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Sample records for net tubular secretion

  1. Ranitidine has no influence on tubular creatinine secretion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Berg, J. G.; Koopman, M. G.; Arisz, L.

    1996-01-01

    Oral cimetidine competitively inhibits tubular secretion of creatinine. We investigated the potential of oral ranitidine, a comparable H2-receptor antagonist, to block tubular creatinine secretion. In 10 healthy subjects, clearances of inulin and endogenous creatinine were simultaneously measured

  2. The effect of acyclovir on the tubular secretion of creatinine in vitro

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    Aleksa Katarina

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background While generally well tolerated, severe nephrotoxicity has been observed in some children receiving acyclovir. A pronounced elevation in plasma creatinine in the absence of other clinical manifestations of overt nephrotoxicity has been frequently documented. Several drugs have been shown to increase plasma creatinine by inhibiting its renal tubular secretion rather than by decreasing glomerular filtration rate (GFR. Creatinine and acyclovir may be transported by similar tubular transport mechanisms, thus, it is plausible that in some cases, the observed increase in plasma creatinine may be partially due to inhibition of tubular secretion of creatinine, and not solely due to decreased GFR. Our objective was to determine whether acyclovir inhibits the tubular secretion of creatinine. Methods Porcine (LLC-PK1 and human (HK-2 renal proximal tubular cell monolayers cultured on microporous membrane filters were exposed to [2-14C] creatinine (5 μM in the absence or presence of quinidine (1E+03 μM, cimetidine (1E+03 μM or acyclovir (22 - 89 μM in incubation medium. Results Results illustrated that in evident contrast to quinidine, acyclovir did not inhibit creatinine transport in LLC-PK1 and HK-2 cell monolayers. Conclusions The results suggest that acyclovir does not affect the renal tubular handling of creatinine, and hence, the pronounced, transient increase in plasma creatinine is due to decreased GFR, and not to a spurious increase in plasma creatinine.

  3. Glomerular filtration and tubular secretion of MAG-3 in the rat kidney

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mueller-Suur, R.M.; Mueller-Suur, C.

    1989-01-01

    Technetium-99m mercaptoacetyltriglycine (MAG-3) has recently been introduced as a new radiopharmaceutical for dynamic renal scintigraphy. To elucidate the mechanism of renal excretion, micropuncture experiments were performed in rat kidneys for direct measurements of glomerular filtration and tubular secretory capacity. Fluid of Bowman space was collected from superficial glomeruli and analyzed for its contents of [99mTc]MAG-3, [125I]hippurate and [3H]inulin during constant infusion of these compounds. The ratio of activity of ultrafiltrate to that of arterial plasma was 0.23 for MAG-3, 0.68 for hippurate and 1.04 for inulin which demonstrates that the filtrated amount of MAG-3 is only 23% of that of inulin, presumably because of higher plasma protein binding which was also measured in vitro and found to be 80 +/- 1.5% for MAG-3 and 32 +/- 2% for [125I]hippurate. Proximal and distal tubules were also micropunctured and their tubular fluid as well as the final urine analyzed for the activity of hippurate and MAG-3. The tubular fluid to plasma ratio values along the nephron and in the final urine were all lower for MAG-3 than for hippurate, indicating a lower secretory capacity. From measurements of whole renal clearance, GFR and plasma protein binding the filtered amount of MAG-3 was 0.26 and of hippurate 0.87 ml/min.g kidney weight (p less than 0.001) and the secreted amount 2.01 and 2.38 ml/min.g kidney weight (p less than 0.05), respectively. We conclude that MAG-3 is predominantly excreted by tubular secretion and that the lower renal clearance of MAG-3 as compared with that of hippurate is a result both of a substantially decreased glomerular filtration and of a lower tubular secretion

  4. Hysteretic Behavior of Tubular Steel Braces Having Carbon Fiber Reinforced Polymer Reinforcement Around End Net Sections

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    Cem Haydaroğlu

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This study presents an experimental investigation into the seismic retrofit of tubular steel braces using carbon fiber reinforced polymer (CFRP members. CFRP retrofitting of net sections for compact tubes are proposed for delaying potential local net section failure. A total of almost full-scale three (TB-1, TB-2, and TB-3 compact steel tubular specimens were designed per AISC specifications, constructed, and cyclically tested to fracture. Retrofitted braces, when compared to the reference specimen, developed fuller hysteretic curves. Increase in cumulative hysteretic energy dissipation and the elongation in fracture life in the specimen retrofitted with CFRP plates and CFRP sheet wraps at net sections are observed during testing. This resulted in a maximum of 82.5% more dissipated energy for compact tube specimens. Also, this retrofit provided a longer experimental fracture life (maximum 59% more. Due to fracture initiation during the last cycles, significant reductions in strength and stiffness have been obtained. No significant change (maximum 10% in the brace stiffness was observed, which could be desirable in seismic retrofit applications. Pushover analysis per FEMA 356 for the bare specimen shows that FEMA does not represent actual brace behavior in the compression side although pushover and experimental results are in good agreement in the tension side.

  5. Intracellular kinases mediate increased translation and secretion of netrin-1 from renal tubular epithelial cells.

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    Calpurnia Jayakumar

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Netrin-1 is a laminin-related secreted protein, is highly induced after tissue injury, and may serve as a marker of injury. However, the regulation of netrin-1 production is not unknown. Current study was carried out in mouse and mouse kidney cell line (TKPTS to determine the signaling pathways that regulate netrin-1 production in response to injury. METHODS AND PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Ischemia reperfusion injury of the kidney was induced in mice by clamping renal pedicle for 30 minutes. Cellular stress was induced in mouse proximal tubular epithelial cell line by treating with pervanadate, cisplatin, lipopolysaccharide, glucose or hypoxia followed by reoxygenation. Netrin-1 expression was quantified by real time RT-PCR and protein production was quantified using an ELISA kit. Cellular stress induced a large increase in netrin-1 production without increase in transcription of netrin-1 gene. Mitogen activated protein kinase, ERK mediates the drug induced netrin-1 mRNA translation increase without altering mRNA stability. CONCLUSION: Our results suggest that netrin-1 expression is suppressed at the translational level and MAPK activation leads to rapid translation of netrin-1 mRNA in the kidney tubular epithelial cells.

  6. Intracellular Kinases Mediate Increased Translation and Secretion of Netrin-1 from Renal Tubular Epithelial Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayakumar, Calpurnia; Mohamed, Riyaz; Ranganathan, Punithavathi Vilapakkam; Ramesh, Ganesan

    2011-01-01

    Background Netrin-1 is a laminin-related secreted protein, is highly induced after tissue injury, and may serve as a marker of injury. However, the regulation of netrin-1 production is not unknown. Current study was carried out in mouse and mouse kidney cell line (TKPTS) to determine the signaling pathways that regulate netrin-1 production in response to injury. Methods and Principal Findings Ischemia reperfusion injury of the kidney was induced in mice by clamping renal pedicle for 30 minutes. Cellular stress was induced in mouse proximal tubular epithelial cell line by treating with pervanadate, cisplatin, lipopolysaccharide, glucose or hypoxia followed by reoxygenation. Netrin-1 expression was quantified by real time RT-PCR and protein production was quantified using an ELISA kit. Cellular stress induced a large increase in netrin-1 production without increase in transcription of netrin-1 gene. Mitogen activated protein kinase, ERK mediates the drug induced netrin-1 mRNA translation increase without altering mRNA stability. Conclusion Our results suggest that netrin-1 expression is suppressed at the translational level and MAPK activation leads to rapid translation of netrin-1 mRNA in the kidney tubular epithelial cells. PMID:22046354

  7. Glomerular filtration rate estimation from plasma creatinine after inhibition of tubular secretion: relevance of the creatinine assay

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kemperman, F. A.; Silberbusch, J.; Slaats, E. H.; van Zanten, A. P.; Weber, J. A.; Krediet, R. T.; Arisz, L.

    1999-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Estimation of glomerular filtration rate (GFR) from plasma creatinine concentration after inhibition of tubular creatinine secretion with cimetidine provides a good assessment in patients with various nephropathies and with non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM). The aim of this

  8. Imatinib Increases Serum Creatinine by Inhibiting Its Tubular Secretion in a Reversible Fashion in Chronic Myeloid Leukemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vidal-Petiot, Emmanuelle; Rea, Delphine; Serrano, Fidéline; Stehlé, Thomas; Gardin, Claude; Rousselot, Philippe; Peraldi, Marie-Noëlle; Flamant, Martin

    2016-03-01

    Monitoring renal function is important in imatinib-treated patients with chronic myeloid leukemia because serum creatinine may increase during the course of therapy. The mechanism of this increase and its reversibility on treatment cessation have never been investigated. We retrospectively analyzed data from imatinib-treated patients explored in our renal physiology unit with measurement of glomerular filtration rate (urinary clearance of (51)CrEDTA) and of urinary clearance and tubular secretion of creatinine. Results were compared with those of controls matched for measured glomerular filtration rate, age, gender, and ethnicity. We also analyzed variations of serum creatinine before and during imatinib cessation and after imatinib resumption in patients enrolled in imatinib discontinuation studies. In 4 imatinib-treated patients who underwent thorough renal exploration, the part of creatinine clearance due to tubular secretion was negligible (2.4, 3.1, -1.3, and 2.8 mL/min) and significantly lower than that measured in their respective controls (17.7 ± 5.6, 43.0 ± 18.0, 23.1 ± 6.7, and 18.6 ± 5.6 mL/min, P creatinine tubular secretion (20.3 vs. 17.9 ± 5.2 mL/min in the control population, P = .2). In 15 patients of imatinib discontinuation studies, a median decrease in serum creatinine of 17.9% was observed after imatinib cessation. Resumption of treatment in 6 patients led to a median increase in serum creatinine of 18.8%. Imatinib completely blunts tubular secretion of creatinine, a previously unreported pharmacologic property. This inhibition increases serum creatinine independently of any glomerular dysfunction and is fully reversible on imatinib cessation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Proximal Tubular Secretion of Creatinine by Organic Cation Transporter OCT2 in Cancer Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciarimboli, Giuliano; Lancaster, Cynthia S.; Schlatter, Eberhard; Franke, Ryan M.; Sprowl, Jason A.; Pavenstädt, Hermann; Massmann, Vivian; Guckel, Denise; Mathijssen, Ron H. J.; Yang, Wenjian; Pui, Ching-Hon; Relling, Mary V.; Herrmann, Edwin; Sparreboom, Alex

    2012-01-01

    Purpose Knowledge of transporters responsible for the renal secretion of creatinine is key to a proper interpretation of serum creatinine and/or creatinine clearance as markers of renal function in cancer patients receiving chemotherapeutic agents. Experimental Design Creatinine transport was studied in transfected HEK293 cells in vitro and in wildtype mice and age-matched organic cation transporter 1 and 2-deficient [Oct1/2(−/−)] mice ex vivo and in vivo. Clinical pharmacogenetic and transport inhibition studies were done in two separate cohorts of cancer patients. Results Compared to wildtype mice, creatinine clearance was significantly impaired in Oct1/2(−/−) mice. Furthermore, creatinine inhibited organic cation transport in freshly-isolated proximal tubules from wild-type mice and humans, but not in those from Oct1/2(−/−) mice. In a genetic-association analysis (n=590), several polymorphisms around the OCT2/SLC22A2 gene locus, including rs2504954 (P=0.000873), were significantly associated with age-adjusted creatinine levels. Furthermore, in cancer patients (n=68), the OCT2 substrate cisplatin caused an acute elevation of serum creatinine (P=0.0083), consistent with inhibition of an elimination pathway. Conclusions Collectively, this study shows that OCT2 plays a decisive role in the renal secretion of creatinine. This process can be inhibited by OCT2 substrates, which impair the usefulness of creatinine as a marker of renal function. PMID:22223530

  10. Glomerular filtration rate estimation from plasma creatinine after inhibition of tubular secretion: relevance of the creatinine assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kemperman, F A; Silberbusch, J; Slaats, E H; van Zanten, A P; Weber, J A; Krediet, R T; Arisz, L

    1999-05-01

    Estimation of glomerular filtration rate (GFR) from plasma creatinine concentration after inhibition of tubular creatinine secretion with cimetidine provides a good assessment in patients with various nephropathies and with non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM). The aim of this study was to compare cimetidine-aided GFR estimations using various creatinine assays. In 30 outpatients with NIDDM GFR was measured as the urinary clearance of continuously infused [125I]iothalamate. Plasma creatinine concentration was analysed after oral cimetidine with an alkaline picrate (AP) method, with an enzymatic (PAP) assay and with HPLC. GFR estimations were calculated with the Cockcroft Gault formula (CG). AP creatinine concentrations were significantly higher than PAP or HPLC values. GFR estimations by AP (CG(AP) 66 +/- 19 ml/min/1.73 m2, mean SD) were significantly lower than GFR (89 +/- 30), whereas CG(PAP) (85 +/- 30) and CG(HPLC) (84 +/- 34 ml/min/1.73 m2) were not. Bland and Altman analysis showed a difference between CG(AP) and GFR of -22.4 +/- 17.7 ml/min/1.73 m2; this difference becomes larger when the GFR increases. The difference between CG and GFR was only -3.8 +/- 14.8 ml/min/1.73 m2 for PAP and -4.4 +/- 17.5 ml/min/1.73 m2 for HPLC, without any systematic difference. A good assessment of the GFR from plasma creatinine after cimetidine administration is possible when creatinine is measured with an enzymatic assay or with the less convenient HPLC method. The more widespread and cheaper alkaline picrate assay is not suitable for GFR-estimation.

  11. Evaluation of the potential interaction between tofacitinib and drugs that undergo renal tubular secretion using metformin, an in vivo marker of renal organic cation transporter 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klamerus, Karen J; Alvey, Christine; Li, Lei; Feng, Bo; Wang, Rong; Kaplan, Irina; Shi, Haihong; Dowty, Martin E; Krishnaswami, Sriram

    2014-11-01

    Tofacitinib is a novel, oral Janus kinase inhibitor. The potential for drug-drug interactions (DDIs) between tofacitinib and drugs that undergo renal tubular secretion was evaluated using metformin as a probe transporter substrate, and genotyping for organic cation transporter (OCT) 1, OCT2 and multidrug and toxin extrusion 1 polymorphisms. Twenty-four healthy male subjects completed this open-label, fixed-sequence study. Subjects were administered a single oral metformin 500 mg dose on Days 1 and 4, and multiple oral tofacitinib 30 mg twice daily doses on Days 2, 3, and 4. Subjects underwent serial blood and urine samplings (Days 1 and 4) to estimate metformin pharmacokinetics. A single blood sample for tofacitinib was collected 2 hours after the morning dose (Day 4). The 90% confidence intervals for the ratios of maximum plasma concentration, area under the curve and renal clearance of metformin, with and without tofacitinib, were contained within the 80-125% acceptance range commonly used to establish a lack of DDI. No deaths, serious adverse events (AEs), severe AEs or discontinuations due to AEs were reported. The study confirms tofacitinib is unlikely to impact the pharmacokinetics of drugs that undergo renal tubular secretion, and concurs with its weak in vitro OCT2 inhibitory profile. © 2014, The American College of Clinical Pharmacology.

  12. The cholinergic pathway alleviates acute oxygen and glucose deprivation induced renal tubular cell injury by reducing the secretion of inflammatory medium of macrophages

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    Ming WU

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective To investigate the effects of cholinergic pathway on acute renal tubular cell injury induced by acute oxygen and glucose deprivation. Methods Rat kidney macrophages were isolated and cultured for constructing macrophages and renal epithelial cells co-cultivating model of oxygen-glucose deprivation (OGD, and the model cells were divided into three groups: OGD alone group, acetylcholine (ACh 100μmol/L+OGD group and ACh + galantamine (Gal 10μmol/L+OGD group. The cells underwent OGD treatment for 1 hour, and normally cultured for 24 hours. The expressions of TNF alpha, IL-1 beta, and IL-10 in supernatant fluid were detected by ELISA, the renal tubular cell viability was determined by MTT assay, the expression of acetylcholine esterase (AChE mRNA and protein were determined by RT-qPCR and Western blotting. The activity of AChE was determined by colorimetric method. Results The expressions of TNF alpha (pg/ml in OGD, Ach+OGD group, Ach+Gal+OGD groups were 140.2±44.81, 119.46±4.42 and 103.31±1.62 respectively (P0.05; The values of renal tubular cell proliferation were 55.02%±6.28%, 66.65%±6.47%, and 79.75%±4.22% respectively (P0.05; those of AchE protein were 0.66±0.07, 0.74±0.04 and 0.67±0.06 respectively (P>0.05; The activity of AChE (kU/L was 0.51±0.02, 0.35±0.05 and 0.32±0.04 respectively (P=0.001, 0.001 and 0.368. Conclusions ACh and Gal could inhibit the secretion of inflammatory mediators and cholinesterase activity and can reduce the acute hypoxic renal tubular cell injury. The modulation of the cholinergic pathway in macrophages may be the important treatment method for acute renal injury in the future. DOI: 10.11855/j.issn.0577-7402.2017.08.01

  13. Contribution of the organic anion transporter OAT2 to the renal active tubular secretion of creatinine and mechanism for serum creatinine elevations caused by cobicistat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lepist, Eve-Irene; Zhang, Xuexiang; Hao, Jia; Huang, Jane; Kosaka, Alan; Birkus, Gabriel; Murray, Bernard P; Bannister, Roy; Cihlar, Tomas; Huang, Yong; Ray, Adrian S

    2014-08-01

    Many xenobiotics including the pharmacoenhancer cobicistat increase serum creatinine by inhibiting its renal active tubular secretion without affecting the glomerular filtration rate. This study aimed to define the transporters involved in creatinine secretion, applying that knowledge to establish the mechanism for xenobiotic-induced effects. The basolateral uptake transporters organic anion transporter OAT2 and organic cation transporters OCT2 and OCT3 were found to transport creatinine. At physiologic creatinine concentrations, the specific activity of OAT2 transport was over twofold higher than OCT2 or OCT3, establishing OAT2 as a likely relevant creatinine transporter and further challenging the traditional view that creatinine is solely transported by a cationic pathway. The apical multidrug and toxin extrusion transporters MATE1 and MATE2-K demonstrated low-affinity and high-capacity transport. All drugs known to affect creatinine inhibited OCT2 and MATE1. Similar to cimetidine and ritonavir, cobicistat had the greatest effect on MATE1 with a 50% inhibition constant of 0.99 μM for creatinine transport. Trimethoprim potently inhibited MATE2-K, whereas dolutegravir preferentially inhibited OCT2. Cimetidine was unique, inhibiting all transporters that interact with creatinine. Thus, the clinical observation of elevated serum creatinine in patients taking cobicistat is likely a result of OCT2 transport, facilitating intracellular accumulation, and MATE1 inhibition.

  14. Contribution of the organic anion transporter OAT2 to the renal active tubular secretion of creatinine and mechanism for serum creatinine elevations caused by cobicistat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lepist, Eve-Irene; Zhang, Xuexiang; Hao, Jia; Huang, Jane; Kosaka, Alan; Birkus, Gabriel; Murray, Bernard P; Bannister, Roy; Cihlar, Tomas; Huang, Yong; Ray, Adrian S

    2014-01-01

    Many xenobiotics including the pharmacoenhancer cobicistat increase serum creatinine by inhibiting its renal active tubular secretion without affecting the glomerular filtration rate. This study aimed to define the transporters involved in creatinine secretion, applying that knowledge to establish the mechanism for xenobiotic-induced effects. The basolateral uptake transporters organic anion transporter OAT2 and organic cation transporters OCT2 and OCT3 were found to transport creatinine. At physiologic creatinine concentrations, the specific activity of OAT2 transport was over twofold higher than OCT2 or OCT3, establishing OAT2 as a likely relevant creatinine transporter and further challenging the traditional view that creatinine is solely transported by a cationic pathway. The apical multidrug and toxin extrusion transporters MATE1 and MATE2-K demonstrated low-affinity and high-capacity transport. All drugs known to affect creatinine inhibited OCT2 and MATE1. Similar to cimetidine and ritonavir, cobicistat had the greatest effect on MATE1 with a 50% inhibition constant of 0.99 μM for creatinine transport. Trimethoprim potently inhibited MATE2-K, whereas dolutegravir preferentially inhibited OCT2. Cimetidine was unique, inhibiting all transporters that interact with creatinine. Thus, the clinical observation of elevated serum creatinine in patients taking cobicistat is likely a result of OCT2 transport, facilitating intracellular accumulation, and MATE1 inhibition. PMID:24646860

  15. Tubular combustion

    CERN Document Server

    Ishizuka, Satoru

    2014-01-01

    Tubular combustors are cylindrical tubes where flame ignition and propagation occur in a spatially confined, highly controlled environment, in a nearly flat, elongated geometry. This allows for some unique advantages where extremely even heat dispersion is required over a large surface while still maintaining fuel efficiency. Tubular combustors also allow for easy flexibility in type of fuel source, allowing for quick changeover to meet various needs and changing fuel pricing. This new addition to the MP sustainable energy series will provide the most up-to-date research on tubular combustion--some of it only now coming out of private proprietary protection. Plentiful examples of current applications along with a good explanation of background theory will offer readers an invaluable guide on this promising energy technology. Highlights include: * An introduction to the theory of tubular flames * The "how to" of maintaining stability of tubular flames through continuous combustion * Examples of both small-scal...

  16. Prediction of the overall renal tubular secretion and hepatic clearance of anionic drugs and a renal drug-drug interaction involving organic anion transporter 3 in humans by in vitro uptake experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Takao; Kusuhara, Hiroyuki; Watanabe, Tomoko; Debori, Yasuyuki; Maeda, Kazuya; Kondo, Tsunenori; Nakayama, Hideki; Horita, Shigeru; Ogilvie, Brian W; Parkinson, Andrew; Hu, Zhuohan; Sugiyama, Yuichi

    2011-06-01

    The present study investigated prediction of the overall renal tubular secretion and hepatic clearances of anionic drugs based on in vitro transport studies. The saturable uptake of eight drugs, most of which were OAT3 substrates (rosuvastatin, pravastatin, pitavastatin, valsartan, olmesartan, trichlormethiazide, p-aminohippurate, and benzylpenicillin) by freshly prepared human kidney slices underestimated the overall intrinsic clearance of the tubular secretion; therefore, a scaling factor of 10 was required for in vitro-in vivo extrapolation. We examined the effect of gemfibrozil and its metabolites, gemfibrozil glucuronide and the carboxylic metabolite, gemfibrozil M3, on pravastatin uptake by human kidney slices. The inhibition study using human kidney slices suggests that OAT3 plays a predominant role in the renal uptake of pravastatin. Comparison of unbound concentrations and K(i) values (1.5, 9.1, and 4.0 μM, for gemfibrozil, gemfibrozil glucuronide, and gemfibrozil M3, respectively) suggests that the mechanism of the interaction is due mainly to inhibition by gemfibrozil and gemfibrozil glucuronide. Furthermore, extrapolation of saturable uptake by cryopreserved human hepatocytes predicts clearance comparable with the observed hepatic clearance although fluvastatin and rosuvastatin required a scaling factor of 11 and 6.9, respectively. This study suggests that in vitro uptake assays using human kidney slices and hepatocytes provide a good prediction of the overall tubular secretion and hepatic clearances of anionic drugs and renal drug-drug interactions. It is also recommended that in vitro-in vivo extrapolation be performed in animals to obtain more reliable prediction.

  17. The urinary excretion of metformin, ceftizoxime and ofloxacin in high serum creatinine rats: Can creatinine predict renal tubular elimination?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Yan-Rong; Zhou, Yan; Huang, Jing; Qin, Hong-Yan; Wang, Pei; Wu, Xin-An

    2018-03-01

    The renal excretion of creatinine and most drugs are the net result of glomerular filtration and tubular secretion, and their tubular secretions are mediated by individual transporters. Thus, we hypothesized that the increase of serum creatinine (SCr) levels attributing to inhibiting tubular transporters but not glomerular filtration rate (GFR) could be used to evaluate the tubular excretion of drugs mediated by identical or partial overlap transporter with creatinine. In this work, we firstly developed the creatinine excretion inhibition model with normal GFR by competitively inhibiting tubular transporters, and investigated the renal excretion of metformin, ceftizoxime and ofloxacin in vivo and in vitro. The results showed that the 24-hour urinary excretion of metformin and ceftizoxime in model rats were decreased by 25% and 17% compared to that in control rats, respectively. The uptake amount and urinary excretion of metformin and ceftizoxime could be inhibited by creatinine in renal cortical slices and isolated kidney perfusion. However, the urinary excretion of ofloxacin was not affected by high SCr. These results showed that the inhibition of tubular creatinine transporters by high SCr resulted to the decrease of urinary excretion of metformin and ceftizoxime, but not ofloxacin, which implied that the increase of SCr could also be used to evaluate the tubular excretion of drugs mediated by identical or partial overlap transporter with creatinine in normal GFR rats. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Kidney tubular-cell secretion of osteoblast growth factor is increased by kaempferol: a scientific basis for "the kidney controlling the bone" theory of Chinese medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Mian; Li, Shun-xiang; Xiao, Jiang-feng; Wang, Jian; Lozanoff, Scott; Zhang, Zhi-guang; Luft, Benjamin J; Johnson, Francis

    2014-09-01

    To study, at the cytological level, the basic concept of Chinese medicine that "the Kidney (Shen) controls the bone". Kaempferol was isolated form Rhizoma Drynariae (Gu Sui Bu, GSB) and at several concentrations was incubated with opossum kidney (OK) cells, osteoblasts (MC3T3 E1) and human fibroblasts (HF) at cell concentrations of 2×10(4)/mL. Opossum kidney cell-conditioned culture media with kaempferol at 70 nmol/L (70kaeOKM) and without kaempferol (0OKM) were used to stimulate MC3T3 E1 and HF proliferation. The bone morphological protein receptors I and II (BMPR I and II) in OK cells were identified by immune-fluorescence staining and Western blot analysis. Kaempferol was found to increase OK cell growth (Pkaempferol increases kidney cell secretion of OGF. Neither of these media had any significant effect on HF growth. Kaempferol also was found to increase the level of the BMPR II in OK cells. This lends strong support to the original idea that the Kidney has a significant influence over bone-formation, as suggested by some long-standing Chinese medical beliefs, kaempferol may also serve to stimulate kidney repair and indirectly stimulate bone formation.

  19. Distal renal tubular acidosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this disorder. Alternative Names Renal tubular acidosis - distal; Renal tubular acidosis type I; Type I RTA; RTA - distal; Classical RTA Images Kidney anatomy Kidney - blood and urine flow References Bose A, Monk RD, Bushinsky DA. Kidney ...

  20. On Energy Balance and Production Costs in Tubular and Flat Panel Photobioreactors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Norsker, N.H.; Barbosa, M.J.; Vermue, M.H.; Wijffels, R.H.

    2012-01-01

    Reducing mixing in both flat panel and tubular photobioreactors can result in a positive net energy balance with state-of-the-art technology and Dutch weather conditions. In the tubular photobioreactor, the net energy balance becomes positive at velocities <0.3 ms-1, at which point the biomass

  1. Reliability of Tubular Joints

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, John Dalsgaard; Thoft-Christensen, Palle

    In this paper the preliminary results obtained by tests on tubular joints are presented. The joints are T-joints and the loading is static. It is the intention in continuation of these tests to perform tests on other types of joints (e.g. Y-joints) and also with dynamic loading. The purpose...... of the test is partly to obtain empirical data for the ultimate load-carrying capacity of tubular T-joints and partly to obtain some experience in performing tests with tubular joints. It is well known that tubular joints are usually designed in offshore engineering on the basis of empirical formulas obtained...... by experimental test results. Therefore, there is a need for performing experimental tests in this area....

  2. Tubular closure device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klahn, F.C.; Nolan, J.H.; Wills, C.

    1982-01-01

    This invention relates to a closure mechanism for closing openings such as the bore of a conduit and for releasably securing members within the bore. More particularly, this invention relates to a closure mechanism for tubular irradiation surveillance specimen assembly holders used in nuclear reactors

  3. Solar Heating Systems with Evacuated Tubular Solar Collector

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Qin, Lin; Furbo, Simon

    1998-01-01

    Recently different designed evacuated tubular solar collectors were introduced on the market by different Chinese companies. In the present study, investigations on the performance of four different Chinese evacuated tubular collectors and of solar heating systems using these collectors were...... carried out, employing both laboratory test and theoretical calculations. The collectors were tested in a small solar domestic hot water (SDHW) system in a laboratory test facility under realistic conditions. The yearly thermal performance of solar heating systems with these evacuated tubular collectors......, as well as with normal flat-plate collectors was calculated under Danish weather conditions. It is found that, for small SDHW systems with a combi tank design, an increase of 25% -55% net utilized solar energy can be achieved by using these evacuated tubular collectors instead of normal flat...

  4. Secrets of the Super Net Searchers: The Reflections, Revelations, and Hard-Won Wisdom of 35 of the World's Top Internet Researchers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basch, Reva

    This book presents the collected wisdom of 35 leading Internet hunters and gatherers. Through interviews, these experts offer insights, anecdotes, tips, techniques, and case histories which will raise the "searching IQ" of any serious Internet user. The Super Net Searchers explain how they find valuable information on the Internet,…

  5. Ontogeny of flow-stimulated potassium secretion in rabbit cortical collecting duct: functional and molecular aspects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woda, Craig B; Miyawaki, Nobuyuki; Ramalakshmi, Santhanam; Ramkumar, Mohan; Rojas, Raul; Zavilowitz, Beth; Kleyman, Thomas R; Satlin, Lisa M

    2003-10-01

    High urinary flow rates stimulate K secretion in the fully differentiated but not neonatal or weanling rabbit cortical collecting duct (CCD). Both small-conductance secretory K and high-conductance Ca2+/stretch-activated maxi-K channels have been identified in the apical membrane of the mature CCD by patch-clamp analysis. We reported that flow-stimulated net K secretion in the adult rabbit CCD is 1) blocked by TEA and charybdotoxin, inhibitors of intermediate- and high-conductance (maxi-K) Ca2+-activated K channels, and 2) associated with increases in net Na absorption and intracellular Ca2+ concentration ([Ca2+]i). The present study examined whether the absence of flow-stimulated K secretion early in life is due to a 1) limited flow-induced rise in net Na absorption and/or [Ca2+]i and/or 2) paucity of apical maxi-K channels. An approximately sixfold increase in tubular fluid flow rate in CCDs isolated from 4-wk-old rabbits and microperfused in vitro led to an increase in net Na absorption and [Ca2+]i, similar in magnitude to the response observed in 6-wk-old tubules, but it failed to generate an increase in net K secretion. By 5 wk of age, there was a small, but significant, flow-stimulated rise in net K secretion that increased further by 6 wk of life. Luminal perfusion with iberiotoxin blocked the flow stimulation of net K secretion in the adult CCD, confirming the identity of the maxi-K channel in this response. Maxi-K channel alpha-subunit message was consistently detected in single CCDs from animals >/=4 wk of age by RT-PCR. Indirect immunofluorescence microscopy using antibodies directed against the alpha-subunit revealed apical labeling of intercalated cells in cryosections from animals >/=5 wk of age; principal cell labeling was generally intracellular and punctate. We speculate that the postnatal appearance of flow-dependent K secretion is determined by the transcriptional/translational regulation of expression of maxi-K channels. Furthermore, our studies

  6. Tubular closure mechanism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kalen, D.D.; Mitchem, J.W.

    1982-01-01

    This invention relates to a closure mechanism for tubular irradiation surveillance specimen assembly holder used in nuclear reactors. The closure mechanism is composed of a latching member which includes a generally circular chamber with a plurality of elongated latches depending therefrom. The latching member circumscribes part of an actuator member which is disposed within the latching member so as to be axially movable. The axial movement of the actuator actuates positioning of the latches between positions in which the latches are locked and secured within the actuator member. Means, capable of being remotely manipulated, are provided to move the actuator in order to position the latches and load the articles within the tube

  7. Asbestos as 'toxic short-circuit' optic-fibre for UV within the cell-net: — Likely roles and hazards for secret UV and IR metabolism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Traill, Robert R

    2011-01-01

    The most toxic asbestos fibres have widths 250nm-10nm, and this toxicity is 'physical', which could mean either mechanical or optical: Tangling with chromosomes is a mechanical hazard occasionally reported, and fibres 100nm wide — or chrysotile (white asbestos) is >150nm. In both cases, UV A /UV B -transmission would then predominate. (Chrysotile 150nm might be benign — escaping both mechanical and optical!). But what would generate such UV, and why would its transmission be toxic? Thar and Kühl (J.Theor.Biol.:2004) explain that the long mitochondria on microtubules may be able to act as UV-lasers, (and many observers since Gurwitsch 1923 have reported ultraweak UV emissions escaping from all types of living bio-tissue). That all suggests some universal secret role for UV, apparently related to mitosis. Insertion of fibre 'short-circuits' could then cause upsets in mitosis-control, and hence DNA irregularities. Such UV-control could parallel similar lower-powered Infra-Red control-systems (as considered elsewhere for coaxial myelin; or as portrayed by G.Albrecht-Buehler's online animations etc.); and the traditional short mitochondria seem better suited for this IR task.

  8. Expandable tubulars for use in geologic structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spray, Jeffery A.; Svedeman, Steven; Walter, David; Mckeighan, Peter; Siebanaler, Shane; Dewhurst, Peter; Hobson, Steven; Foss, Doug; Wirz, Holger; Sharpe, Aaron; Apostal, Michael

    2014-08-12

    An expandable tubular includes a plurality of leaves formed from sheet material that have curved surfaces. The leaves extend around a portion or fully around the diameter of the tubular structure. Some of the adjacent leaves of the tubular are coupled together. The tubular is compressed to a smaller diameter so that it can be inserted through previously deployed tubular assemblies. Once the tubular is properly positioned, it is deployed and coupled or not coupled to a previously deployed tubular assembly. The tubular is useful for all types of wells and boreholes.

  9. Tubular closure mechanism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kalen, D.D.; Mitchem, J.W.

    1981-01-01

    An apparatus is provided for closing the bore of a tube and releasably securing articles within the tube under longitudinal load. A latching member has a cylindrical section and several circumferentially-spaced elongated latches hanging down from one end of the cylinder. An elongated actuator has integral cam and spline and is partly located within the latch with the cam radially contacting the latches and the spline projecting into the circumferential spaces between the latches. The actuator is axially movable between a position in which the latches are locked to the tube walls and a position in which the latches are secured from contact with the tube walls. Means are provided for axially moving the actuator such that the cam positions the latches; and means are also provided for engaging the articles within the tube. The closure is particularly applicable to tubular irradiation surveillance specimen assembly holders used in reactors

  10. Mathematical rationalization for the renal tubular transport: revised concepts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mioni, Roberto; Marega, Alessandra; Romano, Giulio; Montanaro, Domenico

    2017-09-01

    The current emphasis on kinetics and in situ control of molecular exchanges, across the tubular membrane, has not been paralleled by corresponding improvements in our understanding of tubular behaviour at the macroscopic level of classical physiology. In this paper, we propose a mathematical rationalization of macroscopic tubular transport by means of a principal transport equation, originating from the law of mass action between substrate and carrier. The other equations, derived from the main one, demonstrate the possibility of distinguishing between transporters with low affinity and high capacity and transporters with high affinity and low capacity. Moreover, our model formalizes both tubular reabsorption and tubular secretion. Regarding the renal calcium handling, our model confirms the two-compartment system proposed by Mioni in 1971, with some important variants, which are in agreement with the fractional reabsorptions of this cation along the tubule, as verified by micro-puncture technique. To obtain the frequency distribution of saturated tubules, we have utilized the infinitesimal analysis method, starting from the equations proposed by Smith in 1943, concluding that all titration curves result from the combined effect of enzymatic approach and anatomical heterogeneity of the nephrons. The theoretical equations included in our manuscript reflect substantial and palpable physiological mechanisms able to suggest diagnosis and therapy of some electrolyte and hormonal disorders. At the end of this paper, we highlight advantages and disadvantages detectable by comparing our mathematical approach with Marshall's and Bijvoet's methods, proposed, respectively, in 1976 and 1984.

  11. Tubular nanostructured materials for bioapplications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Jining; Chen, Linfeng; Srivatsan, Malathi; Varadan, Vijay K.

    2009-03-01

    Tubular nanomaterials possess hollow structures as well as high aspect ratios. In addition to their unique physical and chemical properties induced by their nanoscale dimensions, their inner voids and outer surfaces make them ideal candidates for a number of biomedical applications. In this work, three types of tubular nanomaterials including carbon nanotubes, hematite nanotubes, and maghemite nanotubes, were synthesized by different chemical techniques. Their structural and crystalline properties were characterized. For potential bioapplications of tubular nanomaterials, experimental investigations were carried out to demonstrate the feasibility of using carbon nanotubes, hematite nanotubes, and maghemite nanotubes in glucose sensing, neuronal growth, and drug delivery, respectively. Preliminary results show the promise of tubular nanomaterials in future biomedical applications.

  12. A tubular flux-switching permanent magnet machine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, J.; Wang, W.; Clark, R.; Atallah, K.; Howe, D.

    2008-04-01

    The paper describes a novel tubular, three-phase permanent magnet brushless machine, which combines salient features from both switched reluctance and permanent magnet machine technologies. It has no end windings and zero net radial force and offers a high power density and peak force capability, as well as the potential for low manufacturing cost. It is, therefore, eminently suitable for a variety of applications, ranging from free-piston energy converters to active vehicle suspensions.

  13. Open Secrets

    OpenAIRE

    Madison, Michael

    2017-01-01

    The law of trade secrets is often conceptualized in bilateral terms, as creating and enforcing rights between trade secret owners, on the one hand, and misappropriators on the other hand. This paper, a chapter in a forthcoming collection on the law of trade secrets, argues that trade secrets and the law that guards them can serve structural and insitutional roles as well. Somewhat surprisingly, given the law’s focus on secrecy, among the institutional products of trade secrets law are commons...

  14. Petri Nets

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    In a computer system, for example, typical discrete events ... This project brought out a series of influential reports on Petri net theory in the mid and late ... Technology became a leading centre for Petri net research and from then on, Petri nets ...

  15. Effect of biomass concentration on the productivity of Tetraselmis suecica in a pilot-scale tubular photobioreactor using natural sunlight

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Michels, M.H.A.; Slegers, P.M.; Vermue, M.H.; Wijffels, R.H.

    2014-01-01

    The effect of biomass concentration on the net volumetric productivity, yield on light and nightly biomass loss rate of Tetraselmis suecica was studied using a pilot-scale tubular photobioreactor (PBR) under outdoor light conditions. The net average productivity and yield on light of Tetraselmis

  16. Net Neutrality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Savin, Andrej

    2017-01-01

    Repealing “net neutrality” in the US will have no bearing on Internet freedom or security there or anywhere else.......Repealing “net neutrality” in the US will have no bearing on Internet freedom or security there or anywhere else....

  17. The Fourier transform of tubular densities

    KAUST Repository

    Prior, C B

    2012-05-18

    We consider the Fourier transform of tubular volume densities, with arbitrary axial geometry and (possibly) twisted internal structure. This density can be used to represent, among others, magnetic flux or the electron density of biopolymer molecules. We consider tubes of both finite radii and unrestricted radius. When there is overlap of the tube structure the net density is calculated using the super-position principle. The Fourier transform of this density is composed of two expressions, one for which the radius of the tube is less than the curvature of the axis and one for which the radius is greater (which must have density overlap). This expression can accommodate an asymmetric density distribution and a tube structure which has non-uniform twisting. In addition we give several simpler expressions for isotropic densities, densities of finite radius, densities which decay at a rate sufficient to minimize local overlap and finally individual surfaces of the tube manifold. These simplified cases can often be expressed as arclength integrals and can be evaluated using a system of first-order ODEs. © 2012 IOP Publishing Ltd.

  18. The Fourier transform of tubular densities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prior, C B; Goriely, A

    2012-01-01

    We consider the Fourier transform of tubular volume densities, with arbitrary axial geometry and (possibly) twisted internal structure. This density can be used to represent, among others, magnetic flux or the electron density of biopolymer molecules. We consider tubes of both finite radii and unrestricted radius. When there is overlap of the tube structure the net density is calculated using the super-position principle. The Fourier transform of this density is composed of two expressions, one for which the radius of the tube is less than the curvature of the axis and one for which the radius is greater (which must have density overlap). This expression can accommodate an asymmetric density distribution and a tube structure which has non-uniform twisting. In addition we give several simpler expressions for isotropic densities, densities of finite radius, densities which decay at a rate sufficient to minimize local overlap and finally individual surfaces of the tube manifold. These simplified cases can often be expressed as arclength integrals and can be evaluated using a system of first-order ODEs. (paper)

  19. The rebirth of interest in renal tubular function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowenstein, Jerome; Grantham, Jared J

    2016-06-01

    The measurement of glomerular filtration rate by the clearance of inulin or creatinine has evolved over the past 50 years into an estimated value based solely on plasma creatinine concentration. We have examined some of the misconceptions and misunderstandings of the classification of renal disease and its course, which have followed this evolution. Furthermore, renal plasma flow and tubular function, which in the past were estimated by the clearance of the exogenous aryl amine, para-aminohippurate, are no longer measured. Over the past decade, studies in experimental animals with reduced nephron mass and in patients with reduced renal function have identified small gut-derived, protein-bound uremic retention solutes ("uremic toxins") that are poorly filtered but are secreted into the lumen by organic anion transporters (OATs) in the proximal renal tubule. These are not effectively removed by conventional hemodialysis or peritoneal dialysis. Residual renal function, urine produced in patients with advanced renal failure or undergoing dialysis treatment, may represent, at least in part, secretion of fluid and uremic toxins, such as indoxyl sulfate, mediated by proximal tubule OATs and might serve as a useful survival function. In light of this new evidence of the physiological role of proximal tubule OATs, we suggest that measurement of renal tubular function and renal plasma flow may be of considerable value in understanding and managing chronic kidney disease. Data obtained in normal subjects indicate that renal plasma flow and renal tubular function might be measured by the clearance of the endogenous aryl amine, hippurate. Copyright © 2016 the American Physiological Society.

  20. Petri Nets

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    GENERAL I ARTICLE ... In Part 1 of this two-part article, we have seen im- ..... mable logic controller and VLSI arrays, office automation systems, workflow management systems, ... complex discrete event and real-time systems; and Petri nets.

  1. Modified tubularized incised plate urethroplasty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shivaji Mane

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To share our experience of doing tubularized incised plate urethroplasty with modifications. Materials and Methods: This is a single surgeon personal series from 2004 to 2009. One hundred patients of distal hypospadias were subjected for Snodgrass urethroplasty with preputioplasty. The age range was 1 to 5 year with mean age of 2.7 years. Selection criteria were good urethral plate, without chordee and torsion needing complete degloving. Main technical modification from original Snodgrass procedure was spongioplasty, preputioplasty, and dorsal slit when inability to retract prepuce during surgery. Results: Average follow-up period is 23 months. Seven (7% patients developed fistula and one patient had complete preputial dehiscence. Phimosis developed in three (3% patients and required circumcision. Dorsal slit was required in seven patients. One patient developed meatal stenosis in postoperative period. All other patients are passing single urinary stream and have cosmesis that is acceptable. Conclusions: Modified tubularized incised plate urethroplasty with preputioplasty effectively gives cosmetically normal looking penis with low complications.

  2. RESTful NET

    CERN Document Server

    Flanders, Jon

    2008-01-01

    RESTful .NET is the first book that teaches Windows developers to build RESTful web services using the latest Microsoft tools. Written by Windows Communication Foundation (WFC) expert Jon Flanders, this hands-on tutorial demonstrates how you can use WCF and other components of the .NET 3.5 Framework to build, deploy and use REST-based web services in a variety of application scenarios. RESTful architecture offers a simpler approach to building web services than SOAP, SOA, and the cumbersome WS- stack. And WCF has proven to be a flexible technology for building distributed systems not necessa

  3. Improved netting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bramley, A.; Clabburn, R.J.T.

    1976-01-01

    A method is described for producing netting composed of longitudinal and transverse threads of irradiation cross linked thermoplastic material, the threads being joined together at their crossings by moulded masses of cross linked thermoplastic material. The thread may be formed of polyethylene filaments, subjected to a radiation dose of 15 to 25 MR. The moulding can be conducted at 245 0 to 260 0 C or higher. The product is claimed to be an improved quality of netting, with bonds of increased strength between crossing threads. (U.K.)

  4. Tubular lining material for pipelines having bends

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moringa, A.; Sakaguchi, Y.; Hyodo, M.; Yagi, I.

    1987-03-24

    A tubular lining material for pipelines having bends or curved portions comprises a tubular textile jacket made of warps and wefts woven in a tubular form overlaid with a coating of a flexible synthetic resin. It is applicable onto the inner surface of a pipeline having bends or curved portions in such manner that the tubular lining material with a binder onto the inner surface thereof is inserted into the pipeline and allowed to advance within the pipeline, with or without the aid of a leading rope-like elongated element, while turning the tubular lining material inside out under fluid pressure. In this manner the tubular lining material is applied onto the inner surface of the pipeline with the binder being interposed between the pipeline and the tubular lining material. The lining material is characterized in that a part of all of the warps are comprised of an elastic yarn around which, over the full length thereof, a synthetic fiber yarn or yarns have been left-and/or right-handedly coiled. This tubular lining material is particularly suitable for lining a pipeline having an inner diameter of 25-200 mm and a plurality of bends, such as gas service pipelines or house pipelines, without occurrence of wrinkles in the lining material in a bend.

  5. Tubular inverse opal scaffolds for biomimetic vessels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Ze; Wang, Jie; Lu, Jie; Yu, Yunru; Fu, Fanfan; Wang, Huan; Liu, Yuxiao; Zhao, Yuanjin; Gu, Zhongze

    2016-07-01

    There is a clinical need for tissue-engineered blood vessels that can be used to replace or bypass damaged arteries. The success of such grafts depends strongly on their ability to mimic native arteries; however, currently available artificial vessels are restricted by their complex processing, controversial integrity, or uncontrollable cell location and orientation. Here, we present new tubular scaffolds with specific surface microstructures for structural vessel mimicry. The tubular scaffolds are fabricated by rotationally expanding three-dimensional tubular inverse opals that are replicated from colloidal crystal templates in capillaries. Because of the ordered porous structure of the inverse opals, the expanded tubular scaffolds are imparted with circumferentially oriented elliptical pattern microstructures on their surfaces. It is demonstrated that these tailored tubular scaffolds can effectively make endothelial cells to form an integrated hollow tubular structure on their inner surface and induce smooth muscle cells to form a circumferential orientation on their outer surface. These features of our tubular scaffolds make them highly promising for the construction of biomimetic blood vessels.There is a clinical need for tissue-engineered blood vessels that can be used to replace or bypass damaged arteries. The success of such grafts depends strongly on their ability to mimic native arteries; however, currently available artificial vessels are restricted by their complex processing, controversial integrity, or uncontrollable cell location and orientation. Here, we present new tubular scaffolds with specific surface microstructures for structural vessel mimicry. The tubular scaffolds are fabricated by rotationally expanding three-dimensional tubular inverse opals that are replicated from colloidal crystal templates in capillaries. Because of the ordered porous structure of the inverse opals, the expanded tubular scaffolds are imparted with circumferentially

  6. Rare, but challenging tumors: NET

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ivanova, D.; Balev, B.

    2013-01-01

    Full text: Introduction: Gastroenteropancreatic Neuroendocrine Tumors (GEP - NET) are a heterogeneous group of tumors with different locations and many different clinical, histological, and imaging performance. In a part of them a secretion of various organic substances is present. The morbidity of GEP - NET in the EU is growing, and this leads to increase the attention to them. What you will learn: Imaging methods used for localization and staging of GEP - NET, characteristics of the study’s protocols; Classification of GEP - NET; Demonstration of typical and atypical imaging features of GEP - NET in patients registered at the NET Center at University Hospital ‘St. Marina’, Varna; Features of metastatic NET, The role of imaging in the evaluation of treatment response and follow-up of the patients. Discussion: The image semiotics analysis is based on 19 cases of GEP - NET registered NET Center at University Hospital ‘St. Marina’. The main imaging method is multidetector CT (MDCT), and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI ) has advantages in the evaluation of liver lesions and the local prevalence of anorectal tumors. In patients with advanced disease and liver lesions the assessment of skeletal involvement (MRI/ nuclear medical method) is mandatory. The majority of GEP - NET have not any specific imaging findings. Therefore it is extremely important proper planning and conducting of the study (MDCT and MR enterography; accurate assessment phase of scanning, positive and negative contrast). Conclusion: GEP - NET is a major diagnostic challenge due to the absence of typical imaging characteristics and often an overlap with those of the tumors of different origin can be observed. Therefore, a good knowledge of clinical and imaging changes occurring at different locations is needed. MDCT is the basis for the diagnosis, staging and follow-up of these neoplasms

  7. 78 FR 14361 - U.S. Steel Tubular Products, Inc., Mckeesport Tubular Operations Division, Subsidiary of United...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-05

    ... Products, Inc., Mckeesport Tubular Operations Division, Subsidiary of United States Steel Corporation, Mckeesport, PA; Notice of Initiation of Investigation To Terminate Certification of Eligibility Pursuant to... Tubular Products, McKeesport Tubular Operations Division, Subsidiary of United States Steel Corporation...

  8. Petri Nets

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 4; Issue 9. Petri Nets - Applications. Y Narahari. General Article Volume 4 Issue 9 September 1999 pp 44-52 ... Author Affiliations. Y Narahari1. Department of Computer Science and Automation, Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore 560 012, India.

  9. Net Gain

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Describing the effect of tax incentives for import, production, and sale of nets and insecticides; and ..... So far, China is the only country where a system for the routine treatment of ...... 1993), and the trials in Ecuador and Peru (Kroeger et al.

  10. Direct demonstration of macula densa-mediated renin secretion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skøtt, O; Briggs, J P

    1987-01-01

    An in vitro method has been used to examine whether secretion of renin from the juxtaglomerular apparatus is affected by changes in the sodium chloride concentration of the tubular fluid at the macula densa. Single juxtaglomerular apparatuses were microdissected from rabbits and the tubule segmen...

  11. AVP-stimulated nucleotide secretion in perfused mouse medullary thick ascending limb and cortical collecting duct

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Odgaard, Elvin V. P.; Prætorius, Helle; Leipziger, Jens Georg

    2009-01-01

    is stimulated remain elusive. Here, we investigate the phenomenon of nucleotide secretion in intact, perfused mouse medullary thick ascending limb (mTAL) and cortical collecting duct (CCD). The nucleotide secretion was monitored by a biosensor adapted to register nucleotides in the tubular outflow...

  12. Secret Places.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ridolfi, Kerry

    1997-01-01

    Argues that children are as deep as the ocean, with secret places inside of them waiting to be opened. Notes that it is powerful for students to learn they can make sense of the world through words, and describes inviting them into poetry as they read poetry, create poetry packets, and write and revise poems. (SR)

  13. Net Locality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Souza e Silva, Adriana Araujo; Gordon, Eric

    Provides an introduction to the new theory of Net Locality and the profound effect on individuals and societies when everything is located or locatable. Describes net locality as an emerging form of location awareness central to all aspects of digital media, from mobile phones, to Google Maps......, to location-based social networks and games, such as Foursquare and facebook. Warns of the threats these technologies, such as data surveillance, present to our sense of privacy, while also outlining the opportunities for pro-social developments. Provides a theory of the web in the context of the history...... of emerging technologies, from GeoCities to GPS, Wi-Fi, Wiki Me, and Google Android....

  14. A role for the organic anion transporter OAT3 in renal creatinine secretion in mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eraly, Satish A.; Rao, Satish Ramachandra; Gerasimova, Maria; Rose, Michael; Nagle, Megha; Anzai, Naohiko; Smith, Travis; Sharma, Kumar; Nigam, Sanjay K.; Rieg, Timo

    2012-01-01

    Tubular secretion of the organic cation, creatinine, limits its value as a marker of glomerular filtration rate (GFR) but the molecular determinants of this pathway are unclear. The organic anion transporters, OAT1 and OAT3, are expressed on the basolateral membrane of the proximal tubule and transport organic anions but also neutral compounds and cations. Here, we demonstrate specific uptake of creatinine into mouse mOat1- and mOat3-microinjected Xenopus laevis oocytes at a concentration of 10 μM (i.e., similar to physiological plasma levels), which was inhibited by both probenecid and cimetidine, prototypical competitive inhibitors of organic anion and cation transporters, respectively. Renal creatinine clearance was consistently greater than inulin clearance (as a measure of GFR) in wild-type (WT) mice but not in mice lacking OAT1 (Oat1−/−) and OAT3 (Oat3−/−). WT mice presented renal creatinine net secretion (0.23 ± 0.03 μg/min) which represented 45 ± 6% of total renal creatinine excretion. Mean values for renal creatinine net secretion and renal creatinine secretion fraction were not different from zero in Oat1−/− (−0.03 ± 0.10 μg/min; −3 ± 18%) and Oat3−/− (0.01 ± 0.06 μg/min; −6 ± 19%), with greater variability in Oat1−/−. Expression of OAT3 protein in the renal membranes of Oat1−/− mice was reduced to ∼6% of WT levels, and that of OAT1 in Oat3−/− mice to ∼60%, possibly as a consequence of the genes for Oat1 and Oat3 having adjacent chromosomal locations. Plasma creatinine concentrations of Oat3−/− were elevated in clearance studies under anesthesia but not following brief isoflurane anesthesia, indicating that the former condition enhanced the quantitative contribution of OAT3 for renal creatinine secretion. The results are consistent with a contribution of OAT3 and possibly OAT1 to renal creatinine secretion in mice. PMID:22338083

  15. Tubular bioreactor and its application; Tubular bioreactor to sono tekiyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Endo, I.; Nagamune, T. [The University of Tokyo, Tokyo (Japan). Faculty of Engineering; Yuki, K. [Nikka Whisky Distilling Co. Ltd. Tokyo (Japan); Inaba, H. [Sumitomo Heavy Industries, Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    1994-09-05

    The loop type tubular bioreactor (TBR) was developed where biocatalysts are trapped in the reactor by membrane module. A UF membrane or MF membrane and crossflow filtration were adopted for the membrane module, and the reactor loop was composed of four membrane modules. The reactor was operated at 2-4 m/s in membrane surface velocity and 300-400 kPa in filtration pressure. As the result of the high-density culture of lactic acid bacteria and yeast, a biomass concentration was more than 10 times that in batch culture, suggesting the remarkable enhancement of a production efficiency. As the result of the continuous fermentation of cider, the fast fermentation more than 60 times that in conventional ones was obtained together with the same quality as conventional ones. Such a fast fermentation was probably achieved by yeast suspended in the fermenter of TBR, by yeast hardly affected physico-chemically as compared with immobilized reactors, and by small effect of mass transfer on reaction systems. 4 refs., 6 figs.

  16. Proximal tubular hypertrophy and enlarged glomerular and proximal tubular urinary space in obese subjects with proteinuria.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Tobar

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Obesity is associated with glomerular hyperfiltration, increased proximal tubular sodium reabsorption, glomerular enlargement and renal hypertrophy. A single experimental study reported an increased glomerular urinary space in obese dogs. Whether proximal tubular volume is increased in obese subjects and whether their glomerular and tubular urinary spaces are enlarged is unknown. OBJECTIVE: To determine whether proximal tubules and glomerular and tubular urinary space are enlarged in obese subjects with proteinuria and glomerular hyperfiltration. METHODS: Kidney biopsies from 11 non-diabetic obese with proteinuria and 14 non-diabetic lean patients with a creatinine clearance above 50 ml/min and with mild or no interstitial fibrosis were retrospectively analyzed using morphometric methods. The cross-sectional area of the proximal tubular epithelium and lumen, the volume of the glomerular tuft and of Bowman's space and the nuclei number per tubular profile were estimated. RESULTS: Creatinine clearance was higher in the obese than in the lean group (P=0.03. Proteinuria was similarly increased in both groups. Compared to the lean group, the obese group displayed a 104% higher glomerular tuft volume (P=0.001, a 94% higher Bowman's space volume (P=0.003, a 33% higher cross-sectional area of the proximal tubular epithelium (P=0.02 and a 54% higher cross-sectional area of the proximal tubular lumen (P=0.01. The nuclei number per proximal tubular profile was similar in both groups, suggesting that the increase in tubular volume is due to hypertrophy and not to hyperplasia. CONCLUSIONS: Obesity-related glomerular hyperfiltration is associated with proximal tubular epithelial hypertrophy and increased glomerular and tubular urinary space volume in subjects with proteinuria. The expanded glomerular and urinary space is probably a direct consequence of glomerular hyperfiltration. These effects may be involved in the pathogenesis of obesity

  17. Iatrogenic Digital Compromise with Tubular Dressings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Corre, Kenneth A

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective: This case report describes a digit amputation resulting from an improperly applied tubular dressing. The safe application of digital tubular dressings, and the rationale behind it, is detailed to raise emergency physician (EP awareness.Methods: We present a case report of a recent iatrogenic-induced digit ischemia caused by improperly applied tube gauze. We review the literature on the subject and the likely sources of poor outcomes presented. The proper application of tubular gauze dressings is then outlined.Conclusion: EPs and emergency department personnel must be educated on the safe application of tubular gauze dressings to avoid dire outcomes associated with improper applications.[WestJEM. 2009;10:190-192.

  18. Renal Tubular Function in Systemic Lupus Erythematosus*

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    immune' diseases such as. Sjogren's syndrome,'" systemic lupus erythematosus. (SLE),3 alveolitis' and chronic active hepatitis.' The reported abnormalities of renal tubular function include impairment of acid excretion and urinary concentration.

  19. A neglected case of Renal Tubular Acidosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Derakhshan, A.; Basiratnia, M.; Fallahzadeh, M.H.; Al-Hashemi, G.H.

    2007-01-01

    In this report, we present a case of a child with distal renal tubular acidosis, severe failure to thrive and profound rickets, who was only 7.8 Kg when presented at 6 years of age. His response to treatment and his follow up for four years is discussed. Although failure to thrive is a common finding in renal tubular acidosis but the physical and x-ray findings in our case were unique. (author)

  20. Thermal CFD Analysis of Tubular Light Guides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ondřej Šikula

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Tubular light guides are applicable for daylighting of windowless areas in buildings. Despite their many positive indoor climate aspects they can also present some problems with heat losses and condensation. A computer CFD model focused on the evaluation of temperature distribution and air flow inside tubular light guides of different dimensions was studied. The physical model of the tested light guides of lengths more than 0.60 m proves shows that Rayleigh numbers are adequate for a turbulent air flow. The turbulent model was applied despite the small heat flux differences between the turbulent and laminar model. The CFD simulations resulted into conclusions that the growing ratio of length/diameter increases the heat transmission loss/linear transmittance as much as by 50 percent. Tubular light guides of smaller diameters have lower heat transmission losses compared to the wider ones of the same lengths with the same outdoor temperature being taken into account. The simulation results confirmed the thermal bridge effect of the tubular light guide tube inside the insulated flat roof details. The thermal transmittance of the studied light guides in the whole roof area was substituted with the point thermal bridges. This substitution gives possibility for simple thermal evaluation of the tubular light pipes in roof constructions.

  1. Transition piece for joining together tubular pieces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holko, K.H.

    1981-01-01

    A transition piece for joining together tubular pieces formed respectively from a low alloy or carbon steel and a high temperature alloy containing at least 16% chromium includes a plurality of tubular parts welded together and formed from materials of selected composition with a maximum chromium content difference of 5% between adjacent parts when the chromium content of each part is below 10% and a maximum chromium difference of 7% between adjacent parts when the chromium content of either part is above 10%. The transition parts are also graded as to such characteristics as thermal expansion coefficient. The transition parts at opposite ends of the transition joint have chromium percentages similar to the tubular pieces to which they are to be joined. The parts may be joined by fusion and/or friction welding and parts may be formed by fusion weld deposition. (author)

  2. Tubular membrane bioreactors for biotechnological processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolff, Christoph; Beutel, Sascha; Scheper, Thomas

    2013-02-01

    This article is an overview of bioreactors using tubular membranes such as hollow fibers or ceramic capillaries for cultivation processes. This diverse group of bioreactor is described here in regard to the membrane materials used, operational modes, and configurations. The typical advantages of this kind of system such as environments with low shear stress together with high cell densities and also disadvantages like poor oxygen supply are summed up. As the usage of tubular membrane bioreactors is not restricted to a certain organism, a brief overview of various applications covering nearly all types of cells from prokaryotic to eukaryotic cells is also given here.

  3. Drill pipes and casings utilizing multi-conduit tubulars

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Curlett, H.B.

    1989-01-24

    A seal adapted for use with a multi-conduit well tubular, or the like, is described which consists of: a plate with fluid passages, each passage corresponding to an opening of a conduit of the multiconduit tubular, and a groove on the plate around each passage; and elastomer means partially embeddable into each groove for sealing each conduit of a tubular to a corresponding conduit of another similar tubular.

  4. Development of Partial Tubular Flat Knitting Fabric Composite Preform

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiang Wei Qing

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available After building some structures of partial tubular flat knitting fabric composite preform, the influencing factor on tubular section was analyzed and the fabric was knitted selectively. The partial tubular flat knitting fabric composite preform were Knitted by changing different yarn, row number and two-sided partial tubular flat knitting fabric. Multilayer sheet would be got after hot pressing and it has big market prospects and good application value.

  5. Tubular permanent magnet actuators: cogging forces characterization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Paulides, J.J.H.; Janssen, J.L.G.; Encica, L.; Lomonova, E.A.

    2009-01-01

    Tubular permanent magnet actuators are evermore used in demanding industrial and automotive applications. However, these actuators can suffer from large cogging forces, which have a destabilizing effect on the servo control system and compromise position and speed control accuracy. This paper

  6. Work tool in a tubular element

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Griffaton, J.

    1991-01-01

    The stand, which is positioned in relation with the tubular element, has clutch disengagement means for a working rod in rotation, with at least two positioning regions on the rod. Application for laser welding a sleeve into PWR steam generator tubes [fr

  7. Boron--epoxy tubular structure members

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shakespeare, W. B. J.; Nelson, P. T.; Lindkvist, E. C.

    1973-01-01

    Composite materials fabricate thin-walled tubular members which have same load-carrying capabilities as aluminum, titanium, or other metals, but are lighter. Interface between stepped end fitting and tube lends itself to attachments by primary as well as secondary bonding. Interlaminar shear and hoop stress buildup in attachment at end fitting is avoided.

  8. Pointlike Inclusion Interactions in Tubular Membranes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vahid Belarghou, A.; Idema, T.

    2016-01-01

    Membrane tubes and tubular networks are ubiquitous in living cells. Inclusions like proteins are vital for both the stability and the dynamics of such networks. These inclusions interact via the curvature deformations they impose on the membrane. We analytically study the resulting membrane

  9. Reliability Analysis of Tubular Joints in Offshore Structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thoft-Christensen, Palle; Sørensen, John Dalsgaard

    1987-01-01

    Reliability analysis of single tubular joints and offshore platforms with tubular joints is" presented. The failure modes considered are yielding, punching, buckling and fatigue failure. Element reliability as well as systems reliability approaches are used and illustrated by several examples....... Finally, optimal design of tubular.joints with reliability constraints is discussed and illustrated by an example....

  10. Diffraction patterns from 7-Angstroms tubular halloysite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eggleton, T.

    1998-01-01

    Full text: The diffraction patterns from 7-Angstroms tubular halloysite are superficially like those from kaolinite. Diffraction from a tubular aggregate of atoms, however, differs from that from a crystal because there is no linear repetition in two of the three conventional crystallographic directions. In tubular halloysite, the tube axis is [010] or [110] and in this direction the unit cell repeats in the normal linear fashion. The x-axis, by contrast, changes direction tangentially around the tube circumference, and there can be no true z-axis, because unit cells in the radial direction do not superimpose, since each successive tubular layer has a larger radius than its predecessor and therefore must contain more unit cells than its predecessor. Because tubular 'crystals' do not have a lattice repeat, use of Bragg 'hkl' indices is not appropriate. In the xy plane, a small area of the structure approximates a flat layer silicate, and hk indices may been used to label diffraction maxima. Similarly, successive 1:1 layers tangential to the tube walls yield a series of apparent 001 diffraction maxima. Measurement of these shows that the d-spacings do not form an exact integral series. The reason for this lies in the curvature of the structure. Calculated electron and powder X-ray diffraction patterns, based on a model of concentric 1:1 layers with no regular relation between them other than the 7.2 Angstroms spacing, closely simulate the observed data. Evidence for the 2-layer structure that is generally accepted may need to be reassessed in the light of these results

  11. 78 FR 37584 - U.S. Steel Tubular Products, Inc., Mckeesport Tubular Operations Division, Subsidiary of United...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-21

    ... make the following certification: All workers of U.S. Steel Tubular Products, McKeesport Tubular... Products, Inc., Mckeesport Tubular Operations Division, Subsidiary of United States Steel Corporation, Mckeesport, Pennsylvania; Notice of Amended Certification Pursuant to Section 221 of the Trade Act of 1974...

  12. SOFC mini-tubulares basadas en YSZ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Campana, R.

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Tubular SOFC have the advantage over planar SOFC of the low temperature sealing and more resistance to thermal shock. On the other hand the volumetric power density of tubular Fuel Cells goes with the inverse of the tube diameter which added to the faster warm-up kinetics makes low diameter tubular SOFC favorable for low power applications. Anode supported tubular SOFC of 3mm diameter and 150 mm length with YSZ electrolyte were fabricated and tested by V-I measurements using H2-Ar (5, 10, 100 vol% as fuel and air for the cathode. The NiO-YSZ tubes of about 400 μm thickness were produced by hydrostatic pressure and then coated with an YSZ film of 15-20 μm. The electrolyte was deposited using a manual aerograph. After sintering either Pt paste or LSF (with YSZ or SDC coatings of about 20-50 μm thickness were deposited for the cathode. The OCV of the cells were excellent, very close to the expected Nernst law prediction indicating that there were not gas leaks. The maximun electrical power of the cell was near to 500mW/cm2 at 850ºC operation temperature. Complex impedance measurements of the cells were performed in order to determine the resistance of the different cell components.

    La principal ventaja de las SOFC tubulares frente a las planares es el sellado de la cámara anódica y catódica a bajas temperaturas. Además la densidad de energía volumétrica de las pilas tubulares es inversamente proporcional al diámetro del tubo, que añadido a los tiempos cortos de encendido y apagado hacen que las mini-tubulares sean interesantes para usos de baja potencia. Se han fabricado y caracterizado SOFC tubulares soportadas en ánodo de 3mm de diámetro y de 150 mm de longitud, 400μm de espesor, con electrolito de YSZ depositado por spray de 15-20 μm. Los tubos de NiO-YSZ son producidos por prensado isostático. La caracterización eléctrica se ha realizado empleando H2-Ar como combustible an

  13. Coloured Petri Nets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Kurt

    1987-01-01

    The author describes a Petri net model, called coloured Petri nets (CP-nets), by means of which it is possible to describe large systems without having to cope with unnecessary details. The author introduces CP-nets and provide a first impression of their modeling power and the suitability...

  14. Learning Visual Basic NET

    CERN Document Server

    Liberty, Jesse

    2009-01-01

    Learning Visual Basic .NET is a complete introduction to VB.NET and object-oriented programming. By using hundreds of examples, this book demonstrates how to develop various kinds of applications--including those that work with databases--and web services. Learning Visual Basic .NET will help you build a solid foundation in .NET.

  15. Tubular localization and expressional dynamics of aquaporins in the kidney of seawater-challenged Atlantic salmon

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engelund, Morten Buch; Madsen, Steffen S

    2015-01-01

    Most vertebrate nephrons possess an inherited ability to secrete fluid in normal or pathophysiological states. We hypothesized that renal aquaporin expression and localization are functionally regulated in response to seawater and during smoltification in Atlantic salmon and thus reflect a shift...... in renal function from filtration towards secretion. We localized aquaporins (Aqp) in Atlantic salmon renal tubular segments by immunohistochemistry and monitored their expressional dynamics using RT-PCR and immunoblotting. Three aquaporins: Aqpa1aa, Aqp1ab and Aqp8b and two aquaglyceroporins Aqp3a and Aqp......10b were localized in the kidney of salmon. The staining for all aquaporins was most abundant in the proximal kidney tubules and there was no clear effect of salinity or developmental stage on localization pattern. Aqp1aa and Aqp3a were abundant apically but extended throughout the epithelial cells...

  16. Ideal heat transfer conditions for tubular solar receivers with different design constraints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jin-Soo; Potter, Daniel; Gardner, Wilson; Too, Yen Chean Soo; Padilla, Ricardo Vasquez

    2017-06-01

    The optimum heat transfer condition for a tubular type solar receiver was investigated for various receiver pipe size, heat transfer fluid, and design requirement and constraint(s). Heat transfer of a single plain receiver pipe exposed to concentrated solar energy was modelled along the flow path of the heat transfer fluid. Three different working fluids, molten salt, sodium, and supercritical carbon dioxide (sCO2) were considered in the case studies with different design conditions. The optimized ideal heat transfer condition was identified through fast iterative heat transfer calculations solving for all relevant radiation, conduction and convection heat transfers throughout the entire discretized tubular receiver. The ideal condition giving the best performance was obtained by finding the highest acceptable solar energy flux optimally distributed to meet different constraint(s), such as maximum allowable material temperature of receiver, maximum allowable film temperature of heat transfer fluid, and maximum allowable stress of receiver pipe material. The level of fluid side turbulence (represented by pressure drop in this study) was also optimized to give the highest net power production. As the outcome of the study gives information on the most ideal heat transfer condition, it can be used as a useful guideline for optimal design of a real receiver and solar field in a combined manner. The ideal heat transfer condition is especially important for high temperature tubular receivers (e.g. for supplying heat to high efficiency Brayton cycle turbines) where the system design and performance is tightly constrained by the receiver pipe material strength.

  17. Distal renal tubular acidosis and hepatic lipidosis in a cat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, S A; Spyridakis, L K; Crowell, W A

    1986-11-15

    Clinical and laboratory evidence of hepatic failure was found in a chronically anorectic cat. Simultaneous blood and urine pH determinations established a diagnosis of distal renal tubular acidosis. The cat did not respond to treatment. Necropsy revealed distal tubular nephrosis and hepatic lipidosis. The finding of distal renal tubular acidosis in a cat with hepatic lipidosis emphasizes the importance of complete evaluation of acid-base disorders in patients.

  18. TUBULAR DISORDERS WITH RICKETS-LIKE SYNDROME

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.N. Kartamysheva

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Often under the guise of «ordinary» Rickets are more severe kidney diseases, developing as a result of inherited or acquired, primary or secondary defects in the renal tubules. Incorrect diagnosis leads to an inadequate therapy, rapid progression of disease and renal failure. The article describes the main approaches to the diagnosis and treatment of disorders of tubular rachitis similar syndrome, presents a number of clinical cases in author's practice.Key words: tubulopathy, acidosis, electrolyte disorders, rickets, rickets-like syndrome, diagnostics, treatment, children.

  19. Fractal solutions of recirculation tubular chemical reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berezowski, Marek

    2003-01-01

    Three kinds of fractal solutions of model of recirculation non-adiabatic tubular chemical reactors are presented. The first kind concerns the structure of Feigenbaum's diagram on the limit of chaos. The second kind and the third one concern the effect of initial conditions on the dynamic solutions of models. In the course of computations two types of recirculation were considered, viz. the recirculation of mass (return of a part of products' stream) and recirculation of heat (heat exchange in the external heat exchanger)

  20. Tubular solid oxide fuel cell development program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ray, E.R.; Cracraft, C.

    1995-12-31

    This paper presents an overview of the Westinghouse Solid Oxide Fuel Cell (SOFC) development activities and current program status. The Westinghouse goal is to develop a cost effective cell that can operate for 50,000 to 100,000 hours. Progress toward this goal will be discussed and test results presented for multiple single cell tests which have now successfully exceeded 56,000 hours of continuous power operation at temperature. Results of development efforts to reduce cost and increase power output of tubular SOFCs are described.

  1. Planning of nets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carberry, M

    1996-01-01

    The paper is about the planning of nets in areas of low density like it is the case of the rural areas. The author includes economic and technological aspects, planning of nets, demands and management among others

  2. Annotating Coloured Petri Nets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindstrøm, Bo; Wells, Lisa Marie

    2002-01-01

    Coloured Petri nets (CP-nets) can be used for several fundamentally different purposes like functional analysis, performance analysis, and visualisation. To be able to use the corresponding tool extensions and libraries it is sometimes necessary to include extra auxiliary information in the CP......-net. An example of such auxiliary information is a counter which is associated with a token to be able to do performance analysis. Modifying colour sets and arc inscriptions in a CP-net to support a specific use may lead to creation of several slightly different CP-nets – only to support the different uses...... of the same basic CP-net. One solution to this problem is that the auxiliary information is not integrated into colour sets and arc inscriptions of a CP-net, but is kept separately. This makes it easy to disable this auxiliary information if a CP-net is to be used for another purpose. This paper proposes...

  3. Immunoglobins in mammary secretions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hurley, W L; Theil, Peter Kappel

    2013-01-01

    Immunoglobulins secreted in colostrum and milk by the lactating mammal are major factors providing immune protection to the newborn. Immunoglobulins in mammary secretions represent the cumulative immune response of the lactating animal to exposure to antigenic stimulation that occurs through...... the immunoglobulins found in mammary secretions in the context of their diversity of structure, origin, mechanisms of transfer, and function....

  4. Tubular fluoropolymer arrays with high piezoelectric response

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhukov, Sergey; Eder-Goy, Dagmar; Biethan, Corinna; Fedosov, Sergey; Xu, Bai-Xiang; von Seggern, Heinz

    2018-01-01

    Polymers with electrically charged internal air cavities called ferroelectrets exhibit a pronounced piezoelectric effect and are regarded as soft functional materials suitable for sensor and actuator applications. In this work, a simple method for fabricating piezoelectret arrays with open-tubular channels is introduced. A set of individual fluoroethylenepropylene (FEP) tubes is compressed between two heated metal plates. The squeezed FEP tubes are melted together at +270 °C. The resulting structure is a uniform, multi-tubular, flat array that reveals a strong piezoelectric response after a poling step. The fabricated arrays have a high ratio between piezoelectrically active and non-active areas. The optimal charging voltage and stability of the piezoelectric coefficients with pressures and frequency were experimentally investigated for two specific array structures with wall thickness of 50 and 120 μm. The array fabricated from 50 μm thick FEP tubes reveals a stable and high piezoelectric coefficient of {d}33 = 120-160 pC N-1 with a flat frequency response between 0.1 Hz and 10 kHz for pressures between 1 and 100 kPa. An increase of wall thickness to 120 μm is accompanied by a more than twofold decrease in the piezoelectric coefficient as a result of a simultaneously higher effective array stiffness and lower remanent polarization. The obtained experimental results can be used to optimize the array design with regard to the electromechanical performance.

  5. Rectosigmoid tubular duplication presenting as perineal sepsis in a neonate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhibo; Huang, Ying; Wang, Dajia; Su, Pengjun

    2010-03-01

    Tubular rectal duplication is a very rare congenital anomaly. We report a case of tubular rectal duplication in a newborn baby who presented with perianal sepsis. The diagnosis was confirmed by barium enema, magnetic resonance imaging, and at operation. We performed total mucosectomy through a posterior sagittal incision combined with laparotomy. The patient was doing quite well at 17-month follow-up examination.

  6. Cyclosporine A induces senescence in renal tubular epithelial cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jennings, Paul; Koppelstaetter, Christian; Aydin, Sonia; Abberger, Thomas; Wolf, Anna Maria; Mayer, Gert; Pfaller, Walter

    The nephrotoxic potential of the widely used immunosuppressive agent cyclosporine A (CsA) is well recognized. However, the mechanism of renal tubular toxicity is not yet fully elucidated. Chronic CsA nephropathy and renal organ aging share some clinical features, such as renal fibrosis and tubular

  7. Intrarenal purinergic signaling in the control of renal tubular transport

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prætorius, Helle; Leipziger, Jens Georg

    2010-01-01

    -reaching advances indicate that ATP is often used as a local transmitter for classical sensory transduction. This transmission apparently also applies to sensory functions in the kidney. Locally released ATP is involved in sensing of renal tubular flow or in detecting the distal tubular load of NaCl at the macula...

  8. Forming of Polymeric Tubular Micro-components

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Qin, Yi; Zhao, Jie; Anyasodor, Gerald

    2015-01-01

    platform for the production of functional polymeric tubular micro-components. The chapter gives background on the current market and process development trends, followed by description of materials, process configuration, tool design and machine development for each processing technology as well......This chapter is intended to provide an overview of three nontraditional shaping technologies for the forming of polymeric micro-tubes, which are hot embossing, blow molding, and cross rolling, as well as realization of a process chain and the integration of a modular machine-based manufacturing...... as strategy for integration of the technologies and equipment into a common platform. Finally, potential applications of the technologies and facilities developed are highlighted....

  9. Sunscope natural light systems : tubular skylights

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2010-07-01

    This brochure described a tubular skylight designed by Sunscope Natural Light Systems. The Sunscope is a super-reflective light system in which daylight is reflected down a cylinder to a translucent ceiling fixture that diffuses natural light throughout the room in which it is placed. The Sunscope requires no structure changes, is installed in less than 3 hours, and requires no drywall repairs or repainting. The system eliminates the need for daytime electric lighting, and causes no winter heat losses or summer heat gains. Available in 3 sizes, the Sunscope has no moving parts and is fully maintenance-free. The system was designed for use in commercial and residential applications. 7 figs.

  10. Inherited renal tubular defects with hypokalemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muthukrishnan J

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Bartter′s and Gitelman′s syndrome are two ends of a spectrum of inherited renal tubular disorders that present with hypokalemic metabolic alkalosis of varying severity. Clinical features and associated calcium and magnesium ion abnormalities are used to diagnose these cases after excluding other commoner causes. We report on two cases, the first being a young boy, born of pregnancy complicated by polyhydramnios, who had classical dysmorphic features, polyuria, hypokalemia and hypercalciuria and was diagnosed as having Bartter′s syndrome. The second patient is a lady who had recurrent tetany as the only manifestation of Gitelman′s syndrome, which is an unusual presentation. Potassium replacement with supplementation of other deficient ions led to satisfactory clinical and biochemical response.

  11. An ultrasonic inspection tool for production tubulars

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Newton, K; Martin, R; Ravenscroft, F [AEA Technology, Harwell (United Kingdom)

    1994-06-01

    Advances in ultrasonic technology, high temperature techniques and remote processing power are enabling a new generation of inspection tools to be developed. This paper describes a particular new ultrasonic caliper system, developed by AEA Technology, with the aim of providing improved information about the condition of production tubulars of oil and gas wells. The system is designed to provide enhanced surface area coverage compared to the current devices, which are typically mechanical 'finger' calipers. It also provides a non-contacting measure of corrosion and wear together with direct on-line output and automated data analysis. The new tool is designed to operate in oil and gas, vertical or deviated wells and has the potential for modification to inspect small diameter pipes in topside or other plant. (author)

  12. Cytocompatibility of a silk fibroin tubular scaffold

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Jiannan; Wei, Yali; Yi, Honggen; Liu, Zhiwu; Sun, Dan; Zhao, Huanrong

    2014-01-01

    Regenerated silk fibroin (SF) materials are increasingly used for tissue engineering applications. In order to explore the feasibility of a novel biomimetic silk fibroin tubular scaffold (SFTS) crosslinked by poly(ethylene glycol) diglycidyl ether (PEG-DE), biocompatibility with cells was evaluated. The novel biomimetic design of the SFTS consisted of three distinct layers: a regenerated SF intima, a silk braided media and a regenerated SF adventitia. The SFTS exhibited even silk fibroin penetration throughout the braid, forming a porous layered tube with superior mechanical, permeable and cell adhesion properties that are beneficial to vascular regeneration. Cytotoxicity and cell compatibility were tested on L929 cells and human umbilical vein endothelial cells (EA.hy926). DNA content analysis, scanning electron and confocal microscopies and MTT assay showed no inhibitory effects on DNA replication. Cell morphology, viability and proliferation were good for L929 cells, and satisfactory for EA.hy926 cells. Furthermore, the suture retention strength of the SFTS was about 23 N and the Young's modulus was 0.2–0.3 MPa. Collectively, these data demonstrate that PEG-DE crosslinked SFTS possesses the appropriate cytocompatibility and mechanical properties for use as vascular scaffolds as an alternative to vascular autografts. - Highlights: • A PEG-DE cross-linked small caliber porous silk fibroin tubular scaffold (SFTS) • PEG-DE cross-linked SF film had no inhibitory effect on DNA replication of cells. • Cells cultured on the SFTS showed good morphology, cell viability and proliferative activity. • SFTS would be beneficial to endothelialization. • SFTS had good suture retention strength and flexibility

  13. Quantum net dynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Finkelstein, D.

    1989-01-01

    The quantum net unifies the basic principles of quantum theory and relativity in a quantum spacetime having no ultraviolet infinities, supporting the Dirac equation, and having the usual vacuum as a quantum condensation. A correspondence principle connects nets to Schwinger sources and further unifies the vertical structure of the theory, so that the functions of the many hierarchic levels of quantum field theory (predicate algebra, set theory, topology,hor-ellipsis, quantum dynamics) are served by one in quantum net dynamics

  14. Probabilistic Infinite Secret Sharing

    OpenAIRE

    Csirmaz, László

    2013-01-01

    The study of probabilistic secret sharing schemes using arbitrary probability spaces and possibly infinite number of participants lets us investigate abstract properties of such schemes. It highlights important properties, explains why certain definitions work better than others, connects this topic to other branches of mathematics, and might yield new design paradigms. A probabilistic secret sharing scheme is a joint probability distribution of the shares and the secret together with a colle...

  15. Programming NET Web Services

    CERN Document Server

    Ferrara, Alex

    2007-01-01

    Web services are poised to become a key technology for a wide range of Internet-enabled applications, spanning everything from straight B2B systems to mobile devices and proprietary in-house software. While there are several tools and platforms that can be used for building web services, developers are finding a powerful tool in Microsoft's .NET Framework and Visual Studio .NET. Designed from scratch to support the development of web services, the .NET Framework simplifies the process--programmers find that tasks that took an hour using the SOAP Toolkit take just minutes. Programming .NET

  16. Game Coloured Petri Nets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Westergaard, Michael

    2006-01-01

    This paper introduces the notion of game coloured Petri nets. This allows the modeler to explicitly model what parts of the model comprise the modeled system and what parts are the environment of the modeled system. We give the formal definition of game coloured Petri nets, a means of reachability...... analysis of this net class, and an application of game coloured Petri nets to automatically generate easy-to-understand visualizations of the model by exploiting the knowledge that some parts of the model are not interesting from a visualization perspective (i.e. they are part of the environment...

  17. Authentication Without Secrets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pierson, Lyndon G. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Robertson, Perry J. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2015-11-01

    This work examines a new approach to authentication, which is the most fundamental security primitive that underpins all cyber security protections. Current Internet authentication techniques require the protection of one or more secret keys along with the integrity protection of the algorithms/computations designed to prove possession of the secret without actually revealing it. Protecting a secret requires physical barriers or encryption with yet another secret key. The reason to strive for "Authentication without Secret Keys" is that protecting secrets (even small ones only kept in a small corner of a component or device) is much harder than protecting the integrity of information that is not secret. Promising methods are examined for authentication of components, data, programs, network transactions, and/or individuals. The successful development of authentication without secret keys will enable far more tractable system security engineering for high exposure, high consequence systems by eliminating the need for brittle protection mechanisms to protect secret keys (such as are now protected in smart cards, etc.). This paper is a re-release of SAND2009-7032 with new figures numerous edits.

  18. Sphingomyelin synthases regulate protein trafficking and secretion.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marimuthu Subathra

    Full Text Available Sphingomyelin synthases (SMS1 and 2 represent a class of enzymes that transfer a phosphocholine moiety from phosphatidylcholine onto ceramide thus producing sphingomyelin and diacylglycerol (DAG. SMS1 localizes at the Golgi while SMS2 localizes both at the Golgi and the plasma membrane. Previous studies from our laboratory showed that modulation of SMS1 and, to a lesser extent, of SMS2 affected the formation of DAG at the Golgi apparatus. As a consequence, down-regulation of SMS1 and SMS2 reduced the localization of the DAG-binding protein, protein kinase D (PKD, to the Golgi. Since PKD recruitment to the Golgi has been implicated in cellular secretion through the trans golgi network (TGN, the effect of down-regulation of SMSs on TGN-to-plasma membrane trafficking was studied. Down regulation of either SMS1 or SMS2 significantly retarded trafficking of the reporter protein vesicular stomatitis virus G protein tagged with GFP (VSVG-GFP from the TGN to the cell surface. Inhibition of SMSs also induced tubular protrusions from the trans Golgi network reminiscent of inhibited TGN membrane fission. Since a recent study demonstrated the requirement of PKD activity for insulin secretion in beta cells, we tested the function of SMS in this model. Inhibition of SMS significantly reduced insulin secretion in rat INS-1 cells. Taken together these results provide the first direct evidence that both enzymes (SMS1 and 2 are capable of regulating TGN-mediated protein trafficking and secretion, functions that are compatible with PKD being a down-stream target for SMSs in the Golgi.

  19. Tubular urate transporter gene polymorphisms differentiate patients with gout who have normal and decreased urinary uric acid excretion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres, Rosa J; de Miguel, Eugenio; Bailén, Rebeca; Banegas, José R; Puig, Juan G

    2014-09-01

    Primary gout has been associated with single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) in several tubular urate transporter genes. No study has assessed the association of reabsorption and secretion urate transporter gene SNP with gout in a single cohort of documented primary patients with gout carefully subclassified as normoexcretors or underexcretors. Three reabsorption SNP (SLC22A12/URAT1, SLC2A9/GLUT9, and SLC22A11/OAT4) and 2 secretion transporter SNP (SLC17A1/NPT1 and ABCG2/BRCP) were studied in 104 patients with primary gout and in 300 control subjects. The patients were subclassified into normoexcretors and underexcretors according to their serum and 24-h urinary uric acid levels under strict conditions of dietary control. Compared with control subjects, patients with gout showed different allele distributions of the 5 SNP analyzed. However, the diagnosis of underexcretor was only positively associated with the presence of the T allele of URAT1 rs11231825, the G allele of GLUT9 rs16890979, and the A allele of ABCG2 rs2231142. The association of the A allele of ABCG2 rs2231142 in normoexcretors was 10 times higher than in underexcretors. The C allele of NPT1 rs1165196 was only significantly associated with gout in patients with normal uric acid excretion. Gout with uric acid underexcretion is associated with transporter gene SNP related mainly to tubular reabsorption, whereas uric acid normoexcretion is associated only with tubular secretion SNP. This finding supports the concept of distinctive mechanisms to account for hyperuricemia in patients with gout with reduced or normal uric acid excretion.

  20. The Fourier transform of tubular densities

    KAUST Repository

    Prior, C B; Goriely, A

    2012-01-01

    molecules. We consider tubes of both finite radii and unrestricted radius. When there is overlap of the tube structure the net density is calculated using the super-position principle. The Fourier transform of this density is composed of two expressions, one

  1. Intrarenal purinergic signaling in the control of renal tubular transport

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prætorius, Helle; Leipziger, Jens Georg

    2010-01-01

    Renal tubular epithelial cells receive hormonal input that regulates volume and electrolyte homeostasis. In addition, numerous intrarenal, local signaling agonists have appeared on the stage of renal physiology. One such system is that of intrarenal purinergic signaling. This system involves all......-reaching advances indicate that ATP is often used as a local transmitter for classical sensory transduction. This transmission apparently also applies to sensory functions in the kidney. Locally released ATP is involved in sensing of renal tubular flow or in detecting the distal tubular load of NaCl at the macula...

  2. Perfis tubulares : aspectos arquitetônicos e estruturais.

    OpenAIRE

    Gerken, Fernanda de Sousa

    2003-01-01

    Programa de Pós Graduação em Engenharia Civil. Departamento de Engenharia Civil, Escola de Minas, Universidade Federal de Ouro Preto. O presente trabalho tem como objetivo apresentar uma visão geral da utilização das estruturas tubulares no contexto da evolução das estruturas metálicas em geral, com destaque para o estudo de obras que mostram o estado da arte da construção tubular no Brasil. A utilização dos perfis tubulares estruturais é abordada tanto do ponto de vista da ...

  3. Coloured Petri Nets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Kurt

    1991-01-01

    This paper describes how Coloured Petri Nets (CP-nets) have been developed — from being a promising theoretical model to being a full-fledged language for the design, specification, simulation, validation and implementation of large software systems (and other systems in which human beings and...

  4. Net zero water

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Lindeque, M

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available the national grid. The unfortunate situation with water is that there is no replacement technology for water. Water can be supplied from many different sources. A net zero energy development will move closer to a net zero water development by reducing...

  5. Construction of monophase nets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suarez A, Jose Antonio

    1996-01-01

    The paper refers to the use of monophase loads in commercial residential urbanizations and in small industries, for this reason it is considered unnecessary the construction of three-phase nets. The author makes a historical recount of these nets in Bogota, his capacities, uses and energy savings

  6. Dynamic quantum secret sharing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jia, Heng-Yue; Wen, Qiao-Yan; Gao, Fei; Qin, Su-Juan; Guo, Fen-Zhuo

    2012-01-01

    In this Letter we consider quantum secret sharing (QSS) between a sender and a dynamic agent group, called dynamic quantum secret sharing (DQSS). In the DQSS, the change of the agent group is allowable during the procedure of sharing classical and quantum information. Two DQSS schemes are proposed based on a special kind of entangled state, starlike cluster states. Without redistributing all the shares, the changed agent group can reconstruct the sender's secret by their cooperation. Compared with the previous quantum secret sharing scheme, our schemes are more flexible and suitable for practical applications. -- Highlights: ► We consider quantum secret sharing between a sender and a dynamic agent group, called dynamic quantum secret sharing (DQSS). ► In the DQSS, the change of the agent group is allowable during the procedure of sharing classical and quantum information. ► Two DQSS schemes are proposed based on a special kind of entangled state, starlike cluster states. ► Without redistributing all the shares, the changed agent group can reconstruct the sender's secret by their cooperation. ► Compared with the previous quantum secret sharing scheme, our schemes are more flexible and suitable for practical applications.

  7. Fusion through the NET

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spears, B.

    1987-01-01

    The paper concerns the next generation of fusion machines which are intended to demonstrate the technical viability of fusion. In Europe, the device that will follow on from JET is known as NET - the Next European Torus. If the design programme for NET proceeds, Europe could start to build the machine in 1994. The present JET programme hopes to achieve breakeven in the early 1990's. NET hopes to reach ignition in the next century, and so lay the foundation for a demonstration reactor. A description is given of the technical specifications of the components of NET, including: the first wall, the divertors to protect the wall, the array of magnets that provide the fields containing the plasma, the superconducting magnets, and the shield of the machine. NET's research programme is briefly outlined, including the testing programme to optimise conditions in the machine to achieve ignition, and its safety work. (U.K.)

  8. Roles of Akt and SGK1 in the Regulation of Renal Tubular Transport

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nobuhiko Satoh

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A serine/threonine kinase Akt is a key mediator in various signaling pathways including regulation of renal tubular transport. In proximal tubules, Akt mediates insulin signaling via insulin receptor substrate 2 (IRS2 and stimulates sodium-bicarbonate cotransporter (NBCe1, resulting in increased sodium reabsorption. In insulin resistance, the IRS2 in kidney cortex is exceptionally preserved and may mediate the stimulatory effect of insulin on NBCe1 to cause hypertension in diabetes via sodium retention. Likewise, in distal convoluted tubules and cortical collecting ducts, insulin-induced Akt phosphorylation mediates several hormonal signals to enhance sodium-chloride cotransporter (NCC and epithelial sodium channel (ENaC activities, resulting in increased sodium reabsorption. Serum- and glucocorticoid-inducible kinase 1 (SGK1 mediates aldosterone signaling. Insulin can stimulate SGK1 to exert various effects on renal transporters. In renal cortical collecting ducts, SGK1 regulates the expression level of ENaC through inhibition of its degradation. In addition, SGK1 and Akt cooperatively regulate potassium secretion by renal outer medullary potassium channel (ROMK. Moreover, sodium-proton exchanger 3 (NHE3 in proximal tubules is possibly activated by SGK1. This review focuses on recent advances in understanding of the roles of Akt and SGK1 in the regulation of renal tubular transport.

  9. Scenario analysis of large scale algae production in tubular photobioreactors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Slegers, P.M.; Beveren, van P.J.M.; Wijffels, R.H.; Straten, van G.; Boxtel, van A.J.B.

    2013-01-01

    Microalgae productivity in tubular photobioreactors depends on algae species, location, tube diameter, biomass concentration, distance between tubes and for vertically stacked systems, the number of horizontal tubes per stack. A simulation model for horizontal and vertically stacked horizontal

  10. Hot Firing of a Full Scale Copper Tubular Combustion Chamber

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Cooley, C

    2002-01-01

    This paper describes the chamber design and hot firing test results for a full-scale copper tubular combustion chamber that has future application in a high-thrust, upper-stage expander cycle engine...

  11. Genetics Home Reference: renal tubular acidosis with deafness

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... adults with renal tubular acidosis with deafness have short stature, and many develop kidney stones. The metabolic acidosis ... enlarged vestibular aqueduct, can be seen with medical imaging. The vestibular aqueduct is a bony canal that ...

  12. Tubular forms of papova viruses in human laryngeal papilloma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnold, W

    1979-01-01

    In two cases of recurrent laryngeal papillomatosis tubular forms of papova viruses could be observed. The same material revealed the close relation between nuclear chromatine and the release of particles, as well as a capsomere like substructure of the virions.

  13. A tubular electrode for radiofrequency ablation therapy

    KAUST Repository

    Antunes, Carlos Lemos Lemos Lemos

    2012-07-06

    Purpose – Due to its good mechanical and biocompatibility characteristics, nitinol SEMS is a popular endoprothesis used for relieving stricture problems in hollow organs due to carcinomas. Besides its mechanical application, SEMS can be regarded as well as potential electrode for performing RF ablation therapy on the tumor. The purpose of this work is to perform numerical and experimental analyses in order to characterize the lesion volume induced in biological tissue using this kind of tubular electrode. Design/methodology/approach – Data concerning electrical conductivity and dimension of the damaged tissue after RF ablation procedure were obtained from ex vivo samples. Next, numerical models using 3D finite element method were obtained reassembling the conditions considered at experimentation setup and results were compared. Findings – Numerical and experimental results show that a regular volume of damaged tissue can be obtained considering this type of electrode. Also, results obtained from numerical simulation are close to those obtained by experimentation. Originality/value – SEMSs, commonly used as devices to minimize obstruction problems due to the growth of tumors, may still be considered as an active electrode for RF ablation procedures. A method considering this observation is presented in this paper. Also, numerical simulation can be regarded in this case as a tool for determining the lesion volume.

  14. Inflatable Tubular Structures Rigidized with Foams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tinker, Michael L.; Schnell, Andrew R.

    2010-01-01

    Inflatable tubular structures that have annular cross sections rigidized with foams, and the means of erecting such structures in the field, are undergoing development. Although the development effort has focused on lightweight structural booms to be transported in compact form and deployed in outer space, the principles of design and fabrication are also potentially applicable to terrestrial structures, including components of ultralightweight aircraft, lightweight storage buildings and shelters, lightweight insulation, and sales displays. The use of foams to deploy and harden inflatable structures was first proposed as early as the 1960s, and has been investigated in recent years by NASA, the U.S. Air Force Research Laboratory, industry, and academia. In cases of deployable booms, most of the investigation in recent years has focused on solid cross sections, because they can be constructed relatively easily. However, solid-section foam-filled booms can be much too heavy for some applications. In contrast, booms with annular cross sections according to the present innovation can be tailored to obtain desired combinations of stiffness and weight through choice of diameters, wall thicknesses, and foam densities. By far the most compelling advantage afforded by this innovation is the possibility of drastically reducing weights while retaining or increasing the stiffnesses, relative to comparable booms that have solid foamfilled cross sections. A typical boom according to this innovation includes inner and outer polyimide film sleeves to contain foam that is injected between them during deployment.

  15. Tubular Initial Conditions and Ridge Formation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. S. Borysova

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The 2D azimuth and rapidity structure of the two-particle correlations in relativistic A+A collisions is altered significantly by the presence of sharp inhomogeneities in superdense matter formed in such processes. The causality constraints enforce one to associate the long-range longitudinal correlations observed in a narrow angular interval, the so-called (soft ridge, with peculiarities of the initial conditions of collision process. This study's objective is to analyze whether multiform initial tubular structures, undergoing the subsequent hydrodynamic evolution and gradual decoupling, can form the soft ridges. Motivated by the flux-tube scenarios, the initial energy density distribution contains the different numbers of high density tube-like boost-invariant inclusions that form a bumpy structure in the transverse plane. The influence of various structures of such initial conditions in the most central A+A events on the collective evolution of matter, resulting spectra, angular particle correlations and vn-coefficients is studied in the framework of the hydrokinetic model (HKM.

  16. Hereditary Hypokalemic salt-losing tubular disorders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peters, M.; Konard, M.; Seyberth, H.W.

    2003-01-01

    The inherited hypokalemic tubular disorders are frequently summarized under the heading Bartter Syndrome since they share several clinical and biochemical findings such as renal salt wasting, hypokalemic metabolic alkalosis, normal blood pressure despite hypereninemic hyperaldosteronism and hyperplasia of the juxtaglomerular apparatus. However, careful characterization of the clinical phenotype and correlation with the clinical phenotype and the correlation with the underlying molecular basis justifies the differentiation into at least four distinct disease entities: (i) the hyperprostaglandin E syndrome or antenatal variant of Bartter syndrome (HPS/aBS), which is caused by mutations in either the Na-K-2Cl cotransporter or the potassium channel of the medullary thick ascending limb of Henle's loop; (ii) the HPS/aBS with sensorineural deafness which results from inactivating mutation in the Barttin beta-subunit of the renal chloride channels; (iii) the classic Bartter syndrome caused by mutations in the chloride channel of the distal nephron; and (iv)Gitelman's variant of Bartter syndrome which is caused by mutations of the Na-Cl cotransporter of the distal convoluted tubule. This review will summarize the clinical characteristics of these diseases and progress recently made in the identification of the underlying molecular defects that will hopefully add to the current knowledge of the pathogenesis of these diseases. (author)

  17. Modeling constrained sintering of bi-layered tubular structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tadesse Molla, Tesfaye; Kothanda Ramachandran, Dhavanesan; Ni, De Wei

    2015-01-01

    Constrained sintering of tubular bi-layered structures is being used in the development of various technologies. Densification mismatch between the layers making the tubular bi-layer can generate stresses, which may create processing defects. An analytical model is presented to describe the densi...... and thermo-mechanical analysis. Results from the analytical model are found to agree well with finite element simulations as well as measurements from sintering experiment....

  18. Electrolyte composition of renal tubular cells in gentamicin nephrotoxicity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsuda, O.; Beck, F.X.; Doerge, A.T.; Thurau, K.

    1988-01-01

    The effect of long-term gentamicin administration on sodium, potassium, chloride and phosphorus concentrations was studied in individual rat renal tubular cells using electron microprobe analysis. Histological damage was apparent only in proximal tubular cells. The extent of damage was only mild after 7 days of gentamicin administration (60 mg/kg body wt/day) but much more pronounced after 10 days. GFR showed a progressive decline during gentamicin treatment. In non-necrotic proximal tubular cells, sodium was increased from 14.6 +/- 0.3 (mean +/- SEM) in controls to 20.6 +/- 0.4 after 7 and 22.0 +/- 0.8 mmol/kg wet wt after 10 days of gentamicin administration. Chloride concentration was higher only after 10 days (20.6 +/- 0.6 vs. 17.3 +/- 0.2 mmol/kg wet wt). Both cell potassium and phosphorus concentrations were diminished by 6 and 15, and by 8 and 25 mmol/kg wet wt after 7 and 10 days of treatment, respectively. In contrast, no major alterations in distal tubular cell electrolyte concentrations could be observed after either 7 or 10 days of gentamicin administration. As in proximal tubular cells, distal tubular cell phosphorus concentrations were, however, lowered by gentamicin treatment. These results clearly indicate that gentamicin exerts its main effect on proximal tubular cells. Decreased potassium and increased sodium and chloride concentrations were observed in proximal tubular cells exhibiting only mild histological damage prior to the onset of advanced tissue injury. Necrotic cells, on the other hand, showed widely variable intracellular electrolyte concentration patterns

  19. Net Zero Energy Buildings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marszal, Anna Joanna; Bourrelle, Julien S.; Gustavsen, Arild

    2010-01-01

    and identify possible renewable energy supply options which may be considered in calculations. Finally, the gap between the methodology proposed by each organisation and their respective national building code is assessed; providing an overview of the possible changes building codes will need to undergo......The international cooperation project IEA SHC Task 40 / ECBCS Annex 52 “Towards Net Zero Energy Solar Buildings”, attempts to develop a common understanding and to set up the basis for an international definition framework of Net Zero Energy Buildings (Net ZEBs). The understanding of such buildings...

  20. Getting to Net Zero

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2016-09-01

    The technology necessary to build net zero energy buildings (NZEBs) is ready and available today, however, building to net zero energy performance levels can be challenging. Energy efficiency measures, onsite energy generation resources, load matching and grid interaction, climatic factors, and local policies vary from location to location and require unique methods of constructing NZEBs. It is recommended that Components start looking into how to construct and operate NZEBs now as there is a learning curve to net zero construction and FY 2020 is just around the corner.

  1. Pro NET Best Practices

    CERN Document Server

    Ritchie, Stephen D

    2011-01-01

    Pro .NET Best Practices is a practical reference to the best practices that you can apply to your .NET projects today. You will learn standards, techniques, and conventions that are sharply focused, realistic and helpful for achieving results, steering clear of unproven, idealistic, and impractical recommendations. Pro .NET Best Practices covers a broad range of practices and principles that development experts agree are the right ways to develop software, which includes continuous integration, automated testing, automated deployment, and code analysis. Whether the solution is from a free and

  2. Luminal nucleotides are tonic inhibitors of renal tubular transport

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leipziger, Jens Georg

    2011-01-01

    PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Extracellular ATP is an essential local signaling molecule in all organ systems. In the kidney, purinergic signaling is involved in an array of functions and this review highlights those of relevance for renal tubular transport. RECENT FINDINGS: Purinergic receptors are express...... discovered as an important signaling compartment in which local purinergic signaling determines an inhibitory tone for renal tubular transport. Blocking components of this system leads to tubular hyper-absorption, volume retention and elevated blood pressure.......PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Extracellular ATP is an essential local signaling molecule in all organ systems. In the kidney, purinergic signaling is involved in an array of functions and this review highlights those of relevance for renal tubular transport. RECENT FINDINGS: Purinergic receptors are expressed...... in all renal tubular segments and their stimulation generally leads to transport inhibition. Recent evidence has identified the tubular lumen as a restricted space for purinergic signaling. The concentrations of ATP in the luminal fluids are sufficiently high to inflict a tonic inhibition of renal...

  3. Incretin secretion: direct mechanisms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Balk-Møller, Emilie; Holst, Jens Juul; Kuhre, Rune Ehrenreich

    2014-01-01

    The incretin hormones glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP) and glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) are secreted from gastro-intestinal K- and L-cells, respectively, and play an important role in post-prandial blood glucose regulation. They do this by direct stimulation of the pancreatic β...... enzyme responsible for incretin degradation (dipeptidyl peptidase-4) is inhibited (drugs are already on the market) while the secretion of endogenous GLP-1 secretion is stimulated at the same time may prove particularly rewarding. In this section we review current knowledge on the mechanisms for direct...

  4. Angiotensin II and Renal Tubular Ion Transport

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia Valles

    2005-01-01

    Evidence for the regulation of H+-ATPase activity in vivo and in vitro by trafficking/exocytosis has been provided. An additional level of H+-ATPase regulation via protein synthesis may be important as well. Recently, we have shown that both aldosterone and angiotensin II provide such a mechanism of regulation in vivo at the level of the medullary collecting tubule. Interestingly, in this part of the nephron, the effects of aldosterone and angiotensin II are not sodium dependent, whereas in the cortical collecting duct, both aldosterone and angiotensin II, by contrast, affect H+ secretion by sodium-dependent mechanisms.

  5. PhysioNet

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The PhysioNet Resource is intended to stimulate current research and new investigations in the study of complex biomedical and physiologic signals. It offers free...

  6. NetSig

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Horn, Heiko; Lawrence, Michael S; Chouinard, Candace R

    2018-01-01

    Methods that integrate molecular network information and tumor genome data could complement gene-based statistical tests to identify likely new cancer genes; but such approaches are challenging to validate at scale, and their predictive value remains unclear. We developed a robust statistic (Net......Sig) that integrates protein interaction networks with data from 4,742 tumor exomes. NetSig can accurately classify known driver genes in 60% of tested tumor types and predicts 62 new driver candidates. Using a quantitative experimental framework to determine in vivo tumorigenic potential in mice, we found that Net......Sig candidates induce tumors at rates that are comparable to those of known oncogenes and are ten-fold higher than those of random genes. By reanalyzing nine tumor-inducing NetSig candidates in 242 patients with oncogene-negative lung adenocarcinomas, we find that two (AKT2 and TFDP2) are significantly amplified...

  7. Blanket testing in NET

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chazalon, M.; Daenner, W.; Libin, B.

    1989-01-01

    The testing stages in NET for the performance assessment of the various breeding blanket concepts developed at the present time in Europe for DEMO (LiPb and ceramic blankets) and the requirements upon NET to perform these tests are reviewed. Typical locations available in NET for blanket testing are the central outboard segments and the horizontal ports of in-vessel sectors. These test positions will be connectable with external test loops. The number of test loops (helium, water, liquid metal) will be such that each major class of blankets can be tested in NET. The test positions, the boundary conditions and the external test loops are identified and the requirements for test blankets are summarized (author). 6

  8. Programming NET 35

    CERN Document Server

    Liberty, Jesse

    2009-01-01

    Bestselling author Jesse Liberty and industry expert Alex Horovitz uncover the common threads that unite the .NET 3.5 technologies, so you can benefit from the best practices and architectural patterns baked into the new Microsoft frameworks. The book offers a Grand Tour" of .NET 3.5 that describes how the principal technologies can be used together, with Ajax, to build modern n-tier and service-oriented applications. "

  9. NET SALARY ADJUSTMENT

    CERN Multimedia

    Finance Division

    2001-01-01

    On 15 June 2001 the Council approved the correction of the discrepancy identified in the net salary adjustment implemented on 1st January 2001 by retroactively increasing the scale of basic salaries to achieve the 2.8% average net salary adjustment approved in December 2000. We should like to inform you that the corresponding adjustment will be made to your July salary. Full details of the retroactive adjustments will consequently be shown on your pay slip.

  10. Secret quality of love.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strachan-Hall, Elaine

    2016-09-01

    Many of us can recite three Donabedian dimensions of the quality of care of structure, process and outcome. Recently, I was introduced to another of Avedis Donabedian's quotes about the 'secret quality of love'.

  11. Six secrets of champagne

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liger-Belair, Gérard

    2015-12-01

    Popping open a bottle of champagne is one of life's great delights, but how much do you really know about the science behind this greatest of wines? Gérard Liger-Belair reveals his six favourite champagne secrets.

  12. Toxicological Significance of Renal Bcrp: Another Potential Transporter in the Elimination of Mercuric Ions from Proximal Tubular Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bridges, Christy C.; Zalups, Rudolfs K.; Joshee, Lucy

    2015-01-01

    Secretion of inorganic mercury (Hg2+) from proximal tubular cells into the tubular lumen has been shown to involve the multidrug resistance-associated protein 2 (Mrp2). Considering similarities in localization and substrate specificity between Mrp2 and the breast cancer resistance protein (Bcrp), we hypothesize that Bcrp may also play a role in the proximal tubular secretion of mercuric species. In order to test this hypothesis, the uptake of Hg2+ was examined initially using inside-out membrane vesicles containing Bcrp. The results of these studies suggest that Bcrp may be capable of transporting certain conjugates of Hg2+. To further characterize the role of Bcrp in the handling of mercuric ions and in the induction of Hg2+-induced nephropathy, Sprague-Dawley and Bcrp knockout (bcrp−/−) rats were exposed intravenously to a non-nephrotoxic (0.5 μmol • kg−1), a moderately nephrotoxic (1.5 μmol • kg−1) or a significantly nephrotoxic (2.0 μmol • kg−1) dose of HgCl2. In general, the accumulation of Hg2+ was greater in organs of bcrp−/− rats than in Sprague-Dawley rats, suggesting that Bcrp may play a role in the export of Hg2+ from target cells. Within the kidney, cellular injury and necrosis was more severe in bcrp−/− rats than in controls. The pattern of necrosis, which was localized in the inner cortex and the outer stripe of the outer medulla was significantly different from that observed in Mrp2-deficient animals. These findings suggest that Bcrp may be involved in the cellular export of select mercuric species and that its role in this export may differ from that of Mrp2. PMID:25868844

  13. Fatigue Life of High-Strength Steel Offshore Tubular Joints

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Rasmus Ingomar; Agerskov, Henning; Lopez Martinez, Luis

    1996-01-01

    In the present investigation, the fatigue life of tubular joints in offshore steel structures is studied. Two test series on full-scale tubular joints have been carried through. One series was on joints in conventional offshore structural steel, and the other series was on joints in high-strength......In the present investigation, the fatigue life of tubular joints in offshore steel structures is studied. Two test series on full-scale tubular joints have been carried through. One series was on joints in conventional offshore structural steel, and the other series was on joints in high......-strength steel with a yield stress of 820-830 MPa and with high weldability and toughness properties. The test specimens of both series had the same geometry. The present report concentrates on the results obtained in the investigation on the high-strength steel tubular joints.The test specimens were fabricated...... from Ø 324-610 mm tubes, and the joints were loaded in in-plane bending. Both fatigue tests under constant amplitude loading and tests with a stochastic loading that is realistic in relation to offshore structures, are included in the investigation.A comparison between constant amplitude and variable...

  14. Proximal tubular dysfunction as an indicator of chronic graft dysfunction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.O.S. Câmara

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available New strategies are being devised to limit the impact of renal sclerosis on graft function. Individualization of immunosuppression, specifically the interruption of calcineurin-inhibitors has been tried in order to promote better graft survival once chronic graft dysfunction has been established. However, the long-term impact of these approaches is still not totally clear. Nevertheless, patients at higher risk for tubular atrophy and interstitial fibrosis (TA/IF development should be carefully monitored for tubular function as well as glomerular performance. Since tubular-interstitial impairment is an early event in TA/IF pathogenesis and associated with graft function, it seems reasonable that strategies directed at assessing tubular structural integrity and function would yield important functional and prognostic data. The measurement of small proteins in urine such as α-1-microglobulin, N-acetyl-beta-D-glucosaminidase, alpha/pi S-glutathione transferases, β-2 microglobulin, and retinol binding protein is associated with proximal tubular cell dysfunction. Therefore, its straightforward assessment could provide a powerful tool in patient monitoring and ongoing clinical assessment of graft function, ultimately helping to facilitate longer patient and graft survival associated with good graft function.

  15. Thermodynamic analysis of an organic rankine cycle using a tubular solar cavity receiver

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loni, R.; Kasaeian, A.B.; Mahian, O.; Sahin, A.Z.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • A non-regenerative Organic Rankine Cycle has been analyzed. • R113, R601, R11, R141b, Ethanol and Methanol were used as the working fluid. • A parabolic dish concentrator with a square prismatic cavity receiver was used. • Thermal efficiency, second law efficiency, and net power output were analyzed. - Abstract: In this study, a non-regenerative Organic Rankine Cycle (ORC) has been thermodynamically analyzed under superheated conditions, constant evaporator pressure of 2.5 MPa, and condenser temperature of 300 K. R113, R601, R11, R141b, Ethanol and Methanol were employed as the working fluid. A parabolic dish concentrator with a square prismatic tubular cavity receiver was used as the heat source of the ORC system. The effects of the tube diameter, the cavity depth, and the solar irradiation on the thermodynamic performance of the selected working fluid were investigated. Some thermodynamic parameters were analyzed in this study. These thermodynamic parameters included the thermal efficiency, second law efficiency, total irreversibility, availability ratio, mass flow rate, and net power output. The results showed that, among the selected working fluids, methanol had the highest thermal efficiency, net power output, second law efficiency, and availability ratio in the range of turbine inlet temperature (TIT) considered. On the other hand, methanol had the smallest total irreversibility in the same range of TIT. The results showed also that mass flow rate and consequently the net power output increased for higher solar irradiation, smaller tube diameter, and for the case of cubical cavity receiver (i.e. cavity depth h equal to the receiver aperture side length a).

  16. Biological Petri Nets

    CERN Document Server

    Wingender, E

    2011-01-01

    It was suggested some years ago that Petri nets might be well suited to modeling metabolic networks, overcoming some of the limitations encountered by the use of systems employing ODEs (ordinary differential equations). Much work has been done since then which confirms this and demonstrates the usefulness of this concept for systems biology. Petri net technology is not only intuitively understood by scientists trained in the life sciences, it also has a robust mathematical foundation and provides the required degree of flexibility. As a result it appears to be a very promising approach to mode

  17. Reconfiguration of distribution nets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Latorre Bayona, Gerardo; Angarita Marquez, Jorge Luis

    2000-01-01

    Starting of the location of the reconfiguration problem inside the context of the operation of distribution nets, of the quality indicators definition and of the presentation of the alternatives more used for reduction of technical losses, they are related diverse reconfiguration methodologies proposed in the technical literature, pointing out their three principals limitations; also are presents the results of lost obtained starting from simulation works carried out in distribution circuits of the ESSA ESP, which permitting to postulate the reconfiguration of nets like an excellent alternative to reduce technical losses

  18. NET system integration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farfaletti-Casali, F.; Mitchell, N.; Salpietro, E.; Buzzi, U.; Gritzmann, P.

    1985-01-01

    The NET system integration procedure is the process by which the requirements of the various Tokamak machine design areas are brought together to form a compatible machine layout. Each design area produces requirements which generally allow components to be built at minimum cost and operate with minimum technical risk, and the final machine assembly should be achieved with minimum departure from these optimum designs. This is carried out in NET by allowing flexibility in the maintenance and access methods to the machine internal components which must be regularly replaced by remote handling, in segmentation of these internal components and in the number of toroidal field coils

  19. Emergent patterns of collective cell migration under tubular confinement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xi, Wang; Sonam, Surabhi; Beng Saw, Thuan; Ladoux, Benoit; Teck Lim, Chwee

    2017-11-15

    Collective epithelial behaviors are essential for the development of lumens in organs. However, conventional assays of planar systems fail to replicate cell cohorts of tubular structures that advance in concerted ways on out-of-plane curved and confined surfaces, such as ductal elongation in vivo. Here, we mimic such coordinated tissue migration by forming lumens of epithelial cell sheets inside microtubes of 1-10 cell lengths in diameter. We show that these cell tubes reproduce the physiological apical-basal polarity, and have actin alignment, cell orientation, tissue organization, and migration modes that depend on the extent of tubular confinement and/or curvature. In contrast to flat constraint, the cell sheets in a highly constricted smaller microtube demonstrate slow motion with periodic relaxation, but fast overall movement in large microtubes. Altogether, our findings provide insights into the emerging migratory modes for epithelial migration and growth under tubular confinement, which are reminiscent of the in vivo scenario.

  20. Power generation characteristics of tubular type SOFC by wet process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tajiri, H.; Nakayama, T. [Kyushu Electric Power Company, Inc., Fukuoka (Japan); Kuroishi, M. [TOTO Ltd., Kanagawa (Japan)] [and others

    1996-12-31

    The development of a practical solid oxide fuel cell requires improvement of a cell performance and a cell manufacturing technology suitable for the mass production. In particular tubular type SOFC is thought to be superior in its reliability because its configuration can avoid the high temperature sealing and reduce the thermal stress resulting from the contact between cells. The authors have fabricated a tubular cell with an air electrode support by a wet processing technique, which is suitable for mass production in improving a power density. To enhance the power output of the module, the Integrated Tubular-Type (ITT) cell has been developed. This paper reports the performance of the single cells with various active anode areas and the bundle with series-connected 9-ITT cells with an active anode area of 840 cm{sup 2}.

  1. Effect of corrosion on the buckling capacity of tubular members

    Science.gov (United States)

    Øyasæter, F. H.; Aeran, A.; Siriwardane, S. C.; Mikkelsen, O.

    2017-12-01

    Offshore installations are subjected to harsh marine environment and often have damages from corrosion. Several experimental and numerical studies were performed in the past to estimate buckling capacity of corroded tubular members. However, these studies were either based on limited experimental tests or numerical analyses of few cases resulting in semi-empirical relations. Also, there are no guidelines and recommendations in the currently available design standards. To fulfil this research gap, a new formula is proposed to estimate the residual strength of tubular members considering corrosion and initial geometrical imperfections. The proposed formula is verified with results from finite element analyses performed on several members and for varying corrosion patch parameters. The members are selected to represent the most relevant Eurocode buckling curve for tubular members. It is concluded that corrosion reduces the buckling capacity significantly and the proposed formula can be easily applied by practicing engineers without performing detailed numerical analyses.

  2. HER-2 amplification in tubular carcinoma of the breast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oakley, Gerard J; Tubbs, Raymond R; Crowe, Joseph; Sebek, Bruce; Budd, G Thomas; Patrick, Rebecca J; Procop, Gary W

    2006-07-01

    The prognostic and therapeutic implications of HER-2 gene amplification and estrogen and progesterone receptor status in breast cancer are well described. To address the relative paucity of information concerning HER-2 amplification for tubular carcinomas, we assessed the frequency of gene amplification in 55 tubular carcinomas of the breast from 54 patients, 5 of which had axillary node metastases. The HER-2 gene copy number was assessed by fluorescence in situ hybridization for the majority of tumors analyzed, whereas estrogen and progesterone receptor status was achieved by immunohistochemical analysis. HER-2 gene amplification was not observed in any of the tumors examined, and most were estrogen receptor-positive. This HER-2 gene amplification frequency was significantly lower than the frequency of gene amplification previously reported for all invasive ductal carcinoma of no special type (P < .01). HER-2 gene amplification likely occurs infrequently, or not at all, in tubular carcinomas of the breast, whereas most express estrogen receptors.

  3. MODELING OF TUBULAR ELECTROCHEMICAL REACTOR FOR DYE REMOVAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. VIJAYAKUMAR

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present investigation is to model a tubular electrochemical reactor for the treatment of synthetic dye wastewater. The tubular reactor was modeled and solved by finite difference method. For the model solution, the column was divided into 11 nodes in the axial direction and the variation in the radial direction has been neglected. An initial dye concentration of 200 mg L-1was taken in the reservoir. The reactor was operated in a batch with recirculation operation. Based on preliminary experiments all parameters have been optimized. The model simulation is compared with the experimental value and it is observed that the model fairly matches well with the experiment. The modeling of tubular electrochemical reactors for dye waste water treatment could be useful in the design and scale up of electrochemical process.

  4. Coloured Petri Nets

    CERN Document Server

    Jensen, Kurt

    2009-01-01

    Coloured Petri Nets (CPN) is a graphical language for modelling and validating concurrent and distributed systems, and other systems in which concurrency plays a major role. This book introduces the constructs of the CPN modelling language and presents the related analysis methods. It provides a comprehensive road map for the practical use of CPN.

  5. Safety nets or straitjackets?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ilsøe, Anna

    2012-01-01

    Does regulation of working hours at national and sector level impose straitjackets, or offer safety nets to employees seeking working time flexibility? This article compares legislation and collective agreements in the metal industries of Denmark, Germany and the USA. The industry has historically...

  6. Neuronal nets in robotics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jimenez Sanchez, Raul

    1999-01-01

    The paper gives a generic idea of the solutions that the neuronal nets contribute to the robotics. The advantages and the inconveniences are exposed that have regarding the conventional techniques. It also describe the more excellent applications as the pursuit of trajectories, the positioning based on images, the force control or of the mobile robots management, among others

  7. Net4Care platform

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2012-01-01

    , that in turn enables general practitioners and clinical staff to view observations. Use the menus above to explore the site's information resources. To get started, follow the short Hello, World! tutorial. The Net4Care project is funded by The Central Denmark Region and EU via Caretech Innovation....

  8. Coloured Petri Nets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Kurt; Kristensen, Lars Michael

    Coloured Petri Nets (CPN) is a graphical language for modelling and validating concurrent and distributed systems, and other systems in which concurrency plays a major role. The development of such systems is particularly challenging because of inherent intricacies like possible nondeterminism an...

  9. Game Theory .net.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shor, Mikhael

    2003-01-01

    States making game theory relevant and accessible to students is challenging. Describes the primary goal of GameTheory.net is to provide interactive teaching tools. Indicates the site strives to unite educators from economics, political and computer science, and ecology by providing a repository of lecture notes and tests for courses using…

  10. BacillusRegNet

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Misirli, Goksel; Hallinan, Jennifer; Röttger, Richard

    2014-01-01

    As high-throughput technologies become cheaper and easier to use, raw sequence data and corresponding annotations for many organisms are becoming available. However, sequence data alone is not sufficient to explain the biological behaviour of organisms, which arises largely from complex molecular...... the associated BacillusRegNet website (http://bacillus.ncl.ac.uk)....

  11. Boom Booom Net Radio

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grimshaw, Mark Nicholas; Yong, Louisa; Dobie, Ian

    1999-01-01

    of an existing Internet radio station; Boom Booom Net Radio. Whilst necessity dictates some use of technology-related terminology, wherever possible we have endeavoured to keep such jargon to a minimum and to either explain it in the text or to provide further explanation in the appended glossary....

  12. Type VI secretion system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salomon, Dor; Orth, Kim

    2015-03-30

    Bacteria employ a variety of tools to survive in a competitive environment. Salomon and Orth describe one such tool-the Type 6 Secretion Systems used by bacteria to deliver a variety of toxins into competing cells. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Salivary Gland Secretion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorman, H. L.; And Others

    1981-01-01

    Describes materials and procedures for an experiment utilizing a live dog to demonstrate: (1) physiology of the salivary gland; (2) parasympathetic control of the salivary gland; (3) influence of varying salivary flow rates on sodium and potassium ions, osmolarity and pH; and (4) salivary secretion as an active process. (DS)

  14. 'Secret' Shuttle payloads revealed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell, Joel W.

    1993-05-01

    A secret military payload carried by the orbiter Discovery launched on January 24 1985 is discussed. Secondary payloads on the military Shuttle flights are briefly reviewed. Most of the military middeck experiments were sponsored by the Space Test Program established at the Pentagon to oversee all Defense Department space research projects.

  15. Inappropriate Antidiuretic Hormone Secretion

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1974-06-08

    Jun 8, 1974 ... with Addison's disease, diarrhoea or salt-losing nephritis. (asymptomatic hyponatraemia).~ Schwartz et al.3 stud;ed two patients with anaplastic bronchus carcinoma and hyponatraemia in 1957, and they suggested that there was an inappropriate secretion of antidiuretic hormone (ADH). It is now well ...

  16. Physiology of bile secretion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esteller, Alejandro

    2008-10-07

    The formation of bile depends on the structural and functional integrity of the bile-secretory apparatus and its impairment, in different situations, results in the syndrome of cholestasis. The structural bases that permit bile secretion as well as various aspects related with its composition and flow rate in physiological conditions will first be reviewed. Canalicular bile is produced by polarized hepatocytes that hold transporters in their basolateral (sinusoidal) and apical (canalicular) plasma membrane. This review summarizes recent data on the molecular determinants of this primary bile formation. The major function of the biliary tree is modification of canalicular bile by secretory and reabsorptive processes in bile-duct epithelial cells (cholangiocytes) as bile passes through bile ducts. The mechanisms of fluid and solute transport in cholangiocytes will also be discussed. In contrast to hepatocytes where secretion is constant and poorly controlled, cholangiocyte secretion is regulated by hormones and nerves. A short section dedicated to these regulatory mechanisms of bile secretion has been included. The aim of this revision was to set the bases for other reviews in this series that will be devoted to specific issues related with biliary physiology and pathology.

  17. A Public Secret

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bregnbæk, Susanne

    2011-01-01

    This article is based on anthropological fieldwork undertaken at two elite universities in Beijing. It addresses the paradoxical situation of the many instances of suicide among Chinese elite university students in Beijing, which constitute a public secret. The pressure of education weighs heavily...

  18. MONA Implementation Secrets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klarlund, Nils; Møller, Anders; Schwartzbach, Michael Ignatieff

    2002-01-01

    a period of six years. Compared to the first naive version, the present tool is faster by several orders of magnitude. This speedup is obtained from many different contributions working on all levels of the compilation and execution of formulas. We present a selection of implementation "secrets" that have...

  19. Toxicological significance of renal Bcrp: Another potential transporter in the elimination of mercuric ions from proximal tubular cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bridges, Christy C., E-mail: bridges_cc@mercer.edu; Zalups, Rudolfs K.; Joshee, Lucy

    2015-06-01

    Secretion of inorganic mercury (Hg{sup 2+}) from proximal tubular cells into the tubular lumen has been shown to involve the multidrug resistance-associated protein 2 (Mrp2). Considering similarities in localization and substrate specificity between Mrp2 and the breast cancer resistance protein (Bcrp), we hypothesize that Bcrp may also play a role in the proximal tubular secretion of mercuric species. In order to test this hypothesis, the uptake of Hg{sup 2+} was examined initially using inside-out membrane vesicles containing Bcrp. The results of these studies suggest that Bcrp may be capable of transporting certain conjugates of Hg{sup 2+}. To further characterize the role of Bcrp in the handling of mercuric ions and in the induction of Hg{sup 2+}-induced nephropathy, Sprague–Dawley and Bcrp knockout (bcrp{sup −/−}) rats were exposed intravenously to a non-nephrotoxic (0.5 μmol·kg{sup −1}), a moderately nephrotoxic (1.5 μmol·kg{sup −1}) or a significantly nephrotoxic (2.0 μmol·kg{sup −1}) dose of HgCl{sub 2}. In general, the accumulation of Hg{sup 2+} was greater in organs of bcrp{sup −/−} rats than in Sprague–Dawley rats, suggesting that Bcrp may play a role in the export of Hg{sup 2+} from target cells. Within the kidney, cellular injury and necrosis was more severe in bcrp{sup −/−} rats than in controls. The pattern of necrosis, which was localized in the inner cortex and the outer stripe of the outer medulla, was significantly different from that observed in Mrp2-deficient animals. These findings suggest that Bcrp may be involved in the cellular export of select mercuric species and that its role in this export may differ from that of Mrp2. - Highlights: • Bcrp may mediate transport of mercury out of proximal tubular cells. • Hg-induced nephropathy was more severe in Bcrp knockout rats. • Bcrp and Mrp2 may differ in their ability to transport Hg.

  20. Wrapped up in Covers: Preschoolers' Secrets and Secret Hiding Places

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corson, Kimberly; Colwell, Malinda J.; Bell, Nancy J.; Trejos-Castillo, Elizabeth

    2014-01-01

    In this qualitative study, interviews about children's secret hiding places were conducted with 3-5-year-olds (n?=?17) in a university sponsored preschool programme using art narratives. Since prior studies indicate that children understand the concept of a secret as early as five and that they associate secrets with hiding places, the purpose of…

  1. SolNet

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jordan, Ulrike; Vajen, Klaus; Bales, Chris

    2014-01-01

    -accompanying Master courses, placements of internships, and PhD scholarship projects. A new scholarship project, “SHINE”, was launched in autumn 2013 in the frame work of the Marie Curie program of the European Union (Initial Training Network, ITN). 13 PhD-scholarships on solar district heating, solar heat......SolNet, founded in 2006, is the first coordinated International PhD education program on Solar Thermal Engineering. The SolNet network is coordinated by the Institute of Thermal Engineering at Kassel University, Germany. The network offers PhD courses on solar heating and cooling, conference...... for industrial processes, as well as sorption stores and materials started in December 2013. Additionally, the project comprises a training program with five PhD courses and several workshops on solar thermal engineering that will be open also for other PhD students working in the field. The research projects...

  2. Cultivation of micro-algae in closed tubular reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gudin, C.; Bernard, A.; Chaumont, D.

    1983-11-01

    A description is presented of the three culture pilot utilities in activity under natural light, including glass tubular solar collector (30 mm diameter) in which the microalgae culture circulates. The utility is controled automatically (thermal regulation, gaseous transfers, continuous culture organization). The tests were conducted for the production of polysaccharides (Porphyridium cruentum, chlamydomonas mexicana) or hydrocarbons (Botriococcus braunii).

  3. Modeling of heat transfer in wall-cooled tubular reactors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koning, G.W.; Westerterp, K.R.

    1999-01-01

    In a pilot scale wall-cooled tubular reactor, temperature profiles have been measured with and without reaction. As a model reaction oxidation of carbon monoxide in air over a copper chromite catalyst has been used. The kinetics of this reaction have been determined separately in two kinetic

  4. The H^{-1}-norm of tubular neighbourhoods of curves

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gennip, van Y.; Peletier, M.A.

    2011-01-01

    We study the H^{-1}-norm of the function 1 on tubular neighbourhoods of curves in R^2. We take the limit of small thickness epsilon, and we prove two different asymptotic results. The first is an asymptotic development for a fixed curve in the limit epsilon to 0, containing contributions from the

  5. Hemodynamic and tubular changes induced by contrast media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caiazza, Antonella; Russo, Luigi; Sabbatini, Massimo; Russo, Domenico

    2014-01-01

    The incidence of acute kidney injury induced by contrast media (CI-AKI) is the third cause of AKI in hospitalized patients. Contrast media cause relevant alterations both in renal hemodynamics and in renal tubular cell function that lead to CI-AKI. The vasoconstriction of intrarenal vasculature is the main hemodynamic change induced by contrast media; the vasoconstriction is accompanied by a cascade of events leading to ischemia and reduction of glomerular filtration rate. Cytotoxicity of contrast media causes apoptosis of tubular cells with consequent formation of casts and worsening of ischemia. There is an interplay between the negative effects of contrast media on renal hemodynamics and on tubular cell function that leads to activation of renin-angiotensin system and increased production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) within the kidney. Production of ROS intensifies cellular hypoxia through endothelial dysfunction and alteration of mechanisms regulating tubular cells transport. The physiochemical characteristics of contrast media play a critical role in the incidence of CI-AKI. Guidelines suggest the use of either isoosmolar or low-osmolar contrast media rather than high-osmolar contrast media particularly in patients at increased risk of CI-AKI. Older age, presence of atherosclerosis, congestive heart failure, chronic renal disease, nephrotoxic drugs, and diuretics may multiply the risk of CI-AKI.

  6. Elevated oxidized glutathione in cystinotic proximal tubular epithelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilmer, Martijn J G; de Graaf-Hess, Adriana; Blom, Henk J; Dijkman, Henry B P M; Monnens, Leo A; van den Heuvel, Lambertus P; Levtchenko, Elena N

    2005-11-18

    Cystinosis, the most frequent cause of inborn Fanconi syndrome, is characterized by the lysosomal cystine accumulation, caused by mutations in the CTNS gene. To elucidate the pathogenesis of cystinosis, we cultured proximal tubular cells from urine of cystinotic patients (n = 9) and healthy controls (n = 9), followed by immortalization with human papilloma virus (HPV E6/E7). Obtained cell lines displayed basolateral polarization, alkaline phosphatase activity, and presence of aminopeptidase N (CD-13) and megalin, confirming their proximal tubular origin. Cystinotic cell lines exhibited elevated cystine levels (0.86 +/- 0.95 nmol/mg versus 0.09 +/- 0.01 nmol/mg protein in controls, p = 0.03). Oxidized glutathione was elevated in cystinotic cells (1.16 +/- 0.83 nmol/mg versus 0.29 +/- 0.18 nmol/mg protein, p = 0.04), while total glutathione, free cysteine, and ATP contents were normal in these cells. In conclusion, elevated oxidized glutathione in cystinotic proximal tubular epithelial cell lines suggests increased oxidative stress, which may contribute to tubular dysfunction in cystinosis.

  7. Tubularized incised plate technique for recurrent hypospadias: a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    management of recurrent hypospadias. Summary background ... The potential advantages of tubularized incised plate .... after a mean duration of 4.9 ± 3.1 years from the previous repair (Table 2). .... erection and the risk of infection, especially in patients older than 15 .... However, previous surgery often limits the availability ...

  8. Modeling of Unidirectional-Overloaded Transition in Catalytic Tubular Microjets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klingner, Anke; Khalil, Islam S. M.; Magdanz, Veronika; Fomin, Vladimir M.; Schmidt, Oliver G.; Misra, Sarthak

    2017-01-01

    A numerical time-resolved model is presented for predicting the transition between unidirectional and overloaded motion of catalytic tubular microjets (Ti/Fe/Pt rolled-up microtubes) in an aqueous solution of hydrogen peroxide. Unidirectional movement is achieved by periodic ejection of gas bubbles

  9. Characterization of Foam Catalysts as Packing for Tubular Reactors.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Lali, Farzad

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 105, JUL 2016 (2016), s. 1-9 ISSN 0255-2701 Institutional support: RVO:67985858 Keywords : overall mass transfer * foam catalyst * tubular reactor Subject RIV: CI - Industrial Chemistry, Chemical Engineering Impact factor: 2.234, year: 2016

  10. Importance of early audiologic assessment in distal renal tubular acidosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth Norgett

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Anand P Swayamprakasam1, Elizabeth Stover1, Elizabeth Norgett1, Katherine G Blake-Palmer1, Michael J Cunningham2, Fiona E Karet11Department of Medical Genetics, Cambridge Institute for Medical Research, Cambridge, UK; 2Department of Otolaryngology, Massachusetts Eye and Ear Infirmary, Boston, MA, USAAbstract: Autosomal recessive distal renal tubular acidosis is usually a severe disease of childhood, often presenting as failure to thrive in infancy. It is often, but not always, accompanied by sensorineural hearing loss, the clinical severity and age of onset of which may be different from the other clinical features. Mutations in either ATP6V1B1 or ATP6V0A4 are the chief causes of primary distal renal tubular acidosis with or without hearing loss, although the loss is often milder in the latter. We describe a kindred with compound heterozygous alterations in ATP6V0A4, where hearing loss was formally diagnosed late in both siblings such that they missed early opportunities for hearing support. This kindred highlights the importance of routine audiologic assessments of all children with distal renal tubular acidosis, irrespective either of age at diagnosis or of which gene is mutated. In addition, when diagnostic genetic testing is undertaken, both genes should be screened irrespective of current hearing status. A strategy for this is outlined.Keywords: sensorineural hearing loss, renal tubular acidosis, recessive, genetics, mutation

  11. Finite element analysis of tubular joints in offshore structures ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... representing a 2-D model of the joint between the brace and the chord walls. This was subsequently followed but finite element analysis of six tubular joints. A global analysis was initially undertaken, then the submodel analysis carried in the areas of stress concentration. Journal of Civil Engineering, JKUAT (2001) Vol 6, ...

  12. New methods for the geometrical analysis of tubular organs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grélard, Florent; Baldacci, Fabien; Vialard, Anne; Domenger, Jean-Philippe

    2017-12-01

    This paper presents new methods to study the shape of tubular organs. Determining precise cross-sections is of major importance to perform geometrical measurements, such as diameter, wall-thickness estimation or area measurement. Our first contribution is a robust method to estimate orthogonal planes based on the Voronoi Covariance Measure. Our method is not relying on a curve-skeleton computation beforehand. This means our orthogonal plane estimator can be used either on the skeleton or on the volume. Another important step towards tubular organ characterization is achieved through curve-skeletonization, as skeletons allow to compare two tubular organs, and to perform virtual endoscopy. Our second contribution is dedicated to correcting common defects of the skeleton by new pruning and recentering methods. Finally, we propose a new method for curve-skeleton extraction. Various results are shown on different types of segmented tubular organs, such as neurons, airway-tree and blood vessels. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Expansion of Tubular with Elastomers in Multilateral Wells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md Velden

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The use of solid expandable tubular technology during the last decade has focused on solving many challenges in well drilling and delivery including zonal isolation, deep drilling, conservation of hole sizes, etc. not only as pioneered solution but also providing cost effective and long lasting solutions. Concurrently, the technology was extended for construction of multilateral in typical wells. The process of horizontal tubular expansion is similar to the vertical expansion of expandable tubular in down-hole environment with the addition of uniformly distributed force due to its weight. The expansion is targeted to increase its diameter such that post expansion characteristics remain within allowable limits. In this study a typical expandable tubular of 57.15 mm outer diameter and 6.35 mm wall thickness was used with two different elastomer seals of 5 and 7 mm thickness placed at equal spacing of 200 mm. The developed stress contours during expansion process clearly showed the high stress areas in the vicinity of expansion region which lies around the mandrel. These high stresses may result in excessive wear of the mandrel. It was also found out that the drawing force increases as the mandrel angle, expansion ratio, and friction coefficient increases. A mandrel angle of 20o  requires minimum expansion force and can be considered as an optimum geometrical parameter to lower the power required for expansion.

  14. Transient acute tubular dysfunction in the newborn: CT findings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McLaughlin, M.G.; Schwartz, J.R.; Swayne, L.C.; Columbia Univ., New York; Rubenstein, J.B.; University of Medicine and Dentistry of New Jersey, Newark, NJ; Block, D.C.

    1990-01-01

    We report the CT and sonographic findings of transient acute tubular disease in a newborn infant, who was dehydrated at birth. The initial CT scan demonstrated focal areas of increased attenuation within the central portions of both kidneys, and sonography showed echogenic medullary pyramids. After adequate hydration, a follow-up examination demonstrated complete spontaneous resolution. (orig.)

  15. Renal pathophysiologic role of cortical tubular inclusion bodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radi, Zaher A; Stewart, Zachary S; Grzemski, Felicity A; Bobrowski, Walter F

    2013-01-01

    Renal tubular inclusion bodies are rarely associated with drug administration. The authors describe the finding of renal cortical tubular intranuclear and intracytoplasmic inclusion bodies associated with the oral administration of a norepinephrine/serotonin reuptake inhibitor (NSRI) test article in Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats. Rats were given an NSRI daily for 4 weeks, and kidney histopathologic, ultrastructural pathology, and immunohistochemical examinations were performed. Round eosinophilic intranuclear inclusion bodies were observed histologically in the tubular epithelial cells of the renal cortex in male and female SD rats given the NSRI compound. No evidence of degeneration or necrosis was noted in the inclusion-containing renal cells. By ultrastructural pathology, inclusion bodies consisted of finely granular, amorphous, and uniformly stained nonmembrane-bound material. By immunohistochemistry, inclusion bodies stained positive for d-amino acid oxidase (DAO) protein. In addition, similar inclusion bodies were noted in the cytoplasmic tubular epithelial compartment by ultrastructural and immunohistochemical examination.  This is the first description of these renal inclusion bodies after an NSRI test article administration in SD rats. Such drug-induced renal inclusion bodies are rat-specific, do not represent an expression of nephrotoxicity, represent altered metabolism of d-amino acids, and are not relevant to human safety risk assessment.

  16. Urinary Markers of Tubular Injury in Early Diabetic Nephropathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Temesgen Fiseha

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Diabetic nephropathy (DN is a common and serious complication of diabetes associated with adverse outcomes of renal failure, cardiovascular disease, and premature mortality. Early and accurate identification of DN is therefore of critical importance to improve patient outcomes. Albuminuria, a marker of glomerular involvement in early renal damage, cannot always detect early DN. Thus, more sensitive and specific markers in addition to albuminuria are needed to predict the early onset and progression of DN. Tubular injury, as shown by the detection of tubular injury markers in the urine, is a critical component of the early course of DN. These urinary tubular markers may increase in diabetic patients, even before diagnosis of microalbuminuria representing early markers of normoalbuminuric DN. In this review we summarized some new and important urinary markers of tubular injury, such as neutrophil gelatinase associated lipocalin (NGAL, kidney injury molecule-1 (KIM-1, liver-type fatty acid binding protein (L-FABP, N-acetyl-beta-glucosaminidase (NAG, alpha-1 microglobulin (A1M, beta 2-microglobulin (B2-M, and retinol binding protein (RBP associated with early DN.

  17. Some asymptotic properties of functions holomorphic in tubular domains

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zavialov, B.I.

    1988-10-01

    For the function holomorphic in curved tubular domain the connection between asymptotic behaviour of real part of its boundary value at a given point of base manifold and asymptotic behaviour of the whole function from the inside of this domain is studied. (author). 3 refs

  18. Torsional stresses in the transverse fillet weld tubular joints

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gunay, D.; Aydemir, A.; Özer, H.

    1996-01-01

    Torsional stresses, 'tre and tel , in tbe transverse fillet tubular weld joint subjected to torsional load have been analyzed by the finite element method using triangular and quadrilateral izoparametric axisymmetric fourier type torus finite elements. There is an axisymmetry with respect to

  19. Experiments in MARIUS on HTR tubular fuel with loose particles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bosser, R; Langlet, G

    1972-06-15

    The work described on HTR tubular fuel with loose particles is the first part of a program in three points. The cell is the same in the three experiments, only particles in the fuel container are changed. The aim of the experiment is to achieve the buckling in a critical facility. A description of the techniques of measurements, calculations, and results are presented.

  20. Turkey's net energy consumption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soezen, Adnan; Arcaklioglu, Erol; Oezkaymak, Mehmet

    2005-01-01

    The main goal of this study is to develop the equations for forecasting net energy consumption (NEC) using an artificial neural-network (ANN) technique in order to determine the future level of energy consumption in Turkey. In this study, two different models were used in order to train the neural network. In one of them, population, gross generation, installed capacity and years are used in the input layer of the network (Model 1). Other energy sources are used in input layer of network (Model 2). The net energy consumption is in the output layer for two models. Data from 1975 to 2003 are used for the training. Three years (1981, 1994 and 2003) are used only as test data to confirm this method. The statistical coefficients of multiple determinations (R 2 -value) for training data are equal to 0.99944 and 0.99913 for Models 1 and 2, respectively. Similarly, R 2 values for testing data are equal to 0.997386 and 0.999558 for Models 1 and 2, respectively. According to the results, the net energy consumption using the ANN technique has been predicted with acceptable accuracy. Apart from reducing the whole time required, with the ANN approach, it is possible to find solutions that make energy applications more viable and thus more attractive to potential users. It is also expected that this study will be helpful in developing highly applicable energy policies

  1. Nerve regeneration using tubular scaffolds from biodegradable polyurethane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hausner, T; Schmidhammer, R; Zandieh, S; Hopf, R; Schultz, A; Gogolewski, S; Hertz, H; Redl, H

    2007-01-01

    In severe nerve lesion, nerve defects and in brachial plexus reconstruction, autologous nerve grafting is the golden standard. Although, nerve grafting technique is the best available approach a major disadvantages exists: there is a limited source of autologous nerve grafts. This study presents data on the use of tubular scaffolds with uniaxial pore orientation from experimental biodegradable polyurethanes coated with fibrin sealant to regenerate a 8 mm resected segment of rat sciatic nerve. Tubular scaffolds: prepared by extrusion of the polymer solution in DMF into water coagulation bath. The polymer used for the preparation of tubular scaffolds was a biodegradable polyurethane based on hexamethylene diisocyanate, poly(epsilon-caprolactone) and dianhydro-D-sorbitol. EXPERIMENTAL MODEL: Eighteen Sprague Dawley rats underwent mid-thigh sciatic nerve transection and were randomly assigned to two experimental groups with immediate repair: (1) tubular scaffold, (2) 180 degrees rotated sciatic nerve segment (control). Serial functional measurements (toe spread test, placing tests) were performed weekly from 3rd to 12th week after nerve repair. On week 12, electrophysiological assessment was performed. Sciatic nerve and scaffold/nerve grafts were harvested for histomorphometric analysis. Collagenic connective tissue, Schwann cells and axons were evaluated in the proximal nerve stump, the scaffold/nerve graft and the distal nerve stump. The implants have uniaxially-oriented pore structure with a pore size in the range of 2 micorm (the pore wall) and 75 x 700 microm (elongated pores in the implant lumen). The skin of the tubular implants was nonporous. Animals which underwent repair with tubular scaffolds of biodegradable polyurethanes coated with diluted fibrin sealant had no significant functional differences compared with the nerve graft group. Control group resulted in a trend-wise better electrophysiological recovery but did not show statistically significant

  2. Factor H and Properdin Recognize Different Epitopes on Renal Tubular Epithelial Heparan Sulfate

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zaferani, Azadeh; Vives, Romain R.; van der Pol, Pieter; Navis, Gerjan J.; Daha, Mohamed R.; van Kooten, Cees; Lortat-Jacob, Hugues; Seelen, Marc A.; van den Born, Jacob

    2012-01-01

    During proteinuria, renal tubular epithelial cells become exposed to ultrafiltrate-derived serum proteins, including complement factors. Recently, we showed that properdin binds to tubular heparan sulfates (HS). We now document that factor H also binds to tubular HS, although to a different epitope

  3. 99mTc renal tubular function agents: Current status

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eshima, D.; Fritzberg, A.R.; Taylor, A. Jr.

    1990-01-01

    Orthoiodohippuric (OIH) acid labeled with 131I is a widely used renal radiopharmaceutical agent and has been the standard radiopharmaceutical agent for the measurement of effective renal plasma flow (EPRF). Limitations to the routine clinical use of 131I OIH are related to the suboptimal imaging properties of the 131I radionuclide and its relatively high radiation dose. 123I has been substituted for 131I; however, its high cost and short shelf-life have limited its widespread use. Recent work has centered on the development of a new 99mTc renal tubular function agent, which would use the optimal radionuclidic properties and availability of 99mTc and combine the clinical information provided by OIH. The search for a suitable 99mTc renal tubular function agent has focused on the diamide dithiolate (N2S2), the paraaminohippuric iminodiacetic acid (PAHIDA), and the triamide mercaptide (N3S) donor ligand systems. To date, the most promising 99mTc tubular function agent is the N3S complex: 99mTc mercaptoacetyltriglycine (99mTc MAG3). Studies in animal models in diuresis, dehydration, acid or base imbalance, ischemia, and renal artery stenosis demonstrate that 99mTc MAG3 behaves similarly to 131I OIH. A simple kit formulation is available that yields the 99mTc MAG3 complex in high radiochemical purity. Studies in normal subjects and patients indicate that 99mTc MAG3 is an excellent 99mTc renal tubular agent, but its plasma clearance is only 50% to 60% that of OIH. In an effort to develop an improved 99mTc renal tubular function agent, changes have been made in the core N3S donor ligand system, but to date no agent has been synthesized that is clinically superior to 99mTc MAG3. 61 references

  4. Extracellular secretion of recombinant proteins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linger, Jeffrey G.; Darzins, Aldis

    2014-07-22

    Nucleic acids encoding secretion signals, expression vectors containing the nucleic acids, and host cells containing the expression vectors are disclosed. Also disclosed are polypeptides that contain the secretion signals and methods of producing polypeptides, including methods of directing the extracellular secretion of the polypeptides. Exemplary embodiments include cellulase proteins fused to secretion signals, methods to produce and isolate these polypeptides, and methods to degrade lignocellulosic biomass.

  5. Pathophysiology of glucagon secretion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boettger, J.; Pabst, H.W.

    1980-01-01

    Pathophysiology of glucagon secretion is reviewed in brief separating hyperglucagonemic from hypoclucagonemic states. Many questions concerning the role of glucagon in diabetes mellitus and in other diseases are still unresolved. The clucagon RIA is of clinical significance in a few diseases like glucagonoma, which may present without symptoms of the 'glucagonoma syndrome', the probably very rare hyperglucagonemia and some of the spontaneous hypoglycemias. Glucagon secretion may be evaluated by the determination of fasting immunoreactive glucagon (IRG) and by appropriate function tests as stimulation with i.v. arginine and suppression with oral glucose. However, the glucagon RIA at present is not a routine method, although commercial kits are available. Many pitfalls of radioimmunological glucagon determination still exist. (orig.) [de

  6. Bucarest, Strictement Secret

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ionela Mihai

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available L’émission Bucarest, strictement secret représente un documentaire organisésous la forme d’une série télé, qui dépeint le Bucarest à partir de deux perspectives: de l’histoire, de la conte et du lieu. La valeur d’une cité réside dans l’existence d’une mystique, d’un romantisme abscons, à part et des caractères empruntés de drames de Shakespeare, mystérieux, serrés d’angoisse et des secrets qui assombrissent leur existence. Par conséquence, le rôle du metteur en scène est de dévoiler leur vraie identité et de remettre en place, autant que possible, la vérité.

  7. Bile Formation and Secretion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyer, James L.

    2014-01-01

    Bile is a unique and vital aqueous secretion of the liver that is formed by the hepatocyte and modified down stream by absorptive and secretory properties of the bile duct epithelium. Approximately 5% of bile consists of organic and inorganic solutes of considerable complexity. The bile-secretory unit consists of a canalicular network which is formed by the apical membrane of adjacent hepatocytes and sealed by tight junctions. The bile canaliculi (~1 μm in diameter) conduct the flow of bile countercurrent to the direction of portal blood flow and connect with the canal of Hering and bile ducts which progressively increase in diameter and complexity prior to the entry of bile into the gallbladder, common bile duct, and intestine. Canalicular bile secretion is determined by both bile salt-dependent and independent transport systems which are localized at the apical membrane of the hepatocyte and largely consist of a series of adenosine triphosphate-binding cassette transport proteins that function as export pumps for bile salts and other organic solutes. These transporters create osmotic gradients within the bile canalicular lumen that provide the driving force for movement of fluid into the lumen via aquaporins. Species vary with respect to the relative amounts of bile salt-dependent and independent canalicular flow and cholangiocyte secretion which is highly regulated by hormones, second messengers, and signal transduction pathways. Most determinants of bile secretion are now characterized at the molecular level in animal models and in man. Genetic mutations serve to illuminate many of their functions. PMID:23897680

  8. Lipids in airway secretions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhaskar, K.R.; DeFeudis O'Sullivan, D.; Opaskar-Hincman, H.; Reid, L.M.

    1987-01-01

    Lipids form a significant portion of airway mucus yet they have not received the same attention that epithelial glycoproteins have. We have analysed, by thin layer chromatography, lipids present in airway mucus under 'normal' and hypersecretory (pathological) conditions.The 'normals' included (1) bronchial lavage obtained from healthy human volunteers and from dogs and (2) secretions produced ''in vitro'' by human (bronchial) and canine (tracheal) explants. Hypersecretory mucus samples included (1) lavage from dogs made bronchitic by exposure to SO 2 , (2) bronchial aspirates from acute and chronic tracheostomy patients, (3) sputum from patients with cystic fibrosis and chronic bronchitis and (4) postmortem secretions from patients who died from sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS) or from status asthmaticus. Cholesterol was found to be the predominant lipid in 'normal' mucus with lesser amounts of phospholipids. No glycolipids were detected. In the hypersecretory mucus, in addition to neutral and phospholipids, glycolipids were present in appreciable amounts, often the predominant species, suggesting that these may be useful as markers of disease. Radioactive precursors 14 C acetate and 14 C palmitate were incorporated into lipids secreted ''in vitro'' by canine tracheal explants indicating that they are synthesised by the airway. (author)

  9. Catechin secretion and phytotoxicity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaushik, Shail

    2010-01-01

    Research indicates that the invasiveness of Centaurea stoebe is attributed to the stronger allelopathic effects on the native North American species than on the related European species, which is one of the unquestionable aspects of the “novel weapons hypothesis (NWH).” Studies originating from controlled to field conditions have shown that C. stoebe utilizes its biochemical potential to exert its invasiveness. The roots of C. stoebe secrete a potent phytotoxin, catechin, which has a detrimental effect on the surrounding plant species. Although, studies on catechin secretion and phytotoxicity represent one of the most well studied systems describing negative plant-plant interactions, it has also sparked controversies lately due to its phytotoxicity dosages and secretion effluxes. Previous reports negate the phytotoxic and pro-oxidant nature of catechin.1–3 In our recent study we have shown that catechin is highly phytotoxic against Arabidopsis thaliana and Festuca idahoensis. We also show that (±) catechin applied to roots of A. thaliana induces reactive oxygen species (ROS) confirming the pro-oxidant nature of catechin. In addition, activation of signature cell death genes such as acd2 and cad1 post catechin treatment in A. thaliana ascertains the phytotoxic nature of catechin. PMID:21057643

  10. Net one, net two: the primary care network income statement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halley, M D; Little, A W

    1999-10-01

    Although hospital-owned primary care practices have been unprofitable for most hospitals, some hospitals are achieving competitive advantage and sustainable practice operations. A key to the success of some has been a net income reporting tool that separates practice operating expenses from the costs of creating and operating a network of practices to help healthcare organization managers, physicians, and staff to identify opportunities to improve the network's financial performance. This "Net One, Net Two" reporting allows operations leadership to be held accountable for Net One expenses and strategic leadership to be held accountable for Net Two expenses.

  11. Proof Nets for Lambek Calculus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roorda, Dirk

    1992-01-01

    The proof nets of linear logic are adapted to the non-commutative Lambek calculus. A different criterion for soundness of proof nets is given, which gives rise to new algorithms for proof search. The order sensitiveness of the Lambek calculus is reflected by the planarity condition on proof nets;

  12. Net metering: zero electricity bill

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mangi, A.; Khan, Z.

    2011-01-01

    Worldwide move towards renewable energy sources, environmental concerns and decentralization of the power sector have made net metering an attractive option for power generation at small scale. This paper discusses the net metering, economical issues of renewable sources in Pakistan, technical aspects, installation suitability according to varying terrain, existing utility rules and formulation of legislation for net metering making it economically attractive. (author)

  13. The Net Advance of Physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    THE NET ADVANCE OF PHYSICS Review Articles and Tutorials in an Encyclopædic Format Established 1995 [Link to MIT] Computer support for The Net Advance of Physics is furnished by The Massachusetts Newest Additions SPECIAL FEATURES: Net Advance RETRO: Nineteenth Century Physics History of Science

  14. Horizontal ichthyoplankton tow-net system with unobstructed net opening

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nester, Robert T.

    1987-01-01

    The larval fish sampler described here consists of a modified bridle, frame, and net system with an obstruction-free net opening and is small enough for use on boats 10 m or less in length. The tow net features a square net frame attached to a 0.5-m-diameter cylinder-on-cone plankton net with a bridle designed to eliminate all obstructions forward of the net opening, significantly reducing currents and vibrations in the water directly preceding the net. This system was effective in collecting larvae representing more than 25 species of fish at sampling depths ranging from surface to 10 m and could easily be used at greater depths.

  15. Dynamic secrets in communication security

    CERN Document Server

    Xiao, Sheng; Towsley, Donald

    2013-01-01

    Dynamic secrets are constantly generated and updated from messages exchanged between two communication users. When dynamic secrets are used as a complement to existing secure communication systems, a stolen key or password can be quickly and automatically reverted to its secret status without disrupting communication. 'Dynamic Secrets in Communication Security' presents unique security properties and application studies for this technology. Password theft and key theft no longer pose serious security threats when parties frequently use dynamic secrets. This book also illustrates that a dynamic

  16. Distal Renal Tubular Acidosis (dRTA) Among Southeast Asian Ovalocytosis (SAO) Patients in Malaria Endemic Area of Sekotong, Lombok Island

    OpenAIRE

    Danuyanti, I Gusti Ayu Nyoman; -, Tasmini; Sadewa, Ahmad Hamim

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Southeast Asian Ovalocytosis (SAO) is caused by 27 bp deletion of the band 3 protein gene in erythrocyte membrane and characterized by oval erythrocyte. The erythroid band 3 (AE1) gene isexpressed not only in erythrocyte membranes but also in the cell membrane of α-collecting renal tubular functions in the secretion of acid in renal tubules and HCO3 -/Cl- anion exchange. An alteration of the band 3 (AE1) gene functions in cell of α-collecting renal tubules reduces HCO3-/Cl- ion ...

  17. Master Robotic Net

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir Lipunov

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The main goal of the MASTER-Net project is to produce a unique fast sky survey with all sky observed over a single night down to a limiting magnitude of 19-20. Such a survey will make it possible to address a number of fundamental problems: search for dark energy via the discovery and photometry of supernovae (including SNIa, search for exoplanets, microlensing effects, discovery of minor bodies in the Solar System, and space-junk monitoring. All MASTER telescopes can be guided by alerts, and we plan to observe prompt optical emission from gamma-ray bursts synchronously in several filters and in several polarization planes.

  18. Limitations of shallow nets approximation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Shao-Bo

    2017-10-01

    In this paper, we aim at analyzing the approximation abilities of shallow networks in reproducing kernel Hilbert spaces (RKHSs). We prove that there is a probability measure such that the achievable lower bound for approximating by shallow nets can be realized for all functions in balls of reproducing kernel Hilbert space with high probability, which is different with the classical minimax approximation error estimates. This result together with the existing approximation results for deep nets shows the limitations for shallow nets and provides a theoretical explanation on why deep nets perform better than shallow nets. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Shielding calculations for NET

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Verschuur, K.A.; Hogenbirk, A.

    1991-05-01

    In the European Fusion Technology Programme there is only a small activity on research and development for fusion neutronics. Never-the-less, looking further than blanket design now, as ECN is getting involved in design of radiation shields for the coils and biological shields, it becomes apparent that fusion neutronics as a whole still needs substantial development. Existing exact codes for calculation of complex geometries like MCNP and DORT/TORT are put over the limits of their numerical capabilities, whilst approximate codes for complex geometries like FURNACE and MERCURE4 are put over the limits of their modelling capabilities. The main objective of this study is just to find out how far we can get with existing codes in obtaining reliable values for the radiation levels inside and outside the cryostat/shield during operation and after shut-down. Starting with a 1D torus model for preliminary parametric studies, more dimensional approximation of the torus or parts of it including the main heterogeneities should follow. Regular contacts with the NET-Team are kept, to be aware of main changes in NET design that might affect our calculation models. Work on the contract started 1 July 1990. The technical description of the contract is given. (author). 14 refs.; 4 figs.; 1 tab

  20. The effects of cimetidine on creatinine excretion, glomerular filtration rate and tubular function in renal transplant recipients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, N V; Ladefoged, S D; Feldt-Rasmussen, B

    1989-01-01

    The renal clearance of endogenous creatinine (CCr), sodium (CNa) and lithium (CLi) was determined before and after a single intravenous bolus of cimetidine in nine renal transplant recipients. The glomerular filtration rate (GFR) was measured with 125I-iothalamate clearance (CTh). The initial CCr...... of 65 ml/min (median) was reduced to a nadir of 46 ml/min (p less than 0.01) during the first 2 h after infusion of cimetidine. GFR remained unchanged, and thus the fractional clearance of creatinine (CCr/CTh) was reduced from 1.43 (median) to 1.03 (p less than 0.01). CNa and the fractional excretion...... of sodium decreased throughout the study (p less than 0.05); CLi was unchanged. In conclusion cimetidine, when measured during 1-h clearance periods, interferes with tubular creatinine secretion in the denervated kidney of transplant recipients without affecting the glomerular filtration rate or proximal...

  1. Evacuated, displacement compression mold. [of tubular bodies from thermosetting plastics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heier, W. C. (Inventor)

    1974-01-01

    A process of molding long thin-wall tubular bodies from thermosetting plastic molding compounds is described wherein the tubular body lengths may be several times the diameters. The process is accomplished by loading a predetermined quantity of molding compound into a female mold cavity closed at one end by a force mandrel. After closing the other end of the female mold with a balance mandrel, the loaded cavity is evacuated by applying a vacuum of from one-to-five mm pressure for a period of fifteen-to-thirty minutes. The mold temperature is raised to the minimum temperature at which the resin constituent of the compound will soften or plasticize and a pressure of 2500 psi is applied.

  2. Luminous effectiveness of tubular light-guides in tropics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Darula, Stanislav; Kittler, Richard; Kocifaj, Miroslav [ICA, Slovak Academy of Sciences, 9, Dubravska Road, 845 03 Bratislava (Slovakia)

    2010-11-15

    Novel tubular light-guides with a transparent hemispherical cupola placed on an unobstructed flat roof collect all sunlight and skylight available at ground level year round. This advantage is heightened in the dry and sunny tropical regions where the sun rises to very high altitudes and often the hours of sunshine last throughout the whole day. Hollow light-guides with very high inner specular reflectances can transport sunbeams downward into the windowless building core very effectively. Due to the tube's diameter and length and multiple reflections, complex illuminance patterns are produced on the underside of the tube, i.e. on top of the glazed ceiling aperture that illuminates the interior space or its working plane. This paper discusses several daylight conditions in tropical interiors illuminated by tubular light-guides. The recently published HOLIGILM calculation program and the user-friendly tool HOLIGILM 4.2 have facilitated the production of this paper. (author)

  3. Acute tubular necrosis in a patient with paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eranga S Wijewickrama

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Acute renal failure (ARF is a well-recognized complication of paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria (PNH. The predominant mechanism is intravascular hemolysis resulting in massive hemoglobinuria ARF. We report a case of acute tubular necrosis (ATN developed in the absence of overwhelming evidence of intravascular hemolysis in a 21-year-old man with anemia, who was eventually diagnosed to have PNH. The patient presented with rapidly deteriorating renal functions in the background of iron deficiency anemia, which was attributed to reflux esophagitis. There was no clinical or laboratory evidence of intravascular hemolysis. Renal biopsy revealed ATN with deposition of hemosiderin in the proximal tubular epithelial cells. Diagnosis of PNH was confirmed with a positive Ham′s test and flow cytometry. Our case emphasizes the need to consider ATN as a possible cause for ARF in patients suspected to have PNH even in the absence of overwhelming evidence of intravascular hemolysis.

  4. Windows 8 secrets

    CERN Document Server

    Thurrott, Paul

    2012-01-01

    Tips, tricks, treats, and secrets revealed on Windows 8 Microsoft is introducing a major new release of its Windows operating system, Windows 8, and what better way to learn all its ins and outs than from two internationally recognized Windows experts and Microsoft insiders, authors Paul Thurrott and Rafael Rivera? They cut through the hype to get at useful information you'll not find anywhere else, including what role this new OS plays in a mobile and tablet world. Regardless of your level of knowledge, you'll discover little-known facts about how things work, what's new and different, and h

  5. Renal tubular acidosis complicated with hyponatremia due to cortisol insufficiency

    OpenAIRE

    Izumi, Yuichiro; Nakayama, Yushi; Onoue, Tomoaki; Inoue, Hideki; Mukoyama, Masashi

    2015-01-01

    Adrenocortical insufficiency such as occurs in Addison's disease causes hyponatremia and renal tubular acidosis (RTA). Hyponatremia results from both aldosterone and cortisol insufficiency. RTA is due to aldosterone insufficiency. The involvement of cortisol in RTA is unclear. Here, we report a woman in her 70s who was admitted to our hospital with severe hyponatremia (106 mEq/l) and RTA. The patient exhibited low plasma cortisol levels with little response to rapid adrenocorticotropic hormon...

  6. Oscillations of manometric tubular springs with rigid end

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cherentsov, D. A.; Pirogov, S. P.; Dorofeev, S. M.; Ryabova, Y. S.

    2018-05-01

    The paper presents a mathematical model of attenuating oscillations of manometric tubular springs (MTS) taking into account the rigid tip. The dynamic MTS model is presented in the form of a thin-walled curved rod oscillating in the plane of curvature of the central axis. Equations for MTS oscillations are obtained in accordance with the d’Alembert principle in projections onto the normal and tangential. The Bubnov-Galerkin method is used to solve the equations obtained.

  7. CT diagnosis of intramedulear lesions of the tubular bone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wagner-Manslau, C.; Feuerbach, S.; Biehl, T.

    1985-01-01

    Three cases are used to demonstrate that intramedullary masses of the tubular bones can be discovered using computered tomography even when changes in the plain film are lacking or discrete. However, it was not possible to differentiate between osteomyelitis, chondrosarcoma and enchondroma owing to the identical morphology of these three diseases. Consequently, CT does not allow any statement on type and dignity and histological clarification is indispensable. (orig./WU) [de

  8. CHARACTERISTICS OF CORN STALK HEMICELLULOSE PYROLYSIS IN A TUBULAR REACTOR

    OpenAIRE

    Gao-Jin Lv; Shu-Bin Wu; Rui Lou

    2010-01-01

    Pyrolysis characteristics of corn stalk hemicellulose were investigated in a tubular reactor at different temperatures, with focus mainly on the releasing profiles and forming behaviors of pyrolysis products (gas, char, and tar). The products obtained were further identified using various approaches (including GC, SEM, and GC-MS) to understand the influence of temperature on product properties and compositions. It was found that the devolatilization of hemicellulose mainly occurred at low tem...

  9. Distal renal tubular acidosis in recurrent renal stone formers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Osther, P J; Hansen, A B; Røhl, H F

    1989-01-01

    Renal acidification ability was examined in 90 recurrent renal stone formers, using fasting morning urinary pH levels followed by a short ammonium chloride loading test in subjects with pH levels above 6.0. Fifteen patients (16.6%) revealed a distal renal tubular acidification defect: one patient......, this has important therapeutic implications. The pathological sequence in renal stone formers with dRTA is discussed....

  10. The equivalency between logic Petri workflow nets and workflow nets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jing; Yu, ShuXia; Du, YuYue

    2015-01-01

    Logic Petri nets (LPNs) can describe and analyze batch processing functions and passing value indeterminacy in cooperative systems. Logic Petri workflow nets (LPWNs) are proposed based on LPNs in this paper. Process mining is regarded as an important bridge between modeling and analysis of data mining and business process. Workflow nets (WF-nets) are the extension to Petri nets (PNs), and have successfully been used to process mining. Some shortcomings cannot be avoided in process mining, such as duplicate tasks, invisible tasks, and the noise of logs. The online shop in electronic commerce in this paper is modeled to prove the equivalence between LPWNs and WF-nets, and advantages of LPWNs are presented.

  11. The Equivalency between Logic Petri Workflow Nets and Workflow Nets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jing; Yu, ShuXia; Du, YuYue

    2015-01-01

    Logic Petri nets (LPNs) can describe and analyze batch processing functions and passing value indeterminacy in cooperative systems. Logic Petri workflow nets (LPWNs) are proposed based on LPNs in this paper. Process mining is regarded as an important bridge between modeling and analysis of data mining and business process. Workflow nets (WF-nets) are the extension to Petri nets (PNs), and have successfully been used to process mining. Some shortcomings cannot be avoided in process mining, such as duplicate tasks, invisible tasks, and the noise of logs. The online shop in electronic commerce in this paper is modeled to prove the equivalence between LPWNs and WF-nets, and advantages of LPWNs are presented. PMID:25821845

  12. Renal Tubular Acidosis Secondary to FK506 in Living Donor Liver Transplantation: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keiko Ogita

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available FK506 is an immunosuppressant that is thought to be less nephrotoxic than cyclosporine A. However, complications due to renal tubular acidosis (RTA have recently been reported. We report a case of RTA secondary to FK506 administration in liver transplantation. A 6-month-old girl was treated with FK506 after undergoing living donor liver transplantation for fulminant hepatitis. On postoperative day 17, she demonstrated hyperkalaemia and metabolic acidosis; she was diagnosed to have hyperkalaemic distal RTA with aldosterone deficiency (type IV. Intravenous sodium bicarbonate and furosemide, and intrarectal calcium polystyrenesulfonate were administered to correct the acidosis and promote potassium secretion. Thereafter, the FK506 concentration in whole blood gradually decreased, and the hyperkalaemia and metabolic acidosis following RTA improved. RTA is one type of nephrotoxicity induced by FK506, and it is reversible in mild cases when appropriately treated. The mechanism of RTA induced by FK506 has not yet been clearly elucidated. Surgeons and physicians should therefore be aware of the potential for RTA to occur with FK506 after any organ transplantation. The treatment for acidosis and hyperkalaemia should be started as soon as RTA is diagnosed, and the dosage of FK506 should also be reduced if possible.

  13. Tubular transport and metabolism of cimetidine in chicken kidneys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rennick, B.; Ziemniak, J.; Smith, I.; Taylor, M.; Acara, M.

    1984-01-01

    Renal tubular transport and renal metabolism of [ 14 C]cimetidine (CIM) were investigated by unilateral infusion into the renal portal circulation in chickens (Sperber technique). [ 14 C]CIM was actively transported at a rate 88% that of simultaneously infused p-aminohippuric acid, and its transport was saturable. The following organic cations competitively inhibited the tubular transport of [ 14 C]CIM with decreasing potency: CIM, ranitidine, thiamine, procainamide, guanidine and choline. CIM inhibited the transport of [ 14 C]thiamine, [ 14 C]amiloride and [ 14 C]tetraethylammonium. During CIM infusion, two renal metabolites, CIM sulfoxide and hydroxymethylcimetidine, were found in urine. When CIM sulfoxide was infused, its transport efficiency was 32% and not saturable. CIM sulfoxide did ot inhibit the simultaneous renal tubular transport of p-aminohippuric acid or tetraethylammonium. CIM is transported by the organic cation transport system and the kidney metabolizes CIM. Transport of CIM and other cationic drugs could produce a drug interaction to alter drug excretion

  14. Mechanical testing of adherence of stacked layers in tubular geometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Correia, L.A.; Schuring, E.W.; Van Delft, Y.C. [ECN Energy Efficiency in the Industry, Petten (Netherlands)

    2007-09-15

    For the development of new molecular separation technologies strong robust tubular membrane systems are required. The fragile membranes, however, need a strong defect free support such as a porous asymmetric ceramic tube. Mechanical failure of these ceramic membrane systems during manufacturing and operation is mainly caused by delamination of the stacked layers. Therefore development is focused on improving the adherence. As no standard mechanical test for tubular samples is available yet, a new tensile test was developed to facilitate the current research. The most important components in the new equipment is a test tool with a curvature matching that of the test sample and a sample casing that align and guide the test tool during the tensile test. With this tensile test the manufacturing procedure for the ECN standard tubular {alpha}-alumina support was optimized. Firing the asymmetric support at 1300C resulted in the highest mechanical strength for the support system with cohesive fracture in the support tube. With the test developed the process condition could be identified where the material of the support tube is the weakest link in the support system.

  15. Flow analysis of tubular fuel assembly using CFD code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, J. H.; Park, C.; Chae, H. T.

    2004-01-01

    Based on the experiences of HANARO, a new research reactor is under conceptual design preparing for future needs of research reactor. Considering various aspects such as nuclear physics, thermal-hydraulics, mechanical structure and the applicability of HANARO technology, a tubular type fuel has been considered as that of a new research reactor. Tubular type fuel has several circular fuel layers, and each layer consists of 3 curved fuel plates arranged with constant small gap to build up cooling channels. In the thermal-hydraulic point, it is very important to maintain each channel flow velocity be equal as much as possible, because the small gaps between curved thin fuel plates independently forms separate coolant channels, which may cause a thermal-hydraulic problem in certain conditions. In this study, commercial CFD(Computational Fluid Dynamics) code, Fluent, has been used to investigate flow characteristics of tubular type fuel assembly. According to the computation results for the preliminary conceptual design, there is a serious lack of uniformity of average velocity on the each coolant channel. Some changes for initial conceptual design were done to improve the balance of velocity distribution, and analysis was done again, too. The results for the revised design showed that the uniformity of each channel velocity was improved significantly. The influence of outermost channel gap width on the velocity distribution was also examined

  16. A Tubular Biomaterial Construct Exhibiting a Negative Poisson's Ratio.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin Woo Lee

    Full Text Available Developing functional small-diameter vascular grafts is an important objective in tissue engineering research. In this study, we address the problem of compliance mismatch by designing and developing a 3D tubular construct that has a negative Poisson's ratio νxy (NPR. NPR constructs have the unique ability to expand transversely when pulled axially, thereby resulting in a highly-compliant tubular construct. In this work, we used projection stereolithography to 3D-print a planar NPR sheet composed of photosensitive poly(ethylene glycol diacrylate biomaterial. We used a step-lithography exposure and a stitch process to scale up the projection printing process, and used the cut-missing rib unit design to develop a centimeter-scale NPR sheet, which was rolled up to form a tubular construct. The constructs had Poisson's ratios of -0.6 ≤ νxy ≤ -0.1. The NPR construct also supports higher cellular adhesion than does the construct that has positive νxy. Our NPR design offers a significant advance in the development of highly-compliant vascular grafts.

  17. Plastic deformation of tubular crystals by dislocation glide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beller, Daniel A; Nelson, David R

    2016-09-01

    Tubular crystals, two-dimensional lattices wrapped into cylindrical topologies, arise in many contexts, including botany and biofilaments, and in physical systems such as carbon nanotubes. The geometrical principles of botanical phyllotaxis, describing the spiral packings on cylinders commonly found in nature, have found application in all these systems. Several recent studies have examined defects in tubular crystals associated with crystalline packings that must accommodate a fixed tube radius. Here we study the mechanics of tubular crystals with variable tube radius, with dislocations interposed between regions of different phyllotactic packings. Unbinding and separation of dislocation pairs with equal and opposite Burgers vectors allow the growth of one phyllotactic domain at the expense of another. In particular, glide separation of dislocations offers a low-energy mode for plastic deformations of solid tubes in response to external stresses, reconfiguring the lattice step by step. Through theory and simulation, we examine how the tube's radius and helicity affects, and is in turn altered by, the mechanics of dislocation glide. We also discuss how a sufficiently strong bending rigidity can alter or arrest the deformations of tubes with small radii.

  18. Filament winding technique, experiment and simulation analysis on tubular structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quanjin, Ma; Rejab, M. R. M.; Kaige, Jiang; Idris, M. S.; Harith, M. N.

    2018-04-01

    Filament winding process has emerged as one of the potential composite fabrication processes with lower costs. Filament wound products involve classic axisymmetric parts (pipes, rings, driveshafts, high-pressure vessels and storage tanks), non-axisymmetric parts (prismatic nonround sections and pipe fittings). Based on the 3-axis filament winding machine has been designed with the inexpensive control system, it is completely necessary to make a relative comparison between experiment and simulation on tubular structure. In this technical paper, the aim of this paper is to perform a dry winding experiment using the 3-axis filament winding machine and simulate winding process on the tubular structure using CADWIND software with 30°, 45°, 60° winding angle. The main result indicates that the 3-axis filament winding machine can produce tubular structure with high winding pattern performance with different winding angle. This developed 3-axis winding machine still has weakness compared to CAWIND software simulation results with high axes winding machine about winding pattern, turnaround impact, process error, thickness, friction impact etc. In conclusion, the 3-axis filament winding machine improvements and recommendations come up with its comparison results, which can intuitively understand its limitations and characteristics.

  19. A Role for Tubular Necroptosis in Cisplatin-Induced AKI

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yanfang; Ma, Huabin; Shao, Jing; Wu, Jianfeng; Zhou, Linying; Zhang, Zhirong; Wang, Yuze; Huang, Zhe; Ren, Junming; Liu, Suhuan; Chen, Xiangmei

    2015-01-01

    Cell death and inflammation in the proximal tubules are the hallmarks of cisplatin-induced AKI, but the mechanisms underlying these effects have not been fully elucidated. Here, we investigated whether necroptosis, a type of programmed necrosis, has a role in cisplatin-induced AKI. We found that inhibition of any of the core components of the necroptotic pathway—receptor-interacting protein 1 (RIP1), RIP3, or mixed lineage kinase domain-like protein (MLKL)—by gene knockout or a chemical inhibitor diminished cisplatin-induced proximal tubule damage in mice. Similar results were obtained in cultured proximal tubular cells. Furthermore, necroptosis of cultured cells could be induced by cisplatin or by a combination of cytokines (TNF-α, TNF-related weak inducer of apoptosis, and IFN-γ) that were upregulated in proximal tubules of cisplatin-treated mice. However, cisplatin induced an increase in RIP1 and RIP3 expression in cultured tubular cells in the absence of cytokine release. Correspondingly, overexpression of RIP1 or RIP3 enhanced cisplatin-induced necroptosis in vitro. Notably, inflammatory cytokine upregulation in cisplatin-treated mice was partially diminished in RIP3- or MLKL-deficient mice, suggesting a positive feedback loop involving these genes and inflammatory cytokines that promotes necroptosis progression. Thus, our data demonstrate that necroptosis is a major mechanism of proximal tubular cell death in cisplatin-induced nephrotoxic AKI. PMID:25788533

  20. Thermodynamic model and parametric analysis of a tubular SOFC module

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campanari, Stefano

    Solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) have been considered in the last years as one of the most promising technologies for very high-efficiency electric energy generation from natural gas, both with simple fuel cell plants and with integrated gas turbine-fuel cell systems. Among the SOFC technologies, tubular SOFC stacks with internal reforming have emerged as one of the most mature technology, with a serious potential for a future commercialization. In this paper, a thermodynamic model of a tubular SOFC stack, with natural gas feeding, internal reforming of hydrocarbons and internal air preheating is proposed. In the first section of the paper, the model is discussed in detail, analyzing its calculating equations and tracing its logical steps; the model is then calibrated on the available data for a recently demonstrated tubular SOFC prototype plant. In the second section of the paper, it is carried out a detailed parametric analysis of the stack working conditions, as a function of the main operating parameters. The discussion of the results of the thermodynamic and parametric analysis yields interesting considerations about partial load SOFC operation and load regulation, and about system design and integration with gas turbine cycles.

  1. On Converting Secret Sharing Scheme to Visual Secret Sharing Scheme

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Daoshun

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Traditional Secret Sharing (SS schemes reconstruct secret exactly the same as the original one but involve complex computation. Visual Secret Sharing (VSS schemes decode the secret without computation, but each share is m times as big as the original and the quality of the reconstructed secret image is reduced. Probabilistic visual secret sharing (Prob.VSS schemes for a binary image use only one subpixel to share the secret image; however the probability of white pixels in a white area is higher than that in a black area in the reconstructed secret image. SS schemes, VSS schemes, and Prob. VSS schemes have various construction methods and advantages. This paper first presents an approach to convert (transform a -SS scheme to a -VSS scheme for greyscale images. The generation of the shadow images (shares is based on Boolean XOR operation. The secret image can be reconstructed directly by performing Boolean OR operation, as in most conventional VSS schemes. Its pixel expansion is significantly smaller than that of VSS schemes. The quality of the reconstructed images, measured by average contrast, is the same as VSS schemes. Then a novel matrix-concatenation approach is used to extend the greyscale -SS scheme to a more general case of greyscale -VSS scheme.

  2. Art/Net/Work

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Christian Ulrik; Lindstrøm, Hanne

    2006-01-01

    The seminar Art|Net|Work deals with two important changes in our culture. On one side, the network has become essential in the latest technological development. The Internet has entered a new phase, Web 2.0, including the occurrence of as ‘Wiki’s’, ‘Peer-2-Peer’ distribution, user controlled...... on the ‘network’ itself as a phenomenon and are often using technological networks as a mean of production and distribution. This changes the artistic practice and the distribution channels of art works – and the traditional notions of ‘work’, ‘origin’ and ‘rights’ are increasingly perceived as limiting...... the praxis of the artist. We see different kinds of interventions and activism (including ‘hacktivism’) using the network as a way of questioning the invisible rules that govern public and semi-public spaces. Who ‘owns’ them? What kind of social relationships do they generate? On what principle...

  3. Net4Care

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Henrik Bærbak; Hansen, Klaus Marius

    2012-01-01

    , health centers are getting larger and more distributed, and the number of healthcare professionals does not follow the trend in chronic diseases. All of this leads to a need for telemedical and mobile health applications. In a Danish context, these applications are often developed through local...... (innovative) initiatives with little regards for national and global (standardization) initiatives. A reason for this discrepancy is that the software architecture for national (and global) systems and standards are hard to understand, hard to develop systems based on, and hard to deploy. To counter this, we...... propose a software ecosystem approach for telemedicine applications, providing a framework, Net4Care, encapsulating national/global design decisions with respect to standardization while allowing for local innovation. This paper presents an analysis of existing systems, of requirements for a software...

  4. RSA-Based Secret Handshakes

    OpenAIRE

    Vergnaud , Damien

    2006-01-01

    A secret handshake mechanism allows two entities, members of a same group, to authenticate each other secretly. This primitive was introduced recently by Balfanz, Durfee, Shankar, Smetters, Staddon and Wong and, so far, all the schemes proposed are based on discrete log systems. This paper proposes three new secret handshake protocols secure against active impersonator and detector adversaries. Inspired by two RSA-based key agreement protocols introduced by Okamoto and Tanaka in 1989 and Gira...

  5. High-level Petri Nets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    various journals and collections. As a result, much of this knowledge is not readily available to people who may be interested in using high-level nets. Within the Petri net community this problem has been discussed many times, and as an outcome this book has been compiled. The book contains reprints...... of some of the most important papers on the application and theory of high-level Petri nets. In this way it makes the relevant literature more available. It is our hope that the book will be a useful source of information and that, e.g., it can be used in the organization of Petri net courses. To make......High-level Petri nets are now widely used in both theoretical analysis and practical modelling of concurrent systems. The main reason for the success of this class of net models is that they make it possible to obtain much more succinct and manageable descriptions than can be obtained by means...

  6. Mathematical modeling of methyl ester concentration distribution in a continuous membrane tubular reactor and comparison with conventional tubular reactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talaghat, M. R.; Jokar, S. M.; Modarres, E.

    2017-10-01

    The reduction of fossil fuel resources and environmental issues made researchers find alternative fuels include biodiesels. One of the most widely used methods for production of biodiesel on a commercial scale is transesterification method. In this work, the biodiesel production by a transesterification method was modeled. Sodium hydroxide was considered as a catalyst to produce biodiesel from canola oil and methanol in a continuous tubular ceramic membranes reactor. As the Biodiesel production reaction from triglycerides is an equilibrium reaction, the reaction rate constants depend on temperature and related linearly to catalyst concentration. By using the mass balance for a membrane tubular reactor and considering the variation of raw materials and products concentration with time, the set of governing equations were solved by numerical methods. The results clearly show the superiority of membrane reactor than conventional tubular reactors. Afterward, the influences of molar ratio of alcohol to oil, weight percentage of the catalyst, and residence time on the performance of biodiesel production reactor were investigated.

  7. Net neutrality and audiovisual services

    OpenAIRE

    van Eijk, N.; Nikoltchev, S.

    2011-01-01

    Net neutrality is high on the European agenda. New regulations for the communication sector provide a legal framework for net neutrality and need to be implemented on both a European and a national level. The key element is not just about blocking or slowing down traffic across communication networks: the control over the distribution of audiovisual services constitutes a vital part of the problem. In this contribution, the phenomenon of net neutrality is described first. Next, the European a...

  8. NetView technical research

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-01-01

    This is the Final Technical Report for the NetView Technical Research task. This report is prepared in accordance with Contract Data Requirements List (CDRL) item A002. NetView assistance was provided and details are presented under the following headings: NetView Management Systems (NMS) project tasks; WBAFB IBM 3090; WPAFB AMDAHL; WPAFB IBM 3084; Hill AFB; McClellan AFB AMDAHL; McClellan AFB IBM 3090; and Warner-Robins AFB.

  9. Salmonella-secreted Virulence Factors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heffron, Fred; Niemann, George; Yoon, Hyunjin; Kidwai, Afshan S.; Brown, Roslyn N.; McDermott, Jason E.; Smith, Richard D.; Adkins, Joshua N.

    2011-05-01

    In this short review we discuss secreted virulence factors of Salmonella, which directly affect Salmonella interaction with its host. Salmonella secretes protein to subvert host defenses but also, as discussed, to reduce virulence thereby permitting the bacteria to persist longer and more successfully disperse. The type III secretion system (TTSS) is the best known and well studied of the mechanisms that enable secretion from the bacterial cytoplasm to the host cell cytoplasm. Other secretion systems include outer membrane vesicles, which are present in all Gram-negative bacteria examined to date, two-partner secretion, and type VI secretion will also be addressed. Excellent reviews of Salmonella secreted effectors have focused on themes such as actin rearrangements, vesicular trafficking, ubiquitination, and the activities of the virulence factors themselves. This short review is based on S. Typhimurium infection of mice because it is a model of typhoid like disease in humans. We have organized effectors in terms of events that happen during the infection cycle and how secreted effectors may be involved.

  10. Initial CAD investigations for NET

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Katz, F.; Leinemann, K.; Ludwig, A.; Marek, U.; Olbrich, W.; Schlechtendahl, E.G.

    1985-11-01

    This report summarizes the work done under contract no. 164/84-7/FU-D-/NET between the Commission of the European Communities and KfK during the period from June 1, 1984, through May 31, 1985. The following topics are covered in this report: Initial modelling of NET version NET2A, CAD system extension for remote handling studies, analysis of the CAD information structure, work related to the transfer of CAD information between KfK and the NET team. (orig.) [de

  11. Understanding Net Zero Energy Buildings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Salom, Jaume; Widén, Joakim; Candanedo, José

    2011-01-01

    Although several alternative definitions exist, a Net-Zero Energy Building (Net ZEB) can be succinctly described as a grid-connected building that generates as much energy as it uses over a year. The “net-zero” balance is attained by applying energy conservation and efficiency measures...... and by incorporating renewable energy systems. While based on annual balances, a complete description of a Net ZEB requires examining the system at smaller time-scales. This assessment should address: (a) the relationship between power generation and building loads and (b) the resulting interaction with the power grid...

  12. Comorbid renal tubular damage and hypoalbuminemia exacerbate cardiac prognosis in patients with chronic heart failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otaki, Yoichiro; Watanabe, Tetsu; Takahashi, Hiroki; Funayama, Akira; Kinoshita, Daisuke; Yokoyama, Miyuki; Takahashi, Tetsuya; Nishiyama, Satoshi; Arimoto, Takanori; Shishido, Tetsuro; Miyamoto, Takuya; Konta, Tsuneo; Kubota, Isao

    2016-02-01

    Renal tubular damage (RTD) and hypoalbuminemia are risks for poor prognosis in patients with chronic heart failure (CHF). Renal tubules play a pivotal role in amino acid and albumin reabsorption, which maintain serum albumin levels. The aims of the present study were to (1) examine the association of RTD with hypoalbuminemia, and (2) assess the prognostic importance of comorbid RTD and hypoalbuminemia in patients with CHF. We measured N-acetyl-β-D-glucosamidase (NAG) levels and the urinary β2-microglobulin to creatinine ratio (UBCR) in 456 patients with CHF. RTD was defined as UBCR ≥ 300 μg/g or NAG ≥ 14.2 U/g. There were moderate correlations between RTD markers and serum albumin (NAG, r = -0.428, P < 0.0001; UBCR, r = -0.399, P < 0.0001). Multivariate logistic analysis showed that RTD was significantly related to hypoalbuminemia in patients with CHF. There were 134 cardiac events during a median period of 808 days. The comorbidity of RTD and hypoalbuminemia was increased with advancing New York Heart Association functional class. Multivariate Cox proportional hazard regression analysis showed that the presence of RTD and hypoalbuminemia was associated with cardiac events. The net reclassification index was significantly improved by adding RTD and hypoalbuminemia to the basic risk factors. Comorbid RTD and hypoalbuminemia are frequently observed and increase the risk for extremely poor outcome in patients with CHF.

  13. Secret and research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André PETITAT

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The postures of secrecy and revelation maintain our common relational dynamics between sharing and not sharing. Science, which has become the dominant form of knowledge, is a rational and empirical knowledge sharing. For this purpose, the knowledge articulates languages, if possible unambiguous, spaces of rational deliberation, technical devices and resources of the imagination. This activity meets other logics called power, prestige, status, profit, customer, blind adherence and revealed truth, in which the postures of secret invite themselves massively. The codes of ethics attempt to regulate this mix of contradictory logics by setting standards of scientific exchanges, recalling the person rights and particularly the subjects observed rights, protecting the working conditions of the researcher, preserving its autonomy from funders and policy makers, and ensuring the dissemination of its results.

  14. Bioinspired coupled helical coils for soft tissue engineering of tubular structures - Improved mechanical behavior of tubular collagen type I templates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janke, H P; Bohlin, J; Lomme, R M L M; Mihaila, S M; Hilborn, J; Feitz, W F J; Oosterwijk, E

    2017-09-01

    The design of constructs for tubular tissue engineering is challenging. Most biomaterials need to be reinforced with supporting structures such as knittings, meshes or electrospun material to comply with the mechanical demands of native tissues. In this study, coupled helical coils (CHCs) were manufactured to mimic collagen fiber orientation as found in nature. Monofilaments of different commercially available biodegradable polymers were wound and subsequently fused, resulting in right-handed and left-handed polymer helices fused together in joints where the filaments cross. CHCs of different polymer composition were tested to determine the tensile strength, strain recovery, hysteresis, compressive strength and degradation of CHCs of different composition. Subsequently, seamless and stable hybrid constructs consisting of PDSII® USP 2-0 CHCs embedded in porous collagen type I were produced. Compared to collagen alone, this hybrid showed superior strain recovery (93.5±0.9% vs 71.1±12.6% in longitudinal direction; 87.1±6.6% vs 57.2±4.6% in circumferential direction) and hysteresis (18.9±2.7% vs 51.1±12.0% in longitudinal direction; 11.5±4.6% vs 46.3±6.3% in circumferential direction). Furthermore, this hybrid construct showed an improved Young's modulus in both longitudinal (0.5±0.1MPavs 0.2±0.1MPa; 2.5-fold) and circumferential (1.65±0.07MPavs (2.9±0.3)×10 -2 MPa; 57-fold) direction, respectively, compared to templates created from collagen alone. Moreover, hybrid template characteristics could be modified by changing the CHC composition and CHCs were produced showing a mechanical behavior similar to the native ureter. CHC-enforced templates, which are easily tunable to meet different demands may be promising for tubular tissue engineering. Most tubular constructs lack sufficient strength and tunability to comply with the mechanical demands of native tissues. Therefore, we embedded coupled helical coils (CHCs) produced from biodegradable polymers - to

  15. A young woman with recurrent kidney stones: questions on hypokalaemic tubular acidosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jill Vanmassenhove

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses the diagnostic and therapeutic approach to the problem of a young woman presenting with recurrent kidney stones. In the clinical work-up, a hypokalaemic normal anion gap metabolic acidosis was found. The diagnostic tests to solve this common clinical problem and some therapeutic recommendations are discussed. Question on hypokalaemic tubular acidosis: 1. What is the significance of the plasma anion gap (PAG? 2. How does one appreciate the respiratory component of the acid base status? 3. How does one perform tests for tubular acidification disturbances? 4. What is the pathogenesis of distal tubular acidification ­disturbances? 5. What is the explanation of the hypokalaemia in distal ­tubular acidosis? 6. What is the pathogenesis of nephrolithiasis in distal tubular acidosis? 7. How does one treat a patient with distal tubular acidosis and recurrent nephrolithiasis?

  16. Drill pipes and casings utilizing multi-conduit tubular; Flerkanals roerstreng

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Curlett, H.B.

    1997-04-23

    The invention relates to a multi-conduit tubular having fluid conduits and electrical conduits, with associated surface fluid and electrical commutators, and downhole sensors for providing surface monitors with instantaneous formation data. Each tubular includes a plurality of uniform linear conduits there through, with a gasket seal plate interposed between joined tubular for assuring a high pressure seal between joined conduits. the seal plate includes an intermediate electrical connector for connecting electrical conduit connectors of one tubular to another. A coupling collar with uniform diameter internal coarse and fine threads joins the tubular ends having similar threads by differential thread action without respective tubular rotation. Each tubular end includes an inter-engaging index recess and index lug, and drive recesses and lugs for maintaining angular registry of the tubular string and for driving one drill tubular with another. A fluid commutator includes a rotating shaft with passages connected to the tubular conduits, and rotating in a manifold having annular grooves in communication with the shaft passages and external fluid sources. An adaptor couples each commutator shaft passage to one or more tubular conduits. Slip rings on a quill shaft and stationary brush means provide electrical continuity from the electrical conduit wires to surface equipment. A cross-over sub includes formation parameter sensors and telemetry equipment in a blocked off portion of a fluid conduit. An annular accumulator connected with the well bore annulus applies a pressure thereto in response to downhole sensors to change the effective density of the drill mud. The multi-conduit tubular is further adapted for use as a well casing to provide downhole access of a plurality of fluids and electrical parameter sensors. 28 figs.

  17. Generation of Urinary Albumin Fragments Does Not Require Proximal Tubular Uptake

    OpenAIRE

    Weyer, K.; Nielsen, R.; Christensen, E. I.; Birn, H.

    2012-01-01

    Urinary albumin excretion is an important diagnostic and prognostic marker of renal function. Both animal and human urine contain large amounts of albumin fragments, but whether these fragments originate from renal tubular degradation of filtered albumin is unknown. Here, we used mice with kidneys lacking megalin and cubilin, the coreceptors that mediate proximal tubular endocytosis of albumin, to determine whether proximal tubular degradation of albumin forms the detectable urinary albumin f...

  18. Linear Logic on Petri Nets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engberg, Uffe Henrik; Winskel, Glynn

    This article shows how individual Petri nets form models of Girard's intuitionistic linear logic. It explores questions of expressiveness and completeness of linear logic with respect to this interpretation. An aim is to use Petri nets to give an understanding of linear logic and give some apprai...

  19. Net neutrality and audiovisual services

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Eijk, N.; Nikoltchev, S.

    2011-01-01

    Net neutrality is high on the European agenda. New regulations for the communication sector provide a legal framework for net neutrality and need to be implemented on both a European and a national level. The key element is not just about blocking or slowing down traffic across communication

  20. Properties of porous netted materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daragan, V.D.; Drozdov, B.G.; Kotov, A.Yu.; Mel'nikov, G.N.; Pustogarov, A.V.

    1987-01-01

    Hydraulic and strength characteristics, efficient heat conduction and inner heat exchange coefficient are experimentally studied for porous netted materials on the base of the brass nets as dependent on porosity, cell size and method of net laying. Results of the studies are presented. It is shown that due to anisotropy of the material properties the hydraulic resistance in the direction parallel to the nets plane is 1.3-1.6 times higher than in the perpendicular one. Values of the effective heat conduction in the direction perpendicular to the nets plane at Π>0.45 agree with the data from literature, at Π<0.45 a deviation from the calculated values is marked in the direction of the heat conduction decrease

  1. The role of duplex stainless steels for downhole tubulars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Francis, R.

    1993-01-01

    In sour conditions there is an increasing trend to turn to corrosion resistant alloys for downhole tubulars. The most commonly used CRA tubular is 13Cr, and there are thousands of feet in service. However, there are limits to the use of 13Cr, ie., the risk of sulphide stress corrosion cracking at high H 2 S levels, and the possibility of pitting or high corrosion rates in waters with high chloride contents. Where the service conditions are felt to be too severe for 13Cr alloys it has been traditional to switch to nickel base alloys such as alloys 825 and C-276 (UNS N08825 and N10276). The alloys are much more expensive than 13Cr, and in recent years the duplex stainless steels have been selected as alloys with superior corrosion and SSCC resistance compared with 13Cr, and having lower cost than nickel alloys. Originally the 22Cr duplex alloy (UNS 31803) was used, but more recently the 25Cr super duplex alloys (UNS S32760 and S32750) have become more available. The present paper reviews the data available for 13Cr and the limits of applicability. Data is also presented for laboratory tests for both the 22Cr and 25Cr super duplex alloys. There is extensive service experience with both 22Cr and 25Cr super duplex in the North Sea, covering both downhole tubulars, manifold and post wellhead equipment. Data is presented showing some of the sour condition being experienced in the North Sea by super duplex alloys. These results show that there is a substantial gap between the limits of use for 13Cr and the 25Cr super duplex stainless steel alloys. This means that in many sour environments super duplex stainless steel provides a cost effective alternative to nickel-base alloys

  2. Tubular overexpression of gremlin induces renal damage susceptibility in mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandra Droguett

    Full Text Available A growing number of patients are recognized worldwide to have chronic kidney disease. Glomerular and interstitial fibrosis are hallmarks of renal progression. However, fibrosis of the kidney remains an unresolved challenge, and its molecular mechanisms are still not fully understood. Gremlin is an embryogenic gene that has been shown to play a key role in nephrogenesis, and its expression is generally low in the normal adult kidney. However, gremlin expression is elevated in many human renal diseases, including diabetic nephropathy, pauci-immune glomerulonephritis and chronic allograft nephropathy. Several studies have proposed that gremlin may be involved in renal damage by acting as a downstream mediator of TGF-β. To examine the in vivo role of gremlin in kidney pathophysiology, we generated seven viable transgenic mouse lines expressing human gremlin (GREM1 specifically in renal proximal tubular epithelial cells under the control of an androgen-regulated promoter. These lines demonstrated 1.2- to 200-fold increased GREM1 expression. GREM1 transgenic mice presented a normal phenotype and were without proteinuria and renal function involvement. In response to the acute renal damage cause by folic acid nephrotoxicity, tubule-specific GREM1 transgenic mice developed increased proteinuria after 7 and 14 days compared with wild-type treated mice. At 14 days tubular lesions, such as dilatation, epithelium flattening and hyaline casts, with interstitial cell infiltration and mild fibrosis were significantly more prominent in transgenic mice than wild-type mice. Tubular GREM1 overexpression was correlated with the renal upregulation of profibrotic factors, such as TGF-β and αSMA, and with increased numbers of monocytes/macrophages and lymphocytes compared to wild-type mice. Taken together, our results suggest that GREM1-overexpressing mice have an increased susceptibility to renal damage, supporting the involvement of gremlin in renal damage

  3. Stem cell factor expression after renal ischemia promotes tubular epithelial survival.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geurt Stokman

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Renal ischemia leads to apoptosis of tubular epithelial cells and results in decreased renal function. Tissue repair involves re-epithelialization of the tubular basement membrane. Survival of the tubular epithelium following ischemia is therefore important in the successful regeneration of renal tissue. The cytokine stem cell factor (SCF has been shown to protect the tubular epithelium against apoptosis. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In a mouse model for renal ischemia/reperfusion injury, we studied how expression of c-KIT on tubular epithelium and its ligand SCF protect cells against apoptosis. Administration of SCF specific antisense oligonucleotides significantly decreased specific staining of SCF following ischemia. Reduced SCF expression resulted in impaired renal function, increased tubular damage and increased tubular epithelial apoptosis, independent of inflammation. In an in vitro hypoxia model, stimulation of tubular epithelial cells with SCF activated survival signaling and decreased apoptosis. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our data indicate an important role for c-KIT and SCF in mediating tubular epithelial cell survival via an autocrine pathway.

  4. Vibration analysis and sound field characteristics of a tubular ultrasonic radiator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Zhaofeng; Zhou, Guangping; Zhang, Yihui; Li, Zhengzhong; Lin, Shuyu

    2006-12-01

    A sort of tubular ultrasonic radiator used in ultrasonic liquid processing is studied. The frequency equation of the tubular radiator is derived, and its radiated sound field in cylindrical reactor is calculated using finite element method and recorded by means of aluminum foil erosion. The results indicate that sound field of tubular ultrasonic radiator in cylindrical reactor appears standing waves along both its radial direction and axial direction, and amplitudes of standing waves decrease gradually along its radial direction, and the numbers of standing waves along its axial direction are equal to the axial wave numbers of tubular radiator. The experimental results are in good agreement with calculated results.

  5. NET remote workstation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leinemann, K.

    1990-10-01

    The goal of this NET study was to define the functionality of a remote handling workstation and its hardware and software architecture. The remote handling workstation has to fulfill two basic functions: (1) to provide the man-machine interface (MMI), that means the interface to the control system of the maintenance equipment and to the working environment (telepresence) and (2) to provide high level (task level) supporting functions (software tools) during the maintenance work and in the preparation phase. Concerning the man-machine interface, an important module of the remote handling workstation besides the standard components of man-machine interfacing is a module for graphical scene presentation supplementing viewing by TV. The technique of integrated viewing is well known from JET BOOM and TARM control using the GBsim and KISMET software. For integration of equipment dependent MMI functions the remote handling workstation provides a special software module interface. Task level support of the operator is based on (1) spatial (geometric/kinematic) models, (2) remote handling procedure models, and (3) functional models of the equipment. These models and the related simulation modules are used for planning, programming, execution monitoring, and training. The workstation provides an intelligent handbook guiding the operator through planned procedures illustrated by animated graphical sequences. For unplanned situations decision aids are available. A central point of the architectural design was to guarantee a high flexibility with respect to hardware and software. Therefore the remote handling workstation is designed as an open system based on widely accepted standards allowing the stepwise integration of the various modules starting with the basic MMI and the spatial simulation as standard components. (orig./HP) [de

  6. Theoretical flow investigations of an all glass evacuated tubular collector

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shah, Louise Jivan; Furbo, Simon

    2007-01-01

    Heat transfer and flow structures inside all glass evacuated tubular collectors for different operating conditions are investigated by means of computational fluid dynamics. The investigations are based on a collector design with horizontal tubes connected to a vertical 14 manifold channel. Three...... the highest efficiency, the optimal inlet flow rate was around 0.4-1 kg/min, the flow structures in the glass tubes were relatively uninfluenced by the inlet flow rate, Generally, the results showed only small variations in the efficiencies. This indicates that the collector design is well working for most...

  7. Use of graphite layer open tubular (GLOT) in environmental analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bruner, F.; Lattanzi, L.; Borghesi, P.

    1996-01-01

    Recently it has been developed a series of new capillary columns characterised by the use of graphitized carbon black modified from different amount of liquid phase. The characteristics of these columns, called graphite layer open tubular (GLOT), are described together with their application to the environmental analysis. A specific application of GLOT columns is for the direct analysis of aqueous solutions avoiding solvent extraction procedure. A comparison between a GLOT column and a traditional capillary column, estimating their behaviour after repeated direct injections of aqueous solution sample is written. Some applications regarding the analysis of the atmosphere pollutants, as aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbons, and their compounds are written too

  8. Distal renal tubular acidosis and amelogenesis imperfecta: A rare association

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P Ravi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Renal tubular acidosis (RTA is characterized by a normal anion gap with hyperchloremic metabolic acidosis. Primary distal RTA (type I is the most common RTA in children. Childhood presentation of distal RTA includes vomiting, failure to thrive, metabolic acidosis, and hypokalemia. Amelogenesis imperfecta (AI represents a condition where the dental enamel and oral tissues are affected in an equal manner resulting in the hypoplastic or hypopigmented teeth. We report a 10-year-old girl, previously asymptomatic presented with the hypokalemic paralysis and on work-up found out to have type I RTA. The discoloration of teeth and enamel was diagnosed as AI.

  9. Screening renal stone formers for distal renal tubular acidosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Osther, P J; Hansen, A B; Røhl, H F

    1989-01-01

    A group of 110 consecutive renal stone formers were screened for distal renal tubular acidosis (RTA) using morning fasting urinary pH (mfUpH) levels followed by a short ammonium chloride loading test in patients with levels above 6.0. In 14 patients (12.7%) a renal acidification defect was noted...... RTA in renal stone formers. Regardless of whether the acidification defect is primary or secondary to stone formation, however, all renal stone formers with distal RTA can expect to benefit from prophylactic alkaline therapy and it is recommended that the screening procedure, which is easy to use...

  10. Pheochromocytomas and secreting paragangliomas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gimenez-Roqueplo Anne-Paule

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Catecholamine-producing tumors may arise in the adrenal medulla (pheochromocytomas or in extraadrenal chromaffin cells (secreting paragangliomas. Their prevalence is about 0.1% in patients with hypertension and 4% in patients with a fortuitously discovered adrenal mass. An increase in the production of catecholamines causes symptoms (mainly headaches, palpitations and excess sweating and signs (mainly hypertension, weight loss and diabetes reflecting the effects of epinephrine and norepinephrine on α- and β-adrenergic receptors. Catecholamine-producing tumors mimic paroxysmal conditions with hypertension and/or cardiac rhythm disorders, including panic attacks, in which sympathetic activation linked to anxiety reproduces the same signs and symptoms. These tumors may be sporadic or part of any of several genetic diseases: familial pheochromocytoma-paraganglioma syndromes, multiple endocrine neoplasia type 2, neurofibromatosis 1 and von Hippel-Lindau disease. Familial cases are diagnosed earlier and are more frequently bilateral and recurring than sporadic cases. The most specific and sensitive diagnostic test for the tumor is the determination of plasma or urinary metanephrines. The tumor can be located by computed tomography, magnetic resonance imaging and metaiodobenzylguanidine scintigraphy. Treatment requires resection of the tumor, generally by laparoscopic surgery. About 10% of tumors are malignant either at first operation or during follow-up, malignancy being diagnosed by the presence of lymph node, visceral or bone metastases. Recurrences and malignancy are more frequent in cases with large or extraadrenal tumors. Patients, especially those with familial or extraadrenal tumors, should be followed-up indefinitely.

  11. A lower isoelectric point increases signal sequence-mediated secretion of recombinant proteins through a bacterial ABC transporter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byun, Hyunjong; Park, Jiyeon; Kim, Sun Chang; Ahn, Jung Hoon

    2017-12-01

    Efficient protein production for industrial and academic purposes often involves engineering microorganisms to produce and secrete target proteins into the culture. Pseudomonas fluorescens has a TliDEF ATP-binding cassette transporter, a type I secretion system, which recognizes C-terminal LARD3 signal sequence of thermostable lipase TliA. Many proteins are secreted by TliDEF in vivo when recombined with LARD3, but there are still others that cannot be secreted by TliDEF even when LARD3 is attached. However, the factors that determine whether or not a recombinant protein can be secreted through TliDEF are still unknown. Here, we recombined LARD3 with several proteins and examined their secretion through TliDEF. We found that the proteins secreted via LARD3 are highly negatively charged with highly-acidic isoelectric points (pI) lower than 5.5. Attaching oligo-aspartate to lower the pI of negatively-charged recombinant proteins improved their secretion, and attaching oligo-arginine to negatively-charged proteins blocked their secretion by LARD3. In addition, negatively supercharged green fluorescent protein (GFP) showed improved secretion, whereas positively supercharged GFP did not secrete. These results disclosed that proteins' acidic pI and net negative charge are major factors that determine their secretion through TliDEF. Homology modeling for TliDEF revealed that TliD dimer forms evolutionarily-conserved positively-charged clusters in its pore and substrate entrance site, which also partially explains the pI dependence of the TliDEF-dependent secretions. In conclusion, lowering the isoelectric point improved LARD3-mediated protein secretion, both widening the range of protein targets for efficient production via secretion and signifying an important aspect of ABC transporter-mediated secretions. © 2017 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  12. Nano-tubular cellulose for bioprocess technology development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koutinas, Athanasios A; Sypsas, Vasilios; Kandylis, Panagiotis; Michelis, Andreas; Bekatorou, Argyro; Kourkoutas, Yiannis; Kordulis, Christos; Lycourghiotis, Alexis; Banat, Ibrahim M; Nigam, Poonam; Marchant, Roger; Giannouli, Myrsini; Yianoulis, Panagiotis

    2012-01-01

    Delignified cellulosic material has shown a significant promotional effect on the alcoholic fermentation as yeast immobilization support. However, its potential for further biotechnological development is unexploited. This study reports the characterization of this tubular/porous cellulosic material, which was done by SEM, porosimetry and X-ray powder diffractometry. The results showed that the structure of nano-tubular cellulose (NC) justifies its suitability for use in "cold pasteurization" processes and its promoting activity in bioprocessing (fermentation). The last was explained by a glucose pump theory. Also, it was demonstrated that crystallization of viscous invert sugar solutions during freeze drying could not be otherwise achieved unless NC was present. This effect as well as the feasibility of extremely low temperature fermentation are due to reduction of the activation energy, and have facilitated the development of technologies such as wine fermentations at home scale (in a domestic refrigerator). Moreover, NC may lead to new perspectives in research such as the development of new composites, templates for cylindrical nano-particles, etc.

  13. Rhabdomyolysis with acute tubular necrosis following occupational inhalation of thinners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngajilo, D; Ehrlich, R

    2017-07-01

    Thinners are mixtures of organic solvents commonly containing toluene, xylene, acetone, hexane, benzene and methyl isobutyl ketone. This report describes a case of rhabdomyolysis with acute tubular necrosis and renal failure, most likely attributable to toluene, following occupational exposure to thinners while cleaning a steel water tank. These adverse health effects have previously been reported following acute poisoning or intentional inhalation by drug abusers, but rarely in the occupational setting. Poor working conditions, lack of health and safety training and delayed treatment contributed to the onset and severity of the patient's complications. This case emphasizes the need for strict control measures, including adequate ventilation, training on working in confined spaces, appropriate personal protective equipment and emergency rescue procedures in such settings. In addition, rhabdomyolysis, acute tubular necrosis and renal failure should be added to safety data material as possible complications of excessive inhalation of thinners. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society of Occupational Medicine. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  14. Advances in tubular solid oxide fuel cell technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singhal, S.C. [Westinghouse Electric Corp., Pittsburgh, PA (United States)

    1996-12-31

    The design, materials and fabrication processes for the earlier technology Westinghouse tubular geometry cell have been described in detail previously. In that design, the active cell components were deposited in the form of thin layers on a ceramic porous support tube (PST). The tubular design of these cells and the materials used therein have been validated by successful electrical testing for over 65,000 h (>7 years). In these early technology PST cells, the support tube, although sufficiently porous, presented an inherent impedance to air flow toward air electrode. In order to reduce such impedance to air flow, the wall thickness of the PST was first decreased from the original 2 mm (the thick-wall PST) to 1.2 mm (the thin-wall PST). The calcia-stabilized zirconia support tube has now been completely eliminated and replaced by a doped lanthanum manganite tube in state-of-the-art SOFCs. This doped lanthanum manganite tube is extruded and sintered to about 30 to 35 percent porosity, and serves as the air electrode onto which the other cell components are fabricated in thin layer form. These latest technology cells are designated as air electrode supported (AES) cells.

  15. Carbohydrates in Ankistrodesmus braunii biomass cultivated in tubular photobioreactors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Lucía Morocho-Jácome

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The great need for microalgae biomass production in tubular photobioreactors has increased for use in biofuels, pharmaceuticals and even cosmetic applications. In order to better understand the potential applications of this material, it is imperative to know in detail its composition. Ankistrodesmus braunii was cultivated in 3.5 L tubular air-lift photobioreactors using 10 mM sodium nitrate as nitrogen source in batch mode at 60 µmol photons m-2 s-1. The maximum biomass concentration (Xm and the biomass productivity (PX reached at 6th day of cultivation was 1249 ± 72 mg L-1 and 165 ± 13 mg L-1 d-1, respectively. Carbohydrates productivity expressed in terms of glucose, galactose and glucose+galactose (1:1 were 2.57 ± 0.04, 4.12 ± 0.06 and 3.22 ± 0.05 mg L-1 d-1, respectively. Results show a statistical difference that was found between carbohydrate productivity values expressed as glucose, galactose and glucose+galactose (1:1.

  16. Understanding shape and morphology of unusual tubular starch nanocrystals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Bei; Liu, Wenxia; Tan, Hua; Yu, Dehai; Song, Zhaoping; Lucia, Lucian A

    2016-10-20

    Starch nanocrystals (SNC) are aptly described as the insoluble degradation byproducts of starch granules that purportedly display morphologies that are platelet-like, round, square, and oval-like. In this work, we reported the preparation of SNC with unprecedented tubular structures through sulfuric acid hydrolysis of normal maize starch, subsequent exposure to ammonia and relaxation at 4°C. High-resolution transmission electron microscopy observation clearly proved that the SNCs possess tubular nanostructures with polygonal cross-section. After further reviewing the transformations of SNC by acid hydrolysis, ammonia treatment, and curing time at 4°C, a mechanism for T-SNC formation is suggested. It is conjectured that T-SNC gradually self-assembles by combination of smaller platelet-like/square nanocrystals likely loosely aggregated by starch molecular chains from residual amorphous regions. This work paves the way for the pursuit of new approaches for the preparation of starch-based nanomaterials possessing unique morphologies. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Dynamic modeling of temperature change in outdoor operated tubular photobioreactors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Androga, Dominic Deo; Uyar, Basar; Koku, Harun; Eroglu, Inci

    2017-07-01

    In this study, a one-dimensional transient model was developed to analyze the temperature variation of tubular photobioreactors operated outdoors and the validity of the model was tested by comparing the predictions of the model with the experimental data. The model included the effects of convection and radiative heat exchange on the reactor temperature throughout the day. The temperatures in the reactors increased with increasing solar radiation and air temperatures, and the predicted reactor temperatures corresponded well to the measured experimental values. The heat transferred to the reactor was mainly through radiation: the radiative heat absorbed by the reactor medium, ground radiation, air radiation, and solar (direct and diffuse) radiation, while heat loss was mainly through the heat transfer to the cooling water and forced convection. The amount of heat transferred by reflected radiation and metabolic activities of the bacteria and pump work was negligible. Counter-current cooling was more effective in controlling reactor temperature than co-current cooling. The model developed identifies major heat transfer mechanisms in outdoor operated tubular photobioreactors, and accurately predicts temperature changes in these systems. This is useful in determining cooling duty under transient conditions and scaling up photobioreactors. The photobioreactor design and the thermal modeling were carried out and experimental results obtained for the case study of photofermentative hydrogen production by Rhodobacter capsulatus, but the approach is applicable to photobiological systems that are to be operated under outdoor conditions with significant cooling demands.

  18. Additive manufacturing of patient-specific tubular continuum manipulators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amanov, Ernar; Nguyen, Thien-Dang; Burgner-Kahrs, Jessica

    2015-03-01

    Tubular continuum robots, which are composed of multiple concentric, precurved, elastic tubes, provide more dexterity than traditional surgical instruments at the same diameter. The tubes can be precurved such that the resulting manipulator fulfills surgical task requirements. Up to now the only material used for the component tubes of those manipulators is NiTi, a super-elastic shape-memory alloy of nickel and titan. NiTi is a cost-intensive material and fabrication processes are complex, requiring (proprietary) technology, e.g. for shape setting. In this paper, we evaluate component tubes made of 3 different thermoplastic materials (PLA, PCL and nylon) using fused filament fabrication technology (3D printing). This enables quick and cost-effective production of custom, patient-specific continuum manipulators, produced on site on demand. Stress-strain and deformation characteristics are evaluated experimentally for 16 fabricated tubes of each thermoplastic with diameters and shapes equivalent to those of NiTi tubes. Tubes made of PCL and nylon exhibit properties comparable to those made of NiTi. We further demonstrate a tubular continuum manipulator composed of 3 nylon tubes in a transnasal, transsphenoidal skull base surgery scenario in vitro.

  19. Radiologic findings of tubular adenoma of the breast

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeong, Mi Gyoung; Oh, Ki Keun [Yonsei Univ. College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1996-10-01

    Tubular adenoma (TA) is known as a rare lesion of the breast which is difficult to diagnosis preoperatively because of its rarity and similarity to fibroadenoma. Hence, our purpose is to suggest the characteristic sonographic features for its correct diagnosis. We retrospectively analyzed the clinical data and mammographic and sonographic findings. of seven patients(mean age, 23) who during the previous five years had presented at our hospital with pathologically-proven tubular adenoma. TA was misdiagnosed as fibroadenoma, since on physical examination of these young females, the lesions presented a palpable, non-tender mass. Mammographically, they showed a well defined mass similar to fibroadenoma. However, sonographic findings were characteristic of TA and compared to fibroadenoma, showed a well demarcated and smooth bordered mass with transverse long axis, posterior enhancement and homogeneous lower internal echogenecity. No case showed lateral wall refractive shadowing. In young females, the clinical and mammographic findings of TA are similar to those of fibroadenoma. However, sonographic findings of TA can, be helpful in the differential diagnosis of this entity and fibroadenoma.

  20. Nano-tubular cellulose for bioprocess technology development.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Athanasios A Koutinas

    Full Text Available Delignified cellulosic material has shown a significant promotional effect on the alcoholic fermentation as yeast immobilization support. However, its potential for further biotechnological development is unexploited. This study reports the characterization of this tubular/porous cellulosic material, which was done by SEM, porosimetry and X-ray powder diffractometry. The results showed that the structure of nano-tubular cellulose (NC justifies its suitability for use in "cold pasteurization" processes and its promoting activity in bioprocessing (fermentation. The last was explained by a glucose pump theory. Also, it was demonstrated that crystallization of viscous invert sugar solutions during freeze drying could not be otherwise achieved unless NC was present. This effect as well as the feasibility of extremely low temperature fermentation are due to reduction of the activation energy, and have facilitated the development of technologies such as wine fermentations at home scale (in a domestic refrigerator. Moreover, NC may lead to new perspectives in research such as the development of new composites, templates for cylindrical nano-particles, etc.

  1. Radiologic findings of tubular adenoma of the breast

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeong, Mi Gyoung; Oh, Ki Keun

    1996-01-01

    Tubular adenoma (TA) is known as a rare lesion of the breast which is difficult to diagnosis preoperatively because of its rarity and similarity to fibroadenoma. Hence, our purpose is to suggest the characteristic sonographic features for its correct diagnosis. We retrospectively analyzed the clinical data and mammographic and sonographic findings. of seven patients(mean age, 23) who during the previous five years had presented at our hospital with pathologically-proven tubular adenoma. TA was misdiagnosed as fibroadenoma, since on physical examination of these young females, the lesions presented a palpable, non-tender mass. Mammographically, they showed a well defined mass similar to fibroadenoma. However, sonographic findings were characteristic of TA and compared to fibroadenoma, showed a well demarcated and smooth bordered mass with transverse long axis, posterior enhancement and homogeneous lower internal echogenecity. No case showed lateral wall refractive shadowing. In young females, the clinical and mammographic findings of TA are similar to those of fibroadenoma. However, sonographic findings of TA can, be helpful in the differential diagnosis of this entity and fibroadenoma

  2. DEVELOPMENT OF TECHNICAL DECISIONS FOR HEAT SUPPLY WITH TUBULAR GAS HEATERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    IRODOV V. F.

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Annotation. Problems formulation. The problem that is solved is the development of autonomous heat supply systems that reduce the capital costs of construction and increase the efficiency of the use of energy resources. One of the ways to solve this problem is the use of tubular gas heaters. For this, it is necessary to develop new technical solutions for heat supply with tubular gas heaters, as well as scientific and methodological support for the development, construction and operation of heat supply systems with tubular gas heaters. Analysis of recent research. Preliminary studies of infrared tubular gas heaters are considered, which were used to heat industrial enterprises with sufficiently high premises. The task was to extend the principles of heat supply by means of tubular heaters for heating air, water and heating medium in relatively low rooms. Goal and tasks. To lay out the development of technical solutions for heat supply with tubular gas heaters, which increase the efficiency and reliability of heat supply systems and extend the use of tubular gas heaters in heat supply. Results. Technical solutions for heat supply with tubular gas heaters have made it possible to extend their applications for heating air, water and heating medium in relatively low rooms. Scientific novelty. New technical solutions for heat supply with tubular gas heaters increase the efficiency of using fuel and energy resources at low capital costs. Practical significance. Technical solutions for heat supply using tubular heaters have the potential for wide application in the heat supply of industrial, public and residential facilities. Conclusions. For two decades, new technical solutions for heat supply with tubular gas heaters have been developed, which increase the efficiency and reliability of heat supply systems and can be widely used for autonomous heating.

  3. Conformal Nets II: Conformal Blocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartels, Arthur; Douglas, Christopher L.; Henriques, André

    2017-08-01

    Conformal nets provide a mathematical formalism for conformal field theory. Associated to a conformal net with finite index, we give a construction of the `bundle of conformal blocks', a representation of the mapping class groupoid of closed topological surfaces into the category of finite-dimensional projective Hilbert spaces. We also construct infinite-dimensional spaces of conformal blocks for topological surfaces with smooth boundary. We prove that the conformal blocks satisfy a factorization formula for gluing surfaces along circles, and an analogous formula for gluing surfaces along intervals. We use this interval factorization property to give a new proof of the modularity of the category of representations of a conformal net.

  4. Pro asynchronous programming with .NET

    CERN Document Server

    Blewett, Richard; Ltd, Rock Solid Knowledge

    2014-01-01

    Pro Asynchronous Programming with .NET teaches the essential skill of asynchronous programming in .NET. It answers critical questions in .NET application development, such as: how do I keep my program responding at all times to keep my users happy how do I make the most of the available hardware how can I improve performanceIn the modern world, users expect more and more from their applications and devices, and multi-core hardware has the potential to provide it. But it takes carefully crafted code to turn that potential into responsive, scalable applications.With Pro Asynchronous Programming

  5. The Secret of Future Victories

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-02-01

    Copy S of 320 copies AD--A25 0 718 IDA PAPER P-265 3 THE SECRET OF FUTURE VICTORIES Paul F. Gormnan General, USA (Retired) DTIC 05M February 1992 NAY...TYPE AND DATES COVERED IFebruary 1992 Final--June 1991-January 1992 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE 5. FUNDING NUMBERS The Secret of Future Victories C -MDA...8 2N0-102 IDA PAPER P-2653 THE SECRET OF FUTURE VICTORIES Paul F. Gorman General. LUSA (Retired) February 1992 Approved for public release

  6. Role of Nitric Oxide in the Regulation of Renin and Vasopressin Secretion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reid, Ian A.

    1994-01-01

    Research during recent years has established nitric oxide as a unique signaling molecule that plays important roles in the regulation of the cardiovascular, nervous, immune, and other systems. Nitric oxide has also been implicated in the control of the secretion of hormones by the pancreas, hypothalamus, and anterior pituitary gland, and evidence is accumulating that it contributes to the regulation of the secretion of renin and vasopressin, hormones that play key roles in the control of sodium and water balance. Several lines of evidence have implicated nitric oxide in the control of renin secretion. The enzyme nitric oxide synthase is present in vascular and tubular elements of the kidney, particularly in cells of the macula densa, a structure that plays an important role in the control of renin secretion. Guanylyl cyclase, a major target for nitric oxide, is also present in the kidney. Drugs that inhibit nitric oxide synthesis generally suppress renin release in vivo and in vitro, suggesting a stimulatory role for the L-arginine/nitric oxide pathway in the control of renin secretion. Under some conditions, however, blockade of nitric oxide synthesis increases renin secretion. Recent studies indicate that nitric oxide not only contributes to the regulation of basal renin secretion, but also participates in the renin secretory responses to activation of the renal baroreceptor, macula densa, and beta adrenoceptor mechanisms that regulate renin secretion. Histochemical and immunocytochemical studies have revealed the presence of nitric oxide synthase in the supraoptic and paraventricular nuclei of the hypothalamus and in the posterior pituitary gland. Colocalization of nitric oxide synthase and vasopressin has been demonstrated in some hypothalamic neurons. Nitric oxide synthase activity in the hypothalamus and pituitary is increased by maneuvers known to stimulate vasopressin secretion, including salt loading and dehydration, Administration of L-arginine and nitric

  7. KM3NeT

    CERN Multimedia

    KM3NeT is a large scale next-generation neutrino telescope located in the deep waters of the Mediterranean Sea, optimized for the discovery of galactic neutrino sources emitting in the TeV energy region.

  8. Pickering nuclear fish diversion net

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xiao, J.; Lew, A. [Ontario Power Generation, Toronto, Ontario (Canada)

    2013-07-01

    Pickering Fish Diversion Net - An Engineered Environmental Solution that has significantly reduced fish impingement at the Pickering Nuclear Facility. Note: As a recent urgent request/discussed by Mark Elliot, CNE-OPG and Jacques Plourde, CNS.

  9. PolicyNet Publication System

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — The PolicyNet Publication System project will merge the Oracle-based Policy Repository (POMS) and the SQL-Server CAMP system (MSOM) into a new system with an Oracle...

  10. Net Neutrality: Background and Issues

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Gilroy, Angele A

    2006-01-01

    .... The move to place restrictions on the owners of the networks that compose and provide access to the Internet, to ensure equal access and nondiscriminatory treatment, is referred to as "net neutrality...

  11. Analisis Determinan Net Ekspor Indonesia

    OpenAIRE

    Daulay, Rahmawaty

    2010-01-01

    This study is to analyzing empirically among Indonesia GDP, trade partnership GDP (Malaysia, Singapore, US and Thailand) and real exchange rate toward Indonesia Net Export. To find out which one from those three variables is significant in order to fluctuating (increasing or decreasing) Indonesia Net Export either in the short run or in the long run. Data collection is obtained using secondary data, namely Indonesia GDP, Malaysia GDP, Singapura GDP, US GDP, Thailand GDP and real exchange rate...

  12. NetBeans GUI Builder

    OpenAIRE

    Pusiankova, Tatsiana

    2009-01-01

    This work aims at making readers familiar with the powerful tool NetBeans IDE GUI Builder and helping them make their first steps to creation of their own graphical user interface in the Java programming language. The work includes theoretical description of NetBeans IDE GUI Builder, its most important characteristics and peculiarities and also a set of practical instructions that will help readers in creation of their first GUI. The readers will be introduced to the environment of this tool ...

  13. Effect of section shape on frequencies of natural oscillations of tubular springs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pirogov, S. P.; Chuba, A. Yu; Cherentsov, D. A.

    2018-05-01

    The necessity of determining the frequencies of natural oscillations of manometric tubular springs is substantiated. Based on the mathematical model and computer program, numerical experiments were performed that allowed us to reveal the effect of geometric parameters on the frequencies of free oscillations of manometric tubular springs.

  14. 78 FR 77421 - Certain Oil Country Tubular Goods From India: Preliminary Affirmative Countervailing Duty...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-23

    ..., Saudi Arabia, Taiwan, Thailand, the Republic of Turkey, Ukraine, and the Socialist Republic of Vietnam... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration [C-533-858] Certain Oil Country Tubular... producers and exporters of certain oil tubular goods (OCTG) from India. The period of investigation is...

  15. 78 FR 77420 - Certain Oil Country Tubular Goods From the Republic of Turkey: Preliminary Negative...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-23

    ..., the Republic of the Philippines, Saudi Arabia, Taiwan, Thailand, the Republic of Turkey, Ukraine, and... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration [C-489-817] Certain Oil Country Tubular... provided to producers and exporters of certain oil tubular goods (OCTG) from the Republic of Turkey (Turkey...

  16. Gamma flux responsive self-powered detector with a tubular emitter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goldstein, N.P.; Todt, W.H.

    1982-01-01

    A gamma-sensitive flux detector comprises tubular emitter, an insulating core within the emitter and an insulating layer about the emitter, and a tubular conductive collector electrode about the insulating layer. The emitter material may be platinum, lead, bismuth, tantalum, tungsten; platinum preferred

  17. Tubular Carcinoma of the Breast: Advantages and Limitations of Breast Tomosynthesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filipa Vilaverde

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Tubular carcinoma of the breast is a rare variant of invasive ductal carcinoma. We report a case of 42-year-old asymptomatic female with a histopathological proven multifocal tubular carcinoma, studied by mammography, Tomosynthesis, Ultrasound, and Magnetic Resonance. Herein, we discuss the advantages and limitations of Tomosynthesis, an emerging imaging technique, in this particular case.

  18. Tubular lysosome morphology and distribution within macrophages depend on the integrity of cytoplasmic microtubules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swanson, J.; Bushnell, A.; Silverstein, S.C.

    1987-01-01

    Pinocytosis of the fluorescent dye lucifer yellow labels elongated, membrane-bound tubular organelles in several cell types, including cultured human monocytes, thioglycolate-elicited mouse peritoneal macrophages, and the macrophage-like cell line J774.2. These tubular structures can be identified as lysosomes by acid phosphatase histochemistry and immunofluorescence localization of cathepsin L. The abundance of tubular lysosomes is markedly increased by treatment with phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate. When labeled by pinocytosis of microperoxidase and examined by electron microscopic histochemistry, the tubular lysosomes have an outside diameter of ≅ 75 nm and a length of several micrometers; they radiate from the cell's centrosphere in alignment with cytoplasmic microtubules and intermediate filaments. Incubation of phorbol myristate acetate-treated macrophages at 4 0 C or in medium containing 5 μM colchicine or nocodazole at 37 0 C leads to disassembly of microtubules and fragmentation of the tubular lysosomes. Return of the cultures to 37 0 C or removal of nocodazole from the medium leads to reassembly of microtubules and the reappearance of tubular lysosomes within 10-20 min. The authors conclude that microtubules are essential for the maintenance of tubular lysosome morphology and that, in macrophages, a significant proportion of the lysosomal compartment is contained within these tubular structures

  19. 76 FR 39071 - Certain Oil Country Tubular Goods From the People's Republic of China: Rescission of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-05

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration [C-570-944] Certain Oil Country Tubular... administrative review of the countervailing duty order on certain oil country tubular goods (``OCTG'') from the... subject to administrative protective order (``APO'') of their responsibility concerning the disposition of...

  20. Tubular Carcinoma of the Breast: Advantages and Limitations of Breast Tomosynthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocha, Ana; Reis, Alcinda

    2016-01-01

    Tubular carcinoma of the breast is a rare variant of invasive ductal carcinoma. We report a case of 42-year-old asymptomatic female with a histopathological proven multifocal tubular carcinoma, studied by mammography, Tomosynthesis, Ultrasound, and Magnetic Resonance. Herein, we discuss the advantages and limitations of Tomosynthesis, an emerging imaging technique, in this particular case. PMID:28116205

  1. Compressibility effects in packed and open tubular gas and supercritical fluid chromatography

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janssen, J.G.M.; Snijders, H.M.J.; Cramers, C.A.; Schoenmakers, P.J.

    1992-01-01

    The influence of the pressure drop on the efficiency and speed of anal. in packed and open tubular supercrit. fluid chromatog. (SFC) is described: methods previously developed to describe the effects of mobile phase compressibility on the performance of open tubular columns in SFC have been extended

  2. Effects of SGLT2 inhibition in human kidney proximal tubular cells--renoprotection in diabetic nephropathy?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Usha Panchapakesan

    Full Text Available Sodium/glucose cotransporter 2 (SGLT2 inhibitors are oral hypoglycemic agents used to treat patients with diabetes mellitus. SGLT2 inhibitors block reabsorption of filtered glucose by inhibiting SGLT2, the primary glucose transporter in the proximal tubular cell (PTC, leading to glycosuria and lowering of serum glucose. We examined the renoprotective effects of the SGLT2 inhibitor empagliflozin to determine whether blocking glucose entry into the kidney PTCs reduced the inflammatory and fibrotic responses of the cell to high glucose. We used an in vitro model of human PTCs. HK2 cells (human kidney PTC line were exposed to control 5 mM, high glucose (HG 30 mM or the profibrotic cytokine transforming growth factor beta (TGFβ1; 0.5 ng/ml in the presence and absence of empagliflozin for up to 72 h. SGLT1 and 2 expression and various inflammatory/fibrotic markers were assessed. A chromatin immunoprecipitation assay was used to determine the binding of phosphorylated smad3 to the promoter region of the SGLT2 gene. Our data showed that TGFβ1 but not HG increased SGLT2 expression and this occurred via phosphorylated smad3. HG induced expression of Toll-like receptor-4, increased nuclear deoxyribonucleic acid binding for nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB and activator protein 1, induced collagen IV expression as well as interleukin-6 secretion all of which were attenuated with empagliflozin. Empagliflozin did not reduce high mobility group box protein 1 induced NF-κB suggesting that its effect is specifically related to a reduction in glycotoxicity. SGLT1 and GLUT2 expression was not significantly altered with HG or empagliflozin. In conclusion, empagliflozin reduces HG induced inflammatory and fibrotic markers by blocking glucose transport and did not induce a compensatory increase in SGLT1/GLUT2 expression. Although HG itself does not regulate SGLT2 expression in our model, TGFβ increases SGLT2 expression through phosphorylated smad3.

  3. Renal tubular NHE3 is required in the maintenance of water and sodium chloride homeostasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fenton, Robert A; Poulsen, Søren B; de la Mora Chavez, Samantha; Soleimani, Manoocher; Dominguez Rieg, Jessica A; Rieg, Timo

    2017-08-01

    The sodium/proton exchanger isoform 3 (NHE3) is expressed in the intestine and the kidney, where it facilitates sodium (re)absorption and proton secretion. The importance of NHE3 in the kidney for sodium chloride homeostasis, relative to the intestine, is unknown. Constitutive tubule-specific NHE3 knockout mice (NHE3 loxloxCre) did not show significant differences compared to control mice in body weight, blood pH or bicarbonate and plasma sodium, potassium, or aldosterone levels. Fluid intake, urinary flow rate, urinary sodium/creatinine, and pH were significantly elevated in NHE3 loxloxCre mice, while urine osmolality and GFR were significantly lower. Water deprivation revealed a small urinary concentrating defect in NHE3 loxloxCre mice on a control diet, exaggerated on low sodium chloride. Ten days of low or high sodium chloride diet did not affect plasma sodium in control mice; however, NHE3 loxloxCre mice were susceptible to low sodium chloride (about -4 mM) or high sodium chloride intake (about +2 mM) versus baseline, effects without differences in plasma aldosterone between groups. Blood pressure was significantly lower in NHE3 loxloxCre mice and was sodium chloride sensitive. In control mice, the expression of the sodium/phosphate co-transporter Npt2c was sodium chloride sensitive. However, lack of tubular NHE3 blunted Npt2c expression. Alterations in the abundances of sodium/chloride cotransporter and its phosphorylation at threonine 58 as well as the abundances of the α-subunit of the epithelial sodium channel, and its cleaved form, were also apparent in NHE3 loxloxCre mice. Thus, renal NHE3 is required to maintain blood pressure and steady-state plasma sodium levels when dietary sodium chloride intake is modified. Copyright © 2017 International Society of Nephrology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Multiflavor string-net models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Chien-Hung

    2017-05-01

    We generalize the string-net construction to multiple flavors of strings, each of which is labeled by the elements of an Abelian group Gi. The same flavor of strings can branch, while different flavors of strings can cross one another and thus they form intersecting string nets. We systematically construct the exactly soluble lattice Hamiltonians and the ground-state wave functions for the intersecting string-net condensed phases. We analyze the braiding statistics of the low-energy quasiparticle excitations and find that our model can realize all the topological phases as the string-net model with group G =∏iGi . In this respect, our construction provides various ways of building lattice models which realize topological order G , corresponding to different partitions of G and thus different flavors of string nets. In fact, our construction concretely demonstrates the Künneth formula by constructing various lattice models with the same topological order. As an example, we construct the G =Z2×Z2×Z2 string-net model which realizes a non-Abelian topological phase by properly intersecting three copies of toric codes.

  5. PENGURANGAN KADAR CO2 MENGGUNAKAN SPIRULINA PLATENSIS DALAM TUBULAR BIOREACTOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zainal Syam Arifin

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Increasing the population impact on increasing energy demand. On the other hand, the energy generation industry has been blamed as one of the contributors of carbon dioxide about 25% of total CO2 emissions worldwide. Meanwhile, the production of biogas, which aims to address the increasing need of energy, produces carbon dioxide in the range of 25–50% by volume. To overcome this, a cheap method, optimum and efficient as well as environmentally friendly in reducing CO2 levels by using Spirulina platensis is needed. This research aims to created a mathematical models and found the optimum flow rate to reduced levels of CO2 by using Spirulina platensis. This study used a glass tubular bioreactor (D = 2.6 cm at a temperature of 30°C and irradiated with a fluorescent lamp Philips TL 36 Watt, color temperature: 6,200K cool daylight, light output: 2,600 lm, 72 lm/W. Tubular reactor was placed in a box lined with silver foil walls on three sides. With mathematical models of tubular reactor, the reaction rate constants could be predicted. Based on calculations of data and graphs, optimum volumetric velocity could also be predicted. Variation of flowrate to observed the reduction rate of CO2 was 0.25 mL/sec, 0.35 mL/sec, 0.5 mL/sec, 0.75 mL/sec, 1 mL/sec. Carbon source was 99.99% CO2.Observations of Spirulina growth was made on the flow rate of 0.25 mL/sec at the initial levels of dry weight 2.1208 g/L. The results of this study indicated that the low flowratewas a more effective way to reduced carbon dioxide levels using Spirulina platensis (= 2.82×10-4 sec-1. The highest conversion was obtained at a volumetric flow rate of 0.25 mL/sec and optimum speeds in the range of 0.3 to 0.4 mL/sec. The rate of incoming CO2 flux should be less than 0.047 mL/cm2.detik. Specific Growth Rate (µ of Spirulina platensis in this study was 2.56×10-2 minute-1.   Keywords: Spirulina platensis, a vertical tubular bioreactor, CO2 reduction     ABSTRAK

  6. Ganoderma extract prevents albumin-induced oxidative damage and chemokines synthesis in cultured human proximal tubular epithelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Kar Neng; Chan, Loretta Y Y; Tang, Sydney C W; Leung, Joseph C K

    2006-05-01

    Ganoderma lucidum (Ganoderma or lingzhi) is widely used as an alternative medicine remedy to promote health and longevity. Recent studies have indicated that components extracted from Ganoderma have a wide range of pharmacological actions including suppressing inflammation and scavenging free radicals. We recently reported that tubular secretion of interleukin-8 (IL-8) induced by albumin is important in the pathogenesis of tubulointerstitial injury in the proteinuric state. In this study, we explored the protective effect of Ganoderma extract (LZ) on albumin-induced kidney epithelial injury. Growth arrested human proximal tubular epithelial cells (PTECs) were incubated with 0.625 to 10 mg/ml human serum albumin (HSA) for up to 72 h. HSA induced DNA damage and apoptosis in PTEC in a dose- and time-dependent manner. Co-incubation of PTEC with 4-64 microg/ml LZ significantly reduced the oxidative damage and cytotoxic effect of HSA in a dose-dependent manner (PGanoderma (16 microg/ml). To explore the components of LZ that exhibited most protective effect in HSA-induced PTEC damages, LZ was further separated into two sub-fractions, LZF1 (MW effective in reducing sICAM-1 released from HSA-activated PTEC whereas the high molecular weight LZ (unfractionated LZ) was more effective in diminishing IL-8 production. Our results suggest that Ganoderma significantly reduces oxidative damages and apoptosis in PTEC induced by HSA. The differential reduction of IL-8 or sICAM-1 released from HSA-activated PTEC by different components of the LZ implicates that components of Ganoderma with different molecular weights could play different roles and operate different mechanisms in preventing HSA-induced PTEC damage.

  7. Nonlinear secret image sharing scheme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Sang-Ho; Lee, Gil-Je; Yoo, Kee-Young

    2014-01-01

    Over the past decade, most of secret image sharing schemes have been proposed by using Shamir's technique. It is based on a linear combination polynomial arithmetic. Although Shamir's technique based secret image sharing schemes are efficient and scalable for various environments, there exists a security threat such as Tompa-Woll attack. Renvall and Ding proposed a new secret sharing technique based on nonlinear combination polynomial arithmetic in order to solve this threat. It is hard to apply to the secret image sharing. In this paper, we propose a (t, n)-threshold nonlinear secret image sharing scheme with steganography concept. In order to achieve a suitable and secure secret image sharing scheme, we adapt a modified LSB embedding technique with XOR Boolean algebra operation, define a new variable m, and change a range of prime p in sharing procedure. In order to evaluate efficiency and security of proposed scheme, we use the embedding capacity and PSNR. As a result of it, average value of PSNR and embedding capacity are 44.78 (dB) and 1.74t⌈log2 m⌉ bit-per-pixel (bpp), respectively.

  8. Process for the fixing of a metallic end piece on a tubular component

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Charpin, Jean.

    1975-01-01

    Under this invention the process makes it possible to joint a tubular component and in particular a tubular filter and an end piece, with a connection of great mechanical strength, perfectly leak proof and with excellent corrosion resistance, particularly with respect to fluorinated by-products. This process is therefore of great worth in fixing to a bearer a thin ceramic compound tubular filter element, since such a filter can be used in particular for the separation of uranium isotopes by gaseous diffusion and for the separation of hydrocarbons in petrochemicals. To this end, the process under consideration is characterised in that it consists in depositing a layer of ceramic material, by hot projection, at the end of the tubular element and in sealing the end piece to the end of the tubular element by the hot projection of a ceramic or metallic substance [fr

  9. Fabrication of cathode supported tubular solid oxide electrolysis cell for high temperature steam electrolysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shao, Le; Wang, Shaorong; Qian, Jiqin; Xue, Yanjie; Liu, Renzhu

    2011-01-15

    In recent years, hydrogen has been identified as a potential alternative fuel and energy carrier for the future energy supply. Water electrolysis is one of the important hydrogen production technologies which do not emit carbon dioxide. High temperature steam electrolysis (HTSE) consumes even less electrical energy than low temperature water electrolysis. Theoretically, HTSE using solid oxide electrolysis cells (SOEC) can efficiently utilize renewable energy to produce hydrogen, and it is also possible to operate the SOEC in reverse mode as the solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) to produce electricity. Tubular SOFC have been widely investigated. In this study, tubular solid oxide cells were fabricated by dip-coating and cosintering techniques. In SOEC mode, results suggested that steam ratio had a strong impact on the performance of the tubular cell; the tubular SOEC preferred to be operated at high steam ratio in order to avoid concentration polarization. The microstructure of the tubular SOEC should therefore be optimized for high temperature steam electrolysis.

  10. Research on typical topologies of a tubular horizontal-gap passive magnetic levitation vibration isolator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhou Yiheng

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Magnetic levitation vibration isolators have attracted more and more attention in the field of high-precision measuring and machining equipment. In this paper, we describe a tubular horizontal-gap passive magnetic levitation vibration isolator. Four typical topologies of the tubular horizontal-gap passive magnetic levitation vibration isolator are proposed. The analytical expression of magnetic force is derived. The relationship between levitation force, force density, force ripple and major structural parameters are analysed by finite element method, which is conductive to the design and optimization of the tubular horizontal-gap passive magnetic levitation vibration isolator. The force characteristics of different topologies of the tubular horizontal-gap passive magnetic levitation vibration isolator are compared and evaluated from the aspect of force density, force ripple and manufacturability. In comparison with conventional passive magnetic levitation vibration isolators, the proposed tubular horizontal-gap passive magnetic levitation vibration isolator shows advantage in higher force density.

  11. Renal transplantant blood flow in patients with acute tubular necrosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huic, D; Crnkovic, S; Bubic-Filipi, L J; Grosev, D; Dodig, P; Porapat, M; Puretic, Z [Univ. Hospital Rebro, Zagreb (Croatia)

    1997-09-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the quantity of renal transport blood flow in patients affected by acute tubular necrosis (ATN). During the four years period two hundred and thirty-three studies were performed using {sup 99m}Tc pertechnetate and {sup 131}I - OIH. Renal blood flow was calculated from the first-pass time activity curves generated over the kidney and aorta and expressed as a percentage of cardiac output (RBF/CO). Renal transplant blood flow is clearly diminished in ATN, similar as in acute rejection, and significantly related to the graft function, what means that RBF/CO value could potentially serve as a prognostic factor in the graft function recovery from ATN.

  12. A Phase of Liposomes with Entangled Tubular Vesicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiruvolu, Shivkumar; Warriner, Heidi E.; Naranjo, Edward; Idziak, Stefan H. J.; Radler, Joachim O.; Plano, Robert J.; Zasadzinski, Joseph A.; Safinya, Cyrus R.

    1994-11-01

    An equilibrium phase belonging to the family of bilayer liposomes in ternary mixtures of dimyristoylphosphatidylcholine (DMPC), water, and geraniol (a biological alcohol derived from oil-soluble vitamins that acts as a cosurfactant) has been identified. Electron and optical microscopy reveal the phase, labeled Ltv, to be composed of highly entangled tubular vesicles. In situ x-ray diffraction confirms that the tubule walls are multilamellar with the lipids in the chain-melted state. Macroscopic observations show that the Ltv phase coexists with the well-known L_4 phase of spherical vesicles and a bulk L_α phase. However, the defining characteristic of the Ltv phase is the Weissenberg rod climbing effect under shear, which results from its polymer-like entangled microstructure.

  13. Scavenging energy from human motion with tubular dielectric polymer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jean-Mistral, Claire; Basrour, Skandar

    2010-04-01

    Scavenging energy from human motion is a challenge to supply low consumption systems for sport or medical applications. A promising solution is to use electroactive polymers and especially dielectric polymers to scavenge mechanical energy during walk. In this paper, we present a tubular dielectric generator which is the first step toward an integration of these structures into textiles. For a 10cm length and under a strain of 100%, the structure is able to scavenge 1.5μJ for a poling voltage of 200V and up to 40μJ for a poling voltage of 1000V. A 30cm length structure is finally compared to our previous planar structure, and the power management module for those structures is discussed.

  14. Thermal characteristics of tubular receivers of solar radiation line concentrators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klychev, Sh.I.; Zakhidov, R.A.; Khuzhanov, R. et al.

    2013-01-01

    A stationary thermal model of an LCS-HR system is considered, taking into account the basic parameters of the problem: availability of a transparent screen, selectivity of the receiver, characteristics of the heat carrier and average concentration on the surface of the tubular receiver C"". Based on this model, an algorithm and program of numerical research of the thermal characteristics of the HR-temperature of heating and local and average coefficients of efficiency are developed. For possible concentrations, the selectivity of the receiver and the transparency of the screen in linear concentrators, the potential stationary heating temperatures, and the coefficients of efficiency for main three types of heat carriers - air, water, and liquid metal coolant are studied. The time of achieving stationary values by the temperatures of the heat carrier is estimated. (author)

  15. Amelogenesis Imperfecta with Distal Renal Tubular Acidosis: A Novel Syndrome?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misgar, R A; Hassan, Z; Wani, A I; Bashir, M I

    2017-01-01

    Amelogenesis imperfecta (AI) is a heterogeneous group of inherited dental enamel defects. It has rarely been reported in association with multiorgan syndromes and metabolic disorders. The metabolic disorders that have been reported in association with AI include hypocalciuria, impaired urinary concentrating ability, and Bartter-like syndrome. In literature, only three cases of AI and distal renal tubular acidosis (dRTA) have been described: two cases in adults and a solitary case in the pediatric age group. Here, we report a child with AI presenting with dRTA; to the best of our knowledge, our reported case is the only second such case in pediatric age group. Our case highlights the importance of recognizing the possibility of renal abnormalities in patients with AI as it will affect the long-term prognosis.

  16. Amelogenesis imperfecta with distal renal tubular acidosis: A novel syndrome?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R A Misgar

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Amelogenesis imperfecta (AI is a heterogeneous group of inherited dental enamel defects. It has rarely been reported in association with multiorgan syndromes and metabolic disorders. The metabolic disorders that have been reported in association with AI include hypocalciuria, impaired urinary concentrating ability, and Bartter-like syndrome. In literature, only three cases of AI and distal renal tubular acidosis (dRTA have been described: two cases in adults and a solitary case in the pediatric age group. Here, we report a child with AI presenting with dRTA; to the best of our knowledge, our reported case is the only second such case in pediatric age group. Our case highlights the importance of recognizing the possibility of renal abnormalities in patients with AI as it will affect the long-term prognosis.

  17. Tubular Scaffold with Shape Recovery Effect for Cell Guide Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazi M. Zakir Hossain

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Tubular scaffolds with aligned polylactic acid (PLA fibres were fabricated for cell guide applications by immersing rolled PLA fibre mats into a polyvinyl acetate (PVAc solution to bind the mats. The PVAc solution was also mixed with up to 30 wt % β-tricalcium phosphate (β-TCP content. Cross-sectional images of the scaffold materials obtained via scanning electron microscopy (SEM revealed the aligned fibre morphology along with a significant number of voids in between the bundles of fibres. The addition of β-TCP into the scaffolds played an important role in increasing the void content from 17.1% to 25.3% for the 30 wt % β-TCP loading, which was measured via micro-CT (µCT analysis. Furthermore, µCT analyses revealed the distribution of aggregated β-TCP particles in between the various PLA fibre layers of the scaffold. The compressive modulus properties of the scaffolds increased from 66 MPa to 83 MPa and the compressive strength properties decreased from 67 MPa to 41 MPa for the 30 wt % β-TCP content scaffold. The scaffolds produced were observed to change into a soft and flexible form which demonstrated shape recovery properties after immersion in phosphate buffered saline (PBS media at 37 °C for 24 h. The cytocompatibility studies (using MG-63 human osteosarcoma cell line revealed preferential cell proliferation along the longitudinal direction of the fibres as compared to the control tissue culture plastic. The manufacturing process highlighted above reveals a simple process for inducing controlled cell alignment and varying porosity features within tubular scaffolds for potential tissue engineering applications.

  18. Numerical Simulation of Tubular Pumping Systems with Different Regulation Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Honggeng; Zhang, Rentian; Deng, Dongsheng; Feng, Xusong; Yao, Linbi

    2010-06-01

    Since the flow in tubular pumping systems is basically along axial direction and passes symmetrically through the impeller, most satisfying the basic hypotheses in the design of impeller and having higher pumping system efficiency in comparison with vertical pumping system, they are being widely applied to low-head pumping engineering. In a pumping station, the fluctuation of water levels in the sump and discharge pool is most common and at most time the pumping system runs under off-design conditions. Hence, the operation of pump has to be flexibly regulated to meet the needs of flow rates, and the selection of regulation method is as important as that of pump to reduce operation cost and achieve economic operation. In this paper, the three dimensional time-averaged Navier-Stokes equations are closed by RNG κ-ɛ turbulent model, and two tubular pumping systems with different regulation methods, equipped with the same pump model but with different designed system structures, are numerically simulated respectively to predict the pumping system performances and analyze the influence of regulation device and help designers make final decision in the selection of design schemes. The computed results indicate that the pumping system with blade-adjusting device needs longer suction box, and the increased hydraulic loss will lower the pumping system efficiency in the order of 1.5%. The pumping system with permanent magnet motor, by means of variable speed regulation, obtains higher system efficiency partly for shorter suction box and partly for different structure design. Nowadays, the varied speed regulation is realized by varied frequency device, the energy consumption of which is about 3˜4% of output power of the motor. Hence, when the efficiency of variable frequency device is considered, the total pumping system efficiency will probably be lower.

  19. Fluid flow distribution optimization for minimizing the peak temperature of a tubular solar receiver

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wei, Min; Fan, Yilin; Luo, Lingai; Flamant, Gilles

    2015-01-01

    High temperature solar receiver is a core component of solar thermal power plants. However, non-uniform solar irradiation on the receiver walls and flow maldistribution of heat transfer fluid inside the tubes may cause the excessive peak temperature, consequently leading to the reduced lifetime. This paper presents an original CFD (computational fluid dynamics)-based evolutionary algorithm to determine the optimal fluid distribution in a tubular solar receiver for the minimization of its peak temperature. A pressurized-air solar receiver comprising of 45 parallel tubes subjected to a Gaussian-shape net heat flux absorbed by the receiver is used for study. Two optimality criteria are used for the algorithm: identical outlet fluid temperatures and identical temperatures on the centerline of the heated surface. The influences of different filling materials and thermal contact resistances on the optimal fluid distribution and on the peak temperature reduction are also evaluated and discussed. Results show that the fluid distribution optimization using the algorithm could minimize the peak temperature of the receiver under the optimality criterion of identical temperatures on the centerline. Different shapes of optimal fluid distribution are determined for various filling materials. Cheap material with low thermal conductivity can also meet the peak temperature threshold through optimizing the fluid distribution. - Highlights: • A 3D pressurized-air solar receiver based on the tube-in-matrix concept is studied. • An original evolutionary algorithm is developed for fluid distribution optimization. • A new optimality criterion is proposed for minimizing the receiver peak temperature. • Different optimal fluid distributions are determined for various filling materials. • Filling material with high thermal conductivity is more favorable in practical use.

  20. Inhibin B in the assessment of seminiferous tubular function

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersson, A M

    2000-01-01

    Inhibin B is a testicular hormone that regulates follicle-stimulating hormone secretion in a negative feedback loop. In males, the serum level of inhibin B is detectable throughout life, with a prominent change in the first year of life and during puberty, reflecting the testicular response to th...

  1. On alternative approach for verifiable secret sharing

    OpenAIRE

    Kulesza, Kamil; Kotulski, Zbigniew; Pieprzyk, Joseph

    2002-01-01

    Secret sharing allows split/distributed control over the secret (e.g. master key). Verifiable secret sharing (VSS) is the secret sharing extended by verification capacity. Usually verification comes at the price. We propose "free lunch", the approach that allows to overcome this inconvenience.

  2. Quantum strongly secure ramp secret sharing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Paul; Matsumoto, Rytaro Yamashita

    2015-01-01

    Quantum secret sharing is a scheme for encoding a quantum state (the secret) into multiple shares and distributing them among several participants. If a sufficient number of shares are put together, then the secret can be fully reconstructed. If an insufficient number of shares are put together...... however, no information about the secret can be revealed. In quantum ramp secret sharing, partial information about the secret is allowed to leak to a set of participants, called an unqualified set, that cannot fully reconstruct the secret. By allowing this, the size of a share can be drastically reduced....... This paper introduces a quantum analog of classical strong security in ramp secret sharing schemes. While the ramp secret sharing scheme still leaks partial information about the secret to unqualified sets of participants, the strong security condition ensures that qudits with critical information can...

  3. MATT: Multi Agents Testing Tool Based Nets within Nets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Kerraoui

    2016-12-01

    As part of this effort, we propose a model based testing approach for multi agent systems based on such a model called Reference net, where a tool, which aims to providing a uniform and automated approach is developed. The feasibility and the advantage of the proposed approach are shown through a short case study.

  4. Implementing NetScaler VPX

    CERN Document Server

    Sandbu, Marius

    2014-01-01

    An easy-to-follow guide with detailed step-by step-instructions on how to implement the different key components in NetScaler, with real-world examples and sample scenarios.If you are a Citrix or network administrator who needs to implement NetScaler in your virtual environment to gain an insight on its functionality, this book is ideal for you. A basic understanding of networking and familiarity with some of the different Citrix products such as XenApp or XenDesktop is a prerequisite.

  5. Net4Care PHMR Library

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2014-01-01

    The Net4Care PHMR library contains a) A GreenCDA approach for constructing a data object representing a PHMR document: SimpleClinicalDocument, and b) A Builder which can produce a XML document representing a valid Danish PHMR (following the MedCom profile) document from the SimpleClinicalDocument......The Net4Care PHMR library contains a) A GreenCDA approach for constructing a data object representing a PHMR document: SimpleClinicalDocument, and b) A Builder which can produce a XML document representing a valid Danish PHMR (following the MedCom profile) document from the Simple...

  6. Histaminergic regulation of prolactin secretion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knigge, U P

    1990-01-01

    Histamine (HA), which acts as a neurotransmitter in the central nervous system, participates in the neuroendocrine regulation of prolactin (PRL) secretion. HA has a predominant stimulatory effect which is mediated via H2-receptors following central administration and via H1-receptors following...... systemic infusion of the amine. In addition, HA seems to exert a minor inhibitory effect on PRL secretion, an effect unmasked only during blockade of the receptor mediating the stimulatory effect. Following central administration the inhibitory effect is mediated via H1-receptors, while following systemic...... administration this effect is mediated via H2-receptors. In accordance with these findings, the H2-receptor antagonist cimetidine (CIM) has an inhibitory (following central administration) or stimulatory (following systemic administration) effect on PRL secretion. However, high doses of CIM possess an additional...

  7. Coloured Petri Nets and the Invariant Method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Kurt

    1981-01-01

    processes to be described by a common subnet, without losing the ability to distinguish between them. Our generalization, called coloured Petri nets, is heavily influenced by predicate transition-nets introduced by H.J. Genrich and K. Lautenbach. Moreover our paper shows how the invariant-method, introduced...... for Petri nets by K. Lautenbach, can be generalized to coloured Petri nets....

  8. Impaired Follistatin Secretion in Cirrhosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rinnov, Anders Rasmussen; Plomgaard, Peter; Pedersen, Bente Klarlund

    2016-01-01

    compared to healthy control participants. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: To experimentally increase the glucagon-insulin ratio (mimicking the hormonal effect of exercise), we infused glucagon/somatostatin (to inhibit insulin secretion) and compared the acute follistatin increase in eight male cirrhosis...... controls (27.6 ± 3.8 vs 34.5 ± 2.9%, respectively; P = .001). CONCLUSIONS: Patients with cirrhosis show impaired capacity to acutely secrete follistatin. The decrease in acute follistatin release may contribute to the loss of muscle mass in liver cirrhosis....

  9. VALIDATION OF SIMULATION MODELS FOR DIFFERENTLY DESIGNED HEAT-PIPE EVACUATED TUBULAR COLLECTORS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fan, Jianhua; Dragsted, Janne; Furbo, Simon

    2007-01-01

    Differently designed heat-pipe evacuated tubular collectors have been investigated theoretically and experimentally. The theoretical work has included development of two TRNSYS [1] simulation models for heat-pipe evacuated tubular collectors utilizing solar radiation from all directions. One model...... coating on both sides. The input to the models is thus not a simple collector efficiency expression but the actual collector geometry. In this study, the TRNSYS models are validated with measurements for four differently designed heat-pipe evacuated tubular collectors. The collectors are produced...

  10. Undulating tubular liposomes through incorporation of a synthetic skin ceramide into phospholipid bilayers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Peng; Tan, Grace; Zhou, Jia; He, Jibao; Lawson, Louise B; McPherson, Gary L; John, Vijay T

    2009-09-15

    Nonspherical liposomes were prepared by doping L-alpha-phosphatidylcholine (PC) with ceramide VI (a skin lipid). Cryo-transmission electron microscopy shows the liposome shape changing from spherical to an undulating tubular morphology, when the amount of ceramide VI is increased. The formation of tubular liposomes is energetically favorable and is attributed to the association of ceramide VI with PC creating regions of lower curvature. Since ceramides are the major component of skin lipids in the stratum corneum, tubular liposomes containing ceramide may potentially serve as self-enhanced nanocarriers for transdermal delivery.

  11. Secrets and Disclosures: How Young Children Handle Secrets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anagnostaki, Lida; Wright, Michael J.; Papathanasiou, Athanasia

    2013-01-01

    The authors examined the influence of content and verbal cues on young children's understanding of secret information and of its disclosure. Participants were 209 5- and 6-year-old children in an experiment where a puppet, named Zinc, was the protagonist. Children were asked to whom Zinc would disclose a list of pieces of information, some of…

  12. Reversal of ocean acidification enhances net coral reef calcification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albright, Rebecca; Caldeira, Lilian; Hosfelt, Jessica; Kwiatkowski, Lester; Maclaren, Jana K; Mason, Benjamin M; Nebuchina, Yana; Ninokawa, Aaron; Pongratz, Julia; Ricke, Katharine L; Rivlin, Tanya; Schneider, Kenneth; Sesboüé, Marine; Shamberger, Kathryn; Silverman, Jacob; Wolfe, Kennedy; Zhu, Kai; Caldeira, Ken

    2016-03-17

    Approximately one-quarter of the anthropogenic carbon dioxide released into the atmosphere each year is absorbed by the global oceans, causing measurable declines in surface ocean pH, carbonate ion concentration ([CO3(2-)]), and saturation state of carbonate minerals (Ω). This process, referred to as ocean acidification, represents a major threat to marine ecosystems, in particular marine calcifiers such as oysters, crabs, and corals. Laboratory and field studies have shown that calcification rates of many organisms decrease with declining pH, [CO3(2-)], and Ω. Coral reefs are widely regarded as one of the most vulnerable marine ecosystems to ocean acidification, in part because the very architecture of the ecosystem is reliant on carbonate-secreting organisms. Acidification-induced reductions in calcification are projected to shift coral reefs from a state of net accretion to one of net dissolution this century. While retrospective studies show large-scale declines in coral, and community, calcification over recent decades, determining the contribution of ocean acidification to these changes is difficult, if not impossible, owing to the confounding effects of other environmental factors such as temperature. Here we quantify the net calcification response of a coral reef flat to alkalinity enrichment, and show that, when ocean chemistry is restored closer to pre-industrial conditions, net community calcification increases. In providing results from the first seawater chemistry manipulation experiment of a natural coral reef community, we provide evidence that net community calcification is depressed compared with values expected for pre-industrial conditions, indicating that ocean acidification may already be impairing coral reef growth.

  13. D.NET case study

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    lremy

    The mission was defined to build, “A society where information and ... innovative ideas and projects around different themes (using ICT), and piloting them to test .... like D.Net with several projects that had moved beyond their pilot phase.

  14. Petri Nets in Cryptographic Protocols

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Crazzolara, Federico; Winskel, Glynn

    2001-01-01

    A process language for security protocols is presented together with a semantics in terms of sets of events. The denotation of process is a set of events, and as each event specifies a set of pre and postconditions, this denotation can be viewed as a Petri net. By means of an example we illustrate...

  15. Complexity metrics for workflow nets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lassen, K.B.; Aalst, van der W.M.P.

    2009-01-01

    Process modeling languages such as EPCs, BPMN, flow charts, UML activity diagrams, Petri nets, etc., are used to model business processes and to configure process-aware information systems. It is known that users have problems understanding these diagrams. In fact, even process engineers and system

  16. Reference Guide Microsoft.NET

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zee M van der; Verspaij GJ; Rosbergen S; IMP; NMD

    2003-01-01

    Met behulp van het rapport kunnen ontwikkelaars, beheerders en betrokken managers bij ICT projecten meer inzicht krijgen in de .NET technologie en een goede keuze maken in de inzetbaarheid van deze technologie. Het rapport geeft de bevindingen en conclusies van een verkennende studie naar het

  17. Complexity Metrics for Workflow Nets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lassen, Kristian Bisgaard; van der Aalst, Wil M.P.

    2009-01-01

    Process modeling languages such as EPCs, BPMN, flow charts, UML activity diagrams, Petri nets, etc.\\ are used to model business processes and to configure process-aware information systems. It is known that users have problems understanding these diagrams. In fact, even process engineers and system...

  18. Communicating with the Net Generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-11

    resource investment is necessary to sustain a high quality all-volunteer force. 9 Leadership Technique for the Net Generation Army Regulation 600...Generations at Work, Millenials at Work, http://www.generationsatwork. com /articles_millennials_at_work.php (accessed November 21, 2010). 31 Thomas

  19. Net Neutrality in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Eijk, N.

    2014-01-01

    The Netherlands is among the first countries that have put specific net neutrality standards in place. The decision to implement specific regulation was influenced by at least three factors. The first was the prevailing social and academic debate, partly due to developments in the United States. The

  20. Surgery for GEP-NETs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knigge, Ulrich; Hansen, Carsten Palnæs

    2012-01-01

    Surgery is the only treatment that may cure the patient with gastroentero-pancreatic (GEP) neuroendocrine tumours (NET) and neuroendocrine carcinomas (NEC) and should always be considered as first line treatment if R0/R1 resection can be achieved. The surgical and interventional procedures for GEP...

  1. Net4Care PHMR Tutorial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Henrik Bærbak

    Goal To demonstrate how to use the Net4Care PHMR builder module to a) Create a SimpleClinicalDocument instance and populate it with relevant administrative and medical information to form a tele medical report of a set of measurements, b) Use the provided DanishPHMRBuilder to generate a correctly...

  2. Biofiksasi CO2 Oleh Mikroalga Chlamydomonas sp dalam Photobioreaktor Tubular

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hadiyanto Hadiyanto

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Mikroalga memiliki potensi dalam membiofiksasi CO2 dan dapat dimanfaatkan untuk mengurangi kadar CO2 dalam gas pencemar. Pertumbuhan mikroalga sangat dipengaruhi oleh konsentrasi gas CO2 di dalam gas pencemar. Tujuan penelitian ini adalah untuk mengeetahui kemampuan mikroalga Chlamydomonas sp yang dikultivasi dalam photobioreaktor tubular dalam penyerapan gas CO2 serta untuk mengetahui konsentrasi maksimum gas CO2 dalam umpan untuk memproduksi biomasa mikroalga yang optimal. Percobaan dilakukan dnegan memvariasi laju alir dari 0.03 -0.071 L/menit dan konsentrasi CO2 dalam umpan 10-30%. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa biomasa mikroalga dapat diproduksi dengan maksimal dengan konsentrasi gas CO2 20% dengan laju alir 0.07 L/min. Semakin tinggi laju alir maka produksi biomasa alga semakin besar. Kecepatan pertumbuhan alga maksimum terjadi pada 0.31 /hari. Pada konsentrasi gas CO2 30%, terjadi substrate inhibition yang disebabkan carbon dalam bentuk ion bicarbonate tidak dapat dikonsumsi lagi di dalam kultur alga. Kata kunci : Mikroalga, chlamydomonas sp, biofiksasi CO2, biogas Abstract Microalgae have a potential for CO2 biofixation and therefore can be used to reduce the CO2 concentration in the gas pollutants. Moreover, microalgae growth is strongly affected by the concentration of CO2 in the exhaust gas pollutants. The objective of this research was to investigate the ability of microalgae Chlamydomonas sp which was cultivated in a tubular photobioreactor for CO2 absorption as well as to determine the maximum concentration of CO2 in the feed gas to obtain optimum microalgae biomass. The experiments were performed by varying the gas flow rate of 0.03 -0.071 L / min and the concentration of CO2 in the feed of 10-30%. The results showed that the maximum biomass of microalgae can be produced with CO2 concentration of 20% vol with a flow rate of 0.07 L / min. The result also showed that increasing the gas flow rate, the greater of the production of

  3. Raspberry Pi for secret agents

    CERN Document Server

    Sjogelid, Stefan

    2015-01-01

    This book is an easy-to-follow guide with practical examples in each chapter. Suitable for the novice and expert alike, each topic provides a fast and easy way to get started with exciting applications and also guides you through setting up the Raspberry Pi as a secret agent toolbox.

  4. Unraveling the Wnt secretion pathway

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Harterink, M.

    2011-01-01

    The Wnt family of signaling proteins has essential functions in development and adult tissue homeostasis throughout the animal kingdom. Although signaling cascades triggered by Wnt proteins have been extensively studied, much remains to be learned about how Wnts are produced and secreted and how

  5. VIP secreting tumours in infancy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davies, R.P.; Slavotinek, J.P.; Dorney, S.F.A.

    1990-01-01

    Vasoactive intestinal polypeptide (VIP) secreting neural crest tumours are an uncommon but important treatable cause of intractable childhood diarrhoea. The radiological appearances of two cases are presented with a review of radiological findings in childhood VIP secreting neural crest tumours. Twenty eight cases of childhood VIP secreting neural crest tumours were reviewed. Nineteen (68%) were ganglioneuroblastomas and nine (32%) were ganglioneuromas. The majority of tumours (66%) were in a paravertebral location in the abdomen indicating that a search for such a tumour should be initiated at this site. Eighteen of the twenty eight cases reviewed discussed relevant radiological investigations. Calcification was detected in 50% of abdominal radiographs. Gut dilatation was often a prominent feature. A mass was detected in 5 of 5 cases where ultrasound findings were reported, and seven of seven cases with CT findings reported. Prior to the availability of CT and ultrasound the most useful investigation was IVU which demonstrated evidence of a mass in 5 of 9 cases. The presence of paravertebral calcification and gut dilatation on the plain radiograph of a child with intractable diarrhoea suggests the presence of a VIP secreting neural crest tumour. If an abdominal tumour is not found in the appropriate clinical setting and VIP levels are elevated, a widespread search of the paravertebral region is indicated. (orig.)

  6. .net

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Le Comité de Rédaction d' EspacesTemps.net

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available EspacesTemps lance aujourd'hui deux objets différents : un site internet et, sur ce site, Le Journal . Il s'agit donc de bien plus, et, au fond, de tout autre chose qu'un simple outil de communication destiné à informer nos lecteurs de nos parutions. Ce n'est pas non plus la « mise en ligne » de nos numéros-papier. L'internet nous donne au contraire l'occasion de réaliser, dans de meilleures conditions, ce que nous avons tenté de faire depuis quelques ...

  7. Caught in the Net: Perineuronal Nets and Addiction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Megan Slaker

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Exposure to drugs of abuse induces plasticity in the brain and creates persistent drug-related memories. These changes in plasticity and persistent drug memories are believed to produce aberrant motivation and reinforcement contributing to addiction. Most studies have explored the effect drugs of abuse have on pre- and postsynaptic cells and astrocytes; however, more recently, attention has shifted to explore the effect these drugs have on the extracellular matrix (ECM. Within the ECM are unique structures arranged in a net-like manner, surrounding a subset of neurons called perineuronal nets (PNNs. This review focuses on drug-induced changes in PNNs, the molecules that regulate PNNs, and the expression of PNNs within brain circuitry mediating motivation, reward, and reinforcement as it pertains to addiction.

  8. Characterization of Organic Anion Transporter 2 (SLC22A7): A Highly Efficient Transporter for Creatinine and Species-Dependent Renal Tubular Expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Hong; Liu, Tongtong; Morse, Bridget L; Zhao, Yue; Zhang, Yueping; Qiu, Xi; Chen, Cliff; Lewin, Anne C; Wang, Xi-Tao; Liu, Guowen; Christopher, Lisa J; Marathe, Punit; Lai, Yurong

    2015-07-01

    The contribution of organic anion transporter OAT2 (SLC22A7) to the renal tubular secretion of creatinine and its exact localization in the kidney are reportedly controversial. In the present investigation, the transport of creatinine was assessed in human embryonic kidney (HEK) cells that stably expressed human OAT2 (OAT2-HEK) and isolated human renal proximal tubule cells (HRPTCs). The tubular localization of OAT2 in human, monkey, and rat kidney was characterized. The overexpression of OAT2 significantly enhanced the uptake of creatinine in OAT2-HEK cells. Under physiologic conditions (creatinine concentrations of 41.2 and 123.5 µM), the initial rate of OAT2-mediated creatinine transport was approximately 11-, 80-, and 80-fold higher than OCT2, multidrug and toxin extrusion protein (MATE)1, and MATE2K, respectively, resulting in approximately 37-, 1850-, and 80-fold increase of the intrinsic transport clearance when normalized to the transporter protein concentrations. Creatinine intracellular uptake and transcellular transport in HRPTCs were decreased in the presence of 50 µM bromosulfophthalein and 100 µM indomethacin, which inhibited OAT2 more potently than other known creatinine transporters, OCT2 and multidrug and toxin extrusion proteins MATE1 and MATE2K (IC50: 1.3 µM vs. > 100 µM and 2.1 µM vs. > 200 µM for bromosulfophthalein and indomethacin, respectively) Immunohistochemistry analysis showed that OAT2 protein was localized to both basolateral and apical membranes of human and cynomolgus monkey renal proximal tubules, but appeared only on the apical membrane of rat proximal tubules. Collectively, the findings revealed the important role of OAT2 in renal secretion and possible reabsorption of creatinine and suggested a molecular basis for potential species difference in the transporter handling of creatinine. Copyright © 2015 by The American Society for Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics.

  9. Army Net Zero Prove Out. Net Zero Energy Best Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-11-18

    recovery and cogeneration opportunities, offsetting the remaining demand with the production of renewable energy from onsite sources so that the Net...implementing energy recovery and cogeneration opportunities, and then offsetting the remaining demand with the production of renewable energy from on-site...they impact overall energy performance. The use of energy modeling in the design stage provides insights that can contribute to more effective design

  10. Net alkalinity and net acidity 2: Practical considerations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirby, C.S.; Cravotta, C.A.

    2005-01-01

    The pH, alkalinity, and acidity of mine drainage and associated waters can be misinterpreted because of the chemical instability of samples and possible misunderstandings of standard analytical method results. Synthetic and field samples of mine drainage having various initial pH values and concentrations of dissolved metals and alkalinity were titrated by several methods, and the results were compared to alkalinity and acidity calculated based on dissolved solutes. The pH, alkalinity, and acidity were compared between fresh, unoxidized and aged, oxidized samples. Data for Pennsylvania coal mine drainage indicates that the pH of fresh samples was predominantly acidic (pH 2.5-4) or near neutral (pH 6-7); ??? 25% of the samples had pH values between 5 and 6. Following oxidation, no samples had pH values between 5 and 6. The Standard Method Alkalinity titration is constrained to yield values >0. Most calculated and measured alkalinities for samples with positive alkalinities were in close agreement. However, for low-pH samples, the calculated alkalinity can be negative due to negative contributions by dissolved metals that may oxidize and hydrolyze. The Standard Method hot peroxide treatment titration for acidity determination (Hot Acidity) accurately indicates the potential for pH to decrease to acidic values after complete degassing of CO2 and oxidation of Fe and Mn, and it indicates either the excess alkalinity or that required for neutralization of the sample. The Hot Acidity directly measures net acidity (= -net alkalinity). Samples that had near-neutral pH after oxidation had negative Hot Acidity; samples that had pH mine drainage treatment can lead to systems with insufficient Alkalinity to neutralize metal and H+ acidity and is not recommended. The use of net alkalinity = -Hot Acidity titration is recommended for the planning of mine drainage treatment. The use of net alkalinity = (Alkalinitymeasured - Aciditycalculated) is recommended with some cautions

  11. Testing of tubular goods - a critical review of past and actual testing procedures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Teodoriu, C. [Texas A and M Univ., Houston, TX (United States); Holzmann, J.; Klaws, M. [TU Clausthal (Germany). Inst. fuer Erdoel- und Erdgastechnik

    2007-09-13

    Testing of oil country tubular goods (OCTG) is based on standards and offers the user a comparison platform between products of different manufacturers. But, do the standard based testing procedures assume the real loads on OCTG? More likely, the existing standards or recommendations on tubular testing have been evolving together with the new demands on OCTG loading. Since nowadays the oil and gas industry is looking to develop extreme reservoir types (deep water, HP/HT), there is a need of a better understanding and continuous improvement of testing procedures. The following poster proposes an analysis of existing procedures to test tubular goods and then will focus on the future demands on OCTG testing. New loads, as casing fatigue, will be discussed and analyzed based on the authors experience gained during more than 8 years of testing tubular goods at the Clausthal University of Technology, Institute of Petroleum Engineering. (orig.)

  12. The Association of Albuminuria With Tubular Reabsorption of Uric Acid : Results From a General Population Cohort

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scheven, Lieneke; Joosten, Michel M.; de Jong, Paul E.; Bakker, Stephan J. L.; Gansevoort, Ron T.

    Background-Elevated albuminuria as well as an increased serum uric acid concentration is associated with poor cardiovascular outcome. We questioned whether these 2 variables (albuminuria and serum uric concentration) may be interrelated via tubular uric acid reabsorption. Methods and

  13. Design, Fabrication and Test of a Full Scale Copper Tubular Combustion Chamber

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Cooley, Christine

    2002-01-01

    This paper presents the design fabrication and test of a full scale copper tubular combustion chamber as an enabling technology for future application in a high thrust upper-stage expander-cycle engine...

  14. A tubular dielectric elastomer actuator: Fabrication, characterization and active vibration isolation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sarban, R.; Jones, R. W.; Mace, B. R.

    2011-01-01

    This contribution reviews the fabrication, characterization and active vibration isolation performance of a core-free rolled tubular dielectric elastomer (DE) actuator, which has been designed and developed by Danfoss PolyPower A/S. PolyPower DE material, PolyPower (TM), is produced in thin sheets...... of 80 mu m thickness with corrugated metallic electrodes on both sides. Tubular actuators are manufactured by rolling the DE sheets in a cylindrical shape. The electromechanical characteristics of such actuators are modeled based on equilibrium pressure equation. The model is validated with experimental...... the dominant dynamic characteristics of the core-free tubular actuator. It has been observed that all actuators have similar dynamic characteristics in a frequency range up to 1 kHz. A tubular actuator is then used to provide active vibration isolation (AVI) of a 250 g mass subject to shaker generated 'ground...

  15. Large tubular colonic duplication in an adult treated with a small midline incision

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yong, Yuen Geng; Jung, Kyung Uk; Cho, Yong Beom; Yun, Seong Hyeon; Kim, Hee Cheol; Lee, Woo Yong

    2012-01-01

    Tubular colonic duplication presenting in adults is rare and difficult to diagnose preoperatively. Only a few cases have been reported in the literature. We report a case of a 29-year-old lady presenting with a long history of chronic constipation, abdominal mass and repeated episodes of abdominal pain. The abdominal-pelvic computed tomography scan showed segmental bowel wall thickening thought to be small bowel, and dilatation with stasis of intraluminal content. The provisional diagnosis was small bowel duplication. She was scheduled for single port laparoscopic resection. However, a T-shaped tubular colonic duplication at sigmoid colon was found intraoperatively. Resection of the large T-shaped tubular colonic duplication containing multiple impacted large fecaloma and primary anastomosis was performed. There was no perioperative complication. We report, herein, the case of a T-shaped tubular colonic duplication at sigmoid colon in an adult who was successfully treated through mini-laparotomy assisted by single port laparoscopic surgery. PMID:22403754

  16. Muscle imaging in patients with tubular aggregate myopathy caused by mutations in STIM1

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tasca, Giorgio; D'Amico, Adele; Monforte, Mauro

    2015-01-01

    Tubular aggregate myopathy is a genetically heterogeneous disease characterized by tubular aggregates as the hallmark on muscle biopsy. Mutations in STIM1 have recently been identified as one genetic cause in a number of tubular aggregate myopathy cases. To characterize the pattern of muscle...... involvement in this disease, upper and lower girdles and lower limbs were imaged in five patients with mutations in STIM1, and the scans were compared with two patients with tubular aggregate myopathy not caused by mutations in STIM1. A common pattern of involvement was found in STIM1-mutated patients...... of thigh and posterior leg with sparing of gracilis, tibialis anterior and, to a lesser extent, short head of biceps femoris. Mutations in STIM1 are associated with a homogeneous involvement on imaging despite variable clinical features. Muscle imaging can be useful in identifying STIM1-mutated patients...

  17. Tubular adenoma of the breast in a pregnant girl: report on a case.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palnaes Hansen, C; Fahrenkrug, L; Hastrup, N

    1991-12-01

    A rare case of a tubular breast adenoma in a 13-year-old pregnant girl is presented. The tumor which developed during pregnancy measured 10 x 8 x 4 cm, was well demarcated and could be totally removed.

  18. Design, analysis, and test of an active tubular interface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elspass, Wilfried J.; Eerme, M.; Paradies, R.; Resch, Martin

    1997-06-01

    Space missions require higher and higher performance such as high pointing accuracy and stability, and high shape precision. Passive damping means often cannot fulfill the requirements. Besides space applications at the same time numerous applications in machine design require higher accuracy. For a lot of applications the passive measures come up against limits. Active technologies have to be considered more often. Active mechanical components are more and more used as a necessary step towards adaptive structures. Active mechanical interfaces are simpler systems having very useful applications and can be used as kind of test benches in order to master the most exacting technologies. The main advantages of such an active interface are the following: (1) state-of- the-art sensors and actuators can be used, (2) the mechanical design of the interface is conventional, (3) the passive behavior of the system is not deteriorated, (4) the design is compact and rather easy to integrate, (5) easy repair (replacement) of the active mechanical part, (6) standardization of the interfaces results in cost reductions. An important property in such intermediate step is that no major redesign of the conventionally designed mechanical structure should be needed. The design, numerical analysis, manufacturing and test of a fully integrated active tubular interface (ATI) is presented. The design of the ATI includes the optimal laminate stacking sequence with respect to maximum deformation efficiency. The results of an active damping application, an antenna support beam, including the controller layout are discussed.

  19. The tubular separate first wall for ITER EDA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pizzuto, A.; Riccardi, B.; Salpietro, E.

    1994-01-01

    The first wall is one of the most loaded plasma-facing components, the heat flux is such that the thermal stresses are the most important design concern. In addition, the First Wall shall resist the eddy current induced plasma disruption, the high pressure of the coolant without leaking ( -6 Torr-lit/sec.) and it should maintain its properties under fast neutron flux (dose up to 3 MW/m 2 ). The tubular solution is the most suitable one to cope with the thermal stresses, the use of double wall reduces the risk of leaks inside the vacuum vessel by avoiding the growth of a crack through both walls: the soft brazing in between walls stops the growth of a crack from one tube to the other. The eddy currents induced in the tubes are low and the Halo current flowing poloidally in the tubes exert a radial pressure which is supported by the blanket box via ad hoc supporting points provided in between first wall and blanket. Conclusions from the thermo-hydraulic analysis and the electromagnetic analysis will be presented including dynamic analysis. Also results of preliminary technological tests on coatings will be discussed

  20. Soft tubular microfluidics for 2D and 3D applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xi, Wang; Kong, Fang; Yeo, Joo Chuan; Yu, Longteng; Sonam, Surabhi; Dao, Ming; Gong, Xiaobo; Teck Lim, Chwee

    2017-10-01

    Microfluidics has been the key component for many applications, including biomedical devices, chemical processors, microactuators, and even wearable devices. This technology relies on soft lithography fabrication which requires cleanroom facilities. Although popular, this method is expensive and labor-intensive. Furthermore, current conventional microfluidic chips precludes reconfiguration, making reiterations in design very time-consuming and costly. To address these intrinsic drawbacks of microfabrication, we present an alternative solution for the rapid prototyping of microfluidic elements such as microtubes, valves, and pumps. In addition, we demonstrate how microtubes with channels of various lengths and cross-sections can be attached modularly into 2D and 3D microfluidic systems for functional applications. We introduce a facile method of fabricating elastomeric microtubes as the basic building blocks for microfluidic devices. These microtubes are transparent, biocompatible, highly deformable, and customizable to various sizes and cross-sectional geometries. By configuring the microtubes into deterministic geometry, we enable rapid, low-cost formation of microfluidic assemblies without compromising their precision and functionality. We demonstrate configurable 2D and 3D microfluidic systems for applications in different domains. These include microparticle sorting, microdroplet generation, biocatalytic micromotor, triboelectric sensor, and even wearable sensing. Our approach, termed soft tubular microfluidics, provides a simple, cheaper, and faster solution for users lacking proficiency and access to cleanroom facilities to design and rapidly construct microfluidic devices for their various applications and needs.

  1. Design and analysis of tubular permanent magnet linear wave generator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Si, Jikai; Feng, Haichao; Su, Peng; Zhang, Lufeng

    2014-01-01

    Due to the lack of mature design program for the tubular permanent magnet linear wave generator (TPMLWG) and poor sinusoidal characteristics of the air gap flux density for the traditional surface-mounted TPMLWG, a design method and a new secondary structure of TPMLWG are proposed. An equivalent mathematical model of TPMLWG is established to adopt the transformation relationship between the linear velocity of permanent magnet rotary generator and the operating speed of TPMLWG, to determine the structure parameters of the TPMLWG. The new secondary structure of the TPMLWG contains surface-mounted permanent magnets and the interior permanent magnets, which form a series-parallel hybrid magnetic circuit, and their reasonable structure parameters are designed to get the optimum pole-arc coefficient. The electromagnetic field and temperature field of TPMLWG are analyzed using finite element method. It can be included that the sinusoidal characteristics of air gap flux density of the new secondary structure TPMLWG are improved, the cogging force as well as mechanical vibration is reduced in the process of operation, and the stable temperature rise of generator meets the design requirements when adopting the new secondary structure of the TPMLWG.

  2. Design and Analysis of Tubular Permanent Magnet Linear Wave Generator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jikai Si

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Due to the lack of mature design program for the tubular permanent magnet linear wave generator (TPMLWG and poor sinusoidal characteristics of the air gap flux density for the traditional surface-mounted TPMLWG, a design method and a new secondary structure of TPMLWG are proposed. An equivalent mathematical model of TPMLWG is established to adopt the transformation relationship between the linear velocity of permanent magnet rotary generator and the operating speed of TPMLWG, to determine the structure parameters of the TPMLWG. The new secondary structure of the TPMLWG contains surface-mounted permanent magnets and the interior permanent magnets, which form a series-parallel hybrid magnetic circuit, and their reasonable structure parameters are designed to get the optimum pole-arc coefficient. The electromagnetic field and temperature field of TPMLWG are analyzed using finite element method. It can be included that the sinusoidal characteristics of air gap flux density of the new secondary structure TPMLWG are improved, the cogging force as well as mechanical vibration is reduced in the process of operation, and the stable temperature rise of generator meets the design requirements when adopting the new secondary structure of the TPMLWG.

  3. Standing wave brass-PZT square tubular ultrasonic motor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Soonho; He, Siyuan

    2012-09-01

    This paper reports a standing wave brass-PZT tubular ultrasonic motor. The motor is composed of a brass square tube with two teeth on each tube end. Four PZT plates are attached to the outside walls of the brass tube. The motor requires only one driving signal to excite vibration in a single bending mode to generate reciprocating diagonal trajectories of teeth on the brass tube ends, which drive the motor to rotate. Bi-directional rotation is achieved by exciting different pairs of PZT plates to switch the bending vibration direction. Through using the brass-PZT tube structure, the motor can take high magnitude vibration to achieve a high output power in comparison to PZT tube based ultrasonic motors. Prototypes are fabricated and tested. The dimension of the brass-PZT tube is 3.975mm×3.975mm×16mm. Measured performance is a no-load speed of >1000RPM, a stall torque of 370μNm and a maximum output power of 16 mW when a sinusoidal driving voltage of 50V is applied. The working frequencies of the motor are 46,050Hz (clockwise) and 46,200Hz (counter-clockwise). Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  4. Distal renal tubular acidosis in two children with acquired hypothyroidism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerra-Hernández, Norma E; Ordaz-López, Karen V; Vargas-Poussou, Rosa; Escobar-Pérez, Laura; García-Nieto, Víctor M

    2018-04-28

    Two cases of children diagnosed with renal tubular acidosis (RTA) associated with autoimmune hypothyroidism are presented. Case 1 developed an intestinal ileus at the age of five in the context of a respiratory problem. The tests performed confirmed metabolic acidosis, hyperchloraemia, hypokalaemia and nephrocalcinosis. Case 2 was diagnosed with hypothyroidism at the age of 11, and with RTA two years later. In both patients, the diagnosis of RTA was verified when decreased maximum urinary pCO 2 was found. In case 2, a proximal bicarbonate leak (type 3 RTA) was also confirmed. This was the first case to be published on the topic. The causes of RTA in patients with hypothyroidism are reviewed. The deleterious effect on the kidneys may be due to the absence of thyroid hormone and/or autoantibodies in the cases of autoimmune hypothyroidism. Copyright © 2018 Sociedad Española de Nefrología. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  5. Oily bilge water treatment with a tubular ultrafiltration system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harris, L.R.; Jackson, D.F.; Schatzberg, P.

    1976-11-01

    The Navy has been developing various oil pollution abatement systems. One potential process for the separation of oil in bilge water is ultrafiltration, a pressure-driven membrane process which can separate, concentrate, and fractionate macromolecular solutes and suspended species from water. A tubular ultrafiltration system using cellulosic and noncellulosic membranes was tested with bilge oil obtained from a patrol craft. Tests were also conducted with tap water, river water, a turbine lubricating oil, and a fuel oil, alone and in combination with a nonionic detergent. The addition of the detergent was observed to result in a steeper flux decline than when any of the fluids were evaluated alone. Both membrane types produced a permeate with an oil content generally less than 15 mg/l. Although the noncellulosic membranes exhibited higher flux rates than the cellulosic membranes, only the former could be restored by a cleaning operation to its initial water flux after experiencing a decline in flux. A cumulative irreversible flux decline was exhibited by the cellulosic membrane. Cleaning operations, some of which were time-consuming, consisted of flushing the membrane with ultrafiltrate, distilled water, tap water, or the manufacturer's enzyme-detergent formulation. Only the last of these, when employed at elevated temperature (125/sup 0/F), restored the initial water flux of the noncellulosic membrane.

  6. Design and Analysis of Tubular Permanent Magnet Linear Wave Generator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Si, Jikai; Feng, Haichao; Su, Peng; Zhang, Lufeng

    2014-01-01

    Due to the lack of mature design program for the tubular permanent magnet linear wave generator (TPMLWG) and poor sinusoidal characteristics of the air gap flux density for the traditional surface-mounted TPMLWG, a design method and a new secondary structure of TPMLWG are proposed. An equivalent mathematical model of TPMLWG is established to adopt the transformation relationship between the linear velocity of permanent magnet rotary generator and the operating speed of TPMLWG, to determine the structure parameters of the TPMLWG. The new secondary structure of the TPMLWG contains surface-mounted permanent magnets and the interior permanent magnets, which form a series-parallel hybrid magnetic circuit, and their reasonable structure parameters are designed to get the optimum pole-arc coefficient. The electromagnetic field and temperature field of TPMLWG are analyzed using finite element method. It can be included that the sinusoidal characteristics of air gap flux density of the new secondary structure TPMLWG are improved, the cogging force as well as mechanical vibration is reduced in the process of operation, and the stable temperature rise of generator meets the design requirements when adopting the new secondary structure of the TPMLWG. PMID:25050388

  7. Quantitation of renal function with glomerular and tubular agents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dubovsky, E.V.; Russell, C.D.

    1982-01-01

    Quantitative methods to measure the glomerular and tubular function of the kidneys with radionuclides have been available for many years. They have not been widely used because the techniques and the calculations exceeded the scope of routine nuclear medicine practice. Validation of simplified methods and the introduction of computer technology have made measurement of the effective renal plasma flow (ERPF) and the glomerular filtration rate (GFR) simple enough so that they can be performed reproducibly in most nuclear medicine departments. The estimation of ERPF with radioiodinated OIH and GFR with /sup 99m/TcDTPA can be achieved in many ways, all of which yield clinically useful results. How to get the best results using the simplest methods is still unclear. The required accuracy depends on the intended clinical use. Our preference at the present time is to use a single or double plasma sample to calculate global ERPF or GFR, and to use the 1-2 min OIH or 1-3 min Tc-DTPA uptake to calculate relative function of the two kidneys (split function ERPF or GFR). The choice of method will be influenced by local factors, such as the nature of the patient population, the case volume, and the resources available. A desirable goal for future studies is to document carefully the capabilities and limitations of each alternative method, so that the choice can be rational

  8. STUDY THE CREEP OF TUBULAR SHAPED FIBER REINFORCED COMPOSITES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Najat J. Saleh

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Inpresent work tubular –shaped fiber reinforced composites were manufactured byusing two types of resins ( Epoxy and unsaturated polyester and separatelyreinforced with glass, carbon and kevlar-49 fibers (filament and woven roving,hybrid reinforcement composites of these fibers were also prepared. The fiberswere wet wound on a mandrel using a purposely designed winding machine,developed by modifying an ordinary lathe, in winding angle of 55° for filament. A creep test was made of either the fulltube or specimens taken from it. Creep was found to increase upon reinforcementin accordance to the rule of mixture and mainly decided by the type of singleor hybridized fibers. The creep behavior, showed that the observed strain tendsto appear much faster at higher temperature as compared with that exhibited atroom temperate. The creep rate also found to be depending on fiber type, matrixtype, and the fiber /matrix bonding. The creep energy calculated fromexperimental observations was found to exhibit highest value for hybridizedreinforcement.

  9. HIGH-TEMPERATURE TUBULAR SOLID OXIDE FUEL CELL GENERATOR DEVELOPMENT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    S.E. Veyo

    1998-09-01

    During the Westinghouse/USDOE Cooperative Agreement period of November 1, 1990 through November 30, 1997, the Westinghouse solid oxide fuel cell has evolved from a 16 mm diameter, 50 cm length cell with a peak power of 1.27 watts/cm to the 22 mm diameter, 150 cm length dimensions of today's commercial prototype cell with a peak power of 1.40 watts/cm. Accompanying the increase in size and power density was the elimination of an expensive EVD step in the manufacturing process. Demonstrated performance of Westinghouse's tubular SOFC includes a lifetime cell test which ran for a period in excess of 69,000 hours, and a fully integrated 25 kWe-class system field test which operated for over 13,000 hours at 90% availability with less than 2% performance degradation over the entire period. Concluding the agreement period, a 100 kW SOFC system successfully passed its factory acceptance test in October 1997 and was delivered in November to its demonstration site in Westervoort, The Netherlands.

  10. Design and performance of tubular flat-plate solid oxide fuel cell

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsushima, T.; Ikeda, D.; Kanagawa, H. [NTT Integrated Information & Energy Systems Labs., Tokyo (Japan)] [and others

    1996-12-31

    With the growing interest in conserving the environmental conditions, much attention is being paid to Solid Oxide Fuel Cell (SOFC), which has high energy-conversion efficiency. Many organizations have conducted studies on tubular and flat type SOFCs. Nippon Telegraph and Telephone Corporation (NTT) has studied a combined tubular flat-plate SOFC, and already presented the I-V characteristics of a single cell. Here, we report the construction of a stack of this SOFC cell and successful generation tests results.

  11. Effect of cisplatin on renal haemodynamics and tubular function in the dog kidney

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Daugaard, G; Abildgaard, U; Holstein-Rathlou, N H

    1987-01-01

    Administration of cisplatin (5 mg/kg) to dogs results in polyuric renal failure due initially to a proximal tubular functional impairment. 48-72 h after the cisplatin administration the depressed renal function can be attributed to impairment of proximal as well as distal tubular reabsorptive cap...... capacities associated with increased renal vascular resistance. The polyuria seems to be due to the impaired reabsorption rate in the distal nephron segments....

  12. Facile Fabrication of Uniform Polyaniline Nanotubes with Tubular Aluminosilicates as Templates

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Long; Liu, Peng

    2008-01-01

    AbstractThe uniform polyaniline (PANI) nanotubes, with inner diameter, outer diameter, and tubular thickness of 40, 60, and 10 nm, respectively, were prepared successfully by using natural tubular aluminosilicates as templates. The halloysite nanotubes were coated with PANI via the in situ chemical oxidation polymerization. Then the templates were etched with HCl/HF solution. The PANI nanotubes were characterized using FTIR, X-ray diffraction, and transmission electron microscopy. The conduct...

  13. Renal tubular dysfunction presenting as recurrent hypokalemic periodic quadriparesis in systemic lupus erythematosus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D Prasad

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We report recurrent hypokalemic periodic quadriparesis in a 30-year-old woman. Patient had also symptoms of multiple large and small joint pain, recurrent oral ulceration, photosensitivity and hair loss that were persisting since last 6 months and investigations revealed systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE with distal tubular acidosis. Our patient was successfully treated with oral potassium chloride, sodium bicarbonate, hydroxychloroquine and a short course of steroids. Thus, tubular dysfunction should be carefully assessed in patients with SLE.

  14. Hypokalaemia and Renal Tubular Acidosis due to Abuse of Nurofen Plus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. J. Blackstock

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Nurofen Plus is a common analgesic containing ibuprofen and codeine. We present a case of a 38-year-old lady who developed renal tubular acidosis with severe hypokalaemia, after chronic abuse of Nurofen Plus tablets. She presented with confusion and profound biochemical abnormalities requiring critical care admission for electrolyte replacement. Ibuprofen causes renal tubular acidosis due to its effects on carbonic anhydrase activity.

  15. Net alkalinity and net acidity 1: Theoretical considerations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kirby, Carl S.; Cravotta, Charles A.

    2005-01-01

    Net acidity and net alkalinity are widely used, poorly defined, and commonly misunderstood parameters for the characterization of mine drainage. The authors explain theoretical expressions of 3 types of alkalinity (caustic, phenolphthalein, and total) and acidity (mineral, CO 2 , and total). Except for rarely-invoked negative alkalinity, theoretically defined total alkalinity is closely analogous to measured alkalinity and presents few practical interpretation problems. Theoretically defined 'CO 2 -acidity' is closely related to most standard titration methods with an endpoint pH of 8.3 used for determining acidity in mine drainage, but it is unfortunately named because CO 2 is intentionally driven off during titration of mine-drainage samples. Using the proton condition/mass-action approach and employing graphs to illustrate speciation with changes in pH, the authors explore the concept of principal components and how to assign acidity contributions to aqueous species commonly present in mine drainage. Acidity is defined in mine drainage based on aqueous speciation at the sample pH and on the capacity of these species to undergo hydrolysis to pH 8.3. Application of this definition shows that the computed acidity in mgL -1 as CaCO 3 (based on pH and analytical concentrations of dissolved Fe II , Fe III , Mn, and Al in mgL -1 ):acidity calculated =50{1000(10 -pH )+[2(Fe II )+3(Fe III )]/56+2(Mn) /55+3(Al)/27}underestimates contributions from HSO 4 - and H + , but overestimates the acidity due to Fe 3+ and Al 3+ . However, these errors tend to approximately cancel each other. It is demonstrated that 'net alkalinity' is a valid mathematical construction based on theoretical definitions of alkalinity and acidity. Further, it is shown that, for most mine-drainage solutions, a useful net alkalinity value can be derived from: (1) alkalinity and acidity values based on aqueous speciation (2) measured alkalinity minus calculated acidity, or (3) taking the negative of the

  16. Net alkalinity and net acidity 1: Theoretical considerations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirby, C.S.; Cravotta, C.A.

    2005-01-01

    Net acidity and net alkalinity are widely used, poorly defined, and commonly misunderstood parameters for the characterization of mine drainage. The authors explain theoretical expressions of 3 types of alkalinity (caustic, phenolphthalein, and total) and acidity (mineral, CO2, and total). Except for rarely-invoked negative alkalinity, theoretically defined total alkalinity is closely analogous to measured alkalinity and presents few practical interpretation problems. Theoretically defined "CO 2-acidity" is closely related to most standard titration methods with an endpoint pH of 8.3 used for determining acidity in mine drainage, but it is unfortunately named because CO2 is intentionally driven off during titration of mine-drainage samples. Using the proton condition/mass- action approach and employing graphs to illustrate speciation with changes in pH, the authors explore the concept of principal components and how to assign acidity contributions to aqueous species commonly present in mine drainage. Acidity is defined in mine drainage based on aqueous speciation at the sample pH and on the capacity of these species to undergo hydrolysis to pH 8.3. Application of this definition shows that the computed acidity in mg L -1 as CaCO3 (based on pH and analytical concentrations of dissolved FeII, FeIII, Mn, and Al in mg L -1):aciditycalculated=50{1000(10-pH)+[2(FeII)+3(FeIII)]/56+2(Mn)/ 55+3(Al)/27}underestimates contributions from HSO4- and H+, but overestimates the acidity due to Fe3+ and Al3+. However, these errors tend to approximately cancel each other. It is demonstrated that "net alkalinity" is a valid mathematical construction based on theoretical definitions of alkalinity and acidity. Further, it is shown that, for most mine-drainage solutions, a useful net alkalinity value can be derived from: (1) alkalinity and acidity values based on aqueous speciation, (2) measured alkalinity minus calculated acidity, or (3) taking the negative of the value obtained in a

  17. Ground Vibration Isolation of Multiple Scattering by Using Rows of Tubular Piles as Barriers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miao-miao Sun

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A new formal solution for the multiple scattering of plane harmonic waves by a group of arbitrary configuration tubular piles in an elastic total space is derived. Each order of scattering satisfies prescribed boundary conditions at the interface of tubular piles, which is delivered as the sum of incident and scattering waves. The first order performs the scattering wave by each scattered pile and the subsequent orders resulted from the excitation of each pile of first order of scattering from the remaining tubular piles. Advanced scattering orders can be regarded as the same manners. Several series of scattering coefficients are figured out with the aids of addition theorem so that the exact steady-state solution for the scattered displacement and stress is obtained. Particularly, when internal diameter of tubular piles tends to be infinitely small, it degenerates to a solid pile problem. By imposing the normalized displacement amplitudes and transmissibility indices, the influences of specific parameters such as scattering orders, internal and external diameter ratio of piles, pile material rigidity, position and distances between tubular pile and pile rows, and pile numbers are discussed. Certain recommended conclusions have been drawn as the guidelines of practical engineering design for discontinuous barrier of tubular piles.

  18. Inner Surface Chirality of Single-Handed Twisted Carbonaceous Tubular Nanoribbons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Dan; Li, Baozong; Guo, Yongmin; Li, Yi; Yang, Yonggang

    2015-11-01

    Single-handed twisted 4,4'-biphenylene-bridged polybissilsesquioxane tubular nanoribbons and single-layered nanoribbons were prepared by tuning the water/ethanol volume ratio in the reaction mixture at pH = 11.6 through a supramolecular templating approach. The single-layered nanoribbons were formed by shrinking tubular nanoribbons after the removal of the templates. In addition, solvent-induced handedness inversion was achieved. The handedness of the polybissilsesquioxanes could be controlled by changing the ethanol/water volume ratio in the reaction mixture. After carbonization at 900 °C for 4.0 h and removal of silica, single-handed twisted carbonaceous tubular nanoribbons and single-layered nanoribbons with micropores in the walls were obtained. X-ray diffraction and Raman spectroscopy analyses indicated that the carbon is predominantly amorphous. The circular dichroism spectra show that the twisted tubular nanoribbons exhibit optical activity, while the twisted single-layered nanoribbons do not. The results shown here indicate that chirality is transferred from the organic self-assemblies to the inner surfaces of the 4,4'-biphenylene-bridged polybissilsesquioxane tubular nanoribbons and subsequently to those of the carbonaceous tubular nanoribbons. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Prevalence of renal tubular dysfunction in beta thalassemia minor in shiraz

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Moradi Nakhodcheri

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available  Background & objective: β-Thalassemia minor is an asymptomatic hereditary disease. The first study on the relation of renal tubular dysfunction and β-thalassemia minor was performed in 2002 but those studies seem inadequate.The main goal of this study is through evaluation of renal tubular function in 100 patients with thalassemia minor. Materials & Methods: 100 patients with β- thalassemia which confirmed by hemoglobin electrophoresis and CBC as well as RBC indices were studied.14 out of 100 cases exit because of Urinary Tract Infection, diabetes mellitus or hypertension.Complete chemistry profile was performed on serum and urine of all reminder 86 patients (46 female and 40 male. Patients classified into two groups: β-thalassemia minor with anemia and without anemia. Another control group include 50 healthy individuals also considered.Then data analyzed by proper statistical methods. Results: 20 out of 86 reminder cases e.g. 24% showed at least one index of renal tubular dysfunction.58% of patients was been anemic and 42% non anemic. The most prominent tubular dysfunction was seen in a 29 years old lady with glucosuria and without anemia. conclusion: β-Thalassemia minor is common in Iran specially in Fars province. This study revealed significant renal tubular dysfunction in patient with β-thalassemia minor. So it is necessary to check out thalassemic patients for renal function tests periodically. Key words: β-thalassemia, minor,renal tubular dysfunction

  20. pH measurement of tubular vacuoles of an arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus, Gigaspora margarita.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Funamoto, Rintaro; Saito, Katsuharu; Oyaizu, Hiroshi; Aono, Toshihiro; Saito, Masanori

    2015-01-01

    Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi play an important role in phosphate supply to the host plants. The fungal hyphae contain tubular vacuoles where phosphate compounds such as polyphosphate are accumulated. Despite their importance for the phosphate storage, little is known about the physiological properties of the tubular vacuoles in arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi. As an indicator of the physiological state in vacuoles, we measured pH of tubular vacuoles in living hyphae of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus Gigaspora margarita using ratio image analysis with pH-dependent fluorescent probe, 6-carboxyfluorescein. Fluorescent images of the fine tubular vacuoles were obtained using a laser scanning confocal microscope, which enabled calculation of vacuolar pH with high spatial resolution. The tubular vacuoles showed mean pH of 5.6 and a pH range of 5.1-6.3. These results suggest that the tubular vacuoles of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi have a mildly acidic pH just like vacuoles of other fungal species including yeast and ectomycorrhizal fungi.

  1. Review: peripheral nerve regeneration using non-tubular alginate gel crosslinked with covalent bonds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashimoto, Tadashi; Suzuki, Yoshihisa; Suzuki, Kyoko; Nakashima, Toshihide; Tanihara, Masao; Ide, Chizuka

    2005-06-01

    We have developed a nerve regeneration material consisting of alginate gel crosslinked with covalent bonds. in the first part of this study, we attempted to analyze nerve regeneration through alginate gel in the early stages within 2 weeks. in the second part, we tried to regenerate cat peripheral nerve by using alginate tubular or non-tubular nerve regeneration devices, and compared their efficacies. Four days after surgery, regenerating axons grew without Schwann cell investment through the partially degraded alginate gel, being in direct contact with the alginate without a basal lamina covering. One to 2 weeks after surgery, regenerating axons were surrounded by common Schwann cells, forming small bundles, with some axons at the periphery being partly in direct contact with alginate. At the distal stump, numerous Schwann cells had migrated into the alginate 8-14 days after surgery. Remarkable restorations of the 50-mm gap in cat sciatic nerve were obtained after a long term by using tubular or non-tubular nerve regeneration material consisting mainly of alginate gel. However, there was no significant difference between both groups at electrophysiological and morphological evaluation. Although, nowadays, nerve regeneration materials being marketed mostly have a tubular structure, our results suggest that the tubular structure is not indispensable for peripheral nerve regeneration.

  2. Hyperammonemia associated with distal renal tubular acidosis or urinary tract infection: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clericetti, Caterina M; Milani, Gregorio P; Lava, Sebastiano A G; Bianchetti, Mario G; Simonetti, Giacomo D; Giannini, Olivier

    2018-03-01

    Hyperammonemia usually results from an inborn error of metabolism or from an advanced liver disease. Individual case reports suggest that both distal renal tubular acidosis and urinary tract infection may also result in hyperammonemia. A systematic review of the literature on hyperammonemia secondary to distal renal tubular acidosis and urinary tract infection was conducted. We identified 39 reports on distal renal tubular acidosis or urinary tract infections in association with hyperammonemia published between 1980 and 2017. Hyperammonemia was detected in 13 children with distal renal tubular acidosis and in one adult patient with distal renal tubular acidosis secondary to primary hyperparathyroidism. In these patients a negative relationship was observed between circulating ammonia and bicarbonate levels (P urinary tract infection was complicated by acute hyperammonemia and symptoms and signs of acute neuronal dysfunction, such as an altered level of consciousness, convulsions and asterixis, often associated with signs of brain edema, such as anorexia and vomiting. Urea-splitting bacteria were isolated in 28 of the 31 cases. The urinary tract was anatomically or functionally abnormal in 30 of these patients. This study reveals that both altered distal renal tubular acidification and urinary tract infection may be associated with relevant hyperammonemia in both children and adults.

  3. Tamper-proof secret image-sharing scheme for identifying cheated secret keys and shared images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chien-Chang; Liu, Chong-An

    2013-01-01

    A (t,n) secret image-sharing scheme shares a secret image to n participants, and the t users recover the image. During the recovery procedure of a conventional secret image-sharing scheme, cheaters may use counterfeit secret keys or modified shared images to cheat other users' secret keys and shared images. A cheated secret key or shared image leads to an incorrect secret image. Unfortunately, the cheater cannot be identified. We present an exponent and modulus-based scheme to provide a tamper-proof secret image-sharing scheme for identifying cheaters on secret keys or shared images. The proposed scheme allows users to securely select their secret key. This assignment can be performed over networks. Modulus results of each shared image is calculated to recognize cheaters of a shared image. Experimental results indicate that the proposed scheme is excellent at identifying cheated secret keys and shared images.

  4. Les dispositifs du Net art

    OpenAIRE

    Fourmentraux, Jean-Paul

    2010-01-01

    La pratique du Net art radicalise la question du potentiel communicationnel d’un média —Internet— qui constitue tout à la fois le support technique, l’outil créatif et le dispositif social de l’œuvre. Les technologies de l’information et de la communication (TIC) placent en effet l’œuvre d’art au cœur d’une négociation socialement distribuée entre l’artiste et le public. L’article est focalisé sur cette construction collective du Net art et sur ses mises en scènes. Il montre le travail artist...

  5. Complexity Metrics for Workflow Nets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lassen, Kristian Bisgaard; van der Aalst, Wil M.P.

    2009-01-01

    analysts have difficulties grasping the dynamics implied by a process model. Recent empirical studies show that people make numerous errors when modeling complex business processes, e.g., about 20 percent of the EPCs in the SAP reference model have design flaws resulting in potential deadlocks, livelocks......, etc. It seems obvious that the complexity of the model contributes to design errors and a lack of understanding. It is not easy to measure complexity, however. This paper presents three complexity metrics that have been implemented in the process analysis tool ProM. The metrics are defined...... for a subclass of Petri nets named Workflow nets, but the results can easily be applied to other languages. To demonstrate the applicability of these metrics, we have applied our approach and tool to 262 relatively complex Protos models made in the context of various student projects. This allows us to validate...

  6. 29 CFR 1903.9 - Trade secrets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... INSPECTIONS, CITATIONS AND PROPOSED PENALTIES § 1903.9 Trade secrets. (a) Section 15 of the Act provides: “All... concerns or relates to the trade secrets, processes, operations, style of work, or apparatus, or to the...

  7. Pituitary-hormone secretion by thyrotropinomas

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roelfsema, Ferdinand; Kok, Simon; Kok, Petra; Pereira, Alberto M.; Biermasz, Nienke R.; Smit, Jan W.; Frolich, Marijke; Keenan, Daniel M.; Veldhuis, Johannes D.; Romijn, Johannes A.

    2009-01-01

    Hormone secretion by somatotropinomas, corticotropinomas and prolactinomas exhibits increased pulse frequency, basal and pulsatile secretion, accompanied by greater disorderliness. Increased concentrations of growth hormone (GH) or prolactin (PRL) are observed in about 30% of thyrotropinomas leading

  8. dotNet som multimediaplattform

    OpenAIRE

    Johansson, Glenn

    2008-01-01

    As the speed and complexity of computers have increased so have software and the expectations of users. Software development follows a straightforward evolution where complicated tasks are made easier by better tools; this repeats itself as those tasks in turn are automated. Software mechanics that were seen as revolutionary a decade ago are seen as obvious requirements that no multimedia application can be without. dotNet is the next step in line and makes it easier and faster to build softw...

  9. NET model coil test possibilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Erb, J.; Gruenhagen, A.; Herz, W.; Jentzsch, K.; Komarek, P.; Lotz, E.; Malang, S.; Maurer, W.; Noether, G.; Ulbricht, A.; Vogt, A.; Zahn, G.; Horvath, I.; Kwasnitza, K.; Marinucci, C.; Pasztor, G.; Sborchia, C.; Weymuth, P.; Peters, A.; Roeterdink, A.

    1987-11-01

    A single full size coil for NET/INTOR represents an investment of the order of 40 MUC (Million Unit Costs). Before such an amount of money or even more for the 16 TF coils is invested as much risks as possible must be eliminated by a comprehensive development programme. In the course of such a programme a coil technology verification test should finally prove the feasibility of NET/INTOR TF coils. This study report is almost exclusively dealing with such a verification test by model coil testing. These coils will be built out of two Nb 3 Sn-conductors based on two concepts already under development and investigation. Two possible coil arrangements are discussed: A cluster facility, where two model coils out of the two Nb 3 TF-conductors are used, and the already tested LCT-coils producing a background field. A solenoid arrangement, where in addition to the two TF model coils another model coil out of a PF-conductor for the central PF-coils of NET/INTOR is used instead of LCT background coils. Technical advantages and disadvantages are worked out in order to compare and judge both facilities. Costs estimates and the time schedules broaden the base for a decision about the realisation of such a facility. (orig.) [de

  10. NET-2 Network Analysis Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malmberg, A.F.

    1974-01-01

    The NET-2 Network Analysis Program is a general purpose digital computer program which solves the nonlinear time domain response and the linearized small signal frequency domain response of an arbitrary network of interconnected components. NET-2 is capable of handling a variety of components and has been applied to problems in several engineering fields, including electronic circuit design and analysis, missile flight simulation, control systems, heat flow, fluid flow, mechanical systems, structural dynamics, digital logic, communications network design, solid state device physics, fluidic systems, and nuclear vulnerability due to blast, thermal, gamma radiation, neutron damage, and EMP effects. Network components may be selected from a repertoire of built-in models or they may be constructed by the user through appropriate combinations of mathematical, empirical, and topological functions. Higher-level components may be defined by subnetworks composed of any combination of user-defined components and built-in models. The program provides a modeling capability to represent and intermix system components on many levels, e.g., from hole and electron spatial charge distributions in solid state devices through discrete and integrated electronic components to functional system blocks. NET-2 is capable of simultaneous computation in both the time and frequency domain, and has statistical and optimization capability. Network topology may be controlled as a function of the network solution. (U.S.)

  11. Pancreatic bicarbonate secretion involves two proton pumps

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Novak, Ivana; Wang, Jing; Henriksen, Katrine L.

    2011-01-01

    Pancreas secretes fluid rich in digestive enzymes and bicarbonate. The alkaline secretion is important in buffering of acid chyme entering duodenum and for activation of enzymes. This secretion is formed in pancreatic ducts, and studies to date show that plasma membranes of duct epithelium expres...

  12. 5 CFR 2421.15 - Secret ballot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Secret ballot. 2421.15 Section 2421.15... FEDERAL LABOR RELATIONS AUTHORITY MEANING OF TERMS AS USED IN THIS SUBCHAPTER § 2421.15 Secret ballot. Secret ballot means the expression by ballot, voting machine or otherwise, but in no event by proxy, of a...

  13. 29 CFR 452.97 - Secret ballot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Secret ballot. 452.97 Section 452.97 Labor Regulations... OF 1959 Election Procedures; Rights of Members § 452.97 Secret ballot. (a) A prime requisite of elections regulated by title IV is that they be held by secret ballot among the members or in appropriate...

  14. 29 CFR 401.11 - Secret ballot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Secret ballot. 401.11 Section 401.11 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor OFFICE OF LABOR-MANAGEMENT STANDARDS, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR LABOR-MANAGEMENT STANDARDS MEANING OF TERMS USED IN THIS SUBCHAPTER § 401.11 Secret ballot. Secret ballot means the expression by...

  15. 22 CFR 1421.15 - Secret ballot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Secret ballot. 1421.15 Section 1421.15 Foreign Relations FOREIGN SERVICE LABOR RELATIONS BOARD; FEDERAL LABOR RELATIONS AUTHORITY; GENERAL COUNSEL OF THE... THIS SUBCHAPTER § 1421.15 Secret ballot. Secret ballot means the expression by ballot, voting machine...

  16. 29 CFR 1202.4 - Secret ballot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Secret ballot. 1202.4 Section 1202.4 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) NATIONAL MEDIATION BOARD RULES OF PROCEDURE § 1202.4 Secret ballot. In conducting such investigation, the Board is authorized to take a secret ballot of the employees involved, or...

  17. Some Economics of Trade Secret Law

    OpenAIRE

    David D. Friedman; William M. Landes; Richard A. Posner

    1991-01-01

    Despite the practical importance of trade secrets to the business community, the law of trade secrets is a neglected orphan in economic analysis. This paper sketches an approach to the economics of trade secret law that connects it more closely both to other areas of intellectual property and to broader issues in the positive economic theory of the common law.

  18. Secreted factors as synaptic organizers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson-Venkatesh, Erin M; Umemori, Hisashi

    2010-07-01

    A critical step in synaptic development is the differentiation of presynaptic and postsynaptic compartments. This complex process is regulated by a variety of secreted factors that serve as synaptic organizers. Specifically, fibroblast growth factors, Wnts, neurotrophic factors and various other intercellular signaling molecules are proposed to regulate presynaptic and/or postsynaptic differentiation. Many of these factors appear to function at both the neuromuscular junction and in the central nervous system, although the specific function of the molecules differs between the two. Here we review secreted molecules that organize the synaptic compartments and discuss how these molecules shape synaptic development, focusing on mammalian in vivo systems. Their critical role in shaping a functional neural circuit is underscored by their possible link to a wide range of neurological and psychiatric disorders both in animal models and by mutations identified in human patients. © The Authors (2010). Journal Compilation © Federation of European Neuroscience Societies and Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  19. Weegee’s City Secrets

    OpenAIRE

    TRACHTENBERG, Alan

    2011-01-01

    En tant que photographe indépendant de meurtres, d’accidents, d’incendies, mais aussi de moments de loisirs dans la ville — de scènes de violence et de plaisir — Weegee travaillait essentiellement la nuit et utilisait un flash puissant associé à son appareil-photo de presse. Ses « secrets pour réaliser des photographies avec un flash » consistent à donner des conseils pratiques et techniques pour débutants. Mais au cœur de la rhétorique de ses « secrets » se trouvent des réflexions subtiles e...

  20. Computational study of effects of tension imbalance on phonation in a three-dimensional tubular larynx model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Qian; Zheng, Xudong; Mittal, Rajat; Bielamowicz, Steven

    2014-07-01

    The present study explores the use of a continuum-based computational model to investigate the effect of left-right tension imbalance on vocal fold (VF) vibrations and glottal aerodynamics, as well as its implication on phonation. The study allows us to gain new insights into the underlying physical mechanism of irregularities induced by VF tension imbalance associated with unilateral cricothyroid muscle paralysis. A three-dimensional simulation of glottal flow and VF dynamics in a tubular laryngeal model with tension imbalance was conducted by using a coupled flow-structure interaction computational model. Tension imbalance was modeled by reducing by 20% the Young's modulus of one of the VFs, while holding VF length constant. Effects of tension imbalance on vibratory characteristic of the VFs and on the time-varying properties of glottal airflow as well as the aerodynamic energy transfer are comprehensively analyzed. The analysis demonstrates that the continuum-based biomechanical model can provide a good description of phonatory dynamics in tension imbalance conditions. It is found that although 20% tension imbalance does not have noticeable effects on the fundamental frequency, it does lead to a larger glottal flow leakage and asymmetric vibrations of the two VFs. A detailed analysis of the energy transfer suggests that the majority of the energy is consumed by the lateral motion of the VFs and the net energy transferred to the softer fold is less than the one transferred to the normal fold. Copyright © 2014 The Voice Foundation. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Design, construction and evaluation of solarized airlift tubular photobioreactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bahadur, A; Zubair, M; Khan, M B

    2013-01-01

    An innovative photobioreactor is developed for growing algae in simulated conditions. The proposed design comprises of a continuous tubular irradiance loop and air induced liquid circulation with gas separation through air lift device. The unique features of air lift system are to ensure the shear free circulation of sensitive algal culture and induce light/dark cycles to the photosynthetic micro-organisms. The design strategy employs to model and construct a 20-liter laboratory scale unit using Boro-silicate glass tubing. The material is selected to ensure maximum photon transmission. All components of the device are designed to have flexibility to be replaced with an alternative design, providing fair chance of modification for future investigators. The principles of fluid mechanics are applied to describe geometrical attributes of the air lift system. Combination of LEDs and Florescent tube lights (Warm white) were used to illuminate the photosynthesis reaction area providing a possibility to control both illumination duration and light intensity. 200 Watt Solar PV system is designed to power up the device which included air pump (100 Watt) and illumination system (100 Watt). Algal strain Chlorella sp was inoculated in photobioreactor which was sparged with air and carbon dioxide. The growth was sustained in the batch mode with daily monitoring of temperature, pH and biomass concentration. The novel photobioreactor recorded a maximum experimental average yield of 0.65 g/l.day (11.3 g/m 2 .day) as compared to theoretical modeled yield of 0.82 g/l.day (14.26 g/m 2 .day), suggesting the device can be efficiently and cost-effectively employed in the production of algal biomass for biofuels, concomitantly mitigating CO 2 .

  2. Effect of air flow on tubular solar still efficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thirugnanasambantham, Arunkumar; Rajan, Jayaprakash; Ahsan, Amimul; Kandasamy, Vinothkumar

    2013-01-01

    An experimental work was reported to estimate the increase in distillate yield for a compound parabolic concentrator-concentric tubular solar still (CPC-CTSS). The CPC dramatically increases the heating of the saline water. A novel idea was proposed to study the characteristic features of CPC for desalination to produce a large quantity of distillate yield. A rectangular basin of dimension 2 m × 0.025 m × 0.02 m was fabricated of copper and was placed at the focus of the CPC. This basin is covered by two cylindrical glass tubes of length 2 m with two different diameters of 0.02 m and 0.03 m. The experimental study was operated with two modes: without and with air flow between inner and outer tubes. The rate of air flow was fixed throughout the experiment at 4.5 m/s. On the basis of performance results, the water collection rate was 1445 ml/day without air flow and 2020 ml/day with air flow and the efficiencies were 16.2% and 18.9%, respectively. THE EXPERIMENTAL STUDY WAS OPERATED WITH TWO MODES: without and with air flow between inner and outer tubes. The rate of air flow was fixed throughout the experiment at 4.5 m/s. On the basis of performance results, the water collection rate was 1445 ml/day without air flow and 2020 ml/day with air flow and the efficiencies were 16.2% and 18.9%, respectively.

  3. Relating porosity and mechanical properties in spray formed tubulars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Payne, R.D.; Naval Surface Warfare Center, Annapolis, MD; Moran, A.L.; United States Naval Academy, Annapolis, MD; Cammarata, R.C.

    1993-01-01

    Because the spray forming process holds the potential to reduce the cost of alloy production, there is significant interest in developing methods to industrialized and automate this process through advanced sensing techniques. These advanced sensing techniques will observe the process real-time and give inputs to a process controller. By determining relationships between part quality, process parameters and sensor inputs, the process controller will be able to determine the quality of a part while it is being made and make adjustments if necessary. A Tinius-Olsen Tensile Tester was used to test five tensile specimens. The five tensile specimens were taken from five alloy 625 (60% Ni, 20% Cr, 8%Mo, 5% Fe) tubulars with varying properties. Among the advanced sensing techniques currently used to monitor the spray forming process is a surface roughness sensor. It consists of an argon laser, a charge coupled device (CCD) camera and roughness determination software. The laser emission is expanded into a long, thin line and projected onto the substrate as the molten metal consolidates on the surface. The roughness determination software will grab a frame with the laser stripe, digitize it and calculate the root mean square (RMS) value of the roughness in that particular frame. Each frame has a time stamp and can be related back to other time stamped process parameters. Recent sensor work has tried to find correlations between RMS values and porosities determined after processing. This venture has met with limited success. The object of this paper is to link porosity with mechanical properties and therefore define quality. Eventually the input from all sensors and process parameters will be entered into a process controller. If there is a link between sensor data and quality, this controller will be able to determine the quality of a forming material from sensor inputs and make changes in the process parameters if the quality is poor

  4. Analysis of a 3-phase tubular permanent magnet linear generator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nor, K.M.; Arof, H.; Wijono [Malaya Univ., Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia). Faculty of Engineering

    2005-07-01

    A 3-phase tubular permanent linear generator design was described. The generator was designed to be driven by a single or a double 2-stroke combustion linear engine. Combustion took place alternately between 2 opposed chambers. In the single combustion engine, one of the combustion chambers was replaced by a kickback mechanism. The force on the translator generated by the explosion in the combustion chamber was used to compress the air in the kickback chamber. The pressed air was then used to release the stored energy to push back the translator in the opposite direction. The generator was modelled as a 2D object. A parametric simulation was performed to give a series of discrete data required to calculate machine electrical parameters; flux distribution; coil flux linkage; and, cogging force. Fringing flux was evaluated through the application of a magnetic boundary condition. The infinity boundary was used to include the zero electromagnetic potential in the surface boundary. A complete simulation was run for each step of the translator's motion, which was considered as sinusoidal. The simplification was further corrected using the real engine speed curve. The EMF was derived from the flux linkage difference in the coils at every consecutive translator position. Force was calculated in the translator and stator using a virtual work method. Optimization was performed using a subproblem strategy. It was concluded that the generator can be used to supply electric power as a stand-alone system, emergency power supply, or as part of an integrated system. 11 refs., 2 tabs., 10 figs.

  5. The Uniframe .Net Web Service Discovery Service

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Berbeco, Robert W

    2003-01-01

    Microsoft .NET allows the creation of distributed systems in a seamless manner Within NET small, discrete applications, referred to as Web services, are utilized to connect to each other or larger applications...

  6. Long Term RadNet Quality Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This RadNet Quality Data Asset includes all data since initiation and when ERAMS was expanded to become RadNet, name changed to reflect new mission. This includes...

  7. Special Section on Coloured Petri Nets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    1998-01-01

    Special section on coloured Petri nets, their basic concepts, analysis methods, tool support and industrial applications.......Special section on coloured Petri nets, their basic concepts, analysis methods, tool support and industrial applications....

  8. Transporter-mediated biofuel secretion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doshi, Rupak; Nguyen, Tuan; Chang, Geoffrey

    2013-05-07

    Engineering microorganisms to produce biofuels is currently among the most promising strategies in renewable energy. However, harvesting these organisms for extracting biofuels is energy- and cost-intensive, limiting the commercial feasibility of large-scale production. Here, we demonstrate the use of a class of transport proteins of pharmacological interest to circumvent the need to harvest biomass during biofuel production. We show that membrane-embedded transporters, better known to efflux lipids and drugs, can be used to mediate the secretion of intracellularly synthesized model isoprenoid biofuel compounds to the extracellular milieu. Transporter-mediated biofuel secretion sustainably maintained an approximate three- to fivefold boost in biofuel production in our Escherichia coli test system. Because the transporters used in this study belong to the ubiquitous ATP-binding cassette protein family, we propose their use as "plug-and-play" biofuel-secreting systems in a variety of bacteria, cyanobacteria, diatoms, yeast, and algae used for biofuel production. This investigation showcases the potential of expressing desired membrane transport proteins in cell factories to achieve the export or import of substances of economic, environmental, or therapeutic importance.

  9. Urinary excretion of beta 2-glycoprotein-1 (apolipoprotein H) and other markers of tubular malfunction in "non-tubular" renal disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flynn, F V; Lapsley, M; Sansom, P A; Cohen, S L

    1992-07-01

    To determine whether urinary beta 2-glycoprotein-1 assays can provide improved discrimination between chronic renal diseases which are primarily of tubular or glomerular origin. Urinary beta 2-glycoprotein-1, retinol-binding protein, alpha 1-microglobulin, beta 2-microglobulin, N-acetyl-beta-D-glucosa-minidase and albumin were measured in 51 patients with primary glomerular disease, 23 with obstructive nephropathy, and 15 with polycystic kidney disease, and expressed per mmol of creatinine. Plasma beta 2-glycoprotein-1 was assayed in 52 patients and plasma creatinine in all 89. The findings were compared between the diagnostic groups and with previously published data relating to primary tubular disorders. All 31 patients with plasma creatinine greater than 200 mumol/l excreted increased amounts of beta 2-glycoprotein-1, retinol-binding protein, and alpha 1-microglobulin, and 29 had increased N-acetyl-beta-D-glucosaminidase; the quantities were generally similar to those found in comparable patients with primary tubular pathology. Among 58 with plasma creatinine concentrations under 200 mumol/l, increases in beta 2-glycoprotein-1, retinol-binding protein, and alpha 1-microglobulin excretion were less common and much smaller, especially in those with obstructive nephropathy and polycystic disease. The ratios of the excretion of albumin to the other proteins provided the clearest discrimination between the patients with glomerular or tubular malfunction, but an area of overlap was present which embraced those with obstructive nephropathy and polycystic disease. Increased excretion of beta 2-glycoprotein-1 due to a raised plasma concentration or diminution of tubular reabsorption, or both, is common in all the forms of renal disease investigated, and both plasma creatinine and urinary albumin must be taken into account when interpreting results. Ratios of urinary albumin: beta 2-glycoprotein-1 greater than 1000 are highly suggestive of primary glomerular disease and

  10. NetBeans IDE 8 cookbook

    CERN Document Server

    Salter, David

    2014-01-01

    If you're a Java developer of any level using NetBeans and want to learn how to get the most out of NetBeans, then this book is for you. Learning how to utilize NetBeans will provide a firm foundation for your Java application development.

  11. History-dependent stochastic Petri nets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schonenberg, H.; Sidorova, N.; Aalst, van der W.M.P.; Hee, van K.M.; Pnueli, A.; Virbitskaite, I.; Voronkov, A.

    2010-01-01

    Stochastic Petri Nets are a useful and well-known tool for performance analysis. However, an implicit assumption in the different types of Stochastic Petri Nets is the Markov property. It is assumed that a choice in the Petri net only depends on the current state and not on earlier choices. For many

  12. Putting Petri nets to work in Industry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aalst, van der W.M.P.

    1994-01-01

    Petri nets exist for over 30 years. Especially in the last decade Petri nets have been put into practive extensively. Thanks to several useful extensions and the availability of computer tools, Petri nets have become a mature tool for modelling and analysing industrial systems. This paper describes

  13. Aplicació Microsoft .Net : Hotel Spa

    OpenAIRE

    Marquès Palmer, Jordi

    2010-01-01

    Desenvolupament d'una aplicació amb Microsoft .NET, WCF, WPF, Linq2SQL, d'un Hotel Spa. Desarrollo de una aplicación con Microsoft .NET, WCF, WPF, Linq2SQL, de un Hotel Spa. Application development using Microsoft .NET, WCF, WPF, Linq2SQL, for a Spa Hotel.

  14. Delta Semantics Defined By Petri Nets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Kurt; Kyng, Morten; Madsen, Ole Lehrmann

    and the possibility of using predicates to specify state changes. In this paper a formal semantics for Delta is defined and analysed using Petri nets. Petri nets was chosen because the ideas behind Petri nets and Delta concide on several points. A number of proposals for changes in Delta, which resulted from...

  15. The K-NET - A year after

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kinoshita, S.; Ohtani, K.; Katayama, T.

    2001-01-01

    We started to release the K-NET strong-motion data from June 1996 and about one year passed. In this article, we report the development of K-NET and some applications using the K-NET information released on the Internet. (author)

  16. 47 CFR 65.500 - Net income.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Net income. 65.500 Section 65.500... OF RETURN PRESCRIPTION PROCEDURES AND METHODOLOGIES Interexchange Carriers § 65.500 Net income. The net income methodology specified in § 65.450 shall be utilized by all interexchange carriers that are...

  17. 47 CFR 65.450 - Net income.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Net income. 65.450 Section 65.450... OF RETURN PRESCRIPTION PROCEDURES AND METHODOLOGIES Exchange Carriers § 65.450 Net income. (a) Net income shall consist of all revenues derived from the provision of interstate telecommunications services...

  18. INMARSAT-C SafetyNET

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsunamis 406 EPIRB's National Weather Service Marine Forecasts INMARSAT-C SafetyNET Marine Forecast Offices greater danger near shore or any shallow waters? NATIONAL WEATHER SERVICE PRODUCTS VIA INMARSAT-C SafetyNET Inmarsat-C SafetyNET is an internationally adopted, automated satellite system for promulgating

  19. Secreted Factors from Bone Marrow Stromal Cells Upregulate IL-10 and Reverse Acute Kidney Injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jack M. Milwid

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Acute kidney injury is a devastating syndrome that afflicts over 2,000,000 people in the US per year, with an associated mortality of greater than 70% in severe cases. Unfortunately, standard-of-care treatments are not sufficient for modifying the course of disease. Many groups have explored the use of bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs for the treatment of AKI because BMSCs have been shown to possess unique anti-inflammatory, cytoprotective, and regenerative properties in vitro and in vivo. It is yet unresolved whether the primary mechanisms controlling BMSC therapy in AKI depend on direct cell infusion, or whether BMSC-secreted factors alone are sufficient for mitigating the injury. Here we show that BMSC-secreted factors are capable of providing a survival benefit to rats subjected to cisplatin-induced AKI. We observed that when BMSC-conditioned medium (BMSC-CM is administered intravenously, it prevents tubular apoptosis and necrosis and ameliorates AKI. In addition, we observed that BMSC-CM causes IL-10 upregulation in treated animals, which is important to animal survival and protection of the kidney. In all, these results demonstrate that BMSC-secreted factors are capable of providing support without cell transplantation, and the IL-10 increase seen in BMSC-CM-treated animals correlates with attenuation of severe AKI.

  20. Semiquantum secret sharing using entangled states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Qin; Chan, W. H.; Long Dongyang

    2010-01-01

    Secret sharing is a procedure for sharing a secret among a number of participants such that only the qualified subsets of participants have the ability to reconstruct the secret. Even in the presence of eavesdropping, secret sharing can be achieved when all the members are quantum. So what happens if not all the members are quantum? In this paper, we propose two semiquantum secret sharing protocols by using maximally entangled Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger-type states in which quantum Alice shares a secret with two classical parties, Bob and Charlie, in a way that both parties are sufficient to obtain the secret, but one of them cannot. The presented protocols are also shown to be secure against eavesdropping.

  1. NET 40 Generics Beginner's Guide

    CERN Document Server

    Mukherjee, Sudipta

    2012-01-01

    This is a concise, practical guide that will help you learn Generics in .NET, with lots of real world and fun-to-build examples and clear explanations. It is packed with screenshots to aid your understanding of the process. This book is aimed at beginners in Generics. It assumes some working knowledge of C# , but it isn't mandatory. The following would get the most use out of the book: Newbie C# developers struggling with Generics. Experienced C++ and Java Programmers who are migrating to C# and looking for an alternative to other generic frameworks like STL and JCF would find this book handy.

  2. Microstructure and mechanical properties of AZ91 tubes fabricated by Multi-pass Parallel Tubular Channel Angular Pressing

    OpenAIRE

    Hooman Abdolvand; Ghader Faraji; Javad Shahbazi Karami

    2017-01-01

    Parallel Tubular Channel Angular Pressing (PTCAP) process is a novel recently developed severe plastic deformation (SPD) method for producing ultrafine grained (UFG) and nanograined (NG) tubular specimens with excellent mechanical and physical properties. This process has several advantageous compared to its TCAP counterparts. In this paper, a fine grained AZ91 tube was fabricated via multi pass parallel tubular channel angular pressing (PTCAP) process. Tubes were processed up to three passes...

  3. Support and tool displacement device for the attachment of a tube bundle on a tubular plate of a steam generator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morisot, M.; Werle, R.; Michaud, J.P.

    1983-01-01

    The steam generator is being assembled, disposed with its axis horizontal and its tubular plate vertical; the device described in this patent, allows to automatize the preparation stages of the tubular plate and the attachment of the bundle, to shorten the construction of the steam generator and to remove drudgeries done by hand on the tubular plate or the tubes of the bundle. The invention can be applied to the construction of PWR steam generators [fr

  4. An evaluation of the importance of gastric acid secretion in the absorption of dietary calcium.

    OpenAIRE

    Bo-Linn, G W; Davis, G R; Buddrus, D J; Morawski, S G; Santa Ana, C; Fordtran, J S

    1984-01-01

    Since calcium solubility is a prerequisite to calcium absorption, and since solubility of calcium is highly pH-dependent, it has been generally assumed that gastric acid secretion and gastric acidity play an important role in the intestinal absorption of calcium from ingested food or calcium salts such as CaCO3. To evaluate this hypothesis, we developed a method wherein net gastrointestinal absorption of calcium can be measured after ingestion of a single meal. A large dose of cimetidine, whi...

  5. LcrG secretion is not required for blocking of Yops secretion in Yersinia pestis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matson Jyl S

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background LcrG, a negative regulator of the Yersinia type III secretion apparatus has been shown to be primarily a cytoplasmic protein, but is secreted at least in Y. pestis. LcrG secretion has not been functionally analyzed and the relevance of LcrG secretion on LcrG function is unknown. Results An LcrG-GAL4AD chimera, originally constructed for two-hybrid analyses to analyze LcrG protein interactions, appeared to be not secreted but the LcrG-GAL4AD chimera retained the ability to regulate Yops secretion. This result led to further investigation to determine the significance of LcrG secretion on LcrG function. Additional analyses including deletion and substitution mutations of amino acids 2–6 in the N-terminus of LcrG were constructed to analyze LcrG secretion and LcrG's ability to control secretion. Some changes to the N-terminus of LcrG were found to not affect LcrG's secretion or LcrG's secretion-controlling activity. However, substitution of poly-isoleucine in the N-terminus of LcrG did eliminate LcrG secretion but did not affect LcrG's secretion controlling activity. Conclusion These results indicate that secretion of LcrG, while observable and T3SS mediated, is not relevant for LcrG's ability to control secretion.

  6. Towards a Standard for Modular Petri Nets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kindler, Ekkart; Petrucci, Laure

    2009-01-01

    concepts could or should be subject to import and export in high-level Petri nets. In this paper, we formalise a minimal version of modular high-level Petri nets, which is based on the concepts of modular PNML. This shows that modular PNML can be formalised once a specific version of Petri net is fixed....... Moreover, we present and discuss some more advanced features of modular Petri nets that could be included in the standard. This way, we provide a formal foundation and a basis for a discussion of features to be included in the upcoming standard of a module concept for Petri nets in general and for high-level...

  7. Osteomalacia complicating renal tubular acidosis in association with Sjogren's syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Ati, Zohra; Fatma, Lilia Ben; Boulahya, Ghada; Rais, Lamia; Krid, Madiha; Smaoui, Wided; Maiz, Hedi Ben; Beji, Soumaya; Zouaghi, Karim; Moussa, Fatma Ben

    2014-09-01

    Renal involvement in Sjogren's syndrome (SS) is not uncommon and may precede other complaints. Tubulointerstitial nephritis is the most common renal disease in SS and may lead to renal tubular acidosis (RTA), which in turn may cause osteomalacia. Nevertheless, osteomalacia rarely occurs as the first manifestation of a renal tubule disorder due to SS. We herewith describe a 43-year-old woman who was admitted to our hospital for weakness, lumbago and inability to walk. X-ray of the long bones showed extensive demineralization of the bones. Laboratory investigations revealed chronic kidney disease with serum creatinine of 2.3 mg/dL and creatinine clearance of 40 mL/min, hypokalemia (3.2 mmol/L), hypophosphatemia (0.4 mmol/L), hypocalcemia (2.14 mmol/L) and hyperchloremic metabolic acidosis (chlorine: 114 mmol/L; alkaline reserve: 14 mmol/L). The serum alkaline phosphatase levels were elevated. The serum levels of 25-hydroxyvitamin D and 1,25-dihydroxy vitamin D were low and borderline low, respectively, and the parathyroid hormone level was 70 pg/L. Urinalysis showed inappropriate alkaline urine (urinary PH: 7), glycosuria with normal blood glucose, phosphaturia and uricosuria. These values indicated the presence of both distal and proximal RTA. Our patient reported dryness of the mouth and eyes and Schirmer's test showed xerophthalmia. An accessory salivary gland biopsy showed changes corresponding to stage IV of Chisholm and Masson score. Kidney biopsy showed diffuse and severe tubulo-interstitial nephritis with dense lymphoplasmocyte infiltrates. Sicca syndrome and renal interstitial infiltrates indicated SS as the underlying cause of the RTA and osteomalacia. The patient received alkalinization, vitamin D (Sterogyl ®), calcium supplements and steroids in an initial dose of 1 mg/kg/day, tapered to 10 mg daily. The prognosis was favorable and the serum creatinine level was 1.7 mg/dL, calcium was 2.2 mmol/L and serum phosphate was 0.9 mmol/L.

  8. Tumor-promoting phorbol esters effect alkalinization of canine renal proximal tubular cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mellas, J.; Hammerman, M.R.

    1986-01-01

    We have demonstrated the presence of specific receptors for tumor-promoting phorbol esters in the plasma membrane of the canine renal proximal tubular cell. These compounds affect proximal tubular metabolism in vitro. For example, we have shown that they inhibit gluconeogenesis in canine renal proximal tubular segments. Tumor-promoting phorbol esters have been shown to effect alkalinization of non-renal cells, by enhancing Na + -H + exchange across the plasma membrane. To determine whether the actions of tumor-promoting phorbol esters in proximal tubular segments might be mediated by a similar process, we incubated suspensions of segments from dog kidney with these compounds and measured changes in intracellular pH using [ 14 C]-5,5-dimethoxazoladine-2-4-dione (DMO) and flow dialysis. Incubation of segments with phorbol 12,13 dibutyrate, but not inactive phorbol ester, 4 γ phorbol, effected alkalinization of cells within the segments in a concentration-dependent manner. Alkalinization was dependent upon the presence of extracellular [Na + ] > intracellular [Na + ], was prevented by amiloride and was demonstrable in the presence of SITS. Our findings suggest that tumor-promoting esters stimulate the Na + -H + exchanger known to be present in the brush border membrane of the renal proximal tubular cell. It is possible that the stimulation reflects a mechanism by which phorbol esters affect metabolic processes in these cells

  9. Polydopamine-coated open tubular column for the separation of proteins by capillary electrochromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Xing; Wang, Wentao; Chen, Jia; Jia, Li

    2015-08-01

    The separation and determination of proteins in food is an important aspect in food industry. Inspired by the self-polymerization of dopamine under alkaline conditions and the natural adhesive properties of polydopamine, in this paper, a simple and economical method was developed for the preparation of polydopamine-coated open tubular column, in which ammonium persulfate was used as the source of oxygen to induce and facilitate the polymerization of dopamine to form polydopamine. In comparison with a naked fused-silica capillary, the direction and magnitude of the electro-osmotic flow of the as-prepared polydopamine-coated open tubular column could be manipulated by varying the pH values of background solutions due to the existence of amine and phenolic hydroxyl groups on polydopamine coating. The surface morphology of the polydopamine-coated open tubular column was studied by scanning electron microscopy, and the thickness of polydopamine coating was 106 nm. The performance of the polydopamine-coated open tubular column was validated by analysis of proteins. The relative standard deviations of migration times of proteins representing run-to-run, day-to-day, and column-to-column were less than 3.5%. In addition, the feasibility of the polydopamine-coated open tubular column for real samples was verified by the separation of proteins in chicken egg white and pure milk. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  10. The Tubular Penetration Depth and Adaption of Four Sealers: A Scanning Electron Microscopic Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huan Chen

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. The tubular penetration and adaptation of the sealer are important factors for successful root canal filling. The aim of this study was to evaluate the tubular penetration depth of four different sealers in the coronal, middle, and apical third of root canals as well as the adaptation of these sealers to root canal walls. Materials and Methods. 50 single-rooted teeth were prepared in this study. Forty-eight of them were filled with different sealers (Cortisomol, iRoot SP, AH-Plus, and RealSeal SE and respective core filling materials. Then the specimens were sectioned and scanning electron microscopy was employed to assess the tubular penetration and adaptation of the sealers. Results. Our results demonstrated that the maximum penetration was exhibited by RealSeal SE, followed by AH-Plus, iRoot SP, and Cortisomol. As regards the adaptation property to root canal walls, AH-Plus has best adaptation capacity followed by iRoot SP, RealSeal SE, and Cortisomol. Conclusion. The tubular penetration and adaptation vary with the different sealers investigated. RealSeal SE showed the most optimal tubular penetration, whereas AH-Plus presented the best adaptation to the root canal walls.

  11. In vivo antibody-mediated modulation of aminopeptidase A in mouse proximal tubular epithelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mentzel, S; Dijkman, H B; van Son, J P; Wetzels, J F; Assmann, K J

    1999-07-01

    Aminopeptidase A (APA) is one of the many renal hydrolases. In mouse kidney, APA is predominantly expressed on the brush borders and sparsely on the basolateral membranes of proximal tubular epithelial cells. However, when large amounts of monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) against APA were injected into mice, we observed strong binding of the MAbs to the basolateral membranes, whereas the MAbs bound only transiently to the brush borders of the proximal tubular epithelial cells. In parallel, APA itself disappeared from the brush borders by both endocytosis and shedding, whereas it was increasingly expressed on the basolateral sides. Using ultrastructural immunohistology, we found no evidence for transcellular transport of endocytosed APA to the basolateral side of the proximal tubular epithelial cells. The absence of transcellular transport was confirmed by experiments in which we used a low dose of the MAbs. Such a low dose did not result in binding of the MAbs to the brush borders and had no effect on the presence of APA in the brush borders of the proximal tubular epithelial cells. In these experiments we still could observe binding of the MAbs to the basolateral membranes in parallel with the local appearance of APA. In addition, treatment of mice with chlorpromazine, a calmodulin antagonist that interferes with cytoskeletal function, largely inhibited the MAb-induced modulation of APA. Our studies suggest that injection of MAbs to APA specifically interrupts the normal intracellular traffic of this enzyme in proximal tubular epithelial cells. This intracellular transport is dependent on the action of cytoskeletal proteins.

  12. Net metering in British Columbia : white paper

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berry, T.

    2003-01-01

    Net metering was described as being the reverse registration of an electricity customer's revenue meter when interconnected with a utility's grid. It is a provincial policy designed to encourage small-distributed renewable power generation such as micro-hydro, solar energy, fuel cells, and larger-scale wind energy. It was noted that interconnection standards for small generation is an important issue that must be addressed. The British Columbia Utilities Commission has asked BC Hydro to prepare a report on the merits of net metering in order to support consultations on a potential net metering tariff application by the utility. This report provides information on net metering with reference to experience in other jurisdictions with net metering, and the possible costs and benefits associated with net metering from both a utility and consumer perspective. Some of the barriers and policy considerations for successful implementation of net metering were also discussed. refs., tabs., figs

  13. Native Small Airways Secrete Bicarbonate

    OpenAIRE

    Shamsuddin, A. K. M.; Quinton, Paul M.

    2014-01-01

    Since the discovery of Cl− impermeability in cystic fibrosis (CF) and the cloning of the responsible channel, CF pathology has been widely attributed to a defect in epithelial Cl− transport. However, loss of bicarbonate (HCO3−) transport also plays a major, possibly more critical role in CF pathogenesis. Even though HCO3− transport is severely affected in the native pancreas, liver, and intestines in CF, we know very little about HCO3− secretion in small airways, the principle site of morbidi...

  14. Secret sharing via quantum entanglement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hillery, M.; Buzek, V.

    1999-01-01

    Secret sharing is a procedure for splitting a message into several parts so that no single part is sufficient to read the message, but the entire set is. This procedure can be implemented using either GHZ states or two-particle entangled states. In the quantum case the presence of an eavesdropper will introduce errors so that her presence can be detected. We also discuss how quantum information can be split into parts so that the message can be reconstructed from a sufficiently large subset of the parts. (Authors)

  15. Weegee’s City Secrets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alan TRACHTENBERG

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available En tant que photographe indépendant de meurtres, d’accidents, d’incendies, mais aussi de moments de loisirs dans la ville — de scènes de violence et de plaisir — Weegee travaillait essentiellement la nuit et utilisait un flash puissant associé à son appareil-photo de presse. Ses « secrets pour réaliser des photographies avec un flash » consistent à donner des conseils pratiques et techniques pour débutants. Mais au cœur de la rhétorique de ses « secrets » se trouvent des réflexions subtiles et convaincantes révélant la relation entre la lumière et l’obscurité, et plus particulièrement la manière dont la lumière du flash permet de rendre visible l’obscurité. Dans le récit de Weegee, le flash confère à la photographie le pouvoir d’écrire — d’écrire avec la lumière, un mode de représentation singulièrement approprié pour enregistrer des instants de vie dans les rues nocturnes de la ville.As a freelance photographer of crime, accidents, fires, and also of the recreational life of the city—scenes of violence and of pleasure—Weegee worked mainly at night and employed a powerful photoflash attachment to his press camera. His "secrets of shooting with photoflash" consist of practical technical advice for beginners. But within the rhetoric of his "secrets" there lie cogent and subtle reflections on the relation of light to darkness, especially on the way the flash of light makes darkness visible. In Weegee’s account, the photoflash gives photography the power of writing—writing with light, a mode of picturing uniquely suited to recording instants of life on city streets at night.

  16. Secretion management in the mechanically ventilated patient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Branson, Richard D

    2007-10-01

    Secretion management in the mechanically ventilated patient includes routine methods for maintaining mucociliary function, as well as techniques for secretion removal. Humidification, mobilization of the patient, and airway suctioning are all routine procedures for managing secretions in the ventilated patient. Early ambulation of the post-surgical patient and routine turning of the ventilated patient are common secretion-management techniques that have little supporting evidence of efficacy. Humidification is a standard of care and a requisite for secretion management. Both active and passive humidification can be used. The humidifier selected and the level of humidification required depend on the patient's condition and the expected duration of intubation. In patients with thick, copious secretions, heated humidification is superior to a heat and moisture exchanger. Airway suctioning is the most important secretion removal technique. Open-circuit and closed-circuit suctioning have similar efficacy. Instilling saline prior to suctioning, to thin the secretions or stimulate a cough, is not supported by the literature. Adequate humidification and as-needed suctioning are the foundation of secretion management in the mechanically ventilated patient. Intermittent therapy for secretion removal includes techniques either to simulate a cough, to mechanically loosen secretions, or both. Patient positioning for secretion drainage is also widely used. Percussion and postural drainage have been widely employed for mechanically ventilated patients but have not been shown to reduce ventilator-associated pneumonia or atelectasis. Manual hyperinflation and insufflation-exsufflation, which attempt to improve secretion removal by simulating a cough, have been described in mechanically ventilated patients, but neither has been studied sufficiently to support routine use. Continuous lateral rotation with a specialized bed reduces atelectasis in some patients, but has not been shown

  17. Pro-Nets versus No-Nets: Differences in Urban Older Adults' Predilections for Internet Use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cresci, M. Kay; Yarandi, Hossein N.; Morrell, Roger W.

    2010-01-01

    Enthusiasm for information technology (IT) is growing among older adults. Many older adults enjoy IT and the Internet (Pro-Nets), but others have no desire to use it (No-Nets). This study found that Pro-Nets and No-Nets were different on a number of variables that might predict IT use. No-Nets were older, had less education and income, were…

  18. Matroids and quantum-secret-sharing schemes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sarvepalli, Pradeep; Raussendorf, Robert

    2010-01-01

    A secret-sharing scheme is a cryptographic protocol to distribute a secret state in an encoded form among a group of players such that only authorized subsets of the players can reconstruct the secret. Classically, efficient secret-sharing schemes have been shown to be induced by matroids. Furthermore, access structures of such schemes can be characterized by an excluded minor relation. No such relations are known for quantum secret-sharing schemes. In this paper we take the first steps toward a matroidal characterization of quantum-secret-sharing schemes. In addition to providing a new perspective on quantum-secret-sharing schemes, this characterization has important benefits. While previous work has shown how to construct quantum-secret-sharing schemes for general access structures, these schemes are not claimed to be efficient. In this context the present results prove to be useful; they enable us to construct efficient quantum-secret-sharing schemes for many general access structures. More precisely, we show that an identically self-dual matroid that is representable over a finite field induces a pure-state quantum-secret-sharing scheme with information rate 1.

  19. Status report on the development of a tubular electron beam ion source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Donets, E.D.; Donets, E.E.; Becker, R.; Liljeby, L.; Rensfelt, K.-G.; Beebe, E.N.; Pikin, A.I.

    2004-01-01

    The theoretical estimations and numerical simulations of tubular electron beams in both beam and reflex mode of source operation as well as the off-axis ion extraction from a tubular electron beam ion source (TEBIS) are presented. Numerical simulations have been done with the use of the IGUN and OPERA-3D codes. Numerical simulations with IGUN code show that the effective electron current can reach more than 100 A with a beam current density of about 300-400 A/cm 2 and the electron energy in the region of several KeV with a corresponding increase of the ion output. Off-axis ion extraction from the TEBIS, being the nonaxially symmetric problem, was simulated with OPERA-3D (SCALA) code. The conceptual design and main parameters of new tubular sources which are under consideration at JINR, MSL, and BNL are based on these simulations

  20. Micro-Drilling of Polymer Tubular Ultramicroelectrode Arrays for Electrochemical Sensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niels B. Larsen

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available We present a reproducible fast prototyping procedure based on micro-drilling to produce homogeneous tubular ultramicroelectrode arrays made from poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene (PEDOT, a conductive polymer. Arrays of Ø 100 µm tubular electrodes each having a height of 0.37 ± 0.06 µm were reproducibly fabricated. The electrode dimensions were analyzed by SEM after deposition of silver dendrites to visualize the electroactive electrode area. The electrochemical applicability of the electrodes was demonstrated by voltammetric and amperometric detection of ferri-/ferrocyanide. Recorded signals were in agreement with results from finite element modelling of the system. The tubular PEDOT ultramicroelectrode arrays were modified by prussian blue to enable the detection of hydrogen peroxide. A linear sensor response was demonstrated for hydrogen peroxide concentrations from 0.1 mM to 1 mM.

  1. Autoimmune Hepatitis with Distal Renal Tubular Acidosis and Small Bowel Partial Malrotation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanaiyalal Modi, Tejas; Parikh, Hardik; Sadalge, Abhishek; Gupte, Amit; Bhatt, Pratin; Shukla, Akash

    2015-01-01

    Renal tubular acidosis (RTA) is not uncommon in patient with chronic autoimmune hepatitis (AIH), but usually remains latent. Here, we report a case of renal tubular acidosis RTA who presented with AIH. She was also diagnosed to have partial bowel malrotation. A 9-year-old girl, a case of distal RTA, presented with jaundice, abdominal distension and altered sensorium. She was diagnosed to be AIH, which was successfully treated with steroids and azathioprine. Coexistent midgut partial malrotation with volvulus was diagnosed during the treatment. She was treated successfully with anti-tuberculous treatment for cervical lymphadenitis. Autoimmune hepatitis should not be ruled out in each case of RTA presenting with jaundice. Modi TK, Parikh H, Sadalge A, Gupte A, Bhatt P, Shukla A. Autoimmune Hepatitis with Distal Renal Tubular Acidosis and Small Bowel Partial Malrotation. Euroasian J Hepato-Gastroenterol 2015;5(2):107-109.

  2. Use and benefit summary of General Electric Company thermocase insulated tubulars for steam enhanced oil recovery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Traynor, B.V. Jr.; Hawley, J.R.; Marziani, V.J.; Prevost, W.M.

    1982-01-01

    General Electric Co.'s (GE) first well-bore insulation in 1969 resulted from the industry's need to produce hot oil on Alaska's North Slope without damaging the permafrost. In the past 3 yr, over 500,000 linear ft of GE's Thermocase has been sold. Thermocase tubulars are in use in California, Wyoming, Texas, Canada, Venezuela, and the USSR. Thermocase insulated tubulars are being used in a wide range of reservoirs under a variety of completion designs. This study discusses field experience, thermal completion benefits afforded by Thermocase tubulars, a quantified economic evaluation in a 1000-ft application, as well as GE's product verification, test and rigid quality control program.

  3. Species diversity regarding the presence of proximal tubular progenitor cells of the kidney

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Hansson

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The cellular source for tubular regeneration following kidney injury is a matter of dispute, with reports suggesting a stem or progenitor cells as the regeneration source while linage tracing studies in mice seemingly favor the classical theory, where regeneration is performed by randomly surviving cells. We, and others have previously described a scattered cell population localized to the tubules of human kidney, which increases in number following injury. Here we have characterized the species distribution of these proximal tubular progenitor cells (PTPCs in kidney tissue from chimpanzee, pig, rat and mouse using a set of human PTPC markers. We detected PTPCs in chimpanzee and pig kidneys, but not in mouse tissue. Also, subjecting mice to the unilateral urethral obstruction model, caused clear signs of tubular injury, but failed to induce the PTPC phenotype in renal tubules.

  4. Bound states in string nets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulz, Marc Daniel; Dusuel, Sébastien; Vidal, Julien

    2016-11-01

    We discuss the emergence of bound states in the low-energy spectrum of the string-net Hamiltonian in the presence of a string tension. In the ladder geometry, we show that a single bound state arises either for a finite tension or in the zero-tension limit depending on the theory considered. In the latter case, we perturbatively compute the binding energy as a function of the total quantum dimension. We also address this issue in the honeycomb lattice where the number of bound states in the topological phase depends on the total quantum dimension. Finally, the internal structure of these bound states is analyzed in the zero-tension limit.

  5. -Net Approach to Sensor -Coverage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fusco Giordano

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Wireless sensors rely on battery power, and in many applications it is difficult or prohibitive to replace them. Hence, in order to prolongate the system's lifetime, some sensors can be kept inactive while others perform all the tasks. In this paper, we study the -coverage problem of activating the minimum number of sensors to ensure that every point in the area is covered by at least sensors. This ensures higher fault tolerance, robustness, and improves many operations, among which position detection and intrusion detection. The -coverage problem is trivially NP-complete, and hence we can only provide approximation algorithms. In this paper, we present an algorithm based on an extension of the classical -net technique. This method gives an -approximation, where is the number of sensors in an optimal solution. We do not make any particular assumption on the shape of the areas covered by each sensor, besides that they must be closed, connected, and without holes.

  6. The Net Reclassification Index (NRI)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pepe, Margaret S.; Fan, Jing; Feng, Ziding

    2015-01-01

    The Net Reclassification Index (NRI) is a very popular measure for evaluating the improvement in prediction performance gained by adding a marker to a set of baseline predictors. However, the statistical properties of this novel measure have not been explored in depth. We demonstrate the alarming...... result that the NRI statistic calculated on a large test dataset using risk models derived from a training set is likely to be positive even when the new marker has no predictive information. A related theoretical example is provided in which an incorrect risk function that includes an uninformative...... marker is proven to erroneously yield a positive NRI. Some insight into this phenomenon is provided. Since large values for the NRI statistic may simply be due to use of poorly fitting risk models, we suggest caution in using the NRI as the basis for marker evaluation. Other measures of prediction...

  7. Interferon-γ Reduces the Proliferation of Primed Human Renal Tubular Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omar García-Sánchez

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: Chronic kidney disease (CKD is a progressive deterioration of the kidney function, which may eventually lead to renal failure and the need for dialysis or kidney transplant. Whether initiated in the glomeruli or the tubuli, CKD is characterized by progressive nephron loss, for which the process of tubular deletion is of key importance. Tubular deletion results from tubular epithelial cell death and defective repair, leading to scarring of the renal parenchyma. Several cytokines and signaling pathways, including transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β and the Fas pathway, have been shown to participate in vivo in tubular cell death. However, there is some controversy about their mode of action, since a direct effect on normal tubular cells has not been demonstrated. We hypothesized that epithelial cells would require specific priming to become sensitive to TGF-β or Fas stimulation and that this priming would be brought about by specific mediators found in the pathological scenario. Methods: Herein we studied whether the combined effect of several stimuli known to take part in CKD progression, namely TGF-β, tumor necrosis factor-α, interferon-γ (IFN-γ, and Fas stimulation, on primed resistant human tubular cells caused cell death or reduced proliferation. Results: We demonstrate that these cytokines have no synergistic effect on the proliferation or viability of human kidney (HK2 cells. We also demonstrate that IFN-γ, but not the other stimuli, reduces the proliferation of cycloheximide-primed HK2 cells without affecting their viability. Conclusion: Our results point at a potentially important role of IFN-γ in defective repair, leading to nephron loss during CKD.

  8. Three-Dimensional Tubular MoS2/PANI Hybrid Electrode for High Rate Performance Supercapacitor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Lijun; Zhang, Gaini; Yan, Zhe; Kang, Liping; Xu, Hua; Shi, Feng; Lei, Zhibin; Liu, Zong-Huai

    2015-12-30

    By using three-dimensional (3D) tubular molybdenum disulfide (MoS2) as both an active material in electrochemical reaction and a framework to provide more paths for insertion and extraction of ions, PANI nanowire arrays with a diameter of 10-20 nm can be controllably grown on both the external and internal surface of 3D tubular MoS2 by in situ oxidative polymerization of aniline monomers and 3D tubular MoS2/PANI hybrid materials with different amounts of PANI are prepared. A controllable growth of PANI nanowire arrays on the tubular MoS2 surface provides an opportunity to optimize the capacitive performance of the obtained electrodes. When the loading amount of PANI is 60%, the obtained MoS2/PANI-60 hybrid electrode not only shows a high specific capacitance of 552 F/g at a current density of 0.5 A/g, but also gives excellent rate capability of 82% from 0.5 to 30 A/g. The remarkable rate performance can be mainly attributed to the architecture with synergistic effect between 3D tubular MoS2 and PANI nanowire arrays. Moreover, the MoS2/PANI-60 based symmetric supercapacitor also exhibits the excellent rate performance and good cycling stability. The specific capacitance based on the total mass of the two electrodes is 124 F/g at a current density of 1 A/g and 79% of its initial capacitance is remained after 6000 cycles. The 3D tubular structure provides a good and favorable method for improving the capacitance retention of PANI electrode.

  9. The Test for Flow Characteristics of Tubular Fuel Assembly(II) - Experimental results and CFD analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Jong Hark; Chae, H. T.; Park, C.; Kim, H.

    2006-12-01

    A test facility had been established for the experiment of velocity distribution and pressure drop in a tubular fuel. A basic test had been conducted to examine the performance of the test loop and to verify the accuracy of measurement by pitot-tube. In this report, test results and CFD analysis for the hydraulic characteristics of a tubular fuel, following the previous tests, are described. Coolant velocities in all channels were measured using pitot-tube and the effect of flow rate change on the velocity distribution was also examined. The pressure drop through the tubular fuel was measured for various flow rates in range of 1 kg/s to 21 kg/s to obtain a correlation of pressure drop with variation of flow rate. In addition, a CFD(Computational Fluid Dynamics) analysis was also done to find out the hydraulic characteristics of tubular fuel such as velocity distribution and pressure drop. As the results of CFD analysis can give us a detail insight on coolant flow in the tubular fuel, the CFD method is a very useful tool to understand the flow structure and phenomena induced by fluid flow. The CFX-10, a commercial CFD code, was used in this study. The two results by the experiment and the CFD analysis were investigated and compared with each other. Overall trend of velocity distribution by CFD analysis was somewhat different from that of experiment, but it would be reasonable considering measurement uncertainties. The CFD prediction for pressure drop of a tubular fuel shows a tolerably good agreement with experiment within 8% difference

  10. NETS - Danish participation. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alsen, S. (Grontmij - Carl Bro, Glostrup (Denmark)); Theel, C. (Baltic Sea Solutions, Holeby (Denmark))

    2008-12-15

    Within the NICe-funded project 'Nordic Environmental Technology Solutions (NETS)' a new type of networking at the Nordic level was organized in order to jointly exploit the rapidly growing market potential in the environmental technology sector. The project aimed at increased and professionalized commercialization of Nordic Cleantech in energy and water business segments through 1) closer cooperation and joint marketing activities, 2) a website, 3) cleantech product information via brochures and publications 4) and participating in relevant trade fairs and other industry events. Facilitating business-to-business activities was another core task for the NETS project partners from Norway, Sweden, Finland and Denmark with the aim to encourage total solutions for combined Cleantech system offers. The project has achieved to establish a Cleantech register of 600 Nordic Cleantech companies, a network of 86 member enterprises, produced several publications and brochures for direct technology promotion and a website for direct access to company profiles and contact data. The project partners have attended 14 relevant international Cleantech trade fairs and conferences and facilitated business-to-business contacts added by capacity building offers through two company workshops. The future challenge for the project partners and Nordic Cleantech will be to coordinate the numerous efforts within the Nordic countries in order to reach concerted action and binding of member companies for reliable services, an improved visibility and knowledge exchange. With Cleantech's growing market influence and public awareness, the need to develop total solutions is increasing likewise. Marketing efforts should be encouraged cross-sectional and cross-border among the various levels of involved actors from both the public and the private sector. (au)

  11. NETS - Danish participation. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alsen, S [Grontmij - Carl Bro, Glostrup (Denmark); Theel, C [Baltic Sea Solutions, Holeby (Denmark)

    2008-12-15

    Within the NICe-funded project 'Nordic Environmental Technology Solutions (NETS)' a new type of networking at the Nordic level was organized in order to jointly exploit the rapidly growing market potential in the environmental technology sector. The project aimed at increased and professionalized commercialization of Nordic Cleantech in energy and water business segments through 1) closer cooperation and joint marketing activities, 2) a website, 3) cleantech product information via brochures and publications 4) and participating in relevant trade fairs and other industry events. Facilitating business-to-business activities was another core task for the NETS project partners from Norway, Sweden, Finland and Denmark with the aim to encourage total solutions for combined Cleantech system offers. The project has achieved to establish a Cleantech register of 600 Nordic Cleantech companies, a network of 86 member enterprises, produced several publications and brochures for direct technology promotion and a website for direct access to company profiles and contact data. The project partners have attended 14 relevant international Cleantech trade fairs and conferences and facilitated business-to-business contacts added by capacity building offers through two company workshops. The future challenge for the project partners and Nordic Cleantech will be to coordinate the numerous efforts within the Nordic countries in order to reach concerted action and binding of member companies for reliable services, an improved visibility and knowledge exchange. With Cleantech's growing market influence and public awareness, the need to develop total solutions is increasing likewise. Marketing efforts should be encouraged cross-sectional and cross-border among the various levels of involved actors from both the public and the private sector. (au)

  12. Normal and abnormal secretion by haemopoietic cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    STINCHCOMBE, JANE C; GRIFFITHS, GILLIAN M

    2001-01-01

    The secretory lysosomes found in haemopoietic cells provide a very efficient mechanism for delivering the effector proteins of many immune cells in response to antigen recognition. Although secretion shows some similarities to the secretion of specialized granules in other secretory cell types, some aspects of secretory lysosome release appear to be unique to melanocytes and cells of the haemopoietic lineage. Mast cells and platelets have provided excellent models for studying secretion, but recent advances in characterizing the immunological synapse allow a very fine dissection of the secretory process in T lymphocytes. These studies show that secretory lysosomes are secreted from the centre of the talin ring at the synapse. Proper secretion requires a series of Rab and cytoskeletal elements which play critical roles in the specialized secretion of lysosomes in haemopoietic cells. PMID:11380687

  13. Higher-moment measurements of net-kaon, net-charge and net-proton multiplicity distributions at STAR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sarkar, Amal

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we report the measurements of the various moments, such as mean, standard deviation (σ), skewness (S) and kurtosis (κ) of the net-kaon, net-charge and net-proton multiplicity distributions at mid-rapidity in Au + Au collisions from √(s NN )=7.7 to 200 GeV with the STAR experiment at RHIC. This work has been done with the aim to locate the critical point on the QCD phase diagram. These moments and their products are related to the thermodynamic susceptibilities of conserved quantities such as net baryon number, net charge, and net strangeness as well as to the correlation length of the system which diverges in an ideal infinite thermodynamic system at the critical point. For a finite system, existing for a finite time, a non-monotonic behavior of these variables would indicate the presence of the critical point. Furthermore, we also present the moment products Sσ, κσ 2 of net-kaon, net-charge and net-proton multiplicity distributions as a function of collision centrality and energy. The energy and the centrality dependence of higher moments and their products have been compared with different models

  14. In-Situ TEM-STM Observations of SWCNT Ropes/Tubular Transformations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sola, F.; Lebron-Colon, M.; Ferreira, P. J.; Fonseca, L. F.; Meador, M. A.; Marin, C.

    2010-01-01

    Single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) prepared by the HiPco process were purified using a modified gas phase purification technique. A TEM-STM holder was used to study the morphological changes of SWCNT ropes as a function of applied voltage. Kink formation, buckling behavior, tubular transformation and eventual breakdown of the system were observed. The tubular formation was attributed to a transformation from SWCNT ropes to multi-walled carbon nanotube (MWCNT) structures. It is likely mediated by the patching and tearing mechanism which is promoted primarily by the mobile vacancies generated due to current-induced heating and, to some extent, by electron irradiation.

  15. Facile Fabrication of Uniform Polyaniline Nanotubes with Tubular Aluminosilicates as Templates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Long

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available AbstractThe uniform polyaniline (PANI nanotubes, with inner diameter, outer diameter, and tubular thickness of 40, 60, and 10 nm, respectively, were prepared successfully by using natural tubular aluminosilicates as templates. The halloysite nanotubes were coated with PANI via the in situ chemical oxidation polymerization. Then the templates were etched with HCl/HF solution. The PANI nanotubes were characterized using FTIR, X-ray diffraction, and transmission electron microscopy. The conductivity of the PANI nanotubes was found to be 1.752 × 10−5(Ω·cm−1.

  16. ANALYSIS OF ELASTIC DEFORMATION OF BRAIDED TUBULAR STRUCTURES FOR MEDICAL APPLICATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet Emin YÜKSEKKAYA

    2001-02-01

    Full Text Available In this study, self-expanding stents were fabricated and analyzed. These stents are in the form of 3-D tubular braided structures made of polymeric materials. This type of structures is used in medicine to open clogged artheries and veins by exerting radial force. The amount of radial force exerted into the membrane should not give any damage to the veins. Therefore, the geometry of the three dimensional tubular braided fabric is analyzed to give an optimum radial force for medical applications.

  17. Strength characterization of tubular ceramic materials by flexure of semi-cylindrical specimens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kwok, Kawai; Kiesel, Lutz; Frandsen, Henrik Lund

    2014-01-01

    Mechanical strength at elevated temperatures and operating atmospheres needs to be characterized during development of tubular ceramic components for advanced energy technologies. Typical procedures are time-consuming because a large number of tests are required for a reliable statistical strength...... characterization and every specimen has to be subjected to the process conditions individually. This paper presents an efficient strength characterization methodology for tubular ceramics. The methodology employs flexure of semi-cylindrical specimens as the strength test and implements the tests within a facility...... conducted on oxygen transport membrane materials at room temperature and 850°C....

  18. Surface wave resonance and chirality in a tubular cavity with metasurface design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Yuzhou; Fang, Yangfu; Wang, Lu; Tang, Shiwei; Sun, Shulin; Liu, Zhaowei; Mei, Yongfeng

    2018-06-01

    Optical microcavities with whispering-gallery modes (WGMs) have been indispensable in both photonic researches and applications. Besides, metasurfaces, have attracted much attention recently due to their strong abilities to manipulate electromagnetic waves. Here, combining these two optical elements together, we show a tubular cavity can convert input propagating cylindrical waves into directed localized surface waves (SWs), enabling the circulating like WGMs along the wall surface of the designed tubular cavity. Finite element method (FEM) simulations demonstrate that such near-field WGM shows both large chirality and high local field. This work may stimulate interesting potential applications in e.g. directional emission, sensing, and lasing.

  19. Self-assembly of versatile tubular-like In2O3 nanostructures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhong Miao; Zheng Maojun; Ma Li; Li Yanbo

    2007-01-01

    Versatile indium oxide tubular nanostructures (well-aligned nanotube arrays, flower-like tubular structures, and square nanotubes) were fabricated by a facile and reliable chemical vapor deposition (CVD) technique, taking advantage of the self-assembly property and substrate-induced epitaxial growth mechanism. The technique has a few advantages, such as low growth temperature, nonexistence of catalyst, template-free synthesis, direct bonding to the semiconductor substrates, etc. This strategy might extend the approach of synthesizing desirable nanostructures of other important low-melting metal oxides for potential applications

  20. Nonimaging secondary concentrators for large rim angle parabolic troughs with tubular absorbers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ries, H; Spirkl, W

    1996-05-01

    For parabolic trough solar collectors with tubular absorbers, we design new tailored secondary concentrators. The design is applicable for any rim angle of a parabolic reflector. With the secondary, the concentration can be increased by a factor of more than 2 with a compact secondary reflector consisting of a single piece, even for the important case of a rim angle of 90 deg. The parabolic reflector can be used without changes; the reduced absorber is still tubular but smaller than the original absorber and slightly displaced toward the primary.

  1. Stressed waveguides with tubular depressed-cladding inscribed in phosphate glasses by femtosecond hollow laser beams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Xuewen; Bai, Jing; Zhao, Wei; Stoian, Razvan; Hui, Rongqing; Cheng, Guanghua

    2012-08-01

    We report on the single-step fabrication of stressed optical waveguides with tubular depressed-refractive-index cladding in phosphate glasses by the use of focused femtosecond hollow laser beams. Tubelike low index regions appear under direct exposure due to material rarefaction following expansion. Strained compacted zones emerged in domains neighboring the tubular track of lower refractive index, and waveguiding occurs mainly within the tube core fabricated by the engineered femtosecond laser beam. The refractive index profile of the optical waveguide was reconstructed from the measured transmitted near-field intensity.

  2. Investigation and Calculation of Magnetic Field in Tubular Linear Reluctance Motor Using FEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MOSALLANEJAD, A.

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the magnetic flux density of tubular linear reluctance motor (TLRM in open type magnetic circuit is studied. Also, all magnetic flux density calculation methods in winding of tubular linear reluctance motor are described. The effect of structure parameters on magnetic flux density is also discussed. Electromagnetic finite-element analysis is used for simulation of magnetic field, and simulation results of the magnetic field analysis with DC voltage excitation are compared with results obtained from calculation methods. The comparison yields a good agreement.

  3. Facile Fabrication of Uniform Polyaniline Nanotubes with Tubular Aluminosilicates as Templates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Long; Liu, Peng

    2008-08-01

    The uniform polyaniline (PANI) nanotubes, with inner diameter, outer diameter, and tubular thickness of 40, 60, and 10 nm, respectively, were prepared successfully by using natural tubular aluminosilicates as templates. The halloysite nanotubes were coated with PANI via the in situ chemical oxidation polymerization. Then the templates were etched with HCl/HF solution. The PANI nanotubes were characterized using FTIR, X-ray diffraction, and transmission electron microscopy. The conductivity of the PANI nanotubes was found to be 1.752 × 10-5 (Ω·cm)-1.

  4. Evaluation of seismic behavior of a braced tubular steel structure by pseudodynamic testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shiny, P.B.; Javadian-Gilani, A.S.; Mahin, S.A.

    1984-01-01

    The inelastic seismic behavior of an X-braced, tubular steel frame is studied experimentally by means of pseudodynamic testing. The pseudodynamic method, which utilizes a numerical algorithm in the on-line computer control of a test specimen, can realistically simulate the seismic response of a structural model. This paper presents a brief outline of the experimental procedure and the results of the tubular frame tests, including the global responses, the inelastic energy-dissipation capabilities, and the failure mechanism of the frame at various excitation levels. Correlation of these results with previous experimental studies illustrates the feasibility and accuracy of the new test method

  5. Distal renal tubular acidosis and hypokalemic paralysis in a patient with hypothyroidism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parvaiz Ahmad Koul

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available A 43- year- old woman on treatment for primary hypothyroidism presented with 1- day progressive weakness of all her limbs and history of similar episodes in the past. Clinical examination revealed grade 2 hyporeflexive weakness. Investigations revealed features of hypokalemia, metabolic acidosis, alkaline urine, and a fractional bicarbonate excretion of 3.5%, consistent with distal renal tubular acidosis. Antithyroid peroxidase and antithroglobulin antibodies were positive, suggesting an autoimmune basis for the pathogenesis of the functional tubular defect. Bicarbonate therapy resulted in a sustained clinical recovery.

  6. Melatonin Secretion Pattern in Critically Ill Patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boyko, Yuliya; Holst, René; Jennum, Poul

    2017-01-01

    effect of remifentanil on melatonin secretion. We found that the risk of atypical sleep compared to normal sleep was significantly lower (p REM) sleep was only observed during the nonsedation period. We found preserved diurnal pattern of melatonin...... secretion in these patients. Remifentanil did not affect melatonin secretion but was associated with lower risk of atypical sleep pattern. REM sleep was only registered during the period of nonsedation.......Critically ill patients have abnormal circadian and sleep homeostasis. This may be associated with higher morbidity and mortality. The aims of this pilot study were (1) to describe melatonin secretion in conscious critically ill mechanically ventilated patients and (2) to describe whether melatonin...

  7. Efficient multiparty quantum-secret-sharing schemes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xiao Li; Deng Fuguo; Long Guilu; Pan Jianwei

    2004-01-01

    In this work, we generalize the quantum-secret-sharing scheme of Hillery, Buzek, and Berthiaume [Phys. Rev. A 59, 1829 (1999)] into arbitrary multiparties. Explicit expressions for the shared secret bit is given. It is shown that in the Hillery-Buzek-Berthiaume quantum-secret-sharing scheme the secret information is shared in the parity of binary strings formed by the measured outcomes of the participants. In addition, we have increased the efficiency of the quantum-secret-sharing scheme by generalizing two techniques from quantum key distribution. The favored-measuring-basis quantum-secret-sharing scheme is developed from the Lo-Chau-Ardehali technique [H. K. Lo, H. F. Chau, and M. Ardehali, e-print quant-ph/0011056] where all the participants choose their measuring-basis asymmetrically, and the measuring-basis-encrypted quantum-secret-sharing scheme is developed from the Hwang-Koh-Han technique [W. Y. Hwang, I. G. Koh, and Y. D. Han, Phys. Lett. A 244, 489 (1998)] where all participants choose their measuring basis according to a control key. Both schemes are asymptotically 100% in efficiency, hence nearly all the Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger states in a quantum-secret-sharing process are used to generate shared secret information

  8. Thymidine secretion by hybridoma and myeloma cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spilsberg, Bjorn; Rise, Frode; Petersen, Dirk; Nissen-Meyer, Jon

    2006-01-01

    Secretion of thymidine appeared to be a common property of hybridoma and myeloma cells, but not of other cell types, which were tested. Of three hybridoma cell lines tested, all secreted thymidine in amounts resulting in the accumulation of thymidine to concentrations of 10-20 μM in the culture medium. Also three of five myeloma cell lines that were analyzed secrete thymidine, but none of the other cell types that were studied. Thymidine was purified to homogeneity (4 mg purified from 3 l of culture medium) and identified as such by nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. The cells that secreted thymidine showed high resistance to the growth inhibitory effect of thymidine

  9. Cellular interactions via conditioned media induce in vivo nephron generation from tubular epithelial cells or mesenchymal stem cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Machiguchi, Toshihiko; Nakamura, Tatsuo

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: •We have attempted in vivo nephron generation using conditioned media. •Vascular and tubular cells do cross-talks on cell proliferation and tubular changes. •Tubular cells suppress these changes in mesenchymal stem cells. •Tubular cells differentiate mesenchymal stem cells into tubular cells. •Nephrons can be created from implanted tubular cells or mesenchymal stem cells. -- Abstract: There are some successful reports of kidney generation by utilizing the natural course of kidney development, namely, the use of an artificially treated metanephros, blastocyst or ureteric bud. Under a novel concept of cellular interactions via conditioned media (CMs), we have attempted in vivo nephron generation from tubular epithelial cells (TECs) or mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs). Here we used 10× CMs of vascular endothelial cells (VECs) and TECs, which is the first to introduce a CM into the field of organ regeneration. We first present stimulative cross-talks induced by these CMs between VECs and TECs on cell proliferation and morphological changes. In MSCs, TEC-CM suppressed these changes, however, induced cytokeratin expression, indicating the differentiation of MSCs into TECs. As a result, glomerular and tubular structures were created following the implantation of TECs or MSCs with both CMs. Our findings suggest that the cellular interactions via CMs might induce in vivo nephron generation from TECs or MSCs. As a promoting factor, CMs could also be applied to the regeneration of other organs and tissues

  10. Single-step fabrication of stressed waveguides with tubular depressed-cladding in phosphate glasses using ultrafast vortex laser beams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheng Guanghua

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available We report on the fabrication of the stressed optical waveguide with tubular depressed-refractive-index cladding in phosphate glasses by use of femtosecond vortex beam. Strained regions were emerged in domains surrounding the tubular track. Waveguiding occurs mainly within the tube induced by femtosecond laser.

  11. Relationship between vibrations of tubular elements of power equipment and dynamic characteristics of longitudinal two-phase flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fokin, B.S.; Gol'dberg, E.N.

    1979-01-01

    Analytical results of statistical nature of forces exciting vibrations of tubular elements, which are flown around with two-phase flows, are given. Relationships for the calculation of a mean-square amplitude and vibration frequency of a tubular element flown around with a two-phase mixture have been obtained. The relationships are confirmed experimentally

  12. Application and Theory of Petri Nets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    This volume contains the proceedings of the 13th International Conference onApplication and Theory of Petri Nets, held in Sheffield, England, in June 1992. The aim of the Petri net conferences is to create a forum for discussing progress in the application and theory of Petri nets. Typically....... Balbo and W. Reisig, 18 submitted papers, and seven project papers. The submitted papers and project presentations were selectedby the programme committee and a panel of referees from a large number of submissions....

  13. TwiddleNet: Smartphones as Personal Servers

    OpenAIRE

    Gurminder, Singh; Center for the Study of Mobile Devices and Communications

    2012-01-01

    TwiddleNet uses smartphones as personal servers to enable instant content capture and dissemination for firstresponders. It supports the information sharing needs of first responders in the early stages of an emergency response operation. In TwiddleNet, content, once captured, is automatically tagged and disseminated using one of the several networking channels available in smartphones. TwiddleNet pays special attention to minimizing the equipment, network set-up time, and content...

  14. Professional Visual Basic 2010 and .NET 4

    CERN Document Server

    Sheldon, Bill; Sharkey, Kent

    2010-01-01

    Intermediate and advanced coverage of Visual Basic 2010 and .NET 4 for professional developers. If you've already covered the basics and want to dive deep into VB and .NET topics that professional programmers use most, this is your book. You'll find a quick review of introductory topics-always helpful-before the author team of experts moves you quickly into such topics as data access with ADO.NET, Language Integrated Query (LINQ), security, ASP.NET web programming with Visual Basic, Windows workflow, threading, and more. You'll explore all the new features of Visual Basic 2010 as well as all t

  15. NASA Net Zero Energy Buildings Roadmap

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pless, S.; Scheib, J.; Torcellini, P.; Hendron, B.; Slovensky, M.

    2014-10-01

    In preparation for the time-phased net zero energy requirement for new federal buildings starting in 2020, set forth in Executive Order 13514, NASA requested that the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) to develop a roadmap for NASA's compliance. NASA detailed a Statement of Work that requested information on strategic, organizational, and tactical aspects of net zero energy buildings. In response, this document presents a high-level approach to net zero energy planning, design, construction, and operations, based on NREL's first-hand experience procuring net zero energy construction, and based on NREL and other industry research on net zero energy feasibility. The strategic approach to net zero energy starts with an interpretation of the executive order language relating to net zero energy. Specifically, this roadmap defines a net zero energy acquisition process as one that sets an aggressive energy use intensity goal for the building in project planning, meets the reduced demand goal through energy efficiency strategies and technologies, then adds renewable energy in a prioritized manner, using building-associated, emission- free sources first, to offset the annual energy use required at the building; the net zero energy process extends through the life of the building, requiring a balance of energy use and production in each calendar year.

  16. Pro Agile NET Development with Scrum

    CERN Document Server

    Blankenship, Jerrel; Millett, Scott

    2011-01-01

    Pro Agile .NET Development with SCRUM guides you through a real-world ASP.NET project and shows how agile methodology is put into practice. There is plenty of literature on the theory behind agile methodologies, but no book on the market takes the concepts of agile practices and applies these in a practical manner to an end-to-end ASP.NET project, especially the estimating, requirements and management aspects of a project. Pro Agile .NET Development with SCRUM takes you through the initial stages of a project - gathering requirements and setting up an environment - through to the development a

  17. Insulin Regulates Hepatic Triglyceride Secretion and Lipid Content via Signaling in the Brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scherer, Thomas; Lindtner, Claudia; O'Hare, James; Hackl, Martina; Zielinski, Elizabeth; Freudenthaler, Angelika; Baumgartner-Parzer, Sabina; Tödter, Klaus; Heeren, Joerg; Krššák, Martin; Scheja, Ludger; Fürnsinn, Clemens; Buettner, Christoph

    2016-06-01

    Hepatic steatosis is common in obesity and insulin resistance and results from a net retention of lipids in the liver. A key mechanism to prevent steatosis is to increase secretion of triglycerides (TG) packaged as VLDLs. Insulin controls nutrient partitioning via signaling through its cognate receptor in peripheral target organs such as liver, muscle, and adipose tissue and via signaling in the central nervous system (CNS) to orchestrate organ cross talk. While hepatic insulin signaling is known to suppress VLDL production from the liver, it is unknown whether brain insulin signaling independently regulates hepatic VLDL secretion. Here, we show that in conscious, unrestrained male Sprague Dawley rats the infusion of insulin into the third ventricle acutely increased hepatic TG secretion. Chronic infusion of insulin into the CNS via osmotic minipumps reduced the hepatic lipid content as assessed by noninvasive (1)H-MRS and lipid profiling independent of changes in hepatic de novo lipogenesis and food intake. In mice that lack the insulin receptor in the brain, hepatic TG secretion was reduced compared with wild-type littermate controls. These studies identify brain insulin as an important permissive factor in hepatic VLDL secretion that protects against hepatic steatosis. © 2016 by the American Diabetes Association. Readers may use this article as long as the work is properly cited, the use is educational and not for profit, and the work is not altered.

  18. Insulin's acute effects on glomerular filtration rate correlate with insulin sensitivity whereas insulin's acute effects on proximal tubular sodium reabsorption correlate with salt sensitivity in normal subjects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    ter Maaten, JC; Bakker, SJL; Serne, EH; ter Wee, PM; Gans, ROB

    1999-01-01

    Background. Insulin induces increasing distal tubular sodium reabsorption. Opposite effects of insulin to offset insulin-induced sodium retention are supposedly increases in glomerular filtration rate (GFR) and decreases in proximal tubular sodium reabsorption. Defects in these opposing effects

  19. Experiments and simulation of a net closing mechanism for tether-net capture of space debris

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharf, Inna; Thomsen, Benjamin; Botta, Eleonora M.; Misra, Arun K.

    2017-10-01

    This research addresses the design and testing of a debris containment system for use in a tether-net approach to space debris removal. The tether-net active debris removal involves the ejection of a net from a spacecraft by applying impulses to masses on the net, subsequent expansion of the net, the envelopment and capture of the debris target, and the de-orbiting of the debris via a tether to the chaser spacecraft. To ensure a debris removal mission's success, it is important that the debris be successfully captured and then, secured within the net. To this end, we present a concept for a net closing mechanism, which we believe will permit consistently successful debris capture via a simple and unobtrusive design. This net closing system functions by extending the main tether connecting the chaser spacecraft and the net vertex to the perimeter and around the perimeter of the net, allowing the tether to actuate closure of the net in a manner similar to a cinch cord. A particular embodiment of the design in a laboratory test-bed is described: the test-bed itself is comprised of a scaled-down tether-net, a supporting frame and a mock-up debris. Experiments conducted with the facility demonstrate the practicality of the net closing system. A model of the net closure concept has been integrated into the previously developed dynamics simulator of the chaser/tether-net/debris system. Simulations under tether tensioning conditions demonstrate the effectiveness of the closure concept for debris containment, in the gravity-free environment of space, for a realistic debris target. The on-ground experimental test-bed is also used to showcase its utility for validating the dynamics simulation of the net deployment, and a full-scale automated setup would make possible a range of validation studies of other aspects of a tether-net debris capture mission.

  20. Tubular and endothelial chimerism in renal allografts using fluorescence and chromogenic in situ hybridization (FISH, CISH) technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varga, Zsuzsanna; Gaspert, Ariana; Behnke, Silvia; von Teichman, Adriana; Fritzsche, Florian; Fehr, Thomas

    2012-04-01

    The role of endothelial and tubular chimerism in renal allograft adaptation and rejection varies in different studies. We addressed the correlation between different clinico-pathological settings and sex-chromosomal endothelial and/or tubular chimerism in renal allografts. We examined the presence or absence of the X and Y chromosomes by fluorescence and chromogenic in situ hybridization (FISH, CISH) methodology on paraffin embedded kidney biopsies in 16 gender mismatched renal transplants (1 to 12 years post-transplantation). Twelve patients were male, four female. Four groups were selected: (i) Vascular calcineurin inhibitor toxicity without rejection; (ii) T-cell mediated vascular rejection; (iii) antibody mediated rejection; and (iv) C4d-positivity in AB0-incompatible transplants with or without rejection. Twelve non-transplant kidney biopsies (8 female, 4 male) were used as controls. Tubular chimerism was detected more frequently (69%) than endothelial chimerism (12%) in renal transplants. One of 12 control patients had tubular and endothelial chimeric cells (8%). The Y chromosome occurred in 8/12 male recipients (67%) in tubular epithelial cells and in 5/12 male recipients (42%) in endothelial cells. Double X chromosomes were detected in 3/4 female recipients in tubular epithelium. Tubular chimerism occurred more often with endothelial chimerism and capillaritis without correlation with other parameters, such as rejection. Combined Y chromosomal tubular and lymphatic endothelial chimerism correlated with T-cell mediated vascular rejection in two out of three patients (66%). Combined Y chromosomal tubular and peritubular capillary chimerism correlated with antibody mediated C4d+ rejection in one out of two patients (50%). Tubular and/or endothelial chimerism occur frequently in gender mismatched renal allografts and, when combined, this is associated with T-cell mediated rejection. © 2012 The Authors. Pathology International © 2012 Japanese Society of

  1. Price smarter on the Net.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, W; Marn, M; Zawada, C

    2001-02-01

    Companies generally have set prices on the Internet in two ways. Many start-ups have offered untenably low prices in a rush to capture first-mover advantage. Many incumbents have simply charged the same prices on-line as they do off-line. Either way, companies are missing a big opportunity. The fundamental value of the Internet lies not in lowering prices or making them consistent but in optimizing them. After all, if it's easy for customers to compare prices on the Internet, it's also easy for companies to track customers' behavior and adjust prices accordingly. The Net lets companies optimize prices in three ways. First, it lets them set and announce prices with greater precision. Different prices can be tested easily, and customers' responses can be collected instantly. Companies can set the most profitable prices, and they can tap into previously hidden customer demand. Second, because it's so easy to change prices on the Internet, companies can adjust prices in response to even small fluctuations in market conditions, customer demand, or competitors' behavior. Third, companies can use the clickstream data and purchase histories that it collects through the Internet to segment customers quickly. Then it can offer segment-specific prices or promotions immediately. By taking full advantage of the unique possibilities afforded by the Internet to set prices with precision, adapt to changing circumstances quickly, and segment customers accurately, companies can get their pricing right. It's one of the ultimate drivers of e-business success.

  2. Isomyosin expression patterns in tubular stages of chicken heart development: a 3-D immunohistochemical analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Jong, F.; Geerts, W. J.; Lamers, W. H.; Los, J. A.; Moorman, A. F.

    1987-01-01

    The 3-D distribution of atrial and ventricular isomyosins is analysed in tubular chicken hearts (stage 12+ to 17 (H/H)) using antibodies specific for adult chicken atrial and ventricular myosin heavy chains, respectively. At stage 12+ (H/H) all myocytes express the atrial isomyosin; furthermore, all

  3. Confined diffusion in tubular structures analyzed by fluorescence correlation spectroscopy on a mirror

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Etienne, Emilien; Lenne, Pierre-Francois; Sturgis, James N.; Rigneault, Herve

    2006-01-01

    In fluorescence correlation spectroscopy (FCS) analysis it is generally assumed that molecular species diffuse freely in volumes much larger than the three-dimensional FCS observation volume. However, this standard assumption is not valid in many measurement conditions, particularly in tubular structures with diameters in the micrometer range, such as those found in living cells (organelles, dendrites) and microfluidic devices (capillaries,reaction chambers). As a result the measured autocorrelation functions (ACFs) deviate from those predicted for free diffusion, and this can shift the measured diffusion coefficient by as much as ∼50% when the tube diameter is comparable with the axial extension of the FCS observation volume. We show that the range of validity of the FCS measurements can be drastically improved if the tubular structures are located in the close vicinity of a mirror on which FCS is performed. In this case a new fluctuation time in the ACF, arising from the diffusion of fluorescent probes in optical fringes,permits measurement of the real diffusion coefficient within the tubular structure without assumptions about either the confined geometry orthe FCS observation volume geometry. We show that such a measurement can be done when the tubular structure contains at least one pair of dark and bright fringes resulting from interference between the incoming and the reflected excitation beams on the mirror surface. Measurement of the diffusion coefficient of the enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) and IscS-EGFP in the cytoplasm of living Escherichiacoli illustrates the capabilities of the technique

  4. Defective proximal tubular function in a patient with I-cell disease.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bocca, G.; Monnens, L.A.H.

    2003-01-01

    A girl with a proven diagnosis of I-cell disease is presented. Proximal tubular dysfunction was characterized by increased excretion of low molecular proteins, aminoaciduria, hyperphosphaturia, and high/slightly increased urinary calcium. The concentration of 1,25-dihydroxycalciferol in serum was

  5. A quantitative model of the cardiac ventricular cell incorporating the transverse-axial tubular system

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pásek, Michal; Christé, G.; Šimurda, J.

    2003-01-01

    Roč. 22, č. 3 (2003), s. 355-368 ISSN 0231-5882 R&D Projects: GA ČR GP204/02/D129 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z2076919 Keywords : cardiac cell * tubular system * quantitative modelling Subject RIV: BO - Biophysics Impact factor: 0.794, year: 2003

  6. The effect of RAAS blockade on markers of renal tubular damage in diabetic nephropathy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Stine; Rossing, Kasper; Hess, Georg

    2012-01-01

    Blockade of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS) affects both the glomerulus and tubules. We aimed to investigate the effect of irbesartan on the tubular markers: urinary (u) neutrophil gelatinase associated protein (NGAL), Kidney injury molecule 1 (KIM1) and liver-fatty acid......-binding protein (LFABP)....

  7. Glomerular and tubular damage markers are elevated in patients with diabetes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nauta, Ferdau L.; Boertien, Wendy E.; Bakker, Stephan J. L.; van Goor, Harry; van Oeveren, Wim; de Jong, Paul E.; Bilo, Henk; Gansevoort, Ron T.

    OBJECTIVE: We investigated in a cross-sectional study the levels of serum and urinary damage markers in diabetic patients (n = 94) and nondiabetic control subjects (n = 45) to study the association of glomerular (IgG), proximal tubular (kidney injury molecule [KIM]-1, N-acetyl-β-d-glucosaminidase

  8. Tolerance-based Structural Design of Tubular-Structure Loading Equipments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiping Lu

    2011-05-01

    is worked out under different ball screws, trapezoidal screw threads, worm and worm gears. To meet the requirement of tolerance in tubular-structure assembly, mechanisms for all motions are defined. The design of loading equipment is tested and assessed by experiments, and the result shows the design is highly qualified for its assembly.

  9. Normalized Urinary Flow at Puberty after Tubularized Incised Plate Urethroplasty for Hypospadias in Childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersson, Marie; Doroszkiewicz, Monika; Arfwidsson, Charlotte; Abrahamsson, Kate; Sillén, Ulla; Holmdahl, Gundela

    2015-11-01

    An obstructive urinary flow pattern is frequently seen after tubularized incised plate urethroplasty for hypospadias. However, the significance of this finding has not been determined and long-term results are few. We describe postoperative long-term uroflowmetry results after puberty in males who underwent tubularized incised plate urethroplasty in childhood. A total of 126 boys underwent tubularized incised plate urethroplasty for distal penile to mid shaft hypospadias at Queen Silvia Children's Hospital in Gothenburg between 1999 and 2003. Of the patients 48 were toilet trained at surgery. We report on 40 patients who had data available at 2 and 12 months postoperatively, 7 years postoperatively and at puberty (median age 15.0 years, range 13.7 to 17.1). Of the patients 31 had distal and 9 had mid penile hypospadias. Clinical examination, urinary medical history, uroflowmetry and ultrasound measuring residual urine were performed. Maximum urinary flow was correlated to age and voided volume, using Miskolc nomograms for comparison of percentiles. At 1 year postoperatively 15 boys (37.5%) had normal urinary flow (above 25th percentile), compared to 16 (40%) at 7 years and 38 (95%) at puberty (p puberty for boys with hypospadias treated with tubularized incised plate urethroplasty. Unless symptoms occur, a conservative approach seems preferable. Copyright © 2015 American Urological Association Education and Research, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. MATHEMATICAL MODELLING OF PREFERED SOLUTIONS CHOICE FUNCTION FOR TUBULAR GAS HEATERS BY EXPERIMENTAL INFORMATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BARSUK R. V.

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Annotation. Problems formulation. The article deals with choice functions building of preferred solutions by experimental information for tubular gas heater working on fuel granules - pellets.Further choice functions using for making technical solutions by tubular gas heaters construction and designing. Recently research analysis. There are works about choice functions construction by separate presents are examined. But full chose functions building by separate presents are not examined. Aims and tasks. There are setting aim to develop full choice functions mathematical model on separate presents by authors. The expert are connect to primary experimental data’s evaluation that estimates separate results by output functions (criteria. Its evaluations issue in experimental points paired comparison’s table form. Thus, there are necessary construct binary choice relations presents on experimental “points” set by expert that then using for full choice function’s constructing. Conclusions. There are choice function’s construction’s sequence are sets. There are posed point comparison results that characterized tubular gas heater’s condition with expert’s evaluation using. Also posed output functions comparisons by which can be characterized improving tubular gas heater’s performance or vice versa.

  11. 75 FR 49527 - Metaldyne Corporation, Metaldyne Tubular Products, Currently Known as Flexible Metal, Inc...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-13

    ..., Metaldyne Tubular Products, Currently Known as Flexible Metal, Inc., Powertrain Division, Hamburg, MI... certification for workers of the subject firm. The workers are engaged in the production of exhaust manifolds and turbo tubes for the automotive industry. Information shows that on June 10, 2010, Flexible Metals...

  12. Gremlin Activates the Smad Pathway Linked to Epithelial Mesenchymal Transdifferentiation in Cultured Tubular Epithelial Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raquel Rodrigues-Diez

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Gremlin is a developmental gene upregulated in human chronic kidney disease and in renal cells in response to transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β. Epithelial mesenchymal transition (EMT is one process involved in renal fibrosis. In tubular epithelial cells we have recently described that Gremlin induces EMT and acts as a downstream TGF-β mediator. Our aim was to investigate whether Gremlin participates in EMT by the regulation of the Smad pathway. Stimulation of human tubular epithelial cells (HK2 with Gremlin caused an early activation of the Smad signaling pathway (Smad 2/3 phosphorylation, nuclear translocation, and Smad-dependent gene transcription. The blockade of TGF-β, by a neutralizing antibody against active TGF-β, did not modify Gremlin-induced early Smad activation. These data show that Gremlin directly, by a TGF-β independent process, activates the Smad pathway. In tubular epithelial cells long-term incubation with Gremlin increased TGF-β production and caused a sustained Smad activation and a phenotype conversion into myofibroblasts-like cells. Smad 7 overexpression, which blocks Smad 2/3 activation, diminished EMT changes observed in Gremlin-transfected tubuloepithelial cells. TGF-β neutralization also diminished Gremlin-induced EMT changes. In conclusion, we propose that Gremlin could participate in renal fibrosis by inducing EMT in tubular epithelial cells through activation of Smad pathway and induction of TGF-β.

  13. Dynamics of catalytic tubular microjet engines: dependence on geometry and chemical environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jinxing; Huang, Gaoshan; Ye, Mengmeng; Li, Menglin; Liu, Ran; Mei, Yongfeng

    2011-12-01

    Strain-engineered tubular microjet engines with various geometric dimensions hold interesting autonomous motions in an aqueous fuel solution when propelled by catalytic decomposition of hydrogen peroxide to oxygen and water. The catalytically-generated oxygen bubbles expelled from microtubular cavities propel the microjet step by step in discrete increments. We focus on the dynamics of our tubular microjets in one step and build up a body deformation model to elucidate the interaction between tubular microjets and the bubbles they produce. The average microjet velocity is calculated analytically based on our model and the obtained results demonstrate that the velocity of the microjet increases linearly with the concentration of hydrogen peroxide. The geometric dimensions of the microjet, such as length and radius, also influence its dynamic characteristics significantly. A close consistency between experimental and calculated results is achieved despite a small deviation due to the existence of an approximation in the model. The results presented in this work improve our understanding regarding catalytic motions of tubular microjets and demonstrate the controllability of the microjet which may have potential applications in drug delivery and biology.

  14. Impact-friction vibrations of tubular systems. Numerical simulation and experimental validation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jacquart, G.

    1993-05-01

    This note presents a summary on the numerical developments made to simulate impact-friction vibrations of tubular systems, detailing the algorithms used and the expression of impact and friction forces. A synthesis of the experimental results obtained on MASSIF workbench is also presented, as well as their comparison with numerical computations in order to validate the numerical approach. (author). 5 refs

  15. High-temperature, high-pressure bonding of nested tubular metallic components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quinby, T.C.

    1980-01-01

    This invention is a tool for effecting high-temperature, high compression bonding between the confronting faces of nested, tubular, metallic components. In a typical application, the tool is used to produce tubular target assemblies for irradiation in nuclear reactors or particle accelerators, the target assembly comprising a uranium foil and an aluminum-alloy substrate. The tool preferably is composed throughout of graphite. It comprises a tubular restraining member in which a mechanically expandable tubular core is mounted to form an annulus with the member. The components to be bonded are mounted in nested relation in the annulus. The expandable core is formed of individually movable, axially elongated segments whose outer faces cooperatively define a cylindrical pressing surface and whose inner faces cooperatively define two opposed, inwardly tapered, axial bores. Tapered rams extend respectively into the bores. The loaded tool is mounted in a conventional hot-press provided with evacuation means, heaters for maintaining its interior at bonding temperature, and hydraulic cylinders for maintaining a selected inwardly directed pressure on the tapered rams. With the hotpress evacuated and the loaded tool at the desired temperature, the cylinders are actuated to apply the selected pressure to the rams. The rams in turn expand the segmented core to maintain the nested components in compression against the restraining member. These conditions are maintained until the confronting faces of the nested components are joined in a continuous, uniform bond characterized by high thermal conductivity

  16. Effect of cyclosporine therapy in transplanted patients-diagnostic values of tubular markers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Todor Gruev

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available The introduction of cyclosporine A (CsA into the clinical practice has resulted in a major improvement in the short-term outcomes of solid organ transplantation and treatment of autoimune diseases. Chronic ScA nephrotoxicity has been described in kidneys of recepients of renal and other organ allografts. However, the exact mechanism underlying the development of fibrosis in chronic CsA nephrotoxicity has remained poorly understood. Evaluation with the validation data set showed that noninvasive urine protein differentiation might be a useful diagnostic strategy in nephrology. Over the past decade numerous studies in patients after transplantation have demonstrated that renal tubular cell injury after a toxic insult, results in sloughing of tubular debris and cell into the tubular lumen with eventual obstruction of tubular flow, increased intratubular pressure and backleak of glomerular filtrate out of the tubule. Urinary enzymes and low molecular proteins have been recommended as useful markers for the detection of changes in the kidney tissue in cases after renal transplantation. The aim of our study was to monitor the concentration and eventual nephrotoxic effect of Cyclosporine A using the concentration of low molecular proteins α-1-microglobulin and β−2-microglobulin, serum Cystatin C, as well as the concentration of isoform of GST-α and π.

  17. Seamless vascularized large-diameter tubular collagen scaffolds reinforced with polymer knittings for esophageal regenerative medicine

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoogenkamp, H.R.; Koens, M.J.W.; Geutjes, P.J.; Ainoedhofer, H.; Wanten, G.J.A.; Tiemessen, D.M.; Hilborn, J.; Gupta, B.; Feitz, W.F.J.; Daamen, W.F.; Saxena, A.K.; Oosterwijk, E.; Kuppevelt, T.H. van

    2014-01-01

    A clinical demand exists for alternatives to repair the esophagus in case of congenital defects, cancer, or trauma. A seamless biocompatible off-the-shelf large-diameter tubular scaffold, which is accessible for vascularization, could set the stage for regenerative medicine of the esophagus. The use

  18. Gas-permeable hydrophobic tubular membranes for ammonia recovery in bio-electrochemical systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuntke, P.; Zamora, P.; Saakes, M.; Buisman, C.J.N.; Hamelers, H.V.M.

    2016-01-01

    The application of a gas-permeable hydrophobic tubular membrane in bio-electrochemical systems enables efficient recovery of ammonia (NH3) from their cathode compartments. Due to a hydrogen evolution reaction at the cathode, no chemical addition was required to increase the pH for

  19. 78 FR 41421 - Certain Oil Country Tubular Goods From India, Korea, Philippines, Saudi Arabia, Taiwan, Thailand...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-10

    ... (Preliminary)] Certain Oil Country Tubular Goods From India, Korea, Philippines, Saudi Arabia, Taiwan, Thailand.... 1671b(a) and 1673b(a)) (the Act) to determine whether there is a reasonable indication that an industry... of an industry in the United States is materially retarded, by reason of imports from India, Korea...

  20. 78 FR 52213 - Certain Oil Country Tubular Goods From India, Korea, the Philippines, Saudi Arabia, Taiwan...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-22

    ... (Preliminary)] Certain Oil Country Tubular Goods From India, Korea, the Philippines, Saudi Arabia, Taiwan...), that there is a reasonable indication that an industry in the United States is materially injured by reason of imports from India, Korea, the Philippines, Saudi Arabia, Taiwan, Thailand, Turkey, Ukraine...

  1. A technical case report on use of tubular retractors for anterior cervical spine surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulkarni, Arvind G; Patel, Ankit; Ankith, N V

    2017-12-19

    The authors put-forth this technical report to establish the feasibility of performing an anterior cervical corpectomy and fusion (ACCF) and a two-level anterior cervical discectomy and fusion (ACDF) using a minimally invasive approach with tubular retractors. First case: cervical spondylotic myelopathy secondary to a large postero-inferiorly migrated disc treated with corpectomy and reconstruction with a mesh cage and locking plate. Second case: cervical disc herniation with radiculopathy treated with a two-level ACDF. Both cases were operated with minimally invasive approach with tubular retractor using a single incision. Technical aspects and clinical outcomes have been reported. No intra or post-operative complications were encountered. Intra-operative blood loss was negligible. The patients had a cosmetic scar on healing. Standard procedure of placement of tubular retractors is sufficient for adequate surgical exposure with minimal invasiveness. Minimally invasive approach to anterior cervical spine with tubular retractors is feasible. This is the first report on use of minimally invasive approach for ACCF and two-level ACDF.

  2. The choice between cooled tubular reactor models: analysis of the hot spot

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Westerink, E.J.; Koster, N.; Westerterp, K.R.

    1990-01-01

    The applicability of the one-dimensional pseudo-homogeneous model of the cooled tubular reactor is studied. Using the two-dimensional model as the more accurate one we compared both models by studying the influence of the design and operating variables on the conditions in the hot spot of the

  3. An all-glass solid sampling device for open tubular columns in gas chromatography

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cox, T.P.H.; vd Berg, P.M.J.

    1972-01-01

    An all-glass system for direct sample-introduction of high-boiling compounds onto open tubular columns is described. The standard deviation for quantitative measurements is less than 2.7%. The loss in resolving power of capillary columns, due to this injection system is negligible. The system is

  4. Early segmental changes in ischemic acute tubular necrosis of the rat kidney

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Faarup, Poul; Nørgaard, Tove; Hegedüs, Viktor

    2004-01-01

    The background and mechanisms of ischemic acute tubular necrosis are still essentially unclarified. Therefore a quantitative morphological technique was applied for evaluation of the early structural changes in different fractions of the proximal convoluted tubule in the rat renal cortex. In male...

  5. High-temperature, high-pressure bonding of nested tubular metallic components

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quinby, T.C.

    A tool is described for effecting high-temperature, high-compression bonding between the confronting faces of nested, tubular, metallic components. In a typical application, the tool is used to produce tubular target assemblies for irradiation in nuclear reactors or particle accelerators. The target assembly comprising a uranum foil and an aluninum-alloy substrate. The tool is composed of graphite. It comprises a tubular restraining member in which a mechanically expandable tubular core is mounted to form an annulus. The components to be bonded are mounted in nested relation in the annulus. The expandable core is formed of individually movable, axially elongated segments whose outer faces cooperatively define a cylindrical pressing surface and whose inner faces cooperatively define two opposed, inwardly tapered, axial bores. Tapered rams extend into the bores. The loaded tool is mounted in a conventional hot-press provided with evacuation means, heaters for maintaining its interior at bonding temperature, and hydraulic cylinders for maintaining a selected inwardly directed pressure on the tapered rams. With the hot-press evacuated and the loaded tool at the desired temperature, the cylinders are actuated to apply the selected pressure to the rams. The rams in turn expand the segmented core to maintain the nested components in compression against the restraining member. These conditions are maintained until the confronting faces of the nested components are joined in a continuous, uniform bond characterized by high thermal conductivity.

  6. Analysis and design of a slotless tubular permanent magnet actuator for high acceleration applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meessen, K.J.; Paulides, J.J.H.; Lomonova, E.A.

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents the design of a linear actuator for high acceleration applications. In the analysis, a slotless tubular permanent magnet actuator is modeled by means of semianalytical field solutions. Several slotless topologies are modeled and compared to achieve the highest acceleration. A

  7. Whole‐exome sequencing as a diagnostic tool for distal renal tubular acidosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula Cristina Barros Pereira

    2015-11-01

    Conclusion: These results confirm the value of whole‐exome sequencing for the study of rare and complex genetic nephropathies, allowing the identification of novel and recurrent mutations. Furthermore, for the first time the application of this molecular method in renal tubular diseases has been clearly demonstrated.

  8. Effects of modifiers in packed and open-tubular supercritical fluid chromatography

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janssen, J.G.M.; Schoenmakers, P.J.; Cramers, C.A.M.G.

    1991-01-01

    The applicability of packed and open columns for supercritical fluid chromatography using pure carbon dioxide for the elution of a number of selected test components was investigated. It is showns that the number of solutes that can be eluted as symmetrical peaks is much larger in open-tubular

  9. HANPP Collection: Human Appropriation of Net Primary Productivity as a Percentage of Net Primary Productivity

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Human Appropriation of Net Primary Productivity (HANPP) as a Percentage of Net Primary Product (NPP) portion of the HANPP Collection represents a map identifying...

  10. "The Secret Garden": A Literary Journey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordan, Anne Devereaux

    1998-01-01

    Outlines the life of Frances Hodgson Burnett, author of "The Secret Garden." Argues that it not only tells an enthralling tale, but takes readers on a journey through the history of English literature. Discusses the gothic tradition and romanticism of "The Secret Garden." Lists classic elements in the book and offers five ideas…

  11. Gastric secretion elicited by conditioning in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caboclo, José Liberato Ferreira; Cury, Francico de Assis; Borin, Aldenis Albanese; Caboclo, Luís Otávio Sales Ferreira; Ribeiro, Maria Fernanda Sales Caboclo; de Freitas, Pedro José; Andersson, Sven

    2009-01-01

    To investigate whether interdigestive gastric acid secretion can be controlled by a possible memory-related cortical mechanism. To evaluate gastric secretion in rats, we used a methodology that allows gastric juice collection in rats in their habitual conditions (without any restraining) by pairing sound as the conditioning stimulus (CS) and food as the unconditioning stimulus (US). The levels of gastric acid secretion under basal conditions and under sound stimulation were recorded and the circulating gastrin levels determined. When the gastric juice was collected in the course of the conditioning procedure, the results showed that under noise stimulation a significant increase in gastric acid secretion occurred after 10 days of conditioning (p<0.01). The significance was definitively demonstrated after 13 days of conditioning (p<0.001). Basal secretions of the conditioned rats reached a significant level after 16 days of conditioning. The levels of noise-stimulated gastric acid secretion were the highest so far described in physiological experiments carried out in rats and there were no significant increases in the circulating gastrin levels. The results point to the important role played by cortical structures in the control of interdigestive gastric acid secretion in rats. If this mechanism is also present in humans, it may be involved in diseases caused by inappropriate gastric acid secretion during the interprandial periods.

  12. Secret rate - Privacy leakage in biometric systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ignatenko, T.; Willems, F.M.J.

    2009-01-01

    Ahlswede and Csiszár [1993] introduced the concept of secret sharing. In their source model two terminals observe two correlated sequences. It is the objective of the terminals to form a common secret by interchanging a public message (helper data) in such a way that the secrecy leakage is

  13. Cryptanalysis of 'less short' RSA secret exponents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verheul, E.R.; Tilborg, van H.C.A.

    1997-01-01

    In some applications of RSA, it is desirable to have a short secret exponent d. Wiener [6], describes a technique to use continued fractions (CF) in a cryptanalytic attack on an RSA cryptosystem having a ‘short’ secret exponent. Let n=p¿·¿q be the modulus of the system. In the typical case that

  14. Dig It! The Secrets of Soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    It! The Secrets of Soil Come and Explore! Discover the amazing world of soils with images and information from the Dig It! The Secrets of Soil exhibit from the Smithsonian's National Museum of Natural and new web content will be added over the coming months including a new soil blog. New Interactives

  15. Ionizing radiation in secret services' conspirative actions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vogel, H.; Lotz, P.; Vogel, B.

    2007-01-01

    Introduction: The death of Litvinenko has been reported by the media. It has raised the question whether this case had been unique. The fall of the wall has allowed a glimpse in the planning and comporting of a secret service. Material and method: Documents of the secret service of the former German democratic republic (GDR), books of defectors, and media reports about secret service actions with radiating substances have been analyzed. Results: Since decades, secret services have been using radioactive nuclides and radiation for their tasks. Several killings with radiation have been reported. A complicated logistic had been developed. Conclusion: Only singular cases of the employment of radiating substances have become known. It is probable that the majority rests unknown. Government support seems necessary in secret services' conspirative actions with radiating substance

  16. Unconventional Pathways of Secretion Contribute to Inflammation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael J. D. Daniels

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In the conventional pathway of protein secretion, leader sequence-containing proteins leave the cell following processing through the endoplasmic reticulum (ER and Golgi body. However, leaderless proteins also enter the extracellular space through mechanisms collectively known as unconventional secretion. Unconventionally secreted proteins often have vital roles in cell and organism function such as inflammation. Amongst the best-studied inflammatory unconventionally secreted proteins are interleukin (IL-1β, IL-1α, IL-33 and high-mobility group box 1 (HMGB1. In this review we discuss the current understanding of the unconventional secretion of these proteins and highlight future areas of research such as the role of nuclear localisation.

  17. Secret-key expansion from covert communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arrazola, Juan Miguel; Amiri, Ryan

    2018-02-01

    Covert communication allows the transmission of messages in such a way that it is not possible for adversaries to detect that the communication is occurring. This provides protection in situations where knowledge that two parties are talking to each other may be incriminating to them. In this work, we study how covert communication can be used for a different purpose: secret key expansion. First, we show that any message transmitted in a secure covert protocol is also secret and therefore unknown to an adversary. We then propose a covert communication protocol where the amount of key consumed in the protocol is smaller than the transmitted key, thus leading to secure secret key expansion. We derive precise conditions for secret key expansion to occur, showing that it is possible when there are sufficiently low levels of noise for a given security level. We conclude by examining how secret key expansion from covert communication can be performed in a computational security model.

  18. Current Therapies That Modify Glucagon Secretion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grøndahl, Magnus F.; Keating, Damien J.; Vilsbøll, Tina

    2017-01-01

    and provide insights into how antidiabetic drugs influence glucagon secretion as well as a perspective on the future of glucagon-targeting drugs. Recent Findings: Several older as well as recent investigations have evaluated the effect of antidiabetic agents on glucagon secretion to understand how glucagon...... may be involved in the drugs’ efficacy and safety profiles. Based on these findings, modulation of glucagon secretion seems to play a hitherto underestimated role in the efficacy and safety of several glucose-lowering drugs. Summary: Numerous drugs currently available to diabetologists are capable...... of altering glucagon secretion: metformin, sulfonylurea compounds, insulin, glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonists, dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitors, sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 inhibitors and amylin mimetics. Their diverse effects on glucagon secretion are of importance for their individual efficacy...

  19. Characterization of a secreted Chlamydia protease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shaw, A.C.; Vandahl, B.B.; Larsen, M.R.

    2002-01-01

    Chlamydiae are obligate intracellular bacteria that are important human pathogens. The Chlamydia genomes contain orthologues to secretion apparatus proteins from other intracellular bacteria, but only a few secreted proteins have been identified. Most likely, effector proteins are secreted in order...... to promote infection. Effector proteins cannot be identified by motif or similarity searches. As a new strategy for identification of secreted proteins we have compared 2D-PAGE profiles of [35S]-labelled Chlamydia proteins from whole lysates of infected cells to 2D-PAGE profiles of proteins from purified...... Chlamydia. Several secretion candidates from Chlamydia trachomatis D and Chlamydia pneumoniae were detected by this method. Two protein spots were identified among the candidates. These represent fragments of the 'chlamydial protease- or proteasome-like activity factor' (CPAF) and were clearly present in 2D...

  20. On Secret Sharing with Nonlinear Product Reconstruction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cascudo Pueyo, Ignacio; Cramer, Ronald; Mirandola, Diego

    2015-01-01

    Multiplicative linear secret sharing is a fundamental notion in the area of secure multiparty computation and, since recently, in the area of two-party cryptography as well. In a nutshell, this notion guarantees that the product of two secrets is obtained as a linear function of the vector......-necessarily-linear “product reconstruction function.” Is the resulting notion equivalent to multiplicative linear secret sharing? We show the (perhaps somewhat counterintuitive) result that this relaxed notion is strictly more general. Concretely, fix a finite field ${\\mathbb F}_q$ as the base field over which linear secret...... sharing is considered. Then we show there exists an (exotic) linear secret sharing scheme with an unbounded number of players $n$ such that it has $t$-privacy with $t = \\Omega(n)$ and such that it does admit a product reconstruction function, yet this function is necessarily nonlinear. In addition, we...