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Sample records for net transfer function

  1. Transfer function combinations

    KAUST Repository

    Zhou, Liang; Schott, Mathias; Hansen, Charles

    2012-01-01

    Direct volume rendering has been an active area of research for over two decades. Transfer function design remains a difficult task since current methods, such as traditional 1D and 2D transfer functions, are not always effective for all data sets. Various 1D or 2D transfer function spaces have been proposed to improve classification exploiting different aspects, such as using the gradient magnitude for boundary location and statistical, occlusion, or size metrics. In this paper, we present a novel transfer function method which can provide more specificity for data classification by combining different transfer function spaces. In this work, a 2D transfer function can be combined with 1D transfer functions which improve the classification. Specifically, we use the traditional 2D scalar/gradient magnitude, 2D statistical, and 2D occlusion spectrum transfer functions and combine these with occlusion and/or size-based transfer functions to provide better specificity. We demonstrate the usefulness of the new method by comparing to the following previous techniques: 2D gradient magnitude, 2D occlusion spectrum, 2D statistical transfer functions and 2D size based transfer functions. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd.

  2. Transfer function combinations

    KAUST Repository

    Zhou, Liang

    2012-10-01

    Direct volume rendering has been an active area of research for over two decades. Transfer function design remains a difficult task since current methods, such as traditional 1D and 2D transfer functions, are not always effective for all data sets. Various 1D or 2D transfer function spaces have been proposed to improve classification exploiting different aspects, such as using the gradient magnitude for boundary location and statistical, occlusion, or size metrics. In this paper, we present a novel transfer function method which can provide more specificity for data classification by combining different transfer function spaces. In this work, a 2D transfer function can be combined with 1D transfer functions which improve the classification. Specifically, we use the traditional 2D scalar/gradient magnitude, 2D statistical, and 2D occlusion spectrum transfer functions and combine these with occlusion and/or size-based transfer functions to provide better specificity. We demonstrate the usefulness of the new method by comparing to the following previous techniques: 2D gradient magnitude, 2D occlusion spectrum, 2D statistical transfer functions and 2D size based transfer functions. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd.

  3. Nonparametric Transfer Function Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jun M.; Chen, Rong; Yao, Qiwei

    2009-01-01

    In this paper a class of nonparametric transfer function models is proposed to model nonlinear relationships between ‘input’ and ‘output’ time series. The transfer function is smooth with unknown functional forms, and the noise is assumed to be a stationary autoregressive-moving average (ARMA) process. The nonparametric transfer function is estimated jointly with the ARMA parameters. By modeling the correlation in the noise, the transfer function can be estimated more efficiently. The parsimonious ARMA structure improves the estimation efficiency in finite samples. The asymptotic properties of the estimators are investigated. The finite-sample properties are illustrated through simulations and one empirical example. PMID:20628584

  4. NET: an inter-computer file transfer command

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burris, R.D.

    1978-05-01

    The NET command was defined and supported in order to facilitate file transfer between computers. Among the goals of the implementation were greatest possible ease of use, maximum power (i.e., support of a diversity of equipment and operations), and protection of the operating system

  5. Comparisons of power transfer functions and flow transfer functions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grimm, K.N.; Meneghetti, D.

    1987-01-01

    Transfer functions may be used to calculate component feedbacks or temperature increments by convolution of the transfer function with the appropriate fractional change in system-quantity. Power-change transfer functions have been reported. The corresponding flow transfer functions for this case, and comparison with the power transfer functions, are reported here. Results of feedback simulation of ramped flow transients using flow transfer functions are also described

  6. StorNet: Integrated Dynamic Storage and Network Resource Provisioning and Management for Automated Data Transfers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gu Junmin; Natarajan, Vijaya; Shoshani, Arie; Sim, Alex; Katramatos, Dimitrios; Liu Xin; Yu Dantong; Bradley, Scott; McKee, Shawn

    2011-01-01

    StorNet is a joint project of Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) and Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) to research, design, and develop an integrated end-to-end resource provisioning and management framework for high-performance data transfers. The StorNet framework leverages heterogeneous network protocols and storage types in a federated computing environment to provide the capability of predictable, efficient delivery of high-bandwidth data transfers for data intensive applications. The framework incorporates functional modules to perform such data transfers through storage and network bandwidth co-scheduling, storage and network resource provisioning, and performance monitoring, and is based on LBNL's BeStMan/SRM, BNL's TeraPaths, and ESNet's OSCARS systems.

  7. Software Design Modelling with Functional Petri Nets | Bakpo ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Software Design Modelling with Functional Petri Nets. ... of structured programs and a FPN Software prototype proposed for the conventional programming construct: if-then-else statement. ... EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT

  8. Automatic computation of transfer functions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atcitty, Stanley; Watson, Luke Dale

    2015-04-14

    Technologies pertaining to the automatic computation of transfer functions for a physical system are described herein. The physical system is one of an electrical system, a mechanical system, an electromechanical system, an electrochemical system, or an electromagnetic system. A netlist in the form of a matrix comprises data that is indicative of elements in the physical system, values for the elements in the physical system, and structure of the physical system. Transfer functions for the physical system are computed based upon the netlist.

  9. A Simple Quantum Neural Net with a Periodic Activation Function

    OpenAIRE

    Daskin, Ammar

    2018-01-01

    In this paper, we propose a simple neural net that requires only $O(nlog_2k)$ number of qubits and $O(nk)$ quantum gates: Here, $n$ is the number of input parameters, and $k$ is the number of weights applied to these parameters in the proposed neural net. We describe the network in terms of a quantum circuit, and then draw its equivalent classical neural net which involves $O(k^n)$ nodes in the hidden layer. Then, we show that the network uses a periodic activation function of cosine values o...

  10. Functional discriminant method and neuronal net

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Minh-Quan Tran.

    1993-02-01

    The ZEUS detector at the ep storage ring HERA at DESY is equipped with a 3 level trigger system. This enormous effort is necessary to fight against the high proton beamgas background that was estimated to be at the level of 100 kHz. In this thesis two methods were investigated to calculate a trigger decision from a set of various trigger parameters. The Functional Discriminant Analysis evalutes a decision parameter that is optimized by means of a linear algebra technic. A method is shown how to determine the most important trigger parameters. A 'feed forward' neuralnetwork was analyzed in order to allow none lineare cuts in the n dimensinal configuration space spanned by the trigger parameters. The error back propagation method was used to teach the neural network. It is shown that both decision methods are able to abstract the important characteristics of event samples. As soon as they are tought they will seperate events from these classes even though they were not part of the training sample. (orig.) [de

  11. From conformal Haag-Kastler nets to Wightman functions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joerss, M.

    1996-08-01

    Starting from a chiral conformal Haag-Kastler net on 2 dimensional Minkowski space we present a canonical construction that leads to a complete set of conformally covariant N-point-functions fulfilling the Wightman axioms. Our method consists of an explicit use of the representation theory of the universal covering group of SL(2,R) combined with a generalization of the conformal cluster theorem to N-point-functions. (orig.)

  12. Regularization of plurisubharmonic functions with a net of good points

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Long

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to present a new regularization technique of quasi-plurisubharmoinc functions on a compact Kaehler manifold. The idea is to regularize the function on local coordinate balls first, and then glue each piece together. Therefore, all the higher order terms in the complex Hessian of this regularization vanish at the center of each coordinate ball, and all the centers build a delta-net of the manifold eventually.

  13. Multichannel transfer function with dimensionality reduction

    KAUST Repository

    Kim, Han Suk; Schulze, Jü rgen P.; Cone, Angela C.; Sosinsky, Gina E.; Martone, Maryann E.

    2010-01-01

    . Our new method provides a framework to combine multiple approaches and pushes the boundary of gradient-based transfer functions to multiple channels, while still keeping the dimensionality of transfer functions to a manageable level, i.e., a maximum

  14. ChemNet: A Transferable and Generalizable Deep Neural Network for Small-Molecule Property Prediction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goh, Garrett B.; Siegel, Charles M.; Vishnu, Abhinav; Hodas, Nathan O.

    2017-12-08

    With access to large datasets, deep neural networks through representation learning have been able to identify patterns from raw data, achieving human-level accuracy in image and speech recognition tasks. However, in chemistry, availability of large standardized and labelled datasets is scarce, and with a multitude of chemical properties of interest, chemical data is inherently small and fragmented. In this work, we explore transfer learning techniques in conjunction with the existing Chemception CNN model, to create a transferable and generalizable deep neural network for small-molecule property prediction. Our latest model, ChemNet learns in a semi-supervised manner from inexpensive labels computed from the ChEMBL database. When fine-tuned to the Tox21, HIV and FreeSolv dataset, which are 3 separate chemical tasks that ChemNet was not originally trained on, we demonstrate that ChemNet exceeds the performance of existing Chemception models, contemporary MLP models that trains on molecular fingerprints, and it matches the performance of the ConvGraph algorithm, the current state-of-the-art. Furthermore, as ChemNet has been pre-trained on a large diverse chemical database, it can be used as a universal “plug-and-play” deep neural network, which accelerates the deployment of deep neural networks for the prediction of novel small-molecule chemical properties.

  15. Quantifying Net Synergy/Redundancy of Spontaneous Variability Regulation via Predictability and Transfer Entropy Decomposition Frameworks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porta, Alberto; Bari, Vlasta; De Maria, Beatrice; Takahashi, Anielle C M; Guzzetti, Stefano; Colombo, Riccardo; Catai, Aparecida M; Raimondi, Ferdinando; Faes, Luca

    2017-11-01

    Objective: Indexes assessing the balance between redundancy and synergy were hypothesized to be helpful in characterizing cardiovascular control from spontaneous beat-to-beat variations of heart period (HP), systolic arterial pressure (SAP), and respiration (R). Methods: Net redundancy/synergy indexes were derived according to predictability and transfer entropy decomposition strategies via a multivariate linear regression approach. Indexes were tested in two protocols inducing modifications of the cardiovascular regulation via baroreflex loading/unloading (i.e., head-down tilt at -25° and graded head-up tilt at 15°, 30°, 45°, 60°, 75°, and 90°, respectively). The net redundancy/synergy of SAP and R to HP and of HP and R to SAP were estimated over stationary sequences of 256 successive values. Results: We found that: 1) regardless of the target (i.e., HP or SAP) redundancy was prevalent over synergy and this prevalence was independent of type and magnitude of the baroreflex challenge; 2) the prevalence of redundancy disappeared when decoupling inputs from output via a surrogate approach; 3) net redundancy was under autonomic control given that it varied in proportion to the vagal withdrawal during graded head-up tilt; and 4) conclusions held regardless of the decomposition strategy. Conclusion: Net redundancy indexes can monitor changes of cardiovascular control from a perspective completely different from that provided by more traditional univariate and multivariate methods. Significance: Net redundancy measures might provide a practical tool to quantify the reservoir of effective cardiovascular regulatory mechanisms sharing causal influences over a target variable. Objective: Indexes assessing the balance between redundancy and synergy were hypothesized to be helpful in characterizing cardiovascular control from spontaneous beat-to-beat variations of heart period (HP), systolic arterial pressure (SAP), and respiration (R). Methods: Net redundancy

  16. Analysis of matters associated with the transferring of object-oriented applications to platform .Net using C# programming language

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarsimbayeva, S. M.; Kospanova, K. K.

    2015-11-01

    The article provides the discussion of matters associated with the problems of transferring of object-oriented Windows applications from C++ programming language to .Net platform using C# programming language. C++ has always been considered to be the best language for the software development, but the implicit mistakes that come along with the tool may lead to infinite memory leaks and other errors. The platform .Net and the C#, made by Microsoft, are the solutions to the issues mentioned above. The world economy and production are highly demanding applications developed by C++, but the new language with its stability and transferability to .Net will bring many advantages. An example can be presented using the applications that imitate the work of queuing systems. Authors solved the problem of transferring of an application, imitating seaport works, from C++ to the platform .Net using C# in the scope of Visual Studio.

  17. About application of the 'rough' net method for decision of the neutron transfer transient equation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seleznev, E.F.; Tarasenko, V.V.

    1995-01-01

    Method of the decision of a transient equation of the neutrons transfer is developed, which at preservation of necessary accuracy permits considerably to speed up a finding of the decision up to modeling of processes in reactor in real time. The transient equation of neutrons transfer in one-group diffusion approximation is decided by the finite-difference method. The calculating model of reactor is divided into rather large zones, where the currents on internal borders are away, and on external borders ones are a sum of currents on the borders of small-sized zones. For the decision of an equation in finite-difference kind the numerical scheme 'Time - integrate' is used, which permits to search the decision in a half-explicit kind with rather large temporary step. The decision for density of neutrons flux is determine by the SOR method. Under the conducted preliminary analysis of an algorithm efficiency it is possible to conclude, that the time of the decision on a computer can be reduced in 3 and more times, in depending on 'roughness' of a calculated net in comparison with computation on a complete net. The realized algorithm can be used as for scientific researches, and as neutron-physical block of the simulator. 6 refs., 1 fig

  18. Transfer function analysis of radiographic imaging systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Metz, C.E.; Doi, K.

    1979-01-01

    The theoretical and experimental aspects of the techniques of transfer function analysis used in radiographic imaging systems are reviewed. The mathematical principles of transfer function analysis are developed for linear, shift-invariant imaging systems, for the relation between object and image and for the image due to a sinusoidal plane wave object. The other basic mathematical principle discussed is 'Fourier analysis' and its application to an input function. Other aspects of transfer function analysis included are alternative expressions for the 'optical transfer function' of imaging systems and expressions are derived for both serial and parallel transfer image sub-systems. The applications of transfer function analysis to radiographic imaging systems are discussed in relation to the linearisation of the radiographic imaging system, the object, the geometrical unsharpness, the screen-film system unsharpness, other unsharpness effects and finally noise analysis. It is concluded that extensive theoretical, computer simulation and experimental studies have demonstrated that the techniques of transfer function analysis provide an accurate and reliable means for predicting and understanding the effects of various radiographic imaging system components in most practical diagnostic medical imaging situations. (U.K.)

  19. DISTRIBUTED RC NETWORKS WITH RATIONAL TRANSFER FUNCTIONS,

    Science.gov (United States)

    A distributed RC circuit analogous to a continuously tapped transmission line can be made to have a rational short-circuit transfer admittance and...one rational shortcircuit driving-point admittance. A subcircuit of the same structure has a rational open circuit transfer impedance and one rational ...open circuit driving-point impedance. Hence, rational transfer functions may be obtained while considering either generator impedance or load

  20. Functional check of telescoping transfer pumps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharpe, C.L.

    1994-01-01

    Activities are defined which constitute a functional check of a telescoping transfer pump (TTP). This report is written to the Procedures group of HLW and particularly applies to those TTP's which are the sole means of emergency transfer from a HLW waste tank

  1. Fault detection using parameter transfer functions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salamun, I; Mavko, B; Stritar, A [University of Ljubljana, Josef Stefan Inst., Ljubljana (Slovenia). Reactor Engineering Div.

    1997-12-31

    To reduce the number of alarms in NPP many techniques have been proposed for process monitoring and diagnosis. The object of our investigation is a dynamic process with digital signals. The general parametric model defines the transfer function form and it covers all dynamics characteristics between two monitoring parameters. To determine the proper model coefficients we are using recoursing least square methods. The transfer function coefficients define the correlation between two variables in desired time period. During process monitoring just the relation is observed because the number of coefficients and the structure is predefined with transfer function form. During plant operation the transfer functions for important parameters must be calculated and estimated. The estimated values are input parameters for an analytical algorithm. It determines which part of system causes the transient and recognizes it. The proposed methodology allows a computer to monitor the system behaviour and to find out the most probable cause for abnormal condition. (author). 3 refs, 5 figs, 2 tabs.

  2. Fault detection using parameter transfer functions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salamun, I.; Mavko, B.; Stritar, A.

    1996-01-01

    To reduce the number of alarms in NPP many techniques have been proposed for process monitoring and diagnosis. The object of our investigation is a dynamic process with digital signals. The general parametric model defines the transfer function form and it covers all dynamics characteristics between two monitoring parameters. To determine the proper model coefficients we are using recoursing least square methods. The transfer function coefficients define the correlation between two variables in desired time period. During process monitoring just the relation is observed because the number of coefficients and the structure is predefined with transfer function form. During plant operation the transfer functions for important parameters must be calculated and estimated. The estimated values are input parameters for an analytical algorithm. It determines which part of system causes the transient and recognizes it. The proposed methodology allows a computer to monitor the system behaviour and to find out the most probable cause for abnormal condition. (author). 3 refs, 5 figs, 2 tabs

  3. Transfer Function Control for Biometric Monitoring System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chmiel, Alan J. (Inventor); Humphreys, Bradley T. (Inventor); Grodinsky, Carlos M. (Inventor)

    2015-01-01

    A modular apparatus for acquiring biometric data may include circuitry operative to receive an input signal indicative of a biometric condition, the circuitry being configured to process the input signal according to a transfer function thereof and to provide a corresponding processed input signal. A controller is configured to provide at least one control signal to the circuitry to programmatically modify the transfer function of the modular system to facilitate acquisition of the biometric data.

  4. Multichannel transfer function with dimensionality reduction

    KAUST Repository

    Kim, Han Suk

    2010-01-17

    The design of transfer functions for volume rendering is a difficult task. This is particularly true for multi-channel data sets, where multiple data values exist for each voxel. In this paper, we propose a new method for transfer function design. Our new method provides a framework to combine multiple approaches and pushes the boundary of gradient-based transfer functions to multiple channels, while still keeping the dimensionality of transfer functions to a manageable level, i.e., a maximum of three dimensions, which can be displayed visually in a straightforward way. Our approach utilizes channel intensity, gradient, curvature and texture properties of each voxel. The high-dimensional data of the domain is reduced by applying recently developed nonlinear dimensionality reduction algorithms. In this paper, we used Isomap as well as a traditional algorithm, Principle Component Analysis (PCA). Our results show that these dimensionality reduction algorithms significantly improve the transfer function design process without compromising visualization accuracy. In this publication we report on the impact of the dimensionality reduction algorithms on transfer function design for confocal microscopy data.

  5. Transfer Function Identification Using Orthogonal Fourier Transform Modeling Functions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morelli, Eugene A.

    2013-01-01

    A method for transfer function identification, including both model structure determination and parameter estimation, was developed and demonstrated. The approach uses orthogonal modeling functions generated from frequency domain data obtained by Fourier transformation of time series data. The method was applied to simulation data to identify continuous-time transfer function models and unsteady aerodynamic models. Model fit error, estimated model parameters, and the associated uncertainties were used to show the effectiveness of the method for identifying accurate transfer function models from noisy data.

  6. Transferability between Hospitals of Hypercalcaemia Discriminant Functions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frølich, Anne; McNair, Peter; Nielsen, Bo Friis

    1996-01-01

    Transferability of discriminant functions is potentially useful both from an economical point of view and because, in general, medical knowledge, in this case discriminant functions, should be transferable. In the present study we have evaluated the transferability of discriminant functions......, estimated from routine laboratory analysis, age and sex in two consecutively recorded populations with hypercalcemia including 162 and 257 patients with hypercalcemia. Discriminant functions were developed for each sex to distinguish between hypercalcemia associated with malignancy and hypercalcemia...... associated with other medical diseases. The total diagnostic accuracy in Herlev was 82 and 78%, in women and men, and increased to 87 and 86% in both sexes considering cases classified with posterior probability levels of 60%. In Hvidovre the total diagnostic accuracy was 81 and 84% in women and men...

  7. Net trophic transfer efficiencies of polychlorinated biphenyl congeners to lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) from its prey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madenjian, Charles P.; David, Solomon R.; Rediske, Richard R.; O’Keefe, James P.

    2012-01-01

    Lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) were fed bloater (Coregonus hoyi) in eight laboratory tanks over a 135-d experiment. At the start of the experiment, four to nine fish in each tank were sacrificed, and the concentrations of 75 polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners within these fish were determined. Polychlorinated biphenyl congener concentrations were also determined in the 10 lake trout remaining in each of the eight tanks at the end of the experiment as well as in the bloater fed to the lake trout. Each lake trout was weighed at the start and the end of the experiment, and the amount of food eaten by the lake trout was recorded. Using these measurements, net trophic transfer efficiency (γ) from the bloater to the lake trout in each of the eight tanks was calculated for each of the 75 congeners. Results showed that γ did not vary significantly with the degree of chlorination of the PCB congeners, and γ averaged 0.66 across all congeners. However,γ did show a slight, but significant, decrease as logKOW increased from 6.0 to 8.2. Activity level of the lake trout did not have a significant effect on γ.

  8. Functional studies on the phosphatidychloride transfer protein

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brouwer, A.P.M. de

    2002-01-01

    The phosphatidylcholine transfer protein (PC-TP) has been studied for over 30 years now. Despite extensive research concerning the biochemical, biophysical and structural properties of PC-TP, the function of this protein is still elusive. We have studied in vitro the folding and the mechanism of PC

  9. Estimating Net Primary Productivity Beneath Snowpack Using Snowpack Radiative Transfer Modeling and Global Satellite Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barber, D. E.; Peterson, M. C.

    2002-05-01

    Sufficient photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) penetrates snow for plants to grow beneath snowpack during late winter or early spring in tundra ecosystems. During the spring in this ecosystem, the snowpack creates an environment with higher humidity and less variable and milder temperatures than on the snow-free land. Under these conditions, the amount of PAR available is likely to be the limiting factor for plant growth. Current methods for determining net primary productivity (NPP) of tundra ecosystems do not account for this plant growth beneath snowpack, apparently resulting in underestimating plant production there. We are currently in the process of estimating the magnitude of this early growth beneath snow for tundra ecosystems. Our method includes a radiative transfer model that simulates diffuse and direct PAR penetrating snowpack based on downwelling PAR values and snow depth data from global satellite databases. These PAR levels are convolved with plant growth for vegetation that thrives beneath snowpacks, such as lichen. We expect to present the net primary production for Cladonia species (a common Arctic lichen) that has the capability of photosynthesizing at low temperatures beneath snowpack. This method may also be used to study photosynthesis beneath snowpacks in other hardy plants. Lichens are used here as they are common in snow-covered regions, flourish under snowpack, and provide an important food source for tundra herbivores (e.g. caribou). In addition, lichens are common in arctic-alpine environments and our results can be applied to these ecosystems as well. Finally, the NPP of lichen beneath snowpack is relatively well understood compared to other plants, making it ideal vegetation for this first effort at estimating the potential importance of photosynthesis at large scales. We are examining other candidate plants for their photosynthetic potential beneath snowpack at this time; however, little research has been done on this topic. We

  10. Analysis of solar radiation transfer: A method to estimate the porosity of a plastic shading net

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdel-Ghany, A.M.; Al-Helal, I.M.

    2011-01-01

    Plastic nets with opaque threads are frequently used for shading agricultural structures under high solar radiation conditions. A parameter that is often used to define a net is the net porosity (Π). Value of Π is usually estimated by one of three methods: image processing, direct beam transmittance, or solar radiation balance (hereafter radiation balance). Image processing is a rather slow process because it requires scanning the net sample at high resolution. The direct beam transmittance and radiation balance methods greatly overestimate Π because some of the solar radiation incident on the thread surfaces is forward scattered and add a considerable amount of radiation to that transmitted from the net pores directly. In this study, the radiation balance method was modified to estimate Π precisely. The amount of solar radiation scattered forward on the thread surfaces was estimated separately. Thus, the un-scattered solar radiation transmitted from the net pores directly, which describes the net porosity, Π could be estimated. This method, in addition to the image processing and the direct beam transmittance methods were used to estimate Π for different types of nets that are commonly used for shading structures in summer. Values of Π estimated by using the proposed method were in good accordance with those measured by the image processing method at a resolution of 4800 dpi. The direct beam transmittance and the radiation balance methods resulted in overestimation errors in the values of Π. This error strongly depends on the color of the net. The estimated errors were +14% for a green net and +37% for a white net when using the radiation balance method, and were +16% and +38%, respectively, when using the direct beam transmittance method. In the image processing method, a resolution of 2400 dpi is sufficient to estimate Π precisely and the higher resolutions showed no significant effect on the value of Π.

  11. Nodewise analytical calculation of the transfer function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Makai, Mihaly

    1994-01-01

    The space dependence of neutron noise has so far been mostly investigated in homogeneous core models. Application of core diagnostic methods to locate a malfunction requires however that the transfer function be calculated for real, inhomogeneous cores. A code suitable for such purpose must be able to handle complex arithmetic and delta-function source. Further requirements are analytical dependence in one spatial variable and fast execution. The present work describes the TIDE program written to fulfil the above requirements. The core is subdivided into homogeneous, square assemblies. An analytical solution is given, which is a generalisation of the inhomogeneous response matrix method. (author)

  12. E3Net: a system for exploring E3-mediated regulatory networks of cellular functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Youngwoong; Lee, Hodong; Park, Jong C; Yi, Gwan-Su

    2012-04-01

    Ubiquitin-protein ligase (E3) is a key enzyme targeting specific substrates in diverse cellular processes for ubiquitination and degradation. The existing findings of substrate specificity of E3 are, however, scattered over a number of resources, making it difficult to study them together with an integrative view. Here we present E3Net, a web-based system that provides a comprehensive collection of available E3-substrate specificities and a systematic framework for the analysis of E3-mediated regulatory networks of diverse cellular functions. Currently, E3Net contains 2201 E3s and 4896 substrates in 427 organisms and 1671 E3-substrate specific relations between 493 E3s and 1277 substrates in 42 organisms, extracted mainly from MEDLINE abstracts and UniProt comments with an automatic text mining method and additional manual inspection and partly from high throughput experiment data and public ubiquitination databases. The significant functions and pathways of the extracted E3-specific substrate groups were identified from a functional enrichment analysis with 12 functional category resources for molecular functions, protein families, protein complexes, pathways, cellular processes, cellular localization, and diseases. E3Net includes interactive analysis and navigation tools that make it possible to build an integrative view of E3-substrate networks and their correlated functions with graphical illustrations and summarized descriptions. As a result, E3Net provides a comprehensive resource of E3s, substrates, and their functional implications summarized from the regulatory network structures of E3-specific substrate groups and their correlated functions. This resource will facilitate further in-depth investigation of ubiquitination-dependent regulatory mechanisms. E3Net is freely available online at http://pnet.kaist.ac.kr/e3net.

  13. Experimental measurement of zero power reactor transfer function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liang Shuhong

    2011-01-01

    In order to study the zero power reactor (ZPR) transfer function, the ZPR transfer function expression was deduced with the point reactor kinetics equation, which was disturbed by reactivity input response. Based on the Fourier analysis for the input of triangular wave, the relation between the transfer function and reactivity was got. Validating research experiment was made on the DF-VI fast ZPR. After the disturbed reactivity was measured, the experimental value of the transfer function was got. According to the experimental value and the calculated value, the expression of the ZPR transfer function is proved, whereas the disturbed reactivity is got from the transfer function. (authors)

  14. Quadrupole Transfer Function for Emittance Measurement

    CERN Document Server

    Cameron, Peter; Jansson, Andreas; Tan, Cheng-Yang

    2008-01-01

    Historically the use of the quadrupole moment measurement has been impeded by the requirement for large dynamic range, as well as measurement sensitivity to beam position. We investigate the use of the transfer function technique [1-3] in combination with the sensitivity and 160dB revolution line rejection of the direct diode detection analog front end [4] to open the possibility of an emittance diagnostic that may be implemented without operational complication, quasi- parasitic to the operation of existing tune measurement systems. Such a diagnostic would be particularly useful as an emittance monitor during acceleration ramp development in machines like RHIC and the LHC.

  15. Schottky Noise and Beam Transfer Functions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blaskiewicz M.; Blaskiewicz M.

    2016-12-01

    Beam transfer functions (BTF)s encapsulate the stability properties of charged particle beams. In general one excites the beam with a sinusoidal signal and measures the amplitude and phase of the beam response. Most systems are very nearly linear and one can use various Fourier techniques to reduce the number of measurements and/or simulations needed to fully characterize the response. Schottky noise is associated with the finite number of particles in the beam. This signal is always present. Since the Schottky current drives wakefields, the measured Schottky signal is influenced by parasitic impedances.

  16. Partitioning inter annual variability in net ecosystem exchange between climatic variability and functional change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hui, D.; Luo, Y.; Katul, G.

    2003-01-01

    Inter annual variability in net ecosystem exchange of carbon is investigated using a homogeneity-of-slopes model to identify the function change contributing to inter annual variability, net ecosystem carbon exchange, and night-time ecosystem respiration. Results of employing this statistical approach to a data set collected at the Duke Forest AmeriFlux site from August 1997 to December 2001 are discussed. The results demonstrate that it is feasible to partition the variation in ecosystem carbon fluxes into direct effects of seasonal and inter annual climatic variability and functional change. 51 refs., 4 tabs., 5 figs

  17. Game theoretic aspect of production process transfer functions ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Game theoretic aspect of production process transfer functions. ... On the final analysis, it was shown that relating transfer function to Bayesian games and mechanism design would lead to optimal bids, optimal ... AJOL African Journals Online.

  18. Neural-net based unstable machine identification using individual energy functions. [Transient disturbances in power systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Djukanovic, M [Institut Nikola Tesla, Belgrade (Yugoslavia); Sobajic, D J; Pao, Yohhan [Case Western Reserve Univ., Cleveland, OH (United States)

    1991-10-01

    The identification of the mode of instability plays an essential role in generating principal energy boundary hypersurfaces. We present a new method for unstable machine identification based on the use of supervised learning neural-net technology, and the adaptive pattern recognition concept. It is shown that using individual energy functions as pattern features, appropriately trained neural-nets can retrieve the reliable characterization of the transient process including critical clearing time parameter, mode of instability and energy margins. Generalization capabilities of the neural-net processing allow for these assessments to be made independently of load levels. The results obtained from computer simulations are presented using the New England power system, as an example. (author).

  19. Electricity price forecasting through transfer function models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nogales, F.J.; Conejo, A.J.

    2006-01-01

    Forecasting electricity prices in present day competitive electricity markets is a must for both producers and consumers because both need price estimates to develop their respective market bidding strategies. This paper proposes a transfer function model to predict electricity prices based on both past electricity prices and demands, and discuss the rationale to build it. The importance of electricity demand information is assessed. Appropriate metrics to appraise prediction quality are identified and used. Realistic and extensive simulations based on data from the PJM Interconnection for year 2003 are conducted. The proposed model is compared with naive and other techniques. Journal of the Operational Research Society (2006) 57, 350-356.doi:10.1057/palgrave.jors.2601995; published online 18 May 2005. (author)

  20. Functional transferred DNA within extracellular vesicles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cai, Jin; Wu, Gengze; Jose, Pedro A.; Zeng, Chunyu

    2016-01-01

    Extracellular vesicles (EVs) are small membrane vesicles including exosomes and shedding vesicles that mediated a cell-to-cell communication. EVs are released from almost all cell types under both physiological and pathological conditions and incorporate nuclear and cytoplasmic molecules for intercellular delivery. Besides protein, mRNA, and microRNA of these molecules, as recent studies show, specific DNA are prominently packaged into EVs. It appears likely that some of exosomes or shedding vesicles, bearing nuclear molecules are released upon bubble-like blebs. Specific interaction of EVs with susceptible recipients performs the uptake of EVs into the target cells, discharging their cargo including nuclear and cytoplasmic macromolecules into the cytosol. These findings expand the nucleic acid content of EVs to include increased levels of specific DNA. Thus, EVs contain a repertoire of genetic information available for horizontal gene transfer and potential use as blood biomarkers for cancer and atherosclerosis. In this review, the focus is on the characteristics, biological functions, and roles in diseases of DNA within EVs. - Highlights: • This review is focused on the DNA within EVs including its characteristics, biological functions, and roles in diseases. • It is clear that DNA within EVs might have important physiological and pathological roles in various diseases. • Knowledge in this area may provides us alternative methods for disease diagnosis or therapy in the future.

  1. Functional transferred DNA within extracellular vesicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cai, Jin [Department of Cardiology, Daping Hospital, The Third Military Medical University, Chongqing 400042 (China); Department of Neurology, Jinling Hospital, Nanjing University School of Medicine, Jiangsu Province (China); Wu, Gengze [Department of Cardiology, Daping Hospital, The Third Military Medical University, Chongqing 400042 (China); Jose, Pedro A. [Division of Nephrology, Department of Medicine and Physiology, University of Maryland, School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD 21201 (United States); Zeng, Chunyu, E-mail: Chunyuzeng01@163.com [Department of Cardiology, Daping Hospital, The Third Military Medical University, Chongqing 400042 (China)

    2016-11-15

    Extracellular vesicles (EVs) are small membrane vesicles including exosomes and shedding vesicles that mediated a cell-to-cell communication. EVs are released from almost all cell types under both physiological and pathological conditions and incorporate nuclear and cytoplasmic molecules for intercellular delivery. Besides protein, mRNA, and microRNA of these molecules, as recent studies show, specific DNA are prominently packaged into EVs. It appears likely that some of exosomes or shedding vesicles, bearing nuclear molecules are released upon bubble-like blebs. Specific interaction of EVs with susceptible recipients performs the uptake of EVs into the target cells, discharging their cargo including nuclear and cytoplasmic macromolecules into the cytosol. These findings expand the nucleic acid content of EVs to include increased levels of specific DNA. Thus, EVs contain a repertoire of genetic information available for horizontal gene transfer and potential use as blood biomarkers for cancer and atherosclerosis. In this review, the focus is on the characteristics, biological functions, and roles in diseases of DNA within EVs. - Highlights: • This review is focused on the DNA within EVs including its characteristics, biological functions, and roles in diseases. • It is clear that DNA within EVs might have important physiological and pathological roles in various diseases. • Knowledge in this area may provides us alternative methods for disease diagnosis or therapy in the future.

  2. A novel transferable individual tree crown delineation model based on Fishing Net Dragging and boundary classification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Tao; Im, Jungho; Quackenbush, Lindi J.

    2015-12-01

    This study provides a novel approach to individual tree crown delineation (ITCD) using airborne Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) data in dense natural forests using two main steps: crown boundary refinement based on a proposed Fishing Net Dragging (FiND) method, and segment merging based on boundary classification. FiND starts with approximate tree crown boundaries derived using a traditional watershed method with Gaussian filtering and refines these boundaries using an algorithm that mimics how a fisherman drags a fishing net. Random forest machine learning is then used to classify boundary segments into two classes: boundaries between trees and boundaries between branches that belong to a single tree. Three groups of LiDAR-derived features-two from the pseudo waveform generated along with crown boundaries and one from a canopy height model (CHM)-were used in the classification. The proposed ITCD approach was tested using LiDAR data collected over a mountainous region in the Adirondack Park, NY, USA. Overall accuracy of boundary classification was 82.4%. Features derived from the CHM were generally more important in the classification than the features extracted from the pseudo waveform. A comprehensive accuracy assessment scheme for ITCD was also introduced by considering both area of crown overlap and crown centroids. Accuracy assessment using this new scheme shows the proposed ITCD achieved 74% and 78% as overall accuracy, respectively, for deciduous and mixed forest.

  3. The Perspective on Data and Control Flow Analysis in Topological Functioning Models by Petri Nets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asnina Erika

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The perspective on integration of two mathematical formalisms, i.e., Colored Petri Nets (CPNs and Topological Functioning Model (TFM, is discussed in the paper. The roots of CPNs are in modeling system functionality. The TFM joins principles of system theory and algebraic topology, and formally bridges the solution domain with the problem domain. It is a base for further automated construction of software design models. The paper discusses a perspective on check of control and data flows in the TFM by CPNs formalism. The research result is definition of mappings from TFMs to CPNs.

  4. Functional network of glycan-related molecules: Glyco-Net in Glycoconjugate Data Bank

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miura Nobuaki

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Glycans are involved in a wide range of biological process, and they play an essential role in functions such as cell differentiation, cell adhesion, pathogen-host recognition, toxin-receptor interactions, signal transduction, cancer metastasis, and immune responses. Elucidating pathways related to post-translational modifications (PTMs such as glycosylation are of growing importance in post-genome science and technology. Graphical networks describing the relationships among glycan-related molecules, including genes, proteins, lipids and various biological events are considered extremely valuable and convenient tools for the systematic investigation of PTMs. However, there is no database which dynamically draws functional networks related to glycans. Description We have created a database called Glyco-Net http://www.glycoconjugate.jp/functions/, with many binary relationships among glycan-related molecules. Using search results, we can dynamically draw figures of the functional relationships among these components with nodes and arrows. A certain molecule or event corresponds to a node in the network figures, and the relationship between the molecule and the event are indicated by arrows. Since all components are treated equally, an arrow is also a node. Conclusions In this paper, we describe our new database, Glyco-Net, which is the first database to dynamically show networks of the functional profiles of glycan related molecules. The graphical networks will assist in the understanding of the role of the PTMs. In addition, since various kinds of bio-objects such as genes, proteins, and inhibitors are equally treated in Glyco-Net, we can obtain a large amount of information on the PTMs.

  5. Numerical computation of aeroacoustic transfer functions for realistic airfoils

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Santana, Leandro Dantas; Miotto, Renato Fuzaro; Wolf, William Roberto

    2017-01-01

    Based on Amiet's theory formalism, we propose a numerical framework to compute the aeroacoustic transfer function of realistic airfoil geometries. The aeroacoustic transfer function relates the amplitude and phase of an incoming periodic gust to the respective unsteady lift response permitting,

  6. Improved Wave-vessel Transfer Functions by Uncertainty Modelling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Ulrik Dam; Fønss Bach, Kasper; Iseki, Toshio

    2016-01-01

    This paper deals with uncertainty modelling of wave-vessel transfer functions used to calculate or predict wave-induced responses of a ship in a seaway. Although transfer functions, in theory, can be calculated to exactly reflect the behaviour of the ship when exposed to waves, uncertainty in inp...

  7. General post-Minkowskian expansion of time transfer functions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Teyssandier, Pierre; Poncin-Lafitte, Christophe Le

    2008-01-01

    Modeling most of the tests of general relativity requires us to know the function relating light travel time to the coordinate time of reception and to the spatial coordinates of the emitter and the receiver. We call such a function the reception time transfer function. Of course, an emission time transfer function may as well be considered. We present here a recursive procedure enabling us to expand each time transfer function into a perturbative series of ascending powers of the Newtonian gravitational constant G (general post-Minkowskian expansion). Our method is self-sufficient in the sense that neither the integration of null geodesic equations nor the determination of Synge's world function is necessary. To illustrate the method, the time transfer function of a three-parameter family of static, spherically symmetric metrics is derived within the post-linear approximation

  8. General post-Minkowskian expansion of time transfer functions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Teyssandier, Pierre; Poncin-Lafitte, Christophe Le [Departement Systemes de Reference Temps et Espace, CNRS/UMR 8630, Observatoire de Paris, 61 avenue de l' Observatoire, F-75014 Paris (France)

    2008-07-21

    Modeling most of the tests of general relativity requires us to know the function relating light travel time to the coordinate time of reception and to the spatial coordinates of the emitter and the receiver. We call such a function the reception time transfer function. Of course, an emission time transfer function may as well be considered. We present here a recursive procedure enabling us to expand each time transfer function into a perturbative series of ascending powers of the Newtonian gravitational constant G (general post-Minkowskian expansion). Our method is self-sufficient in the sense that neither the integration of null geodesic equations nor the determination of Synge's world function is necessary. To illustrate the method, the time transfer function of a three-parameter family of static, spherically symmetric metrics is derived within the post-linear approximation.

  9. Mayer Transfer Operator Approach to Selberg Zeta Function

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Momeni, Arash; Venkov, Alexei

    . In a special situation the dynamical zeta function is defined for a geodesic flow on a hyperbolic plane quotient by an arithmetic cofinite discrete group. More precisely, the flow is defined for the corresponding unit tangent bundle. It turns out that the Selberg zeta function for this group can be expressed...... in terms of a Fredholm determinant of a classical transfer operator of the flow. The transfer operator is defined in a certain space of holomorphic functions and its matrix representation in a natural basis is given in terms of the Riemann zeta function and the Euler gamma function....

  10. Linear circuit transfer functions an introduction to fast analytical techniques

    CERN Document Server

    Basso, Christophe P

    2016-01-01

    Linear Circuit Transfer Functions: An introduction to Fast Analytical Techniques teaches readers how to determine transfer functions of linear passive and active circuits by applying Fast Analytical Circuits Techniques. Building on their existing knowledge of classical loop/nodal analysis, the book improves and expands their skills to unveil transfer functions in a swift and efficient manner. Starting with simple examples, the author explains step-by-step how expressing circuits time constants in different configurations leads to writing transfer functions in a compact and insightful way. By learning how to organize numerators and denominators in the fastest possible way, readers will speed-up analysis and predict the frequency resp nse of simple to complex circuits. In some cases, they will be able to derive the final expression by inspection, without writing a line of algebra. Key features: * Emphasizes analysis through employing time constant-based methods discussed in other text books but not widely us...

  11. TRANSFER-FUNCTIONS OF A LINEARIZED MULTI-REGION REACTOR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Higgins, Thomas J.

    1963-09-15

    The development of the transfer functions for a linearized multi-region reactor is studied, and an illustration is made of application of the corresponding theory by a numerical illustrative example. (auth)

  12. Intelligent Parking Assistant - A Showcase of the MOBiNET Platform Functionalities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mikkelsen, Lars Møller; Toledo, Raphael; Agerholm, Niels

    availability, location and pricing schemes. The intelligence of the IPA system consists of automatically fetching parking lot information from the relevant service, automatically registering when the vehicle is stopped, evaluating whether the vehicle is stopped inside a payed parking lot, and automatically......The Intelligent Parking Assistant (IPA) system is developed based on work done in the Danish ITS Platform project. The IPA system includes an Android app that helps the user chose, find and pay for parkings. The app uses information about parking lots fetched from a web service, including live...... initiating the payment for the parking. The IPA app and the back end services, are published via the MOBiNET platform which is a European-wide platform supporting ITS services, and offering functionalities enabling easy migration of services. The migration is enabled by defining a common methodology...

  13. Consistent Parameter and Transfer Function Estimation using Context Free Grammars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klotz, Daniel; Herrnegger, Mathew; Schulz, Karsten

    2017-04-01

    This contribution presents a method for the inference of transfer functions for rainfall-runoff models. Here, transfer functions are defined as parametrized (functional) relationships between a set of spatial predictors (e.g. elevation, slope or soil texture) and model parameters. They are ultimately used for estimation of consistent, spatially distributed model parameters from a limited amount of lumped global parameters. Additionally, they provide a straightforward method for parameter extrapolation from one set of basins to another and can even be used to derive parameterizations for multi-scale models [see: Samaniego et al., 2010]. Yet, currently an actual knowledge of the transfer functions is often implicitly assumed. As a matter of fact, for most cases these hypothesized transfer functions can rarely be measured and often remain unknown. Therefore, this contribution presents a general method for the concurrent estimation of the structure of transfer functions and their respective (global) parameters. Note, that by consequence an estimation of the distributed parameters of the rainfall-runoff model is also undertaken. The method combines two steps to achieve this. The first generates different possible transfer functions. The second then estimates the respective global transfer function parameters. The structural estimation of the transfer functions is based on the context free grammar concept. Chomsky first introduced context free grammars in linguistics [Chomsky, 1956]. Since then, they have been widely applied in computer science. But, to the knowledge of the authors, they have so far not been used in hydrology. Therefore, the contribution gives an introduction to context free grammars and shows how they can be constructed and used for the structural inference of transfer functions. This is enabled by new methods from evolutionary computation, such as grammatical evolution [O'Neill, 2001], which make it possible to exploit the constructed grammar as a

  14. A functional and transcriptomic analysis of NET1 bioactivity in gastric cancer

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Bennett, Gayle

    2011-02-01

    Abstract Background NET1, a RhoA guanine exchange factor, is up-regulated in gastric cancer (GC) tissue and drives the invasive phenotype of this disease. In this study, we aimed to determine the role of NET1 in GC by monitoring the proliferation, motility and invasion of GC cells in which NET1 has been stably knocked down. Additionally, we aimed to determine NET1-dependent transcriptomic events that occur in GC. Methods An in vitro model of stable knockdown of NET1 was achieved in AGS human gastric adenocarcinoma cells via lentiviral mediated transduction of short-hairpin (sh) RNA targeting NET1. Knockdown was assessed using quantitative PCR. Cell proliferation was assessed using an MTS assay and cell migration was assessed using a wound healing scratch assay. Cell invasion was assessed using a transwell matrigel invasion assay. Gene expression profiles were examined using affymetrix oligonucleotide U133A expression arrays. A student\\'s t test was used to determine changes of statistical significance. Results GC cells were transduced with NET1 shRNA resulting in a 97% reduction in NET1 mRNA (p < 0.0001). NET1 knockdown significantly reduced the invasion and migration of GC cells by 94% (p < 0.05) and 24% (p < 0.001) respectively, while cell proliferation was not significantly altered following NET1 knockdown. Microarray analysis was performed on non-target and knockdown cell lines, treated with and without 10 μM lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) allowing us to identify NET1-dependent, LPA-dependent and NET1-mediated LPA-induced gene transcription. Differential gene expression was confirmed by quantitative PCR. Shortlisted NET1-dependent genes included STAT1, TSPAN1, TGFBi and CCL5 all of which were downregulatd upon NET1 downregulation. Shortlisted LPA-dependent genes included EGFR and PPARD where EGFR was upregulated and PPARD was downregulated upon LPA stimulation. Shortlisted NET1 and LPA dependent genes included IGFR1 and PIP5K3. These LPA induced genes were

  15. A functional and transcriptomic analysis of NET1 bioactivity in gastric cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bennett, Gayle; Sadlier, Denise; Doran, Peter P; MacMathuna, Padraic; Murray, David W

    2011-01-01

    NET1, a RhoA guanine exchange factor, is up-regulated in gastric cancer (GC) tissue and drives the invasive phenotype of this disease. In this study, we aimed to determine the role of NET1 in GC by monitoring the proliferation, motility and invasion of GC cells in which NET1 has been stably knocked down. Additionally, we aimed to determine NET1-dependent transcriptomic events that occur in GC. An in vitro model of stable knockdown of NET1 was achieved in AGS human gastric adenocarcinoma cells via lentiviral mediated transduction of short-hairpin (sh) RNA targeting NET1. Knockdown was assessed using quantitative PCR. Cell proliferation was assessed using an MTS assay and cell migration was assessed using a wound healing scratch assay. Cell invasion was assessed using a transwell matrigel invasion assay. Gene expression profiles were examined using affymetrix oligonucleotide U133A expression arrays. A student's t test was used to determine changes of statistical significance. GC cells were transduced with NET1 shRNA resulting in a 97% reduction in NET1 mRNA (p < 0.0001). NET1 knockdown significantly reduced the invasion and migration of GC cells by 94% (p < 0.05) and 24% (p < 0.001) respectively, while cell proliferation was not significantly altered following NET1 knockdown. Microarray analysis was performed on non-target and knockdown cell lines, treated with and without 10 μM lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) allowing us to identify NET1-dependent, LPA-dependent and NET1-mediated LPA-induced gene transcription. Differential gene expression was confirmed by quantitative PCR. Shortlisted NET1-dependent genes included STAT1, TSPAN1, TGFBi and CCL5 all of which were downregulatd upon NET1 downregulation. Shortlisted LPA-dependent genes included EGFR and PPARD where EGFR was upregulated and PPARD was downregulated upon LPA stimulation. Shortlisted NET1 and LPA dependent genes included IGFR1 and PIP5K3. These LPA induced genes were downregulated in NET1 knockdown cells

  16. Laboratory estimation of net trophic transfer efficiencies of PCB congeners to lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) from its prey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madenjian, Charles P.; Rediske, Richard R.; O'Keefe, James P.; David, Solomon R.

    2014-01-01

    A technique for laboratory estimation of net trophic transfer efficiency (γ) of polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners to piscivorous fish from their prey is described herein. During a 135-day laboratory experiment, we fed bloater (Coregonus hoyi) that had been caught in Lake Michigan to lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) kept in eight laboratory tanks. Bloater is a natural prey for lake trout. In four of the tanks, a relatively high flow rate was used to ensure relatively high activity by the lake trout, whereas a low flow rate was used in the other four tanks, allowing for low lake trout activity. On a tank-by-tank basis, the amount of food eaten by the lake trout on each day of the experiment was recorded. Each lake trout was weighed at the start and end of the experiment. Four to nine lake trout from each of the eight tanks were sacrificed at the start of the experiment, and all 10 lake trout remaining in each of the tanks were euthanized at the end of the experiment. We determined concentrations of 75 PCB congeners in the lake trout at the start of the experiment, in the lake trout at the end of the experiment, and in bloaters fed to the lake trout during the experiment. Based on these measurements, γ was calculated for each of 75 PCB congeners in each of the eight tanks. Mean γ was calculated for each of the 75 PCB congeners for both active and inactive lake trout. Because the experiment was replicated in eight tanks, the standard error about mean γ could be estimated. Results from this type of experiment are useful in risk assessment models to predict future risk to humans and wildlife eating contaminated fish under various scenarios of environmental contamination.

  17. Transfer function and near-field detection of evanescent waves

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Radko, Ylia P.; Bozhevolnyi, Sergey I.; Gregersen, Niels

    2006-01-01

    of collection and illumination modes. Making use of a collection near-field microscope with a similar fiber tip illuminated by an evanescent field, we measure the collected power as a function of the field spatial frequency in different polarization configurations. Considering a two-dimensional probe...... for the transfer function, which is derived by introducing an effective pointof (dipolelike) detection inside the probe tip. It is found to be possible to fit reasonably well both the experimental and the simulation data for evanescent field components, implying that the developed approximation of the near......-field transfer function can serve as a simple, rational, and sufficiently reliable means of fiber probe characterization....

  18. Geometric optical transfer function and tis computation method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Qi

    1992-01-01

    Geometric Optical Transfer Function formula is derived after expound some content to be easily ignored, and the computation method is given with Bessel function of order zero and numerical integration and Spline interpolation. The method is of advantage to ensure accuracy and to save calculation

  19. Robust localized-orbital transferability using the Harris functional

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hierse, W.; Stechel, E.B.

    1996-01-01

    Replacing diagonalization in a density-functional code by an order-N algorithm does not automatically produce large efficiency gains, at least for system sizes accessible to the current generation of computers. However, both efficiency and conceptual advantages do arise from the transfer of local electronic structure between locally similar, but globally different systems. Order-N methods produce potentially transferable local electronic structure. For practical applications, it is desirable that electronic structure be transferable between subsystems of similar yet somewhat different geometry. We show, in the context of molecular deformations of a simple hydrocarbon system, that this can be accomplished by combining a transfer prescription with the Harris functional. We show proof of principle and discuss the resulting efficiency gains. copyright 1996 The American Physical Society

  20. The transfer function of neuron spike.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmieri, Igor; Monteiro, Luiz H A; Miranda, Maria D

    2015-08-01

    The mathematical modeling of neuronal signals is a relevant problem in neuroscience. The complexity of the neuron behavior, however, makes this problem a particularly difficult task. Here, we propose a discrete-time linear time-invariant (LTI) model with a rational function in order to represent the neuronal spike detected by an electrode located in the surroundings of the nerve cell. The model is presented as a cascade association of two subsystems: one that generates an action potential from an input stimulus, and one that represents the medium between the cell and the electrode. The suggested approach employs system identification and signal processing concepts, and is dissociated from any considerations about the biophysical processes of the neuronal cell, providing a low-complexity alternative to model the neuronal spike. The model is validated by using in vivo experimental readings of intracellular and extracellular signals. A computational simulation of the model is presented in order to assess its proximity to the neuronal signal and to observe the variability of the estimated parameters. The implications of the results are discussed in the context of spike sorting. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Perineuronal nets play a role in regulating striatal function in the mouse.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyunchul Lee

    Full Text Available The striatum is the primary input nucleus of the basal ganglia, a collection of nuclei that play important roles in motor control and associative learning. We have previously reported that perineuronal nets (PNNs, aggregations of chondroitin-sulfate proteoglycans (CSPGs, form in the matrix compartment of the mouse striatum during the second postnatal week. This period overlaps with important developmental changes, including the attainment of an adult-like gait. Here, we investigate the identity of the cells encapsulated by PNNs, characterize their topographical distribution and determine their function by assessing the impact of enzymatic digestion of PNNs on two striatum-dependent behaviors: ambulation and goal-directed spatial learning. We show PNNs are more numerous caudally, and that a substantial fraction (41% of these structures surrounds parvalbumin positive (PV+ interneurons, while approximately 51% of PV+ cells are ensheathed by PNNs. The colocalization of these structures is greatest in dorsal, lateral and caudal regions of the striatum. Bilateral digestion of striatal PNNs led to an increase in both the width and variability of hind limb gait. Intriguingly, this also resulted in an improvement in the acquisition rate of the Morris water maze. Together, these data show that PNNs are associated with specific elements of striatal circuits and play a key role in regulating the function of this important structure in the mouse.

  2. Perineuronal nets play a role in regulating striatal function in the mouse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hyunchul; Leamey, Catherine A; Sawatari, Atomu

    2012-01-01

    The striatum is the primary input nucleus of the basal ganglia, a collection of nuclei that play important roles in motor control and associative learning. We have previously reported that perineuronal nets (PNNs), aggregations of chondroitin-sulfate proteoglycans (CSPGs), form in the matrix compartment of the mouse striatum during the second postnatal week. This period overlaps with important developmental changes, including the attainment of an adult-like gait. Here, we investigate the identity of the cells encapsulated by PNNs, characterize their topographical distribution and determine their function by assessing the impact of enzymatic digestion of PNNs on two striatum-dependent behaviors: ambulation and goal-directed spatial learning. We show PNNs are more numerous caudally, and that a substantial fraction (41%) of these structures surrounds parvalbumin positive (PV+) interneurons, while approximately 51% of PV+ cells are ensheathed by PNNs. The colocalization of these structures is greatest in dorsal, lateral and caudal regions of the striatum. Bilateral digestion of striatal PNNs led to an increase in both the width and variability of hind limb gait. Intriguingly, this also resulted in an improvement in the acquisition rate of the Morris water maze. Together, these data show that PNNs are associated with specific elements of striatal circuits and play a key role in regulating the function of this important structure in the mouse.

  3. Identification of MIMO systems with sparse transfer function coefficients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Wanzhi; Saleem, Syed Khusro; Skafidas, Efstratios

    2012-12-01

    We study the problem of estimating transfer functions of multivariable (multiple-input multiple-output--MIMO) systems with sparse coefficients. We note that subspace identification methods are powerful and convenient tools in dealing with MIMO systems since they neither require nonlinear optimization nor impose any canonical form on the systems. However, subspace-based methods are inefficient for systems with sparse transfer function coefficients since they work on state space models. We propose a two-step algorithm where the first step identifies the system order using the subspace principle in a state space format, while the second step estimates coefficients of the transfer functions via L1-norm convex optimization. The proposed algorithm retains good features of subspace methods with improved noise-robustness for sparse systems.

  4. Determination of the transfer function of a reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dencs, B.

    1976-01-01

    The theoretical and experimental methods of the determination of reactor transfer functions are reviewed. Preliminary measurements were made on the experimental and final core of the training reactor of the Budapest Technical University. The rod-drop curves, the hole effect of the reactor and the control rod worths were determined. The effect of Cd ring and Cd profile was studied, too. The neutron flux distribution in the core was determined in several geometries. The oscillatory method is treated in detail. After the zero measurements of the core the oscillatory determination of the transfer function has been made on some frequency. The simplified model of the reactor transfer function was reconstructed from the measurement data. (R.J.)

  5. Matrix Transfer Function Design for Flexible Structures: An Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brennan, T. J.; Compito, A. V.; Doran, A. L.; Gustafson, C. L.; Wong, C. L.

    1985-01-01

    The application of matrix transfer function design techniques to the problem of disturbance rejection on a flexible space structure is demonstrated. The design approach is based on parameterizing a class of stabilizing compensators for the plant and formulating the design specifications as a constrained minimization problem in terms of these parameters. The solution yields a matrix transfer function representation of the compensator. A state space realization of the compensator is constructed to investigate performance and stability on the nominal and perturbed models. The application is made to the ACOSSA (Active Control of Space Structures) optical structure.

  6. Soil transfer function obtention by Wiener's optimum filter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flores Ruiz, J.H.

    1987-01-01

    Transfer function in nuclear power plant Laguna Verde, Veracruz, using Wiener filter. This paper deal with identification of complex structural and soil-interaction systems often are modeling in nuclear industry. Nonparametric identification techniques are used to analyse the response of a class nonlinear vibrations. Efficient computational algorithms and experimental techniques based input-output system methods such as the Wiener-Kernel approach and least-square regression techniques are applied to get the transfer function in nuclear power plant Laguna Verde, Veracruz (Mexico) (Author)

  7. Building thiol and metal-thiolate functions into coordination nets: Clues from a simple molecule

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    He Jun; Yang Chen; Xu Zhengtao; Zeller, Matthias; Hunter, Allen D.; Lin Jianhua

    2009-01-01

    The simple and easy-to-prepare bifunctional molecule 2,5-dimercapto-1,4-benzenedicarboxylic acid (H 4 DMBD) interacts with the increasingly harder metal ions of Cu + , Pb 2+ and Eu 3+ to form the coordination networks of Cu 6 (DMBD) 3 (en) 4 (Hen) 6 (1), Pb 2 (DMBD)(en) 2 (2) and Eu 2 (H 2 DMBD) 3 (DEF) 4 (3), where the carboxyl and thiol groups bind with distinct preference to the hard and soft metal ions, respectively. Notably, 1 features uncoordinated carboxylate groups and Cu 3 cluster units integrated via the thiolate groups into an extended network with significant interaction between the metal centers and the organic molecules; 2 features a 2D coordination net based on the mercapto and carboxylic groups all bonded to the Pb 2+ ions; 3 features free-standing thiol groups inside the channels of a metal-carboxylate-based network. This study illustrates the rich solid state structural features and potential functions offered by the carboxyl-thiol combination. - Graphical Abstract: Molecule 2,5-dimercapto-1,4-benzenedicarboxylic acid was reacted with Cu + , Pb 2+ and Eu 3+ ions to explore solid state networks with the rich structural features arising from the carboxyl-thiol combination.

  8. Net ecosystem production in a Little Ice Age moraine: the role of plant functional traits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varolo, E.; Zanotelli, D.; Tagliavini, M.; Zerbe, S.; Montagnani, L.

    2015-07-01

    the carbon cycle. Therefore, to analyze NEE of any glacier forefield ecosystem, different functional traits of the vegetation communities must be taken into consideration. Moreover, to assess the net ecosystem carbon balance it is necessary to consider the lateral fluxes of carbon via animal consumption, winter respiration, and in a broader temporal perspective, the different stages characterizing the primary succession.

  9. Estimation of acoustic resonances for room transfer function equalization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gil-Cacho, Pepe; van Waterschoot, Toon; Moonen, Marc

    2010-01-01

    Strong acoustic resonances create long room impulse responses (RIRs) which may harm the speech transmission in an acoustic space and hence reduce speech intelligibility. Equalization is performed by cancelling the main acoustic resonances common to multiple room transfer functions (RTFs), i...

  10. Analysis of the transfer function for layered piezoelectric ultrasonic sensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Gutiérrrez-Reyes

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available We model theoretically the voltage response to an acoustic pulse of a multilayer system forming a low noise capacitive sensor including a Polyvinylidene Fluoride piezoelectric film. First we model a generic piezoelectric detector consisting of a piezoelectric film between two metallic electrodes that are the responsible to convert the acoustic signal into a voltage signal. Then we calculate the pressure-to-voltage transfer function for a N-layer piezo-electric capacitor detector, allowing to study the effects of the electrode and protective layers thickness in typical layered piezoelectric sensors. The derived transfer function, when multiplied by the Fourier transform of the incident acoustic pulse, gives the voltage electric response in the frequency domain. An important concern regarding the transfer function is that it may have zeros at specific frequencies, and thus inverting the voltage Fourier transform of the pulse to recover the pressure signal in the time domain is not always, in principle, possible. Our formulas can be used to predict the existence and locations of such zeroes. We illustrate the use of the transfer function by predicting the electric signal generated at a multilayer piezoelectric sensor to an ultrasonic pulse generated photoacoustically by a laser pulse at a three media system with impedance mismatch. This theoretical calculations are compared with our own experimental measurements.

  11. Determination of acoustical transfer functions using an impulse method

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacPherson, J.

    1985-02-01

    The Transfer Function of a system may be defined as the relationship of the output response to the input of a system. Whilst recent advances in digital processing systems have enabled Impulse Transfer Functions to be determined by computation of the Fast Fourier Transform, there has been little work done in applying these techniques to room acoustics. Acoustical Transfer Functions have been determined for auditoria, using an impulse method. The technique is based on the computation of the Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) of a non-ideal impulsive source, both at the source and at the receiver point. The Impulse Transfer Function (ITF) is obtained by dividing the FFT at the receiver position by the FFT of the source. This quantity is presented both as linear frequency scale plots and also as synthesized one-third octave band data. The technique enables a considerable quantity of data to be obtained from a small number of impulsive signals recorded in the field, thereby minimizing the time and effort required on site. As the characteristics of the source are taken into account in the calculation, the choice of impulsive source is non-critical. The digital analysis equipment required for the analysis is readily available commercially.

  12. NetGen: a novel network-based probabilistic generative model for gene set functional enrichment analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Duanchen; Liu, Yinliang; Zhang, Xiang-Sun; Wu, Ling-Yun

    2017-09-21

    High-throughput experimental techniques have been dramatically improved and widely applied in the past decades. However, biological interpretation of the high-throughput experimental results, such as differential expression gene sets derived from microarray or RNA-seq experiments, is still a challenging task. Gene Ontology (GO) is commonly used in the functional enrichment studies. The GO terms identified via current functional enrichment analysis tools often contain direct parent or descendant terms in the GO hierarchical structure. Highly redundant terms make users difficult to analyze the underlying biological processes. In this paper, a novel network-based probabilistic generative model, NetGen, was proposed to perform the functional enrichment analysis. An additional protein-protein interaction (PPI) network was explicitly used to assist the identification of significantly enriched GO terms. NetGen achieved a superior performance than the existing methods in the simulation studies. The effectiveness of NetGen was explored further on four real datasets. Notably, several GO terms which were not directly linked with the active gene list for each disease were identified. These terms were closely related to the corresponding diseases when accessed to the curated literatures. NetGen has been implemented in the R package CopTea publicly available at GitHub ( http://github.com/wulingyun/CopTea/ ). Our procedure leads to a more reasonable and interpretable result of the functional enrichment analysis. As a novel term combination-based functional enrichment analysis method, NetGen is complementary to current individual term-based methods, and can help to explore the underlying pathogenesis of complex diseases.

  13. IntNetLncSim: an integrative network analysis method to infer human lncRNA functional similarity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Liang; Shi, Hongbo; Wang, Zhenzhen; Hu, Yang; Yang, Haixiu; Zhou, Chen; Sun, Jie; Zhou, Meng

    2016-07-26

    Increasing evidence indicated that long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) were involved in various biological processes and complex diseases by communicating with mRNAs/miRNAs each other. Exploiting interactions between lncRNAs and mRNA/miRNAs to lncRNA functional similarity (LFS) is an effective method to explore function of lncRNAs and predict novel lncRNA-disease associations. In this article, we proposed an integrative framework, IntNetLncSim, to infer LFS by modeling the information flow in an integrated network that comprises both lncRNA-related transcriptional and post-transcriptional information. The performance of IntNetLncSim was evaluated by investigating the relationship of LFS with the similarity of lncRNA-related mRNA sets (LmRSets) and miRNA sets (LmiRSets). As a result, LFS by IntNetLncSim was significant positively correlated with the LmRSet (Pearson correlation γ2=0.8424) and LmiRSet (Pearson correlation γ2=0.2601). Particularly, the performance of IntNetLncSim is superior to several previous methods. In the case of applying the LFS to identify novel lncRNA-disease relationships, we achieved an area under the ROC curve (0.7300) in experimentally verified lncRNA-disease associations based on leave-one-out cross-validation. Furthermore, highly-ranked lncRNA-disease associations confirmed by literature mining demonstrated the excellent performance of IntNetLncSim. Finally, a web-accessible system was provided for querying LFS and potential lncRNA-disease relationships: http://www.bio-bigdata.com/IntNetLncSim.

  14. Preliminary modulation transfer function study on amorphous silicon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khairul Anuar Mohd Salleh; Ab Razak Hamzah; Mohd Ashhar Khalid

    2006-01-01

    Modulation Transfer Function, (MTF) is the scientific means of evaluating the fundamental spatial resolution performance of an imaging system. In the study, the modulation transfer function of an amorphous silicon (aSi) sensor array is measured by using Edge Spread Function (ESF) Technique which is extracting a profile from the linearised image of the sharp edge. The Platinum foil is used to determine the ESF. The detector under study was a 2,304 (h) x 3,200 (v) total pixel matrix, 127 μm2 pixel pitch, 57% fill factor and using Gd2O2S:Tb Kodak Lanex Regular as the conversion screen. The ESF measurement is done by using 75 - 100 kV range of x-ray with constant mA. (Author)

  15. Nuclear response functions at large energy and momentum transfer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bertozzi, W.; Moniz, E.J.; Lourie, R.W.

    1991-01-01

    Quasifree nucleon processes are expected to dominate the nuclear electromagnetic response function for large energy and momentum transfers, i.e., for energy transfers large compared with nuclear single particle energies and momentum transfers large compared with typical nuclear momenta. Despite the evident success of the quasifree picture in providing the basic frame work for discussing and understanding the large energy, large momentum nuclear response, the limits of this picture have also become quite clear. In this article a selected set of inclusive and coincidence data are presented in order to define the limits of the quasifree picture more quantitatively. Specific dynamical mechanisms thought to be important in going beyond the quasifree picture are discussed as well. 75 refs, 37 figs

  16. A simulator for high-level Petri nets: An ePNK application

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kindler, Ekkart; Laganeckas, Mindaugas

    2013-01-01

    The ePNK is a platform for Petri net tools based on the PNML transfer format. One of its important features is its extensibility, which allows developers to plug in new Petri net types and new functions and applications for different kinds of Petri nets. The basic version of the ePNK provides...

  17. Heat Transfer Performance of Functionalized Graphene Nanoplatelet Aqueous Nanofluids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Agromayor

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The low thermal conductivity of fluids used in many industrial applications is one of the primary limitations in the development of more efficient heat transfer systems. A promising solution to this problem is the suspension of nanoparticles with high thermal conductivities in a base fluid. These suspensions, known as nanofluids, have great potential for enhancing heat transfer. The heat transfer enhancement of sulfonic acid-functionalized graphene nanoplatelet water-based nanofluids is addressed in this work. A new experimental setup was designed for this purpose. Convection coefficients, pressure drops, and thermophysical properties of various nanofluids at different concentrations were measured for several operational conditions and the results are compared with those of pure water. Enhancements in thermal conductivity and in convection heat transfer coefficient reach 12% (1 wt % and 32% (0.5 wt %, respectively. New correlations capable of predicting the Nusselt number and the friction factor of this kind of nanofluid as a function of other dimensionless quantities are developed. In addition, thermal performance factors are obtained from the experimental convection coefficient and pressure drop data in order to assess the convenience of replacing the base fluid with designed nanofluids.

  18. Description and evaluation of a net energy intake model as a function of dietary chewing index

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Laura Mie; Markussen, Bo; Nielsen, N. I.

    2016-01-01

    Previously, a linear relationship has been found between net energy intake (NEI) and dietary chewing index (CI) of the diet for different types of cattle. Therefore, we propose to generalize and calibrate this relationship into a new model for direct prediction of NEI by dairy cows from CI values...... a value of 2, implying a constant maximum daily chewing time. The intercept NEI0 in the regression of NEI on CINE may be interpreted as metabolic net energy intake capacity of the cows fed without physical constraints on intake. Based on experimental data, the maximum chewing time was estimated as 1...

  19. Filtering Non-Linear Transfer Functions on Surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heitz, Eric; Nowrouzezahrai, Derek; Poulin, Pierre; Neyret, Fabrice

    2014-07-01

    Applying non-linear transfer functions and look-up tables to procedural functions (such as noise), surface attributes, or even surface geometry are common strategies used to enhance visual detail. Their simplicity and ability to mimic a wide range of realistic appearances have led to their adoption in many rendering problems. As with any textured or geometric detail, proper filtering is needed to reduce aliasing when viewed across a range of distances, but accurate and efficient transfer function filtering remains an open problem for several reasons: transfer functions are complex and non-linear, especially when mapped through procedural noise and/or geometry-dependent functions, and the effects of perspective and masking further complicate the filtering over a pixel's footprint. We accurately solve this problem by computing and sampling from specialized filtering distributions on the fly, yielding very fast performance. We investigate the case where the transfer function to filter is a color map applied to (macroscale) surface textures (like noise), as well as color maps applied according to (microscale) geometric details. We introduce a novel representation of a (potentially modulated) color map's distribution over pixel footprints using Gaussian statistics and, in the more complex case of high-resolution color mapped microsurface details, our filtering is view- and light-dependent, and capable of correctly handling masking and occlusion effects. Our approach can be generalized to filter other physical-based rendering quantities. We propose an application to shading with irradiance environment maps over large terrains. Our framework is also compatible with the case of transfer functions used to warp surface geometry, as long as the transformations can be represented with Gaussian statistics, leading to proper view- and light-dependent filtering results. Our results match ground truth and our solution is well suited to real-time applications, requires only a few

  20. Properties of Zero-Free Transfer Function Matrices

    Science.gov (United States)

    D. O. Anderson, Brian; Deistler, Manfred

    Transfer functions of linear, time-invariant finite-dimensional systems with more outputs than inputs, as arise in factor analysis (for example in econometrics), have, for state-variable descriptions with generic entries in the relevant matrices, no finite zeros. This paper gives a number of characterizations of such systems (and indeed square discrete-time systems with no zeros), using state-variable, impulse response, and matrix-fraction descriptions. Key properties include the ability to recover the input values at any time from a bounded interval of output values, without any knowledge of an initial state, and an ability to verify the no-zero property in terms of a property of the impulse response coefficient matrices. Results are particularized to cases where the transfer function matrix in question may or may not have a zero at infinity or a zero at zero.

  1. MLP based LOGSIG transfer function for solar generation monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashim, Fakroul Ridzuan; Din, Muhammad Faiz Md; Ahmad, Shahril; Arif, Farah Khairunnisa; Rizman, Zairi Ismael

    2018-02-01

    Solar panel is one of the renewable energy that can reduce the environmental pollution and have a wide potential of application. The exact solar prediction model will give a big impact on the management of solar power plants and the design of solar energy systems. This paper attempts to use Multilayer Perceptron (MLP) neural network based transfer function. The MLP network can be used to calculate the temperature module (TM) in Malaysia. This can be done by simulating the collected data of four weather variables which are the ambient temperature (TA), local wind speed (VW), solar radiation flux (GT) and the relative humidity (RH) as the input into the neural network. The transfer function will be applied to the 14 types of training. Finally, an equation from the best training algorithm will be deduced to calculate the temperature module based on the input of weather variables in Malaysia.

  2. Oversampling ad converters with improved signal transfer functions

    CERN Document Server

    Pandita, Bupesh

    2011-01-01

    This book describes techniques for designing complex, discrete-time I""IGBP ADCs with signal-transfer functions that significantly filter interfering signals. The book provides an understanding of theory, issues, and implementation of discrete complex I""IGBP ADCs. The concepts developed in each chapter are further explained by applying them to a target application of I""IGBP ADCs in DTV receivers.

  3. Measurement of the transfer function of the main SPS Quadrupoles

    CERN Document Server

    Dinius, A; Semanaz, P; CERN. Geneva. SPS and LEP Division

    1998-01-01

    During two short MD's we have measured the transfer function (amplitude and phase) of the main quadrupole string QD. By the word string we mean the global effect of power supplies, magnets and the eddy current effects of the vacuum chamber. This paper presents the measurement procedure and the results, which are needed for the design of a real-time feedback system for the betatron tunes ( Qloop).

  4. The partial coherence modulation transfer function in testing lithography lens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jiun-Woei

    2018-03-01

    Due to the lithography demanding high performance in projection of semiconductor mask to wafer, the lens has to be almost free in spherical and coma aberration, thus, in situ optical testing for diagnosis of lens performance has to be established to verify the performance and to provide the suggesting for further improvement of the lens, before the lens has been build and integrated with light source. The measurement of modulation transfer function of critical dimension (CD) is main performance parameter to evaluate the line width of semiconductor platform fabricating ability for the smallest line width of producing tiny integrated circuits. Although the modulation transfer function (MTF) has been popularly used to evaluation the optical system, but in lithography, the contrast of each line-pair is in one dimension or two dimensions, analytically, while the lens stand along in the test bench integrated with the light source coherent or near coherent for the small dimension near the optical diffraction limit, the MTF is not only contributed by the lens, also by illumination of platform. In the study, the partial coherence modulation transfer function (PCMTF) for testing a lithography lens is suggested by measuring MTF in the high spatial frequency of in situ lithography lens, blended with the illumination of partial and in coherent light source. PCMTF can be one of measurement to evaluate the imperfect lens of lithography lens for further improvement in lens performance.

  5. BrainNetVis: analysis and visualization of brain functional networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsiaras, Vassilis; Andreou, Dimitris; Tollis, Ioannis G

    2009-01-01

    BrainNetVis is an application, written in Java, that displays and analyzes synchronization networks from brain signals. The program implements a number of network indices and visualization techniques. We demonstrate its use through a case study of left hand and foot motor imagery. The data sets were provided by the Berlin BCI group. Using this program we managed to find differences between the average left hand and foot synchronization networks by comparing them with the average idle state synchronization network.

  6. Assessing and exploiting the profit function by modeling the net impact of targeted marketing

    OpenAIRE

    W. BUCKINX; D. VAN DEN POEL

    2005-01-01

    The success of a direct marketing campaign is driven by the ability of companies to estimate customers’ future contribution to their profitability. Especially when considering that in retailing companies are wasting resources when targeting customers who will make purchases even in case they would not receive a mailing. We present an advanced profit evaluation, which rates customers for the net impact of a campaign on their buying behavior. Moreover, in contrast to current practices and theor...

  7. Plasticity of osmoregulatory function in the killifish intestine: drinking rates, salt and water transport, and gene expression after freshwater transfer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Graham R; Schulte, Patricia M; Wood, Chris M

    2006-10-01

    We have explored intestinal function in the euryhaline killifish Fundulus heteroclitus after transfer from brackish water (10% seawater) to fresh water. Plasma Na+ and Cl- concentrations fell at 12 h post-transfer, but recovered by 7 days. Drinking rate decreased substantially at 12 h (32% of control value) and remained suppressed after 3 and 7 days in fresh water (34 and 43%). By contrast, there was a transient increase in the capacity for water absorption measured across isolated intestines in vitro (3.3- and 2.6-fold at 12 h and 3 days), which returned to baseline after 7 days. These changes in water absorption could be entirely accounted for by changes in net ion flux: there was an extremely strong correlation (R2=0.960) between water absorption and the sum of net Na+ and net Cl- fluxes (3.42+/-0.10 microl water micromol(-1) ion). However, enhanced ion transport across the intestine in fresh water would probably not increase water uptake in vivo, because the drinking rate was far less than the capacity for water absorption across the intestine. The increased intestinal ion absorption after freshwater transfer may instead serve to facilitate ion absorption from food when it is present in the gut. Modulation of net ion flux occurred without changes in mRNA levels of many ion transporters (Na+/K+-ATPase alpha(1a), carbonic anhydrase 2, CFTR Cl- channel, Na+/K+/2Cl- cotransporter 2, and the signalling protein 14-3-3a), and before a measured increase in Na+/K+-ATPase activity at 3 days, suggesting that there is some other mechanism responsible for increasing ion transport. Interestingly, net Cl- flux always exceeded net Na+ flux, possibly to help maintain Cl- balance and/or facilitate bicarbonate excretion. Our results suggest that intestinal NaCl absorption from food is important during the period of greatest ionic disturbance after transfer to fresh water, and provide further insight into the mechanisms of euryhalinity in killifish.

  8. Evaluation of Geometrical Modulation Transfer Function in Optical Lens System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheng-Mu Tsai

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents ray tracing algorithms to evaluate the geometrical modulation transfer function (GMTF of optical lens system. There are two kinds of ray tracings methods that can be applied to help simulate the point spread function (PSF in the image plane, for example, paraxial optics and real ray tracings. The paraxial optics ray tracing is used to calculate the first-order properties such as the effective focal length (EFL and the entrance pupil position through less cost of computation. However, the PSF could have a large tolerance by only using paraxial optics ray tracing for simulation. Some formulas for real ray tracing are applied in the sagittal and tangential line spread function (LSF. The algorithms are developed to demonstrate the simulation of LSF. Finally, the GMTF is evaluated after the fast Fourier transform (FFT of the LSF.

  9. Effect of a dual-task net-step exercise on cognitive and gait function in older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitazawa, Kazutoshi; Showa, Satoko; Hiraoka, Akira; Fushiki, Yasuhiro; Sakauchi, Humio; Mori, Mitsuru

    2015-01-01

    Participation in generally recommended aerobics or strength exercises may be challenging for older adults. Therefore, it is necessary to consider the types and levels of physical activities suited for them to improve their cognitive and gait function and adherence to exercise programs. This has prompted efforts to identify exercises that require less physical strength and frequency of performance, while still offering cognitive and health benefits. Here, we aimed to assess the effect of a novel dual-task net-step exercise (NSE) performed once a week for 8 consecutive weeks on improvements in cognitive performance and gait function in an older population. In this pretest/posttest experimental case control study, 60 healthy older adults (mean age 76.4 years) were recruited from community-dwelling people and separated randomly into 2 groups: a dual-task NSE group and a control group. The NSE group was asked to walk across a net without stepping on the ropes or being caught in the net. Two computer panel-type cognitive functional assessments, the Touch-M and Touch Panel-Type Dementia Assessment Scale, were administered at baseline and after 8 weeks of intervention to determine the effects of NSE. Improvements in gait function were also evaluated using Timed Up and Go test scores. Mixed-effect models with repeated measures (group × time) (analysis of variance, F test) were used to test the effects of NSE. Adjustments were made for covariates including age and sex (analysis of covariance). The NSE group showed significant improvement in cognitive performance (6.8% change; total Touch-M score 5.4 points; P = .04) and gait performance (11.5% change; Timed Up and Go time -0.98 second; P cognitive and gait performance in healthy older adults. Our results indicate that NSE offers an option for a large segment of the older population who need an easier way to maintain their cognitive health and gait function.

  10. A real-time transfer function analyser program for PFR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McWilliam, D.

    1980-03-01

    A transfer function analyser software package has been produced which is believed to constitute a significant advance over others reported in the literature. The main advantages of the system are its operating speed, especially at low frequencies, which is due to its use of part-cycle integration and its high degree of interactive operator control. The driving sine wave, the return signals and the computed vector diagrams are displayed on TV type visual display units. Data output is by means of an incremental graph plotter or an IBM typewriter. (author)

  11. Analyzing availability using transfer function models and cross spectral analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singpurwalla, N.D.

    1980-01-01

    The paper shows how the methods of multivariate time series analysis can be used in a novel way to investigate the interrelationships between a series of operating (running) times and a series of maintenance (down) times of a complex system. Specifically, the techniques of cross spectral analysis are used to help obtain a Box-Jenkins type transfer function model for the running times and the down times of a nuclear reactor. A knowledge of the interrelationships between the running times and the down times is useful for an evaluation of maintenance policies, for replacement policy decisions, and for evaluating the availability and the readiness of complex systems

  12. Analysis of diagnostic calorimeter data by the transfer function technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Delogu, R. S., E-mail: rita.delogu@igi.cnr.it; Pimazzoni, A.; Serianni, G. [Consorzio RFX, Corso Stati Uniti, 35127 Padova (Italy); Poggi, C.; Rossi, G. [Università degli Studi di Padova, Via 8 Febbraio 1848, 35122 Padova (Italy)

    2016-02-15

    This paper describes the analysis procedure applied to the thermal measurements on the rear side of a carbon fibre composite calorimeter with the purpose of reconstructing the energy flux due to an ion beam colliding on the front side. The method is based on the transfer function technique and allows a fast analysis by means of the fast Fourier transform algorithm. Its efficacy has been tested both on simulated and measured temperature profiles: in all cases, the energy flux features are well reproduced and beamlets are well resolved. Limits and restrictions of the method are also discussed, providing strategies to handle issues related to signal noise and digital processing.

  13. Audibility of spectral differences in head-related transfer functions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoffmann, Pablo F.F.; Møller, Henrik

    2006-01-01

    The spatial resolution at which head-related transfer functions (HRTFs) are available is an important aspect in the implementation of three-dimensional sound. Specifically, synthesis of moving sound requires that HRTFs are sufficiently close so the simulated sound is perceived as moving smoothly....... How close they must be, depends directly on how much the characteristics of neighboring HRTFs differ, and, most important, when these differences become audible. Differences between HRTFs exist in the interaural delay (ITD) and in the spectral characteristics, i.e. the magnitude spectrum of the HRTFs...

  14. Monaural and binaural subjective modulation transfer functions in simple reverberation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thompson, Eric Robert; Dau, Torsten

    2008-01-01

    conditions, with single reflections at different arrival times in the two ears and with a simulated room impulse response. The monaural data describe a subjective MTF, which is similar to the physical MTF. An interaural modulation phase difference can create an interaural intensity fluctuation, which can......, M.R. (1981) Modulation transfer-functions: Definition and measurement, Acustica, 49, 179-182]. The envelope of a speech signal is critical for intelligibility, and the speech transmission index (STI) predicts the intelligibility of speech through a given transmission channel based on its MTF...

  15. Statistical identification of the confidence limits of open loop transfer functions obtained by MAR analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Antonopoulos-Domis, M.; Mourtzanos, K.

    1996-01-01

    Estimators of the confidence limits of open loop transfer functions via Multivariate Auto-Regressive (MAR) modelling are not available in the literature. The statistics of open loop transfer functions obtained by MAR modelling are investigated via numerical experiments. A system of known open loop transfer functions is simulated digitally and excited by random number series. The digital signals of the simulated system are then MAR modelled and the open loop transfer functions are estimated. Performing a large number of realizations, mean values and variances of the open loop transfer functions are estimated. It is found that if the record length N of each realization is long enough then the estimates of open loop transfer functions follow normal distribution. The variance of the open loop transfer functions is proportional to 1/N. For MAR processes the asymptotic covariance matrix of the estimate of open loop transfer functions was found in agreement with theoretical prediction. (author)

  16. Band extension in digital methods of transfer function determination – signal conditioners asymmetry error corrections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zbigniew Staroszczyk

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available [b]Abstract[/b]. In the paper, the calibrating method for error correction in transfer function determination with the use of DSP has been proposed. The correction limits/eliminates influence of transfer function input/output signal conditioners on the estimated transfer functions in the investigated object. The method exploits frequency domain conditioning paths descriptor found during training observation made on the known reference object.[b]Keywords[/b]: transfer function, band extension, error correction, phase errors

  17. Annotating Coloured Petri Nets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindstrøm, Bo; Wells, Lisa Marie

    2002-01-01

    Coloured Petri nets (CP-nets) can be used for several fundamentally different purposes like functional analysis, performance analysis, and visualisation. To be able to use the corresponding tool extensions and libraries it is sometimes necessary to include extra auxiliary information in the CP......-net. An example of such auxiliary information is a counter which is associated with a token to be able to do performance analysis. Modifying colour sets and arc inscriptions in a CP-net to support a specific use may lead to creation of several slightly different CP-nets – only to support the different uses...... of the same basic CP-net. One solution to this problem is that the auxiliary information is not integrated into colour sets and arc inscriptions of a CP-net, but is kept separately. This makes it easy to disable this auxiliary information if a CP-net is to be used for another purpose. This paper proposes...

  18. Functional brain activation associated with working memory training and transfer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Cameron M; Lawlor-Savage, Linette; Goghari, Vina M

    2017-09-15

    While behavioural trials of working memory (WM) training have received much attention in recent years, a lesser explored parallel approach is functional neuroimaging. A small literature has suggested a complex time course for functional activation pattern changes following WM training (i.e. not simply increasing or decreasing due to training); however, no study to date has examined such neuroplastic effects in both the training task (dual n-back) and the fluid intelligence transfer task to which the training is purported to transfer (Raven's Matrices). This study investigated neural correlates of WM training in healthy young adults randomized to six weeks of WM training, or an active control condition (processing speed training) with a pre- and post-training fMRI design. Results indicated significant reductions in activation for the WM trained group in key WM-task related areas for trained WM tasks after training compared to the processing speed active control group. The same pattern of training related decreases in activation for the WM trained group was not observed for the transfer task, which is consistent with null results for all cognitive outcomes of the present trial. The observed pattern of results suggests that repetitive practice with a complex task does indeed lead to neuroplastic processes that very likely represent the reduced demand for attentional control while sub-components of the task become more routinized with practice. We suggest that future research investigate neural correlates of WM training in populations for which WM itself is impaired and/or behavioural trials of WM training have returned more promising results. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. [Development and technological transfer of functional pastas extended with legumes].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granito, Marisela; Ascanio, Vanesa

    2009-03-01

    Development and technological transfer of functional pastas extended with legumes. Semolina pasta is a highly consumed foodstuff, the biological value of which is low because its protein is deficient in lysine. However, if the semolina is extended with legumes rich in this essential aminoacid, not only and aminoacid supplementation is produced, but also the dietary fibre and minerals are increased. In this work, pastas extended in 10% with a white variety of Phaseolus vulgaris and with Cajanus cajan were produced on a pilot plant scale, and this technology was transferred to a cooperative producing artisanal pastas. The cooking qualities and the physical, chemical, and nutritional characteristics of the pastas were evaluated, as well as the sensorial acceptability in institutionalized elderly people. The extension of the pastas with legume flours increased the optimum cooking time (15 to 20%), the weight (20% and 25%), and the loss of solids by cooking. Similarly, the functional value of the pastas increased by increasing the contents of minerals and dietary fibre. The protein content, as well as the protein digestibility in vitro also increased; however, the parameters of colour L, a and b, and the total starch content of the pastas decreased. At consumer level, the pastas extended with legumes had a good acceptability, for what it was concluded that the extension of the semolina with legume flours in the manufacture of pastas is technologically feasible.

  20. Multidimensional Wave Field Signal Theory: Transfer Function Relationships

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalie Baddour

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The transmission of information by propagating or diffusive waves is common to many fields of engineering and physics. Such physical phenomena are governed by a Helmholtz (real wavenumber or pseudo-Helmholtz (complex wavenumber equation. Since these equations are linear, it would be useful to be able to use tools from signal theory in solving related problems. The aim of this paper is to derive multidimensional input/output transfer function relationships in the spatial domain for these equations in order to permit such a signal theoretic approach to problem solving. This paper presents such transfer function relationships for the spatial (not Fourier domain within appropriate coordinate systems. It is shown that the relationships assume particularly simple and computationally useful forms once the appropriate curvilinear version of a multidimensional spatial Fourier transform is used. These results are shown for both real and complex wavenumbers. Fourier inversion of these formulas would have applications for tomographic problems in various modalities. In the case of real wavenumbers, these inversion formulas are presented in closed form, whereby an input can be calculated from a given or measured wavefield.

  1. Free cholesterol is a potent regulator of lipid transfer protein function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morton, R.E.

    1988-01-01

    This study investigates the effect of altered lipoprotein free cholesterol (FC) content on the transfer of cholesteryl ester (CE) and triglyceride (TG) from very low- (VLDL), low- (LDL), and high-(HDL) density lipoproteins by the plasma-derived lipid transfer protein (LTP). The FC content of VLDL and HDL was selectively altered by incubating these lipoproteins with FC/phospholipid dispersions of varying composition. FC-modified lipoproteins were then equilibrated with [3H] TG, [14C]CE-labeled lipoproteins of another class to facilitate the subsequent modification of the radiolabeled donor lipoproteins. LTP was added and the extent of radiolabeled TG and CE transfer determined after 1 h. With either LDL or VLDL as lipid donor, an increase in the FC content of these lipoproteins caused a concentration-dependent inhibition (up to 50%) of CE transfer from these particles, without any significant effect on TG transfer. In contrast, with HDL as donor, increasing the HDL FC content had little effect on CE transfer from HDL, but markedly stimulated (up to 2.5-fold) the transfer of TG. This differential effect of FC on the unidirectional transfer of radiolabeled lipids from VLDL and HDL led to marked effects on LTP-facilitated net mass transfer of lipids. During long-term incubation of a constant amount of LTP with FC-modified VLDL and HDL, the extent of net mass transfer was linearly related to lipoprotein FC content; a 4-fold increase in FC content resulted in a 3-fold stimulation of the CE mass transferred to VLDL, which was coupled to an equimolar, reciprocal transfer of TG mass to HDL. Since lipid transfer between lipoproteins is integral to the process of reverse cholesterol transport, we conclude that lipoprotein FC levels are a potent, positive regulator of the pathways involved in sterol clearance. FC may modulate lipid transfer by altering the availability of CE and TG to LTP at the lipoprotein surface

  2. FunGeneNet: a web tool to estimate enrichment of functional interactions in experimental gene sets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiys, Evgeny S; Ivanisenko, Timofey V; Demenkov, Pavel S; Ivanisenko, Vladimir A

    2018-02-09

    Estimation of functional connectivity in gene sets derived from genome-wide or other biological experiments is one of the essential tasks of bioinformatics. A promising approach for solving this problem is to compare gene networks built using experimental gene sets with random networks. One of the resources that make such an analysis possible is CrossTalkZ, which uses the FunCoup database. However, existing methods, including CrossTalkZ, do not take into account individual types of interactions, such as protein/protein interactions, expression regulation, transport regulation, catalytic reactions, etc., but rather work with generalized types characterizing the existence of any connection between network members. We developed the online tool FunGeneNet, which utilizes the ANDSystem and STRING to reconstruct gene networks using experimental gene sets and to estimate their difference from random networks. To compare the reconstructed networks with random ones, the node permutation algorithm implemented in CrossTalkZ was taken as a basis. To study the FunGeneNet applicability, the functional connectivity analysis of networks constructed for gene sets involved in the Gene Ontology biological processes was conducted. We showed that the method sensitivity exceeds 0.8 at a specificity of 0.95. We found that the significance level of the difference between gene networks of biological processes and random networks is determined by the type of connections considered between objects. At the same time, the highest reliability is achieved for the generalized form of connections that takes into account all the individual types of connections. By taking examples of the thyroid cancer networks and the apoptosis network, it is demonstrated that key participants in these processes are involved in the interactions of those types by which these networks differ from random ones. FunGeneNet is a web tool aimed at proving the functionality of networks in a wide range of sizes of

  3. Description and evaluation of a net energy intake model as a function of dietary chewing index

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, L.M.; Markussen, B.; Nielsen, N.I.

    2016-01-01

    Previously, a linear relationship has been found between net energy intake (NEI) and dietary chewing index (CI) of the diet for different types of cattle. Therefore, we propose to generalize and calibrate this relationship into a new model for direct prediction of NEI by dairy cows from CI values...... (CINE; min/MJ of NE). Furthermore, we studied the forage-to-concentrate substitution rate in this new NEI model. To calibrate the model on a diverse set of situations, we built a database of mean intake from 14 production experiments with a total of 986 primi- and multiparous lactating dairy cows......, and disturbance, across and within experiments on independent data from 19 experiments including 812 primi- and multiparous lactating dairy cows of different breeds fed 80 different diets ad libitum. The NEI model predicted NEI with an MSPE of 8% of observed, and across the 19 experiments the error central...

  4. Transfer function between EEG and BOLD signals of epileptic activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco eLeite

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Simultaneous EEG-fMRI recordings have seen growing application in the evaluation of epilepsy, namely in the characterization of brain networks related to epileptic activity. In EEG-correlated fMRI studies, epileptic events are usually described as boxcar signals based on the timing information retrieved from the EEG, and subsequently convolved with a heamodynamic response function to model the associated BOLD changes. Although more flexible approaches may allow a higher degree of complexity for the haemodynamics, the issue of how to model these dynamics based on the EEG remains an open question. In this work, a new methodology for the integration of simultaneous EEG-fMRI data in epilepsy is proposed, which incorporates a transfer function from the EEG to the BOLD signal. Independent component analysis (ICA of the EEG is performed, and a number of metrics expressing different models of the EEG-BOLD transfer function are extracted from the resulting time courses. These metrics are then used to predict the fMRI data and to identify brain areas associated with the EEG epileptic activity. The methodology was tested on both ictal and interictal EEG-fMRI recordings from one patient with a hypothalamic hamartoma. When compared to the conventional analysis approach, plausible, consistent and more significant activations were obtained. Importantly, frequency-weighted EEG metrics yielded superior results than those weighted solely on the EEG power, which comes in agreement with previous literature. Reproducibility, specificity and sensitivity should be addressed in an extended group of patients in order to further validate the proposed methodology and generalize the presented proof of concept.

  5. Optimal transfer, ordering and payment policies for joint supplier-buyer inventory model with price-sensitive trapezoidal demand and net credit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Nita H.; Shah, Digeshkumar B.; Patel, Dushyantkumar G.

    2015-07-01

    This study aims at formulating an integrated supplier-buyer inventory model when market demand is variable price-sensitive trapezoidal and the supplier offers a choice between discount in unit price and permissible delay period for settling the accounts due against the purchases made. This type of trade credit is termed as 'net credit'. In this policy, if the buyer pays within offered time M1, then the buyer is entitled for a cash discount; otherwise the full account must be settled by the time M2; where M2 > M1 ⩾ 0. The goal is to determine the optimal selling price, procurement quantity, number of transfers from the supplier to the buyer and payment time to maximise the joint profit per unit time. An algorithm is worked out to obtain the optimal solution. A numerical example is given to validate the proposed model. The managerial insights based on sensitivity analysis are deduced.

  6. Modulation Transfer Function of Infrared Focal Plane Arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunapala, S. D.; Rafol, S. B.; Ting, D. Z.; Soibel, A.; Hill, C. J.; Khoshakhlagh, A.; Liu, J. K.; Mumolo, J. M.; Hoglund, L.; Luong, E. M.

    2015-01-01

    Modulation transfer function (MTF) is the ability of an imaging system to faithfully image a given object. The MTF of an imaging system quantifies the ability of the system to resolve or transfer spatial frequencies. In this presentation we will discuss the detail MTF measurements of 1024x1024 pixels mid -wavelength and long- wavelength quantum well infrared photodetector, and 320x256 pixels long- wavelength InAs/GaSb superlattice infrared focal plane arrays (FPAs). Long wavelength Complementary Barrier Infrared Detector (CBIRD) based on InAs/GaSb superlattice material is hybridized to recently designed and fabricated 320x256 pixel format ROIC. The n-type CBIRD was characterized in terms of performance and thermal stability. The experimentally measured NE delta T of the 8.8 micron cutoff n-CBIRD FPA was 18.6 mK with 300 K background and f/2 cold stop at 78K FPA operating temperature. The horizontal and vertical MTFs of this pixel fully delineated CBIRD FPA at Nyquist frequency are 49% and 52%, respectively.

  7. Spatial distribution measured by the modulation transfer function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rossi, P.; Brice, D.K.; Doyle, B.L.

    2003-01-01

    Spatial distributions in ion micro-beam and IBA experimental practice are regularly characterized through the parameters of FWHM and tail area percentage (TF, tail fraction). Linear and stationary transducer theory allows these distributions to be described in the Fourier-dual frequency space, and provides an indirect method to evaluate them through measurement of the modulation transfer function (MTF). We suggest direct measurement of MTF by employing bar pattern grids, similar to those used for calibration of radiological equipment. Assuming spatial distributions of the form exp(-(|αx|) η ), we are able to relate the MTF measurements to the more popular FWHM and TF. This new approach to determine spatial resolution can become a standard for use by the micro-beam community

  8. Functionalization of lanthanum hydroxide nanowires by atom transfer radical polymerization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou Mi; Yuan Jinying; Yuan Weizhong; Yin Yingwu; Hong Xiaoyin

    2007-01-01

    Atom transfer radical polymerization (ATRP) has been used to prepare a core-shell hybrid nanostructure successfully: a hard core of single-crystalline lanthanum hydroxide nanowires and a soft shell of polystyrene (PS) brushes. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) images indicated that the resulting products presented special structures and different thicknesses of polymer layers. The chemical components and grafted PS quantities of the samples were measured by Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). The polymers showed narrow polydispersity, which proved that the lanthanum hydroxide nanowires initiated the 'living'/controlled polymerization of styrene. With the modifiability of lanthanum hydroxide nanowires, the solubility increased, which affords a new way to functionalize nanowires

  9. A delivery transfer function (DTF) analysis for helical tomotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kissick, Michael W; Mackie, Thomas Rockwell; Jeraj, Robert

    2007-01-01

    The previous theoretical work of a delivery transfer function (DTF) in radiotherapy is expanded to include the unique intensity modulation method of helical tomotherapy. In addition to the collimation of each beamlet, and the Gaussian scatter convolution spreading of the dose that other radiotherapy units have, helical tomotherapy uses 51 small arcs of varying lengths to adjust the intensity. The blurring from these arcs is not taken into account during treatment planning. A theoretical DTF is constructed, and a calculation is performed which includes this unique source motion in relation to the other DTF components. Various typical delivery parameters are used to generate resolution maps for a constant intensity projection. Near the isocenter, the transverse (to a given beam direction) blurring is small but at larger radii (>6 cm), the source blurring dominates over leaf size. For most clinical situations, this inherent source motion blurring is expected to be negligible

  10. Experimental research of limits for thermal modulation transfer function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomić Ljubiša D.

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presented testing of surface defects by pulse video thermography techniques. Such techniques rely on transient infrared radiation from the sample heated by the short duration flux initiated by flesh. Experimental measurements are realized by infrared sensor (FLIR camera. Testing results are considered for the samples with controlled designed defects beyond observed surfaces. The effects of response through the transparent wall are measured as infrared visible radiance. Researches with controlled samples are performed to verify visibility threshold of defect dimensions and forms, for possible use as modulation transfer function of defects hidden beyond the surfaces of thin metal walls. Dimensionless coefficients are derived for method estimations as the results from experimental research.

  11. Analysis of room transfer function and reverberant signal statistics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Georganti, Eleftheria; Mourjopoulos, John; Jacobsen, Finn

    2008-01-01

    For some time now, statistical analysis has been a valuable tool in analyzing room transfer functions (RTFs). This work examines existing statistical time-frequency models and techniques for RTF analysis (e.g., Schroeder's stochastic model and the standard deviation over frequency bands for the RTF...... magnitude and phase). RTF fractional octave smoothing, as with 1-slash 3 octave analysis, may lead to RTF simplifications that can be useful for several audio applications, like room compensation, room modeling, auralisation purposes. The aim of this work is to identify the relationship of optimal response...... and the corresponding ratio of the direct and reverberant signal. In addition, this work examines the statistical quantities for speech and audio signals prior to their reproduction within rooms and when recorded in rooms. Histograms and other statistical distributions are used to compare RTF minima of typical...

  12. Evolution of the transfer function characterization of surface scatter phenomena

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harvey, James E.; Pfisterer, Richard N.

    2016-09-01

    Based upon the empirical observation that BRDF measurements of smooth optical surfaces exhibited shift-invariant behavior when plotted versus    o , the original Harvey-Shack (OHS) surface scatter theory was developed as a scalar linear systems formulation in which scattered light behavior was characterized by a surface transfer function (STF) reminiscent of the optical transfer function (OTF) of modern image formation theory (1976). This shift-invariant behavior combined with the inverse power law behavior when plotting log BRDF versus log   o was quickly incorporated into several optical analysis software packages. Although there was no explicit smooth-surface approximation in the OHS theory, there was a limitation on both the incident and scattering angles. In 1988 the modified Harvey-Shack (MHS) theory removed the limitation on the angle of incidence; however, a moderate-angle scattering limitation remained. Clearly for large incident angles the BRDF was no longer shift-invariant as a different STF was now required for each incident angle. In 2011 the generalized Harvey-Shack (GHS) surface scatter theory, characterized by a two-parameter family of STFs, evolved into a practical modeling tool to calculate BRDFs from optical surface metrology data for situations that violate the smooth surface approximation inherent in the Rayleigh-Rice theory and/or the moderate-angle limitation of the Beckmann-Kirchhoff theory. And finally, the STF can be multiplied by the classical OTF to provide a complete linear systems formulation of image quality as degraded by diffraction, geometrical aberrations and surface scatter effects from residual optical fabrication errors.

  13. TESTING SOME PEDO-TRANSFER FUNCTIONS (PTFS IN APULIA REGION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Floriano Buccigrossi

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available The knowledge of soil water retention vs. soil water matric potential is used to study irrigation and drainage schedules, soil water storage capacity (plant available water, solute movement, plant growth and water stress. The hydraulic soil properties measuring is expensive, laborious and takes too long time, so, frequently, matemathic models, called pedo-transfer functions (PTFs are utilized to estimate hydraulic soil properties through soil chimical and phisical characteristics. Six pedo-transfer functions have been evaluated (Gupta & Larson, 1979; Rawls et al., 1982; De Jong et al., 1983; Rawls & Brakensiek, 1985; Saxton et al., 1986; Vereecken et al., 1989 by comparing estimated with measured soil moisture values at soil water matric potential of –33 and –1500 kPa of 361 soil samples collected from 185 pedons of Apulia Region (South Italy, having various combinations of particle-size distribution, soil organic matter content and bulk density. Accuracy of the soil moisture predictions have been evaluated by statistic indexes such as Weighted stantard error (WSEE, Mean Deviation (MD, Root Mean Squared Deviation (RMSD and the determination coefficient (R2 between estimated and measured water retention values. The Rawls PTF model demostrated to have the lowest values of WSEE, MD and RMSD indexes (0.044, -0.007 and 0.059 m3 H2O m-3 soil, respectively at –33 Kpa soil water matric potential (Field Capacity, while for estimating soil moisture at the Wilting Point (-1500 kPa Rawls & Brakensiek model is adequate (WSEE, MD and RMSD of 0.034, -0.016 and 0.046 m3 H2O m-3 soil. De Jong, Saxton and Rawls & Brakensiek models, at –33 kPa soil water matric potential and Gupta & Larson and De Jong models at –1500 kPa soil water matric potential, showed the highest statistic errors.

  14. Estimation of Net Radiation in Three Different Plant Functional Types in Korea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kwon, H.J.

    2009-01-01

    Net Radiation (R N ) is the major driving force for biophysical and biogeochemical processes in the terrestrial ecosystems, which is one of the most critical variables in both measurement and modeling. Despite its importance, there are only 10 weather stations conducting R N measurements among the 544 stations operated by Korea Meteorological Administration (KMA; KMA, 2008). The measurement of incoming shortwave radiation (R S ↓) is, however, conducted at 22 stations while that of sunshine duration is conducted at all the manned stations. In this context, the recent research for estimating R N using R S ↓ in Korean peninsula by Kwon (2009) is of great worth. The author used a linear regression and the radiation balance methods. We generally agree with the author that, in terms of simplicity and practicality, both methods show reliable applicability for estimating R N . We noted, however, that the author’s experimental method and analysis need some clarification and improvement, that are addressed in the following perspectives: (1) the use of daily integrated data for regression, (2) the use of measured albedo, (3) the use of linear coefficients for whole year data, (4) methodological improvement, (5) the use of sunshine duration, and (6) the error assessment. (author)

  15. Net sea–air CO2 flux uncertainties in the Bay of Biscay based on the choice of wind speed products and gas transfer parameterizations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Otero

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The estimation of sea–air CO2 fluxes is largely dependent on wind speed through the gas transfer velocity parameterization. In this paper, we quantify uncertainties in the estimation of the CO2 uptake in the Bay of Biscay resulting from the use of different sources of wind speed such as three different global reanalysis meteorological models (NCEP/NCAR 1, NCEP/DOE 2 and ERA-Interim, one high-resolution regional forecast model (HIRLAM-AEMet, winds derived under the Cross-Calibrated Multi-Platform (CCMP project, and QuikSCAT winds in combination with some of the most widely used gas transfer velocity parameterizations. Results show that net CO2 flux estimations during an entire seasonal cycle (September 2002–September 2003 may vary by a factor of ~ 3 depending on the selected wind speed product and the gas exchange parameterization, with the highest impact due to the last one. The comparison of satellite- and model-derived winds with observations at buoys advises against the systematic overestimation of NCEP-2 and the underestimation of NCEP-1. In the coastal region, the presence of land and the time resolution are the main constraints of QuikSCAT, which turns CCMP and ERA-Interim in the preferred options.

  16. Delayed responses of an Arctic ecosystem to an extremely dry summer: impacts on net ecosystem exchange and vegetation functioning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zona, D.; Lipson, D. A.; Richards, J. H.; Phoenix, G. K.; Liljedahl, A. K.; Ueyama, M.; Sturtevant, C. S.; Oechel, W. C.

    2013-12-01

    The importance and mode of action of extreme events on the global carbon budget are inadequately understood. This includes the differential impact of extreme events on various ecosystem components, lag effects, recovery times, and compensatory processes. Summer 2007 in Barrow, Arctic Alaska, experienced unusually high air temperatures (fifth warmest over a 65 yr period) and record low precipitation (lowest over a 65 yr period). These abnormal conditions resulted in strongly reduced net Sphagnum CO2 uptake, but no effect neither on vascular plant development nor on net ecosystem exchange (NEE) from this arctic tundra ecosystem. Gross primary production (GPP) and ecosystem respiration (Reco) were both generally greater during most of this extreme summer. Cumulative ecosystem C uptake in 2007 was similar to the previous summers, showing the capacity of the ecosystem to compensate in its net ecosystem exchange (NEE) despite the impact on other functions and structure such as substantial necrosis of the Sphagnum layer. Surprisingly, the lowest ecosystem C uptake (2005-2009) was observed during the 2008 summer, i.e the year directly following the extremely summer. In 2008, cumulative C uptake was ∼70% lower than prior years. This reduction cannot solely be attributed to mosses, which typically contribute with ∼40% - of the entire ecosystem C uptake. The minimum summer cumulative C uptake in 2008 suggests that the entire ecosystem experienced difficulty readjusting to more typical weather after experiencing exceptionally warm and dry conditions. Importantly, the return to a substantial cumulative C uptake occurred two summers after the extreme event, which suggest a high resilience of this tundra ecosystem. Overall, these results show a highly complex response of the C uptake and its sub-components to atypically dry conditions. The impact of multiple extreme events still awaits further investigation.

  17. Method for estimating modulation transfer function from sample images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saiga, Rino; Takeuchi, Akihisa; Uesugi, Kentaro; Terada, Yasuko; Suzuki, Yoshio; Mizutani, Ryuta

    2018-02-01

    The modulation transfer function (MTF) represents the frequency domain response of imaging modalities. Here, we report a method for estimating the MTF from sample images. Test images were generated from a number of images, including those taken with an electron microscope and with an observation satellite. These original images were convolved with point spread functions (PSFs) including those of circular apertures. The resultant test images were subjected to a Fourier transformation. The logarithm of the squared norm of the Fourier transform was plotted against the squared distance from the origin. Linear correlations were observed in the logarithmic plots, indicating that the PSF of the test images can be approximated with a Gaussian. The MTF was then calculated from the Gaussian-approximated PSF. The obtained MTF closely coincided with the MTF predicted from the original PSF. The MTF of an x-ray microtomographic section of a fly brain was also estimated with this method. The obtained MTF showed good agreement with the MTF determined from an edge profile of an aluminum test object. We suggest that this approach is an alternative way of estimating the MTF, independently of the image type. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Petri Nets

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    In a computer system, for example, typical discrete events ... This project brought out a series of influential reports on Petri net theory in the mid and late ... Technology became a leading centre for Petri net research and from then on, Petri nets ...

  19. Quantum net dynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Finkelstein, D.

    1989-01-01

    The quantum net unifies the basic principles of quantum theory and relativity in a quantum spacetime having no ultraviolet infinities, supporting the Dirac equation, and having the usual vacuum as a quantum condensation. A correspondence principle connects nets to Schwinger sources and further unifies the vertical structure of the theory, so that the functions of the many hierarchic levels of quantum field theory (predicate algebra, set theory, topology,hor-ellipsis, quantum dynamics) are served by one in quantum net dynamics

  20. The Effect of a Short-term Glucose Deprivation on Neuron Net Functioning of Hippocampus Primary Culture on a Multi-electrode Matrix

    OpenAIRE

    Vedunova M.V.; Korotchenko S.A.; Balashova A.N.; Isakova A.O.; Khaspekov L.G.; Kazantsev V.B.; Mukhina I.V.

    2011-01-01

    There has been studied the effect of a short-term glucose deprivation on neuron net functioning of hippocampus primary culture developing within 32 days on a multi-electrode matrix MED64 (Alpha MED Sciences Company, Japan) in an early and remote periods after deprivation. A short-term glucose deprivation (20 min) has been shown to result in the increase of electrobiological activity of neuron net of hippocampus primary culture, with the cascade of metabolic reactions being activated leading t...

  1. Receiver function images of the central Chugoku region in the Japanese islands using Hi-net data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramesh, D. S.; Wakatsu, H. K.; Watada, S.; Yuan, X.

    2005-04-01

    Crustal configuration of the central Chugoku region with disposition of the Philippine Sea Plate (PHS) in this area are investigated through the receiver function approach using short-period Hi-net data. Images of the upper mantle discontinuities are also obtained. Restituted short-period receiver functions bring out discernible variations in average composition of the crust and its thickness in the study region. The Vp/ Vs values in the study area are generally high, reaching values in excess of 1.85 at a few places. The central part of the study region showing the highest Vp/ Vs values is coincidentally a subregion of least seismicity, possibly bestowed with special subsurface structure. Migrated receiver function images, both Ps and Pps images, unambiguously trace the NW subducting PHS taking a steeper plunge in the northwest part of the Chugoku region reaching depths of 70 km from its low dip disposition in the southeast. An excellent correlation of the subducting PHS with the hypocenters is also seen. We demonstrate that short-period data after restitution and application of appropriate low pass filters can indeed detect presence of the global 410-km and 660-km discontinuities and map their disposition reasonably well. Our migrated receiver functions image the deflections in the 410-km and 660-km discontinuities in an anti-correlated fashion on expected lines of Clapeyron slope predictions induced by subduction of the Pacific plate (PAC) beneath Japanese islands, though PAC itself is feebly traced but shows good correlation with slab seismicity.

  2. MD 1407 - Landau Damping: Beam Transfer Functions and diffusion mechanisms

    CERN Document Server

    Tambasco, Claudia; Boccardi, Andrea; Buffat, Xavier; Gasior, Marek; Lefevre, Thibaut; Levens, Tom; Pojer, Mirko; Salvachua Ferrando, Belen Maria; Solfaroli Camillocci, Matteo; Pieloni, Tatiana; Crouch, Matthew Paul; CERN. Geneva. ATS Department

    2017-01-01

    In the 2012, 2015 and 2016 run several instabilities were developing at flat-top, during and at the end of the betatron squeeze where beam-beam interactions are present. The tune spread in the beams is therefore modified by the beam-beam long-range interactions and by other sources of spread. Studies of the stability area computed by evaluating the dispersion integral for different tune spreads couldn’t explain the observed instabilities during the squeeze and stable beams. The size of the stability area given by the computed dispersion integral depends on the transverse tune spread but its shape is defined by the particle distribution in the beams. Therefore any change of the particle distribution can lead to a deterioration of the Landau stability area. The Beam Transfer Functions (BTF) are direct measurements of the Stability Diagrams (SD). They are sensitive to particle distributions and contain information about the transverse tune spread in the beams. In this note are summarized the results of the BTF...

  3. Line-scanning tomographic optical microscope with isotropic transfer function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gajdátsy, Gábor; Dudás, László; Erdélyi, Miklós; Szabó, Gábor

    2010-01-01

    An imaging method and optical system, referred to as a line-scanning tomographic optical microscope (LSTOM) using a combination of line-scanning technique and CT reconstruction principle, is proposed and studied theoretically and experimentally. In our implementation a narrow focus line is scanned over the sample and the reflected light is measured in a confocal arrangement. One such scan is equivalent to a transverse projection in tomography. Repeating the scanning procedure in several directions, a number of transverse projections are recorded from which the image can be obtained using conventional CT reconstruction algorithms. The resolution of the image is independent of the spatial dimensions and structure of the applied detector; furthermore, the transfer function of the system is isotropic. The imaging performance of the implemented confocal LSTOM was compared with a point-scanning confocal microscope, based on recorded images. These images demonstrate that the resolution of the confocal LSTOM exceeds (by 15%) the resolution limit of a point-scanning confocal microscope

  4. Home closure as a weapon in the Dutch war on drugs: Does judicial review function as a safety net?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruijn, L Michelle; Vols, Michel; Brouwer, Jan G

    2018-01-01

    A widespread sense of a failing criminal justice system and increased feelings of insecurity changed the response to crime into a culture of control, which is characterized by policies that punish and exclude. In the Netherlands, these influences can be witnessed in the war on drugs where local authorities use their administrative power to close homes involved in drug-related crime. Citizens can invoke judicial review over these administrative interferences by claiming that such closure results in an unfair balance between purposes, means and consequences. This paper assesses whether judicial review functions as a safety net against losing one's home due to drug-related crime. We used doctrinal legal research methods to examine the "law in the books" and empirical legal research methods to analyse the "law in action". We used a survey to investigate how often the drug-related closure power was used in 2015, and we statistically analysed all published case law of Dutch lower courts between 2007 and 2016. The scope of the closure power broadened over the years and our data show that local authorities fiercely make use of this instrument. In 41.4% of the cases, citizens are successful in fighting the closure. While scholarly literature indicates that judicial courts function as safeguards by questioning the proportionality of administrative action, raising a proportionality defence does not necessarily result in a more favourable outcome for citizens. In fact, raising a proportionality defence makes it more likely to result in dismissal of the appeal. The stretched scope of the drug-related closure power together with the relatively low success rate of citizens who fight the loss of their home and a seemingly meaningless proportionality check show no sign of a safety net against the loss of one's home at the suit of a local authority. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. A transfer function model of the BEPO reactor for control studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cummins, J D [Dynamics Group, Control and Instrumentation Division, Atomic Energy Establishment, Winfrith, Dorchester, Dorset (United Kingdom)

    1962-09-15

    A spatially independent (one point) transfer function model of the BEPO reactor is presented. Perturbations in control rod reactivity and coolant flow are considered and transfer functions deduced for variations about four steady states namely zero power, one sixth full power and one sixth full flow, one sixth full power and full flow and also full power and full flow. The transfer functions are presented in pole-zero form. The use of the transfer functions in verifying experimental frequency responses, in automatic control studies and in multi-variable non-interacting control design are briefly considered. (author)

  6. Sexual function in adults with anorectal malformation: psychosocial adaptation. German Network for Congenital Uro-REctal Malformations (CURE-Net).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Dominik; Winter, Sibylle; Jenetzky, Ekkehart; Zwink, Nadine; Schmiedeke, Eberhard; Maerzheuser, Stefanie

    2012-08-01

    The aim of the German Network for Congenital Uro-REctal Malformations (CURE-Net) is to collect data of affected patients with anorectal malformation (ARM) to investigate molecular causes, clinical implications and psychosocial outcome. The current issue was to examine sexual function and to explore psychosocial adaptation in adults with ARM. This qualitative study using narrative inquiry is part of a larger multi-center study of clinical queries and quality of life in patients with ARM. The guided interview focused on analysis of sexual function. 55 adult patients with ARM (23 females, 32 males, median age 23 years, range from 18 to 56 years) were investigated via standardized case-report forms comprising interview, analysis of medical data and personal questionnaires. In the female patients, 8 (35 %) of them lived alone and 15 (65 %) had sexual intercourse. In the male patients, the majority of 20 (69 %) patients lived alone and 13 (45 %) had sexual intercourse. 6 of the females got pregnant, 5 got 2 or more children. 3 of the men induced 2 or more pregnancies and fathered children. Besides reconstructing the ARM, another main goal is the preservation of sexual function. According to our data, there seems to be a close relationship between psychosocial development and sexual activity.

  7. Numerical analysis of different neural transfer functions used for best approximation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gougam, L.A.; Chikhi, A.; Biskri, S.; Chafa, F.

    2006-01-01

    It is widely recognised that the choice of transfer functions in neural networks is of en importance to their performance. In this paper, different neural transfer functions usec approximation are discussed. We begin with sigmoi'dal functions used most often by diffi authors . At a second step, we use Gaussian functions as previously suggested in refere Finally, we deal with a specified wavelet family. A comparison between the three cases < above is made exhibiting therefore the advantages of each transfer function. The approa< function improves as the dimension N of the elementary task basis increases

  8. Nerve Transfers for Improved Hand Function Following Cervical Spinal Cord Injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    the cervical spine resulting in diminished or complete loss of arm and/or hand function. Cervical SCI patients consistently rank hand function as the...most desired function above bowel and bladder function, sexual function, standing, and pain control. The overall goal of the proposed study is to...evaluate the efficacy of nerve transfers to treat patients with cervical SCIs. Over the last decade, nerve transfers have been used with increasing

  9. Atmospheric turbulence affects wind turbine nacelle transfer functions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. M. St. Martin

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Despite their potential as a valuable source of individual turbine power performance and turbine array energy production optimization information, nacelle-mounted anemometers have often been neglected because complex flows around the blades and nacelle interfere with their measurements. This work quantitatively explores the accuracy of and potential corrections to nacelle anemometer measurements to determine the degree to which they may be useful when corrected for these complex flows, particularly for calculating annual energy production (AEP in the absence of other meteorological data. Using upwind meteorological tower measurements along with nacelle-based measurements from a General Electric (GE 1.5sle model, we calculate empirical nacelle transfer functions (NTFs and explore how they are impacted by different atmospheric and turbulence parameters. This work provides guidelines for the use of NTFs for deriving useful wind measurements from nacelle-mounted anemometers. Corrections to the nacelle anemometer wind speed measurements can be made with NTFs and used to calculate an AEP that comes within 1 % of an AEP calculated with upwind measurements. We also calculate unique NTFs for different atmospheric conditions defined by temperature stratification as well as turbulence intensity, turbulence kinetic energy, and wind shear. During periods of low stability as defined by the Bulk Richardson number (RB, the nacelle-mounted anemometer underestimates the upwind wind speed more than during periods of high stability at some wind speed bins below rated speed, leading to a steeper NTF during periods of low stability. Similarly, during periods of high turbulence, the nacelle-mounted anemometer underestimates the upwind wind speed more than during periods of low turbulence at most wind bins between cut-in and rated wind speed. Based on these results, we suggest different NTFs be calculated for different regimes of atmospheric stability and turbulence

  10. Earthworm coelomocyte extracellular traps: structural and functional similarities with neutrophil NETs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Homa, Joanna

    2018-03-01

    Invertebrate immunity is associated with natural mechanisms that include cellular and humoral elements, similar to those that play a role in vertebrate innate immune responses. Formation of extracellular traps (ETs) is a newly discovered mechanism to combat pathogens, operating not only in vertebrate leucocytes but also in invertebrate immune cells. The ET components include extracellular DNA (exDNA), antimicrobial proteins and histones. Formation of mammalian ETs depends on enzymes such as neutrophil elastase, myeloperoxidase, the citrullination of histones and protease activity. It was confirmed that coelomocytes-immunocompetent cells of the earthworm Eisenia andrei-are also able to release ETs in a protease-dependent manner, dependent or independent of the formation of reactive oxygen species and rearrangement of the cell cytoskeleton. Similar to vertebrate leukocytes (e.g., neutrophil), coelomocytes are responsible for many immune functions like phagocytosis, cytotoxicity and secretion of humoral factors. ETs formed by coelomocyte analogues to neutrophil ETs consist of exDNA, histone H3 and attached to these structures proteins, e.g., heat shock proteins HSP27. The latter fact confirms that mechanisms of ET release are conserved in evolution. The study on Annelida adds this animal group to the list of invertebrates capable of ET release, but most importantly provides insides into innate mechanisms of ET formation in lower animal taxa.

  11. Pleiotropic functions of magnetic nanoparticles for ex vivo gene transfer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kami, Daisuke; Kitani, Tomoya; Kishida, Tsunao; Mazda, Osam; Toyoda, Masashi; Tomitaka, Asahi; Ota, Satoshi; Ishii, Ryuga; Takemura, Yasushi; Watanabe, Masatoshi; Umezawa, Akihiro; Gojo, Satoshi

    2014-08-01

    Gene transfer technique has various applications, ranging from cellular biology to medical treatments for diseases. Although nonviral vectors, such as episomal vectors, have been developed, it is necessary to improve their gene transfer efficacy. Therefore, we attempted to develop a highly efficient gene delivery system combining an episomal vector with magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs). In comparison with the conventional method using transfection reagents, polyethylenimine-coated MNPs introduced episomal vectors more efficiently under a magnetic field and could express the gene in mammalian cells with higher efficiency and for longer periods. This novel in vitro separation method of gene-introduced cells utilizing the magnetic property of MNPs significantly facilitated the separation of cells of interest. Transplanted cells in vivo were detected using magnetic resonance. These results suggest that MNPs play multifunctional roles in ex vivo gene transfer, such as improvement of gene transfer efficacy, separation of cells, and detection of transplanted cells. This study convincingly demonstrates enhanced efficiency of gene transfer via magnetic nanoparticles. The method also enables magnetic sorting of cells positive for the transferred gene, and in vivo monitoring of the process with MRI. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. A method for the direct generation of comprehensive numerical solar building transfer functions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, T.Y. [The Hong Kong Polytechnic University (China). Dept. of Building Services Engineering

    2003-02-01

    This paper describes a method for the direct generation of comprehensive numerical room transfer functions with any derived parameters as output, such as operative temperature or thermal load. Complex conductive, convective and radiant heat transfer processes, or any derived thermal parameters in buildings can be explicitly and precisely described by a generalized thermal network. This allows the s-transfer and z-transfer functions to be directly generated, using semi-symbolic analysis techniques, Cayley's expansion of determinant and Heaviside's expansion theorem. A simple algorithm is developed for finding the roots of the denominator in the inverse transform of the s-transfer functions, which ensures that no single root is missing. The techniques have been applied to generating the transfer functions of a passive solar room with floor heating. The example calculation demonstrates the high efficiency of the computational method. (author)

  13. DeepNet: An Ultrafast Neural Learning Code for Seismic Imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barhen, J.; Protopopescu, V.; Reister, D.

    1999-01-01

    A feed-forward multilayer neural net is trained to learn the correspondence between seismic data and well logs. The introduction of a virtual input layer, connected to the nominal input layer through a special nonlinear transfer function, enables ultrafast (single iteration), near-optimal training of the net using numerical algebraic techniques. A unique computer code, named DeepNet, has been developed, that has achieved, in actual field demonstrations, results unattainable to date with industry standard tools

  14. Net Neutrality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Savin, Andrej

    2017-01-01

    Repealing “net neutrality” in the US will have no bearing on Internet freedom or security there or anywhere else.......Repealing “net neutrality” in the US will have no bearing on Internet freedom or security there or anywhere else....

  15. Automatic transfer function generation using contour tree controlled residue flow model and color harmonics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Jianlong; Takatsuka, Masahiro

    2009-01-01

    Transfer functions facilitate the volumetric data visualization by assigning optical properties to various data features and scalar values. Automation of transfer function specifications still remains a challenge in volume rendering. This paper presents an approach for automating transfer function generations by utilizing topological attributes derived from the contour tree of a volume. The contour tree acts as a visual index to volume segments, and captures associated topological attributes involved in volumetric data. A residue flow model based on Darcy's Law is employed to control distributions of opacity between branches of the contour tree. Topological attributes are also used to control color selection in a perceptual color space and create harmonic color transfer functions. The generated transfer functions can depict inclusion relationship between structures and maximize opacity and color differences between them. The proposed approach allows efficient automation of transfer function generations, and exploration on the data to be carried out based on controlling of opacity residue flow rate instead of complex low-level transfer function parameter adjustments. Experiments on various data sets demonstrate the practical use of our approach in transfer function generations.

  16. Quality evaluation of mammography systems: identification of the best region by the transfer function method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schiabel, H.; Frere, A.F.

    1992-01-01

    The evaluation of mammography systems behaviour, using the conventional analysis method of transfer function is discussed. An investigation for evaluating the behaviour of modulation transfer function on several direction of orifices in the radiation field is also presented. (C.G.C.)

  17. Can we observe open loop transfer functions in a stochastic feedback system ?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kishida, Kuniharu; Suda, Nobuhide.

    1991-01-01

    There are two kinds of problems concerning open loop and closed loop transfer functions in a feedback system. One is a problem even in the deterministic case, and the other is in the stochastic case. In the deterministic case it is guaranteed under a necessary and sufficient condition that total sum of degrees of sub-transfer functions coincides to the degree of the total system. In the stochastic case a systematic understanding of a physical state model, a theoretical innovation model and a data-oriented innovation model is indispensable for determination of open loop transfer functions from time series data. Undesirable factors appear in determination of open loop transfer functions, since a transfer function matrix from input noises to output variables has a redundancy factor of diagonal matrix. (author)

  18. A Novel Grey Prediction Model Combining Markov Chain with Functional-Link Net and Its Application to Foreign Tourist Forecasting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi-Chung Hu

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Grey prediction models for time series have been widely applied to demand forecasting because only limited data are required for them to build a time series model without any statistical assumptions. Previous studies have demonstrated that the combination of grey prediction with neural networks helps grey prediction perform better. Some methods have been presented to improve the prediction accuracy of the popular GM(1,1 model by using the Markov chain to estimate the residual needed to modify a predicted value. Compared to the previous Grey-Markov models, this study contributes to apply the functional-link net to estimate the degree to which a predicted value obtained from the GM(1,1 model can be adjusted. Furthermore, the troublesome number of states and their bounds that are not easily specified in Markov chain have been determined by a genetic algorithm. To verify prediction performance, the proposed grey prediction model was applied to an important grey system problem—foreign tourist forecasting. Experimental results show that the proposed model provides satisfactory results compared to the other Grey-Markov models considered.

  19. TOWARDS PHASE TRANSFERABLE POTENTIAL FUNCTIONS - METHODOLOGY AND APPLICATION TO NITROGEN

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    JORDAN, PC; VAN MAAREN, PJ; MAVRI, J; VAN DER SPOEL, D; BERENDSEN, HJC

    1995-01-01

    We describe a generalizable approach to the development of phase transferable effective intermolecular potentials and apply the method to the study of N-2 The method is based on a polarizable shell model description of the isolated molecule and uses experimental data to establish the parameters.

  20. Spatially distributed flame transfer functions for predicting combustion dynamics in lean premixed gas turbine combustors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, K.T.; Lee, J.G.; Quay, B.D.; Santavicca, D.A. [Center for Advanced Power Generation, Department of Mechanical and Nuclear Engineering, Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA (United States)

    2010-09-15

    The present paper describes a methodology to improve the accuracy of prediction of the eigenfrequencies and growth rates of self-induced instabilities and demonstrates its application to a laboratory-scale, swirl-stabilized, lean-premixed, gas turbine combustor. The influence of the spatial heat release distribution is accounted for using local flame transfer function (FTF) measurements. The two-microphone technique and CH{sup *} chemiluminescence intensity measurements are used to determine the input (inlet velocity perturbation) and the output functions (heat release oscillation), respectively, for the local flame transfer functions. The experimentally determined local flame transfer functions are superposed using the flame transfer function superposition principle, and the result is incorporated into an analytic thermoacoustic model, in order to predict the linear stability characteristics of a given system. Results show that when the flame length is not acoustically compact the model prediction calculated using the local flame transfer functions is better than the prediction made using the global flame transfer function. In the case of a flame in the compact flame regime, accurate predictions of eigenfrequencies and growth rates can be obtained using the global flame transfer function. It was also found that the general response characteristics of the local FTF (gain and phase) are qualitatively the same as those of the global FTF. (author)

  1. Expression and Function of Transmembrane-4 Superfamily (Tetraspanin Proteins in Osteoclasts: Reciprocal Roles of Tspan-5 and NET-6 during Osteoclastogenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaori Iwai

    2007-01-01

    Conclusions: These data indicate that a diversity of tetraspanins is expressed in osteoclast precursors, and that cell fusion during osteoclastogenesis is regulated by cooperation of distinct tetraspanin family proteins such as Tspan-5 and NET-6. This study indicates that functional alterations of tetraspanin family proteins may have therapeutic potential in diseases where osteoclasts play a major role, such as rheumatoid arthritis and osteoporosis.

  2. Petri Nets

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    GENERAL I ARTICLE ... In Part 1 of this two-part article, we have seen im- ..... mable logic controller and VLSI arrays, office automation systems, workflow management systems, ... complex discrete event and real-time systems; and Petri nets.

  3. Simultaneous heat and moisture transfer in porous elements: transfer function method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Souza, H.A. de.

    1985-01-01

    The presence of moisture in a porous element may strongly affect the transfer of heat through this element due to the processes which occur associated with the phase changes at the boundary surfaces and internally in the wall body. In addition, the structural properties of the element may also be meaningfully affected. The formulation of mathematical models for the simultaneous heat and mass transfer in porous elements results in a pair of nonlinear coupled equations for the temperature and moisture content distributions, in the material. It is supposed, in this work, that the actual variation of the properties of the porous medium is small in the range of variables which describe the specific problem to be analyzed. This enables us to work with linearized equations, making possible the use of linear solution methods. In this context, the present work deals with a linear procedure for the solution of simultaneous heat and moisture transfer problems in porous elements, sujected to arbitrary boundary conditions. This results in a linear relation between the heat and mass flux densities through the boundary surfaces of the elements and their associated potentials. It is shown that the model is consistent in asymptotical limiting cases; the model is then used for analyzing the drying process of a porous element, subjected to ambient actual conditions. (Author) [pt

  4. Transfer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wahlgren, Bjarne; Aarkrog, Vibe

    Bogen er den første samlede indføring i transfer på dansk. Transfer kan anvendes som praksis-filosofikum. Den giver en systematisk indsigt til den studerende, der spørger: Hvordan kan teoretisk viden bruges til at reflektere over handlinger i situationer, der passer til min fremtidige arbejdsplads?...

  5. Modelling of Multi Input Transfer Function for Rainfall Forecasting in Batu City

    OpenAIRE

    Priska Arindya Purnama

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this research is to model and forecast the rainfall in Batu City using multi input transfer function model based on air temperature, humidity, wind speed and cloud. Transfer function model is a multivariate time series model which consists of an output series (Yt) sequence expected to be effected by an input series (Xt) and other inputs in a group called a noise series (Nt). Multi input transfer function model obtained is (b1,s1,r1) (b2,s2,r2) (b3,s3,r3) (b4,s4,r4)(pn,qn) = (0,0,0)...

  6. Time constants and transfer functions for a homogeneous 900 MWt metallic fueled LMR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grimm, K.N.; Meneghetti, D.

    1988-01-01

    Nodal transfer functions are calculated for a 900 MWt U10Zr-fueled sodium cooled reactor. From the transfer functions the time constants, feedback reactivity transfer function coefficients, and power coefficients can be determined. These quantities are calculated for core fuel, upper and lower axial reflector steel, radial blanket fuel, radial reflector steel, and B 4 C rod shaft expansion effect. The quantities are compared to the analogous quantities of a 60 MWt metallic-fueled sodium cooled Experimental Breeder Reactor II configuration. 8 refs., 2 figs., 6 tabs

  7. Transfer of Chemically Modified Graphene with Retention of Functionality for Surface Engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitener, Keith E; Lee, Woo-Kyung; Bassim, Nabil D; Stroud, Rhonda M; Robinson, Jeremy T; Sheehan, Paul E

    2016-02-10

    Single-layer graphene chemically reduced by the Birch process delaminates from a Si/SiOx substrate when exposed to an ethanol/water mixture, enabling transfer of chemically functionalized graphene to arbitrary substrates such as metals, dielectrics, and polymers. Unlike in previous reports, the graphene retains hydrogen, methyl, and aryl functional groups during the transfer process. This enables one to functionalize the receiving substrate with the properties of the chemically modified graphene (CMG). For instance, magnetic force microscopy shows that the previously reported magnetic properties of partially hydrogenated graphene remain after transfer. We also transfer hydrogenated graphene from its copper growth substrate to a Si/SiOx wafer and thermally dehydrogenate it to demonstrate a polymer- and etchant-free graphene transfer for potential use in transmission electron microscopy. Finally, we show that the Birch reduction facilitates delamination of CMG by weakening van der Waals forces between graphene and its substrate.

  8. The transfer function model for dynamic response of wet cooling coils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yao Ye; Liu Shiqing

    2008-01-01

    This paper mainly concerned about the dynamic response model of wet cooling coils that is developed by the Laplace transform method. The theoretic equations are firstly established based on the theory of energy conservation. Then, the transfer functions on the transient responses of wet cooling coils have been deduced using the method of Laplace transform. The transfer functions reveal the dynamic relationships between the inlet variables and the outlet ones of the cooling coils. Partial-fraction method and Newton-Raphson method are both used in the inversion of the transfer functions from the s-domain to τ-domain. To make the dynamic model of wet cooling coils more adaptive, RBFNN method is employed to determine the coefficients of heat and mass transfer. Experiments have been done and manifested that the coefficients of heat and mass transfer by RBFNN will be of great value to the validity of the transient response model of wet cooling coils in this study

  9. Initial CAD investigations for NET

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Katz, F.; Leinemann, K.; Ludwig, A.; Marek, U.; Olbrich, W.; Schlechtendahl, E.G.

    1985-11-01

    This report summarizes the work done under contract no. 164/84-7/FU-D-/NET between the Commission of the European Communities and KfK during the period from June 1, 1984, through May 31, 1985. The following topics are covered in this report: Initial modelling of NET version NET2A, CAD system extension for remote handling studies, analysis of the CAD information structure, work related to the transfer of CAD information between KfK and the NET team. (orig.) [de

  10. Pregnancy following nonsurgical donor ovum transfer to a functionally agonadal woman

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sauer, M.V.; Macaso, T.M.; Ishida, E.H.; Giudice, L.; Marshall, J.R.; Buster, J.E.

    1987-01-01

    We report this country's first nonsurgical donor ovum transfer pregnancy in a functionally agonadal woman who had received chemotherapy and radiation for Hodgkin's lymphoma. For women with ovarian failure, nonsurgical uterine lavage and ovum transfer may provide an opportunity for motherhood that was not possible previously

  11. Transfer factor - hypotheses for its structure and function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shifrine, M; Scibienski, R

    1975-01-01

    Transfer factor (TF) is a dialyzable extract from primed lymphocytes that is able to transfer specific delayed hypersensitivity from one animal to another. On the basis of available data we suggest that TF is a polypeptide with a molecular weight below 15,000 daltons. We hypothesize that TF is the variable light or heavy chain domain of immunoglobulin: such a molecule conforms with the accepted properties of TF and also has the necessary specificity requirements. We also hypothesize that TF is part of a receptor site. beta-2-microglobulin, a molecule that is an integral part of cell surfaces, could be the anchor for TF. beta-2-microglobulin has homologies with the constant portion of immunoglobulin light or heavy chain and thus would combine with the variable domain (TF) to form a complete receptor site for a specific antigen. The properties of TF suggest its mode of action, which is discussed in detail in the text. The biologic advantages of TF is its ability to confer immediate (immunologie specific) protection while the 'normal' immune response develops.

  12. Algebraic Functions, Computer Programming, and the Challenge of Transfer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schanzer, Emmanuel Tanenbaum

    2015-01-01

    Students' struggles with algebra are well documented. Prior to the introduction of functions, mathematics is typically focused on applying a set of arithmetic operations to compute an answer. The introduction of functions, however, marks the point at which mathematics begins to focus on building up abstractions as a way to solve complex problems.…

  13. RESTful NET

    CERN Document Server

    Flanders, Jon

    2008-01-01

    RESTful .NET is the first book that teaches Windows developers to build RESTful web services using the latest Microsoft tools. Written by Windows Communication Foundation (WFC) expert Jon Flanders, this hands-on tutorial demonstrates how you can use WCF and other components of the .NET 3.5 Framework to build, deploy and use REST-based web services in a variety of application scenarios. RESTful architecture offers a simpler approach to building web services than SOAP, SOA, and the cumbersome WS- stack. And WCF has proven to be a flexible technology for building distributed systems not necessa

  14. Improved netting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bramley, A.; Clabburn, R.J.T.

    1976-01-01

    A method is described for producing netting composed of longitudinal and transverse threads of irradiation cross linked thermoplastic material, the threads being joined together at their crossings by moulded masses of cross linked thermoplastic material. The thread may be formed of polyethylene filaments, subjected to a radiation dose of 15 to 25 MR. The moulding can be conducted at 245 0 to 260 0 C or higher. The product is claimed to be an improved quality of netting, with bonds of increased strength between crossing threads. (U.K.)

  15. A new radiative transfer scattering phase function discretisation approach with inherent energy conservation

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Roos, TH

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available large sphere scattering phase function distributions of interest for packed bed radiative heat transfer: the analytic distribution for a diffusely reflecting sphere (a backscattering test case) and the distribution for a transparent sphere (n = 1...

  16. Time variation of the electromagnetic transfer function of the earth estimated by using wavelet transform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suto, Noriko; Harada, Makoto; Izutsu, Jun; Nagao, Toshiyasu

    2006-07-01

    In order to accurately estimate the geomagnetic transfer functions in the area of the volcano Mt. Iwate (IWT), we applied the interstation transfer function (ISTF) method to the three-component geomagnetic field data observed at Mt. Iwate station (IWT), using the Kakioka Magnetic Observatory, JMA (KAK) as remote reference station. Instead of the conventional Fourier transform, in which temporary transient noises badly degrade the accuracy of long term properties, continuous wavelet transform has been used. The accuracy of the results was as high as that of robust estimations of transfer functions obtained by the Fourier transform method. This would provide us with possibilities for routinely monitoring the transfer functions, without sophisticated statistical procedures, to detect changes in the underground electrical conductivity structure.

  17. Analysis of space vehicle structures using the transfer-function concept

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heer, E.; Trubert, M. R.

    1969-01-01

    Analysis of large complex systems is accomplished by dividing it into suitable subsystems and determining the individual dynamical and vibrational responses. Frequency transfer functions then determine the vibrational response of the whole system.

  18. Automatic transfer function design for medical visualization using visibility distributions and projective color mapping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Lile; Tay, Wei-Liang; Nguyen, Binh P; Chui, Chee-Kong; Ong, Sim-Heng

    2013-01-01

    Transfer functions play a key role in volume rendering of medical data, but transfer function manipulation is unintuitive and can be time-consuming; achieving an optimal visualization of patient anatomy or pathology is difficult. To overcome this problem, we present a system for automatic transfer function design based on visibility distribution and projective color mapping. Instead of assigning opacity directly based on voxel intensity and gradient magnitude, the opacity transfer function is automatically derived by matching the observed visibility distribution to a target visibility distribution. An automatic color assignment scheme based on projective mapping is proposed to assign colors that allow for the visual discrimination of different structures, while also reflecting the degree of similarity between them. When our method was tested on several medical volumetric datasets, the key structures within the volume were clearly visualized with minimal user intervention. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Performance of SEM scintillation detector evaluated by modulation transfer function and detective quantum efficiency function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bok, Jan; Schauer, Petr

    2014-01-01

    In the paper, the SEM detector is evaluated by the modulation transfer function (MTF) which expresses the detector's influence on the SEM image contrast. This is a novel approach, since the MTF was used previously to describe only the area imaging detectors, or whole imaging systems. The measurement technique and calculation of the MTF for the SEM detector are presented. In addition, the measurement and calculation of the detective quantum efficiency (DQE) as a function of the spatial frequency for the SEM detector are described. In this technique, the time modulated e-beam is used in order to create well-defined input signal for the detector. The MTF and DQE measurements are demonstrated on the Everhart-Thornley scintillation detector. This detector was alternated using the YAG:Ce, YAP:Ce, and CRY18 single-crystal scintillators. The presented MTF and DQE characteristics show good imaging properties of the detectors with the YAP:Ce or CRY18 scintillator, especially for a specific type of the e-beam scan. The results demonstrate the great benefit of the description of SEM detectors using the MTF and DQE. In addition, point-by-point and continual-sweep e-beam scans in SEM were discussed and their influence on the image quality was revealed using the MTF. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Electron transfer flavoprotein deficiency: Functional and molecular aspects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schiff, M; Froissart, R; Olsen, Rikke Katrine Jentoft

    2006-01-01

    Multiple acyl-CoA dehydrogenase deficiency (MADD) is a recessively inherited metabolic disorder that can be due to a deficiency of electron transfer flavoprotein (ETF) or its dehydrogenase (ETF-ubiquinone oxidoreductase). ETF is a mitochondrial matrix protein consisting of alpha- (30kDa) and beta......- (28kDa) subunits encoded by the ETFA and ETFB genes, respectively. In the present study, we have analysed tissue samples from 16 unrelated patients with ETF deficiency, and we report the results of ETF activity, Western blot analysis and mutation analysis. The ETF assay provides a reliable diagnostic...... tool to confirm ETF deficiency in patients suspected to suffer from MADD. Activity ranged from less than 1 to 16% of controls with the most severely affected patients disclosing the lowest activity values. The majority of patients had mutations in the ETFA gene while only two of them harboured...

  1. Causal transfer function analysis to describe closed loop interactions between cardiovascular and cardiorespiratory variability signals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faes, L; Porta, A; Cucino, R; Cerutti, S; Antolini, R; Nollo, G

    2004-06-01

    Although the concept of transfer function is intrinsically related to an input-output relationship, the traditional and widely used estimation method merges both feedback and feedforward interactions between the two analyzed signals. This limitation may endanger the reliability of transfer function analysis in biological systems characterized by closed loop interactions. In this study, a method for estimating the transfer function between closed loop interacting signals was proposed and validated in the field of cardiovascular and cardiorespiratory variability. The two analyzed signals x and y were described by a bivariate autoregressive model, and the causal transfer function from x to y was estimated after imposing causality by setting to zero the model coefficients representative of the reverse effects from y to x. The method was tested in simulations reproducing linear open and closed loop interactions, showing a better adherence of the causal transfer function to the theoretical curves with respect to the traditional approach in presence of non-negligible reverse effects. It was then applied in ten healthy young subjects to characterize the transfer functions from respiration to heart period (RR interval) and to systolic arterial pressure (SAP), and from SAP to RR interval. In the first two cases, the causal and non-causal transfer function estimates were comparable, indicating that respiration, acting as exogenous signal, sets an open loop relationship upon SAP and RR interval. On the contrary, causal and traditional transfer functions from SAP to RR were significantly different, suggesting the presence of a considerable influence on the opposite causal direction. Thus, the proposed causal approach seems to be appropriate for the estimation of parameters, like the gain and the phase lag from SAP to RR interval, which have a large clinical and physiological relevance.

  2. Numerical study on identification of transfer functions in a feedback system and model reduction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kishida, Kuniharu

    1997-01-01

    Identification of transfer function matrices in a feedback system is discussed by using the singular value decomposition of Hankel matrix from the viewpoint of inverse problems. A method of model reduction is considered, and selection criteria are proposed for identification of them. Transformation formula between open loop and closed loop transfer function matrices are determined from the feedback loop structure, and they are needed for identification of open loop transfer function matrices under such a condition where the feedback system is in a minimum phase. Though the identifiability of open loop transfer function matrices can be examined in the framework of innovation model equivalent to the feedback system, there are pole-zero cancellations in the identification of them. The method to reduce a model order of an open loop transfer function is discussed by using the singular value decomposition of a gramian given by the open loop transfer function with higher degree. To check reliability of the present algorithm, a simulation study is performed for an example. (author)

  3. Petri Nets

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 4; Issue 9. Petri Nets - Applications. Y Narahari. General Article Volume 4 Issue 9 September 1999 pp 44-52 ... Author Affiliations. Y Narahari1. Department of Computer Science and Automation, Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore 560 012, India.

  4. Net Gain

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Describing the effect of tax incentives for import, production, and sale of nets and insecticides; and ..... So far, China is the only country where a system for the routine treatment of ...... 1993), and the trials in Ecuador and Peru (Kroeger et al.

  5. Evaluation of sexual function in females with exstrophy-epispadias-complex: A survey of the multicenter German CURE-Net.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebert, Anne-Karoline; Lange, Theresa; Reutter, Heiko; Jenetzky, Ekkehart; Stein, Raimund; Boemers, Thomas M; Hirsch, Karin; Rösch, Wolfgang H; Zwink, Nadine

    2017-04-01

    Standardized knowledge about genital function in adult female individuals with exstrophy-epispadias complex (EEC) is scarce. The aim of this study was to investigate sexual function using the standardized Female Sexual Function Index (FSFI), and to assess the influence of bladder and vaginal reconstruction and the presence of incontinence on FSFI results. Sixty-one females (aged ≥18 years) recruited by the German multicenter network for congenital uro-rectal malformations (CURE-Net) were asked to complete the FSFI and a self-designed semi-structured questionnaire assessing comprehensive medical data, gynecological, and psychosocial items. Twenty-one eligible females (34%) returned both questionnaires (mean ± standard deviation [SD] age of 26 ± 5.1 years). In 43% of participants, a staged or single-staged approach had been used for reconstruction, and these had their bladder in use. A primary or secondary urinary diversion (UD) after cystectomy had been performed in 38% of participants. Of the participants, 57% lived in a committed partnership, and 62% had sexual intercourse on a regular basis, with a further 19% experiencing pain or discomfort thereby. Introitus plasty was done in 43%. Mean total FSFI for all participants was 21.3 (SD 1.9). Most domain scores of patients after introitus plasty were similar compared with those without an operative vaginal approach, except for satisfaction (p = 0.057) and pain (p = 0.024). Comparing incontinent with continent patients, significant differences were found for desire (mean 4.6 vs. 3.5, p = 0.021), lubrication (mean 3.1 vs. 4.2, p = 0.049), and satisfaction (mean 1.6 vs. 3.6, p = 0.0065). In contrast pain was not significant between groups. Sexual activity rate in the present study was similar to that reported in the literature (81% vs. 89%), whereas dyspareunia rate was lower in our cohort (19% vs. 24%). The risk for sexual dysfunction seems to be lower in patients reconstructed with primary or

  6. Limitations of shallow nets approximation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Shao-Bo

    2017-10-01

    In this paper, we aim at analyzing the approximation abilities of shallow networks in reproducing kernel Hilbert spaces (RKHSs). We prove that there is a probability measure such that the achievable lower bound for approximating by shallow nets can be realized for all functions in balls of reproducing kernel Hilbert space with high probability, which is different with the classical minimax approximation error estimates. This result together with the existing approximation results for deep nets shows the limitations for shallow nets and provides a theoretical explanation on why deep nets perform better than shallow nets. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Transfer Relations Between Landscape Functions - The Hydrological Point of View

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fohrer, N.; Lenhart, T.; Eckhardt, K.; Frede, H.-G.

    EC market policies and regional subsidy programs have an enormous impact on local land use. This has far reaching consequences on various landscape functions. In the joint research project SFB299 at the Giessen University the effect of land use options on economic, ecological and hydrological landscape functions are under investigation. The continuous time step model SWAT-G (Eckhardt et al., 2000; Arnold et al., 1998) is employed to characterize the influence of land use patterns on hydrological processes. The model was calibrated and validated employing a split sample approach. For two mesoscale watersheds (Aar, 60 km2; Dietzhölze, 81 km2) located in the Lahn-Dill- Bergland, Germany, different land use scenarios were analyzed with regard to their hydrological impact. Additionally the effect of land use change was analyzed with an ecological and an agro-economic model. The impact of the stepwise changing land use was expressed as trade off relations between different landscape functions.

  8. Improving Power System Stability Using Transfer Function: A Comparative Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Shahgholian

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a small-signal dynamic model of a single-machine infinite-bus (SMIB power system that includes IEEE type-ST1 excitation system and PSS based on transfer fu¬n¬c¬¬tion structure is presented. The changes in the operating co¬n¬dition of a power system on dynamic performance have been exa¬m¬ined. The dynamic performance of the closed-loop system is ana¬lyzed base on its eigenvalues. The effectiveness of the par¬a¬m¬e¬t¬ers changes on dynamic stability is verified by simulation res¬u¬l¬ts. Three types of PSS have been considered for analysis: (a the derivative PSS, (b the lead-lag PSS or conventional PSS, and (c the proportional-integral-derivative PSS. The objective fu¬nc¬t¬i¬o¬n is formulated to increase the dam¬¬ping ratio of the electromechanical mode eigenvalues. Simu¬la¬tion results show that the PID-PSS performs better for less ov¬e¬r¬shoot and less settling time comp¬ared with the CPSS and DPSS un¬der different load ope¬ration and the significant system pa¬r¬am¬eter variation conditions.

  9. Selberg zeta functions and transfer operators an experimental approach to singular perturbations

    CERN Document Server

    Fraczek, Markus Szymon

    2017-01-01

    This book presents a method for evaluating Selberg zeta functions via transfer operators for the full modular group and its congruence subgroups with characters. Studying zeros of Selberg zeta functions for character deformations allows us to access the discrete spectra and resonances of hyperbolic Laplacians under both singular and non-singular perturbations. Areas in which the theory has not yet been sufficiently developed, such as the spectral theory of transfer operators or the singular perturbation theory of hyperbolic Laplacians, will profit from the numerical experiments discussed in this book. Detailed descriptions of numerical approaches to the spectra and eigenfunctions of transfer operators and to computations of Selberg zeta functions will be of value to researchers active in analysis, while those researchers focusing more on numerical aspects will benefit from discussions of the analytic theory, in particular those concerning the transfer operator method and the spectral theory of hyperbolic spac...

  10. Fitting of transfer functions to frequency response measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moret, J.M.

    1994-12-01

    An algorithm for approximating a given complex frequency response with a rational function of two polynomials with real coefficients is presented, together with its extension to distributed parameter systems, the corresponding error analysis and its application to a real case. (author) 5 figs., 4 refs

  11. TRANSFER

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper reports on further studies on long range energy transfer between curcumine as donor and another thiazine dye, thionine, which is closely related to methylene blue as energy harvester (Figure 1). Since thionine is known to have a higher quantum yield of singlet oxygen sensitization than methylene blue [8], it is ...

  12. A nuclide transfer model for barriers of the seabed repository using response function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Youn Myoung; Kang, Chul Hyung; Hahn, Pil Soo

    1996-01-01

    A nuclide transfer by utilizing mass transfer coefficient and barrier response function defined for each barrier is proposed, by which the final nuclide transfer rate into the sea water can be evaluated. When simple and immediate quantification of the nuclide release is necessary in the conservative aspect, using this kind of approach may be advantageous since each layered barrier can be treated separately from other media in series in the repository system, making it possible to apply separate solutions in succession to other various media. Although one disadvantage is that while flux continuity can be maintained at the interface by using the exit nuclide flux from the first medium as the source flux for the next one, there may be no guarantee for concentration continuity, this problem could be eliminated assuming that there is no boundary resistance to mass transfer across the interface. Mass transfer coefficient can be determined by the assumption that the nuclide concentration gradient at the interface between adjacent barriers remains constant and barrier response function is obtained from an analytical expression for nuclide flow rate out of each barrier in response to a unit impulse into the barrier multiplied by mass transfer coefficient. Total time-dependent nuclide transfer rate from the barrier can then be obtained by convoluting the response function for the barrier with a previously calculated set of time-varying input of nuclide flow rate for the previous barrier. 18 refs., 5 figs. (author)

  13. Net Locality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Souza e Silva, Adriana Araujo; Gordon, Eric

    Provides an introduction to the new theory of Net Locality and the profound effect on individuals and societies when everything is located or locatable. Describes net locality as an emerging form of location awareness central to all aspects of digital media, from mobile phones, to Google Maps......, to location-based social networks and games, such as Foursquare and facebook. Warns of the threats these technologies, such as data surveillance, present to our sense of privacy, while also outlining the opportunities for pro-social developments. Provides a theory of the web in the context of the history...... of emerging technologies, from GeoCities to GPS, Wi-Fi, Wiki Me, and Google Android....

  14. Modified Displacement Transfer Functions for Deformed Shape Predictions of Slender Curved Structures with Varying Curvatives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ko, William L.; Fleischer, Van Tran

    2014-01-01

    To eliminate the need to use finite-element modeling for structure shape predictions, a new method was invented. This method is to use the Displacement Transfer Functions to transform the measured surface strains into deflections for mapping out overall structural deformed shapes. The Displacement Transfer Functions are expressed in terms of rectilinearly distributed surface strains, and contain no material properties. This report is to apply the patented method to the shape predictions of non-symmetrically loaded slender curved structures with different curvatures up to a full circle. Because the measured surface strains are not available, finite-element analysis had to be used to analytically generate the surface strains. Previously formulated straight-beam Displacement Transfer Functions were modified by introducing the curvature-effect correction terms. Through single-point or dual-point collocations with finite-elementgenerated deflection curves, functional forms of the curvature-effect correction terms were empirically established. The resulting modified Displacement Transfer Functions can then provide quite accurate shape predictions. Also, the uniform straight-beam Displacement Transfer Function was applied to the shape predictions of a section-cut of a generic capsule (GC) outer curved sandwich wall. The resulting GC shape predictions are quite accurate in partial regions where the radius of curvature does not change sharply.

  15. A NON-PARAMETRIC APPROACH TO CONSTRAIN THE TRANSFER FUNCTION IN REVERBERATION MAPPING

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Yan-Rong; Wang, Jian-Min; Bai, Jin-Ming

    2016-01-01

    Broad emission lines of active galactic nuclei stem from a spatially extended region (broad-line region, BLR) that is composed of discrete clouds and photoionized by the central ionizing continuum. The temporal behaviors of these emission lines are blurred echoes of continuum variations (i.e., reverberation mapping, RM) and directly reflect the structures and kinematic information of BLRs through the so-called transfer function (also known as the velocity-delay map). Based on the previous works of Rybicki and Press and Zu et al., we develop an extended, non-parametric approach to determine the transfer function for RM data, in which the transfer function is expressed as a sum of a family of relatively displaced Gaussian response functions. Therefore, arbitrary shapes of transfer functions associated with complicated BLR geometry can be seamlessly included, enabling us to relax the presumption of a specified transfer function frequently adopted in previous studies and to let it be determined by observation data. We formulate our approach in a previously well-established framework that incorporates the statistical modeling of continuum variations as a damped random walk process and takes into account long-term secular variations which are irrelevant to RM signals. The application to RM data shows the fidelity of our approach.

  16. A NON-PARAMETRIC APPROACH TO CONSTRAIN THE TRANSFER FUNCTION IN REVERBERATION MAPPING

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Yan-Rong; Wang, Jian-Min [Key Laboratory for Particle Astrophysics, Institute of High Energy Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 19B Yuquan Road, Beijing 100049 (China); Bai, Jin-Ming, E-mail: liyanrong@mail.ihep.ac.cn [Yunnan Observatories, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Kunming 650011 (China)

    2016-11-10

    Broad emission lines of active galactic nuclei stem from a spatially extended region (broad-line region, BLR) that is composed of discrete clouds and photoionized by the central ionizing continuum. The temporal behaviors of these emission lines are blurred echoes of continuum variations (i.e., reverberation mapping, RM) and directly reflect the structures and kinematic information of BLRs through the so-called transfer function (also known as the velocity-delay map). Based on the previous works of Rybicki and Press and Zu et al., we develop an extended, non-parametric approach to determine the transfer function for RM data, in which the transfer function is expressed as a sum of a family of relatively displaced Gaussian response functions. Therefore, arbitrary shapes of transfer functions associated with complicated BLR geometry can be seamlessly included, enabling us to relax the presumption of a specified transfer function frequently adopted in previous studies and to let it be determined by observation data. We formulate our approach in a previously well-established framework that incorporates the statistical modeling of continuum variations as a damped random walk process and takes into account long-term secular variations which are irrelevant to RM signals. The application to RM data shows the fidelity of our approach.

  17. Functional knowledge transfer for high-accuracy prediction of under-studied biological processes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher Y Park

    Full Text Available A key challenge in genetics is identifying the functional roles of genes in pathways. Numerous functional genomics techniques (e.g. machine learning that predict protein function have been developed to address this question. These methods generally build from existing annotations of genes to pathways and thus are often unable to identify additional genes participating in processes that are not already well studied. Many of these processes are well studied in some organism, but not necessarily in an investigator's organism of interest. Sequence-based search methods (e.g. BLAST have been used to transfer such annotation information between organisms. We demonstrate that functional genomics can complement traditional sequence similarity to improve the transfer of gene annotations between organisms. Our method transfers annotations only when functionally appropriate as determined by genomic data and can be used with any prediction algorithm to combine transferred gene function knowledge with organism-specific high-throughput data to enable accurate function prediction. We show that diverse state-of-art machine learning algorithms leveraging functional knowledge transfer (FKT dramatically improve their accuracy in predicting gene-pathway membership, particularly for processes with little experimental knowledge in an organism. We also show that our method compares favorably to annotation transfer by sequence similarity. Next, we deploy FKT with state-of-the-art SVM classifier to predict novel genes to 11,000 biological processes across six diverse organisms and expand the coverage of accurate function predictions to processes that are often ignored because of a dearth of annotated genes in an organism. Finally, we perform in vivo experimental investigation in Danio rerio and confirm the regulatory role of our top predicted novel gene, wnt5b, in leftward cell migration during heart development. FKT is immediately applicable to many bioinformatics

  18. Influence of net ecosystem metabolism in transferring riverine organic carbon to atmospheric CO2 in a tropical coastal lagoon (Chilka Lake, India)

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Gupta, G.V.M.; Sarma, V.V.S.S.; Robin, R.S.; Raman, A.V.; JaiKumar, M.; Rakesh, M.; Subramanian, B.R.

    in monsoon was contributed by its supply from rivers and the rest was contributed by in situ heterotrophic activity. Based on oxygen and total carbon mass balance, net ecosystem production (NEP) of lake (- 308 mmolC m sup(-2) d sup(-1) approx. equal to - 3...

  19. Determination of noise sources and space-dependent reactor transfer functions from measured output signals only

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoogenboom, J.E.; van Dam, H.; Kleiss, E.B.J.; van Uitert, G.C.; Veldhuis, D.

    1982-01-01

    The measured cross power spectral densities of the signals from three neutron detectors and the displacement of the control rod of the 2 MW research reactor HOR at Delft have been used to determine the space-dependent reactor transfer function, the transfer function of the automatic reactor control system and the noise sources influencing the measured signals. From a block diagram of the reactor with control system and noise sources expressions were derived for the measured cross power spectral densities, which were adjusted to satisfy the requirements following from the adopted model. Then for each frequency point the required transfer functions and noise sources could be derived. The results are in agreement with those of autoregressive modelling of the reactor control feed-back loop. A method has been developed to determine the non-linear characteristics of the automatic reactor control system by analysing the non-gaussian probability density function of the power fluctuations.

  20. Determination of noise sources and space-dependent reactor transfer functions from measured output signals only

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoogenboom, J.E.

    1982-01-01

    The measured cross power spectral densities of the signals from three neutron detectors and the displacement of the control rod of the 2 MW research reactor HOR at Delft have been used to determine the space-dependent reactor transfer function, the transfer function of the automatic reactor control system and the noise sources influencing the measured signals. From a block diagram of the reactor with control system and noise sources expressions were derived for the measured cross power spectral densities, which were adjusted to satisfy the requirements following from the adopted model. Then for each frequency point the required transfer functions and noise sources could be derived. The results are in agreement with those of autoregressive modelling of the reactor control feed-back loop. A method has been developed to determine the non-linear characteristics of the automatic reactor control system by analysing the non-gaussian probability density function of the power fluctuations. (author)

  1. Hadronic wave functions and high momentum transfer interactions in quantum chromodynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brodsky, S.J.; Huang, T.; Lepage, G.P.

    1983-01-01

    This chapter emphasizes the utility of a Fock state representation of the meson and baryon wave functions as a means not only to parametrize the effects of bound state dynamics in QCD phenomena, but also to interrelate exclusive, inclusive, and higher twist processes. Discusses hadronic wave functions in QCD, measures of hadronic wave functions (form factors of composite systems, form factors of mesons, the meson distribution amplitude); large momentum transfer exclusive processes (two-photon processes); deep inelastic lepton scattering; and the phenomenology of hadronic wave functions (measures of hadron wave functions, constraints on the pion and proton valence wave function, quark jet diffraction excitation, the ''unveiling'' of the hadronic wave function and intrinsic charm). Finds that the testing ground of perturbative QCD where rigorous, definitive tests of the theory can be made can now be extended throughout a large domain of large momentum transfer exclusive and inclusive lepton, photon, and hadron reactions

  2. Cholesteryl Ester Transfer Protein (CETP) genotype and cognitive function in persons aged 35 years or older

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Izaks, Gerbrand J.; van der Knaap, Aafke M.; Gansevoort, Ron T.; Navis, Gerjan; Slaets, Joris P. J.; Dullaart, Robin P. F.

    Common polymorphisms of the Cholestryl Ester Transfer Protein (CETP) gene may predict lower risk of cognitive decline. We investigated the association of cognitive function with CETP genotype in a population-based cohort of 4135 persons aged 35-82 years. Cognitive function was measured with the Ruff

  3. A spatial compression technique for head-related transfer function interpolation and complexity estimation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shekarchi, Sayedali; Christensen-Dalsgaard, Jakob; Hallam, John

    2015-01-01

    A head-related transfer function (HRTF) model employing Legendre polynomials (LPs) is evaluated as an HRTF spatial complexity indicator and interpolation technique in the azimuth plane. LPs are a set of orthogonal functions derived on the sphere which can be used to compress an HRTF dataset...

  4. The evolution of the mass-transfer functions in liquid Yukawa systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vaulina, O. S., E-mail: olga.vaulina@bk.ru [Russian Academy of Sciences, Joint Institute for High Temperatures (Russian Federation)

    2016-09-15

    The results of analytic and numerical investigation of mass-transfer processes in nonideal liquid systems are reported. Calculations are performed for extended 2D and 3D systems of particles that interact with a screened Yukawa-type Coulomb potential. The main attention is paid to 2D structures. A new analytic model is proposed for describing the evolution of mass-transfer functions in systems of interacting particles, including the transition between the ballistic and diffusion regimes of their motion.

  5. PHENOMENOLOGICAL INQUIRY AND SELF-FUNCTIONS IN THE TRANSFERENCE-COUNTERTRANSFERENCE MILIEU

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard G. Erskine

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The article “Balancing on the ‘Borderline’ of Early Affect-Confusion: Part 2 of a Case Study Trilogy” serves as the basis for this rejoinder and collegial discourse. The organizing-functions of reparation, stabilization, regulation, and enhancement are described and placed within the transference-countertransference milieu. Examples of bifurcating client’s questions to resolve transference are provided.

  6. Modelling of Multi Input Transfer Function for Rainfall Forecasting in Batu City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priska Arindya Purnama

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research is to model and forecast the rainfall in Batu City using multi input transfer function model based on air temperature, humidity, wind speed and cloud. Transfer function model is a multivariate time series model which consists of an output series (Yt sequence expected to be effected by an input series (Xt and other inputs in a group called a noise series (Nt. Multi input transfer function model obtained is (b1,s1,r1 (b2,s2,r2 (b3,s3,r3 (b4,s4,r4(pn,qn = (0,0,0 (23,0,0 (1,2,0 (0,0,0 ([5,8],2 and shows that air temperature on t-day affects rainfall on t-day, rainfall on t-day is influenced by air humidity in the previous 23 days, rainfall on t-day is affected by wind speed in the previous day , and rainfall on day t is affected by clouds on day t. The results of rainfall forecasting in Batu City with multi input transfer function model can be said to be accurate, because it produces relatively small RMSE value. The value of RMSE data forecasting training is 7.7921 while forecasting data testing is 4.2184. Multi-input transfer function model is suitable for rainfall in Batu City.

  7. Determination of the transfer function for optical surface topography measuring instruments—a review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Foreman, Matthew R; Török, Peter; Giusca, Claudiu L; Leach, Richard K; Coupland, Jeremy M

    2013-01-01

    A significant number of areal surface topography measuring instruments, largely based on optical techniques, are commercially available. However, implementation of optical instrumentation into production is currently difficult due to the lack of understanding of the complex interaction between the light and the component surface. Studying the optical transfer function of the instrument can help address this issue. Here a review is given of techniques for the measurement of optical transfer functions. Starting from the basis of a spatially coherent, monochromatic confocal scanning imaging system, the theory of optical transfer functions in three-dimensional (3D) imaging is presented. Further generalizations are reviewed allowing the extension of the theory to the description of conventional and interferometric 3D imaging systems. Polychromatic transfer functions and surface topography measurements are also discussed. Following presentation of theoretical results, experimental methods to measure the optical transfer function of each class of system are presented, with a focus on suitable methods for the establishment of calibration standards in 3D imaging and surface topography measurements. (topical review)

  8. Comparison of the effects of conditional food and cash transfers of the Ethiopian Productive Safety Net Program on household food security and dietary diversity in the face of rising food prices: ways forward for a more nutrition-sensitive program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baye, Kaleab; Retta, Negussie; Abuye, Cherinet

    2014-09-01

    In light of the continuing rise in food prices during and after the 2008 world food crisis, whether food and cash transfers are equally effective in improving food security and diet quality is debatable. To compare the effects of conditional food and cash transfers of the Ethiopian Productive Safety Net Program (PSNP) on household food security and dietary diversity. Data on household dietary diversity, child anthropometry, food security, and preference of transfer modalities (food, cash, or mixed) were generated from a cross-sectional survey of 195 PSNP beneficiary households (67 receiving food and 128 receiving cash) in Hawella Tulla District, Sidama, southern Ethiopia. Most beneficiaries (96%) reported food shortages, and 47% reported food shortages that exceeded 3 months. Households receiving cash had better household dietary diversity scores (p = .02) and higher consumption of oils and fats (p = .003) and vitamin A-rich foods (p = .002). Compared with households receiving food, households receiving cash were more affected by increases in food prices that forced them to reduce their number of daily meals (p diversity than households receiving food, a result suggesting that cash transfers may be more effective. However, the continuing rise infood prices may offset these benefits unless cash transfers are index-linked to food price fluctuations.

  9. Transfer function restoration in 3D electron microscopy via iterative data refinement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sorzano, C O S; Marabini, R; Herman, G T; Censor, Y; Carazo, J M

    2004-01-01

    Three-dimensional electron microscopy (3D-EM) is a powerful tool for visualizing complex biological systems. As with any other imaging device, the electron microscope introduces a transfer function (called in this field the contrast transfer function, CTF) into the image acquisition process that modulates the various frequencies of the signal. Thus, the 3D reconstructions performed with these CTF-affected projections are also affected by an implicit 3D transfer function. For high-resolution electron microscopy, the effect of the CTF is quite dramatic and limits severely the achievable resolution. In this work we make use of the iterative data refinement (IDR) technique to ameliorate the effect of the CTF. It is demonstrated that the approach can be successfully applied to noisy data

  10. Investigation of a frequency dependent transfer function and its application to control rod localization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garis, N.S.; Pazsit, I.

    1997-02-01

    Control rod vibrations can be detected via the fluctuations they generate in the neutron flux, i.e. the neutron noise. In a previous paper, a neural network-based algorithm for locating a vibrating control rod from the measured neutron noise was developed. The transfer function used for the core model was based on the so called power-reactor approximation resulting in a simple, real-valued solution which means that the phase delay of the signal propagation is neglected. In the present work a more realistic transfer function is used, without the approximations of the previous model. The transfer function is calculated from the Fourier transformed diffusion equation with a complex, frequency dependent buckling leading to a complex solution. In physical terms, this means that the phase delay of the signal propagation is accounted for. Using such a complex core model, the present paper investigates the effectiveness of applying neural networks for control rod localisation. 7 refs, 4 figs

  11. New transfer functions for probing 3-D mantle conductivity from ground and sea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Püthe, C.; Kuvshinov, A.; Olsen, Nils

    2014-01-01

    The C-response is a conventional transfer function in global electromagnetic induction research and is classically determined from local observations of magnetic variations in the vertical and the horizontal components. Its estimation and interpretation rely on the assumptions that the source...... source. We investigate the variability of C-responses due to non-P10 contributions to the source. We show that this variability, which we denote as 'source effect' (as opposed to the well-known ocean effect), is significant and persists at all periods. If inverting estimated C-responses for mantle...... telecommunication cables to spherical harmonic coefficients in the same way as described above, one can define yet another array of transfer functions. In spite of the fact that the newly introduced transfer functions allow for a consistent treatment of a complex spatial structure of the source, the sparse...

  12. Characterization of functional SSR markers in Prosopis alba and their transferability across Prosopis species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María F. Pomponio

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Aim of study: The aim of the study was to characterize functional microsatellite markers in Prosopis alba and examine the transferability to species from the Prosopis genus. Area of the study: samples were obtained from natural populations of Argentina. Material and Methods: Eleven SSR functional markers related to stress and metabolism were amplified in a sample of 152 genotypes from P.alba, P. denudans, P. hassleriP. chilensis, P. flexuosa, and interspecific hybrids. Main results: In P. alba, the PIC average value was 0.36; and 6 out of the 11 primers showed high values of polymorphism ranging from 0.40 to 0.71. The cross-species transferability was high with high percentages of polymorphic loci. Research highlights: The SSR markers developed in P.alba were easily transferred to other Prosopis species which did not have functional markers.

  13. Three-dimensional optical transfer functions in the aberration-corrected scanning transmission electron microscope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, L; Nellist, P D

    2014-05-01

    In the scanning transmission electron microscope, hardware aberration correctors can now correct for the positive spherical aberration of round electron lenses. These correctors make use of nonround optics such as hexapoles or octupoles, leading to the limiting aberrations often being of a nonround type. Here we explore the effect of a number of potential limiting aberrations on the imaging performance of the scanning transmission electron microscope through their resulting optical transfer functions. In particular, the response of the optical transfer function to changes in defocus are examined, given that this is the final aberration to be tuned just before image acquisition. The resulting three-dimensional optical transfer functions also allow an assessment of the performance of a system for focal-series experiments or optical sectioning applications. © 2014 The Authors Journal of Microscopy © 2014 Royal Microscopical Society.

  14. Steep and Adjustable Transfer Functions of Monolithic SOA-EA 2R-Regenerators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Öhman, Filip; Kjær, Rasmus; Christiansen, Lotte Jin

    2006-01-01

    of a semiconductor waveguide with alternating amplifier and absorber sections using quantum-well active material. The steep nonlinearity of the transfer function is achieved by concatenating several sections. We identify the saturation properties of the absorbing media, as dictated by the band-filling and field......Measurements and numerical modeling of a reamplification and reshaping (2R) regenerator demonstrate a steep power transfer function with adjustable threshold. The threshold can be adjusted more than 6 dB by simple control of the reverse bias voltage of the absorber section. The device consists...... screening, as important for the observed transfer functions. The relation of the saturation powers of the gain and absorption sectionsis important for design optimization....

  15. The Mid-Term Changes of Pulmonary Function Tests After Phrenic Nerve Transfer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yavari, Masoud; Hassanpour, Seyed Esmail; Khodayari, Mohammad

    2016-03-01

    In the restoration of elbow flexion, the phrenic nerve has proven to be a good donor, but considering the role of the phrenic nerve in respiratory function, we cannot disregard the potential dangers of this method. In the current study, we reviewed the results of pulmonary function tests (PFT) in four patients who underwent phrenic nerve transfer. We reviewed the results of serial spirometry tests, which were performed before and after phrenic nerve transfer surgery. All patients regained Biceps power to M3 strength or above. None of our patients experienced pulmonary problems or respiratory complaints, but a significant reduction of spirometric parameters occurred after surgery. This study highlights the close link between the role of the phrenic nerve and pulmonary function, such that the use of this nerve as a transfer donor leads to spirometric impairments.

  16. The Use of Nerve Transfers to Restore Upper Extremity Function in Cervical Spinal Cord Injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, Ida K; Novak, Christine B; Krauss, Emily M; Hoben, Gwendolyn M; Zaidman, Craig; Ruvinskaya, Rimma; Juknis, Neringa; Winter, Anke C; Mackinnon, Susan E

    2018-03-15

    Nerve transfer surgery to restore upper extremity function in cervical spinal cord injury (SCI) is novel and may transform treatment. Determining candidacy even years post-SCI is ill defined and deserves investigation. To develop a diagnostic algorithm, focusing on electrodiagnostic (EDX) studies, to determine eligibility for nerve transfer surgery. Retrospective descriptive case series. Tertiary university-based institution. Individuals with cervical SCI (n = 45). The electronic medical records of people referred to the Plastic Surgery Multidisciplinary Upper Extremity Surgery unit in the SCI clinic from 2010-2015 were reviewed. People were considered for nerve transfers to restore elbow extension or finger flexion and/or extension. Data including demographic, clinical evaluation, EDX results, surgery, and outcomes were collected and analyzed. EDX data, including nerve conduction studies and electromyography, for bilateral upper extremities of each patient examined was used to assess for the presence of lower motor neuron injury, which would preclude late nerve transfer. Based on our criteria and the results of EDX testing, a substantial number of patients presenting even years post-SCI were candidates for nerve transfers. Clinical outcome results are heterogeneous but promising and suggest that further refinement of eligibility, long-term follow-up, and standardized assessment will improve our understanding of the role of nerve transfer surgery to restore function in people with midcervical SCI. Many patients living with SCI are candidates for nerve transfer surgery to restore upper extremity function. Although the ultimate efficacy of these surgeries is not yet determined, this study attempts to report the criteria we are using and may ultimately determine the timing for intervention and which transfers are most useful for this heterogeneous population. IV. Copyright © 2018 American Academy of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All

  17. A binaural advantage in the subjective modulation transfer function with simple impulse responses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thompson, Eric Robert; Dau, Torsten

    2008-01-01

    into account that humans listen with two ears. There can be large interaural phase differences in the modulation transfer functions, which can create detectable interaural level difference fluctuations. Measurements were made to determine whether these interaural modulation phase differences can be used......The speech transmission index (STI) has been a popular method for predicting speech intelligibility in rooms. It is based on the magnitude of the modulation transfer function, which can be derived from the impulse response of the room and the background noise levels. However, it does not take...

  18. Characterizing short-term stability for Boolean networks over any distribution of transfer functions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seshadhri, C.; Smith, Andrew M.; Vorobeychik, Yevgeniy; Mayo, Jackson R.; Armstrong, Robert C.

    2016-01-01

    Here we present a characterization of short-term stability of random Boolean networks under arbitrary distributions of transfer functions. Given any distribution of transfer functions for a random Boolean network, we present a formula that decides whether short-term chaos (damage spreading) will happen. We provide a formal proof for this formula, and empirically show that its predictions are accurate. Previous work only works for special cases of balanced families. Finally, it has been observed that these characterizations fail for unbalanced families, yet such families are widespread in real biological networks.

  19. Heterodyne technique for measuring the amplitude and phase transfer functions of an optical modulator

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Romstad, Francis Pascal; Birkedal, Dan; Mørk, Jesper

    2002-01-01

    In this letter, we propose a technique based on heterodyne detection for accurately and simultaneously measuring the amplitude and phase transfer functions of an optical modulator. The technique is used to characterize an InGaAsp multiple quantum-well electroabsorption modulator. From the measure...... the measurements we derive the small-signal alpha-parameter and the time-dependent chirp for different operation conditions.......In this letter, we propose a technique based on heterodyne detection for accurately and simultaneously measuring the amplitude and phase transfer functions of an optical modulator. The technique is used to characterize an InGaAsp multiple quantum-well electroabsorption modulator. From...

  20. Measurement of the amplitude and phase transfer functions of an optical modulator using a heterodyne technique

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Romstad, Francis Pascal; Birkedal, Dan; Mørk, Jesper

    2001-01-01

    We present a new technique that measures the full amplitude and phase transfer curves of the modulator as a function of the applied bias, from which the small signal α-parameter can be calculated. The technique measures the amplitude and phase transfer functions simultaneously and directly......, compared to techniques where a time-consuming data analysis is necessary to calculate the a-parameter and an additional measurement is necessary to estimate the phase. Additionally, the chirp profile for all operation points can be calculated....

  1. The equivalency between logic Petri workflow nets and workflow nets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jing; Yu, ShuXia; Du, YuYue

    2015-01-01

    Logic Petri nets (LPNs) can describe and analyze batch processing functions and passing value indeterminacy in cooperative systems. Logic Petri workflow nets (LPWNs) are proposed based on LPNs in this paper. Process mining is regarded as an important bridge between modeling and analysis of data mining and business process. Workflow nets (WF-nets) are the extension to Petri nets (PNs), and have successfully been used to process mining. Some shortcomings cannot be avoided in process mining, such as duplicate tasks, invisible tasks, and the noise of logs. The online shop in electronic commerce in this paper is modeled to prove the equivalence between LPWNs and WF-nets, and advantages of LPWNs are presented.

  2. The Equivalency between Logic Petri Workflow Nets and Workflow Nets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jing; Yu, ShuXia; Du, YuYue

    2015-01-01

    Logic Petri nets (LPNs) can describe and analyze batch processing functions and passing value indeterminacy in cooperative systems. Logic Petri workflow nets (LPWNs) are proposed based on LPNs in this paper. Process mining is regarded as an important bridge between modeling and analysis of data mining and business process. Workflow nets (WF-nets) are the extension to Petri nets (PNs), and have successfully been used to process mining. Some shortcomings cannot be avoided in process mining, such as duplicate tasks, invisible tasks, and the noise of logs. The online shop in electronic commerce in this paper is modeled to prove the equivalence between LPWNs and WF-nets, and advantages of LPWNs are presented. PMID:25821845

  3. Comparing the Selected Transfer Functions and Local Optimization Methods for Neural Network Flood Runoff Forecast

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petr Maca

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The presented paper aims to analyze the influence of the selection of transfer function and training algorithms on neural network flood runoff forecast. Nine of the most significant flood events, caused by the extreme rainfall, were selected from 10 years of measurement on small headwater catchment in the Czech Republic, and flood runoff forecast was investigated using the extensive set of multilayer perceptrons with one hidden layer of neurons. The analyzed artificial neural network models with 11 different activation functions in hidden layer were trained using 7 local optimization algorithms. The results show that the Levenberg-Marquardt algorithm was superior compared to the remaining tested local optimization methods. When comparing the 11 nonlinear transfer functions, used in hidden layer neurons, the RootSig function was superior compared to the rest of analyzed activation functions.

  4. Extremely environment-hard and low work function transfer-mold field emitter arrays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakamoto, Masayuki, E-mail: m-nakamoto@rie.shizuoka.ac.jp [Research Institute of Electronics, Shizuoka University, 3-5-1 Johoku, Naka-ku, Hamamatsu, Shizuoka 432-8011 (Japan); Moon, Jonghyun [Research Institute of Electronics, Shizuoka University, 3-5-1 Johoku, Naka-ku, Hamamatsu, Shizuoka 432-8011 (Japan)

    2013-06-15

    Extremely environment-hard and low work function field-emitter arrays (FEAs) were fabricated by a transfer-mold emitter fabrication method to produce highly reliable vacuum nanoelectronic devices able to operate stably at low voltage in highly oxidizing atmospheres. Amorphous carbon (a-C) having a work function of 3.6 eV and sp{sup 3} fraction of 85.6% prepared by plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition was used as the emitter material. The field-emission characteristics of the obtained transfer-mold FEAs strongly depended on their work function and morphology. The environment-hard characteristics of the transfer-mold a-C FEAs were compared with those of the transfer-mold titanium nitride FEAs and nickel FEAs. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy was used to confirm the stable chemical states of the FEAs after oxygen radical treatment. The small amount of material oxidized (6.3%) at the surface of the a-C FEAs compared with 11.8% for the TiN-FEAs and 39.0% for Ni FEAs after oxygen radical treatment explained their almost constant work function in oxidizing atmospheres. The emission fluctuation rates of transfer-mold a-C FEAs without resistive layers under in situ radical treatment were as low as ±5.0%, compared with 5–100% for conventional FEAs with resistive layers not under highly oxidizing atmospheres. Therefore, the present environment-hard and low work function transfer-mold a-C FEAs are expected to be useful for reliable vacuum nanoelectronic devices.

  5. An analytical wall-function for recirculating and impinging turbulent heat transfer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suga, K.; Ishibashi, Y.; Kuwata, Y.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► Improvement of the analytical wall-function is proposed. ► Strain parameter dependency is introduced to the prescribed eddy viscosity profile of the analytical wall-function. ► The model performance is evaluated in turbulent pipe, channel, back-step, abrupt expansion pipe and plane impinging flows. ► Generally improved heat transfer is obtained in all the test cases with the standard k-e model. -- Abstract: The performance of the analytical wall-function (AWF) of Craft et al. [Craft, T.J., Gerasimov, A.V., Iacovides, H., Launder, B.E., 2002, Progress in the generalisation of wall-function treatments. Int. J. Heat Fluid Flow 23, 148–160.] is improved for predicting turbulent heat transfer in recirculating and impinging flows. Since constant parameters of the eddy viscosity formula were used to derive the AWF, the prediction accuracy of the original AWF tends to deteriorate in complex flows where those parameters need changing according to the local turbulence. To overcome such shortcomings, the present study introduces a functional behaviour on the strain parameter into the coefficient of the eddy viscosity of the AWF. The presently modified version of the AWF is validated in turbulent heat transfer of pipe flows, channel flows, back-step flows, pipe flows with abrupt expansion and plane impinging slot jets. The results confirm that the present modification successfully improves the performance of the original AWF for all the flows and heat transfer tested

  6. Direct metal transfer printing on flexible substrate for fabricating optics functional devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Yingjie; Zhou, Xiaohong; Zhang, Feng; Shi, Zhenwu; Chen, Linsen; Peng, Changsi

    2015-11-01

    New functional materials and devices based on metal patterns can be widely used in many new and expanding industries,such as flat panel displays, alternative energy,sensors and so on. In this paper, we introduce a new transfer printing method for fabricating metal optics functional devices. This method can directly transfer a metal pattern from a polyethylene terephthalate (PET)supported UV or polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) pattern to another PET substrate. Purely taking advantage of the anaerobic UV curing adhesive (a-UV) on PET substrate, metal film can be easily peeled off from micro/nano-structured surface. As a result, metal film on the protrusion can be selectively transferred onto the target substrate, to make it the metal functional surface. But which on the bottom can not be transferred. This method provides low cost fabrication of metal thin film devices by avoiding high cost lithography process. Compared with conventional approach, this method can get more smooth rough edges and has wider tolerance range for the original master mold. Future developments and potential applications of this metal transfer method will be addressed.

  7. Conjugative Plasmid Transfer in Xylella fastidiosa Is Dependent on tra and trb Operon Functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burbank, Lindsey P; Van Horn, Christopher R

    2017-11-01

    The insect-transmitted plant pathogen Xylella fastidiosa is capable of efficient horizontal gene transfer (HGT) and recombination. Natural transformation occurs at high rates in X. fastidiosa , but there also is evidence that certain strains of X. fastidiosa carry native plasmids equipped with transfer and mobilization genes, suggesting conjugation as an additional mechanism of HGT in some instances. Two operons, tra and trb , putatively encoding a conjugative type IV secretion system, are found in some but not all X. fastidiosa isolates, often on native plasmids. X. fastidiosa strains that carry the conjugative transfer genes can belong to different subspecies and frequently differ in host ranges. Using X. fastidiosa strain M23 ( X. fastidiosa subsp. fastidiosa ) or Dixon ( X. fastidiosa subsp. multiplex ) as the donor strain and Temecula ( X. fastidiosa subsp. fastidiosa ) as the recipient strain, plasmid transfer was characterized using the mobilizable broad-host-range vector pBBR5pemIK. Transfer of plasmid pBBR5pemIK was observed under in vitro conditions with both donor strains and was dependent on both tra and trb operon functions. A conjugative mechanism likely contributes to gene transfer between diverse strains of X. fastidiosa , possibly facilitating adaptation to new environments or different hosts. IMPORTANCE Xylella fastidiosa is an important plant pathogen worldwide, infecting a wide range of different plant species. The emergence of new diseases caused by X. fastidiosa , or host switching of existing strains, is thought to be primarily due to the high frequency of HGT and recombination in this pathogen. Transfer of plasmids by a conjugative mechanism enables movement of larger amounts of genetic material at one time, compared with other routes of gene transfer such as natural transformation. Establishing the prevalence and functionality of this mechanism in X. fastidiosa contributes to a better understanding of HGT, adaptation, and disease emergence

  8. Vector Green's function algorithm for radiative transfer in plane-parallel atmosphere

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qin Yi [School of Physics, University of New South Wales (Australia)]. E-mail: yi.qin@csiro.au; Box, Michael A. [School of Physics, University of New South Wales (Australia)

    2006-01-15

    Green's function is a widely used approach for boundary value problems. In problems related to radiative transfer, Green's function has been found to be useful in land, ocean and atmosphere remote sensing. It is also a key element in higher order perturbation theory. This paper presents an explicit expression of the Green's function, in terms of the source and radiation field variables, for a plane-parallel atmosphere with either vacuum boundaries or a reflecting (BRDF) surface. Full polarization state is considered but the algorithm has been developed in such way that it can be easily reduced to solve scalar radiative transfer problems, which makes it possible to implement a single set of code for computing both the scalar and the vector Green's function.

  9. Vector Green's function algorithm for radiative transfer in plane-parallel atmosphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qin Yi; Box, Michael A.

    2006-01-01

    Green's function is a widely used approach for boundary value problems. In problems related to radiative transfer, Green's function has been found to be useful in land, ocean and atmosphere remote sensing. It is also a key element in higher order perturbation theory. This paper presents an explicit expression of the Green's function, in terms of the source and radiation field variables, for a plane-parallel atmosphere with either vacuum boundaries or a reflecting (BRDF) surface. Full polarization state is considered but the algorithm has been developed in such way that it can be easily reduced to solve scalar radiative transfer problems, which makes it possible to implement a single set of code for computing both the scalar and the vector Green's function

  10. Solution of the radiative transfer equation for Rayleigh scattering using the infinite medium Green's function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biçer, M.; Kaşkaş, A.

    2018-03-01

    The infinite medium Green's function is used to solve the half-space albedo, slab albedo and Milne problems for the unpolarized Rayleigh scattering case; these problems are the most classical problems of radiative transfer theory. The numerical results are obtained and are compared with previous ones.

  11. Investigating the effects of heat exchanger on flame transfer function in a simplified boiler

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hosseini, N.; Kornilov, V.N.; Teerling, O. J.; Lopez Arteaga, I.; de Goey, Ph.

    2015-01-01

    The goal of the present work is to investigate the effects the heat exchanger can have on the acoustic response of the flames(flame transfer function) in a boiler. In compact condensing boilers the distance between the burner and heat exchanger is small enough to cause intense interactions. That is

  12. Testing and development of transfer functions for weighing precipitation gauges in WMO-SPICE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Kochendorfer

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Weighing precipitation gauges are used widely for the measurement of all forms of precipitation, and are typically more accurate than tipping-bucket precipitation gauges. This is especially true for the measurement of solid precipitation; however, weighing precipitation gauge measurements must still be adjusted for undercatch in snowy, windy conditions. In WMO-SPICE (World Meteorological Organization Solid Precipitation InterComparison Experiment, different types of weighing precipitation gauges and shields were compared, and adjustments were determined for the undercatch of solid precipitation caused by wind. For the various combinations of gauges and shields, adjustments using both new and previously existing transfer functions were evaluated. For most of the gauge and shield combinations, previously derived transfer functions were found to perform as well as those more recently derived. This indicates that wind shield type (or lack thereof is more important in determining the magnitude of wind-induced undercatch than the type of weighing precipitation gauge. It also demonstrates the potential for widespread use of the previously developed transfer functions. Another overarching result was that, in general, the more effective shields, which were associated with smaller unadjusted errors, also produced more accurate measurements after adjustment. This indicates that although transfer functions can effectively reduce measurement biases, effective wind shielding is still required for the most accurate measurement of solid precipitation.

  13. The Derived Transfer and Reversal of Mood Functions through Equivalence Relations: II

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cahill, Jane; Barnes-Holmes, Yvonne; Barnes-Holmes, Dermot; Rodriguez-Valverde, Miguel; Luciano, Carmen; Smeets, Paul M.

    2007-01-01

    Recent research has demonstrated the transfer of induced mood functions through equivalence relations by means of a musical mood-induction procedure. The research described in this article replicated and extended such work, primarily with the inclusion of a baseline and two types of reversal procedures. First, 16 adult participants were trained…

  14. Large work function difference driven electron transfer from electrides to single-walled carbon nanotubes

    KAUST Repository

    Menamparambath, Mini Mol; Park, Jong Ho; Yoo, Ho Sung; Patole, Shashikant P.; Yoo, Ji Beom; Kim, Sung Wng; Baik, Seunghyun

    2014-01-01

    V. Here we investigated charge transfer between two different types of electrides, [Ca2N]+·e- and [Ca 24Al28O64]4+·4e-, and single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) with a work function of 4.73-5.05 eV. [Ca2N]+·e- with open 2-dimensional electron layers

  15. A parametric transfer function methodology for analyzing reactive transport in nonuniform flow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Jian; Cirpka, Olaf A; Fienen, Michael N; Wu, Wei-min; Mehlhorn, Tonia L; Carley, Jack; Jardine, Philip M; Criddle, Craig S; Kitanidis, Peter K

    2006-02-01

    We analyze reactive transport during in-situ bioremediation in a nonuniform flow field, involving multiple extraction and injection wells, by the method of transfer functions. Gamma distributions are used as parametric models of the transfer functions. Apparent parameters of classical transport models may be estimated from those of the gamma distributions by matching temporal moments. We demonstrate the method by application to measured data taken at a field experiment on bioremediation conducted in a multiple-well system in Oak Ridge, TN. Breakthrough curves (BTCs) of a conservative tracer (bromide) and a reactive compound (ethanol) are measured at multi-level sampling (MLS) wells and in extraction wells. The BTCs of both compounds are jointly analyzed to estimate the first-order degradation rate of ethanol. To quantify the tracer loss, we compare the approaches of using a scaling factor and a first-order decay term. Results show that by including a scaling factor both gamma distributions and inverse-Gaussian distributions (transfer functions according to the advection-dispersion equation) are suitable to approximate the transfer functions and estimate the reactive rate coefficients for both MLS and extraction wells. However, using a first-order decay term for tracer loss fails to describe the BTCs at the extraction well, which is affected by the nonuniform distribution of travel paths.

  16. Testing and development of transfer functions for weighing precipitation gauges in WMO-SPICE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kochendorfer, John; Nitu, Rodica; Wolff, Mareile; Mekis, Eva; Rasmussen, Roy; Baker, Bruce; Earle, Michael E.; Reverdin, Audrey; Wong, Kai; Smith, Craig D.; Yang, Daqing; Roulet, Yves-Alain; Meyers, Tilden; Buisan, Samuel; Isaksen, Ketil; Brækkan, Ragnar; Landolt, Scott; Jachcik, Al

    2018-02-01

    Weighing precipitation gauges are used widely for the measurement of all forms of precipitation, and are typically more accurate than tipping-bucket precipitation gauges. This is especially true for the measurement of solid precipitation; however, weighing precipitation gauge measurements must still be adjusted for undercatch in snowy, windy conditions. In WMO-SPICE (World Meteorological Organization Solid Precipitation InterComparison Experiment), different types of weighing precipitation gauges and shields were compared, and adjustments were determined for the undercatch of solid precipitation caused by wind. For the various combinations of gauges and shields, adjustments using both new and previously existing transfer functions were evaluated. For most of the gauge and shield combinations, previously derived transfer functions were found to perform as well as those more recently derived. This indicates that wind shield type (or lack thereof) is more important in determining the magnitude of wind-induced undercatch than the type of weighing precipitation gauge. It also demonstrates the potential for widespread use of the previously developed transfer functions. Another overarching result was that, in general, the more effective shields, which were associated with smaller unadjusted errors, also produced more accurate measurements after adjustment. This indicates that although transfer functions can effectively reduce measurement biases, effective wind shielding is still required for the most accurate measurement of solid precipitation.

  17. Measurement of multi-bunch transfer functions using time-domain data and Fourier analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hindi, H.; Sapozhnikov, L.; Fox, J.; Prabhakar, S.; Oxoby, G.; Linscott, I.; Drago, A.

    1993-12-01

    Multi-bunch transfer functions are principal ingredients in understanding both the behavior of high-current storage rings as well as control of their instabilities. The measurement of transfer functions on a bunch-by-bunch basis is particularly important in the design of active feedback systems. Traditional methods of network analysis that work well in the single bunch case become difficult to implement for many bunches. We have developed a method for obtaining empirical estimates of the multi-bunch longitudinal transfer functions from the time-domain measurements of the bunches' phase oscillations. This method involves recording the response of the bunch of interest to a white-noise excitation. The transfer function can then be computed as the ratio of the fast Fourier transforms (FFTs) of the response and excitation sequences, averaged over several excitations. The calculation is performed off-line on bunch-phase data and is well-suited to the multi-bunch case. A description of this method and an analysis of its performance is presented with results obtained using the longitudinal quick prototype feedback system developed at SLAC

  18. Functionalized Poly(propylene imine) Dendrimers as Novel Phase Transfer Catalyst in Supercritical Cabon Dioxide

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goetheer, E.L.V.; Baars, M.W.P.L.; Broeke, van den L.J.P.; Meijer, E.W.; Keurentjes, J.T.F.

    2000-01-01

    Perfluoro-functionalized poly(propylene imine) dendrimers have been used as reactive extractants for anionic species and as phase transfer catalysts for two types of reactions. Different generations of dendrimers have been used for applications in carbon dioxide. First, the reactive extraction of

  19. Transfer functions of double- and multiple-cavity Fabry-Perot filters driven by Lorentzian sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marti, J; Capmany, J

    1996-12-20

    We derive expressions for the transfer functions of double- and multiple-cavity Fabry-Perot filters driven by laser sources with Lorentzian spectrum. These are of interest because of their applications in sensing and channel filtering in optical frequency-division multiplexing networks.

  20. Using Multiple Schedules during Functional Communication Training to Promote Rapid Transfer of Treatment Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, Wayne W.; Greer, Brian D.; Fuhrman, Ashley M.; Querim, Angie C.

    2015-01-01

    Multiple schedules with signaled periods of reinforcement and extinction have been used to thin reinforcement schedules during functional communication training (FCT) to make the intervention more practical for parents and teachers. We evaluated whether these signals would also facilitate rapid transfer of treatment effects across settings and…

  1. Dynamic Stiffness Transfer Function of an Electromechanical Actuator Using System Identification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sang Hwa; Tahk, Min-Jea

    2018-04-01

    In the aeroelastic analysis of flight vehicles with electromechanical actuators (EMAs), an accurate prediction of flutter requires dynamic stiffness characteristics of the EMA. The dynamic stiffness transfer function of the EMA with brushless direct current (BLDC) motor can be obtained by conducting complicated mathematical calculations of control algorithms and mechanical/electrical nonlinearities using linearization techniques. Thus, system identification approaches using experimental data, as an alternative, have considerable advantages. However, the test setup for system identification is expensive and complex, and experimental procedures for data collection are time-consuming tasks. To obtain the dynamic stiffness transfer function, this paper proposes a linear system identification method that uses information obtained from a reliable dynamic stiffness model with a control algorithm and nonlinearities. The results of this study show that the system identification procedure is compact, and the transfer function is able to describe the dynamic stiffness characteristics of the EMA. In addition, to verify the validity of the system identification method, the simulation results of the dynamic stiffness transfer function and the dynamic stiffness model were compared with the experimental data for various external loads.

  2. Characterization of functional SSR markers in Prosopis alba and their transferability across Prosopis species

    OpenAIRE

    María F. Pomponio; Cintia Acuña; Vivien Pentreath; Diego L. Lauenstein; Susana M. Poltri; Susana Torales

    2015-01-01

    Aim of study: The aim of the study was to characterize functional microsatellite markers in Prosopis alba and examine the transferability to species from the Prosopis genus. Area of the study: samples were obtained from natural populations of Argentina. Material and Methods: Eleven SSR functional markers related to stress and metabolism were amplified in a sample of 152 genotypes from P.alba, P. denudans, P. hassleriP. chilensis, P. flexuosa, and interspecific hybrids. Main res...

  3. Functional outcome of nerve transfer for restoration of shoulder and elbow function in upper brachial plexus injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faruquee Sajedur

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Purpose of this study was to evaluate the functional outcome of spinal accessory to suprascapular nerve transfer (XI-SSN done for restoration of shoulder function and partial transfer of ulnar nerve to the motor branch to the biceps muscle for the recovery of elbow flexion (Oberlin transfer. Methods This is a prospective study involving 15 consecutive cases of upper plexus injury seen between January 2004 and December 2005. The average age of patients was 35.6 yrs (15–52 yrs. The injury-surgery interval was between 2–6 months. All underwent XI-SSN and Oberlin nerve transfer. The coaptation was done close to the biceps muscle to ensure early recovery. The average follow up was 15 months (range 12–36 months. The functional outcome was assessed by measuring range of movements and also on the grading scale proposed by Narakas for shoulder function and Waikakul for elbow function. Results Good/Excellent results were seen in 13/15 patients with respect to elbow function and 8/15 for shoulder function. The time required for the first sign of clinical reinnervation of biceps was 3 months 9 days (range 1 month 25 days to 4 months and for the recovery of antigravity elbow flexion was 5 months (range 3 1/2 months to 8 months. 13 had M4 and two M3 power. On evaluating shoulder function 8/15 regained active abduction, five had M3 and three M4 shoulder abduction. The average range of abduction in these eight patients was 66 degrees (range 45–90. Eight had recovered active external rotation, average 44 degrees (range 15–95. The motor recovery of external rotation was M3 in 5 and M4 in 3. 7/15 had no active abduction/external rotation, but they felt that their shoulder was more stable. Comparable results were observed in both below and above 40 age groups and those with injury to surgery interval less than 3 or 3–6 months. Conclusion Transfer of ulnar nerve fascicle to the motor branch of biceps close to the muscle consistently

  4. Incorporation of charge transfer into the explicit polarization fragment method by grand canonical density functional theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isegawa, Miho; Gao, Jiali; Truhlar, Donald G

    2011-08-28

    Molecular fragmentation algorithms provide a powerful approach to extending electronic structure methods to very large systems. Here we present a method for including charge transfer between molecular fragments in the explicit polarization (X-Pol) fragment method for calculating potential energy surfaces. In the conventional X-Pol method, the total charge of each fragment is preserved, and charge transfer between fragments is not allowed. The description of charge transfer is made possible by treating each fragment as an open system with respect to the number of electrons. To achieve this, we applied Mermin's finite temperature method to the X-Pol wave function. In the application of this method to X-Pol, the fragments are open systems that partially equilibrate their number of electrons through a quasithermodynamics electron reservoir. The number of electrons in a given fragment can take a fractional value, and the electrons of each fragment obey the Fermi-Dirac distribution. The equilibrium state for the electrons is determined by electronegativity equalization with conservation of the total number of electrons. The amount of charge transfer is controlled by re-interpreting the temperature parameter in the Fermi-Dirac distribution function as a coupling strength parameter. We determined this coupling parameter so as to reproduce the charge transfer energy obtained by block localized energy decomposition analysis. We apply the new method to ten systems, and we show that it can yield reasonable approximations to potential energy profiles, to charge transfer stabilization energies, and to the direction and amount of charge transferred. © 2011 American Institute of Physics

  5. Transfer functions for protein signal transduction: application to a model of striatal neural plasticity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriele Scheler

    Full Text Available We present a novel formulation for biochemical reaction networks in the context of protein signal transduction. The model consists of input-output transfer functions, which are derived from differential equations, using stable equilibria. We select a set of "source" species, which are interpreted as input signals. Signals are transmitted to all other species in the system (the "target" species with a specific delay and with a specific transmission strength. The delay is computed as the maximal reaction time until a stable equilibrium for the target species is reached, in the context of all other reactions in the system. The transmission strength is the concentration change of the target species. The computed input-output transfer functions can be stored in a matrix, fitted with parameters, and even recalled to build dynamical models on the basis of state changes. By separating the temporal and the magnitudinal domain we can greatly simplify the computational model, circumventing typical problems of complex dynamical systems. The transfer function transformation of biochemical reaction systems can be applied to mass-action kinetic models of signal transduction. The paper shows that this approach yields significant novel insights while remaining a fully testable and executable dynamical model for signal transduction. In particular we can deconstruct the complex system into local transfer functions between individual species. As an example, we examine modularity and signal integration using a published model of striatal neural plasticity. The modularizations that emerge correspond to a known biological distinction between calcium-dependent and cAMP-dependent pathways. Remarkably, we found that overall interconnectedness depends on the magnitude of inputs, with higher connectivity at low input concentrations and significant modularization at moderate to high input concentrations. This general result, which directly follows from the properties of

  6. Excitation functions for quasielastic transfer reactions induced with heavy ions in bismuth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gardes, D.; Bimbot, R.; Maison, J.; de Reilhac, L.; Rivet, M.F.; Fleury, A.; Hubert, F.; Llabador, Y.

    1978-01-01

    The excitation functions for the production of 210 Bi, 210 Po, /sup 207-211/At, and 211 Rn through quasielastic transfer reactions induced with heavy ions in 209 Bi have been measured. The corresponding reactions involved the transfer of one neutron, one proton, two charges, and three charges from projectile to target. The projectiles used were 12 C, 14 N, 16 O, 19 F, 20 Ne, 40 Ar, 40 Ca, 56 Fe, and 63 Cu. The experimental techniques involved target irradiations and off-line α and γ activity measurements. Chemical separations were used to solve specific problems. Careful measuremnts of incident energies and cross sections were performed close to the reaction thresholds. All excitation functions exhibit the typical features of quasielastic transfer reactions: a sharp increase at low energy, and a constant value at high incident energy. The position of the thresholds are strongly influenced by the energetics of the reaction: High cross sections are observed under the strong interaction barrier if the energy balance at the minimum distance of approach is positive. This balance is equal to the difference between the interaction potentials in the entrance and exit channels, corrected for the mass balance. The constant cross sections observed for the high energy part of a given excitation function are consistent with the assumption that the curve P (R) which represents the transfer probability versus the distance between the nucleus centers does not vary with incident energy. This assumption implies the constancy of the optimum distance of approach R/sub opt/, of the R window ΔR for which P (R) is significant, and of the magnitude of P (R). Moreover the data show that the high energy cross sections for one-proton transfer are independent of the projectile, while odd-even effects of the projectile atomic number Z on the two-charge transfer cross sections are observed for the lightest incident ions 14 N to 20 Ne

  7. Excitation functions for quasi-elastic transfer reactions induced with heavy ions in bismuth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gardes, D.; Bimbot, R.; Maison, J.; Reilhac, L. de; Rivet, M.F.; Fleury, A.; Hubert, F.; Llabador, Y.

    1977-01-01

    The excitation functions for the production of 210 Bi, 210 Po, sup(207-211)At and 211 Rn through quasi-elastic transfer reactions induced with heavy ions in 209 Bi have been measured. The corresponding reactions involved the transfer of one neutron, one proton, two and three charges from projectile to target. The projectiles used were 12 C, 14 N, 16 O, 19 F, 20 Ne, 40 Ca, 56 Fe and 63 Cu. The experimental techniques involved target irradiations and off-line α and γ activity measurements. Chemical separations were used to solve specific problems. Careful measurements of incident energies and cross sections were performed close to the reaction thresholds

  8. Transferability of species distribution models: a functional habitat approach for two regionally threatened butterflies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanreusel, Wouter; Maes, Dirk; Van Dyck, Hans

    2007-02-01

    Numerous models for predicting species distribution have been developed for conservation purposes. Most of them make use of environmental data (e.g., climate, topography, land use) at a coarse grid resolution (often kilometres). Such approaches are useful for conservation policy issues including reserve-network selection. The efficiency of predictive models for species distribution is usually tested on the area for which they were developed. Although highly interesting from the point of view of conservation efficiency, transferability of such models to independent areas is still under debate. We tested the transferability of habitat-based predictive distribution models for two regionally threatened butterflies, the green hairstreak (Callophrys rubi) and the grayling (Hipparchia semele), within and among three nature reserves in northeastern Belgium. We built predictive models based on spatially detailed maps of area-wide distribution and density of ecological resources. We used resources directly related to ecological functions (host plants, nectar sources, shelter, microclimate) rather than environmental surrogate variables. We obtained models that performed well with few resource variables. All models were transferable--although to different degrees--among the independent areas within the same broad geographical region. We argue that habitat models based on essential functional resources could transfer better in space than models that use indirect environmental variables. Because functional variables can easily be interpreted and even be directly affected by terrain managers, these models can be useful tools to guide species-adapted reserve management.

  9. A note on G-functions within the scope of radiative transfer in turbid vegetation media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Otto, Sebastian; Trautmann, Thomas

    2008-01-01

    This work reports on the use of leaf normal distribution functions (LNDFs) in the radiative transfer theory of turbid vegetation media to calculate the so-called G-function (GF). We revisit the normalisation condition of the LNDFs and present an extended set of fully explicit analytical expressions for GF considering commonly used standard LNDFs from purely vertical to purely horizontal model leaves. Applying them we derive GF for a generalised LNDF, which is written as a series of cosine functions with a number of free parameters. This generalisation opens up the possibility to fit leaf orientation measurements to our generalised LNDF and to determine the respective analytical GF. Thus, an extended range of leaf architectures, beyond the usual and less realistic standard LNDFs, can be considered with respect to applications of the radiative transfer theory in turbid vegetation media

  10. Functional brain asymmetry, attentional modulation, and interhemispheric transfer in boys with Tourette syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Plessen, Kerstin J; Lundervold, Arvid; Grüner, Renate

    2007-01-01

    on the right ear stimulus in the dichotic listening situation is thought to involve the same prefrontal attentional and executive functions that are involved in the suppression of tics, whereas, performance when focusing attention on the left ear stimulus additionally involves a callosal transfer...... to shift attention normally when instructed to focus on the right ear stimulus. When instructed to focus attention on the left ear stimulus, however, performance deteriorated in the TS group. Correlations with CC area further supported the hypothesized presence of deviant callosal functioning in the TS...... of information. In light of presumed disturbances in transfer of information across the corpus callosum, we hypothesized that children with TS would, however, have difficulty modulating the functional lateralization that ensues through a shift of attention to the left side. This hypothesis was tested...

  11. MRI-based, wireless determination of the transfer function of a linear implant: Introduction of the transfer matrix.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tokaya, Janot P; Raaijmakers, Alexander J E; Luijten, Peter R; van den Berg, Cornelis A T

    2018-04-24

    We introduce the transfer matrix (TM) that makes MR-based wireless determination of transfer functions (TFs) possible. TFs are implant specific measures for RF-safety assessment of linear implants. The TF relates an incident tangential electric field on an implant to a scattered electric field at its tip that generally governs local heating. The TM extends this concept and relates an incident tangential electric field to a current distribution in the implant therewith characterizing the RF response along the entire implant. The TM is exploited to measure TFs with MRI without hardware alterations. A model of rightward and leftward propagating attenuated waves undergoing multiple reflections is used to derive an analytical expression for the TM. This allows parameterization of the TM of generic implants, e.g., (partially) insulated single wires, in a homogeneous medium in a few unknowns that simultaneously describe the TF. These unknowns can be determined with MRI making it possible to measure the TM and, therefore, also the TF. The TM is able to predict an induced current due to an incident electric field and can be accurately parameterized with a limited number of unknowns. Using this description the TF is determined accurately (with a Pearson correlation coefficient R ≥ 0.9 between measurements and simulations) from MRI acquisitions. The TM enables measuring of TFs with MRI of the tested generic implant models. The MR-based method does not need hardware alterations and is wireless hence making TF determination in more realistic scenarios conceivable. © 2018 The Authors Magnetic Resonance in Medicine published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine.

  12. Functionalizing Arrays of Transferred Monolayer Graphene on Insulating Surfaces by Bipolar Electrochemistry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koefoed, Line; Pedersen, Emil Bjerglund; Thyssen, Lena

    2016-01-01

    Development of versatile methods for graphene functionalization is necessary before use in applications such as composites or as catalyst support. In this study, bipolar electrochemistry is used as a wireless functionalization method to graft 4-bromobenzenediazonium on large (10 × 10 mm2) monolayer...... graphene sheets supported on SiO2. Using this technique, transferred graphene can be electrochemically functionalized without the need of a metal support or the deposition of physical contacts. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and Raman spectroscopy are used to map the chemical changes and modifications...

  13. Ecosystem function and the net benefit of services provided by three land-use types under variable management in northwestern Virginia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huelsman, K. S.; Epstein, H. E.

    2017-12-01

    The concept of Ecosystem Services (ES) has become more interdisciplinary and influential in policy decision-making, but there are two major shortcomings in recent ES conversations: the resource inputs required by highly managed systems in order to provide material goods are not widely considered, and the distinction between ecosystem function and service is not always made. Supporting and regulating ES were examined for three land-use types with variable human management within the same mesoclimate: farmland, native prairie, and non-native early successional field. In situ soil moisture readings and soil nitrogen (N) transformation incubations, biodiversity surveys, vegetation harvesting, and soil sampling in each land-use type were used to determine the following ES: habitat, productivity, soil fertility, nutrient cycling, and water retention. If the provision of a particular ES required human inputs or interference, its overall value was reduced by the environmental cost of management. Non-native early successional field is not valued for the provision of any particular ES, as native prairie and farmland are, but it provides supporting and regulating ES without the requirement of human intervention, making it valuable in different ways. Likewise, any ecosystem functions with negative ecological side effects were considered ecosystem disservices and reduced the overall value of ES provided by the system. For example, the function of net nitrogen mineralization, generally defined as a service, is a disservice under N-saturated conditions, as additional N could be lost via leaching or gaseous forms. This research is valuable in the context of the current trend of increasing farmland abandonment and land use conversions. By considering the cost of human management for the provision of certain ES, as well as potential disservices associated with function, the overall net benefits of these three land-use types can be compared to improve land-use decision-making.

  14. Innate Functions of Immunoglobulin M Lessen Liver Gene Transfer with Helper-Dependent Adenovirus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unzu, Carmen; Morales-Kastresana, Aizea; Sampedro, Ana; Serrano-Mendioroz, Irantzu; Azpilikueta, Arantza; Ochoa, María Carmen; Dubrot, Juan; Martínez-Ansó, Eduardo

    2014-01-01

    The immune system poses obstacles to viral vectors, even in the first administration to preimmunized hosts. We have observed that the livers of B cell-deficient mice were more effectively transduced by a helper-dependent adenovirus serotype-5 (HDA) vector than those of WT mice. This effect was T-cell independent as shown in athymic mice. Passive transfer of the serum from adenovirus-naïve WT to Rag1KO mice resulted in a reduction in gene transfer that was traced to IgM purified from serum of adenovirus-naïve mice. To ascribe the gene transfer inhibition activity to either adenoviral antigen-specific or antigen-unspecific functions of IgM, we used a monoclonal IgM antibody of unrelated specificity. Both the polyclonal and the irrelevant monoclonal IgM inhibited gene transfer by the HDA vector to either cultured hepatocellular carcinoma cells or to the liver of mice in vivo. Adsorption of polyclonal or monoclonal IgMs to viral capsids was revealed by ELISAs on adenovirus-coated plates. These observations indicate the existence of an inborn IgM mechanism deployed against a prevalent virus to reduce early post-infection viremia. In conclusion, innate IgM binding to adenovirus serotype-5 capsids restrains gene-transfer and offers a mechanism to be targeted for optimization of vector dosage in gene therapy with HDA vectors. PMID:24465560

  15. Innate functions of immunoglobulin M lessen liver gene transfer with helper-dependent adenovirus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen Unzu

    Full Text Available The immune system poses obstacles to viral vectors, even in the first administration to preimmunized hosts. We have observed that the livers of B cell-deficient mice were more effectively transduced by a helper-dependent adenovirus serotype-5 (HDA vector than those of WT mice. This effect was T-cell independent as shown in athymic mice. Passive transfer of the serum from adenovirus-naïve WT to Rag1KO mice resulted in a reduction in gene transfer that was traced to IgM purified from serum of adenovirus-naïve mice. To ascribe the gene transfer inhibition activity to either adenoviral antigen-specific or antigen-unspecific functions of IgM, we used a monoclonal IgM antibody of unrelated specificity. Both the polyclonal and the irrelevant monoclonal IgM inhibited gene transfer by the HDA vector to either cultured hepatocellular carcinoma cells or to the liver of mice in vivo. Adsorption of polyclonal or monoclonal IgMs to viral capsids was revealed by ELISAs on adenovirus-coated plates. These observations indicate the existence of an inborn IgM mechanism deployed against a prevalent virus to reduce early post-infection viremia. In conclusion, innate IgM binding to adenovirus serotype-5 capsids restrains gene-transfer and offers a mechanism to be targeted for optimization of vector dosage in gene therapy with HDA vectors.

  16. Should the Department of Defense Transfer the Defense Logistics Agency's Map Functions to the Defense Working Capital Fund

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Zimmerman, Donald

    2000-01-01

    .... The functions cost about $25 million annually and are funded by operations and maintenance (O&M) dollars. This study analyzed if the functions should be transferred to the Defense Working Capital Fund...

  17. Workplace Exposures and Cognitive Function During Adulthood: Evidence From National Survey of Midlife Development and the O*NET.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grzywacz, Joseph G; Segel-Karpas, Dikla; Lachman, Margie E

    2016-06-01

    Expand understanding of the role of selected workplace exposures (ie, occupational complexity, conflict in the workplace, pace of work, and physical hazards) in adults' cognitive function. Cross-sectional data (n = 1991) from the second wave of the Midlife in the United States (MIDUS) study; restricted to participants who completed telephone-based cognitive assessments of episodic memory, executive functioning, and self-perceived memory. Occupational exposure data were harvested from the ONET Release 6.0. Greater complexity was associated with better self-perceived memory among women and men, and better episodic memory and executive functioning among women. Greater physical hazards were independently associated with poorer episodic memory and executive functioning. Objective assessments of physical and psychosocial exposures in the workplace are independently associated with cognitive outcomes in adulthood, with psychosocial exposures being particularly pronounced among women.

  18. Effects of source and receiver locations in predicting room transfer functions by a phased beam tracing method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jeong, Cheol-Ho; Ih, Jeong-Guon

    2012-01-01

    The accuracy of a phased beam tracing method in predicting transfer functions is investigated with a special focus on the positions of the source and receiver. Simulated transfer functions for various source-receiver pairs using the phased beam tracing method were compared with analytical Green’s...

  19. Transfer function modeling of parallel connected two three-phase induction motor implementation using LabView platform

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gunabalan, R.; Sanjeevikumar, P.; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents the transfer function modeling and stability analysis of two induction motors of same ratings and parameters connected in parallel. The induction motors are controlled by a single inverter and the entire drive system is modeled using transfer function in LabView. Further...

  20. Use of a geomorphological transfer function to model design floods in small hillside catchments in semiarid Tunisia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasri, S.; Cudennec, C.; Albergel, J.; Berndtsson, R.

    2004-02-01

    In the beginning of the 1990s, the Tunisian Ministry of Agriculture launched an ambitious program for constructing small hillside reservoirs in the northern and central region of the country. At present, more than 720 reservoirs have been created. They consist of small compacted earth dams supplied with a horizontal overflow weir. Due to lack of hydrological data and the area's extreme floods, however, it is very difficult to design the overflow weirs. Also, catchments are very sensitive to erosion and the reservoirs are rapidly silted up. Consequently, prediction of flood volumes for important rainfall events becomes crucial. Few hydrological observations, however, exist for the catchment areas. For this purpose a geomorphological model methodology is presented to predict shape and volume of hydrographs for important floods. This model is built around a production function that defines the net storm rainfall (portion of rainfall during a storm which reaches a stream channel as direct runoff) from the total rainfall (observed rainfall in the catchment) and a transfer function based on the most complete possible definition of the surface drainage system. Observed rainfall during 5-min time steps was used in the model. The model runoff generation is based on surface drainage characteristics which can be easily extracted from maps. The model was applied to two representative experimental catchments in central Tunisia. The conceptual rainfall-runoff model based on surface topography and drainage network was seen to reproduce observed runoff satisfactory. The calibrated model was used to estimate runoff from 5, 10, 20, and 50 year rainfall return periods regarding runoff volume, maximum runoff, as well as the general shape of the runoff hydrograph. Practical conclusions to design hill reservoirs and to extrapolate results using this model methodology for ungauged small catchments in semiarid Tunisia are made.

  1. Turbulent mixing between subchannels in a gas-liquid two-phase flow. For the equilibrium flow without net fluid transfer between subchannels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawahara, Akimaro; Sadatomi, Michio; Sato, Yoshifusa; Saito, Hidetoshi.

    1995-01-01

    To provide data necessary for modeling turbulent mixing between subchannels in a nuclear fuel rod bundle, three experiments were made in series for equilibrium two-phase flows, in which net mass exchange does not occur between subchannels for each phase. The first one was the measurement of turbulent mixing rates of both gas and liquid phases by a tracer technique, using air and water as the working fluids. Three kinds of vertical test channels consisting of two subchannels were used. The data have shown that the turbulent mixing rate of each phase in a two-phase flow is strongly dependent on flow regime. So, to see the relation between turbulent mixing and two-phase flow configuration in the subchannels, the second experiment, flow visualization, was made. It was observed in slug and churn flows that a lateral inter-subchannel liquid flow of a large scale is caused by the successive axial transit of large gas bubbles in each subchannel, and the turbulent mixing for the liquid phase is dominated by this lateral flow. To investigate a driving force of such large scale lateral flow, the third experiment, the measurement of an instantaneous pressure differential between the subchannels, was made. The result showed that there is a close relationship between the liquid phase mixing rate and the magnitude of the pressure differential fluctuation. (author)

  2. Transfer function design based on user selected samples for intuitive multivariate volume exploration

    KAUST Repository

    Zhou, Liang; Hansen, Charles

    2013-01-01

    Multivariate volumetric datasets are important to both science and medicine. We propose a transfer function (TF) design approach based on user selected samples in the spatial domain to make multivariate volumetric data visualization more accessible for domain users. Specifically, the user starts the visualization by probing features of interest on slices and the data values are instantly queried by user selection. The queried sample values are then used to automatically and robustly generate high dimensional transfer functions (HDTFs) via kernel density estimation (KDE). Alternatively, 2D Gaussian TFs can be automatically generated in the dimensionality reduced space using these samples. With the extracted features rendered in the volume rendering view, the user can further refine these features using segmentation brushes. Interactivity is achieved in our system and different views are tightly linked. Use cases show that our system has been successfully applied for simulation and complicated seismic data sets. © 2013 IEEE.

  3. Transfer function analysis of positron-emitting tracer imaging system (PETIS) data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keutgen, N.; Matsuhashi, S.; Mizuniwa, C.; Ito, T.; Fujimura, T.; Ishioka, N.S.; Watanabe, S.; Sekine, T.; Uchida, H.; Hashimoto, S.

    2002-01-01

    Quantitative analysis of the two-dimensional image data obtained with the positron-emitting tracer imaging system (PETIS) for plant physiology has been carried out using a transfer function analysis method. While a cut leaf base of Chinese chive (Allium tuberosum Rottler) or a cut stem of soybean (Glycine max L.) was immersed in an aqueous solution containing the [ 18 F] F - ion or [ 13 N]NO 3 - ion, tracer images of the leaf of Chinese chive and the trifoliate of soybean were recorded with PETIS. From the time sequence of images, the tracer transfer function was estimated from which the speed of tracer transport and the fraction moved between specified image positions were deduced

  4. Detecting regional lung properties using audio transfer functions of the respiratory system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulligan, K; Adler, A; Goubran, R

    2009-01-01

    In this study, a novel instrument has been developed for measuring changes in the distribution of lung fluid the respiratory system. The instrument consists of a speaker that inputs a 0-4kHz White Gaussian Noise (WGN) signal into a patient's mouth and an array of 4 electronic stethoscopes, linked via a fully adjustable harness, used to recover signals on the chest surface. The software system for processing the data utilizes the principles of adaptive filtering in order to obtain a transfer function that represents the input-output relationship for the signal as the volume of fluid in the lungs is varied. A chest phantom model was constructed to simulate the behavior of fluid related diseases within the lungs through the injection of varying volumes of water. Tests from the phantom model were compared to healthy subjects. Results show the instrument can obtain similar transfer functions and sound propagation delays between both human and phantom chests.

  5. Transfer function design based on user selected samples for intuitive multivariate volume exploration

    KAUST Repository

    Zhou, Liang

    2013-02-01

    Multivariate volumetric datasets are important to both science and medicine. We propose a transfer function (TF) design approach based on user selected samples in the spatial domain to make multivariate volumetric data visualization more accessible for domain users. Specifically, the user starts the visualization by probing features of interest on slices and the data values are instantly queried by user selection. The queried sample values are then used to automatically and robustly generate high dimensional transfer functions (HDTFs) via kernel density estimation (KDE). Alternatively, 2D Gaussian TFs can be automatically generated in the dimensionality reduced space using these samples. With the extracted features rendered in the volume rendering view, the user can further refine these features using segmentation brushes. Interactivity is achieved in our system and different views are tightly linked. Use cases show that our system has been successfully applied for simulation and complicated seismic data sets. © 2013 IEEE.

  6. Directional resolution of head-related transfer functions required in binaural synthesis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Minnaar, Pauli; Plogsties, Jan; Christensen, Flemming

    2005-01-01

    In binaural synthesis a virtual sound source is implemented by convolving an anechoic signal with a pair of head-related transfer functions (HRTFs). In order to represent all possible directions of the sound source with respect to the listener a discrete number of HRTFs are measured and interpola......In binaural synthesis a virtual sound source is implemented by convolving an anechoic signal with a pair of head-related transfer functions (HRTFs). In order to represent all possible directions of the sound source with respect to the listener a discrete number of HRTFs are measured...... and moving sound sources. A criterion was found that predicts the experimental results. This criterion was used to estimate the directional resolution required in binaural synthesis for all directions on the sphere around the head....

  7. Measurements of ocean wave spectra and modulation transfer function with the airborne two-frequency scatterometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weissman, D. E.; Johnson, J. W.

    1986-01-01

    The directional spectrum and the microwave modulation transfer function of ocean waves can be measured with the airborne two frequency scatterometer technique. Similar to tower based observations, the aircraft measurements of the Modulation Transfer Function (MTF) show that it is strongly affected by both wind speed and sea state. Also detected are small differences in the magnitudes of the MTF between downwind and upwind radar look directions, and variations with ocean wavenumber. The MTF inferred from the two frequency radar is larger than that measured using single frequency, wave orbital velocity techniques such as tower based radars or ROWS measurements from low altitude aircraft. Possible reasons for this are discussed. The ability to measure the ocean directional spectrum with the two frequency scatterometer, with supporting MTF data, is demonstrated.

  8. Measurements of ocean wave spectra and modulation transfer function with the airborne two frequency scatterometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weissman, D. E.; Johnson, J. W.

    1984-01-01

    The directional spectrum and the microwave modulation transfer function of ocean waves can be measured with the airborne two frequency scatterometer technique. Similar to tower based observations, the aircraft measurements of the Modulation Transfer Function (MTF) show that it is strongly affected by both wind speed and sea state. Also detected are small differences in the magnitudes of the MTF between downwind and upwind radar look directions, and variations with ocean wavenumber. The MTF inferred from the two frequency radar is larger than that measured using single frequency, wave orbital velocity techniques such as tower based radars or ROWS measurements from low altitude aircraft. Possible reasons for this are discussed. The ability to measure the ocean directional spectrum with the two frequency scatterometer, with supporting MTF data, is demonstrated.

  9. Realization of Nth-Order Voltage Transfer Function using Current Conveyors CCII

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Vrba

    1997-06-01

    Full Text Available A universal method for the realization of arbitrary voltage transfer function in canonic form is presented. A voltage-controlled current-source using a plus-type second-generation current conveyor is here applied as the basic building element. Filters designed according to this method have a high input impedance and low sensitivity to variations of circuit parameters. All passive elements are grounded.

  10. Evaluation of the optimum region for mammographic system using computer simulation to study modulation transfer functions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliveira, Isaura N. Sombra; Schiable, Homero; Porcel, Naider T.; Frere, Annie F.; Marques, Paulo M.A.

    1996-01-01

    An investigation of the 'optimum region' of the radiation field considering mammographic systems is studied. Such a region was defined in previous works as the field range where the system has its best performance and sharpest images. This study is based on a correlation of two methods for evaluating radiologic imaging systems, both using computer simulation in order to determine modulation transfer functions (MTFs) due to the X-ray tube focal spot in several field orientation and locations

  11. Comparison of transfer functions. Error detection at transformers; Vergleichen der Uebertragungsfunktionen. Fehlererkennung bei Transformatoren

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rahimpour, Ebrahim [ABB AG, Bad Honnef (Germany). R and D Abt.

    2011-11-14

    The task of modern diagnostics is to provide an optimal use of transformation by means of an exact condition monitoring according to portable power and operating time without an inadmissible impact on the operational safety. Several methods are investigated with respect to this problem: thermal monitoring, oil analysis (DGA, furfural), partial discharge measurements (electric, acoustic), transfer function, relaxation current, RVM (Recovery Voltage Measurement) and various others. Each method has a certain suitability to detect changes.

  12. Time constants and feedback transfer functions of EBR-II subassembly types

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grimm, K.N.; Meneghetti, D.

    1986-01-01

    Time constants, feedback reactivity transfer functions and power coefficients are calculated for stereotypical subassemblies in the EBR-II reactor. These quantities are calculated from nodal reactivities obtained from a reactor kinetic code analysis for a step change in power. Due to the multiplicity of eigenvalues, there are several time constants for each nodal position in a subassembly. Compared with these calculated values are analytically derived values for the initial node of a given channel

  13. Time constants and feedback transfer functions of EBR-II [Experimental Breeder Reactor] subassembly types

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grimm, K.N.; Meneghetti, D.

    1986-09-01

    Time constants, feedback reactivity transfer functions and power coefficients are calculated for stereotypical subassemblies in the EBR-II reactor. These quantities are calculated from nodal reactivities obtained from a reactor kinetic code analysis for a step change in power. Due to the multiplicity of eigenvalues, there are several time constants for each nodal position in a subassembly. Compared with these calculated values are analytically derived values for the initial node of a given channel

  14. Time constants and feedback transfer functions of EBR-II subassembly types

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grimm, K.N.; Meneghetti, D.

    1987-01-01

    Time constants, feedback reactivity transfer functions and power coefficients are calculated for stereotypical subassemblies in the EBR-II reactor. These quantities are calculated from nodal reactivities obtained from a reactor kinetic code analysis for a step change in power. Due to the multiplicity of eigenvalues, there are several time constants for each nodal position in a subassembly. Compared with these calculated values are analytically derived values for the initial node of a given channel. (author)

  15. Long Range Transport of Air Pollution Into Norway - A Transfer Function Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eivind Damsleth

    1984-07-01

    Full Text Available The daily and monthly concentration of sulphate in the air at Birkcnes in the southern part of Norway is analysed within an intervention analysis and transfer function framework. As input to the model we use the prevailing wind direction. It is shown that when the wind comes mainly from the South, that is from Central Europe and England, this gives a significant increase in the sulphate concentration, while a northern wind leads to a decrease.

  16. Use of a novel transfer function to reduce repolarization interval hysteresis

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Halámek, Josef; Jurák, Pavel; Bunch, T.J.; Lipoldová, J.; Novák, M.; Vondra, Vlastimil; Leinveber, Pavel; Plachý, M.; Kára, T.; Villa, M.; Fráňa, P.; Souček, M.; Somers, V. K.; Asirvatham, S.J.

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 29, č. 1 (2010), s. 23-32 ISSN 1383-875X R&D Projects: GA ČR GA102/08/1129 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20650511 Keywords : QT hysteresis * QT/RR coupling * Transfer function * Long QT syndrome Subject RIV: FA - Cardiovascular Diseases incl. Cardiotharic Surgery Impact factor: 1.228, year: 2010

  17. Operational parameters analysis of the radiographic technique through the modulation transfer function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Motta, Mauricio Saldanha; Guimaraes, Ari Sauer

    1995-01-01

    The influence of the focal size and image magnification variations on the radiographic final image is studied. The analysis used the modulation transfer function for evaluating the ratio of the radiographic image amplitude and that of the inspected object. it was concluded that the increase of the focal size and of the magnifications are not good for the image quality. 3 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab

  18. Transfer function synthesis for reactor spatial dynamics using the modal approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guppy, C B [Control and Instrumentation Division, Atomic Energy Establishment, Winfrith, Dorchester, Dorset (United Kingdom)

    1962-08-15

    Techniques are developed below which will enable the construction of transfer functions relating changes in variables such as power or neutron flux with reactivity perturbations when there is a need for taking into account spatial effects within a reactor. Initially each of the transfer functions derived comprises the sum of a series of harmonics each of which has a laplace transform with associated spatial eigenfunction. Series of this kind can then be reduced to pure polynomial form (numerators on denominators) the coefficients of which have implicit allowance for spatial effects. The existence of large reactors having several independent controllers make necessary knowledge of transfer functions of this form. The technique will allow the characteristics of each controlled sector to be obtained as well as the characteristics of the complete control system with its couplings through the reactor core. In addition, the developing use of frequency response testing of reactors makes necessary a knowledge of the spatial behaviour to be expected of a reactor under test. (author)

  19. A numerical solution to an inverse unsteady-state heat transfer problem involving the Trefftz functions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maciejewska Beata

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper shows the results concerning flow boiling heat transfer in an asymmetrically heated vertical minichannel. The heated element for FC-72 Fluorinert flowing in that minichannel was a thin foil. The foil surface temperature was monitored continuously at 18 points by K-type thermocouples from the outer foil surface. Fluid temperature and pressure in the minichannel inlet and outlet, current supplied to the foil and voltage drop were also monitored. Measurements were carried out at 1 s intervals. The objective was to determine the heat transfer coefficient on the heated foil–fluid contact surface in the minichannel. It was obtained from the Robin boundary condition. The foil temperature was the result of solving the nonstationary two-dimensional inverse boundary problem in the heated foil. Using the FEM combined with Trefftz functions as basis functions solved the problem. The unknown temperature values at nodes were calculated by minimising the adequate functional. The values of local heat transfer coefficients were consistent with the results obtained by the authors in their previous studies when steady-state conditions were analysed. This time, however, these values were analysed as time dependent, which facilitated observation of coefficient changes that were impossible to observe under the steady-state conditions.

  20. Large work function difference driven electron transfer from electrides to single-walled carbon nanotubes

    KAUST Repository

    Menamparambath, Mini Mol

    2014-06-23

    A difference in work function plays a key role in charge transfer between two materials. Inorganic electrides provide a unique opportunity for electron transfer since interstitial anionic electrons result in a very low work function of 2.4-2.6 eV. Here we investigated charge transfer between two different types of electrides, [Ca2N]+·e- and [Ca 24Al28O64]4+·4e-, and single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) with a work function of 4.73-5.05 eV. [Ca2N]+·e- with open 2-dimensional electron layers was more effective in donating electrons to SWNTs than closed cage structured [Ca24Al28O64] 4+·4e- due to the higher electron concentration (1.3 × 1022 cm-3) and mobility (∼200 cm 2 V-1 s-1 at RT). A non-covalent conjugation enhanced near-infrared fluorescence of SWNTs as high as 52%. The field emission current density of electride-SWNT-silver paste dramatically increased by a factor of 46000 (14.8 mA cm-2) at 2 V μm-1 (3.5 wt% [Ca2N]+·e-) with a turn-on voltage of 0.85 V μm-1. This journal is © the Partner Organisations 2014.

  1. Non-invasive baroreflex sensitivity assessment using wavelet transfer function-based time–frequency analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keissar, K; Gilad, O; Maestri, R; Pinna, G D; La Rovere, M T

    2010-01-01

    A novel approach for the estimation of baroreflex sensitivity (BRS) is introduced based on time–frequency analysis of the transfer function (TF). The TF method (TF-BRS) is a well-established non-invasive technique which assumes stationarity. This condition is difficult to meet, especially in cardiac patients. In this study, the classical TF was replaced with a wavelet transfer function (WTF) and the classical coherence was replaced with wavelet transform coherence (WTC), adding the time domain as an additional degree of freedom with dynamic error estimation. Error analysis and comparison between WTF-BRS and TF-BRS were performed using simulated signals with known transfer function and added noise. Similar comparisons were performed for ECG and blood pressure signals, in the supine position, of 19 normal subjects, 44 patients with a history of previous myocardial infarction (MI) and 45 patients with chronic heart failure. This yielded an excellent linear association (R > 0.94, p < 0.001) for time-averaged WTF-BRS, validating the new method as consistent with a known method. The additional advantage of dynamic analysis of coherence and TF estimates was illustrated in two physiological examples of supine rest and change of posture showing the evolution of BRS synchronized with its error estimations and sympathovagal balance

  2. On the low frequency characteristics of head-related transfer function

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIE Bosun

    2009-01-01

    A method to correct the measured head-related transfer functions (HRTFs) at low frequency was proposed. By analyzing the HRTFs from the spherical head model at low frequency, it is proved that below the frequency of 400 Hz, magnitude of HRTF is nearly constant and the phase is a linear function of frequency both for the far and near field. Therefore, if the HRTFs above 400 Hz are accurately measured by experiment, it is able to correct the HRTFs at low frequency by the theoretical model. The results of calculation and subjective experiment show that the feasibility of the proposed method.

  3. Headphone-To-Ear Transfer Function Estimation Using Measured Acoustic Parameters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinlin Liu

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes to use an optimal five-microphone array method to measure the headphone acoustic reflectance and equivalent sound sources needed in the estimation of headphone-to-ear transfer functions (HpTFs. The performance of this method is theoretically analyzed and experimentally investigated. With the measured acoustic parameters HpTFs for different headphones and ear canal area functions are estimated based on a computational acoustic model. The estimation results show that HpTFs vary considerably with headphones and ear canals, which suggests that individualized compensations for HpTFs are necessary for headphones to reproduce desired sounds for different listeners.

  4. Performance of the dot product function in radiative transfer code SORD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korkin, Sergey; Lyapustin, Alexei; Sinyuk, Aliaksandr; Holben, Brent

    2016-10-01

    The successive orders of scattering radiative transfer (RT) codes frequently call the scalar (dot) product function. In this paper, we study performance of some implementations of the dot product in the RT code SORD using 50 scenarios for light scattering in the atmosphere-surface system. In the dot product function, we use the unrolled loops technique with different unrolling factor. We also considered the intrinsic Fortran functions. We show results for two machines: ifort compiler under Windows, and pgf90 under Linux. Intrinsic DOT_PRODUCT function showed best performance for the ifort. For the pgf90, the dot product implemented with unrolling factor 4 was the fastest. The RT code SORD together with the interface that runs all the mentioned tests are publicly available from ftp://maiac.gsfc.nasa.gov/pub/skorkin/SORD_IP_16B (current release) or by email request from the corresponding (first) author.

  5. Mars MetNet Mission Status

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harri, Ari-Matti; Aleksashkin, Sergei; Arruego, Ignacio; Schmidt, Walter; Genzer, Maria; Vazquez, Luis; Haukka, Harri

    2015-04-01

    New kind of planetary exploration mission for Mars is under development in collaboration between the Finnish Meteorological Institute (FMI), Lavochkin Association (LA), Space Research Institute (IKI) and Institutio Nacional de Tecnica Aerospacial (INTA). The Mars MetNet mission is based on a new semi-hard landing vehicle called MetNet Lander (MNL). The scientific payload of the Mars MetNet Precursor [1] mission is divided into three categories: Atmospheric instruments, Optical devices and Composition and structure devices. Each of the payload instruments will provide significant insights in to the Martian atmospheric behavior. The key technologies of the MetNet Lander have been qualified and the electrical qualification model (EQM) of the payload bay has been built and successfully tested. 1. MetNet Lander The MetNet landing vehicles are using an inflatable entry and descent system instead of rigid heat shields and parachutes as earlier semi-hard landing devices have used. This way the ratio of the payload mass to the overall mass is optimized. The landing impact will burrow the payload container into the Martian soil providing a more favorable thermal environment for the electronics and a suitable orientation of the telescopic boom with external sensors and the radio link antenna. It is planned to deploy several tens of MNLs on the Martian surface operating at least partly at the same time to allow meteorological network science. 2. Scientific Payload The payload of the two MNL precursor models includes the following instruments: Atmospheric instruments: 1. MetBaro Pressure device 2. MetHumi Humidity device 3. MetTemp Temperature sensors Optical devices: 1. PanCam Panoramic 2. MetSIS Solar irradiance sensor with OWLS optical wireless system for data transfer 3. DS Dust sensor The descent processes dynamic properties are monitored by a special 3-axis accelerometer combined with a 3-axis gyrometer. The data will be sent via auxiliary beacon antenna throughout the

  6. Gross and net land cover changes in the main plant functional types derived from the annual ESA CCI land cover maps (1992-2015)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wei; MacBean, Natasha; Ciais, Philippe; Defourny, Pierre; Lamarche, Céline; Bontemps, Sophie; Houghton, Richard A.; Peng, Shushi

    2018-01-01

    Land-use and land-cover change (LULCC) impacts local energy and water balance and contributes on global scale to a net carbon emission to the atmosphere. The newly released annual ESA CCI (climate change initiative) land cover maps provide continuous land cover changes at 300 m resolution from 1992 to 2015, and can be used in land surface models (LSMs) to simulate LULCC effects on carbon stocks and on surface energy budgets. Here we investigate the absolute areas and gross and net changes in different plant functional types (PFTs) derived from ESA CCI products. The results are compared with other datasets. Global areas of forest, cropland and grassland PFTs from ESA are 30.4, 19.3 and 35.7 million km2 in the year 2000. The global forest area is lower than that from LUH2v2h (Hurtt et al., 2011), Hansen et al. (2013) or Houghton and Nassikas (2017) while cropland area is higher than LUH2v2h (Hurtt et al., 2011), in which cropland area is from HYDE 3.2 (Klein Goldewijk et al., 2016). Gross forest loss and gain during 1992-2015 are 1.5 and 0.9 million km2 respectively, resulting in a net forest loss of 0.6 million km2, mainly occurring in South and Central America. The magnitudes of gross changes in forest, cropland and grassland PFTs in the ESA CCI are smaller than those in other datasets. The magnitude of global net cropland gain for the whole period is consistent with HYDE 3.2 (Klein Goldewijk et al., 2016), but most of the increases happened before 2004 in ESA and after 2007 in HYDE 3.2. Brazil, Bolivia and Indonesia are the countries with the largest net forest loss from 1992 to 2015, and the decreased areas are generally consistent with those from Hansen et al. (2013) based on Landsat 30 m resolution images. Despite discrepancies compared to other datasets, and uncertainties in converting into PFTs, the new ESA CCI products provide the first detailed long-term time series of land-cover change and can be implemented in LSMs to characterize recent carbon dynamics

  7. Net-based data transfer and automatic image fusion of metabolic (PET) and morphologic (CT/MRI) images for radiosurgical planning of brain tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baum, R.P.; Przetak, C.; Schmuecking, M.; Klener, G.; Surber, G.; Hamm, K.

    2002-01-01

    Aim: The main purpose of radiosurgery in comparison to conventional radiotherapy of brain tumors is to reach a higher radiation dose in the tumor and sparing normal brain tissue as much as possible. To reach this aim it is crucial to define the target volume extremely accurately. For this purpose, MRI and CT examinations are used for radiotherapy planning. In certain cases, however, metabolic information obtained by positron emission tomography (PET) may be useful to achieve a higher therapeutic accuracy by sparing important brain structures. This can be the case, i.e. in low grade astrocytomas for exact delineation of vital tumor as well as in differentiating scaring tissue from tumor recurrence and edema after operation. For this purpose, radiolabeled aminoacid analogues (e.g. C-11 methionine) and recently O-2-[ 18 F] Fluorethyl-L-Tyrosin (F-18 FET) have been introduced as PET tracers to detect the area of highest tumor metabolism which allows to obtain additional information as compared to FDG-PET that reflects the local glucose metabolism. In these cases, anatomical and metabolic data have to be combined with the technique of digital image fusion to exactly determine the target volume, the isodoses and the area where the highest dose has to be applied. Materials: We have set up a data transfer from the PET Center of the Zentralklinik Bad Berka with the Department of Stereotactic Radiation at the Helios Klinik Erfurt (distance approx. 25 km) to enable this kind of image fusion. PET data (ECAT EXACT 47, Siemens/CTI) are transferred to a workstation (NOVALIS) in the Dept. of Stereotactic Radiation to be co-registered with the CT or MRI data of the patient. All PET images are in DICOM format (obtained by using a HERMES computer, Nuclear Diagnostics, Sweden) and can easily be introduced into the NOVALIS workstation. The software uses the optimation of mutual information to achieve a good fusion quality. Sometimes manual corrections have to be performed to get an

  8. Density functional theory for the description of charge-transfer processes at TTF/TCNQ interfaces

    KAUST Repository

    Van Regemorter, Tanguy; Guillaume, Maxime; Sini, Gjergji; Sears, John S.; Geskin, Victor; Bré das, Jean-Luc; Beljonne, David; Cornil, Jé rô me

    2012-01-01

    In the field of organic electronics, a central issue is to assess how the frontier electronic levels of two adjacent organic layers align with respect to one another at the interface. This alignment can be driven by the presence of a partial charge transfer and the formation of an interface dipole; it plays a key role for instance in determining the rates of exciton dissociation or exciton formation in organic solar cells or light-emitting diodes, respectively. Reliably modeling the processes taking place at these interfaces remains a challenge for the computational chemistry community. Here, we review our recent theoretical work on the influence of the choice of density functional theory (DFT) methodology on the description of the charge-transfer character in the ground state of TTF/ TCNQ model complexes and interfaces. Starting with the electronic properties of the isolated TTF and TCNQ molecules and then considering the charge transfer and resulting interface dipole in TTF/TCNQ donor-acceptor stacks and bilayers, we examine the impact of the choice of DFT functional in describing the interfacial electronic structure. Finally, we employ computations based on periodic boundary conditions to highlight the impact of depolarization effects on the interfacial dipole moment. © Springer-Verlag 2012.

  9. Ovarian transfer following irradiation as an alternative to restore reproductive functions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salgado, Andreia Ruis; Passos, Luiz Augusto Correa; Ginemes, Ana Paula; Dias, Viviane Liotti [Universidade Estadual de Campinas, SP (Brazil). Centro Multidisciplinar para a Investigacao Biologica (CEMIB/UNICAMP)], e-mail: viviliotti@cemib.unicamp.br; Spencer, Patrick Jack; Nascimento, Nanci do [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN-CNEN/SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2009-07-01

    Assisted reproduction technologies are essential for restoring reproductive functions, especially in ovary cancer cases, which besides impairing fertility; present the highest lethality amongst gynecological diseases. Classical treatment involves surgery, radiotherapy and chemotherapy, and in young women, the recommended treatment is the removal of the affected ovary, leading to physical, psychological and emotional problems. An alternative would be the ovarian transfer after the treatment. However, there are no data in the literature about experiments specifically designed to investigate the interference of this procedure on reproductive functions. In the present work, we used the C57BL/6Unib and B6CF1 hybrid mice strains to evaluate the viability of ovarian transfer before and after irradiation, as well as possible differences in radiosensitivity between the strains. To do so, female mice from both strains were irradiated with 4 Gy and submitted to either partial or total ovarian transfer form healthy donors. After the surgery, the animals were mated and the results obtained so far for mating 7 days after the procedure indicate that irradiation promoted a significant decrease in fertility (p=0.0127). Also, our data show that the recovery of fertility is proportional to the amount of grafted ovarian tissue. Furthermore, there seems to be differences in radiosensitivity, from genetic origin, between the two mice strain, since, after irradiation, the hybrid mice had bigger litters than the donor strain. (author)

  10. Density functional theory for the description of charge-transfer processes at TTF/TCNQ interfaces

    KAUST Repository

    Van Regemorter, Tanguy

    2012-09-15

    In the field of organic electronics, a central issue is to assess how the frontier electronic levels of two adjacent organic layers align with respect to one another at the interface. This alignment can be driven by the presence of a partial charge transfer and the formation of an interface dipole; it plays a key role for instance in determining the rates of exciton dissociation or exciton formation in organic solar cells or light-emitting diodes, respectively. Reliably modeling the processes taking place at these interfaces remains a challenge for the computational chemistry community. Here, we review our recent theoretical work on the influence of the choice of density functional theory (DFT) methodology on the description of the charge-transfer character in the ground state of TTF/ TCNQ model complexes and interfaces. Starting with the electronic properties of the isolated TTF and TCNQ molecules and then considering the charge transfer and resulting interface dipole in TTF/TCNQ donor-acceptor stacks and bilayers, we examine the impact of the choice of DFT functional in describing the interfacial electronic structure. Finally, we employ computations based on periodic boundary conditions to highlight the impact of depolarization effects on the interfacial dipole moment. © Springer-Verlag 2012.

  11. Characterizing 3D sensors using the 3D modulation transfer function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kellner, Timo; Breitbarth, Andreas; Zhang, Chen; Notni, Gunther

    2018-03-01

    The fields of optical 3D measurement system applications are continuously expanding and becoming more and more diverse. To evaluate appropriate systems for various measurement tasks, comparable parameters are necessary, whereas the 3D modulation transfer function (3D-MTF) has been established as a further criterion. Its aim is the determination of the system response between the measurement of a straight, sharp-edged cube and its opposite ideal calculated one. Within the scope of this work simulations and practical investigations regarding the 3D-MTF’s influences and its main issues are specifically investigated. Therefore, different determined edge radii representing the high-frequency spectra lead to various decreasing 3D-MTF characteristics. Furthermore, rising sampling frequencies improve its maximum transfer value to a saturation point in dependence of the radius. To approve these results of previous simulations, three fringe projection scanners were selected to determine the diversity. As the best 3D-MTF characteristic, a saturated transfer value of H_3D( f_N, 3D) = 0.79 has been identified at a sufficient sampling frequency, which is reached at four times the Nyquist limit. This high 3D resolution can mainly be achieved due to an improved camera projector interaction. Additionally, too small sampling ratios lead to uncertainties in the edge function determination, while higher ratios do not show major improvements. In conclusion, the 3D-MTF algorithm has thus been practically verified and its repeatability as well as its robustness have been confirmed.

  12. Ovarian transfer following irradiation as an alternative to restore reproductive functions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salgado, Andreia Ruis; Passos, Luiz Augusto Correa; Ginemes, Ana Paula; Dias, Viviane Liotti; Spencer, Patrick Jack; Nascimento, Nanci do

    2009-01-01

    Assisted reproduction technologies are essential for restoring reproductive functions, especially in ovary cancer cases, which besides impairing fertility; present the highest lethality amongst gynecological diseases. Classical treatment involves surgery, radiotherapy and chemotherapy, and in young women, the recommended treatment is the removal of the affected ovary, leading to physical, psychological and emotional problems. An alternative would be the ovarian transfer after the treatment. However, there are no data in the literature about experiments specifically designed to investigate the interference of this procedure on reproductive functions. In the present work, we used the C57BL/6Unib and B6CF1 hybrid mice strains to evaluate the viability of ovarian transfer before and after irradiation, as well as possible differences in radiosensitivity between the strains. To do so, female mice from both strains were irradiated with 4 Gy and submitted to either partial or total ovarian transfer form healthy donors. After the surgery, the animals were mated and the results obtained so far for mating 7 days after the procedure indicate that irradiation promoted a significant decrease in fertility (p=0.0127). Also, our data show that the recovery of fertility is proportional to the amount of grafted ovarian tissue. Furthermore, there seems to be differences in radiosensitivity, from genetic origin, between the two mice strain, since, after irradiation, the hybrid mice had bigger litters than the donor strain. (author)

  13. Transference of function shapes organ identity in the dove tree inflorescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vekemans, Dries; Viaene, Tom; Caris, Pieter; Geuten, Koen

    2012-01-01

    • An important evolutionary mechanism shaping the biodiversity of flowering plants is the transfer of function from one plant organ to another. To investigate whether and how transference of function is associated with the remodeling of the floral organ identity program we studied Davidia involucrata, a species with conspicuous, petaloid bracts subtending a contracted inflorescence with reduced flowers. • A detailed ontogeny enabled the interpretation of expression patterns of B-, C- and E-class homeotic MADS-box genes using qRT-PCR and in situ hybridization techniques. We investigated protein-protein interactions using yeast two-hybrid assays. • Although loss of organs does not appear to have affected organ identity in the retained organs of the reduced flowers of D. involucrata, the bracts express the B-class TM6 (Tomato MADS box gene 6) and GLOBOSA homologs, but not DEFICIENS, and the C-class AGAMOUS homolog, representing a subset of genes also involved in stamen identity. • Our results may illustrate how petal identity can be partially transferred outside the flower by expressing a subset of stamen identity genes. This adds to the molecular mechanisms explaining the diversity of plant reproductive morphology. © 2011 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2011 New Phytologist Trust.

  14. Functionalized polymer film surfaces via surface-initiated atom transfer radical polymerization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hu, Y.; Li, J.S.; Yang, W.T.; Xu, F.J.

    2013-01-01

    The ability to manipulate and control the surface properties of polymer films, without altering the substrate properties, is crucial to their wide-spread applications. In this work, a simple one-step method for the direct immobilization of benzyl chloride groups (as the effective atom transfer radical polymerization (ATRP) initiators) on the polymer films was developed via benzophenone-induced coupling of 4-vinylbenzyl chloride (VBC). Polyethylene (PE) and nylon films were selected as examples of polymer films to illustrate the functionalization of film surfaces via surface-initiated ATRP. Functional polymer brushes of (2-dimethylamino)ethyl methacrylate, sodium 4-styrenesulfonate, 2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate and glycidyl methacrylate, as well as their block copolymer brushes, have been prepared via surface-initiated ATRP from the VBC-coupled PE or nylon film surfaces. With the development of a simple approach to the covalent immobilization of ATRP initiators on polymer film surfaces and the inherent versatility of surface-initiated ATRP, the surface functionality of polymer films can be precisely tailored. - Highlights: ► Atom transfer radical polymerization initiators were simply immobilized. ► Different functional polymer brushes were readily prepared. ► Their block copolymer brushes were also readily prepared

  15. Efficient nonlinear registration of 3D images using high order co-ordinate transfer functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barber, D C

    1999-01-01

    There is an increasing interest in image registration for a variety of medical imaging applications. Image registration is achieved through the use of a co-ordinate transfer function (CTF) which maps voxels in one image to voxels in the other image, including in the general case changes in mapped voxel intensity. If images of the same subject are to be registered the co-ordinate transfer function needs to implement a spatial transformation consisting of a displacement and a rigid rotation. In order to achieve registration a common approach is to choose a suitable quality-of-registration measure and devise a method for the efficient generation of the parameters of the CTF which minimize this measure. For registration of images from different subjects more complex transforms are required. In general function minimization is too slow to allow the use of CTFs with more than a small number of parameters. However, provided the images are from the same modality and the CTF can be expanded in terms of an appropriate set of basis functions this paper will show how relatively complex CTFs can be used for registration. The use of increasingly complex CTFs to minimize the within group standard deviation of a set of normal single photon emission tomography brain images is used to demonstrate the improved registration of images from different subjects using CTFs of increasing complexity.

  16. Modulation transfer function cascade model for a sampled IR imaging system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Luca, L; Cardone, G

    1991-05-01

    The performance of the infrared scanning radiometer (IRSR) is strongly stressed in convective heat transfer applications where high spatial frequencies in the signal that describes the thermal image are present. The need to characterize more deeply the system spatial resolution has led to the formulation of a cascade model for the evaluation of the actual modulation transfer function of a sampled IR imaging system. The model can yield both the aliasing band and the averaged modulation response for a general sampling subsystem. For a line scan imaging system, which is the case of a typical IRSR, a rule of thumb that states whether the combined sampling-imaging system is either imaging-dependent or sampling-dependent is proposed. The model is tested by comparing it with other noncascade models as well as by ad hoc measurements performed on a commercial digitized IRSR.

  17. Auxiliary functions of the LISA laser link: ranging, clock noise transfer and data communication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heinzel, Gerhard; Esteban, Juan Jose; Barke, Simon; Otto, Markus; Wang Yan; Garcia, Antonio F; Danzmann, Karsten

    2011-01-01

    The Laser Interferometer Space Antenna (LISA) is required to reduce two important noise sources by post-processing on the ground using time-delay interferometry (TDI): phase noise of the on-board reference clocks and laser frequency noise. To achieve the desired suppression, the TDI algorithm needs measurements of the differential clock noise between any two spacecraft and inter-spacecraft ranging measurements with at least 1 m accuracy, which is beyond the precision of ground-based measurements for deep space missions. Therefore, we need on-board measurements by transmitting clock noise and ranging information between the spacecraft as auxiliary functions of the laser link. This paper reports our current experimental results in clock noise transfer and ranging for noise subtraction via post-processing as well as additional data transfer.

  18. Equation of costs and function objective for the optimization of the design of nets of flow of liquids to pressure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Narvaez R, Paulo Cesar; Galeano P, Haiver

    2002-01-01

    Optimal design problem of liquid distribution systems has been viewed as the selection of pipe sizes and pumps, which will minimize overall costs, accomplishing the flow and pressure constraints. There is a set of methods for least cost design of liquids distribution networks (6). In the last years, some of them have been studied broadly: linear programming (1, 4, 5, 7], non-linear programming [8, 9], and genetic algorithms (3, 10, 13). This paper describes the development of a cost equation and the objective function for liquid distribution networks that together to the mathematical model and the solution method of the flow problem developed by Narvaez (11), were used by in a computer model that involves the application of an genetic algorithm to the problem of least cost design of liquids distribution networks

  19. Uncertainty of Monetary Valued Ecosystem Services - Value Transfer Functions for Global Mapping.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefan Schmidt

    Full Text Available Growing demand of resources increases pressure on ecosystem services (ES and biodiversity. Monetary valuation of ES is frequently seen as a decision-support tool by providing explicit values for unconsidered, non-market goods and services. Here we present global value transfer functions by using a meta-analytic framework for the synthesis of 194 case studies capturing 839 monetary values of ES. For 12 ES the variance of monetary values could be explained with a subset of 93 study- and site-specific variables by utilizing boosted regression trees. This provides the first global quantification of uncertainties and transferability of monetary valuations. Models explain from 18% (water provision to 44% (food provision of variance and provide statistically reliable extrapolations for 70% (water provision to 91% (food provision of the terrestrial earth surface. Although the application of different valuation methods is a source of uncertainty, we found evidence that assuming homogeneity of ecosystems is a major error in value transfer function models. Food provision is positively correlated with better life domains and variables indicating positive conditions for human well-being. Water provision and recreation service show that weak ownerships affect valuation of other common goods negatively (e.g. non-privately owned forests. Furthermore, we found support for the shifting baseline hypothesis in valuing climate regulation. Ecological conditions and societal vulnerability determine valuation of extreme event prevention. Valuation of habitat services is negatively correlated with indicators characterizing less favorable areas. Our analysis represents a stepping stone to establish a standardized integration of and reporting on uncertainties for reliable and valid benefit transfer as an important component for decision support.

  20. Uncertainty of Monetary Valued Ecosystem Services – Value Transfer Functions for Global Mapping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Stefan; Manceur, Ameur M.; Seppelt, Ralf

    2016-01-01

    Growing demand of resources increases pressure on ecosystem services (ES) and biodiversity. Monetary valuation of ES is frequently seen as a decision-support tool by providing explicit values for unconsidered, non-market goods and services. Here we present global value transfer functions by using a meta-analytic framework for the synthesis of 194 case studies capturing 839 monetary values of ES. For 12 ES the variance of monetary values could be explained with a subset of 93 study- and site-specific variables by utilizing boosted regression trees. This provides the first global quantification of uncertainties and transferability of monetary valuations. Models explain from 18% (water provision) to 44% (food provision) of variance and provide statistically reliable extrapolations for 70% (water provision) to 91% (food provision) of the terrestrial earth surface. Although the application of different valuation methods is a source of uncertainty, we found evidence that assuming homogeneity of ecosystems is a major error in value transfer function models. Food provision is positively correlated with better life domains and variables indicating positive conditions for human well-being. Water provision and recreation service show that weak ownerships affect valuation of other common goods negatively (e.g. non-privately owned forests). Furthermore, we found support for the shifting baseline hypothesis in valuing climate regulation. Ecological conditions and societal vulnerability determine valuation of extreme event prevention. Valuation of habitat services is negatively correlated with indicators characterizing less favorable areas. Our analysis represents a stepping stone to establish a standardized integration of and reporting on uncertainties for reliable and valid benefit transfer as an important component for decision support. PMID:26938447

  1. Homologous recombination mediates functional recovery of dysferlin deficiency following AAV5 gene transfer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William E Grose

    Full Text Available The dysferlinopathies comprise a group of untreatable muscle disorders including limb girdle muscular dystrophy type 2B, Miyoshi myopathy, distal anterior compartment syndrome, and rigid spine syndrome. As with other forms of muscular dystrophy, adeno-associated virus (AAV gene transfer is a particularly auspicious treatment strategy, however the size of the DYSF cDNA (6.5 kb negates packaging into traditional AAV serotypes known to express well in muscle (i.e. rAAV1, 2, 6, 8, 9. Potential advantages of a full cDNA versus a mini-gene include: maintaining structural-functional protein domains, evading protein misfolding, and avoiding novel epitopes that could be immunogenic. AAV5 has demonstrated unique plasticity with regards to packaging capacity and recombination of virions containing homologous regions of cDNA inserts has been implicated in the generation of full-length transcripts. Herein we show for the first time in vivo that homologous recombination following AAV5.DYSF gene transfer leads to the production of full length transcript and protein. Moreover, gene transfer of full-length dysferlin protein in dysferlin deficient mice resulted in expression levels sufficient to correct functional deficits in the diaphragm and importantly in skeletal muscle membrane repair. Intravascular regional gene transfer through the femoral artery produced high levels of transduction and enabled targeting of specific muscle groups affected by the dysferlinopathies setting the stage for potential translation to clinical trials. We provide proof of principle that AAV5 mediated delivery of dysferlin is a highly promising strategy for treatment of dysferlinopathies and has far-reaching implications for the therapeutic delivery of other large genes.

  2. Power and power-to-flow reactivity transfer functions in EBR-II [Experimental Breeder Reactor II] fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grimm, K.N.; Meneghetti, D.

    1989-01-01

    Reactivity transfer functions are important in determining the reactivity history during a power transient. Overall nodal transfer functions have been calculated for different subassembly types in the Experimental Breeder Reactor II (EBR-II). Steady-state calculations for temperature changes and, hence, reactivities for power changes have been separated into power and power-to-flow-dependent terms. Axial nodal transfer functions separated into power and power-to-flow-dependent components are reported in this paper for a typical EBR-II fuel pin. This provides an improved understanding of the time dependence of these components in transient situations

  3. Is the tungsten(IV complex (NEt42[WO(mnt2] a functional analogue of acetylene hydratase?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthias Schreyer

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The tungsten(IV complex (Et4N2[W(O(mnt2] (1; mnt = maleonitriledithiolate was proposed (Sarkar et al., J. Am. Chem. Soc. 1997, 119, 4315 to be a functional analogue of the active center of the enzyme acetylene hydratase from Pelobacter acetylenicus, which hydrates acetylene (ethyne; 2 to acetaldehyde (ethanal; 3. In the absence of a satisfactory mechanistic proposal for the hydration reaction, we considered the possibility of a metal–vinylidene type activation mode, as it is well established for ruthenium-based alkyne hydration catalysts with anti-Markovnikov regioselectivity. To validate the hypothesis, the regioselectivity of tungsten-catalyzed alkyne hydration of a terminal, higher alkyne had to be determined. However, complex 1 was not a competent catalyst for the hydration of 1-octyne under the conditions tested. Furthermore, we could not observe the earlier reported hydration activity of complex 1 towards acetylene. A critical assessment of, and a possible explanation for the earlier reported results are offered. The title question is answered with "no".

  4. Coloured Petri Nets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Kurt

    1987-01-01

    The author describes a Petri net model, called coloured Petri nets (CP-nets), by means of which it is possible to describe large systems without having to cope with unnecessary details. The author introduces CP-nets and provide a first impression of their modeling power and the suitability...

  5. Learning Visual Basic NET

    CERN Document Server

    Liberty, Jesse

    2009-01-01

    Learning Visual Basic .NET is a complete introduction to VB.NET and object-oriented programming. By using hundreds of examples, this book demonstrates how to develop various kinds of applications--including those that work with databases--and web services. Learning Visual Basic .NET will help you build a solid foundation in .NET.

  6. Nonlinear transfer function encodes synchronization in a neural network from the mammalian brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menendez de la Prida, L; Sanchez-Andres, J V

    1999-09-01

    Synchronization is one of the mechanisms by which the brain encodes information. The observed synchronization of neuronal activity has, however, several levels of fluctuations, which presumably regulate local features of specific areas. This means that biological neural networks should have an intrinsic mechanism able to synchronize the neuronal activity but also to preserve the firing capability of individual cells. Here, we investigate the input-output relationship of a biological neural network from developing mammalian brain, i.e., the hippocampus. We show that the probability of occurrence of synchronous output activity (which consists in stereotyped population bursts recorded throughout the hippocampus) is encoded by a sigmoidal transfer function of the input frequency. Under this scope, low-frequency inputs will not produce any coherent output while high-frequency inputs will determine a synchronous pattern of output activity (population bursts). We analyze the effect of the network size (N) on the parameters of the transfer function (threshold and slope). We found that sigmoidal functions realistically simulate the synchronous output activity of hippocampal neural networks. This outcome is particularly important in the application of results from neural network models to neurobiology.

  7. Cumulant generating function formula of heat transfer in ballistic systems with lead-lead coupling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Huanan; Agarwalla, Bijay Kumar; Wang, Jian-Sheng

    2012-10-01

    Based on a two-time observation protocol, we consider heat transfer in a given time interval tM in a lead-junction-lead system taking coupling between the leads into account. In view of the two-time observation, consistency conditions are carefully verified in our specific family of quantum histories. Furthermore, its implication is briefly explored. Then using the nonequilibrium Green's function method, we obtain an exact formula for the cumulant generating function for heat transfer between the two leads, valid in both transient and steady-state regimes. Also, a compact formula for the cumulant generating function in the long-time limit is derived, for which the Gallavotti-Cohen fluctuation symmetry is explicitly verified. In addition, we briefly discuss Di Ventra's repartitioning trick regarding whether the repartitioning procedure of the total Hamiltonian affects the nonequilibrium steady-state current fluctuation. All kinds of properties of nonequilibrium current fluctuations, such as the fluctuation theorem in different time regimes, could be readily given according to these exact formulas.

  8. An analytical wall-function for turbulent flows and heat transfer over rough walls

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suga, K.; Craft, T.J.; Iacovides, H.

    2006-01-01

    This paper reports the development of a refined wall-function strategy for the modelling of turbulent forced convection heat transfer over smooth and rough surfaces. In order to include the effects of fine-grain surface roughness, the present study extends a more fundamental work by Craft et al. [Craft, T.J., Gerasimov, A.V., Iacovides, H., Launder, B.E., 2002. Progress in the generalisation of wall-function treatment. Int. J. Heat Fluid Flow 23, 148-160] on the development of advanced wall-functions of general applicability. The presently proposed model is validated through comparisons with data available for internal flows through channels and for external flows over flat and curved plates with both smooth and rough surfaces. Then, its further validation in separating flows over a sand dune and a sand-roughened ramp is discussed. The validation results suggest that the presently proposed form can be successfully applied to a wide range of attached and separated turbulent flows with heat transfer over smooth and fine-grain rough surfaces

  9. Resist-based measurement of contrast transfer function in a 0.3-NA microfield optic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cain, Jason P.; Naulleau, Patrick; Spanos, Costas J.

    2005-01-01

    Although extreme ultraviolet (EUV) lithography offers the possibility of very high-resolution patterning, the projection optics must be of extremely high quality in order to meet this potential. One key metric of the projection optic quality is the contrast transfer function (CTF), which is a measure of the aerial image contrast as a function of pitch. A static microfield exposure tool based on the 0.3-NA MET optic and operating at a wavelength of 13.5 nm has been installed at the Advanced Light Source, a synchrotron facility at the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory. This tool provides a platform for a wide variety of research into EUV lithography. In this work we present resist-based measurements of the contrast transfer function for the MET optic. These measurements are based upon line/space patterns printed in several different EUV photoresists. The experimental results are compared with the CTF in aerial-image simulations using the aberrations measured in the projection optic using interferometry. In addition, the CTF measurements are conducted for both bright-field and dark-field mask patterns. Finally, the orientation dependence of the CTF is measured in order to evaluate the effect of non-rotationally symmetric lens aberrations. These measurements provide valuable information in interpreting the results of other experiments performed using the MET and similar systems

  10. Optimization and stability of the contrast transfer function in aberration-corrected electron microscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tromp, R.M.; Schramm, S.M.

    2013-01-01

    The Contrast Transfer Function (CTF) describes the manner in which the electron microscope modifies the object exit wave function as a result of objective lens aberrations. For optimum resolution in C 3 -corrected microscopes it is well established that a small negative value of C 3 , offset by positive values of C 5 and defocus C 1 results in the most optimal instrument resolution, and optimization of the CTF has been the subject of several studies. Here we describe a simple design procedure for the CTF that results in a most even transfer of information below the resolution limit. We address not only the resolution of the instrument, but also the stability of the CTF in the presence of small disturbances in C 1 and C 3 . We show that resolution can be traded for stability in a rational and transparent fashion. These topics are discussed quantitatively for both weak-phase and strong-phase (or amplitude) objects. The results apply equally to instruments at high electron energy (TEM) and at very low electron energy (LEEM), as the basic optical properties of the imaging lenses are essentially identical. - Highlights: ► An optimized Contrast Transfer Function for aberration corrected electron microscopes is proposed. ► Based on the properties of the CTF near optimum settings, we address its stability. ► Over some range of parameters resolution can be traded for stability. ► These issues are addressed for weak-phase objects, as well as strong-phase and amplitude object. ► We compare our results with CTF settings previously proposed

  11. Theory of lidar method for measurement of the modulation transfer function of water layers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolin, Lev S

    2013-01-10

    We develop a method to evaluate the modulation transfer function (MTF) of a water layer from the characteristics of lidar signal backscattered by water volume. We propose several designs of a lidar system for remote measurement of the MTF and the procedure to determine optical properties of water using the measured MTF. We discuss a laser system for sea-bottom imaging that accounts for the influence of water slab on the image structure and allows for correction of image distortions caused by light scattering in water. © 2013 Optical Society of America

  12. Modulation Transfer Function of a Gaussian Beam Based on the Generalized Modified Atmospheric Spectrum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chao Gao

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the modulation transfer function of a Gaussian beam propagating through a horizontal path in weak-fluctuation non-Kolmogorov turbulence. Mathematical expressions are obtained based on the generalized modified atmospheric spectrum, which includes the spectral power law value of non-Kolmogorov turbulence, the finite inner and outer scales of turbulence, and other optical parameters of the Gaussian beam. The numerical results indicate that the atmospheric turbulence would produce less negative effects on the wireless optical communication system with an increase in the inner scale of turbulence. Additionally, the increased outer scale of turbulence makes a Gaussian beam influenced more seriously by the atmospheric turbulence.

  13. Security camera resolution measurements: Horizontal TV lines versus modulation transfer function measurements.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Birch, Gabriel Carisle [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Griffin, John Clark [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2015-01-01

    The horizontal television lines (HTVL) metric has been the primary quantity used by division 6000 related to camera resolution for high consequence security systems. This document shows HTVL measurements are fundamen- tally insufficient as a metric to determine camera resolution, and propose a quantitative, standards based methodology by measuring the camera system modulation transfer function (MTF), the most common and accepted metric of res- olution in the optical science community. Because HTVL calculations are easily misinterpreted or poorly defined, we present several scenarios in which HTVL is frequently reported, and discuss their problems. The MTF metric is discussed, and scenarios are presented with calculations showing the application of such a metric.

  14. A transfer function approach to the small-signal response of saturated semiconductor optical amplifiers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Mads Lønstrup; Blumenthal, D. J.; Mørk, Jesper

    2000-01-01

    A theoretical analysis of the small-signal frequency response (SSFR) of a wavelength converter based on cross-gain modulation in a semiconductor optical amplifier with a finite waveguide loss is presented. We use a transfer function formalism to explain the resonant behavior of the frequency...... response. The limitations to the magnitude of the spectral overshoot are also accounted for. Operating with the data and CW signals in a co-propagating configuration, we End that the resonance only exists for a finite waveguide loss. In a counter-propagating scheme, a resonance can exist regardless...

  15. The Macroeconomy as a Network of Money-Flow Transfer Functions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trond Andresen

    1998-10-01

    Full Text Available An introduction on A.W. Phillips’ "hydraulic" macroeconomic models is given. His (and others economists’ notion that a macroeconomy may reasonably be considered to have dynamics corresponding to a first order time lag transfer function, is justified in this paper by aggregation of individual micro agents. In connection with this economic application, we derive and discuss a theorem and some rules for general networks of time lagged blocks. Numerical simulations of networks of agents are undertaken, supporting the validity of the first order time lag aggregate model. Finally, an application is presented—a model of financial accumulation and possible collapse.

  16. Determination of spatially dependent transfer function of zero power reactor by using pseudo-random incentive

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kostic, Lj.

    1973-01-01

    Specially constructed fast reactivity oscillator was stimulating the zero power reactor by a stimulus which caused pseudo-random reactivity changes. Measuring system included stochastic oscillator BCR-1 supplied by pseudo-random pulses from noise generator GBS-16, instrumental tape-recorder, system for data acquisition and digital computer ZUSE-Z-23. For measuring the spatially dependent transfer function, reactor response was measured at a number of different positions of stochastic oscillator and ionization chamber. In order to keep the reactor system linear, experiment was limited to small reactivity fluctuations. Experimental results were compared to theoretical ones

  17. Full-Scale Turbofan-Engine Turbine-Transfer Function Determination Using Three Internal Sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hultgren, Lennart S.

    2012-01-01

    Noise-source separation techniques, using three engine-internal sensors, are applied to existing static-engine test data to determine the turbine transfer function for the currently subdominant combustion noise. The results are used to assess the combustion-noise prediction capability of the Aircraft Noise Prediction Program (ANOPP) and an improvement to the combustion-noise module GECOR is suggested. The work was carried out in response to the NASA Fundamental Aeronautics Subsonic Fixed Wing Program s Reduced-Perceived-Noise Technical Challenge.

  18. XML Storage for Magnetotelluric Transfer Functions: Towards a Comprehensive Online Reference Database

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelbert, A.; Blum, C.

    2015-12-01

    Magnetotelluric Transfer Functions (MT TFs) represent most of the information about Earth electrical conductivity found in the raw electromagnetic data, providing inputs for further inversion and interpretation. To be useful for scientific interpretation, they must also contain carefully recorded metadata. Making these data available in a discoverable and citable fashion would provide the most benefit to the scientific community, but such a development requires that the metadata is not only present in the file but is also searchable. The most commonly used MT TF format to date, the historical Society of Exploration Geophysicists Electromagnetic Data Interchange Standard 1987 (EDI), no longer supports some of the needs of modern magnetotellurics, most notably accurate error bars recording. Moreover, the inherent heterogeneity of EDI's and other historic MT TF formats has mostly kept the community away from healthy data sharing practices. Recently, the MT team at Oregon State University in collaboration with IRIS Data Management Center developed a new, XML-based format for MT transfer functions, and an online system for long-term storage, discovery and sharing of MT TF data worldwide (IRIS SPUD; www.iris.edu/spud/emtf). The system provides a query page where all of the MT transfer functions collected within the USArray MT experiment and other field campaigns can be searched for and downloaded; an automatic on-the-fly conversion to the historic EDI format is also included. To facilitate conversion to the new, more comprehensive and sustainable, XML format for MT TFs, and to streamline inclusion of historic data into the online database, we developed a set of open source format conversion tools, which can be used for rotation of MT TFs as well as a general XML EDI converter (https://seiscode.iris.washington.edu/projects/emtf-fcu). Here, we report on the newly established collaboration between the USGS Geomagnetism Program and the Oregon State University to gather and

  19. Evaluation of transfer functions of power transformers; Automatisierte Auswertung der Uebertragungsfunktionen von Leistungstransformatoren

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leibfried, T. [Siemens Transformatorenwerk, Nuernberg (Germany); Feser, K. [Stuttgart Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Energieuebertragung und Hochspannungstechnik

    1998-01-12

    A new method of automated processing of transfer functions from impulse measurements in the test laboratory or from on-site measurements is presented. Using this method a computer is able to provide a preliminary decision whether a transformer failure occurred or not, without needing support by staff. (orig.) [Deutsch] Die Verfasser beschreiben eine neue Methode zur automatisierten Auswertung von Uebertragungsfunktionen von Leistungstransformatoren. Die Uebertragungsfunktion kann dabei entweder aus den bei der Stossspannungspruefung oder bei Vor-Ort-Messungen aufgezeichneten transienten Signalen berechnet werden. Mit dieser Methode kann der Rechner eine Vorentscheidung ueber einen eventuell vorhandenen Defekt im Transformator liefern, ohne dass dazu das Eingreifen von Fachpersonal notwendig ist. (orig.)

  20. Online monitoring of dispersion functions and transfer matrices at the SLC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Emma, P.; Fieguth, T.H.; Lohse, T.; Burchat, P.R.; Panvini, R.S.

    1989-03-01

    The symmetries of the chromatic correction sections in the SLC Final Focus System allow a high-resolution determination of the pulse-to-pulse energy fluctuations by exploiting the information from beam position monitors (BPMs) in regions of large dispersion. By correlating this signal with other BPMs, one can infer the dispersion function as well as spatial components of transfer matrices anywhere in the arcs and the Final Focus System without interrupting normal machine operation. We present results from data recorded during either periods of stable operation or periods when the linac energy was intentionally varied. 6 refs., 7 figs

  1. Multiconfiguration Pair-Density Functional Theory Outperforms Kohn-Sham Density Functional Theory and Multireference Perturbation Theory for Ground-State and Excited-State Charge Transfer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, Soumen; Sonnenberger, Andrew L; Hoyer, Chad E; Truhlar, Donald G; Gagliardi, Laura

    2015-08-11

    The correct description of charge transfer in ground and excited states is very important for molecular interactions, photochemistry, electrochemistry, and charge transport, but it is very challenging for Kohn-Sham (KS) density functional theory (DFT). KS-DFT exchange-correlation functionals without nonlocal exchange fail to describe both ground- and excited-state charge transfer properly. We have recently proposed a theory called multiconfiguration pair-density functional theory (MC-PDFT), which is based on a combination of multiconfiguration wave function theory with a new type of density functional called an on-top density functional. Here we have used MC-PDFT to study challenging ground- and excited-state charge-transfer processes by using on-top density functionals obtained by translating KS exchange-correlation functionals. For ground-state charge transfer, MC-PDFT performs better than either the PBE exchange-correlation functional or CASPT2 wave function theory. For excited-state charge transfer, MC-PDFT (unlike KS-DFT) shows qualitatively correct behavior at long-range with great improvement in predicted excitation energies.

  2. Modified Current Differencing Unit and its Application for Electronically Reconfigurable Simple First-order Transfer Function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SOTNER, R.

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Modified current differencing unit (MCDU and its simple filtering application are introduced in this paper. Modification of the well-known current differencing unit consists in weighted difference of both input currents controlled by adjustable current gain, controllable intrinsic resistance of both current input terminals, and availability of additional voltage terminal(s. Definition of MCDU therefore requires four adjustable parameters (B1, B2, Rp, Rn. A presented active element offers and combines benefits of electronically controllable current conveyor of second generation and current differencing unit and allows synthesis of interesting adjustable applications, which are not available by classical approaches based on simple elements. MCDU brings variability of the transfer function into the structure. It provides several transfer types without necessity of input or output node change by simple electronic tuning. A presented structure represents so-called reconnection-less reconfigurable current-mode filter for realization of all-pass, inverting high-pass, low-pass and direct transfer response. Behavioral model of the MCDU was prepared and carefully tested in filtering application. Spice simulations and measurements confirmed theoretical assumptions.

  3. Multiple determinants of transfer of evaluative function after conditioning with free-operant schedules of reinforcement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dack, Charlotte; Reed, Phil; McHugh, Louise

    2010-11-01

    The aim of the four present experiments was to explore how different schedules of reinforcement influence schedule-induced behavior, their impact on evaluative ratings given to conditioned stimuli associated with each schedule through evaluative conditioning, and the transfer of these evaluations through derived stimulus networks. Experiment 1 compared two contrasting response reinforcement rules (variable ratio [VR], variable interval [VI]). Experiment 2 varied the response to reinforcement rule between two schedules but equated the outcome to response rate (differential reinforcement of high rate [DRH] vs. VR). Experiment 3 compared molar and molecular aspects of contingencies of reinforcement (tandem VIVR vs. tandem VRVI). Finally, Experiment 4 employed schedules that induced low rates of responding to determine whether, under these circumstances, responses were more sensitive to the molecular aspects of a schedule (differential reinforcement of low rate [DRL] vs. VI). The findings suggest that the transfer of evaluative functions is determined mainly by differences in response rate between the schedules and the molar aspects of the schedules. However, when neither schedule was based on a strong response reinforcement rule, the transfer of evaluative judgments came under the control of the molecular aspects of the schedule.

  4. Functional outcome and quality of life after traumatic total brachial plexus injury treated by nerve transfer or single/double free muscle transfers: a comparative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satbhai, N G; Doi, K; Hattori, Y; Sakamoto, S

    2016-02-01

    Between 2002 and 2011, 81 patients with a traumatic total brachial plexus injury underwent reconstruction by double free muscle transfer (DFMT, 47 cases), single muscle transfer (SMT, 16 cases) or nerve transfers (NT, 18 cases). They were evaluated for functional outcome and quality of life (QoL) using the Disability of Arm, Shoulder and Hand questionnaire, both pre- and post-operatively. The three groups were compared and followed-up for at least 24 months. The mean shoulder abduction and flexion were comparable in all groups, but external rotation was significantly better in the DFMT group as were range and quantitative power of elbow flexion. Patients who had undergone DFMT had reasonable total active finger movement and hook grip strength. All groups showed improvement in function at a level greater than a minimum clinically important difference. The DFMT group showed the greatest improvement. Patients in the DFMT group had a better functional outcome and QoL recovery than those in the NT and SMT groups. Double free muscle transfer procedure is capable of restoring maximum function in patients of total brachial plexus palsy. ©2016 The British Editorial Society of Bone & Joint Surgery.

  5. Association Between Ultra-Processed Food Consumption and Functional Gastrointestinal Disorders: Results From the French NutriNet-Santé Cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schnabel, Laure; Buscail, Camille; Sabate, Jean-Marc; Bouchoucha, Michel; Kesse-Guyot, Emmanuelle; Allès, Benjamin; Touvier, Mathilde; Monteiro, Carlos A; Hercberg, Serge; Benamouzig, Robert; Julia, Chantal

    2018-06-15

    Ultra-processed foods (UPF) consumption has increased over the last decades and is raising concerns about potential adverse health effects. Our objective was to assess the association between UPF consumption and four functional gastrointestinal disorders (FGIDs): irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), functional constipation (FC), functional diarrhea (FDh), and functional dyspepsia (FDy), in a large sample of French adults. We analyzed dietary data of 33,343 participants from the web-based NutriNet-Santé cohort, who completed at least three 24 h food records, prior to a Rome III self-administered questionnaire. Proportion (in weight) of UPF in the diet (UPFp) was computed for each subject. The association between UPFp quartiles and FGIDs was estimated by multivariable logistic regression. Participants included in the analysis were mainly women (76.4%), and the mean age was 50.4 (SD = 14.0) years. UPF accounted for 16.0% of food consumed in weight, corresponding to 33.0% of total energy intake. UPF consumption was associated with younger age, living alone, lower incomes, higher BMI, and lower physical activity level (all p < 0.0001). A total of 3516 participants reported IBS (10.5%), 1785 FC (5.4%), 1303 FDy (3.9%), and 396 FDh (1.1%). After adjusting for confounding factors, an increase in UPFp was associated with a higher risk of IBS ( a OR Q4 vs. Q1 [95% CI]: 1.25 [1.12-1.39], p-trend < 0.0001). This study suggests an association between UPF and IBS. Further longitudinal studies are needed to confirm those results and understand the relative impact of the nutritional composition and specific characteristics of UPF in this relationship.

  6. Measurement of the presampled two-dimensional modulation transfer function of digital imaging systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fetterly, Kenneth A.; Hangiandreou, Nicholas J.; Schueler, Beth A.; Ritenour, E. Russell

    2002-01-01

    The purpose of this work was to develop methods to measure the presampled two-dimensional modulation transfer function (2D MTF) of digital imaging systems. A custom x-ray 'point source' phantom was created by machining 256 holes with diameter 0.107 mm through a 0.5-mm-thick copper plate. The phantom was imaged several times, resulting in many images of individual x-ray 'spots'. The center of each spot (with respect to the pixel matrix) was determined to subpixel accuracy by fitting each spot to a 2D Gaussian function. The subpixel spot center locations were used to create a 5x oversampled system point spread function (PSF), which characterizes the optical and electrical properties of the system and is independent of the pixel sampling of the original image. The modulus of the Fourier transform of the PSF was calculated. Next, the Fourier function was normalized to the zero frequency value. Finally, the Fourier transform function was divided by the first-order Bessel function that defined the frequency content of the holes, resulting in the presampled 2D MTF. The presampled 2D MTF of a 0.1 mm pixel pitch computed radiography system and 0.2 mm pixel pitch flat panel digital imaging system that utilized a cesium iodide scintillator was measured. Comparison of the axial components of the 2D MTF to one-dimensional MTF measurements acquired using an edge device method demonstrated that the two methods produced consistent results

  7. Calibration of Modulation Transfer Function of Surface Profilometers with 1D and 2D Binary Pseudo-random Array Standards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yashchuk, Valeriy V.; McKinney, Wayne R.; Takacs, Peter Z.

    2008-01-01

    We suggest and describe the use of a binary pseudo-random grating as a standard test surface for calibration of the modulation transfer function of microscopes. Results from calibration of a MicromapTM-570 interferometric microscope are presented.

  8. Comparison of Regression Analysis and Transfer Function in Estimating the Parameters of Central Pulse Waves from Brachial Pulse Wave.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chai, Rui; Xu, Li-Sheng; Yao, Yang; Hao, Li-Ling; Qi, Lin

    2017-01-01

    This study analyzed ascending branch slope (A_slope), dicrotic notch height (Hn), diastolic area (Ad) and systolic area (As) diastolic blood pressure (DBP), systolic blood pressure (SBP), pulse pressure (PP), subendocardial viability ratio (SEVR), waveform parameter (k), stroke volume (SV), cardiac output (CO), and peripheral resistance (RS) of central pulse wave invasively and non-invasively measured. Invasively measured parameters were compared with parameters measured from brachial pulse waves by regression model and transfer function model. Accuracy of parameters estimated by regression and transfer function model, was compared too. Findings showed that k value, central pulse wave and brachial pulse wave parameters invasively measured, correlated positively. Regression model parameters including A_slope, DBP, SEVR, and transfer function model parameters had good consistency with parameters invasively measured. They had same effect of consistency. SBP, PP, SV, and CO could be calculated through the regression model, but their accuracies were worse than that of transfer function model.

  9. Effect of pressure on the transfer functions of premixed methane and propane swirl flames

    KAUST Repository

    Di Sabatino, Francesco

    2018-04-24

    This paper reports on the effect of pressure on the response of methane–air and propane–air swirl flames to acoustic excitation of the flow. These effects are analyzed on the basis of the flame transfer function (FTF) formalism, experimentally determined from velocity and global OH* chemiluminescence measurements at pressures up to 5 bar. In parallel, phase-locked images of OH* chemiluminescence are collected and analyzed in order to determine the associated flame dynamics. Flame transfer functions and visual flame dynamics at atmospheric pressure are found to be similar to previous studies with comparable experimental conditions. Regardless of pressure, propane flames exhibit a much larger FTF gain than methane flames. For both fuels, the effect of pressure primarily is to modify the gain response at the local maximum of the FTF, at a Strouhal number around 0.5 (176 Hz). For methane flames, this gain maximum increases monotonically with pressure, while for propane flames it increases from 1 to 3 bar and decreases from 3 to 5 bar. At this frequency and regardless of pressure, the flame motion is driven by flame vortex roll-up, suggesting that pressure affects the FTF by modifying the interaction of the flame with the vortex detached from the injector rim during a forcing period. The complex heat transfer, fluid dynamics, and combustion coupling in this configuration does not allow keeping the vortex properties constant when pressure is increased. However, the different trends of the FTF gain observed for methane and propane fuels with increasing pressure imply that intrinsic flame properties and fuel chemistry, and their variation with pressure, play an important role in controlling the response of these flames to acoustic forcing.

  10. Electrografting of diazonium-functionalized polyoxometalates: synthesis, immobilisation and electron-transfer characterisation from glassy carbon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rinfray, Corentin; Izzet, Guillaume; Pinson, Jean; Gam Derouich, Sarra; Ganem, Jean-Jacques; Combellas, Catherine; Kanoufi, Frédéric; Proust, Anna

    2013-10-04

    Polyoxometalates (POMs) are attractive candidates for the rational design of multi-level charge-storage materials because they display reversible multi-step reduction processes in a narrow range of potentials. The functionalization of POMs allows for their integration in hybrid complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS)/molecular devices, provided that fine control of their immobilisation on various substrates can be achieved. Owing to the wide applicability of the diazonium route to surface modification, a functionalized Keggin-type POM [PW11 O39 {Ge(p-C6 H4 -CC-C6 H4 -${{\\rm N}{{+\\hfill \\atop 2\\hfill}}}$)}](3-) bearing a pending diazonium group was prepared and subsequently covalently anchored onto a glassy carbon electrode. Electron transfer with the immobilised POM was thoroughly investigated and compared to that of the free POM in solution. Copyright © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  11. Error of the slanted edge method for measuring the modulation transfer function of imaging systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Xufen; Fan, Hongda; Wang, Hongyuan; Wang, Zebin; Zou, Nianyu

    2018-03-01

    The slanted edge method is a basic approach for measuring the modulation transfer function (MTF) of imaging systems; however, its measurement accuracy is limited in practice. Theoretical analysis of the slanted edge MTF measurement method performed in this paper reveals that inappropriate edge angles and random noise reduce this accuracy. The error caused by edge angles is analyzed using sampling and reconstruction theory. Furthermore, an error model combining noise and edge angles is proposed. We verify the analyses and model with respect to (i) the edge angle, (ii) a statistical analysis of the measurement error, (iii) the full width at half-maximum of a point spread function, and (iv) the error model. The experimental results verify the theoretical findings. This research can be referential for applications of the slanted edge MTF measurement method.

  12. Using multiple schedules during functional communication training to promote rapid transfer of treatment effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, Wayne W; Greer, Brian D; Fuhrman, Ashley M; Querim, Angie C

    2015-12-01

    Multiple schedules with signaled periods of reinforcement and extinction have been used to thin reinforcement schedules during functional communication training (FCT) to make the intervention more practical for parents and teachers. We evaluated whether these signals would also facilitate rapid transfer of treatment effects across settings and therapists. With 2 children, we conducted FCT in the context of mixed (baseline) and multiple (treatment) schedules introduced across settings or therapists using a multiple baseline design. Results indicated that when the multiple schedules were introduced, the functional communication response came under rapid discriminative control, and problem behavior remained at near-zero rates. We extended these findings with another individual by using a more traditional baseline in which problem behavior produced reinforcement. Results replicated those of the previous participants and showed rapid reductions in problem behavior when multiple schedules were implemented across settings. © Society for the Experimental Analysis of Behavior.

  13. Functional brain asymmetry, attentional modulation, and interhemispheric transfer in boys with Tourette syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Plessen, Kerstin J; Lundervold, Arvid; Grüner, Renate

    2007-01-01

    on the right ear stimulus in the dichotic listening situation is thought to involve the same prefrontal attentional and executive functions that are involved in the suppression of tics, whereas, performance when focusing attention on the left ear stimulus additionally involves a callosal transfer...... to shift attention normally when instructed to focus on the right ear stimulus. When instructed to focus attention on the left ear stimulus, however, performance deteriorated in the TS group. Correlations with CC area further supported the hypothesized presence of deviant callosal functioning in the TS......We tested the hypothesis that children with Tourette syndrome (TS) would exhibit aberrant brain lateralization compared to a healthy control (HC) group in an attention-modulation version of a verbal dichotic listening task using consonant-vowel syllables. The modulation of attention to focus...

  14. Interactive definition of transfer functions in volume rendering based on image markers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Teistler, Michael; Nowinski, Wieslaw L.; Breiman, Richard S.; Liong, Sauw Ming; Ho, Liang Yoong; Shahab, Atif

    2007-01-01

    Objectives A user interface for transfer function (TF) definition in volume rendering (VR) was developed that allows the user to intuitively assign color and opacity to the original image intensities. This software may surpass solutions currently deployed in clinical practice by simplifying the use of TFs beyond predefined settings that are not always applicable. Materials and methods The TF definition is usually a cumbersome task that requires the user to manipulate graphical representations of the TF (e.g. trapezoids). A new method that allows the user to place markers at points of interest directly on CT and MRI images or orthogonal reformations was developed based on two-dimensional region growing and a few user-definable marker-related parameters. For each user defined image marker, a segment of the transfer function is computed. The resulting TF can also be applied to the slice image views. Results were judged subjectively. Results Each individualized TF can be defined interactively in a few simple steps. For every user interaction, immediate visual feedback is given. Clinicians who tested the application appreciated being able to directly work on familiar slice images to generate the desired 3D views. Conclusion Interactive TF definition can increase the actual utility of VR, help to understand the role of the TF with its variations, and increase the acceptance of VR as a clinical tool. (orig.)

  15. Synthesizing Configurable Biochemical Implementation of Linear Systems from Their Transfer Function Specifications.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tai-Yin Chiu

    Full Text Available The ability to engineer synthetic systems in the biochemical context is constantly being improved and has a profound societal impact. Linear system design is one of the most pervasive methods applied in control tasks, and its biochemical realization has been proposed by Oishi and Klavins and advanced further in recent years. However, several technical issues remain unsolved. Specifically, the design process is not fully automated from specification at the transfer function level, systems once designed often lack dynamic adaptivity to environmental changes, matching rate constants of reactions is not always possible, and implementation may be approximative and greatly deviate from the specifications. Building upon the work of Oishi and Klavins, this paper overcomes these issues by introducing a design flow that transforms a transfer-function specification of a linear system into a set of chemical reactions, whose input-output response precisely conforms to the specification. This system is implementable using the DNA strand displacement technique. The underlying configurability is embedded into primitive components and template modules, and thus the entire system is adaptive. Simulation of DNA strand displacement implementation confirmed the feasibility and superiority of the proposed synthesis flow.

  16. Transfer function of radio over fiber multimode fiber optic links considering third-order dispersion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capmany, J; Gasulla, Ivana

    2007-08-20

    Although a considerable number of multimode fiber (MMF) links operate in a wavelength region around 850 nm where chromatic dispersion of a given modal group mu is described adequately by the second derivative beta(mu) (2) of the propagation constant beta(mu)(omega), there is also an increasing interest in MMF links transmitting in the second spectral window (@1300nm) where this second derivative vanishes being thus necessary to consider the third derivative beta(mu) (3) in the evaluation of the transfer function of the multimode fiber link. We present in this paper, for the first time to our knowledge, an analytical model for the transfer function of a multimode fiber (MMF) optic link taken into account the impact of third-order dispersion. The model extends the operation of a previously reported one for second-order dispersion. Our results show that the performance of broadband radio over fiber transmission through middle-reach distances can be improved by working at the minimum-dispersion wavelength as long as low-linewidth lasers are employed.

  17. Tracing decadal environmental change in ombrotrophic bogs using diatoms from herbarium collections and transfer functions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poulíčková, Aloisie; Hájková, Petra; Kintrová, Kateřina; Bat'ková, Romana; Czudková, Markéta; Hájek, Michal

    2013-01-01

    Central European mountain bogs, among the most valuable and threatened of habitats, were exposed to intensive human impact during the 20th century. We reconstructed the subrecent water chemistry and water-table depths using diatom based transfer functions calibrated from modern sampling. Herbarium Sphagnum specimens collected during the period 1918–1998 were used as a source of historic diatom samples. We classified samples into hummocks and hollows according to the identity of dominant Sphagnum species, to reduce bias caused by uneven sampling of particular microhabitats. Our results provide clear evidence for bog pollution by grazing during the period 1918–1947 and by undocumented aerial liming in the early 90-ies. We advocate use of herbarized epibryon as a source of information on subrecent conditions in recently polluted mires. -- Highlights: •We reconstruct the subrecent ecological variables using transfer functions. •Calibration was based on long-term averages and modern diatom sampling. •Herbarized bryophytes were used as a source of historic diatom samples. •Bogs were influenced by grazing in the period 1918–1947. •We provide clear evidence of bog pollution by aerial liming in early 90-ies. -- We provide clear evidence that the recent pH/calcium gradient appeared ca 20 years ago owing to aerial liming of forests

  18. A Clustering-Based Automatic Transfer Function Design for Volume Visualization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tianjin Zhang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The two-dimensional transfer functions (TFs designed based on intensity-gradient magnitude (IGM histogram are effective tools for the visualization and exploration of 3D volume data. However, traditional design methods usually depend on multiple times of trial-and-error. We propose a novel method for the automatic generation of transfer functions by performing the affinity propagation (AP clustering algorithm on the IGM histogram. Compared with previous clustering algorithms that were employed in volume visualization, the AP clustering algorithm has much faster convergence speed and can achieve more accurate clustering results. In order to obtain meaningful clustering results, we introduce two similarity measurements: IGM similarity and spatial similarity. These two similarity measurements can effectively bring the voxels of the same tissue together and differentiate the voxels of different tissues so that the generated TFs can assign different optical properties to different tissues. Before performing the clustering algorithm on the IGM histogram, we propose to remove noisy voxels based on the spatial information of voxels. Our method does not require users to input the number of clusters, and the classification and visualization process is automatic and efficient. Experiments on various datasets demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed method.

  19. Development and testing of transfer functions for generating quantitative climatic estimates from Australian pollen data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Ellyn J.; van der Kaars, Sander

    2006-10-01

    We review attempts to derive quantitative climatic estimates from Australian pollen data, including the climatic envelope, climatic indicator and modern analogue approaches, and outline the need to pursue alternatives for use as input to, or validation of, simulations by models of past, present and future climate patterns. To this end, we have constructed and tested modern pollen-climate transfer functions for mainland southeastern Australia and Tasmania using the existing southeastern Australian pollen database and for northern Australia using a new pollen database we are developing. After testing for statistical significance, 11 parameters were selected for mainland southeastern Australia, seven for Tasmania and six for northern Australia. The functions are based on weighted-averaging partial least squares regression and their predictive ability evaluated against modern observational climate data using leave-one-out cross-validation. Functions for summer, annual and winter rainfall and temperatures are most robust for southeastern Australia, while in Tasmania functions for minimum temperature of the coldest period, mean winter and mean annual temperature are the most reliable. In northern Australia, annual and summer rainfall and annual and summer moisture indexes are the strongest. The validation of all functions means all can be applied to Quaternary pollen records from these three areas with confidence. Copyright

  20. Functional capacity and dependency in transfer and dressing are associated with depressive symptoms in older people.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boström, Gustaf; Conradsson, Mia; Rosendahl, Erik; Nordström, Peter; Gustafson, Yngve; Littbrand, Håkan

    2014-01-01

    This study examined associations between depressive symptoms and functional capacity, overall dependency in personal activities of daily living (ADLs), and dependency in individual ADL tasks, respectively, in people with a high mean age, large range of functional capacity, and wide spectrum of dependency in ADLs. Cross-sectional data from three studies were used. A total of 392 individuals living in community and residential care facilities were included. Mean age was 86.2 years, 72% were women, 75% were dependent in ADLs, 42% had depression, and 39% had dementia. Depressive symptoms were assessed with the 15-item Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS-15), functional capacity with the Berg Balance Scale (BBS), and ADLs with the Barthel ADL Index. Multiple linear regression analyses with comprehensive adjustments were performed between GDS-15 and BBS, GDS-15 and Barthel ADL Index, and GDS-15 and each individual ADL task, separately. GDS-15 score was associated with BBS score (unstandardized b =-0.03, P=0.008), but not with Barthel ADL Index score (unstandardized b =-0.07, P=0.068). No significant interaction effects of sex, dementia, or living conditions were found in these associations. Among individual ADL tasks, dependency in transfer (unstandardized b =-1.03, P=0.007) and dressing (unstandardized b =-0.70, P=0.035) were associated with depressive symptoms. Functional capacity seems to be independently associated with depressive symptoms in older people living in community and residential care facilities, whereas overall ADL performance may not be associated. Dependency in the individual ADL tasks of transfer and dressing appear to be independently associated with depressive symptoms and may be an important focus of future interdisciplinary multifactorial intervention studies.

  1. Multiflavor string-net models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Chien-Hung

    2017-05-01

    We generalize the string-net construction to multiple flavors of strings, each of which is labeled by the elements of an Abelian group Gi. The same flavor of strings can branch, while different flavors of strings can cross one another and thus they form intersecting string nets. We systematically construct the exactly soluble lattice Hamiltonians and the ground-state wave functions for the intersecting string-net condensed phases. We analyze the braiding statistics of the low-energy quasiparticle excitations and find that our model can realize all the topological phases as the string-net model with group G =∏iGi . In this respect, our construction provides various ways of building lattice models which realize topological order G , corresponding to different partitions of G and thus different flavors of string nets. In fact, our construction concretely demonstrates the Künneth formula by constructing various lattice models with the same topological order. As an example, we construct the G =Z2×Z2×Z2 string-net model which realizes a non-Abelian topological phase by properly intersecting three copies of toric codes.

  2. Interactive dual-volume rendering visualization with real-time fusion and transfer function enhancement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macready, Hugh; Kim, Jinman; Feng, David; Cai, Weidong

    2006-03-01

    Dual-modality imaging scanners combining functional PET and anatomical CT constitute a challenge in volumetric visualization that can be limited by the high computational demand and expense. This study aims at providing physicians with multi-dimensional visualization tools, in order to navigate and manipulate the data running on a consumer PC. We have maximized the utilization of pixel-shader architecture of the low-cost graphic hardware and the texture-based volume rendering to provide visualization tools with high degree of interactivity. All the software was developed using OpenGL and Silicon Graphics Inc. Volumizer, tested on a Pentium mobile CPU on a PC notebook with 64M graphic memory. We render the individual modalities separately, and performing real-time per-voxel fusion. We designed a novel "alpha-spike" transfer function to interactively identify structure of interest from volume rendering of PET/CT. This works by assigning a non-linear opacity to the voxels, thus, allowing the physician to selectively eliminate or reveal information from the PET/CT volumes. As the PET and CT are rendered independently, manipulations can be applied to individual volumes, for instance, the application of transfer function to CT to reveal the lung boundary while adjusting the fusion ration between the CT and PET to enhance the contrast of a tumour region, with the resultant manipulated data sets fused together in real-time as the adjustments are made. In addition to conventional navigation and manipulation tools, such as scaling, LUT, volume slicing, and others, our strategy permits efficient visualization of PET/CT volume rendering which can potentially aid in interpretation and diagnosis.

  3. Protein Homeostasis Imposes a Barrier on Functional Integration of Horizontally Transferred Genes in Bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bershtein, Shimon; Serohijos, Adrian W R; Bhattacharyya, Sanchari; Manhart, Michael; Choi, Jeong-Mo; Mu, Wanmeng; Zhou, Jingwen; Shakhnovich, Eugene I

    2015-10-01

    Horizontal gene transfer (HGT) plays a central role in bacterial evolution, yet the molecular and cellular constraints on functional integration of the foreign genes are poorly understood. Here we performed inter-species replacement of the chromosomal folA gene, encoding an essential metabolic enzyme dihydrofolate reductase (DHFR), with orthologs from 35 other mesophilic bacteria. The orthologous inter-species replacements caused a marked drop (in the range 10-90%) in bacterial growth rate despite the fact that most orthologous DHFRs are as stable as E.coli DHFR at 37°C and are more catalytically active than E. coli DHFR. Although phylogenetic distance between E. coli and orthologous DHFRs as well as their individual molecular properties correlate poorly with growth rates, the product of the intracellular DHFR abundance and catalytic activity (kcat/KM), correlates strongly with growth rates, indicating that the drop in DHFR abundance constitutes the major fitness barrier to HGT. Serial propagation of the orthologous strains for ~600 generations dramatically improved growth rates by largely alleviating the fitness barriers. Whole genome sequencing and global proteome quantification revealed that the evolved strains with the largest fitness improvements have accumulated mutations that inactivated the ATP-dependent Lon protease, causing an increase in the intracellular DHFR abundance. In one case DHFR abundance increased further due to mutations accumulated in folA promoter, but only after the lon inactivating mutations were fixed in the population. Thus, by apparently distinguishing between self and non-self proteins, protein homeostasis imposes an immediate and global barrier to the functional integration of foreign genes by decreasing the intracellular abundance of their products. Once this barrier is alleviated, more fine-tuned evolution occurs to adjust the function/expression of the transferred proteins to the constraints imposed by the intracellular

  4. Protein Homeostasis Imposes a Barrier on Functional Integration of Horizontally Transferred Genes in Bacteria.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shimon Bershtein

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Horizontal gene transfer (HGT plays a central role in bacterial evolution, yet the molecular and cellular constraints on functional integration of the foreign genes are poorly understood. Here we performed inter-species replacement of the chromosomal folA gene, encoding an essential metabolic enzyme dihydrofolate reductase (DHFR, with orthologs from 35 other mesophilic bacteria. The orthologous inter-species replacements caused a marked drop (in the range 10-90% in bacterial growth rate despite the fact that most orthologous DHFRs are as stable as E.coli DHFR at 37°C and are more catalytically active than E. coli DHFR. Although phylogenetic distance between E. coli and orthologous DHFRs as well as their individual molecular properties correlate poorly with growth rates, the product of the intracellular DHFR abundance and catalytic activity (kcat/KM, correlates strongly with growth rates, indicating that the drop in DHFR abundance constitutes the major fitness barrier to HGT. Serial propagation of the orthologous strains for ~600 generations dramatically improved growth rates by largely alleviating the fitness barriers. Whole genome sequencing and global proteome quantification revealed that the evolved strains with the largest fitness improvements have accumulated mutations that inactivated the ATP-dependent Lon protease, causing an increase in the intracellular DHFR abundance. In one case DHFR abundance increased further due to mutations accumulated in folA promoter, but only after the lon inactivating mutations were fixed in the population. Thus, by apparently distinguishing between self and non-self proteins, protein homeostasis imposes an immediate and global barrier to the functional integration of foreign genes by decreasing the intracellular abundance of their products. Once this barrier is alleviated, more fine-tuned evolution occurs to adjust the function/expression of the transferred proteins to the constraints imposed by the

  5. Transfer function for a superficial layer. Parametric analysis and relationship with SM records

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sandi, H.; Stancu, O.

    2002-01-01

    The developments presented were aimed at providing an analytical and computational support for a research project intended to examine the contribution of source mechanism and of local conditions to the features of ground motion due to Vrancea earthquakes. The project referred to is being developed jointly, by the Academy of Technical Sciences of Romania, the Institute of Geodynamics, the Technical University of Civil Engineering, Bucharest, and GEOTEC, Bucharest. The modelling of the phenomenon of seismic oscillations of ground was based on assumptions of physical and geometrical linearity. The dynamic systems considered were assumed to consist of a sequence of plane = parallel homogeneous geologic layers, accepting that the relevant physical characteristics (thickness, density, low frequency S-wave velocity, rheological characteristic) are constant for a layer, but may change from one layer to another). Alternative constitutive laws were considered (the laws referred to were of Kelvin - Voigt, Poynting and Sorokin types). The transfer function of a geological package is determined as a product of transfer functions of the successive homogeneous layers. A first step of analysis corresponded to the consideration of a single homogeneous layer, for which full analytical solutions could be derived. A parametric analysis, aimed at determining the transfer function, was undertaken considering alternative (credible) values for the parameters characterizing the constitutive laws referred to. Considering alternative possible situations, it turned out that a strong amplification occurs (for any type of constitutive law) especially for the fundamental mode of the dynamic system, while the amplification is weaker for the upper normal modes. These results correlate well with the outcome of analysis of the spectral content of ground motion as obtained from the processing of strong motion records. The most striking fact is represented by the important modifications of the

  6. A BASIC program for an IBM PC compatible computer for drawing the weak phase object contrast transfer function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olsen, A.; Skjerpe, P.

    1989-01-01

    This report describes a computer program which is useful in high resolution microscopy. The program is written in EBASIC and calculates the weak phase object contrast transfer function as function of instrumental and imaging parameters. The function is plotted on the PC graphics screen, and by a Print Screen command the function can be copied to the printer. The program runs on both the Hercules graphic card and the IBM CGA card. 2 figs

  7. Function connectivity MRI to evaluate the changes of the motorial nerve net in patients with brain tumors adjacent to the central sulcus occurred with reorganization of motor function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han Tong; Liu Meili; Cui Shimin; Liu Li; Jin Song; Lei Jing; Liu Hui; Guo Jun; Hao Nina; Guo Ying; Xiang Huadong; Weng Xuchu

    2008-01-01

    Objective: We investigated the changes of the motorial network in patients suffered from brain tumors adjacent to the central sulcus occurred with reorganization of motor function using function connectivity MRI (fcMRI) technique in order to provide the new evidence for the compensational hypothesis of the reorganization caused by focal lesions. Methods: Using 1.5 T MRI unit, 14 patients with brain tumors in the vicinity of the central sulcus occurred with reorganization of motor function and 6 normal volunteers were examined with fcMRI technique while the subjects performed no task. By selecting seed voxels (region of interest) in the regions showing the most activation in Mi area on the activated map and cross correlating with every, voxel within the brain, the fcMRI maps based on unilateral primary motor (M1) area were calculated. The location, extent and volume of the region showing significant connectivity to the several seed voxel, such as left/right M1 area in the health group and affected/unaffected Mlarea in the patient group were evaluated on the fcMRI map. Results: In healthy group, the extent and volume of the region showing significant connectivity to the left Mlarea [(9514.17±186.92)mm 3 ] were almost similar to those to the right M1 area [(9364.67±382.75) mm 3 ]. There showed no significant difference in motor connectivity between the two groups (P>0.05). In the tumor group, the volume of regions showing significant connectivity to the M1 area located in the affected hemisphere [(11193.14 ± 811.29) mm 3 ] was obviously higher than that of regions based on the seed voxel in the unaffected side [(6549.86± 400.94) mm 3 ] (t=20.383, P<0.01). The volume was significantly different among the regions showing high connectivity to the M1 of the affected side in patient group, those showing significant connectivity to the left M1 and right M1 in health group (P<0.01), the former was the biggest (P<0.01). The extent of the regions showing connectivity to

  8. Planning of nets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carberry, M

    1996-01-01

    The paper is about the planning of nets in areas of low density like it is the case of the rural areas. The author includes economic and technological aspects, planning of nets, demands and management among others

  9. Proton transfer along water bridges in biological systems with density-functional tight-binding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reiss, Krystle; Wise, Abigail; Mazzuca, James

    2015-03-01

    When examining the dynamics of charge transfer in high dimensional enzymatic systems, the cost of quantum mechanical treatment of electrons increases exponentially with the size of the system. As a semi-empirical method, density-functional tight-binding aids in shortening these calculation times, but can be inaccurate in the regime where bonds are being formed and broken. To address these inaccuracies with respect to proton transfer in an enzymatic system, DFTB is being used to calculate small model systems containing only a single amino acid residue donor, represented by an imidazole molecule, and a water acceptor. When DFTB calculations are compared to B3LYP geometry calculations of the donor molecule, we observe a bond angle error on the order of 1.2 degrees and a bond length error on the order of 0.011 Å. As we move forward with small donor-acceptor systems, comparisons between DFTB and B3LYP energy profiles will provide a better clue as to what extent improvements need to be made. To improve the accuracy of the DFTB calculations, the internuclear repulsion term may be altered. This would result in energy profiles that closely resemble those produced by higher-level theory. Alma College Provost's Office.

  10. Tracing decadal environmental change in ombrotrophic bogs using diatoms from herbarium collections and transfer functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poulíčková, Aloisie; Hájková, Petra; Kintrová, Kateřina; Bat'ková, Romana; Czudková, Markéta; Hájek, Michal

    2013-08-01

    Central European mountain bogs, among the most valuable and threatened of habitats, were exposed to intensive human impact during the 20th century. We reconstructed the subrecent water chemistry and water-table depths using diatom based transfer functions calibrated from modern sampling. Herbarium Sphagnum specimens collected during the period 1918-1998 were used as a source of historic diatom samples. We classified samples into hummocks and hollows according to the identity of dominant Sphagnum species, to reduce bias caused by uneven sampling of particular microhabitats. Our results provide clear evidence for bog pollution by grazing during the period 1918-1947 and by undocumented aerial liming in the early 90-ies. We advocate use of herbarized epibryon as a source of information on subrecent conditions in recently polluted mires. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Optimized Signaling Method for High-Speed Transmission Channels with Higher Order Transfer Function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ševčík, Břetislav; Brančík, Lubomír; Kubíček, Michal

    2017-08-01

    In this paper, the selected results from testing of optimized CMOS friendly signaling method for high-speed communications over cables and printed circuit boards (PCBs) are presented and discussed. The proposed signaling scheme uses modified concept of pulse width modulated (PWM) signal which enables to better equalize significant channel losses during data high-speed transmission. Thus, the very effective signaling method to overcome losses in transmission channels with higher order transfer function, typical for long cables and multilayer PCBs, is clearly analyzed in the time and frequency domain. Experimental results of the measurements include the performance comparison of conventional PWM scheme and clearly show the great potential of the modified signaling method for use in low power CMOS friendly equalization circuits, commonly considered in modern communication standards as PCI-Express, SATA or in Multi-gigabit SerDes interconnects.

  12. Evaluation of the modulation transfer function for computer tomography by using American Association Physics Medicine Phantom

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Ki Won [Dept. of Radiology, Kyung Hee University Hospital at Gang-dong, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Kwan Woo [Dept. of Radiology, Asan Medical Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Jeong, Hoi Woun [Dept. of Radiological Technology, Baekseok Culture University, Cheonan (Korea, Republic of); Jang, Seo Goo [Dept. of Medical Science, Soonchunhyang University, Asan (Korea, Republic of); Kwon, Kyung Tae [Dept. of Radiological Technology, Dongnam Health University, Suwon (Korea, Republic of); Son, Soon Yong [Dept. of Radiological Technology, Wonkwang Health Science University, Iksan (Korea, Republic of); Son, Jin Hyun; Min, Jung Whan [Dept. of Radiological Technology, Shingu University, Sungnam (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-06-15

    In clinical computed tomography (CT), regular quality assurance (QA) has been required. This study is to evaluate the MTF for analyzing the spatial resolution using AAPM phantom in CT exam. The dual source somatom definition flash (siemens healthcare, forchheim, Germany), the brilliance 64 (philips medical system Netherlands) and aquilion 64 (toshiba medical system, Japan) were used in this study. The quantitative evaluation was performed using the image J (wayne rasband national institutes of health, USA) and chart method which is measurement of modulation transfer function (MTF). In MTF evaluation, the spatial frequencies corresponding to the 50% MTF for the CT systems were 0.58, 0.28, and 0.59 mm-1, respectively and the 10% MTF for the CT systems were 1.63, 0.89, and 1.21 mm-1, respectively. This study could evaluate the characteristic of spatial resolution of MTF using chart method, suggesting the quantitative evaluation method using the data.

  13. Optimized logarithmic phase masks used to generate defocus invariant modulation transfer function for wavefront coding system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Hui; Li, Yingcai

    2010-08-01

    In a previous Letter [Opt. Lett. 33, 1171 (2008)], we proposed an improved logarithmic phase mask by making modifications to the original one designed by Sherif. However, further studies in another paper [Appl. Opt. 49, 229 (2010)] show that even when the Sherif mask and the improved one are optimized, their corresponding defocused modulation transfer functions (MTFs) are still not stable with respect to focus errors. So, by further modifying their phase profiles, we design another two logarithmic phase masks that exhibit more stable defocused MTF. However, with the defocus-induced phase effect considered, we find that the performance of the two masks proposed in this Letter is better than the Sherif mask, but worse than our previously proposed phase mask, according to the Hilbert space angle.

  14. Coupled DQ-FE methods for two dimensional transient heat transfer analysis of functionally graded material

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Golbahar Haghighi, M.R.; Eghtesad, M. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, School of Engineering, Shiraz University, Shiraz 71348-51154 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Malekzadeh, P. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, School of Engineering, Persian Gulf University, Boushehr 75169-13798 (Iran, Islamic Republic of)], E-mail: malekzadeh@pgu.ac.ir

    2008-05-15

    In this paper, a mixed finite element (FE) and differential quadrature (DQ) method as a simple, accurate and computationally efficient numerical tool for two dimensional transient heat transfer analysis of functionally graded materials (FGMs) is developed. The method benefits from the high accuracy, fast convergence behavior and low computational efforts of the DQ in conjunction with the advantages of the FE method in general geometry, loading and systematic boundary treatment. Also, the boundary conditions at the top and bottom surfaces of the domain can be implemented more precisely and in strong form. The temporal derivatives are discretized using an incremental DQ method (IDQM), whose numerical stability is not sensitive to time step size. The effects of non-uniform convective-radiative conditions on the boundaries are investigated. The accuracy of the proposed method is demonstrated by comparing its results with those available in the literature. It is shown that using few grid points, highly accurate results can be obtained.

  15. Directional loudness in an anechoic sound field, head-related transfer functions, and binaural summation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sivonen, Ville Pekka; Ellermeier, Wolfgang

    2006-01-01

    planes. Matches were obtained via a two-interval, adaptive forced-choice (2AFC) procedure for three center frequencies (0.4, 1 and 5 kHz) and two overall levels (45 and 65 dB SPL). The results showed that loudness is not constant over sound incidence angles, with directional sensitivity varying over......The effect of sound incidence angle on loudness was investigated using real sound sources positioned in an anechoic chamber. Eight normal-hearing listeners produced loudness matches between a frontal reference location and seven sources placed at other directions, both in the horizontal and median...... a range of up to 10 dB, exhibiting considerable frequency dependence, but only minor effects of overall level. The pattern of results varied substantially between subjects, but was largely accounted for by variations in individual head-related transfer functions. Modeling of binaural loudness based...

  16. A hybrid algorithm for selecting head-related transfer function based on similarity of anthropometric structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Xiang-Yang; Wang, Shu-Guang; Gao, Li-Ping

    2010-09-01

    As the basic data for virtual auditory technology, head-related transfer function (HRTF) has many applications in the areas of room acoustic modeling, spatial hearing and multimedia. How to individualize HRTF fast and effectively has become an opening problem at present. Based on the similarity and relativity of anthropometric structures, a hybrid HRTF customization algorithm, which has combined the method of principal component analysis (PCA), multiple linear regression (MLR) and database matching (DM), has been presented in this paper. The HRTFs selected by both the best match and the worst match have been applied into obtaining binaurally auralized sounds, which are then used for subjective listening experiments and the results are compared. For the area in the horizontal plane, the localization results have shown that the selection of HRTFs can enhance the localization accuracy and can also abate the problem of front-back confusion.

  17. Modelling and Order of Acoustic Transfer Functions Due to Reflections from Augmented Objects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diemer de Vries

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available It is commonly accepted that the sound reflections from real physical objects are much more complicated than what usually is and can be modelled by room acoustics modelling software. The main reason for this limitation is the level of detail inherent in the physical object in terms of its geometrical and acoustic properties. In the present paper, the complexity of the sound reflections from a corridor wall is investigated by modelling the corresponding acoustic transfer functions at several receiver positions in front of the wall. The complexity for different wall configurations has been examined and the changes have been achieved by altering its acoustic image. The results show that for a homogenous flat wall, the complexity is significant and for a wall including various smaller objects, the complexity is highly dependent on the position of the receiver with respect to the objects.

  18. Analysis of water hammer in pipelines by partial fraction expansion of transfer function in frequency domain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Jun Shin; Lee, Wook Ryun; Oh, Ki Yong; Kim, Bong Ki

    2010-01-01

    Understanding water hammer is very important to the prevention of excessive pressure build-up in pipelines. Many researchers have studied this phenomenon, drawing effective solutions through the time- and frequency-domain approaches. For the purposes of enhancing the advantages of the frequency-domain approach and, thereby, rendering investigations of the dynamic characteristics of pipelines more effective, we propose partial fraction expansion of the transfer function between the unsteady flow source and a given section. We simulate the proposed approach using a vibration element inserted into a simple pipeline, deducing much useful physical information pertaining to pipeline design. We conclude that locating the resonance of the vibration element between the first and second resonances of the pipeline can mitigate the excessive pressure build-up attendant on the occurrence of water hammer. Our method of partial fraction expansion is expected to be useful and effective in analyses of unsteady flows in pipelines

  19. Hydrophobic and optical characteristics of graphene and graphene oxide films transferred onto functionalized silica particles deposited glass surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yilbas, B. S.; Ibrahim, A.; Ali, H.; Khaled, M.; Laoui, T.

    2018-06-01

    Hydrophobic and optical transmittance characteristics of the functionalized silica particles on the glass surface prior and after transfer of graphene and graphene oxide films on the surface are examined. Nano-size silica particles are synthesized and functionalized via chemical grafting and deposited onto a glass surface. Graphene film, grown on copper substrate, was transferred onto the functionalized silica particles surface through direct fishing method. Graphene oxide layer was deposited onto the functionalized silica particles surface via spin coating technique. Morphological, hydrophobic, and optical characteristics of the functionalized silica particles deposited surface prior and after graphene and graphene oxide films transfer are examined using the analytical tools. It is found that the functionalized silica particles are agglomerated at the surface forming packed structures with few micro/nano size pores. This arrangement gives rise to water droplet contact angle and contact angle hysteresis in the order of 163° and 2°, respectively, and remains almost uniform over the entire surface. Transferring graphene and depositing graphene oxide films over the functionalized silica particles surface lowers the water droplet contact angle slightly (157-160°) and increases the contact angle hysteresis (4°). The addition of the graphene and graphene oxide films onto the surface of the deposited functionalized silica particles improves the optical transmittance.

  20. Modulation transfer function estimation of optical lens system by adaptive neuro-fuzzy methodology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petković, Dalibor; Shamshirband, Shahaboddin; Pavlović, Nenad T.; Anuar, Nor Badrul; Kiah, Miss Laiha Mat

    2014-07-01

    The quantitative assessment of image quality is an important consideration in any type of imaging system. The modulation transfer function (MTF) is a graphical description of the sharpness and contrast of an imaging system or of its individual components. The MTF is also known and spatial frequency response. The MTF curve has different meanings according to the corresponding frequency. The MTF of an optical system specifies the contrast transmitted by the system as a function of image size, and is determined by the inherent optical properties of the system. In this study, the adaptive neuro-fuzzy (ANFIS) estimator is designed and adapted to estimate MTF value of the actual optical system. Neural network in ANFIS adjusts parameters of membership function in the fuzzy logic of the fuzzy inference system. The back propagation learning algorithm is used for training this network. This intelligent estimator is implemented using Matlab/Simulink and the performances are investigated. The simulation results presented in this paper show the effectiveness of the developed method.

  1. Accurate evaluation of modulation transfer function using the Fourier shift theorem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Yong Gwon; Ryu, Yeunchul

    2017-12-01

    Accurate determination of the line spread function (LSF) on the basis of the edge processing algorithm in X-ray imaging systems is one of the most basic procedures for evaluating the performance of such systems. Extensive research has been focused on algorithms for the precise or fast measurement of the LSF in digital X-ray systems. Most of the standard methods for evaluating the performance of an imaging system are based on a fully digitalized radiographic system or a film-based system. However, images obtained by computed radiography (CR), which converts a captured analog signal into a digital image through an analog-to-digital converting scanner, show the combined characteristics of analog and digital imaging systems. Fundamentally, the characteristics of digital imaging systems differ substantially from those of film imaging systems because of their different methods of acquiring and displaying image data. In addition, a system with both analog and digital component has characteristics that differ from those of both digital and analog systems. In this research, we present a new modulation transfer function (MTF) that mimics the existing MTF in terms of measurement but satisfies existing standard protocols through modification of the hypothesis contents. In the case of the LSF and the point spread function measured with a CR system, the developed edge algorithm shows better performance than the conventional methods. We also demonstrate the usefulness of this method in an actual measurement with a CR digital X-ray imaging system.

  2. Dynamic stability analysis of microgrid by integrating transfer function of DERs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Basak, Prasenjit [Calcutta Institute of Engineering & Management, Electrical Engineering Department, Kolkata (India); Chowdhury, S.; Chowdhury, S.P. [University of Cape Town, Electrical Engineering Department, Cape Town (South Africa)

    2010-07-01

    A microgrid is an integrated form of distributed energy resources (DERs) which are connected together to serve electrical power to the selected consumers or can exchange power with the existing utility grid suitably under standalone or grid connected mode. The microgrid can be cited as a physical system which is a combination of DERs such as, Photovoltaic Generator, Wind turbine, Fuel Cell, Microturbine etc. and can be modelled with suitable assumptions depending upon specific operational condition to be studied. Interconnection of several kinds of power sources would impact the quality of power within the microgrid. Since voltage and frequency are not the only factors for a system delivering good quality power, the capacity of the same to withstand instability due to transient condition is one of the prime factors to be considered to accept a system as a stable system. Before practical integration of distributed energy resources, it would be essential to check the stability of the system at the design stage. In this paper, the authors have presented the microgrid based on control system engineering. To represent the individual components of microgrid, the DERs (Distributed Energy Resources) have been represented with their transfer functions and they have been simulated using Simulink-Matlab. To observe the response of the DERs, the frequency fluctuation due to step and random change in output power/load are considered as the main factors for stability analysis. All the DERs are integrated forming the microgrid which is represented with an equivalent transfer function based model. The models are studied and results are discussed with the waveforms. This paper shows one feasible method to check the dynamic stability of a proposed microgrid.

  3. System and Method for Measuring the Transfer Function of a Guided Wave Device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Froggatt, Mark E. (Inventor); Erdogan, Turan (Inventor)

    2002-01-01

    A method/system are provided for measuring the NxN scalar transfer function elements for an N-port guided wave device. Optical energy of a selected wavelength is generated at a source and directed along N reference optical paths having N reference path lengths. Each reference optical path terminates in one of N detectors such that N reference signals are produced at the N detectors. The reference signals are indicative of amplitude, phase and frequency of the optical energy carried along the N reference optical paths. The optical energy from the source is also directed to the N-ports of the guided wave device and then on to each of the N detectors such that N measurement optical paths are defined between the source and each of the N detectors. A portion of the optical energy is modified in terms of at least one of the amplitude and phase to produce N modified signals at each of the N detectors. At each of the N detectors, each of the N modified signals is combined with a corresponding one of the N reference signals to produce corresponding N combined signals at each of the N detectors. A total of N(sup 2) measurement signals are generated by the N detectors. Each of the N(sup 2) measurement signals is sampled at a wave number increment (Delta)k so that N(sup 2) sampled signals are produced. The NxN transfer function elements are generated using the N(sup 2) sampled signals. Reference and measurement path length constraints are defined such that the N combined signals at each of the N detectors are spatially separated from one another in the time domain.

  4. Net charge fluctuations and local charge compensation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fu Jinghua

    2006-01-01

    We propose net charge fluctuation as a measure of local charge correlation length. It is demonstrated that, in terms of a schematic multiperipheral model, net charge fluctuation satisfies the same Quigg-Thomas relation as satisfied by charge transfer fluctuation. Net charge fluctuations measured in finite rapidity windows depend on both the local charge correlation length and the size of the observation window. When the observation window is larger than the local charge correlation length, the net charge fluctuation only depends on the local charge correlation length, while forward-backward charge fluctuations always have strong dependence on the observation window size. Net charge fluctuations and forward-backward charge fluctuations measured in the present heavy ion experiments show characteristic features similar to those from multiperipheral models. But the data cannot all be understood within this simple model

  5. Absolute total and one and two electron transfer cross sections for Ar8+ on Ar as a function of energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vancura, J.; Kostroun, V.O.

    1992-01-01

    The absolute total and one and two electron transfer cross sections for Ar 8+ on Ar were measured as a function of projectile laboratory energy from 0.090 to 0.550 keV/amu. The effective one electron transfer cross section dominates above 0.32 keV/amu, while below this energy, the effective two electron transfer starts to become appreciable. The total cross section varies by a factor over the energy range explored. The overall error in the cross section measurement is estimated to be ± 15%

  6. An Examination of Mediators of the Transfer of Cognitive Speed of Processing Training to Everyday Functional Performance

    OpenAIRE

    Edwards, Jerri D.; Ruva, Christine L.; O’Brien, Jennifer L.; Haley, Christine B.; Lister, Jennifer J.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of these analyses was to examine mediators of the transfer of cognitive speed of processing training to improved everyday functional performance (Edwards, Wadley, Vance, Roenker, & Ball, 2005). Cognitive speed of processing and visual attention (as measured by the Useful Field of View Test; UFOV) were examined as mediators of training transfer. Secondary data analyses were conducted from the Staying Keen in Later Life (SKILL) study, a randomized cohort study including 126 communit...

  7. Functional capacity and dependency in transfer and dressing are associated with depressive symptoms in older people

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boström G

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Gustaf Boström,1 Mia Conradsson,1 Erik Rosendahl,1,2 Peter Nordström,1 Yngve Gustafson,1 Håkan Littbrand1,21Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Geriatric Medicine, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden; 2Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Physiotherapy, Umeå University, Umeå, SwedenBackground: This study examined associations between depressive symptoms and functional capacity, overall dependency in personal activities of daily living (ADLs, and dependency in individual ADL tasks, respectively, in people with a high mean age, large range of functional capacity, and wide spectrum of dependency in ADLs.Methods: Cross-sectional data from three studies were used. A total of 392 individuals living in community and residential care facilities were included. Mean age was 86.2 years, 72% were women, 75% were dependent in ADLs, 42% had depression, and 39% had dementia. Depressive symptoms were assessed with the 15-item Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS-15, functional capacity with the Berg Balance Scale (BBS, and ADLs with the Barthel ADL Index. Multiple linear regression analyses with comprehensive adjustments were performed between GDS-15 and BBS, GDS-15 and Barthel ADL Index, and GDS-15 and each individual ADL task, separately.Results: GDS-15 score was associated with BBS score (unstandardized b =-0.03, P=0.008, but not with Barthel ADL Index score (unstandardized b =-0.07, P=0.068. No significant interaction effects of sex, dementia, or living conditions were found in these associations. Among individual ADL tasks, dependency in transfer (unstandardized b =-1.03, P=0.007 and dressing (unstandardized b =-0.70, P=0.035 were associated with depressive symptoms.Conclusion: Functional capacity seems to be independently associated with depressive symptoms in older people living in community and residential care facilities, whereas overall ADL performance may not be associated. Dependency in the individual ADL tasks of

  8. Experiments and simulation of a net closing mechanism for tether-net capture of space debris

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharf, Inna; Thomsen, Benjamin; Botta, Eleonora M.; Misra, Arun K.

    2017-10-01

    This research addresses the design and testing of a debris containment system for use in a tether-net approach to space debris removal. The tether-net active debris removal involves the ejection of a net from a spacecraft by applying impulses to masses on the net, subsequent expansion of the net, the envelopment and capture of the debris target, and the de-orbiting of the debris via a tether to the chaser spacecraft. To ensure a debris removal mission's success, it is important that the debris be successfully captured and then, secured within the net. To this end, we present a concept for a net closing mechanism, which we believe will permit consistently successful debris capture via a simple and unobtrusive design. This net closing system functions by extending the main tether connecting the chaser spacecraft and the net vertex to the perimeter and around the perimeter of the net, allowing the tether to actuate closure of the net in a manner similar to a cinch cord. A particular embodiment of the design in a laboratory test-bed is described: the test-bed itself is comprised of a scaled-down tether-net, a supporting frame and a mock-up debris. Experiments conducted with the facility demonstrate the practicality of the net closing system. A model of the net closure concept has been integrated into the previously developed dynamics simulator of the chaser/tether-net/debris system. Simulations under tether tensioning conditions demonstrate the effectiveness of the closure concept for debris containment, in the gravity-free environment of space, for a realistic debris target. The on-ground experimental test-bed is also used to showcase its utility for validating the dynamics simulation of the net deployment, and a full-scale automated setup would make possible a range of validation studies of other aspects of a tether-net debris capture mission.

  9. Implementing NetScaler VPX

    CERN Document Server

    Sandbu, Marius

    2014-01-01

    An easy-to-follow guide with detailed step-by step-instructions on how to implement the different key components in NetScaler, with real-world examples and sample scenarios.If you are a Citrix or network administrator who needs to implement NetScaler in your virtual environment to gain an insight on its functionality, this book is ideal for you. A basic understanding of networking and familiarity with some of the different Citrix products such as XenApp or XenDesktop is a prerequisite.

  10. Rethinking Functional Outcome Measures: The Development of a Novel Upper Limb Token Transfer Test to Assess Basal Ganglia Dysfunction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susanne P. Clinch

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available The basal ganglia are implicated in a wide range of motor, cognitive and behavioral activities required for normal function. This region is predominantly affected in Huntington's disease (HD, meaning that functional ability progressively worsens. However, functional outcome measures for HD, particularly those for the upper limb, are limited meaning there is an imperative for well-defined, quantitative measures. Here we describe the development and evaluation of the Moneybox test (MBT. This novel, functional upper limb assessment was developed in accordance with translational neuroscience and physiological principles for people with a broad disease manifestation, such as HD. Participants with HD (n = 64 and healthy controls (n = 21 performed the MBT, which required subjects to transfer tokens into a container in order of size (Baseline Transfer, value (Complex Transfer with and without reciting the alphabet (Dual Transfer. Disease specific measures of motor, cognition, behavior, and function were collected. HD patients were grouped into disease stage, from which, discriminative and convergent validity was assessed using Analysis of Variance and Pearson's correlation respectively. Manifest HD participants were slower than pre-manifest and control participants, and achieved significantly lower MBT total scores. Performance in the Complex Transfer and Dual Transfer tasks were significantly different between pre-manifest and stage 1 HD. All MBT performance variables significantly correlated with routinely used measures of motor, cognition, behavior, and function. The MBT provides a valid, sensitive, and affordable functional outcome measure. Unlike current assessments, MBT performance significantly distinguished the subtle differences between the earliest disease stages of HD, which are the populations typically targeted in clinical trials.

  11. Intersection of transfer cells with phloem biology – broad evolutionary trends, function and induction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felicity eAndriunas

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Transfer cells (TCs are ubiquitous throughout the plant kingdom. Their unique ingrowth wall labyrinths, supporting a plasma membrane enriched in transporter proteins, provides these cells with an enhanced membrane transport capacity for resources. In certain plant species, TCs have been shown to function to facilitate phloem loading and/or unloading at cellular sites of intense resource exchange between symplasmic/apoplasmic compartments. Within the phloem, the key cellular locations of TCs are leaf minor veins of collection phloem and stem nodes of transport phloem. In these locations, companion and phloem parenchyma cells trans-differentiate to a TC morphology consistent with facilitating loading and re-distribution of resources respectively. At a species level, occurrence of TCs is significantly higher in transport than in collection phloem. TCs are absent from release phloem but occur within post-sieve element unloading pathways and particularly at interfaces between generations of developing Angiosperm seeds. Experimental accessibility of seed TCs has provided opportunities to investigate their inductive signaling, regulation of ingrowth wall formation and membrane transport function. This review uses this information base to explore current knowledge of phloem transport function and inductive signaling for phloem-associated TCs. The functional role of collection phloem and seed TCs is supported by definitive evidence, but no such information is available for stem node TCs that present an almost intractable experimental challenge. There is an emerging understanding of inductive signals and signaling pathways responsible for initiating trans-differentiation to a TC morphology in developing seeds. However, scant information is available to comment on a potential role for inductive signals that induce seed TCs, in regulating induction of phloem-associated TCs. Biotic phloem invaders have been used as a model to speculate on involvement of

  12. Intersection of transfer cells with phloem biology—broad evolutionary trends, function, and induction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andriunas, Felicity A.; Zhang, Hui-Ming; Xia, Xue; Patrick, John W.; Offler, Christina E.

    2013-01-01

    Transfer cells (TCs) are ubiquitous throughout the plant kingdom. Their unique ingrowth wall labyrinths, supporting a plasma membrane enriched in transporter proteins, provides these cells with an enhanced membrane transport capacity for resources. In certain plant species, TCs have been shown to function to facilitate phloem loading and/or unloading at cellular sites of intense resource exchange between symplasmic/apoplasmic compartments. Within the phloem, the key cellular locations of TCs are leaf minor veins of collection phloem and stem nodes of transport phloem. In these locations, companion and phloem parenchyma cells trans-differentiate to a TC morphology consistent with facilitating loading and re-distribution of resources, respectively. At a species level, occurrence of TCs is significantly higher in transport than in collection phloem. TCs are absent from release phloem, but occur within post-sieve element unloading pathways and particularly at interfaces between generations of developing Angiosperm seeds. Experimental accessibility of seed TCs has provided opportunities to investigate their inductive signaling, regulation of ingrowth wall formation and membrane transport function. This review uses this information base to explore current knowledge of phloem transport function and inductive signaling for phloem-associated TCs. The functional role of collection phloem and seed TCs is supported by definitive evidence, but no such information is available for stem node TCs that present an almost intractable experimental challenge. There is an emerging understanding of inductive signals and signaling pathways responsible for initiating trans-differentiation to a TC morphology in developing seeds. However, scant information is available to comment on a potential role for inductive signals (auxin, ethylene and reactive oxygen species) that induce seed TCs, in regulating induction of phloem-associated TCs. Biotic phloem invaders have been used as a model to

  13. Exergy costs analysis of water desalination and purification techniques by transfer functions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carrasquer, Beatriz; Martínez-Gracia, Amaya; Uche, Javier

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • A procedure to estimate the unit exergy cost of water treatment techniques is provided. • Unit exergy costs of water purification and desalination are given as a function of design and operating parameters. • Unit exergy costs range from 3.3 to 6.8 in purification and from 2 to 26 in desalination. • They could be used in their preliminary design as good indicators of their energy efficiency. - Abstract: The unit exergy costs of desalination and purification, which are two alternatives commonly used for water supply and treatment, have been characterized as a function of the energy efficiency of the process by combining the Exergy Cost Analysis with Transfer Function Analysis. An equation to assess the exergy costs of these alternatives is then proposed as a quick guide to know the energy efficiency of any water treatment process under different design and operating conditions. This combination, was satisfactory applied to groundwaters and water transfers. After identifying the boundaries of the system, input and output flows are calculated in exergy values. Next, different examples are analyzed in order to propose a generic equation to assess the exergy cost of the water restoration technologies, attending to their main features. Recovery ratio, energy requirements and salts concentrations (for desalination), and plant capacity and organic matter recovery (for water purification) are introduced in the calculations as their main endogenous parameters. Values obtained for typical operation ranges of commercial plants showed that unit exergy costs of water purification ranged from 3.3 to 6.8; maximum values, as expected, were found at low plant capacities and high organic matter removal ratios. For water desalination, values varied from 2 to 7 in membrane technologies and from 10 to 26 in thermal processes. The recovery ratio and salts concentration in raw water increased the unit exergy costs in membrane techniques. In distillation processes

  14. State of the Art in Transfer Functions for Direct Volume Rendering

    KAUST Repository

    Ljung, Patric; Krü ger, Jens; Groller, Eduard; Hadwiger, Markus; Hansen, Charles D.; Ynnerman, Anders

    2016-01-01

    A central topic in scientific visualization is the transfer function (TF) for volume rendering. The TF serves a fundamental role in translating scalar and multivariate data into color and opacity to express and reveal the relevant features present in the data studied. Beyond this core functionality, TFs also serve as a tool for encoding and utilizing domain knowledge and as an expression for visual design of material appearances. TFs also enable interactive volumetric exploration of complex data. The purpose of this state-of-the-art report (STAR) is to provide an overview of research into the various aspects of TFs, which lead to interpretation of the underlying data through the use of meaningful visual representations. The STAR classifies TF research into the following aspects: dimensionality, derived attributes, aggregated attributes, rendering aspects, automation, and user interfaces. The STAR concludes with some interesting research challenges that form the basis of an agenda for the development of next generation TF tools and methodologies. © 2016 The Author(s) Computer Graphics Forum © 2016 The Eurographics Association and John Wiley & Sons Ltd. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Application of double-hybrid density functionals to charge transfer in N-substituted pentacenequinones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sancho-García, J C

    2012-05-07

    A set of N-heteroquinones, deriving from oligoacenes, have been recently proposed as n-type organic semiconductors with high electron mobilities in thin-film transistors. Generally speaking, this class of compounds self-assembles in neighboring π-stacks linked by weak hydrogen bonds. We aim at theoretically characterizing here the sequential charge transport (hopping) process expected to take place across these arrays of molecules. To do so, we need to accurately address the preferred packing of these materials simultaneously to single-molecule properties related to charge-transfer events, carefully employing dispersion-corrected density functional theory methods to accurately extract the key molecular parameters governing this phenomenon at the nanoscale. This study confirms the great deal of interest around these compounds, since controlled functionalization of model molecules (i.e., pentacene) allows to efficiently tune the corresponding charge mobilities, and the capacity of modern quantum-chemical methods to predict it after rationalizing the underlying structure-property relationships.

  16. Temporal modulation transfer functions in cochlear implantees using a method that limits overall loudness cues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraser, Matthew; McKay, Colette M.

    2012-01-01

    Temporal modulation transfer functions (TMTFs) were measured for six users of cochlear implants, using different carrier rates and levels. Unlike most previous studies investigating modulation detection, the experimental design limited potential effects of overall loudness cues. Psychometric functions (percent correct discrimination of modulated from unmodulated stimuli versus modulation depth) were obtained. For each modulation depth, each modulated stimulus was loudness balanced to the unmodulated reference stimulus, and level jitter was applied in the discrimination task. The loudness-balance data showed that the modulated stimuli were louder than the unmodulated reference stimuli with the same average current, thus confirming the need to limit loudness cues when measuring modulation detection. TMTFs measured in this way had a low-pass characteristic, with a cut-off frequency (at comfortably loud levels) similar to that for normal-hearing listeners. A reduction in level caused degradation in modulation detection efficiency and a lower-cut-off frequency (i.e. poorer temporal resolution). An increase in carrier rate also led to a degradation in modulation detection efficiency, but only at lower levels or higher modulation frequencies. When detection thresholds were expressed as a proportion of dynamic range, there was no effect of carrier rate for the lowest modulation frequency (50 Hz) at either level. PMID:22146425

  17. Transverse Schottky spectra and beam transfer functions of coasting ion beams with space charge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paret, Stefan

    2010-01-01

    A study of the transverse dynamics of coasting ion beams with moderate space charge is presented in this work. From the dispersion relation with linear space charge, an analytic model describing the impact of space charge on transverse beam transfer functions (BTFs) and the stability limits of a beam is derived. The dielectric function obtained in this way is employed to describe the transverse Schottky spectra with linear space charge as well. The difference between the action of space charge and impedances is highlighted. The setup and the results of an experiment performed in the heavy ion synchrotron SIS-18 at GSI to detect space-charge effects at different beam intensities are explicated. The measured transverse Schottky spectra and BTFs are compared with the linear space-charge model. The stability diagrams constructed from the BTFs are presented. The space-charge parameters evaluated from the Schottky and BTF measurements are compared with estimations based on measured beam parameters. The impact of collective effects on the Schottky and BTF diagnostics is also investigated through numerical simulations. For this purpose the self-field of beams with linear and non-linear transverse density-distributions is computed on a twodimensional grid. The noise of the random particle distribution causes fluctuations of the dipole moment of the beam which produce the Schottky spectrum. BTFs are simulated by exciting the beam with transverse kicks. The simulation results are used to verify the space-charge model. (orig.)

  18. State of the Art in Transfer Functions for Direct Volume Rendering

    KAUST Repository

    Ljung, Patric

    2016-07-04

    A central topic in scientific visualization is the transfer function (TF) for volume rendering. The TF serves a fundamental role in translating scalar and multivariate data into color and opacity to express and reveal the relevant features present in the data studied. Beyond this core functionality, TFs also serve as a tool for encoding and utilizing domain knowledge and as an expression for visual design of material appearances. TFs also enable interactive volumetric exploration of complex data. The purpose of this state-of-the-art report (STAR) is to provide an overview of research into the various aspects of TFs, which lead to interpretation of the underlying data through the use of meaningful visual representations. The STAR classifies TF research into the following aspects: dimensionality, derived attributes, aggregated attributes, rendering aspects, automation, and user interfaces. The STAR concludes with some interesting research challenges that form the basis of an agenda for the development of next generation TF tools and methodologies. © 2016 The Author(s) Computer Graphics Forum © 2016 The Eurographics Association and John Wiley & Sons Ltd. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Transverse Schottky spectra and beam transfer functions of coasting ion beams with space charge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paret, Stefan

    2010-02-22

    A study of the transverse dynamics of coasting ion beams with moderate space charge is presented in this work. From the dispersion relation with linear space charge, an analytic model describing the impact of space charge on transverse beam transfer functions (BTFs) and the stability limits of a beam is derived. The dielectric function obtained in this way is employed to describe the transverse Schottky spectra with linear space charge as well. The difference between the action of space charge and impedances is highlighted. The setup and the results of an experiment performed in the heavy ion synchrotron SIS-18 at GSI to detect space-charge effects at different beam intensities are explicated. The measured transverse Schottky spectra and BTFs are compared with the linear space-charge model. The stability diagrams constructed from the BTFs are presented. The space-charge parameters evaluated from the Schottky and BTF measurements are compared with estimations based on measured beam parameters. The impact of collective effects on the Schottky and BTF diagnostics is also investigated through numerical simulations. For this purpose the self-field of beams with linear and non-linear transverse density-distributions is computed on a twodimensional grid. The noise of the random particle distribution causes fluctuations of the dipole moment of the beam which produce the Schottky spectrum. BTFs are simulated by exciting the beam with transverse kicks. The simulation results are used to verify the space-charge model. (orig.)

  20. Bayesian spatiotemporal model of fMRI data using transfer functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quirós, Alicia; Diez, Raquel Montes; Wilson, Simon P

    2010-09-01

    This research describes a new Bayesian spatiotemporal model to analyse BOLD fMRI studies. In the temporal dimension, we describe the shape of the hemodynamic response function (HRF) with a transfer function model. The spatial continuity and local homogeneity of the evoked responses are modelled by a Gaussian Markov random field prior on the parameter indicating activations. The proposal constitutes an extension of the spatiotemporal model presented in a previous approach [Quirós, A., Montes Diez, R. and Gamerman, D., 2010. Bayesian spatiotemporal model of fMRI data, Neuroimage, 49: 442-456], offering more flexibility in the estimation of the HRF and computational advantages in the resulting MCMC algorithm. Simulations from the model are performed in order to ascertain the performance of the sampling scheme and the ability of the posterior to estimate model parameters, as well as to check the model sensitivity to signal to noise ratio. Results are shown on synthetic data and on a real data set from a block-design fMRI experiment. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Dimensional feature weighting utilizing multiple kernel learning for single-channel talker location discrimination using the acoustic transfer function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takashima, Ryoichi; Takiguchi, Tetsuya; Ariki, Yasuo

    2013-02-01

    This paper presents a method for discriminating the location of the sound source (talker) using only a single microphone. In a previous work, the single-channel approach for discriminating the location of the sound source was discussed, where the acoustic transfer function from a user's position is estimated by using a hidden Markov model of clean speech in the cepstral domain. In this paper, each cepstral dimension of the acoustic transfer function is newly weighted, in order to obtain the cepstral dimensions having information that is useful for classifying the user's position. Then, this paper proposes a feature-weighting method for the cepstral parameter using multiple kernel learning, defining the base kernels for each cepstral dimension of the acoustic transfer function. The user's position is trained and classified by support vector machine. The effectiveness of this method has been confirmed by sound source (talker) localization experiments performed in different room environments.

  2. Backward Transfer: An Investigation of the Influence of Quadratic Functions Instruction on Students' Prior Ways of Reasoning about Linear Functions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hohensee, Charles

    2014-01-01

    The transfer of learning has been the subject of much scientific inquiry in the social sciences. However, mathematics education research has given little attention to a subclass called backward transfer, which is when learning about new concepts influences learners' ways of reasoning about previously encountered concepts. This study examined when…

  3. A proposed approach for the derivation of a system transfer function by the use of an external network

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guppy, C B [Control and Instrumentation Division, Atomic Energy Establishment, Winfrith, Dorchester, Dorset (United Kingdom)

    1961-10-15

    This report outlines a method which might have some application for Transfer Function analysis of a given system. It consists of using the system itself in a general external feed-back, feed-forward circuit. The coefficients of the external circuit are set up one at a time to produce recognisable steady states at the output terminals of the external circuit. In effect step by step neutralisation of the system under test is achieved in the external circuit by setting up the inverse transfer function. (author)

  4. A proposed approach for the derivation of a system transfer function by the use of an external network

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guppy, C.B.

    1961-10-01

    This report outlines a method which might have some application for Transfer Function analysis of a given system. It consists of using the system itself in a general external feed-back, feed-forward circuit. The coefficients of the external circuit are set up one at a time to produce recognisable steady states at the output terminals of the external circuit. In effect step by step neutralisation of the system under test is achieved in the external circuit by setting up the inverse transfer function. (author)

  5. Complementary Strategies for Directed C(sp3 )-H Functionalization: A Comparison of Transition-Metal-Catalyzed Activation, Hydrogen Atom Transfer, and Carbene/Nitrene Transfer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, John C K; Rovis, Tomislav

    2018-01-02

    The functionalization of C(sp 3 )-H bonds streamlines chemical synthesis by allowing the use of simple molecules and providing novel synthetic disconnections. Intensive recent efforts in the development of new reactions based on C-H functionalization have led to its wider adoption across a range of research areas. This Review discusses the strengths and weaknesses of three main approaches: transition-metal-catalyzed C-H activation, 1,n-hydrogen atom transfer, and transition-metal-catalyzed carbene/nitrene transfer, for the directed functionalization of unactivated C(sp 3 )-H bonds. For each strategy, the scope, the reactivity of different C-H bonds, the position of the reacting C-H bonds relative to the directing group, and stereochemical outcomes are illustrated with examples in the literature. The aim of this Review is to provide guidance for the use of C-H functionalization reactions and inspire future research in this area. © 2018 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  6. TRANSFERENCE BEFORE TRANSFERENCE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonaminio, Vincenzo

    2017-10-01

    This paper is predominantly a clinical presentation that describes the transmigration of one patient's transference to another, with the analyst functioning as a sort of transponder. It involves an apparently accidental episode in which there was an unconscious intersection between two patients. The author's aim is to show how transference from one case may affect transference in another, a phenomenon the author calls transference before transference. The author believes that this idea may serve as a tool for understanding the unconscious work that takes place in the clinical situation. In a clinical example, the analyst finds himself caught up in an enactment involving two patients in which he becomes the medium of what happens in session. © 2017 The Psychoanalytic Quarterly, Inc.

  7. Function of donor cell centrosome in intraspecies and interspecies nuclear transfer embryos

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhong Zhisheng; Zhang Gang; Meng Xiaoqian; Zhang Yanling; Chen Dayuan; Schatten, Heide; Sun Qingyuan

    2005-01-01

    Centrosomes, the main microtubule-organizing centers (MTOCs) in most animal cells, are important for many cellular activities such as assembly of the mitotic spindle, establishment of cell polarity, and cell movement. In nuclear transfer (NT), MTOCs that are located at the poles of the meiotic spindle are removed from the recipient oocyte, while the centrosome of the donor cell is introduced. We used mouse MII oocytes as recipients, mouse fibroblasts, rat fibroblasts, or pig granulosa cells as donor cells to construct intraspecies and interspecies nuclear transfer embryos in order to observe centrosome dynamics and functions. Three antibodies against centrin, γ-tubulin, and NuMA, respectively, were used to stain the centrosome. Centrin was not detected either at the poles of transient spindles or at the poles of first mitotic spindles. γ-tubulin translocated into the two poles of the transient spindles, while no accumulated γ-tubulin aggregates were detected in the area adjacent to the two pseudo-pronuclei. At first mitotic metaphase, γ-tubulin was translocated to the spindle poles. The distribution of γ-tubulin was similar in mouse intraspecies and rat-mouse interspecies embryos. The NuMA antibody that we used can recognize porcine but not murine NuMA protein, so it was used to trace the NuMA protein of donor cell in reconstructed embryos. In the pig-mouse interspecies reconstructed embryos, NuMA concentrated between the disarrayed chromosomes soon after activation and translocated to the transient spindle poles. NuMA then immigrated into pseudo-pronuclei. After pseudo-pronuclear envelope breakdown, NuMA was located between the chromosomes and then translocated to the spindle poles of first mitotic metaphase. γ-tubulin antibody microinjection resulted in spindle disorganization and retardation of the first cell division. NuMA antibody microinjection also resulted in spindle disorganization. Our findings indicate that (1) the donor cell centrosome, defined as

  8. A primer on the Petri Net Markup Language and ISO/IEC 15909-2

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hillah, L. M.; Kindler, Ekkart; Kordon, F.

    2009-01-01

    Standard, defines a transfer format for high-level nets. The transfer format defined in Part 2 of ISO/IEC 15909 is (or is based on) the \\emph{Petri Net Markup Language} (PNML), which was originally introduced as an interchange format for different kinds of Petri nets. In ISO/IEC 15909-2, however...

  9. Simulation-based model checking approach to cell fate specification during Caenorhabditis elegans vulval development by hybrid functional Petri net with extension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ueno Kazuko

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Model checking approaches were applied to biological pathway validations around 2003. Recently, Fisher et al. have proved the importance of model checking approach by inferring new regulation of signaling crosstalk in C. elegans and confirming the regulation with biological experiments. They took a discrete and state-based approach to explore all possible states of the system underlying vulval precursor cell (VPC fate specification for desired properties. However, since both discrete and continuous features appear to be an indispensable part of biological processes, it is more appropriate to use quantitative models to capture the dynamics of biological systems. Our key motivation of this paper is to establish a quantitative methodology to model and analyze in silico models incorporating the use of model checking approach. Results A novel method of modeling and simulating biological systems with the use of model checking approach is proposed based on hybrid functional Petri net with extension (HFPNe as the framework dealing with both discrete and continuous events. Firstly, we construct a quantitative VPC fate model with 1761 components by using HFPNe. Secondly, we employ two major biological fate determination rules – Rule I and Rule II – to VPC fate model. We then conduct 10,000 simulations for each of 48 sets of different genotypes, investigate variations of cell fate patterns under each genotype, and validate the two rules by comparing three simulation targets consisting of fate patterns obtained from in silico and in vivo experiments. In particular, an evaluation was successfully done by using our VPC fate model to investigate one target derived from biological experiments involving hybrid lineage observations. However, the understandings of hybrid lineages are hard to make on a discrete model because the hybrid lineage occurs when the system comes close to certain thresholds as discussed by Sternberg and Horvitz in

  10. NET remote workstation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leinemann, K.

    1990-10-01

    The goal of this NET study was to define the functionality of a remote handling workstation and its hardware and software architecture. The remote handling workstation has to fulfill two basic functions: (1) to provide the man-machine interface (MMI), that means the interface to the control system of the maintenance equipment and to the working environment (telepresence) and (2) to provide high level (task level) supporting functions (software tools) during the maintenance work and in the preparation phase. Concerning the man-machine interface, an important module of the remote handling workstation besides the standard components of man-machine interfacing is a module for graphical scene presentation supplementing viewing by TV. The technique of integrated viewing is well known from JET BOOM and TARM control using the GBsim and KISMET software. For integration of equipment dependent MMI functions the remote handling workstation provides a special software module interface. Task level support of the operator is based on (1) spatial (geometric/kinematic) models, (2) remote handling procedure models, and (3) functional models of the equipment. These models and the related simulation modules are used for planning, programming, execution monitoring, and training. The workstation provides an intelligent handbook guiding the operator through planned procedures illustrated by animated graphical sequences. For unplanned situations decision aids are available. A central point of the architectural design was to guarantee a high flexibility with respect to hardware and software. Therefore the remote handling workstation is designed as an open system based on widely accepted standards allowing the stepwise integration of the various modules starting with the basic MMI and the spatial simulation as standard components. (orig./HP) [de

  11. Programming NET Web Services

    CERN Document Server

    Ferrara, Alex

    2007-01-01

    Web services are poised to become a key technology for a wide range of Internet-enabled applications, spanning everything from straight B2B systems to mobile devices and proprietary in-house software. While there are several tools and platforms that can be used for building web services, developers are finding a powerful tool in Microsoft's .NET Framework and Visual Studio .NET. Designed from scratch to support the development of web services, the .NET Framework simplifies the process--programmers find that tasks that took an hour using the SOAP Toolkit take just minutes. Programming .NET

  12. Game Coloured Petri Nets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Westergaard, Michael

    2006-01-01

    This paper introduces the notion of game coloured Petri nets. This allows the modeler to explicitly model what parts of the model comprise the modeled system and what parts are the environment of the modeled system. We give the formal definition of game coloured Petri nets, a means of reachability...... analysis of this net class, and an application of game coloured Petri nets to automatically generate easy-to-understand visualizations of the model by exploiting the knowledge that some parts of the model are not interesting from a visualization perspective (i.e. they are part of the environment...

  13. Java EE 7 development with NetBeans 8

    CERN Document Server

    Heffelfinger, David R

    2015-01-01

    The book is aimed at Java developers who wish to develop Java EE applications while taking advantage of NetBeans functionality to automate repetitive tasks. Familiarity with NetBeans or Java EE is not assumed.

  14. Coded aperture imaging: the modulation transfer function for uniformly redundant arrays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fenimore, E.E.

    1980-01-01

    Coded aperture imaging uses many pinholes to increase the SNR for intrinsically weak sources when the radiation can be neither reflected nor refracted. Effectively, the signal is multiplexed onto an image and then decoded, often by a computer, to form a reconstructed image. We derive the modulation transfer function (MTF) of such a system employing uniformly redundant arrays (URA). We show that the MTF of a URA system is virtually the same as the MTF of an individual pinhole regardless of the shape or size of the pinhole. Thus, only the location of the pinholes is important for optimum multiplexing and decoding. The shape and size of the pinholes can then be selected based on other criteria. For example, one can generate self-supporting patterns, useful for energies typically encountered in the imaging of laser-driven compressions or in soft x-ray astronomy. Such patterns contain holes that are all the same size, easing the etching or plating fabrication efforts for the apertures. A new reconstruction method is introduced called delta decoding. It improves the resolution capabilities of a coded aperture system by mitigating a blur often introduced during the reconstruction step

  15. Gradient waveform pre-emphasis based on the gradient system transfer function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stich, Manuel; Wech, Tobias; Slawig, Anne; Ringler, Ralf; Dewdney, Andrew; Greiser, Andreas; Ruyters, Gudrun; Bley, Thorsten A; Köstler, Herbert

    2018-02-25

    The gradient system transfer function (GSTF) has been used to describe the distorted k-space trajectory for image reconstruction. The purpose of this work was to use the GSTF to determine the pre-emphasis for an undistorted gradient output and intended k-space trajectory. The GSTF of the MR system was determined using only standard MR hardware without special equipment such as field probes or a field camera. The GSTF was used for trajectory prediction in image reconstruction and for a gradient waveform pre-emphasis. As test sequences, a gradient-echo sequence with phase-encoding gradient modulation and a gradient-echo sequence with a spiral read-out trajectory were implemented and subsequently applied on a structural phantom and in vivo head measurements. Image artifacts were successfully suppressed by applying the GSTF-based pre-emphasis. Equivalent results are achieved with images acquired using GSTF-based post-correction of the trajectory as a part of image reconstruction. In contrast, the pre-emphasis approach allows reconstruction using the initially intended trajectory. The artifact suppression shown for two sequences demonstrates that the GSTF can serve for a novel pre-emphasis. A pre-emphasis based on the GSTF information can be applied to any arbitrary sequence type. © 2018 International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine.

  16. Differences in perceptual learning transfer as a function of training task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, C Shawn; Kattner, Florian; Siegel, Max H; Kersten, Daniel; Schrater, Paul R

    2015-01-01

    A growing body of research--including results from behavioral psychology, human structural and functional imaging, single-cell recordings in nonhuman primates, and computational modeling--suggests that perceptual learning effects are best understood as a change in the ability of higher-level integration or association areas to read out sensory information in the service of particular decisions. Work in this vein has argued that, depending on the training experience, the "rules" for this read-out can either be applicable to new contexts (thus engendering learning generalization) or can apply only to the exact training context (thus resulting in learning specificity). Here we contrast learning tasks designed to promote either stimulus-specific or stimulus-general rules. Specifically, we compare learning transfer across visual orientation following training on three different tasks: an orientation categorization task (which permits an orientation-specific learning solution), an orientation estimation task (which requires an orientation-general learning solution), and an orientation categorization task in which the relevant category boundary shifts on every trial (which lies somewhere between the two tasks above). While the simple orientation-categorization training task resulted in orientation-specific learning, the estimation and moving categorization tasks resulted in significant orientation learning generalization. The general framework tested here--that task specificity or generality can be predicted via an examination of the optimal learning solution--may be useful in building future training paradigms with certain desired outcomes.

  17. RETRACTED: Adaptive neuro-fuzzy prediction of modulation transfer function of optical lens system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petković, Dalibor; Shamshirband, Shahaboddin; Anuar, Nor Badrul; Md Nasir, Mohd Hairul Nizam; Pavlović, Nenad T.; Akib, Shatirah

    2014-07-01

    This article has been retracted: please see Elsevier Policy on Article Withdrawal (http://www.elsevier.com/locate/withdrawalpolicy). This article has been retracted at the request of the Editor. Sections ;1. Introduction; and ;2. Modulation transfer function;, as well as Figures 1-3, plagiarize the article published by N. Gül and M. Efe in Turk J Elec Eng & Comp Sci 18 (2010) 71 (http://journals.tubitak.gov.tr/elektrik/issues/elk-10-18-1/elk-18-1-6-0811-9.pdf). Sections ;4. Adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system; and ;6. Conclusion; duplicate parts of the articles previously published by the corresponding author et al in ;Expert Systems with Applications; 39 (2012) 13295-13304, http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.eswa.2012.05.072 and ;Expert Systems with Applications; 40 (2013) 281-286, http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.eswa.2012.07.076. One of the conditions of submission of a paper for publication is that authors declare explicitly that the paper is not under consideration for publication elsewhere. Re-use of any data should be appropriately cited. As such this article represents an abuse of the scientific publishing system. The scientific community takes a very strong view on this matter and apologies are offered to readers of the journal that this was not detected during the submission process.

  18. Source biases in midlatitude magnetotelluric transfer functions due to Pc3-4 geomagnetic pulsations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Benjamin S.; Egbert, Gary D.

    2018-01-01

    The magnetotelluric (MT) method for imaging the electrical conductivity structure of the Earth is based on the assumption that source magnetic fields can be considered quasi-uniform, such that the spatial scale of the inducing source is much larger than the intrinsic length scale of the electromagnetic induction process (the skin depth). Here, we show using EarthScope MT data that short spatial scale source magnetic fields from geomagnetic pulsations (Pc's) can violate this fundamental assumption. Over resistive regions of the Earth, the skin depth can be comparable to the short meridional range of Pc3-4 disturbances that are generated by geomagnetic field-line resonances (FLRs). In such cases, Pc's can introduce narrow-band bias in MT transfer function estimates at FLR eigenperiods ( 10-100 s). Although it appears unlikely that these biases will be a significant problem for data inversions, further study is necessary to understand the conditions under which they may distort inverse solutions.[Figure not available: see fulltext.

  19. Impact of flame-wall interaction on premixed flame dynamics and transfer function characteristics

    KAUST Repository

    Kedia, K.S.

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, we numerically investigate the response of a perforated-plate stabilized laminar methane-air premixed flame to imposed inlet velocity perturbations. A flame model using detailed chemical kinetics mechanism is applied and heat exchange between the burner plate and the gas mixture is incorporated. Linear transfer functions, for low mean inlet velocity oscillations, are analyzed for different equivalence ratio, mean inlet velocity, plate thermal conductivity and distance between adjacent holes. The oscillations of the heat exchange rate at the top of the burner surface plays a critical role in driving the growth of the perturbations over a wide range of conditions, including resonance. The flame response to the perturbations at its base takes the form of consumption speed oscillations in this region. Flame stand-off distance increases/decreases when the flame-wall interaction strengthens/weakens, impacting the overall dynamics of the heat release. The convective lag between the perturbations and the flame base response govern the phase of heat release rate oscillations. There is an additional convective lag between the perturbations at the flame base and the flame tip which has a weaker impact on the heat release rate oscillations. At higher frequencies, the flame-wall interaction is weaker and the heat release oscillations are driven by the flame area oscillations. The response of the flame to higher amplitude oscillations are used to gain further insight into the mechanisms. © 2010 Published by Elsevier Inc. on behalf of The Combustion Institute. All rights reserved.

  20. Calculation of Coupled Vibroacoustics Response Estimates from a Library of Available Uncoupled Transfer Function Sets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Andrew; LaVerde, Bruce; Hunt, Ron; Fulcher, Clay; Towner, Robert; McDonald, Emmett

    2012-01-01

    The design and theoretical basis of a new database tool that quickly generates vibroacoustic response estimates using a library of transfer functions (TFs) is discussed. During the early stages of a launch vehicle development program, these response estimates can be used to provide vibration environment specification to hardware vendors. The tool accesses TFs from a database, combines the TFs, and multiplies these by input excitations to estimate vibration responses. The database is populated with two sets of uncoupled TFs; the first set representing vibration response of a bare panel, designated as H(sup s), and the second set representing the response of the free-free component equipment by itself, designated as H(sup c). For a particular configuration undergoing analysis, the appropriate H(sup s) and H(sup c) are selected and coupled to generate an integrated TF, designated as H(sup s +c). This integrated TF is then used with the appropriate input excitations to estimate vibration responses. This simple yet powerful tool enables a user to estimate vibration responses without directly using finite element models, so long as suitable H(sup s) and H(sup c) sets are defined in the database libraries. The paper discusses the preparation of the database tool and provides the assumptions and methodologies necessary to combine H(sup s) and H(sup c) sets into an integrated H(sup s + c). An experimental validation of the approach is also presented.

  1. 'Generalizability' of a radial-aortic transfer function for the derivation of central aortic waveform parameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hope, Sarah A; Meredith, Ian T; Tay, David; Cameron, James D

    2007-09-01

    Arterial transfer functions (TFs) describe the relationship between the pressure waveform at different arterial sites. Generalized TFs are used to reconstruct central aortic waveforms from non-invasively obtained peripheral waveforms and have been promoted as potentially clinically useful. A limitation is the paucity of information on their 'generalizability' with no information existing on the number of subjects required to construct a satisfactory TF, nor is adequate prospective validation available. We therefore investigated the uniformity of radial-aortic TFs and prospectively estimated the capacity of a generalized TF to reconstruct individual central blood pressure parameters. Ninety-three subjects (64 male) were studied by simultaneous radial applanation and high-fidelity (Millar Mikro-tip catheter) direct measurement of central aortic BP during elective coronary procedures. Subjects were prospectively randomized to either a derivation or validation group. Increasing numbers of individual TFs from the derivation group were averaged to form a generalized TF. There was minimal change with greater than 20 TFs averaged. In the validation group, the error in most reconstructed parameters related to the absolute value of the directly measured parameter [systolic blood pressure (SBP) and pulse pressure, Pcentral aortic SBP and pulse pressure (negatively) and time to peak systole (positively) (all PInclusion of more than 20 individual TFs in the construction of a generalized TF does not improve 'generalizability'. There appear to be systematic errors in derived central pressure waveforms and derived aortic augmentation index is inaccurate compared to the directly measured value.

  2. Contrast computation methods for interferometric measurement of sensor modulation transfer function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Battula, Tharun; Georgiev, Todor; Gille, Jennifer; Goma, Sergio

    2018-01-01

    Accurate measurement of image-sensor frequency response over a wide range of spatial frequencies is very important for analyzing pixel array characteristics, such as modulation transfer function (MTF), crosstalk, and active pixel shape. Such analysis is especially significant in computational photography for the purposes of deconvolution, multi-image superresolution, and improved light-field capture. We use a lensless interferometric setup that produces high-quality fringes for measuring MTF over a wide range of frequencies (here, 37 to 434 line pairs per mm). We discuss the theoretical framework, involving Michelson and Fourier contrast measurement of the MTF, addressing phase alignment problems using a moiré pattern. We solidify the definition of Fourier contrast mathematically and compare it to Michelson contrast. Our interferometric measurement method shows high detail in the MTF, especially at high frequencies (above Nyquist frequency). We are able to estimate active pixel size and pixel pitch from measurements. We compare both simulation and experimental MTF results to a lens-free slanted-edge implementation using commercial software.

  3. The unfolding effects of transfer functions and processing of the pulse height distributions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Avdić Senada

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with the improvements of the linear artificial neural network unfolding approach aimed at accurately determining the incident neutron spectrum. The effects of the transfer functions and pre-processing of the simulated pulse height distributions from liquid scintillation detectors on the artificial neural networks performance have been studied. A better energy resolution and higher reliability of the linear artificial neural network technique have been achieved after implementation of the results of this study. The optimized structure of the network was used to unfold both monoenergetic and continuous neutron energy spectra, such as the spectra of 252Cf and 241Am-Be sources, traditionally used in the nuclear safeguards experiments. We have demonstrated that the artificial neural network energy resolution of 0.1 MeV is comparable with the one obtained by the reference maximum likelihood expectation-maximization method which was implemented by using the one step late algorithm. Although the maximum likelihood algorithm provides the unfolded results of higher accuracy, especially for continuous neutron sources, the artificial neural network approach with the improved performances is more suitable for fast and robust determination of the neutron spectra with sufficient accuracy.

  4. Vibration Prediction Method of Electric Machines by using Experimental Transfer Function and Magnetostatic Finite Element Analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saito, A; Kuroishi, M; Nakai, H

    2016-01-01

    This paper concerns the noise and structural vibration caused by rotating electric machines. Special attention is given to the magnetic-force induced vibration response of interior-permanent magnet machines. In general, to accurately predict and control the vibration response caused by the electric machines, it is inevitable to model not only the magnetic force induced by the fluctuation of magnetic fields, but also the structural dynamic characteristics of the electric machines and surrounding structural components. However, due to complicated boundary conditions and material properties of the components, such as laminated magnetic cores and varnished windings, it has been a challenge to compute accurate vibration response caused by the electric machines even after their physical models are available. In this paper, we propose a highly-accurate vibration prediction method that couples experimentally-obtained discrete structural transfer functions and numerically-obtained distributed magnetic-forces. The proposed vibration synthesis methodology has been applied to predict vibration responses of an interior permanent magnet machine. The results show that the predicted vibration response of the electric machine agrees very well with the measured vibration response for several load conditions, for wide frequency ranges. (paper)

  5. Addressing challenges of modulation transfer function measurement with fisheye lens cameras

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deegan, Brian M.; Denny, Patrick E.; Zlokolica, Vladimir; Dever, Barry; Russell, Laura

    2015-03-01

    Modulation transfer function (MTF) is a well defined and accepted method of measuring image sharpness. The slanted edge test, as defined in ISO12233 is a standard method of calculating MTF, and is widely used for lens alignment and auto-focus algorithm verification. However, there are a number of challenges which should be considered when measuring MTF in cameras with fisheye lenses. Due to trade-offs related Petzval curvature, planarity of the optical plane is difficult to achieve in fisheye lenses. It is therefore critical to have the ability to accurately measure sharpness throughout the entire image, particularly for lens alignment. One challenge for fisheye lenses is that, because of the radial distortion, the slanted edges will have different angles, depending on the location within the image and on the distortion profile of the lens. Previous work in the literature indicates that MTF measurements are robust for angles between 2 and 10 degrees. Outside of this range, MTF measurements become unreliable. Also, the slanted edge itself will be curved by the lens distortion, causing further measurement problems. This study summarises the difficulties in the use of MTF for sharpness measurement in fisheye lens cameras, and proposes mitigations and alternative methods.

  6. Variation of the count-dependent Metz filter with imaging system modulation transfer function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    King, M.A.; Schwinger, R.B.; Penney, B.C.

    1986-01-01

    A systematic investigation was conducted of how a number of parameters which alter the system modulation transfer function (MTF) influence the count-dependent Metz filter. Since restoration filters are most effective at those frequencies where the object power spectrum dominates that of the noise, it was observed that parameters which significantly degrade the MTF at low spatial frequencies strongly influence the formation of the Metz filter. Thus the radionuclide imaged and the depth of the source in a scattering medium had the most influence. This is because they alter the relative amount of scattered radiation being imaged. For low-energy photon emitters, the collimator employed and the distance from the collimator were found to have less of an influence but still to be significant. These cause alterations in the MTF which are more gradual, and hence are most pronounced at mid to high spatial frequencies. As long as adequate spatial sampling is employed, the Metz filter was determined to be independent of the exact size of the sampling bin width, to a first approximation. For planar and single photon emission computed tomographic (SPECT) imaging, it is shown that two-dimensional filtering with the Metz filter optimized for the imaging conditions is able to deconvolve scatter and other causes of spatial resolution loss while diminishing noise, all in a balanced manner

  7. Ocean wave-radar modulation transfer functions from the West Coast experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, J. W.; Plant, W. J.; Keller, W. C.; Jones, W. L.

    1980-01-01

    Short gravity-capillary waves, the equilibrium, or the steady state excitations of the ocean surface are modulated by longer ocean waves. These short waves are the predominant microwave scatterers on the ocean surface under many viewing conditions so that the modulation is readily measured with CW Doppler radar used as a two-scale wave probe. Modulation transfer functions (the ratio of the cross spectrum of the line-of-sight orbital speed and backscattered microwave power to the autospectrum of the line-of-sight orbital speed) were measured at 9.375 and 1.5 GHz (Bragg wavelengths of 2.3 and 13 cm) for winds up to 10 m/s and ocean wave periods from 2-18 s. The measurements were compared with the relaxation-time model; the principal result is that a source of modulation other than straining by the horizontal component of orbital speed, possibly the wave-induced airflow, is responsible for most of the modulation by waves of typical ocean wave period (10 s). The modulations are large; for unit coherence, spectra of radar images of deep-water waves should be proportional to the quotient of the slope spectra of the ocean waves by the ocean wave frequency.

  8. Perceptual attributes for the comparison of head-related transfer functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, Laurent S R; Zacharov, Nick; Katz, Brian F G

    2016-11-01

    The benefit of using individual head-related transfer functions (HRTFs) in binaural audio is well documented with regards to improving localization precision. However, with the increased use of binaural audio in more complex scene renderings, cognitive studies, and virtual and augmented reality simulations, the perceptual impact of HRTF selection may go beyond simple localization. In this study, the authors develop a list of attributes which qualify the perceived differences between HRTFs, providing a qualitative understanding of the perceptual variance of non-individual binaural renderings. The list of attributes was designed using a Consensus Vocabulary Protocol elicitation method. Participants followed an Individual Vocabulary Protocol elicitation procedure, describing the perceived differences between binaural stimuli based on binauralized extracts of multichannel productions. This was followed by an automated lexical reduction and a series of consensus group meetings during which participants agreed on a list of relevant attributes. Finally, the proposed list of attributes was then evaluated through a listening test, leading to eight valid perceptual attributes for describing the perceptual dimensions affected by HRTF set variations.

  9. Obtaining the Bidirectional Transfer Distribution Function ofIsotropically Scattering Materials Using an Integrating Sphere

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jonsson, Jacob C.; Branden, Henrik

    2006-10-19

    This paper demonstrates a method to determine thebidirectional transfer distribution function (BTDF) using an integratingsphere. Information about the sample's angle dependent scattering isobtained by making transmittance measurements with the sample atdifferent distances from the integrating sphere. Knowledge about theilluminated area of the sample and the geometry of the sphere port incombination with the measured data combines to an system of equationsthat includes the angle dependent transmittance. The resulting system ofequations is an ill-posed problem which rarely gives a physical solution.A solvable system is obtained by using Tikhonov regularization on theill-posed problem. The solution to this system can then be used to obtainthe BTDF. Four bulk-scattering samples were characterised using both twogoniophotometers and the described method to verify the validity of thenew method. The agreement shown is great for the more diffuse samples.The solution to the low-scattering samples contains unphysicaloscillations, butstill gives the correct shape of the solution. Theorigin of the oscillations and why they are more prominent inlow-scattering samples are discussed.

  10. Binary Pseudo-Random Gratings and Arrays for Calibration of Modulation Transfer Functions of Surface Profilometers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barber, Samuel K.; Anderson, Erik D.; Cambie, Rossana; McKinney, Wayne R.; Takacs, Peter Z.; Stover, John C.; Voronov, Dmitriy L.; Yashchuk, Valeriy V.

    2009-09-11

    A technique for precise measurement of the modulation transfer function (MTF), suitable for characterization of a broad class of surface profilometers, is investigated in detail. The technique suggested in [Proc. SPIE 7077-7, (2007), Opt. Eng. 47(7), 073602-1-5 (2008)]is based on use of binary pseudo-random (BPR) gratings and arrays as standard MTF test surfaces. Unlike most conventional test surfaces, BPR gratings and arrays possess white-noise-like inherent power spectral densities (PSD), allowing the direct determination of the one- and two-dimensional MTF, respectively, with a sensitivity uniform over the entire spatial frequency range of a profiler. In the cited work, a one dimensional realization of the suggested method based on use of BPR gratings has been demonstrated. Here, a high-confidence of the MTF calibration technique is demonstrated via cross comparison measurements of a number of two dimensional BPR arrays using two different interferometric microscopes and a scatterometer. We also present the results of application of the experimentally determined MTF correction to the measurement taken with the MicromapTM-570 interferometric microscope of the surface roughness of a super-polished test mirror. In this particular case, without accounting for the instrumental MTF, the surface rms roughness over half of the instrumental spatial frequency bandwidth would be underestimated by a factor of approximately 1.4.

  11. Beam transfer functions for relativistic proton bunches with beam–beam interaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Görgen, P., E-mail: goergen@temf.tu-darmstadt.de [Institut für Theorie Elektromagnetischer Felder (TEMF), Technische Universität Darmstadt, Schloßgartenstr. 8 64289 Darmstadt (Germany); Boine-Frankenheim, O. [Institut für Theorie Elektromagnetischer Felder (TEMF), Technische Universität Darmstadt, Schloßgartenstr. 8 64289 Darmstadt (Germany); Fischer, W. [Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY 11973 (United States)

    2015-03-21

    We present a method for the recovery of the transverse tune spread directly from the beam transfer function (BTF). The model is applicable for coasting beams and bunched beams at high energy with a tune spread from transverse nonlinearities induced by the beam–beam effect or by an electron lens. Other sources of tune spread can be added. A method for the recovery of the incoherent tune spread without prior knowledge of the nonlinearity is presented. The approach is based on the analytic model for BTFs of coasting beams, which agrees very well with simulations results for bunched beams at relativistic energies with typically low synchrotron tune. A priori the presented tune spread recovery method is usable only in the absence of coherent modes, but additional simulation data shows its applicability even in the presence of coherent beam–beam modes. Finally agreement of both the analytic and simulation models with measurement data obtained at RHIC is presented. The proposed method successfully recovers the tune spread from analytic, simulated and measured BTF.

  12. Nuclear event time histories and computed site transfer functions for locations in the Los Angeles region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, A.M.; Covington, P.A.; Park, R.B.; Borcherdt, R.D.; Perkins, D.M.

    1980-01-01

    This report presents a collection of Nevada Test Site (NTS) nuclear explosion recordings obtained at sites in the greater Los Angeles, Calif., region. The report includes ground velocity time histories, as well as, derived site transfer functions. These data have been collected as part of a study to evaluate the validity of using low-level ground motions to predict the frequency-dependent response of a site during an earthquake. For this study 19 nuclear events were recorded at 98 separate locations. Some of these sites have recorded more than one of the nuclear explosions, and, consequently, there are a total of 159, three-component station records. The location of all the recording sites are shown in figures 1–5, the station coordinates and abbreviations are given in table 1. The station addresses are listed in table 2, and the nuclear explosions that were recorded are listed in table 3. The recording sites were chosen on the basis of three criteria: (1) that the underlying geological conditions were representative of conditions over significant areas of the region, (2) that the site was the location of a strong-motion recording of the 1971 San Fernando earthquake, or (3) that more complete geographical coverage was required in that location.

  13. Multiscale Information Transfer in Functional Corticomuscular Coupling Estimation Following Stroke: A Pilot Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoling Chen

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Recently, functional corticomuscular coupling (FCMC between the cortex and the contralateral muscle has been used to evaluate motor function after stroke. As we know, the motor-control system is a closed-loop system that is regulated by complex self-regulating and interactive mechanisms which operate in multiple spatial and temporal scales. Multiscale analysis can represent the inherent complexity. However, previous studies in FCMC for stroke patients mainly focused on the coupling strength in single-time scale, without considering the changes of the inherently directional and multiscale properties in sensorimotor systems. In this paper, a multiscale-causal model, named multiscale transfer entropy, was used to quantify the functional connection between electroencephalogram over the scalp and electromyogram from the flexor digitorum superficialis (FDS recorded simultaneously during steady-state grip task in eight stroke patients and eight healthy controls. Our results showed that healthy controls exhibited higher coupling when the scale reached up to about 12, and the FCMC in descending direction was stronger at certain scales (1, 7, 12, and 14 than that in ascending direction. Further analysis showed these multi-time scale characteristics mainly focused on the beta1 band at scale 11 and beta2 band at scale 9, 11, 13, and 15. Compared to controls, the multiscale properties of the FCMC for stroke were changed, the strengths in both directions were reduced, and the gaps between the descending and ascending directions were disappeared over all scales. Further analysis in specific bands showed that the reduced FCMC mainly focused on the alpha2 at higher scale, beta1 and beta2 across almost the entire scales. This study about multi-scale confirms that the FCMC between the brain and muscles is capable of complex and directional characteristics, and these characteristics in functional connection for stroke are destroyed by the structural lesion in the

  14. Higher-moment measurements of net-kaon, net-charge and net-proton multiplicity distributions at STAR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sarkar, Amal

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we report the measurements of the various moments, such as mean, standard deviation (σ), skewness (S) and kurtosis (κ) of the net-kaon, net-charge and net-proton multiplicity distributions at mid-rapidity in Au + Au collisions from √(s NN )=7.7 to 200 GeV with the STAR experiment at RHIC. This work has been done with the aim to locate the critical point on the QCD phase diagram. These moments and their products are related to the thermodynamic susceptibilities of conserved quantities such as net baryon number, net charge, and net strangeness as well as to the correlation length of the system which diverges in an ideal infinite thermodynamic system at the critical point. For a finite system, existing for a finite time, a non-monotonic behavior of these variables would indicate the presence of the critical point. Furthermore, we also present the moment products Sσ, κσ 2 of net-kaon, net-charge and net-proton multiplicity distributions as a function of collision centrality and energy. The energy and the centrality dependence of higher moments and their products have been compared with different models

  15. a Middle-Ear Reverse Transfer Function Computed from Vibration Measurements of Otoacoustic Emissions on the Ear Drum of the Guinea PIG

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalhoff, Ernst; Turcanu, Diana; Gummer, Anthony W.

    2009-02-01

    Using distortion products measured as vibration of the umbo and as sound pressure in the ear canal of guinea pigs, we calculated the corresponding reverse transfer function. We compare the measurements with a middle-ear model taken from the literature and adapted to the guinea pig. A reasonable fit could be achieved. We conclude that the reverse transfer function will be useful to aid fitting a middle-ear model to measured transfer functions of human subjects.

  16. Background for a new standard on pass-by measurement of combined roughness, track decay rate and vibroacoustic transfer functions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dittrich, M.G.; Létourneaux, F.; Dupuis, H.

    2013-01-01

    A measurement method for combined roughness, track decay rates and transfer functions derived from rail vibration during a train pass-by was initially developed in the late nineties [1]. This method has been then later implemented in software tools [2] and applied in several countries for various

  17. The Sigmoid Transfer Function and the Gain-threshold Exponential Dependence for Neurons from Statistical Mechanics Treatment

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Andrey, Ladislav; Erzan, R.

    2002-01-01

    Roč. 52, č. 12 (2002), s. 1349-1356 ISSN 0011-4626 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA305/02/1487 Institutional research plan: AV0Z1030915 Keywords : nonlinear gain curve * gain-threshold dependence * non-monotone transfer function * statistical mechanics Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 0.311, year: 2002

  18. Modulation transfer function and detective quantum efficiency of electron bombarded charge coupled device detector for low energy electrons

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Horáček, Miroslav

    2005-01-01

    Roč. 76, č. 9 (2005), 093704:1-6 ISSN 0034-6748 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA202/03/1575 Keywords : electron bombarded CCD * modulation transfer function * detective quantum efficiency Subject RIV: JA - Electronics ; Optoelectronics, Electrical Engineering Impact factor: 1.235, year: 2005

  19. Regression analysis and transfer function in estimating the parameters of central pulse waves from brachial pulse wave.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chai Rui; Li Si-Man; Xu Li-Sheng; Yao Yang; Hao Li-Ling

    2017-07-01

    This study mainly analyzed the parameters such as ascending branch slope (A_slope), dicrotic notch height (Hn), diastolic area (Ad) and systolic area (As) diastolic blood pressure (DBP), systolic blood pressure (SBP), pulse pressure (PP), subendocardial viability ratio (SEVR), waveform parameter (k), stroke volume (SV), cardiac output (CO) and peripheral resistance (RS) of central pulse wave invasively and non-invasively measured. These parameters extracted from the central pulse wave invasively measured were compared with the parameters measured from the brachial pulse waves by a regression model and a transfer function model. The accuracy of the parameters which were estimated by the regression model and the transfer function model was compared too. Our findings showed that in addition to the k value, the above parameters of the central pulse wave and the brachial pulse wave invasively measured had positive correlation. Both the regression model parameters including A_slope, DBP, SEVR and the transfer function model parameters had good consistency with the parameters invasively measured, and they had the same effect of consistency. The regression equations of the three parameters were expressed by Y'=a+bx. The SBP, PP, SV, CO of central pulse wave could be calculated through the regression model, but their accuracies were worse than that of transfer function model.

  20. Light-reflection random-target method for measurement of the modulation transfer function of a digital video-camera

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pospíšil, Jaroslav; Jakubík, P.; Machala, L.

    2005-01-01

    Roč. 116, - (2005), s. 573-585 ISSN 0030-4026 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100522 Keywords : random-target measuring method * light-reflection white - noise target * digital video camera * modulation transfer function * power spectral density Subject RIV: BH - Optics, Masers, Lasers Impact factor: 0.395, year: 2005

  1. Coloured Petri Nets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Kurt

    1991-01-01

    This paper describes how Coloured Petri Nets (CP-nets) have been developed — from being a promising theoretical model to being a full-fledged language for the design, specification, simulation, validation and implementation of large software systems (and other systems in which human beings and...

  2. Net zero water

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Lindeque, M

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available the national grid. The unfortunate situation with water is that there is no replacement technology for water. Water can be supplied from many different sources. A net zero energy development will move closer to a net zero water development by reducing...

  3. Construction of monophase nets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suarez A, Jose Antonio

    1996-01-01

    The paper refers to the use of monophase loads in commercial residential urbanizations and in small industries, for this reason it is considered unnecessary the construction of three-phase nets. The author makes a historical recount of these nets in Bogota, his capacities, uses and energy savings

  4. Design of net-gate based on S3C4510B and it's application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Yanyu; Li Xiaoqiang; Huang Jijiang; Wang Xiaoyin; Lin Feiyu; Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing

    2008-01-01

    This paper introduces a solution of the net-gate module. It is based on the high-performance micro-processor-S3C4510B with the 32/16 bit RISC ARM7TDMI core. The module is used the free uClinux as its OS, which support multi-task, FTP and TELNET functions. It can be used to transfer the mass data from Ethernet to RS485 and build the high speed DCS. (authors)

  5. Fusion through the NET

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spears, B.

    1987-01-01

    The paper concerns the next generation of fusion machines which are intended to demonstrate the technical viability of fusion. In Europe, the device that will follow on from JET is known as NET - the Next European Torus. If the design programme for NET proceeds, Europe could start to build the machine in 1994. The present JET programme hopes to achieve breakeven in the early 1990's. NET hopes to reach ignition in the next century, and so lay the foundation for a demonstration reactor. A description is given of the technical specifications of the components of NET, including: the first wall, the divertors to protect the wall, the array of magnets that provide the fields containing the plasma, the superconducting magnets, and the shield of the machine. NET's research programme is briefly outlined, including the testing programme to optimise conditions in the machine to achieve ignition, and its safety work. (U.K.)

  6. Evaluation of the modulation transfer function of megavoltage X-rays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Min, Jung-Whan [The Catholic University of Korea, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); The Shingu University College of Korea, Seongnam (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Ki-Won [Samsung Medical Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Jung-Min; Choi, In-Seok [Korea University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Jeong, Hoi-Woun [The Baekseok Culture University College of Korea, Cheon-an (Korea, Republic of); Son, Soon-Yong; Back, Geum-Mun [Asan Medical Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Jung, Jae-Hong [Soonchunhyang University Bucheon Hospital, Bucheon (Korea, Republic of); Jung, Jae-Yong; Choe, Bo-Young [The Catholic University of Korea, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-12-15

    The modulation transfer function (MTF) must be measured against the requirements of the specific digital imaging application under consideration in order to evaluate the performance of detector equipment and to further develop the detector by performing quality-assurance (QA) procedures. The purpose of this study was to measure the MTF in digital megavoltage images (DMVs) for radiation therapy (RT) by using an edge block. We used 6 megavolts (MVs) of energy for the pre-sampling MTF, along with a photo-stimulating phosphor-based computed radiography (CR) system and a hexalon lead screen that contained a terbium-doped gadolinium oxysulfide granular phosphor (Gd{sub 2}O{sub 2}S:Tb). The DMV MTF was measured at both low and high resolutions according to changes in the dose in monitor units (MUs) by using four different detector combinations: CR-IP (image plate: photo-stimulable phosphor screen), CR-IP-Lead (image plate + lead screen), CR-IPRegular (fast front screen + image plate + fast front screen) and CR-IP-Fast (fast back screen + image plate + fast front screen). At a low resolution, the MTF 50% and the MTF 10% when using the CR-IP detector increased by about 30% and 46%, in proportion to the increase in the dose from 1 to 20 MU, respectively. At a high resolution, the CR-IP and the CR-IP-Lead detectors showed increases in the MTF of about 8% or 10% when the dose increased from 1 to 20 MU. The present study, therefore, evaluates how edge methods can be helpful in taking MTF measurements during QA tests of a megavoltage imaging (MVI) system.

  7. Modulation transfer function assessment in parallel beam and fan beam collimators with square and cylindrical holes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khorshidi, Abdollah; Ashoor, Mansour

    2014-05-01

    This study investigates modulation transfer function (MTF) in parallel beam (PB) and fan beam (FB) collimators using the Monte Carlo method with full width at half maximum (FWHM), square and circular-shaped holes, and scatter and penetration (S + P) components. A regulation similar to the lead-to-air ratio was used for both collimators to estimate output data. The hole pattern was designed to compare FB by PB parameters. The radioactive source in air and in a water phantom placed in front of the collimators was simulated using MCNP5 code. The test results indicated that the square holes in PB (PBs) had better FWHM than did the cylindrical (PBc) holes. In contrast, the cylindrical holes in the FB (FBc) had better FWHM than the square holes. In general, the resolution of FBc was better than that of the PBc in air and scatter mediums. The S + P decreased for all collimators as the distance from the source to the collimator surface (z) increased. The FBc had a lower S + P than FBs, but PBc had a higher S + P than PBs. Of the FB and PB collimators with the identical hole shapes, PBs had a smaller S + P than FBs, and FBc had a smaller S + P than PBc. The MTF value for the FB was greater than for the PB and had increased spatial frequency; the FBc had higher MTF than the FBs and PB collimators. Estimating the FB using PB parameters and diverse hole shapes may be useful in collimator design to improve the resolution and efficiency of SPECT images.

  8. Evaluation of the modulation transfer function of megavoltage X-rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Min, Jung-Whan; Kim, Ki-Won; Kim, Jung-Min; Choi, In-Seok; Jeong, Hoi-Woun; Son, Soon-Yong; Back, Geum-Mun; Jung, Jae-Hong; Jung, Jae-Yong; Choe, Bo-Young

    2014-01-01

    The modulation transfer function (MTF) must be measured against the requirements of the specific digital imaging application under consideration in order to evaluate the performance of detector equipment and to further develop the detector by performing quality-assurance (QA) procedures. The purpose of this study was to measure the MTF in digital megavoltage images (DMVs) for radiation therapy (RT) by using an edge block. We used 6 megavolts (MVs) of energy for the pre-sampling MTF, along with a photo-stimulating phosphor-based computed radiography (CR) system and a hexalon lead screen that contained a terbium-doped gadolinium oxysulfide granular phosphor (Gd 2 O 2 S:Tb). The DMV MTF was measured at both low and high resolutions according to changes in the dose in monitor units (MUs) by using four different detector combinations: CR-IP (image plate: photo-stimulable phosphor screen), CR-IP-Lead (image plate + lead screen), CR-IPRegular (fast front screen + image plate + fast front screen) and CR-IP-Fast (fast back screen + image plate + fast front screen). At a low resolution, the MTF 50% and the MTF 10% when using the CR-IP detector increased by about 30% and 46%, in proportion to the increase in the dose from 1 to 20 MU, respectively. At a high resolution, the CR-IP and the CR-IP-Lead detectors showed increases in the MTF of about 8% or 10% when the dose increased from 1 to 20 MU. The present study, therefore, evaluates how edge methods can be helpful in taking MTF measurements during QA tests of a megavoltage imaging (MVI) system.

  9. Identification of flame transfer functions in the presence of intrinsic thermoacoustic feedback and noise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaensch, Stefan; Merk, Malte; Emmert, Thomas; Polifke, Wolfgang

    2018-05-01

    The Large Eddy Simulation/System Identification (LES/SI) approach is a general and efficient numerical method for deducing a Flame Transfer Function (FTF) from the LES of turbulent reacting flow. The method may be summarised as follows: a simulated flame is forced with a broadband excitation signal. The resulting fluctuations of the reference velocity and of the global heat release rate are post-processed via SI techniques in order to estimate a low-order model of the flame dynamics. The FTF is readily deduced from the low-order model. The SI method most frequently applied in aero- and thermo-acoustics has been Wiener-Hopf Inversion (WHI). This method is known to yield biased estimates in situations with feedback, thus it was assumed that non-reflective boundary conditions are required to generate accurate results with the LES/SI approach. Recent research has shown that the FTF is part of the so-called Intrinsic ThermoAcoustic (ITA) feedback loop. Hence, identifying an FTF from a compressible LES is always a closed-loop problem, and consequently one should expect that the WHI would yield biased results. However, several studies proved that WHI results compare favourably with validation data. To resolve this apparent contradiction, a variety of identification methods are compared against each other, including models designed for closed-loop identification. In agreement with theory, we show that the estimate given by WHI does not converge to the actual FTF. Fortunately, the error made is small if excitation amplitudes can be set such that the signal-to-noise ratio is large, but not large enough to trigger nonlinear flame dynamics. Furthermore, we conclude that non-reflective boundary conditions are not essentially necessary to apply the LES/SI approach.

  10. MFP scanner diagnostics using a self-printed target to measure the modulation transfer function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Weibao; Bauer, Peter; Wagner, Jerry; Allebach, Jan P.

    2014-01-01

    In the current market, reduction of warranty costs is an important avenue for improving profitability by manufacturers of printer products. Our goal is to develop an autonomous capability for diagnosis of printer and scanner caused defects with mid-range laser multifunction printers (MFPs), so as to reduce warranty costs. If the scanner unit of the MFP is not performing according to specification, this issue needs to be diagnosed. If there is a print quality issue, this can be diagnosed by printing a special test page that is resident in the firmware of the MFP unit, and then scanning it. However, the reliability of this process will be compromised if the scanner unit is defective. Thus, for both scanner and printer image quality issues, it is important to be able to properly evaluate the scanner performance. In this paper, we consider evaluation of the scanner performance by measuring its modulation transfer function (MTF). The MTF is a fundamental tool for assessing the performance of imaging systems. Several ways have been proposed to measure the MTF, all of which require a special target, for example a slanted-edge target. It is unacceptably expensive to ship every MFP with such a standard target, and to expect that the customer can keep track of it. To reduce this cost, in this paper, we develop new approach to this task. It is based on a self-printed slanted-edge target. Then, we propose algorithms to improve the results using a self-printed slanted-edge target. Finally, we present experimental results for MTF measurement using self-printed targets and compare them to the results obtained with standard targets.

  11. NET-2 Network Analysis Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malmberg, A.F.

    1974-01-01

    The NET-2 Network Analysis Program is a general purpose digital computer program which solves the nonlinear time domain response and the linearized small signal frequency domain response of an arbitrary network of interconnected components. NET-2 is capable of handling a variety of components and has been applied to problems in several engineering fields, including electronic circuit design and analysis, missile flight simulation, control systems, heat flow, fluid flow, mechanical systems, structural dynamics, digital logic, communications network design, solid state device physics, fluidic systems, and nuclear vulnerability due to blast, thermal, gamma radiation, neutron damage, and EMP effects. Network components may be selected from a repertoire of built-in models or they may be constructed by the user through appropriate combinations of mathematical, empirical, and topological functions. Higher-level components may be defined by subnetworks composed of any combination of user-defined components and built-in models. The program provides a modeling capability to represent and intermix system components on many levels, e.g., from hole and electron spatial charge distributions in solid state devices through discrete and integrated electronic components to functional system blocks. NET-2 is capable of simultaneous computation in both the time and frequency domain, and has statistical and optimization capability. Network topology may be controlled as a function of the network solution. (U.S.)

  12. Effect of pressure on the transfer functions of premixed methane and propane swirl flames

    KAUST Repository

    Di Sabatino, Francesco; Guiberti, Thibault F.; Boyette, Wesley; Roberts, William L.; Moeck, Jonas P.; Lacoste, Deanna

    2018-01-01

    during a forcing period. The complex heat transfer, fluid dynamics, and combustion coupling in this configuration does not allow keeping the vortex properties constant when pressure is increased. However, the different trends of the FTF gain observed

  13. Application of multivariate adaptive regression spine-assisted objective function on optimization of heat transfer rate around a cylinder

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dey, Prasenjit; Dad, Ajoy K. [Mechanical Engineering Department, National Institute of Technology, Agartala (India)

    2016-12-15

    The present study aims to predict the heat transfer characteristics around a square cylinder with different corner radii using multivariate adaptive regression splines (MARS). Further, the MARS-generated objective function is optimized by particle swarm optimization. The data for the prediction are taken from the recently published article by the present authors [P. Dey, A. Sarkar, A.K. Das, Development of GEP and ANN model to predict the unsteady forced convection over a cylinder, Neural Comput. Appl. (2015). Further, the MARS model is compared with artificial neural network and gene expression programming. It has been found that the MARS model is very efficient in predicting the heat transfer characteristics. It has also been found that MARS is more efficient than artificial neural network and gene expression programming in predicting the forced convection data, and also particle swarm optimization can efficiently optimize the heat transfer rate.

  14. Eosin Y as a Direct Hydrogen Atom Transfer Photocatalyst for the Functionalization of C-H Bonds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Xuan-Zi; Rong, Jia-Wei; Wu, Hao-Lin; Zhou, Quan; Deng, Hong-Ping; Tan, Jin Da; Xue, Cheng-Wen; Wu, Li-Zhu; Tao, Hai-Rong; Wu, Jie

    2018-05-02

    Eosin Y, a well-known economical alternative to metal catalysts in visible-light-driven single-electron transfer-based organic transformations, can behave as an effective direct hydrogen atom transfer catalyst for C-H activation. Using the alkylation of C-H bonds with electron-deficient alkenes as a model study revealed an extremely broad substrate scope, enabling easy access to a variety of important synthons. This eosin Y-based photocatalytic hydrogen atom transfer strategy is promising for diverse functionalization of a wide range of native C-H bonds in a green and sustainable manner. © 2018 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  15. Conjugative Plasmid Transfer in Xylella fastidiosa Is Dependent on tra and trb Operon Functions

    OpenAIRE

    Burbank, Lindsey P.; Van Horn, Christopher R.

    2017-01-01

    The insect-transmitted plant pathogen Xylella fastidiosa is capable of efficient horizontal gene transfer (HGT) and recombination. Natural transformation occurs at high rates in X. fastidiosa, but there also is evidence that certain strains of X. fastidiosa carry native plasmids equipped with transfer and mobilization genes, suggesting conjugation as an additional mechanism of HGT in some instances. Two operons, tra and trb, putatively encoding a conjugative type IV secretion system, are foun...

  16. Optimization of cationic lipid mediated gene transfer: structure-function, physico-chemical, and cellular studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrière, Marie; Tranchant, Isabelle; Niore, Pierre-Antoine; Byk, Gerardo; Mignet, Nathalie; Escriou, Virginie; Scherman, Daniel; Herscovici, Jean

    2002-01-01

    The rationale design aimed at the enhancement of cationic lipid mediated gene transfer is discussed. These improvements are based on the straight evaluation of the structure-activity relationship and on the introduction of new structures. Much attention have been given to the supramolecular structures of the lipid/DNA complexes, to the effect of serum on gene transfer and to the intracellular trafficking of the lipoplexes. Finally new avenue using reducible cationic lipids has been discussed.

  17. Placental transfer of 60Co as a function of gestation age

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zylicz, E.; Zablotna, R.; Szot, Z.

    1976-01-01

    The transfer of 60 Co from mother to foetus in relation to the time of gestation was examined 24 hrs after injecting 5 μCi of 60 CoCl 2 to the pregnant rat on 15th - 21st day of gestation. The radioactivity of foetuses, placentae as well as liver, kidney and femur of mother was determined. It was found that activity of 60 Co transferred to the foetus body increased with the time of gestation. (author)

  18. Modelling of current loads on aquaculture net cages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kristiansen, Trygve; Faltinsen, Odd M.

    2012-10-01

    In this paper we propose and discuss a screen type of force model for the viscous hydrodynamic load on nets. The screen model assumes that the net is divided into a number of flat net panels, or screens. It may thus be applied to any kind of net geometry. In this paper we focus on circular net cages for fish farms. The net structure itself is modelled by an existing truss model. The net shape is solved for in a time-stepping procedure that involves solving a linear system of equations for the unknown tensions at each time step. We present comparisons to experiments with circular net cages in steady current, and discuss the sensitivity of the numerical results to a set of chosen parameters. Satisfactory agreement between experimental and numerical prediction of drag and lift as function of the solidity ratio of the net and the current velocity is documented.

  19. Net Zero Energy Buildings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marszal, Anna Joanna; Bourrelle, Julien S.; Gustavsen, Arild

    2010-01-01

    and identify possible renewable energy supply options which may be considered in calculations. Finally, the gap between the methodology proposed by each organisation and their respective national building code is assessed; providing an overview of the possible changes building codes will need to undergo......The international cooperation project IEA SHC Task 40 / ECBCS Annex 52 “Towards Net Zero Energy Solar Buildings”, attempts to develop a common understanding and to set up the basis for an international definition framework of Net Zero Energy Buildings (Net ZEBs). The understanding of such buildings...

  20. Getting to Net Zero

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2016-09-01

    The technology necessary to build net zero energy buildings (NZEBs) is ready and available today, however, building to net zero energy performance levels can be challenging. Energy efficiency measures, onsite energy generation resources, load matching and grid interaction, climatic factors, and local policies vary from location to location and require unique methods of constructing NZEBs. It is recommended that Components start looking into how to construct and operate NZEBs now as there is a learning curve to net zero construction and FY 2020 is just around the corner.

  1. Pro NET Best Practices

    CERN Document Server

    Ritchie, Stephen D

    2011-01-01

    Pro .NET Best Practices is a practical reference to the best practices that you can apply to your .NET projects today. You will learn standards, techniques, and conventions that are sharply focused, realistic and helpful for achieving results, steering clear of unproven, idealistic, and impractical recommendations. Pro .NET Best Practices covers a broad range of practices and principles that development experts agree are the right ways to develop software, which includes continuous integration, automated testing, automated deployment, and code analysis. Whether the solution is from a free and

  2. Lipid lowering and HDL raising gene transfer increase endothelial progenitor cells, enhance myocardial vascularity, and improve diastolic function.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephanie C Gordts

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Hypercholesterolemia and low high density lipoprotein (HDL cholesterol contribute to coronary heart disease but little is known about their direct effects on myocardial function. Low HDL and raised non-HDL cholesterol levels carried increased risk for heart failure development in the Framingham study, independent of any association with myocardial infarction. The objective of this study was to test the hypothesis that increased endothelial progenitor cell (EPC number and function after lipid lowering or HDL raising gene transfer in C57BL/6 low density lipoprotein receptor deficient (LDLr(-/- mice may be associated with an enhanced relative vascularity in the myocardium and an improved cardiac function. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Lipid lowering and HDL raising gene transfer were performed using the E1E3E4-deleted LDLr expressing adenoviral vector AdLDLr and the human apolipoprotein A-I expressing vector AdA-I, respectively. AdLDLr transfer in C57BL/6 LDLr(-/- mice resulted in a 2.0-fold (p<0.05 increase of the circulating number of EPCs and in an improvement of EPC function as assessed by ex vivo EPC migration and EPC adhesion. Capillary density and relative vascularity in the myocardium were 28% (p<0.01 and 22% (p<0.05 higher, respectively, in AdLDLr mice compared to control mice. The peak rate of isovolumetric relaxation was increased by 12% (p<0.05 and the time constant of isovolumetric relaxation was decreased by 14% (p<0.05 after AdLDLr transfer. Similarly, HDL raising gene transfer increased EPC number and function and raised both capillary density and relative vascularity in the myocardium by 24% (p<0.05. The peak rate of isovolumetric relaxation was increased by 16% (p<0.05 in AdA-I mice compared to control mice. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Both lipid lowering and HDL raising gene transfer have beneficial effects on EPC biology, relative myocardial vascularity, and diastolic function. These findings raise concerns over the

  3. Net energy gain from DT fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buende, R.

    1985-01-01

    The net energy which can be gained from an energy raw material by means of a certain conversion system is deduced as the figure-of-merit which adequately characterizes the net energy balance of utilizing an energy source. This potential net energy gain is determined for DT fusion power plants. It is represented as a function of the degree of exploitation of the energy raw material lithium ore and is compared with the net energy which can be gained with LW and FBR power plants by exploiting uranium ore. The comparison clearly demonstrates the net energetic advantage of DT fusion. A sensitivity study shows that this holds even if the energy expenditure for constructing and operating is drastically increased

  4. Structure-function insights into direct lipid transfer between membranes by Mmm1-Mdm12 of ERMES.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawano, Shin; Tamura, Yasushi; Kojima, Rieko; Bala, Siqin; Asai, Eri; Michel, Agnès H; Kornmann, Benoît; Riezman, Isabelle; Riezman, Howard; Sakae, Yoshitake; Okamoto, Yuko; Endo, Toshiya

    2018-03-05

    The endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-mitochondrial encounter structure (ERMES) physically links the membranes of the ER and mitochondria in yeast. Although the ER and mitochondria cooperate to synthesize glycerophospholipids, whether ERMES directly facilitates the lipid exchange between the two organelles remains controversial. Here, we compared the x-ray structures of an ERMES subunit Mdm12 from Kluyveromyces lactis with that of Mdm12 from Saccharomyces cerevisiae and found that both Mdm12 proteins possess a hydrophobic pocket for phospholipid binding. However in vitro lipid transfer assays showed that Mdm12 alone or an Mmm1 (another ERMES subunit) fusion protein exhibited only a weak lipid transfer activity between liposomes. In contrast, Mdm12 in a complex with Mmm1 mediated efficient lipid transfer between liposomes. Mutations in Mmm1 or Mdm12 impaired the lipid transfer activities of the Mdm12-Mmm1 complex and furthermore caused defective phosphatidylserine transport from the ER to mitochondrial membranes via ERMES in vitro. Therefore, the Mmm1-Mdm12 complex functions as a minimal unit that mediates lipid transfer between membranes. © 2018 Kawano et al.

  5. Computation and control with neural nets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Corneliusen, A.; Terdal, P.; Knight, T.; Spencer, J.

    1989-10-04

    As energies have increased exponentially with time so have the size and complexity of accelerators and control systems. NN may offer the kinds of improvements in computation and control that are needed to maintain acceptable functionality. For control their associative characteristics could provide signal conversion or data translation. Because they can do any computation such as least squares, they can close feedback loops autonomously to provide intelligent control at the point of action rather than at a central location that requires transfers, conversions, hand-shaking and other costly repetitions like input protection. Both computation and control can be integrated on a single chip, printed circuit or an optical equivalent that is also inherently faster through full parallel operation. For such reasons one expects lower costs and better results. Such systems could be optimized by integrating sensor and signal processing functions. Distributed nets of such hardware could communicate and provide global monitoring and multiprocessing in various ways e.g. via token, slotted or parallel rings (or Steiner trees) for compatibility with existing systems. Problems and advantages of this approach such as an optimal, real-time Turing machine are discussed. Simple examples are simulated and hardware implemented using discrete elements that demonstrate some basic characteristics of learning and parallelism. Future microprocessors' are predicted and requested on this basis. 19 refs., 18 figs.

  6. Computation and control with neural nets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Corneliusen, A.; Terdal, P.; Knight, T.; Spencer, J.

    1989-01-01

    As energies have increased exponentially with time so have the size and complexity of accelerators and control systems. NN may offer the kinds of improvements in computation and control that are needed to maintain acceptable functionality. For control their associative characteristics could provide signal conversion or data translation. Because they can do any computation such as least squares, they can close feedback loops autonomously to provide intelligent control at the point of action rather than at a central location that requires transfers, conversions, hand-shaking and other costly repetitions like input protection. Both computation and control can be integrated on a single chip, printed circuit or an optical equivalent that is also inherently faster through full parallel operation. For such reasons one expects lower costs and better results. Such systems could be optimized by integrating sensor and signal processing functions. Distributed nets of such hardware could communicate and provide global monitoring and multiprocessing in various ways e.g. via token, slotted or parallel rings (or Steiner trees) for compatibility with existing systems. Problems and advantages of this approach such as an optimal, real-time Turing machine are discussed. Simple examples are simulated and hardware implemented using discrete elements that demonstrate some basic characteristics of learning and parallelism. Future 'microprocessors' are predicted and requested on this basis. 19 refs., 18 figs

  7. PhysioNet

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The PhysioNet Resource is intended to stimulate current research and new investigations in the study of complex biomedical and physiologic signals. It offers free...

  8. NetSig

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Horn, Heiko; Lawrence, Michael S; Chouinard, Candace R

    2018-01-01

    Methods that integrate molecular network information and tumor genome data could complement gene-based statistical tests to identify likely new cancer genes; but such approaches are challenging to validate at scale, and their predictive value remains unclear. We developed a robust statistic (Net......Sig) that integrates protein interaction networks with data from 4,742 tumor exomes. NetSig can accurately classify known driver genes in 60% of tested tumor types and predicts 62 new driver candidates. Using a quantitative experimental framework to determine in vivo tumorigenic potential in mice, we found that Net......Sig candidates induce tumors at rates that are comparable to those of known oncogenes and are ten-fold higher than those of random genes. By reanalyzing nine tumor-inducing NetSig candidates in 242 patients with oncogene-negative lung adenocarcinomas, we find that two (AKT2 and TFDP2) are significantly amplified...

  9. Blanket testing in NET

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chazalon, M.; Daenner, W.; Libin, B.

    1989-01-01

    The testing stages in NET for the performance assessment of the various breeding blanket concepts developed at the present time in Europe for DEMO (LiPb and ceramic blankets) and the requirements upon NET to perform these tests are reviewed. Typical locations available in NET for blanket testing are the central outboard segments and the horizontal ports of in-vessel sectors. These test positions will be connectable with external test loops. The number of test loops (helium, water, liquid metal) will be such that each major class of blankets can be tested in NET. The test positions, the boundary conditions and the external test loops are identified and the requirements for test blankets are summarized (author). 6

  10. Direct determination of resonance energy transfer in photolyase: structural alignment for the functional state.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Chuang; Guo, Lijun; Ai, Yuejie; Li, Jiang; Wang, Lijuan; Sancar, Aziz; Luo, Yi; Zhong, Dongping

    2014-11-13

    Photoantenna is essential to energy transduction in photoinduced biological machinery. A photoenzyme, photolyase, has a light-harvesting pigment of methenyltetrahydrofolate (MTHF) that transfers its excitation energy to the catalytic flavin cofactor FADH¯ to enhance DNA-repair efficiency. Here we report our systematic characterization and direct determination of the ultrafast dynamics of resonance energy transfer from excited MTHF to three flavin redox states in E. coli photolyase by capturing the intermediates formed through the energy transfer and thus excluding the electron-transfer quenching pathway. We observed 170 ps for excitation energy transferring to the fully reduced hydroquinone FADH¯, 20 ps to the fully oxidized FAD, and 18 ps to the neutral semiquinone FADH(•), and the corresponding orientation factors (κ(2)) were determined to be 2.84, 1.53 and 1.26, respectively, perfectly matching with our calculated theoretical values. Thus, under physiological conditions and over the course of evolution, photolyase has adopted the optimized orientation of its photopigment to efficiently convert solar energy for repair of damaged DNA.

  11. Transfer function modeling of the monthly accumulated rainfall series over the Iberian Peninsula

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mateos, Vidal L.; Garcia, Jose A.; Serrano, Antonio; De la Cruz Gallego, Maria [Departamento de Fisica, Universidad de Extremadura, Badajoz (Spain)

    2002-10-01

    In order to improve the results given by Autoregressive Moving-Average (ARMA) modeling for the monthly accumulated rainfall series taken at 19 observatories of the Iberian Peninsula, a Discrete Linear Transfer Function Noise (DLTFN) model was applied taking the local pressure series (LP), North Atlantic sea level pressure series (SLP) and North Atlantic sea surface temperature (SST) as input variables, and the rainfall series as the output series. In all cases, the performance of the DLTFN models, measured by the explained variance of the rainfall series, is better than the performance given by the ARMA modeling. The best performance is given by the models that take the local pressure as the input variable, followed by the sea level pressure models and the sea surface temperature models. Geographically speaking, the models fitted to those observatories located in the west of the Iberian Peninsula work better than those on the north and east of the Peninsula. Also, it was found that there is a region located between 0 N and 20 N, which shows the highest cross-correlation between SST and the peninsula rainfalls. This region moves to the west and northwest off the Peninsula when the SLP series are used. [Spanish] Con el objeto de mejorar los resultados porporcionados por los modelos Autorregresivo Media Movil (ARMA) ajustados a las precipitaciones mensuales acumuladas registradas en 19 observatorios de la Peninsula Iberica se han usado modelos de funcion de transferencia (DLTFN) en los que se han empleado como variable independiente la presion local (LP), la presion a nivel del mar (SLP) o la temperatura de agua del mar (SST) en el Atlantico Norte. En todos los casos analizados, los resultados obtenidos con los modelos DLTFN, medidos mediante la varianza explicada por el modelo, han sido mejores que los resultados proporcionados por los modelos ARMA. Los mejores resultados han sido dados por aquellos modelos que usan la presion local como variable de entrada, seguidos

  12. Transfer-function modelling between environmental variation and mesozooplankton in the Baltic Sea [review article

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vuorinen, I.; Hänninen, J.; Kornilovs, G.

    2003-12-01

    Time series of freshwater runoff, seawater salinity, temperature and oxygen were used in transfer functions (TF) to model changes of mesozooplankton taxa in the Baltic Sea from the 1960’s to the 1990’s. The models were then compared with long term zooplankton monitoring data from the same period. The TF models for all taxa over the whole Baltic proper and at different depth layers showed statistically significant estimates in t-tests. TF models were further compared using parsimony as a criterion. We present models showing 1) r2 > 0.4, 2) the smallest residual standard error with the combination of exploratory variables, 3) the lowest number of parameters and 4) the highest proportional decrease in error term when the TF model residual standard error was compared with those of the univariate ARIMA model of the same response variable. Most often (7 taxa out of a total of 8), zooplankton taxa were dependent on freshwater runoff and/or seawater salinity. Cladocerans and estuarine copepods were more conveniently modelled through the inclusion of seawater temperature and oxygen data as independent variables. Our modelling, however, explains neither the overall increase in zooplankton abundance nor a simultaneous decrease found in the neritic copepod, Temora longicornis. Therefore, biotic controlling agents (e.g. nutrients, primary production and planktivore diets) are suggested as independent variables for further TF modelling. TF modelling enabled us to put the controlling factors in a time frame. It was then possible, despite the inherent multiple correlation among parameters studied to deduce a chain-of-events from the environmental controls and biotic feedback mechanisms to changes in zooplankton species. We suggest that the documented long-term changes in zooplankton could have been driven by climatic regulation only. The control by climate could be mediated to zooplankton through marine chemical and physical factors, as well as biotic factors if all of these

  13. Study of the Effects of Total Modulation Transfer Function Changes on Observer Performance Using Clinical Mammograms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bencomo, Jose Antonio Fagundez

    The main goal of this study was to relate physical changes in image quality measured by Modulation Transfer Function (MTF) to diagnostic accuracy. One Hundred and Fifty Kodak Min-R screen/film combination conventional craniocaudal mammograms obtained with the Pfizer Microfocus Mammographic system were selected from the files of the Department of Radiology, at M.D. Anderson Hospital and Tumor Institute. The mammograms included 88 cases with a variety of benign diagnosis and 62 cases with a variety of malignant biopsy diagnosis. The average age of the patient population was 55 years old. 70 cases presented calcifications with 30 cases having calcifications smaller than 0.5mm. 46 cases presented irregular bordered masses larger than 1 cm. 30 cases presented smooth bordered masses with 20 larger than 1 cm. Four separated copies of the original images were made each having a different change in the MTF using a defocusing technique whereby copies of the original were obtained by light exposure through different thicknesses (spacing) of transparent film base. The mammograms were randomized, and evaluated by three experienced mammographers for the degree of visibility of various anatomical breast structures and pathological lesions (masses and calicifications), subjective image quality, and mammographic interpretation. 3,000 separate evaluations were anayzed by several statistical techniques including Receiver Operating Characteristic curve analysis, McNemar test for differences between proportions and the Landis et al. method of agreement weighted kappa for ordinal categorical data. Results from the statistical analysis show: (1) There were no statistical significant differences in the diagnostic accuracy of the observers when diagnosing from mammograms with the same MTF. (2) There were no statistically significant differences in diagnostic accuracy for each observer when diagnosing from mammograms with the different MTF's used in the study. (3) There statistical

  14. Theoretical study for a digital transfer function analyser; Etude theorique pour un transferometre digital

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Freycenon, J [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1964-07-01

    This study deals with the harmonic analysis of the instantaneous counting rate of a pulse train. This arises from using a fission chamber for reactivity to power transfer function measurements by oscillation methods in reactors. The systematical errors due to the sampling process are computed. The integration carried out when sampling the signal modifies the formulae of the Nyquist theorem on spectrum folding. The statistical errors due to the noise are analysed: it is shown that the bandwidth of the spectral window applied to the noise frequency spectrum is equal to the inverse of the time duration of the experiment. A dead time of 25 per cent of the sampling time does not increase appreciably the bandwidth. A new method is proposed afterwards yielding very approximate results of the Fourier analysis during the experiment. The systematical errors arising from the measuring process are determined, and it is shown that the bandwidth of the corresponding spectral window is still given by the inverse of the time duration of the experiment. (author) [French] Cette etude se rapporte a l'analyse harmonique de la valeur instantanee du taux de comptage d'une suite d'impulsions. On rencontre ce probleme dans l'utilisation de chambres a fission pour les mesures de fonction de transfert reactivite-puissance par la methode d'oscillation dans les piles. On calcule l'erreur systematique due au processus d'echantillonnage ou l'integration operee modifie les formules classiques de recouvrement du spectre. On analyse ensuite les erreurs statistiques dues au bruit de fond. On montre que la largeur de bande de la fenetre spectrale appliquee au spectre de puissance du bruit est donnee par l'inverse du temps de mesure. Un temps mort de 25 pour cent du temps de prelevement n'accroit pas sensiblement cette largeur de bande. On propose ensuite un procede simple qui permet d'obtenir, en cours d'experience, des resultats tres approches de l'analyse de Fourier. On determine les erreurs

  15. Simultaneous identification of transfer functions and combustion noise of a turbulent flame

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merk, M.; Jaensch, S.; Silva, C.; Polifke, W.

    2018-05-01

    The Large Eddy Simulation/System Identification (LES/SI) approach allows to deduce a flame transfer function (FTF) from LES of turbulent reacting flow: Time series of fluctuations of reference velocity and global heat release rate resulting from broad-band excitation of a simulated turbulent flame are post-processed via SI techniques to derive a low order model of the flame dynamics, from which the FTF is readily deduced. The current work investigates an extension of the established LES/SI approach: In addition to estimation of the FTF, a low order model for the combustion noise source is deduced from the same time series data. By incorporating such a noise model into a linear thermoacoustic model, it is possible to predict the overall level as well as the spectral distribution of sound pressure in confined combustion systems that do not exhibit self-excited thermoacoustic instability. A variety of model structures for estimation of a noise model are tested in the present study. The suitability and quality of these model structures are compared against each other, their sensitivity regarding certain time series properties is studied. The influence of time series length, signal-to-noise ratio as well as acoustic reflection coefficient of the boundary conditions on the identification are examined. It is shown that the Box-Jenkins model structure is superior to simpler approaches for the simultaneous identification of models that describe the FTF as well as the combustion noise source. Subsequent to the question of the most adequate model structure, the choice of optimal model order is addressed, as in particular the optimal parametrization of the noise model is not obvious. Akaike's Information Criterion and a model residual analysis are applied to draw qualitative and quantitative conclusions on the most suitable model order. All investigations are based on a surrogate data model, which allows a Monte Carlo study across a large parameter space with modest

  16. Programming NET 35

    CERN Document Server

    Liberty, Jesse

    2009-01-01

    Bestselling author Jesse Liberty and industry expert Alex Horovitz uncover the common threads that unite the .NET 3.5 technologies, so you can benefit from the best practices and architectural patterns baked into the new Microsoft frameworks. The book offers a Grand Tour" of .NET 3.5 that describes how the principal technologies can be used together, with Ajax, to build modern n-tier and service-oriented applications. "

  17. NET SALARY ADJUSTMENT

    CERN Multimedia

    Finance Division

    2001-01-01

    On 15 June 2001 the Council approved the correction of the discrepancy identified in the net salary adjustment implemented on 1st January 2001 by retroactively increasing the scale of basic salaries to achieve the 2.8% average net salary adjustment approved in December 2000. We should like to inform you that the corresponding adjustment will be made to your July salary. Full details of the retroactive adjustments will consequently be shown on your pay slip.

  18. Money for nothing? The net costs of medical training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barros, Pedro P; Machado, Sara R

    2010-09-01

    One of the stages of medical training is the residency programme. Hosting institutions often claim compensation for the training provided. How much should this compensation be? According to our results, given the benefits arising from having residents among the house staff, no transfer (either tuition fee or subsidy) should be set to compensate the hosting institution for providing medical training. This paper quantifies the net costs of medical training, defined as the training costs over and above the wage paid. We jointly consider two effects. On the one hand, residents take extra time and resources from both the hosting institution and the supervisor. On the other hand, residents can be regarded as a less expensive substitute to nurses and/or graduate physicians, in the production of health care, both in primary care centres and hospitals. The net effect can be either positive or negative. We use the fact that residents, in Portugal, are centrally allocated to National Health Service hospitals to treat them as a fixed exogenous production factor. The data used comes from Portuguese hospitals and primary care centres. Cost function estimates point to a small negative marginal impact of residents on hospitals' (-0.02%) and primary care centres' (-0.9%) costs. Nonetheless, there is a positive relation between size and cost to the very large hospitals and primary care centres. Our approach to estimation of residents' costs controls for other teaching activities hospitals might have (namely undergraduate Medical Schools). Overall, the net costs of medical training appear to be quite small.

  19. Transfer function of multimode fiber links using an electric field propagation model: Application to Radio over Fibre Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gasulla, I; Capmany, J

    2006-10-02

    We present a closed-form expression for the evaluation of the transfer function of a multimode fiber (MMF) link based on the electric field propagation model. After validating the result we investigate the potential for broadband transmission in regions far from baseband. We find that MMFs offer the potential for broadband ROF transmission in the microwave and millimetre wave regions in short and middle reach distances.

  20. Determination of the Modulation Transfer Function of Screen-Film Combinations in X-ray photography by the grating method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoeschen, D.

    1987-01-01

    An intercomparison experiment concerning the determination of the Modulation Transfer Function (MTF) of Screen-Film Combinations in x-ray photography by the grating method was made. Six laboratories located in four countries participated. Each laboratory has used its own, individually developed measurement procedure. The results have shown a surprisingly good agreement, the standard deviation (1 σ value) of MTF values reported by the different laboratories was about ± 0.02

  1. Characterization of adaptive statistical iterative reconstruction (ASIR) in low contrast helical abdominal imaging via a transfer function based method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Da; Li, Xinhua; Liu, Bob

    2012-03-01

    Since the introduction of ASiR, its potential in noise reduction has been reported in various clinical applications. However, the influence of different scan and reconstruction parameters on the trade off between ASiR's blurring effect and noise reduction in low contrast imaging has not been fully studied. Simple measurements on low contrast images, such as CNR or phantom scores could not explore the nuance nature of this problem. We tackled this topic using a method which compares the performance of ASiR in low contrast helical imaging based on an assumed filter layer on top of the FBP reconstruction. Transfer functions of this filter layer were obtained from the noise power spectra (NPS) of corresponding FBP and ASiR images that share the same scan and reconstruction parameters. 2D transfer functions were calculated as sqrt[NPSASiR(u, v)/NPSFBP(u, v)]. Synthesized ACR phantom images were generated by filtering the FBP images with the transfer functions of specific (FBP, ASiR) pairs, and were compared with the ASiR images. It is shown that the transfer functions could predict the deterministic blurring effect of ASiR on low contrast objects, as well as the degree of noise reductions. Using this method, the influence of dose, scan field of view (SFOV), display field of view (DFOV), ASiR level, and Recon Mode on the behavior of ASiR in low contrast imaging was studied. It was found that ASiR level, dose level, and DFOV play more important roles in determining the behavior of ASiR than the other two parameters.

  2. Experimental Waterflow Determination of the Dynamic Hydraulic Transfer Function for the J-2X Oxidizer Turbopump. Part Two; Results and Interpretation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zoladz, Tom; Patel, Sandeep; Lee, Erik; Karon, Dave

    2011-01-01

    Experimental results describing the hydraulic dynamic pump transfer matrix (Yp) for a cavitating J-2X oxidizer turbopump inducer+impeller tested in subscale waterflow are presented. The transfer function is required for integrated vehicle pogo stability analysis as well as optimization of local inducer pumping stability. Dynamic transfer functions across widely varying pump hydrodynamic inlet conditions are extracted from measured data in conjunction with 1D-model based corrections. Derived Dynamic transfer functions are initially interpreted relative to traditional Pogo pump equations. Water-to-liquid oxygen scaling of measured cavitation characteristics are discussed. Comparison of key dynamic transfer matrix terms derived from waterflow testing are made with those implemented in preliminary Ares Upper Stage Pogo stability modeling. Alternate cavitating pump hydraulic dynamic equations are suggested which better reflect frequency dependencies of measured transfer matrices.

  3. Cumulant generating function formula of heat transfer in ballistic systems with lead-lead coupling and general nonlinear systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Huanan

    2013-03-01

    Based on a two-time observation protocol, we consider heat transfer in a given time interval tM in a lead-junction-lead system taking coupling between the leads into account. In view of the two-time observation, consistency conditions are carefully verified in our specific family of quantum histories. Furthermore, its implication is briefly explored. Then using the nonequilibrium Green's function method, we obtain an exact formula for the cumulant generating function for heat transfer between the two leads, valid in both transient and steady-state regimes. Also, a compact formula for the cumulant generating function in the long-time limit is derived, for which the Gallavotti-Cohen fluctuation symmetry is explicitly verified. In addition, we briefly discuss Di Ventra's repartitioning trick regarding whether the repartitioning procedure of the total Hamiltonian affects the nonequilibrium steady-state current fluctuation. All kinds of properties of nonequilibrium current fluctuations, such as the fluctuation theorem in different time regimes, could be readily given according to these exact formulas. Finally a practical formalism dealing with cumulants of heat transfer across general nonlinear quantum systems is established based on field theoretical/algebraic method.

  4. Estimating a Smooth Common Transfer Function with a Panel of Time Series - Inflow of Larvae Cod as an Example

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth Hansen

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE X-NONE /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:10.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman","serif";} The annual response variable in an ecological monitoring study often relates linearly to the weighted cumulative effect of some daily covariate, after adjusting for other annual covariates. Here we consider the problem of non-parametrically estimating the weights involved in computing the aforementioned cumulative effect, with a panel of short and contemporaneously correlated time series whose responses share the common cumulative effect of a daily covariate. The sequence of (unknown daily weights constitutes the so-called transfer function. Specifically, we consider the problem of estimating a smooth common transfer function shared by a panel of short time series that are contemporaneously correlated. We propose an estimation scheme using a likelihood approach that penalizes the roughness of the common transfer function. We illustrate the proposed method with a simulation study and a biological example of indirectly estimating the spawning date distribution of North Sea cod.

  5. Using transfer functions to quantify El Niño Southern Oscillation dynamics in data and models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacMartin, Douglas G; Tziperman, Eli

    2014-09-08

    Transfer function tools commonly used in engineering control analysis can be used to better understand the dynamics of El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO), compare data with models and identify systematic model errors. The transfer function describes the frequency-dependent input-output relationship between any pair of causally related variables, and can be estimated from time series. This can be used first to assess whether the underlying relationship is or is not frequency dependent, and if so, to diagnose the underlying differential equations that relate the variables, and hence describe the dynamics of individual subsystem processes relevant to ENSO. Estimating process parameters allows the identification of compensating model errors that may lead to a seemingly realistic simulation in spite of incorrect model physics. This tool is applied here to the TAO array ocean data, the GFDL-CM2.1 and CCSM4 general circulation models, and to the Cane-Zebiak ENSO model. The delayed oscillator description is used to motivate a few relevant processes involved in the dynamics, although any other ENSO mechanism could be used instead. We identify several differences in the processes between the models and data that may be useful for model improvement. The transfer function methodology is also useful in understanding the dynamics and evaluating models of other climate processes.

  6. Micro- and nanoscale electrical characterization of large-area graphene transferred to functional substrates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriele Fisichella

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Chemical vapour deposition (CVD on catalytic metals is one of main approaches for high-quality graphene growth over large areas. However, a subsequent transfer step to an insulating substrate is required in order to use the graphene for electronic applications. This step can severely affect both the structural integrity and the electronic properties of the graphene membrane. In this paper, we investigated the morphological and electrical properties of CVD graphene transferred onto SiO2 and on a polymeric substrate (poly(ethylene-2,6-naphthalene dicarboxylate, briefly PEN, suitable for microelectronics and flexible electronics applications, respectively. The electrical properties (sheet resistance, mobility, carrier density of the transferred graphene as well as the specific contact resistance of metal contacts onto graphene were investigated by using properly designed test patterns. While a sheet resistance Rsh ≈ 1.7 kΩ/sq and a specific contact resistance ρc ≈ 15 kΩ·μm have been measured for graphene transferred onto SiO2, about 2.3× higher Rsh and about 8× higher ρc values were obtained for graphene on PEN. High-resolution current mapping by torsion resonant conductive atomic force microscopy (TRCAFM provided an insight into the nanoscale mechanisms responsible for the very high ρc in the case of graphene on PEN, showing a ca. 10× smaller “effective” area for current injection than in the case of graphene on SiO2.

  7. Printing Functional 3D Microdevices by Laser-Induced Forward Transfer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Luo, Jun; Pohl, R.; Qi, Lehua; Römer, G.R.B.E.; Sun, Chao; Lohse, Detlef; Visser, C.W.

    2017-01-01

    Slender, out-of-plane metal microdevices are made in a new spatial domain, by using laser-induced forward transfer (LIFT) of metals. Here, a thermocouple with a thickness of 10 µm and a height of 250 µm, consisting of platinum and gold pillars is demonstrated. Multimaterial LIFT enables

  8. Conjugative plasmid transfer in Xylella fastidiosa is dependent on tra and trb operon functions

    Science.gov (United States)

    The insect-transmitted plant pathogen Xylella fastidiosa is capable of efficient horizontal gene transfer and recombination, leading to diversity between strains and the categorization of X. fastidiosa into multiple subspecies. Although natural transformation is shown to occur at high rates in X. fa...

  9. L-dependence in the 6Li induced three nucleon transfer excitation function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kraus, L.; Linck, I.

    1980-01-01

    The three nucleon transfer reactions induced by 6 Li on 12 C were studied from 5 to 9 MeV/n. The bell-shaped energy variation is used to select cluster states of progressively higher angular momentum. A modification to the Brink semi-classical model equations is proposed in order to reproduce the observed features

  10. Trophic transfer of differently functionalized zinc oxide nanoparticles from crustaceans (Daphnia magna) to zebrafish (Danio rerio)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skjolding, Lars Michael; Winther-Nielsen, M.; Baun, Anders

    2014-01-01

    ) higher than toxic levels reported for zinc in D. magna. Consequently, the zinc recovered in the animals was not solely due to soluble zinc, but agglomerates/aggregates of ZnO NP or ZnO-octyl NP contributed to the body burdens. The trophic transfer study showed uptake of both ZnO NP and ZnO-octyl NP...

  11. Functional LH1 antenna complexes influence electron transfer in bacterial photosynthetic reaction centers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visschers, R.W.; Vulto, S.I.E.; Jones, M.R.; van Grondelle, R.; Kraayenhof, R.

    1999-01-01

    The effect of the light harvesting 1 (LH1) antenna complex on the driving force for light-driven electron transfer in the Rhodobacter sphaeroides reaction center has been examined. Equilibrium redox titrations show that the presence of the LH1 antenna complex influences the free energy change for

  12. Functional LH1 antenna complexes influence electron transfer in bacterial photosynthetic reaction centers.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visschers, R.W.; Vulto, S.I.E.; Jones, M.R.; van Grondelle, R.; Kraayenhof, R.

    1999-01-01

    The effect of the light harvesting 1 (LH1) antenna complex on the driving force for light-driven electron transfer in the Rhodobacter sphaeroides reaction center has been examined. Equilibrium redox titrations show that the presence of the LH1 antenna complex influences the free energy change for

  13. Determination of modulation transfer function of a printer by measuring the autocorrelation of the transmission function of a printed Ronchi grating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Madanipour, Khosro; Tavassoly, Mohammad T.

    2009-01-01

    We show theoretically and verify experimentally that the modulation transfer function (MTF) of a printing system can be determined by measuring the autocorrelation of a printed Ronchi grating. In practice, two similar Ronchi gratings are printed on two transparencies and the transparencies are superimposed with parallel grating lines. Then, the gratings are uniformly illuminated and the transmitted light from a large section is measured versus the displacement of one grating with respect to the other in a grating pitch interval. This measurement provides the required autocorrelation function for determination of the MTF

  14. Density functional theory of electron transfer beyond the Born-Oppenheimer approximation: Case study of LiF

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chen; Requist, Ryan; Gross, E. K. U.

    2018-02-01

    We perform model calculations for a stretched LiF molecule, demonstrating that nonadiabatic charge transfer effects can be accurately and seamlessly described within a density functional framework. In alkali halides like LiF, there is an abrupt change in the ground state electronic distribution due to an electron transfer at a critical bond length R = Rc, where an avoided crossing of the lowest adiabatic potential energy surfaces calls the validity of the Born-Oppenheimer approximation into doubt. Modeling the R-dependent electronic structure of LiF within a two-site Hubbard model, we find that nonadiabatic electron-nuclear coupling produces a sizable elongation of the critical Rc by 0.5 bohr. This effect is very accurately captured by a simple and rigorously derived correction, with an M-1 prefactor, to the exchange-correlation potential in density functional theory, M = reduced nuclear mass. Since this nonadiabatic term depends on gradients of the nuclear wave function and conditional electronic density, ∇Rχ(R) and ∇Rn(r, R), it couples the Kohn-Sham equations at neighboring R points. Motivated by an observed localization of nonadiabatic effects in nuclear configuration space, we propose a local conditional density approximation—an approximation that reduces the search for nonadiabatic density functionals to the search for a single function y(n).

  15. Electron transfer function versus oxygen delivery: a comparative study for several hexacoordinated globins across the animal kingdom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiger, Laurent; Tilleman, Lesley; Geuens, Eva; Hoogewijs, David; Lechauve, Christophe; Moens, Luc; Dewilde, Sylvia; Marden, Michael C

    2011-01-01

    Caenorhabditis elegans globin GLB-26 (expressed from gene T22C1.2) has been studied in comparison with human neuroglobin (Ngb) and cytoglobin (Cygb) for its electron transfer properties. GLB-26 exhibits no reversible binding for O(2) and a relatively low CO affinity compared to myoglobin-like globins. These differences arise from its mechanism of gaseous ligand binding since the heme iron of GLB-26 is strongly hexacoordinated in the absence of external ligands; the replacement of this internal ligand, probably the E7 distal histidine, is required before binding of CO or O(2) as for Ngb and Cygb. Interestingly the ferrous bis-histidyl GLB-26 and Ngb, another strongly hexacoordinated globin, can transfer an electron to cytochrome c (Cyt-c) at a high bimolecular rate, comparable to those of inter-protein electron transfer in mitochondria. In addition, GLB-26 displays an unexpectedly rapid oxidation of the ferrous His-Fe-His complex without O(2) actually binding to the iron atom, since the heme is oxidized by O(2) faster than the time for distal histidine dissociation. These efficient mechanisms for electron transfer could indicate a family of hexacoordinated globin which are functionally different from that of pentacoordinated globins.

  16. Frenkel and Charge-Transfer Excitations in Donor-acceptor Complexes from Many-Body Green's Functions Theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumeier, Björn; Andrienko, Denis; Rohlfing, Michael

    2012-08-14

    Excited states of donor-acceptor dimers are studied using many-body Green's functions theory within the GW approximation and the Bethe-Salpeter equation. For a series of prototypical small-molecule based pairs, this method predicts energies of local Frenkel and intermolecular charge-transfer excitations with the accuracy of tens of meV. Application to larger systems is possible and allowed us to analyze energy levels and binding energies of excitons in representative dimers of dicyanovinyl-substituted quarterthiophene and fullerene, a donor-acceptor pair used in state of the art organic solar cells. In these dimers, the transition from Frenkel to charge transfer excitons is endothermic and the binding energy of charge transfer excitons is still of the order of 1.5-2 eV. Hence, even such an accurate dimer-based description does not yield internal energetics favorable for the generation of free charges either by thermal energy or an external electric field. These results confirm that, for qualitative predictions of solar cell functionality, accounting for the explicit molecular environment is as important as the accurate knowledge of internal dimer energies.

  17. Implementation of CLP4NET in Bulgaria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naydenova, I.; Pironkov, L.; Filipov, A.; Petrova, T.; Tsochev, G.; Ganev, I.

    2016-01-01

    Full text: Networking solutions (networks of excellence, communities of practice, knowledge portals, etc.) are recognized as effective tools for nuclear training and education services, transfer of good practices, knowledge and programmes, and knowledge management. In addition, the e-learning is recommended as a state of the art and cost effective approach for supplementing the traditional face to face training and education programmes. Thus, the Cyber Learning Platform for Nuclear Education and Training (CLP4NET) was implemented into the Kozloduy Nuclear Power Plant (KNPP) Training System. Based on the experience of KNPP, the CLP4NET was implemented also at the College of Energy and Electronics (CEE), Technical University of Sofia (TU-Sofia), providing an appropriate tool for further establishment of a National Nuclear Network of Competency. The current study is focused mainly on specific issues and lessons learned during the installation of CLP4NET at the CEE, TU-Sofia. (author

  18. Transfer function of analog fiber-optic systems driven by Fabry-Perot lasers: comment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gyula, Veszely

    2006-10-01

    A bad notation makes difficult the understanding of the paper of Capmany et al. [J. Opt. Soc. Am. B22, 2099 (2005)]. The reason is that the real time function and the complex time function run into one another.

  19. Functionalization of vertically aligned carbon nanotubes with polystyrene via surface initiated reversible addition fragmentation chain transfer polymerization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Macdonald, Thomas; Gibson, Christopher T.; Constantopoulos, Kristina; Shapter, Joseph G. [Flinders Centre for Nanoscale Science and Technology, School of Chemical and Physical Sciences, Flinders University, GPO Box 2100, Adelaide, SA, 5001 (Australia); Ellis, Amanda V., E-mail: amanda.ellis@flinders.edu.au [Flinders Centre for Nanoscale Science and Technology, School of Chemical and Physical Sciences, Flinders University, GPO Box 2100, Adelaide, SA, 5001 (Australia)

    2012-01-15

    Here we demonstrate the covalent attachment of vertically aligned (VA) acid treated single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) onto a silicon substrate via dicyclohexylcarbodiimide (DCC) coupling chemistry. Subsequently, the pendant carboxyl moieties on the sidewalls of the VA-SWCNTs were derivatized to acyl chlorides, and then finally to bis(dithioester) moieties using a magnesium chloride dithiobenzoate salt. The bis(dithioester) moieties were then successfully shown to act as a chain transfer agent (CTA) in the reversible addition fragmentation chain transfer (RAFT) polymerization of styrene in a surface initiated 'grafting-from' process from the VA-SWCNT surface. Atomic force microscopy (AFM) verified vertical alignment of the SWCNTs and the maintenance thereof throughout the synthesis process. Finally, Raman scattering spectroscopy and AFM confirmed polystyrene functionalization.

  20. Functionalization of vertically aligned carbon nanotubes with polystyrene via surface initiated reversible addition fragmentation chain transfer polymerization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Macdonald, Thomas; Gibson, Christopher T.; Constantopoulos, Kristina; Shapter, Joseph G.; Ellis, Amanda V.

    2012-01-01

    Here we demonstrate the covalent attachment of vertically aligned (VA) acid treated single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) onto a silicon substrate via dicyclohexylcarbodiimide (DCC) coupling chemistry. Subsequently, the pendant carboxyl moieties on the sidewalls of the VA-SWCNTs were derivatized to acyl chlorides, and then finally to bis(dithioester) moieties using a magnesium chloride dithiobenzoate salt. The bis(dithioester) moieties were then successfully shown to act as a chain transfer agent (CTA) in the reversible addition fragmentation chain transfer (RAFT) polymerization of styrene in a surface initiated “grafting-from” process from the VA-SWCNT surface. Atomic force microscopy (AFM) verified vertical alignment of the SWCNTs and the maintenance thereof throughout the synthesis process. Finally, Raman scattering spectroscopy and AFM confirmed polystyrene functionalization.

  1. Biological Petri Nets

    CERN Document Server

    Wingender, E

    2011-01-01

    It was suggested some years ago that Petri nets might be well suited to modeling metabolic networks, overcoming some of the limitations encountered by the use of systems employing ODEs (ordinary differential equations). Much work has been done since then which confirms this and demonstrates the usefulness of this concept for systems biology. Petri net technology is not only intuitively understood by scientists trained in the life sciences, it also has a robust mathematical foundation and provides the required degree of flexibility. As a result it appears to be a very promising approach to mode

  2. Reconfiguration of distribution nets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Latorre Bayona, Gerardo; Angarita Marquez, Jorge Luis

    2000-01-01

    Starting of the location of the reconfiguration problem inside the context of the operation of distribution nets, of the quality indicators definition and of the presentation of the alternatives more used for reduction of technical losses, they are related diverse reconfiguration methodologies proposed in the technical literature, pointing out their three principals limitations; also are presents the results of lost obtained starting from simulation works carried out in distribution circuits of the ESSA ESP, which permitting to postulate the reconfiguration of nets like an excellent alternative to reduce technical losses

  3. NET system integration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farfaletti-Casali, F.; Mitchell, N.; Salpietro, E.; Buzzi, U.; Gritzmann, P.

    1985-01-01

    The NET system integration procedure is the process by which the requirements of the various Tokamak machine design areas are brought together to form a compatible machine layout. Each design area produces requirements which generally allow components to be built at minimum cost and operate with minimum technical risk, and the final machine assembly should be achieved with minimum departure from these optimum designs. This is carried out in NET by allowing flexibility in the maintenance and access methods to the machine internal components which must be regularly replaced by remote handling, in segmentation of these internal components and in the number of toroidal field coils

  4. On the Relationship Between Transfer Function-derived Response Times and Hydrograph Analysis Timing Parameters: Are there Similarities?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bansah, S.; Ali, G.; Haque, M. A.; Tang, V.

    2017-12-01

    The proportion of precipitation that becomes streamflow is a function of internal catchment characteristics - which include geology, landscape characteristics and vegetation - and influence overall storage dynamics. The timing and quantity of water discharged by a catchment are indeed embedded in event hydrographs. Event hydrograph timing parameters, such as the response lag and time of concentration, are important descriptors of how long it takes the catchment to respond to input precipitation and how long it takes the latter to filter through the catchment. However, the extent to which hydrograph timing parameters relate to average response times derived from fitting transfer functions to annual hydrographs is unknown. In this study, we used a gamma transfer function to determine catchment average response times as well as event-specific hydrograph parameters across a network of eight nested watersheds ranging from 0.19 km2 to 74.6 km2 prairie catchments located in south central Manitoba (Canada). Various statistical analyses were then performed to correlate average response times - estimated using the parameters of the fitted gamma transfer function - to event-specific hydrograph parameters. Preliminary results show significant interannual variations in response times and hydrograph timing parameters: the former were in the order of a few hours to days, while the latter ranged from a few days to weeks. Some statistically significant relationships were detected between response times and event-specific hydrograph parameters. Future analyses will involve the comparison of statistical distributions of event-specific hydrograph parameters with that of runoff response times and baseflow transit times in order to quantity catchment storage dynamics across a range of temporal scales.

  5. EVo: Net Shape RTM Production Line

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sven Torstrick

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available EVo research platform is operated by the Center for Lightweight-Production-Technology of the German Aerospace Center in Stade. Its objective is technology demonstration of a fully automated RTM (Resin Transfer Molding production line for composite parts in large quantities. Process steps include cutting and ply handling, draping, stacking, hot-forming, preform-trimming to net shape, resin injection, curing and demolding.

  6. The transfer of social exclusion and inclusion functions through derived stimulus relations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munnelly, Anita; Martin, Georgina; Dack, Charlotte; Zedginidze, Ann; McHugh, Louise

    2014-09-01

    Previous studies have found that social exclusion can cause distress to those excluded. One method used to study social exclusion is through a virtual ball-toss game known as Cyberball. In this game, participants may be excluded from or included in the ball-toss game and typically report lower feelings of self-esteem, control, belonging, and meaningful existence following exclusion. Experiments 1 and 2 sought to explore the transfer of feelings of exclusion and inclusion through stimulus equivalence classes. In both experiments, participants were trained to form two three-member equivalence classes (e.g., A1-B1, B1-C1; A2-B2, B2-C2) and were tested with novel stimulus combinations (A1-C1, C1-A1, A2-C2, C2-A2). Thereafter, participants were exposed to the Cyberball exclusion and inclusion games. In these games, one stimulus (C1) from one equivalence class was assigned as the Cyberball inclusion game name, whereas one stimulus (C2) from the other equivalence class was assigned as the Cyberball exclusion game name. In Experiment 2, participants were only exposed to the Cyberball exclusion game. During a subsequent transfer test, participants were asked to rate how included in or excluded from they thought they would be in other online games, corresponding to members of both equivalence classes. Participant reported that they felt they would be excluded from online games if the games were members of the same equivalence class as C2. In contrast, participants reported that they felt they would be included in online games if the games were members of the same equivalence class as C1. Results indicated the transfer of feelings of inclusion (Experiment 1) and feelings of exclusion (Experiments 1 and 2) through equivalence classes.

  7. Coloured Petri Nets

    CERN Document Server

    Jensen, Kurt

    2009-01-01

    Coloured Petri Nets (CPN) is a graphical language for modelling and validating concurrent and distributed systems, and other systems in which concurrency plays a major role. This book introduces the constructs of the CPN modelling language and presents the related analysis methods. It provides a comprehensive road map for the practical use of CPN.

  8. Safety nets or straitjackets?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ilsøe, Anna

    2012-01-01

    Does regulation of working hours at national and sector level impose straitjackets, or offer safety nets to employees seeking working time flexibility? This article compares legislation and collective agreements in the metal industries of Denmark, Germany and the USA. The industry has historically...

  9. Neuronal nets in robotics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jimenez Sanchez, Raul

    1999-01-01

    The paper gives a generic idea of the solutions that the neuronal nets contribute to the robotics. The advantages and the inconveniences are exposed that have regarding the conventional techniques. It also describe the more excellent applications as the pursuit of trajectories, the positioning based on images, the force control or of the mobile robots management, among others

  10. Net4Care platform

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2012-01-01

    , that in turn enables general practitioners and clinical staff to view observations. Use the menus above to explore the site's information resources. To get started, follow the short Hello, World! tutorial. The Net4Care project is funded by The Central Denmark Region and EU via Caretech Innovation....

  11. Coloured Petri Nets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Kurt; Kristensen, Lars Michael

    Coloured Petri Nets (CPN) is a graphical language for modelling and validating concurrent and distributed systems, and other systems in which concurrency plays a major role. The development of such systems is particularly challenging because of inherent intricacies like possible nondeterminism an...

  12. Game Theory .net.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shor, Mikhael

    2003-01-01

    States making game theory relevant and accessible to students is challenging. Describes the primary goal of GameTheory.net is to provide interactive teaching tools. Indicates the site strives to unite educators from economics, political and computer science, and ecology by providing a repository of lecture notes and tests for courses using…

  13. BacillusRegNet

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Misirli, Goksel; Hallinan, Jennifer; Röttger, Richard

    2014-01-01

    As high-throughput technologies become cheaper and easier to use, raw sequence data and corresponding annotations for many organisms are becoming available. However, sequence data alone is not sufficient to explain the biological behaviour of organisms, which arises largely from complex molecular...... the associated BacillusRegNet website (http://bacillus.ncl.ac.uk)....

  14. Boom Booom Net Radio

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grimshaw, Mark Nicholas; Yong, Louisa; Dobie, Ian

    1999-01-01

    of an existing Internet radio station; Boom Booom Net Radio. Whilst necessity dictates some use of technology-related terminology, wherever possible we have endeavoured to keep such jargon to a minimum and to either explain it in the text or to provide further explanation in the appended glossary....

  15. Linear and nonlinear Biot waves in a noncohesive granular medium slab: transfer function, self-action, second harmonic generation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Legland, J-B; Tournat, V; Dazel, O; Novak, A; Gusev, V

    2012-06-01

    Experimental results are reported on second harmonic generation and self-action in a noncohesive granular medium supporting wave energy propagation both in the solid frame and in the saturating fluid. The acoustic transfer function of the probed granular slab can be separated into two main frequency regions: a low frequency region where the wave propagation is controlled by the solid skeleton elastic properties, and a higher frequency region where the behavior is dominantly due to the air saturating the beads. Experimental results agree well with a recently developed nonlinear Biot wave model applied to granular media. The linear transfer function, second harmonic generation, and self-action effect are studied as a function of bead diameter, compaction step, excitation amplitude, and frequency. This parametric study allows one to isolate different propagation regimes involving a range of described and interpreted linear and nonlinear processes that are encountered in granular media experiments. In particular, a theoretical interpretation is proposed for the observed strong self-action effect.

  16. An examination of mediators of the transfer of cognitive speed of processing training to everyday functional performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Jerri D; Ruva, Christine L; O'Brien, Jennifer L; Haley, Christine B; Lister, Jennifer J

    2013-06-01

    The purpose of these analyses was to examine mediators of the transfer of cognitive speed of processing training to improved everyday functional performance (J. D. Edwards, V. G. Wadley,, D. E. Vance, D. L. Roenker, & K. K. Ball, 2005, The impact of speed of processing training on cognitive and everyday performance. Aging & Mental Health, 9, 262-271). Cognitive speed of processing and visual attention (as measured by the Useful Field of View Test; UFOV) were examined as mediators of training transfer. Secondary data analyses were conducted from the Staying Keen in Later Life (SKILL) study, a randomized cohort study including 126 community dwelling adults 63 to 87 years of age. In the SKILL study, participants were randomized to an active control group or cognitive speed of processing training (SOPT), a nonverbal, computerized intervention involving perceptual practice of visual tasks. Prior analyses found significant effects of training as measured by the UFOV and Timed Instrumental Activities of Daily Living (TIADL) Tests. Results from the present analyses indicate that speed of processing for a divided attention task significantly mediated the effect of SOPT on everyday performance (e.g., TIADL) in a multiple mediation model accounting for 91% of the variance. These findings suggest that everyday functional improvements found from SOPT are directly attributable to improved UFOV performance, speed of processing for divided attention in particular. Targeting divided attention in cognitive interventions may be important to positively affect everyday functioning among older adults. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved.

  17. A three-dimensional study of the musculotendinous and neurovascular architecture of the gracilis muscle: application to functional muscle transfer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fattah, A Y; Ravichandiran, K; Zuker, R M; Agur, A M R

    2013-09-01

    Muscle transfer is used to restore function typically using a single vector of contraction. Although its use with two independently functional muscular units has been employed, in order to refine this concept we endeavoured to detail the intramuscular anatomy of gracilis, a muscle commonly used for transfer. A novel method to capture intramuscular fibre bundle and neurovascular arrangement was used to create a three-dimensional (3D) digital model that allowed for accurate representation of the relationships between all the intramuscular structures to facilitate flap planning. Twenty gracilis muscles were harvested from 15 cadavers. All components of the muscle were digitised using a Microscribe G2 Digitiser. The data were exported to the 3D animation software Autodesk(®) Maya(®) 2012 whereupon it was rendered into a 3D model that can be exported as static images or videos. Neurovascular anatomy and muscle architecture were analysed from these models, and fibre bundle length, pennation angle and physiological cross-sectional area were calculated from digitised data. The muscle is composed of a variable number of distinct longitudinal segments with muscle fibres spiralling onto the tendon. The main artery to the muscle has three main intramuscular patterns of distribution. The venae comitantes drain discrete zones without intramuscular macroscopic anastomoses. The minor pedicles form an anastomotic chain along the anterior border of the muscle and all vessels were biased to the deep surface. The nerve is related to the vessels in a variable manner and both run between longitudinal muscular compartments. The digitisation technique may be used to advance knowledge of intramuscular architecture and it demonstrated that the gracilis muscle is comprised of four to seven muscular compartments, each representing a functional unit that may theoretically be differentially activated and could be harnessed for more sophisticated muscle transfers. Copyright © 2013 British

  18. Online games training aging brains: limited transfer to cognitive control functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Muijden, Jesse; Band, Guido P H; Hommel, Bernhard

    2012-01-01

    The prevalence of age-related cognitive decline will increase due to graying of the global population. The goal of the present study was to test whether playing online cognitive training games can improve cognitive control (CC) in healthy older adults. Fifty-four older adults (age 60-77) played five different cognitive training games online for 30 min a day over a period of seven weeks (game group). Another group of 20 older adults (age 61-73) instead answered quiz questions about documentaries online (documentary group). Transfer was assessed by means of a cognitive test battery administered before and after the intervention. The test battery included measures of working memory updating, set shifting, response inhibition, attention, and inductive reasoning. Compared with the documentary group, the game group showed larger improvement of inhibition (Stop-Signal task) and inductive reasoning (Raven-SPM), whereas the documentary group showed more improvement in selective attention (UFoV-3). These effects qualify as transfer effects, because response inhibition, inductive reasoning and selective attention were not targeted by the interventions. However, because seven other indicators of CC did not show benefits of game training and some of those that did suffered from potential baseline differences, the study as a whole provides only modest support for the potential of videogame training to improve CC in healthy older adults.

  19. Online Games Training Aging Brains:Limited transfer to cognitive control functions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesse eVan Muijden

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The prevalence of age-related cognitive decline will increase due to graying of the global population. The goal of the present study was to test whether playing online cognitive training games can improve cognitive control (CC in healthy older adults. Fifty-four older adults (age 60-77 played five different cognitive training games online for 30 minutes a day over a period of seven weeks (game group. Another group of 20 older adults (age 61-73 instead answered quiz questions about documentaries online (documentary group. Transfer was assessed by means of a cognitive test battery administered before and after the intervention. The test battery included measures of working memory updating, set shifting, response inhibition, attention and inductive reasoning. Compared with the documentary group, the game group showed larger improvement of inhibition (Stop-Signal task and inductive reasoning (Raven-SPM, whereas the documentary group showed more improvement in selective attention (UFoV-3. These effects qualify as transfer effects, because response inhibition, inductive reasoning and selective attention were not targeted by the interventions. However, because seven other indicators of CC did not show benefits of game training and some of those that did suffered from potential baseline differences, the study as a whole provides only modest support for the potential of videogame training to improve CC in healthy older adults.

  20. Constraining the composition and thermal state of the moon from an inversion of electromagnetic lunar day-side transfer functions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Khan, Amir; Connolly, J.A.D.; Olsen, Nils

    2006-01-01

    We present a general method to constrain planetary composition and thermal state from an inversion of long-period electromagnetic sounding data. As an example of our approach, we reexamine the problem of inverting lunar day-side transfer functions to constrain the internal structure of the Moon. We...... to significantly influence the inversion results. In order to improve future inferences about lunar composition and thermal state, more electrical conductivity measurements are needed especially for minerals appropriate to the Moon, such as pyrope and almandine....

  1. Gating in time domain as a tool for improving the signal-to-noise ratio of beam transfer function measurements

    CERN Document Server

    Oeftiger, U; Caspers, Fritz

    1992-01-01

    For the measurement of Beam Transfer Functions the signal-to-noise ratio is of great importance. In order to get a reasonable quality of the measured data one may apply averaging and smoothing. In the following another technique called time gating to improve the quality of the measurement will be described. By this technique the measurement data are Fourier transformed and then modified in time domain. Tune gating suppresses signal contributions that are correlated to a time interval when no interesting information is expected. Afterivards an inverse Fourier transform leads to data in frequency domain with an improved signal to noise ratio.

  2. Theoretical comparison of performance using transfer functions for reactivity meters based on inverse kinetic method and simple feedback method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shimazu, Yoichiro; Tashiro, Shoichi; Tojo, Masayuki

    2017-01-01

    The performance of two digital reactivity meters, one based on the conventional inverse kinetic method and the other one based on simple feedback theory, are compared analytically using their respective transfer functions. The latter one is proposed by one of the authors. It has been shown that the performance of the two reactivity meters become almost identical when proper system parameters are selected for each reactivity meter. A new correlation between the system parameters of the two reactivity meters is found. With this correlation, filter designers can easily determine the system parameters for the respective reactivity meters to obtain identical performance. (author)

  3. Simulation of herbicide degradation in different soils by use of Pedo-transfer functions (PTF) and non-linear kinetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Götz, N; Richter, O

    1999-03-01

    The degradation behaviour of bentazone in 14 different soils was examined at constant temperature and moisture conditions. Two soils were examined at different temperatures. On the basis of these data the influence of soil properties and temperature on degradation was assessed and modelled. Pedo-transfer functions (PTF) in combination with a linear and a non-linear model were found suitable to describe the bentazone degradation in the laboratory as related to soil properties. The linear PTF can be combined with a rate related to the temperature to account for both soil property and temperature influence at the same time.

  4. Uma metodologia de estimação da carga tributária líquida brasileira trimestral no período 1995-2009 Estimating quarterly figures for the Brazilian aggregate tax burden net of government transfers in the 1995-2009 years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudio Hamilton M. dos Santos

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo apresenta uma metodologia simplificada de estimação, em bases trimestrais, das transferências governamentais e da carga tributária líquida da economia brasileira no período 1995-2009. O artigo descreve, ainda, os principais fatos estilizados observados no comportamento das referidas séries (e de desagregações relevantes destas no período em questão, chamando a atenção para o fato de que o perfil distributivo das transferências de assistência e previdência do governo parece ter melhorado nos últimos anos.This paper presents a simplified methodology for estimating quarterly figures for both the Brazilian government transfers and net aggregate tax burden in the 1995-2009 years. It also describes the main stylized facts observed in the data in this period, calling attention to the fact that Brazilian government transfers apparently have become more progressive in recent years.

  5. The shape gradient of the least-squares objective functional in optimal shape design problems of radiative heat transfer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rukolaine, Sergey A.

    2010-01-01

    Optimal shape design problems of steady-state radiative heat transfer are considered. The optimal shape design problem (in the three-dimensional space) is formulated as an inverse one, i.e., in the form of an operator equation of the first kind with respect to a surface to be optimized. The operator equation is reduced to a minimization problem via a least-squares objective functional. The minimization problem has to be solved numerically. Gradient minimization methods need the gradient of a functional to be minimized. In this paper the shape gradient of the least-squares objective functional is derived with the help of the shape sensitivity analysis and adjoint problem method. In practice a surface to be optimized may be (or, most likely, is to be) given in a parametric form by a finite number of parameters. In this case the objective functional is, in fact, a function in a finite-dimensional space and the shape gradient becomes an ordinary gradient. The gradient of the objective functional, in the case that the surface to be optimized is given in a finite-parametric form, is derived from the shape gradient. A particular case, that a surface to be optimized is a 'two-dimensional' polyhedral one, is considered. The technique, developed in the paper, is applied to a synthetic problem of designing a 'two-dimensional' radiant enclosure.

  6. Evaluation of jaw and neck muscle activities while chewing using EMG-EMG transfer function and EMG-EMG coherence function analyses in healthy subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishii, Tomohiro; Narita, Noriyuki; Endo, Hiroshi

    2016-06-01

    This study aims to quantitatively clarify the physiological features in rhythmically coordinated jaw and neck muscle EMG activities while chewing gum using EMG-EMG transfer function and EMG-EMG coherence function analyses in 20 healthy subjects. The chewing side masseter muscle EMG signal was used as the reference signal, while the other jaw (non-chewing side masseter muscle, bilateral anterior temporal muscles, and bilateral anterior digastric muscles) and neck muscle (bilateral sternocleidomastoid muscles) EMG signals were used as the examined signals in EMG-EMG transfer function and EMG-EMG coherence function analyses. Chewing-related jaw and neck muscle activities were aggregated in the first peak of the power spectrum in rhythmic chewing. The gain in the peak frequency represented the power relationships between jaw and neck muscle activities during rhythmic chewing. The phase in the peak frequency represented the temporal relationships between the jaw and neck muscle activities, while the non-chewing side neck muscle presented a broad range of distributions across jaw closing and opening phases. Coherence in the peak frequency represented the synergistic features in bilateral jaw closing muscles and chewing side neck muscle activities. The coherence and phase in non-chewing side neck muscle activities exhibited a significant negative correlation. From above, the bilateral coordination between the jaw and neck muscle activities is estimated while chewing when the non-chewing side neck muscle is synchronously activated with the jaw closing muscles, while the unilateral coordination is estimated when the non-chewing side neck muscle is irregularly activated in the jaw opening phase. Thus, the occurrence of bilateral or unilateral coordinated features in the jaw and neck muscle activities may correspond to the phase characteristics in the non-chewing side neck muscle activities during rhythmical chewing. Considering these novel findings in healthy subjects, EMG

  7. 5 CFR 351.303 - Identification of positions with a transferring function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... performed by the employee includes the duties controlling his or her grade or rate of pay. (3) In determining what percentage of time an employee performs a function in the employee's official position, the...

  8. Direct repeat sequences are essential for function of the cis-acting locus of transfer (clt) of Streptomyces phaeochromogenes plasmid pJV1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franco, Bernardo; González-Cerón, Gabriela; Servín-González, Luis

    2003-11-01

    The functionality of direct and inverted repeat sequences inside the cis acting locus of transfer (clt) of the Streptomyces plasmid pJV1 was determined by testing the effect of different deletions on plasmid transfer. The results show that the single most important element for pJV1 clt function is a series of evenly spaced 9 bp long direct repeats which match the consensus CCGCACA(C/G)(C/G), since their deletion caused a dramatic reduction in plasmid transfer. The presence of these repeats in the absence of any other clt sequences allowed plasmid transfer to occur at a frequency that was at least two orders of magnitude higher than that obtained in the complete absence of clt. A database search revealed regions with a similar organization, and in the same position, in Streptomyces plasmids pSN22 and pSLS, which have transfer proteins homologous to those of pJV1.

  9. The group-based social skills training SOSTA-FRA in children and adolescents with high functioning autism spectrum disorder--study protocol of the randomised, multi-centre controlled SOSTA--net trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freitag, Christine M; Cholemkery, Hannah; Elsuni, Leyla; Kroeger, Anne K; Bender, Stephan; Kunz, Cornelia Ursula; Kieser, Meinhard

    2013-01-07

    Group-based social skills training (SST) has repeatedly been recommended as treatment of choice in high-functioning autism spectrum disorder (HFASD). To date, no sufficiently powered randomised controlled trial has been performed to establish efficacy and safety of SST in children and adolescents with HFASD. In this randomised, multi-centre, controlled trial with 220 children and adolescents with HFASD it is hypothesized, that add-on group-based SST using the 12 weeks manualised SOSTA-FRA program will result in improved social responsiveness (measured by the parent rated social responsiveness scale, SRS) compared to treatment as usual (TAU). It is further expected, that parent and self reported anxiety and depressive symptoms will decline and pro-social behaviour will increase in the treatment group. A neurophysiological study in the Frankfurt HFASD subgroup will be performed pre- and post treatment to assess changes in neural function induced by SST versus TAU. The SOSTA - net trial is designed as a prospective, randomised, multi-centre, controlled trial with two parallel groups. The primary outcome is change in SRS score directly after the intervention and at 3 months follow-up. Several secondary outcome measures are also obtained. The target sample consists of 220 individuals with ASD, included at the six study centres. This study is currently one of the largest trials on SST in children and adolescents with HFASD worldwide. Compared to recent randomised controlled studies, our study shows several advantages with regard to in- and exclusion criteria, study methods, and the therapeutic approach chosen, which can be easily implemented in non-university-based clinical settings. ISRCTN94863788--SOSTA--net: Group-based social skills training in children and adolescents with high functioning autism spectrum disorder.

  10. The group-based social skills training SOSTA-FRA in children and adolescents with high functioning autism spectrum disorder - study protocol of the randomised, multi-centre controlled SOSTA - net trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Freitag Christine M

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Group-based social skills training (SST has repeatedly been recommended as treatment of choice in high-functioning autism spectrum disorder (HFASD. To date, no sufficiently powered randomised controlled trial has been performed to establish efficacy and safety of SST in children and adolescents with HFASD. In this randomised, multi-centre, controlled trial with 220 children and adolescents with HFASD it is hypothesized, that add-on group-based SST using the 12 weeks manualised SOSTA–FRA program will result in improved social responsiveness (measured by the parent rated social responsiveness scale, SRS compared to treatment as usual (TAU. It is further expected, that parent and self reported anxiety and depressive symptoms will decline and pro-social behaviour will increase in the treatment group. A neurophysiological study in the Frankfurt HFASD subgroup will be performed pre- and post treatment to assess changes in neural function induced by SST versus TAU. Methods/design The SOSTA – net trial is designed as a prospective, randomised, multi-centre, controlled trial with two parallel groups. The primary outcome is change in SRS score directly after the intervention and at 3 months follow-up. Several secondary outcome measures are also obtained. The target sample consists of 220 individuals with ASD, included at the six study centres. Discussion This study is currently one of the largest trials on SST in children and adolescents with HFASD worldwide. Compared to recent randomised controlled studies, our study shows several advantages with regard to in- and exclusion criteria, study methods, and the therapeutic approach chosen, which can be easily implemented in non-university-based clinical settings. Trial registration ISRCTN94863788 – SOSTA – net: Group-based social skills training in children and adolescents with high functioning autism spectrum disorder.

  11. Dynamics of tropomyosin in muscle fibers as monitored by saturation transfer EPR of bi-functional probe.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roni F Rayes

    Full Text Available The dynamics of four regions of tropomyosin was assessed using saturation transfer electron paramagnetic resonance in the muscle fiber. In order to fully immobilize the spin probe on the surface of tropomyosin, a bi-functional spin label was attached to i,i+4 positions via cysteine mutagenesis. The dynamics of bi-functionally labeled tropomyosin mutants decreased by three orders of magnitude when reconstituted into "ghost muscle fibers". The rates of motion varied along the length of tropomyosin with the C-terminus position 268/272 being one order of magnitude slower then N-terminal domain or the center of the molecule. Introduction of troponin decreases the dynamics of all four sites in the muscle fiber, but there was no significant effect upon addition of calcium or myosin subfragment-1.

  12. Three-dimensional radiative transfer in an isotropically scattering, plane-parallel medium: generalized X- and Y-functions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mueller, D.W.; Crosbie, A.L.

    2005-01-01

    The topic of this work is the generalized X- and Y-functions of multidimensional radiative transfer. The physical problem considered is spatially varying, collimated radiation incident on the upper boundary of an isotropically scattering, plane-parallel medium. An integral transform is used to reduce the three-dimensional transport equation to a one-dimensional form, and a modified Ambarzumian's method is used to derive coupled, integro-differential equations for the source functions at the boundaries of the medium. The resulting equations are said to be in double-integral form because the integration is over both angular variables. Numerical results are presented to illustrate the computational characteristics of the formulation

  13. SolNet

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jordan, Ulrike; Vajen, Klaus; Bales, Chris

    2014-01-01

    -accompanying Master courses, placements of internships, and PhD scholarship projects. A new scholarship project, “SHINE”, was launched in autumn 2013 in the frame work of the Marie Curie program of the European Union (Initial Training Network, ITN). 13 PhD-scholarships on solar district heating, solar heat......SolNet, founded in 2006, is the first coordinated International PhD education program on Solar Thermal Engineering. The SolNet network is coordinated by the Institute of Thermal Engineering at Kassel University, Germany. The network offers PhD courses on solar heating and cooling, conference...... for industrial processes, as well as sorption stores and materials started in December 2013. Additionally, the project comprises a training program with five PhD courses and several workshops on solar thermal engineering that will be open also for other PhD students working in the field. The research projects...

  14. Inverse and direct transfer functions for the fatigue follow-up of piping systems submitted to stratification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guyette, M.; De Smet, M.

    1995-01-01

    In this paper we outline a methodology to assess the fatigue induced in piping systems submitted to thermal stratification. More specifically, the transformation from the measured outer wall temperature time histories to stress time histories in any point of the line is treated.By means of inverse transfer functions, the fluid temperature distribution is calculated from the outside wall temperatures measured in a limited number of temperature sections. Using direct transfer functions, the local stresses due to stratification may be determined as well as the pipe free curvatures and the pipe free axial strains. Using a finite beam element model of the line, the global response of the line (in terms of displacements or stresses) due to the applied curvatures, axial strains, end point displacements, internal pressure and possible contacts with the pipe environment may be determined.The method is illustrated for the surge lines of the Doel 2 and Doel 4 nuclear power plants. An excellent correlation is found between measured and calculated displacements. Typical stress time histories are shown for a plant cool down. ((orig.))

  15. Investigation of local load effect on damping characteristics of synchronous generator using transfer-function block-diagram model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pichai Aree

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available The transfer-function block-diagram model of single-machine infinite-bus power system has been a popular analytical tool amongst power engineers for explaining and assessing synchronous generator dynamic behaviors. In previous studies, the effects of local load together with damper circuit on generator damping have not yet been addressed because neither of them was integrated into this model. Since the model only accounts for the generator main field circuit, it may not always yield a realistic damping assessment due to lack of damper circuit representation. This paper presents an extended transfer-function block-diagram model, which includes one of the q-axis damper circuits as well as local load. This allows a more realistic investigation of the local load effect on the generator damping. The extended model is applied to assess thegenerator dynamic performance. The results show that the damping power components mostly derived from the q-axis damper and the field circuits can be improved according to the local load. The frequency response method is employed to carry out the fundamental analysis.

  16. Computer programme for the derivation of transfer functions for multivariable systems (solutions of determinants with polynomial elements)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guppy, C.B.

    1962-03-01

    In the methods adopted in this report transfer functions in the form of the ratio of two polynomials of the complex variable s are derived from sets of laplace transformed simultaneous differential equations. The set of algebraic simultaneous equations are solved using Cramer's Rule and this gives rise to determinants having polynomial elements. It is shown how the determinants are formed when transfer functions are specified. The procedure for finding the polynomial coefficients from a given determinant is fully described. The first method adopted is a direct one and reduces a determinant with first degree polynomial elements to secular form and follows this by an application of the similarity transformation to reduce the determinant to a form from which the polynomial coefficients can be read out directly. The programme is able to solve a single determinant with polynomial elements and this can be used to reduce an eigenvalue problem in the form of a secular determinant to polynomial form if the need arises. A description is given of the way in which the data is to be set out for solution by the programme. A description is also given of a method used in an earlier programme for solving polynomial determinants by curve fitting techniques using Chebyshev Polynomials. In this method determinants with polynomial elements of any degree can be solved. (author)

  17. Experimental Determination of the Dynamic Hydraulic Transfer Function for the J-2X Oxidizer Turbopump. Part One; Methodology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zoladz, Tom; Patel, Sandeep; Lee, Erik; Karon, Dave

    2011-01-01

    An advanced methodology for extracting the hydraulic dynamic pump transfer matrix (Yp) for a cavitating liquid rocket engine turbopump inducer+impeller has been developed. The transfer function is required for integrated vehicle pogo stability analysis as well as optimization of local inducer pumping stability. Laboratory pulsed subscale waterflow test of the J-2X oxygen turbo pump is introduced and our new extraction method applied to the data collected. From accurate measures of pump inlet and discharge perturbational mass flows and pressures, and one-dimensional flow models that represents complete waterflow loop physics, we are able to derive Yp and hence extract the characteristic pump parameters: compliance, pump gain, impedance, mass flow gain. Detailed modeling is necessary to accurately translate instrument plane measurements to the pump inlet and discharge and extract Yp. We present the MSFC Dynamic Lump Parameter Fluid Model Framework and describe critical dynamic component details. We report on fit minimization techniques, cost (fitness) function derivation, and resulting model fits to our experimental data are presented. Comparisons are made to alternate techniques for spatially translating measurement stations to actual pump inlet and discharge.

  18. Inferring Phylogenetic Networks Using PhyloNet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Dingqiao; Yu, Yun; Zhu, Jiafan; Nakhleh, Luay

    2018-07-01

    PhyloNet was released in 2008 as a software package for representing and analyzing phylogenetic networks. At the time of its release, the main functionalities in PhyloNet consisted of measures for comparing network topologies and a single heuristic for reconciling gene trees with a species tree. Since then, PhyloNet has grown significantly. The software package now includes a wide array of methods for inferring phylogenetic networks from data sets of unlinked loci while accounting for both reticulation (e.g., hybridization) and incomplete lineage sorting. In particular, PhyloNet now allows for maximum parsimony, maximum likelihood, and Bayesian inference of phylogenetic networks from gene tree estimates. Furthermore, Bayesian inference directly from sequence data (sequence alignments or biallelic markers) is implemented. Maximum parsimony is based on an extension of the "minimizing deep coalescences" criterion to phylogenetic networks, whereas maximum likelihood and Bayesian inference are based on the multispecies network coalescent. All methods allow for multiple individuals per species. As computing the likelihood of a phylogenetic network is computationally hard, PhyloNet allows for evaluation and inference of networks using a pseudolikelihood measure. PhyloNet summarizes the results of the various analyzes and generates phylogenetic networks in the extended Newick format that is readily viewable by existing visualization software.

  19. Charge Transfer Enhancement in the D-π-A Type Porphyrin Dyes: A Density Functional Theory (DFT and Time-Dependent Density Functional Theory (TD-DFT Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guo-Jun Kang

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The electronic geometries and optical properties of two D-π-A type zinc porphyrin dyes (NCH3-YD2 and TPhe-YD were systematically investigated by density functional theory (DFT and time-dependent density functional theory (TD-DFT to reveal the origin of significantly altered charge transfer enhancement by changing the electron donor of the famous porphyrin-based sensitizer YD2-o-C8. The molecular geometries and photophysical properties of dyes before and after binding to the TiO2 cluster were fully investigated. From the analyses of natural bond orbital (NBO, extended charge decomposition analysis (ECDA, and electron density variations (Δρ between the excited state and ground state, it was found that the introduction of N(CH32 and 1,1,2-triphenylethene groups enhanced the intramolecular charge-transfer (ICT character compared to YD2-o-C8. The absorption wavelength and transition possess character were significantly influenced by N(CH32 and 1,1,2-triphenylethene groups. NCH3-YD2 with N(CH32 groups in the donor part is an effective way to improve the interactions between the dyes and TiO2 surface, light having efficiency (LHE, and free energy change (ΔGinject, which is expected to be an efficient dye for use in dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs.

  20. Turkey's net energy consumption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soezen, Adnan; Arcaklioglu, Erol; Oezkaymak, Mehmet

    2005-01-01

    The main goal of this study is to develop the equations for forecasting net energy consumption (NEC) using an artificial neural-network (ANN) technique in order to determine the future level of energy consumption in Turkey. In this study, two different models were used in order to train the neural network. In one of them, population, gross generation, installed capacity and years are used in the input layer of the network (Model 1). Other energy sources are used in input layer of network (Model 2). The net energy consumption is in the output layer for two models. Data from 1975 to 2003 are used for the training. Three years (1981, 1994 and 2003) are used only as test data to confirm this method. The statistical coefficients of multiple determinations (R 2 -value) for training data are equal to 0.99944 and 0.99913 for Models 1 and 2, respectively. Similarly, R 2 values for testing data are equal to 0.997386 and 0.999558 for Models 1 and 2, respectively. According to the results, the net energy consumption using the ANN technique has been predicted with acceptable accuracy. Apart from reducing the whole time required, with the ANN approach, it is possible to find solutions that make energy applications more viable and thus more attractive to potential users. It is also expected that this study will be helpful in developing highly applicable energy policies