium that can promote plant growth by inhibiting the growth of fungi on plant surfaces and providing nutrients as a nonchemical biofertilizer. The estimated genome of this strain is 4.05 Mb in size and harbors 3,683 coding genes (CDSs). PMID:25059875

  19. Theory and operation of the Gould 32/27 programs ABLE-2A and EBLE for the tropospheric air motion measurement system (United States)

    Butler, C.


    Software development for the Trospheric Air Motion Measurement Systems (TAMMS) is documented. In July/August the TAMMS was flown on the NASA/Goddard Flight Center Electra aircraft for 19 mission for the ABLE-2A (Amazon Boundary Layer Experiment) in Brazil. In December 1985, several flights were performed to assess the contamination and boundary layer of the Electra. Position data, flow angles, pressure transducer measurements were recorded. The programs written for the ABLE-2A were modified due to timing considerations for this particular program. The 3-step programs written for EBLE (Electra Boundary Layer Experiment) are described. Power up and log-on procedures are discussed. A few editing techniques are described for modification of the programs.

  20. Prevalence of Enzootic Bovine Leukosis (EBL) in the Northern ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In the present study, a commercial immuno enzymatic assay (blocking- ELISA), were used to detect BLV antibodies in bovine serum using two monoclonal antibodies against the viral gp51 from bovines of two major districts namely, Waqoyi Galbed, and Togdheer of northern Somalia (Somaliland). Out of 468 tested cows ...

  1. Surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy detection of biomolecules using EBL fabricated nanostructured substrates. (United States)

    Peters, Robert F; Gutierrez-Rivera, Luis; Dew, Steven K; Stepanova, Maria


    Fabrication and characterization of conjugate nano-biological systems interfacing metallic nanostructures on solid supports with immobilized biomolecules is reported. The entire sequence of relevant experimental steps is described, involving the fabrication of nanostructured substrates using electron beam lithography, immobilization of biomolecules on the substrates, and their characterization utilizing surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS). Three different designs of nano-biological systems are employed, including protein A, glucose binding protein, and a dopamine binding DNA aptamer. In the latter two cases, the binding of respective ligands, D-glucose and dopamine, is also included. The three kinds of biomolecules are immobilized on nanostructured substrates by different methods, and the results of SERS imaging are reported. The capabilities of SERS to detect vibrational modes from surface-immobilized proteins, as well as to capture the protein-ligand and aptamer-ligand binding are demonstrated. The results also illustrate the influence of the surface nanostructure geometry, biomolecules immobilization strategy, Raman activity of the molecules and presence or absence of the ligand binding on the SERS spectra acquired.

  2. Supporting learning in practice in the EBL curriculum: pre-registration students' access to learning resources in the placement setting. (United States)

    Walton, Graham; Smith, Ann; Gannon-Leary, Pat; Middleton, Anne


    This paper explores access to learning resources for nursing students when on placement. It also examines, in parallel, the impact of the move to enquiry based learning has on learning resources use by nursing students. The increased time spent learning in the clinical setting means that a deeper understanding of the use of learning resources by nursing students is necessary. A questionnaire survey was completed by 247 nursing students at Northumbria University around their use of learning resources on placement. This corresponded with focus groups being run with University and NHS providers of learning resources to establish the impact of enquiry based learning. It was found that effective collaboration between different stakeholders was especially important. Nursing students are also becoming increasingly sophisticated in their use of electronic learning resources. The nature of support for effective learning resources use by nursing students whilst on placement in the NHS has also been identified as key. The work has shown that it is very difficult to establish the impact of enquiry based learning on learning resources, as there are so many other variables.

  3. eBooks for Libraries and Patrons: Two Years of Experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard L. Rosy


    Full Text Available A little over two years ago, netLibrary defined its primary mission to encompass a singular focus on developing and offering library-centric solutions for organizing, hosting, and serving digital learning content in ways that integrated with the mission and methods of libraries. Today, netLibrary provides thousands of academic, public, government, corporate, special and school libraries with access to digital versions of monograph content they deem of particular value to their patrons.

  4. An investigation of enzootic bovine leucosis (EBL) infection by agar gel immunodiffusion (AGID), enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) tests and hematological applications on the dairy cows in the


    Kale M.; Öztürk F.


    Haematological tests (alfa nafthyl acetate esterase ANAE activity, May Grunwald Giemsa staining and total leucocyte counts) were applied to 469 dairy cows, where the enzootic form of bovine leucosis was investigated. In the same 469 dairy cows, a search for antibodies directed against bovine leucosis virus (BLV) was carried out using agar gel immunodiffusion (AGID) in blood samples and enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) in milk samples. Among the 469 animals screened, 90 were positive ...

  5. Determination of flavonoids and phenolic acids in the extract of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    EBL) was determined using near-infrared spectroscopy. Optimal partial least squares models and least squares-support vector machine models were developed to enable rapid and non-destructive validation based on EBL contents as ...

  6. Presence of European bat lyssavirus RNas in apparently healthy Rousettus aegyptiacus bats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wellenberg, G.J.; Audry, L.; Ronsholt, L.; Poel, van der W.H.M.; Bruschke, C.J.M.; Bourhy, H.


    Apparently healthy Rousettus aegyptiacus bats were randomly chosen from a Dutch colony naturally infected with European bat lyssavirus subgenotype 1a (EBL1a). These bats were euthanised three months after the first evidence of an EBL1a infection in the colony. EBL1a genomic and antigenomic RNAs of

  7. The influence of quaternary electron blocking layer on the performance characteristics of intracavity-contacted oxide-confined InGaN-based vertical cavity surface emitting lasers (United States)

    Goharrizi, A. Zandi; Alahyarizadeh, Gh.; Hassan, Z.; Hassan, H. Abu


    The effect of electron blocking layer (EBL) on the performance characteristics of InGaN-based vertical cavity surface emitting lasers (VCSELs) was numerically investigated using an integrated system engineering technical computer aided design (ISE TCAD) simulation program. Simulation results indicated that the performance characteristics of InGaN quantum well VCSEL were improved by the ternary Al0.17Ga0.83N EBL. Better performance was also obtained when Al0.17Ga0.83N EBL was replaced by a polarization-matched Al0.275In0.115Ga0.61N EBL having the same energy bandgap. The quaternary EBL enhances the output power and differential quantum efficiency (DQE) as well as reduces the threshold current compared with the ternary EBL. Enhancement in the value of the optical intensity was also observed in the VCSEL structure with quaternary EBL. Furthermore, the effect of Al composition of AlInGaN EBL on the performance of InGaN-based VCSEL structure that uses the quaternary AlInGaN EBL was studied. In mole fraction was 0.115, Al mole fraction changed from 0.260 to 0.290 by step 0.005, and optimum performance was achieved in 0.275 Al mole fraction of AlInGaN EBL.

  8. Structuring of turbulence and its impact on basic features of Ekman boundary layers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Esau


    Full Text Available The turbulent Ekman boundary layer (EBL has been studied in a large number of theoretical, laboratory and modeling works since F. Nansen's observations during the Norwegian Polar Expedition 1893–1896. Nevertheless, the proposed analytical models, analysis of the EBL instabilities, and turbulence-resolving numerical simulations are not fully consistent. In particular, the role of turbulence self-organization into longitudinal roll vortices in the EBL and its dependence on the meridional component of the Coriolis force remain unclear. A new set of large-eddy simulations (LES are presented in this study. LES were performed for eight different latitudes (from 1° N to 90° N in the domain spanning 144 km in the meridional direction. Geostrophic winds from the west and from the east were used to drive the development of EBL turbulence. The emergence and growth of longitudinal rolls in the EBL was simulated. The simulated rolls are in good agreement with EBL stability analysis given in Dubos et al. (2008. The destruction of rolls in the westerly flow at low latitude was observed in simulations, which agrees well with the action of secondary instability on the rolls in the EBL. This study quantifies the effect of the meridional component of the Coriolis force and the effect of rolls in the EBL on the internal EBL parameters such as friction velocity, cross-isobaric angle, parameters of the EBL depth and resistance laws. A large impact of the roll development or destruction is found. The depth of the EBL in the westerly flow is about five times less than it is in the easterly flow at low latitudes. The EBL parameters, which depend on the depth, also exhibit large difference in these two types of the EBL. Thus, this study supports the need to include the horizontal component of the Coriolis force into theoretical constructions and parameterizations of the boundary layer in models.

  9. Generating GraphML XML Files for Graph Visualization of Architectures and Event Traces for the Monterey Phoenix Program (United States)


    ebrary) Engineering Village 2 (Engineering Village 2) ENGnetBASE: Engineering Handbooks Online (CRCnetBASE) IEEE /IET Electronic Library ( IEEE Xplore ...Integrated Development Environment IEEE Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers ISCA International Society for Computers and Their Applications...Object-Oriented Systems. Addison-Wesley. Bowen, J., & Hinchey, M. (1995). Seven more myths of formal methods. Software, IEEE , 34-41. Brandes, U

  10. Institutsionaalsetest e-õpikutest üleriigiliseks avatud juurdepääsuga e-õppematerjalide kogumiks / Liisi Lembinen

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Lembinen, Liisi


    TÜR käivitas 2008. aastal e-õpikute projekti, millega soovitakse anda üliõpilastele juurdepääs vanematele õppematerjalidele, mis on läbi müüdud või mille eksemplaarsus on raamatukogudes väike ning mida tuleb seetõttu kopeerida või skaneerida. Õpikud kuvatakse Ebrary andmebaasis ning neile on juurdepääs vaid Tartu Ülikooli arvutivõrgus

  11. Employing Evidence Evidence: Does it Have a Job in Vocational Libraries?


    Brad Jones; Cecily Martina


    Objective - Evidence-based librarianship (EBL) springs ffrom medical and academic origins. As librarians are tertiary educated (only occasionally with supplementary qualifications covering research and statistics) EBL has an academic focus. The EBL literature has significant content from school and university perspectives, but has had little, if any, vocational content. This paper suggests a possible Evidence Based Librarianship context for vocational libraries. Methods - A multidisciplin...

  12. Evidence-based librarianship: what might we expect in the years ahead? (United States)

    Eldredge, Jonathan D


    To predict the possible accomplishments of the Evidence-Based Librarianship (EBL) movement by the years 2005, 2010, 2015 and 2020. Predictive. The author draws upon recent events, relevant historical events and anecdotal accounts to detect evidence of predictable trends. The author develops a set of probable predictions for the development of EBL. Although incomplete evidence exists, some trends still seem discernible. By 2020, EBL will have become indistinguishable from mainstream health sciences librarianship/informatics practices.

  13. Executive Function: Comparing Bilingual and Monolingual Iranian University Students (United States)

    Kazemeini, Toktam; Fadardi, Javad Salehi


    The study aimed to examine whether Kurdish-Persian early Bilingual university students (EBL) and Persian Monolingual university students (ML) differ on tasks of executive function (EF). Thirty male EBL and 30 male ML students from Ferdowsi University of Mashhad completed a Persian Stroop Color-Word task (SCWT), Backward Digit Span Test (BDST),…

  14. Online Problem-Based and Enquiry-Based Learning in the Training of Educational Psychologists (United States)

    Bozic, Nick; Williams, Huw


    Over the past 40 years, problem-based learning (PBL) and enquiry-based learning (EBL) approaches have been used in a variety of professional training courses. More recently online versions of these pedagogies have been developed. This paper explains how online PBL and EBL activities have been incorporated into the professional training of…

  15. Enquiry-Based Learning: Perspectives on Practice (United States)

    Deignan, Tim


    Traditional lecture-based teaching methods are being replaced or supplemented by approaches which call for reframing the roles and identities of teachers and learners. Enquiry-Based Learning (EBL) is one such approach. This paper reports on a study investigating the perceptions of staff and students (N=25) involved in an EBL capacity building…

  16. Enquiry-Based Learning: Experiences of First Year Chemistry Students Learning Spectroscopy (United States)

    Lucas, Timothy; Rowley, Natalie M.


    We explored the experiences of first year chemistry students of an Enquiry-Based Learning (EBL) approach to learning spectroscopy. An investigation of how students' perceived confidences changed as a result of their experience of using EBL in the spectroscopy course was carried out. Changes in the students' perceived confidence, both in their…

  17. Foundation Studies for Nursing: Using enquiry based learning Sue Grandis Foundation studies for nursing: Using enquiry based learning , Garth Long , Palgrave Alan Glasper and Pam Jackson 482 £19.99 0333777387 0333777387 [Formula: see text]. (United States)


    Although problem-based learning (PBL) or enquiry-based learning (EBL) has been used in medical education in the UK, its use as a teaching approach in nurse education is embryonic. Few nursing curricula employ a purely EBL/PBL approach - although many courses are beginning to include it as a teaching method.

  18. Annals of Medical and Health Sciences Research – Jul. - Dec., 2011 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)



    Dec 22, 2011 ... Halpern LK. Skin conditions during pregnancy. In Demis DJ et al., (editors). Clinical Dermatology Vol. 2. Unit2; 25. London. Harpers and Row Publishers. 1974. 25. Ebling FJ, Rook A and Wilkinson ED. Disorders of skin color. In: Ebling FJ. (Editor).Textbook of Dermatology. Oxford. Blackwell Science. 1972.

  19. Studer Group® ' s evidence-based leadership initiatives. (United States)

    Schuller, Kristin A; Kash, Bita A; Gamm, Larry D


    The purpose of this paper is to analyze the implementation of an organizational change initiative--Studer Group®'s Evidence-Based Leadership (EBL)--in two large, US health systems by comparing and contrasting the factors associated with successful implementation and sustainability of the EBL initiative. This comparative case study assesses the responses to two pairs of open-ended questions during in-depth qualitative interviews of leaders and managers at both health systems. Qualitative content analysis was employed to identify major themes. Three themes associated with success and sustainability of EBL emerged at both health systems: leadership; culture; and organizational processes. The theme most frequently identified for both success and sustainability of EBL was culture. In contrast, there was a significant decline in salience of the leadership theme as attention shifts from success in implementation of EBL to sustaining EBL long term. Within the culture theme, accountability, and buy-in were most often cited by interviewees as success factors, while sense of accountability, buy-in, and communication were the most reported factors for sustainability. Cultural factors, such as accountability, staff support, and communication are driving forces of success and sustainability of EBL across both health systems. Leadership, a critical factor in several stages of implementation, appears to be less salient as among factors identified as important to longer term sustainability of EBL.

  20. Increased luminance of MEH-PPV and PFO based PLEDs by using salmon DNA as an electron blocking layer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Madhwal, Devinder, E-mail: [Material Science Laboratory, Department of Electronic Science, University of Delhi South campus, Benito Juarez Road, New Delhi-110021 (India); Rait, S.S.; Verma, A.; Kumar, Amit; Bhatnagar, P.K.; Mathur, P.C. [Material Science Laboratory, Department of Electronic Science, University of Delhi South campus, Benito Juarez Road, New Delhi-110021 (India); Onoda, M. [Department of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science, University of Hyogo, Himeji (Japan)


    The effect of salmon DNA-CTMA as an electron blocking layer (EBL) has been examined on the performance of MEH-PPV and PFO-based light emitting diodes. Though the turn-on voltage increases with incorporation of EBL, a significant increase in luminance and luminous efficiency for both the devices is observed. The EBL improves the device performance by blocking electrons at the EBL-polymer interface, thereby increasing the recombination probability of electrons and holes. The luminance of the MEH-PPV based Bio-LED increases to 100 cd/m{sup 2} from 30 cd/m{sup 2} while a corresponding increase for the PFO based LED is to 160 cd/m{sup 2} from 80 cd/m{sup 2} with and without EBL, respectively.

  1. Comparison of the copy numbers of bovine leukemia virus in the lymph nodes of cattle with enzootic bovine leukosis and cattle with latent infection. (United States)

    Somura, Yoshiko; Sugiyama, Emi; Fujikawa, Hiroshi; Murakami, Kenji


    To establish a diagnostic index for predicting enzootic bovine leukosis (EBL), proviral bovine leukemia virus (BLV) copies in whole blood, lymph nodes and spleen were examined by quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR). Cattle were divided into two groups, EBL and BLV-infected, based on meat inspection data. The number of BLV copies in all specimens of EBL cattle was significantly higher than those of BLV-infected cattle (p < 0.0001), and the number of BLV copies in the lymph nodes was particularly large. Over 70 % of the superficial cervical, medial iliac and jejunal lymph nodes from EBL cattle had more than 1,000 copies/10 ng DNA, whereas lymph nodes from BLV-infected cattle did not. These findings suggest that the cattle harboring more than 1,000 BLV copies may be diagnosed with EBL.

  2. The Imprint of the Extragalactic Background Light in the Gamma-Ray Spectra of Blazars (United States)

    Ackermann, M.; Ajello, M.; Allafort, A.; Schady, P.; Baldini, L.; Ballet, J.; Barbiellini, G.; Bastieri, D.; Bellazzini, R; Blandford, R. D.; hide


    The light emitted by stars and accreting compact objects through the history of the universe is encoded in the intensity of the extragalactic background light (EBL). Knowledge of the EBL isimportant to understand the nature of star formation and galaxy evolution, but direct measurements of the EBL are limited by galactic and other foreground emissions. Here, we report an absorption feature seen in the combined spectra of a sample of gamma-ray blazars out to a redshift of z approx. 1.6. This feature is caused by attenuation of gamma rays by the EBL at optical to ultraviolet frequencies and allowed us to measure the EBL flux density in this frequency band.

  3. Assessment of listing and categorisation of animal diseases within the framework of the Animal Health Law (Regulation (EU) No 2016/429)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    EFSA Panel on Animal Health and Welfare; More, Simon J.; Bøtner, Anette


    Enzootic bovine leucosis (EBL) has been assessed according to the criteria of the Animal Health Law (AHL), in particular criteria of Article 7 on disease profile and impacts, Article 5 on the eligibility of EBL to be listed, Article 9 for the categorisation of EBL according to disease prevention...... and control rules as in Annex IV and Article 8 on the list of animal species related to EBL. The assessment has been performed following a methodology composed of information collection and compilation, expert judgement on each criterion at individual and, if no consensus was reached before, also...... intervention as laid down in Article 5(3) of the AHL, then the assessment on compliance of EBL with the criteria as in Sections 4 and 5 of Annex IV to the AHL, for the application of the disease prevention and control rules referred to in points (d) and (e) of Article 9(1), and which animal species can...

  4. 24-Epibrassinolide ameliorates the adverse effect of salt stress (NaCl on pepper (Capsicum annuum L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ibn Maaouia-Houimli Samira


    Full Text Available The present study investigates the role of 24-epibrassinolide (EBL in inducing plant tolerance to salinity. Seedlings of pepper (Capsicum annuum L. were grown in the presence of 70 mM NaCl and were sprayed with 10-6 M EBL at 7 days after transplantation and were sampled at 28 day. The plants exposed to NaCl exhibited a significant decline in relative growth rate, net CO2 assimilation, stomatal conductance, transpiration and water use efficiency. However, the follow up treatment with EBL significantly improved the above parameters. EBL treated plants had greater relative growth rate compared to untreated plants when exposed to salt stress. Application of EBL increased photosynthesis by increasing stomatal conductance in both control and salt stressed plants and may have contributed to the enhanced growth. The water use efficiency was improved because CO2 assimilation is more important than the transpiration.

  5. Effects of 24-epibrassinolide on plant growth, osmotic regulation and ion homeostasis of salt-stressed canola. (United States)

    Liu, J; Gao, H; Wang, X; Zheng, Q; Wang, C; Wang, X; Wang, Q


    This study evaluated effects of foliar spraying 24-epibrassinoide (24-EBL) on the growth of salt-stressed canola. Seedlings at the four-leaf stage were treated with 150 mM NaCl and different concentrations of 24-EBL (10(-6), 10(-8), 10(-10), 10(-12) M) for 15 days. A concentration of 10(-10) M 24-EBL was chosen as optimal and used in a subsequent experiment on plant biomass and leaf water potential parameters. The results showed that 24-EBL mainly promoted shoot growth of salt-stressed plants and also ameliorated leaf water status. Foliar spraying of salt-stressed canola with 24-EBL increased osmotic adjustment ability in all organs, especially in younger leaves and roots. This was mainly due to an increase of free amino acid content in upper leaves, soluble sugars in middle leaves, organic acids and proline in lower leaves, all of these compounds in roots, as well as essential inorganic ions. Na(+) and Cl(-) sharply increased in different organs under salt stress, and 24-EBL reduced their accumulation. 24-EBL improved the uptake of K(+), Ca(2+), Mg(2+) and NO3(-) in roots, which were mainly transported to upper leaves, while NO3(-) was mainly transported to middle leaves. Thus, 24-EBL improvements in ion homeostasis of K(+)/Na(+), Ca(2+)/Na(+), Mg(2+)/Na(+) and NO3(-)/Cl(-), especially in younger leaves and roots, could be explained. As most important parts, younger leaves and roots were the main organs protected by 24-EBL via improvement in osmotic adjustment ability and ion homeostasis. Further, physiological status of growth of salt-stressed canola was ameliorated after 24-EBL treatment. © 2013 German Botanical Society and The Royal Botanical Society of the Netherlands.

  6. Comparison of E-Book Acquisitions Strategies Across Disciplines Finds Differences in Cost and Usage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Costello


    found demand driven acquisitions to be a cost-effective strategy for e-books, particularly when cost per use is considered (Downey, Zhang, Urbano, & Klinger, 2014; Herrera, 2012. The findings also agree with studies that have found a good cost per use, but low percentage of use in package acquisitions (Lannon & McKinnon, 2013; Sprague & Hunter, 2008. Further research examining data from multiple institutions could help to determine whether low percentage of use in subscription collections is a discovery issue for individual libraries or a selection and packaging issue for publishers. The authors also found it difficult to justify firm ordering as a cost-effective strategy for e-book content. Though there have been strong critiques of using methods like cost per use and percentage of use to evaluate the value of firm ordered books (Fry, 2015 there is little evidence to support this strategy in the e-book environment, where turnaround time for purchases is generally much shorter. The authors identify the difficulty in drawing a line between firm orders and demand driven orders. Firm orders often represent demand from faculty members and students through traditional channels. The changes to the subject University’s acquisitions methods seem practical and in line with the findings they reported. The study presented a relatively small sample size, especially for materials that were purchased via firm order and demand driven acquisitions. Materials acquired in packages represented 13,027 out of 15,006 monographs in the study. Generalizability is a problem common to most, if not all of the single site acquisitions studies of this kind. More acquisitions research from consortiums and conglomerate data, like Michael Levine-Clark’s work with combined EBL and Ebrary data (Levine-Clark, 2015 will contribute more significantly to our understanding of the way disciplines and acquisitions strategies impact use. The findings from the subject University are strongly in line with

  7. Incidence of Endemic Burkitt Lymphoma in Three Regions of Mozambique (United States)

    O'Callaghan-Gordo, Cristina; Casabonne, Delphine; Carrilho, Carla; Ferro, Josefo; Lorenzoni, Cesaltina; Zaqueu, Clesio; Nhabomba, Augusto; Aguilar, Ruth; Bassat, Quique; de Sanjosé, Sílvia; Dobaño, Carlota; Kogevinas, Manolis


    Data on the burden and incidence of endemic Burkitt lymphoma (eBL) across Mozambique are scarce. We retrospectively retrieved information on eBL cases from reports of the three main hospitals of Mozambique: Maputo Central Hospital (MCH), Beira Central Hospital (BCH), and Nampula Central Hospital (NCH) between 2004 and 2014. For 2015, we prospectively collected information of new eBL cases attending these hospitals. A total of 512 eBL cases were reported between 2004 and 2015: 153 eBL cases were reported in MCH, 195 in BCH, and 164 in NCH. Mean age of cases was 6.9 years (standard deviation = 2.8); 63% (319/504) of cases were males. For 2015, the estimated incidence rate of eBL was 2.0, 1.7, and 3.9 per 106 person-year at risk in MCH, BCH, and NCH, respectively. Incidence was higher in NCH (northern Mozambique), where intensity of malaria transmission is higher. Data presented show that eBL is a common pediatric malignancy in Mozambique, as observed in neighboring countries. PMID:27799648

  8. Influence of 24-epibrassinolide on seedling growth and distribution of mineral elements in two maize hybrids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Waisi Hadi K.


    Full Text Available In this study, influence of wide range of 24-epibrassinolide (24-EBL on early growth potential of two maize hybrids (ZP 434 and ZP 704 was examined. Paper concerns germination, seedling biomass, important chlorophylls content, and redistribution of elements (heavy metals and microelements, in a seedlings of the maize hybrids, as influenced by different 24-EBL concentrations. It was found that hybrids react differently to exogenously applied hormone. The biggest differences between two examined maize hybrids considering the germination level were reached with the lowest values at 86% for ZP 704 and 72% for ZP 434, gained at the highest applied concentration of 24-EBL. Seedlings of hybrid ZP 434 reacted positively moderately in the case of shoot length and biomass under the influence of 24-EBL, but seedlings of hybrid ZP 704 had lower values of these parameters under the influence of the phytohormone. Chlorophyll a/b ratios showed that photosynthetic apparatus of seedlings of the hybrids is not active in this stage of development. It was established that 24-EBL affects seedling growth and re-allocation of naturally present mineral elements in early growth stages and that could be one of the reason for poorer growth of ZP 704 treated with various concentrations of 24-EBL, comparing to control. When applied in lower concentrations, 24-EBL is blocking toxic elements such as chromium and nickel to relocate to vital parts of plant, what was case in hybrid ZP704. In case of ZP 434, lower concentrations of 24-EBL are affecting re-allocation of Cu and Cr and these findings suggest that maize hybrid seedlings treated with lower concentrations of 24-EBL could survive and be successful in polluted areas. [Project of the Serbian Ministry of Education, Science and Technological Development, Grant no. TR31080

  9. Sickle cell trait is not associated with endemic Burkitt lymphoma: an ethnicity and malaria endemicity-matched case-control study suggests factors controlling EBV may serve as a predictive biomarker for this pediatric cancer. (United States)

    Mulama, David H; Bailey, Jeffrey A; Foley, Joslyn; Chelimo, Kiprotich; Ouma, Collins; Jura, Walter G Z O; Otieno, Juliana; Vulule, John; Moormann, Ann M


    Endemic Burkitt lymphoma (eBL) is associated with Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) and Plasmodium falciparum coinfections. Malaria appears to dysregulate immunity that would otherwise control EBV, thereby contributing to eBL etiology. Juxtaposed to human genetic variants associated with protection from malaria, it has been hypothesized that such variants could decrease eBL susceptibility, historically referred to as "the protective hypothesis." Past studies attempting to link sickle cell trait (HbAS), which is known to be protective against malaria, with protection from eBL were contradictory and underpowered. Therefore, using a case-control study design, we examined HbAS frequency in 306 Kenyan children diagnosed with eBL compared to 537 geographically defined and ethnically matched controls. We found 23.8% HbAS for eBL patients, which was not significantly different compared to 27.0% HbAS for controls [odds ratio (OR) = 0.85; 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.61-1.17; p-value = 0.33]. Even though cellular EBV titers, indicative of the number of latently infected B cells, were significantly higher (p-value < 0.0003) in children residing in malaria holoendemic compared to hypoendemic areas, levels were not associated with HbAS genotype. Combined, this suggests that although HbAS protects against severe malaria and hyperparasitemia, it is not associated with viral control or eBL protection. However, based on receiver operating characteristic curves factors that enable the establishment of EBV persistence, in contrast to those involved in EBV lytic reactivation, may have utility as an eBL precursor biomarker. This has implications for future human genetic association studies to consider variants influencing control over EBV in addition to malaria as risk factors for eBL. © 2013 UICC.

  10. Clinical and subclinical bovine leukemia virus infection in a dairy cattle herd in Zambia. (United States)

    Pandey, Girja S; Simulundu, Edgar; Mwiinga, Danstan; Samui, Kenny L; Mweene, Aaron S; Kajihara, Masahiro; Mangani, Alfred; Mwenda, Racheal; Ndebe, Joseph; Konnai, Satoru; Takada, Ayato


    Bovine leukemia virus (BLV) causes enzootic bovine leucosis (EBL) and is responsible for substantial economic losses in cattle globally. However, information in Africa on the disease is limited. Here, based on clinical, hematological, pathological and molecular analyses, two clinical cases of EBL were confirmed in a dairy cattle herd in Zambia. In contrast, proviral DNA was detected by PCR in five apparently healthy cows from the same herd, suggesting subclinical BLV infection. Phylogenetic analysis of the env gene showed that the identified BLV clustered with Eurasian genotype 4 strains. This is the first report of confirmed EBL in Zambia.

  11. The enquiry-based learning experience: An evaluation project. (United States)

    Ashby, Jayne; Hubbert, Vanessa; Cotrel-Gibbons, Liz; Cox, Karen; Digan, John; Lewis, Kerry; Langmack, Gill; Matiti, Milika; McCormick, Damion; Roberts, Lorraine; Taylor, Derek; Thom, Natasha; Wiggs, Mary; Wilson, Linda


    A research and nursing development initiative group consisting of health lecturers and lecturer practitioners set out to evaluate how learners and teachers felt about the introduction of an enquiry based learning (EBL) approach to education. Five focus groups, teachers (1 group) post-registration students (1 group) and pre-registration diploma students (3 groups) were interviewed. Discussions were tape recorded, transcribed, and analysed. The results revealed that students and teachers held disparative views on the efficiency of EBL. Teachers, surprisingly, felt more doubtful and discouraged than learners. Several concerns were raised over the ability of EBL to establish a foothold in a curriculum more noted for a pedagogical stance on learning.

  12. 77 FR 25481 - General Services Administration Acquisition Regulation; Submission for OMB Review; Solicitation... (United States)


    ... 30, 2012. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Deborah Eble, Procurement Analyst, General Services...-to- computer Electronic Data Interchange (EDI). B. Annual Reporting Burden Respondents: 7,143... Acquisition Policy & Senior Procurement Executive. BILLING CODE 6820-61-P ...

  13. Sickle cell trait is not associated with endemic Burkitt lymphoma: An ethnicity and malaria endemicity‐matched case–control study suggests factors controlling EBV may serve as a predictive biomarker for this pediatric cancer

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Mulama, David H; Bailey, Jeffrey A; Foley, Joslyn; Chelimo, Kiprotich; Ouma, Collins; Jura, Walter G.Z.O; Otieno, Juliana; Vulule, John; Moormann, Ann M


    ... to as “the protective hypothesis.” Past studies attempting to link sickle cell trait (HbAS), which is known to be protective against malaria, with protection from eBL were contradictory and underpowered...

  14. The Extragalactic Background Light and the Gamma-ray Opacity of the Universe (United States)

    Dwek, Eli; Krennrich, Frank


    The extragalactic background light (EBL) is one of the fundamental observational quantities in cosmology. All energy releases from resolved and unresolved extragalactic sources, and the light from any truly diffuse background, excluding the cosmic microwave background (CMB), contribute to its intensity and spectral energy distribution. It therefore plays a crucial role in cosmological tests for the formation and evolution of stellar objects and galaxies, and for setting limits on exotic energy releases in the universe. The EBL also plays an important role in the propagation of very high energy gamma-rays which are attenuated en route to Earth by pair producing gamma-gamma interactions with the EBL and CMB. The EBL affects the spectrum of the sources, predominantly blazars, in the approx 10 GeV to 10 TeV energy regime. Knowledge of the EBL intensity and spectrum will allow the determination of the intrinsic blazar spectrum in a crucial energy regime that can be used to test particle acceleration mechanisms and VHE gamma-ray production models. Conversely, knowledge of the intrinsic gamma-ray spectrum and the detection of blazars at increasingly higher redshifts will set strong limits on the EBL and its evolution. This paper reviews the latest developments in the determination of the EBL and its impact on the current understanding of the origin and production mechanisms of gamma-rays in blazars, and on energy releases in the universe. The review concludes with a summary and future directions in Cherenkov Telescope Array techniques and in infrared ground-based and space observatories that will greatly improve our knowledge of the EBL and the origin and production of very high energy gamma-rays.

  15. Using knowledge management practices to develop a state-of-the-art digital library. (United States)

    Williams, Annette M; Giuse, Nunzia Bettinsoli; Koonce, Taneya Y; Kou, Qinghua; Giuse, Dario A


    Diffusing knowledge management practices within an organization encourages and facilitates reuse of the institution's knowledge commodity. Following knowledge management practices, the Eskind Biomedical Library (EBL) has created a Digital Library that uses a holistic approach for integration of information and skills to best represent both explicit and tacit knowledge inherent in libraries. EBL's Digital Library exemplifies a clear attempt to organize institutional knowledge in the field of librarianship, in an effort to positively impact clinical, research, and educational processes in the medical center.

  16. Some Novel Applications of Explanation-Based Learning to Parsing Lexicalized Tree-Adjoining Grammars

    CERN Document Server

    Srinivas, B; Joshi, Aravind


    In this paper we present some novel applications of Explanation-Based Learning (EBL) technique to parsing Lexicalized Tree-Adjoining grammars. The novel aspects are (a) immediate generalization of parses in the training set, (b) generalization over recursive structures and (c) representation of generalized parses as Finite State Transducers. A highly impoverished parser called a ``stapler'' has also been introduced. We present experimental results using EBL for different corpora and architectures to show the effectiveness of our approach.

  17. DNA Bases Thymine and Adenine in Bio-Organic Light Emitting Diodes


    Eliot F. Gomez; Venkatraman, Vishak; Grote, James G.; Steckl, Andrew J.


    We report on the use of nucleic acid bases (NBs) in organic light emitting diodes (OLEDs). NBs are small molecules that are the basic building blocks of the larger DNA polymer. NBs readily thermally evaporate and integrate well into the vacuum deposited OLED fabrication. Adenine (A) and thymine (T) were deposited as electron-blocking/hole-transport layers (EBL/HTL) that resulted in increases in performance over the reference OLED containing the standard EBL material NPB. A-based OLEDs reached...

  18. The Research and Education of Evidence Based Library and Information Practice; A Narrative Review


    Vahideh Zareh Gavgani


    Background and Objectives: Evidence based librarianship (EBL) was defined as “use of best available evidence from qualitative and quantitative research results and rational experience and decisions acquired from the daily practice of library”. However there are controversies about if the nature of EBL deals with library services or professional practice and if it needs a formal education or informal continuing education is enough? To shed light on this ambiguity, the aim of this study was to...

  19. Metal-carbonyl organometallic polymers, PFpP, as resists for high-resolution positive and negative electron beam lithography. (United States)

    Zhang, J; Cao, K; Wang, X S; Cui, B


    Metal-containing resists for electron beam lithography (EBL) are attracting attention owing to their high dry etching resistance and possibility for directly patterning metal-containing nanostructures. The newly developed organometallic metal carbonyl polymers, PFpP, can function as EBL resists with strong etching resistance. One significant feature of the PFpP resist is its high resolution. Line arrays with line-widths as narrow as 17 nm have been created. The resist can also be used in positive tone.

  20. Fermi-LAT high-z active galactic nuclei and the extragalactic background light (United States)

    Armstrong, Thomas; Brown, Anthony M.; Chadwick, Paula M.


    Observations of distant gamma-ray sources are hindered by the presence of the extragalactic background light (EBL). In order to understand the physical processes that result in the observed spectrum of sources, it is imperative that a good understanding of the EBL is included. In this work, an investigation into the imprint of the EBL on the observed spectra of high-redshift Fermi-LAT active galactic nuclei is presented. By fitting the spectrum below ˜10 GeV, an estimation of the unabsorbed intrinsic source spectrum is obtained; by applying this spectrum to data up to 300 GeV, it is then possible to derive a scaling factor for different EBL models. A second approach uses five sources (PKS 0426-380, 4C +55.17, Ton 116, PG 1246+586 and RBS 1432) that were found to exhibit very high energy (VHE) emission (Eγ > 100 GeV). Through Monte Carlo simulations, it is shown that the observation of VHE photons, despite the large distances of these objects, is consistent with current EBL models. Many of these sources would be observable with the upcoming ground-based observatory, the Cherenkov Telescope Array, leading to a better understanding of the EBL.

  1. Comprehensive analysis of endogenous bornavirus-like elements in eukaryote genomes (United States)

    Horie, Masayuki; Kobayashi, Yuki; Suzuki, Yoshiyuki; Tomonaga, Keizo


    Bornaviruses are the only animal RNA viruses that establish a persistent infection in their host cell nucleus. Studies of bornaviruses have provided unique information about viral replication strategies and virus–host interactions. Although bornaviruses do not integrate into the host genome during their replication cycle, we and others have recently reported that there are DNA sequences derived from the mRNAs of ancient bornaviruses in the genomes of vertebrates, including humans, and these have been designated endogenous borna-like (EBL) elements. Therefore, bornaviruses have been interacting with their hosts as driving forces in the evolution of host genomes in a previously unexpected way. Studies of EBL elements have provided new models for virology, evolutionary biology and general cell biology. In this review, we summarize the data on EBL elements including what we have newly identified in eukaryotes genomes, and discuss the biological significance of EBL elements, with a focus on EBL nucleoprotein elements in mammalian genomes. Surprisingly, EBL elements were detected in the genomes of invertebrates, suggesting that the host range of bornaviruses may be much wider than previously thought. We also review our new data on non-retroviral integration of Borna disease virus. PMID:23938751

  2. Students' views of enquiry-based learning in a continuing professional development module. (United States)

    Kirwan, Anne; Adams, John


    The purpose of this study was to explore whether qualified nurses who had undertaken a continuing professional development module at a UK university, which utilised enquiry-based learning (EBL) as the educational strategy, believed that their nursing practice had been influenced by this educational approach. This study was underpinned by the assumptions of Gadamerian hermeneutic phenomenology; semi-structured interviews were conducted with eight nurses who had undertaken a continuing education module utilising an EBL approach. The responses in this study indicate that participants believed that their practice of nursing had been positively influenced by engaging in EBL. They felt that by becoming self-directed, critical, reflective practitioners, they were better able to deliver evidence-based practice/care. Self reports of practice change attributed to engaging in EBL were provided, with the patient identified as the principal beneficiary, echoing the espoused aims of continuing professional development. EBL was credited with being a motivating, energizing and enjoyable way of learning but participants were critical of the lack of preparedness of both the students and facilitators. Consideration needs to given as to whether EBL is viewed as a philosophy of learning or as a facilitative strategy used alongside other educational methods.

  3. Nanolithography by scanning probes on calixarene molecular glass resist using mix-and-match lithography (United States)

    Kaestner, Marcus; Hofer, Manuel; Rangelow, Ivo W.


    Going "beyond the CMOS information-processing era," taking advantage of quantum effects occurring at sub-10-nm level, requires novel device concepts and associated fabrication technologies able to produce promising features at acceptable cost levels. Herein, the challenge affecting the lithographic technologies comprises the marriage of down-scaling the device-relevant feature size towards single-nanometer resolution with a simultaneous increase of the throughput capabilities. Mix-and-match lithographic strategies are one promising path to break through this trade-off. Proof-of-concept combining electron beam lithography (EBL) with the outstanding capabilities of closed-loop electric field current-controlled scanning probe nanolithography (SPL) is demonstrated. This combination, whereby also extreme ultraviolet lithography (EUVL) is possible instead of EBL, enables more: improved patterning resolution and reproducibility in combination with excellent overlay and placement accuracy. Furthermore, the symbiosis between EBL (EUVL) and SPL expands the process window of EBL (EUVL) beyond the state of the art, allowing SPL-based pre- and post-patterning of EBL (EUVL) written features at critical dimension levels with scanning probe microscopy-based pattern overlay alignment capability. Moreover, we are able to modify the EBL (EUVL) pattern even after the development step. The ultra-high resolution mix-and-match lithography experiments are performed on the molecular glass resist calixarene using a Gaussian e-beam lithography system operating at 10 keV and a home-developed SPL setup.

  4. Changes in Cardiac Varices and Their Clinical Significance after Eradication of Esophageal Varices by Band Ligation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seung Woon Park


    Full Text Available Background and Aims. Cardiac varices (CVs in patients with type 1 gastroesophageal varices (GOV1s usually disappear with treatment for esophageal varices (EVs by endoscopic injection sclerotherapy (EIS. However, whether this applies to patients treated with endoscopic band ligation (EBL for EVs remains unclear. We evaluated the effect of EVs eradication by EBL on CVs. Methods. We included cirrhotic patients whose EVs had been eradicated using EBL and excluded those who had been treated using EIS, those who had received endoscopic therapy for CVs, and those who were combined with hepatocellular carcinoma. Results. A total of 123 patients were enrolled. The age was 59.7 ± 11.7 years, and 96 patients (78.0% were men. Thirty-eight patients (30.9% had EVs only, while 85 (69.1% had GOV1s. After EVs eradication, the CVs disappeared in 55 patients (64.7%. EVs recurred in 40 patients, with recurrence rates at 1, 2, and 3 years of 16.0%, 29.6%, and 35.6%, respectively, the recurrence being more frequent in patients who had undergone EBL for secondary prophylaxis and in those with persisting CVs after EVs eradication (P=0.003. Conclusions. CVs frequently disappeared when EVs were eradicated using EBL in patients with GOV1s. Persistence of CVs after EVs eradication by EBL was associated with EVs recurrence.

  5. Chromium stress mitigation by polyamine-brassinosteroid application involves phytohormonal and physiological strategies in Raphanus sativus L. (United States)

    Choudhary, Sikander Pal; Kanwar, Mukesh; Bhardwaj, Renu; Yu, Jing-Quan; Tran, Lam-Son Phan


    Brassinosteroids (BRs) and polyamines (PAs) are well-established growth regulators playing key roles in stress management among plants. In the present study, we evaluated the effects of epibrassinolide (EBL, an active BR) and spermidine (Spd, an active PA) on the tolerance of radish to oxidative stress induced by Cr (VI) metal. Our investigation aimed to study the impacts of EBL (10(-9) M) and/or Spd (1 mM) on the biochemical and physiological responses of radish (Raphanus sativus L.) under Cr-stress. Applications of EBL and/or Spd were found to improve growth of Cr-stressed seedlings in terms of root length, shoot length and fresh weight. Our data also indicated that applications of EBL and Spd have significant impacts, particularly when applied together, on the endogenous titers of PAs, free and bound forms of IAA and ABA in seedlings treated with Cr-stress. Additionally, co-applications of EBL and Spd modulated more remarkably the titers of antioxidants (glutathione, ascorbic acid, proline, glycine betaine and total phenol) and activities of antioxidant enzymes (guaicol peroxidase, catalase, superoxide dismutase and glutathione reductase) in Cr-stressed plants than their individual applications. Attenuation of Cr-stress by EBL and/or Spd (more efficient with EBL and Spd combination) was also supported by enhanced values of stress indices, such as phytochelatins, photosynthetic pigments and total soluble sugars, and reduction in malondialdehyde and H(2)O(2) levels in Cr-treated seedlings. Diminution of ROS production and enhanced ROS scavenging capacities were also noted for EBL and/or Spd under Cr-stress. However, no significant reduction in Cr uptake was observed for co-application of EBL and Spd when compared to their individual treatments in Cr-stressed seedlings. Taken together, our results demonstrate that co-applications of EBL and Spd are more effective than their independent treatments in lowering the Cr-induced oxidative stress in radish, leading to

  6. 24-Epibrassinolide ameliorates salt stress effects in the symbiosis Medicago truncatula-Sinorhizobium meliloti and regulates the nodulation in cross-talk with polyamines. (United States)

    López-Gómez, Miguel; Hidalgo-Castellanos, Javier; Lluch, Carmen; Herrera-Cervera, José A


    Brassinosteroids (BRs) are steroid plant hormones that have been shown to be involved in the response to salt stress in cross-talk with other plant growth regulators such as polyamines (PAs). In addition, BRs are involved in the regulation of the nodulation in the rhizobium-legume symbiosis through the alteration of the PAs content in leaves. In this work, we have studied the effect of exogenous 24-epibrassinolide (EBL) in the response to salinity of nitrogen fixation in the symbiosis Medicago truncatula-Sinorhizobium meliloti. Foliar spraying of EBL restored the growth of plants subjected to salt stress and provoked an increment of the nitrogenase activity. In general, PAs levels in leaves and nodules decreased by the salt and EBL treatments, however, the co-treatment with NaCl and EBL augmented the foliar spermine (Spm) concentration. This increment of the Spm levels was followed by a reduction of the membrane oxidative damage and a diminution of the proline accumulation. The effect of BRs on the symbiotic interaction was evaluated by the addition of 0.01, 0.1 and 0.5 μM EBL to the growing solution, which provoked a reduction of the nodule number and an increment of the PAs levels in shoot. In conclusion, foliar treatment with EBL had a protective effect against salt stress in the M. truncatula-S. meliloti symbiosis mediated by an increment of the Spm levels. Treatment of roots with EBL incremented PAs levels in shoot and reduced the nodule number which suggests a cross-talk between PAs and BRs in the nodule suppression and the protection against salt stress. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  7. Regulatory T Cells in Endemic Burkitt Lymphoma Patients Are Associated with Poor Outcomes: A Prospective, Longitudinal Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emily Parsons

    Full Text Available Deficiencies in Epstein-Barr virus (EBV-specific T cell immunosurveillance appear to precede the development of endemic Burkitt lymphoma (eBL, a malaria-associated pediatric cancer common in sub-Saharan Africa. However, T cell contributions to eBL disease progression and survival have not been characterized. Our objective was to investigate regulatory and inflammatory T cell responses in eBL patients associated with clinical outcomes. By multi-parameter flow cytometry, we examined peripheral blood mononuclear cells from 38 eBL patients enrolled in a prospective cohort study in Kisumu, Kenya from 2008-2010, and 14 healthy age-matched Kenyan controls. Children diagnosed with eBL were prospectively followed and outcomes categorized as 2-year event-free survivors, cases of relapses, or those who died. At the time of diagnosis, eBL children with higher CD25+Foxp3+ regulatory T (Treg cell frequencies were less likely to survive than patients with lower Treg frequencies (p = 0·0194. Non-survivors also had higher absolute counts of CD45RA+Foxp3lo naïve and CD45RA-Foxp3hi effector Treg subsets compared to survivors and healthy controls. Once patients went into clinical remission, Treg frequencies remained low in event-free survivors. Patients who relapsed, however, showed elevated Treg frequencies months prior to their adverse event. Neither concurrent peripheral blood EBV load nor malaria infection could explain higher Treg cell frequencies. CD8+ T cell PD-1 expression was elevated in all eBL patients at time of diagnosis, but relapse patients tended to have persistently high PD-1 expression compared to long-term survivors. Non-survivors produced more CD4+ T-cell IL-10 in response to both Epstein-Barr Nuclear Antigen-1 (EBNA-1 (p = 0·026 and the malaria antigen Plasmodium falciparum Schizont Egress Antigen-1 (p = 0·0158 compared to survivors, and were concurrently deficient in (EBNA-1-specific CD8+ T-cell derived IFN-γ production (p = 0·002. In

  8. Optical and electronic proprieties of thin films based on (Z-5-(4-chlorobenzylidene-3-(2-ethoxyphenyl-2 thioxothiazolidin-4-one, (CBBTZ and possible application as exciton-blocking layer in heterojunction organic solar cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morsli M.


    Full Text Available In this work, organic thin film solar cells with structures based on CuPc/C60 bulk heterojunctions, have been fabricated and characterized. The effect of introducing an exciton blocking layer (EBL between the active layer and the metal layer in the solar cell was investigated. For that (Z-5-(4-chlorobenzylidene-3-(2-ethoxyphenyl-2-thioxothiazolidin-4-one, that we called (CBBTZ has been synthesized, characterized and probed as EBL. It was shown that optimized structures containing EBLs resulted in an improvement in solar cell conversion efficiencies. The energy levels corresponding to the highest occupied molecular orbital (HOMO and the lowest unoccupied molecular orbital (LUMO of the CBBTZ have been determined from the first oxidation and reduction potential respectively, using cyclic voltametric (CV measurements. From CV curves, CBBTZ in dichloromethane showed a one electron reversible reduction and oxidation waves. The values of its HOMO and LUMO have been estimated to be 6.42 eV and 3.42 eV respectively. Such values show that CBBTZ could be probed as EBL in organic solar cells based on the ED/EA couple copper phthalocyanine(CuPc/fullerene (C60. The photovoltaic solar cells have been obtained by sequential deposition under vacuum of the different films where their thicknesses were measured in situ by a quartz monitor. When obtained, the averaged efficiency of the cells using the CBBTZ is higher than that achieved without EBL layer.

  9. Child health nurses' perceptions of enquiry-based learning. (United States)

    Glasper, E A

    Since the publication of Fitness for Practice (UKCC, 1999), most preregistration nursing curriculae embrace the principles of enquiry-based learning (EBL) as a method of educating students. EBL uses genuine real-life client scenarios which provide the students with an opportunity to explore a range of issues directly pertaining to client care in a variety of contemporary nursing settings (Long et al, 1999). This evaluative study of one group (n=12) of child branch students conducted during the last EBL session of the course reflects the students' experiences of this method of teaching over a 3-year period. Nominal group technique (Delbecq and Van de Ven, 1971) was utilized to give a quantitative dimension to the reporting and recording of individual student reflections of EBL. The results demonstrate overall satisfaction with this method of student learning. A number of concerns raised by students reflect some of the pitfalls associated with EBL and these have important ramifications for nurse educators and clinical placement mentors. However, the small size limitations of this study do not allow for generalizability.

  10. Diet-morphology correlations in the radiation of South American geophagine cichlids (Perciformes: Cichlidae: Cichlinae). (United States)

    López-Fernández, Hernán; Winemiller, Kirk O; Montaña, Carmen; Honeycutt, Rodney L


    Genera within the South American cichlid tribe Geophagini display specialized feeding and reproductive strategies, with some taxa specialized for both substrate-sifting and mouth brooding. Several lineages within the clade also possess an epibranchial lobe (EBL), a unique pharyngeal structure that has been proposed to have a function in feeding and/or mouth brooding. A recently published genus-level phylogeny of Neotropical cichlids was used as the evolutionary framework for investigating the evolution of morphological features presumably correlated with diet and mouth brooding in the tribe Geophagini. We tested for possible associations between the geophagine epibranchial lobe and benthic feeding and mouth brooding. We also addressed whether the EBL may be associated with unique patterns of diversification in certain geophagine clades. Tests of binary character correlations revealed the EBL was significantly associated with mouth brooding. We also tested for a relationship between diet and morphology. We analyzed stomach contents and morphometric variation among 21 species, with data for two additional species obtained from the literature. Principal Components Analysis revealed axes of morphological variation significantly correlated with piscivory and benthivory, and both morphology and diet were significantly associated with phylogeny. These results suggest that the EBL could be an adaptation for either feeding or mouth brooding. The EBL, however, was not associated with species richness or accelerated rates of phyletic diversification.

  11. Diet-morphology correlations in the radiation of South American geophagine cichlids (Perciformes: Cichlidae: Cichlinae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hernán López-Fernández

    Full Text Available Genera within the South American cichlid tribe Geophagini display specialized feeding and reproductive strategies, with some taxa specialized for both substrate-sifting and mouth brooding. Several lineages within the clade also possess an epibranchial lobe (EBL, a unique pharyngeal structure that has been proposed to have a function in feeding and/or mouth brooding. A recently published genus-level phylogeny of Neotropical cichlids was used as the evolutionary framework for investigating the evolution of morphological features presumably correlated with diet and mouth brooding in the tribe Geophagini. We tested for possible associations between the geophagine epibranchial lobe and benthic feeding and mouth brooding. We also addressed whether the EBL may be associated with unique patterns of diversification in certain geophagine clades. Tests of binary character correlations revealed the EBL was significantly associated with mouth brooding. We also tested for a relationship between diet and morphology. We analyzed stomach contents and morphometric variation among 21 species, with data for two additional species obtained from the literature. Principal Components Analysis revealed axes of morphological variation significantly correlated with piscivory and benthivory, and both morphology and diet were significantly associated with phylogeny. These results suggest that the EBL could be an adaptation for either feeding or mouth brooding. The EBL, however, was not associated with species richness or accelerated rates of phyletic diversification.

  12. Dynamic measurements and simulations of airborne picolitre-droplet coalescence in holographic optical tweezers. (United States)

    Bzdek, Bryan R; Collard, Liam; Sprittles, James E; Hudson, Andrew J; Reid, Jonathan P


    We report studies of the coalescence of pairs of picolitre aerosol droplets manipulated with holographic optical tweezers, probing the shape relaxation dynamics following coalescence by simultaneously monitoring the intensity of elastic backscattered light (EBL) from the trapping laser beam (time resolution on the order of 100 ns) while recording high frame rate camera images (time resolution droplet coalescence in holographic optical traps; assign the origin of key features in the time-dependent EBL intensity; and validate the use of the EBL alone to precisely determine droplet surface tension and viscosity. For low viscosity droplets, two sequential processes are evident: binary coalescence first results from the overlap of the optical traps on the time scale of microseconds followed by the recapture of the composite droplet in an optical trap on the time scale of milliseconds. As droplet viscosity increases, the relaxation in droplet shape eventually occurs on the same time scale as recapture, resulting in a convoluted evolution of the EBL intensity that inhibits quantitative determination of the relaxation time scale. Droplet coalescence was simulated using a computational framework to validate both experimental approaches. The results indicate that time-dependent monitoring of droplet shape from the EBL intensity allows for robust determination of properties such as surface tension and viscosity. Finally, the potential of high frame rate imaging to examine the coalescence of dissimilar viscosity droplets is discussed.

  13. Diet-Morphology Correlations in the Radiation of South American Geophagine Cichlids (Perciformes: Cichlidae: Cichlinae) (United States)

    López-Fernández, Hernán; Winemiller, Kirk O.; Montaña, Carmen; Honeycutt, Rodney L.


    Genera within the South American cichlid tribe Geophagini display specialized feeding and reproductive strategies, with some taxa specialized for both substrate-sifting and mouth brooding. Several lineages within the clade also possess an epibranchial lobe (EBL), a unique pharyngeal structure that has been proposed to have a function in feeding and/or mouth brooding. A recently published genus-level phylogeny of Neotropical cichlids was used as the evolutionary framework for investigating the evolution of morphological features presumably correlated with diet and mouth brooding in the tribe Geophagini. We tested for possible associations between the geophagine epibranchial lobe and benthic feeding and mouth brooding. We also addressed whether the EBL may be associated with unique patterns of diversification in certain geophagine clades. Tests of binary character correlations revealed the EBL was significantly associated with mouth brooding. We also tested for a relationship between diet and morphology. We analyzed stomach contents and morphometric variation among 21 species, with data for two additional species obtained from the literature. Principal Components Analysis revealed axes of morphological variation significantly correlated with piscivory and benthivory, and both morphology and diet were significantly associated with phylogeny. These results suggest that the EBL could be an adaptation for either feeding or mouth brooding. The EBL, however, was not associated with species richness or accelerated rates of phyletic diversification. PMID:22485154

  14. A simple electron-beam lithography system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mølhave, Kristian; Madsen, Dorte Nørgaard; Bøggild, Peter


    A large number of applications of electron-beam lithography (EBL) systems in nanotechnology have been demonstrated in recent years. In this paper we present a simple and general-purpose EBL system constructed by insertion of an electrostatic deflector plate system at the electron-beam exit...... of the column of a scanning electron microscope (SEM). The system can easily be mounted on most standard SEM systems. The tested setup allows an area of up to about 50 x 50 pm to be scanned, if the upper limit for acceptable reduction of the SEM resolution is set to 10 run. We demonstrate how the EBL system can...... be used to write three-dimensional nanostructures by electron-beam deposition. (C) 2004 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved....

  15. Investing in practice: enquiry- and problem-based learning. (United States)

    Long, G; Grandis, S; Glasper, E A

    Enquiry-based learning (EBL) and problem-based learning (PBL) are two similar methods of educating nurses and midwives which have been recommended by the UKCC in its new report 'Fitness for Practice' (UKCC, 1999). The integration of theory and practice within the student programme is the key to bridging the theory/practice gap. The incorporation of EBL and PBL into the curriculum may help resolve this gap. As these methods of education foster learning through the use of real client scenarios it is important to stress that the partnership between clinical and academic staff is of paramount importance. This article explores EBL and PBL from the practitioner's perspective and examines some of the factors necessary for its successful implementation.

  16. Involving mental health service users in nurse education through enquiry-based learning. (United States)

    Rush, Brenda; Barker, Janet H


    Service user involvement and enquiry-based learning (EBL) are two modern approaches to nurse education, which previously have remained separate entities. This article describes an innovative project that brought together the two learning methods within the University of Nottingham. Mental health service users participated actively in the EBL process with student nurses to facilitate learning in the classroom before, during and after mental health placements. The process is described and an evaluation presented with examples of student responses showing how the experience inspired the students and contributed to the development of their understanding of mental health issues in both theory and practice. It is hoped that the article will encourage other health and social care professionals nationally and internationally to realise the potential of integrating service user involvement and EBL.

  17. Performance enhancement of AlGaN-based ultraviolet light-emitting diodes by inserting the last quantum well into electron blocking layer (United States)

    Li, Fangzheng; Wang, Lianshan; Zhao, Guijuan; Meng, Yulin; Li, Huijie; Yang, Shaoyan; Wang, Zhanguo


    The characteristics of AlGaN-based ultraviolet light-emitting diodes (UV LEDs) with the last quantum well inserted into electron blocking layer(EBL) have been investigated numerically in this study. The simulation results indicate that the light-emitting EBL(LEEBL) can suppress electron leakage better than traditional EBL due to the superior electron confinement and hole injection of the quantum well in LEEBL. Besides, the LEEBL with a quantum well closer to active region can further improve the performance of the UV LED owning to better electron blocking and hole injection for the quantum wells in active region. As a result, the output power of the UV LED with the quantum well located in the middle of LEEBL increases by 17.83% and the utilization of LEEBL with a quantum well located closer to the active region can further enhance the output power by 54.11% compared with traditional UV LED.

  18. Effect of Electron Blocking Layer Doping and Composition on the Performance of 310 nm Light Emitting Diodes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tim Kolbe


    Full Text Available The effects of composition and p-doping profile of the AlGaN:Mg electron blocking layer (EBL in 310 nm ultraviolet B (UV-B light emitting diodes (LEDs have been investigated. The carrier injection and internal quantum efficiency of the LEDs were simulated and compared to electroluminescence measurements. The light output power depends strongly on the temporal biscyclopentadienylmagnesium (Cp 2 Mg carrier gas flow profile during growth as well as on the aluminum profile of the AlGaN:Mg EBL. The highest emission power has been found for an EBL with the highest Cp 2 Mg carrier gas flow and a gradually decreasing aluminum content in direction to the p-side of the LED. This effect is attributed to an improved carrier injection and confinement that prevents electron leakage into the p-doped region of the LED with a simultaneously enhanced carrier injection into the active region.

  19. Comparison of error-based and errorless learning for people with severe traumatic brain injury: study protocol for a randomized control trial. (United States)

    Ownsworth, Tamara; Fleming, Jennifer; Tate, Robyn; Shum, David H K; Griffin, Janelle; Schmidt, Julia; Lane-Brown, Amanda; Kendall, Melissa; Chevignard, Mathilde


    Poor skills generalization poses a major barrier to successful outcomes of rehabilitation after traumatic brain injury (TBI). Error-based learning (EBL) is a relatively new intervention approach that aims to promote skills generalization by teaching people internal self-regulation skills, or how to anticipate, monitor and correct their own errors. This paper describes the protocol of a study that aims to compare the efficacy of EBL and errorless learning (ELL) for improving error self-regulation, behavioral competency, awareness of deficits and long-term outcomes after TBI. This randomized, controlled trial (RCT) has two arms (EBL and ELL); each arm entails 8 × 2 h training sessions conducted within the participants' homes. The first four sessions involve a meal preparation activity, and the final four sessions incorporate a multitasking errand activity. Based on a sample size estimate, 135 participants with severe TBI will be randomized into either the EBL or ELL condition. The primary outcome measure assesses error self-regulation skills on a task related to but distinct from training. Secondary outcomes include measures of self-monitoring and self-regulation, behavioral competency, awareness of deficits, role participation and supportive care needs. Assessments will be conducted at pre-intervention, post-intervention, and at 6-months post-intervention. This study seeks to determine the efficacy and long-term impact of EBL for training internal self-regulation strategies following severe TBI. In doing so, the study will advance theoretical understanding of the role of errors in task learning and skills generalization. EBL has the potential to reduce the length and costs of rehabilitation and lifestyle support because the techniques could enhance generalization success and lifelong application of strategies after TBI. ACTRN12613000585729.

  20. Enzootic bovine leukosis: report of eradication and surveillance measures in Italy over an 8-year period (2005-2012). (United States)

    Maresca, C; Costarelli, S; Dettori, A; Felici, A; Iscaro, C; Feliziani, F


    Bovine leukaemia virus (BLV) is associated with enzootic bovine leukosis (EBL). BLV causes malignant lymphoma and lymphosarcoma; however, most BLV infections remain clinically silent in an aleukaemic state. EBL is a notifiable disease, and official control measures include screening or monitoring, precautions at borders, control of movement inside the country, and stamping out. The objective of this study was to evaluate EBL eradication and surveillance measures in Italy from 2005 to 2012. One-hundred twenty-three outbreaks were recorded (1 January 2006 to 31 December 2012) in the National Veterinary Information System (SIMAN) on 7 November 2013. Of these, 101 had occurred in southern Italy. An outbreak usually lasted for a few days, but sometimes lasted for weeks. Some areas were subjected to normal eradication measures, whereas others were subjected to additional eradication measures as a consequence of persisting EBL outbreaks. During the study period, we noted an overall annual decrease from 0.21% in 2005 to 0.08% in 2012 in the herd prevalence rate, from 0.06% in 2005 to 0.04% in 2012 in the herd incidence rate, and from 0.027% in 2005 to 0.015% in 2012 in the animal prevalence rate. Regions officially recognised as EBL-free areas were found to have their own surveillance plans. Differences in their surveillance plans include the type of sample (serum, milk, or both), age at which the animals must be tested (12 or 24 months), and test frequency of herds (annually or every 2, 3, 4, 5, or 6 years). The eradication programme for EBL is difficult to implement in some Italian areas because of several factors such as incomplete herd registry, geographical location and socio-economic conditions of the region. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Differential expression analysis of boron transporters and some stress-related genes in response to 24-epibrassinolide and boron by semi-quantitative RT-PCR in Arabidopsis thaliana (L. Heynh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Surgun Yonca


    Full Text Available Plant steroidal hormones, brassinosteroids (BRs, promote plant developmental processes and enhance tolerance to several abiotic stresses including high boron (B stress. To examine the possible role of BR in high B-induced stress at the transcriptional level, we investigated the response of B transporter genes (BOR1-4, high B-induced genes (MATE, Hsp-like, BR-induced genes (Hsp70-4, Hsp90-1 and other stress-related genes (LTI/COR78, LEA4-5 upon exogenous treatments of 24-epibrassinolide (EBL on Arabidopsis thaliana (L. Heynh exposed to high concentrations of boric acid (BA using semi-quantitative RT-PCR. BA treatments led to down regulation of BOR1 and BOR3 genes in leaf and root tissues and higher concentration of EBL further decreased expression of these genes in roots. The expression of high B-induced genes was observed to be upregulated by 1 μM EBL treatment under high B stress in both tissues of the seedlings. The upregulation of BR-induced genes were clearly evident in root tissues co-treated with 1 μM EBL and BA as compared to BA alone. Higher concentration of EBL was found to be more effective in increasing expression of LTI/COR78 gene in root and LEA4-5 gene in shoot tissues. To our knowledge, this is the first report how exogenous application of EBL modulates high B stress responses at molecular level in model plant Arabidopsis thaliana.

  2. Delayed-onset enzootic bovine leukosis possibly caused by superinfection with bovine leukemia virus mutated in the pol gene. (United States)

    Watanabe, Tadaaki; Inoue, Emi; Mori, Hiroshi; Osawa, Yoshiaki; Okazaki, Katsunori


    Bovine leukemia virus (BLV) is the causative agent of enzootic bovine leucosis (EBL), to which animals are most susceptible at 4-8 years of age. In this study, we examined tumor cells associated with EBL in an 18-year-old cow to reveal that the cells carried at least two different copies of the virus, one of which was predicted to encode a reverse transcriptase (RT) lacking ribonuclease H activity and no integrase. Such a deficient enzyme may exhibit a dominant negative effect on the wild-type RT and cause insufficient viral replication, resulting in delayed tumor development in this cow.

  3. Thin-film optical shutter. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matlow, S.L.


    A specific embodiment of macroconjugated macromolecules, the poly (p-phenylene)'s, has been chosen as the one most likely to meet all of the requirements of the Thin Film Optical Shutter project (TFOS). The reason for this choice is included. In order to be able to make meaningful calculations of the thermodynamic and optical properties of the poly (p-phenylene)'s a new quantum mechanical method was developed - Equilibrium Bond Length (EBL) Theory. Some results of EBL Theory are included.


    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    renewable and alternative source of electrical energy in contrast to conventional silicon photovoltaic devices. ... bilayers [11] and blended devices [12-16], and exciton-blocking layers (EBL) [17]. The considerable ... EXPERIMENTAL. The schematic energy level diagrams of the p-i-n-bulk heterojunction photovoltaic devices.

  5. A new mask exposure and analysis facility

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sligte, E. te; Koster, N.B.; Deutz, A.F.; Staring, W.P.M.


    The introduction of ever higher source powers in EUV systems causes increased risks for contamination and degradation of EUV masks and pellicles. Appropriate testing can help to inventory and mitigate these risks. To this end, we propose EBL2: a laboratory EUV exposure system capable of operating at

  6. A Mini-Library of Sequenced Human DNA Fragments: Linking Bench Experiments with Informatics (United States)

    Dalgleish, Raymond; Shanks, Morag E.; Monger, Karen; Butler, Nicola J.


    We describe the development of a mini-library of human DNA fragments for use in an enquiry-based learning (EBL) undergraduate practical incorporating "wet-lab" and bioinformatics tasks. In spite of the widespread emergence of the polymerase chain reaction (PCR), the cloning and analysis of DNA fragments in "Escherichia coli"…

  7. An Analysis of English Business Letters from the Perspective of Interpersonal Function (United States)

    Xu, Bo


    The purpose of the present study is to find out the features of English business letters. Halliday's systemic functional linguistics is used as the theoretical framework, mainly, interpersonal fucntion. The English business letter (EBL) is an important written text used for international business communication and it has its own features of text.…

  8. What does an enquiry-based approach offer undergraduate ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background. Physiotherapy students in their final year at Stellenbosch University (SU) complete a module that follows an enquiry-based learning (EBL) approach. This module exposes them to higher-order problem solving and was developed to facilitate independent self-directed learning and improved higher-order ...

  9. eBooks Corp partners with the home of the world wide web

    CERN Multimedia


    eBooks Corporation announced that it is collaborating with leading international university and research libraries, including CERN, to develop an eBook lending platform. eBook Library or "EBL" is scheduled for release in select sites in September 2003 and will be officially launched in January 2004 (1/2 Ppage).

  10. Use of a dual reporter plasmid to demonstrate Bactofection with an attenuated AroA(- derivative of Pasteurella multocida B:2.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Othman

    Full Text Available A reporter plasmid pSRG has been developed which expresses red fluorescent protein (RFP from a constitutive prokaryotic promoter within Pasteurella multocida B:2 and green fluorescent protein (GFP from a constitutive eukaryotic promoter within mammalian cells. This construct has been used to determine the location and viability of the bacteria when moving from the extracellular environment into the intracellular compartment of mammalian cells. Invasion assays with embryonic bovine lung (EBL cells and an attenuated AroA(- derivative of Pasteurella multocida B:2 (strain JRMT12, harbouring the plasmid pSRG, showed that RFP-expressing bacteria could be detected intracellularly at 3 h post-invasion. At this stage, some EBL cells harbouring RFP-expressing bacteria were observed to express GFP simultaneously, indicating release of the plasmid into the intracellular environment. At 5 h post-invasion, more EBL cells were expressing GFP, while still harbouring RFP-expressing bacteria. Concurrently, some EBL cells were shown to express only GFP, indicating loss of viable bacteria within these cells. These experiments proved the functionality of the pSRG dual reporter system and the potential of P. multocida B:2 JRMT12 for bactofection and delivery of a DNA vaccine.

  11. Electron Beam Lithography of HSQ and PMMA Resists and Importance of their Properties to Link the Nano World to the Micro World

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kaleli, B.; Aarnink, Antonius A.I.; Smits, Sander M.; Hueting, Raymond Josephus Engelbart; Wolters, Robertus A.M.; Schmitz, Jurriaan


    In this work we investigated the properties of HSQ and PMMA resists focusing on contrast and line width for ebeam lithography (EBL) application. HSQ was found to be a good candidate to have desired line widths but the contrast we obtained was less than it was for PMMA. Since the fluorine based

  12. European bat lyssavirus infection in Spanish bat populations. (United States)

    Serra-Cobo, Jordi; Amengual, Blanca; Abellán, Carlos; Bourhy, Hervé


    From 1992 to 2000, 976 sera, 27 blood pellets, and 91 brains were obtained from 14 bat species in 37 localities in Spain. Specific anti-European bat lyssavirus 1 (EBL1)-neutralizing antibodies have been detected in Myotis myotis, Miniopterus schreibersii, Tadarida teniotis, and Rhinolophus ferrumequinum in the region of Aragon and the Balearic Islands. Positive results were also obtained by nested reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction on brain, blood pellet, lung, heart, tongue, and esophagus-larynx-pharynx of M. myotis, Myotis nattereri, R. ferrumequinum, and M. schreibersii. Determination of nucleotide sequence confirmed the presence of EBL1 RNA in the different tissues. In one colony, the prevalence of seropositive bats over time corresponded to an asymmetrical curve, with a sudden initial increase peaking at 60% of the bats, followed by a gradual decline. Banded seropositive bats were recovered during several years, indicating that EBL1 infection in these bats was nonlethal. At least one of this species (M. schreibersii) is migratory and thus could be partially responsible for the dissemination of EBL1 on both shores of the Mediterranean Sea.

  13. Resist and Exposure Processes for Sub-10-nm Electron and Ion Beam Lithography

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sidorkin, V.A.


    The research work described in this thesis deals with studying the ultimate resolution capabilities of electron and ion beam lithography (EBL and IBL respectively) with a focus on resist and exposure processes. The aim of this research was to enlarge knowledge and improve methods on the formation of

  14. Time-Efficient High-Resolution Large-Area Nano-Patterning of Silicon Dioxide

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lin, Li; Ou, Yiyu; Aagesen, Martin


    A nano-patterning approach on silicon dioxide (SiO2) material, which could be used for the selective growth of III-V nanowires in photovoltaic applications, is demonstrated. In this process, a silicon (Si) stamp with nanopillar structures was first fabricated using electron-beam lithography (EBL...

  15. Multicentric lymphoma in buffaloes in the Amazon region, Brazil

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Cairo H S De Oliveira; Jose D Barbosa; Karine A Damasceno; Geovanni D Cassali; Carlos MC Oliveira; Romulo C Leite; Jenner K P Reis


    .... The disease is similar to Enzootic Bovine Leucosis (EBL) caused by Bovine leukemia virus (BLV) in cattle; however, according to our results and those of other studies, the etiology of these lymphomas in buffalo do not appear to be associated with BLV...

  16. Inhibition of Borna disease virus replication by an endogenous bornavirus-like element in the ground squirrel genome. (United States)

    Fujino, Kan; Horie, Masayuki; Honda, Tomoyuki; Merriman, Dana K; Tomonaga, Keizo


    Animal genomes contain endogenous viral sequences, such as endogenous retroviruses and retrotransposons. Recently, we and others discovered that nonretroviral viruses also have been endogenized in many vertebrate genomes. Bornaviruses belong to the Mononegavirales and have left endogenous fragments, called "endogenous bornavirus-like elements" (EBLs), in the genomes of many mammals. The striking features of EBLs are that they contain relatively long ORFs which have high sequence homology to the extant bornavirus proteins. Furthermore, some EBLs derived from bornavirus nucleoprotein (EBLNs) have been shown to be transcribed as mRNA and probably are translated into proteins. These features lead us to speculate that EBLs may function as cellular coopted genes. An EBLN element in the genome of the thirteen-lined ground squirrel (Ictidomys tridecemlineatus), itEBLN, encodes an ORF with 77% amino acid sequence identity to the current bornavirus nucleoprotein. In this study, we cloned itEBLN from the ground squirrel genome and investigated its involvement in Borna disease virus (BDV) replication. Interestingly, itEBLN, but not a human EBLN, colocalized with the viral factory in the nucleus and appeared to affect BDV polymerase activity by being incorporated into the viral ribonucleoprotein. Our data show that, as do certain endogenous retroviruses, itEBLN potentially may inhibit infection by related exogenous viruses in vivo.

  17. Impact on the Student Experience of Extending Problem-Based and Enquiry-Based Learning (United States)

    Reynolds, Rysia; Saxon, David; Benmore, Graham


    This article reports on extended research into the use of enquiry-based learning (EBL) and problem-based learning (PBL) in a human resource management undergraduate programme. The authors have collected and analysed qualitative and quantitative data over a three-year period, some of which have been previously reported (Reynolds and Benmore, 2003,…

  18. Enquiry-Based Learning and Formative Assessment Environments: Student Perspectives (United States)

    Sambell, Kay


    This paper outlines case study research into first-year students' experiences of enquiry-based learning (EBL) on a year-long introductory theory module. Students were supported to carry out a series of authentic small-scale enquiries involving: (1) working in research teams; (2) gathering, disseminating and analysing data from the field; (3)…

  19. The Impact of Enquiry-Based Learning on Academic Performance and Student Engagement (United States)

    Summerlee, Alastair; Murray, Jacqueline


    Previously, we reported qualitative findings showing that students who experienced a problem- or enquiry-based course (EBL) in a first-year seminar program had greater confidence in their academic abilities, were more engaged, and were better prepared for upper-year courses. In the current paper, we provide quantitative data to substantiate the…

  20. Organic ice resists

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tiddi, William; Elsukova, Anna; Le, Hoa Thanh


    EBL that requires large samples with optically flat surfaces, we patterned on fragile membranes only 5-nm-thin, and 2 x 2 mm2 diamond samples. We created patterns on the nm to sub-mm scale, as well as three-dimensional structures by stacking layers of frozen organic molecules. Finally, using plasma...

  1. A Comparison of Radical Perineal, Radical Retropubic, and Robot-Assisted Laparoscopic Prostatectomies in a Single Surgeon Series

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moben Mirza


    Full Text Available Objective. We sought to compare positive surgical margin rates (PSM, estimated blood loss (EBL, and quality of life outcomes (QOL among perineal (RPP, retropubic (RRP, and robot-assisted laparoscopic (RALP prostatectomies. Methods. Records from 463 consecutive men undergoing RPP (92, RRP (180, or RALP (191 for clinically localized prostate cancer were retrospectively reviewed. Age, percent tumor volume, Gleason score, stage, EBL, PSM, and QOL using the expanded prostate cancer index composite (EPIC were compared. Results. PSM were similar when adjusted for stage, grade, and volume. EBL was significantly less in the RALP (189 ml group compared to both RPP (475 ml and RRP (999 ml groups. When corrected for nerve sparing, there were no differences in erectile function and sexual function amongst the three groups. Urinary summary and pad usage scores showed no significant differences. Conclusion. RPP, RRP, and RALP offer similar surgical and QOL outcomes. RALP and RPP demonstrate less EBL compared to RRP.

  2. The Strategic Development of Learner Autonomy through Enquiry-Based Learning: A Case Study (United States)

    Bramhall, Mike D.; Lewis, Justin; Norcliffe, Allan; Radley, Keith; Waldock, Jeff


    This paper reports on strategic developments to enhance student learner autonomy skills through the use of enquiry-based learning (EBL) in the design of higher education programmes. The UK's Sheffield Hallam University is a recognized Centre of Excellence in Teaching and Learning (CETL) in the field of developing learner autonomy. Central to the…

  3. Developing evidence-based librarianship: practical steps for implementation. (United States)

    Crumley, Ellen; Koufogiannakis, Denise


    Evidence-based librarianship (EBL) is a relatively new concept for librarians. This paper lays out a practical framework for the implementation of EBL. A new way of thinking about research in librarianship is introduced using the well-built question process and the assignment of librarian research questions to one of six domains specific to librarianship. As a profession, librarianship tends to reflect more qualitative, social sciences/humanities in its research methods and study types which tend to be less rigorous and more prone to bias. Randomised controlled trials (RCT) do not have to be placed at the top of an evidence 'hierarchy' for librarianship. Instead, a more encompassing model reflecting librarianship as a whole and the kind of research likely to be done by librarians is proposed. 'Evidence' from a number of disciplines including health sciences, business and education can be utilized by librarians and applied to their practice. However, access to and availability of librarianship literature needs to be further studied. While using other disciplines (e.g. EBHC) as a model for EBL has been explored in the literature, the authors develop models unique to librarianship. While research has always been a minor focus in the profession, moving research into practice is becoming more important and librarians need to consider the issues surrounding research in order to move EBL forward.

  4. Improved carrier injection in GaN-based VCSEL via AlGaN/GaN multiple quantum barrier electron blocking layer. (United States)

    Hsieh, D H; Tzou, A J; Kao, T S; Lai, F I; Lin, D W; Lin, B C; Lu, T C; Lai, W C; Chen, C H; Kuo, H C


    In this report, the improved lasing performance of the III-nitride based vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser (VCSEL) has been demonstrated by replacing the bulk AlGaN electron blocking layer (EBL) in the conventional VCSEL structure with an AlGaN/GaN multiple quantum barrier (MQB) EBL. The output power can be enhanced up to three times from 0.3 mW to 0.9 mW. In addition, the threshold current density of the fabricated device with the MQB-EBL was reduced from 12 kA/cm2 (9.5 mA) to 10.6 kA/cm2 (8.5 mA) compared with the use of the bulk AlGaN EBL. Theoretical calculation results suggest that the improved carrier injection efficiency can be mainly attributed to the partial release of the strain and the effect of quantum interference by using the MQB structure, hence increasing the effective barrier height of the conduction band.

  5. Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    new information results in deeper learning.[2] Group work is the mainstay of enquiry-driven approaches, but students may also do self-directed. Background. Physiotherapy students in their final year at Stellenbosch University (SU) complete a module that follows an enquiry-based learning. (EBL) approach. This module ...

  6. Wikipedia : sama täpne kui päris teatmeteos / Aivar Õepa

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Õepa, Aivar, 1967-


    2001. aastal asutatud Wikipedia ( on vabatahtlike tööl põhinev interneti-teatmeteos. Wikipediat ja Encyclopedia Britannicat võrrelnud teadlased leidsid, et veebientsüklopeedia ei jää täpsuses EB-le alla

  7. ORNL Evaluation of Electrabel Safety Cases for Doel 3 / Tihange 2: Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bass, Bennett Richard [ORNL; Dickson, Terry L [ORNL; Gorti, Sarma B [ORNL; Klasky, Hilda B [ORNL; Nanstad, Randy K [ORNL; Sokolov, Mikhail A [ORNL; Williams, Paul T [ORNL; Server, W. L. [ATI Consulting, Pinehurst, NC


    Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) performed a detailed technical review of the 2015 Electrabel (EBL) Safety Cases prepared for the Belgium reactor pressure vessels (RPVs) at Doel 3 and Tihange 2 (D3/T2). The Federal Agency for Nuclear Control (FANC) in Belgium commissioned ORNL to provide a thorough assessment of the existing safety margins against cracking of the RPVs due to the presence of almost laminar flaws found in each RPV. Initial efforts focused on surveying relevant literature that provided necessary background knowledge on the issues related to the quasilaminar flaws observed in D3/T2 reactors. Next, ORNL proceeded to develop an independent quantitative assessment of the entire flaw population in the two Belgian reactors according to the American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME) Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code, Section XI, Appendix G, Fracture Toughness Criteria for Protection Against Failure, New York (1992 and 2004). That screening assessment of all EBL-characterized flaws in D3/T2 used ORNL tools, methodologies, and the ASME Code Case N-848, Alternative Characterization Rules for QuasiLaminar Flaws . Results and conclusions from the ORNL flaw acceptance assessments of D3/T2 were compared with those from the 2015 EBL Safety Cases. Specific findings of the ORNL evaluation of that part of the EBL structural integrity assessment focusing on stability of the flaw population subjected to primary design transients include the following: ORNL s analysis results were similar to those of EBL in that very few characterized flaws were found not compliant with the ASME (1992) acceptance criterion. ORNL s application of the more recent ASME Section XI (2004) produced only four noncompliant flaws, all due to LOCAs. The finding of a greater number of non-compliant flaws in the EBL screening assessment is due principally to a significantly more restrictive (conservative) criterion for flaw size acceptance used by EBL. ORNL s screening assessment results

  8. Anti-Plasmodium falciparum invasion ligand antibodies in a low malaria transmission region, Loreto, Peru

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Villasis, Elizabeth; Lopez-Perez, Mary; Torres, Katherine


    Background: Erythrocyte invasion by Plasmodium falciparum is a complex process that involves two families; Erythrocyte Binding-Like (EBL) and the Reticulocyte Binding-Like (PfRh) proteins. Antibodies that inhibit merozoite attachment and invasion are believed to be important in mediating naturall...

  9. Effects of 24-epibrassinolide and green light on plastid gene transcription and cytokinin content of barley leaves. (United States)

    Efimova, Marina V; Vankova, Radomira; Kusnetsov, Victor V; Litvinovskaya, Raisa P; Zlobin, Ilya E; Dobrev, Petre; Vedenicheva, Nina P; Savchuk, Alina L; Karnachuk, Raisa A; Kudryakova, Natalia V; Kuznetsov, Vladimir V


    In order to evaluate whether brassinosteroids (BS) and green light regulate the transcription of plastid genes in a cross-talk with cytokinins (CKs), transcription rates of 12 plastid genes (ndhF, rrn23, rpoB, psaA, psaB, rrn16, psbA, psbD, psbK, rbcL, atpB, and trnE/trnY) as well as the accumulation of transcripts of some photoreceptors (PHYA, CRY2, CRY1A, and CRY1B) and signaling (SERK and CAS) genes were followed in detached etiolated barley leaves exposed to darkness, green or white light ±1μm 24-epibrassinolide (EBL). EBL in the dark was shown to up-regulate the transcription of 12 plastid genes, while green light activated 10 genes and the EBL combined with the green light affected the transcription of only two genes (psaB and rpoB). Green light inhibited the expression of photoreceptor genes, except for CRY1A. Under the green light, EBL practically did not affect the expression of CRY1A, CAS and SERK genes, but it reduced the influence of white light on the accumulation of CAS, CRY1A, CRY1B, and SERK gene transcripts. The total content of BS in the dark and under white light remained largely unchanged, while under green light the total content of BRs (brassinolide, castasterone, and 6-deoxocastasterone) and HBRs (28-homobrassinolide, 28-homocastasterone, and 6-deoxo-28-homocastasterone) increased. The EBL-dependent up-regulation of plastome transcription in the dark was accompanied by a significant decrease in CK deactivation by O-glucosylation. However, no significant effect on the content of active CKs was detected. EBL combined with green light moderately increased the contents of trans-zeatin and isopentenyladenine, but had a negative effect on cis-zeatin. The most significant promotive effect of EBL on active CK bases was observed in white light. The data obtained suggest the involvement of CKs in the BS- and light-dependent transcription regulation of plastid genes. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Assessment of the Combined Effect of Epstein–Barr Virus and Plasmodium falciparum Infections on Endemic Burkitt Lymphoma Using a Multiplex Serological Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruth Aguilar


    Full Text Available Epstein–Barr virus (EBV is a necessary cause of endemic Burkitt lymphoma (eBL, while the role of Plasmodium falciparum in eBL remains uncertain. This study aimed to generate new hypotheses on the interplay between both infections in the development of eBL by investigating the IgG and IgM profiles against several EBV and P. falciparum antigens. Serum samples collected in a childhood study in Malawi (2005–2006 from 442 HIV-seronegative children (271 eBL cases and 171 controls between 1.4 and 15 years old were tested by quantitative suspension array technology against a newly developed multiplex panel combining 4 EBV antigens [Z Epstein–Barr replication activator protein (ZEBRA, early antigen-diffuse component (EA-D, EBV nuclear antigen 1, and viral capsid antigen p18 subunit (VCA-p18] and 15 P. falciparum antigens selected for their immunogenicity, role in malaria pathogenesis, and presence in different parasite stages. Principal component analyses, multivariate logistic models, and elastic-net regressions were used. As expected, elevated levels of EBV IgG (especially against the lytic antigens ZEBRA, EA-D, and VCA-p18 were strongly associated with eBL [high vs low tertile odds ratio (OR = 8.67, 95% confidence interval (CI = 4.81–15.64]. Higher IgG responses to the merozoite surface protein 3 were observed in children with eBL compared with controls (OR = 1.29, 95% CI = 1.02–1.64, showing an additive interaction with EBV IgGs (OR = 10.6, 95% CI = 5.1–22.2, P = 0.05. Using elastic-net regression models, eBL serological profile was further characterized by lower IgM levels against P. falciparum preerythrocytic-stage antigen CelTOS and EBV lytic antigen VCA-p18 compared with controls. In a secondary analysis, abdominal Burkitt lymphoma had lower IgM to EBV and higher IgG to EA-D levels than cases with head involvement. Overall, this exploratory study confirmed the strong role of EBV in eBL and identified

  11. Male sex may not be associated with worse outcomes in primary all-posterior adult spinal deformity surgery: a multicenter analysis. (United States)

    Bumpass, David B; Lenke, Lawrence G; Gum, Jeffrey L; Shaffrey, Christopher I; Smith, Justin S; Ames, Christopher P; Bess, Shay; Neuman, Brian J; Klineberg, Eric; Mundis, Gregory M; Schwab, Frank; Lafage, Virginie; Kim, Han Jo; Burton, Douglas C; Kebaish, Khaled M; Hostin, Richard; Lafage, Renaud; Kelly, Michael P


    OBJECTIVE Adolescent spine deformity studies have shown that male patients require longer surgery and have greater estimated blood loss (EBL) and complications compared with female patients. No studies exist to support this relationship in adult spinal deformity (ASD). The purpose of this study was to investigate associations between sex and complications, deformity correction, and health-related quality of life (HRQOL) in patients with ASD. It was hypothesized that male ASD patients would have greater EBL, longer surgery, and more complications than female ASD patients. METHODS A multicenter ASD cohort was retrospectively queried for patients who underwent primary posterior-only instrumented fusions with a minimum of 5 levels fused. The minimum follow-up was 2 years. Primary outcomes were EBL, operative time, intra-, peri-, and postoperative complications, radiographic correction, and HRQOL outcomes (Oswestry Disability Index, SF-36, and Scoliosis Research Society-22r Questionnaire). Poisson multivariate regression was used to control for age, comorbidities, and levels fused. RESULTS Ninety male and 319 female patients met the inclusion criteria. Male patients had significantly greater mean EBL (2373 ml vs 1829 ml, p = 0.01). The mean operative time, transfusion requirements, and final radiographic measurements did not differ between sexes. Similarly, changes in HRQOL showed no significant differences. Finally, there were no sex differences in the incidence of complications (total, major, or minor) at any time point after controlling for age, body mass index, comorbidities, and levels fused. CONCLUSIONS Despite higher EBL, male ASD patients did not experience more complications or require less deformity correction at the 2-year follow-up. HRQOL scores similarly showed no sex differences. These findings differ from adolescent deformity studies, and surgeons can counsel patients that sex is unlikely to influence the outcomes and complication rates of primary all

  12. Effect of exogenous H2O2 on antioxidant enzymes of Brassica juncea L. seedlings in relation to 24-epibrassinolide under chilling stress. (United States)

    Kumar, Manish; Sirhindi, Geetika; Bhardwaj, Renu; Kumar, Sandeep; Jain, Gagandeep


    Hydrogen peroxide is most stable molecule among reactive oxygen species, which play a vital role in growth and development of plant as signaling molecule at low concentration in response to various abiotic and biotic stresses. Exogenous application of H2O2 is known to induce chilling tolerance in plants. Brassinosteroids are plant steroid hormones known for their anti-stress properties. In this study, effect of exogenous H2O2 on antioxidant defense system of Brassica juncea L. seedlings was investigated in 24-epibrassinolide (24-EBL) treated and untreated seedlings under chilling stress. The surface sterilized seeds of B. juncea L. were germinated in petriplates containing different concentrations of H2O2 alone and in combination with 10(-8) M 24-EBL. Chilling treatment (4 degrees C) was given to 10-days old seedlings grown in different treatments for 6 h daily up to 3 days. 24 h recovery period was given to chilling treated seedlings by placing at 25 degrees C + 2 degrees C and harvested for antioxidant enzymes on 14th day after sowing (DAS). Treatment of 24-EBL in combination with H2O2 (15 and 20 mM) helped in reducing the toxicity of seed and seedlings due to H2O2 exposure on their germination rate, shoot and root length respectively. 24-EBL treatment at seed and seedling stage helped in alleviating the toxic effect of H2O2 through antioxidant defense system by increasing the activities of various enzymes involved in antioxidant defense system such as catalase (CAT, E.C., ascorbate peroxidase (APOX, E.C., and superoxide dismutase (SOD, E.C. In conclusion, exogenous pretreatment of H2O2 to seeds of B. juncea L. adapted the seedlings to tolerate chilling stress, which was further ameliorated in combination of H2O2 with 24-EBL.

  13. Extragalactic background light: a measurement at 400 nm using dark cloud shadow - II. Spectroscopic separation of the dark cloud's light, and results★ (United States)

    Mattila, K.; Väisänen, P.; Lehtinen, K.; von Appen-Schnur, G.; Leinert, Ch.


    In a project aimed at measuring the optical extragalactic background light (EBL), we are using the shadow of a dark cloud. We have performed, with the ESO VLT/FORS, spectrophotometry of the surface brightness towards the high-galactic-latitude dark cloud Lynds 1642. A spectrum representing the difference between the opaque core of the cloud and several unobscured positions around the cloud was presented in Paper I. The topic of this paper is the separation of the scattered starlight from the dark cloud itself which is the only remaining foreground component in this difference. While the scattered starlight spectrum has the characteristic Fraunhofer lines and the discontinuity at 400 nm, typical of integrated light of galaxies, the EBL spectrum is a smooth one without these features. As template for the scattered starlight, we make use of the spectra at two semitransparent positions. The resulting EBL intensity at 400 nm is IEBL = 2.9 ± 1.1 10-9 erg cm-2 s-1 sr-1 Å-1 or 11.6 ± 4.4 nW m-2sr-1, which represents a 2.6σ detection; the scaling uncertainty is +20 per cent/-16 per cent. At 520 nm, we have set a 2σ upper limit of IEBL ≤4.5 10-9 erg cm-2 s-1 sr-1 Å-1 or ≤ 23.4 nW m-2sr-1 +20 per cent/-16 per cent. Our EBL value at 400 nm is ≳ 2 times as high as the integrated light of galaxies. No known diffuse light sources, such as light from Milky Way halo, intra-cluster or intra-group stars appear capable of explaining the observed EBL excess over the integrated light of galaxies.

  14. A preliminary oncologic outcome and postoperative complications in patients undergoing robot-assisted radical cystectomy: Initial experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satoru Muto


    Full Text Available Purpose: Robot-assisted radical cystectomy (RARC was originally intended to replace open radical cystectomy (ORC as a minimally invasive surgery for patients with invasive bladder cancer. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the advantages of robotic surgery, comparing perioperative and oncologic outcomes between RARC and ORC. Materials and Methods: Between June 2012 and August 2016, 49 bladder cancer patients were given a radical cystectomy, 21 robotically and 28 by open procedure. We compared the clinical variables between the RARC and ORC groups. Results: In the RARC group, the median estimated blood loss (EBL during cystectomy, total EBL, operative time during cystectomy, and total operative time were 0 mL, 457.5 mL, 199 minutes, and 561 minutes, respectively. EBL during cystectomy (p<0.001, total EBL (p<0.001, and operative time during cystectomy (p=0.003 in the RARC group were significantly lower compared with the ORC group. Time to resumption of a regular diet (p<0.001 and length of stay (p=0.017 were also significantly shorter compared with the ORC group. However, total operative time in the RARC group (median, 561 minutes was significantly longer compared with the ORC group (median, 492.5 minutes; p=0.015. Conclusions: This Japanese study presented evidence that RARC yields benefits in terms of BL and time to regular diet, while consuming greater total operative time. RARC may be a minimally invasive surgical alternative to ORC with less EBL and shorter length of stay.

  15. Band ligation of gastric antral vascular ectasia is a safe and effective endoscopic treatment. (United States)

    Keohane, John; Berro, Wael; Harewood, Gavin C; Murray, Frank E; Patchett, Stephen E


    Gastric antral vascular ectasia (GAVE) or 'watermelon stomach' is a rare and often misdiagnosed cause of occult upper gastrointestinal bleeding. Treatment includes conservative measures such as transfusion and endoscopic therapy. A recent report suggests that endoscopic band ligation (EBL) offers an effective alternative treatment. The aim of the present study is to demonstrate our experiences with this novel technique, and to compare argon plasma coagulation (APC) with EBL in terms of safety and efficacy. A retrospective analysis of all endoscopies with a diagnosis of GAVE was carried out between 2004 and 2010. Case records were examined for information pertaining to the number of procedures carried out, mean blood transfusions, mean hemoglobin, and complications. A total of 23 cases of GAVE were treated. The mean age was 73.9 (55-89) years. Female to male ratio was 17:6 and mean follow up was 26 months. Eight patients were treated with EBL with a mean number of treatments of 2.5 (1-5). This resulted in a statistically significant improvement in the endoscopic appearance and a trend towards fewer transfusions. Of the eight patients treated with EBL, six (75%) patients had previously failed APC treatment despite having a mean of 4.7 sessions. Band ligation was not associated with any short- or medium-term complications. The 15 patients who had APC alone had a mean of four (1-11) treatments. Only seven (46.7%) of these patients had any endoscopic improvement with a mean of four sessions. EBL represents a safe and effective treatment for GAVE. © 2012 The Authors. Digestive Endoscopy © 2012 Japan Gastroenterological Endoscopy Society.

  16. Using scenario tree modelling for targeted herd sampling to substantiate freedom from disease. (United States)

    Blickenstorfer, Sarah; Schwermer, Heinzpeter; Engels, Monika; Reist, Martin; Doherr, Marcus G; Hadorn, Daniela C


    In order to optimise the cost-effectiveness of active surveillance to substantiate freedom from disease, a new approach using targeted sampling of farms was developed and applied on the example of infectious bovine rhinotracheitis (IBR) and enzootic bovine leucosis (EBL) in Switzerland. Relevant risk factors (RF) for the introduction of IBR and EBL into Swiss cattle farms were identified and their relative risks defined based on literature review and expert opinions. A quantitative model based on the scenario tree method was subsequently used to calculate the required sample size of a targeted sampling approach (TS) for a given sensitivity. We compared the sample size with that of a stratified random sample (sRS) with regard to efficiency. The required sample sizes to substantiate disease freedom were 1,241 farms for IBR and 1,750 farms for EBL to detect 0.2% herd prevalence with 99% sensitivity. Using conventional sRS, the required sample sizes were 2,259 farms for IBR and 2,243 for EBL. Considering the additional administrative expenses required for the planning of TS, the risk-based approach was still more cost-effective than a sRS (40% reduction on the full survey costs for IBR and 8% for EBL) due to the considerable reduction in sample size. As the model depends on RF selected through literature review and was parameterised with values estimated by experts, it is subject to some degree of uncertainty. Nevertheless, this approach provides the veterinary authorities with a promising tool for future cost-effective sampling designs.

  17. Using scenario tree modelling for targeted herd sampling to substantiate freedom from disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reist Martin


    Full Text Available Abstract Background In order to optimise the cost-effectiveness of active surveillance to substantiate freedom from disease, a new approach using targeted sampling of farms was developed and applied on the example of infectious bovine rhinotracheitis (IBR and enzootic bovine leucosis (EBL in Switzerland. Relevant risk factors (RF for the introduction of IBR and EBL into Swiss cattle farms were identified and their relative risks defined based on literature review and expert opinions. A quantitative model based on the scenario tree method was subsequently used to calculate the required sample size of a targeted sampling approach (TS for a given sensitivity. We compared the sample size with that of a stratified random sample (sRS with regard to efficiency. Results The required sample sizes to substantiate disease freedom were 1,241 farms for IBR and 1,750 farms for EBL to detect 0.2% herd prevalence with 99% sensitivity. Using conventional sRS, the required sample sizes were 2,259 farms for IBR and 2,243 for EBL. Considering the additional administrative expenses required for the planning of TS, the risk-based approach was still more cost-effective than a sRS (40% reduction on the full survey costs for IBR and 8% for EBL due to the considerable reduction in sample size. Conclusions As the model depends on RF selected through literature review and was parameterised with values estimated by experts, it is subject to some degree of uncertainty. Nevertheless, this approach provides the veterinary authorities with a promising tool for future cost-effective sampling designs.

  18. Test of models of the cosmic infrared background with multiwavelength observations of the blazar 1ES 1218+30.4 in 2009

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Archambault, S. [Physics Department, McGill University, Montreal, QC H3A 2T8 (Canada); Arlen, T.; Aune, T. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of California, Los Angeles, CA 90095 (United States); Beilicke, M.; Buckley, J. H.; Bugaev, V.; Dickherber, R. [Department of Physics, Washington University, St. Louis, MO 63130 (United States); Benbow, W. [Fred Lawrence Whipple Observatory, Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, Amado, AZ 85645 (United States); Bird, R.; Collins-Hughes, E. [School of Physics, University College Dublin, Belfield, Dublin 4 (Ireland); Böttcher, M. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Ohio University, Clippinger 339, Athens, OH 45701-2979 (United States); Bouvier, A. [Santa Cruz Institute for Particle Physics and Department of Physics, University of California, Santa Cruz, CA 95064 (United States); Ciupik, L. [Astronomy Department, Adler Planetarium and Astronomy Museum, Chicago, IL 60605 (United States); Connolly, M. P. [School of Physics, National University of Ireland Galway, University Road, Galway (Ireland); Cui, W.; Feng, Q. [Department of Physics, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN 47907 (United States); Dumm, J. [School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN 55455 (United States); Errando, M. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Barnard College, Columbia University, New York, NY 10027 (United States); Falcone, A. [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Pennsylvania State University, 525 Davey Lab, University Park, PA 16802 (United States); Federici, S., E-mail: [DESY, Platanenallee 6, D-15738 Zeuthen (Germany); and others


    We present the results of a multi-wavelength campaign targeting the blazar 1ES 1218+30.4 with observations with the 1.3 m McGraw-Hill optical telescope, the Rossi X-ray Timing Explorer (RXTE), the Fermi Gamma-Ray Space Telescope, and the Very Energetic Radiation Imaging Telescope Array System (VERITAS). The RXTE and VERITAS observations were spread over a 13 day period and revealed clear evidence for flux variability, and a strong X-ray and γ-ray flare on 2009 February 26 (MJD 54888). The campaign delivered a well-sampled broadband energy spectrum with simultaneous RXTE and VERITAS very high energy (VHE, >100 GeV) observations, as well as contemporaneous optical and Fermi observations. The 1ES 1218+30.4 broadband energy spectrum—the first with simultaneous X-ray and VHE γ-ray energy spectra—is of particular interest as the source is located at a high cosmological redshift for a VHE source (z = 0.182), leading to strong absorption of VHE gamma rays by photons from the optical/infrared extragalactic background light (EBL) via γ{sub VHE} + γ{sub EBL} → e {sup +} e {sup –} pair-creation processes. We model the data with a one-zone synchrotron self-Compton (SSC) emission model and with the extragalactic absorption predicted by several recent EBL models. We find that the observations are consistent with the SSC scenario and all the EBL models considered in this work. We discuss observational and theoretical avenues to improve on the EBL constraints.

  19. Open reduction and internal fixation of acetabulum fractures: does timing of surgery affect blood loss and OR time? (United States)

    Dailey, Steven K; Archdeacon, Michael T


    The purpose of this study was to investigate the timing of surgical intervention for fractures of the acetabulum and its influence on perioperative factors. Retrospective review. Level I trauma center. Two hundred eighty-eight consecutive patients who sustained either posterior wall (PW), associated both column (ABC), or anterior column posterior hemitransverse (ACPHT) acetabulum fractures were included in the study. One hundred seventy-six PW fractures were treated through a Kocher-Langenbeck approach, and 112 ABC/ACPHT fractures were treated through an anterior intrapelvic approach. Estimated blood loss (EBL), operative time. EBL (800 vs. 400 mL), operative time (270 vs.154 minutes), and hospital stay (11 vs. 7 days) were greater for the ABC/ACPHT fractures compared with the PW fractures. When comparing early (≤48 hours) versus late (>48 hours) treatment of PW fractures, there was no difference in EBL (400 vs. 400 mL, P = 0.37) or operative time (150 vs. 156 minutes, P = 0.50). In comparison of early versus late treatment of ABC/ACPHT fractures, no significant difference was noted in EBL (725 vs. 800 mL, P = 0.30) or operative time (258.5 vs. 272 minutes, P = 0.21). We found no advantage or disadvantage in terms of EBL or operative time for early (≤48 hours) versus late (>48 hours) fixation for either PW or ABC/ACPHT acetabular fractures. Therapeutic Level III. See Instructions for Authors for a complete description of levels of evidence.

  20. Association of Epsilon-Aminocaproic Acid With Blood Loss and Risk of Transfusion After Periacetabular Osteotomy: A Retrospective Cohort Study. (United States)

    McLawhorn, Alexander S; Levack, Ashley E; Fields, Kara G; Sheha, Evan D; DelPizzo, Kathryn R; Sink, Ernest L


    Periacetabular osteotomy (PAO) reorients the acetabular cartilage through a complex series of pelvic osteotomies, which risks significant blood loss often necessitating blood transfusion. Therefore, it is important to identify effective strategies to manage blood loss and decrease morbidity after PAO. The purpose of this study was to determine the association of epsilon-aminocaproic acid (EACA), an antifibrinolytic agent, with blood loss from PAO. Ninety-three patients out of 110 consecutive patients that underwent unilateral PAO for acetabular dysplasia met inclusion criteria. Fifty patients received EACA intraoperatively. Demographics, autologous blood predonation, anesthetic type, intraoperative estimated blood loss (EBL), cell-saver utilization, and transfusions were recorded. Total blood loss was calculated. Two-sample t-test and chi-square or Fisher's exact test were used as appropriate. The associations between EACA administration and calculated EBL, cell-saver utilization, intraoperative EBL, and maximum difference in postoperative hemoglobin were assessed via multiple regression, adjusting for confounders. Post hoc power analysis demonstrated sufficient power to detect a 250-mL difference in calculated EBL between groups. Alpha level was 0.05 for all tests. No demographic differences existed between groups. Mean blood loss and allogeneic transfusion rates were not statistically significant between groups (P = .093 and .170, respectively). There were no differences in cell-saver utilization, intraoperative EBL, and/or postoperative hemoglobin. There was a higher rate of autologous blood utilization in the group not receiving EACA because of a clinical practice change. EACA administration was not associated with a statistically significant reduction in blood loss or allogeneic transfusion in patients undergoing PAO. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Off-Clamp Robot-Assisted Partial Nephrectomy: How Far Shall We Proceed? (United States)

    Abdel Raheem, Ali; Santok, Glen Denmer; Kim, Lawrence H C; Chang, Ki Don; Lum, Trenton G H; Yoon, Young Eun; Han, Woong Kyu; Choi, Young Deuk; Rha, Koon Ho


    Off-clamp robot-assisted partial nephrectomy (RAPN) is associated with increased intraoperative blood loss compared with on-clamp technique. Our aim was to demonstrate our surgical technique and to determine which tumors are ideally suited for this technique. Sixty-two patients who underwent off-clamp RAPN for renal tumor between 2006 and 2016 were retrospectively analyzed. Increased estimated blood loss (EBL) volume was defined as more than 75 percentile. receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis was used to determine exact cut-off tumor size and the preoperative aspects and dimensions used for an anatomical (PADUA) score that are associated with increased EBL. Risk factors for increased EBL >400 mL and chronic kidney disease (CKD) upstaging were evaluated using logistic regression analysis. The median follow-up period was 20 months (interquartile range [IQR]: 12-84). Patient's mean age, mean tumor size, and mean body mass index were 53.5 ± 12.2 years, 2.6 ± 1.5 cm, and 25 ± 4.1 kg/m2, respectively. Median EBL volume was 200 mL (IQR: 100-400). ROC analysis showed that tumor size of 3.2 cm (area under the curve [AUC] = 0.82, P 400 mL. Patients with tumor size >3.2 cm had longer operative time (116 versus 163 minutes, P = .002), more EBL (150 versus 575 mL, P 400 mL was the only predictor of CKD upstaging (odds ratio: 6.704, P = .009). Our study showed that the risk of intraoperative bleeding and transfusion rate during off-clamp RAPN is increased if tumor size >3.2 cm and/or PADUA complexity score ≥9. Moreover, EBL >400 mL was a risk factor of CKD upstaging, despite zero ischemia. Further larger prospective studies are warranted to validate our results.

  2. A WISE Measurement of the 2:4 mum Galaxy Luminosity Function and its Implications for the Extragalactic Background Light at 3:4 mum (United States)

    Lake, Sean Earl


    The measurement of the the Extragalactic Background Light (EBL) has seen some controversy in recent works, with direct and indirect measures conflicting. Specifi- cally, upper limits based on analyzing the plausible opacity obscuring TeV spectra of blazars suggests that the density of radiation with wavelengths near 3.4 mum is onethirdtoonehalfasintenseasdirectmeasuresofthesame(forexample: Aharonian et al., 2006; Levenson et al., 2007; Matsumoto et al., 2005). The dominant contributor of the EBL at 3.4mum is expected to be ordinary starlight from relatively local, z Function (LF) should provide a useful lower limit to the EBL. While analyses of this sort have been done by others (Dominguez et al., 2011; Helgason et al., 2012), the full sky coverage of the AllWISE database has made it possible for us to improve the measurement of both the LF at 2.4 mum and the EBL using the large public spectroscopic redshift surveys. In order to do so, we had to develop a mathematical model for the measurement of a generalization of the LF, which is the density of galaxies per unit comoving volume per unit luminosity, to the Spectro-Luminosity Functional (SLF), which replaces the density per unit single luminosity, dL, with the density per luminosi- ii ties at all frequencies, DL nu. Our best combined analysis of the data yields present day Shechter Function LF parameters of: L⋆ = 6.4+/-[0.1 stat, 0.3sys]x1010 L2.4mum [solar mass](M⋆ = -21.67+/-[0.02 stat, 0.05sys] AB mag), φ⋆ = 5.8+/-[0.3stat, 0.3sys]x10 -3 Mpc-3, and alpha = -1.050 +/- [0.004stat, 0.03sys]; this implies a present day density of galaxies of 0.08 Mpc-3 brighter that 106 L2.4mum [solar mass] (10-3 Mpc-3 brighter than L⋆) and a luminosity density equivalent to 3.8 x 108 L2.4mum [solar mass] Mpc-3. The net EBL at 3.4mum that our synthesis model produces from galaxies closer than z = 5 is Inu = 9.0 +/- 0.5 kJy sr-1 (nuInu = 8.0 +/- 0.4 nW m-2 sr -1), largely in agreement with similar LF based estimates of the

  3. Understanding the experiences of a group of Yemeni students in an ESL science class (United States)

    Fradi, Gihan

    American classrooms are experiencing an influx of diverse language speaking students while for science educators the study of EBL students' learning in science classrooms is a relatively new field (Lee & Buxton, 2010). At the same time there is a growing emphasis on the importance of science practices (NGSS). This poses significant challenges for science educators who are enacting science curriculum that supports all students' learning. Supporting EBL students' academic achievement is significant because literacy is important for students' access to economic and social benefits that come with science literacy (Atwater, 1996). The purpose of this study was to examine the socio-linguistic challenges that a specific group of EBL students (Yemeni) faced and the extent to which such challenges affected their academic performance in science. These challenges are related to linguistic and cultural interactions, which can lead to conflicts between student and school, thereby interfering with the effectiveness of their education. This study also examined these students' and their science teacher's perspectives on strategies that can be used to facilitate their language acquisition during science class and help them become active participants in the school and classroom communities. The study used a qualitative interpretive research methodology and involved four Arab-American EBL students (two males and two females) from Yemen, who had been in the US for different periods of time. The amount of time these students had been in the US was important to examine differences in their acculturation and challenges they faced. Similarly, the use of female and male student participants was important to understand the impact of gender in the lived experiences of these students. The results of the study indicated that all the participants struggled with linguistic, social, and cultural aspects of their life in an American high school. These in turn led to a sense of being different

  4. High aspect ratio nano-fabrication of photonic crystal structures on glass wafers using chrome as hard mask. (United States)

    Hossain, Md Nazmul; Justice, John; Lovera, Pierre; McCarthy, Brendan; O'Riordan, Alan; Corbett, Brian


    Wafer-scale nano-fabrication of silicon nitride (Si x N y ) photonic crystal (PhC) structures on glass (quartz) substrates is demonstrated using a thin (30 nm) chromium (Cr) layer as the hard mask for transferring the electron beam lithography (EBL) defined resist patterns. The use of the thin Cr layer not only solves the charging effect during the EBL on the insulating substrate, but also facilitates high aspect ratio PhCs by acting as a hard mask while deep etching into the Si x N y . A very high aspect ratio of 10:1 on a 60 nm wide grating structure has been achieved while preserving the quality of the flat top of the narrow lines. The presented nano-fabrication method provides PhC structures necessary for a high quality optical response. Finally, we fabricated a refractive index based PhC sensor which shows a sensitivity of 185 nm per RIU.

  5. Probing the very-high-energy gamma-ray spectral curvature in the blazar PG 1553+113 with the MAGIC telescopes

    CERN Document Server

    Aleksić, J.; Antonelli, L A; Antoranz, P; Babic, A; Bangale, P; Barrio, J A; González, J Becerra; Bednarek, W; Bernardini, E; Biasuzzi, B; Biland, A; Blanch, O; Bonnefoy, S; Bonnoli, G; Borracci, F; Bretz, T; Carmona, E; Carosi, A; Colin, P; Colombo, E; Contreras, J.L; Cortina, J; Covino, S; Da Vela, P; Dazzi, F; De Angelis, A; De Caneva, G; De Lotto, B; Wilhelmi, E de Oña; Mendez, C Delgado; Prester, D Dominis; Dorner, D; Doro, M; Einecke, S; Eisenacher, D; Elsaesser, D; Fidalgo, D; Fonseca, M.V; Font, L; Frantzen, K; Fruck, C; Galindo, D; López, R J García; Garczarczyk, M; Terrats, D Garrido; Gaug, M; Godinović, N; Muñoz, A González; Gozzini, S R; Hadasch, D; Hanabata, Y; Hayashida, M; Herrera, J; Hose, J; Hrupec, D; Idec, W; Kadenius, V; Kellermann, H; Knoetig, M L; Kodani, K; Konno, Y; Krause, J; Kubo, H; Kushida, J; La Barbera, A; Lelas, D; Lewandowska, N; Lindfors, E; Lombardi, S; Longo, F; López, M; López-Coto, R; López-Oramas, A; Lorenz, E; Lozano, I; Makariev, M; Mallot, K; Maneva, G; Mannheim, K; Maraschi, L; Marcote, B; Mariotti, M; Martínez, M; Mazin, D; Menzel, U; Miranda, J M; Mirzoyan, R; Moralejo, A; Munar-Adrover, P; Nakajima, D; Neustroev, V; Niedzwiecki, A; Nilsson, K; Nishijima, K; Noda, K; Orito, R; Overkemping, A; Paiano, S; Palatiello, M; Paneque, D; Paoletti, R; Paredes, J M; Paredes-Fortuny, X; Persic, M; Poutanen, J; Moroni, P G Prada; Prandini, E; Puljak, I; Reinthal, R; Rhode, W; Ribó, M; Rico, J; Garcia, J Rodriguez; Rügamer, S; Saito, T; Saito, K; Satalecka, K; Scalzotto, V; Scapin, V; Schultz, C; Schweizer, T; Sillanpää, A; Sitarek, J; Snidaric, I; Sobczynska, D; Spanier, F; Stamerra, A; Steinbring, T; Storz, J; Strzys, M; Takalo, L; Takami, H; Tavecchio, F; Temnikov, P; Terzić, T; Tescaro, D; Teshima, M; Thaele, J; Tibolla, O; Torres, D F; Toyama, T; Treves, A; Vogler, P; Will, M; Zanin, R; D'Ammando, F; Lähteenmäki, A; Tornikoski, M; Hovatta, T; Readhead, A C S; Max-Moerbeck, W; Richards, J.L


    PG 1553+113 is a very-high-energy (VHE, E>100 GeV) gamma-ray emitter classified as a BL Lac object. Its redshift is constrained by intergalactic absorption lines in the range 0.40.2). The observed curvature is compatible with the extragalactic background light (EBL) imprint predicted by the current generation of EBL models assuming a redshift z~0.4. New constraints on the redshift were derived from the VHE spectrum. These constraints are compatible with previous limits and suggest that the source is most likely located around the optical lower limit, z=0.4. Finally, we find that the synchrotron self-Compton (SSC) model gives a satisfactory description of the observed multi-wavelength spectral energy distribution during the flare.

  6. Strategically aligning a mandala of competencies to advance a transformative vision. (United States)

    Giuse, Nunzia B; Kusnoor, Sheila V; Koonce, Taneya Y; Ryland, Christopher R; Walden, Rachel R; Naylor, Helen M; Williams, Annette M; Jerome, Rebecca N


    This paper offers insight into the processes that have shaped the Eskind Biomedical Library's (EBL's) strategic direction and its alignment to the institution's transformative vision. The academic biomedical library has a notable track record for developing and pioneering roles for information professionals focused on a sophisticated level of information provision that draws from and fuels practice evolutions. The medical center's overall transformative vision informs the creation of a fully aligned library strategic plan designed to effectively contribute to the execution of key organizational goals. Annual goals reflect organizational priorities and contain quantifiable and measurable deliverables. Two strategic themes, facilitating genetic literacy and preserving community history, are described in detail to illustrate the concept of goal setting. The strategic planning model reflects EBL's adaptation to the ever-changing needs of its organization. The paper provides a characterization of a workable model that can be replicated by other institutions.

  7. Effect of 24-epibrassinolide on Brassica napus alternative respiratory pathway, guard cells movements and phospholipid signaling under salt stress. (United States)

    Derevyanchuk, Michael; Kretynin, Sergii; Iakovenko, Oksana; Litvinovskaya, Raisa; Zhabinskii, Vladimir; Martinec, Jan; Blume, Yaroslav; Khripach, Vladimir; Kravets, Volodymyr


    Using Brassica napus roots we observed statistically significant increase in alternative respiratory pathway in response to exogenous 24-epibrassinolide (EBL) under optimal conditions and salinity. Also we observed activation of phospholipid signaling under the same conditions in response to EBL by measuring levels of lipid second messengers - diacylglycerol (DAG) and phosphatidic acid (PA). We found that brassinosteroids cause closure of stomata in isolated leaf disks while inhibitors of alternative oxidase cancelled these effects. This study demonstrates that BRs activate total respiration rate, alternative respiratory pathway, production of PA and DAG, stimulate stomata closure and growth under optimal conditions and salinity. Also, specific inhibitor of brassinosteroids biosynthesis decreased alternative respiratory pathway and production of lipid messengers in rape plants. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Layer-by-layer processed polymer solar cells with self-assembled electron buffer layer (United States)

    Li, Hui; Qi, Zhe; Wang, Jizheng


    Layer-by-layer (LL) process is attracting more and more interests in fabricating polymer solar cells (PSCs) due to its potential advantage in realizing p-i-n like structure. Meanwhile self-organization of electron buffer layer (EBL) is drawing increasing attention. Here, we combined the two and LL processed P3HT:PCBM (poly(3-hexylthiophene):phenyl-C61-butyric acid methyl ester) PSCs with self-assembled PEGN-C60 (poly(ethylene glycol) modified [60]fullerene) EBL. Power conversion efficiency of 4.40% was achieved, considerably higher than that of the traditional P3HT:PCBM bulk-heterojunction device, which is 3.84%. The result demonstrates that the approach we developed here could be very useful in fabricating high-performance PSCs.

  9. High performance gratings for DFB lasers fabricated by direct-write e-beam lithography (United States)

    Steingrüber, R.; Zhang, Z.


    The fabrication of high performance gratings for distributed feedback (DFB) lasers by direct-write (DW) electron-beam lithography (EBL) is presented. This paper starts with a short introduction of the grating theory and various types of gratings commonly used in DFB lasers, laying out resolution requirements and other fabrication challenges. The development and optimization process of the adopted EBL technology is then disclosed to address these challenges. In the end, the state-of-the-art laser performance is demonstrated, validating the technology and also paving ways for more advanced applications in the modern optical networks. We concentrate on grating fabrication technology of DFB lasers for telecommunication applications as the technology has been continuously developed at Fraunhofer Heinrich Hertz Institute (HHI) for more than two decades.

  10. An enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for enzootic bovine leukosis virus antibodies. (United States)

    Todd, D; Adair, B M; Wibberley, G


    An enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for detecting antibodies to enzootic bovine leukosis (EBL) virus is described and its sensitivity compared with that of the agar gel immunodiffusion test (AGIDT) using 198 sera collected in Great Britain. There was 95 per cent agreement between the ELISA and AGIDT, when sera with positive/negative ratio (P/N) values of 1 . 5 or greater were considered positive. A total of 259 out of 264 sera (98 per cent) collected in Northern Ireland had P/N values of less than 1 . 5, the remaining sera having P/N values of 1 . 5 and 1 . 6. As Northern Ireland is clinically and serologically free of EBL infection it is proposed that sera with P/N values of 1 . 5 and 1 . 6, which account for approximately 3.5 per cent of the total sera tested, are considered doubtful and should be tested by another serological test.

  11. Embedded top-coat for reducing the effect out of band radiation in EUV lithography (United States)

    Du, Ke; Siauw, Meiliana; Valade, David; Jasieniak, Marek; Voelcker, Nico; Trefonas, Peter; Thackeray, Jim; Blakey, Idriss; Whittaker, Andrew


    Out of band (OOB) radiation from the EUV source has significant implications for the performance of EUVL photoresists. Here we introduce a surface-active polymer additive, capable of partitioning to the top of the resist film during casting and annealing, to protect the underlying photoresist from OOB radiation. Copolymers were prepared using reversible addition-fragmentation chain transfer (RAFT) polymerization, and rendered surface active by chain extension with a block of fluoro-monomer. Films were prepared from the EUV resist with added surface-active Embedded Barrier Layer (EBL), and characterized using measurements of contact angles and spectroscopic ellipsometry. Finally, the lithographic performance of the resist containing the EBL was evaluated using Electron Beam Lithography exposure

  12. Graphene antidot lattice transport measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mackenzie, David; Cagliani, Alberto; Gammelgaard, Lene


    We investigate graphene devices patterned with a narrow band of holes perpendicular to the current flow, a few-row graphene antidot lattice (FR-GAL). Theoretical reports suggest that a FR-GAL can have a bandgap with a relatively small reduction of the transmission compared to what is typical...... for antidot arrays devices. Graphene devices were fabricated using 100 keV electron beam lithography (EBL) for nanopatterning as well as for defining electrical contacts. Patterns with hole diameter and neck widths of order 30 nm were produced, which is the highest reported pattern density of antidot lattices...... in graphene reported defined by EBL. Electrical measurements showed that devices with one and five rows exhibited field effect mobility of ∼100 cm2/Vs, while a larger number of rows, around 40, led to a significant reduction of field effect mobility (

  13. Rapid identification of genes controlling virulence and immunity in malaria parasites

    KAUST Repository

    Abkallo, Hussein M.


    Identifying the genetic determinants of phenotypes that impact disease severity is of fundamental importance for the design of new interventions against malaria. Here we present a rapid genome-wide approach capable of identifying multiple genetic drivers of medically relevant phenotypes within malaria parasites via a single experiment at single gene or allele resolution. In a proof of principle study, we found that a previously undescribed single nucleotide polymorphism in the binding domain of the erythrocyte binding like protein (EBL) conferred a dramatic change in red blood cell invasion in mutant rodent malaria parasites Plasmodium yoelii. In the same experiment, we implicated merozoite surface protein 1 (MSP1) and other polymorphic proteins, as the major targets of strain-specific immunity. Using allelic replacement, we provide functional validation of the substitution in the EBL gene controlling the growth rate in the blood stages of the parasites.

  14. Comparison of technologies for nano device prototyping with a special focus on ion beams: A review (United States)

    Bruchhaus, L.; Mazarov, P.; Bischoff, L.; Gierak, J.; Wieck, A. D.; Hövel, H.


    Nano device prototyping (NDP) is essential for realizing and assessing ideas as well as theories in the form of nano devices, before they can be made available in or as commercial products. In this review, application results patterned similarly to those in the semiconductor industry (for cell phone, computer processors, or memory) will be presented. For NDP, some requirements are different: thus, other technologies are employed. Currently, in NDP, for many applications direct write Gaussian vector scan electron beam lithography (EBL) is used to define the required features in organic resists on this scale. We will take a look at many application results carried out by EBL, self-organized 3D epitaxy, atomic probe microscopy (scanning tunneling microscope/atomic force microscope), and in more detail ion beam techniques. For ion beam techniques, there is a special focus on those based upon liquid metal (alloy) ion sources, as recent developments have significantly increased their applicability for NDP.

  15. Endemic Burkitt Lymphoma: Long-term Outcome in 87 Patients Who Presented With Paraplegia in Cameroon. (United States)

    Hesseling, P B; Mbah, G; Kouya, F; Kimbi, C; Nfor, P; Kaah, J; Kuruvilla, R; Best, A; Wharin, P


    The reported long-term outcome of endemic Burkitt lymphoma (eBL) patients who present with paraplegia is largely unknown. Records of BL patients treated with comparable short-interval cyclophosphamide chemotherapy schedules between 2004 and 2014 at three Baptist mission hospitals in Cameroon were reviewed. Survivors were followed up and examined at home or in hospital. Eighty-seven of 948 (9.2%) patients had paraplegia at diagnosis. The survival rate in eBL patients with paraplegia at diagnosis was 33% (n = 29) after follow-up of between 2 and 96 (median 40) months. Seven patients (24%) had neurological sequelae and needed rehabilitation. There was no relationship between the duration of symptoms (4 weeks) and the survival rate or the risk to have neurological sequelae. The survival rate and risk for sequelae were similar in patients with confirmed St. Jude stage III and IV diseases.

  16. El pensamiento transdisciplinar en la enseñanza de la administración una pesquisa por su estado del arte entre el año 2000 y 2015

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Antonio Escobar


    Full Text Available El presente artí­culo de revisión es con el fin verificar cómo el pensamiento transdisciplinar se incorpora en los modelos educativos, pedagógicos y didácticos que fundamentan la visión, los contenidos y las prácticas de enseñanza La metodologí­a que se utiliza es la exploración descriptivo transversal, a partir de la búsqueda de los artí­culos en las bases de datos Scielo, Pubmed, Lilacs, Biblioteca Virtual de Salud, ProQuest, Ebrary, Elibro, Medline, Google Academic, Redalyc, Hinary, Scopus y ScienceDirect. Se obtuvieron en total 78 artí­culos de los cuales 49 fueron seleccionados, se agruparon tres cortes cronológicos a saber: 2000 - 2005, 2006 - 2010, 2011- 2015. Finalmente, se concluye que la emergencia de nuevos lenguajes conduce a la aceptación de la transcomplejidad, como una nueva episteme para abordar los procesos que son inherentes a la reflexión por la importancia del será y el quehacer cientí­fico, pedagógico y social de la administración.

  17. Extragalactic background light: a measurement at 400 nm using dark cloud shadow*†- I. Low surface brightness spectrophotometry in the area of Lynds 1642 (United States)

    Mattila, K.; Lehtinen, K.; Väisänen, P.; von Appen-Schnur, G.; Leinert, Ch.


    We present the method and observations for the measurement of the Extragalactic Background Light (EBL) utilizing the shadowing effect of a dark cloud. We measure the surface brightness difference between the opaque cloud core and its unobscured surroundings. In the difference the large atmospheric and Zodiacal light components are eliminated and the only remaining foreground component is the scattered starlight from the cloud itself. Although much smaller, its separation is the key problem in the method. For its separation we use spectroscopy. While the scattered starlight has the characteristic Fraunhofer lines and 400 nm discontinuity, the EBL spectrum is smooth and without these features. Medium resolution spectrophotometry at λ = 380-580 nm was performed with VLT/FORS at ESO of the surface brightness in and around the high-galactic-latitude dark cloud Lynds 1642. Besides the spectrum for the core with AV ≳ 15 mag, further spectra were obtained for intermediate-opacity cloud positions. They are used as proxy for the spectrum of the impinging starlight spectrum and to facilitate the separation of the scattered starlight (cf. Paper II; Mattila et al.). Our spectra reach a precision of ≲ 0.5 × 10-9 erg cm-2 s-1 sr-1 Å-1 as required to measure an EBL intensity in range of ˜1 to a few times 10-9 erg cm-2 s-1 sr-1 Å-1. Because all surface brightness components are measured using the same equipment, the method does not require unusually high absolute calibration accuracy, a condition that has been a problem for some previous EBL projects.

  18. Effectivity of PCR and AGID methods to detect of enzootic bovine leukosis in Indonesia


    Saepulloh M; Sendow I


    Enzootic Bovine Leucosis (EBL) is one of viral diseases in cattle caused by bovine leukemia virus (BLV), from Retroviridae. The virus can be detected using severals methods such as Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR), while antibody can be detected using Agar Gel Immunodifussion (AGID). The aim of this experiment was to study the effectivity of PCR and AGID methods to detect enzootic bovine leukosis virus in Indonesia. Samples of peripheral blood leukocyte (PBL) were collected from cattles those ...

  19. Enquiry-based learning and formative assessment environments: student perspectives


    Sambell, Kay


    This paper outlines case study research into first-year students’ experiences of enquiry based learning (EBL) on a year-long introductory theory module. Students were supported to carry out a series of authentic small-scale enquiries involving: • working in research teams; • gathering, disseminating and analysing data from the field; • sharing their interim findings as ‘work-in-progress’ reports; and • becoming involved in peer communities via a student conference. Semi-structured interviews ...

  20. Estimation of bovine leukemia virus (BLV) proviral load harbored by lymphocyte subpopulations in BLV-infected cattle at the subclinical stage of enzootic bovine leucosis using BLV-CoCoMo-qPCR


    Panei, Carlos Javier; Takeshima, Shin-nosuke; Omori, Takashi; Nunoya, Tetsuo; Davis, William C.; Ishizaki, Hiroshi; Matoba, Kazuhiro; Aida, Yoko


    Background Bovine leukemia virus (BLV) is associated with enzootic bovine leukosis (EBL), which is the most common neoplastic disease of cattle. BLV infection may remain clinically silent at the aleukemic (AL) stage, cause persistent lymphocytosis (PL), or, more rarely, B cell lymphoma. BLV has been identified in B cells, CD2+ T cells, CD3+ T cells, CD4+ T cells, CD8+ T cells, ?/? T cells, monocytes, and granulocytes in infected cattle that do not have tumors, although the most consistently i...

  1. Download this PDF file

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    como espaços deconservação e cultivo de alimentos: um estudo na cidade de Rosário. Oeste (Mato Grosso, Brasil). Boletim do. Museu Paraense Emílio Goeldi, 3(3): 329-. 341. Ayodele, A.E. (2005): The medicinally important leafy vegetables of South-Western Nigeria. (http// ). Babu ...

  2. Extragalactic background light from hierarchical galaxy formation. Gamma-ray attenuation up to the epoch of cosmic reionization and the first stars

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Inoue, Yoshiyuki [Stanford Univ., CA (United States). Kavli Inst. for Particle Astrophysics and Cosmology; Inoue, Susumu [Max Planck Inst. for Nuclear Physics, Heidelberg (Germany); Univ. of Tokyo (Japan). Inst. for Cosmic Ray Research; Kobayashi, Masakazu A. R. [Ehime Univ., Matsuyama (Japan). Research Center for Space and Cosmic Evolution; Makiya, Ryu [Kyoto Univ. (Japan). Dept. of Astronomy; Niino, Yuu [National Astronomical Observatory of Japan, Mitaka (Tokyo). Optical and Infrared Astronomy Division; Totani, Tomonori [Kyoto Univ. (Japan). Dept. of Astronomy


    Here, we present a new model of the extragalactic background light (EBL) and corresponding γγ opacity for intergalactic gamma-ray absorption from z = 0 up to z = 10, based on a semi-analytical model of hierarchical galaxy formation that reproduces key observed properties of galaxies at various redshifts. Including the potential contribution from Population III stars and following the cosmic reionization history in a simplified way, the model is also broadly consistent with available data concerning reionization, particularly the Thomson scattering optical depth constraints from Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe (WMAP). In comparison with previous EBL studies up to z ~ 3-5, our predicted γγ opacity is in general agreement for observed gamma-ray energy below 400/(1 + z) GeV, whereas it is a factor of ~2 lower above this energy because of a correspondingly lower cosmic star formation rate, even though the observed ultraviolet (UV) luminosity is well reproduced by virtue of our improved treatment of dust obscuration and direct estimation of star formation rate. Moreover, the horizon energy at which the gamma-ray opacity is unity does not evolve strongly beyond z ~ 4 and approaches ~20 GeV. The contribution of Population III stars is a minor fraction of the EBL at z = 0, and is also difficult to distinguish through gamma-ray absorption in high-z objects, even at the highest levels allowed by the WMAP constraints. Nevertheless, the attenuation due to Population II stars should be observable in high-z gamma-ray sources by telescopes such as Fermi or the Cherenkov Telescope Array and provide a valuable probe of the evolving EBL in the rest-frame UV. Our detailed results of our model are publicly available in numerical form at

  3. A Molecular Beam Deposition of DNA Nanometer Films (United States)


    layers (EBL) in organic light-emitting devices (OLEDs), showing significant enhancement in both luminance and device efficiency over conventional...emission only when it intercalates within the DNA double helix structure. Figure 4 shows the photoluminescence (PL) spectra of several DNA-CTMA films with...Characteristic17-19 sharp emission lines at 612, 618, and 625 nm were observed due to the Eu3 + 4f inner shell transitions. The insert in Figure 5 shows an

  4. Development and Validation of a Novel Adult Spinal Deformity Surgical Invasiveness Score: Analysis of 464 Patients. (United States)

    Neuman, Brian J; Ailon, Tamir; Scheer, Justin K; Klineberg, Eric; Sciubba, Daniel M; Jain, Amit; Zebala, Lukas P; Passias, Peter G; Daniels, Alan H; Burton, Douglas C; Protopsaltis, Themi S; Hamilton, D Kojo; Ames, Christopher P


    A surgical invasiveness index (SII) has been validated in general spine procedures but not adult spinal deformity (ASD). To assess the ability of the SII to determine the invasiveness of ASD surgery and to create and validate a novel ASD index incorporating deformity-specific factors, which could serve as a standardized metric to compare outcomes and risk stratification of different ASD procedures for a given deformity. Four hundred sixty-four patients who underwent ASD surgery between 2009 and 2012 were identified in 2 multicenter prospective registries. Multivariable models of estimated blood loss (EBL) and operative time were created using deformity-specific factors. Beta coefficients derived from these models were used to attribute points to each component. Scoring was iteratively refined to determine the R 2 value of multivariate models of EBL and operative time using adult spinal deformity-surgical (ASD-S) as an independent variable. Similarly, we determined weighting of postoperative changes in radiographical parameters, which were incorporated into another index (adult spinal deformity-surgical and radiographical [ASD-SR]). The ability of these models to predict surgical invasiveness was assessed in a validation cohort. Each index was a significant, independent predictor of EBL and operative time ( P deformity-specific components, more accurately predicts the magnitude of ASD surgery than does the SII.

  5. Enhancing Carrier Injection Using Graded Superlattice Electron Blocking Layer for UVB Light-Emitting Diodes

    KAUST Repository

    Janjua, Bilal


    We have studied enhanced carrier injection by having an electron blocking layer (EBL) based on a graded superlattice (SL) design. Here, we examine, using a selfconsistent 6 × 6 k.p method, the energy band alignment diagrams under equilibrium and forward bias conditions while also considering carrier distribution and recombination rates (Shockley-Read-Hall, Auger, and radiative recombination rates). The graded SL is based on AlxGa1-xN (larger bandgap) Al0:5Ga0:5N (smaller bandgap) SL, where x is changed from 0.8 to 0.56 in steps of 0.06. Graded SL was found to be effective in reducing electron leakage and enhancing hole injection into the active region. Due to our band engineering scheme for EBL, four orders-of-magnitude enhancement were observed in the direct recombination rate, as compared with the conventional bulk EBL consisting of Al0:8Ga0:2N. An increase in the spatial overlap of carrier wavefunction was obtained due to polarization-induced band bending in the active region. An efficient single quantum-well ultraviolet-B light-emitting diode was designed, which emits at 280 nm. This is the effective wavelength for water disinfection application, among others.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frank Krennrich


    Full Text Available The scope of this paper is to discuss two important questions relevant for TeV γ-ray astronomy; the pursuit to reveal the origin of cosmic rays in our galaxy, and the opacity of the universe in γ-rays. The origin of cosmic rays stipulated the field of TeV astronomy in the first place, and led to the development of the atmospheric Cherenkov technique; significant progress has been made in the last decade through the detection of several supernova remnants, the primary suspects for harboring the acceleration sites of cosmic rays. TeV γ-rays propagate mostly unhindered through the galactic plane, making them excellent probes of processes in SNRs and other galactic sources. Key results related to the SNR origin of cosmic rays are discussed. TeV γ-ray spectra from extragalactic sources experience significant absorption when traversing cosmological distances. The opacity of the universe to γ-rays above 10 GeV progressively increases with energy and redshift; the reason lies in their pair production with ambient soft photons from the extragalactic background light (EBL. While this limits the γ-ray horizon, it offers the opportunity to gain information about cosmology, i.e. the EBL intensity, physical conditions in intergalactic space, and potentially new interaction processes. Results and implications pertaining to the EBL are given.

  7. Build up and integration of the rocket-borne Cosmic Infrared Background ExpeRiment-2 (United States)

    Lanz, Alicia E.; Arai, Toshiaki; Battle, John; Bock, James; Cooray, Asantha R.; Hristov, Viktor; Kojima, Tomoya; Korngut, Phillip; Lee, Dae Hee; Mason, Peter; Matsumoto, Toshio; Matsuura, Shuji; Nguyen, Chi; Shirahata, Mai; Takahashi, Aoi; Tsumurai, Kohji; Wada, Takehiko; Wang, Shiang-Yu; Zemcov, Michael B.


    The Cosmic Infrared Background ExpeRiment, CIBER-2, is a near-infrared rocket-borne instrument designed to conduct comprehensive multi-band measurements of extragalactic background light anisotropy on arcsecond to degree angular scales. Recent measurements of the near-infrared Extragalactic Background Light (EBL) anisotropy find excess spatial power above the level predicted by known galaxy populations at large angular scales. CIBER-2 is designed to make measurements of the EBL anisotropy with the sensitivity, spectral range, and spectral resolution required to disentangle the contributions to the EBL from various sources throughout cosmic history.CIBER-2 consists of a 28.5 cm Cassegrain telescope assembly, imaging optics, and cryogenics mounted aboard a sounding rocket. Two dichroic beam-splitters spectrally subdivide the incident radiation into three optical paths, which are further subdivided in two wavelength bands per path, for a total of six observational wavelength bands that span the optical to the near-infrared and produce six 1.2 by 2.4 degree images recorded by three 2048 x 2048 HAWAII-2RG detector arrays. A small portion of each detector is also dedicated to absolute spectrophotometric imaging provided by a linear-variable filter. The instrument has several novel cryogenic mechanisms, a cryogenically-cooled pop-up baffle that extends during observations to provide radiative shielding and an electromagnetic cold shutter. We provide an overview of the instrument and current integration.


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abeysekara, A. U. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT 84112 (United States); Archambault, S. [Physics Department, McGill University, Montreal, QC H3A 2T8 (Canada); Archer, A.; Buckley, J. H.; Bugaev, V. [Department of Physics, Washington University, St. Louis, MO 63130 (United States); Aune, T. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of California, Los Angeles, CA 90095 (United States); Barnacka, A. [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Benbow, W.; Cerruti, M. [Fred Lawrence Whipple Observatory, Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, Amado, AZ 85645 (United States); Bird, R. [School of Physics, University College Dublin, Belfield, Dublin 4 (Ireland); Biteau, J. [Santa Cruz Institute for Particle Physics and Department of Physics, University of California, Santa Cruz, CA 95064 (United States); Cardenzana, J. V. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Iowa State University, Ames, IA 50011 (United States); Chen, X. [Institute of Physics and Astronomy, University of Potsdam, D-14476 Potsdam-Golm (Germany); Christiansen, J. L. [Physics Department, California Polytechnic State University, San Luis Obispo, CA 94307 (United States); Ciupik, L. [Astronomy Department, Adler Planetarium and Astronomy Museum, Chicago, IL 60605 (United States); Connolly, M. P. [School of Physics, National University of Ireland Galway, University Road, Galway (Ireland); Coppi, P. [Department of Astronomy, Yale University, New Haven, CT 06520-8101 (United States); Cui, W. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN 47907 (United States); Dickinson, H. J.; Dumm, J., E-mail:, E-mail:, E-mail:, E-mail:, E-mail:, E-mail: [School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN 55455 (United States); Collaboration: VERITAS; SPOL; ASAS-SN; OVRO; NuSTAR; CRTS; and others


    Outbursts from gamma-ray quasars provide insights on the relativistic jets of active galactic nuclei and constraints on the diffuse radiation fields that fill the universe. The detection of significant emission above 100 GeV from a distant quasar would show that some of the radiated gamma-rays escape pair-production interactions with low-energy photons, be it the extragalactic background light (EBL), or the radiation near the supermassive black hole lying at the jet’s base. VERITAS detected gamma-ray emission up to ∼200 GeV from PKS 1441+25 (z = 0.939) during 2015 April, a period of high activity across all wavelengths. This observation of PKS 1441+25 suggests that the emission region is located thousands of Schwarzschild radii away from the black hole. The gamma-ray detection also sets a stringent upper limit on the near-ultraviolet to near-infrared EBL intensity, suggesting that galaxy surveys have resolved most, if not all, of the sources of the EBL at these wavelengths.

  9. Diagnosing and treating Enquiry Based Learning fatigue in Graduate Entry Nursing students. (United States)

    Stacey, Gemma; Wilson, Claire; Reddy, Helen; Palmer, Chris; Henderson, James; Little, Hannah; Bull, Heather


    The use of student directed study approaches such as Enquiry Based Learning (EBL) in the design and implementation of Graduate Entry Nursing Circular is well established. The rational relates to the maximisation of graduate attributes such as motivation to learn, the ability to identify, search and assimilate relevant literature and the desire to take ownership of the direction and pace of learning. Existing alongside this however, is the observation that students remain under confident in the application of knowledge to a clinical context and frustrated with learning approaches which do not appear directly related to improving their competence in this area. We suggest the result of this is a gradual disengagement and dissatisfaction the learning forum amongst students and faculty, which we have defined as EBL fatigue. The symptoms and consequences of EBL fatigue amongst students and faculty are discussed alongside strategies which we suggest may act as preventative measures in reducing the risk of a local epidemic. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Exploring the Potential of Nucleic Acid Bases in Organic Light Emitting Diodes. (United States)

    Gomez, Eliot F; Venkatraman, Vishak; Grote, James G; Steckl, Andrew J


    Naturally occurring biomolecules have increasingly found applications in organic electronics as a low cost, performance-enhancing, environmentally safe alternative. Previous devices, which incorporated DNA in organic light emitting diodes (OLEDs), resulted in significant improvements in performance. In this work, nucleobases (NBs), constituents of DNA and RNA polymers, are investigated for integration into OLEDs. NB small molecules form excellent thin films by low-temperature evaporation, enabling seamless integration into vacuum deposited OLED fabrication. Thin film properties of adenine (A), guanine (G), cytosine (C), thymine (T), and uracil (U) are investigated. Next, their incorporation as electron-blocking (EBL) and hole-blocking layers (HBL) in phosphorescent OLEDs is explored. NBs affect OLED performance through charge transport control, following their electron affinity trend: G transport. C, T, and U have higher electron affinities (2.6-3.0 eV), transporting electrons and blocking hole transport. A-EBL-based OLEDs achieve current and external quantum efficiencies of 52 cd A(-1) and 14.3%, a ca. 50% performance increase over the baseline device with conventional EBL. The combination of enhanced performance, wide diversity of material properties, simplicity of use, and reduced cost indicate the promise of nucleobases for future OLED development. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  11. Deep blue phosphorescent organic light-emitting diodes with very high brightness and efficiency. (United States)

    Lee, Jaesang; Chen, Hsiao-Fan; Batagoda, Thilini; Coburn, Caleb; Djurovich, Peter I; Thompson, Mark E; Forrest, Stephen R


    The combination of both very high brightness and deep blue emission from phosphorescent organic light-emitting diodes (PHOLED) is required for both display and lighting applications, yet so far has not been reported. A source of this difficulty is the absence of electron/exciton blocking layers (EBL) that are compatible with the high triplet energy of the deep blue dopant and the high frontier orbital energies of hosts needed to transport charge. Here, we show that N-heterocyclic carbene (NHC) Ir(III) complexes can serve as both deep blue emitters and efficient hole-conducting EBLs. The NHC EBLs enable very high brightness (>7,800 cd m(-2)) operation, while achieving deep blue emission with colour coordinates of [0.16, 0.09], suitable for most demanding display applications. We find that both the facial and the meridional isomers of the dopant have high efficiencies that arise from the unusual properties of the NHC ligand-that is, the complexes possess a strong metal-ligand bond that destabilizes the non-radiative metal-centred ligand-field states. Our results represent an advance in blue-emitting PHOLED architectures and materials combinations that meet the requirements of many critical illumination applications.

  12. The randomised controlled trial design: unrecognized opportunities for health sciences librarianship. (United States)

    Eldredge, Jonathan D


    to describe the essential components of the Randomised Controlled Trial (RCT) and its major variations; to describe less conventional applications of the RCT design found in the health sciences literature with potential relevance to health sciences librarianship; to discuss the limited number of RCTs within health sciences librarianship. narrative review supported to a limited extent with PubMed and Library Literature database searches consistent with specific search parameters. In addition, more systematic methods, including handsearching of specific journals, to identify health sciences librarianship RCTs. While many RCTs within the health sciences follow more conventional patterns, some RCTs assume certain unique features. Selected examples illustrate the adaptations of this experimental design to answering questions of possible relevance to health sciences librarians. The author offers several strategies for controlling bias in library and informatics applications of the RCT and acknowledges the potential of the electronic era in providing many opportunities to utilize the blinding aspects of RCTs. RCTs within health sciences librarianship inhabit a limited number of subject domains such as education. This limited scope offers both advantages and disadvantages for making Evidence-Based Librarianship (EBL) a reality. The RCT design offers the potential to answer far more EBL questions than have been addressed by the design to date. Librarians need only extend their horizons through use of the versatile RCT design into new subject domains to facilitate making EBL a reality.

  13. A rapid and sensitive diagnosis of bovine leukaemia virus infection using the nested shuttle polymerase chain reaction Diagnóstico rápido e sensível da infecção com o vírus da Leucemia Bovina através de Shuttle Nested Polymerase Chain Reaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ester T. González


    Full Text Available Bovine leukaemia virus (BLV is the causative agent of enzootic bovine leukosis (EBL. In Argentina, where a program to eradicate EBL has been introduced, sensitive and reliable diagnosis has attained high priority. Although the importance of the agar gel immunodiffusion test remains unchanged for routine work, an additional diagnostic technique is necessary to confirm cases of sera with equivocal results or of calves carrying maternal antibodies.Utilizing a nested shuttle polymerase chain reaction, the proviral DNA was detected from cows experimentally infected with as little as 5 ml of whole blood from BLV seropositive cows that were nonetheless normal in haematological terms. It proved to be a very sensitive technique, since it rapidly revealed the presence of the provirus, frequently at 2 weeks postinoculation and using a two-round procedure of nested PCR taking only 3 hours. Additionally, the primers used flanked a portion of the viral genome often employed to differentiate BLV type applying BamHI digestion. It is concluded that this method might offer a highly promising diagnostic tool for BLV infection.O Vírus da leucemia bovina (BLV é o agente causal da Leucose Enzoótica Bovina (EBL. Na Argentina, iniciou-se um programa de erradicação da EBL. Neste estágio, é prioritário possuir uma ferramenta de diagnóstico confiável. Embora seja indiscutível a importância do teste de agar gel imunodifusão, empregado rotineiramente no diagnóstico serológico da EBL, faz-se necessária uma técnica de diagnóstico adicional capaz de confirmar os resultados duvidosos. Foi possivel detectar ADN proviral aplicando Nested-PCR em novilhos experimentalmente infectados com pequenas doses de sangue total (5ml obtidas de um bovino BLV soropositivo. Esta técnica, cujo procedimento leva 3 horas, demonstrou ser muito sensível, uma vez que foi capaz de detectar a presença do provirus duas semanas após a inoculação. Os primers utilizados são os que

  14. [Control measures in officially acknowledged brucellosis-free and leukosis unsuspected dairy herds on the basis of bulk milk samples in combination with ELISA tests]. (United States)

    Forschner, E; Bünger, I; Krause, H P; Küttler, D


    1. EC- and National Regulations. Since 1988 the EC-regulations accept in addition to the on Agar Gel Immunodiffusion test (AGIDT) based blood serum testing of cattle herds that are filed as "free from Enzootic Bovine Leucosis" the use of ELISA for this purpose. The regular testings in dairy cattle herds can be done alternatively with single or pooled milk samples, in other herds with pooled blood sera using ELISA. General condition is only a minimal sensitivity of the test to detect the European EBL Antibody Standard ("E4") in a dilution of 1:10 in negative serum or 1:250 in negative milk. Adequate national regulations are in preparation. The present limitation of pool sizes, blood maximum 50 animals without preparation steps 20, and milk after concentration treatment 50 cows is neutralized by proceedings in development of higher sensitive ELISA tests. This limitation should be canceled. Herd bulk milk samples without size limitations are accepted to be tested with "Milk Ring Test" by EC for the regular testings in filed "Brucellosis Free Dairy Cattle Herds". The alternative use of more sensitive (and more specific) ELISA tests for this purpose including the technical conditions is in a final discussion. 2. Scientific-Technical Base for Using the Chances of the Proceeding in the EC-Regulations. The realisation of the EC accepted or final discussed ELISA based bulk milk testing to control filed "EBL- and/or Brucellosis Free Herds" depends on some basic conditions like sensitivity, specificity, and variability of the ELISA systems. Field trials of more than 20,000 bulk milk samples in case of Brucellosis and more than 2,000 in case of EBL show the feasibilities and the limits of the ELISA systems in defining the status of the herds. The Brucellosis respectively the EBL situations of the dairy cattle herds tested in this trail were well known by history and by investigation of single animal blood samples using conventional tests. Special test run variations of

  15. SPHEREx: Understanding the Origin and Evolution of Galaxies Through the Extragalactic Background Light (United States)

    Zemcov, Michael; SPHEREx Science Team


    The near IR extragalactic background light (EBL) encodes the integrated light production over cosmic history, so traces the total emission from all galaxies along the line of sight up to the ancient first-light objects responsible for the epoch of reionization (EOR). The EBL can be constrained through measurements of anisotropies, taking advantage of the fact that extragalactic populations produce fluctuations with distinct spatial and spectral characteristics from local foregrounds. In particular, EBL anisotropies trace the underlying clustering of faint emission sources, such as stars, galaxies and accreting black holes present during the EOR, dwarf galaxies, and intra-halo light (IHL), all of which are components not readily detected in point source surveys. The fluctuation amplitude observed independently by a number of recent measurements exceeds that expected from the large-scale clustering of known galaxy populations, indicating the presence of a large integrated brightness from these faint and diffuse components. Improved large-area measurements covering the entire near-IR are required to constrain the possible models for the history of emission from stars back to the EOR.SPHEREx brings new capabilities to EBL fluctuation measurements, employing 96 spectral channels covering 0.75 to 5 microns with spectral resolving power R = 41 to 135 that enable SPHEREx to carry out a multi-frequency separation of the integrated light from galaxies, IHL, and EOR components using the rich auto- and cross-correlation information available from two 45 square degree surveys of the ecliptic poles. SPHEREx is an ideal intensity mapping machine, and has the sensitivity to disentangle the history of light production associated with EBL fluctuations. SPHEREx will search for an EOR component its to minimum required level through component separation and spectral fitting techniques optimized for the near-IR. In addition to broad-band intensity mapping that enhances and extends the

  16. Information Security Issues in a Digital Library Environment: A Literature Review = Dijital Kütüphane Ortamında Bilgi Güvenliği Sorunları: Literatür Değerlendirmesi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anday, Audrey


    Full Text Available This paper aimed to explore the literature on security issues that digital libraries should consider in managing digital resources. Books on information security and network security were consulted as well as several databases such as ERIC, Ebrary, LISA, Science Direct, EbscoHost, ISI, Google Scholar, ProQuest, Emerald Insight, ACM were searched to understand what particular aspect of information security and privacy in digital libraries exist from 2000 - 2010. Security in digital libraries is an issue of the most important, and should be considered carefully in creating policies and strategic plans of institutions wanting to set up a digital library. This paper focused on the four main streams that concerns security in the digital environment, namely: infrastructure, digital content, users and standards and legal issues. This literature review also built upon previous literature reviews, and is one of the few of its kind in the topic. / Bu çalışma dijital kütüphanelerin kaynakların yönetiminde göz önünde bulundurmasıgereken güvenlik sorunlarına ilişkin literatürü ortaya koymayı amaçlamaktadır. Bilgi Güvenliği, Ağ Güvenliği, Kişisel Gizlilik konuları üzerine 2000 - 2010 yıl aralığını kapsayan kitaplar ve makaleler ERIC, Ebrary, LISA, Science Direct, EbscoHost, ISI, Google Akademik, ProQuest, Emerald Insight ve ACM gibi çeşitli veri tabanlarından taranmıştır. İncelenen literatürden elde edilen sonuçlara göre,bilgi güvenliği dijital kütüphaneler için son derece önemli bir konudur ve dijitalleşme sürecinde bir kütüphane, güvenlik politikalarını ve stratejik planlarını dikkatle göz önünde bulundurmalıdır. Bu araştırmada dijital ortamda güvenliği ilgilendiren Altyapı, Dijital İçerik, Kullanıcılar, Standartlar ve Hukuki Konular olmak üzere dört ana madde üzerinde durulmuştur. Bu çalışma ayrıca daha önceki literatür taramalarını da kapsamaktadır.

  17. Parasitosis intestinal en monos capuchinos cariblancos Cebus capucinus (Primates: Cebidae de un área protegida en la provincia de Limón, noreste de Costa Rica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Misael Chinchilla


    Full Text Available La deforestación de bosques tropicales está amenazando la biodiversidad de las especies de primates y su estado de salud, dependiente de un lugar ecológicamente equilibrado. Con el fin de evaluar esta relación, se analizó la presencia de parásitos en los intestinos de esta especie. El estudio se realizó en la Estación Biológica La Suerte (EBLS, Limón, Costa Rica. El grupo de monos capuchinos cariblancos (Cebus capucinus fue observado entre marzo y diciembre de 2006. Se recolectaron 75 muestras de heces a las que se les identificó las plantas ingeridas, y se procesaron en el laboratorio para evaluar la prevalencia de parásitos. Moraceae fue la familia de plantas más reportada. Strongyloides spp. y acantocéfalos fueron los más comunes. La distribución positiva de las mismas fue similar independientemente del sexo y la edad. Microsporidios se reportaron mayoritariamente en heces asociadas con la familia Piperaceae. Fue encontrada una baja existencia de éstos parásitos en muestras asociadas con Myrtaceae en cuyo género Psidium, se han reportado compuestos activos antiparasitarios. La aparición de parásitos fue relativamente mayor en la EBLS, comparado con muestras de otras regiones más secas de Costa Rica. Por lo tanto, esa expresión parasitaria puede deberse al hecho de ser la EBLS una selva lluviosa, además de estar rodeada por zonas con actividades antrópicas. Se sugiere incrementar las investigaciones de parasitología de campo en primates neotropicales con el fin de entender plenamente las relaciones parásitos-hospederos, para en un largo plazo poder comprender los ecosistemas donde conviven, y en consecuencia, preservar la diversidad biológica.Intestinal parasites in white-faced capuchin monkeys Cebus capucinus Primates: Cebidae inhabiting a protected area in the Limón province of Northeastern Costa Rica. Deforestation of tropical forests is threatening monkey biodiversity and their health status, dependent of an

  18. Editorial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lindsay Glynn


    Full Text Available Evidence based librarianship: we hear about it, we read about it, some of us practice it, some of us aren’t quite sure what it’s allabout. Information about EBL is relatively prolific of late and can be found in numerous journals, websites and books. It is indexed in databases and article indices across the disciplinary board – MEDLINE, CINAHL, ERIC, PsycInfo, DOIS, LISTA, etc. Evidence Based Library and Information Practice is the first journal whose primary focus is on EBL: what it is, how it affects the decisions we make, how we look at and perform research, and how it allows us to make more informed decisions based on the best available evidence. EBLIP, not unlike the practice of EBL, is international in scope and unlimited in its application and utility. Getting EBLIP off the ground has been a fascinating and rewarding experience, and I have several key people to thank for making the process seamless and satisfying. EBLIP is the brainchild of Su Cleyle, of MemorialUniversity of Newfoundland and Denise Koufogiannakis, of the University of Alberta. Su and Denise got the ball rolling early in 2005 while researching EBL on sabbatical and quickly pulled together an enthusiastic team of editors. As original Editor‐in‐Chief, Su’s vision, drive and unbeatable organization resulted in EBLIP becoming a reality more quickly and completely than we could have imagined. As Associate Editor (Evidence Summaries, Denise has begun to compile and disseminate a significant and highly useful collection of critically appraised synopses of research articles. The Evidence Summaries section allows EBLIP to reach well beyond publishing research and adds a component that our field has, until now, been lacking. In addition to her tireless work in this area, I thank Denise for keeping the momentum going throughout the entire start‐up process. EBLIP is published by University of Alberta Learning Services using OJS (Open Journal Systems. We are very

  19. [Intestinal parasites in white-faced capuchin monkeys Cebus capucinus (Primates: Cebidae) inhabiting a protected area in the Limón province of Northeastern Costa Rica]. (United States)

    Chinchilla, Misael; Urbani, Bernardo; Valerio, Idalia; Vanegas, Juan Carlos


    Deforestation of tropical forests is threatening monkey biodiversity and their health status, dependent of an ecologically undisturbed area. To asses this relationship, we analyzed parasite occurrence in their intestines. The study was conducted at the Estación Biológica La Suerte (EBLS), Limón, Costa Rica. The group of white-faced capuchin monkeys (Cebus capucinus) was observed between March and December of 2006. A total of 75 feces samples were obtained. Once a sample was collected, the eaten plant type was identified to family and species level, and feces were processed in the laboratory to determine parasite incidence. Results showed that Moraceae was the most represented family in the samples. Among parasites, Strongyloides spp. and Acanthocephala were the most common. Positive prevalence of parasites was found similar and independent of sex and age of capuchin individuals. Microsporids were mainly reported in feces associated with Piperaceae. A low presence of these parasites was found in samples associated with Myrtaceae, with possible anti-parasite active components. The occurrence of parasites was relatively high in EBLS, when compared to other regions in Costa Rica. The higher occurrence of parasites observed in capuchins at EBLS may be due to the fact that this rain forest is surrounded by areas affected by human activities. We suggest the promotion of research in neotropical primates parasitology, for a better comprehension of the parasite-host relationship, and in a long term, being able to understand the ecosystems where they coexist, and consequently, preserve the biodiversity of the whole region.

  20. Employing Evidence Evidence: Does it Have a Job in Vocational Libraries?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brad Jones


    Full Text Available Objective - Evidence-based librarianship (EBL springs ffrom medical and academic origins. As librarians are tertiary educated (only occasionally with supplementary qualifications covering research and statistics EBL has an academic focus. The EBL literature has significant content from school and university perspectives, but has had little, if any, vocational content. This paper suggests a possible Evidence Based Librarianship context for vocational libraries. Methods - A multidisciplinary scan of evidence based literature was undertaken, covering medicine and allied health, librarianship, law, science and education. National and international vocational education developments were examined. The concept and use of evidence in vocational libraries was considered. Results - Library practice can generally benefit from generic empirical science methodologies used elsewhere. Different areas, however, may have different concepts of what constitutes evidence and appropriate methodologies. Libraries also need to reflect the evidence used in their host organisations. The Australian vocational librarian has been functioning in an evidence based educational sector: national, transportable, prescriptive, competancy based and outcomes drived Training Packages. These require a qualitatively different concept of evidence compared to the other educational sectors as they reflect pragmatic, economic, employability outcomes. Conclusions - Vocational and other librarians have been doing research but need to be more systematic about design and analysis. Librarians need to develop 'evidence literacy' as one of their professional evaluation skills. Libraries will need to utilise evidence relevant to their host organisations to esablish and maintain credibility, and in the vocational sector this is set in a competency based framework. Competancy based measures are becoming increasingly relevant in school and university(including medical education.

  1. A single surgeon's experience transitioning to robotic-assisted right colectomy with intracorporeal anastomosis. (United States)

    Reitz, Alexandra C W; Lin, Ed; Rosen, Seth A


    Despite substantial evidence demonstrating benefits of minimally invasive surgery, a large percentage of right colectomies are still performed via an open technique. Most laparoscopic right colectomies are completed as a hybrid procedure with extracorporeal anastomosis. As part of a pure minimally invasive procedure, intracorporeal anastomosis (ICA) may confer additional benefits for patients. The robotic platform may shorten the learning curve for minimally invasive right colectomy with ICA. From January 2014 to May 2016, 49 patients underwent robotic-assisted right colectomy by a board-certified colorectal surgeon (S.R). Extracorporeal anastomosis (ECA) was used in the first 20 procedures, whereas ICA was used in all subsequent procedures. Outcomes recorded in a database for retrospective review included operating time (OT), estimated blood loss (EBL), length of stay (LOS), conversion rate, complications, readmissions, and mortality rate. Comparison of average OT, EBL, and LOS between extracorporeal and intracorporeal groups demonstrated no significant differences. For all patients, average OT was 141.6 ± 25.8 (range 86-192) min, average EBL was 59.5 ± 83.3 (range 0-500) mL, and average LOS was 3.4 ± 1.19 (range 1.5-8) days. Four patients required conversion, all of which occurred in the extracorporeal group. There were no conversions after the 18th procedure. The 60-day mortality rate was 0%. There were no anastomotic leaks, ostomies created, or readmissions. As the surgeon gained experience, a statistically significant increase in lymph node sampling was observed in oncologic cases (p = .02). The robotic platform may help more surgeons safely and efficiently transition to a purely minimally invasive procedure, enabling more patients to reap the benefits of less invasive surgery. Transitioning from ECA to ICA during robotic right colectomy resulted in no significant change in OT or LOS. A lower rate of conversion to open surgery was noted with

  2. Comparison of surgical, functional, and oncological outcomes of open and robot-assisted partial nephrectomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ugur Boylu


    Full Text Available Background: We aimed to compare the surgical, oncological, and functional outcomes of robot-assisted partial nephrectomy (RAPN with open partial nephrectomy (OPN in the management of small renal masses. Materials and Methods: Between 2009 and 2013, a total of 46 RAPN patients and 20 OPN patients was included in this study. Patients′ demographics, mean operative time, estimated blood loss (EBL, warm ischemia time (WIT, length of hospital stay, pre- and post-operative renal functions, complications and oncological outcomes were recorded, prospectively. Results: Mean tumor size was 4.04 cm in OPN group and 3.56 cm in RAPN group (P = 0.27. Mean R.E.N.A.L nephrometry score was 6.35 in OPN group and 5.35 in RAPN group (P = 0.02. The mean operative time was 152 min in OPN group and 225 min in RAPN group (P = 0.006. The mean EBL in OPN and RAPN groups were 417 ml and 268 ml, respectively (P = 0.001. WIT in OPN group was significantly shorter than RAPN group (18.02 min vs. 23.33 min, P = 0.003. The mean drain removal time and the length of hospital stay were longer in OPN group. There were no significant differences in terms of renal functional outcomes and postoperative complications between groups. Conclusion: Minimally invasive surgical management of renal masses with RAPN offers better outcomes in terms of EBL and length of stay. However, the mean operative time and WIT were significantly shorter in OPN group. RAPN is a safe and effective minimally invasive alternative to OPN in terms of oncological and functional outcomes.

  3. L233P mutation of the Tax protein strongly correlated with leukemogenicity of bovine leukemia virus. (United States)

    Inoue, Emi; Matsumura, Keiko; Soma, Norihiko; Hirasawa, Shintaro; Wakimoto, Mayuko; Arakaki, Yoshihiro; Yoshida, Takashi; Osawa, Yoshiaki; Okazaki, Katsunori


    The bovine leukemia virus (BLV) Tax protein is believed to play a crucial role in leukemogenesis by the virus. BLV usually causes asymptomatic infections in cattle, but only one-third develop persistent lymphocytosis that rarely progress after a long incubation period to lymphoid tumors, namely enzootic bovine leucosis (EBL). In the present study, we demonstrated that the BLV tax genes could be divided into two alleles and developed multiplex PCR detecting an L233P mutation of the Tax protein. Then, in order to define the relationship between the Tax protein and leukemogenicity, we examined 360 tumor samples randomly collected from dairy or breeding cattle in Japan, of which Tax proteins were categorized, for age at the time of diagnosis of EBL. The ages of 288 animals (80.0%) associated with L233-Tax and those of 70 animals (19.4%) with P233-Tax individually followed log-normal distributions. Only the two earliest cases (0.6%) with L233-Tax disobeyed the log-normal distribution. These findings suggest that the animals affected by EBL were infected with the virus at a particular point in life, probably less than a few months after birth. Median age of those with P233-Tax was 22 months older than that with L233-Tax and geometric means exhibited a significant difference (P<0.01). It is also quite unlikely that viruses carrying the particular Tax protein infect older cattle. Here, we conclude that BLV could be divided into two categories on the basis of amino acid at position 233 of the Tax protein, which strongly correlated with leukemogenicity. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. A comparison of two ELISAs for the detection of antibodies to bovine leucosis virus in bulk-milk. (United States)

    Ridge, S E; Galvin, J W


    To estimate the sensitivity, specificity and detection limits for two bulk-milk enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays, the Svanovir BLV-gp51-Ab and the Lactelisa BLV Ab Bi indirect tank 250, for the detection of antibody to bovine leucosis virus in milk. Milk samples from 27 cows known to have enzootic bovine leucosis (EBL) were serially diluted with milk from a herd known to be free from the disease. The dilution at which antibodies could no longer be detected by each test was determined. A total of 1959 bulk-milk samples submitted to a laboratory for the Victorian (EBL) eradication program were tested with both the Svanovir and the Lactelisa assays. A Bayesian approach was used to calculate maximum-likelihood estimates of test sensitivity and specificity. An additional 660 bulk-milk samples were tested with both the Svanovir and the Lactelisa assays. Herds that had positive results on either or both of the assays were subjected to blood or milk testing of individual cattle. The dilution of milk at which the Svanovir assay failed to detect enzootic bovine leucosis antibody in half of the samples was 1 in 40, whereas the comparable value for the Lactelisa was 1 in 200. Computer modeling of the operating characteristics of the Svanovir assay indicated that the sensitivity of that assay would be considerably lower than that for the Lactelisa, and the specificity was estimated to be higher. Evaluation of the assays using 660 bulk-milk samples showed that the Lactelisa assay detected four infected herds that were not detected by the Svanovir test. No false positive results were recorded for either assay. Use of the Lactelisa assay in the Victorian EBL eradication program will enhance disease detection and eradication, but may also result in an increased frequency of false positive bulk-milk test results.

  5. Management of obstetric postpartum hemorrhage: a national service evaluation of current practice in the UK. (United States)

    Al Wattar, Bassel H; Tamblyn, Jennifer A; Parry-Smith, William; Prior, Mathew; Van Der Nelson, Helen


    Postpartum hemorrhage (PPH) continues to be one of the major causes of maternal mortality and morbidity in obstetrics. Variations in practice often lead to adverse maternity outcomes following PPH. Our objective was to assess the current practice in managing PPH in the UK. We performed a national multicenter prospective service evaluation study over one calendar month and compared the current performance to national standards for managing PPH. We used a standardized data collection tool and collected data on patients' demographics, incidence of PPH, estimated blood loss (EBL), prophylactic and treatment measures, onset of labor, and mode of delivery. We collected data from 98 obstetric units, including 3663 cases of primary PPH. Fifty percent of cases were minor PPH (EBL 500-1000 mL, n=1900/3613, 52.6%) and the remaining were moderate PPH (EBL >1000 to 2000 mL, n=289/3613, 8%). The majority of women received active management of the third stage of labor (3504/3613, 97%) most commonly with Syntometrine intramuscular (1479/3613, 40.9%). More than half required one additional uterotonic agent (2364/3613, 65.4%) most commonly with Syntocinon intravenous infusion (1155/2364, 48.8%). There was a poor involvement of consultant obstetricians and anesthetists in managing PPH cases, which was more prevalent when managing major PPH ( p =0.0001). There are still variations in managing PPH in the UK against national guidelines. More senior doctor involvement and regular service evaluation are needed to improve maternal outcomes following PPH.

  6. Effectiveness and Safety of Tranexamic Acid in Spinal Deformity Surgery. (United States)

    Choi, Ho Yong; Hyun, Seung-Jae; Kim, Ki-Jeong; Jahng, Tae-Ahn; Kim, Hyun-Jib


    Spinal deformity surgery has the potential risk of massive blood loss. To reduce surgical bleeding, the use of tranexamic acid (TXA) became popular in spinal surgery, recently. The purpose of this study was to determine the effectiveness of intra-operative TXA use to reduce surgical bleeding and transfusion requirements in spinal deformity surgery. A total of 132 consecutive patients undergoing multi-level posterior spinal segmental instrumented fusion (≥5 levels) were analyzed retrospectively. Primary outcome measures included intraoperative estimated blood loss (EBL), transfusion amount and rate of transfusion. Secondary outcome measures included postoperative transfusion amount, rate of transfusion, and complications associated with TXA or allogeneic blood transfusions. The number of patients was 89 in TXA group and 43 in non-TXA group. There were no significant differences in demographic or surgical traits between the groups except hypertension. The EBL was significantly lower in TXA group than non-TXA group (841 vs. 1336 mL, p=0.002). TXA group also showed less intra-operative and postoperative transfusion requirements (544 vs. 812 mL, p=0.012; 193 vs. 359 mL, p=0.034). Based on multiple regression analysis, TXA use could reduce surgical bleeding by 371 mL (37 % of mean EBL). Complication rate was not different between the groups. TXA use can effectively reduce the amount of intra-operative bleeding and transfusion requirements in spinal deformity surgery. Future randomized controlled study could confirm the routine use of TXA in major spinal surgery.

  7. Electric field dynamics in nitride structures containing quaternary alloy (Al, In, Ga)N

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borysiuk, J., E-mail: [Institute of Physics, Polish Academy of Sciences, Al. Lotnikow 32/46, 02-668 Warsaw (Poland); Faculty of Physics, University of Warsaw, Pasteura 5, 02-093 Warsaw (Poland); Sakowski, K.; Muziol, G.; Krukowski, S. [Institute of High Pressure Physics, Polish Academy of Sciences, Sokolowska 29/37, 01-142 Warsaw (Poland); Dróżdż, P. [Faculty of Physics, University of Warsaw, Pasteura 5, 02-093 Warsaw (Poland); Institute of High Pressure Physics, Polish Academy of Sciences, Sokolowska 29/37, 01-142 Warsaw (Poland); Korona, K. P. [Faculty of Physics, University of Warsaw, Pasteura 5, 02-093 Warsaw (Poland); Sobczak, K. [Institute of Physics, Polish Academy of Sciences, Al. Lotnikow 32/46, 02-668 Warsaw (Poland); Skierbiszewski, C. [Institute of High Pressure Physics, Polish Academy of Sciences, Sokolowska 29/37, 01-142 Warsaw (Poland); TopGaN Ltd., Sokolowska 29/37, 01-142 Warsaw (Poland); Kaminska, A. [Institute of Physics, Polish Academy of Sciences, Al. Lotnikow 32/46, 02-668 Warsaw (Poland); Department of Mathematics and Natural Sciences, College of Science, Cardinal Stefan Wyszynski University, Dewajtis 5, 01-815 Warsaw (Poland)


    Molecular beam epitaxy growth and basic physical properties of quaternary AlInGaN layers, sufficiently thick for construction of electron blocking layers (EBL), embedded in ternary InGaN layers are presented. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) measurement revealed good crystallographic structure and compositional uniformity of the quaternary layers contained in other nitride layers, which are typical for construction of nitride based devices. The AlInGaN layer was epitaxially compatible to InGaN matrix, strained, and no strain related dislocation creation was observed. The strain penetrated for limited depth, below 3 nm, even for relatively high content of indium (7%). For lower indium content (0.6%), the strain was below the detection limit by TEM strain analysis. The structures containing quaternary AlInGaN layers were studied by time dependent photoluminescence (PL) at different temperatures and excitation powers. It was shown that PL spectra contain three peaks: high energy donor bound exciton peak from the bulk GaN (DX GaN) and the two peaks (A and B) from InGaN layers. No emission from quaternary AlInGaN layers was observed. An accumulation of electrons on the EBL interface in high-In sample and formation of 2D electron gas (2DEG) was detected. The dynamics of 2DEG was studied by time resolved luminescence revealing strong dependence of emission energy on the 2DEG concentration. Theoretical calculations as well as power-dependence and temperature-dependence analysis showed the importance of electric field inside the structure. At the interface, the field was screened by carriers and could be changed by illumination. From these measurements, the dynamics of electric field was described as the discharge of carriers accumulated on the EBL.

  8. Cryotop vitrification for in vitro produced bovine and buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) embryos at different stages of development


    B. Gasparrini; G. Campanile; D. Vecchio; L. Boccia; L. Attanasio; De Rosa, A.


    The aim of this study was to evaluate the possibility to vitrify in vitro produced (IVP) buffalo and bovine embryos at different stages of development by an advanced version of the “minimal volume approaches”: the Cryotop method. In both experiments, the embryos were vitrified at the tight morula (TM), early blastocyst (eBl), blastocyst (Bl), expanded blastocyst (xBl) and, only for buffalo, at the hatched blastocyst (hBl) stage. After warming, the embryos were cultured in vitro fo...

  9. Investigation into Photoconductivity in Single CNF/TiO2-Dye Core-Shell Nanowire Devices (United States)


    likely react with hydrogen and form a C–O bond before TiO2 is deposited. The I–V characteristics become more linear after O2 plasma treat- ment, which...Bi-layer electron beam resist (PMMA/ MMA -MAA) was used in the electron beam lithography (EBL) process for the definition of two or four electrodes...the large number of dangling bonds and the interfaces in the amorphous TiO2 phase and between crystallites and amorphous TiO2 phase in the TiO2

  10. The opacity of the universe for high and very high energy {gamma}-rays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meyer, Manuel


    The flux of high energy (HE, energy 100 MeVor similar 100 GeV) {gamma}-rays originating from cosmological sources is attenuated due to pair production in interactions with photons at ultraviolet to infrared wavelengths of the extragalactic background light (EBL). The main components contributing to the EBL photon density are the starlight integrated over cosmic time and the starlight reprocessed by dust in galaxies. Consequently, the EBL is an integral measure of the cosmic star formation history. Depending on the source distance, the Universe should be opaque to {gamma}-rays above a certain energy. Nevertheless, the number of detected {gamma}-ray sources has increased continuously in recent years. VHE emitting objects beyond redshifts of z>0.5 have been detected with imaging air Cherenkov telescopes (IACTs), while HE {gamma}-rays from active galactic nuclei (AGN) above redshifts z>or similar 3 have been observed with the Large Area Telescope (LAT) on board the Fermi satellite. In this work, a large sample of VHE {gamma}-ray spectra will be combined with data of the Fermi-LAT to derive upper limits on the EBL photon density at z = 0. Generic EBL realizations are used to correct AGN spectra for absorption, which are subsequently tested against model assumptions. The evolution of the EBL with redshift is accounted for, and a possible formation of electromagnetic cascades is considered. As a result, the EBL density is constrained over almost three orders of magnitude in wavelength, between 0.4 {mu}m and 100 {mu}m. At optical wavelengths, an EBL intensity above 24 nW m{sup -2}sr{sup -1} is ruled out, and between 8 {mu}m and 31 {mu}m it is limited to be below 5 nW m{sup -2}sr{sup -1}. In the infrared, the constraints are within a factor {proportional_to} 2 of lower limits derived from galaxy number counts. Additionally,the behavior of VHE spectra in the transition from the optical depth regimes {tau

  11. Treatment with 24-epibrassinolide mitigates NaCl-induced toxicity by enhancing carbohydrate metabolism, osmolyte accumulation, and antioxidant activity in Pisum sativum


    SHAHID, Muhammad Adnan; BALAL, Rashad Mukhtar; PERVEZ, Muhammad Aslam


    A pot culture study was performed to evaluate the differences between salt-stressed pea (Pisum sativum L.) plants of tolerant (Climax and Samarina Zard) and sensitive (Ambassidar and PF-400) genotypes, and to determine whether treatment with 24-epibrassinolide (EBL) could enhance the accumulation of osmolytes and antioxidant activity and thereby induce tolerance in salt-stressed plants. Three-week-old seedlings were subjected to +NaCl (5 dS m-1) and -NaCl conditions (0 dS m-1). After 4 days o...

  12. Leucosis in cattle in the Netherlands. (United States)

    De Vries, G


    It is stated with certainty that enzootic bovine leucosis never has been encountered in autochtonous Dutch cattle. After 1965 when due to E.C. regulations the import of cattle from partner countries was facilitated, several cases of E.B.L. were found in imported cattle and sometimes these cattle caused outbreaks on Dutch farms. A review is given of the control of the disease since that time and of the official eradication system that started in May 1977. Reports are given of some case histories, the policy of the eradication under the national circumstances and the status of the disease on this moment.

  13. Atividade antibacteriana de Cereus jamacaru DC, Cactaceae


    Davet, Aline; Virtuoso,Suzane; Josiane F. G. Dias; Marilis D. Miguel; Andressa B. Oliveira; Miguel, Obdúlio G.


    A procura por novos agentes antimicrobianos a partir de plantas vem sendo intensificada e não existem estudos direcionados à avaliação da atividade antimicrobiana de C. jamacaru frente a microrganismos prejudiciais ao homem. Em vista disso, avaliou-se o efeito antimicrobiano do extrato bruto etanólico do lenho (EBLE) e do córtex (EBCO) desta espécie frente a colônias puras de oito microrganismos patogênicos. Neste estudo foram utilizados os métodos difusão em ágar (meio sólido) e CIM (concent...

  14. Management of obstetric postpartum hemorrhage: a national service evaluation of current practice in the UK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Al Wattar BH


    Full Text Available Bassel H Al Wattar,1,* Jennifer A Tamblyn,2,* William Parry-Smith,2,* Mathew Prior,3,* Helen Van Der Nelson4,* On behalf of UK Audit and Research trainee Collaborative in Obstetrics and Gynaecology (UKARCOG 1Women’s Health Research Unit, Barts and the London School of Medicine and Dentistry, Queen Mary University London, London, UK; 2Institute of Metabolism and Systems Research (IMSR, University of Birmingham, Birmingham, UK; 3Division of Child Health, Obstetrics & Gynaecology, School of Medicine, University of Nottingham, Nottingham, UK; 4Academic Centre for Women’s Health, North Bristol NHS Trust, Bristol, UK *UKARCOG Background: Postpartum hemorrhage (PPH continues to be one of the major causes of maternal mortality and morbidity in obstetrics. Variations in practice often lead to adverse maternity outcomes following PPH. Our objective was to assess the current practice in managing PPH in the UK.Methods: We performed a national multicenter prospective service evaluation study over one calendar month and compared the current performance to national standards for managing PPH. We used a standardized data collection tool and collected data on patients’ demographics, incidence of PPH, estimated blood loss (EBL, prophylactic and treatment measures, onset of labor, and mode of delivery.Results: We collected data from 98 obstetric units, including 3663 cases of primary PPH. Fifty percent of cases were minor PPH (EBL 500–1000 mL, n=1900/3613, 52.6% and the remaining were moderate PPH (EBL >1000 to <2000 mL, n=1424/3613, 39.4% and severe PPH (EBL >2000 mL, n=289/3613, 8%. The majority of women received active management of the third stage of labor (3504/3613, 97% most commonly with Syntometrine intramuscular (1479/3613, 40.9%. More than half required one additional uterotonic agent (2364/3613, 65.4% most commonly with Syntocinon intravenous infusion (1155/2364, 48.8%. There was a poor involvement of consultant obstetricians and anesthetists in

  15. Complete data preparation flow for Massively Parallel E-Beam lithography on 28nm node full-field design (United States)

    Fay, Aurélien; Browning, Clyde; Brandt, Pieter; Chartoire, Jacky; Bérard-Bergery, Sébastien; Hazart, Jérôme; Chagoya, Alexandre; Postnikov, Sergei; Saib, Mohamed; Lattard, Ludovic; Schavione, Patrick


    Massively parallel mask-less electron beam lithography (MP-EBL) offers a large intrinsic flexibility at a low cost of ownership in comparison to conventional optical lithography tools. This attractive direct-write technique needs a dedicated data preparation flow to correct both electronic and resist processes. Moreover, Data Prep has to be completed in a short enough time to preserve the flexibility advantage of MP-EBL. While the MP-EBL tools have currently entered an advanced stage of development, this paper will focus on the data preparation side of the work for specifically the MAPPER Lithography FLX-1200 tool [1]-[4], using the ASELTA Nanographics Inscale software. The complete flow as well as the methodology used to achieve a full-field layout data preparation, within an acceptable cycle time, will be presented. Layout used for Data Prep evaluation was one of a 28 nm technology node Metal1 chip with a field size of 26x33mm2, compatible with typical stepper/scanner field sizes and wafer stepping plans. Proximity Effect Correction (PEC) was applied to the entire field, which was then exported as a single file to MAPPER Lithography's machine format, containing fractured shapes and dose assignments. The Soft Edge beam to beam stitching method was employed in the specific overlap regions defined by the machine format as well. In addition to PEC, verification of the correction was included as part of the overall data preparation cycle time. This verification step was executed on the machine file format to ensure pattern fidelity and accuracy as late in the flow as possible. Verification over the full chip, involving billions of evaluation points, is performed both at nominal conditions and at Process Window corners in order to ensure proper exposure and process latitude. The complete MP-EBL data preparation flow was demonstrated for a 28 nm node Metal1 layout in 37 hours. The final verification step shows that the Edge Placement Error (EPE) is kept below 2.25 nm

  16. Micro-SQUIDs based on MgB2 nano-bridges for NEMS readout (United States)

    Lolli, L.; Li, T.; Portesi, C.; Taralli, E.; Acharya, N.; Chen, K.; Rajteri, M.; Cox, D.; Monticone, E.; Gallop, J.; Hao, L.


    We show the results obtained from the fabrication and characterisation of MgB2 loops with two nano-bridges as superconducting weak links. These ring structures are made to operate as superconducting quantum interference devices and are investigated as readout system for cryogenics NEMS resonators. The nano-constrictions are fabricated by EBL and ion beam milling. The SQUIDs are characterised at different temperatures and measurements of the noise levels have been performed. The devices show high critical current densities and voltage modulations under applied magnetic field, close to the critical temperatures.

  17. Electric vehicles from the point of view of an energy utility; Elektrofahrzeuge aus Sicht eines Energieversorgers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Corpataux, M.


    This presentation made at the Swiss 2008 research conference on traffic by Marcel Corpataux from the Elektra Baselland utility (EBL) takes a look at the utility's activities in the renewable energies sector and the need for balancing energy supply and demand. Various methods on the demand side are briefly looked at and the use of 'vehicle-to-grid' concepts that use hybrid vehicles as storage facilities for electrical power are commented on. The chances offered to electricity utilities by using hybrid vehicles as buffer storage for electrical power are discussed.

  18. The customer is always right? Assessing the value of patron-driven acquisition at the University of Huddersfield

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Graham Stone


    Full Text Available A small-scale patron-driven acquisition (PDA study at the University of Huddersfield is discussed in this article. The authors briefly describe the background to PDA at Huddersfield before discussing data from the 2014 PDA pilot with the e-book supplier Ebook Library (EBL. The pilot produced two sets of data, usage reports using COUNTER statistics and a short questionnaire designed by the Library. These results led to a major alteration to the collection management and development policy, where PDA is now embedded into the Library book fund.

  19. Plasmodium falciparum field isolates from South America use an atypical red blood cell invasion pathway associated with invasion ligand polymorphisms.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mary Lopez-Perez

    Full Text Available Studies of Plasmodium falciparum invasion pathways in field isolates have been limited. Red blood cell (RBC invasion is a complex process involving two invasion protein families; Erythrocyte Binding-Like (EBL and the Reticulocyte Binding-Like (PfRh proteins, which are polymorphic and not fully characterized in field isolates. To determine the various P. falciparum invasion pathways used by parasite isolates from South America, we studied the invasion phenotypes in three regions: Colombia, Peru and Brazil. Additionally, polymorphisms in three members of the EBL (EBA-181, EBA-175 and EBL-1 and five members of the PfRh (PfRh1, PfRh2a, PfRh2b, PfRh4, PfRh5 families were determined. We found that most P. falciparum field isolates from Colombia and Peru invade RBCs through an atypical invasion pathway phenotypically characterized as resistant to all enzyme treatments (NrTrCr. Moreover, the invasion pathways and the ligand polymorphisms differed substantially among the Colombian and Brazilian isolates while the Peruvian isolates represent an amalgam of those present in the Colombian and Brazilian field isolates. The NrTrCr invasion profile was associated with the presence of the PfRh2a pepC variant, the PfRh5 variant 1 and EBA-181 RVNKN variant. The ebl and Pfrh expression levels in a field isolate displaying the NrTrCr profile also pointed to PfRh2a, PfRh5 and EBA-181 as being possibly the major players in this invasion pathway. Notably, our studies demonstrate the uniqueness of the Peruvian P. falciparum field isolates in terms of their invasion profiles and ligand polymorphisms, and present a unique opportunity for studying the ability of P. falciparum parasites to expand their invasion repertoire after being reintroduced to human populations. The present study is directly relevant to asexual blood stage vaccine design focused on invasion pathway proteins, suggesting that regional invasion variants and global geographical variation are likely to

  20. Enhanced ultraviolet electroluminescence and spectral narrowing from ZnO quantum dots/GaN heterojunction diodes by using high-k HfO{sub 2} electron blocking layer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mo, Xiaoming; Long, Hao; Wang, Haoning; Chen, Zhao; Wan, Jiawei; Liu, Yuping; Fang, Guojia, E-mail: [Key Lab of Artificial Micro- and Nano-Structures of Ministry of Education, School of Physics and Technology, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430072 (China); Li, Songzhan [Key Lab of Artificial Micro- and Nano-Structures of Ministry of Education, School of Physics and Technology, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430072 (China); School of Electronic and Electrical Engineering, Wuhan Textile University, Wuhan 430073 (China); Feng, Yamin [Department of Physics, Institute of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology, Central China Normal University, Wuhan 430079 (China); Ouyang, Yifang [College of Physical Science and Technology, Guangxi University, Nanning, Guangxi 530004 (China)


    We demonstrated the capability of realizing enhanced ZnO-related UV emissions by using the low-cost and solution-processable ZnO quantum dots (QDs) with the help of a high-k HfO{sub 2} electron blocking layer (EBL) for the ZnO QDs/p-GaN light-emitting diodes (LEDs). Full-width at half maximum of the LED devices was greatly decreased from ∼110 to ∼54 nm, and recombinations related to nonradiative centers were significantly suppressed with inserting HfO{sub 2} EBL. The electroluminescence of the ZnO QDs/HfO{sub 2}/p-GaN LEDs demonstrated an interesting spectral narrowing effect with increasing HfO{sub 2} thickness. The Gaussian fitting revealed that the great enhancement of the Zn{sub i}-related emission at ∼414 nm whereas the deep suppression of the interfacial recombination at ∼477 nm should be the main reason for the spectral narrowing effect.

  1. Bat in our environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirjana Stantič-Pavlinič


    Full Text Available Background: All around the world exist more than thousand species of bats. In spite of some advantageous characteristics, mostly recognised in several insectivorous species, bats can transmit different kinds of microorganisms – the causes of infectious diseases. Microbial agents, recognised in connection with bats are: lyssavirus, Nipah virus, Hystoplasma capsulatum fungus, etc. In Europe there live about 28 species of bats. The most cases of European bat lyssaviruses (EBL1 and EBL2 were demonstrated in the Eptesicus serotinus species placed in Slovenia as well. We are presenting available data on rabies prevention. The rate of post-exposure treatment against rabies after the bite of bats in Slovenia is below 1% and is comparable with the remainder of Europe.Conclusions: In most European countries, including Slovenia, the bats are included in the lists of animal species protected by the law. In spite of that, the programs of investigations of bats, including the recognition and prevention of diseases transmitted by bats are implemented. We believe that such program should be prepared in Slovenia as well. We propose for that purposes the establishment of co-operation between the medical institutions, veterinarians, cave explorers associations, societies for bat protections and other interested institutions.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    - Sutikno


    Full Text Available Resis negatif ma-N 2403 dan 495 K PMMA memiliki resolusi yang baik untuk aplikasi litografi berkas elektron (EBL. Ketebalanresist optimal memainkan peran penting dalam paparan berkas elektron. Oleh karena itu, dalam penelitian ini, ketebalan darikedua resist yang dioptimalkan menggunakan spincoater dalam jangkauan laju spin 1000-6000 rpm. Semakin laju spin meningkat,ketebalan resist menurun juga. Morfologi permukaan resist dikarakterisasi dengan mikroskop gaya atom. Butir butir resist nampakpanjang. Dalam analisis AFM, permukaan profil resist negatif ma-N 2403 dan 495 K PMMA nampak seperti kerucut. Negative resist ma-N 2403 and 495 K PMMA have good resolution for electron beam lithography (EBL application. The optimumresist thickness plays significant role in e-beam exposure. Therefore, in this research, thicknesses of both resists were optimizedusing spincoater within spin speeds of 1000-6000 rpm. As spin speed increased, resist thickness decreased as well. Morphology ofresist surfaces were characterized using atomic force microscopy (AFM. Grains of resist show long grains. In AFM analyses,surface profiles of negative resist ma-N 2403 and 495 K PMMA show cone peaks.Keywords: e-beam resist; spincoater; e-beam lithography

  3. China, Russia and Central Asia: The energy dilemma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bergsager, Henrik


    How China will satisfy its rising energy demand will have impact on the availability and market price of energy resources such as oil and gas, but also on foreign policy. Of special interest is the role of rising neighboring countries and region; Russia and Central Asia countries, who can supply China by way of pipelines. In this paper important factors influencing Chinese energy decision-making are discussed, with a particular focus on energy investments abroad. The state capitalism framework is used to explain the long-term policies of Chinese energy investments as well as discuss the importance of State-Owned Enterprises and National Oil Companies to the Chinese economy. On this background the energy relations between Russia, China and other Central Asia states is discussed. The main focus is on the influence Chinese Energy Based Loan (EBL) agreements have on the Chinese presence both economically and politically in the region. The objective is to present the current situation and outlook for Sino-Russian-Central Asian energy relations as well as the economic implications a closer Chinese presence could have for the region. China's EBLs with Central Asian countries illustrate the preferred Chinese approach in expanding trade relations and should be considered as important examples for future bilateral agreements.(Author)

  4. On the hole accelerator for III-nitride light-emitting diodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Zi-Hui, E-mail:, E-mail:, E-mail:, E-mail:; Zhang, Yonghui; Bi, Wengang, E-mail:, E-mail:, E-mail:, E-mail:; Geng, Chong; Xu, Shu [Key Laboratory of Electronic Materials and Devices of Tianjin, School of Electronics and Information Engineering, Hebei University of Technology, 5340 Xiping Road, Beichen District, Tianjin 300401 (China); Demir, Hilmi Volkan, E-mail:, E-mail:, E-mail:, E-mail: [LUMINOUS Centre of Excellence for Semiconductor Lighting and Displays, School of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Nanyang Technological University, 50 Nanyang Avenue, Singapore 639798 (Singapore); Department of Electrical and Electronics, Department of Physics, and UNAM-Institute of Material Science and Nanotechnology, Bilkent University, TR-06800 Ankara (Turkey); Sun, Xiao Wei, E-mail:, E-mail:, E-mail:, E-mail: [LUMINOUS Centre of Excellence for Semiconductor Lighting and Displays, School of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Nanyang Technological University, 50 Nanyang Avenue, Singapore 639798 (Singapore); Department of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, College of Engineering, Southern University of Science and Technology, 1088 Xue-Yuan Road, Nanshan District, Shenzhen, Guangdong 518055 (China)


    In this work, we systematically conduct parametric studies revealing the sensitivity of the hole injection on the hole accelerator (a hole accelerator is made of the polarization mismatched p-electron blocking layer (EBL)/p-GaN/p-Al{sub x}Ga{sub 1−x}N heterojunction) with different designs, including the AlN composition in the p-Al{sub x}Ga{sub 1−x}N layer, and the thickness for the p-GaN layer and the p-Al{sub x}Ga{sub 1−x}N layer. According to our findings, the energy that the holes obtain does not monotonically increase as the AlN incorporation in the p-Al{sub x}Ga{sub 1−x}N layer increases. Meanwhile, with p-GaN layer or p-Al{sub x}Ga{sub 1−x}N layer thickening, the energy that the holes gain increases and then reaches a saturation level. Thus, the hole injection efficiency and the device efficiency are very sensitive to the p-EBL/p-GaN/p-Al{sub x}Ga{sub 1−x}N design, and the hole accelerator can effectively increase the hole injection if properly designed.

  5. Hepatitis C virus-associated thrombocytopenia in pregnancy: impact upon multidisciplinary care provision.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Monteith, Cathy


    Abstract Objective: Recent studies have implicated hepatitis C virus (HCV) in the pathogenesis of immune thrombocytopenia. In pregnancy-associated immune thrombocytopenia, multidisciplinary management is required due to a potential for bleeding complications. We performed a retrospective review of HCV-infected pregnant women and age-matched controls who were not infected with HCV. Methods: One hundred and six women with a HCV viral load were identified from 2009 to 2011. Results: Thrombocytopenia was identified in 10.3% of HCV-infected pregnant women and 1.6% of age-matched controls (P<0.001). Mean platelet count during pregnancy was 120±23×109\\/L in HCV-infected women and at delivery was significantly lower in HCV-infected women than in controls (P=0.01). Despite the significant difference in platelet counts, there was no significant difference in estimated blood loss (EBL) at delivery. Regional anaesthesia was performed in 73% of thrombocytopenic HCV-infected women and no complications were recorded. There were no fetal bleeding complications. Conclusion: In the first study to date to investigate the impact of HCV on maternal platelet count we demonstrated a significantly higher frequency of thrombocytopenia and a significantly lower platelet count in HCV-infected pregnant women compared with controls. Interestingly, thrombocytopenia had no detectable impact on EBL at delivery.

  6. Simulation and experimental study of aspect ratio limitation in Fresnel zone plates for hard-x-ray optics. (United States)

    Liu, Jianpeng; Shao, Jinhai; Zhang, Sichao; Ma, Yaqi; Taksatorn, Nit; Mao, Chengwen; Chen, Yifang; Deng, Biao; Xiao, Tiqiao


    For acquiring high-contrast and high-brightness images in hard-x-ray optics, Fresnel zone plates with high aspect ratios (zone height/zone width) have been constantly pursued. However, knowledge of aspect ratio limits remains limited. This work explores the achievable aspect ratio limit in polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) by electron-beam lithography (EBL) under 100 keV, and investigates the lithographic factors for this limitation. Both Monte Carlo simulation and EBL on thick PMMA are applied to investigate the profile evolution with exposure doses over 100 nm wide dense zones. A high-resolution scanning electron microscope at low acceleration mode for charging free is applied to characterize the resultant zone profiles. It was discovered for what we believe is the first time that the primary electron-beam spreading in PMMA and the proximity effect due to extra exposure from neighboring areas could be the major causes of limiting the aspect ratio. Using the optimized lithography condition, a 100 nm zone plate with aspect ratio of 15/1 was fabricated and its focusing property was characterized at the Shanghai Synchrotron Radiation Facility. The aspect ratio limit found in this work should be extremely useful for guiding further technical development in nanofabrication of high-quality Fresnel zone plates.

  7. Influence of Front and Back Contacts on Photovoltaic Performances of p-n Homojunction Si Solar Cell: Considering an Electron-Blocking Layer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md. Feroz Ali


    Full Text Available In this simultion work, the effect of front and back contacts of p-n homojunction Si solar cell with an electron-blocking layer (EBL has been studied with the help of a strong solar cell simulator named AMPS-1D (analysis of microelectronic and photonic structures one dimensional. Without the effect of these contact parameters, low solar cell efficiency has been observed. Fluorine-doped tin oxide (FTO with high work function (5.45 eV has been used as the front contact to the proposed solar cell. Zinc (Zn metal which has a work function of 4.3 eV has been used as the back contact of the proposed model. With FTO as the front contact and Zn as the back contact, the optimum efficiency of 29.275% (Voc = 1.363 V, Jsc = 23.747 mA/cm2, FF = 0.905 has been observed. This type of simple Si-based p-n homojunction solar cell with EBL of high efficiency has been proposed in this paper.

  8. 4P-NPD ultra-thin films as efficient exciton blocking layers in DBP/C70 based organic solar cells (United States)

    Patil, Bhushan R.; Liu, Yiming; Qamar, Talha; Rubahn, Horst-Günter; Madsen, Morten


    Exciton blocking effects from ultra-thin layers of N,N‧-di-1-naphthalenyl-N,N‧-diphenyl [1,1‧:4‧,1″:4″,1‴-quaterphenyl]-4,4‴-diamine (4P-NPD) were investigated in small molecule-based inverted organic solar cells (OSCs) using tetraphenyldibenzoperiflanthene as the electron donor material and fullerene (C70) as the electron acceptor material. The short-circuit current density (J SC) and power conversion efficiency (PCE) of the optimized OSCs with 0.7 nm thick 4P-NPD were approximately 16% and 24% higher, respectively, compared to reference devices without exciton blocking layers (EBLs). Drift diffusion-based device modeling was conducted to model the full current density-voltage (JV) characteristics and external quantum efficiency spectrum of the OSCs, and photoluminescence measurements were conducted to investigate the exciton blocking effects with increasing thicknesses of the 4P-NPD layer. Importantly, coupled optical and electrical modeling studies of the device behaviors and exciton generation rates and densities in the active layer for different 4P-NPD layer thicknesses were conducted, in order to gain a complete understanding of the observed increase in PCE for 4P-NPD layer thicknesses up to 1 nm, and the observed decrease in PCE for layer thicknesses beyond 1 nm. This work demonstrates a route for guiding the integration of EBLs in OSC devices.

  9. Mycoplasma bovis-derived lipid-associated membrane proteins activate IL-1β production through the NF-κB pathway via toll-like receptor 2 and MyD88. (United States)

    Wang, Yang; Liu, Suli; Li, Yuan; Wang, Qi; Shao, Jiari; Chen, Ying; Xin, Jiuqing


    Mycoplasma bovis causes pneumonia, otitis media, and arthritis in young calves, resulting in economic losses to the cattle industry worldwide. M. bovis pathogenesis results in part from excessive immune responses. Lipid-associated membrane proteins (LAMPs) can potently induce host innate immunity. However, interactions between M. bovis-derived LAMPs and Toll-like receptors (TLRs), or signaling pathways eliciting active inflammation and NF-κB activation, are incompletely understood. Here, we found that IL-1β expression was induced in embryonic bovine lung (EBL) cells stimulated with M. bovis-derived LAMPs. Subcellular-localization analysis revealed nuclear p65 translocation following EBL cell stimulation with M. bovis-derived LAMPs. An NF-κB inhibitor reversed M. bovis-derived LAMP-induced IL-1β expression. TLR2 and myeloid differentiation primary response gene 88 (MyD88) overexpression increased LAMP-dependent IL-1β induction. TLR2-neutralizing antibodies reduced IL-1β expression during LAMP stimulation. LAMPs also inhibited IL-1β expression following overexpression of a dominant-negative MyD88 protein. These results suggested that M. bovis-derived LAMPs activate IL-1β production through the NF-κB pathway via TLR2 and MyD88. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Cost-effectiveness of bulk-tank milk testing for surveys to demonstrate freedom from infectious bovine rhinotracheitis and bovine enzootic leucosis in Switzerland. (United States)

    Reber, A; Reist, M; Schwermer, H


    In Switzerland, annual surveys to substantiate freedom from infectious bovine rhinotracheitis (IBR) and enzootic bovine leucosis (EBL) are implemented by a random allocation of farms to the respective survey as well as blood sampling of individual animals at farm level. Contrary to many other European countries, bulk-tank milk (BTM) samples have not been used for active cattle disease surveillance for several years in Switzerland. The aim of this project was to provide a financial comparison between the current surveillance programme consisting of blood sampling only and a modified surveillance programme including BTM sampling. A financial spreadsheet model was used for cost comparison. Various surveillance scenarios were tested with different sample sizes and sampling frequencies for BTM samples. The costs could be halved without compromising the power to substantiate the freedom from IBR and EBL through the surveillance programme. Alternatively, the sensitivity could be markedly increased when keeping the costs at the actual level and doubling the sample size. The risk-based sample size of the actual programme results in a confidence of 94,18 % that the farm level prevalence is below 0,2 %. Which the doubled sample size, the confidence is 99,69 % respectively.

  11. Fraction of bovine leukemia virus-infected dairy cattle developing enzootic bovine leukosis. (United States)

    Tsutsui, Toshiyuki; Kobayashi, Sota; Hayama, Yoko; Yamamoto, Takehisa


    Enzootic bovine leucosis (EBL) is a transmissible disease caused by the bovine leukemia virus that is prevalent in cattle herds in many countries. Only a small fraction of infected animals develops clinical symptoms, such as malignant lymphosarcoma, after a long incubation period. In the present study, we aimed to determine the fraction of EBL-infected dairy cattle that develop lymphosarcoma and the length of the incubation period before clinical symptoms emerge. These parameters were determined by a mathematical modeling approach based on the maximum-likelihood estimation method, using the results of a nationwide serological survey of prevalence in cattle and passive surveillance records. The best-fit distribution to estimate the disease incubation period was determined to be the Weibull distribution, with a median and average incubation period of 7.0 years. The fraction of infected animals developing clinical disease was estimated to be 1.4% with a 95% confidence interval of 1.2-1.6%. The parameters estimated here contribute to an examination of efficient control strategies making quantitative evaluation available. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Bovine leucosis virus contamination of a vaccine produced in vivo against bovine babesiosis and anaplasmosis. (United States)

    Rogers, R J; Dimmock, C K; de Vos, A J; Rodwell, B J


    Contamination of a batch of tick fever (babesiosis and anaplasmosis) vaccine with bovine leucosis virus (BLV) was detected when a herd, in the final stages of an enzootic bovine leucosis (EBL) accreditation program, developed a large number of seropositive cattle following use of tick fever vaccine. Investigations incriminated a single calf used to produce Anaplasma centrale vaccine from which 13,959 doses were distributed. The failure of this calf to give a positive agar gel immunodiffusion (AGID) test before use was not fully explained. A total of 22,627 cattle from 111 herds receiving contaminated vaccine was tested to validate claims for compensation. Results showed infection rates of 62% and 51.8% in vaccinated dairy and beef cattle, respectively, compared with 6.1% and 1.5% in non-vaccinated cattle in the same herds. The results also indicated that infection did not spread from vaccinated to non-vaccinated in-contact cattle. Heavy reliance is now placed on purchase of calves for vaccine production from EBL accredited-free herds and on transmission tests from the calves to sheep to prevent a recurrence of contamination. The need for a BLV antigen detection test, with the sensitivity of the sheep transmission test but simpler and faster to perform, is evident.

  13. The effects of plant growth regulators and L-phenylalanine on phenolic compounds of sweet basil. (United States)

    Koca, Nülüfer; Karaman, Şengül


    The effects of methyl jasmonate (MeJA), spermine (Spm), epibrassinolide (EBL) and l-phenylalanine on sweet basil (Ocimum basilicum L.) were studied to determine the amount of phenolic compounds and enzymatic activity of phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL). Total phenolic and total flavonoid contents of sweet basils were determined by a spectrophotometer, and individual phenolic compounds and activity of PAL were analysed by HPLC/UV. The highest total phenolic (6.72 mg GAE/g) and total flavonoid contents (0.92 mg QE/g) obtained from 1.0 mM Spm+MeJA application. Rosmarinic acid (RA) and caffeic acid contents significantly enhanced after the applications but no such differences observed in chicoric acid content or PAL activity. RA was the main phenolic acid in all samples and its concentration varied from 1.04 to 2.70 mg/gFW. As a result the combinations of Spm+MeJA and EBL+MeJA can induce secondary metabolites effectively and those interactions play important role in the production of phytochemicals in plants. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. DNA Bases Thymine and Adenine in Bio-Organic Light Emitting Diodes (United States)

    Gomez, Eliot F.; Venkatraman, Vishak; Grote, James G.; Steckl, Andrew J.


    We report on the use of nucleic acid bases (NBs) in organic light emitting diodes (OLEDs). NBs are small molecules that are the basic building blocks of the larger DNA polymer. NBs readily thermally evaporate and integrate well into the vacuum deposited OLED fabrication. Adenine (A) and thymine (T) were deposited as electron-blocking/hole-transport layers (EBL/HTL) that resulted in increases in performance over the reference OLED containing the standard EBL material NPB. A-based OLEDs reached a peak current efficiency and luminance performance of 48 cd/A and 93,000 cd/m2, respectively, while T-based OLEDs had a maximum of 76 cd/A and 132,000 cd/m2. By comparison, the reference OLED yielded 37 cd/A and 113,000 cd/m2. The enhanced performance of T-based devices is attributed to a combination of energy levels and structured surface morphology that causes more efficient and controlled hole current transport to the emitting layer.

  15. SONIC: workbook evaluations from students using web-based resources. (United States)

    Gibbon, Carolyn; Currie, Richard


    Problem-based learning (PBL) or enquiry-based learning (EBL) methods are frequently used within UK nursing curricula in order to support students in their learning. At the same time students are increasingly using electronic resources for information to support their learning. Following a successful Fund for the Development of Teaching (FDTL-phase 4) award, the Students Online in Nursing Integrated Curricula (SONIC) project ran from 2002 to 2005. This project developed and evaluated web-based resource-enriched scenarios to support students using PBL or EBL. This collaborative project across four institutions also included another six institutions in the evaluations. To facilitate evaluation a workbook was devised enabling data to be obtained from a total of 241 students from across different branches. Evaluations showed that they welcomed the open access and particular resources such as the animations, the hyperlinks, and the self-assessment quizzes. Whilst the evaluations did not ascertain the impact on students' learning, they nevertheless demonstrate that the students themselves regarded the resources as supplemental to, rather than substituting other approaches to learning. The development of these resources took place in nursing departments and interest has been demonstrated by a number of other professions nationally and internationally.

  16. Talking with the experts: evaluation of an online discussion forum involving mental health service users in the education of mental health nursing students. (United States)

    Simpson, Alan; Reynolds, Lisa; Light, Ian; Attenborough, Julie


    The Chief Nursing Officer's recent review of mental health nursing called for the widespread involvement of mental health service users in the education of mental health nurses. This paper describes an innovative project that involved mental health service users in the education of pre-registration mental health nursing students through an online discussion forum that blended e-learning with enquiry-based learning (EBL). The findings of an evaluation are presented, drawing on quantitative and qualitative methods. Overall, the project was a success with students and service users engaging in online discussions on a range of issues. EBL presentations demonstrated understanding of the service user experience and students reflected on implications for clinical practice. All participants would take part again and recommend the online forum to others. Analysis of activity data revealed different levels and styles of student involvement. Limitations in communication skills appeared to limit student participation, alongside logistical difficulties, whereas the service users eagerly utilised the forum. Potential implications for healthcare education are discussed and recommendations made for developments in user-led e-learning and further research.

  17. High-frequency surface acoustic wave devices based on AlN/diamond layered structure realized using e-beam lithography (United States)

    Assouar, M. B.; Elmazria, O.; Kirsch, P.; Alnot, P.; Mortet, V.; Tiusan, C.


    We report in this paper on the study and the realization of surface acoustic wave devices based on an AlN/diamond layered structure intended for the X band (8 GHz). Both x-ray diffraction and transmission electronic microscopy, used for characterization of the structural properties of the AlN/diamond structure, have shown (002) highly oriented sputtered AlN films on free-standing chemical vapor deposition diamond films. Surface roughness of the AlN/diamond structure was measured by atomic force microscopy and showed a very low surface roughness, less than 1 nm. Low surface roughness is very important to reduce the acoustic propagation losses. SAW devices operating in the range of 8 GHz were realized by the combination of the high velocity of the AlN/diamond layered structure and the high lateral resolution obtained using e-beam lithography (EBL). Due to high electrical resistivity of the AlN film, interdigital transducers with submicronic resolution were patterned by an adapted technological EBL process. The analysis of device performances in terms of electromechanical coupling coefficient and temperature stability was carried out and discussed. The dispersion of both parameters as a function of wavelength was experimentally determined, and showed the obtention of an electromechanical coupling coefficient up to 1.4% and a temperature coefficient of frequency varying between 9 and 20 ppm/°C. The dispersion curves of phase velocity were also analyzed and experimental results show a good agreement with theoretical calculations.

  18. Optimization of structure parameters for highly efficient AlGaN based deep ultraviolet light emitting diodes (United States)

    Mondal, Ramit Kumar; Chatterjee, Vijay; Singh, Sumitra; Islam, Sk Masiul; Pal, Suchandan


    The efficiency of any LEDs critically depends on its base structure. In this paper, we have reported the dependence of active layer structure on the performance of AlGaN based deep ultraviolet light emitting diodes (LEDs) having emission wavelength at 265 nm which is very crucial for DNA manipulation of most of the water borne harmful pathogens. Advanced device simulations have been performed for the deep UV-LEDs by using SiLENSE module of the SimuLED software tool. We have optimized the number of quantum well, quantum well thickness, aluminum content in electron blocking layer (EBL) and the aluminum content in the barrier region. We have observed that optimization of structural properties plays a crucial role in improving the internal quantum efficiency leading to improvement of overall efficiency of the LEDs. The internal quantum efficiency of the UVsbnd LED having an emission wavelength of 265 nm reaches up to 55% when the number of quantum well is fixed to five and each well has a thickness in the order of 1.8 nm with aluminum content as 95% and 62% in EBL and barrier region respectively.

  19. Efficacy of the Da Vinci surgical system in colorectal surgery comparing with traditional laparoscopic surgery or open surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jintang Huang


    Full Text Available In order to compare the curative effect of the Da Vinci surgical system (DVSS with laparoscopic surgery (LS or open surgery for colorectal resection, literature search was conducted in PubMed, Excerpt Medica Database (Embase, and Cochrane library up to January 15, 2016. Odds ratio (OR and weighted mean difference with their corresponding 95% confidence intervals were used as effect size for evaluation of different outcomes. In total, 10 studies consisting of 2767 patients were included for the meta-analysis. As a result, there were no significant differences between DVSS and LS/open surgery in the long-term oncologic outcomes (p > 0.05. However, DVSS achieved a significantly lower length of hospital stay and estimated blood loss (EBL, but a longer operation time. Moreover, DVSS showed a significantly reduced conversion to open surgery than LS (OR = 0.19, 95% confidence interval: 0.08–0.48. Subgroup analysis indicated that DVSS had different results in rectal adenocarcinoma and colon cancer subgroups on outcomes of conversion to open surgery and operation time. DVSS is superior to LS/open surgery in length of hospital stay and EBL, but needs longer operation time. Long-term outcomes of DVSS are comparable with the other approaches. From long-term perspective, DVSS has an equivalent effect to the other two techniques.

  20. Kinase activity of OsBRI1 is essential for brassinosteroids to regulate rice growth and development. (United States)

    Zhao, Jinfeng; Wu, Chenxi; Yuan, Shoujiang; Yin, Liang; Sun, Wei; Zhao, Qinglei; Zhao, Baohua; Li, Xueyong


    Brassinosteroids (BRs) are steroid hormones that participate in multiple biological processes. In this paper, we characterized a classic rice mutant Fn189 (dwarf54, d54) showing semi-dwarf stature and erect leaves. The coleoptile elongation and root growth was less affected in Fn189 than wild-type plant by the exogenous application of eBL, the most active form of BRs. Lamina joint inclination assay and morphological analysis in darkness further showed that Fn189 mutant plant was insensitive to exogenous eBL. Through map-based cloning, Fn189 was found to be a novel allelic mutant of the DWARF 61 (D61) gene, which encodes the putative BRs receptor OsBRI1. A single base mutation caused the I834F substitution in the OsBRI1 kinase domain. Consequently, kinase activity of OsBRI1 was found to decrease dramatically. Taken together, the kinase activity of OsBRI1 is essential for brassinosteroids to regulate normal plant growth and development in rice. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Effectivity of PCR and AGID methods to detect of enzootic bovine leukosis in Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saepulloh M


    Full Text Available Enzootic Bovine Leucosis (EBL is one of viral diseases in cattle caused by bovine leukemia virus (BLV, from Retroviridae. The virus can be detected using severals methods such as Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR, while antibody can be detected using Agar Gel Immunodifussion (AGID. The aim of this experiment was to study the effectivity of PCR and AGID methods to detect enzootic bovine leukosis virus in Indonesia. Samples of peripheral blood leukocyte (PBL were collected from cattles those with and without showing clinical signs. A total of 307 blood and serum samples were tested against BLV using PCR and AGID tests, while 21 semen samples which were from similar animals for blood collection were collected only for PCR test. The results indicated that twelve cattles have positive results with PCR test in PBL, but from those cattles only seven were positive with AGID. On the other hand, the PCR did not detect EBL in 21 bovine semen samples tested, although one sample gave positive result with PCR in PBL. This results indicated that PCR method from blood samples was more sensitive than that AGID method. The PCR detection was also more sensitive for PBL than that for semen samples

  2. Surface preparation and patterning by nano imprint lithography for the selective area growth of GaAs nanowires on Si(111) (United States)

    Küpers, Hanno; Tahraoui, Abbes; Lewis, Ryan B.; Rauwerdink, Sander; Matalla, Mathias; Krüger, Olaf; Bastiman, Faebian; Riechert, Henning; Geelhaar, Lutz


    The selective area growth of Ga-assisted GaAs nanowires (NWs) with a high vertical yield on Si(111) substrates is still challenging. Here, we explore different surface preparations and their impact on NW growth by molecular beam epitaxy. We show that boiling the substrate in ultrapure water leads to a significant improvement in the vertical yield of NWs (realizing 80%) grown on substrates patterned by electron-beam lithography (EBL). Tentatively, we attribute this improvement to a reduction in atomic roughness of the substrate in the mask opening. On this basis, we transfer our growth results to substrates processed by a technique that enables the efficient patterning of large arrays, nano imprint lithography (NIL). In order to obtain hole sizes below 50 nm, we combine the conventional NIL process with an indirect pattern transfer (NIL-IPT) technique. Thereby, we achieve smaller hole sizes than previously reported for conventional NIL and growth results that are comparable to those achieved on EBL patterned substrates.

  3. Impact of Body Habitus on Operative Difficulties during Extraperitoneal Laparoscopic Radical Prostatectomy. (United States)

    Weimin, Yu; Haga, Nobuhiro; Yanagida, Tomohiko; Kurita, Noriaki; Akihata, Hidenori; Kojima, Yoshiyuki


    The aim of the present study was to investigate whether patients' body habitus affects the operative difficulties associated with extraperitoneal laparoscopic radical prostatectomy (LRP). Therefore, the associations between body habitus and perioperative outcomes of surgery, including bleeding, operative time, and resection margins, were evaluated. Between August 2010 and July 2012, 40 consecutive patients with preoperative magnetic resonance imaging and abdominal X-ray examinations underwent extraperitoneal LRP for localized prostate cancer at our institution. The associations between anthropometric measurements and demographics of patients, operation duration, estimated blood loss (EBL), and resection margins were analyzed retrospectively. Multivariate analyses were performed, and P < .05 was considered significant. On multiple regression analysis, the view of the prostatic apex (VPA) was significantly associated with EBL (P = .02), and body mass index (BMI) was significantly associated with operative time (P = .02). On multiple logistic regression analysis, protrusion of the prostate into the bladder was significantly associated with positive resection margins (P = .04). The findings of the present study suggest that poor VPA, protrusion of the prostate into the bladder, and high BMI were related to operative difficulties in extraperitoneal LRP. If operative difficulty is predicted preoperatively, it would be better to prepare blood for transfusion and/or special instruments (e.g. flexible scope), or switch to other therapeutic procedures.

  4. Does body habitus of patients affect operative difficulty during retroperitoneal laparoscopic radical nephrectomy? (United States)

    Akaihata, Hidenori; Haga, Nobuhiro; Yanagida, Tomohiko; Aikawa, Ken; Ishibashi, Kei; Takahashi, Norio; Ogawa, Souichiro; Oguro, Toshiki; Kataoka, Masao; Kojima, Yoshiyuki


    Because of the limited working space available during retroperitoneal laparoscopic radical nephrectomy (LRN), the body habitus of the patient is likely to affect the risk of operative difficulties. This study sought to determine whether anthropometric measurements based on CT and abdominal radiography could be used to predict operative difficulties during retroperitoneal LRN. Between August 2004 and January 2012, 96 consecutive patients with preoperative CT and abdominal radiography examinations underwent retroperitoneal LRN for a T(1) or T(2) stage renal tumor at our institution. The association between anthropometric measurements and demographics of patients and operative duration, estimated blood loss (EBL), and perioperative complications were retrospectively analyzed. Multivariate analysis was performed, and P<0.05 was considered significant. Anterior perirenal fat distance (P=0.016) and distance from the 12th rib to the iliac crest (P=0.038) were independently associated with operative duration. Only anterior perirenal fat distance (P=0.001) was independently associated with EBL. No intraoperative complications and reoperations occurred. The occurrence or severity of postoperative complications was not significantly associated with anthropometric measurements. Body mass index ≥25.0 kg/m(2) was not significantly associated with operative difficulties. The anterior perirenal fat distance and the distance from the 12th rib to the iliac crest can be used to predict operative difficulties during retroperitoneal LRN.

  5. Application of solvent modified PEDOT:PSS to graphene electrodes in organic solar cells. (United States)

    Park, Hyesung; Shi, Yumeng; Kong, Jing


    Graphene has been proposed as a promising transparent conducting electrode material in organic photovoltaic (OPV) solar cells to substitute the widely used indium tin oxide (ITO). Various studies have reported OPV devices with graphene electrodes showing comparable performances to ITO-based OPV cells. However, the fabrication reliability or device yield has not been widely discussed. In our investigation it was found that graphene-based OPVs tend to have much lower device yield than the ITO-based ones if similar fabrication processes are used. One possible reason could be due to the challenge faced in obtaining a uniform coating of PEDOT:PSS hole injection layer (HIL) on graphene. In fact, several attempts have been made to overcome this challenge. In this work, we report a facile method of solvent modification of PEDOT:PSS to achieve a homogeneous coating on graphene. A significant enhancement in the device yield was observed as compared to devices using normal aqueous solution based PEDOT:PSS; nevertheless, it was still only ∼50%. Further improvement was made by adding an additional electron blocking layer (EBL), molybdenum trioxide, after the coating of PEDOT:PSS. The observation in this work calls for further investigation to understand the role played by the HIL or EBL in graphene-based OPV devices.

  6. Refractory gastric antral vascular ectasia: a new endoscopic approach. (United States)

    Zulli, C; Del Prete, A; Romano, M; Esposito, F; Amato, M R; Esposito, P


    Gastric antral vascular ectasia (GAVE) is an uncommon disorder observed in patients with liver cirrhosis, causing upper gastro-intestinal haemorrhage. GAVE is diagnosed through esophagogastroduodenoscopy and is characterized by the presence of visible columns of red tortuous enlarged vessels along the longitudinal folds of the antrum (i.e., so-called watermelon stomach). Pharmacological, endoscopic and surgical approaches have been proposed for the treatment of GAVE. Endoscopy represents the gold standard for GAVE treatment. The most widely used endoscopic approach is represented by Neodymium:yttrium-aluminum-garnet (Nd:YAG) laser. Argon plasma coagulation (APC) has been proven to be more efficient in terms of costs and complication rates than and equally effective as Nd:YAG. Other endoscopic procedures proposed for this treatment are banding ligature (EBL) and sclerotherapy with Polidocanol. Refractory GAVE represents a therapeutic challenge because it may cause persistent anemia, often leading to repeated blood transfusions due to the inefficacy of pharmacological and endoscopic therapeutic approaches. Endoscopic band ligation (EBL) has been shown to be superior to APC in the treatment of refractory GAVE. Surgical antrectomy by Billroth I anastomosis can be considered in selected cases. In this study, we report a successful endoscopic treatment of refractory GAVE by using a combination of submucosal injection of 1% Polidocanol at the four antral quadrants and subsequent application of APC on the visible antral lesions in two patients.

  7. New processes associated with electron-beam lithography for ultra-small resonators (United States)

    Tobing, Landobasa Y. M.; Zhang, Dao Hua


    High density ultrahigh resolution patterning with desired shape and size is a crucial requirement in nanotechnology and its applications. Electron beam lithography (EBL) is the most widely used lithography tool for these applications. However, achieving cost-effective patterning with sub-10-nm critical dimension has been challenging due to the inherent tradeoff between resolution and throughput. In this paper, we present cost-effective new processes associated with EBL technique, which include optimized resist selection and processing as well as sonicated cold development process. Using this process, we demonstrate sub-10-nm diameter metal dots at a pitch of 34 nm and sub-15 nm wide metal lines. Based on the same processes, we demonstrate the fabrication of u-shaped split ring resonator array of different metals with smallest fabricated resonator with 60 nm size and v-shape SRRs with the smallest gap spacing of 30 nm. By adjusting the SRR gap spacing through its arm length and opening angle, we have successfully demonstrated magnetic and electric resonances across the visible and ultraviolet range.

  8. Adding SPICE to a Library Internet Site: A Recipe to Enhance Usability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ingrid Tonnison


    Full Text Available Objective - To produce a highly- usable intranet site, use the project to explore the practical application of evidence-based librarianship (EBL, and refine the library's project management methodology. Methods - Evidence was gathered via a literature review, an online survey, scenario-based usability testing, and the completion of a usability checlist. Usability issues were then addressed, guided by the Research-Based Web Design and Usability Guidelines. Results - After a preliminary revision, the site achieved a usability index of 79% after application of the "Raward Library Usability Analysis Tool". Finding the information and supporting user tasks were identified as areas of weakness. Usability testing and cleint feedback supported these findings. After these issues were addressed by a major site redeveloment, the usability index increased to 98%. Conclusions - Raward's checklist is an easy and effective tool for measuring and identifying usability issues. Its value was enhanced by scenario-based usability testing, which yielded rich, client specific information. The application of EBL and project management princples ehnanced the outcomes of the project, and the professional development of the project team.

  9. Users’ Awareness of Electronic Books is Limited. A review of: Levine‐Clark, Michael. “Electronic Book Usage: A Survey at the University of Denver.” portal: Libraries and the Academy 6.3 (Jul. 2006: 285‐99.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gale G. Hannigan


    of an electronic book; only 7.1% of 1,148 respondents indicated they read the entire electronic book. In answer to a questiona bout choosing the print or electronic version of the same book, 60.7% responded that they would always or usually use print,and 21.5% indicated they would always or usually use electronic. The amount of material to read, the need to refer to the material at a later time, and the desire to annotate or highlight text are all factors that influence whether users read electronic books on a computer or PDA, or print out the material. U.S. government publications and netLibrary were the electronic resources used the most by survey participants.Conclusion – The results of this survey suggest the need to market availability of the library’s electronic books. Problems associated with the use of electronic books are related to reading large amounts of text on a computer screen, but a reported benefitis that searching text in an electronic book is easier. Responses to the survey suggest that the use of electronic resources may not be generic, but rather depends on the type of resource (content being used. The author notes that this finding should lead to further investigation of which items will be preferred and used in which format.

  10. The crucial role of Activin A on the formation of primordial germ cell-like cells from skin-derived stem cells in vitro. (United States)

    Sun, Rui; Sun, Yuan-Chao; Ge, Wei; Tan, Hui; Cheng, Shun-Feng; Yin, Shen; Sun, Xiao-Feng; Li, Lan; Dyce, Paul; Li, Julang; Yang, Xiao; Shi, Qing-Hua; Shen, Wei


    Primordial germ cells (PGCs) are founder cells of the germ cell lineage, and can be differentiated from stem cells in an induced system in vitro. However, the induction conditions need to be optimized in order to improve the differentiation efficiency. Activin A (ActA) is a member of the TGF-β super family and plays an important role in oogenesis and folliculogenesis. In the present study, we found that ActA promoted PGC-like cells (PGCLCs) formation from mouse skin-derived stem cells (SDSCs) in both embryoid body-like structure (EBLS) differentiation and the co-culture stage in a dose dependent manner. ActA treatment (100 ng/ml) during EBLS differentiation stage and further co-cultured for 6 days without ActA significantly increased PGCLCs from 53.2% to 82.8%, and as well as EBLS differentiation without ActA followed by co-cultured with 100 ng/ml ActA for 4 to 12 days with the percentage of PGCLCs increasing markedly in vitro. Moreover, mice treated with ActA at 100 ng/kg body weight from embryonic day (E) 5.5-12.5 led to more PGCs formation. However, the stimulating effects of ActA were interrupted by Smad3 RNAi, and in an in vitro cultured Smad3(-/-) mouse skin cells scenario. SMAD3 is thus likely a key effecter molecule in the ActA signaling pathway. In addition, we found that the expression of some epiblast cell markers, Fgf5, Dnmt3a, Dnmt3b and Wnt3, was increased in EBLSs cultured for 4 days or PGCLCs co-cultured for 12 days with ActA treatment. Interestingly, at 16 days of differentiation, the percentage of PGCLCs was decreased in the presence of ActA, but the expression of meiosis-relative genes, such as Stra8, Dmc1, Sycp3 and Sycp1, was increased. In conclusion, our data here demonstrated that ActA can promote PGCLC formation from SDSCs in vitro, at early stages of differentiation, and affect meiotic initiation of PGCLCs in later stages.

  11. Spinal fusion for spastic neuromuscular scoliosis: is anterior releasing necessary when intraoperative halo-femoral traction is used? (United States)

    Keeler, Kathryn A; Lenke, Lawrence G; Good, Christopher R; Bridwell, Keith H; Sides, Brenda; Luhmann, Scott J


    Retrospective radiographic and clinical study. To compare the complications and radiographic outcomes of 2 types of surgical treatments, posterior-only fusion and circumferential fusion, in patients with nonambulatory quadriplegic cerebral palsy treated with adjunctive intraoperative halo-femoral traction. Circumferential anterior-posterior spinal fusion (A/PSF) has been used to improve deformity correction and rate of fusion in patients with neuromuscular scoliosis (NMS) but is associated with increased morbidity. Anterior procedures may increase operative time (OR time) and estimated blood loss (EBL) as well as compromise pulmonary function. Posterior-only spinal fusion (PSF-only) may be sufficient, thereby forgoing the need for the anterior approach without sacrificing deformity correction or outcome. Twenty-six patients (age traction. Mean follow-up for PSF-only was 2.9 years and A/PSF 3.3 years. There were no significant differences between the 2 groups in demographic data or preoperative radiographic measures. The PSF-only group had statistically significant shorter OR time (6.1 vs. 10.3 hours), lower EBL (873 vs. 1361 mL), lower frequency of postoperative intubation (38% vs. 81%), shorter length of postoperative intubation (2 vs. 6.5 days), and lower frequency of postoperative pulmonary complications (7.7% vs. 26.9%). There were no statistically significant differences at the final follow-up for thoracolumbar/lumbar curve Cobb, % correction of thoracolumbar/lumbar Cobb, pelvic obliquity, C7 plumb line and the center sacral vertical line, sagittal T5-T12, sagittal T10-L2, and sagittal T12-S1 Cobb measurements. There were no halo-femoral traction-related complications. When intraoperative halo-femoral traction is used, PSF-only surgery for NMS can provide excellent curve correction and spinal balance. In this study, the PSF-only group had shorter OR time, lower EBL, lower frequency of postoperative intubation, and fewer cases of pneumonias when compared with A

  12. Redshift determination of the BL Lac object 3C 66A by the detection of its host galaxy cluster at z = 0.340 (United States)

    Torres-Zafra, Juanita; Cellone, Sergio A.; Buzzoni, Alberto; Andruchow, Ileana; Portilla, José G.


    The BL Lac object 3C 66A is one of the most luminous extragalactic sources at TeV γ-rays (very high energy, i.e. E > 100 GeV). Since TeV γ-ray radiation is absorbed by the extragalactic background light (EBL), it is crucial to know the redshift of the source in order to reconstruct its original spectral energy distribution, as well as to constrain EBL models. However, the optical spectrum of this BL Lac is almost featureless, so a direct measurement of z is very difficult; in fact, the published redshift value for this source (z = 0.444) has been strongly questioned. Based on EBL absorption arguments, several constraints to its redshift, in the range 0.096 type galaxies that are members of groups or clusters, we have analysed spectro-photometrically the environment of 3C 66A, with the goal of finding the galaxy group hosting this blazar. This study was made using optical images of a 5.5 × 5.5 arcmin2 field centred on the blazar, and spectra of 24 sources obtained with Gemini/GMOS-N multi-object spectroscopy. We found spectroscopic evidence of two galaxy groups along the blazar's line of sight: one at z ≃ 0.020 and the second one at z ≃ 0.340. The first one is consistent with a known foreground structure, while the second group presented here has six spectroscopically confirmed members. Their location along a red sequence in the colour-magnitude diagram allows us to identify 34 additional candidate members of the more distant group. The blazar's spectrum shows broad absorption features that we identify as arising in the intergalactic medium, thus allowing us to tentatively set a redshift lower limit at z_3C66A ≳ 0.33. As a consequence, we propose that 3C 66A is hosted in a galaxy that belongs to a cluster at z = 0.340.

  13. Postpartum Permanent Sterilization: Could Bilateral Salpingectomy Replace Bilateral Tubal Ligation? (United States)

    Danis, Rachel B; Della Badia, Carl R; Richard, Scott D


    There has recently been an expansion in the use of bilateral salpingectomy at the time of sterilization to theoretically decrease ovarian cancer risk. We sought to determine if postpartum salpingectomy is equivalent to postpartum bilateral tubal ligation (BTL) in terms of duration, estimated blood loss (EBL), and complication rate. A retrospective case series (Canadian Task Force Classification II-2). An academic inner-city hospital. All patients admitted for delivery of full-term intrauterine pregnancy desiring permanent sterilization between March 2014 and March 2015 were included. Excluded patients included those who had sterilization at the time of the cesarean section or other surgical procedure. Two cohorts were identified, those who had a planned postpartum tubal ligation and those having a postpartum salpingectomy. Postpartum sterilization. Researchers of this study recorded demographics, medical histories, and abdominal surgical histories for all patients who met the inclusion criteria. Surgical times, EBL, and complication rates were reviewed. Unpaired t test calculations were used to identify differences between age, body mass index, parity, and surgical time between the 2 cohorts. Chi-square tests were used to determine the statistical significance between complication rates, history of abdominal surgery, and past medical history of tubal disease between the 2 cohorts. Eighty women were identified, 64 in the BTL group and 16 in the salpingectomy cohort. The demographics of each cohort were equivocal. The average surgical time was 59.13 and 71.44 minutes in the BTL and salpingectomy cohorts, respectively. Of the 80 patients, only 1 had an EBL greater than 50 mL; this patient was in the BTL group. Four complications were noted in the BTL cohort, but none were evident in the salpingectomy group. There were no documented sterilization failures in the follow-up period (median = 9 months). Postpartum salpingectomy is slightly longer in duration but with

  14. Reducing robotic prostatectomy costs by minimizing instrumentation. (United States)

    Delto, Joan C; Wayne, George; Yanes, Rafael; Nieder, Alan M; Bhandari, Akshay


    Since the introduction of robotic surgery for radical prostatectomy, the cost-benefit of this technology has been under scrutiny. While robotic surgery professes to offer multiple advantages, including reduced blood loss, reduced length of stay, and expedient recovery, the associated costs tend to be significantly higher, secondary to the fixed cost of the robot as well as the variable costs associated with instrumentation. This study provides a simple framework for the careful consideration of costs during the selection of equipment and materials. Two experienced robotic surgeons at our institution as well as several at other institutions were queried about their preferred instrument usage for robot-assisted prostatectomy. Costs of instruments and materials were obtained and clustered by type and price. A minimal set of instruments was identified and compared against alternative instrumentation. A retrospective review of 125 patients who underwent robotically assisted laparoscopic prostatectomy for prostate cancer at our institution was performed to compare estimated blood loss (EBL), operative times, and intraoperative complications for both surgeons. Our surgeons now conceptualize instrument costs as proportional changes to the cost of the baseline minimal combination. Robotic costs at our institution were reduced by eliminating an energy source like the Ligasure or vessel sealer, exploiting instrument versatility, and utilizing inexpensive tools such as Hem-o-lok clips. Such modifications reduced surgeon 1's cost of instrumentation to ∼40% less compared with surgeon 2 and up to 32% less than instrumentation used by surgeons at other institutions. Surgeon 1's combination may not be optimal for all robotic surgeons; however, it establishes a minimally viable toolbox for our institution through a rudimentary cost analysis. A similar analysis may aid others in better conceptualizing long-term costs not as nominal, often unwieldy prices, but as percent changes in

  15. Light sensors based on organic phototransistors with absorption-enhancing nanoparticles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Runge Walther, Anders; Linnet, Jes; Albrektsen, Ole

    Organic semiconductors (OSCs) exhibit promising electronic and optical properties applicable in photo-sensing devices. Previous studies have found that thiophene-based semiconductors are suitable as the active layer in organic optoelectronic devices such as light-sensing transistors [1......]. The ability to fabricate and characterize metal nanostructures allows for tuning of the optical properties of metal nanoparticles (NP). In this work we have investigated organic thin-film phototransistors (OPTs) based on the molecule 5,5’’-bis(naphth-2-yl)-2,2’:5’,2’’-terthiophene (NaT3). Using electron beam...... lithography (EBL) we have fabricated organic field effect transistors (OFETs) with arrays of silver NPs under the organic thin-film. Experimentally, the optical extinction of light incident on arrays of NPs has been measured by reflectance spectroscopy. The results have been compared to the predictions of Mie...

  16. Enhancing the performance of blue GaN-based light emitting diodes with double electron blocking layers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yao Guo


    Full Text Available In this work, novel double Electron Blocking Layers for InGaN/GaN multiple quantum wells light-emitting diodes were proposed to mitigate the efficiency droop at high current density. The band diagram and carriers distributions were investigated numerically. The results indicate that due to a newly formed holes stack in the p-GaN near the active region, the hole injection has been improved and an uniform carriers distribution can be achieved. As a result, in our new structure with double Electron Blocking Layers, the efficiency droop has been reduced to 15.5 % in comparison with 57.3 % for the LED with AlGaN EBL at the current density of 100 A/cm2.

  17. Interpretive versus didactic learning approach towards oral biology: a student's perspective. (United States)

    Farooq, Imran


    This study analyzed the preference of dental students for oral biology questions that require either an interpretive or a descriptive approach to answer and to compare the preferences with their final examination result retrospectively. A questionnaire requiring student academic number and containing two questions (one asked with an interpretive approach/the other asked with a descriptive approach) from random topics of oral biology course was distributed among students who have already appeared in the final examination. Majority of the students who had achieved good grades (A+, A, B+, B) preferred interpretive questions whereas majority of the students with average grades (C+, C, D+, D) selected descriptive questions. Common reason for picking interpretive question was that it enhances critical thinking. The descriptive questions were argued to provide students with a chance to explain more. Hence, students should be encouraged to learn interpretively to promote enquiry based learning (EBL) and critical thinking.

  18. Robotic-assisted total laparoscopic hysterectomy versus conventional total laparoscopic hysterectomy. (United States)

    Shashoua, Abraham R; Gill, Diana; Locher, Stephen R


    To compare patient characteristics, operative variables, and outcomes of 24 patients who underwent robotic-assisted total laparoscopic hysterectomy (TLH) with 44 patients who underwent conventional TLH. We retrospectively reviewed the charts of 44 patients with TLH and 24 patients with robotic TLH. Robotic TLH was associated with a shorter hospital stay (1.0 vs 1.4 days, P=0.011) and a significant decrease in narcotic use (1.2 vs 5.0 units, P=0.002). EBL and droP in hemoglobin were not significantly different. The operative time was significantly longer in patients undergoing robotic TLH (142.2 vs 122.1 minutes, P=0.027). However, only need for laparoscopic morcellation, BMI, and uterine weight, not robotic use, were independently associated with increased operative times. Robotic hysterectomy can be performed safely with comparable operative times to those of conventional laparoscopic hysterectomy. Postoperative measures were improved over measures for conventional laparoscopy.

  19. Atividade antibacteriana de Cereus jamacaru DC, Cactaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aline Davet

    Full Text Available A procura por novos agentes antimicrobianos a partir de plantas vem sendo intensificada e não existem estudos direcionados à avaliação da atividade antimicrobiana de C. jamacaru frente a microrganismos prejudiciais ao homem. Em vista disso, avaliou-se o efeito antimicrobiano do extrato bruto etanólico do lenho (EBLE e do córtex (EBCO desta espécie frente a colônias puras de oito microrganismos patogênicos. Neste estudo foram utilizados os métodos difusão em ágar (meio sólido e CIM (concentração inibitória mínima. Os resultados obtidos neste ensaio preliminar mostraram que EBCO apresentou atividade antimicrobiana mais pronunciada que EBCE e que os microrganismos cujo crescimento foi mais influenciado por EBCO foram Streptococcus epidermidis, Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa e Escherichia coli.

  20. Metal nanoparticles for thin film solar cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gritti, Claudia

    and shape of NPs bigger than what can be obtained by EBL. The nanoparticles, after being deposited on different substrates and eventually coated with TCO, are first otpically characterized: reflection and transmission are measured with an integrating sphere and consequent absorption spectra are calculated...... efficiency in such spectral range; after an overview of the different technologies available today, the employment of localized surface plasmons (LSPs) through the incorporation of metallic nanoparticles within the photovoltaic device is chosen as a cheap and simple method. The LSP resonance wavelength...... and intensity depends on the nanoparticle’s size, shape, and local dielectric environment, thus absorption enhancement in a defined wavelength range can be achieved varying these properties (tuning the LSP resonance). Even though scattering enhancement of photons above the gap of the semiconductor is useful...

  1. What's the use?: analysing student citations to provide new insights into e-book usage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antony Groves


    Full Text Available This article reports on a small-scale user-focused piece of research carried out at the University of Sussex. In an attempt to better understand the impact of e-books on student outputs, citation analysis was performed on coursework to identify the e-books that had been used. Of the students surveyed, 11.6% cited an e-book in their work and, for this particular group, EBL was found to be the most popular collection. However, cross reference with the Library discovery tool and Google revealed that e-books available from the web were cited more than those from library collections. Interviews uncovered a spectrum of usage, leading to the conclusion that a comprehensive e-book strategy is required that makes students aware of their benefits, equips them with the skills needed for effective use and increases the number of e-books available.

  2. High efficiency geometric-phase polarization fan-out grating on silicon. (United States)

    Wan, Chenhao; Lombardo, David; Sarangan, Andrew; Zhan, Qiwen


    We report the design, fabrication and characterization of a 1-by-5 geometric-phase polarization fan-out grating for coherent beam combining at 1550 nm. The phase profile of the grating is accurately controlled by the local orientation of the binary subwavelength structure instead of the etching depth and profile empowering the grating to be more tolerant to fabrication errors. Deep-UV interference lithography on silicon offers an inexpensive, highly efficient and high damage threshold solution to fabricating large-area fan-out gratings than electron beam lithography (EBL) and photoalignment liquid crystals. The theoretical and experimental diffraction efficiency of the grating is 87% and 85.7% respectively. Such a fan-out grating may find application to high-power beam combining in the infrared regime.

  3. Nanofabrication of magnetic scanned-probe microscope sensors

    CERN Document Server

    Chong, B K


    experiments were carried out under ambient conditions. The experiments required no extra preparation to be done to the specimen before imaging and measurements were carried out under ambient conditions. These probes offer the prospect of direct magnetic field measurement, non- invasiveness, very close proximity, possible local manipulation, better control over the tip- specimen interaction distance and topographic imaging. It is hoped that these magnetic microscope probes will be of great interest and general utility for academic and industrial magneticians. This thesis presents the development of novel magnetic sensor combined with Atomic Force Microscope probe (AFM) using conventional semiconductor processing techniques and Electron Beam Lithography (EBL). The fabrication of these magnetic sensors was performed on a common micromachined silicon substrate using a generic batch fabrication technique. Sub-micron Hall bar for Scanning Hall probe Microscopy (SHPM) and electromagnetic force coil magnet for Scanni...

  4. Optical sensor based on a single CdS nanobelt. (United States)

    Li, Lei; Yang, Shuming; Han, Feng; Wang, Liangjun; Zhang, Xiaotong; Jiang, Zhuangde; Pan, Anlian


    In this paper, an optical sensor based on a cadmium sulfide (CdS) nanobelt has been developed. The CdS nanobelt was synthesized by the vapor phase transportation (VPT) method. X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) and Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) results revealed that the nanobelt had a hexagonal wurtzite structure of CdS and presented good crystal quality. A single nanobelt Schottky contact optical sensor was fabricated by the electron beam lithography (EBL) technique, and the device current-voltage results showed back-to-back Schottky diode characteristics. The photosensitivity, dark current and the decay time of the sensor were 4 × 10⁴, 31 ms and 0.2 pA, respectively. The high photosensitivity and the short decay time were because of the exponential dependence of photocurrent on the number of the surface charges and the configuration of the back to back Schottky junctions.

  5. Effect of InGaN thickness on assisted trap recombination and behaviour of InGaN/AlGaN double heterostructure LED (United States)

    Rashid, Shanise; Wahid, M. Halim A.; Hambali, N. Azura M. Ahmad; Halim, N. Syafira Abdul; Shahimin, Mukhzeer M.


    This work is dedicated to the study of InGaN based LED on the thickness variation effect. The operating voltage, total emission rate, efficiency droop and spontaneous recombination rate was improved by increasing the thickness of InGaN layer of InGaN/AlGaN electron blocking layer (EBL). Based on optical and electrical results, the thicker InGaN layer could have lower operating voltage and higher total emission rate. LED with 5nm thick InGaN layer also could prevent electron leakage into p-region and improve hole injection efficiency. As a result it decreases 60% of efficiency droops and reduces the trap assisted recombination in InGaN/AlGaN active light emitting region. This indicates that InGaN layer may decrease the non-radiative recombination

  6. Strain relaxation in nano-patterned strained-Si/SiGe heterostructure on insulator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu Xuyn, E-mail: [State Key Laboratory of Functional Materials for Informatics, Laboratory of Nanotechnology, Shanghai Institute of Micro-system and Information Technology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 865 Changning Road, Shanghai 200050 (China); Graduate University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100080 (China); Liu Weili, E-mail: [State Key Laboratory of Functional Materials for Informatics, Laboratory of Nanotechnology, Shanghai Institute of Micro-system and Information Technology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 865 Changning Road, Shanghai 200050 (China); Ma Xiaobo [State Key Laboratory of Functional Materials for Informatics, Laboratory of Nanotechnology, Shanghai Institute of Micro-system and Information Technology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 865 Changning Road, Shanghai 200050 (China); Graduate University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100080 (China); Lv Shilong; Song Zhitang; Lin Chenglu [State Key Laboratory of Functional Materials for Informatics, Laboratory of Nanotechnology, Shanghai Institute of Micro-system and Information Technology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 865 Changning Road, Shanghai 200050 (China)


    In order to evaluate the strain stability, arrays of strained Si/SiGe nano-stripes and nano-pillars were fabricated by Electron-Beam Lithography (EBL) and Reactive-Ion Etching (RIE). The strain relaxation in the patterned strained Si on SiGe-on-insulator (SGOI) was investigated by high-resolution UV micro-Raman spectroscopy. The Raman measurements before and after patterning indicate that most of the strain in the top strained Si is maintained until scaling down to 300 nm, and relaxation of <15% is observed in pillars with a dimension of 150 nm x 150 nm. In the nano-patterned heterostructure strained Si/SiGe, the observed relaxation is small, which is mainly attributed to the fully relaxed and dislocation-free SiGe virtual substrate fabricated by modified Ge condensation.

  7. Cryotop vitrification for in vitro produced bovine and buffalo (Bubalus bubalis embryos at different stages of development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Gasparrini


    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the possibility to vitrify in vitro produced (IVP buffalo and bovine embryos at different stages of development by an advanced version of the “minimal volume approaches”: the Cryotop method. In both experiments, the embryos were vitrified at the tight morula (TM, early blastocyst (eBl, blastocyst (Bl, expanded blastocyst (xBl and, only for buffalo, at the hatched blastocyst (hBl stage. After warming, the embryos were cultured in vitro for 24 hours. Stage of development affected the freezability of IVP embryos of both species with the highest embryo survival rates at advanced stages (xBl=76% and hBl=75% for buffalos and xBl=75% for bovine. These results suggest that Cryotop vitrification is an efficient method for buffalo and bovine IVP embryo cryopreservation.

  8. An evaluation of an enquiry based learning strategy for the science of imaging technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Naylor, Sarah, E-mail: [Diagnostic Imaging, Sheffield Hallam University, Collegiate Campus, Sheffield (United Kingdom)


    Diagnostic radiography is a science based health course. Due to the variation in science background of the students at entry level the imaging science modules can be problematic. Enquiry based learning (EBL) was introduced as teaching strategy in an imaging science module in order to promote learner autonomy and enhance the student experience. The module was evaluated using a questionnaire containing both open and closed questions. The impact of working as a team was a strong theme emerging from the evaluation of the project, with the majority of students viewing teamwork as beneficial to their learning. It was identified that they gained support from the team, and this assisted their learning. The enhancement of transferable skills and the promotion of learner autonomy were achieved. Areas for further investigation are the utilisation of peer assessment and a science event for the summative assessment.

  9. Optical Sensor Based on a Single CdS Nanobelt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lei Li


    Full Text Available In this paper, an optical sensor based on a cadmium sulfide (CdS nanobelt has been developed. The CdS nanobelt was synthesized by the vapor phase transportation (VPT method. X-Ray Diffraction (XRD and Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM results revealed that the nanobelt had a hexagonal wurtzite structure of CdS and presented good crystal quality. A single nanobelt Schottky contact optical sensor was fabricated by the electron beam lithography (EBL technique, and the device current-voltage results showed back-to-back Schottky diode characteristics. The photosensitivity, dark current and the decay time of the sensor were 4 × 104, 31 ms and 0.2 pA, respectively. The high photosensitivity and the short decay time were because of the exponential dependence of photocurrent on the number of the surface charges and the configuration of the back to back Schottky junctions.

  10. Enhancement of device performance of organic solar cells by an interfacial perylene derivative layer

    KAUST Repository

    Kim, Inho


    We report that device performance of organic solar cells consisting of zinc phthalocyanine and fullerene (C60) can be enhanced by insertion of a perylene derivative interfacial layer between fullerene and bathocuproine (BCP) exciton blocking layer (EBL). The morphology of the BCP is influenced by the underlying N,N′-dihexyl-perylene-3,4,9,10-bis(dicarboximide) (PTCDI-C6), which promotes migration of the cathode metal into the BCP layer. Insertion of a PTCDI-C6 layer between fullerene and BCP layers enhances the power conversion efficiency to 2.5%, an improvement of 32% over devices without PTCDI-C6 layer. The enhancement in device performance by insertion of PTCDI-C6 is attributed to a reduction in series resistance due to promoted metal migration into BCP and optimized optical interference effects in multilayered devices. © 2010 American Chemical Society.

  11. Design for manufacturability with advanced lithography

    CERN Document Server

    Yu, Bei


    This book introduces readers to the most advanced research results on Design for Manufacturability (DFM) with multiple patterning lithography (MPL) and electron beam lithography (EBL).  The authors describe in detail a set of algorithms/methodologies to resolve issues in modern design for manufacturability problems with advanced lithography.  Unlike books that discuss DFM from the product level, or physical manufacturing level, this book describes DFM solutions from a circuit design level, such that most of the critical problems can be formulated and solved through combinatorial algorithms. Enables readers to tackle the challenge of layout decompositions for different patterning techniques; Presents a coherent framework, including standard cell compliance and detailed placement, to enable Triple Patterning Lithography (TPL) friendly design; Includes coverage of the design for manufacturability with E-Beam lithography.

  12. Color variation in periodic Ag line arrays patterned by using electron-beam lithography. (United States)

    Wei, D H; Cheng, K W; Yao, Y D; Hsu, S Y; Wei, P K; Huang, J H


    Periodic Ag line arrays with different line pitches from 500 nm to 950 nm on ITO coated glass substrates have been fabricated by using electron-beam lithography (EBL) technique for studying the color light guide in a display system. The patterned Ag line array is used as a light outcoupling and color-selection component due to the emission wavelength changed by the Ag line arrays with different periodic distances that could achieve color variation. We have demonstrated that the ITO coated glass substrates containing periodic Ag line arrays with varied line pitches can be used as a color filter in a display device. This means that with a proper metallic nanostructure layer, the red, green, and blue colors in a display system can be obtained without a traditional color filter for modern multi-applications of optoelectronic display devices.

  13. Caracterización del entorno del los blazares PG1553+113 y 3C66A con datos GEMINI-GMOS en las bandas g' e i' (United States)

    Torres Zafra, J.; Cellone, S. A.; Andruchow, I.

    The blazars PG1553+113 and 3C66A have been recently detected at TeV energies -rays; however; an accurate modelling of their electromagnetic emission as well as -ray absorption by the extragalactic background light (EBL) are prevented by their lack of firm redshift determinations. This is due to the fact that; being objects of the BLLac subclass; their optical spectral have by definition very faint emission lines. In this paper the environment of both objects is photometrically analyzed; looking for overdensities that may trace galaxy clusters. Comparing magnitudes and colors of detected object to those of model galaxies allows us to provide a new constraint to the redshifts of both blazars. FULL TEXT IN SPANISH

  14. Large scale nanopatterning of graphene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neumann, P.L., E-mail: [Research Institute for Technical Physics and Materials Science (MFA) of HAS, Korean-Hungarian Joint Laboratory for Nanosciences, Budapest H-1525, P.O. Box 49 (Hungary); Budapest University of Technology and Economics (BUTE), Department of Physics, Solid State Physics Laboratory, Budapest H-1521, P.O. Box 91 (Hungary); Tovari, E.; Csonka, S. [Budapest University of Technology and Economics (BUTE), Department of Physics, Solid State Physics Laboratory, Budapest H-1521, P.O. Box 91 (Hungary); Kamaras, K. [Research Institute for Solid State Physics and Optics of HAS, Budapest H-1525, P.O. Box 49 (Hungary); Horvath, Z.E.; Biro, L.P. [Research Institute for Technical Physics and Materials Science (MFA) of HAS, Korean-Hungarian Joint Laboratory for Nanosciences, Budapest H-1525, P.O. Box 49 (Hungary)


    Recently, we have shown that the shaping of atomically perfect zig-zag oriented edges can be performed by exploiting the orientation dependent oxidation in graphene, by annealing the samples in inert atmosphere, where the oxygen source is the SiO{sub 2} substrate itself. In the present study, we showed that the large scale patterning of graphene using a conventional lithography technique can be combined with the control of crystallographic orientation and edge shaping. We applied electron beam lithography (EBL) followed by low energy O{sup +}/Ar{sup +} plasma etching for patterning mechanically exfoliated graphene flakes. As AFM imaging of the samples revealed, the controlled oxidation transformed the originally circular holes to polygonal shape with edges parallel with the zig-zag direction, showing the possibility of atomically precise, large area patterning of graphene.

  15. Design and fabrication of a InGaN vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser with a composition-graded electron-blocking layer (United States)

    Lin, B. C.; Chang, Y. A.; Chen, K. J.; Chiu, C. H.; Li, Z. Y.; Lan, Y. P.; Lin, C. C.; Lee, P. T.; Kuo, Y. K.; Shih, M. H.; Kuo, H. C.; Lu, T. C.; Wang, S. C.


    In this study, the design and fabrication of a InGaN vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser (VCSEL) with a composition-graded electron blocking layer (GEBL) are revealed experimentally and theoretically. It has been demonstrated that laser output performance is improved by using a GEBL when compared to the typical VCSEL structure of a rectangular EBL. The output power obtained at 20 kA cm-2 is enhanced by a factor of 3.8 by the successful reduction of threshold current density from 12.6 to 9.2 kA  cm-2 and the enlarged slope efficiency. Numerical simulation results also suggest that the improved laser output performances are due mainly to the reduction of electron leakage current and the enhanced hole injection efficiency in the multiple-quantum-well (MQW) active region.

  16. Brassinosteroids regulate pectin methylesterase activity and AtPME41 expression in Arabidopsis under chilling stress. (United States)

    Qu, Tao; Liu, Rongfang; Wang, Wei; An, Lizhe; Chen, Tuo; Liu, Guangxiu; Zhao, Zhiguang


    Pectin methylesterases (PMEs) are important cell wall enzymes that may play important roles in plant chilling/freezing tolerance. We investigated the possible roles of brassinosteroids (BRs) in regulation of PMEs under chilling stress. Chilling stress or 24-epibrassinolide (eBL) treatments induced significant increases in PME activity in wild type (Col-0) seedlings of Arabidopsis. The chilling-stress-induced increases in PME activity were also found in bzr1-D mutant, a BZR1 stabilized mutant with a constitutively active BR signaling pathway, but not in bri1-116, a BR insensitive null allele of the BR receptor BRI1. The results suggest that the regulation of PME activity in Arabidopsis under chilling stress depends on the BR signaling pathway. Furthermore, we showed that the effect of chilling stress on PME activity was impaired in pme41, a knockout mutant of AtPME41. Semi-quantitative RT-PCR results showed that expression of AtPME41 was induced by chilling stress in wild type plants but not in the bri1-116 mutant. The expression of AtPME41 increased in bzr1-D and eBL treated wild type seedlings, but decreased in bri1-116 seedlings. Furthermore, ion leakage induced by low temperature were dramatically increased in both bri1-116 and pme41, while lipid peroxidation was increased in bri1-116 only. The results suggest that BRs may modulate total PME activity in Arabidopsis under chilling stress by regulating AtPME41 expression. Regulation of PME activity may serve as one of the mechanisms that BR participates in chilling tolerance of plants. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Foliar application of brassinosteroids alleviates adverse effects of zinc toxicity in radish (Raphanus sativus L.) plants. (United States)

    Ramakrishna, Bellamkonda; Rao, S Seeta Ram


    Growth chamber experiments were conducted to investigate the comparative effect of 24-epibrassinolide (EBL) and 28-homobrassinolide (HBL) at 0.5, 1.0, or 2.0 μM concentrations by foliar application on radish plants growing under Zn(2+) stress. In radish plants exposed to excess Zn(2+), growth was substantially reduced in terms of shoot and root length, fresh and dry weight. However, foliar application of brassinosteroids (BRs) was able to alleviate Zn(2+)-induced stress and significantly improve the above growth traits. Zinc stress decreased chlorophyll a, b, and carotenoids levels in radish plants. However, follow-up treatment with BRs increased the photosynthetic pigments in stressed and stress-free plants. The treatment of BRs led to reduced levels of H2O2, lipid peroxidation and, electrolyte leakage (ELP) and improved the leaf relative water content (RWC) in stressed plants. Increased levels of carbonyls indicating enhanced protein oxidation under Zn(2+) stress was effectively countered by supplementation of BRs. Under Zn(2+) stress, the activities of catalase (CAT), ascorbate peroxidase (APX), and superoxidase dismutase (SOD) were increased but peroxidase (POD) and glutathione reductase (GR) decreased. Foliar spraying of BRs enhanced all these enzymatic activities in radish plants under Zn(2+) stress. The BRs application greatly enhanced contents of ascorbate (ASA), glutathione (GSH), and proline under Zn(2+) stress. The decrease in the activity of nitrate reductase (NR) caused by Zn(2+) stress was restored to the level of control by application of BRs. These results point out that BRs application elevated levels of antioxidative enzymes as well as antioxidants could have conferred resistance to radish plants against Zn(2+) stress resulting in improved plant growth, relative water content and photosynthetic attributes. Of the two BRs, EBL was most effective in amelioration of Zn(2+) stress.

  18. Integrating top-down and bottom-up nanomanufacturing: Design of nucleation and growth processes from electrolytes (United States)

    Kitayaporn, Sathana


    The integration of self-propagating material growth (bottom-up) with tool-directed patterning (top-down) has great potential for minimizing the cost and reducing the time needed for manufacturing nanoscale products. This requires new molecules, algorithms, and growth processes. We describe a process called "orchestrated structure evolution" (OSE) in which one "seeds" specific locations and allows a material to spontaneously grow from these sites into the desired final pattern. Software-reconfigurable seed patterning is ideal for manufacturing flexibility, but direct-write tools are often slow: combining them with bottom-up growth is a strategy for reducing patterning times. Seeds are any nucleation initiator (nanoelectrodes, proteins, catalyst, etc.) that can be patterned using tools such as electron-beam lithography (EBL) or dip-pen nanolithography. Here, we explore the OSE concept using nanoelectrode seeds patterned with EBL and engineered Thioredoxin A (TrxA) as protein seeds. For the case of nanoelectrode seeds, we use electrodeposition to initiate copper and nickel growth that propagates into a continuous patterned film. We evaluate the trade-off between reduced pattern time and pattern degradation, and predict seed-scale interactions governing growth rate and composition using Voronoi diagrams and modified Green's function calculations. The work combines experiments and theory for a wide range of pattern length scales, driving forces, seed densities, compositions and geometries. For the case of protein seeds, we use ZnO-binding derivatives of TrxA to understand how proteins may serve as nucleation initiators for ZnO crystal growth. Our studies include thermodynamics prediction of zinc-compatible biological buffers, adsorption isotherms, and electrodeposition of protein-modified ZnO. We show that electrolyte engineering is a critical part of the process, and that the electrolyte stability and prevalence of key species must be matched with protein stability

  19. Video-Assisted Thoracoscopic Lobectomy Is the Preferred Approach Following Induction Chemotherapy. (United States)

    Kamel, Mohamed K; Nasar, Abu; Stiles, Brendon M; Altorki, Nasser K; Port, Jeffrey L


    A video-assisted thoracoscopic surgical (VATS) resection, after induction chemotherapy, has long been considered a relative contraindication. We report our experience with VATS lobectomy after induction chemotherapy for patients with nonsmall cell lung cancer (NSCLC), with propensity-matched group of patients, who underwent an open approach, to determine safety and oncological outcome. A retrospective review of a prospective database (2002-2014) was performed to identify patients undergoing potentially curative lobectomy for NSCLC after induction therapy. Propensity score matching (age, gender, and clinical stage) was performed (1:2) to obtain a balanced cohort of patients undergoing VATS resection and thoracotomy. A total of 285 patients underwent lobectomy after induction therapy, 114 were propensity matched (VATS, n = 40, thoracotomy, n = 74). There were no differences in the clinicopathological factors or type of induction therapy (conventional versus targeted) between VATS and thoracotomy groups. Similarly, no differences were found in the number of lymph nodes resected (12 versus 15, P = .94), the number of stations sampled (4 for each, P = .68), or in the rate of R0 resection (95% versus 96%, P = .81) between VATS and thoracotomy groups. Five VATS cases were converted to an open approach because of adhesions. VATS resection was associated with less estimated blood loss (EBL), shorter length of stay (LOS), and a trend toward fewer postoperative complications. There was no difference in 5 years disease-free survival (DFS) between VATS and thoracotomy groups (73% versus 48%, P = .09). Similarly, for patients who presented with cN2, there were no differences between thoracotomy and VATS groups in DFS (P = .37). On multi-variable analysis (MVA), only the clinical N1/2 status [Hazard ratio (HR): 4.86, P induction therapy for NSCLC. When compared with thoracotomy, VATS lobectomy is associated with lower EBL, shorter LOS, and a trend

  20. Laparoscopic Sleeve Gastrectomy Versus Laparoscopic Adjustable Gastric Banding for the Treatment Severe Obesity in High Risk Patients (United States)


    Background: Laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy (LSG) has emerged as an alternative restrictive bariatric procedure to the most popular laparoscopic adjustable gastric banding (LAGB). We analyze and compare the clinical and weight loss outcomes of LSG versus LAGB for the treatment of severe obesity in high-risk patients. Methods: Forty severely obese veterans (20/group) received either LSG or LAGB and were followed prospectively for 2 years. Outcome measures included operating room (OR) time, estimated blood loss (EBL), length of hospital stay (LOS), morbidity, mortality, reoperations, readmission rates, and weight loss over time. Results: The cohort primarily comprised high-risk and older male veterans. Patient's baseline demographics were similar between groups. LSG was associated with prolonged OR time (116±31 vs. 94±28min), higher EBL (34±28 vs. 17±19mL), and LOS (2±.9 vs. 1±.4days) when compared with LAGB. Minor morbidity and readmissions were similar between groups, while no major morbidity, reoperations, or mortality occurred. Total weight and BMI decreased significantly after surgery in both groups (LSG: 302±52 to 237lbs and 45±5 to 36±5kg/m2 vs. LAGB: 280±36 to 231±29lbs and 43±5 to 36±5kg/m2, respectively). Total weight loss was superior in the LSG vs. LAGB group at 2 years (TWL=65±24 vs. 49±28 lbs (P=.03); %EWL=51±20 vs. 46±23%; %EBMI loss=48±22 vs. 45±23%, and %BWL = 21±8 vs. 17±9%, respectively). Conclusion: In severely obese and high-risk patients, laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy provides superior total weight loss at 2 years. PMID:22643503

  1. Gut hormones, early dumping and resting energy expenditure in patients with good and poor weight loss response after Roux-en-Y gastric bypass. (United States)

    Dirksen, C; Jørgensen, N B; Bojsen-Møller, K N; Kielgast, U; Jacobsen, S H; Clausen, T R; Worm, D; Hartmann, B; Rehfeld, J F; Damgaard, M; Madsen, J L; Madsbad, S; Holst, J J; Hansen, D L


    To identify factors contributing to the variation in weight loss after Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB). Cross-sectional study of patients with good (excess body mass index lost (EBL) >60%) and poor weight loss response (EBL 12 months after RYGB and a lean control group matched for age and gender. Sixteen patients with good weight loss response, 17 patients with poor weight loss response, and eight control subjects were included in the study. Participants underwent dual energy X-ray absorptiometry scan, indirect calorimetry and a 9 h multiple-meal test with measurements of glucose, insulin, total bile acids (TBA), glucagon-like peptide (GLP)-1, peptide YY3-36 (PYY), cholecystokinin (CCK), ghrelin, neurotensin and pancreatic polypeptide (PP) as well as assessment of early dumping and appetite. Suppression of hunger was more pronounced in the good than the poor responders in response to the multiple-meal test (P=0.006). In addition, the good responders had a larger release of GLP-1 (P=0.009) and a greater suppression of ghrelin (P=0.037) during the test, whereas the postprandial secretion of CCK was highest in the poor responders (P=0.005). PYY, neurotensin, PP and TBA release did not differ between the RYGB-operated groups. Compared with control subjects, patients had exaggerated release of GLP-1 (Pdumping was comparable in the good and poor responders, but more pronounced than in controlled subjects. Differences in resting energy expenditure between the three groups were entirely explained by differences in body composition. Favorable meal-induced changes in hunger and gut hormone release in patients with good compared with poor weight loss response support the role of gut hormones in the weight loss after RYGB.

  2. Novel materials and techniques of fabrication for organic light emitting diodes (United States)

    Adamovich, Vadim Igorevich

    The present dissertation work is devoted to the utilization of novel materials for various layers of the organic light emitting diodes (OLEDs). The first chapter of the thesis is the introduction into OLED's structure and basic principles of operation. The influence of the structure on the device performance as well as functions of different OLED layers is considered. The second chapter describes the utilization of transition metal nitride semitransparent conductive films as a new class of anode materials for the OLEDs, alternative to conventionally used indium-tin oxide. The third chapter has three novel concepts. The first is the utilization of cyclometallated iridium complexes as new materials for hole-blocking layer (HBL) phosphorescent OLEDs. The second is the novel host-guest approach to the HBL architecture, and the third is the introduction of the electron blocking layer (EBL) in order to prevent electron and exciton leakage to the hole transporter layer (HTL) and confine excitons within emissive layer. The EBL prevents emission from the HTL and dramatically increases the device efficiency particularly for blue phosphorescence OLEDs. The fourth chapter demonstrates the application of iridium and platinum emissive cyclometalated complexes as HTL, ETL and host materials for phosphorescence OLEDs. The all-iridium OLEDs, which contain only iridium complexes in all organic layers, have been fabricated and proved to be highly efficient. Systematic studies on influence of some particular properties of the layer material on the device performance are described. The fifth chapter describes white electroluminescence from single dopant as an emissive material. The high efficiency white phosphorescence OLEDs with only single dopant as an emitter are reported. Chapter six describes organic vapor phase deposition (OVPD) as a novel technique of organic thin films deposition alternative to conventionally used vacuum thermal evaporation. OVPD has been used for fabricating

  3. Enhancing carrier injection in the active region of a 280nm emission wavelength LED using graded hole and electron blocking layers

    KAUST Repository

    Janjua, Bilal


    A theoretical investigation of AlGaN UV-LED with band engineering of hole and electron blocking layers (HBL and EBL, respectively) was conducted with an aim to improve injection efficiency and reduce efficiency droop in the UV LEDs. The analysis is based on energy band diagrams, carrier distribution and recombination rates (Shockley-Reed-Hall, Auger, and radiative recombination rates) in the quantum well, under equilibrium and forward bias conditions. Electron blocking layer is based on AlaGa1-aN / Al b → cGa1-b → 1-cN / AldGa 1-dN, where a < d < b < c. A graded layer sandwiched between large bandgap AlGaN materials was found to be effective in simultaneously blocking electrons and providing polarization field enhanced carrier injection. The graded interlayer reduces polarization induced band bending and mitigates the related drawback of impediment of holes injection. Similarly on the n-side, the Alx → yGa1-x → 1-yN / AlzGa 1-zN (x < z < y) barrier acts as a hole blocking layer. The reduced carrier leakage and enhanced carrier density in the active region results in significant improvement in radiative recombination rate compared to a structure with the conventional rectangular EBL layers. The improvement in device performance comes from meticulously designing the hole and electron blocking layers to increase carrier injection efficiency. The quantum well based UV-LED was designed to emit at 280nm, which is an effective wavelength for water disinfection application.

  4. The Super-Magenstrasse and Mill operation with pyloroplasty: preliminary results. (United States)

    Vassallo, C; Berbiglia, G; Pessina, A; Carena, M; Firullo, A; Griziotti, A; Ramajoli, F; Palamarciuc, E; Fariseo, M


    Our strategy for performing various types of bariatric operations in order to make them suitable for the individual morbidly obese patient, has led us to take into account the original Magenstrasse and Mill (M&M) operation and modify it. This resulted in the so-called Super-Magenstrasse and Mill with pyloroplasty (SM&M-P). In the past 3 years, 34 patients with mean BMI 48 and mean age 43 years underwent the SM&MP operation for morbid obesity. A digitoclasic pyloroplasty was performed and a 36-Fr bougie was used to calibrate the Magenstrasse. A 21-mm circular stapler was used to create a gastric window 10 cm proximal to the pylorus. The stapled division of the stomach to 3-4 cm from the pylorus and to the angle of His was performed first distally via the gastric window and then proximally from the window. 2 patients have reached 3 years since the operation: one could not be assessed due to the development of rectal cancer 1 year after surgery, and the other one has had an excellent outcome with 3-year BMI 26 kg/m2. 8 patients who underwent the surgery 2 years ago have a mean percent excess BMI loss (%EBL) of 69, and 19 patients who have reached 1 year have %EBL 64. All patients have experienced a clear reduction of appetite, with vomiting absent or rare. The SM&M-P procedure confers to this restrictive intervention some characteristics similar to gastric bypass, including rapid transit of the alimentary contents in the prepyloric "mill", scarse reflux into the gastric fundus, possible entero-endocrine effects and loss of interest in food.

  5. Effect of low dose tranexamic acid on intra-operative blood loss in neurosurgical patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramya Vel


    Full Text Available Background: Blood loss is often a major complication in neurosurgery that requires transfusion of multiple units of blood. The purpose of this study was to assess the effect of tranexamic acid (TXA on intraoperative blood loss and the need for blood transfusion in patients undergoing craniotomy for tumor excision. Materials and Methods: A total of 100 patients aged 18-60 years, with American Society of Anesthesiologists physical Status 1 and 2 scheduled to undergo elective craniotomy for tumor excision were enrolled. Patients received 10 mg/kg bolus about 20 min before skin incision followed by 1 mg/kg/h infusion of either TXA or saline. Hemodynamic variables, intravenous fluid transfused, amount of blood loss and blood given were measured every 2 h. Laboratory parameters such as serum electrolytes and fibrinogen values were measured every 3 h. On the 5 th postoperative day hemoglobin (POD Hb5, Hb estimation was done and the estimated blood loss (EBL calculated. Patients were also monitored for any complications. Results: The Mean heart rate in TXA group was significantly lower compared with the saline group. Mean arterial pressure and fibrinogen levels were higher in TXA group. The mean total blood loss in the TXA group was less than in the saline group. Blood transfusion requirements were comparable in two groups. The EBL and POD5 Hb were comparable in two groups. Conclusion: Even though, there is a significant reduction in the total amount of blood loss in TXA group. However, there was no reduction in intraoperative transfusion requirement.

  6. Nanoelectrochemical Immunosensors for Protein Detection (United States)

    Carpentiero, Alessandro; de Leo, Manuela; Garcia Romero, Ivan; Pozzi Mucelli, Stefano; Reuther, Freimut; Stanta, Giorgio; Tormen, Massimo; Ugo, Paolo; Zamuner, Martina

    Nanoelectrochemical immunosensors fabricated by templated electrodeposition of gold nanoelectrodes inside the pores of polycarbonate (PC) track-etched membranes, followed by the immobilization of the biorecognition elements on the surrounding PC, have proven high sensitivity and specificity for protein detection. The signal transduction scheme involves a suitable redox mediator added to the sample solution to shuttle electrons from the gold nanoelectrodes to the biorecognition layer, both elements being in strict spatial proximity. Highly improved signal-to-background current ratio, which are peculiar of NEEs with respect to other electrochemical transducers, can be exploited in this way. Two detection schemes were tested: one based on the direct immobilization of the target protein on the PC of the NEE (approach A) and the other based on the immobilisation on PC of an antibody to capture the target protein (approach B). The biorecognition process was completed by adding a primary antibody and a secondary antibody with horse radish peroxidase (HRP) as enzyme label; methylene blue was the redox mediator added to the electrolyte solution. Typical target analytes were single chain fragment variable proteins, for approach A, and trastuzumab (also known as Herceptin®), for approach B. NEE-based capture sensors were tested successfully to detect small amounts of the receptor protein HER2 in biological samples. Finally, motivated by the target of a better control of the geometrical characteristics of ensembles of nanoelectrodes (size, density, geometrical arrangement, and degree of recession), and by the positive results obtained with track-etch membranes of PC from the standpoint of protein immobilization, we demonstrated the fabrication of nanobiosensors by patterning ordered arrays of nanoelectrodes (NEAs) by electron beam lithography (EBL) on polycarbonate. EBL results perfectly suitable for the top-down fabrication of arrays of nanobiosensors on thin PC films

  7. Perioperative outcomes in minimally invasive lumbar spine surgery: A systematic review (United States)

    Skovrlj, Branko; Belton, Patrick; Zarzour, Hekmat; Qureshi, Sheeraz A


    AIM: To compare minimally invasive (MIS) and open techniques for MIS lumbar laminectomy, direct lateral and transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion (TLIF) surgeries with respect to length of surgery, estimated blood loss (EBL), neurologic complications, perioperative transfusion, postoperative pain, postoperative narcotic use, and length of stay (LOS). METHODS: A systematic review of previously published studies accessible through PubMed was performed. Only articles in English journals or published with English language translations were included. Level of evidence of the selected articles was assessed. Statistical data was calculated with analysis of variance with P < 0.05 considered statistically significant. RESULTS: A total of 11 pertinent laminectomy studies, 20 direct lateral studies, and 27 TLIF studies were found. For laminectomy, MIS techniques resulted in a significantly longer length of surgery (177.5 min vs 129.0 min, P = 0.04), shorter LOS (4.3 d vs 5.3 d, P = 0.01) and less perioperative pain (visual analog scale: 16 ± 17 vs 34 ± 31, P = 0.04). There is evidence of decreased narcotic use for MIS patients (postoperative intravenous morphine use: 9.3 mg vs 42.8 mg), however this difference is of unknown significance. Direct lateral approaches have insufficient comparative data to establish relative perioperative outcomes. MIS TLIF had superior EBL (352 mL vs 580 mL, P < 0.0001) and LOS (7.7 d vs 10.4 d, P < 0.0001) and limited data to suggest lower perioperative pain. CONCLUSION: Based on perioperative outcomes data, MIS approach is superior to open approach for TLIF. For laminectomy, MIS and open approaches can be chosen based on surgeon preference. For lateral approaches, there is insufficient evidence to find non-inferior perioperative outcomes at this time. PMID:26716097

  8. Robot-assisted laparoscopic radical cystectomy is a safe and effective procedure for patients with bladder cancer compared to laparoscopic and open surgery: Perioperative outcomes of a single-center experience. (United States)

    Matsumoto, Kazumasa; Tabata, Ken-Ichi; Hirayama, Takahiro; Shimura, Soichiro; Nishi, Morihiro; Ishii, Daisuke; Fujita, Tetsuo; Iwamura, Masatsugu


    We compared the perioperative outcomes of patients with bladder cancer according to three different procedures: robot-assisted laparoscopic radical cystectomy (RALC), laparoscopic radical cystectomy (LRC), and open radical cystectomy (ORC). From April 2008 to March 2017, 36 consecutive patients underwent radical cystectomy and ileal conduit with RALC (n = 10), LRC (n = 10), or ORC (n = 16). All patients underwent RALC and LRC with extracorporeal urinary diversion. Perioperative data were patient demographics, perioperative laboratory data including hematocrit and creatinine, intraoperative crystalloids and colloids, estimated blood loss (EBL), allogeneic transfusion, respiratory parameters including maximum end-tidal carbon dioxide (EtCO2) and respiratory rate, arterial blood gas data including highest pH, partial pressure of CO2 (PaCO2), partial pressure of oxygen (PaO2), operative time, opiate consumption including intraoperative and postoperative anesthesia, time of hospital stay, time to oral intake and normal diet, and adverse events. EBL was less for RALC than for other procedures (p = 0.0004). No blood transfusions were performed for RALC, but ORC required significant blood transfusions (p = 0.003). Respiratory rate was highest and PaCO2 was lowest for RALC. Preoperative creatinine levels were significantly worse for the RALC group, but no significant differences were noted after surgery. There were no significant differences among the groups in regard to hematocrit levels. Operative time, laparoscopic time, intraoperative anesthesia, and postoperative anesthesia did not differ among the groups. High-grade adverse events were only seen for ORC. Although RALC required a steep Trendelenburg position, which might add elements of risk, RALC was safe even for this small cohort. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Taiwan.

  9. Robotic-assisted versus laparoscopic colorectal surgery: a meta-analysis of four randomized controlled trials (United States)


    Background Robotic-assisted laparoscopy is popularly performed for colorectal disease. The objective of this meta-analysis was to compare the safety and efficacy of robotic-assisted colorectal surgery (RCS) and laparoscopic colorectal surgery (LCS) for colorectal disease based on randomized controlled trial studies. Methods Literature searches of electronic databases (Pubmed, Web of Science, and Cochrane Library) were performed to identify randomized controlled trial studies that compared the clinical or oncologic outcomes of RCS and LCS. This meta-analysis was performed using the Review Manager (RevMan) software (version 5.2) that is provided by the Cochrane Collaboration. The data used were mean differences and odds ratios for continuous and dichotomous variables, respectively. Fixed-effects or random-effects models were adopted according to heterogeneity. Results Four randomized controlled trial studies were identified for this meta-analysis. In total, 110 patients underwent RCS, and 116 patients underwent LCS. The results revealed that estimated blood losses (EBLs), conversion rates and times to the recovery of bowel function were significantly reduced following RCS compared with LCS. There were no significant differences in complication rates, lengths of hospital stays, proximal margins, distal margins or harvested lymph nodes between the two techniques. Conclusions RCS is a promising technique and is a safe and effective alternative to LCS for colorectal surgery. The advantages of RCS include reduced EBLs, lower conversion rates and shorter times to the recovery of bowel function. Further studies are required to define the financial effects of RCS and the effects of RCS on long-term oncologic outcomes. PMID:24767102

  10. Robot-assisted radical prostatectomy: learning rate analysis as an objective measure of the acquisition of surgical skill. (United States)

    Sammon, Jesse; Perry, Andrew; Beaule, Lisa; Kinkead, Thomas; Clark, David; Hansen, Moritz


    To adapt an industrial definition of learning-curve analysis to surgical learning, and elucidate the rate at which experienced open surgeons acquire skills specific to robot-assisted radical prostatectomy (RARP) at a community-based medical centre. The total procedure time (TPT) of the first 75 RARPs, performed by three surgeons experienced with retropubic RP, was analysed to determine the point at which their learning rate stabilised. Operative characteristics were compared before and after this point to isolate the plateau of learning rate as a mark of acquiring surgical skill. The operative characteristics examined were TPT, estimated blood loss (EBL), bladder neck contractures (BNC), positive margins (PM) and length of hospital stay (LOS). The mean rate of TPT decrease, for procedures 1-75, was 13.4% per doubling of RARPs performed. After the first 25 procedures the TPT decreased at a rate of 1.8% per doubling, not significantly different from 0 (P > 0.05). There was no significant difference between procedures 1-25 and 26-75 in rates of EBL, BNC and PM. There was a significant change for all surgeons in TPT, with a mean of 303.1 min (RARPs 1-25) vs 213.6 min (26-75) (P definition of learning-curve analysis can be adapted to provide an objective measure of learning RARP. The average learning rate for RARP was found to plateau by the 25th procedure. Also, the learning rate plateau can serve as an objective measure of the acquisition of surgical skill.

  11. Same-Day Discharge for Patients Undergoing Robot-Assisted Laparoscopic Radical Prostatectomy Is Safe and Feasible: Results of a Pilot Study. (United States)

    Wolboldt, Melinda; Saltzman, Barbara; Tenbrink, Patrick; Shahrour, Khaled; Jain, Samay


    With healthcare reform, cost and patient satisfaction will directly affect hospital reimbursement. We present data on same-day discharge (SDD) for patients who underwent robot-assisted laparoscopic radical prostatectomy (RALP). Patient data were gathered in an IRB-approved database. In April 2015, the surgeon (S.J.) began SDD. The SDD protocol for RALP includes multimodal anesthesia/analgesia and extended recovery. Interim analysis revealed that government insurance (CMS) refused hospital reimbursement for SDD. As of that time, only patients with commercial insurance were offered SDD. The demographic and peri-operative data were compared between the two cohorts (Group 1, SDD; Group 2, Admitted patients) by using Mann-Whitney U, chi-squared, or fisher exact tests, where appropriate. During the study period, 21 patients had undergone RALP. Eleven of 21 patients were offered SDS, and nine (81.8%) were discharged. Both those who elected to stay were successfully discharged on the next day. Patient age, body mass index (BMI), prostate-specific antigen, operative time, estimated blood loss (EBL), prostate weight, distance from home to hospital, margin status, marital status, and household income were not statistically significantly different between the two groups. The same is true between patients who underwent RALP both before and after initiation of the SDD protocol with the exception of EBL (greater in the SDD group). There have been no reported complications or readmissions for any of the patients in Group 1. Our novel pilot study reveals that SDS is safe and feasible. We are currently conducting a further evaluation of patient satisfaction. Future research is needed to verify these conclusions.

  12. Comparison of Laparoscopic-Assisted Operations and Laparotomy Operations for the Treatment of Hirschsprung Disease (United States)

    Zhang, Shisong; Li, Juan; Wu, Yurui; Hu, Yuanjun; Duan, Chunhong; Wang, Meiyun; Gai, Zhongtao


    Abstract The purpose of this meta-analysis is to compare the relative merits among laparoscopic-assisted operations and laparotomy operations for patients with Hirschsprung disease. PubMed, Web of Science, and Wanfang databases were searched for the related articles. We analyzed dichotomous variables by estimating odds ratios (ORs) with their 95% confidence intervals (CIs) and continuous variables using the weighted mean difference (WMD) with the 95% CI. The random-effects model (REM) was used to combine the results. The outcome measures included operating time (OT), estimated blood loss (EBL), length of hospital stay (LOHS), mean first bowel movement (MFBM), and number of complications. Sixteen articles were included in the meta-analysis. These studies involved a total of 774 patients, 396 of whom underwent laparoscopic-assisted operations and 378 of whom underwent laparotomy operations. The EBL (WMD = −1.48, 95% CI = −1.82, −1.13), LOHS (WMD = −0.67, 95% CI = −0.86, −0.49), MFBM (WMD = −0.83, 95% CI = −1.05, −0.61), and number of complications (OR = 0.60, 95% CI = 0.40, 0.89) were significantly lower in laparoscopic-assisted operations than in laparotomy operations. The OT (WMD = 0.12, 95% CI = −0.05, 0.28) showed no significant differences between laparoscopic-assisted operations and laparotomy operations. Compared with laparotomy operations, laparoscopic-assisted operations are generally safer and more reliable for patients with Hirschsprung disease. PMID:26426651

  13. Minimizing transfusions in primary cranial vault remodeling: the role of aminocaproic acid. (United States)

    Oppenheimer, Adam J; Ranganathan, Kavitha; Levi, Benjamin; Strahle, Jennifer M; Kapurch, Joseph; Muraszko, Karin M; Buchman, Steven R


    Cranial vault remodeling (CVR) for craniosynostosis is a procedure with the potential for significant blood loss. Aminocaproic acid (ACA) has been used at our institution during CVR for its antifibrinolytic effects. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of ACA on blood loss and transfusion rates during primary CVR. Three hundred eighty-three patients with craniosynostosis underwent primary CVR at a single institution by a single surgeon over 15 years. Patients were included if they received either ACA or no antifibrinolytic. The estimated blood loss (EBL) and volume of blood transfused was recorded. Thrombotic-related complications were identified. Comparisons were made between subgroups using independent Student t test and Fisher exact test. Among the study population, 148 patients met inclusion criteria. ACA was given to 30 patients, while 118 patients received no antifibrinolytic. There was no difference in the average intraoperative EBL between the ACA (322 mL) and control groups (327 mL, P > 0.05). Additionally, the incidence of transfusion was not significantly different between subgroups (97% vs. 86%, respectively, P > 0.05). Patients treated with ACA, however, received lower average perioperative transfusion volumes (25.5 mL/kg) compared to control patients (53.3 mL/kg, P < 0.0001). Furthermore, patients in the ACA subgroup were less likely to require a second unit of blood (21% vs. 43%, P < 0.0001) and therefore had fewer exposures to donor blood antigens (ARR = 22%, NNT = 4.6). The use of intraoperative ACA minimizes blood transfusion volumes and donor exposures in children who undergo primary CVR for craniosynostosis. Antifibrinolytics should be considered for routine use in pediatric craniofacial surgery.

  14. Minimally invasive scoliosis surgery assisted by O-arm navigation for Lenke Type 5C adolescent idiopathic scoliosis: a comparison with standard open approach spinal instrumentation. (United States)

    Zhu, Weiguo; Sun, Weixiang; Xu, Leilei; Sun, Xu; Liu, Zhen; Qiu, Yong; Zhu, Zezhang


    OBJECTIVE Recently, minimally invasive scoliosis surgery (MISS) was introduced for the correction of adult scoliosis. Multiple benefits including a good deformity correction rate and fewer complications have been demonstrated. However, few studies have reported on the use of MISS for the management of adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS). The purpose of this study was to investigate the outcome of posterior MISS assisted by O-arm navigation for the correction of Lenke Type 5C AIS. METHODS The authors searched a database for all patients with AIS who had been treated with either MISS or PSF between November 2012 and January 2014. Levels of fusion, density of implants, operation time, and estimated blood loss (EBL) were recorded. Coronal and sagittal parameters were evaluated before surgery, immediately after surgery, and at the last follow-up. The accuracy of pedicle screw placement was assessed according to postoperative axial CT images in both groups. The 22-item Scoliosis Research Society questionnaire (SRS-22) results and complications were collected during follow-up. RESULTS The authors retrospectively reviewed the records of 45 patients with Lenke Type 5C AIS, 15 who underwent posterior MISS under O-arm navigation and 30 who underwent posterior spinal fusion (PSF). The 2 treatment groups were matched in terms of baseline characteristics. Comparison of radiographic parameters revealed no obvious difference between the 2 groups immediately after surgery or at the final follow-up; however, the MISS patients had significantly less EBL (p 5C AIS. Compared with results of the open approach, the outcomes of MISS are promising, with reduced morbidity. Before the routine use of MISS, however, long-term data are needed.

  15. Budd-Chiari syndrome in urology: Impact on nephrectomy for advanced renal cell carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samir P Shirodkar


    Full Text Available Objectives : Budd-Chiari syndrome (BCS is a poorly understood entity in urology. It results from obstruction of the hepatic veins and the subsequent complications. It has been infrequently reported to be secondary to hepatic venous obstruction from invasion by an inferior vena cava (IVC tumor thrombus in renal cell carcinoma (RCC. We report the largest known series of patients with RCC and BCS. Patients and Methods : Ten patients presented to a tertiary hospital with locally advanced RCC with IVC tumor thrombus. All were evaluated and had clinical or radiographic evidence of BCS. All underwent nephrectomy, IVC thrombectomy or ligation, and tumor removal from the hepatic veins. The perioperative and pathological factors were measured. These included estimated blood loss (EBL and transfusions. Inpatient factors including duration of intubation, length of intensive care unit (ICU stay, and overall length of stay (LOS were recorded. The tumor-free status was evaluated. Results : The average age was 59 years. No intraoperative deaths occurred. Two intraoperative complications were noted. The mean EBL was 4244 cc; mean surgery length was 8 hours 12 minutes; and the mean ICU stay was nine days. The overall LOS averaged 13.25 days. One patient died postoperatively of sepsis and multisystem organ failure. One patient required reoperation for an abdominal wall hematoma caused by subcutaneous enoxaparin administration. Average follow-up was 28 months. Five patients are alive with no evidence of disease. Conclusions : Budd-Chiari syndrome is a rare entity in urology, with a potential for significant morbidity and mortality. Surgical excision of the primary tumor along with thrombectomy results in alleviation of BCS and improvement in the patient.

  16. Combining lived experience with the facilitation of enquiry-based learning: a 'trigger' for transformative learning. (United States)

    Stacey, G; Oxley, R; Aubeeluck, A


    What is known on the subject The values underpinning recovery-orientated practice are recited in the literature and influential in the content of mental health nurse education internationally. However, scepticism exists regarding the degree to which students' assimilate the principles of recovery into their practice due to the troublesome and challenging nature of learning at a transformational level, also known as threshold concept learning. Evaluation suggests that this combination of educational approaches positively influences students' prior understandings, beliefs and values in relation to the prospect for people with significant mental health problems to recover. The components of threshold concepts are useful as a deductive framework for the evaluation of educational initiatives which attempt to initiate transformative learning. While this forum clearly holds significant potential for student development, support and preparation is needed for both the student and the facilitator in order to enable the possibility of learning which influences attitudes, beliefs and practice. The aim of this paper is to discuss the potential for combining lived experience of mental distress with the facilitation of enquiry-based learning (EBL) to act as a trigger for transformative learning in the context of promoting the understanding of mental health 'recovery' in nurse education.The values underpinning recovery-orientated practice are recited in the literature and influential in mental health nurse education internationally. However, scepticism exists regarding the degree to which students assimilate into their practice. An open-ended was distributed to a cohort of pre-registration nursing students receiving the co-facilitated EBL (n = 112). Data demonstrated how the specific attributes of this educational approach were identified by students as impacting positively on ill-informed preconceptions, understanding of complex theory and their future practice. Results were

  17. Health profile and efficiency of fixed-time artificial insemination of cattle herds owned by small-scale producers in the region of Piracicaba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfredo José Ferreira Melo


    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the reproductive indices of different cattle herds submitted to a fixed-time artificial insemination program (FTAI in the region of Piracicaba, SP. Twenty herds composed of 10 to 80 crossbred dairy cows were selected to participate in a breeding program through FTAI. First, a survey was conducted to determine the incidence of reproductive system diseases in the herds. For this purpose, blood samples were collected randomly from each herd for the serological diagnosis of brucellosis, leptospirosis, infectious bovine rhinotracheitis (IBR, bovine viral diarrhea (BVD, enzootic bovine leukosis (EBL, and neosporosis. The laboratory tests were conducted according to the methods of the World Organisation for Animal Health. All herds had at least one animal that tested positive for one or more reproductive system diseases. Brucellosis was detected in 3/20 (15% herds, IBR and BVD in 19/20 (95%, EBL in 20/20 (100%, neosporosis in 13/20 (65%, and tuberculosis in 8/8 (100%. Six months later, cows (n=203 of the different herds were submitted to hormone treatment consisting of estradiol-progesterone and PGF2α for heat synchronization and ovulation and subsequent FTAI. The data were analyzed by logistic regression and Fisher’s exact test. The pregnancy rates at 30 and 60 days after FTAI were 55.7% and 48.3%, respectively. These rates were not influenced by herd, inseminator, body score, post-calving days, or number of lactations. The calving rate (42.4% differed from the pregnancy rate at 30 (P=0.01, but not at 60 (P=0.27 days after FTAI. The gestation loss until calving was 23.2% (26/112, but no exact cause of this event was identified. Despite the presence (seroreactivity of reproductive diseases, cattle herds owned by small-scale producers exhibit acceptable pregnancy rates after FTAI. However, additional prophylactic measures such as vaccination and improvement of livestock management should be adopted.

  18. Off-clamp robot-assisted partial nephrectomy does not benefit short-term renal function: a matched cohort analysis. (United States)

    Anderson, Barrett G; Potretzke, Aaron M; Du, Kefu; Vetter, Joel; Figenshau, R Sherburne


    In the interest of renal functional preservation, partial nephrectomy has supplanted radical nephrectomy as the preferred treatment for T1 renal masses. This procedure usually involves the induction of renal warm ischemia by clamping the hilar vessels prior to tumor excision. Performing robot-assisted partial nephrectomy (RAPN) "off-clamp" can theoretically prevent renal functional loss associated with warm ischemia. We describe our institutional experience and compare perioperative and renal functional outcomes using a propensity score matched cohort. We conducted a retrospective comparison from a prospectively maintained database of all patients who underwent RAPN from 2009 to 2015. Of those patients, 143 underwent off-clamp RAPN. Fifty off-clamp RAPN patients were propensity score matched with fifty clamped RAPN patients based on renal function, tumor size, and R.E.N.A.L. nephrometry score. The cohorts were compared across demographics, operative information, perioperative outcomes, and renal functional outcomes. For all off-clamp RAPN patients, mean nephrometry score was 7.1, mean estimated blood loss (EBL) was 236.9 mL, perioperative complication rate was 7.7%, and mean decrease in estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) was 7.1% at a median follow-up of 9.2 months. In the propensity score matched cohorts, off-clamp RAPN resulted in a shorter mean operative time (172.0 versus 196.0 min, p = 0.025) and a lower mean EBL (179.7 versus 283.2 mL, p = 0.046). A lower complication rate of 6.0% in the off-clamp group compared with 20.0% in the clamped group approached significance (p = 0.071). Mean preoperative eGFR was similar in both cohorts. Importantly, there was no significant difference in decrease in eGFR between the clamped cohort (9.8%) and off-clamp cohort (11.9%) at a median follow-up of 9.0 months (p = 0.620). Off-clamp RAPN did not result in improved renal functional preservation in our experience. Surprisingly, the off-clamp cohort

  19. Faint submillimeter galaxies revealed by multifield deep ALMA observations: number counts, spatial clustering, and a dark submillimeter line emitter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ono, Yoshiaki; Ouchi, Masami; Momose, Rieko [Institute for Cosmic Ray Research, The University of Tokyo, Kashiwa, Chiba 277-8582 (Japan); Kurono, Yasutaka, E-mail: [Joint ALMA Observatory, Alonso de Cordova 3107, Vitacura, Santiago 763-0355 (Chile)


    We present the statistics of faint submillimeter/millimeter galaxies (SMGs) and serendipitous detections of a submillimeter/millimeter line emitter (SLE) with no multi-wavelength continuum counterpart revealed by the deep ALMA observations. We identify faint SMGs with flux densities of 0.1-1.0 mJy in the deep Band-6 and Band-7 maps of 10 independent fields that reduce cosmic variance effects. The differential number counts at 1.2 mm are found to increase with decreasing flux density down to 0.1 mJy. Our number counts indicate that the faint (0.1-1.0 mJy, or SFR{sub IR} ∼ 30-300 M {sub ☉} yr{sup –1}) SMGs contribute nearly a half of the extragalactic background light (EBL), while the remaining half of the EBL is mostly contributed by very faint sources with flux densities of <0.1 mJy (SFR{sub IR} ≲ 30 M {sub ☉} yr{sup –1}). We conduct counts-in-cells analysis with multifield ALMA data for the faint SMGs, and obtain a coarse estimate of galaxy bias, b {sub g} < 4. The galaxy bias suggests that the dark halo masses of the faint SMGs are ≲ 7 × 10{sup 12} M {sub ☉}, which is smaller than those of bright (>1 mJy) SMGs, but consistent with abundant high-z star-forming populations, such as sBzKs, LBGs, and LAEs. Finally, we report the serendipitous detection of SLE-1, which has no continuum counterparts in our 1.2 mm-band or multi-wavelength images, including ultra deep HST/WFC3 and Spitzer data. The SLE has a significant line at 249.9 GHz with a signal-to-noise ratio of 7.1. If the SLE is not a spurious source made by the unknown systematic noise of ALMA, the strong upper limits of our multi-wavelength data suggest that the SLE would be a faint galaxy at z ≳ 6.

  20. Factors Affecting Length of Stay Following Elective Anterior and Posterior Cervical Spine Surgery. (United States)

    Yuk, Frank J; Maniya, Akbar Y; Rasouli, Jonathan J; Dessy, Alexa M; McCormick, Patrick J; Choudhri, Tanvir F


    Background Disease of the cervical spine is widely prevalent, most commonly secondary to degenerative disc changes and spondylosis. Objective The goal of the paper was to identify a possible discrepancy regarding the length of stay (LOS) between the anterior and posterior approaches to elective cervical spine surgery and identify contributing factors. Methods A retrospective study was performed on 587 patients (341 anterior, 246 posterior) that underwent elective cervical spinal surgery between October 2001 and March 2014. Pre- and intraoperative data were analyzed. Statistical analysis was performed using GraphPad Prism 5 (GraphPad Software, Inc., La Jolla, CA) and the Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) (IBM SPSS Statistics, Armonk, NY). Results Average LOS was 3.21 ± 0.32 days for patients that benefited from the anterior approach cervical spinal surgery and 5.28 ± 0.37 days for patients that benefited from the posterior approach surgery, P-value < 0.0001. Anterior patients had lower American Society of Anesthesiologists scores (2.43 ± 0.036 vs. 2.70 ± 0.044). Anterior patients also had fewer intervertebral levels operated upon (2.18 ± 0.056 vs. 4.11 ± 0.13), shorter incisions (5.49 ± 0.093 cm vs. 9.25 ± 0.16 cm), lower estimated blood loss (EBL) (183.8 ± 9.0 cc vs. 340.0 ± 8.7 cc), and shorter procedure times (4.12 ± 0.09 hours vs. 4.47 ± 0.10 hours). Chi-squared tests for hypertension, coronary artery disease, congestive heart failure, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, and asthma showed no significant difference between groups. Patients with anterior surgery performed experienced a length of stay that was 2.07 days shorter on average. Higher EBL, longer incisions, more intervertebral levels, and longer operating time were significantly associated with the posterior approach. Future studies should include multiple surgeons. The goal would be to create a model that could accurately predict the postoperative length of stay based

  1. Novel electroless gold nano-architectures to enhance photon-plasmon coupling (United States)

    Ahn, Wonmi

    Understanding and enhancing electromagnetic (EM) coupling in noble metal nano-structures is important in opto-electronics, bio-photonics, and spectroscopic sensors. In this study, light-to-heat transduction in novel gold (Au) nanoparticle (NP) architectures is quantitatively determined for the first time by applying a linearized energy balance. In particular, dense solid-state Au NP arrays coated on internal walls of silica capillaries using a 'bottom-up' electroless (EL) plating method dissipate >10-fold more heat from incident photons (96.9 vs. 9.9%) with a >10-fold faster heat transfer response time (8.4 vs. 86.3 s) by preventing aggregation between NPs that typically occurs in colloidal Au NP suspensions when irradiated with light. These photothermally-stable solid-state Au nano-architectures are created using an inexpensive EL plating process by reduction of Au ions on tin-sensitized and silver-activated silica surfaces at ambient conditions without requiring conductive substrates or expensive, sophisticated top-down metal deposition equipment. Heat-induced changes in morphology from Au island thin films to random arrays of spherical Au NPs result in tunable optical properties such as photoluminescence (PL) and LSPR. Especially, the ability to tune the LSPR properties by varying NP size and inter-particle spacing is a key factor in improving and optimizing plasmonic devices. Finally, to control NP size and inter-particle spacing, the application of bottom-up EL plating is expanded herein to create regular arrays of Au nanospheres on silica surfaces patterned by (i) electron beam lithography (EBL), and (ii) nanosphere lithography (NSL). Regular arrays of Au nanospheres created by successive thermal treatments of EBL-patterned EL Au island films exhibit dramatically improved NP sphericity, when compared to NP arrays prepared using top-down Au sputtering. Moreover, selective EL plating on the NSL-patterned silane masks produces multiple samples of regular NP

  2. Epstein-Barr virus nuclear antigen 3A promotes cellular proliferation by repression of the cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor p21WAF1/CIP1.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melissa L Tursiella


    Full Text Available Latent infection by Epstein-Barr virus (EBV is highly associated with the endemic form of Burkitt lymphoma (eBL, which typically limits expression of EBV proteins to EBNA-1 (Latency I. Interestingly, a subset of eBLs maintain a variant program of EBV latency - Wp-restricted latency (Wp-R - that includes expression of the EBNA-3 proteins (3A, 3B and 3C, in addition to EBNA-1. In xenograft assays, Wp-R BL cell lines were notably more tumorigenic than their counterparts that maintain Latency I, suggesting that the additional latency-associated proteins expressed in Wp-R influence cell proliferation and/or survival. Here, we evaluated the contribution of EBNA-3A. Consistent with the enhanced tumorigenic potential of Wp-R BLs, knockdown of EBNA-3A expression resulted in abrupt cell-cycle arrest in G0/G1 that was concomitant with conversion of retinoblastoma protein (Rb to its hypophosphorylated state, followed by a loss of Rb protein. Comparable results were seen in EBV-immortalized B lymphoblastoid cell lines (LCLs, consistent with the previous observation that EBNA-3A is essential for sustained growth of these cells. In agreement with the known ability of EBNA-3A and EBNA-3C to cooperatively repress p14(ARF and p16(INK4a expression, knockdown of EBNA-3A in LCLs resulted in rapid elevation of p14(ARF and p16I(NK4a. By contrast, p16(INK4a was not detectably expressed in Wp-R BL and the low-level expression of p14(ARF was unchanged by EBNA-3A knockdown. Amongst other G1/S regulatory proteins, only p21(WAF1/CIP1, a potent inducer of G1 arrest, was upregulated following knockdown of EBNA-3A in Wp-R BL Sal cells and LCLs, coincident with hypophosphorylation and destabilization of Rb and growth arrest. Furthermore, knockdown of p21(WAF1/CIP1 expression in Wp-R BL correlated with an increase in cellular proliferation. This novel function of EBNA-3A is distinct from the functions previously described that are shared with EBNA-3C, and likely contributes to

  3. Effect of small body habitus on peri-operative outcomes after robotic-assisted pulmonary lobectomy: retrospective analysis of 208 consecutive cases. (United States)

    Velez-Cubian, Frank O; Zhang, Wei-Wei; Rodriguez, Kathryn L; Thau, Matthew R; Ng, Emily P; Moodie, Carla C; Garrett, Joseph R; Fontaine, Jacques-Pierre; Toloza, Eric M


    Patients with smaller body surface area (BSA) have smaller pleural cavities, which limit visualization and instrument mobility during video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery (VATS). We investigated the effects of BSA on outcomes with robotic-assisted VATS lobectomy. We analyzed 208 consecutive patients who underwent robotic-assisted lobectomy over 34 months. Patients were separated into group A (BSA ≤1.65 m(2)) and group B (BSA >1.65 m(2)). Operative times, estimated blood loss (EBL), conversions to thoracotomy, complications, hospital length of stay (LOS), and in-hospital mortality were compared. Group A had 40 patients (BSA 1.25-1.65 m(2)), and group B had 168 patients (BSA 1.66-2.86 m(2)). Median skin-to-skin operative times [± standard error of the mean (SEM)] were 169±16 min for group A and 176±6 min for group B (P=0.34). Group A had median EBL of 150±96 mL compared to 200±24 mL for group B (P=0.37). Overall conversion rate to thoracotomy was 8/40 (20.0%) in group A versus 12/168 (7.1%) in group B (P=0.03); while emergent conversion for bleeding was 2/40 (5.0%) in group A versus 5/168 (3.0%) in group B (P=0.62). Postoperative complications occurred in 12/40 (30.0%) in group A, compared to 66/168 (39.3%) in group B (P=0.28). Patients from both groups had median hospital LOS of 5 days (P=0.68) and had similar in-hospital mortality. Patients with BSA ≤1.65 m(2) have similar perioperative outcomes and complication risks as patients with larger BSA. Patients with BSA ≤1.65 m(2) have a higher overall conversion rate to thoracotomy, but similar conversion rate for bleeding as patients with larger BSA. Robotic-assisted pulmonary lobectomy is feasible and safe in patients with small body habitus.


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aliu, E. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Barnard College, Columbia University, NY 10027 (United States); Archer, A.; Beilicke, M.; Buckley, J. H.; Bugaev, V. [Department of Physics, Washington University, St. Louis, MO 63130 (United States); Aune, T. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of California, Los Angeles, CA 90095 (United States); Barnacka, A. [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Behera, B.; Chen, X. [DESY, Platanenallee 6, 15738 Zeuthen (Germany); Benbow, W.; Cerruti, M. [Fred Lawrence Whipple Observatory, Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, Amado, AZ 85645 (United States); Berger, K. [Department of Physics and Astronomy and the Bartol Research Institute, University of Delaware, Newark, DE 19716 (United States); Bird, R. [School of Physics, University College Dublin, Belfield, Dublin 4 (Ireland); Byrum, K. [Argonne National Laboratory, 9700 South Cass Avenue, Argonne, IL 60439 (United States); Cardenzana, J. V; Dickinson, H. J. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Iowa State University, Ames, IA 50011 (United States); Ciupik, L. [Astronomy Department, Adler Planetarium and Astronomy Museum, Chicago, IL 60605 (United States); Connolly, M. P. [School of Physics, National University of Ireland Galway, University Road, Galway (Ireland); Cui, W. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN 47907 (United States); Dumm, J. [School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN 55455 (United States); and others


    We present results from VERITAS observations of the BL Lac object PG 1553+113 spanning the years 2010, 2011, and 2012. The time-averaged spectrum, measured between 160 and 560 GeV, is well described by a power law with a spectral index of 4.33 ± 0.09. The time-averaged integral flux above 200 GeV measured for this period was (1.69 ± 0.06) × 10{sup –11} photons cm{sup –2} s{sup –1}, corresponding to 6.9% of the Crab Nebula flux. We also present the combined γ-ray spectrum from the Fermi Large Area Telescope and VERITAS covering an energy range from 100 MeV to 560 GeV. The data are well fit by a power law with an exponential cutoff at 101.9 ± 3.2 GeV. The origin of the cutoff could be intrinsic to PG 1553+113 or be due to the γ-ray opacity of our universe through pair production off the extragalactic background light (EBL). Given lower limits to the redshift of z > 0.395 based on optical/UV observations of PG 1553+113, the cutoff would be dominated by EBL absorption. Conversely, the small statistical uncertainties of the VERITAS energy spectrum have allowed us to provide a robust upper limit on the redshift of PG 1553+113 of z ≤ 0.62. A strongly elevated mean flux of (2.50 ± 0.14) × 10{sup –11} photons cm{sup –2} s{sup –1} (10.3% of the Crab Nebula flux) was observed during 2012, with the daily flux reaching as high as (4.44±0.71)×10{sup −11} photons cm{sup −2} s{sup −1} (18.3% of the Crab Nebula flux) on MJD 56048. The light curve measured during the 2012 observing season is marginally inconsistent with a steady flux, giving a χ{sup 2} probability for a steady flux of 0.03%.

  5. Hypotensive anesthesia: Comparing the effects of different drug combinations on mean arterial pressure, estimated blood loss, and surgery time in orthognathic surgery. (United States)

    Jeong, James; Portnof, Jason E; Kalayeh, Mona; Hardigan, Patrick


    Sevoflurane, an inhalational hypotensive anesthetic agent with a vasodilatory property, has been commonly used as a single agent to induce hypotension and effectively decrease blood loss in orthognathic surgery. However, it is common for patients to receive other hypotensive anesthetic agents in combination with sevoflurane. The purpose of our retrospective cohort study is to investigate whether administering an additional hypotensive agent has greater effect at reducing mean arterial pressure (MAP), estimated blood loss (EBL) and surgery time during orthognathic surgery. 57 subjects, aged 0-89 of both genders, who underwent orthognathic surgery were investigated in this study. Each patient's anesthesia records were reviewed to record the following variables of interest: EBL, duration of surgery, and MAP reduction in %. 41 subjects were placed in Group I and they received sevoflurane alone. 16 subjects were placed in Group II and they received sevoflurane plus a "supportive" agent. These "supportive" agents were esmolol, labetalol, metoprolol, nicardipine, and dexmedetomidine. The significant differences between two groups were assessed by using ANCOVA and p surgery time. Subjects in Group II experienced a greater reduction in MAP during surgery than subjects in Group I, 27.30% and 20.44%, respectively (p = 0.027). There was no significant difference for sex (p = 0.417) or age group (p = 0.113) in estimated blood loss, however. The mean surgery time in Group I was 1.93, 2.77, and 4.54 h with respect to LeFort, BSSO/IVRO, and double jaw surgery. Patients in Group II had a mean surgery time of 1.73, 2.07, and 5.64 h with respect to LeFort, BSSO/IVRO, and double jaw surgery. No statistically significant difference was demonstrated in surgery time between Group I vs. Group II (p > 0.05). Subjects in Group II experienced, on average, more blood loss than subjects in Group I, 355.50 ml and 238.90 ml, respectively. The use of multi-drug combination may offer

  6. Selective Binding, Self-Assembly and Nanopatterning of the Creutz-Taube Ion on Surfaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qingling Hang


    Full Text Available The surface attachment properties of the Creutz-Taube ion, i.e., [(NH35Ru(pyrazineRu(NH35]5+, on both hydrophilic and hydrophobic types of surfaces were investigated using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS. The results indicated that the Creutz-Taube ions only bound to hydrophilic surfaces, such as SiO2 and –OH terminated organic SAMs on gold substrates. No attachment of the ions on hydrophobic surfaces such as –CH3 terminated organic SAMs and poly(methylmethacrylate (PMMA thin films covered gold or SiO2 substrates was observed. Further ellipsometric, atomic force microscopy (AFM and time-dependent XPS studies suggested that the attached cations could form an inorganic analog of the self-assembled monolayer on SiO2 substrate with a “lying-down” orientation. The strong electrostatic interaction between the highly charged cations and the anionic SiO2 surface was believed to account for these observations. Based on its selective binding property, patterning of wide (~200 nm and narrow (~35 nm lines of the Creutz-Taube ions on SiO2 surface were demonstrated through PMMA electron resist masks written by electron beam lithography (EBL.

  7. Device Fabrication and Probing of Discrete Carbon Nanostructures

    KAUST Repository

    Batra, Nitin M


    Device fabrication on multi walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) using electrical beam lithography (EBL), electron beam induced deposition (EBID), ion beam induced deposition (IBID) methods was carried out, followed by device electrical characterization using a conventional probe station. A four-probe configuration was utilized to measure accurately the electrical resistivity of MWCNTs with similar results obtained from devices fabricated by different methods. In order to reduce the contact resistance of the beam deposited platinum electrodes, single step vacuum thermal annealing was performed. Microscopy and spectroscopy were carried out on the beam deposited electrodes to follow the structural and chemical changes occurring during the vacuum thermal annealing. For the first time, a core-shell type structure was identified on EBID Pt and IBID Pt annealed electrodes and analogous free standing nanorods previously exposed to high temperature. We believe this observation has important implications for transport properties studies of carbon materials. Apart from that, contamination of carbon nanostructure, originating from the device fabrication methods, was also studied. Finally, based on the observations of faster processing time together with higher yield and flexibility for device preparation, we investigated EBID to fabricate devices for other discrete carbon nanostructures.

  8. Outcomes of patients with syringomyelia undergoing spine deformity surgery: do large syrinxes behave differently from small? (United States)

    Samdani, Amer F; Hwang, Steven W; Singla, Anuj; Bennett, James T; Ames, Robert J; Kimball, Jeff S


    A paucity of data exists studying outcomes of patients with syringomyelia undergoing spinal deformity correction. The literature does not stratify patients by syrinx size, which is likely a major contributor to outcomes. The study aimed to compare differences in outcomes between patients with large (≥4 mm) and small syrinxes (deformity correction. This is a retrospective review. The sample included 28 patients (11 with large syrinx [LS, >4 mm] and 17 with small syrinx [SS, spine deformity surgery with 2-year follow-up. Demographic, surgical, and radiographic data were collected and compared preoperatively and at 2 years. The LS group (11 patients) trended toward more left-sided thoracic curves (36% vs. 18%, p=.38) and was more likely to have had a Chiari decompression (45% vs. 12%, p=.08). The LS patients had larger preoperative major curves (LS=66° vs. SS=57°, p=.05), more thoracic kyphosis (LS=42°, SS=24°, pspine deformity surgery are dependent on the size of the syrinx. Those with large syringomyelia are fused longer with more EBL and less correction. Spine surgeons should be aware that these patients are more likely to have less reliable neuromonitoring, with a higher chance of experiencing a change. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Esophageal Carcinoma Histology Affects Perioperative Morbidity Following Open Esophagogastrectomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles E. Woodall


    Full Text Available Background. Esophagectomy for esophageal cancer is being practiced routinely with favorable results at many centers. We sought to determine if tumor histology is a powerful surrogate marker for perioperative morbidity. Methods. Seventy three consecutive patients managed operatively were reviewed from our prospectively maintained database. Results. Adenocarcinoma (AC was present in 52 (71% and squamous cell (SCC in 21 (29%. The use of neoadjuvant therapy was similar for the AC (34.62% and SCC (42.86% groups. The SCC group had a higher incidence of prior pulmonary disease than the AC group (23.8% versus 5.8%, resp.; =.03. SCC patients were more likely to have a prolonged ICU stay than AC patients (=.004 despite similar complication rates, EBL, and prognostic nutritional index. The SCC group did, however, experience higher grades of complications (=.0053. Conclusions. Presence of SCC was the single best predictor of prolonged ICU stay and more severe complications as defined by this study. Only a past history of pulmonary disease was different between the two histologic subgroups.

  10. An 8-year longitudinal sero-epidemiological study of bovine leukaemia virus (BLV) infection in dairy cattle in Turkey and analysis of risk factors associated with BLV seropositivity. (United States)

    Şevik, Murat; Avcı, Oğuzhan; İnce, Ömer Barış


    Enzootic bovine leukosis (EBL) which is caused by bovine leukaemia virus (BLV) has an important economic impact on dairy herds due to reduced milk production and restrictions on livestock exports. This study was conducted to determine the BLV infection status in Central Anatolia Region of Turkey, an important milk production centre, and to examine the risk factors such as purchasing cattle, increasing cattle age, cattle breed and herd size associated with transmission of BLV infection. To estimate the rate of BLV infection, a survey for specific antibodies in 28,982 serum samples from animals belonging to 1116 different herds situated in Central Anatolia Region of Turkey were tested from January 2006 to December 2013. A generalized mixed linear model was used to evaluate the risk factors that influenced BLV seroprevalence. Antibodies against BLV were detected in 431 (2.28 %) of 18,822 Holstein and 29 (0.28 %) of 10,160 Brown Swiss cows. Among 1116 herds, 132 herds (11.82 %) had one or more positive animals. Also results of our study show that the prevalence of BLV infection increased from 2006 to 2011, and it tends to reduce with BLV control programme. Furthermore, we found positive associations between percentage of seropositive animal and increasing cattle age, herd size, cattle breed and purchased cattle. Age-specific prevalence showed that BLV prevalence increased with age. These factors should be taken into consideration for control of BLV infection.

  11. Comparison of robotic and laparoscopic partial nephrectomy for small renal tumours

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    Abdulmuttalip Simsek


    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate a single surgeon oncological and functional outcomes of laparoscopic partial nephrectomy (LPN compared to robotic partial nephrectomy (RPN for pT1a renal tumours. Materials and methods: Between 2006 and 2016, a retrospective review of 42 patients who underwent LPN (n = 20 or RPN (n = 22 by same surgeon was performed. Patients were matched for gender, age, body mass index (BMI, American Society of Anaesthesiologists (ASA score, tumour side, RENAL and PADUA scores, peri-operative and post-operative outcomes. Results: There was no significant differences between the two groups with respect to patient gender, age, BMI, ASA score, tumours side, RENAL and PADUA scores. Mean operative time for RPN was 176 vs. 227 minutes for LPN (p = 0.001. Warm ischemia time was similar in both groups (p = 0.58. Estimated blood loss (EBL was higher in the LPN. There was no significant difference with preoperative and postoperative creatinine and percent change in eGFR levels. Only one case in LPN had positive surgical margin. Conclusions: RPN is a developing procedure, and technically feasible and safe for small-size renal tumours. Moreover RPN is a comparable and alternative operation to LPN, providing equivalent oncological and functional outcomes, as well as saving more healthy marginal tissue and easier and faster suturing.

  12. Negative e-beam resists using for nano-imprint lithography and silicone mold fabrication (United States)

    Shy, S. L.; T. V., Anil Kumar; Sheu, Gene; Yang, Shao-Ming; Chen, M. C.; Hong, C. S.


    Nano-imprinting technology, as one of the most promising fabrication technologies, has been demonstrated to be a powerful tool for large-area replication up to wafer-level, with features down to nanometer scale. This study aims to develop capabilities in patterning nano structure using thermal nano-imprint lithography (NIL). 30nm Si molds are patterned by electron-beam lithography (EBL) using NEB22 A2 negative e-beam resist. The NEB22 A2 negative e-beam resist possess a variety of characteristics desirable for NIL, such as low viscosity, low bulk-volumetric shrinkage, high Young's modulus, high thermal stability, and excellent dry-etch resistance. The excellent oxygenetch resistance of the barrier material enables a final transfer pattern that is about three times higher than that of the original NIL mold. Based on these imprint on negative electron beam resist approach is used for pattern transfer into silicon substrates. The result is a high-resolution pattern with feature sizes in the range of nanometer to several microns.

  13. Fabrication of the CALDER light detectors (United States)

    Colantoni, I.; Bellini, F.; Cardani, L.; Casali, N.; Castellano, M. G.; Coppolecchia, A.; Cosmelli, C.; Cruciani, A.; D`Addabbo, A.; Di Domizio, S.; Martinez, M.; Tomei, C.; Vignati, M.


    CALDER (Cryogenic wide-Area Light Detectors with Excellent Resolution) is a project for the development of large area phonon mediated KIDs (Kinetic Inductance Detectors), for the detection of Cherenkov radiation emitted in TeO2 bolometers to search for neutrinoless double beta decay (0 νββ). The KIDs are superconducting detectors made of high quality factor superconducting resonators, which are coupled to a transmission line for signal readout. We designed and fabricated KIDs using aluminum. The Al thin films (40 nm) were evaporated on Si(100) high resistivity silicon wafers using an electron beam evaporator in a HV chamber. In this work we report the steps of the fabrication process. All devices are made in direct-write using Electron Beam Lithography (EBL), positive tone resist poly-methyl methacrylate (PMMA) and lift off process. In order to improve the sensitivity of the detectors we have started recently to use sub-stoichiometric TiN deposited by means of DC magnetron sputtering and we will optimize a different fabrication process.

  14. The role of plasma instabilities in the propagation of gamma-rays from distant Blazars

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saveliev, A.; Evoli, C.; Sigl, G. [Hamburg Univ. (Germany). 2. Inst. fuer Theoretische Physik


    The observation in the GeV band of distant blazars has been recently used to put constraints on the Extragalactic Background Light (EBL) and Extragalactic Magnetic Fields (EGMF). To support such claims one has to assume that the leptonic component of the electromagnetic cascade initiated by blazar gamma-rays is deflected away by strong enough EGMF, suppressing the signal in the Fermi window. Apart from magnetic fields, the development of such a cascade might be affected by plasma instabilities due to interactions with the ionized component of the Intergalactic Medium (IGM). In this paper we model the electromagnetic cascade through a Monte Carlo simulation in which both effects are taken into account separately, and we derive constraints on these scenarios from the combined Fermi-HESS data set. In the specific case of 1ES 0229+200 observations, we show that both explanations of the GeV flux suppression are compatible with the available data, specifically by assuming a magnetic field of B >or similar 10{sup -16} G or an IGM temperature of T

  15. Plasmonic colour laser printing (United States)

    Zhu, Xiaolong; Vannahme, Christoph; Højlund-Nielsen, Emil; Mortensen, N. Asger; Kristensen, Anders


    Colour generation by plasmonic nanostructures and metasurfaces has several advantages over dye technology: reduced pixel area, sub-wavelength resolution and the production of bright and non-fading colours. However, plasmonic colour patterns need to be pre-designed and printed either by e-beam lithography (EBL) or focused ion beam (FIB), both expensive and not scalable processes that are not suitable for post-processing customization. Here we show a method of colour printing on nanoimprinted plasmonic metasurfaces using laser post-writing. Laser pulses induce transient local heat generation that leads to melting and reshaping of the imprinted nanostructures. Depending on the laser pulse energy density, different surface morphologies that support different plasmonic resonances leading to different colour appearances can be created. Using this technique we can print all primary colours with a speed of 1 ns per pixel, resolution up to 127,000 dots per inch (DPI) and power consumption down to 0.3 nJ per pixel.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available The Bovine Leukosis Virus (BLV is the etiological agent of the Enzootic Bovine Leukemia (EBL, this disease is infectious, chronic and specifically cattle, presenting a low percentage of patients with clinical manifestations. Between 30-70% of infected animals can develop persistent lymphocytosis (LP and between 0,1-10% of cattle over three years of infection suffers some form of lymphosarcoma (LS. The aim of this work was serologically detection of BLV in milk samples from Holstein cows in three dairy herds in the department of Antioquia. Were taken 133 milk samples from Holstein cows three dairy herds located in the municipality of Medellin and Belmira, was conducted an indirect ELISA against gp51 envelope protein of the virus. The ELISA test showed a seroprevalence of 79,69% (106/133 for all samples tested. The herd was the largest herd seroprevalence 1 (82,86%, followed by the herd 2 (80% and finally the herd 3 (77,08%. The presence of the BLV has increased in recent years in Antioquia, so fast and efficient diagnosis through reliable methodologies allow control over the spread of the disease in dairy herds.

  17. Fabrication of a Horizontal and a Vertical Large Surface Area Nanogap Electrochemical Sensor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jules L. Hammond


    Full Text Available Nanogap sensors have a wide range of applications as they can provide accurate direct detection of biomolecules through impedimetric or amperometric signals. Signal response from nanogap sensors is dependent on both the electrode spacing and surface area. However, creating large surface area nanogap sensors presents several challenges during fabrication. We show two different approaches to achieve both horizontal and vertical coplanar nanogap geometries. In the first method we use electron-beam lithography (EBL to pattern an 11 mm long serpentine nanogap (215 nm between two electrodes. For the second method we use inductively-coupled plasma (ICP reactive ion etching (RIE to create a channel in a silicon substrate, optically pattern a buried 1.0 mm × 1.5 mm electrode before anodically bonding a second identical electrode, patterned on glass, directly above. The devices have a wide range of applicability in different sensing techniques with the large area nanogaps presenting advantages over other devices of the same family. As a case study we explore the detection of peptide nucleic acid (PNA−DNA binding events using dielectric spectroscopy with the horizontal coplanar device.

  18. Laparoscopic supracervical hysterectomy and sacral colpopexy for pelvic organ prolapse with percutaneous surgical system: Results from a pilot study. (United States)

    Campagna, Giuseppe; Panico, Giovanni; Morciano, Andrea; Vacca, Lorenzo; Anchora, Luigi Pedone; Gallucci, Valeria; Cervigni, Mauro; Ercoli, Alfredo; Scambia, Giovanni


    The aim of the study was to report our preliminary experience of supracervical 2 hysterectomy followed by sacral colpopexy performed with the Percuvance ™ PSS in terms of feasibility, effectiveness and safety. Between Jan 2017 and Feb 2017 10 patients affected by POP were enrolled in the present study. All patients undergoing supracervical hysterectomy followed by sacral colpo-cervicopexy with the Percuvance ™ PSS. The reported series consisted of 10 patients undergoing supracervical hysterectomy followed by sacral colpopexy with a median age of 63 years (range 55-71 years) and a median BMI (body mass index) of 24 (range 21-26). A median operative time of 123 min (range 103-134 min) and a median estimated blood loss (EBL) of 40 ml (range 20-60 ml) were registered. No conversions to standard laparoscopy or laparotomy were required and no intraoperative complications occurred. At the discharge all patients were completely satisfied with the cosmetic result and postoperative pain control. During 3 months urogynecological follow-up no patient showed surgical anatomic failure (>2 POP-Q stage)and the degree of overall satisfaction of the cosmetic results was confirmed by the surgeon and the patient equally. The PSS supracervical hysterectomy plus sacral colpopexy is a feasible and effective approach with good results in terms of operative time, cosmesis, postoperative pain and length of hospitalization. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Nano optical propeller based on localized field intensity enhancement of surface plasmons (United States)

    Jiao, Jiao; Lin, En; Liang, Gaofeng; Zhao, Qing


    There is acting force that light has on any substances, but the force is too weak to be sensed. While the momentum transfer between light and substance can be greatly improved within nanoscales. Scientists have successfully captured and transported micro-particles by using focusing light in liquid state, which is called optical tweezers. However, this approach needs to be processed with removable powerful focal source and meanwhile in a state of liquid. These requirements seriously restrict its development from optical tweezers to optical propeller. This paper proposes a new method: to produce localized surface plasmons enhancement by asymmetric nanostructures so that a gradient optical field whose intensity is 70 times higher than that of incident light is formed on a nano orbit with a length of 200nm. The strong gradient force makes it possible for the small particles laid on nanostructure to get strong momentum at a certain direction without strong light sources, which breaks through the near field gravitation to move. Meanwhile, the nanostructure can be expanded into multistage accelerating structure, and expanded into an array, thus providing a plane thrust and forming an optical propeller in real sense. At last, electron beam lithography (EBL) is employed to prepare structures with only tens of nanometers in size. A series of better preparation technics are concluded to get samples with good shapes, which provides technical guarantee for the application of nano optical propeller in the future.

  20. The Outcomes of Minimally Invasive versus Open Posterior Approach Spinal Fusion in Treatment of Lumbar Spondylolisthesis: The Current Evidence from Prospective Comparative Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ai-Min Wu


    Full Text Available Purpose. To investigate the evidence of minimally invasive (MI versus open (OP posterior lumbar fusion in treatment of lumbar spondylolisthesis from current prospective literatures. Methods. The electronic literature database of Pubmed, Embase, and Cochrane library was searched at April 2016. The data of operative time, estimated blood loss and length of hospital stay, visual analog scale (VAS of both lower back pain and leg pain, Oswestry disability index (ODI, SF-36 PCS (physical component scores and SF-36 MCS (mental component scores, complications, fusion rate, and secondary surgery were extracted and analyzed by STATA 12.0 software. Results. Five nonrandom prospective comparative studies were included in this meta-analysis. The meta-analysis showed that the MI group had a significantly longer operative time than OP group, less blood loss, and shorter hospital stay. No significant difference was found in back pain, leg pain, ODI, SF-36 PCS, SF-36 MCS, complications, fusion rate, and secondary surgery between MI and OP groups. Conclusion. The prospective evidence suggested that MI posterior fusion for spondylolisthesis had less EBL and hospital stay than OP fusion; however it took more operative time. Both MI and OP fusion had similar results in pain and functional outcomes, complication, fusion rate, and secondary surgery.

  1. Cost and sensitivity of on-farm versus slaughterhouse surveys for prevalence estimation and substantiating freedom from disease. (United States)

    Schärrer, Sara; Schwermer, Heinzpeter; Presi, Patrick; Lindberg, Ann; Zinsstag, Jakob; Reist, Martin


    Within the framework of Swiss surveillance for epizootic diseases, dairy cattle are sampled using bulk tank milk while non-dairy cattle are sampled on the farm. The latter method is costly, time-demanding and dangerous for the personnel. However, slaughterhouses could be an alternative sampling point for this population. To assess the cost-effectiveness and sensitivity of such an approach, surveillance using slaughterhouse sampling was modelled with data from the 2012 Swiss animal movement database (AMD). We simulated a cross-sectional study for bluetongue (BT), and surveillance programmes to substantiate freedom from infectious bovine rhinotracheitis (IBR) and enzootic bovine leucosis (EBL) (combined) to compare the outcome of random on-farm sampling versus slaughterhouse sampling. We found that, under Swiss conditions, slaughterhouse sampling results in low herd-level sensitivities because animals are sent by owners to slaughter individually and not in large groups, restricting the number of samples per herd. This makes slaughterhouse sampling inappropriate for prevalence surveys at the herd-level. However, for prevalence surveys at the animal-level and for substantiation of freedom from disease, slaughterhouse surveillance is equally or more cost-efficient than on-farm sampling. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Risk-based design of repeated surveys for the documentation of freedom from non-highly contagious diseases. (United States)

    Hadorn, Daniela C; Rüfenacht, Jürg; Hauser, Ruth; Stärk, Katharina D C


    The documentation of freedom from disease requires reliable information on the actual disease status in a specific animal population. The implementation of active surveillance (surveys) is an effective method to gain this information. For economical reasons, the sample size should be as small as possible but large enough to achieve the required confidence level for a targeted threshold. When conducting surveys repeatedly, various information sources about the disease status of the population can be taken into account to adjust the required level of confidence for a follow-up survey (e.g. risk assessments regarding disease introduction and results of previous surveys). As a benefit, the sample size for national surveys can be reduced considerably. We illustrate this risk-based approach using examples of national surveys conducted in Switzerland. The sample size for the documentation of freedom from enzootic bovine leucosis (EBL) and Brucella melitensis in sheep and in goats could be reduced from 2325 to 415 cattle herds, from 2325 to 838 sheep herds and from 1975 to 761 goat herds, respectively. Copyright 2002 Elsevier Science B.V.

  3. Patients assessing students' assignments; making the patient experience real. (United States)

    Munro, Jane; Whyte, Fiona; Stewart, Jim; Letters, Andrew


    The care of patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) frequently falls short of the highest standards. This is noted in several publications, including national standards, despite nursing students being taught the importance of listening to and understanding patients. Teaching staff at the University of Glasgow primarily responsible for teaching third year undergraduate nursing students undertook a radical rethink of the planning, delivery and assessment of lectures on IBD. The subject had previously been delivered in a modified lecture format. Although the topic could be included in the end-of-year exams, there was little evidence to show whether this traditional teaching method had any effect on students' clinical practice. In a novel approach to learning and assessment, students were invited to research and produce an information leaflet for newly diagnosed patients with IBD. The leaflets were then assessed and grades awarded by an expert panel of patients and carers. Such enquiry based learning (EBL) intended to demonstrate in practice, the key role patients can play in both undergraduate nurse education and in service planning and delivery in the National Health Service (NHS). The panel found the exercise both interesting and insightful, while the students reported being invigorated and felt the expert assessment meant they were forced to achieve a higher level of work. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. [Celioscopic lymphatic excision and perineal radical prostatectomy: a strategy for the treatment of prostatic cancer]. (United States)

    Melman, A; Gladshteyn, M; Stifelman, M


    Radical perineal prostatectomy despite its many advantages over the past decade had decreased in popularity compared with the retropubic approach and was limited to a few specific indications. The primary reason for this trend was in the ability to first evaluate pelvic lymph node metastases by frozen section using only one retropubic incision. Recently our institution has developed an alternative method which combines laparoscopic lymph node dissection (LLND) with radical perineal prostatectomies (RPP). From January 1990 to January 1992, 30 patients with a mean age of 64 were identified as having clinical stage B prostatic carcinoma. From this population a total of 36 procedures were performed by the senior author. 9 patients underwent LLND alone (group 1), 13 patients underwent RPP alone (group 2) and 14 patients underwent combination LLND and RPP (group 3). The mean EBL for groups 1, 2 and 3 were 1.2, 5 and 5.6 days respectively. Number of transfusions for patients requiring blood in groups 2 and 3 were 1.2 units and 1.5 units respectively. There were no significant differences in post-operative stay, post-operative complications, day tolerating diet or days of analgesia despite the difference in operating room and anesthesia time: group 2 (2:25) and group 3 (5:29). All levels of PSA in groups 2 and 3 remain trace at 1, 3, 6 and 12 months post operatively except for one patient.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  5. Vertebral Column Resection for Rigid Spinal Deformity. (United States)

    Saifi, Comron; Laratta, Joseph L; Petridis, Petros; Shillingford, Jamal N; Lehman, Ronald A; Lenke, Lawrence G


    Broad narrative review. To review the evolution, operative technique, outcomes, and complications associated with posterior vertebral column resection. A literature review of posterior vertebral column resection was performed. The authors' surgical technique is outlined in detail. The authors' experience and the literature regarding vertebral column resection are discussed at length. Treatment of severe, rigid coronal and/or sagittal malalignment with posterior vertebral column resection results in approximately 50-70% correction depending on the type of deformity. Surgical site infection rates range from 2.9% to 9.7%. Transient and permanent neurologic injury rates range from 0% to 13.8% and 0% to 6.3%, respectively. Although there are significant variations in EBL throughout the literature, it can be minimized by utilizing tranexamic acid intraoperatively. The ability to correct a rigid deformity in the spine relies on osteotomies. Each osteotomy is associated with a particular magnitude of correction at a single level. Posterior vertebral column resection is the most powerful posterior osteotomy method providing a successful correction of fixed complex deformities. Despite meticulous surgical technique and precision, this robust osteotomy technique can be associated with significant morbidity even in the most experienced hands.

  6. Impact of surgical approach on complication rates after elective spinal fusion (≥3 levels) for adult spine deformity. (United States)

    Elsamadicy, Aladine A; Adogwa, Owoicho; Behrens, Shay; Sergesketter, Amanda; Chen, Angel; Mehta, Ankit I; Vasquez, Raul A; Cheng, Joseph; Bagley, Carlos A; Karikari, Isaac O


    While there are variations in techniques and surgical approaches to spinal fusion, there is not a defined consensus on a recommended surgical approach. The aim of this study is to determine if there was a difference in intra- and post-operative complication rates between different surgical approaches after elective spinal fusion (≥3 levels) for adult spine deformity. The medical records of 443 adult spine deformity patients undergoing elective spinal fusion (≥3) at a major academic institution from 2005 to 2015 were reviewed. We identified 96 (21.7%) anterior only, 225 (50.8%) posterior only, and 122 (27.5%) combined anterior/posterior approaches taken for spinal fusion (anterior: n=96; posterior: n=225). Patient demographics, comorbidities, anatomical location, and complication rates were collected for each patient. The primary outcome investigated in this study was the rate of intra- and post-operative complications. Patient demographics and comorbidities were similar between all groups. The posterior approach had significantly higher EBL (Pspinal fusion may lead to a higher incidence of complications compared to anterior or combined anterior/posterior approaches.

  7. Cohort studies in health sciences librarianship (United States)

    Eldredge, Jonathan


    Question: What are the key characteristics of the cohort study design and its varied applications, and how can this research design be utilized in health sciences librarianship? Data Sources: The health, social, behavioral, biological, library, earth, and management sciences literatures were used as sources. Study Selection: All fields except for health sciences librarianship were scanned topically for either well-known or diverse applications of the cohort design. The health sciences library literature available to the author principally for the years 1990 to 2000, supplemented by papers or posters presented at annual meetings of the Medical Library Association. Data Extraction: A narrative review for the health, social, behavioral, biological, earth, and management sciences literatures and a systematic review for health sciences librarianship literature for the years 1990 to 2000, with three exceptions, were conducted. The author conducted principally a manual search of the health sciences librarianship literature for the years 1990 to 2000 as part of this systematic review. Main Results: The cohort design has been applied to answer a wide array of theoretical or practical research questions in the health, social, behavioral, biological, and management sciences. Health sciences librarianship also offers several major applications of the cohort design. Conclusion: The cohort design has great potential for answering research questions in the field of health sciences librarianship, particularly evidence-based librarianship (EBL), although that potential has not been fully explored. PMID:12398244

  8. Production, Characterization, and Use of Monoclonal Antibodies Against gp51 Protein to Diagnose Bovine Leukemia Virus Infection. (United States)

    Troiano, Ludmilla D C; Thomaz-Soccol, Vanete; Agottani, Jorge V B; Brodzinski, Josiane; Penha, Tania R; Ozaki, Silvia C


    Enzootic bovine leukosis (EBL) is a retroviral infection that causes persistent lymphocytosis and lymphosarcoma in cattle. The economic importance of infection by bovine leukemia virus (BLV) is due to several factors, including losses in exportation, treatment of secondary infection, and reduction in dairy production. To facilitate the development of a national test that is sensitive, simple, and applicable on a large scale, this work aimed to produce and characterize monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) against gp51 protein from BLV for use in an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) test. Two hundred seventy-four hybridomas were generated, from which 37 were mAbs secretory clones screened by indirect ELISA. The specificity of the mAbs generated against gp51 was verified by Western blot analysis, and the isotypes were characterized for isotyping in IgG1 and IgM. To evaluate the test, 250 sera were tested by agar gel immunodiffusion and mAb-ELISA. The values obtained for the mAb-ELISA test were 95% sensitivity and 90% specificity.

  9. Plasmodium falciparum Adhesins Play an Essential Role in Signalling and Activation of Invasion into Human Erythrocytes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wai-Hong Tham


    Full Text Available The most severe form of malaria in humans is caused by the protozoan parasite Plasmodium falciparum. The invasive form of malaria parasites is termed a merozoite and it employs an array of parasite proteins that bind to the host cell to mediate invasion. In Plasmodium falciparum, the erythrocyte binding-like (EBL and reticulocyte binding-like (Rh protein families are responsible for binding to specific erythrocyte receptors for invasion and mediating signalling events that initiate active entry of the malaria parasite. Here we have addressed the role of the cytoplasmic tails of these proteins in activating merozoite invasion after receptor engagement. We show that the cytoplasmic domains of these type 1 membrane proteins are phosphorylated in vitro. Depletion of PfCK2, a kinase implicated to phosphorylate these cytoplasmic tails, blocks P. falciparum invasion of red blood cells. We identify the crucial residues within the PfRh4 cytoplasmic domain that are required for successful parasite invasion. Live cell imaging of merozoites from these transgenic mutants show they attach but do not penetrate erythrocytes implying the PfRh4 cytoplasmic tail conveys signals important for the successful completion of the invasion process.

  10. Plasmonic colour laser printing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhu, Xiaolong; Vannahme, Christoph; Højlund-Nielsen, Emil


    Colour generation by plasmonic nanostructures and metasurfaces has several advantages over dye technology: reduced pixel area, sub-wavelength resolution and the production of bright and non-fading colours. However, plasmonic colour patterns need to be pre-designed and printed either by e-beam lit......Colour generation by plasmonic nanostructures and metasurfaces has several advantages over dye technology: reduced pixel area, sub-wavelength resolution and the production of bright and non-fading colours. However, plasmonic colour patterns need to be pre-designed and printed either by e......-beam lithography (EBL) or focused ion beam (FIB), both expensive and not scalable processes that are not suitable for post-processing customization. Here we show a method of colour printing on nanoimprinted plasmonic metasurfaces using laser post-writing. Laser pulses induce transient local heat generation...... that leads to melting and reshaping of the imprinted nanostructures. Depending on the laser pulse energy density, different surface morphologies that support different plasmonic resonances leading to different colour appearances can be created. Using this technique we can print all primary colours...

  11. Seroepidemiological survey of bovine leukemia virus infection in cows in Khuzestan province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Zamanizadeh


    Full Text Available Bovine leukemia virus (BLV is a member of the Delta retro virus genus (family Retroviridae and can cause persistent lymphocytosis and lymphosarcoma in cattle that is described as enzootic bovine leucosis (EBL. This disease causes significant economic losses associated with the costs of control and eradication programs. Control programs of leucosis are based on the screening of cows by serological methods and removing the infected cows. The aim of this study was to evaluate the seroprevalence of bovine leukemia virus in cattle in Khuzestan province. Serum samples from 527 cattle were randomly collected in Ahvaz, Baghmalek, Shooshtar, Gotvand, Shadegan, Hendijan, Behbahan, Ramhormoz and Susangerd cities and were examined by ELISA assay. Seroperevalence rate of bovine leukemia virus was 6.64% (95% CI: 4.51-8.77. Statistical analysis indicated no significant association between infection and age or breed. Relative frequency of infection was higher in female cows than males, but this difference was not significant and odds of infection in female cows than males were 2.6 (95% CI: 0.35-19.59. Prevalence rate of infection between industrial (15% and nonindustrial (3.4% husbandry was significantly different (p

  12. Cohort studies in health sciences librarianship. (United States)

    Eldredge, Jonathan


    What are the key characteristics of the cohort study design and its varied applications, and how can this research design be utilized in health sciences librarianship? The health, social, behavioral, biological, library, earth, and management sciences literatures were used as sources. All fields except for health sciences librarianship were scanned topically for either well-known or diverse applications of the cohort design. The health sciences library literature available to the author principally for the years 1990 to 2000, supplemented by papers or posters presented at annual meetings of the Medical Library Association. A narrative review for the health, social, behavioral, biological, earth, and management sciences literatures and a systematic review for health sciences librarianship literature for the years 1990 to 2000, with three exceptions, were conducted. The author conducted principally a manual search of the health sciences librarianship literature for the years 1990 to 2000 as part of this systematic review. The cohort design has been applied to answer a wide array of theoretical or practical research questions in the health, social, behavioral, biological, and management sciences. Health sciences librarianship also offers several major applications of the cohort design. The cohort design has great potential for answering research questions in the field of health sciences librarianship, particularly evidence-based librarianship (EBL), although that potential has not been fully explored.

  13. Search for Gamma-Ray Bursts with the ARGO-YBJ Detector in Shower Mode

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bartoli, B.; Catalanotti, S.; Piazzoli, B. D’Ettorre; Girolamo, T. Di [Dipartimento di Fisica dell’Universitá di Napoli “Federico II,” Complesso Universitario di Monte Sant’Angelo, via Cinthia, I-80126 Napoli (Italy); Bernardini, P.; D’Amone, A.; Mitri, I. De [Dipartimento Matematica e Fisica “Ennio De Giorgi,” Universitá del Salento, via per Arnesano, I-73100 Lecce (Italy); Bi, X. J.; Cao, Z.; Chen, S. Z.; Feng, Zhaoyang; Gao, W.; Gou, Q. B. [Key Laboratory of Particle Astrophysics, Institute of High Energy Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, P.O. Box 918, 100049 Beijing (China); Chen, T. L.; Danzengluobu [Tibet University, 850000 Lhasa, Xizang (China); Cui, S. W. [Hebei Normal University, 050024 Shijiazhuang Hebei (China); Dai, B. Z. [Yunnan University, 2 North Cuihu Road, 650091 Kunming, Yunnan (China); Sciascio, G. Di [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Roma Tor Vergata, via della Ricerca Scientifica 1, I-00133 Roma (Italy); Feng, C. F. [Shandong University, 250100 Jinan, Shandong (China); Feng, Zhenyong, E-mail:, E-mail: [Southwest Jiaotong University, 610031 Chengdu, Sichuan (China); Collaboration: ARGO-YBJ Collaboration; and others


    The ARGO-YBJ detector, located at the Yangbajing Cosmic Ray Laboratory (4300 m a. s. l., Tibet, China), was a “full coverage” (central carpet with an active area of ∼93%) air shower array dedicated to gamma-ray astronomy and cosmic-ray studies. The wide field of view (∼2 sr) and high duty cycle (>86%), made ARGO-YBJ suitable to search for short and unexpected gamma-ray emissions like gamma-ray bursts (GRBs). Between 2007 November 6 and 2013 February 7, 156 satellite-triggered GRBs (24 of them with known redshift) occurred within the ARGO-YBJ field of view (zenith angle θ ≤ 45°). A search for possible emission associated with these GRBs has been made in the two energy ranges 10–100 GeV and 10–1000 GeV. No significant excess has been found in time coincidence with the satellite detections nor in a set of different time windows inside the interval of one hour after the bursts. Taking into account the EBL absorption, upper limits to the energy fluence at a 99% confidence level have been evaluated, with values ranging from ∼10{sup −5} erg cm{sup −2} to ∼10{sup −1} erg cm{sup −2}. The Fermi -GBM burst GRB 090902B, with a high-energy photon of 33.4 GeV detected by Fermi -LAT, is discussed in detail.

  14. Fabrication of digital rainbow holograms and 3-D imaging using SEM based e-beam lithography. (United States)

    Firsov, An; Firsov, A; Loechel, B; Erko, A; Svintsov, A; Zaitsev, S


    Here we present an approach for creating full-color digital rainbow holograms based on mixing three basic colors. Much like in a color TV with three luminescent points per single screen pixel, each color pixel of initial image is presented by three (R, G, B) distinct diffractive gratings in a hologram structure. Change of either duty cycle or area of the gratings are used to provide proper R, G, B intensities. Special algorithms allow one to design rather complicated 3D images (that might even be replacing each other with hologram rotation). The software developed ("RainBow") provides stability of colorization of rotated image by means of equalizing of angular blur from gratings responsible for R, G, B basic colors. The approach based on R, G, B color synthesis allows one to fabricate gray-tone rainbow hologram containing white color what is hardly possible in traditional dot-matrix technology. Budgetary electron beam lithography based on SEM column was used to fabricate practical examples of digital rainbow hologram. The results of fabrication of large rainbow holograms from design to imprinting are presented. Advantages of the EBL in comparison to traditional optical (dot-matrix) technology is considered.

  15. Toward plasmonics with nanometer precision: nonlinear optics of helium-ion milled gold nanoantennas. (United States)

    Kollmann, Heiko; Piao, Xianji; Esmann, Martin; Becker, Simon F; Hou, Dongchao; Huynh, Chuong; Kautschor, Lars-Oliver; Bösker, Guido; Vieker, Henning; Beyer, André; Gölzhäuser, Armin; Park, Namkyoo; Vogelgesang, Ralf; Silies, Martin; Lienau, Christoph


    Plasmonic nanoantennas are versatile tools for coherently controlling and directing light on the nanoscale. For these antennas, current fabrication techniques such as electron beam lithography (EBL) or focused ion beam (FIB) milling with Ga(+)-ions routinely achieve feature sizes in the 10 nm range. However, they suffer increasingly from inherent limitations when a precision of single nanometers down to atomic length scales is required, where exciting quantum mechanical effects are expected to affect the nanoantenna optics. Here, we demonstrate that a combined approach of Ga(+)-FIB and milling-based He(+)-ion lithography (HIL) for the fabrication of nanoantennas offers to readily overcome some of these limitations. Gold bowtie antennas with 6 nm gap size were fabricated with single-nanometer accuracy and high reproducibility. Using third harmonic (TH) spectroscopy, we find a substantial enhancement of the nonlinear emission intensity of single HIL-antennas compared to those produced by state-of-the-art gallium-based milling. Moreover, HIL-antennas show a vastly improved polarization contrast. This superior nonlinear performance of HIL-derived plasmonic structures is an excellent testimonial to the application of He(+)-ion beam milling for ultrahigh precision nanofabrication, which in turn can be viewed as a stepping stone to mastering quantum optical investigations in the near-field.

  16. Nanopatterning of ultrananocrystalline diamond nanowires. (United States)

    Wang, Xinpeng; Ocola, Leonidas E; Divan, Ralu S; Sumant, Anirudha V


    We report the fabrication of horizontally aligned ultrananocrystalline diamond (UNCD) nanowires (NWs) via two different approaches. First, with the top-down approach by using electron beam lithography (EBL) and reactive ion etching (RIE) with a photo resist layer as an etch mask. Using this approach, we demonstrate fabrication of 50 µm long UNCD NWs with widths as narrow as 40 nm. We further present an alternative approach to grow UNCD NWs at pre-defined positions through a selective seeding process. No RIE was needed either to etch the NWs or to remove the mask. In this case, we achieved UNCD NWs with lengths of 50 µm and smallest width of 90 nm respectively. Characterization of these nanowires by using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM) shows that the UNCD NWs are well defined and fully released, with no indication of residual stress. Characterization using visible and ultraviolet (UV) Raman spectroscopy indicates that in both fabrication approaches, UNCD NWs maintain their intrinsic diamond structure.

  17. Nanopatterning of ultrananocrystalline diamond nanowires (United States)

    Wang, Xinpeng; Ocola, Leonidas E.; Divan, Ralu S.; Sumant, Anirudha V.


    We report the fabrication of horizontally aligned ultrananocrystalline diamond (UNCD) nanowires (NWs) via two different approaches. First, with the top-down approach by using electron beam lithography (EBL) and reactive ion etching (RIE) with a photo resist layer as an etch mask. Using this approach, we demonstrate fabrication of 50 µm long UNCD NWs with widths as narrow as 40 nm. We further present an alternative approach to grow UNCD NWs at pre-defined positions through a selective seeding process. No RIE was needed either to etch the NWs or to remove the mask. In this case, we achieved UNCD NWs with lengths of 50 µm and smallest width of 90 nm respectively. Characterization of these nanowires by using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM) shows that the UNCD NWs are well defined and fully released, with no indication of residual stress. Characterization using visible and ultraviolet (UV) Raman spectroscopy indicates that in both fabrication approaches, UNCD NWs maintain their intrinsic diamond structure.

  18. Outcomes of partial nephrectomy in patients who meet percutaneous ablation criteria (United States)

    Ball, Mark W.; Gorin, Michael A.; Allaf, Mohamad E.; Pierorazio, Phillip M.


    Introduction Treatment options for small renal masses include partial nephrectomy (PN), ablation and active surveillance. We sought to compare patients who met the criteria for percutaneous ablation but underwent robotic PN to the rest of our robotic PN cohort. This was done in order to detect any safety concerns and to define any risk factors that might contraindicate the use of robotic PN, an oncologically superior procedure, in patients who qualify for ablation. Material and methods Our departmental renal mass registry was queried for patients who underwent robotic PN but also met criteria for percutaneous ablation. These were compared to the rest of the robotic PN cohort. Demographics, perioperative characteristics and recurrence data were compared. Results Overall, 321 robotic PNs were identified. Of these, 26 (8.1%) met ablation criteria. Among patient characteristics, age and BMI were similar in both groups. Among operative characteristics, estimated blood loss (EBL) and operative time were similar. Warm ischemia time was significantly less for patients who met ablation criteria (14 vs. 17 minutes, p = 0.002). Mean tumor size was smaller for patients who met ablation criteria (2.3 vs. 2.7 cm, p = 0.012). Among postoperative characteristics, complications were similar overall and when present, stratified by Clavien grade. Conclusions Robotic PN is a safe, effective treatment option for small renal masses, even in patients who meet ablation criteria. There were no recurrences in our cohort and the majority of complications were Clavien grade 1. PMID:26251725

  19. Oleylamine-functionalized graphene oxide as an electron block layer towards high-performance and photostable fullerene-free polymer solar cells. (United States)

    Liu, Zhiyong; Niu, Shengli; Wang, Ning


    Oleylamine-functionalized graphene oxide (GO) has a shallower energy level of conduction band (ECB) and a deeper energy level of the valence band (EVB) as compared to common hole extraction layer (HEL) materials, which make the electron block layer (EBL). Photoluminescence, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and current density-voltage (J-V) curves with a large reverse bias voltage range obtained under dark conditions are used to determine whether GO layers play important roles in blocking the electron transport to the MoO3/Ag composite anode and prevent MoO3 diffusion into a photoactive layer under light illumination. Moreover, GO inserted between a photoactive layer and an HEL enhances charge carrier transport and collection and avoids the monomolecular recombination between the photoactive layer and HEL. Photovoltaic parameters and photostability measurements of inverted and forward PSCs have shown that upon introduction of GO, the performance and photostability of PSCs are improved. On adding GO to PSCs, the power conversion efficiency (PCE) increases approximately 5% and 4% and reduces the decay ratio to approximately 50% and 65% of the initial value for the inverted and forward PSCs, respectively.

  20. Versatile pattern generation of periodic, high aspect ratio Si nanostructure arrays with sub-50-nm resolution on a wafer scale. (United States)

    Ho, Jian-Wei; Wee, Qixun; Dumond, Jarrett; Tay, Andrew; Chua, Soo-Jin


    We report on a method of fabricating variable patterns of periodic, high aspect ratio silicon nanostructures with sub-50-nm resolution on a wafer scale. The approach marries step-and-repeat nanoimprint lithography (NIL) and metal-catalyzed electroless etching (MCEE), enabling near perfectly ordered Si nanostructure arrays of user-defined patterns to be controllably and rapidly generated on a wafer scale. Periodic features possessing circular, hexagonal, and rectangular cross-sections with lateral dimensions down to sub-50 nm, in hexagonal or square array configurations and high array packing densities up to 5.13 × 107 structures/mm2 not achievable by conventional UV photolithography are fabricated using this top-down approach. By suitably tuning the duration of catalytic etching, variable aspect ratio Si nanostructures can be formed. As the etched Si pattern depends largely on the NIL mould which is patterned by electron beam lithography (EBL), the technique can be used to form patterns not possible with self-assembly methods, nanosphere, and interference lithography for replication on a wafer scale. Good chemical resistance of the nanoimprinted mask and adhesion to the Si substrate facilitate good pattern transfer and preserve the smooth top surface morphology of the Si nanostructures as shown in TEM. This approach is suitable for generating Si nanostructures of controlled dimensions and patterns, with high aspect ratio on a wafer level suitable for semiconductor device production.

  1. Performing concurrent operations in academic vascular neurosurgery does not affect patient outcomes. (United States)

    Zygourakis, Corinna C; Lee, Janelle; Barba, Julio; Lobo, Errol; Lawton, Michael T


    OBJECTIVE Concurrent surgeries, also known as "running two rooms" or simultaneous/overlapping operations, have recently come under intense scrutiny. The goal of this study was to evaluate the operative time and outcomes of concurrent versus nonconcurrent vascular neurosurgical procedures. METHODS The authors retrospectively reviewed 1219 procedures performed by 1 vascular neurosurgeon from 2012 to 2015 at the University of California, San Francisco. Data were collected on patient age, sex, severity of illness, risk of mortality, American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA) status, procedure type, admission type, insurance, transfer source, procedure time, presence of resident or fellow in operating room (OR), number of co-surgeons, estimated blood loss (EBL), concurrent vs nonconcurrent case, severe sepsis, acute respiratory failure, postoperative stroke causing neurological deficit, unplanned return to OR, 30-day mortality, and 30-day unplanned readmission. For aneurysm clipping cases, data were also obtained on intraoperative aneurysm rupture and postoperative residual aneurysm. Chi-square and t-tests were performed to compare concurrent versus nonconcurrent cases, and then mixed-effects models were created to adjust for different procedure types, patient demographics, and clinical indicators between the 2 groups. RESULTS There was a significant difference in procedure type for concurrent (n = 828) versus nonconcurrent (n = 391) cases. Concurrent cases were more likely to be routine/elective admissions (53% vs 35%, p sick patients scheduled in an overlapping fashion. After adjusting for patient demographics, procedure type, and clinical indicators, concurrent cases had longer procedure times, but equivalent patient outcomes, as compared with nonconcurrent vascular neurosurgical procedures.

  2. Molecular cloning and characterization of a surface-localized adhesion protein in Mycoplasma bovis Hubei-1 strain.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaohui Zou

    Full Text Available Mycoplasma bovis (M. bovis is an important pathogen that causes various bovine diseases, such as mastitis in cows and pneumonia in calves. The surface proteins are generally thought to play a central role in the pathogenesis of this organism. We screened the entire genome of M. bovis Hubei-1 and discovered a gene named vpmaX that encodes the 25 kDa variable surface lipoprotein A (VpmaX. Sequence analysis revealed that VpmaX contains several repetitive units and a typical bacterial lipoprotein signal sequence. The vpmaX gene was cloned and expressed in E. coli to obtain recombinant VpmaX (rVpmaX. Western blot analysis using a rabbit antibody against rVpmaX demonstrated that VpmaX is a membrane protein. Immunostaining visualized via confocal laser scanning microscopy showed that rVpmaX was able to adhere to embryonic bovine lung cells (EBL, and this was also confirmed by a sandwich ELISA. In summary, a surface-localized adhesion protein was identified in M. bovis Hubei-1.

  3. Achieving Uniform Carriers Distribution in MBE Grown Compositionally Graded InGaN Multiple-Quantum-Well LEDs

    KAUST Repository

    Mishra, Pawan


    We investigated the design and growth of compositionally-graded InGaN multiple quantum wells (MQW) based light-emitting diode (LED) without an electron-blocking layer (EBL). Numerical investigation showed uniform carrier distribution in the active region, and higher radiative recombination rate for the optimized graded-MQW design, i.e. In0→xGa1→(1-x)N / InxGa(1-x)N / Inx→0Ga(1-x)→1N, as compared to the conventional stepped-MQW-LED. The composition-grading schemes, such as linear, parabolic, and Fermi-function profiles were numerically investigated for comparison. The stepped- and graded-MQW-LED were then grown using plasma assisted molecular beam epitaxy (PAMBE) through surface-stoichiometry optimization based on reflection high-energy electron-diffraction (RHEED) in-situ observations. Stepped- and graded-MQW-LED showed efficiency roll over at 160 A/cm2 and 275 A/cm2, respectively. The extended threshold current density roll-over (droop) in graded-MQW-LED is due to the improvement in carrier uniformity and radiative recombination rate, consistent with the numerical simulation.

  4. The impact of the multidisciplinary team in the management of individuals with diabetic foot ulcers: a systematic review. (United States)

    Buggy, A; Moore, Z


    To assess the impact of the multidisciplinary team in the management of the diabetic foot compared with those who did not receive multidisciplinary care. A systematic review of the literature was conducted using the following databases: Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL), Medline, Embase and Cochrane Library. The following search terms were used: diabetic foot, multidisciplinary team, patient care team, multidisciplinary care team. Data were extracted using a bespoke data extraction tool and quality appraisal of the studies was undertaken using the EBL Critical Appraisal checklist. Data analysis was undertaken using RevMan with results presented as odds ratio for dichotomous data, or mean difference for continuous data, all with the associated 95% confidence intervals. The search identified 19 eligible studies. Severity of amputation, death rates and length of hospital stay of clients receiving multidisciplinary team care were improved when compared with those who did not receive multidisciplinary team care. Ulcer healing and quality of life showed an improvement but not all studies explored these outcomes. Only 7 of the 19 articles appraised were found to be of acceptable quality, questioning the generalisability of the results. From the currently available evidence a positive impact of the multidisciplinary team on diabetic foot outcomes can be seen, but due to the lack of high-quality evidence and substantial heterogeneity in the studies, these results should be interpreted with caution.

  5. Ordered arrays of Si and Ge nanocrystals via dewetting of pre-patterned thin films (United States)

    Berbezier, I.; Aouassa, M.; Ronda, A.; Favre, L.; Bollani, M.; Sordan, R.; Delobbe, A.; Sudraud, P.


    We develop self-organisation processes for the fabrication of 2D arrays of Si and Ge quantum dots. The processes make use of the dewetting phenomenon which involves the transformation of a 2D thin film into an array of isolated 3D islands through a morphological instability. We show that self-organization of monodisperse ultra-small nanocrystals (NCs) into large scale patterns with ad hoc features can be created via heterogeneous dewetting. The process involves dewetting of thin films nanopatterned by electron beam lithography (EBL) or liquid metal alloy source focused ion beam (LMAIS-FIB). Heterogeneous dewetting is initiated at the edges of the patterns. It provokes the retraction of the thin film following the kinetics of surface diffusion and ends by the formation of faceted monocrystalline NCs regularly positioned. Their geometrical features and lateral arrangements can be tuned by changing the pitch, size, and shape of the patterns. The process developed in this study is adapted to the fabrication of NCs based floating gate memories.

  6. Localized Surface Plasmon Resonance (LSPR)-Coupled Fiber-Optic Nanoprobe for the Detection of Protein Biomarkers. (United States)

    Wei, Jianjun; Zeng, Zheng; Lin, Yongbin


    Here is presented a miniaturized, fiber-optic (FO) nanoprobe biosensor based on the localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) at the reusable dielectric-metallic hybrid interface with a robust, gold nano-disk array at the fiber end facet. The nanodisk array is directly fabricated using electron beam lithography (EBL) and metal lift-off process. The free prostate-specific antigen (f-PSA) has been detected with a mouse anti-human prostate-specific antigen (PSA) monoclonal antibody (mAb) as a specific receptor linked with a self-assembled monolayer (SAM) at the LSPR-FO facet surfaces. Experimental investigation and data analysis found near field refractive index (RI) sensitivity at ~226 nm/RIU with the LSPR-FO nanoprobe, and demonstrated the lowest limit of detection (LOD) at 100 fg/mL (~3 fM) of f-PSA in PBS solutions. The SAM shows insignificant nonspecific binding to the target biomarkers in the solution. The control experimentation using 5 mg/mL bovine serum albumin in PBS and nonspecific surface test shows the excellent specificity and selectivity in the detection of f-PSA in PBS. These results indicate important progress toward a miniaturized, multifunctional fiber-optic technology that integrates informational communication and sensing function for developing a high-performance, label-free, point-of-care (POC) device.

  7. Retroperitoneal Laparoscopic Radical Nephrectomy for Large (>7 cm) Solid Renal Tumors: Comparison of Perioperative Outcomes with the Transperitoneal Approach. (United States)

    Kim, Hee Youn; Lee, Dong Sup; Yoo, Je Mo; Lee, Joon Ho; Lee, Seung-Ju


    To describe our technique for retroperitoneal laparoscopic radical nephrectomy (LRN) and to present the perioperative outcomes of our retroperitoneal LRN series for large (>7 cm) solid renal tumors and to compare them with those of the transperitoneal approach. A retrospective chart review was performed for patients who had undergone LRN for a solid renal tumor greater than 7 cm in size on computed tomography (CT) scans between June 2008 and January 2016. Perioperative outcomes were compared between transperitoneal and retroperitoneal approaches. There were 30 cases in the transperitoneal approach group and 34 cases in the retroperitoneal group. The mean tumor size was 9.0 cm in the transperitoneal approach group and 10.3 cm in the retroperitoneal group (P = .494). In the retroperitoneal approach group, the operation time was shorter, estimated blood loss (EBL) was lower, and time to start diet was shorter (P Retroperitoneal LRN for a large (>7 cm) solid renal tumor demonstrated a superior result in terms of operation time, estimated blood loss, and time to start diet than transperitoneal LRN. Other perioperative outcomes and complication rate were comparable between the two approaches. We believe that with sufficient experience, retroperitoneal LRN may be an effective and safe procedure for large (>7 cm) solid renal tumors.

  8. Discovery of Very High Energy Gamma Rays from PKS 1424+240 and Multiwavelength Constraints on its Redshift

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Acciari, V.A.; /Harvard-Smithsonian Ctr. Astrophys.; Aliu, E.; /Delaware U., Bartol Inst.; Arlen, T.; /UCLA; Aune, T.; /UC, Santa Cruz; Bautista, M.; /McGill U.; Beilicke, M. /Washington U., St. Louis; Benbow, W.; /Harvard-Smithsonian Ctr. Astrophys.; Bottcher, M.; /Ohio U.; Boltuch, D.; /Delaware U., Bartol Inst.; Bradbury, S.M.; /Leeds U.; Buckley, J.H.; /Washington U., St. Louis; Bugaev, V.; /Washington U., St. Louis; Byrum, K.; /Argonne; Cannon, A.; /University Coll., Dublin; Cesarini, A.; /Natl. U. of Ireland, Galway; Chow, Y.C.; /UCLA; Ciupik, L.; /Roosevelt U., Chicago; Cogan, P.; /McGill U.; Cui, W.; /Purdue U.; Duke, C.; /Grinnell Coll.; Falcone, A.; /Penn State U. /Purdue U. /Utah U. /Roosevelt U., Chicago /Harvard-Smithsonian Ctr. Astrophys. /Purdue U. /Natl. U. of Ireland, Galway /Utah U. /University Coll., Dublin /McGill U. /Roosevelt U., Chicago /McGill U. /Delaware U., Bartol Inst. /Utah U. /Chicago U., EFI /Iowa State U. /Roosevelt U., Chicago /DePauw U. /Utah U. /Pittsburg State U. /Washington U., St. Louis /Iowa State U. /Natl. U. of Ireland, Galway /Utah U. /McGill U. /Washington U., St. Louis /McGill U. /McGill U. /Purdue U. /Anderson U. /Galway-Mayo Inst. of Tech. /Iowa State U. /UCLA; /more authors..


    We report the first detection of very-high-energy (VHE) gamma-ray emission above 140GeV from PKS 1424+240, a BL Lac object with an unknown redshift. The photon spectrum above 140GeV measured by VERITAS is well described by a power law with a photon index of 3.8 {+-}0.5{sub stat} {+-} 0.3{sub syst} and a flux normalization at 200 GeV of (5.1 {+-} 0.9{sub stat} {+-} 0.5{sub syst}) x 10{sup -11} TeV{sup -1} cm{sup -2} s{sup -1}, where stat and syst denote the statistical and systematical uncertainty, respectively. The VHE flux is steady over the observation period between MJD 54881 and 55003 (2009 February 19 to June 21). Flux variability is also not observed in contemporaneous high energy observations with the Fermi Large Area Telescope (LAT). Contemporaneous X-ray and optical data were also obtained from the Swift XRT and MDM observatory, respectively. The broadband spectral energy distribution (SED) is well described by a one-zone synchrotron self-Compton (SSC) model favoring a redshift of less than 0.1. Using the photon index measured with Fermi in combination with recent extragalactic background light (EBL) absorption models it can be concluded from the VERITAS data that the redshift of PKS 1424+240 is less than 0.66.

  9. Initial Experience with Robotic Retropubic Urethropexy Compared to Open Retropubic Urethropexy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pooja R. Patel


    Full Text Available Study Objective. To compare the clinical outcomes of robotic retropubic urethropexy versus open retropubic urethropexy. Design. Retrospective case-control study (II-2. Setting. University Hospital. Patients. All patients who underwent robotic retropubic urethropexy from 1/1/12 to 6/1/12 by a single gynecologic surgeon were included in the case series. The control cases consisted of the last five consecutive open retropubic urethropexies performed by the same surgeon. Main Results. A total of 10 patients (5 robotic cases and 5 open cases were included in this study. Both groups were similar with respect to age, BMI, and obstetrical history. Mean hospital stay length and mean EBL were overall less for robotic cases than for open cases (1.2 days versus 2.6 days; 169 mL versus 300 mL. One of the 5 patients who underwent the open approach and 2 of the 5 patients who underwent the robotic approach sustained a minor intraoperative complication. All but one patient from each group experienced resolution of incontinence after the procedure. Two of the patients who underwent the open approach had postoperative complications. Conclusions. Robotic retropubic urethropexy may be a feasible alternative to open retropubic urethropexy. A larger study is necessary to support our observations.

  10. The Outcomes of Minimally Invasive versus Open Posterior Approach Spinal Fusion in Treatment of Lumbar Spondylolisthesis: The Current Evidence from Prospective Comparative Studies. (United States)

    Wu, Ai-Min; Chen, Chun-Hui; Shen, Zhi-Hao; Feng, Zhen-Hua; Weng, Wan-Qing; Li, Shu-Min; Chi, Yong-Long; Yin, Li-Hui; Ni, Wen-Fei


    Purpose. To investigate the evidence of minimally invasive (MI) versus open (OP) posterior lumbar fusion in treatment of lumbar spondylolisthesis from current prospective literatures. Methods. The electronic literature database of Pubmed, Embase, and Cochrane library was searched at April 2016. The data of operative time, estimated blood loss and length of hospital stay, visual analog scale (VAS) of both lower back pain and leg pain, Oswestry disability index (ODI), SF-36 PCS (physical component scores) and SF-36 MCS (mental component scores), complications, fusion rate, and secondary surgery were extracted and analyzed by STATA 12.0 software. Results. Five nonrandom prospective comparative studies were included in this meta-analysis. The meta-analysis showed that the MI group had a significantly longer operative time than OP group, less blood loss, and shorter hospital stay. No significant difference was found in back pain, leg pain, ODI, SF-36 PCS, SF-36 MCS, complications, fusion rate, and secondary surgery between MI and OP groups. Conclusion. The prospective evidence suggested that MI posterior fusion for spondylolisthesis had less EBL and hospital stay than OP fusion; however it took more operative time. Both MI and OP fusion had similar results in pain and functional outcomes, complication, fusion rate, and secondary surgery.

  11. Towards low-dimensional hole systems in Be-doped GaAs nanowires

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ullah, A. R.; Gluschke, J. G.; Jeppesen, Peter Krogstrup


    our development of nanowire transistors featuring Be-doped p-type GaAs nanowires, AuBe alloy contacts and patterned local gate electrodes towards making nanowire-based quantum hole devices. We report on nanowire transistors with traditional substrate back-gates and EBL-defined metal/oxide top......GaAs was central to the development of quantum devices but is rarely used for nanowire-based quantum devices with InAs, InSb and SiGe instead taking the leading role. p-type GaAs nanowires offer a path to studying strongly confined 0D and 1D hole systems with strong spin–orbit effects, motivating...... transistor performance for moderate doping, with conduction freezing out at low temperature for lowly doped nanowires and inability to reach a clear off-state under gating for the highly doped nanowires. Our best devices give on-state conductivity 95 nS, off-state conductivity 2 pS, on-off ratio $\\sim {10...

  12. Orthognathic Surgery Patients (Maxillary Impaction and Setback plus Mandibular Advancement plus Genioplasty) Need More Intensive Care Unit (ICU) Admission after Surgery (United States)

    Eftekharian, Hamidreza; Zamiri, Barbad; Ahzan, Shamseddin; Talebi, Mohamad; Zarei, Kamal


    Statement of the Problem: Due to shortage of ICU beds in hospitals, knowing what kind of orthognathic surgery patients more need ICU care after surgery would be important for surgeons and hospitals to prevent unnecessary ICU bed reservation. Purpose: The aim of the present study was to determine what kinds of orthognathic surgery patients would benefit more from ICU care after surgery. Materials and Method: 210 patients who were admitted to Chamran Hospital, Shiraz, for bimaxillary orthognathic surgery (2008-2013) were reviewed based on whether they had been admitted to ICU or maxillofacial surgery ward. Operation time, sex, intraoperative Estimated Blood Loss (EBL), postoperative complications, ICU admission, and unwanted complications resulting from staying in ICU were assessed. Results: Of 210 patients undergoing bimaxillary orthognathic surgery, 59 patients (28.1%) were postoperatively admitted to the ICU and 151 in the maxillofacial ward (71.9%). There was not statistically significant difference in age and sex between the two groups (p> 0.05). The groups were significantly different in terms of operation time (pOrthognathic surgery patients (maxillary impaction and setback plus mandibular advancement plus genioplasty) due to more intraoperative bleeding and postoperative nausea and pain would benefit from ICU admission after surgery. PMID:26106634

  13. Field Enhancement using Noble Metal Structures (United States)

    Liu, Benliang

    times the surface plasmon background adjacent to the slit, as predicted by using RCWA. The mechanism for enhancement is theoretically studied both numerically and analytically. Two novel convenient methods for fabricating nanoslits with high aspect ratio are proposed. One is creating nanoslits by cracking the thin glass substrates with metal film. Sub-5nm wide slits with fair uniformity are created, as confirmed by Scanning Electron Microscopy images and comparing the Confocal Two Photon Emission (CTPE) spectroscopy with finite difference in time domain simulations. The other is creating slits by fatiguing the metal film on a flexible substrate. Enhanced CTPE and second harmonic generation are observed arising from these less than 20nm wide slits. Nanoslits fabricated using Electron Beam Lithography (EBL) are characterized using CTPE. The overall emission enhancement of excitation and collection wavelengths is separated by a proposed method. It is surprisingly found that the pulsing laser can tune the resonant wavelength of the EBL samples to the laser wavelength. A mechanism is proposed for this phenomenon. It is shown this can be developed into a tool to fabricate field enhancement hot spots.

  14. Nanostructured materials for multifunctional applications under NSF-CREST research at Norfolk State University (United States)

    Pradhan, A. K.; Mundle, R.; Zhang, K.; Holloway, T.; Amponsah, O.; Biswal, D.; Konda, R.; White, C.; Dondapati, H.; Santiago, K.; Birdsong, T.; Arslan, M.; Peeples, B.; Shaw, D.; Smak, J.; Samataray, C.; Bahoura, M.


    O nanolayers were also grown by atomic layer deposition techniques. These nanolayers of ZnO demonstrate remarkable optical and electrical properties. These nanolayers were patterned by the Electron Beam Lithography (EBL) technique. A major goal of nanotechnology is to couple the self-assembly of molecular nanostructures with conventional lithography, using either or both bottom-up and top-down fabrication methods, that would enable us to register individual molecular nanostructures onto the functional devices. However, combining the nanofabrication technique with high resolution Electron Beam Lithography, we can achieve 3D bimolecular or/and DNA origami that will be able to identify nucleic acid sequences, antigen targets, and other molecules, as for a perfect nano-biosensor. We have explored some of the nanopatterning using EBL in order to fabricate biomolecule sensing on a single chip with sub nm pitch. The applications are not limited for the bioactivity, but for enhancing immunoreactions, cell culture dishes, and tissue engineering applications.

  15. PCR em tempo real para diagnóstico da leucose enzoótica bovina Enzootic bovine leukosis real time PCR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natanael Lamas Dias


    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi realizar a validação de uma reação em cadeia da polimerase em tempo real com o sistema Plexor® (qPCR para o diagnóstico da Leucose Enzoótica Bovina (LEB, por meio da comparação com testes de diagnóstico recomendados pela Organização Mundial de Saúde Animal (OIE. A qPCR foi comparada com duas outras técnicas: a PCR nested (nPCR e a imunodifusão em gel de ágar (IDGA. Das 82 amostras analisadas pela qPCR e nPCR, 79 apresentaram resultados concordantes, sendo a concordância, classificada pelo Índice Kappa, como alta. Entre as PCRs e a IDGA, o número de resultados concordantes foi de 71 e 69, respectivamente, para qPCR e nPCR, sendo a concordância classificada como considerável. A qPCR apresentou altos valores de sensibilidade e especificidade. Os valores preditivos da qPCR observados demonstraram a alta capacidade de classificação dos casos positivos e negativos. A qPCR não foi capaz de detectar três amostras positivas e tem custo ligeiramente superior que a nPCR. Entretanto, a qPCR é uma técnica mais rápida, menos susceptível a contaminações, tem alta sensibilidade, não utiliza e não gera resíduos carcinogênicos. Concluímos que a qPCR pode substituir a nPCR recomendada pela OIE no diagnóstico de rotina em áreas em que a LEB é endêmica, como no Brasil.The goal of this research was to validate a Plexor® real time Polymerase Chain Reaction (qPCR for Enzootic Bovine Leukosis (EBL diagnosis by comparison with methods recommend by the World Animal Health Organization (OIE. The qPCR was compared with two other techniques: the nested PCR (nPCR and to the agar gel immunodiffusion (AGID. Of 82 qPCR and nPCR analysed samples, 79 presented concordant results, being the concordance classified by Kappa Index as high. Between the PCRs and AGID, the number of concordant results was 71 and 69, out of 82, to qPCR and nPCR, respectively, being the concordance classified as considerable, in both

  16. Estimation of bovine leukemia virus (BLV) proviral load harbored by lymphocyte subpopulations in BLV-infected cattle at the subclinical stage of enzootic bovine leucosis using BLV-CoCoMo-qPCR. (United States)

    Panei, Carlos Javier; Takeshima, Shin-nosuke; Omori, Takashi; Nunoya, Tetsuo; Davis, William C; Ishizaki, Hiroshi; Matoba, Kazuhiro; Aida, Yoko


    Bovine leukemia virus (BLV) is associated with enzootic bovine leukosis (EBL), which is the most common neoplastic disease of cattle. BLV infection may remain clinically silent at the aleukemic (AL) stage, cause persistent lymphocytosis (PL), or, more rarely, B cell lymphoma. BLV has been identified in B cells, CD2+ T cells, CD3+ T cells, CD4+ T cells, CD8+ T cells, γ/δ T cells, monocytes, and granulocytes in infected cattle that do not have tumors, although the most consistently infected cell is the CD5+ B cell. The mechanism by which BLV causes uncontrolled CD5+ B cell proliferation is unknown. Recently, we developed a new quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) method, BLV-CoCoMo-qPCR, which enabled us to demonstrate that the proviral load correlates not only with BLV infection, as assessed by syncytium formation, but also with BLV disease progression. The present study reports the distribution of BLV provirus in peripheral blood mononuclear cell subpopulations isolated from BLV-infected cows at the subclinical stage of EBL as examined by cell sorting and BLV-CoCoMo-qPCR. Phenotypic characterization of five BLV-infected but clinically normal cattle with a proviral load of > 100 copies per 1 × 105 cells identified a high percentage of CD5+ IgM+ cells (but not CD5- IgM+ B cells, CD4+ T cells, or CD8+T cells). These lymphocyte subpopulations were purified from three out of five cattle by cell sorting or using magnetic beads, and the BLV proviral load was estimated using BLV-CoCoMo-qPCR. The CD5+ IgM+ B cell population in all animals harbored a higher BLV proviral load than the other cell populations. The copy number of proviruses infecting CD5- IgM+ B cells, CD4+ cells, and CD8+ T cells (per 1 ml of blood) was 1/34 to 1/4, 1/22 to 1/3, and 1/31 to 1/3, respectively, compared with that in CD5+ IgM+ B cells. Moreover, the BLV provirus remained integrated into the genomic DNA of CD5+ IgM+ B cells, CD5- IgM+ B cells, CD4+ T cells, and CD8+ T cells

  17. Longitudinal Analysis of Undergraduate E-book Use Finds that Knowledge of Local Communities Drives Format Selection and Collection Development Activities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melissa Goertzen


    Full Text Available A Review of: Hobbs, K., & Klare, D. (2016. Are we there yet?: A longitudinal look at e-books through students’ eyes. Journal of Electronic Resources Librarianship, 28(1, 9-24. Objective – To determine undergraduate students’ opinions of, use of, and facility with e-books. Design – A qualitative study that incorporated annual interview and usability sessions over a period of four years. The protocol was informed by interview techniques used in prior studies at Wesleyan University. To supplement the body of qualitative data, the 2014 Measuring Information Service Outcomes (MISO survey was distributed; the researchers built five campus-specific e-book questions into the survey. Setting – A small university in the Northeastern United States of America. Subjects – 28 undergraduate students (7 per year who attended summer session between the years of 2011-2014 recruited for interview and usability sessions; 700 full-time undergraduate students recruited for the 2014 MISO survey. Methods – The method was designed by a library consortium in the Northeastern United States of America. The study itself was conducted by two librarians based at the single university. To recruit students for interview and usability sessions, librarians sent invitations via email to a random list of students enrolled in the university’s summer sessions. Recruitment for the 2014 MISO survey was also conducted via email; the survey was sent to a stratified, random sample of undergraduate students in February 2014. Interview sessions were structured around five open-ended questions that examined students’ familiarity with e-books and whether the format supports academic work. These sessions were followed by the students’ evaluation of specific book titles available on MyiLibrary and ebrary, platforms accessible to all libraries in the CTW Consortium. Participants were asked to locate e-books on given topics

  18. Participación de las moléculas de superficie de Trypanosoma cruzi en la enfermedad de Chagas por vía oral

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liliana Andrea Morales Laverde


    Full Text Available Introducción: La enfermedad de Chagas (ECh es causada por la infección con Trypanosoma cruzi. En Latinoamérica afecta cerca de 8 a 9 millones de personas y es un problema de salud pública. Existen varias vías de transmisión del parásito como: transfusión sanguínea,  congénita,  vía oral y vectorial, siendo esta última la más común. Sin embargo,  en los últimos años la vía oral ha adquirido relevancia por el registro de diferentes brotes de ECh agudo asociados a la ingesta de alimentos contaminados, en países como Brasil, Venezuela y Colombia. El mecanismo de infección de T. cruzi por vía oral involucra un proceso de interacción hospedero-parásito en el cual las formas infectantes del parásito deben alcanzar la mucosa gástrica a través de un proceso de adherencia e invasión celular dado por la expresión diferencial de glicoproteínas de superficie tales como Gp82, Gp90, Gp30 y Gp35/50. Objetivo: Esta revisión tiene como objetivo describir y relacionar las moléculas de superficie de T. cruzi involucradas en la transmisión por vía oral. Materiales y métodos: Estudio cualitativo, de tipo interpretativo-descriptivo, con un diseño no experimental y de corte transversal. Se realizó una revisión de literatura científica con documentos bibliográficos localizados en diferentes fuentes en español, inglés y portugués, los criterios de selección tenidos en cuenta fueron la transmisión de ECh por vía oral, principales moléculas de superficie del parásito, relación de las diferentes DTUs  con la expresión de estas moléculas y la severidad de la enfermedad. Esta revisión se realizó en bases de datos como: ELSEVIER, PubMed, EBSCO HOST, ebrary, Scopus, entre otras, incluyendo palabras claves como: transmisión oral, enfermedad de Chagas, Trypanosoma cruzi, Gp82, Gp90, adhesión, invasión y mucosa gástrica, utilizando artículos publicados entre los años  2008 y 2015. Resultados: En nuestra búsqueda se

  19. Two-photon reduction: a cost-effective method for fabrication of functional metallic nanostructures (United States)

    Tabrizi, Sahar; Cao, YaoYu; Lin, Han; Jia, BaoHua


    Metallic nanostructures have underpinned plasmonic-based advanced photonic devices in a broad range of research fields over the last decade including physics, engineering, material science and bioscience. The key to realizing functional plasmonic resonances that can manipulate light at the optical frequencies relies on the creation of conductive metallic structures at the nanoscale with low structural defects. Currently, most plasmonic nanostructures are fabricated either by electron beam lithography (EBL) or by focused ion beam (FIB) milling, which are expensive, complicated and time-consuming. In comparison, the direct laser writing (DLW) technique has demonstrated its high spatial resolution and cost-effectiveness in three-dimensional fabrication of micro/nanostructures. Furthermore, the recent breakthroughs in superresolution nanofabrication and parallel writing have significantly advanced the fabrication resolution and throughput of the DLW method and made it one of the promising future nanofabrication technologies with low-cost and scalability. In this review, we provide a comprehensive summary of the state-of-the-art DLW fabrication technology for nanometer scale metallic structures. The fabrication mechanisms, different material choices, fabrication capability, including resolution, conductivity and structure surface smoothness, as well as the characterization methods and achievable devices for different applications are presented. In particular, the development trends of the field and the perspectives for future opportunities and challenges are provided at the end of the review. It has been demonstrated that the quality of the metallic structures fabricated using the DLW method is excellent compared with other methods providing a new and enabling platform for functional nanophotonic device fabrication.

  20. [Postoperative excessive blood loss after cardiac surgery can be predicted with International Society on Thrombosis and Hemostasis scoring system]. (United States)

    Choi, Yoon Ji; Yoon, Seung Zhoo; Joo, Beom Joon; Lee, Jung Man; Jeon, Yun-Seok; Lim, Young Jin; Lee, Jong Hwan; Ahn, Hyuk

    Prediction of postoperative excessive blood loss is useful for management of Intensive Care Unit after cardiac surgery. The aim of present study was to examine the effectiveness of International Society on Thrombosis and Hemostasis scoring system in patients with cardiac surgery. After obtaining approval from the institutional review board, the medical records of patients undergoing elective cardiac surgery using Cardio-Pulmonary Bypass between March 2010 and February 2014 were retrospectively reviewed. International Society on Thrombosis and Hemostasis score was calculated in intensive care unit and patients were divided with overt disseminated intravascular coagulation group and non-overt disseminated intravascular coagulation group. To evaluate correlation with estimated blood loss, student t-test and correlation analyses were used. Among 384 patients with cardiac surgery, 70 patients with overt disseminated intravascular coagulation group (n=20) or non-overt disseminated intravascular coagulation group (n=50) were enrolled. Mean disseminated intravascular coagulation scores at intensive care unit admission was 5.35±0.59 (overt disseminated intravascular coagulation group) and 2.66±1.29 (non-overt disseminated intravascular coagulation group) and overt disseminated intravascular coagulation was induced in 29% (20/70). Overt disseminated intravascular coagulation group had much more EBL for 24h (p=0.006) and maintained longer time of intubation time (p=0.005). In spite of limitation of retrospective design, management using International Society on Thrombosis and Hemostasis score in patients after cardiac surgery seems to be helpful for prediction of the post- cardio-pulmonary bypass excessive blood loss and prolonged tracheal intubation duration. Copyright © 2017 Sociedade Brasileira de Anestesiologia. Publicado por Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  1. SERS substrates for in-situ biosensing (Conference Presentation) (United States)

    Venugopalan, Priyamvada; Quilis, Nestor; Jakub, Dostalek; Wolfgang, Knoll


    Abstract: Recent years have seen a rapid progress in the field of surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) which is attributed to the thriving field of plasmonics [1]. SERS is a susceptible technique that can address basic scientific questions and technological problems. In both cases, it is highly dependent upon the plasmonic substrate, where excitation of the localized surface plasmon resonance enhances the vibrational scattering signal of the analyte molecules adsorbed on to the surface [2]. In this work, using finite difference time domain (FDTD) method we investigate the optical properties of plasmonic nanostructures with tuned plasmonic resonances as a function of dielectric environment and geometric parameters. An optimized geometry will be discussed based on the plasmonic resonant position and the SERS intensity. These SERS substrates will be employed for the detection of changes in conformation caused by interactions between an aptamer and analyte molecules. This will be done by using a microfluidic channel designed within the configuration of the lab-on-a-chip concept based on the intensity changes of the SERS signal. More efficient and reproducible results are obtained for such a quantitative measurement of analytes at low concentration levels. We will also demonstrate that the plasmonic substrates fabricated by top down approach such as e-beam lithography (EBL) and laser interference lithography (LIL) are highly reproducible, robust and can result in high electric field enhancement. Our results demonstrate the potential to use SERS substrates for highly sensitive detection schemes opening up the window for a wide range of applications including biomedical diagnostics, forensic investigation etc. Acknowledgement: This work was supported by the Austrian Science Fund (FWF), project NANOBIOSENSOR (I 2647). References: [1] J. N. Anker, W. P. Hall, O. Lyandres, N. C. Shah, J. Zhao and R. P. V. Duyne., " Biosensing with plasmonic nanosensors," Nature

  2. Embryonal tumor with multilayered rosettes: diagnostic tools update and review of the literature. (United States)

    Ceccom, Johnatan; Bourdeaut, Franck; Loukh, Najat; Rigau, Valerie; Milin, Serge; Takin, Romulus; Richer, Wilfrid; Uro-Coste, Emmanuelle; Couturier, Jerome; Bertozzi, Anne Isabelle; Delattre, Olivier; Delisle, Marie Bernadette


    Embryonal tumor with multilayered rosettes (ETMR), including embryonal tumor with abundant neuropil and true rosettes (ETANTR), and ependymoblastoma (EBL) constitute a distinct entity of the primitive neuroectodermal tumor (PNET) family. The presence of a focal amplification at chromosome region 19q13.42 associated with an up-regulation of the oncogenic miRNA cluster C19MC suggests that they may represent a histological spectrum of a single biological entity. Their histopathological spectrum is wide, including medulloepithelioma, their location may be supra- or infra-tentorial, their prognosis is poor. Recent data on molecular subgroups of PNETs have led to new insights on diagnosis and treatment of these tumors. Subsequently, LIN28A immunoexpression was identified as a highly specific marker for ETMR. In this study, we report 4 cases diagnosed initially as ETANTR with CGH-array data, including 19q13.42 gain with absence of other amplicons, particularly of the MYC gene family, and inconstant gain of whole chromosome 2. Immunohistochemical positive expression of LIN28A and absence of Olig2 expression were observed. We summarize the literature on ETMR, pointing out on the nosological evolution of this entity and the findings on genetic hallmarks of this particular tumor. Our results emphasize the usefulness of immunohistochemistry as a highly sensitive and fast diagnostic tool for ETMR and for genetic data, especially for 19q13.42 locus. Biological features may offer new therapeutic options for these embryonal tumors that do not usually respond to conventional treatments of PNETs.

  3. Laparoscopic Colectomy: Does the Learning Curve Extend Beyond Colorectal Surgery Fellowship? (United States)

    Waters, Joshua A.; Chihara, Ray; Moreno, Jose; Robb, Bruce W.; Wiebke, Eric A.


    Background and Objectives: As minimally invasive colon and rectal resection has become increasingly prevalent over the past decade, the role that fellowship training plays has become an important question. This analysis examines the learning curve of one fellowship-trained colorectal surgeon in his first 100 cases. Methods: This was a prospectively collected retrospective analysis of the first 100 laparoscopic colon and rectal resections performed between July 2007 and July 2008 by a colorectal (CRS) fellowship trained surgeon at a Veteran's Administration (VA) and county hospital. Included were all emergent and nonemergent laparoscopic cases. Results: Mean age was 63(range, 36 to 91). The 100 resections included 42 right, 6 left, 32 sigmoid, 13 rectal, and 7 total abdominal colectomies. Indications were 55% cancer, 20% unresectable polyp, 18% diverticular, 4% inflammatory, and 3% other. Overall mortality was 3%. Overall morbidity including wound infection was 24%. Early and late groups were similar in age, ASA score, and indication. Conversion rate was 4%. No statistical difference was seen in mortality, morbidity, EBL, LOS, margin, lymph nodes, or conversions between the first and second 50 cases (Psigmoid colectomy operative time decreased by 40.0% and 19.6%, respectively. Conclusion: Prior investigators have demonstrated a significant learning curve for laparoscopic colorectal surgery. In the first 100 cases, there is no difference in mortality or morbidity between early and late cases. Alternatively, operative times decreased with experience. Laparoscopic training during CRS fellowship surpasses the learning curve in regard to safety and outcome, whereas operative efficiency improves over the first year of practice. PMID:21333183

  4. [Influence of Attachment Style on the Outcome of Bariatric Surgery - A Pilot Study]. (United States)

    Appel, Johanna Elisabeth; Ift, Franziska; Kißler, Hermann; Kloos, Christof; Lehmann, Thomas; Strauß, Bernhard; Wick, Katharina


    Background: Bariatric surgery can lower body weight and comorbidities. Different factors might influence the outcome of this treatment. This pilot study examines whether patients' attachment style can influence surgical outcome. Methods: The sample consisted of 32 patients (f=24; m=8; BMI preoperative=47,8 kg/m2±5,2; age=53±9,84) who underwent a laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy. The following variables were assessed pre- and postoperatively via questionnaires: quality of life (BAROS), self esteem (SES), depression, anxiety, psychological distress (SCL-90R), feelings of hunger, cognitive control, irritated eating behaviour (FEV) and weight related variables (BMI, EWL%, EBL%, TBL). Attachment style was determined postoperatively using the BPQE. Results: None of the participating patients suffered from a binge eating disorder. There was no significant difference of the BMI at any time between the 12 securely attached (SA) patients and the 19 insecurely attachted (IA) patients. Compared to the SA patients IA patients preoperatively showed lower outcomes in variables concerning eating behaviour and mental health. Comparing the 2 groups postoperatively the IA patients achieved lower levels in variables concerning mental health than SA patients and did not reach the preoperative values of the SA patients. Both groups benefited from surgery related to weight loss, mental health and eating behaviour. There was no difference found in the development from pre- to postoperative between SA and IA patients. Discussion & Conclusion: Patients profit by a bariatric intervention independent of their attachment style. By evaluating the attachment style, it could be possible to individually optimize pre- and postoperative patients support in order to gain more effective surgery results. Follow up studies extended to multi-site assessment are required. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  5. Redshift measurement of Fermi blazars for the Cherenkov telescope array (United States)

    Pita, S.; Goldoni, P.; Boisson, C.; Cotter, G.; Lefaucheur, J.; Lenain, J.-P.; Lindfors, E.; Williams, D. A.


    Blazars are active galactic nuclei, and the most numerous High Energy (HE) and Very High Energy (VHE) γ-ray emitters. Their optical emission is often dominated by non-thermal, and, in the case of BL Lacs, featureless continuum radiation. This makes the determination of their redshift extremely difficult. Indeed, as of today only about 50% of γ-ray blazars have a measured spectroscopic redshift. The knowledge of redshift is fundamental because it allows the precise modeling of the VHE emission and also of its interaction with the extragalactic background light (EBL). The beginning of the Cherenkov Telescope Array (CTA) operations in the near future will allow the detection of several hundreds of new blazars. Using the Fermi catalogue of sources above 50 GeV (2FHL), we performed simulations which indicate that a significant fraction of the 2FHL blazars detectable by CTA will not have a measured redshift. As a matter of fact, the organization of observing campaigns to measure the redshift of these blazars has been recognized as a necessary support for the AGN Key Science Project of CTA. We are planning such an observing campaign. In order to optimize our chances of success, we will perform preliminary deep imaging observations aimed at detecting or setting upper limits to the host galaxy. We will then take spectra of the candidates with the brightest host galaxies. Taking advantage of the recent success of an X-shooter GTO observing campaign, these observations will be different with respect to previous ones due to the use of higher resolution spectrographs and of 8 meter class telescopes. We are starting to submit proposals for these observations. In this paper we briefly describe how candidates are selected and the corresponding observation program.

  6. Reaction selectivity studies on nanolithographically-fabricated platinum model catalyst arrays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grunes, Jeffrey Benjamin [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)


    In an effort to understand the molecular ingredients of catalytic activity and selectivity toward the end of tuning a catalyst for 100% selectivity, advanced nanolithography techniques were developed and utilized to fabricate well-ordered two-dimensional model catalyst arrays of metal nanostructures on an oxide support for the investigation of reaction selectivity. In-situ and ex-situ surface science techniques were coupled with catalytic reaction data to characterize the molecular structure of the catalyst systems and gain insight into hydrocarbon conversion in heterogeneous catalysis. Through systematic variation of catalyst parameters (size, spacing, structure, and oxide support) and catalytic reaction conditions (hydrocarbon chain length, temperature, pressures, and gas composition), the data presented in this dissertation demonstrate the ability to direct a reaction by rationally adjusting, through precise control, the design of the catalyst system. Electron beam lithography (EBL) was employed to create platinum nanoparticles on an alumina (Al2O3) support. The Pt nanoparticle spacing (100-150-nm interparticle distance) was varied in these samples, and they were characterized using x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and atomic force microscopy (AFM), both before and after reactions. The TEM studies showed the 28-nm Pt nanoparticles with 100 and 150-nm interparticle spacing on alumina to be polycrystalline in nature, with crystalline sizes of 3-5 nm. The nanoparticle crystallites increased significantly after heat treatment. The nanoparticles were still mostly polycrystalline in nature, with 2-3 domains. The 28-nm Pt nanoparticles deposited on alumina were removed by the AFM tip in contact mode with a normal force of approximately 30 nN. After heat treatment at 500 C in vacuum for 3 hours, the AFM tip, even at 4000 nN, could not remove the platinum

  7. Multicentric lymphoma in buffaloes in the Amazon region, Brazil. (United States)

    De Oliveira, Cairo H S; Barbosa, José D; Damasceno, Karine A; Cassali, Geovanni D; Oliveira, Carlos Mc; Leite, Rômulo C; Reis, Jenner K P


    The presence of lymphoma in buffaloes was first reported in India in the 1960s. The disease is similar to Enzootic Bovine Leucosis (EBL) caused by Bovine leukemia virus (BLV) in cattle; however, according to our results and those of other studies, the etiology of these lymphomas in buffalo do not appear to be associated with BLV. The objectives of this study are to describe four cases of the disease in buffaloes belonging to the same herd in the Amazon region of Brazil and to perform a clinical-anatomopathological, immunohistochemical, and etiological study of the lymphomas. Over a period of ten years, four buffaloes were observed presenting progressive weight loss, swelling of peripheral lymph nodes, and nodules in the subcutaneous tissue. Upon necropsy, whitish-colored tumor masses were observed in the form of nodules in the subcutaneous tissue, along with miliary nodules on the serosal surfaces of abdominal and thoracic organs and tumors in lymph nodes and other organs. Neoplastic lymphocyte proliferation was observed through histopathology. An immunohistochemical study revealed that the neoplasias were formed by proliferation of predominantly B lymphocytes. The presence of BLV genome was not detected in the lymphomas when using the real-time PCR technique, nor was it detected through immunohistochemical staining using monoclonal antibodies against two viral proteins. Bovine herpesvirus 6 was not detected in the tumors. However, Bovine immunodeficiency virus (BIV) was detected in samples of lymphoma and in the lymph nodes and kidneys of one of the animals. The occurrence of lymphoma in buffaloes is reported for the first time in Brazil and is characterized by B-cell multicentric lymphoma. The etiology of the disease does not appear to be associated with BLV; however, the detection of BIV in samples of lymphoma from one sick animal deserves further study, considering the oncogenic potential of this virus.

  8. Extraperitoneal vs. transperitoneal robot-assisted radical prostatectomy in patients with a history of prior inguinal hernia repair with mesh. (United States)

    Horovitz, David; Feng, Changyong; Messing, Edward M; Joseph, Jean V


    Robot-assisted radical prostatectomy (RARP) may be performed via an extraperitoneal (eRARP) or transperitoneal (tRARP) approach. There are no published studies comparing these two methods in patients with a history of prior inguinal hernia repair with mesh (IHRm), but the latter is often advocated in this setting. A retrospective review of patients who underwent RARP with prior IHRm who had a minimum follow-up of 3 months from July 1, 2003 to December 31, 2014 was undertaken. Of 2927 patients who underwent RARP for primary treatment of adenocarcinoma of the prostate, 286 patients had a clear history of IHRm. Of these, 116 patients underwent eRARP and 170 patients underwent tRARP. No differences were noted between the groups with respect to age, body mass index or American Society of Anesthesiology score. Patients in the tRARP group had higher D'Amico risk classification scores (p < 0.0001) and as such, underwent less nerve-sparing procedures (p < 0.0001) and had a higher rate of concomitant pelvic lymph node dissections (p < 0.0001). The tRARP group had a higher incidence of laparoscopic and bilateral IHRm. On univariate analysis, EBL was lower in the tRARP group (172.41 vs. 201.98, p = 0.05) but all other parameters were similar. After controlling for covariates using regression analysis with model selection, a trend was noted towards lower operating room time in the tRARP group (p = 0.0624) but no other differences were noted. The presence of prior IHRm does not seem to be a contraindication to eRARP. OR time may be lower with tRARP (trend) but all other quality indicators studied were similar.

  9. Structural control of ultra-fine CoPt nanodot arrays via electrodeposition process (United States)

    Wodarz, Siggi; Hasegawa, Takashi; Ishio, Shunji; Homma, Takayuki


    CoPt nanodot arrays were fabricated by combining electrodeposition and electron beam lithography (EBL) for the use of bit-patterned media (BPM). To achieve precise control of deposition uniformity and coercivity of the CoPt nanodot arrays, their crystal structure and magnetic properties were controlled by controlling the diffusion state of metal ions from the initial deposition stage with the application of bath agitation. Following bath agitation, the composition gradient of the CoPt alloy with thickness was mitigated to have a near-ideal alloy composition of Co:Pt =80:20, which induces epitaxial-like growth from Ru substrate, thus resulting in the improvement of the crystal orientation of the hcp (002) structure from its initial deposition stages. Furthermore, the cross-sectional transmission electron microscope (TEM) analysis of the nanodots deposited with bath agitation showed CoPt growth along its c-axis oriented in the perpendicular direction, having uniform lattice fringes on the hcp (002) plane from the Ru underlayer interface, which is a significant factor to induce perpendicular magnetic anisotropy. Magnetic characterization of the CoPt nanodot arrays showed increase in the perpendicular coercivity and squareness of the hysteresis loops from 2.0 kOe and 0.64 (without agitation) to 4.0 kOe and 0.87 with bath agitation. Based on the detailed characterization of nanodot arrays, the precise crystal structure control of the nanodot arrays with ultra-high recording density by electrochemical process was successfully demonstrated.

  10. Proteins involved in invasion of human red blood cells by malaria parasites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ewa Jaśkiewicz


    Full Text Available Malaria is a disease caused by parasites of Plasmodium species. It is responsible for around 1-2 million deaths annually, mainly children under the age of 5. It occurs mainly in tropical and subtropical areas.Malaria is caused by five Plasmodium species:[i] P. falciparum, P. malariae, P. vivax, P. knowlesi[/i] and [i]P. ovale[/i]. Mosquitoes spread the disease by biting humans. The malaria parasite has two stages of development: the human stage and the mosquito stage. The first stage occurs in the human body and is divided into two phases: the liver phase and the blood phase.The invasion of erythrocytes by [i]Plasmodium[/i] merozoites is a multistep process of specific protein interactions between the parasite and red blood cell. The first step is the reversible merozoite attachment to the erythrocyte followed by its apical reorientation, then formation of an irreversible “tight” junction and finally entry into the red cell in a parasitophorous vacuole.The blood phase is supported by a number of proteins produced by the parasite. The merozoite surface GPI-anchored proteins (MSP-1, 2, 4, 5, 8 and 10 assist in the process of recognition of susceptible erythrocytes, apical membrane antigen (AMA-1 may be directly responsible for apical reorientation of the merozoite and apical proteins which function in tight junction formation. These ligands are members of two families: Duffy binding-like (DBL and reticulocyte binding-like (RBL proteins. In [i]Plasmodium[/i] [i]falciparum[/i] the DBL family includes: EBA-175, EBA-140 (BAEBL, EBA-181 (JESEBL, EBA-165 (PEBL and EBL-1 ligands.To date, no effective antimalarial vaccine has been developed, but there are several studies for this purpose. Therefore, it is crucial to understand the molecular basis of host cells invasion by parasites. Major efforts are focused on developing a multiantigenic and multiepitope vaccine preventing all steps of [i]Plasmodium[/i] invasion.

  11. Bovine leukaemia virus genotypes 5 and 6 are circulating in cattle from the state of São Paulo, Brazil. (United States)

    Gregory, Lilian; Carrillo Gaeta, Natália; Araújo, Jansen; Matsumiya Thomazelli, Luciano; Harakawa, Ricardo; Ikuno, Alice A; Hiromi Okuda, Liria; de Stefano, Eliana; Pituco, Edviges Maristela


    Enzootic bovine leucosis (EBL) is a silent disease caused by a retrovirus [bovine leukaemia virus (BLV)]. BLV is classified into almost 10 genotypes that are distributed in several countries. The present research aimed to describe two BLV gp51 env sequences of strains detected in the state of São Paulo, Brazil and perform a phylogenetic analysis to compare them to other BLV gp51 env sequences of strains around the world. Two bovines from different herds were admitted to the Bovine and Small Ruminant Hospital, School of Veterinary Medicine and Animal Science, University of São Paulo, Brazil. In both, lymphosarcoma was detected and the presence of BLV was confirmed by nested PCR. The neighbour-joining algorithm distance method was used to genotype the BLV sequences by phylogenetic reconstruction, and the maximum likelihood method was used for the phylogenetic reconstruction. The phylogeny estimates were calculated by performing 1000 bootstrap replicates. Analysis of the partial envelope glycoprotein (env) gene sequences from two isolates (25 and 31) revealed two different genotypes of BLV. Isolate 25 clustered with ten genotype 6 isolates from Brazil, Argentina, Thailand and Paraguay. On the other hand, isolate 31 clustered with two genotype 5 isolates (one was also from São Paulo and one was from Costa Rica). The detected genotypes corroborate the results of previous studies conducted in the state of São Paulo, Brazil. The prediction of amino acids showed substitutions, particularly between positions 136 and 150 in 11 out of 13 sequences analysed, including sequences from GenBank. BLV is still important in Brazil and this research should be continued.

  12. Multicentric lymphoma in buffaloes in the Amazon region, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cairo H S De Oliveira


    Full Text Available Abstract Background The presence of lymphoma in buffaloes was first reported in India in the 1960s. The disease is similar to Enzootic Bovine Leucosis (EBL caused by Bovine leukemia virus (BLV in cattle; however, according to our results and those of other studies, the etiology of these lymphomas in buffalo do not appear to be associated with BLV. The objectives of this study are to describe four cases of the disease in buffaloes belonging to the same herd in the Amazon region of Brazil and to perform a clinical-anatomopathological, immunohistochemical, and etiological study of the lymphomas. Results Over a period of ten years, four buffaloes were observed presenting progressive weight loss, swelling of peripheral lymph nodes, and nodules in the subcutaneous tissue. Upon necropsy, whitish-colored tumor masses were observed in the form of nodules in the subcutaneous tissue, along with miliary nodules on the serosal surfaces of abdominal and thoracic organs and tumors in lymph nodes and other organs. Neoplastic lymphocyte proliferation was observed through histopathology. An immunohistochemical study revealed that the neoplasias were formed by proliferation of predominantly B lymphocytes. The presence of BLV genome was not detected in the lymphomas when using the real-time PCR technique, nor was it detected through immunohistochemical staining using monoclonal antibodies against two viral proteins. Bovine herpesvirus 6 was not detected in the tumors. However, Bovine immunodeficiency virus (BIV was detected in samples of lymphoma and in the lymph nodes and kidneys of one of the animals. Conclusions The occurrence of lymphoma in buffaloes is reported for the first time in Brazil and is characterized by B-cell multicentric lymphoma. The etiology of the disease does not appear to be associated with BLV; however, the detection of BIV in samples of lymphoma from one sick animal deserves further study, considering the oncogenic potential of this virus.

  13. [Proteins involved in invasion of human red blood cells by malaria parasites]. (United States)

    Jaśkiewicz, Ewa; Graczyk, Jakub; Rydzak, Joanna


    Malaria is a disease caused by parasites of Plasmodium species. It is responsible for around 1-2 million deaths annually, mainly children under the age of 5. It occurs mainly in tropical and subtropical areas. Malaria is caused by five Plasmodium species: P. falciparum, P. malariae, P. vivax, P. knowlesi and P. ovale. Mosquitoes spread the disease by biting humans. The malaria parasite has two stages of development: the human stage and the mosquito stage. The first stage occurs in the human body and is divided into two phases: the liver phase and the blood phase. The invasion of erythrocytes by Plasmodium merozoites is a multistep process of specific protein interactions between the parasite and red blood cell. The first step is the reversible merozoite attachment to the erythrocyte followed by its apical reorientation, then formation of an irreversible "tight" junction and finally entry into the red cell in a parasitophorous vacuole. The blood phase is supported by a number of proteins produced by the parasite. The merozoite surface GPI-anchored proteins (MSP-1, 2, 4, 5, 8 and 10) assist in the process of recognition of susceptible erythrocytes, apical membrane antigen (AMA-1) may be directly responsible for apical reorientation of the merozoite and apical proteins which function in tight junction formation. These ligands are members of two families: Duffy binding-like (DBL) and reticulocyte binding-like (RBL) proteins. In Plasmodium falciparum the DBL family includes: EBA-175, EBA-140 (BAEBL), EBA-181 (JESEBL), EBA-165 (PEBL) and EBL-1 ligands. To date, no effective antimalarial vaccine has been developed, but there are several studies for this purpose. Therefore, it is crucial to understand the molecular basis of host cells invasion by parasites. Major efforts are focused on developing a multiantigenic and multiepitope vaccine preventing all steps of Plasmodium invasion.

  14. ZnO top-down structuring for UV photonic applications (Conference Presentation) (United States)

    Nomenyo, Komla D.; Chevalier-César, Clotaire; Rumyantseva, Anna; Gokarna, Anisha; Gwiazda, Agnieszka; Lérondel, Gilles


    ZnO is a promising II-VI semiconductor for UV applications although p-type ZnO is not yet available. Nevertheless it remains an alternative material for GaN and its alloy InGaN. For example, the exciton binding energy of ZnO (60 meV) is higher than that of GaN (21 meV). This allows ZnO to emit light at ambient temperature and interestingly, it increases the device brightness. Besides promising intrinsic properties, light-matter control and especially in the UV relies on the ability of material nanostructuring. We present here two different kinds of top-down process in order to nanostructure ZnO. The first one relies on Electron Beam Lithography (EBL) combined with a lift-off process and inductively coupled plasma (ICP) reactive ion etching (RIE). Nickel (Ni) has been used as a mask in order to have a high selectivity in the presence of C2F6 and O2 ionized gases. The etching rate used was 26nm/s in order to avoid roughness. The second process is called Direct Holographic Patterning (DHP). ZnO thin films have been holographicaly patterned for the first time by direct photodissolution in NaCl solution using laser interference lithography. Application of an electrical potential strongly increases the dissolution rate and decreases the pattern formation time. Both processes will be discussed in terms of their respective potential for light confinement in the UV.

  15. Minimally Invasive Transforaminal Lumbar Interbody Fusion (TLIF) for Spondylolisthesis in 282 Patients: In Situ Arthrodesis versus Reduction. (United States)

    Scheer, Justin K; Auffinger, Brenda; Wong, Ricky H; Lam, Sandi K; Lawton, Cort D; Nixon, Alexander T; Dahdaleh, Nader S; Smith, Zachary A; Fessler, Richard G


    The benefits of spondylolisthesis reduction via minimally invasive transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion (MI-TLIF) remain poorly understood. The purpose was to compare the complications, perioperative factors, and fusion rates in patients undergoing MI-TLIF for degenerative spondylolisthesis between those in whom reduction was or was not performed. 1) patients who underwent a 1, 2, or 3 level MI-TLIF and 2) had a preoperative diagnosis of degenerative spondylolisthesis (Meyerding grade >0). >10° coronal curves, significant sagittal malalignment, infection, and preoperative hardware failure. Patients were grouped on the basis of those who underwent reduction of the spondylolisthesis by at least 1 Meyerding grade (RED) and those who did not (NORED). A total of 282 patients were included: RED (162, 57.4%) and NORED (120, 42.6%). Mean ages (61.68 ± 10.43 vs. 61.88 ± 11.76 years, respectively, P > 0.05) and operative times (P > 0.05) were statistically similar. RED had a significantly larger EBL (280.2 ± 24.03 vs. 212.61 ± 17.54, P 0.05, for all). RED had a significantly higher percentage of patients with a successful fusion at 1 year than NORED (84.50% vs. 70.83%, P spondylolisthesis was not associated with an increase in operative time, length of stay, and perioperative and postoperative complications compared with fusion in situ. Reduction was associated with higher blood loss but also a higher rate of fusion success at 1 year. Overall, reduction did not incur additional risk and had positive perioperative outcomes. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. An obese body habitus does not preclude a minimally invasive partial nephrectomy. (United States)

    Reynolds, Christopher; Hannon, Michael; Lehman, Kathleen; Harpster, Lewis E; Raman, Jay D


    Partial nephrectomy (PN) via open or minimally invasive (MI) techniques is the referent standard for managing renal cell carcinoma (RCC) whenever possible. Outcomes of MIPN in the obese patient population are incompletely defined. We investigate the feasibility of MIPN in obesity class I-III patients via comparison of surgical outcomes to those with a lower body mass index (BMI). The electronic medical records of 184 consecutive patients undergoing MIPN via laparoscopic (n = 109) or robotic (n = 75) techniques were reviewed. Patients were classified into the following patient cohorts stratified by BMI: 1) BMI 40 - obesity class III. The association between obesity class and perioperative and pathologic outcomes was determined. Ninety-five men and 89 women with a median age of 55 years, BMI of 31, tumor size of 2.9 cm, and RENAL nephrometry score of 6 were included. Median operative time was 218 minutes, ischemia duration was 23.5 minutes, estimated blood loss (EBL) was 150 cc, and length of stay was 3.0 days. Of the 184 patients, 71 (39%) were non-obese, 58 (32%) had class I obesity, 33 (18%) patients had class II obesity, and 22 (12%) had class III obesity. Compared to patients with a BMI habitus nor the degree of obesity was associated with any adverse perioperative or pathologic outcomes. In a multivariate model querying variables associated with complications, only a RENAL nephrometry ≥ 8 (HR 5.1, 95% CI 2.4-7.9, p habitus alone should not preclude offering appropriate patients a MIPN.

  17. Protein nanoarray made by size-dependent self-assembly for detection of mouse immunoglobulin G and octamer-4 (United States)

    Tran, Phat L.; Tchao, Yee; You, David J.; Yoon, Jeong-Yeol


    An alternative approach for fabricating a protein array at nanoscale (SDSA) onto these nanometer wells that were created on the polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) substrate by electron beam lithography (EBL). Particles of different diameters are added serially, and electrostatically attached to the corresponding wells through electrostatic attraction between the carboxylic groups of the spheres and p-doped silicon substrate underneath the PMMA layer. This SDSA was enhanced by wire-guide manipulation of droplets on the surface containing nanometer wells. Target detection utilizes fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) from fluorescent beads to target (mouse immunoglobulin G = mIgG or Octamer-4 = Oct4) and its antibody bound on the beads. The 180 nm blue beads are conjugated with mIgG to capture anti-mIgG-FITC. The 50 nm green and 100 nm yellow-green beads are conjugated with anti-Oct4 to capture Oct4 peptides; where the secondary anti-Oct4 tagged with phycoerythrin via F(ab)2 fragment is then added to function as an indicator of Oct4 detection. These protein-conjugated particles are added serially from the largest to the smallest and the particles are successfully self-assembled to the respective nanometer wells to achieve sizedependent self-assembly. FRET signals are detected through fluorescence and confocal microscopes, and further confirmed by Fluorolog3 spectrofluorometer. Therefore, SDSA is a valuable approach for the fabrication of multiple components array; and FRET is a useful biorecognition technique for the detection of mIgG, Oct4 or other targets of interest.

  18. FRET detection of Octamer-4 on a protein nanoarray made by size-dependent self-assembly. (United States)

    Tran, Phat L; Gamboa, Jessica R; You, David J; Yoon, Jeong-Yeol


    An alternative approach for fabricating a protein array at nanoscale is suggested with a capability of characterization and/or localization of multiple components on a nanoarray. Fluorescent micro- and nanobeads each conjugated with different antibodies are assembled by size-dependent self-assembly (SDSA) onto nanometer wells that were created on a polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) substrate by electron beam lithography (EBL). Antibody-conjugated beads of different diameters are added serially and electrostatically attached to corresponding wells through electrostatic attraction between the charged beads (confirmed by zeta potential analysis) and exposed p-doped silicon substrate underneath the PMMA layer. This SDSA method is enhanced by vibrated-wire-guide manipulation of droplets on the PMMA surface containing nanometer wells. Saturation rates of antibody-conjugated beads to the nanometer patterns are up to 97% under one component and 58-70% under two components nanoarrays. High-density arrays (up to 40,000 wells) could be fabricated, which can also be multi-component. Target detection utilizes fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) from fluorescent beads to fluorescent-tagged secondary antibodies to Octamer-4 (Oct4), which eliminates the need for multiple steps of rinsing. The 100 nm green beads are covalently conjugated with anti-Oct4 to capture Oct4 peptides (39 kDa); where the secondary anti-Oct4 and F(ab)(2) fragment of anti-gIgG tagged with phycoerythrin are then added to function as an indicator of Oct4 detection. FRET signals are detected through confocal microscopes, and further confirmed by Fluorolog3 spectrofluorometer. The success rates of detecting Oct4 are 32% and 14% of the beads in right place under one and two component nanoarrays, respectively. Ratiometric FRET is used to quantify the amount of Oct4 peptides per each bead, which is estimated about 2 molecules per bead.

  19. Design and characterization of hybrid morphology nanoarrays as plasmonic Raman probes for antimicrobial detection. (United States)

    Olavarría-Fullerton, Jenifier; Velez, Raymond A; Wells, Sabrina; Sepaniak, Michael J; Hernández-Rivera, Samuel P; De Jesús, Marco A


    Advances in nanofabrication have allowed the production of new and more reproducible substrates for the Raman detection of trace antimicrobials in water. The superior substrate uniformity combined with the ability to control surface morphology represents a significant step forward in the design of substrates with improved enhancement factors and trace-detection capabilities. The work presented herein successfully combines electron-beam lithography (EBL) and reactive ion-etching (RIE) protocols for the construction, testing, and validation of plasmonic hybrid morphology nanoarrays for the detection of arsenic antimicrobials in water. The fabricated substrates consist of 2500 μm(2) Ag-coated silicon dioxide (SiO2)/Si pillar nanoarrays of alternating hexagonal and elliptical features. Control of simple fabrication parameters such as inter-particle spacing (gap) and its orientation relative to the laser polarization vector (parallel or orthogonal) result in over a tenfold improvement in the apparent Raman response under optimized conditions. At a 633 nm excitation frequency, the best substrate performance was observed on parallel-oriented features with a 200 nm gap, with over one order of magnitude increase in the apparent surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) signal relative to standard silver-polydimethylsiloxane (Ag-PDMS) nanocomposites. Monitoring of the characteristic As-C stretching band at 594 cm(-1) allowed the detection of arsenic antimicrobials in water well within the parts per million range. Calculated surface-enhancement factors (SEF) for this substrate, employing 532, 785, and 633 nm excitation wavelengths, was within five, six, and seven orders of magnitude, respectively. The effect of substrate morphology and nanofabrication process on the Raman enhancement factor is presented.

  20. Novel hybrid organic/inorganic 2D quasiperiodic PC: from diffraction pattern to vertical light extraction (United States)

    Petti, Lucia; Rippa, Massimo; Zhou, Jun; Manna, Liberato; Zanella, Marco; Mormile, Pasquale


    Recently, important efforts have been dedicated to the realization of a fascinating class of new photonic materials or metamaterials, known as photonic quasicrystals (PQCs), in which the lack of the translational symmetry is compensated by rotational symmetries not achievable by the conventional periodic crystals. As ever, more advanced functionality is demanded and one strategy is the introduction of non-linear and/or active functionality in photonic materials. In this view, core/shell nanorods (NRs) are a promising active material for light-emitting applications. In this article a two-dimensional (2D) hybrid a 2D octagonal PQC which consists of air rods in an organic/inorganic nanocomposite is proposed and experimentally demonstrated. The nanocomposite was prepared by incorporating CdSe/CdS core/shell NRs into a polymer matrix. The PQC was realized by electron beam lithography (EBL) technique. Scanning electron microscopy, far field diffraction and spectra measurements are used to characterize the experimental structure. The vertical extraction of the light, by the coupling of the modes guided by the PQC slab to the free radiation via Bragg scattering, consists of a narrow red emissions band at 690 nm with a full width at half-maximum (FWHM) of 21.5 nm. The original characteristics of hybrid materials based on polymers and colloidal NRs, able to combine the unique optical properties of the inorganic moiety with the processability of the host matrix, are extremely appealing in view of their technological impact on the development of new high performing optical devices such as organic light-emitting diodes, ultra-low threshold lasers, and non-linear devices. PACS: 81.07.Pr Organic-inorganic hybrid nanostructures, 81.16.-c Methods of nanofabrication and processing, 42.70.Qs Photonic band-gap materials.

  1. The Appropriateness of Hierarchies (Editorial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denise Koufogiannakis


    Full Text Available In the early days of EBLIP, then referred to as evidence based librarianship (EBL, there were calls to strengthen our research base with "better" forms of evidence. These proposed better quality research methods were all quantitative and I admit myself to saying that ‚librarianship tends to reflect more qualitative, social sciences/humanities in its research methods and study types which tend to be less rigorous and more prone to bias‛ (Crumley and Koufogiannakis 2002, p.61. Although this was not meant to be a slight to qualitative research, I can see how it came across as one. Now, I would not put ‚less rigorous and more prone to bias‛ in that sentence, although the first half of the statement certainly still holds true. In our 2002 article, the general point that Ellen Crumley and I were trying to make is that a medical style research hierarchy is not a good fit for librarianship, where qualitative methods are generally more appropriate. At that time, we proposed a ‚core-centred approach to librarianship research‛ (p.68 rather than a hierarchical one, although this did not gain much traction within the EBLIP literature. We noted: ‚rather than relying on an evidence hierarchy, which is an artificial concept for librarians, Fig.3 suggests a core-centred approach. The types of studies that are likely to be conducted by librarians are placed near the centre, moving from a hierarchical to an encompassing model. … *This+ presents a more equitable view of a model for research in the profession‛ (p.67.Today I am even more resolved that it is time to remove the concept of a hierarchy of evidence from EBLIP. This concept is tied very closely to the medical model of evidence based medicine (EBM and is solely focused on quantitative research. Library and information studies (LIS is a social sciences discipline and as such is concerned mostly with questions of why we do things and how people function in the world. The actions of people

  2. Introduction of a Team Based Approach to Radiation Dose Reduction in the Enhancement of the Overall Radiation Safety Profile of FEVAR. (United States)

    Rolls, A E; Rosen, S; Constantinou, J; Davis, M; Cole, J; Desai, M; Stoyanov, D; Mastracci, T M


    Fenestrated endovascular aneurysm repair (FEVAR) exposes operators and patients to considerable amounts of radiation. Introduction of fusion of three-dimensional (3D) computed tomography (CT) with intraoperative fluoroscopy puts new focus on advanced imaging techniques in the operating environment and has been found to reduce radiation and facilitate faster repair. The aim of this study is to evaluate the radiation dose effect of introducing a team-based approach to complex aortic repair. Procedural details for a cohort of 21 patients undergoing FEVAR after fusion-guided (Modern Group) imaging was introduced are compared with 21 patients treated in the immediate 12 months prior to implementation (Historic Group) at a centre with expertise in FEVAR. Non-parametric tests were used to compare procedure time (PT), air kerma, dose-area product (DAP), fluoroscopy time (FT), estimated blood loss (EBL) and pre- and post-operative estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) between the groups. Change in operative approach resulted in a significant reduction in PT for the Modern group (median 285 mins; interquartile range 268-322) compared with the Historic group (450 mins; IQR 360-540 p = <0.001). There were reductions in skin dose for the Modern group (1.6 Gy; IQR 1.09-2.1) compared with the Historic group (4.4 Gy; 3.2-7.05 p = <0.001), and DAP (Modern 159 Gy.cm2; IQR 123-226 vs 264.93 Gy.cm2; 173.3-366.8 for Historic (p = 0.006). There were no significant differences in FT, and pre- and post-operative eGFR between the two groups. Weight and height were distributed equally across both groups. Structured dose reports including the changes in frame rate were not available for analysis. Implementation of a team-based approach to radiation reduction significantly reduces radiation dose. These findings suggest that the radiation safety awareness that accompanies the introduction of fusion imaging may improve the overall radiation safety profile of FEVAR for patients

  3. Molecular characterization of bovine leukemia virus from Moldovan dairy cattle. (United States)

    Pluta, Aneta; Rola-Łuszczak, Marzena; Kubiś, Piotr; Balov, Svetlana; Moskalik, Roman; Choudhury, Bhudipa; Kuźmak, Jacek


    Bovine leukemia virus (BLV) is the causative agent of enzootic bovine leukosis (EBL), a disease that has worldwide distribution. Whilst it has been eradicated in most of Western Europe and Scandinavia, it remains a problem in other regions, particularly Eastern Europe and South America. For this study, in 2013, 24 cattle from three farms in three regions of Moldova were screened by ELISA and nested PCR. Of these cattle, 14 which were PCR positive, and these were molecularly characterized based on the nucleotide sequence of the env gene and the deduced amino acid sequence of the encoded gp51 protein. Our results demonstrated a low level of genetic variability (0-2.9%) among BLV field strains from Moldova, in contrast to that observed for other retroviruses, including human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) (20-38%) Mason IL (Trudy vologod moloch Inst 146-164, 1970) and equine infectious anemia virus (EIAV) (~40%) Willems L et al (AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses 16(16):1787-1795, 2000), where the envelope gene exhibits high levels of variation Polat M et al (Retrovirology 13(1):4, 2016). Sequence comparisons and phylogenetic analysis revealed that BLV genotype 7 (G7) is predominant in Moldova and that the BLV population in Moldovan cattle is a mixture of at least three new sub-genotypes: G7D, G7E and G4C. Neutrality tests revealed that negative selection was the major force operating upon the 51-kDa BLV envelope surface glycoprotein subunit gp51, although one positively selected site within conformational epitope G was detected in the N-terminal part of gp51. Furthermore, two functional domains, linear epitope B and the zinc-binding domain, were found to have an elevated ratio of nonsynonymous to synonymous codon differences. Together, these data suggest that the evolutionary constraints on epitopes G and B and the zinc-binding domains of gp51 differ from those on the other domains, with a tendency towards formation of homogenous genetic groups, which is a common concept of

  4. Learning Curve of Robotic Radical Prostatectomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammed Ersagun Arslan


    our clinical experience, OT, EBL, and blood transfusion rate seem to decrease during the learning curve of RARP.

  5. Lifetime effects of infection with bovine leukemia virus on longevity and milk production of dairy cows. (United States)

    Nekouei, Omid; VanLeeuwen, John; Stryhn, Henrik; Kelton, David; Keefe, Greg


    Enzootic bovine leukosis (EBL) is an economically important disease of dairy cattle caused by bovine leukemia virus (BLV). The economic impacts of the infection have been debated in the literature. The present study was conducted to determine the lifetime effects of BLV infection on longevity and milk production of dairy cows in Canada. The data were aggregated from a combination of two data sets: 1) BLV serum-ELISA test results from Canada-wide surveys of production limiting diseases, which took place between 1998 and 2003 in 8 provinces, and 2) longitudinal production data for all cows in the former study, extracted from the Canadian dairy herd improvement database. All participant cows had been culled or died by the onset of this study. A historical cohort study was designed, including cows which tested positive to BLV-antibodies in their first lactation (positive cohort, n=1858) and cows which tested negative in their second or later lactations (negative cohort, n=2194). To assess the impacts of infection with BLV on longevity (the number of lifetime lactations), a discrete-time survival analysis was carried out. The effect of BLV on the lifetime milk production (the sum of all life 305-day milk production) was evaluated using a multilevel linear regression model. Overall, 4052 cows from 348 herds met the eligibility criteria and were enrolled in the study. In the longevity model, the interaction term between time (lactation number) and BLV-status was highly significant. Cows which were positive to BLV had consistently greater probabilities of being culled (or dying) than the test-negative cows. In the milk production model, the interaction term between BLV-status and longevity of the cows was highly significant; indicating that lifetime BLV effects on the total milk production was dependent on the lactation in which the study cows were culled/died. Infected cows with 2 and 3 lactations showed significantly lower life milk productions [-2554kg (-3609 to -1500

  6. PREFACE: International Workshop on Beamed and Unbeamed Gamma-Rays from Galaxies (United States)

    Wagner, Robert; Maraschi, Laura; Sillanpää, Aimo


    -rays along with GeV/TeV gamma-rays future observational opportunities EBL status and progress The workshop could not have taken place in such a constructive atmosphere and exquisite location without the support of Max-Planck-Institut für Physik München, and of Tuorla Observatory of the University of Turku. We particularly acknowledge the financial support of the Cluster of Excellence 'Origin and Structure of the Universe', Garching b. München. Robert Wagner On behalf of the organizers GfGgroup The PDF also contains a list of Committees and Participants.

  7. Synthesis, characterization and application of zinc oxide nanomaterials (United States)

    Mai, Wenjie


    In this thesis, high temperature vapor deposition method has been extensively used to synthesize nanomaterials. One of the as-synthesized nanostructures is superlattice-structured nanohelix, which is made of two types of alternating and periodically distributed long crystal strips. The manipulation of the nanohelix showed super-elasticity and special fracture mechanism, suggesting possible applications in micro-electro-mechanical systems (MEMS) and nano-electro-mechanical systems (NEMS). The other widely studied nanomaterial is vertically aligned ZnO nanowire array, which is epitaxially grown on GaN and SiC substrates. Several manipulation methods such as e-beam lithography (EBL), dielectrophoresis, and in situ direct manipulation, have been developed, so that the mechanical and electrical properties of a single nanowire can be characterized, which provide essential references for fabricating bridged nanowire based MEMS/NEMS devices. Specifically, an improved atomic force microscope (AFM) based method has been developed to accurately measure the elastic modulus of bridged ZnO nanowires. Bridged nanostructure is an extremely important configuration in planar MEMS/NEMS devices and this new approach provides insights to the importance of boundary conditions. Novel physical and statistical models have been firstly developed to obtain better estimate of elastic modulus. For electrical properties of bridged nanowires, it is found that the direct contact of ZnO nanowire and Au electrodes displays a back-to-back Schottky behavior. Self-assembled monolayer (SAM) can improve the mechanical contact and tune the work function of metal electrode to a small extend, thus increase the contact area and lower the barrier height, in turn increase the conductance. These devices with Schottky contacts show much better UV sensing performance than the ones with Ohmic contacts. Barrier height change is believed to play an important role in a lot of sensors. A thermionic emission

  8. Cloning and expression analysis of GhDET3, a vacuolar H+ -ATPase subunit C gene, from cotton. (United States)

    Xiao, Zhongyi; Tan, Kunling; Hu, Mingyu; Liao, Peng; Chen, Kuijun; Luo, Ming


    Vacuolar H(+)-ATPase was regarded as a key enzyme promoting the fiber cell elongation in cotton (Gossypium hirsuturm L.) through regulating turgor-driven pressure involved in polarity expansion of single cell fiber. The DET3, a V-ATPase subunit C, plays an important role in assembling subunits and regulating the enzyme activity, and is involved in Brassinosteroid-induced cell elongation. To analyze the function of GhDET3 on the elongation of cotton fibers, seven candidates of ESTs were screened and contigged for a 5'-upstream sequence, and the 3'-RACE technique was used to clone the 3'-downstream sequence for the full length of GhDET3 gene. The full length of the target clone was 1,340 bp, including a 10 bp 5'-UTR, an ORF of 1,134 bp, and a 196 bp 3'-UTR. This cDNA sequence encoded a polypeptide of 377 amino acid residues with a predicted molecular mass of 43 kDa and a basic isoelectric point of 5.58. Furthermore, a length of 3,410 bp sequence from genomic DNA of GhDET3 was also cloned by PCR. The deduced amino acid sequence had a high homology with DET3 from Arabidopsis, rice, and maize. Quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) analysis showed that the GhDET3 expression pattern was ubiquitous in all the tissues and organs detected. The result also revealed that the accumulation of GhDET3 mRNA reached the highest profile at the fiber elongation stage in 12 DPA (days post anthesis) fibers, compared with the lowest level at the fiber initiation stage in 0 DPA ovules (with fibers). The transcript accumulation in fibers and ovules shared the similar variation tendency. In addition, in vitro ovule culture experiment demonstrated that exogenous 24-EBL treatment to 4 DPA ovules (with fibers) was capable of increasing the expression level of GhDET3, and the mRNA accumulation of GhDET3 increased in transgenic FBP7::GhDET2 cotton fibers in vivo. These results indicate that GhDET3 gene plays a crucial role in cotton fiber elongation.

  9. Nano fabrication approaches for patterned magnetic recording media (United States)

    Choi, Chulmin

    Bit patterned media (BPM) have received increased attention in recent years as the primary candidate for 1 Terabit/in2 or higher recording density. A patterned media consists of an array of well-defined magnetic nanostructures, each of which can store one bit of data. In the simplest scheme, the structures could be magnetic pillars and dots with a single easy axis of magnetization. The direction of magnetization is interpreted as a binary 1 or 0. Some of the main technical issues in the BPM include the difficulty in fabricating small nano-island arrays in a periodic fashion over large areas, reliability/reproducibility of magnetic bit characteristics, wear and head flyability issue which is associated with the media surface roughness, and processing cost. This thesis deals with investigation of various fabrication approaches, nanostructural features, and magnetic properties for the bit patterned media. In Chapter 1, the science and technology of patterned magnetic recording media are discussed. In Chapter 2, fabrication of an array of high-coercivity magnetic Co/Pd multilayered islands using pre-patterned Si nanopillars template is described. The Si nanopillars have been prepared by advanced electron beam lithography (EBL) and reactive ion etching (RIE). In Chapter 3, the flying instability of the read/write recording head-slider on the topographically rough surfaces of the nano-patterned media is discussed, and technical approaches to overcome such a problem is described, such as planarization of nanopatterned topography by refilling the trenches and flatten the surface of the BPM. I have investigated the head flyability on BPM by fabricating nano pillar geometry with different topography. For flyability testing that requires a relatively large area, I have also fabricated nano pillars on 2.5 inch glass disks with a distribution of pillar size and periodicity using the "silver ball-up process" and RIE. The process, structure and properties of planarized vs. non

  10. Vipegitide: a folded peptidomimetic partial antagonist of α2β1 integrin with antiplatelet aggregation activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Momic T


    Full Text Available Tatjana Momic,1 Jehoshua Katzhendler,1 Ela Shai,2 Efrat Noy,3 Hanoch Senderowitz,3 Johannes A Eble,4 Cezary Marcinkiewicz,5 David Varon,2 Philip Lazarovici11School of Pharmacy Institute for Drug Research, Faculty of Medicine, The Hebrew University of Jerusalem, 2Department of Hematology, Coagulation Unit, Hadassah-Hebrew University Medical Center, Jerusalem, Israel; 3Department of Chemistry, Bar-Ilan University, Ramat-Gan, Israel; 4Institute for Physiological Chemistry and Pathobiochemistry, University of Münster, Münster, Germany; 5Department of Bioengineering, College of Engineering, Temple University, Philadelphia, PA, USAAbstract: Linear peptides containing the sequence WKTSRTSHY were used as lead compounds to synthesize a novel peptidomimetic antagonist of α2β1 integrin, with platelet aggregation-inhibiting activity, named Vipegitide. Vipegitide is a 13-amino acid, folded peptidomimetic molecule, containing two α-aminoisobutyric acid residues at positions 6 and 8 and not stable in human serum. Substitution of glycine and tryptophan residues at positions 1 and 2, respectively, with a unit of two polyethylene glycol (PEG molecules yielded peptidomimetic Vipegitide-PEG2, stable in human serum for over 3 hours. Vipegitide and Vipegitide-PEG2 showed high potency (7×10-10 M and 1.5×10-10 M, respectively and intermediate efficacy (40% and 35%, respectively as well as selectivity toward α2 integrin in inhibition of adhesion of α1/α2 integrin overexpressing cells toward respective collagens. Interaction of both peptidomimetics with extracellular active domain of α2 integrin was confirmed in cell-free binding assay with recombinant α2 A-domain. Integrin α2β1 receptor is found on the platelet membrane and triggers collagen-induced platelet aggregation. Vipegitide and Vipegitide-PEG2 inhibited α2β1 integrin-mediated adhesion of human and murine platelets under the flow condition, by 50%. They efficiently blocked adenosine diphosphate

  11. Cost-effectiveness analysis in minimally invasive spine surgery. (United States)

    Al-Khouja, Lutfi T; Baron, Eli M; Johnson, J Patrick; Kim, Terrence T; Drazin, Doniel


    Medical care has been evolving with the increased influence of a value-based health care system. As a result, more emphasis is being placed on ensuring cost-effectiveness and utility in the services provided to patients. This study looks at this development in respect to minimally invasive spine surgery (MISS) costs. A literature review using PubMed, the Cost-Effectiveness Analysis (CEA) Registry, and the National Health Service Economic Evaluation Database (NHS EED) was performed. Papers were included in the study if they reported costs associated with minimally invasive spine surgery (MISS). If there was no mention of cost, CEA, cost-utility analysis (CUA), quality-adjusted life year (QALY), quality, or outcomes mentioned, then the article was excluded. Fourteen studies reporting costs associated with MISS in 12,425 patients (3675 undergoing minimally invasive procedures and 8750 undergoing open procedures) were identified through PubMed, the CEA Registry, and NHS EED. The percent cost difference between minimally invasive and open approaches ranged from 2.54% to 33.68%-all indicating cost saving with a minimally invasive surgical approach. Average length of stay (LOS) for minimally invasive surgery ranged from 0.93 days to 5.1 days compared with 1.53 days to 12 days for an open approach. All studies reporting EBL reported lower volume loss in an MISS approach (range 10-392.5 ml) than in an open approach (range 55-535.5 ml). There are currently an insufficient number of studies published reporting the costs of MISS. Of the studies published, none have followed a standardized method of reporting and analyzing cost data. Preliminary findings analyzing the 14 studies showed both cost saving and better outcomes in MISS compared with an open approach. However, more Level I CEA/CUA studies including cost/QALY evaluations with specifics of the techniques utilized need to be reported in a standardized manner to make more accurate conclusions on the cost effectiveness of

  12. Spatially confined assembly of nanoparticles. (United States)

    Jiang, Lin; Chen, Xiaodong; Lu, Nan; Chi, Lifeng


    an increasingly important role in the controllable assembly of NPs. In this Account, we summarize our approaches and progress in fabricating spatially confined assemblies of NPs that allow for the positioning of NPs with high resolution and considerable throughput. The spatially selective assembly of NPs at the desired location can be achieved by various mechanisms, such as, a controlled dewetting process, electrostatically mediated assembly of particles, and confined deposition and growth of NPs. Three nanofabrication techniques used to produce prepatterns on a substrate are summarized: the Langmuir-Blodgett (LB) patterning technique, e-beam lithography (EBL), and nanoimprint lithography (NPL). The particle density, particle size, or interparticle distance in NP assemblies strongly depends on the geometric parameters of the template structure due to spatial confinement. In addition, with smart design template structures, multiplexed NPs can be assembled into a defined structure, thus demonstrating the structural and functional complexity required for highly integrated and multifunction applications.

  13. Measurement of pH, exudate composition and temperature in wound healing: a systematic review. (United States)

    Power, G; Moore, Z; O'Connor, T


    To assess the potential of measurements of pH, exudate composition and temperature in wounds to predict healing outcomes and to identify the methods that are employed to measure them. A systematic review based on the outcomes of a search strategy of quantitative primary research published in the English language was conducted. Inclusion criteria limited studies to those involving in vivo and human participants with an existing or intentionally provoked wound, defined as 'a break in the epithelial integrity of the skin', and excluded in vitro and animal studies. Data synthesis and analysis was performed using structured narrative summaries of each included study arranged by concept, pH, exudate composition and temperature. The Evidence Based Literature (EBL) Critical Appraisal Checklist was implemented to appraise the quality of the included studies. A total of 23 studies, three for pH (mean quality score 54.48%), 12 for exudate composition (mean quality score 46.54%) and eight for temperature (mean quality score 36.66%), were assessed as eligible for inclusion in this review. Findings suggest that reduced pH levels in wounds, from alkaline towards acidic, are associated with improvements in wound condition. Metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9), matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2), tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase (TIMP), neutrophil elastase (NE) and albumin, in descending order, were the most frequently measured analytes in wounds. MMP-9 emerged as the analyte which offers the most potential as a biomarker of wound healing, with elevated levels observed in acute or non-healing wounds and decreasing levels in wounds progressing in healing. Combined measures of different exudate components, such as MMP/TIMP ratios, also appeared to offer substantial potential to indicate wound healing. Finally, temperature measurements are highest in non-healing, worsening or acute wounds and decrease as wounds progress towards healing. Methods used to measure pH, exudate composition and

  14. Final Technical Report Grant No. DE-FG02-97ER45653 Lance E. De Long, Principal Investigator, University of Kentucky Period of Performance: 09/01/97 to 05/14/15

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Long, Lance Eric [Univ. of Kentucky, Lexington, KY (United States)


    Prior to 1997, the PI had studied the unusual upper critical magnetic field phase boundaries of several novel or exotic types of superconductors, including charge density wave materials such as NbSe2, organic superconductors such as κ-(ET)2Cu[N(CN)2]Br, high-temperature oxide superconductors such as (Ba,K)BiO3 and the cuprates, heavy fermion superconductors such as U6Fe, UBe13, URu2Si2 and UPt3, and re-entrant Kondo alloys such as (La,Ce)Al2 and ferromagnetic superconductors such as ErRh4B4. Most of these materials exhibited marked positive or negative curvature of HC2(T) which could not be explained by traditional pair-breaking models. It became clear that many of these materials had very short coherence lengths that made quantized vortices highly mobile (depinned) near the phase boundary, and the fundamental, equilibrium HC2(T) difficult to measure using finite field or current drives. These problems made the underlying physics obscure, and led to erroneous interpretations of experimental data in terms of models of exotic superconducting pairing mechanisms. Around 1995, these issues led the PI to take advantage of modern electron beam lithography techniques for patterning superconducting and ferromagnetic thin films on the nanoscale. Primarily due to strong magnetic shape anisotropy effects, EBL patterning has led to enhanced control of the spatial distribution and dynamics of topological defects such as domain walls and magnetic vortices, which can create serious energy dissipation and other limitations for modern devices. Moreover, finite size and interface effects also strongly alter phase transition temperatures and phase boundaries of superconducting and magnetic films, as well as introduce barriers to equilibration, enhanced fluctuations and alter magnetic relaxation. Geometrical frustration and spin ice

  15. Five-year results of laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy for the treatment of severe obesity. (United States)

    Nocca, David; Loureiro, Marcelo; Skalli, El Mehdi; Nedelcu, Marius; Jaussent, Audrey; Deloze, Melanie; Lefebvre, Patrick; Fabre, Jean Michel


    Since 2011, the most used bariatric technique in France has been the sleeve gastrectomy. There are still few studies exploring the medium and long-term results of this technique. To describe medium-long-term (5 years) results of a cohort of CHU Montpellier experience in sleeve gastrectomy for morbid obesity. All patients that underwent laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy (LSG) from January 2005 to June 2013 were included in this study. A total of 1050 patients were operated. 72.86% were women. The mean preoperative BMI was 44.58 kg/m(2) (±7.71). A total of 183 patients (18.5%) were super-obese (BMI > 50 kg/m(2)). LSG was proposed as primary procedure, and also after failure of adjustable gastric banding in 169 patients (16.9%) or after vertical banded gastroplasty in 7 cases (0.7%). There were 38 postoperative gastric fistulas (3.8%) and 3 of them required some kind of bypass to be definitively treated. There were also 34 hemorrhages (3.4%) of which 21 were reoperated for hemostasis. Two gastric stenoses at the angulus (0.2%) were managed with dilation or RYGB. Overall reoperative rate was 6.8%. One patient died of pulmonary embolism. Most common late complication was GERD (39.1%). After 3, 4 and 5 years of LSG, the average of %EBL was, respectively, 75.95% (±29.16) (382 patients), 73.23% (±31.08) (222 patients) and 69.26% (±30.86) (144 patients). The success rate at 5 years was 65.97% (95 patients). The improvement or remission of comorbidities was found, respectively, in 88.4 and 57.2% of diabetic patients; 76.9 and 19.2% for hypertensive patients and 98 and 85% for patients with sleep apnea syndrome. LSG is a bariatric surgery technique that presents a very good risk/benefit ratio. Five-year results are very convincing. GERD is the main long-term complication.

  16. Dielectric and insulating properties of an acrylic DEA material at high near-DC electric fields (United States)

    Di Lillo, L.; Schmidt, A.; Bergamini, A.; Ermanni, P.; Mazza, E.


    A number of adaptive structure applications call for the generation of intense electric fields (in excess of 70 MV/m). Such intense fields across the thickness of a thin polymer dielectric layer are typically used to exploit the direct electromechanical coupling in the form of a Maxwell stress: (see manuscript) Where V/d is the applied field, ɛ0 is the permittivity of vacuum and ɛ is the relative permittivity of the material. The field that can be applied to the dielectric is limited by the dielectric strength of the material. Below the limit set by the breakdown, the material is generally assumed to have a field independent dielectric constant and to be a perfect insulator, i.e. to have an infinite volume resistivity. While extensive investigations about the mechanical properties of the materials used for electronic Dielectric Elastomer Actuators (DEA) are available from literature, the results of the investigation of the insulating and dielectric properties of these materials, especially under conditions (electric field and frequency) similar to the ones encountered during operation are not available. In the present contribution, we present a method and a set-up for the measurement of the electric properties of thin polymer films, such as the ones used for the fabrication of electronic DEAs, under conditions close to operations. The method and setup where developed to investigate the properties of 'stiff' thin polymer films, such as Polyimide or Polyvinylidenefluoride, used for Electro-Bonded Laminates (EBLs). The properties of the well known VHB 4910 acrylic elastomer are presented to illustrate how the permittivity and the leakage current can be measured as a function of the electric field and the deformation state, using the proposed set-up. The material properties were measured on membranes under different fixed pre-stretch conditions (λ 1, λ2=3, 4, 5), in order to eliminate effects due to the change in sample geometry, using gold sputtered electrodes, 20

  17. Accuracy of ultrasound, thermography and subepidermal moisture in predicting pressure ulcers: a systematic review. (United States)

    Oliveira, A L; Moore, Z; O Connor, T; Patton, D


    Our aims were to: establish the clinical significance of ultrasound, thermography, photography and subepidermal moisture (SEM) measurement; determine the accuracy of ultrasound, thermography, photography and SEM measurement in detecting skin/tissue damage; determine the relative accuracy of one of these assessment methods over another; make recommendations for practice pertaining to assessment of early skin/tissue damage. The following databases, Cochrane Wounds Group Specialised Register, The Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, Ovid MEDLINE, Ovid EMBASE, Elsevier version, EBSCO CINAHL, , WHO International Clinical Trials Registry (ICTR) and The EU Clinical Trials Register were searched for terms including; thermography, ultrasound, subepidermal moisture, photograph and pressure ulcer. We identified four SEM, one thermography and five ultrasound studies for inclusion in this review. Data analysis indicated that photography was not a method which allowed for the early prediction of PU presence. SEM values increased with increasing tissue damage, with the sacrum and the heels being the most common anatomical locations for the development of erythema and stage I PUs. Thermography identified temperature changes in tissues and skin that may give an indication of early PU development; however the data were not sufficiently robust. Ultrasound detected pockets of fluid/oedema at different levels of the skin that were comparable with tissue damage. Thus, SEM and ultrasound were the best methods for allowing a more accurate assessment of early skin/tissue damage. Using the EBL Critical Appraisal Tool the overall validities of the studies varied between 33.3-55.6%, meaning that there is potential for bias within all the included studies. All of the studies were situated at level IV, V and VII of the evidence pyramid. Although the methodological quality of the studies warrants consideration, these studies showed the potential that SEM and

  18. Nanoscale Electronic Devices (United States)

    Jing, Xiaoye

    Continuous downscaling in microelectronics has pushed conventional CMOS technology to its physical limits, while Moore's Law has correctly predicted the trend for decades, each step forward is accompanied with unprecedented technological difficulties and near-exponential increase in cost. At the same time, however, demands for low-power, low-cost and high-speed devices have never diminished, instead, even more stringent requirements have been imposed on device performances. It is therefore crucial to explore alternative materials and device architectures in order to alleviate the pressure caused by downscaling. To this end, we investigated two different approaches: (1) InSb nanowire based field effect transistors (NWFETs) and (2) single walled carbon nanotube (SWCNT) -- peptide nucleic acid (PNA) --SWCNT conjugate. Two types of InSb nanowires were synthesized by template-assisted electrochemistry and chemical vapor deposition (CVD) respectively. In both cases, NWFETs were fabricated by electron beam lithography (EBL) and crystallinity was confirmed by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and selected area diffraction (SAD) patterns. For electrochemistry nanowire, ambipolar conduction was observed with strong p-type conduction, the effect of thermal annealing on the conductivity was analyzed, a NWFET model that took into consideration the underlapped region in top-gated NWFET was proposed. Hole mobility in the channel was calculated to be 292.84 cm2V-1s -1 with a density of 1.5x1017/cm3. For CVD nanowire, the diameter was below 40nm with an average of 20nm. Vapor-liquid-solid (VLS) process was speculated to be the mechanism responsible for nanowire growth. The efficient gate control was manifested by high ION/I OFF ratio which was on the order of 106 and a small inverse subthreshold slope (functionalized single walled carbon nanotubes to synthesize the conjugate and characterized its electrical properties. Negative differential resistance (NDR) was observed

  19. Vascular injury during anterior exposure of the spine. (United States)

    Hamdan, Allen D; Malek, Junaid Yusuf; Schermerhorn, Marc L; Aulivola, Bernadette; Blattman, Seth B; Pomposelli, Frank B


    Fusion of the spine is often performed from an anterior approach requiring mobilization of aorta, iliac artery, and vein. This study describes the preferred techniques and incidence of vascular complications at a spine center. Information and operative notes on all consecutive patients undergoing anterior exposure were entered into a database that was retrospectively reviewed. Four hundred eighty-two procedures performed on 480 patients at one spine center between January of 1997 and December of 2002 were analyzed. Demographics, technique, levels of exposure, and history of prior spine surgery were recorded. Primary outcomes measured included intraoperative vascular complications, estimated operative blood loss, and operative mortality. Vascular injury was defined as any case in which a suture was required to control bleeding. Major vascular injuries were defined as those requiring transfusion, vascular reconstruction, or blood loss greater than 300 cc. An intraoperative vascular injury occurred in 11% (54/480) of patients. The majority of these (45/54) were minor injuries treated with simple suture repair. Nine (1.9%) major vascular injuries did occur; the majority identified and treated during the exposure and not the spinal fusion. One patient required a return to the operating room 24 hours after the initial procedure for removal of packs placed to control severe bleeding from an avulsed branch of the internal iliac vein. Median estimated blood loss (EBL) was 150 cc and there were no mortalities. Eighty-three percent of overall injuries involved exposure of L4-5, and this was statistically significant odds ratio (OR) 2.73, P = .005. The lowest incidence of injury occurred when L5-S1 alone was exposed (5.1% of injuries) OR .34, P = .01. Prior spine procedures did not significantly increase the risk of injury, P = .67. Other factors that did not significantly increase risk included gender, multiple levels vs single levels and technique of exposure. Exposure to

  20. Hints of the Existence of Axion-Like-Particles From the Gamma-Ray Spectra of Cosmological Sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanchez-Conde, M.A.; /IAA, Granada /SLAC; Paneque, D.; Bloom, E.; /KIPAC, Menlo Park; Prada, F.; /IAA, Granada /UC, Santa Cruz; Dominguez, A.; /IAA, Granada /Seville U.


    Axion Like Particles (ALPs) are predicted to couple with photons in the presence of magnetic fields. This effect may lead to a significant change in the observed spectra of gamma-ray sources such as AGNs. Here we carry out a detailed study that for the first time simultaneously considers in the same framework both the photon/axion mixing that takes place in the gamma-ray source and that one expected to occur in the intergalactic magnetic fields. An efficient photon/axion mixing in the source always means an attenuation in the photon flux, whereas the mixing in the intergalactic medium may result in a decrement and/or enhancement of the photon flux, depending on the distance of the source and the energy considered. Interestingly, we find that decreasing the value of the intergalactic magnetic field strength, which decreases the probability for photon/axion mixing, could result in an increase of the expected photon flux at Earth if the source is far enough. We also find a 30% attenuation in the intensity spectrum of distant sources, which occurs at an energy that only depends on the properties of the ALPs and the intensity of the intergalactic magnetic field, and thus independent of the AGN source being observed. Moreover, we show that this mechanism can easily explain recent puzzles in the spectra of distant gamma-ray sources, like the possible detection of TeV photons from 3C 66A (a source located at z=0.444) by MAGIC and VERITAS, which should not happen according to conventional models of photon propagation over cosmological distances. Another puzzle is the recent published lower limit to the EBL intensity at 3.6 {micro}m (which is almost twice larger as the previous one), which implies very hard spectra for some detected TeV gamma-ray sources located at z=0.1-0.2. The consequences that come from this work are testable with the current generation of gamma-ray instruments, namely Fermi (formerly known as GLAST) and imaging atmospheric Cherenkov telescopes like

  1. Robot assisted radical prostatectomy for elderly patients with high risk prostate cancer. (United States)

    Rogers, Craig G; Sammon, Jesse D; Sukumar, Shyam; Diaz, Mireya; Peabody, James; Menon, Mani


    The role of robot assisted radical prostatectomy (RARP) for high-risk prostate cancer (CaP) is controversial, as is the role of RARP in elderly men. We evaluate outcomes of elderly patients with high-risk CaP who have chosen RARP over radiation or hormonal therapy. Between April 2001 and November 2009, 69 elderly patients (≥70 years) with high-risk CaP underwent RARP at our institution. High-risk CaP was defined using the D'Amico criterion, PSA ≥ 20 ng/ml, biopsy Gleason score 8-10, or clinical stage ≥ cT2C. Outcomes were retrospectively analyzed. Preoperative high-risk features were PSA > 20: 11 patients (15.9%), biopsy Gleason score 8-10: 43 (62.3%), or clinical stage ≥ cT2C: 25 (36.2%). Median OR time was 175 minutes (IQR: 136.8-202.5) and median EBL was 150 cc (IQR: 100-200). There were 4 complications (5.8%): urine leak (2) and ileus (2). Median duration of stay was 1 day and no patient had a hospital stay over 3 days. On final pathology, 26 men (37.7%) had organ-confined disease with negative surgical margins and 27 (39.1%) had extracapsular extension with negative margins. Biochemical recurrence occurred in 12 patients (17.4%) at a median follow-up of 37.7 months. There was a single incidence of positive lymph nodes at the time of surgery (1.4%). Actuarial biochemical recurrence-free survival was 91% at 12 months and 86% at 36 months. Functional outcomes assessed by patient administered questionnaire at a median follow-up of 26.2 months showed an improvement in median IPSS score from 8.0 preoperatively to 5.0 postoperatively (P = 0.0004) with 53 (81.5%) of patients using 1 pad per day or less for urine control and 7 patients (33.3%) of the 21 men with preoperative SHIM score > 21 preoperatively achieving erections sufficient for intercourse. Robotic RP is safe and feasible in select elderly patients with high-risk CaP with good intermediate oncologic and functional outcomes. Advanced chronological age should not be an absolute contraindication for

  2. Bone Metabolism Changes after Laparoscopic Greater Curvature Plication. A One-Year Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. O. Nykonenko


    Full Text Available In addition to the positive effect of weight loosing after bariatric surgery, the post-operative period is often associated with significant changes in bone metabolism. Aim. The aim of this study was to examine changes in bone turnover markers and indicators of dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA within 12 months after laparoscopic greater curvature plication (LGCP. Materials and methods. We studied 54 patients from class III obesity who underwent LGCP. The average preoperative weight of the patients was 125,519.1 kg, and BMI of 43.04.9 kg/m2. The gender distribution of the cohort was 35.2% man and 64.8% women. At three time points after the operation (at 3, 6 and 12 months control examination was conducted that included DXA and markers of bone metabolism. Results. After the surgical treatment we registered significant reduction of all the anthropometric indicators (0.05; EWL12 45.8±18.8%; EBL12 55.1±23.4%. According to the controlled studies on the 12th months, a significant increase in bone turnover markers was revealed (0.05; CTX, P1NP, OC, OPG, VTD and reducing of PTH (0.05. The measure of DXA on the 12th month of observation showed no significant changes in bone metabolism. Strong positive correlation was uncovered between markers of bone metabolism: CTX / P1NP (r=0.790, p=0.000, CTX/OC, P1NP/OC (r=0.7, p=0.000, minor correlation between PTH/OC (r=0.249, p=0.027. We also report a minor and weak negative correlation between the markers of bone metabolism (CTX, P1NP, OC and VTD and anthropometric data. Conclusions. Twelve months post LGCP markers of bone turnover (CTX, P1NP, OC, OPG, VTD were significantly increased. The increased level of VTD is associated with the loss of FAT. Also the change in DXA was detected.

  3. Editorial: Neue Medien und individuelle Leistungsdarstellung: Möglichkeiten und Grenzen von ePortfolios und eAssessments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia de Witt


    -Portfolios für die Kompetenzerfassung von Lernenden an Schulen und Hochschulen heraus. Aufbauend auf Thomas Häckers dreidimensionalem heuristischen Modell zur Charakterisierung von Portfolios erarbeiten die AutorInnen ein Analyseraster, das Lehrenden, die (E-Portfolios in ihren Veranstaltungen nutzen wollen, als Instrument dienen kann, deren Einführungsprozess zu unterstützen und als Lernprozess zu gestalten. Das veränderte Mediennutzungsverhalten Jugendlicher und junger Erwachsener im Web 2.0 steht bei Michael J. Eble im Fokus. Die zunehmende Nutzung von Social Networks wie Facebook zur individuellen Selbstdarstellung kann nach Eble in Kombination von E-Portfolios und dem identitätsbasierenden Ansatz der Markenbildung für die Abbildung eigener Lern- und Leistungsentwicklung in Lehr- und Lernkontexten nutzbar gemacht werden. Unter drei zentralen Fragestellungen zur Auseinandersetzung mit der eigenen Person und Identität, zum Bezug zwischen persönlicher Markenbildung und formellen Lehr-Lern-Kontexten und zur Adoption und Akzeptanz von E-Portfolios untersucht Eble Chancen und Grenzen von E-Portfolios im Zeitalter des Social Networking. Dirk Jahn, Bernhard Trager und Karl Wilbers zeigen am Beispiel einer beruflichen Weiterbildung für Berufsbildungspersonal aus der Aus- und Weiterbildung im Einzelhandel die Möglichkeiten des Portfolioeinsatzes zur Qualifizierung dieser pädagogischen Professionals in restriktiven Settings. Als Grundlage für die Gestaltung von E-Portfolios dienen den Autoren in diesem Zusammenhang die Referenztheorien des Konzeptwandels, der Selbstreflexion und des kritischen Denkens. Darauf basierend werden die Phasen der E-Portfolioarbeit beispielhaft beschrieben, wobei vor allem die Einstiegsphase und der dissonanzgetriebene E-Portfolio-Prozess als bedeutend für das Gelingen der portfoliogestützten Qualifizierung der pädagogischen Professionals markiert werden. Selbstgesteuertes, reflexives Lernen gilt heute als Grundlage für erfolgreiches

  4. Showing Value (Editorial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denise Koufogiannakis


    librarians on student achievement. Todd notes, “If we do not show value, we will not have a future. Evidence-based practice is not about the survival of school librarians, it’s about the survival of our students” (40. In this issue we feature school libraries and their connection to evidence based practice. Former Editor-in-Chief, Lindsay Glynn, began putting the wheels in motion for this feature almost a year ago. She invited Carol Gordon and Ross Todd to act as guest editors of the section, drawing upon their contacts and previous work in this field. The result is an issue with five feature articles exploring different aspects of the connection between school libraries and evidence based practice, from the theoretical to the practical. In addition, there is a thought-provoking Commentary by David Loertscher, asking whether we need the evolutionary model of evidence based practice, or something more revolutionary!In addition to the Feature section, we have a well-rounded issue with articles on the topics of library human resources, and the development of a scholars’ portal. As well, there are a record 10 evidence summaries and our educational EBL101 column. I hope there is something for everyone in this issue of EBLIP – enjoy, and see you soon in Stockholm!

  5. Looking at Things in New Ways (Editorial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denise Koufogiannakis


    Full Text Available Welcome to the first issue of our 5th volume of Evidence Based Library and Information Practice. And what an issue it is! We are very pleased to showcase the keynote addresses from the 5th International Evidence Based Library and Information Practice (EBLIP5 conference that took place in Stockholm, Sweden in July 2009. Andrew Booth, who was Chair of the International Program Committee for the conference, kindly agreed to take on a guest editorial role in gathering these keynote presentations together. I believe it is the first time the EBLIP community has been able to have the keynote papers from an EBLIP conference gathered in this way. Reading these commentaries will give you a true sense of the themes and questions that were woven throughout the conference and will give you lots to think about. For a fuller description and to put this Feature section in context, please be sure to read Andrew’s editorial at the beginning of the section.As we begin our fifth year of publication, submissions of original research articles continue to grow. In this issue we have five original articles on topics ranging from information literacy instruction to cataloguing of e‐books. Two articles look at using communities of practice in the support of evidence based practice; clearly this is an area of emerging research within EBLIP that readers will benefit from learning more about. One of these articles, by Urquhart, Brice, Cooper, Spink, and Thomas, won the Best Oral Presentation award at the EBLIP5 conference.In addition to the original research articles, we also have seven evidence summaries, covering topics such as unionization, information seeking behaviour, and the LIS blogosphere. The EBL101 column tackles critical appraisal, a daunting task that will not seem quite so scary once you’ve read the column! As well, in the Commentary section, Jessie McGowan and colleagues have contributed a checklist for the peer review of electronic search strategies

  6. Learning Opportunities (Editorial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denise Koufogiannakis


    Tennessee, where she is a Master’s student in Information Science. She anticipates completing her program in December 2010. Welcome Andrea!In this issue, we have three interesting articles covering a variety of topics; learning outcomes of educational games, a library website usability study, and insights into Iranian medical librarians’ attitudes and perceptions of evidence based practice. We also have evidence summaries on topics as diverse as professional development, information literacy, and web usability. And don’t forget to checkout the popular EBL101 column by Virginia Wilson, which always attracts a high number of downloads. With all this content there should be a learning opportunity for every reader. Enjoy!

  7. Tsunami mitigation - redistribution of energy (United States)

    Kadri, Usama


    Tsunamis are water waves caused by the displacement of a large volume of water, in the deep ocean or a large lake, following an earthquake, landslide, underwater explosion, meteorite impacts, or other violent geological events. On the coastline, the resulting waves evolve from unnoticeable to devastating, reaching heights of tens of meters and causing destruction of property and loss of life. Over 225,000 people were killed in the 2004 Indian Ocean tsunami alone. For many decades, scientists have been studying tsunami, and progress has been widely reported in connection with the causes (1), forecasting (2), and recovery (3). However, none of the studies ratifies the approach of a direct mitigation of tsunamis, with the exception of mitigation using submarine barriers (e.g. see Ref. (4)). In an attempt to open a discussion on direct mitigation, I examine the feasibility of redistributing the total energy of a very long surface ocean (gravity) wave over a larger space through nonlinear resonant interaction with two finely tuned acoustic-gravity waves (see Refs. (5-8)). Theoretically, while the energy input in the acoustic-gravity waves required for an effective interaction is comparable to that in a tsunami (i.e. impractically large), employing the proposed mitigation technique the initial tsunami amplitude could be reduced substantially resulting in a much milder impact at the coastline. Moreover, such a technique would allow for the harnessing of the tsunami's own energy. Practically, this mitigation technique requires the design of highly accurate acoustic-gravity wave frequency transmitters or modulators, which is a rather challenging ongoing engineering problem. References 1. E. Bryant, 2014. Tsunami: the underrated hazard. Springer, doi:10.1007/978-3-319- 06133-7. 2. V. V. Titov, F. I. Gonza`lez, E. N. Bernard, M. C. Eble, H. O. Mofjeld, J. C. Newman, A. J. Venturato, 2005. Real-Time Tsunami Forecasting: Challenges and Solutions. Nat. Hazards 35:41-58, doi:10

  8. Food niche overlap among neotropical frugivorous bats in Costa Rica

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    Jorge E Lopez


    , Dermanura sp., Glossophaga commissarisi. Estas especies, con excepción de Dermanura sp., mostraron una dieta dominada por uno o dos táxones de plantas. Esto sugiere un patrón de repartición de recursos a nivel genérico, donde Carollia consumió principalmente plantas del genero Piper, Artibeus consumió Ficus y Cecropia y Glossophaga consumió Vismia. El análisis de conglomerados reveló que existe un mayor solapamiento de nicho trófico entre especies congenéricas que entre especies no congenéricas. Los resultados sugieren que, si el alimento es un factor limitante, algún otro mecanismo -que no es la selección trófica-debe reducir la interferencia o competencia interespecífica por alimentos entre las especies congénericas de murciélagos frugívoros en la EBLS.

  9. Editorial

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    Ugur Demiray


    of Education, Trabzon, Turkey on “E-Book Usage of Graduate Students Studying Educational Sciences in Turkiye” which is written by Sakine ONGOZ and Adnan BAKI. The aim of this survey study is to detect some data that can be generalized about the graduate students’ state of using printed and electronic resources. A questionnaire, developed by Ebrary, one of the largest e-book suppliers of the world, was used as the data gathering tool. After the studies for improving the reliability and validity of the questionnaire, a questionnaire form with 16 items was obtained. 634 questionnaires were sent to graduate students via e-mail, 130 of them were sent back and 125 questionnaires were evaluated for the study. Concerning all the data, it was concluded that majority of the graduate students are aware of the comfort of the e-resources and prefer to use these resources academically.Four books are reviewed in this issue. The first one is about China’s Radio And TV Universities and the British Open University: A Comparative Study, written by Wei, RUNFANG, in 2008 and Reviewed by Desmond KEEGAN, Distance Education International, Dublin, Ireland. He mentioned that Wei addresses these problems by setting out her book in a structure which studies side by side the characteristics of the Chinese network and the British university. In this she is very successful and produces a major book based on in-depth research into both Chinese and British education, backed up by detailed citation of both British and Chinese government educational documentation (all Chinese documentation is cited in English. The book has 8 chapters, 394 pages and about 155.000 words.The second reviewed book is written by Schlosser, L. A. & Simonson on DISTANCE EDUCATION: Definition And Glossary Of Terms, 3rd edition, in 2009 and reviewed by Ozlem OZAN Eskisehir Osmangazi University, Turkey. Reviewer Ozan emphasizes that this book is clear, informative, and provides distance education terminology in a way

  10. Pareceristas da RBHCS no Triênio 2015-2017

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    Editores RBHCS


    Jonas Moreira Vargas (UFPel José Carlos da Silva Cardozo (FURG Karina Barra Gomes (UENF Lania Stefanoni Ferreira (Centro Universitário da FEI Leandro Karnal (Unicamp Leny Caselli Anzai (UFMT Luciana Mendes Gandelman (UFRRJ Luciana Rodrigues Penna (UFRGS Luciano Costa Gomes (UFRGS Luís Antonio Groppo (UNIFAL Luís Augusto Ebling Farinatti (UFSM Luisa Tombini Wittmann (UDESC Luiz Estevam de Oliveira Fernandes (UFOP Luiz Fernando Dias Duarte (Museu Nacional/ UFRJ Luiz Fernando Medeiros Rodrigues (UNISINOS Lyndon de Araújo Santos (UFMA Maíra Bonafé Sei (UEL Maísa Faleiros da Cunha (Unicamp Marcelo Henrique Nogueira Diana (IFC Marcelo Vianna (IFRS Marco Trentini (Universidad de Bologna - Itália Marcos Antonio Witt (UNISINOS Marcus Peixoto (UFRJ Maria Aparecida Bergamaschi (UFRGS Maria Cristina Bohn Martins (UNISINOS Maria de Nazaré Sarges (UFPA Maria Gabriela Silva Martins da Cunha Marinho (UFABC Mário Martins Viana Júnior (UFC Marlise Regina Meyrer (UPF Marta Regina Cioccari (UFRJ Mauro Dillmann (UFPEL Melina Piglia (Universidad Nacional de Mar del Plata - Argentina Micheli Verginia Ghiggi (UFMS Moacir de Freitas Junior (UFU Mônica da Silva Ribeiro (UFRRJ Mônica Ribeiro de Oliveira (UFJF Natália de Lacerda Gil (UFRGS Nathalia Monseff Junqueira (UFMS Nilson Gomes Vieira Filho (UFAM Patrice Schuch (UFRGS Patricia Dario El-Moor Hadjab (UNB Paulo Eduardo Teixeira (UNESP-Marília Paulo Henrique Martinez (UNESP Paulo Roberto Rodrigues Soares (UFRGS Pedro Eduardo Mesquita de Monteiro Marinho (Museu de Astronomia e Ciências Afins/UNIRIO Petrônio José Domingues (UFS Pompilio Locks Filho (UDESC Rauer Ribeiro Rodrigues (UFMS Rodrigo Stumpf González (UFRGS Roswithia Weber (FEEVALE Thiago Barcelos Soliva (UFRJ

  11. Organic petrography:An approach for identification of maceral groups in Gheshlagh coal area, Eastern Alborz

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    Tahereh Rabani


    megaspore size in the S2 and K5 coal seams is very noticeable. The content of mineral matter of these coal seams varied from 5 to 24.9 vol%. Acknowledgements The authors would like to thank the Eastern Alborz company employees for providing access to mines of the Gheshlagh area and sampling. We appreciate reviews for their constructive suggestions. References Hower, J.C., O'Keefe, J.M.K., Watt, M.A., Pratt, T.J., Eble, C.F., Stucker, J.D., Richardson, A.R. and Kostova, I.J., 2009. Notes on the origin of inertinite macerals in coals: Observations on the importance of fungi in the origin of macrinite. International Journal of Coal Geology, 80(2: 135–143. Hower, J.C. and Wagner, N.J., 2012. Notes on the methods of the combined maceral/ microlithotype determination in coal. International Journal of Coal Geology, 95(47-53: 47–53. International Committee for Coal and Organic Petrology (ICCP, 1998. The new vitrinite classification (ICCP System 1994. Fuel, 77(5: 349–358. International Committee for Coal and Organic Petrology (ICCP, 2001. The new inertinite classification (ICCP System 1994. Fuel, 80(4: 459–471. ISO 7404–3, 2009. Methods for the petrographic analysis of bituminous coal and anthracite- Part 3: method of determining maceral group composition. Geneva, 7 pp, Parkash, S., 1985. Petrographic studies of coals from Alberta plains, coal research department, Alberta research. Edmonton, Alberta, Canada, 47 pp. Scott, A.C. and Glasspool, I.J., 2007. Observations and experiments on the origin and formation of inertinite group macerals. International Journal of Coal Geology, 70(1-3: 55–66. Stach, E., Mackowsky, M.T., Teichmuller, M., Taylor, G.H., Chandra, D. and Teichmuller, R. 1982. Stach's Textbook of Coal Petrology. Gebruder Borntraeger, Berlin-Stuttgart, 535 pp. Stopes, M.C., 1935. On the petrology of banded bituminous coals. Fuel, 14: 4–13. Suwarna, N. and Hermanto, B., 2007

  12. What is Evidence? (editorial

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    Denise Koufogiannakis


    that have stood the test of time and still hold relevance for today. Our EBL101 column is similar in that it synthesizes small aspects of evidence based practice or research that help educate the reader about particular elements of evidence based practice. Finally, we publish Commentaries and the Using Evidence in Practice section, which provide practitioner insights and reflections about their work at a local level. These are useful in helping readers apply similar strategies to their own practice, or imbue them with ideas from which their own evaluation of their practice can occur. Commentaries also allow new ideas to take shape, or critiques of particular aspects of evidence based practice, to reach readers, allowing for continued discussion and debate.Pulling together the published evidence with local evidence and insights is not an easy task. I think it resides in each individual professional who wishes to do their best work while including research evidence to support that work. Talking about being evidence based and making explicit some of the factors that do not make this process an easy one, is one of the first steps to enabling the process to become more meaningful and allow individual practitioners to have ownership of it in their own way.

  13. PREFACE: Nanoscale science and technology (United States)

    Bellucci, Stefano


    the lattice gets distorted, and also about some kinds of doped carbon nanotubes, where a crossover from Luttinger liquid to W = 0 superconductivity is likely. An investigation of the Cooper-pair propagation and the Josephson effect in graphene under conditions in which the distance L between superconducting electrodes is much larger than the width W of the contacts was presented by J Gonzalez. In the case of undoped graphene, he showed that supercurrents may exist with a spatial decay proportional to W2/L3, reminiscent of the behavior of the critical current in disordered normal metals. One can observe that there is in general a crossover temperature T* ~ vF/kBL that marks the onset of the strong decay of the supercurrent, and that corresponds to the scale above which the Cooper pairs are disrupted by thermal effects during their propagation. It was also shown that the spatial decay of the critical current changes upon doping into a 1/L2 behavior, opening the possibility to observe a supercurrent over length scales above 1 μm at suitable doping levels. The DC Josephson effect has been observed in submicron quasi-ballistic In0.75Ga0.25As nanostructures inserted between superconducting Nb leads. F Carillo reported his findings of IcRn values among the highest measured on hybrid super/semi/super devices (400 μV). A theory based on quasiclassical equations for diffusive systems can both qualitatively and quantitatively account for the observed ICRN values and IC(T) curves. In ring shaped In0.75Ga0.25As nanostructure Josephson current modulates with a contrast up to 65%. Superconducting MgB2 nanostructures have been studied with EBL-based techniques by Eugenio Monticone. He reported on the fabrication and characterization of MgB2 nanostructures on different substrates, such as silicon nitride and sapphire. Magnesium diboride films are fabricated by all in situ methods consisting in the co-evaporation of B and Mg followed by in situ annealing at higher temperature