Sample records for net shape sic

  1. EVo: Net Shape RTM Production Line


    Sven Torstrick; Felix Kruse; Martin Wiedemann


    EVo research platform is operated by the Center for Lightweight-Production-Technology of the German Aerospace Center in Stade. Its objective is technology demonstration of a fully automated RTM (Resin Transfer Molding) production line for composite parts in large quantities. Process steps include cutting and ply handling, draping, stacking, hot-forming, preform-trimming to net shape, resin injection, curing and demolding.

  2. EVo: Net Shape RTM Production Line

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sven Torstrick


    Full Text Available EVo research platform is operated by the Center for Lightweight-Production-Technology of the German Aerospace Center in Stade. Its objective is technology demonstration of a fully automated RTM (Resin Transfer Molding production line for composite parts in large quantities. Process steps include cutting and ply handling, draping, stacking, hot-forming, preform-trimming to net shape, resin injection, curing and demolding.

  3. Net Shape Rapid Manufacturing Using Nano Encapsulated Powders Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This Phase II program is developing NET Shape components from Encapsulated Powders. Significant advances in Phase I for various materials and in net shape processing...

  4. Femtosecond pulse shaping for phase and morphology control in PLD: Synthesis of cubic SiC (United States)

    Ristoscu, C.; Socol, G.; Ghica, C.; Mihailescu, I. N.; Gray, D.; Klini, A.; Manousaki, A.; Anglos, D.; Fotakis, C.


    Pulse shaping introduces the method that makes possible the production of tunable arbitrary shaped pulses. We extend this method to control the prevalent growth of cubic SiC films on Si (1 0 0) substrates by pulsed laser deposition at temperatures around 973 K from a SiC target in vacuum. We used a laser system generating 200 fs pulses duration at 800 nm with 600 μJ at 1 kHz. The obtained structures are investigated by electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction and profilometry. We observed grains embedded in an amorphous texture, characteristic in our opinion to the depositions obtained with very short pulses. We present a comparison of deposited films with and without pulse shaping. Pulse shaping promotes increased crystallization and results in the deposition of thin structures of cubic SiC with a strongly reduced density of particulates, under similar deposition conditions.

  5. Net Shape Manufacturing of Accelerator Components by High Pressure Combustion Driven Powder Compaction

    CERN Document Server

    Nagarathnam, Karthik


    We present an overview of the net shape and cost-effective manufacturing aspects of high density accelerator (normal and superconducting) components (e.g., NLC Copper disks) and materials behavior of copper, stainless steel, refractory materials (W, Mo and TZM), niobium and SiC by innovative high pressure Combustion Driven Compaction (CDC) technology. Some of the unique process advantages include high densities, net-shaping, improved surface finish/quality, suitability for simple/complex geometries, synthesis of single as well as multilayered materials, milliseconds of compaction process time, little or no post-machining, and process flexibility. Some of the key results of CDC fabricated sample geometries, process optimization, sintering responses and structure/property characteristics such as physical properties, surface roughness/quality, electrical conductivity, select microstructures and mechanical properties will be presented. Anticipated applications of CDC compaction include advanced x-ray targets, vac...

  6. Net Shape Rapid Manufacturing Using Nano Encapsulated Powders Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The objective of this STTR is to determine the capability of Net Shape LENS processing with Nano-coated powders. The unique composites produced using regualr...

  7. Net-Shape HIP Powder Metallurgy Components for Rocket Engines (United States)

    Bampton, Cliff; Goodin, Wes; VanDaam, Tom; Creeger, Gordon; James, Steve


    True net shape consolidation of powder metal (PM) by hot isostatic pressing (HIP) provides opportunities for many cost, performance and life benefits over conventional fabrication processes for large rocket engine structures. Various forms of selectively net-shape PM have been around for thirty years or so. However, it is only recently that major applications have been pursued for rocket engine hardware fabricated in the United States. The method employs sacrificial metallic tooling (HIP capsule and shaped inserts), which is removed from the part after HIP consolidation of the powder, by selective acid dissolution. Full exploitation of net-shape PM requires innovative approaches in both component design and materials and processing details. The benefits include: uniform and homogeneous microstructure with no porosity, irrespective of component shape and size; elimination of welds and the associated quality and life limitations; removal of traditional producibility constraints on design freedom, such as forgeability and machinability, and scale-up to very large, monolithic parts, limited only by the size of existing HIP furnaces. Net-shape PM HIP also enables fabrication of complex configurations providing additional, unique functionalities. The progress made in these areas will be described. Then critical aspects of the technology that still require significant further development and maturation will be discussed from the perspective of an engine systems builder and end-user of the technology.

  8. Near Net Shape Manufacturing of New Titanium Powders for Industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    This factsheet describes a research project whose goal is to develop a manufacturing technology to process new titanium powders into fully consolidated near net shape components for industrial applications. This will be achieved using various technologies, including press and sinter, pneumatic isostatic forging (PIF), hot isostatic pressing (HIP), and adiabatic compaction.

  9. Near-Net Shape Powder Metallurgy Rhenium Thruster (United States)

    Leonhardt, Todd; Hamister, Mark; Carlen, Jan C.; Biaglow, James; Reed, Brian


    This paper describes the development of a method to produce a near-net shape (NNS) powder metallurgy (PM) rhenium combustion chamber of the size 445 N (100 lbf) used in a high performance liquid apogee engine. These engines are used in low earth Orbit and geostationary orbit for satellite positioning systems. The developments in near-net shape powder metallurgy rhenium combustion chambers reported in this paper will reduce manufacturing cost of the rhenium chambers by 25 percent, and reduce the manufacturing time by 30 to 40 percent. The quantity of rhenium metal powder used to produce a rhenium chamber is reduced by approximately 70 percent and the subsequent reduction in machining schedule and costs is nearly 50 percent.

  10. Manufacturing of thin walled near net shape iron castings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Per Leif


    The demand for near net shape thin walled iron castings is growing. This has several reasons, the main one is the need for lowering the fuel consumption of cars; the easiest way to do that is to lower the weight of the cars. The best way to do this was for a period of time believed to be substitu.......000.000 cars produced world wide each year consumes enormous amounts of cast parts ! The aim of the project is to develop the green sand molding method on DISAMATIC to be able to deal with the new demands for thin walled near net shape castings in iron.......The demand for near net shape thin walled iron castings is growing. This has several reasons, the main one is the need for lowering the fuel consumption of cars; the easiest way to do that is to lower the weight of the cars. The best way to do this was for a period of time believed...... to be substituting iron casings with aluminum castings. Substituting iron castings with aluminum castings is not as easy as first believed, and hence the substitution is very slow. This combined with the lack of fully exploiting the potential in iron castings, makes research in iron castings interesting. The 60...

  11. Additive Manufacturing of Near-net Shaped Permanent Magnets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paranthaman, M Parans [ORNL


    The technical objective of this technical collaboration phase I proposal is to fabricate near net-shaped permanent magnets using alloy powders utilizing direct metal deposition technologies at the ORNL MDF. Direct Manufacturing using the POM laser system was used to consolidate Nd2Fe14B (NdFeB) magnet powders into near net-shape parts efficiently and with virtually no wasted material as part of the feasibility study. We fabricated builds based on spherical NdFeB magnet particles. The results show that despite the ability to fabricate highly reactive materials in the laser deposition process, the magnetic coercivity and remanence of the NdFeB hard magnets is significantly reduced. X-ray powder diffraction in conjunction with electron microscopy showed that the material experienced a primary Nd2Fe17Bx solidification due to the undercooling effect (>60K). Consequently the presence of alpha iron phase resulted in deterioration of the build properties. Further optimization of the processing parameters is needed to maintain the Nd2Fe14B phase during fabrication.

  12. Electrohydraulic Forming of Near-Net Shape Automotive Panels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Golovaschenko, Sergey F.


    The objective of this project was to develop the electrohydraulic forming (EHF) process as a near-net shape automotive panel manufacturing technology that simultaneously reduces the energy embedded in vehicles and the energy consumed while producing automotive structures. Pulsed pressure is created via a shockwave generated by the discharge of high voltage capacitors through a pair of electrodes in a liquid-filled chamber. The shockwave in the liquid initiated by the expansion of the plasma channel formed between two electrodes propagates towards the blank and causes the blank to be deformed into a one-sided die cavity. The numerical model of the EHF process was validated experimentally and was successfully applied to the design of the electrode system and to a multi-electrode EHF chamber for full scale validation of the process. The numerical model was able to predict stresses in the dies during pulsed forming and was validated by the experimental study of the die insert failure mode for corner filling operations. The electrohydraulic forming process and its major subsystems, including durable electrodes, an EHF chamber, a water/air management system, a pulse generator and integrated process controls, were validated to be capable to operate in a fully automated, computer controlled mode for forming of a portion of a full-scale sheet metal component in laboratory conditions. Additionally, the novel processes of electrohydraulic trimming and electrohydraulic calibration were demonstrated at a reduced-scale component level. Furthermore, a hybrid process combining conventional stamping with EHF was demonstrated as a laboratory process for a full-scale automotive panel formed out of AHSS material. The economic feasibility of the developed EHF processes was defined by developing a cost model of the EHF process in comparison to the conventional stamping process.

  13. Materials processing with de Laval spray-forming nozzles: Net-shape applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McHugh, K.M. [Idaho National Engineering Lab., Idaho Falls, ID (United States)


    Spray forming is a materials processing technology in which a bulk liquid metal is converted to a spray of fine droplets and deposited onto a substrate or pattern to form a near-net-shape solid. Benefits include property improvement through rapid solidification of metals, near-net-shape fabrication, and process simplification through the elimination of unit operations. The Idaho National Engineering Laboratory has developed a unique spray-forming method, the Controlled Aspiration Process (CAP), to produce near-net-shape solids and coatings of metals, polymers, and composite materials using de Laval nozzles. The application of this technology for the production of tooling and microelectromechanical systems is described.

  14. Shaping forest safety nets with markets: Adaptation to climate ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Johnson Nkem


    Jun 29, 2010 ... This is likely to be worse in free market settings, especially when it diminishes the safety net ..... (1995), the cost to society of each palm tree killed through palm wine tapping ranges from 70,000 to 129,000 ... companies are involved in producing organic or alternative medicines, some of which are extracts ...

  15. Computational Modeling aided Near Net Shape Manufacturing for Aluminum Alloys Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This program will focus on developing and validating computational models for near-net shape processing of aluminum alloys. Computational models will be developed...

  16. Numerical investigation of the effect of shape change in graphite crucible during top-seeded solution growth of SiC (United States)

    Mukaiyama, Yuji; Iizuka, Masaya; Vorob'ev, Andrey; Kalaev, Vladimir


    In the present work, a combined 2D-3D numerical simulation was performed to study the effect of shape change in the graphite crucible on the heat transfer, flow pattern, mass transport, and electromagnetic field during top seeded solution growth of SiC considering the dissolution of carbon during crystal growth. The graphite crucible shapes at each growth process time were predicted using 2D axisymmetric steady global heat and mass transfer simulations. The crucible geometries obtained for each time step, including the predicted crucible shapes, were used for 3D unsteady simulations. The investigation revealed a significant effect of the shape change of the crucible on the temperature, Lorentz force distribution induced by the radiofrequency heating system, flow pattern, carbon concentration in the solution, and growth rate of SiC.

  17. Improving breakdown voltage and self-heating effect for SiC LDMOS with double L-shaped buried oxide layers (United States)

    Bao, Meng-tian; Wang, Ying


    In this paper, a SiC LDMOS with double L-shaped buried oxide layers (DL-SiC LDMOS) is investigated and simulated. The DL-SiC LDMOS consists of two L-shaped buried oxide layers and two SiC windows. Using 2-D numerical simulation software, Atlas, Silvaco TCAD, the breakdown voltage, and the self-heating effect are discussed. The double-L shaped buried oxide layers and SiC windows in the active area can introduce an additional electric field peak and make the electric field distribution more uniform in the drift region. In addition, the SiC windows, which connect the active area to the substrate, can facilitate heat dissipation and reduce the maximum lattice temperature of the device. Compared with the BODS structure, the DL-SiC LDMOS and BODS structures have the same device parameters, except of the buried oxide layers. The simulation results of DL-SiC LDMOS exhibits outstanding characteristics including an increase of the breakdown voltage by 32.6% to 1220 V, and a low maximum lattice temperature (535 K) at room temperature.

  18. Investigation of Friction Stir Welding and Laser Engineered Net Shaping of Metal Matrix Composite Materials (United States)

    Diwan, Ravinder M.


    prior set of operating conditions. Weld quality was evaluated using radiography and standard metallography techniques. Another aspect of the MMCs centered around the use of the laser engineered net shaping (LENS) processing of selected Narloy-Z composites. Such an approach has been earlier studied for fabrication of stainless steels. In the present study, attempts were made to fabricate straight cylindrical specimens using LENS process of Narloy-Z and Narloy-Z with 20 vol. % Al2O3 MMCs using the direct metal deposition Optomec LENS-750 system.

  19. Gelcasting polymeric precursors for producing net-shaped graphites (United States)

    Klett, James W.; Janney, Mark A.


    The present invention discloses a method for molding complex and intricately shaped high density monolithic carbon, carbon-carbon, graphite, and thermoplastic composites using gelcasting technology. The method comprising a polymeric carbon precursor, a solvent, a dispersant, an anti-foaming agent, a monomer system, and an initiator system. The components are combined to form a suspension which is poured into a mold and heat-treated to form a thermoplastic part. The thermoplastic part can then be further densified and heat-treated to produce a high density carbon or graphite composite. The present invention also discloses the products derived from this method.

  20. Near-Net-Shape Processing of Sintered Fibrous Ceramics Achieved (United States)

    Angel, Paul W.


    A variety of sintered fibrous ceramic (SFC) materials have been developed over the last 50 years as thermal barrier materials for reentry applications. SFC materials typically exhibit very low thermal conductivities combined with low densities and good thermal stability up to 2500 F. These materials have flown successfully on the space shuttle orbiters since the 1960's. More recently, the McDonnell Douglas Corporation successfully used SFC tiles as a heat shield on the underside of its DC X test vehicle. For both of these applications, tiles are machined from blocks of a specific type of SFC called an alumina-enhanced thermal barrier (AETB). The sizes of these blocks have been limited by the manufacturing process. In addition, as much as 80 to 90 percent of the material can be lost during the machining of tiles with significant amounts of curvature. To address these problems, the NASA Glenn Research Center at Lewis Field entered a cooperative contract with the Boeing Company to develop a vacuum-assisted forming process that can produce large (approximately 4 square feet), severely contoured panels of AETB while saving costs in comparison to the conventional cast-and-machine billet process. For shuttle use, AETB is slurry cast, drained, and fired to form square billets conforming to the shape of the filtration box. The billets are then cut into tiles of the appropriate size for thermally protecting the space shuttle. Processing techniques have limited the maximum size of AETB billets to 21.5 square inches by 6.5-in. thick, but the space shuttles use discrete heat shield tiles no more than 8 to 12 square inches. However, in other applications, large, complex shapes are needed, and the tiling approach is undesirable. For such applications, vacuum-assisted forming can produce large parts with complex shapes while reducing machining waste and eliminating cemented joints between bonded billets. Because it allows contoured shapes to be formed, material utilization is

  1. Multiobjective Shape Optimization for Deployment and Adjustment Properties of Cable-Net of Deployable Antenna

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guoqiang You


    Full Text Available Based on structural features of cable-net of deployable antenna, a multiobjective shape optimization method is proposed to help to engineer antenna’s cable-net structure that has better deployment and adjustment properties. In this method, the multiobjective optimum mathematical model is built with lower nodes’ locations of cable-net as variables, the average stress ratio of cable elements and strain energy as objectives, and surface precision and natural frequency of cable-net as constraints. Sequential quadratic programming method is used to solve this nonlinear mathematical model in conditions with different weighting coefficients, and the results show the validity and effectiveness of the proposed method and model.

  2. Near Net Shape Fabrication Technology for Shape Memory Alloy Components Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This STTR Phase I effort proposes to develop an innovative, affordable processing route for larger-sized shape memory alloy (SMA) components. Despite significant...

  3. 2D net shape weaving for cost effective manufacture of textile reinforced composites (United States)

    Vo, D. M. P.; Kern, M.; Hoffmann, G.; Cherif, C.


    Despite significant weight and performance advantages over metal parts, the today’s demand for fibre-reinforced polymer composites (FRPC) has been limited mainly by their large manufacturing cost. The combination of dry textile preforms and low-cost consolidation processes such as resin transfer molding (RTM) has been appointed as a promising approach to low-cost FRPC manufacture. At the current state of the art, tooling and impregnation technology is well understood whereas preform fabrication technology has not been developed effectively. This paper presents an advanced 2D net shape weaving technology developed with the aim to establish a more cost effective system for the manufacture of dry textile preforms for FRPC. 2D net shape weaving is developed based on open reed weave (ORW) technology and enables the manufacture of 2D contoured woven fabrics with firm edge, so that oversize cutting and hand trimming after molding are no longer required. The introduction of 2D net shape woven fabrics helps to reduce material waste, cycle time and preform manufacturing cost significantly. Furthermore, higher grade of automation in preform fabrication can be achieved.

  4. Numerical predictions of misruns in development of near-net shape casting process


    Jana, Santhanu Shakti Pada


    In this thesis, numerical investigations for development of a near net shape casting process for TiAl alloy are presented. The casting object used in this work is low pressure turbine (LPT) blade, which is characterized by extremely thin section areas that are prone to misruns. The work specifically focuses on predictions of misruns and developing strategies to avoid them. The numerical simulation methodology used in this work, is based on modelling all the three-phases i.e., gas, liquid and ...

  5. Near net shape, low cost ceramic valves for advanced engine applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pidria, M.; Merlone, E.; Parussa, F. [Fiat Research Centre, Orbassano (Italy); Handelsman, J.; Gorodnev, A. [Ceracom Materials Ltd., Yavneh (Israel)


    Future gasoline and diesel engines with electro-hydraulic or electro-mechanical valve control systems require the development of lighter valves to achieve the best results in terms of increased performances, lower fuel consumption and overall efficiency. Ceramic materials can adequately satisfy the required mechanical and thermal properties, nevertheless they still lack as far as manufacturing costs are concerned. Objective of the work was the development of a low-cost forming and sintering process, to produce near-net shape ceramic valves thus requiring very low finishing operations and significantly minimizing material waste. Between available technical ceramic materials, silicon nitride has been chosen to replace conventional steels and Ni-based alloys for the exhaust valves application. The work was then devoted to (i) the selection of the best starting materials composition, taking into account the requirements of a cost effective and high volume production, (ii) the development of an innovative pressure-injection molding process to produce near-net shape parts via a thermosetting feedstock and (iii) the optimization of a proper pressure-less sintering route to obtain cost-competitive, real scale components with adequate final density and mechanical properties. (orig.)

  6. Process Optimization for Suppressing Cracks in Laser Engineered Net Shaping of Al2O3 Ceramics (United States)

    Niu, F. Y.; Wu, D. J.; Yan, S.; Ma, G. Y.; Zhang, B.


    Direct additive manufacturing of ceramics (DAMC) without binders is a promising technique for rapidly fabricating high-purity components with good performance. Nevertheless, cracks are easily generated during fabrication as a result of the high intrinsic brittleness of ceramics and the great temperature gradients. Therefore, optimizing the DAMC process is a challenge. In this study, direct fabrication of Al2O3 single-bead wall structures are conducted with a laser engineered net shaping (LENS) system. A new process optimization method for suppressing cracks is proposed based on analytical models, and then the influence of process parameters on crack number is discussed experimentally. The results indicate that the crack number decreases obviously with the increase of scanning speed. Single-bead wall specimens without cracks are successfully fabricated by the optimized process.

  7. Development of a net shape manufacturing method for ventilated brake discs in single piece design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zuber, Ch.; Heidenreich, B. [German Aerospace Center (DLR) Institute of Structures and Design, Pfaffenwaldring 38-40, 70569, Stuttgart (Germany)


    Carbon fibre reinforced ceramic matrix composites (CMC), originally developed for lightweight heat shields of spacecraft, are used for high performance brake discs in sports cars from different manufacturers. In contrast to the CMC materials for space applications, based on woven fabrics and costly manufacturing methods, these low cost friction materials are produced by liquid silicon infiltration of porous Carbon/Carbon (C/C) preforms, based on short fibre reinforced CFRP green bodies manufactured via warm press technique. In this work, different manufacturing methods for ventilated CMC brake discs are compared to each other, and the development of a new technology for the manufacture of single piece C/C-SiC brake discs in net shape technique is presented. (Abstract Copyright [2006], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)

  8. Near net shape forming processes for chemically prepared zinc oxide varistors.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lockwood, Steven John; Voigt, James A.; Tuttle, Bruce Andrew; Bell, Nelson Simmons


    Chemically prepared zinc oxide powders are fabricated for the production of high aspect ratio varistor components. Colloidal processing in water was performed to reduce agglomerates to primary particles, form a high solids loading slurry, and prevent dopant migration. The milled and dispersed powder exhibited a viscoelastic to elastic behavioral transition at a volume loading of 43-46%. The origin of this transition was studied using acoustic spectroscopy, zeta potential measurements and oscillatory rheology. The phenomenon occurs due to a volume fraction solids dependent reduction in the zeta potential of the solid phase. It is postulated to result from divalent ion binding within the polyelectrolyte dispersant chain, and was mitigated using a polyethylene glycol plasticizing additive. Chemically prepared zinc oxide powders were processed for the production of high aspect ratio varistor components. Near net shape casting methods including slip casting and agarose gelcasting were evaluated for effectiveness in achieving a uniform green microstructure achieving density values near the theoretical maximum during sintering. The structure of the green parts was examined by mercury porisimetry. Agarose gelcasting produced green parts with low solids loading values and did not achieve high fired density. Isopressing the agarose cast parts after drying raised the fired density to greater than 95%, but the parts exhibited catastrophic shorting during electrical testing. Slip casting produced high green density parts, which exhibited high fired density values. The electrical characteristics of slip cast parts are comparable with dry pressed powder compacts. Alternative methods for near net shape forming of ceramic dispersions were investigated for use with the chemically prepared ZnO material. Recommendations for further investigation to achieve a viable production process are presented.

  9. Ceramic Near-Net Shaped Processing Using Highly-Loaded Aqueous Suspensions (United States)

    Rueschhoff, Lisa

    Ceramic materials offer great advantages over their metal counterparts, due to their lower density, higher hardness and wear resistance, and higher melting temperatures. However, the use of ceramics in applications where their properties would offer tremendous advantages are often limited due to the difficulty of forming them into complex and near-net shaped parts. Methods that have been developed to injection-mold or cast ceramics into more complicated shapes often use significant volume fractions of a carrier (often greater than 35 vol.% polymer), elevated temperature processing, or less-than-environmentally friendly chemicals where a complex chemical synthesis reaction must be timed perfectly for the approach to work. Furthermore, the continuing maturation of additive manufacturing methods requires a new approach for flowing/placing ceramic powders into useful designs. This thesis addresses the limitations of the current ceramic forming approaches by developing highly-stabilized and therefore high solids loading ceramic suspensions, with the requisite rheology for a variety of complex and near-net shaped forming techniques. Silicon nitride was chosen as a material of focus due to its high fracture toughness compared to other ceramic materials. Designing ceramic suspensions that are flowable at room temperature greatly simplifies processing as neither heating nor cooling are required during forming. Highly-loaded suspensions (>40 vol.%) are desired because all formed ceramic bodies have to be sintered to remove pores. Finally, using aqueous-based suspensions reduces any detrimental effect on the environment and tooling. The preparation of highly-loaded suspensions requires the development of a suitable dispersant through which particle-particle interactions are controlled. However, silicon nitride is difficult to stabilize in water due to complex surface and solution chemistry. In this study, aqueous silicon nitride suspensions up to 45 vol.% solids loading were

  10. Near-Net Shape Fabrication Using Low-Cost Titanium Alloy Powders

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dr. David M. Bowden; Dr. William H. Peter


    The use of titanium in commercial aircraft production has risen steadily over the last half century. The aerospace industry currently accounts for 58% of the domestic titanium market. The Kroll process, which has been used for over 50 years to produce titanium metal from its mineral form, consumes large quantities of energy. And, methods used to convert the titanium sponge output of the Kroll process into useful mill products also require significant energy resources. These traditional approaches result in product forms that are very expensive, have long lead times of up to a year or more, and require costly operations to fabricate finished parts. Given the increasing role of titanium in commercial aircraft, new titanium technologies are needed to create a more sustainable manufacturing strategy that consumes less energy, requires less material, and significantly reduces material and fabrication costs. A number of emerging processes are under development which could lead to a breakthrough in extraction technology. Several of these processes produce titanium alloy powder as a product. The availability of low-cost titanium powders may in turn enable a more efficient approach to the manufacture of titanium components using powder metallurgical processing. The objective of this project was to define energy-efficient strategies for manufacturing large-scale titanium structures using these low-cost powders as the starting material. Strategies include approaches to powder consolidation to achieve fully dense mill products, and joining technologies such as friction and laser welding to combine those mill products into near net shape (NNS) preforms for machining. The near net shape approach reduces material and machining requirements providing for improved affordability of titanium structures. Energy and cost modeling was used to define those approaches that offer the largest energy savings together with the economic benefits needed to drive implementation. Technical

  11. Energy Consumption and Saving Analysis for Laser Engineered Net Shaping of Metal Powders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhichao Liu


    Full Text Available With the increasing awareness of environmental protection and sustainable manufacturing, the environmental impact of laser additive manufacturing (LAM technology has been attracting more and more attention. Aiming to quantitatively analyze the energy consumption and extract possible ways to save energy during the LAM process, this investigation studies the effects of input variables including laser power, scanning speed, and powder feed rate on the overall energy consumption during the laser deposition processes. Considering microhardness as a standard quality, the energy consumption of unit deposition volume (ECUDV, in J/mm3 is proposed as a measure for the average applied energy of the fabricated metal part. The potential energy-saving benefits of the ultrasonic vibration–assisted laser engineering net shaping (LENS process are also examined in this paper. The experimental results suggest that the theoretical and actual values of the energy consumption present different trends along with the same input variables. It is possible to reduce the energy consumption and, at the same time, maintain a good part quality and the optimal combination of the parameters referring to Inconel 718 as a material is laser power of 300 W, scanning speed of 8.47 mm/s and powder feed rate of 4 rpm. When the geometry shaping and microhardness are selected as evaluating criterions, American Iron and Steel Institute (AISI 4140 powder will cause the largest energy consumption per unit volume. The ultrasonic vibration–assisted LENS process cannot only improve the clad quality, but can also decrease the energy consumption to a considerable extent.

  12. A net-shape fabrication process of alumina micro-components using a soft lithography technique (United States)

    Zhu, Zhigang; Wei, Xueyong; Jiang, Kyle


    Microceramic components have outstanding properties, such as high temperature resistant, biocompatible, chemically stable and high hardness properties, and could be used in a wide range of applications. However, the fabrication of precision micro-components has long been a barrier and limited their applications. This paper presents a soft lithography technique to fabricate near net-shape alumina micro-components. The process uses elastomer polydimethysiloxane (PDMS) to replace traditional solid moulds and leaves the green patterns intact after demoulding. The whole soft lithography technique involves the following steps: (i) fabricating high aspect ratio SU-8 moulds using UV photolithography, (ii) producing PDMS soft moulds from SU-8 masters, (iii) making aqueous high solids loading alumina suspension, (iv) filling patterned PDMS mould with the aqueous alumina suspension and (v) demoulding and sintering. The rheological properties (zeta potential and viscosity) of aqueous alumina suspensions have been characterized in relation to the varying pH values and concentration of dispersant (D-3005). The optimal parameters of alumina suspension for mould filling have been achieved at a pH value = 11; concentration of dispersant = 0.05 g ml-1; amount of binder = 0.75%; highest solid loading = 70 wt%. After pressurized mould filling, complete, dense and free-standing micro-components have been achieved by using a 70 wt% alumina suspension and an optimum fabrication technique, while the overall linear shrinkage is found to be about 22%.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valmikanathan Onbattuvelli


    Full Text Available Silicon carbide (SiC exhibits many functional properties that are relevant to applications in electronics, aerospace, defense and automotive industries. However, the successful translation of these properties into final applications lies in the net-shaping of ceramics into fully dense microstructures. Increasing the packing density of the starting powders is one effective route to achieve high sintered density and dimensional precision. The present paper presents an in-depth study on the effects of nanoparticle addition on the powder injection molding process (PIM of SiC powder-polymer mixtures. In particular, bimodal mixtures of nanoscale and sub-micrometer particles are found to have significantly increased powder packing characteristics (solids loading in the powder-polymer mixtures. The influence of nanoparticle addition on the multi-step PIM process is examined. The above results provide new perspectives which could impact a wide range of materials, powder processing techniques and applications.

  14. Near-Net-Shape Production of Hollow Titanium Alloy Components via Electrochemical Reduction of Metal Oxide Precursors in Molten Salts (United States)

    Hu, Di; Xiao, Wei; Chen, George Z.


    Metal oxide precursors (ca. 90 wt pct Ti, 6 wt pct Al, and 4 wt pct V) were prepared with a hollow structure in various shapes such as a sphere, miniature golf club head, and cup using a one-step solid slip-casting process. The precursors were then electro-deoxidized in molten calcium chloride [3.2 V, 1173 K (900 °C)] against a graphite anode. After 24 hours of electrolysis, the near-net-shape Ti-6Al-4V product maintained its original shape with controlled shrinkage. Oxygen contents in the Ti-6Al-4V components were typically below 2000 ppm. The maximum compressive stress and modulus of electrolytic products obtained in this work were approximately 243 MPa and 14 GPa, respectively, matching with the requirement for medical implants. Further research directions are discussed for mechanical improvement of the products via densification during or after electrolysis. This simple, fast, and energy-efficient near-net-shape manufacturing method could allow titanium alloy components with desired geometries to be prepared directly from a mixture of metal oxides, promising an innovative technology for the low-cost production of titanium alloy components.

  15. Rotational effects of polymeric fluids on shape of filaments in melt extruded net structures

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Rawal, A


    Full Text Available The present work deals with the net structures, which are produced by replacing the static die (spinneret) with two concentric dies rotating in opposite directions in a melt extrusion process. These dies consist of defined number of slots with non...

  16. Factors shaping effective utilization of health information technology in urban safety-net clinics. (United States)

    George, Sheba; Garth, Belinda; Fish, Allison; Baker, Richard


    Urban safety-net clinics are considered prime targets for the adoption of health information technology innovations; however, little is known about their utilization in such safety-net settings. Current scholarship provides limited guidance on the implementation of health information technology into safety-net settings as it typically assumes that adopting institutions have sufficient basic resources. This study addresses this gap by exploring the unique challenges urban resource-poor safety-net clinics must consider when adopting and utilizing health information technology. In-depth interviews (N = 15) were used with key stakeholders (clinic chief executive officers, medical directors, nursing directors, chief financial officers, and information technology directors) from staff at four clinics to explore (a) nonhealth information technology-related clinic needs, (b) how health information technology may provide solutions, and (c) perceptions of and experiences with health information technology. Participants identified several challenges, some of which appear amenable to health information technology solutions. Also identified were requirements for effective utilization of health information technology including physical infrastructural improvements, funding for equipment/training, creation of user groups to share health information technology knowledge/experiences, and specially tailored electronic billing guidelines. We found that despite the potential benefit that can be derived from health information technologies, the unplanned and uninformed introduction of these tools into these settings might actually create more problems than are solved. From these data, we were able to identify a set of factors that should be considered when integrating health information technology into the existing workflows of low-resourced urban safety-net clinics in order to maximize their utilization and enhance the quality of health care in such settings.

  17. One-step manufacturing of innovative flat-knitted 3D net-shape preforms for composite applications (United States)

    Bollengier, Quentin; Wieczorek, Florian; Hellmann, Sven; Trümper, Wolfgang; Cherif, Chokri


    Mostly due to the cost-intensive manually performed processing operations, the production of complex-shaped fibre reinforced plastic composites (FRPC) is currently very expensive and therefore either restricted to sectors with high added value or for small batch applications (e.g. in the aerospace or automotive industry). Previous works suggest that the successful integration of conventional textile manufacturing processes in the FRPC-process chain is the key to a cost-efficient manufacturing of complex three-dimensional (3D) FRPC-components with stress-oriented fibre arrangement. Therefore, this work focuses on the development of the multilayer weft knitting technology for the one-step manufacturing of complex 3D net-shaped preforms for high performance FRPC applications. In order to highlight the advantages of net-shaped multilayer weft knitted fabrics for the production of complex FRPC parts, seamless preforms such as 3D skin-stringer structures and tubular fabrics with load oriented fibre arrangement are realised. In this paper, the development of the textile bindings and performed technical modifications on flat knitting machines are presented. The results show that the multilayer weft knitting technology meets perfectly the requirements for a fully automated and reproducible manufacturing of complex 3D textile preforms with stress-oriented fibre arrangement.

  18. Bulk Combinatorial Synthesis and High Throughput Characterization for Rapid Assessment of Magnetic Materials: Application of Laser Engineered Net Shaping (LENS™) (United States)

    Geng, J.; Nlebedim, I. C.; Besser, M. F.; Simsek, E.; Ott, R. T.


    A bulk combinatorial approach for synthesizing alloy libraries using laser engineered net shaping (LENS™; i.e., 3D printing) was utilized to rapidly assess material systems for magnetic applications. The LENS™ system feeds powders in different ratios into a melt pool created by a laser to synthesize samples with bulk (millimeters) dimensions. By analyzing these libraries with autosampler differential scanning calorimeter/thermal gravimetric analysis and vibrating sample magnetometry, we are able to rapidly characterize the thermodynamic and magnetic properties of the libraries. The Fe-Co binary alloy was used as a model system and the results were compared with data in the literature.

  19. Pre-shaping of the Fingertip of Robot Hand Covered with Net Structure Proximity Sensor (United States)

    Suzuki, Kenji; Suzuki, Yosuke; Hasegawa, Hiroaki; Ming, Aiguo; Ishikawa, Masatoshi; Shimojo, Makoto

    To achieve skillful tasks with multi-fingered robot hands, many researchers have been working on sensor-based control of them. Vision sensors and tactile sensors are indispensable for the tasks, however, the correctness of the information from the vision sensors decreases as a robot hand approaches to a grasping object because of occlusion. This research aims to achieve seamless detection for reliable grasp by use of proximity sensors: correcting the positional error of the hand in vision-based approach, and contacting the fingertip in the posture for effective tactile sensing. In this paper, we propose a method for adjusting the posture of the fingertip to the surface of the object. The method applies “Net-Structure Proximity Sensor” on the fingertip, which can detect the postural error in the roll and pitch axes between the fingertip and the object surface. The experimental result shows that the postural error is corrected in the both axes even if the object dynamically rotates.

  20. Tensile Fracture Behavior and Failure Mechanism of Additively-Manufactured AISI 4140 Low Alloy Steel by Laser Engineered Net Shaping

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hoyeol Kim


    Full Text Available AISI 4140 powder was directly deposited on AISI 4140 wrought substrate using laser engineered net shaping (LENS to investigate the compatibility of a LENS-deposited part with the substrate. Tensile testing at room temperature was performed to evaluate the interface bond performance and fracture behavior of the test specimens. All the samples failed within the as-deposited zone, indicating that the interfacial bond is stronger than the interlayer bond inside the deposit. The fracture surfaces were analyzed using scanning electron microscopy (SEM and energy disperse X-ray spectrometry (EDS. Results show that the tensile fracture failure of the as-deposited part is primarily affected by lack-of-fusion defects, carbide precipitation, and oxide particles inclusions, which causes premature failure of the deposit by deteriorating the mechanical properties and structural integrity.

  1. Effect of Steam Activation on Development of Light Weight Biomorphic Porous SiC from Pine Wood Precursor (United States)

    Manocha, Satish M.; Patel, Hemang; Manocha, L. M.


    Biomorphic SiC materials with tailor-made microstructure and properties similar to ceramic materials manufactured by conventional method are a new class of materials derived from natural biopolymeric cellulose templates (wood). Porous silicon carbide (SiC) ceramics with wood-like microstructure have been prepared by carbothermal reduction of charcoal/silica composites at 1300-1600 °C in inert Ar atmosphere. The C/SiO2 composites were fabricated by infiltrating silica sol into porous activated biocarbon template. Silica in the charcoal/silica composite, preferentially in the cellular pores, was found to get transformed in forms of fibers and rods due to shrinkage during drying. The changes in the morphology of resulting porous SiC ceramics after heat treatment to 1600 °C, as well as the conversion mechanism of wood to activated carbon and then to porous SiC ceramic have been investigated using scanning electron microscope, x-ray diffraction, thermogravimetric analysis, and differential scanning calorimetry. Activation of carbon prior to silica infiltration has been found to enhance conversion of charcoal to SiC. The pore structure is found to be uniform in these materials than in those made from as-such charcoal/silica composites. This provides a low-cost and eco-friendly route to advanced ceramic materials, with near-net shape potential.

  2. Near-net shape manufacture of B4C–Co and ZrC–Co composites by slip casting and pressureless sintering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ortiz, Angel L.; Leal, Victor Manuel Candelario; Moreno, Rodrigo


    Fabrication of near-net shaped B4C–Co and ZrC–Co composites by slip casting and pressureless sintering is described. It is shown how B4C–Co and ZrC–Co concentrated suspensions can be prepared by aqueous colloidal processing, and optimized (in terms of pH, deflocculant contents, and sonication tim...... is given for these observations, and general implications are discussed for the near-net shape manufacture of these and similar carbide-metal composites for use in engineering applications....

  3. Microstructural characterisation of high-entropy alloy AlCoCrFeNi fabricated by laser engineered net shaping

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kunce, I., E-mail: [Department of Advanced Materials and Technology, Military University of Technology, 2 Kaliskiego Str., 01-908 Warsaw (Poland); Polanski, M.; Karczewski, K. [Department of Advanced Materials and Technology, Military University of Technology, 2 Kaliskiego Str., 01-908 Warsaw (Poland); Plocinski, T.; Kurzydlowski, K.J. [Faculty of Materials Science and Engineering, Warsaw University of Technology, 141 Wołoska Str., 02-507 Warsaw (Poland)


    Laser engineered net shaping (LENS) was used to produce thin-walled samples of the high-entropy alloy AlCoCrFeNi from a prealloyed powder. To determine the effect of the cooling rate during solidification on the microstructure of the alloy, different laser scanning rates were used. A microstructural study of the surfaces of the sample walls was performed using X-ray diffraction analysis and optical and scanning/transmission electron microscopy. The crystal structure of the alloy was determined to be a body-centred cubic (bcc)-derivative B2-ordered type. The microstructure of the alloy produced by LENS was dendritic. Further, it was found that with an increase in the laser scanning rate from 2.5 to 40 mm s{sup −1}, the average grain size decreased from 108.3 ± 32.4 μm to 30.6 ± 9.2 μm. The maximum cooling rate achieved during the laser cladding of the alloy was 44 × 10{sup 3} K s{sup −1}. The electron microscopy study of the alloy showed the presence of precipitates. The morphology of the disordered bcc (Fe, Cr)-rich precipitates in the ordered B2 (Al, Ni)-rich matrix changed in the dendritic and interdendritic regions from fine and spherical (with a diameter of less 100 nm) to spinodal (with the thickness being less than 100 nm). The LENS- produced AlCoCrFeNi alloy exhibited an average microhardness of approximately 543 HV0.5; this was approximately 13% higher than the hardness in the as-cast state and can be attributed to the grain refinemet in the LENS- produced alloy. Moreover, it was found that increasing the cooling rate during laser cladding increasess the microhardness of the alloy. - Highlights: • Laser-engineered net shaping is used to produce samples of AlCoCrFeNi alloy. • The alloy has a body-centred cubic (bcc)-derivative B2-ordered crystal structure. • Electron microscopy images of the alloy show the presence of precipitates. • The microhardness of the laser-clad alloy is higher than that of the as-cast alloy. • The cooling rate

  4. Life cycle assessment and sustainable engineering in the context of near net shape grown components: striving towards a sustainable way of future production. (United States)

    Kämpfer, Christoph; Seiler, Thomas-Benjamin; Beger, Anna-Lena; Jacobs, Georg; Löwer, Manuel; Moser, Franziska; Reimer, Julia; Trautz, Martin; Usadel, Björn; Wormit, Alexandra; Hollert, Henner


    Technical product harvesting (TEPHA) is a newly developing interdisciplinary approach in which bio-based production is investigated from a technical and ecological perspective. Society's demand for ecologically produced and sustainably operable goods is a key driver for the substitution of conventional materials like metals or plastics through bio-based alternatives. Technical product harvesting of near net shape grown components describes the use of suitable biomass for the production of technical products through influencing the natural shape of plants during their growth period. The use of natural materials may show positive effects on the amount of non-renewable resource consumption. This also increases the product recyclability at the end of its life cycle. Furthermore, through the near net shape growth of biomass, production steps can be reduced. As a consequence such approaches may save energy and the needed resources like crude oil, coal or gas. The derived near net shape grown components are not only considered beneficial from an environmental point of view. They can also have mechanical advantages through an intrinsic topology optimization in contrast to common natural materials, which are influenced in their shape after harvesting. In order to prove these benefits a comprehensive, interdisciplinary scientific strategy is needed. Here, both mechanical investigations and life cycle assessment as a method of environmental evaluation are used.

  5. Synthesis of Fe-Al-Ti Based Intermetallics with the Use of Laser Engineered Net Shaping (LENS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monika Kwiatkowska


    Full Text Available The Laser Engineered Net Shaping (LENS technique was combined with direct synthesis to fabricate L21-ordered Fe-Al-Ti based intermetallic alloys. It was found that ternary Fe-Al-Ti alloys can be synthesized using the LENS technique from a feedstock composed of a pre-alloyed Fe-Al powder and elemental Ti powder. The obtained average compositions of the ternary alloys after the laser deposition and subsequent annealing were quite close to the nominal compositions, but the distributions of the elements in the annealed samples recorded over a large area were inhomogeneous. No traces of pure Ti were observed in the deposited alloys. Macroscopic cracking and porosity were observed in all investigated alloys. The amount of porosity in the samples was less than 1.2 vol. %. It seems that the porosity originates from the porous pre-alloyed Fe-Al powders. Single-phase (L21, two-phase (L21-C14 and multiphase (L21-A2-C14 Fe-Al-Ti intermetallic alloys were obtained from the direct laser synthesis and annealing process. The most prominent feature of the ternary Fe-Al-Ti intermetallics synthesized by the LENS method is their fine-grained structure. The grain size is in the range of 3–5 μm, indicating grain refinement effect through the highly rapid cooling of the LENS process. The Fe-Al-Ti alloys synthesized by LENS and annealed at 1000 °C in the single-phase B2 region were prone to an essential grain growth. In contrast, the alloys annealed at 1000 °C in the two-phase L21-C14 region exhibited almost constant grain size values after the high-temperature annealing.

  6. Radiative and convective properties of 316L Stainless Steel fabricated using the Laser Engineered Net Shaping process (United States)

    Knopp, Jonathan

    Temperature evolution of metallic materials during the additive manufacturing process has direct influence in determining the materials microstructure and resultant characteristics. Through the power of Infrared (IR) thermography it is now possible to monitor thermal trends in a build structure, giving the power to adjust building parameters in real time. The IR camera views radiation in the IR wavelengths and determines temperature of an object by the amount of radiation emitted from the object in those wavelengths. Determining the amount of radiation emitted from the material, known as a materials emissivity, can be difficult in that emissivity is affected by both temperature and surface finish. It has been shown that the use of a micro-blackbody cavity can be used as an accurate reference temperature when the sample is held at thermal equilibrium. A micro-blackbody cavity was created in a sample of 316L Stainless Steel after being fabricated during using the Laser Engineered Net Shaping (LENS) process. Holding the sample at thermal equilibrium and using the micro-blackbody cavity as a reference and thermocouple as a second reference emissivity values were able to be obtained. IR thermography was also used to observe the manufacturing of these samples. When observing the IR thermography, patterns in the thermal history of the build were shown to be present as well as distinct cooling rates of the material. This information can be used to find true temperatures of 316L Stainless Steel during the LENS process for better control of desired material properties as well as future work in determining complete energy balance.

  7. Microwave joining of SiC ceramics and composites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahmad, I.; Silberglitt, R.; Tian, Y.L. [FM Technologies, Inc., Fairfax, VA (United States); Katz, J.D. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)


    Potential applications of SiC include components for advanced turbine engines, tube assemblies for radiant burners and petrochemical processing and heat exchangers for high efficiency electric power generation systems. Reliable methods for joining SiC are required in order to cost-effectively fabricate components for these applications from commercially available shapes and sizes. This manuscript reports the results of microwave joining experiments performed using two different types of SiC materials. The first were on reaction bonded SiC, and produced joints with fracture toughness equal to or greater than that of the base material over an extended range of joining temperatures. The second were on continuous fiber-reinforced SiC/SiC composite materials, which were successfully joined with a commercial active brazing alloy, as well as by using a polymer precursor.

  8. Microstructure Evolution and Mechanical Properties of Ti-6Al-4V and Inconel 718 Manufactured By Laser Engineered Net Shaping (United States)


    shaped and high density metallic components directly from CAD models utilizing metal powders. The standardized terminology for AM technologies ( ISO ...References [1] ISO /ASTM 52900, Standard Terminology for Additive Manufacturing – General Principles – Terminology, ASTM International, West Conshohocken...A 660 (2016) 24- 33. [15] G.J. Marshall, S.M. Thompson, N. Shamsaei, Data indicating temperature response of Ti– 6Al–4V thin-walled structure

  9. Producing Zirconium Diboride Components with Complex, Near-Net Shape Geometries by Aqueous Room-Temperature Injection Molding (United States)

    Wiesner, Valerie L.; Youngblood, Jeffrey; Trice, Rodney


    Room-temperature injection molding is proposed as a novel, low-cost and more energy efficient manufacturing process capable of forming complex-shaped zirconium diboride (ZrB2) parts. This innovative processing method utilized aqueous suspensions with high powder loading and a minimal amount (5 vol.) of water-soluble polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP), which was used as a viscosity modifier. Rheological characterization was performed to evaluate the room-temperature flow properties of ZrB2-PVP suspensions. ZrB2 specimens were fabricated with high green body strength and were machinable prior to binder removal despite their low polymer content. After binder burnout and pressureless sintering, the bulk density and microstructure of specimens were characterized using Archimedes technique and scanning electron microscopy. X-Ray Diffraction was used to determine the phase compositions present in sintered specimens. Ultimate strength of sintered specimens will be determined using ASTM C1323-10 compressive C-ring test.

  10. Final report to the strategic environmental research and development program on near-net shape casting of uranium-6% niobium alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gourdin, W.H.


    Fabrication methods traditionally used in the fabrication of depleted uranium parts within the Department of Energy (DOE) are extremely wasteful, with only 3% of the starting material actually appearing as finished product. The current effort, funded by the Strategic Environmental Research and Development Program (SERDP) at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque (SNLA), and Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), was conceived as a means to drastically reduce this inefficiency and the accompanying waste by demonstrating the technology to cast simple parts close to their final shape in molds made from a variety of materials. As a part of this coordinated study, LLNL was given, and has achieved, two primary objectives: (1) to demonstrate the feasibility of using refractory metal for reusable molds in the production of castings of uranium-6 wt% niobium alloy (U-6Nb); and (2) to demonstrate the utility of detailed simulations of thermal and fluid flow characteristics in the understanding and improvement of the near-net shape casting process. In both cases, our efforts were focused on a flat plate castings, which serve as simple prototypical parts. This report summarizes the results of LLNL work in each area.

  11. Nucleation and growth of polycrystalline SiC

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaiser, M.; Schimmel, S.; Jokubavicius, V.


    The nucleation and bulk growth of polycrystalline SiC in a 2 inch PVT setup using isostatic and pyrolytic graphite as substrates was studied. Textured nucleation occurs under near-thermal equilibrium conditions at the initial growth stage with hexagonal platelet shaped crystallites of 4H, 6H and ...

  12. The Effect of Fiber Architecture on Matrix Cracking in Sic/sic Cmc's (United States)

    Morscher, Gregory N.


    Applications incorporating silicon carbide fiber reinforced silicon carbide matrix composites (CMC's) will require a wide range of fiber architectures in order to fabricate complex shape. The stress-strain response of a given SiC/SiC system for different architectures and orientations will be required in order to design and effectively life-model future components. The mechanism for non-linear stress-strain behavior in CMC's is the formation and propagation of bridged-matrix cracks throughout the composite. A considerable amount of understanding has been achieved for the stress-dependent matrix cracking behavior of SiC fiber reinforced SiC matrix systems containing melt-infiltrated Si. This presentation will outline the effect of 2D and 3D architectures and orientation on stress-dependent matrix-cracking and how this information can be used to model material behavior and serve as the starting point foe mechanistic-based life-models.

  13. Laser Engineered Net Shaping of Nickel-Based Superalloy Inconel 718 Powders onto AISI 4140 Alloy Steel Substrates: Interface Bond and Fracture Failure Mechanism (United States)

    Kim, Hoyeol; Cong, Weilong; Zhang, Hong-Chao; Liu, Zhichao


    As a prospective candidate material for surface coating and repair applications, nickel-based superalloy Inconel 718 (IN718) was deposited on American Iron and Steel Institute (AISI) 4140 alloy steel substrate by laser engineered net shaping (LENS) to investigate the compatibility between two dissimilar materials with a focus on interface bonding and fracture behavior of the hybrid specimens. The results show that the interface between the two dissimilar materials exhibits good metallurgical bonding. Through the tensile test, all the fractures occurred in the as-deposited IN718 section rather than the interface or the substrate, implying that the as-deposited interlayer bond strength is weaker than the interfacial bond strength. From the fractography using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy disperse X-ray spectrometry (EDS), three major factors affecting the tensile fracture failure of the as-deposited part are (i) metallurgical defects such as incompletely melted powder particles, lack-of-fusion porosity, and micropores; (ii) elemental segregation and Laves phase, and (iii) oxide formation. The fracture failure mechanism is a combination of all these factors which are detrimental to the mechanical properties and structural integrity by causing premature fracture failure of the as-deposited IN718. PMID:28772702

  14. Data indicating temperature response of Ti–6Al–4V thin-walled structure during its additive manufacture via Laser Engineered Net Shaping

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Garrett J. Marshall


    Full Text Available An OPTOMEC Laser Engineered Net Shaping (LENS™ 750 system was retrofitted with a melt pool pyrometer and in-chamber infrared (IR camera for nondestructive thermal inspection of the blown-powder, direct laser deposition (DLD process. Data indicative of temperature and heat transfer within the melt pool and heat affected zone atop a thin-walled structure of Ti–6Al–4V during its additive manufacture are provided. Melt pool temperature data were collected via the dual-wavelength pyrometer while the dynamic, bulk part temperature distribution was collected using the IR camera. Such data are provided in Comma Separated Values (CSV file format, containing a 752×480 matrix and a 320×240 matrix of temperatures corresponding to individual pixels of the pyrometer and IR camera, respectively. The IR camera and pyrometer temperature data are provided in blackbody-calibrated, raw forms. Provided thermal data can aid in generating and refining process-property-performance relationships between laser manufacturing and its fabricated materials.

  15. Laser engineered net shaping of quasi-continuous network microstructural TiB reinforced titanium matrix bulk composites: Microstructure and wear performance (United States)

    Hu, Yingbin; Ning, Fuda; Wang, Hui; Cong, Weilong; Zhao, Bo


    Titanium (Ti) and its alloys have been successfully applied to the aeronautical and biomedical industries. However, their poor tribological properties restrict their fields of applications under severe wear conditions. Facing to these challenges, this study investigated TiB reinforced Ti matrix composites (TiB-TMCs), fabricated by in-situ laser engineered net shaping (LENS) process, through analyzing parts quality, microstructure formation mechanisms, microstructure characterizations, and workpiece wear performance. At high B content areas (original B particle locations), reaction between Ti and B particles took place, generating flower-like microstructure. At low B content areas, eutectic TiB nanofibers contacted with each other with the formation of crosslinking microstructure. The crosslinking microstructural TiB aggregated and connected at the boundaries of Ti grains, forming a three-dimensional quasi-continuous network microstructure. The results show that compared with commercially pure Ti bulk parts, the TiB-TMCs exhibited superior wear performance (i.e. indentation wear resistance and friction wear resistance) due to the present of TiB reinforcement and the innovative microstructures formed inside TiB-TMCs. In addition, the qualities of the fabricated parts were improved with fewer interior defects by optimizing laser power, thus rendering better wear performance.

  16. Data indicating temperature response of Ti-6Al-4V thin-walled structure during its additive manufacture via Laser Engineered Net Shaping. (United States)

    Marshall, Garrett J; Thompson, Scott M; Shamsaei, Nima


    An OPTOMEC Laser Engineered Net Shaping (LENS(™)) 750 system was retrofitted with a melt pool pyrometer and in-chamber infrared (IR) camera for nondestructive thermal inspection of the blown-powder, direct laser deposition (DLD) process. Data indicative of temperature and heat transfer within the melt pool and heat affected zone atop a thin-walled structure of Ti-6Al-4V during its additive manufacture are provided. Melt pool temperature data were collected via the dual-wavelength pyrometer while the dynamic, bulk part temperature distribution was collected using the IR camera. Such data are provided in Comma Separated Values (CSV) file format, containing a 752×480 matrix and a 320×240 matrix of temperatures corresponding to individual pixels of the pyrometer and IR camera, respectively. The IR camera and pyrometer temperature data are provided in blackbody-calibrated, raw forms. Provided thermal data can aid in generating and refining process-property-performance relationships between laser manufacturing and its fabricated materials.

  17. Processing of sintered alpha SiC (United States)

    Storm, R. S.


    Processing methods of sintered alpha SiC for engine applications are developed in a cost effective manner, using a submicron sized powder blended with sintering aids (boron and carbon). The processes for forming a green powder compact, such as dry pressing, cold isostatic pressing and green machining, slip casting, aqueous extrusion, plastic extrusion, and injection molding, are described. Dry pressing is the simplest route to component fabrication, and is carried out at approximately 10,000 psi pressure, while in the cold isostatic method the pressure could go as high as 20,000 psi. Surfactants are added to control settling rates and casting characteristics in the slip casting. The aqueous extrusion process is accomplished by a hydraulic ram forcing the aqueous mixture through a die. The plastic forming processes of extrusion and injection molding offer the potential of greater diversity in shape capacity. The physical properties of sintered alpha SiC (hardness, Young's modulus, shear modulus, and thermal diffusivity) are extensively tested. Corrosion resistance test results of silicon carbide are included.

  18. A route to strong p-doping of epitaxial graphene on SiC

    KAUST Repository

    Cheng, Yingchun


    The effects of Au intercalation on the electronic properties of epitaxialgraphenegrown on SiC{0001} substrates are studied using first principles calculations. A graphenemonolayer on SiC{0001} restores the shape of the pristine graphene dispersion, where doping levels between strongly n-doped and weakly p-doped can be achieved by altering the Au coverage. We predict that Au intercalation between the two C layers of bilayer graphenegrown on SiC{0001} makes it possible to achieve a strongly p-doped graphene state, where the p-doping level can be controlled by means of the Au coverage.

  19. Effect of SiC particle addition on microstructure of Mg2Si/Al composite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhao Yuguang


    Full Text Available In the present study, by adding SiC particles into Al-Si-Mg melt, Mg2Si and SiC particles hybrid reinforced Al matrix composites were fabricated through the Mg2Si in situ synthesis in melt combined with the SiC ex situ stir casting. The as-cast microstructure containing primary Mg2Si and SiC particles that distribute homogenously in Al matrix was successfully achieved. The effects of SiC particle addition on the microstructure of Mg2Si/Al composites were investigated by using scanning electron microscopy (SEM and XRD. The results show that, with increasing the fraction of the SiC particles from 5wt.% to 10wt.%, the morphologies of the primary Mg2Si particulates in the prepared samples remain polygonal, but the size of the primary phase decreases slightly. However, when the SiC particle addition reaches 15wt.%, the morphologies of the primary Mg2Si particulates change partially from polygonal to quadrangular with a decrease in size from 50 μm to 30 μm. The size of primary Al dendrites decreases with increasing fraction of the SiC particles from 0wt.% to 15wt.%. The morphology of the eutectic Mg2Si phase changes from a fiber-form to a short fiber-form and/or a dot-like shape with increasing fraction of the SiC particles. Furthermore, no significant change in dendrite arm spacing (DAS was observed in the presence of SiC particles.

  20. Additive Manufacturing of SiC Based Ceramics and Ceramic Matrix Composites (United States)

    Halbig, Michael Charles; Singh, Mrityunjay


    Silicon carbide (SiC) ceramics and SiC fiber reinforcedSiC ceramic matrix composites (SiCSiC CMCs) offer high payoff as replacements for metals in turbine engine applications due to their lighter weight, higher temperature capability, and lower cooling requirements. Additive manufacturing approaches can offer game changing technologies for the quick and low cost fabrication of parts with much greater design freedom and geometric complexity. Four approaches for developing these materials are presented. The first two utilize low cost 3D printers. The first uses pre-ceramic pastes developed as feed materials which are converted to SiC after firing. The second uses wood containing filament to print a carbonaceous preform which is infiltrated with a pre-ceramic polymer and converted to SiC. The other two approaches pursue the AM of CMCs. The first is binder jet SiC powder processing in collaboration with rp+m (Rapid Prototyping+Manufacturing). Processing optimization was pursued through SiC powder blending, infiltration with and without SiC nano powder loading, and integration of nanofibers into the powder bed. The second approach was laminated object manufacturing (LOM) in which fiber prepregs and laminates are cut to shape by a laser and stacked to form the desired part. Scanning electron microscopy was conducted on materials from all approaches with select approaches also characterized with XRD, TGA, and bend testing.

  1. In situ toughened SiC ceramics with Al-B-C additions and oxide-coated SiC platelet/SiC composites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cao, J. [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States). Dept. of Materials Science and Mineral Engineering]|[Lawrence Berkeley National Lab., CA (United States). Materials Sciences Div.


    This work aimed at fabrication and characterization of high toughness SiC ceramics through the applications of in situ toughening and SiC platelet reinforcement. The processing-microstructure-property relations of hot pressed SiC with Al, B, and C additions (designated as ABC-SiC) were investigated. Through a liquid phase sintering mechanism, dense SiC was obtained by hot pressing at a temperature as low as 1,700 C with 3 wt% Al, 0.6 wt% B, and 2 wt% C additions. These sintering aids also enhanced the {beta}-to-{alpha} (3C-to-4H) phase transformation, which promoted SiC grains to grow into plate-like shapes. Under optimal processing conditions, the microstructure exhibited high-aspect-ratio plate-shaped grains with a thin (< 1 nm) Al-containing amorphous grain boundary film. The mechanical properties of the toughened SiC and the composites were evaluated in comparison with a commercial Hexoloy SiC under identical test conditions. The C-curve behavior was examined using the strength-indentation load relationship and compared with that directly measured using precracked compact tension specimens. The in situ toughened ABC-SiC exhibited much improved flaw tolerance and a significantly rising R-curve behavior. A steady-state toughness in excess of 9 MPam{sup 1/2} was recorded for the ABC-SiC in comparison to a single valued toughness below 3 MPam{sup 1/2} for the Hexoloy. Toughening in the ABC-SiC was mainly attributed to grain bridging and subsequent pullout of the plate-shaped grains. The high toughness ABC-SiC exhibited a bend strength of 650 MPa with a Weibull modulus of 19; in comparison, the commercial SiC showed a bend strength of 400 MPa with a Weibull modulus of 6. Higher fracture toughness was also achieved by the reinforcement of SiC platelets, encapsulated with alumina, yttria, or silica, in a SiC matrix.

  2. Polycrystalline SiC as source material for the growth of fluorescent SiC layers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaiser, M.; Hupfer, T.; Jokubavicus, V.


    Polycrystalline doped SiC act as source for fluorescent SiC. We have studied the growth of individual grains with different polytypes in the source material. We show an evolution and orientation of grains of different polytypes in polycrystalline SiC ingots grown by the Physical Vapor Transport m...

  3. Velcro-Inspired SiC Fuzzy Fibers for Aerospace Applications. (United States)

    Hart, Amelia H C; Koizumi, Ryota; Hamel, John; Owuor, Peter Samora; Ito, Yusuke; Ozden, Sehmus; Bhowmick, Sanjit; Syed Amanulla, Syed Asif; Tsafack, Thierry; Keyshar, Kunttal; Mital, Rahul; Hurst, Janet; Vajtai, Robert; Tiwary, Chandra Sekhar; Ajayan, Pulickel M


    The most recent and innovative silicon carbide (SiC) fiber ceramic matrix composites, used for lightweight high-heat engine parts in aerospace applications, are woven, layered, and then surrounded by a SiC ceramic matrix composite (CMC). To further improve both the mechanical properties and thermal and oxidative resistance abilities of this material, SiC nanotubes and nanowires (SiCNT/NWs) are grown on the surface of the SiC fiber via carbon nanotube conversion. This conversion utilizes the shape memory synthesis (SMS) method, starting with carbon nanotube (CNT) growth on the SiC fiber surface, to capitalize on the ease of dense surface morphology optimization and the ability to effectively engineer the CNT-SiC fiber interface to create a secure nanotube-fiber attachment. Then, by converting the CNTs to SiCNT/NWs, the relative morphology, advantageous mechanical properties, and secure connection of the initial CNT-SiC fiber architecture are retained, with the addition of high temperature and oxidation resistance. The resultant SiCNT/NW-SiC fiber can be used inside the SiC ceramic matrix composite for a high-heat turbo engine part with longer fatigue life and higher temperature resistance. The differing sides of the woven SiCNT/NWs act as the "hook and loop" mechanism of Velcro but in much smaller scale.

  4. Switching Performance Evaluation of Commercial SiC Power Devices (SiC JFET and SiC MOSFET) in Relation to the Gate Driver Complexity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pittini, Riccardo; Zhang, Zhe; Andersen, Michael A. E.


    and JFETs. The recent introduction of SiC MOSFET has proved that it is possible to have highly performing SiC devices with a minimum gate driver complexity; this made SiC power devices even more attractive despite their device cost. This paper presents an analysis based on experimental results...... of the switching losses of various commercially available Si and SiC power devices rated at 1200 V (Si IGBTs, SiC JFETs and SiC MOSFETs). The comparison evaluates the reduction of the switching losses which is achievable with the introduction of SiC power devices; this includes analysis and considerations...

  5. Net Locality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Souza e Silva, Adriana Araujo; Gordon, Eric

    Provides an introduction to the new theory of Net Locality and the profound effect on individuals and societies when everything is located or locatable. Describes net locality as an emerging form of location awareness central to all aspects of digital media, from mobile phones, to Google Maps...... of emerging technologies, from GeoCities to GPS, Wi-Fi, Wiki Me, and Google Android....

  6. Net Neutrality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Savin, Andrej


    Repealing “net neutrality” in the US will have no bearing on Internet freedom or security there or anywhere else.......Repealing “net neutrality” in the US will have no bearing on Internet freedom or security there or anywhere else....

  7. Modeling the Elastic Modulus of 2D Woven CVI SiC Composites (United States)

    Morscher, Gregory N.


    The use of fiber, interphase, CVI SiC minicomposites as structural elements for 2D-woven SiC fiber reinforced chemically vapor infiltrated (CVI) SiC matrix composites is demonstrated to be a viable approach to model the elastic modulus of these composite systems when tensile loaded in an orthogonal direction. The 0deg (loading direction) and 90deg (perpendicular to loading direction) oriented minicomposites as well as the open porosity and excess SiC associated with CVI SiC composites were all modeled as parallel elements using simple Rule of Mixtures techniques. Excellent agreement for a variety of 2D woven Hi-Nicalon(TradeMark) fiber-reinforced and Sylramic-iBN reinforced CVI SiC matrix composites that differed in numbers of plies, constituent content, thickness, density, and number of woven tows in either direction (i.e, balanced weaves versus unbalanced weaves) was achieved. It was found that elastic modulus was not only dependent on constituent content, but also the degree to which 90deg minicomposites carried load. This depended on the degree of interaction between 90deg and 0deg minicomposites which was quantified to some extent by composite density. The relationships developed here for elastic modulus only necessitated the knowledge of the fractional contents of fiber, interphase and CVI SiC as well as the tow size and shape. It was concluded that such relationships are fairly robust for orthogonally loaded 2D woven CVI SiC composite system and can be implemented by ceramic matrix composite component modelers and designers for modeling the local stiffness in simple or complex parts fabricated with variable constituent contents.

  8. Lateral boron distribution in polycrystalline SiC source materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Linnarsson, M. K.; Kaiser, M.; Liljedahl, R.


    Polycrystalline SiC containing boron and nitrogen are used in growth of fluorescent SiC for white LEDs. Two types of doped polycrystalline SiC have been studied in detail with secondary ion mass spectrometry: sintered SiC and poly-SiC prepared by sublimation in a physical vapor transport setup. T...

  9. Preparation of biomorphic SiC ceramics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Egelja A.


    Full Text Available This paper deals with a new method for producing non-oxide ceramic using wood as a template. SiC with a woodlike microstructure has been prepared by carbothermal reduction reactions of Tilia wood/TEOS composite at 1873K. The porous carbon preform was infiltrated with TEOS (Si(OC2H54, as a source of silica, without pressure at 298K. The morphology of resulting porous SiC ceramics, as well as the conversion mechanism of wood to SiC ceramics, have been investigated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM/EDS and X-ray diffraction analysis (XRD. Obtained SiC ceramics consists of β-SiC with traces of α-SiC.

  10. RESTful NET

    CERN Document Server

    Flanders, Jon


    RESTful .NET is the first book that teaches Windows developers to build RESTful web services using the latest Microsoft tools. Written by Windows Communication Foundation (WFC) expert Jon Flanders, this hands-on tutorial demonstrates how you can use WCF and other components of the .NET 3.5 Framework to build, deploy and use REST-based web services in a variety of application scenarios. RESTful architecture offers a simpler approach to building web services than SOAP, SOA, and the cumbersome WS- stack. And WCF has proven to be a flexible technology for building distributed systems not necessa

  11. Development of Sic Gas Sensor Systems (United States)

    Hunter, G. W.; Neudeck, P. G.; Okojie, R. S.; Beheim, G. M.; Thomas, V.; Chen, L.; Lukco, D.; Liu, C. C.; Ward, B.; Makel, D.


    Silicon carbide (SiC) based gas sensors have significant potential to address the gas sensing needs of aerospace applications such as emission monitoring, fuel leak detection, and fire detection. However, in order to reach that potential, a range of technical challenges must be overcome. These challenges go beyond the development of the basic sensor itself and include the need for viable enabling technologies to make a complete gas sensor system: electrical contacts, packaging, and transfer of information from the sensor to the outside world. This paper reviews the status at NASA Glenn Research Center of SiC Schottky diode gas sensor development as well as that of enabling technologies supporting SiC gas sensor system implementation. A vision of a complete high temperature microfabricated SiC gas sensor system is proposed. In the long-term, it is believed that improvements in the SiC semiconductor material itself could have a dramatic effect on the performance of SiC gas sensor systems.

  12. Surface characteristics and corrosion behaviour of WE43 magnesium alloy coated by SiC film

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, M. [Center for Biomedical Materials and Tissue Engineering, Academy for Advanced Interdisciplinary Studies, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Cheng, Y., E-mail: [Center for Biomedical Materials and Tissue Engineering, Academy for Advanced Interdisciplinary Studies, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Zheng, Y.F. [Center for Biomedical Materials and Tissue Engineering, Academy for Advanced Interdisciplinary Studies, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Department of Advanced Materials and Nanotechnology, College of Engineering, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Zhang, X.; Xi, T.F. [Center for Biomedical Materials and Tissue Engineering, Academy for Advanced Interdisciplinary Studies, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Wei, S.C. [Center for Biomedical Materials and Tissue Engineering, Academy for Advanced Interdisciplinary Studies, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, School and Hospital of Stomatology, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China)


    Amorphous SiC film has been successfully fabricated on the surface of WE43 magnesium alloy by plasma enhanced chemical vapour deposition (PECVD) technique. The microstructure and elemental composition were analyzed by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), glancing angle X-ray diffraction (GAXRD) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), respectively. The immersion test indicated that SiC film could efficiently slow down the degradation rate of WE43 alloy in simulated body fluid (SBF) at 37 {+-} 1 Degree-Sign C. The indirect toxicity experiment was conducted using L929 cell line and the results showed that the extraction medium of SiC coated WE43 alloys exhibited no inhibitory effect on L929 cell growth. The in vitro hemocompatibility of the samples was investigated by hemolysis test and blood platelets adhesion test, and it was found that the hemolysis rate of the coated WE43 alloy decreased greatly, and the platelets attached on the SiC film were slightly activated with a round shape. It could be concluded that SiC film prepared by PECVD made WE43 alloy more appropriate to biomedical application.

  13. Petri Nets

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Associate Professor of. Computer Science and. Automation at the Indian. Institute of Science,. Bangalore. His research interests are broadly in the areas of stochastic modeling and scheduling methodologies for future factories; and object oriented modeling. GENERAL I ARTICLE. Petri Nets. 1. Overview and Foundations.

  14. Petri Nets

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 4; Issue 8. Petri Nets - Overview and Foundations. Y Narahari. General Article Volume 4 Issue 8 August 1999 pp ... Author Affiliations. Y Narahari1. Department ot Computer Science and Automation, Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore 560 012, India.

  15. Fabrication of mullite-bonded porous SiC ceramics from multilayer-coated SiC particles through sol-gel and in-situ polymerization techniques (United States)

    Ebrahimpour, Omid

    second part of the project. Alumina sol was synthesized by the hydrolysis of Aluminum isopropoxide using the Yoldas method. Alumina sol was homogenous and had a needle-like shape with a thickness of 2--3 nm. Crystalline changes during the heating process of alumina sol were studied using XRD. In addition, Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy was performed to identify the functional groups on the alumina sol surface as a function of temperature. In the third part of the project, the feasibility of the in-situ polymerization technique was investigated to fabricate porous SiC ceramics. In this part, the mixture of SiC and calcined alumina powders were coated by polyethylene via in-situ polymerizing referred to as the polymerization compounding process in a slurry phase. The polymerization was conducted under very moderate operational conditions using the Ziegler-Natta catalyst system. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and TGA analysis and morphological studies (SEM and TEM) revealed the presence of a high density of polyethylene on the surface of SiC and alumina powders. The amount of polymer was controlled by the polymerization reaction time. Most parts of particles were coated by a thin layer of polyethylene and polymer. The porous SiC ceramics, which were fabricated by these treated particles showed higher mechanical and physical properties compared to the samples made without any treatment. The relative intensity of mullite was higher compared to the samples prepared by the traditional process. The effects of the sintering temperature, forming pressure and polymer content were also studied on the physical and mechanical properties of the final product. In the last phase of this research work, the focus of the investigation was to take advantage of both the sol-gel processing and in-situ polymerization method to develop a new process to manufacture mullite-bonded porous SiC ceramic with enhanced mechanical and physical properties. Therefore, first the SiC

  16. Magnetism in nanocrystalline SiC films (United States)

    Semenov, A. V.; Pashchenko, V. O.; Khirnyi, V. F.; Kozlovskyi, A. A.; Mateichenko, P. V.


    Magnetism been studied in two series of nanocrystalline SiC films obtained by the method of direct deposition of ions with an energy of ~100 eV at temperatures 1150 °C and 1200 C. There were separated the contributions of diamagnetism, paramagnetism and superparamagnetism+ferromagnetism. Magnetization value of the films correlates with the deposition temperature. In the films deposited at higher temperatures the value of magnetization was by 1.5 times lower. It was concluded that induced magnetism in nanocrystalline SiC films is caused by interaction of magnetic moments of neutral VSiVC divacancies in separate nanocrystals. The estimated concentration of neutral VSiVC divacancies in nanocrystalline SiC films is ~1020 cm-3.

  17. Prospects for SiC electronics and sensors


    Nick G. Wright; Alton B. Horsfall; Vassilevski, Konstantin


    There has been substantial international research effort in the development of SiC electronics over the last ten years. With promising applications in power electronics, hostile-environment electronics, and sensors, there is considerable industrial interest in SiC as a material for electronics. However, issues relating to crystal growth and the difficulties of material processing have restricted SiC devices to relatively limited use to date. The eventual success of SiC as an electronic techno...

  18. Microwave joining of SiC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silberglitt, R.; Ahmad, I.; Tian, Y.L. [FM Technologies, Inc., Fairfax, VA (United States)] [and others


    The purpose of this work is to optimize the properties of SiC-SiC joints made using microwave energy. The current focus is on identification of the most effective joining methods for scale-up to large tube assemblies, including joining using SiC produced in situ from chemical precursors. During FY 1996, a new microwave applicator was designed, fabricated and tested that provides the capability for vacuum baking of the specimens and insulation and for processing under inert environment. This applicator was used to join continuous fiber-reinforced (CFCC) SiC/SiC composites using a polymer precursor to form a SiC interlayer in situ.

  19. Automated Defect Recognition as a Critical Element of a Three Dimensional X-ray Computed Tomography Imaging-Based Smart Non-Destructive Testing Technique in Additive Manufacturing of Near Net-Shape Parts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Istvan Szabo


    Full Text Available In this paper, a state of the art automated defect recognition (ADR system is presented that was developed specifically for Non-Destructive Testing (NDT of powder metallurgy (PM parts using three dimensional X-ray Computed Tomography (CT imaging, towards enabling online quality assurance and enhanced integrity confidence. PM parts exhibit typical defects such as microscopic cracks, porosity, and voids, internal to components that without an effective detection system, limit the growth of industrial applications. Compared to typical testing methods (e.g., destructive such as metallography that is based on sampling, cutting, and polishing of parts, CT provides full coverage of defect detection. This paper establishes the importance and advantages of an automated NDT system for the PM industry applications with particular emphasis on image processing procedures for defect recognition. Moreover, the article describes how to establish a reference library based on real 3D X-ray CT images of net-shape parts. The paper follows the development of the ADR system from processing 2D image slices of a measured 3D X-ray image to processing the complete 3D X-ray image as a whole. The introduced technique is successfully integrated into an automated in-line quality control system highly sought by major industry sectors in Oil and Gas, Automotive, and Aerospace.

  20. Net Shape Manufacturing of Aeroengine Components (United States)


    making large or medium sized complex components. 2.2 Experimental The Ti6Al4V (Ti64) powder used is commercial PREP(plasma rotating electrode...Using mild steel tooling • PREP Ti6Al4V powder, 50-350μm in Materials for High Performance Applications THE UNIVERSITY OF BIRMINGHAM of HIPped Ti6Al4V (machined tensile samples and as-HIPped tensile sample) - 0.17 0.17 0.19 0.18 0.17 Oxygen (wt%) 239678794.0 19 23 22 21

  1. Universal Converter Using SiC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dallas Marckx; Brian Ratliff; Amit Jain; Matthew Jones


    The grantee designed a high power (over 1MW) inverter for use in renewable and distributed energy systems, such as PV cells, fuel cells, variable speed wind turbines, micro turbines, variable speed gensets and various energy storage methods. The inverter uses 10,000V SiC power devices which enable the use of a straight-forward topology for medium voltage (4,160VAC) without the need to cascade devices or topologies as is done in all commercial, 4,160VAC inverters today. The use of medium voltage reduces the current by nearly an order of magnitude in all current carrying components of the energy system, thus reducing size and cost. The use of SiC not only enables medium voltage, but also the use of higher temperatures and switching frequencies, further reducing size and cost. In this project, the grantee addressed several technical issues that stand in the way of success. The two primary issues addressed are the determination of real heat losses in candidate SiC devices at elevated temperature and the development of high temperature packaging for SiC devices.

  2. A porous SiC ammonia sensor

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Connolly, E.J.; Timmer, B.H.; Pham, H.T.M.; Groeneweg, J.; Sarro, P.M.; Olthuis, Wouter; French, P.J.


    When used as the dielectric in a capacitive sensing arrangement, porous SiC has been found to be extremely sensitive to the presence of ammonia (NH3) gas. The exact sensing method is still not clear, but NH3 levels as low as 0.5 ppm could be detected. We report the fabrication and preliminary

  3. Vacancies in SiC nanopowders

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kityk, I.V.; Makowska-Janusik, M. [Technical Univ. of Czestochowa (Poland). Inst. of Phys.; Kassiba, A.; Charpentier, C. [Laboratoire de Physique de l' Etat Condense, UPRES-A6087, Universite du Maine, Avenue Olivier Messiaen, 72085 Cedex 9, LeMans (France); Tuesu, K. [Research Informatic Science Department, Tohoku University, 2-1-4 Katahira, Aoba-ku, 982-12, Sendai (Japan); Ling, Y. [Michigan Molecular Institute, 48640, Midland, MI (United States)


    Origin of vacancies in the large-sized SiC nanocrystals (higher than 10 nm) has been investigated using theoretical band structure calculations and experimental electronic paramagnetic resonance (EPR) measurements. Influence of geometry sizes on appearance of concrete vacancy has been studied. The theoretical approach includes self-consistent norm-conserving pseudopotential band energy calculations and geometry structure optimisation. The performed calculations show that the presence of the vacancies is a necessary attribute of the SiC nanocrystallites. Moreover, the type and concentration of the vacancies are dependent on the nanoparticle geometry. We have revealed that spin-polarised states of intracrystallite vacancies differ essentially from vacancies in the bulk crystals. A comparison between the performed theoretical simulations and obtained EPR experimental data shows the possibility of using the proposed methods for prediction of vacancy appearance in the binary nanocrystallites and possibility for their operation. (orig.)

  4. SiC Power MOSFET with Improved Gate Dielectric

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sbrockey, Nick M; Tompa, Gary S; Spencer, Michael G; Chandrashekhar, Chandra MVS


    In this STTR program, Structured Materials Industries (SMI), and Cornell University are developing novel gate oxide technology, as a critical enabler for silicon carbide (SiC) devices. SiC is a wide bandgap semiconductor material, with many unique properties. SiC devices are ideally suited for high-power, highvoltage, high-frequency, high-temperature and radiation resistant applications. The DOE has expressed interest in developing SiC devices for use in extreme environments, in high energy physics applications and in power generation. The development of transistors based on the Metal Oxide Semiconductor Field Effect Transistor (MOSFET) structure will be critical to these applications.

  5. 500?C SiC JFET Driver Circuits and Packaging Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — In the proposed development, SiC JFET control circuitry and normally-off SiC JFET power switch will be integrated in a single SiC chip that will provide digital...

  6. Electron Spectroscopy Study of SiC, (United States)


    Liquid nitrogen cooling is supplied to the central copper block of the sample holder by flexible spiral stainless steel capillary. This cooling facility...sapphire disks from thinner copper blocks at both sides. The outer copper blocks hold 1.5 mm diameter W rods to which are welded a pair of 0.375 mm...sputtering was sufficient to implant F+ and Ar+ ions deep enough in the SiC surface layer, so that the implanted F and Ar could not be removed-by thermal

  7. Advances in wide bandgap SiC for optoelectronics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ou, Haiyan; Ou, Yiyu; Argyraki, Aikaterini


    Silicon carbide (SiC) has played a key role in power electronics thanks to its unique physical properties like wide bandgap, high breakdown field, etc. During the past decade, SiC is also becoming more and more active in optoelectronics thanks to the progress in materials growth and nanofabrication...

  8. Effect of Residual Gas Composition on Epitaxial Growth of Graphene on SiC (United States)

    Kunc, J.; Rejhon, M.; Belas, E.; Dědič, V.; Moravec, P.; Franc, J.


    In recent years, graphene growth optimization has been one of the key routes towards large-scale, high-quality graphene production. We measure in situ residual gas content during epitaxial-graphene growth on silicon carbide (SiC) to find detrimental factors of epitaxial-graphene growth. The growth conditions in high vacuum, in argon, purified argon, and the flow of argon are compared. The grown epitaxial graphene is studied by Raman-scattering mapping. We determine mechanical strain, number of graphene layers and the graphene quality. The surface topography is measured by atomic force microscopy. Charge density and carrier mobility are studied by Hall-effect measurements in van der Pauw configuration. We identify the major role of the chemical reaction of carbon and residual water. The rate of the reaction is lowered when purified argon is used. We also show that, according to time-varying gas content, it is preferable to grow graphene at higher temperatures and shorter times. Other sources of growth environment contamination are also discussed. The reaction of residual gas and SiC is discussed as one of the factors decreasing the lateral size of SiC atomically flat terraces and leading to their irregular shape. The importance of purified argon and its sufficient flow rate is concluded to be important for high-quality graphene growth as it reduces the rate of undesired chemical reactions and provides a more stable and defined growth ambient.

  9. Synthesis of biomorphic SiC ceramic from bamboo charcoal. (United States)

    Zhu, Jiangtao; Kwong, Fung Luen; Ng, Dickon Hang Leung


    Biomorphic SiC ceramic was successfully synthesized by reaction sintering between bamboo charcoal and a Si/SiO2 powder mixture. The charcoal was converted into an entirely SiC ceramic inherited with the original bamboo structure. Samples were characterized according to their crystallinity, morphology, microstructures and pore structures. We found that various morphological SiC structures were formed in different parts of the charcoal which depended on the morphology of the textures. The length of SiC nanowires were up to micron size. They were grown in the direction. The number of micropores in the converted biomorphic SiC was less than the original bamboo charcoal, but the pore diameter was larger.

  10. Energy-Saving Melting and Revert Reduction Technology (E-SMARRT): Use of Laser Engineered Net Shaping for Rapid Manufacturing of Dies with Protective Coatings and Improved Thermal Management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brevick, Jerald R. [Ohio State University


    retained as the exterior layer of the tooling, while commercially pure copper was chosen for the interior structure of the tooling. The tooling was fabricated by traditional machining of the copper substrate, and H13 powder was deposited on the copper via the Laser Engineered Net Shape (LENSTM) process. The H13 deposition layer was then final machined by traditional methods. Two tooling components were designed and fabricated; a thermal fatigue test specimen, and a core for a commercial aluminum high pressure die casting tool. The bimetallic thermal fatigue specimen demonstrated promising performance during testing, and the test results were used to improve the design and LENS TM deposition methods for subsequent manufacture of the commercial core. Results of the thermal finite element analysis for the thermal fatigue test specimen indicate that it has the ability to lose heat to the internal water cooling passages, and to external spray cooling, significantly faster than a monolithic H13 thermal fatigue sample. The commercial core is currently in the final stages of fabrication, and will be evaluated in an actual production environment at Shiloh Die casting. In this research, the feasibility of designing and fabricating copper/H13 bimetallic die casting tooling via LENS TM processing, for the purpose of improving die casting process efficiency, is demonstrated.

  11. Structural characterization of SiC nanoparticles (United States)

    Sun, Baoxing; Xie, Ruobing; Yu, Cun; Li, Cheng; Xu, Hongjie


    The structure and size of SiC nanoparticles were studied by different characterization methods including small angle X-ray scattering (SAXS), transmission electron microscope (TEM), and X-ray diffraction (XRD). The results showed that particle size distributions determined respectively from SAXS and TEM are comparable and follow the log-normal function. The size distribution of the particles is between 10 to 100 nm with most of them being in the range of 20–50 nm. The average particle size is around 42 nm. XRD identifies the phase of the SiC nanoparticles and suggests the average size of the single crystalline domain to be around 21 nm. The combined results from XRD and SAXS suggest the existence of many polycrystals, which is confirmed by the HRTEM observation of particles with twins and stacking faults. The material synthesis methods leading to various particle sizes are also discussed. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (No. 11505273) and the Strategic Priority Research Program of the Chinese Academy of Sciences (No. XDA02000000).

  12. Epitaxial sic devices for radiation dosimetry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bruzzi, M; Menichelli, D.; Pini, S.; Sciortino, S. [INFN, Firenze (Italy); Firenze Univ., Firenze (Italy). Dipartimento di Energetica; Bucciolini, M. [INFN, Firenze (Italy); Firenze Univ., Firenze (Italy). Dipartimento di Fisiopatologia Clinica; Nava, F. [Modena Univ., Modena (Italy). Dipartimento di Fisica; INFN, Bologna (Italy)


    The current response of SiC on-line dosimeters to {gamma}-radiation from{sup 60}Co and {sup 167}Cs {gamma}-sources, X-photons and 22MeV electrons from linear accelerator has been investigated. The devices used are 4H-SiC epitaxial n-type layer deposited onto a 4H-SiC n{sup +} type substrate wafer doped with nitrogen. Single-pad Schottky contacts have been produced by deposition of a 1000A gold film on the epitaxial layer and ohmic contacts have been deposited on the rear substrate side. The detector has been then embedded in epoxy resin and studied in the dose and dose-rate ranges 0.1-1 Gy 0.1-10Gy/min. A signal response comparable to that of silicon standard dosimeters has been measured with the unbiased SiC device. The released charge and induced current have been observed to increase linearly respectively with the dose and dose-rate. A preliminary study on the changes in the sensibility of the device after a {gamma}-rays accumulated dose up to 10kGy is also presented.

  13. NA-NET numerical analysis net

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dongarra, J. [Tennessee Univ., Knoxville, TN (United States). Dept. of Computer Science]|[Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Rosener, B. [Tennessee Univ., Knoxville, TN (United States). Dept. of Computer Science


    This report describes a facility called NA-NET created to allow numerical analysts (na) an easy method of communicating with one another. The main advantage of the NA-NET is uniformity of addressing. All mail is addressed to the Internet host ```` at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Hence, members of the NA-NET do not need to remember complicated addresses or even where a member is currently located. As long as moving members change their e-mail address in the NA-NET everything works smoothly. The NA-NET system is currently located at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. It is running on the same machine that serves netlib. Netlib is a separate facility that distributes mathematical software via electronic mail. For more information on netlib consult, or send the one-line message ``send index`` to netlib{at} The following report describes the current NA-NET system from both a user`s perspective and from an implementation perspective. Currently, there are over 2100 members in the NA-NET. An average of 110 mail messages pass through this facility daily.

  14. NA-NET numerical analysis net

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dongarra, J. (Tennessee Univ., Knoxville, TN (United States). Dept. of Computer Science Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)); Rosener, B. (Tennessee Univ., Knoxville, TN (United States). Dept. of Computer Science)


    This report describes a facility called NA-NET created to allow numerical analysts (na) an easy method of communicating with one another. The main advantage of the NA-NET is uniformity of addressing. All mail is addressed to the Internet host'' at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Hence, members of the NA-NET do not need to remember complicated addresses or even where a member is currently located. As long as moving members change their e-mail address in the NA-NET everything works smoothly. The NA-NET system is currently located at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. It is running on the same machine that serves netlib. Netlib is a separate facility that distributes mathematical software via electronic mail. For more information on netlib consult, or send the one-line message send index'' to netlib{at} The following report describes the current NA-NET system from both a user's perspective and from an implementation perspective. Currently, there are over 2100 members in the NA-NET. An average of 110 mail messages pass through this facility daily.

  15. Net Ecosystem Carbon Flux (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Net Ecosystem Carbon Flux is defined as the year-over-year change in Total Ecosystem Carbon Stock, or the net rate of carbon exchange between an ecosystem and the...

  16. Irradiation damage of SiC semiconductor device (I)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Ji Yeon; Kim, Weon Ju


    This report reviewed the irradiation damage of SiC semiconductor devices and examined a irradiation behavior of SiC single crystal as a pre-examination for evaluation of irradiation behavior of SiC semiconductor devices. The SiC single was crystal irradiated by gamma-beam, N+ ion and electron beam. Annealing examinations of the irradiated specimens also were performed at 500 deg C. N-type 6H-SiC dopped with N+ ion was used and irradiation doses of gamma-beam, N+ion and electron beam were up to 200 Mrad, 1x10{sup 16} N{sup +} ions/cm{sup 2} and 3.6 x 10{sup 17} e/cm{sup 2} and 1.08 x 10{sup 18} e/cm{sup 2} , respectively. Irradiation damages were analyzed by the EPR method. Additionally, properties of SiC, information about commercial SiC single crystals and the list of web sites with related to the SiC device were described in the appendix.

  17. Weibull Statistical Analysis on the Mechanical Properties of SiC by Immersion in Acidic and Alkaline Solutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahn, Seok-Hwan [Jungwon Univ., Koisan (Korea, Republic of); Jeong, Sang-Cheol; Nam, Ki-Woo [Pukyong National Univ., Busan (Korea, Republic of)


    A Weibull statistical analysis of the mechanical properties of SiC ceramics was carried out by immersion in acidic and alkaline solutions. The heat treatment was carried out at 1373 K. The corrosion of SiC was carried out in acidic and alkaline solutions under KSL1607. The bending strength of corroded crack-healed specimens decreased 47 % and 70 % compared to those of uncorroded specimens in acidic and alkaline solutions, respectively. The corrosion of SiC ceramics is faster in alkaline solution than in acid solution. The scale and shape parameters were evaluated for the as-received and corroded materials, respectively. The shape parameter of the as-received material corroded in acidic and alkaline solutions was significantly more apparent in the acidic solution. Further, the heat-treated material was large in acidic solution but small in alkaline solution. The shape parameters of the as-received and heat-treated materials were smaller in both acidic and alkaline solutions.

  18. Compatibility of SiC and SiC Composites with Molten Lead

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    H Tunison


    The choice of structural material candidates to contain Lead at 1000 C are limited in number. Silicon carbide composites comprise one choice of possible containment materials. Short term screening studies (120 hours) were undertaken to study the behavior of Silicon Carbide, Silicon Nitride, elemental Silicon and various Silicon Carbide fiber composites focusing mainly on melt infiltrated composites. Isothermal experiments at 1000 C utilized graphite fixtures to contain the Lead and material specimens under a low oxygen partial pressure environment. The corrosion weight loss values (grams/cm{sup 2} Hr) obtained for each of the pure materials showed SiC (monolithic CVD or Hexoloy) to have the best materials compatibility with Lead at this temperature. Increased weight loss values were observed for pure Silicon Nitride and elemental Silicon. For the SiC fiber composite samples those prepared using a SiC matrix material performed better than Si{sub 3}N{sub 4} as a matrix material. Composites prepared using a silicon melt infiltration process showed larger corrosion weight loss values due to the solubility of silicon in lead at these temperatures. When excess silicon was removed from these composite samples the corrosion performance for these material improved. These screening studies were used to guide future long term exposure (both isothermal and non-isothermal) experiments and Silicon Carbide composite fabrication work.

  19. Polymer precursors for SiC ceramic materials (United States)

    Litt, Morton H.


    Work on precursor polymers to SiC was performed, concentrating on polymers made from decamethyl cyclohexasilyene units. The initial approach was to synthesize mixed diphenyl decamethyl cyclohexasilane, dephenylate, and polymerize. This produced polymers which had yields of up to 50 percent SiC. (Theoretical yield is 75 percent). The present approach is to make the polymer through the intermediate trans-1,4-diphenyl decamethyl cyclohexasilane. This should produce a crystalline polymer and high strength fibers. These will be thermally decomposed to SiC fibers. This requires new chemistry which is currently being studied.

  20. Detail study of SiC MOSFET switching characteristics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Helong; Munk-Nielsen, Stig


    This paper makes detail study of the latest SiC MOSFETs switching characteristics in relation to gate driver maximum current, gate resistance, common source inductance and parasitic switching loop inductance. The switching performance of SiC MOSFETs in terms of turn on and turn off voltage...... and current are presented. Switching losses analysis is made according to the experiment results. The switching characteristics study and switching losses analysis could give some guidelines of gate driver IC and gate resistance selection, switching losses estimation and circuit design of SiC MOSFETs....

  1. Challenges in Switching SiC MOSFET without Ringing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Helong; Munk-Nielsen, Stig


    Switching SiC MOSFET without ringing in high frequency applications is important for meeting the EMI (ElectroMagnetic Interference) standard. Achieving a clean switching waveform of SiC MOSFET without additional components is becoming a challenge. In this paper, the switching oscillation mechanism...... is analysed in detail. According to the analysis, the optimal circuit design to minimize the parasitic parametric is introduced for a clean switching waveform. Experiment results show the clean switching waveform of SiC MOSFET. Guidelines are established for circuit design....

  2. Characteristics of Commercial SiC and Synthetic SiC as an Aggregate in Geopolymer Composites (United States)

    Irfanita, R.; Afifah, K. N.; Asrianti; Subaer


    This main objective of this study is to investigate the effect silicon carbide (SiC) as an aggregate on the mechanical strength and microstructure of the geopolymer composites. The geopolymers binder were produced by using alkaline activation method of metakaolin and cured at 70oC for 2 hours. In this study commercial and synthetic SiC were used as aggregate to produce composite structure. Synthetic SiC was produced from rice husk ash and coconut shell carbon calcined at 750oC for 2 hours. The addition of SiC in geopolymers paste was varied from 0.25g, 0.50g to 0.75g to form geopolymers composites. The chemical compositions and crystallinity level of SiC and the resulting composites were measured by means of Rigaku MiniFlexII X-Ray Diffraction (XRD). The microstructure of SiC and the composites were examined by using Tescan Vega3SB Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM). The physical and mechanical properties of the samples were determined based on apparent porosity, bulk density, and three bending flexural strength measurements. The results showed that the commercial and synthetic SiC were effectively produced geopolymers composites with different microstructure, physical and mechanical strength.

  3. Professional Enterprise NET

    CERN Document Server

    Arking, Jon


    Comprehensive coverage to help experienced .NET developers create flexible, extensible enterprise application code If you're an experienced Microsoft .NET developer, you'll find in this book a road map to the latest enterprise development methodologies. It covers the tools you will use in addition to Visual Studio, including Spring.NET and nUnit, and applies to development with ASP.NET, C#, VB, Office (VBA), and database. You will find comprehensive coverage of the tools and practices that professional .NET developers need to master in order to build enterprise more flexible, testable, and ext

  4. SiC MOSFETs based split output half bridge inverter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Helong; Munk-Nielsen, Stig; Beczkowski, Szymon


    . This paper makes the current commutation mechanism and efficiency analysis of half bridge with split output based on SiC MOSFETs. Current commutation process analysis is illustrated together with LTspice simulation and afterwards, verified by the experimental results of a double pulse test circuit with split......Body diode of SiC MOSFETs has a relatively high forward voltage drop and still experiences reverse recovery phenomenon. Half bridge with split output aims to decouple both the body diode and junction capacitance of SiC MOSFETs, therefore achieving a reduced switching loss in a bridge configuration...... output. The double pulse test shows the devices' current during commutation process and the reduced switching losses of SiC MOSFETs compared to that of the traditional half bridge. The efficiency comparison is presented with experimental results of half bridge power inverter with split output...

  5. Development of SiC Large Tapered Crystal Growth (United States)

    Neudeck, Phil


    Research Focus Area: Power Electronics, Temperature Tolerant Devices. Demonstrate initial feasibility of totally new "Large Tapered Crystal" (LTC) process for growing vastly improved large-diameter wide-band gap wafers. Addresses Targets: The goal of this research is to experimentally investigate and demonstrate feasibility of the key unproven LTC growth processes in SiC. Laser-assisted growth of long SiC fiber seeds. Radial epitaxial growth enlargement of seeds into large SiC boules. Uniqueness and Impacts open a new technology path to large-diameter SiC and GaN wafers with 1000-fold defect density improvement at 2-4 fold lower cost. Leapfrog improvement in wide band gap power device capability and cost.

  6. SiC Avalanche Photodiodes and Arrays Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Aymont Technology, Inc. (Aymont) will demonstrate the feasibility of SiC p-i-n avalanche photodiodes (APD) arrays. Aymont will demonstrate 4 x 4 arrays of 2 mm2 APDs...

  7. SiC power MOSFETs performance, robustness and technology maturity


    Castellazzi, Alberto; Fayyaz, Asad; Romano, G; Yang, Li; Riccio, M.; Irace, A.


    Relatively recently, SiC power MOSFETs have transitioned from being a research exercise to becoming an industrial reality. The potential benefits that can be drawn from this technology in the electrical energy conversion domain have been amply discussed and partly demonstrated. Before their widespread use in the field, the transistors need to be thoroughly investigated and later validated for robustness and longer term stability and reliability. This paper proposes a review of commercial SiC ...

  8. Synthesis of micro-sized interconnected Si-C composites (United States)

    Wang, Donghai; Yi, Ran; Dai, Fang


    Embodiments provide a method of producing micro-sized Si--C composites or doped Si--C and Si alloy-C with interconnected nanoscle Si and C building blocks through converting commercially available SiO.sub.x (0

  9. Excimer laser assisted chemical machining of SiC ceramic (United States)

    Hibi, Yuko; Enomoto, Yuji; Kikuchi, Kaoru; Shikata, Nobuo; Ogiso, Hisato


    A highly effective method of machining ceramic has been newly developed using a krypton fluoride (KrF) excimer laser with a 248 nm wavelength. The laser was irradiated on SiC in water to form a soft hydrous oxide layer by photochemical reaction. The softened layer was then cut with a diamond tool to form a mirror surface finish. The optimum conditions were found for both high machining rate and better surface integrity of SiC.

  10. Fabrication of SiC mat by radiation processing (United States)

    Kang, Phil-Hyun; Jeun, Joon-Pyo; Seo, Dong-Kwon; Nho, Young-Chang


    Silicon carbide (SiC) exhibits many important properties, such as high intrinsic strength, stiffness, and high temperature stability. Therein, it is considered to be one of the most promising candidates for reinforcement of advanced ceramic matrix composites. The use of preceramic polymers presents the possibility of solving the intricacies involved in obtaining a new generation of ceramic materials. In this study, a radiation processing method was used to fabricate a cured polycarbosilane mat as a preceramic polymer. The polycarbosilane mat was cured by electron beam (e-beam) irradiation up to 10 MGy in an inert gas atmosphere. Next, the e-beam-cured PCS mat, as green fiber, was carbonized to produce the SiC mat. The conversion process of the PCS mat into the SiC mat was investigated by SEM, FT-IR, XRD, and TGA. According to FT-IR analysis, the Si-H peak intensity was observed to decrease as the polymer structure changed from polycarbosilane to SiC. The XRD patterns of SiC showed the diffraction peaks at (1 1 1), (2 2 0), and (3 1 1) which indicated the emergence of β-SiC. TGA curve shows that weight percent of residue of electrospun PCS mat, e-beam-cured PCS mat and pyrolyzed SiC mat up to 1000 °C were 72.5%, 88.3%, and 99.2%, respectively.

  11. WaveNet (United States)


    Coastal Inlets Research Program WaveNet WaveNet is a web-based, Graphical-User-Interface ( GUI ) data management tool developed for Corps coastal...generates tabular and graphical information for project planning and design documents. The WaveNet is a web-based GUI designed to provide users with from different sources, and employs a combination of Fortran, Python and Matlab codes to process and analyze data for USACE applications

  12. Coloured Petri Nets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Kurt


    This paper describes how Coloured Petri Nets (CP-nets) have been developed — from being a promising theoretical model to being a full-fledged language for the design, specification, simulation, validation and implementation of large software systems (and other systems in which human beings and...... use of CP-nets — because it means that the function representation and the translations (which are a bit mathematically complex) no longer are parts of the basic definition of CP-nets. Instead they are parts of the invariant method (which anyway demands considerable mathematical skills...

  13. Game Coloured Petri Nets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Westergaard, Michael


    This paper introduces the notion of game coloured Petri nets. This allows the modeler to explicitly model what parts of the model comprise the modeled system and what parts are the environment of the modeled system. We give the formal definition of game coloured Petri nets, a means of reachability...... analysis of this net class, and an application of game coloured Petri nets to automatically generate easy-to-understand visualizations of the model by exploiting the knowledge that some parts of the model are not interesting from a visualization perspective (i.e. they are part of the environment...

  14. Programming NET Web Services

    CERN Document Server

    Ferrara, Alex


    Web services are poised to become a key technology for a wide range of Internet-enabled applications, spanning everything from straight B2B systems to mobile devices and proprietary in-house software. While there are several tools and platforms that can be used for building web services, developers are finding a powerful tool in Microsoft's .NET Framework and Visual Studio .NET. Designed from scratch to support the development of web services, the .NET Framework simplifies the process--programmers find that tasks that took an hour using the SOAP Toolkit take just minutes. Programming .NET

  15. Annotating Coloured Petri Nets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindstrøm, Bo; Wells, Lisa Marie


    -net. An example of such auxiliary information is a counter which is associated with a token to be able to do performance analysis. Modifying colour sets and arc inscriptions in a CP-net to support a specific use may lead to creation of several slightly different CP-nets – only to support the different uses...... a method which makes it possible to associate auxiliary information, called annotations, with tokens without modifying the colour sets of the CP-net. Annotations are pieces of information that are not essential for determining the behaviour of the system being modelled, but are rather added to support...

  16. Research on SiC Whisker Prepared by H-PSO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    WANG Yao


    Full Text Available SiC whiskers were prepared on the matrix of graphite by using high hydrogenous silicone oil(PSO as raw material. The effect of surface conditions of graphite and heating temperature on the growth of SiC whisker was mainly studied in this paper. The main factor which affects the nucleation and growth of SiC whisker is the heating temperature, with the heating temperature rising, the production of SiC whisker increases. The surface condition of graphite matrix also influences the growth of SiC whisker. With the nucleation points provided by graphite matrix defects increasing, the production of SiC whisker incleases and SiC whisker starts to overlap with each other. The formation process of SiC whisker includes two steps:nucleation and growth. SiC whisker nucleates at low temperature and grows at high temperature, which follows the VLS (vapor-liquid-solid growth mechanism.


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wereszczak, Andrew A [ORNL; Johanns, Kurt E [ORNL


    Instrumented Hertzian indentation testing was performed on several grades of SiCs and the results and preliminary interpretations are presented. The grades included hot-pressed and sintered compositions. One of the hot-pressed grades was additionally subjected to high temperature heat treatment to produce a coarsened grain microstructure to enable the examination of exaggerated grain size on indentation response. Diamond spherical indenters were used in the testing. Indentation load, indentation depth of penetration, and acoustic activity were continually measured during each indentation test. Indentation response and postmortem analysis of induced damage (e.g., ring/cone, radial and median cracking, quasi-plasticity) are compared and qualitatively as a function of grain size. For the case of SiC-N, the instrumented spherical indentation showed that yielding initiated at an average contact stress 12-13 GPa and that there was another event (i.e., a noticeable rate increase in compliance probably associated with extensive ring and radial crack formations) occurring around an estimated average contact stress of 19 GPa.

  18. Experimental and simulation studies of neutron-induced single-event burnout in SiC power diodes (United States)

    Shoji, Tomoyuki; Nishida, Shuichi; Hamada, Kimimori; Tadano, Hiroshi


    Neutron-induced single-event burnouts (SEBs) of silicon carbide (SiC) power diodes have been investigated by white neutron irradiation experiments and transient device simulations. It was confirmed that a rapid increase in lattice temperature leads to formation of crown-shaped aluminum and cracks inside the device owing to expansion stress when the maximum lattice temperature reaches the sublimation temperature. SEB device simulation indicated that the peak lattice temperature is located in the vicinity of the n-/n+ interface and anode contact, and that the positions correspond to a hammock-like electric field distribution caused by the space charge effect. Moreover, the locations of the simulated peak lattice temperature agree closely with the positions of the observed destruction traces. Furthermore, it was theoretically demonstrated that the period of temperature increase of a SiC power device is two orders of magnitude less than that of a Si power device, using a thermal diffusion equation.

  19. Net zero water

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Lindeque, M


    Full Text Available Is it possible to develop a building that uses a net zero amount of water? In recent years it has become evident that it is possible to have buildings that use a net zero amount of electricity. This is possible when the building is taken off...

  20. SolNet

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jordan, Ulrike; Vajen, Klaus; Bales, Chris


    SolNet, founded in 2006, is the first coordinated International PhD education program on Solar Thermal Engineering. The SolNet network is coordinated by the Institute of Thermal Engineering at Kassel University, Germany. The network offers PhD courses on solar heating and cooling, conference...

  1. Kunstige neurale net

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hørning, Annette


    Artiklen beskæftiger sig med muligheden for at anvende kunstige neurale net i forbindelse med datamatisk procession af naturligt sprog, specielt automatisk talegenkendelse.......Artiklen beskæftiger sig med muligheden for at anvende kunstige neurale net i forbindelse med datamatisk procession af naturligt sprog, specielt automatisk talegenkendelse....

  2. Amorphization of SiC under ion and neutron irradiation (United States)

    Snead, L. L.; Zinkle, S. J.; Hay, J. C.; Osborne, M. C.


    This paper presents results on the microstructure and physical properties of SiC amorphized by both ion and neutron irradiation. Specifically, 0.56 MeV Si ions have been implanted in single crystal 6H-SiC from ambient through >200°C and the critical threshold for amorphization was measured as a function of the irradiation temperature. From a high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) study of the crystalline to amorphous transition region in these materials, elongated pockets of amorphous material oriented parallel to the free surface are observed. Single crystal 6H-SiC and hot pressed and sintered 6H and 3C SiC were neutron irradiated at approximately 70°C to a dose of ˜2.56 dpa causing complete amorphization. Property changes resulting from the crystal to amorphous transition in SiC include a density decrease of 10.8%, a hardness decrease from 38.7 to 21.0 GPa, and a decrease in elastic modulus from 528 to 292 GPa. Recrystallization of the amorphized, single crystal 6H-SiC appears to occur in two stages. In the temperature range of ˜800-1000°C, crystallites nucleate and slowly grow. In the temperature range of 1125-1150°C spontaneous nucleation and rapid growth of crystallites occur. It is further noted that amorphized 6H (alpha) SiC recrystallizes to highly faulted fcc (beta) SiC.

  3. ELID grinding of SiC ultra lightweight mirror (United States)

    Eto, Hiroaki; Dai, Yutang; Ebizuka, Noboru; Saito, Yasutaka; Suzuki, Toru; Lin, Weimin; Ohmori, Hitoshi; Ebisuzaki, Toshikazu; Takami, Hideki


    Silicon carbide (SiC) is the most advantageous as the material of various telescope mirrors, because SiC has high stiffness, high thermal conductivity, low thermal expansion and low density and so on [1] [2]. However, since SiC is very hard, it is difficult to obtain the surfaces efficiently by using ordinary grinding method. Therefore, we developed the ultra lightweight mirror by ELID (ELectrolytic In-process Dressing) grinding method and ultra-precision grinding machine. ELID grinding method is the new grinding technology which one of authors invented, produces the quality of the high surface efficiently, and is effective in processing of a very hard material, such as crystalline silicon and sapphire, ceramics, glasses, hard metals and so on. SiC mirror for space telescope is designed as regular polygon rib structures in the rear face for reducing weight, and both the optical face and the backside ribs are so thin that deformation of the mirror cannot disregard. Therefore, in order to feed back deformation of the mirror to the orbit of grinding wheel, it is necessary to analyze deformation. In this research, we present the results which fabricated mirrors of sintered SiC by the ELID grinding method, the numerical calculation results of the profile deformations analyzed by FEM, and new jig for Φ360mm a mirror.

  4. Pro NET Best Practices

    CERN Document Server

    Ritchie, Stephen D


    Pro .NET Best Practices is a practical reference to the best practices that you can apply to your .NET projects today. You will learn standards, techniques, and conventions that are sharply focused, realistic and helpful for achieving results, steering clear of unproven, idealistic, and impractical recommendations. Pro .NET Best Practices covers a broad range of practices and principles that development experts agree are the right ways to develop software, which includes continuous integration, automated testing, automated deployment, and code analysis. Whether the solution is from a free and

  5. Getting to Net Zero

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)


    The technology necessary to build net zero energy buildings (NZEBs) is ready and available today, however, building to net zero energy performance levels can be challenging. Energy efficiency measures, onsite energy generation resources, load matching and grid interaction, climatic factors, and local policies vary from location to location and require unique methods of constructing NZEBs. It is recommended that Components start looking into how to construct and operate NZEBs now as there is a learning curve to net zero construction and FY 2020 is just around the corner.

  6. Instant Lucene.NET

    CERN Document Server

    Heydt, Michael


    Filled with practical, step-by-step instructions and clear explanations for the most important and useful tasks. A step-by-step guide that helps you to index, search, and retrieve unstructured data with the help of Lucene.NET.Instant Lucene.NET How-to is essential for developers new to Lucene and Lucene.NET who are looking to get an immediate foundational understanding of how to use the library in their application. It's assumed you have programming experience in C# already, but not that you have experience with search techniques such as information retrieval theory (although there will be a l

  7. Au ion irradiation of various silicon carbide fiber-reinforced SiC matrix composites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chaâbane, Nihed, E-mail: [CEA, INSTN/UEPTN, F-91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Flem, Marion Le [CEA, DEN/DMN/SRMA, F-91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Tanguy, Morgane [CEA, INSTN/UEPTN, F-91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Urvoy, Stéphane [CEA, DEN/DMN/SRMA, F-91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Sandt, Christophe; Dumas, Paul [Synchrotron SOLEIL, L’Orme des Merisiers, Saint-Aubin, BP 48, 91192 Gif-sur-Yvette Cedex (France); Serruys, Yves [CEA, DEN/DMN/SRMP, Laboratoire JANNUS, F-91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France)


    Silicon carbide fiber-reinforced SiC matrix composites are promising candidates as fuel cladding for several concepts of Generation IV reactors and as structural materials for fusion reactors. The composites used in this study were composed of a SiC matrix obtained by chemical vapor infiltration associated with various fiber types (Tyranno Type-S, Tyranno SA Grade-3 and Hi-Nicalon Type-S) and with a PyC layer as the interphase. 12 MeV Au ions were used for irradiation up to 0.05 and 1 displacement per atom (dpa) fluences at room temperature and 800 °C. Analysis of both microstructure and composition of composites were performed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), electron probe microanalysis and Raman spectroscopy. At room temperature and low fluence, Raman spectroscopy results showed that irradiation induces a disordered/distorted state into fibers and matrix. With increasing fluence, a total amorphization of these constituents occurs. The increase in the irradiation temperature leads to a damage recovery and partial recrystallization of samples. Image analysis performed from SEM micrographs highlights no significant change in fiber diameter and shape. However, SEM analysis suggests a longitudinal shrinkage of Tyranno Type-S fibers for the composite irradiated at 1 dpa at room temperature and 800 °C. These results are in complete agreement with conclusions from neutron irradiations suggesting an appropriate relevance of irradiations with 12 MeV Au.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana S. Argunova


    Full Text Available By the use of high-resolution X-ray diffractometry and synchrotron radiation topography, the distribution of dislocations in AlN crystals grown on evaporating SiC substrates is studied. The growth of AlN layer in one process with the evaporation of SiC substrate gave the possibility to prevent the relaxation of thermal stresses through cracking of AlN during cooling the structure. The continuous 0.2-1.5 mm thick plates were used as the model objects for the study of dislocation structure near the AlN/SiC interface. Analysis of the broadening of the Bragg reflection peaks, the shape of scattering maps in reciprocal space and topographs showed that dislocations formed the mosaic structure, different from the distribution of threading dislocations in GaN epilayers. A theoretical model for misfit strain relaxation in the growing AlN layer is suggested. The results enable to clarify the dislocation processes during sublimation growth of industrial quality AlN crystals.

  9. Thermochemistry and growth mechanism of SiC nanowires (United States)

    Chen, Jianjun; Ding, Lijuan; Xin, Lipeng; Zeng, Fan; Chen, Jun


    The chemical reaction thermodynamics and a novel two-stage growth mechanism of SiC nanowires synthesized by carbothermal reduction reactions were investigated based on the Si-C-O systems over a wide temperature range (1050 ≤ T ≤ 2000 K). The carbothermal reduction reaction process involves the fast formation of gaseous SiO and CO crucial intermediates, and the further carbon reduction of SiO to SiC. The relationship between the free energy changes and temperature at different pressures was also discussed. Some fundamental data in the work can help to analyze the thermochemistry of the carbothermal reduction reaction in the Si-C-O system, which is beneficial to optimize the temperature, pressure and the input precursors for controlling the SiC nanowire growth.

  10. Formation of SiC thin films by chemical vapor deposition with vinylsilane precursor (United States)

    Doi, Takuma; Takeuchi, Wakana; Jin, Yong; Kokubun, Hiroshi; Yasuhara, Shigeo; Nakatsuka, Osamu; Zaima, Shigeaki


    We have examined the formation of SiC thin films by chemical vapor deposition (CVD) using vinylsilane and investigated the chemical bonding state and crystallinity of the prepared SiC thin films. We achieved the formation of a Si–H–less SiC film at growth temperatures as low as 600 °C. Also, we investigated the in situ doping effect of N by the incorporation of NH3 gas in the SiC growth and demonstrated that the chemical composition of N in SiC thin films was controlled by adjusting the NH3 flow rate. In addition, we examined the growth of SiC thin films on a Cu substrate and achieved the formation of a SiC thin film while avoiding any significant reaction between SiC and Cu at a growth temperature of 700 °C.

  11. Rare earth element abundances in presolar SiC (United States)

    Ireland, T. R.; Ávila, J. N.; Lugaro, M.; Cristallo, S.; Holden, P.; Lanc, P.; Nittler, L.; Alexander, C. M. O'D.; Gyngard, F.; Amari, S.


    Individual isotope abundances of Ba, lanthanides of the rare earth element (REE) group, and Hf have been determined in bulk samples of fine-grained silicon carbide (SiC) from the Murchison CM2 chondrite. The analytical protocol involved secondary ion mass spectrometry with combined high mass resolution and energy filtering to exclude REE oxide isobars and Si-C-O clusters from the peaks of interest. Relative sensitivity factors were determined through analysis of NIST SRM reference glasses (610 and 612) as well as a trace-element enriched SiC ceramic. When normalised to chondrite abundances, the presolar SiC REE pattern shows significant deficits at Eu and Yb, which are the most volatile of the REE. The pattern is very similar to that observed for Group III refractory inclusions. The SiC abundances were also normalised to s-process model predictions for the envelope compositions of low-mass (1.5-3 M⊙) AGB stars with close-to-solar metallicities (Z = 0.014 and 0.02). The overall trace element abundances (excluding Eu and Yb) appear consistent with the predicted s-process patterns. The depletions of Eu and Yb suggest that these elements remained in the gas phase during the condensation of SiC. The lack of depletion in some other moderately refractory elements (like Ba), and the presence of volatile elements (e.g. Xe) indicates that these elements were incorporated into SiC by other mechanisms, most likely ion implantation.

  12. Status and Prospects of SiC Power Devices (United States)

    Bakowski, Mietek

    Silicon Carbide (SiC) power devices offer significant benefits of improved efficiency, dynamic performance and reliability of electronic and electric systems. The challenges and prospects of SiC power device development are reviewed considering different device types. A close correlation between an exponential increase of current handling capability during the last ten years and improvement in substrate quality is demonstrated. The voltage range of silicon and SiC unipolar and bipolar power devices with respect to the on-state voltage is determined based on device simulations. 4H-SiC unipolar devices are potentially superior to all silicon devices up to 5kV design voltage and to all SiC bipolar devices up to 5-6kV design voltage for temperatures up to 150°C. The low end of SiC unipolar devices is determined to be around 200V design voltage provided substrate resistance is reduced by reducing the thickness of the substrate down to 100μm. The influence of reduced channel mobility on the specific on-resistance of 4H-SiC and 3C-SiC DMOSFETs is shown. It has been demonstrated that 3C-SiC DMOSFETs could be a better choice compared to 4H-SiC DMOSFETs in the voltage range below 1.2kV utilising better channel mobility and larger substrate size obtainable in the near future in 3C-SiC polytype. An impact of the super junction (SJ) concept on silicon and SiC MOSFET specific on-resistance limits is demonstrated.

  13. Recent developments in SiC single-crystal electronics (United States)

    Ivanov, P. A.; Chelnokov, V. E.


    The present paper is an analytical review of the last five or six years of research and development in SiC. It outlines the major achievements in single crystal growth and device technology. Electrical performance of SiC devices designed during these years and some new trends in SiC electronics are also discussed. During the 1980s the studies on sublimation and liquid-phase epitaxial growth of SiC single crystal were continued successfully. At that time, such methods as chemical vapour deposition, thermal oxidation, 'dry' plasma etching and ion implantation which yielded good results with silicon, came into use. As a result of the technological progress, discrete devices appeared, which incorporated the potential advantages of SiC as a wide bandgap material. Among these were high temperature (500-600 degrees C) rectifier diodes and field-effect transistors, high efficiency light-emitting diodes for the short-wave region of the visible spectrum, and detectors of ultraviolet radiation. It should be stressed that the devices were of commercial quality and could be applied in various fields (control systems of automobile engines, aerospace apparatus, geophysical equipment, colour displays in information systems, etc.). The developments in technology and the promising results of research on electrical performance of the devices already available give hope that in the near future SiC may become the basic material for power microwave devices, and for thermo- and radiation-resistant integrated circuits. This process can be stimulated by further perfection of single-crystal substrates of large area, by development of stable high temperature ohmic contacts, micro- and heterostructures.

  14. Detection Simulation of SiC Semiconductor Detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Hong Yeop; Kim, Jeong Dong; Lee, Yong Deok; Kim, Ho Dong [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)


    In a high radiation environment, it has received attention as a material for detecting radiation (neutron). As the field of application of a SIC neutron detector, the semiconductor detector used in cosmic rays was proposed by Ruddy. Recently, X-ray and low-energy gamma ray spectrometry with SiC detectors has been reported. Its usability has recently been being proved in neutron dose surveillance in BNCT (Boron-Capture Neutron Therapy), thermal neutron detection in a waste drum, nuclear material surveillance, and fast neutron detection. In addition, in 2006, an experiment was actually performed by Natsume on spent nuclear fuel. SIC is suitable for radiation surveillance in a complex radiation field emitted from spent nuclear fuel and the pyropocess process. In the radiation field of spent nuclear fuel, neutrons and gamma rays are generated. In this research, the performance of a SiC detector made at KAERI was evaluated to obtain a discriminated neutron signal. First, using neutron ({sup 252}Cf), alpha ({sup 241}Am), and gamma ({sup 60}Co) sources, a SiC semi- conductor detector was tested. The energy spectrum in a complex radiation field was simulated using the MCNPX 2.5. Finally, the experimental results by Ruddy were compared with the simulation results. Research result, whether the SiC semiconductor detector operating or not was confirmed through the simulation according to the neutron, gamma. The simulation results were similar to those of Ruddy. A further study is underway to investigate the discriminated neutron signal of a complex radiation field.

  15. Net Zero Energy Buildings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marszal, Anna Joanna; Bourrelle, Julien S.; Musall, Eike


    and identify possible renewable energy supply options which may be considered in calculations. Finally, the gap between the methodology proposed by each organisation and their respective national building code is assessed; providing an overview of the possible changes building codes will need to undergo......The international cooperation project IEA SHC Task 40 / ECBCS Annex 52 “Towards Net Zero Energy Solar Buildings”, attempts to develop a common understanding and to set up the basis for an international definition framework of Net Zero Energy Buildings (Net ZEBs). The understanding of such buildings...... parameters used in the calculations are discussed and the various renewable supply options considered in the methodologies are summarised graphically. Thus, the paper helps to understand different existing approaches to calculate energy balance in Net ZEBs, highlights the importance of variables selection...

  16. PhysioNet (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The PhysioNet Resource is intended to stimulate current research and new investigations in the study of complex biomedical and physiologic signals. It offers free...

  17. NetSig

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Horn, Heiko; Lawrence, Michael S; Chouinard, Candace R


    Methods that integrate molecular network information and tumor genome data could complement gene-based statistical tests to identify likely new cancer genes; but such approaches are challenging to validate at scale, and their predictive value remains unclear. We developed a robust statistic (Net......Sig) that integrates protein interaction networks with data from 4,742 tumor exomes. NetSig can accurately classify known driver genes in 60% of tested tumor types and predicts 62 new driver candidates. Using a quantitative experimental framework to determine in vivo tumorigenic potential in mice, we found that Net......Sig candidates induce tumors at rates that are comparable to those of known oncogenes and are ten-fold higher than those of random genes. By reanalyzing nine tumor-inducing NetSig candidates in 242 patients with oncogene-negative lung adenocarcinomas, we find that two (AKT2 and TFDP2) are significantly amplified...

  18. Packaging Technology for SiC High Temperature Electronics (United States)

    Chen, Liang-Yu; Neudeck, Philip G.; Spry, David J.; Meredith, Roger D.; Nakley, Leah M.; Beheim, Glenn M.; Hunter, Gary W.


    High-temperature environment operable sensors and electronics are required for long-term exploration of Venus and distributed control of next generation aeronautical engines. Various silicon carbide (SiC) high temperature sensors, actuators, and electronics have been demonstrated at and above 500 C. A compatible packaging system is essential for long-term testing and application of high temperature electronics and sensors in relevant environments. This talk will discuss a ceramic packaging system developed for high temperature electronics, and related testing results of SiC integrated circuits at 500 C facilitated by this high temperature packaging system, including the most recent progress.



    Bronsveld, P.M.; Hosson, J.Th. De; Sargent, M.A.; Alsem, W.H.M.


    The difference between extruded and hot isostatically pressed (HIP) Al6061 both with a T6 final heat treatment and with a 30 wt.% SiC particulate reinforcement is one of densification. The higher density of the HIP material is not translated into a stronger material. The Mg2Si precipitation is favoured by the presence of the SiC reinforcement in both samples. HIP powder metallurgy material reveals clearly the original powder particle boundaries, in contrast to the more smeared-out stringers i...

  20. Supernova Reverse Shocks and SiC Growth


    Deneault, E. A. -N.; Clayton, D. D.; Heger, A.


    We present new mechanisms by which the isotopic compositions of X-type grains of presolar SiC are altered by reverse shocks in Type II supernovae. We address three epochs of reverse shocks: pressure wave from the H envelope near t = 10$^6$s; reverse shock from the presupernova wind near 10$^8-10^9$s; reverse shock from the ISM near 10$^{10}$s. Using 1-D hydrodynamics we show that the first creates a dense shell of Si and C atoms near 10$^6$s in which the SiC surely condenses. The second rever...

  1. Influence of Milling Time on the Crystallite Size of AlSi5Cu2/SiC Composite Powder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suśniak M.


    Full Text Available AlSi5Cu2/SiC nanocrystalline composite powder was successfully obtained by mechanical alloying of AlSi5Cu2 chips with reinforcement of 0, 10, 15, 20 wt. % of silicon carbide. X-ray powder diffraction was used to characterize obtained material. Detailed analyses using transmission and scanning electron microscopy have been conducted in order to collaborate the grain size measurement determined from the XRD analyses. Powders produced in a planetary ball mill with milling time: 1, 5, 10, 15, 20 and 40 hours, have shown shape and size evaluation during mechanical alloying process. It can be seen tendency to decrease the size of the grain as the milling time is increased. It is also noted that the grains of composites (AlSi5Cu2/SiC are smaller than samples prepares without SiC addition. 40 hours of milling lead to formed very small grains of Al phase (20 nm in average in composite powder.

  2. TideNet (United States)


    query tide data sources in a desired geographic region of USA and its territories (Figure 1). Users can select a tide data source through the Google Map data sources according to the desired geographic region. It uses the Google Map interface to display data from different sources. Recent...Coastal Inlets Research Program TideNet The TideNet is a web-based Graphical User Interface (GUI) that provides users with GIS mapping tools to

  3. Building Neural Net Software


    Neto, João Pedro; Costa, José Félix


    In a recent paper [Neto et al. 97] we showed that programming languages can be translated on recurrent (analog, rational weighted) neural nets. The goal was not efficiency but simplicity. Indeed we used a number-theoretic approach to machine programming, where (integer) numbers were coded in a unary fashion, introducing a exponential slow down in the computations, with respect to a two-symbol tape Turing machine. Implementation of programming languages in neural nets turns to be not only theo...

  4. Interaction Nets in Russian


    Salikhmetov, Anton


    Draft translation to Russian of Chapter 7, Interaction-Based Models of Computation, from Models of Computation: An Introduction to Computability Theory by Maribel Fernandez. "In this chapter, we study interaction nets, a model of computation that can be seen as a representative of a class of models based on the notion of 'computation as interaction'. Interaction nets are a graphical model of computation devised by Yves Lafont in 1990 as a generalisation of the proof structures of linear logic...

  5. Programming NET 35

    CERN Document Server

    Liberty, Jesse


    Bestselling author Jesse Liberty and industry expert Alex Horovitz uncover the common threads that unite the .NET 3.5 technologies, so you can benefit from the best practices and architectural patterns baked into the new Microsoft frameworks. The book offers a Grand Tour" of .NET 3.5 that describes how the principal technologies can be used together, with Ajax, to build modern n-tier and service-oriented applications. "

  6. Influence of microstructure on hydrothermal corrosion of chemically vapor processed SiC composite tubes (United States)

    Kim, Daejong; Lee, Ho Jung; Jang, Changheui; Lee, Hyeon-Geun; Park, Ji Yeon; Kim, Weon-Ju


    Multi-layered SiC composites consisting of monolithic SiC and a SiCf/SiC composite are one of the accident tolerant fuel cladding concepts in pressurized light water reactors. To evaluate the integrity of the SiC fuel cladding under normal operating conditions of a pressurized light water reactor, the hydrothermal corrosion behavior of multi-layered SiC composite tubes was investigated in the simulated primary water environment of a pressurized water reactor without neutron fluence. The results showed that SiC phases with good crystallinity such as Tyranno SA3 SiC fiber and monolithic SiC deposited at 1200 °C had good corrosion resistance. However, the SiC phase deposited at 1000 °C had less crystallinity and severely dissolved in water, particularly the amorphous SiC phase formed along grain boundaries. Dissolved hydrogen did not play a significant role in improving the hydrothermal corrosion resistance of the CVI-processed SiC phases containing amorphous SiC, resulting in a significant weight loss and reduction of hoop strength of the multi-layered SiC composite tubes after corrosion.

  7. Epitaxial grapheme on SiC(0001) and SiC(000-1): a photoelectron diffraction (XPD) study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lima, L.H.; Siervo, A.; Landers, R. [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (IFGW/UNICAMP), SP (Brazil). Inst. de Fisica Gleb Wataghin; Goncalves, A.B.; Lacerda, R.G. [Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais (UFMG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Dept. de Fisica; Tapia, P.H. [Universidad Tecnica Federico Santa Maria, Valparaiso (Chile)


    Full text. A flat, single layer of graphite known as grapheme has become the focus of studies due to its exceptional properties and fascinating applications. Large scale grapheme layers for a possible application can be grown epitaxially on SiC by Si sublimation. Even before the interest in grapheme, the surface of SiC was already extensively studied. It exhibits a large variety of surface reconstructions and these reconstructions are very dependent of sample preparation and orientation (0001) or (000-1). In this study, we show a preliminary investigation of the structural properties of grapheme layers on SiC (0001) e SiC (000-1) by photoelectron diffraction (XPD). The surfaces were prepared by heating the 1x1 surface to temperatures of about 1150 deg C in high ultra vacuum and the various reconstructions were monitored by Low Energy Electron Diffraction (LEED) and X-Ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS). In particular for the Si-terminated surface, that is SiC(0001), the interface between grapheme and SiC is characterized by the so-called (6{radical}3 x 6{radical}3) R30 deg reconstruction (buffer layer). The interpretation of this reconstruction, which is the initial stage of graphitization, has lead to controversy in the literature. We will further discuss the buffer layer structure in terms of the XPD results. The XPD experiments were performed at SGM beam line at LNLS using photons with 400/450 eV probing the Si2p and C1s core level. The C1s signal was separate in to contributions from volume and surface and compares the experimental results with photoelectron multiple scattering calculations performed with the MSCD package

  8. -Net Approach to Sensor -Coverage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fusco Giordano


    Full Text Available Wireless sensors rely on battery power, and in many applications it is difficult or prohibitive to replace them. Hence, in order to prolongate the system's lifetime, some sensors can be kept inactive while others perform all the tasks. In this paper, we study the -coverage problem of activating the minimum number of sensors to ensure that every point in the area is covered by at least sensors. This ensures higher fault tolerance, robustness, and improves many operations, among which position detection and intrusion detection. The -coverage problem is trivially NP-complete, and hence we can only provide approximation algorithms. In this paper, we present an algorithm based on an extension of the classical -net technique. This method gives an -approximation, where is the number of sensors in an optimal solution. We do not make any particular assumption on the shape of the areas covered by each sensor, besides that they must be closed, connected, and without holes.

  9. Stress Analysis of SiC MEMS Using Raman Spectroscopy (United States)

    Ness, Stanley J.; Marciniak, M. A.; Lott, J. A.; Starman, L. A.; Busbee, J. D.; Melzak, J. M.


    During the fabrication of Micro-Electro-Mechanical Systems (MEMS), residual stress is often induced in the thin films that are deposited to create these systems. These stresses can cause the device to fail due to buckling, curling, or fracture. Industry is looking for ways to characterize the stress during the deposition of thin films in order to reduce or eliminate device failure. Micro-Raman spectroscopy has been successfully used to characterize poly-Si MEMS devices made with the MUMPS® process. Raman spectroscopy was selected because it is nondestructive, fast and has the potential for in situ stress monitoring. This research attempts to use Raman spectroscopy to analyze the stress in SiC MEMS made with the MUSiC® process. Raman spectroscopy is performed on 1-2-micron-thick SiC thin films deposited on silicon, silicon nitride, and silicon oxide substrates. The most common poly-type of SiC found in thin film MEMS made with the MUSiC® process is 3C-SiC. Research also includes baseline spectra of 6H, 4H, and 15R poly-types of bulk SiC.

  10. Passivation of SiC device surfaces by aluminum oxide (United States)

    Hallén, A.; Usman, M.; Suvanam, S.; Henkel, C.; Martin, D.; Linnarsson, M. K.


    A steady improvement in material quality and process technology has made electronic silicon carbide devices commercially available. Both rectifying and switched devices can today be purchased from several vendors. This successful SiC development over the last 25 years can also be utilized for other types of devices, such as light emitting and photovoltaic devices, however, there are still critical problems related to material properties and reliability that need to be addressed. This contribution will focus on surface passivation of SiC devices. This issue is of utmost importance for further development of SiC MOSFETs, which so far has been limited by reliability and low charge carrier surface mobilities. Also bipolar devices, such as BJTs, LEDs, or PV devices will benefit from more efficient and reliable surface passivation techniques in order to maintain long charge carrier lifetimes. Silicon carbide material enables the devices to operate at higher electric fields, higher temperatures and in more radiation dense applications than silicon devices. To be able to utilize the full potential of the SiC material, it is therefore necessary to develop passivation layers that can sustain these more demanding operation conditions. In this presentation it will also be shown that passivation layers of Al2O3 deposited by atomic layer deposition have shown superior radiation hardness properties compared to traditional SiO2-based passivation layers.

  11. High temperature flow behaviour of SiC reinforced lithium ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)


    Abstract. The compressive flow behaviour of lithium aluminosilicate (LAS) glass, with and without SiC particulate reinforcements, was studied. The LAS glass crystallized to β spodumene during high-temperature testing. The flow behaviour of LAS glass changed from Newtonian to non-Newtonian due to the presence of.


    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bronsveld, P.M.; Hosson, J.Th. De; Sargent, M.A.; Alsem, W.H.M.


    The difference between extruded and hot isostatically pressed (HIP) Al6061 both with a T6 final heat treatment and with a 30 wt.% SiC particulate reinforcement is one of densification. The higher density of the HIP material is not translated into a stronger material. The Mg2Si precipitation is

  13. Conducted EMI in Inverters with SiC Transistors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gong, X.


    Conducted EMI in Inverters with SiC Transistors Electromagnetic Interference (EMI) is the main side effect accompanied with the fast voltage and current switching transients in power electronics applications. Compliance of the Electromagnetic Compatibility (EMC) standard is prescribed for any power

  14. Crystal growth and characterization of fluorescent SiC

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wellmann, P.; Kaiser, M.; Hupfer, T.

    Silicon carbide (SiC) is widely used as substrate for nitride based light emitting diodes (LEDs). For today’s white LEDs mainly a sandwich structure of a blue or ultra violet LED and a yellowish phosphorus is used. In the frame of European project we study a concept to implement the functionality...

  15. Performance of bulk SiC radiation detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Cunningham, W; Lamb, G; Scott, J; Mathieson, K; Roy, P; Bates, R; Thornton, P; Smith, K M; Cusco, R; Glaser, M; Rahman, M


    SiC is a wide-gap material with excellent electrical and physical properties that may make it an important material for some future electronic devices. The most important possible applications of SiC are in hostile environments, such as in car/jet engines, within nuclear reactors, or in outer space. Another area where the material properties, most notably radiation hardness, would be valuable is in the inner tracking detectors of particle physics experiments. Here, we describe the performance of SiC diodes irradiated in the 24 GeV proton beam at CERN. Schottky measurements have been used to probe the irradiated material for changes in I-V characteristics. Other methods, borrowed from III-V research, used to study the irradiated surface include atomic force microscope scans and Raman spectroscopy. These have been used to observe the damage to the materials surface and internal lattice structure. We have also characterised the detection capabilities of bulk semi-insulating SiC for alpha radiation. By measuring ...

  16. Porous Alumina Ceramics Modified with SiC Nanopowder


    Zaķe-Tiļuga, I; Švinka, R; Švinka, V


    The aim of this study was to clarify how addition of plasma synthesized SiC nanopowder (up to 5 wt%) affect some properties (e.g., shrinkage, bending strength and thermal shock resistance) of porous alumina ceramics produced by slip casting method.

  17. Low Temperature Photoluminescence of 6H fluorescent SiC

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wei, Yi; Künecke, Ulrike; Jokubavicius, Valdas

    We have presented the low temperature photoluminescence (PL) measurements of three 6H fluorescent Silicon Carbide (f-SiC) samples. The epilayers of the f-SiC samples were nitrogenboron co-doped and grown by fast sublimation growth process (FSGP) method on the bulk 6H SiC substrates. The doping...

  18. Microplastic flow in SIC/AL composites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shi, N. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Arsenault, R.J. [Univ. of Maryland, College Park, MD (United States)


    Experimentally it has been determined that if a composite containing a reinforcement which has a different (in general lower) thermal coefficient of expansion as compared to the matrix, then upon cooling from the processing or annealing temperature, plastic relaxation of the misfit strain will occur. Also, experimentally it has been shown that as the size of the reinforcement is increased, i.e., from small spheres to large spheres, there is a decrease in the summation of the effective plastic strain in the matrix. In other words there is a decrease in the average dislocation density in the matrix. However, if the shape of the reinforcement is changed from spherical to short fiber to continuous filament, then the dislocation density increases. This experimental data is obtained at a constant volume fraction. A very simple model of plastic relaxation based on prismatic punching of dislocations from the interface can account for the decrease in the dislocation density with an increase reinforcement size, and the increase in dislocation density when changing the shape from a sphere to a continuous filament. A FEM analysis of the shape factor is also capable of predicting the correct trend. However, at present the continuum mechanics methods that have been investigated can not predict the size dependence. A simple model to explain the size effect in Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}/NiAl composites based on the deformation characteristics of NiAl will be discussed.

  19. First principle identification of SiC monolayer as an efficient catalyst for CO oxidation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sinthika, S., E-mail:, E-mail:; Thapa, Ranjit, E-mail:, E-mail: [SRM Research Institute, SRM University, Kattankulathur 603203, Tamil Nadu (India); Reddy, C. Prakash [Department of Physics and Nanotechnology, SRM University, Kattankulathur 603203, Tamil Nadu (India)


    Using density functional theory, we investigated the electronic properties of SiC monolayer and tested its catalytic activity toward CO oxidation. The planar nature of a SiC monolayer is found to stable and is a high band gap semiconductor. CO interacts physically with SiC surface, whereas O{sub 2} is adsorbed with moderate binding. CO oxidation on SiC monolayer prefers the Eley Rideal mechanism over the Langmuir Hinshelwood mechanism, with an easily surmountable activation barrier during CO{sub 2} formation. Overall metal free SiC monolayer can be used as efficient catalyst for CO oxidation.

  20. La plataforma .NET


    Fornas Estrada, Miquel


    L'aparició de la plataforma .NET Framework ha suposat un canvi molt important en la forma de crear i distribuir aplicacions, degut a que incorpora una sèrie d'innovacions tècniques i productives que simplifiquen molt les tasques necessàries per desenvolupar un projecte. La aparición de la plataforma. NET Framework ha supuesto un cambio muy importante en la forma de crear y distribuir aplicaciones, debido a que incorpora una serie de innovaciones técnicas y productivas que simplifican mucho...

  1. Biological Petri Nets

    CERN Document Server

    Wingender, E


    It was suggested some years ago that Petri nets might be well suited to modeling metabolic networks, overcoming some of the limitations encountered by the use of systems employing ODEs (ordinary differential equations). Much work has been done since then which confirms this and demonstrates the usefulness of this concept for systems biology. Petri net technology is not only intuitively understood by scientists trained in the life sciences, it also has a robust mathematical foundation and provides the required degree of flexibility. As a result it appears to be a very promising approach to mode

  2. In situ growth of SiC nanowires on RS-SiC substrate(s) (United States)

    Yang, Wen; Araki, Hiroshi; Hu, Quanli; Ishikawa, Nobuhiro; Suzuki, Hiroshi; Noda, Tetsuji


    SiC nanowires over 10 μm in length and 20-100 nm in diameter have been synthesized by a novel in situ chemical vapor growth process on RS-SiC plates. The SiC nanowires were identified as single crystal β-SiC with Si-C chemistry. The growth direction of the nanowires is . The growth mechanism is discussed and a kinetic vapor-solid growth mechanism is proposed. The process demonstrates the possibility to fabricate SiC nanowires in ceramic matrix composites, such as continuous SiC fibers reinforced SiC matrix composites, with the SiC nanowires uniformly dispersed in the matrix.

  3. Synthesis of whiskers of SiC microwave assisted; Sintesis de whiskers de SiC asistida por microondas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garza-Mendez, F. J.; Vanegas, A. J.; Vazquez, B. A.; Garza-Paz, J.


    We developed a new process for the synthesis of SiC whiskers assisted by microwaves; this is based on the mixture of silica xerogels and graphite powder. As energy source were used microwaves of 2.45 GHz and 1.0 kW of power RMS. On the other hand, mesoporous silica was synthesized via sol-gel, the precursors used were TEOS/H{sub 2}O and ethanol. Through analysis of the BET is determined the value of average pore size (3.0 nm) and the surface area (1090 m2/g).By mean of X-Ray diffraction it was demonstrated that the silica obtained is an amorphous solid and, the powders obtained in the microwave synthesis are {beta}-SiC. Synthesized SiC powders were observed using a SEM in secondary electron mode, it was observed that this powders consists of SiC whiskers. The effect of microwaves on the synthesis of whiskers of SiC is discussed in the present work. (Author) 19 refs.

  4. Midpoint Shapes. (United States)

    Welchman, Rosamond; Urso, Josephine


    Emphasizes the importance of children exploring hands-on and minds-on mathematics. Presents a midpoint shape activity for students to explore the midpoint shape of familiar quadrilaterals, such as squares and rectangles. (KHR)

  5. Petri Nets-Applications

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 4; Issue 9. Petri Nets - Applications. Y Narahari. General Article Volume 4 Issue 9 September 1999 pp 44-52. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link: Author Affiliations. Y Narahari ...

  6. Safety nets or straitjackets?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ilsøe, Anna


    Does regulation of working hours at national and sector level impose straitjackets, or offer safety nets to employees seeking working time flexibility? This article compares legislation and collective agreements in the metal industries of Denmark, Germany and the USA. The industry has historically...

  7. Coloured Petri Nets

    CERN Document Server

    Jensen, Kurt


    Coloured Petri Nets (CPN) is a graphical language for modelling and validating concurrent and distributed systems, and other systems in which concurrency plays a major role. This book introduces the constructs of the CPN modelling language and presents the related analysis methods. It provides a comprehensive road map for the practical use of CPN.

  8. Boom Booom Net Radio

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grimshaw, Mark Nicholas; Yong, Louisa; Dobie, Ian


    of an existing Internet radio station; Boom Booom Net Radio. Whilst necessity dictates some use of technology-related terminology, wherever possible we have endeavoured to keep such jargon to a minimum and to either explain it in the text or to provide further explanation in the appended glossary....

  9. Game Theory .net. (United States)

    Shor, Mikhael


    States making game theory relevant and accessible to students is challenging. Describes the primary goal of is to provide interactive teaching tools. Indicates the site strives to unite educators from economics, political and computer science, and ecology by providing a repository of lecture notes and tests for courses using…

  10. Coloured Petri Nets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Kurt; Kristensen, Lars Michael

    Coloured Petri Nets (CPN) is a graphical language for modelling and validating concurrent and distributed systems, and other systems in which concurrency plays a major role. The development of such systems is particularly challenging because of inherent intricacies like possible nondeterminism...

  11. Intercalated europium metal in epitaxial graphene on SiC (United States)

    Anderson, Nathaniel A.; Hupalo, Myron; Keavney, David; Tringides, Michael C.; Vaknin, David


    X-ray magnetic circular dichroism (XMCD) reveals the magnetic properties of intercalated europium metal under graphene on SiC(0001). The intercalation of Eu nanoclusters (average size 2.5 nm) between graphene and SiC substate are formed by deposition of Eu on epitaxially grown graphene that is subsequently annealed at various temperatures while keeping the integrity of the graphene layer. Using sum-rules analysis of the XMCD of Eu M4 ,5 edges at T =15 K, our samples show paramagnetic-like behavior with distinct anomaly at T ≈90 K, which may be related to the Nèel transition, TN=91 K, of bulk metal Eu. We find no evidence of ferromagnetism due to EuO or antiferromagnetism due to Eu2O3 , indicating that the graphene layer protects the intercalated metallic Eu against oxidation over months of exposure to atmospheric environment.

  12. Deposition of SiC thin films by PECVD

    CERN Document Server

    Cho, N I; Kim, C K


    The SiC films were deposited on Si substrate by the decomposition of CH sub 3 SiCl sub 3 (methylthrichlorosilane) molecules in a high frequency discharge field. From the Raman spectra, it is conjectured that the deposited film are formed into the polycrystalline structure. The photon absorption measurement reveal that the band gap of the electron energy state are to be 2.4 eV for SiC, and 2.6 eV for Si sub 0 sub . sub 4 C sub 0 sub . sub 6 , respectively. In the high power density regime, methyl-radicals decompose easily and increases the carbon concentration in plasma and result in the growing films.

  13. Surface functionalization and biomedical applications based on SiC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yakimova, R; Petoral, R M Jr; Yazdi, G R; Vahlberg, C; Spetz, A Lloyd; Uvdal, K [Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Linkoeping University, SE-58183 Linkoeping (Sweden)


    The search for materials and systems, capable of operating long term under physiological conditions, has been a strategy for many research groups during the past years. Silicon carbide (SiC) is a material, which can meet the demands due to its high biocompatibility, high inertness to biological tissues and to aggressive environment, and the possibility to make all types of electronic devices. This paper reviews progress in biomedical and biosensor related research on SiC. For example, less biofouling and platelet aggregation when exposed to blood is taken advantage of in a variety of medical implantable materials while the robust semiconducting properties can be explored in surface functionalized bioelectronic devices. (review article)

  14. Structure of MnSi on SiC(0001) (United States)

    Meynell, S. A.; Spitzig, A.; Edwards, B.; Robertson, M. D.; Kalliecharan, D.; Kreplak, L.; Monchesky, T. L.


    We report on the growth and magnetoresistance of MnSi films grown on SiC(0001) by molecular beam epitaxy. The growth resulted in a textured MnSi(111) film with a predominantly [1 1 ¯0 ] MnSi (111 )∥[11 2 ¯0 ] SiC(0001) epitaxial relationship, as demonstrated by transmission electron microscopy, reflection high energy electron diffraction, and atomic force microscopy. The 500 ∘C temperature required to crystallize the film leads to a dewetting of the MnSi layer. Although the sign of the lattice mismatch suggested the films would be under compressive stress, the films acquire an in-plane tensile strain likely driven by the difference in thermal expansion coefficients between the film and substrate during annealing. As a result, the magnetoresistive response demonstrates that the films possess a hard-axis out-of-plane magnetocrystalline anisotropy.

  15. Progress of d0 magnetism in SiC (United States)

    Wang, Yutian; Liu, Chenguang; Zhang, Yuming


    The properties of defect-induced ferromagnetism ({{{d}}}0 magnetism) in SiC belong to carbon-based material which has been systematically investigated after graphite. In this paper, we reviewed our research progress about {{{d}}}0 magnetism in two aspects, i.e., magnetic source and magnetic coupling mechanism. The {{{V}}}{{Si}} {{{V}}}{{C}} divacancies have been evidenced as the probable source of {{{d}}}0 magnetism in SiC. To trace the ferromagnetic source in microscopic and electronic view, the p electrons of the nearest-neighbor carbon atoms, which are around the {{{V}}}{{Si}} {{{V}}}{{C}} divacancies, are sourced. For magnetic coupling mechanism, a higher divacancy concentration leads to stronger paramagnetic interaction but not stronger ferromagnetic coupling. So the {{{d}}}0 magnetism can probably be explained as a local effect which is incapable of scaling up with the volume.

  16. Oxidation Behavior and Mechanism of Al4SiC4 in MgO-C-Al4SiC4 System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huabai Yao


    Full Text Available Al4SiC4 powder with high purity was synthesized using the powder mixture of aluminum (Al, silicon (Si, and carbon (C at 1800 °C in argon. Their oxidation behavior and mechanism in a MgO-C-Al4SiC4 system was investigated at 1400–1600 °C. XRD, SEM, and energy dispersive spectrometry (EDS were adopted to analyze the microstructure and phase evolution. The results showed that the composition of oxidation products was closely related to the atom diffusion velocity and the compound oxide layer was generated on Al4SiC4 surface. In addition, the effect of different CO partial pressure on the oxidation of Al4SiC4 crystals was also studied by thermodynamic calculation. This work proves the great potential of Al4SiC4 in improving the MgO-C materials.

  17. Simulations of Proton Implantation in Silicon Carbide (SiC) (United States)

    2016-03-31 Abstract: We report on exploratory research effort with preliminary results on investigating fundamental radiation effects in...of implanting protons (hydrogen ions, H+) into SiC thin layers on silicon (Si) substrate, and explore the ion implantation conditions that are...create SiC-on-insulator (SiC-on-SiO2) films and structures [4,5]. It is important to understand and control the implantation depth. Presented here

  18. SiC Microsensor with Piezoresistive Diamond Sensing Elements (United States)


    AD-A.61 346 SiC MICROSENSOR WITH PIEZORESISTIVE DIAMOND SENSING ELEMENTS Kuli/e Semiconductor Products, Inc Principal Investigator: Dr. A.D. Kurtz...Davidson and A.D. Kurtz 7. PERORMING ORGANIZATION NAM.(S) ANO AD-SS-ES) PIRJQAMr( OAGANLM Kulite Semiconductor Products, Inc. REPORT NUMBER One Willow...techniques have been developed for Si, which allow the fabrication of integral force collector- piezoresistor networks [2]. However, there are fundamental

  19. High temperature flow behaviour of SiC reinforced lithium ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The flow behaviour of LAS glass changed from Newtonian to non-Newtonian due to the presence of crystalline phase. Further, with the addition of 40 vol.% SiC additions, the strain rate sensitivity of flow stress decreased. While the activation energy for flow in LAS was 300 kJ/mole, it increased to 995 kJ/mole with the ...

  20. SiC device development for high temperature sensor applications (United States)

    Shor, J. S.; Goldstein, David; Kurtz, A. D.; Osgood, R. M.


    Progress made in the processing and characterization of 3C-SiC for high temperature sensor applications is reviewed. Piezoresistance properties of silicon carbide and the temperature coefficient of resistivity of n-type beta-SiC are presented. In addition, photoelectrical etching and dopant selective etch-stops in SiC and high temperature Ohmic contacts for n-type beta-SiC sensors are discussed.

  1. 1 GHz, 200 C, SiC MESFET Clapp Oscillator (United States)

    Ponchak, George E.; Schwartz, Zachary D.


    A SiC Clapp oscillator frabricated on an alumina substrate with chip capacitors and spiral inductors is designed for high temperature operation at 1 gigahertz. The oscillator operated from 30 to 200 C with an output power of 21.8 dBm at 1 gigahertz and 200 C. The efficiency at 200 C is 15 percent. The frequency variation over the temperature range is less than 0.5 percent.

  2. Modelling of ion implantation in SiC crystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chakarov, Ivan [SILVACO International, 4701 Patrick Henry Drive, Building 2, Santa Clara, CA 95054 (United States)]. E-mail:; Temkin, Misha [SILVACO International, 4701 Patrick Henry Drive, Building 2, Santa Clara, CA 95054 (United States)


    An advanced electronic stopping model for ion implantation in SiC has been implemented within the binary collision approximation. The model has been thoroughly tested and validated for Al implantation into 4H-, 6H-SiC under different initial implant conditions. A very good agreement between calculated and experimental profiles has been achieved. The model has been integrated in an industrial technology CAD process simulator.

  3. Food Safety Nets:


    Haggblade, Steven; Diallo, Boubacar; Staatz, John; Theriault, Veronique; Traoré, Abdramane


    Food and social safety nets have a history as long as human civilization. In hunter gatherer societies, food sharing is pervasive. Group members who prove unlucky in the short run, hunting or foraging, receive food from other households in anticipation of reciprocal consideration at a later time (Smith 1988). With the emergence of the first large sedentary civilizations in the Middle East, administrative systems developed specifically around food storage and distribution. The ancient Egyptian...

  4. Net technical assessment


    Wegmann, David G.


    Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. The present and near term military balance of power between the U.S. and the Soviet Union can be expressed in a variety of net assessments. One can examine the strategic nuclear balance, the conventional balance in Europe, the maritime balance, and many others. Such assessments are essential not only for policy making but for arms control purposes and future force structure planning. However, to project the future military balance, on...

  5. Surface engineering of SiC via sublimation etching

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jokubavicius, Valdas, E-mail: [Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Linköping University, 581 83 Linköping (Sweden); Yazdi, Gholam R.; Ivanov, Ivan G. [Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Linköping University, 581 83 Linköping (Sweden); Niu, Yuran; Zakharov, Alexei [Max Lab, Lund University, S-22100 Lund (Sweden); Iakimov, Tihomir; Syväjärvi, Mikael; Yakimova, Rositsa [Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Linköping University, 581 83 Linköping (Sweden)


    Highlights: • Comparison of 6H-, 4H- and 3C-SiC sublimation etching. • Effects of Si-C and Si-C-Ta chemical systems on etching mechanisms. • Effect of etching ambient on surface reconstruction. • Application of etched 4H-SiC surface for the growth of graphene nanoribbons is illustrated. - Abstract: We present a technique for etching of SiC which is based on sublimation and can be used to modify the morphology and reconstruction of silicon carbide surface for subsequent epitaxial growth of various materials, for example graphene. The sublimation etching of 6H-, 4H- and 3C-SiC was explored in vacuum (10{sup −5} mbar) and Ar (700 mbar) ambient using two different etching arrangements which can be considered as Si-C and Si-C-Ta chemical systems exhibiting different vapor phase stoichiometry at a given temperature. The surfaces of different polytypes etched under similar conditions are compared and the etching mechanism is discussed with an emphasis on the role of tantalum as a carbon getter. To demonstrate applicability of such etching process graphene nanoribbons were grown on a 4H-SiC surface that was pre-patterned using the thermal etching technique presented in this study.

  6. SYLRAMIC™ SiC fibers for CMC reinforcement (United States)

    Jones, Richard E.; Petrak, Dan; Rabe, Jim; Szweda, Andy


    Dow Corning researchers developed SYLRAMIC SiC fiber specifically for use in ceramic-matrix composite (CMC) components for use in turbine engine hot sections where excellent thermal stability, high strength and high thermal conductivity are required. This is a stoichiometric SiC fiber with a high degree of crystallinity, high tensile strength, high tensile modulus and good thermal conductivity. Owing to the small diameter, this textile-grade fiber can be woven into 2-D and 3-D structures for CMC fabrication. These properties are also of high interest to the nuclear community. Some initial studies have shown that SYLRAMIC fiber shows very good dimensional stability in a neutron flux environment, which offers further encouragement. This paper will review the properties of SYLRAMIC SiC fiber and then present the properties of polymer impregnation and pyrolysis (PIP) processed CMC made with this fiber at Dow Corning. While these composites may not be directly applicable to applications of interest to this audience, we believe that the properties shown will give good evidence that the fiber should be suitable for high temperature structural applications in the nuclear arena.

  7. Using WordNet for Building WordNets

    CERN Document Server

    Farreres, X; Farreres, Xavier; Rodriguez, Horacio; Rigau, German


    This paper summarises a set of methodologies and techniques for the fast construction of multilingual WordNets. The English WordNet is used in this approach as a backbone for Catalan and Spanish WordNets and as a lexical knowledge resource for several subtasks.

  8. Etching of hexagonal SiC surfaces in chlorine-containing gas media at ambient pressure (United States)

    Zinovev, A. V.; Moore, J. F.; Hryn, J.; Pellin, M. J.


    The modification of the silicon carbide (4H-SiC) single-crystal surface in a chlorine-containing gas mixture at high temperature (800-1000 °C) and ambient pressure was investigated. The results of silicon carbide chlorination are found to strongly depend on the hexagonal surface orientation. Due to the thermodynamically more favorable reaction of chlorine with silicon rather than carbon, the C-terminated side (0 0 0 1¯) clearly undergoes considerable changes, resulting in coverage by a black-colored carbon film, whereas the Si-side (0 0 0 1) surprisingly remains visually untouched. With using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), angle-resolved XPS and SEM it is shown that this drastic change in behavior is associated with a different structure of oxicarbide/silicate adlayer formed on the C- and Si-terminated sides of silicon carbide surface during experimental pre-treatment and air exposure. The presence of oxygen bridges connecting the silicate adlayer with the bulk SiC in the case of Si-side inhibits the chlorination reaction and makes this surface strongly resistant to chlorine attack. Only some places on the Si-terminated side demonstrate traces of chlorine etching in the form of hexagonal-shaped voids, which are possibly initiated by distortion of the initial crystalline structure by micropipes. In contrast, a thin carbon layer resulted on the C-terminated side as a consequence of the chlorination process. XPS, ARXPS, SEM and Raman spectroscopy study of created film allows us to argue that it consists mainly of sp2-bonded carbon, mostly in the form of nanoscale graphene sheets. The absence of a protective oxygen bridge between the silicate adlayer and the bulk silicon carbide crystal leads to unlimited growth of carbon film on the SiC(0 0 0 1¯) side.

  9. Low-Cost, Net-Shape Ceramic Radial Turbine Program (United States)


    summarized in Table 21. The as-received material is nearly pure beta Si3N4 with only a few minor XRD peaks which have not been identified. Phases...After 2732F exposure, only B Si3N4 is detectable in the specimen interior and a cristobalite in the oxide layer. 61 .- --- k. ,,.l ,i I nn - n - - nn...Interior; a Cristobalite in Oxide Layer - 62 , These initial studies indicated that the Code 1 material was relatively pure and free of unstable

  10. Advanced Manufacturing Technologies (AMT): Advanced Near Net Shape Technology Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Develop and mature manufacturing technology to enable fabrication of single-piece integrally-stiffened launch vehicle structures to replace expensive, heavy, and...

  11. Net Shape Technology in Aerospace Structures. Volume 1. (United States)


    composed o f man \\ smll decta-ilI parIt s maid cI n sta I f: J1r om o ne p re cisi o n ’or-g In g. The cst I im tcd savNIn)g s -Ic h i c \\ e d M...metal I I orgy materialIs baised onl ra pid sol idi ficatIIon tech nology . Conser\\ at I nn ofC miatcr Ial s i n its own ri gh t is not genicrall a 1 1P r

  12. Near net shape forming unsing semi-solid metal forming

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Govender, G


    Full Text Available Cost of material same as standard casting alloys Semi-solid state achieved direct from liquid. Oxidation reduced – reduced oxide entrapment. Reduced loss of metal during reheating. SSM scrap can be recycled in house. Hydrogen... CYLINDERS •SUSPENSION ARMS •WHEELS •PISTONS •KNUCKELS •ENGINE MOUNTS •PULEYS •ROCKER ARMS •BELT COVERS •MOTOR HOUSINGS •SPACE FRAMES 2005 Thin walled structural parts in doors A-Pillar Door AUDI A3 2005 Rear seat cover BMW R 1200 C motor bike...

  13. SiC Optically Modulated Field-Effect Transistor (United States)

    Tabib-Azar, Massood


    An optically modulated field-effect transistor (OFET) based on a silicon carbide junction field-effect transistor (JFET) is under study as, potentially, a prototype of devices that could be useful for detecting ultraviolet light. The SiC OFET is an experimental device that is one of several devices, including commercial and experimental photodiodes, that were initially evaluated as detectors of ultraviolet light from combustion and that could be incorporated into SiC integrated circuits to be designed to function as combustion sensors. The ultraviolet-detection sensitivity of the photodiodes was found to be less than desired, such that it would be necessary to process their outputs using high-gain amplification circuitry. On the other hand, in principle, the function of the OFET could be characterized as a combination of detection and amplification. In effect, its sensitivity could be considerably greater than that of a photodiode, such that the need for amplification external to the photodetector could be reduced or eliminated. The experimental SiC OFET was made by processes similar to JFET-fabrication processes developed at Glenn Research Center. The gate of the OFET is very long, wide, and thin, relative to the gates of typical prior SiC JFETs. Unlike in prior SiC FETs, the gate is almost completely transparent to near-ultraviolet and visible light. More specifically: The OFET includes a p+ gate layer less than 1/4 m thick, through which photons can be transported efficiently to the p+/p body interface. The gate is relatively long and wide (about 0.5 by 0.5 mm), such that holes generated at the body interface form a depletion layer that modulates the conductivity of the channel between the drain and the source. The exact physical mechanism of modulation of conductivity is a subject of continuing research. It is known that injection of minority charge carriers (in this case, holes) at the interface exerts a strong effect on the channel, resulting in amplification

  14. Atomic probe microscopy of 3C SiC films grown on 6H SiC substrates (United States)

    Steckl, A. J.; Roth, M. D.; Powell, J. A.; Larkin, D. J.


    The surface of 3C SiC films grown on 6H SiC substrates has been studied by atomic probe microscopy in air. Atomic-scale images of the 3C SiC surface have been obtained by STM which confirm the 111 line type orientation of the cubic 3C layer grown on the 0001 plane type surface of the hexagonal 6H substrate. The nearest-neighbor atomic spacing for the 3C layer has been measured to be 3.29 +/- 0.2 A, which is within 7 percent of the bulk value. Shallow terraces in the 3C layer have been observed by STM to separate regions of very smooth growth in the vicinity of the 3C nucleation point from considerably rougher 3C surface regions. These terraces are oriented at right angles to the growth direction. Atomic force microscopy has been used to study etch pits present on the 6H substrate due to high temperature HCl cleaning prior to CVD growth of the 3C layer. The etch pits have hexagonal symmetry and vary in depth from 50 nm to 1 micron.

  15. Proof nets for lingusitic analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moot, R.C.A.


    This book investigates the possible linguistic applications of proof nets, redundancy free representations of proofs, which were introduced by Girard for linear logic. We will adapt the notion of proof net to allow the formulation of a proof net calculus which is soundand complete for the

  16. Teaching Tennis for Net Success. (United States)

    Young, Bryce


    A program for teaching tennis to beginners, NET (Net Easy Teaching) is described. The program addresses three common needs shared by tennis students: active involvement in hitting the ball, clearing the net, and positive reinforcement. A sample lesson plan is included. (IAH)

  17. Net4Care Ecosystem Website

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Henrik Bærbak; Hansen, Klaus Marius; Rasmussen, Morten


    is a tele-monitoring scenario in which Net4Care clients are deployed in a gateway in private homes. Medical devices then connect to these gateways and transmit their observations to a Net4Care server. In turn the Net4Care server creates valid clinical HL7 documents, stores them in a national XDS repository...

  18. Characterization of femtosecond-laser-induced periodic structures on SiC substrates (United States)

    Miyagawa, Reina; Ohno, Yutaka; Deura, Momoko; Yonenaga, Ichiro; Eryu, Osamu


    We investigated the crystalline state of femtosecond-laser-induced periodic structures using a transmission electron microscope (TEM). The core of the 200-nm-pitch periodic nanostructures on SiC retained a high crystalline quality continued from the SiC substrate, where the crystal orientation was aligned with that of the SiC substrate. These results suggest that the periodic nanostructures were formed by periodic etching and not by rearrangement. At high laser power, microstructures with sizes larger than 2 µm were formed on the periodic nanostructures. The microstructures were amorphous and extended from the amorphous SiC layer that covered the periodic nanostructures.

  19. Review of data on irradiation creep of monolithic SiC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garner, F.A.; Youngblood, G.E.; Hamilton, M.L. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, WA (United States)


    An effort is now underway to design an irradiation creep experiment involving SiC composites to SiC fibers. In order to successfully design such an experiment, it is necessary to review and assess the available data for monolithic SiC to establish the possible bounds of creep behavior for the composite. The data available show that monolithic SiC will indeed creep at a higher rate under irradiation compared to that of thermal creep, and surprisingly, it will do so in a temperature-dependant manner that is typical of metals.

  20. Formation and characterization of porous SiC by anodic oxidation using potassium persulfate solution (United States)

    Iwasa, Y.; Kamiyama, S.; Iwaya, M.; Takeuchi, T.; Akasaki, I.


    The formation process of porous SiC by anodic oxidation was investigated, aiming at the generation of pure white light with a high color rendering index (CRI) and high luminous efficiency. The efficiency of white light emission from porous SiC and its wavelength are strongly dependent on the porous structure such as the average pore size and porosity. In this study, we examined the structure and optical properties of porous SiC by adding potassium persulfate (K2S2O8) as an oxidant in HF solution to control the porosity of porous SiC formed by anodic oxidation. By increasing the amount of the oxidant, we enhanced the integrated light emission intensity of porous SiC to 81 times that of bulk SiC. Through the study of porous SiC we demonstrated that the peak wavelength of the porous SiC could be controlled from 370 to 500 nm. Porous SiC created by anodic oxidation was thus proven to have great potential for realizing high-CRI white light generation using LEDs.

  1. New Possibilities of Power Electronic Structures Using SiC Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Sul


    Full Text Available This paper is dedicated to the recent unprecedented boom of SiC electronic technology. The contribution deals with brief survey of those properties. In particular, the differences (both good and bad between SiC electronics technology and well-known silicon VLSI technology are highlighted. Projected performance benefits of SiC electronics are given for several large-scale applications on the end of the contribution. The basic properties of SiC material have been discussed already on the beginning of 80’s, also at our university.

  2. A Novel Approach to the Fabrication of SiC Structures of Arbitrary Shape (United States)


    a two piece quartz vessel with a ground glass fitting. The top piece was designed with a gas inlet and outlet and a closed-end tube to be used as the...the closed-end tube was used to hold the slug in place and to lower the entire sample assembly into the melt. Manual insertion and extraction of the...Insulation AirGap _».’ :-,. / \\\\ .. ••:-•• -Crucible \\ N :• •’,"i,’?:View Porn Figure 4. The 20000C carbon-heated compound-insulated furnace 7 Task II

  3. Master Robotic Net

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir Lipunov


    Full Text Available The main goal of the MASTER-Net project is to produce a unique fast sky survey with all sky observed over a single night down to a limiting magnitude of 19-20. Such a survey will make it possible to address a number of fundamental problems: search for dark energy via the discovery and photometry of supernovae (including SNIa, search for exoplanets, microlensing effects, discovery of minor bodies in the Solar System, and space-junk monitoring. All MASTER telescopes can be guided by alerts, and we plan to observe prompt optical emission from gamma-ray bursts synchronously in several filters and in several polarization planes.

  4. Art/Net/Work

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Christian Ulrik; Lindstrøm, Hanne


    The seminar Art|Net|Work deals with two important changes in our culture. On one side, the network has become essential in the latest technological development. The Internet has entered a new phase, Web 2.0, including the occurrence of as ‘Wiki’s’, ‘Peer-2-Peer’ distribution, user controlled...... the praxis of the artist. We see different kinds of interventions and activism (including ‘hacktivism’) using the network as a way of questioning the invisible rules that govern public and semi-public spaces. Who ‘owns’ them? What kind of social relationships do they generate? On what principle...

  5. Small Incision Cataract Surgery (SICS with Clear Corneal Incision and SICS with Scleral Incision – A Comparative Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md Shafiqul Alam


    Full Text Available Background: Age related cataract is the leading cause of blindness and visual impairment throughout the world. With the advent of microsurgical facilities simple cataract extraction surgery has been replaced by small incision cataract surgery (SICS with posterior chamber intra ocular lens implant, which can be done either with clear corneal incision or scleral incision. Objective: To compare the post operative visual outcome in these two procedures of cataract surgery. Materials and method: This comparative study was carried out in the department of Ophthalmology, Delta Medical College & Hospital, Dhaka, Bangladesh, during the period of January 2010 to December 2012. Total 60 subjects indicated for age related cataract surgery irrespective of sex with the age range of 40-80 years with predefined inclusion and exclusion criteria were enrolled in the study. Subjects were randomly and equally distributed in 2 groups; Group A for SICS with clear corneal incision and group B for SICS with scleral incision. Post operative visual out come was evaluated by determining visual acuity and astigmatism in different occasions and was compared between groups. Statistical analysis was done by SPSS for windows version12. Results: The highest age incidence (43.3% was found between 61 to 70 years of age group. Among study subjects 40 were male and 20 were female. Preoperative visual acuity and astigmatism were evenly distributed between groups. Regarding postoperative unaided visual outcome, 6/12 or better visual acuity was found in 19.98% cases in group A and 39.6% cases in group B at 1st week. At 6th week 6/6 vision was found in 36.3% in Group A and 56.1% in Group B and 46.2% in group A and 66% in group B without and with correction respectively. With refractive correction, 6/6 vision was attained in 60% subjects of group A and 86.67% of group B at 8th week. Post operative visual acuity was statistically significant in all occasions. Postoperative astigmatism of

  6. expansions to and an introduction to (United States)

    Martin, John; Rosa, Bruce A.; Ozersky, Philip; Hallsworth-Pepin, Kymberlie; Zhang, Xu; Bhonagiri-Palsikar, Veena; Tyagi, Rahul; Wang, Qi; Choi, Young-Jun; Gao, Xin; McNulty, Samantha N.; Brindley, Paul J.; Mitreva, Makedonka

    2015-01-01 ( is the new moniker for a collection of databases: and Within this collection we provide services and resources for parasitic roundworms (nematodes) and flatworms (trematodes), collectively known as helminths. For over a decade we have provided resources for studying nematodes via our veteran site ( In this article, (i) we provide an update on the expansions of that hosts omics data from 84 species and provides advanced search tools to the broad scientific community so that data can be mined in a useful and user-friendly manner and (ii) we introduce, a site dedicated to the dissemination of data from flukes, flatworm parasites of the class Trematoda, phylum Platyhelminthes. is an independent component of and currently hosts data from 16 species, with information ranging from genomic, functional genomic data, enzymatic pathway utilization to microbiome changes associated with helminth infections. The databases’ interface, with a sophisticated query engine as a backbone, is intended to allow users to search for multi-factorial combinations of species’ omics properties. This report describes updates to since its last description in NAR, 2012, and also introduces and presents its new sibling site, PMID:25392426


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evelia Schettini


    Full Text Available The aim of this paper was to investigate the radiometric properties of coloured nets used to protect a peach cultivation. The modifications of the solar spectral distribution, mainly in the R and FR wavelength band, influence plant photomorphogenesis by means of the phytochrome and cryptochrome. The phytochrome response is characterized in terms of radiation rate in the red wavelengths (R, 600-700 nm to that in the farred radiation (FR, 700-800 nm, i.e. the R/FR ratio. The effects of the blue radiation (B, 400-500 nm is investigated by the ratio between the blue radiation and the far-red radiation, i.e. the B/FR ratio. A BLUE net, a RED net, a YELLOW net, a PEARL net, a GREY net and a NEUTRAL net were tested in Bari (Italy, latitude 41° 05’ N. Peach trees were located in pots inside the greenhouses and in open field. The growth of the trees cultivated in open field was lower in comparison to the growth of the trees grown under the nets. The RED, PEARL, YELLOW and GREY nets increased the growth of the trees more than the other nets. The nets positively influenced the fruit characteristics, such as fruit weight and flesh firmness.

  8. Low Activation Joining of SiC/SiC Composites for Fusion Applications: Modeling Thermal and Irradiation-induced Swelling Effects on Integrity of Ti3SiC2/SiC Joint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nguyen, Ba Nghiep; Henager, Charles H.; Kurtz, Richard J.; Ferraris, M.; Katoh, Yutai


    This work developed a continuum damage mechanics model that incorporates thermal expansion combined with irradiation-induced swelling effects to study the origin of cracking observed in recent irradiation experiments. Micromechanical modeling using an Eshelby-Mori-Tanaka approach was used to compute the thermoelastic properties of the Ti3SiC2/SiC joint needed for the model. In addition, a microstructural dual-phase Ti3SiC2/SiC model was developed to determine irradiation-induced swelling of the composite joint at a given temperature resulting from differential swelling of SiC and the Ti3SiC2 MAX phase. Three cases for the miniature torsion hourglass (THG) specimens containing a Ti3SiC2/SiC joint were analyzed corresponding to three irradiation temperatures: 800oC, 500oC, and 400oC.

  9. The equivalency between logic Petri workflow nets and workflow nets. (United States)

    Wang, Jing; Yu, ShuXia; Du, YuYue


    Logic Petri nets (LPNs) can describe and analyze batch processing functions and passing value indeterminacy in cooperative systems. Logic Petri workflow nets (LPWNs) are proposed based on LPNs in this paper. Process mining is regarded as an important bridge between modeling and analysis of data mining and business process. Workflow nets (WF-nets) are the extension to Petri nets (PNs), and have successfully been used to process mining. Some shortcomings cannot be avoided in process mining, such as duplicate tasks, invisible tasks, and the noise of logs. The online shop in electronic commerce in this paper is modeled to prove the equivalence between LPWNs and WF-nets, and advantages of LPWNs are presented.

  10. Ultra High Temperature (UHT) SiC Fiber (Phase 2) (United States)

    Dicarlo, James A.; Jacobson, Nathan S.; Lizcano, Maricela; Bhatt, Ramakrishna T.


    Silicon-carbide fiber-reinforced silicon-carbide ceramic matrix composites (SiCSiC CMC) are emerginglightweight re-usable structural materials not only for hot section components in gas turbine engines, but also for controlsurfaces and leading edges of reusable hypersonic vehicles as well as for nuclear propulsion and reactor components. Ithas been shown that when these CMC are employed in engine hot-section components, the higher the upper usetemperature (UUT) of the SiC fiber, the more performance benefits are accrued, such as higher operating temperatures,reduced component cooling air, reduced fuel consumption, and reduced emissions. The first generation of SiCSiC CMC with a temperature capability of 2200-2400F are on the verge of being introduced into the hot-section components ofcommercial and military gas turbine engines.Today the SiC fiber type currently recognized as the worlds best in terms ofthermo-mechanical performance is the Sylramic-iBN fiber. This fiber was previously developed by the PI at NASA GRC using patented processes to improve the high-cost commercial Sylramic fiber, which in turn was derived from anotherlow-cost low-performance commercial fiber. Although the Sylramic-iBN fiber shows state-of-the art creep and rupture resistance for use temperatures above 2550oF, NASA has shown by fundamental creep studies and model developmentthat its microstructure and creep resistance could theoretically be significantly improved to produce an Ultra HighTemperature (UHT) SiC fiber.This Phase II Seedling Fund effort has been focused on the key objective of effectively repeating the similar processes used for producing the Sylramic-iBN fiber using a design of experiments approach to first understand the cause of the less than optimum Sylramic-iBN microstructure and then attempting to develop processconditions that eliminate or minimize these key microstructural issues. In so doing, it is predicted that that theseadvanced process could result in an UHT SiC

  11. Coloured Petri Nets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Kurt; Kristensen, Lars Michael

    studies that illustrate the practical use of CPN modelling and validation for design, specification, simulation, verification and implementation in various application domains. Their presentation primarily aims at readers interested in the practical use of CPN. Thus all concepts and constructs are first......Coloured Petri Nets (CPN) is a graphical language for modelling and validating concurrent and distributed systems, and other systems in which concurrency plays a major role. The development of such systems is particularly challenging because of inherent intricacies like possible nondeterminism...... and the immense number of possible execution sequences. In this textbook, Jensen and Kristensen introduce the constructs of the CPN modelling language and present the related analysis methods in detail. They also provide a comprehensive road map for the practical use of CPN by showcasing selected industrial case...

  12. Synthesis of SiC from rice husk in a plasma reactor

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. A new route for production of SiC from rice husk is reported by employing thermal plasma technique. The formation of -SiC is observed in a short time of 5 min. The samples are characterized by XRD and SEM.

  13. Study of indentation induced cracks in MoSi2-reaction bonded SiC ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)


    SiC ceramics. O P CHAKRABARTI*, P K DAS and S MONDAL. Central Glass and Ceramic Research Institute, Kolkata 700 032, India. Abstract. MoSi2–RBSC composite samples were prepared by infiltration of Si–2 at.% Mo melt into a preform of commercial SiC and petroleum coke powder. The infiltrated sample had a ...

  14. Broadband Antireflection and Light Extraction Enhancement in Fluorescent SiC with Nanodome Structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ou, Yiyu; Zhu, Xiaolong; Jokubavicius, Valdas


    We demonstrate a time-efficient and low-cost approach to fabricate Si3N4 coated nanodome structures in fluorescent SiC. Nanosphere lithography is used as the nanopatterning method and SiC nanodome structures with Si3N4 coating are formed via dry etching and thin film deposition process. By using...

  15. Characterisation of 10 kV 10 A SiC MOSFET

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eni, Emanuel-Petre; Incau, Bogdan Ioan; Munk-Nielsen, Stig


    The objective of this paper is to characterize and evaluate the static and dynamic performances of 10 kV 10 A 4H-SIC MOSFETs at high temperatures. The results show good electrical performances of the SiC MOSFETs for high temperature operations. The double-pulse test results showed interesting beh...

  16. 10kV SiC MOSFET split output power module

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beczkowski, Szymon; Li, Helong; Uhrenfeldt, Christian


    The poor body diode performance of the first generation of 10kV SiC MOSFETs and the parasitic turn-on phenomenon limit the performance of SiC based converters. Both these problems can potentially be mitigated using a split output topology. In this paper we present a comparison between a classical...

  17. Using of the Modern Semiconductor Devices Based on the SiC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavel Drabek


    Full Text Available This paper deals with possibility of application of the semiconductor devices based on the SiC (Silicon Carbide inthe power electronics. Basic synopsis of SiC based materials problems are presented, appreciation of their properties incomparison with current using power semiconductor devices ((IGBT, MOSFET, CoolFET transistors.

  18. Development of Simulink-Based SiC MOSFET Modeling Platform for Series Connected Devices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tsolaridis, Georgios; Ilves, Kalle; Reigosa, Paula Diaz


    A new MATLAB/Simulink-based modeling platform has been developed for SiC MOSFET power modules. The modeling platform describes the electrical behavior f a single 1.2 kV/ 350 A SiC MOSFET power module, as well as the series connection of two of them. A fast parameter initialization is followed...

  19. Demand and willingness-to-pay for bed nets in Tanzania: results from a choice experiment. (United States)

    Gingrich, Chris D; Ricotta, Emily; Kahwa, Amos; Kahabuka, Catherine; Koenker, Hannah


    Universal coverage campaigns for long-lasting insecticide-treated nets do not always reach the goal of one net for every two household members, and even when ownership of at least one net per household is high, many households may not own enough nets. The retail market provides these households options for replacing or increasing the number of nets they own with products that best fit their needs since a variety of net shapes, sizes, and colours are available. Hence, it is important to understand the factors affecting private net demand. This study explores private demand for nets in Tanzania using a discrete choice experiment. The experiment provides participants the option to buy nets with their own money, and thus should prove more accurate than a hypothetical survey of net preferences. Nearly 800 participants sampled in two regions showed an overall strong demand for nets, with 40% choosing to buy a net across all seven combinations of net prices and characteristics such as size, shape, and insecticide treatment. Only 8% of all participants chose not to buy a single net. A key factor influencing demand was whether a participant's household currently owned sufficient nets for all members, with rural participants showing lower net coverage and greater demand than urban participants. Both poor and less poor households showed strong evidence of making purchase decisions based on more than price alone. Mean willingness-to-pay values for a net started at US$1.10 and grew by US$0.50-1.40 for various attributes such as rectangular shape, large size, and insecticide treatment. The impact of price on demand was negative but small, with elasticity values between -0.25 and -0.45. The results suggest that private demand for nets in Tanzania could potentially supplement future coverage campaigns. Net manufacturers and retailers should advertise and promote consumers' preferred net attributes to improve sales and further expand net access and coverage. To overcome household

  20. Net Neutrality in Canada and what it means for libraries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alex Guindon


    Full Text Available Net Neutrality, the idea that the Internet should be provided to all without discrimination based on content or applications, has been an important policy issue in the last few years. A lack of net neutrality could negatively impact libraries, intellectual freedom, cultural diversity, and the right to privacy. This paper looks at the issues that underline the net neutrality debate and describes how they are shaped by the different actors that are concerned with the future of the Internet. Technological issues, such as traffic shaping by Internet Service Providers, and legal issues in the context of Canada’s Telecommunications Act, are also addressed. Finally, the paper reviews the recent CRTC policy on Internet Traffic Management Practices.

  1. The Influence of Colour on Radiometric Performances of Agricultural Nets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Castellano, S.; Hemming, S.; Russo, G.


    The whole construction parameters of the net, combined with the shape of the structure, the position of the sun and the sky conditions affect the radiometric performance of the permeable covering system. The radiometric properties of the permeable membrane influence the quality of the agricultural

  2. The first muon beam from a new highly-intense DC muon source, MuSIC (United States)

    Tran, Nam Hoai; MuSIC Collaboration


    A new DC muon source, MuSIC, is now under construction at Research Center for Nuclear Physics (RCNP), Osaka University, Japan. The MuSIC adopts a new pion/muon collection system and a curved transport solenoid. These techniques are important in realization of future muon programs such as the muon to electron conversion experiments (COMET/Mu2e), neutrino factories, and muon colliders. The pion capture magnet and a part of the transport solenoid have been built and beam tests were carried out to assess the MuSIC's performance. Muon lifetime measurements and muonic X-ray measurements have been used for estimation of muon yield of the MuSIC. The result indicates that the MuSIC would be one of the most intense DC muon beams in the world.

  3. Interaction between magnetic moments and itinerant carriers in d0 ferromagnetic SiC (United States)

    Liu, Yu; Yuan, Ye; Liu, Fang; Böttger, Roman; Anwand, Wolfgang; Wang, Yutian; Semisalova, Anna; Ponomaryov, Alexey N.; Lu, Xia; N'Diaye, Alpha T.; Arenholz, Elke; Heera, Viton; Skorupa, Wolfgang; Helm, Manfred; Zhou, Shengqiang


    Elucidating the interaction between magnetic moments and itinerant carriers is an important step to spintronic applications. Here, we investigate magnetic and transport properties in d0 ferromagnetic SiC single crystals prepared by postimplantation pulsed laser annealing. Magnetic moments are contributed by the p states of carbon atoms, but their magnetic circular dichroism is different from that in semi-insulating SiC samples. The anomalous Hall effect and negative magnetoresistance indicate the influence of d0 spin order on free carriers. The ferromagnetism is relatively weak in N-implanted SiC compared with that in Al-implanted SiC after annealing. The results suggest that d0 magnetic moments and itinerant carriers can interact with each other, which will facilitate the development of SiC spintronic devices with d0 ferromagnetism.

  4. The influence of carbon on the structure of preceramic polymer derived SiC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kolaya, L.E.; Lewis, N. [Lockheed Martin Corp., Schenectady, NY (United States)


    The microstructure of SiC produced from allyl-hydridopolycarbosilane (AHPCS) was studied after thermal treatments at temperatures up to 1600 C. SiC samples were prepared in contact with pyrocarbon, carbon fiber, carbon felt, carbon powder, and graphite. Each of these configurations was examined using optical, scanning electron, and transmission electron microscopy. The resultant microstructure of the SiC in the vicinity of the carbon/graphite source was different for each sample. In some cases the grains were uniform, equiaxed and about the same size as SiC grains derived from neat AHPCS. Other samples exhibited accelerated grain growth in the vicinity of the carbon, and occasionally appeared to mimic the original carbon structure. Understanding and controlling such behavior will facilitate the fabrication of polymer derived stoichiometric SiC, and also has significant implications for the fabrication of SiC/SiC composites with a pyrocarbon interface and polymer derived matrix.

  5. A Short-Circuit Safe Operation Area Identification Criterion for SiC MOSFET Power Modules

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reigosa, Paula Diaz; Iannuzzo, Francesco; Luo, Haoze


    This paper proposes a new method for the investigation of the short-circuit safe operation area (SCSOA) of state-of-the-art SiC MOSFET power modules rated at 1.2 kV based on the variations in SiC MOSFET electrical parameters (e.g., short-circuit current and gate–source voltage). According......-circuit-current-based criterion; and 2) the gate-voltage-based criterion. The applicability of these two criteria makes possible the SCSOA evaluation of SiC MOSFETs with some safety margins in order to avoid unnecessary failures during their SCSOA characterization. SiC MOSFET power modules from two different manufacturers...... are experimentally tested in order to demonstrate the procedure of the method. The obtained results can be used to have a better insight of the SCSOA of SiC MOSFETs and their physical limits....

  6. Cohort profile: the Social Inequality in Cancer (SIC) cohort study. (United States)

    Nordahl, Helene; Hvidtfeldt, Ulla Arthur; Diderichsen, Finn; Rod, Naja Hulvej; Osler, Merete; Frederiksen, Birgitte Lidegaard; Prescott, Eva; Tjønneland, Anne; Lange, Theis; Keiding, Niels; Andersen, Per Kragh; Andersen, Ingelise


    The Social Inequality in Cancer (SIC) cohort study was established to determine pathways through which socioeconomic position affects morbidity and mortality, in particular common subtypes of cancer. Data from seven well-established cohort studies from Denmark were pooled. Combining these cohorts provided a unique opportunity to generate a large study population with long follow-up and sufficient statistical power to develop and apply new methods for quantification of the two basic mechanisms underlying social inequalities in cancer-mediation and interaction. The SIC cohort included 83 006 participants aged 20-98 years at baseline. A wide range of behavioural and biological risk factors such as smoking, physical inactivity, alcohol intake, hormone replacement therapy, body mass index, blood pressure and serum cholesterol were assessed by self-administered questionnaires, physical examinations and blood samples. All participants were followed up in nationwide demographic and healthcare registries. For those interested in collaboration, further details can be obtained by contacting the Steering Committee at the Department of Public Health, University of Copenhagen, at © The Author 2014; all rights reserved. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the International Epidemiological Association.

  7. Integrated photonic filters based on SiC multilayer structures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vieira, M.A., E-mail: [Electronics Telecommunication and Computer Dept. ISEL, R. Conselheiro Emídio Navarro, 1949-014, Lisboa (Portugal); CTS-UNINOVA, Quinta da Torre, Monte da Caparica, 2829-516, Caparica (Portugal); Vieira, M. [Electronics Telecommunication and Computer Dept. ISEL, R. Conselheiro Emídio Navarro, 1949-014, Lisboa (Portugal); CTS-UNINOVA, Quinta da Torre, Monte da Caparica, 2829-516, Caparica (Portugal); DEE-FCT-UNL, Quinta da Torre, Monte da Caparica, 2829-516, Caparica (Portugal); Louro, P.; Silva, V.; Fantoni, A. [Electronics Telecommunication and Computer Dept. ISEL, R. Conselheiro Emídio Navarro, 1949-014, Lisboa (Portugal); CTS-UNINOVA, Quinta da Torre, Monte da Caparica, 2829-516, Caparica (Portugal)


    Combined tunable WDM converters based on SiC multilayer photonic active filters are analyzed. The operation combines the properties of active long-pass and short-pass wavelength filter sections into a capacitive active band-pass filter. The sensor element is a multilayered heterostructure produced by PE-CVD. The configuration includes two stacked SiC p–i–n structures sandwiched between two transparent contacts. Transfer function characteristics are studied both theoretically and experimentally. Results show that optical bias activated photonic device combines the demultiplexing operation with the simultaneous photodetection and self amplification of an optical signal acting the device as an integrated photonic filter in the visible range. Depending on the wavelength of the external background and irradiation side, the device acts either as a short- or a long-pass band filter or as a band-stop filter. The output waveform presents a nonlinear amplitude-dependent response to the wavelengths of the input channels. A numerical simulation and a two building-blocks active circuit are presented and give insight into the physics of the device.

  8. Protein crystallization image classification with elastic net (United States)

    Hung, Jeffrey; Collins, John; Weldetsion, Mehari; Newland, Oliver; Chiang, Eric; Guerrero, Steve; Okada, Kazunori


    Protein crystallization plays a crucial role in pharmaceutical research by supporting the investigation of a protein's molecular structure through X-ray diffraction of its crystal. Due to the rare occurrence of crystals, images must be manually inspected, a laborious process. We develop a solution incorporating a regularized, logistic regression model for automatically evaluating these images. Standard image features, such as shape context, Gabor filters and Fourier transforms, are first extracted to represent the heterogeneous appearance of our images. Then the proposed solution utilizes Elastic Net to select relevant features. Its L1-regularization mitigates the effects of our large dataset, and its L2- regularization ensures proper operation when the feature number exceeds the sample number. A two-tier cascade classifier based on naïve Bayes and random forest algorithms categorized the images. In order to validate the proposed method, we experimentally compare it with naïve Bayes, linear discriminant analysis, random forest, and their two-tier cascade classifiers, by 10-fold cross validation. Our experimental results demonstrate a 3-category accuracy of 74%, outperforming other models. In addition, Elastic Net better reduces the false negatives responsible for a high, domain specific risk. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first attempt to apply Elastic Net to classifying protein crystallization images. Performance measured on a large pharmaceutical dataset also fared well in comparison with those presented in the previous studies, while the reduction of the high-risk false negatives is promising.

  9. Crucial effect of SiC particles on in situ synthesized mullite whisker reinforced Al2O3-SiC composite during microwave sintering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meng Wei


    Full Text Available Mullite whisker reinforced Al2O3-SiC composites were in situ synthesized by microwave sintering at 1500°C for 30min. The influence of SiC particle size on heating process and properties of Al2O3-SiC composite were investigated. The XRD and SEM techniques were carried out to characterize the samples. The thermal shock resistance and flexural strength of the samples were examined through water quenching and three-point bending methods, respectively. It was found that the bridging of mullite whisker appeared between Al2O3 and SiC particles which enhanced the thermal shock resistance. A so-called local hot spot effect was proposed dependent on the coupling of SiC particles with microwave, which was the unique feature of microwave sintering. The maximal thermal shock resistance and flexural strength were obtained for the samples with SiC particle size of ~5μm.

  10. Introduction of nano-laminate Ti3SiC2 and SiC phases into Cf-C composite by liquid silicon infiltration method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omid Yaghobizadeh


    Full Text Available The material Cf-C-SiC-Ti3SiC2 is promising for high temperature application. Due to the laminated structure and special properties, the Ti3SiC2 is one of the best reinforcements for Cf-C-SiC composites. In this paper, Cf-C-SiC-Ti3SiC2 composites were fabricated by liquid silicon infiltration (LSI method; the effect of the TiC amount on the various composites properties were studied. For samples with 0, 50 and 90 vol.% of TiC, the results show that bending strength are 168, 190, and 181 MPa; porosities are 3.2, 4.7, and 9%; the fracture toughness are 6.1, 8.9, and 7.8 MPa∙m1/2; interlaminar shear strength are 27, 36, and 30 MPa; the amount of the MAX phase are 0, 8.5, and 5.6 vol.%, respectively. These results show that amount of TiC is not the main effective parameter in synthesis of Ti3SiC2. The existence of carbon promotes the synthesis of Ti3SiC2 indicating that only sufficient carbon content can lead to the appearance of Ti3SiC2 in the LSI process.

  11. Residual stresses and mechanical properties of Si3N4/SiC multilayered composites with different SiC layers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shichao Liu


    Full Text Available The effect of residual stresses on the strength, toughness and work of fracture of Si3N4/SiC multilayered composites with different SiC layers has been investigated. It may be an effective way to design and optimize the mechanical properties of Si3N4/SiC multilayered composites by controlling the properties of SiC layers. Si3N4/SiC multilayered composites with different SiC layers were fabricated by aqueous tape casting and pressureless sintering. Residual stresses were calculated by using ANSYS simulation, the maximum values of tensile and compressive stresses were 553.2 MPa and −552.1 MPa, respectively. Step-like fracture was observed from the fracture surfaces. Fraction of delamination layers increased with the residual stress, which can improve the reliability of the materials. Tensile residual stress was benefit to improving toughness and work of fracture, but the strength of the composites decreased.

  12. Low dose irradiation performance of SiC interphase SiC/SiC composites (United States)

    Snead, L. L.; Osborne, M. C.; Lowden, R. A.; Strizak, J.; Shinavski, R. J.; More, K. L.; Eatherly, W. S.; Bailey, J.; Williams, A. M.


    Reduced oxygen Hi-Nicalon™ fiber reinforced composite SiC materials were densified with a chemically vapor infiltrated (CVI) silicon carbide (SiC) matrix and interphases of either `porous' SiC or multilayer SiC and irradiated to a neutron fluence of 1.1×10 25 n m -2 ( E>0.1 MeV) in the temperature range of 260 to 1060°C. The unirradiated properties of these composites are superior to previously studied ceramic grade Nicalon fiber reinforced/carbon interphase materials. Negligible reduction in the macroscopic matrix microcracking stress was observed after irradiation for the multilayer SiC interphase material and a slight reduction in matrix microcracking stress was observed for the composite with porous SiC interphase. The reduction in strength for the porous SiC interfacial material is greatest for the highest irradiation temperature. The ultimate fracture stress (in four point bending) following irradiation for the multilayer SiC and porous SiC interphase materials was reduced by 15% and 30%, respectively, which is an improvement over the 40% reduction suffered by irradiated ceramic grade Nicalon fiber materials fabricated in a similar fashion, though with a carbon interphase. The degradation of the mechanical properties of these composites is analyzed by comparison with the irradiation behavior of bare Hi-Nicalon fiber and Morton chemically vapor deposited (CVD) SiC. It is concluded that the degradation of these composites, as with the previous generation ceramic grade Nicalon fiber materials, is dominated by interfacial effects, though the overall degradation of fiber and hence composite is reduced for the newer low-oxygen fiber.

  13. Dynamic shape. (United States)

    Koenderink, J J; van Doorn, A J


    Many useful notions of partial order and/or similarity and relatedness of different geometrical features of smooth shapes that occur in psychologically valid descriptions of shape have no equivalents in the usual geometrical shape theories. This is especially true where similarities are noted between objects of different connectivity: in almost all of the present theories the topological type generates the primary categorization. It is argued that such relations find a logical place only in shape theories that involve morphogenesis. Any object can be embedded uniquely in a morphogenetic sequence if one takes resolution as the parameter of the sequence. A theory of measurement is presented that allows one to define surfaces and (boundary-) curves on multiple levels of resolution. The embedding is essentially unique and is generated via a partial differential equation that governs the evolution. A canonical projection connects any high resolution specimen to lower resolution versions. The bifurcation set of the projection generates natural part boundaries. Singularities of the evolution are completely characterized as emergence, accretion and versification processes (involving topological change) and singularities by which inflections (inflection points for curves, parabolic curves for surfaces) are generated. The latter singularities involve a single process for the generation of inflections and three other processes by which the existing inflection structure may be changed. Relations with existing theories in vogue in robotics and AI, as well as in psychophysics are discussed.

  14. Linear Logic on Petri Nets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engberg, Uffe Henrik; Winskel, Glynn

    This article shows how individual Petri nets form models of Girard's intuitionistic linear logic. It explores questions of expressiveness and completeness of linear logic with respect to this interpretation. An aim is to use Petri nets to give an understanding of linear logic and give some apprai...

  15. Reference Guide Microsoft.NET

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zee M van der; Verspaij GJ; Rosbergen S; IMP; NMD


    Developers, administrators and managers can get more understanding of the .NET technology with this report. They can also make better choices how to use this technology. The report describes the results and conclusions of a study of the usability for the RIVM of this new generation .NET development

  16. Net neutrality and audiovisual services

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Eijk, N.; Nikoltchev, S.


    Net neutrality is high on the European agenda. New regulations for the communication sector provide a legal framework for net neutrality and need to be implemented on both a European and a national level. The key element is not just about blocking or slowing down traffic across communication

  17. Detection and analysis of particles with failed SiC in AGR-1 fuel compacts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hunn, John D., E-mail: [Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), P.O. Box 2008, Oak Ridge, TN 37831-6093 (United States); Baldwin, Charles A.; Gerczak, Tyler J.; Montgomery, Fred C.; Morris, Robert N.; Silva, Chinthaka M. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), P.O. Box 2008, Oak Ridge, TN 37831-6093 (United States); Demkowicz, Paul A.; Harp, Jason M.; Ploger, Scott A. [Idaho National Laboratory (INL), P.O. Box 1625, Idaho Falls, ID 83415-6188 (United States)


    Highlights: • Cesium release was used to detect SiC failure in HTGR fuel. • Tristructural-isotropic particles with SiC failure were isolated by gamma screening. • SiC failure was studied by X-ray tomography and SEM. • SiC degradation was observed after irradiation and subsequent safety testing. - Abstract: As the primary barrier to release of radioactive isotopes emitted from the fuel kernel, retention performance of the SiC layer in tristructural isotropic (TRISO) coated particles is critical to the overall safety of reactors that utilize this fuel design. Most isotopes are well-retained by intact SiC coatings, so pathways through this layer due to cracking, structural defects, or chemical attack can significantly contribute to radioisotope release. In the US TRISO fuel development effort, release of {sup 134}Cs and {sup 137}Cs are used to detect SiC failure during fuel compact irradiation and safety testing because the amount of cesium released by a compact containing one particle with failed SiC is typically ten or more times higher than that released by compacts without failed SiC. Compacts with particles that released cesium during irradiation testing or post-irradiation safety testing at 1600–1800 °C were identified, and individual particles with abnormally low cesium retention were sorted out with the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) Irradiated Microsphere Gamma Analyzer (IMGA). X-ray tomography was used for three-dimensional imaging of the internal coating structure to locate low-density pathways through the SiC layer and guide subsequent materialography by optical and scanning electron microscopy. All three cesium-releasing particles recovered from as-irradiated compacts showed a region where the inner pyrocarbon (IPyC) had cracked due to radiation-induced dimensional changes in the shrinking buffer and the exposed SiC had experienced concentrated attack by palladium; SiC failures observed in particles subjected to safety testing were

  18. A Small Universal Petri Net

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dmitry A. Zaitsev


    Full Text Available A universal deterministic inhibitor Petri net with 14 places, 29 transitions and 138 arcs was constructed via simulation of Neary and Woods' weakly universal Turing machine with 2 states and 4 symbols; the total time complexity is exponential in the running time of their weak machine. To simulate the blank words of the weakly universal Turing machine, a couple of dedicated transitions insert their codes when reaching edges of the working zone. To complete a chain of a given Petri net encoding to be executed by the universal Petri net, a translation of a bi-tag system into a Turing machine was constructed. The constructed Petri net is universal in the standard sense; a weaker form of universality for Petri nets was not introduced in this work.

  19. Fabrication of SiC hardened bodies with geopolymer binders using a warm press method (United States)

    Hashimoto, Shinobu; Kubota, Kosuke; Ando, Kotaro; Tsutani, Masaki; Diko, Yusuke; Honda, Sawao; Iwamoto, Yuji


    Novel SiC hardened bodies with geopolymer binders using a warm press method were fabricated. In this study, two methods were tried. The first method used a conventional powder mixture consisted of SiC and geopolymer particles as starting materials. In the second method, SiC particles was first immersed in hydrochloric acid solution with 2.5 mol/L and then heated at 1200 °C for 6 h to form a reactive aluminosilicate layer at the surface of SiC particles. Subsequently, the resultant SiC particles mixed with a fixed amount of sodium hydroxide solution with various concentrations were put into a steel mold which was set in the warm press device. This second method was defined as a chemical assist processing. As this warm press condition, heating temperature was 130 °C and pressed at 240 MPa for 30 min simultaneously. When a powder mixture consisted of geopolymer and SiC particles was used, the compressive strength of the hardened bodies decreased with the amount of SiC particles. On the contrary, when the chemical assist processing method was selected, the compressive strength of the hardened bodies increased with the concentration of the sodium hydroxide solution. When the sodium hydroxide solution was 4 mol/L was used, the compressive strength of the hardened body reached to 170 MPa which was the maximum value in this study.

  20. Fracture strength estimation of SiC block for IS process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takegami, Hiroaki, E-mail: [Japan Atomic Energy Agency, 4002, Narita-cho, Oarai-machi, Higashiibaraki-gun, Ibaraki 311-1393 (Japan); Terada, Atsuhiko; Onuki, Kaoru; Hino, Ryutaro [Japan Atomic Energy Agency, 4002, Narita-cho, Oarai-machi, Higashiibaraki-gun, Ibaraki 311-1393 (Japan)


    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We proposed a strength estimation method for large-scale SiC structure. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The strength estimation was carried out by using the effective volume and the optimized Weibull modulus of SiC. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The fracture strength of small-scale SiC obtained from fracture test was well within the estimation of the proposed method. - Abstract: The Japan Atomic Energy Agency has been conducting R and D on thermochemical water-splitting Iodine-Sulfur (IS) process for hydrogen production to meet massive demand in the future hydrogen economy. A concept of sulfuric acid decomposer was developed featuring a heat exchanger block made of SiC. Recent activity has focused on the reliability assessment of SiC block. Although knowing the strength of SiC block is important for the reliability assessment, it is difficult to evaluate a large-scale ceramics structure without destructive test. In this study, a novel approach for strength estimation of SiC structure was proposed. Since accurate strength estimation of individual ceramics structure is difficult, a prediction method of minimum strength in the structure of the same design was proposed based on effective volume theory and optimized Weibull modulus. Optimum value of the Weibull modulus was determined for estimating the lowest strength. The strength estimation line was developed by using the determined modulus. The validity of the line was verified by destructive test of SiC block model, which is small-scale model of the SiC block. The fracture strength of small-scale model satisfied the predicted strength.

  1. Polycrystalline SiC fibers from organosilicon polymers (United States)

    Lipowitz, Jonathan; Rabe, James A.; Zank, Gregg A.


    Various organosilicon polymers have been converted into small diameter, fine-grained silicon carbide fibers by melt spinning, crosslinking, and pyrolyzing to greater than 1600 C. The high pyrolysis temperature densifies the fiber and causes CO evolution which removes nearly all oxygen. An additive prevents the loss of strength normally associated with such treatments. Silicon carbide fibres with up to 2.6 GPa (380 ksi) tensile strength, greater than 420 GPa (greater than 60 Msi) elastic modulus, and 3.1-3.2 mg/cu m density have been prepared via this process. Their microstructure consists of greater than 95 wt pct B-SiC crystallites averaging 30-40 nm diameter, with varying amounts of graphitic carbon between the SiC grains. Under inert conditions, the fibers can be thermally aged at least 12 h/1800 C with minimal change in properties.

  2. Creep of chemically vapour deposited SiC fibres (United States)

    Dicarlo, J. A.


    The creep, thermal expansion, and elastic modulus properties for chemically vapor deposited SiC fibers were measured between 1000 and 1500 C. Creep strain was observed to increase logarithmically with time, monotonically with temperature, and linearly with tensile stress up to 600 MPa. The controlling activation energy was 480 + or - 20 kJ/mole. Thermal pretreatments near 1200 and 1450 C were found to significantly reduce fiber creep. These results coupled with creep recovery observations indicate that below 1400 C fiber creep is anelastic with negligible plastic component. This allowed a simple predictive method to be developed for describing fiber total deformation as a function of time, temperature, and stress. Mechanistic analysis of the property data suggests that fiber creep is the result of beta-SiC grain boundary sliding controlled by a small percent of free silicon in the grain boundaries.

  3. Relativistic energies for the SiC radical

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jia, Chun-Sheng [Southwest Petroleum University, State Key Laboratory of Oil and Gas Reservoir Geology and Exploitation, Chengdu (China); Shui, Zheng-Wei [Southwest Petroleum University, School of Vocational and Technical Education, Nanchong (China)


    The analytical solutions of the Dirac equation with the modified Rosen-Morse potential energy model have been explored. Under the condition of the spin symmetry, we present the bound state energy equation. In the nonrelativistic limit, the relativistic energy equation becomes the nonrelativistic energy form deduced within the framework of the Schroedinger equation. We find that the relativistic effect of the relative motion of the ions leads to a little decrease in the vibrational energies when the vector potential is equal to the scalar potential for the electronic ground state of the SiC radical, while to an increase in those if the vector potential is greater than the scalar potential. (orig.)

  4. SiC MOSFET Switching Power Amplifier Project Summary (United States)

    Miller, Kenneth E.; Ziemba, Timothy; Prager, James; Slobodov, Ilia; Henson, Alex


    Eagle Harbor Technologies has completed a Phase I/II program to develop SiC MOSFET based Switching Power Amplifiers (SPA) for precision magnet control in fusion science applications. During this program, EHT developed several units have been delivered to the Helicity Injected Torus (HIT) experiment at the University of Washington to drive both the voltage and flux circuits of the helicity injectors. These units are capable of switching 700 V at 100 kHz with an adjustable duty cycle from 10 - 90% and a combined total output current of 96 kA for 4 ms (at max current). The SPAs switching is controlled by the microcontroller at HIT, which adjusts the duty cycle to maintain a specific waveform in the injector. The SPAs include overcurrent and shoot-through protection circuity. EHT will present an overview of the program including final results for the SPA waveforms. With support of DOE SBIR.

  5. High-level Petri Nets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    High-level Petri nets are now widely used in both theoretical analysis and practical modelling of concurrent systems. The main reason for the success of this class of net models is that they make it possible to obtain much more succinct and manageable descriptions than can be obtained by means...... of low-level Petri nets - while, on the other hand, they still offer a wide range of analysis methods and tools. The step from low-level nets to high-level nets can be compared to the step from assembly languages to modern programming languages with an elaborated type concept. In low-level nets...... there is only one kind of token and this means that the state of a place is described by an integer (and in many cases even by a boolean). In high-level nets each token can carry a complex information/data - which, e.g., may describe the entire state of a process or a data base. Today most practical...

  6. Net Shape Molding of Monolithic Complex-shaped Damage-Tolerant Cryo-Insulators Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Passive thermal control of cryogenic systems using foam insulations can help achieve Zero Boil-Off (ZBO). There is as much thermal energy transferred to Cryo tanks...

  7. Residual stresses and mechanical properties of Si3N4/SiC multilayered composites with different SiC layers; Las tensiones residuales y las propiedades mecánicas de compuestos multicapa de Si3N4/SiC con diferentes capas de SiC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liua, S.; Lia, Y.; Chena, P.; Lia, W.; Gaoa, S.; Zhang, B.; Yeb, F.


    The effect of residual stresses on the strength, toughness and work of fracture of Si3N4/SiC multilayered composites with different SiC layers has been investigated. It may be an effective way to design and optimize the mechanical properties of Si3N4/SiC multilayered composites by controlling the properties of SiC layers. Si3N4/SiC multilayered composites with different SiC layers were fabricated by aqueous tape casting and pressureless sintering. Residual stresses were calculated by using ANSYS simulation, the maximum values of tensile and compressive stresses were 553.2MPa and −552.1MPa, respectively. Step-like fracture was observed from the fracture surfaces. Fraction of delamination layers increased with the residual stress, which can improve the reliability of the materials. Tensile residual stress was benefit to improving toughness and work of fracture, but the strength of the composites decreased. [Spanish] Se ha investigado el efecto de las tensiones residuales en la resistencia, dureza y trabajo de fractura de los compuestos multicapa de Si3N4/SiC con diferentes capas de SiC. Puede ser una manera eficaz de diseñar y optimizar las propiedades mecánicas de los compuestos multicapa de Si3N4/SiC mediante el control de las propiedades de las capas de SiC. Los compuestos multicapa de Si3N4/SiC con diferentes capas de SiC se fabricaron por medio de colado en cinta en medio acuoso y sinterización sin presión. Las tensiones residuales se calcularon mediante el uso de la simulación ANSYS, los valores máximos de las fuerzas de tracción y compresión fueron 553,2 MPa y −552,1 MPa, respectivamente. Se observó una fractura escalonada a partir de las superficies de fractura. La fracción de capas de deslaminación aumenta con la tensión residual, lo que puede mejorar la fiabilidad de los materiales. La fuerza de tracción residual era beneficiosa para la mejora de la dureza y el trabajo de fractura, pero la resistencia de los compuestos disminuyó.

  8. Effects of SiC and MgO on aluminabased ceramic foams filters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CAO Da-li


    Full Text Available Alumina-based foam ceramic filters were fabricated by using alumina, SiC, magnesia powder as major materials. It has been found that this ceramic filter has a uniform macrostructure for filtering molten metals. The influences of SiC and magnesia content, the sintering temperatures on ceramic properties were discussed. Aluminabased foam ceramic filters containing 2.2 mass% magnesia and 7.6 mass% SiC has a compressive strength of 1.36 MPa and a thermal shock resistance of 5 times. Its main phases after 1 hour sintering at 1 500 consist of alumina, silicon carbide, spinel and mullite.

  9. Electrical Impact of SiC Structural Crystal Defects on High Electric Field Devices (Invited) (United States)

    Neudeck, Philip G.


    As illustrated by the invited paper at this conference and other works, SiC wafers and epilayers contain a variety of crystallographic imperfections, including micropipes, closed-core screw dislocations, grain boundaries, basal plane dislocations, heteropolytypic inclusions, and surfaces that are often damaged and contain atomically rough features like step bunching and growth pits or hillocks. Present understanding of the operational impact of various crystal imperfections on SiC electrical devices is reviewed, with an emphasis placed on high-field SiC power devices and circuits.

  10. Pro asynchronous programming with .NET

    CERN Document Server

    Blewett, Richard; Ltd, Rock Solid Knowledge


    Pro Asynchronous Programming with .NET teaches the essential skill of asynchronous programming in .NET. It answers critical questions in .NET application development, such as: how do I keep my program responding at all times to keep my users happy how do I make the most of the available hardware how can I improve performanceIn the modern world, users expect more and more from their applications and devices, and multi-core hardware has the potential to provide it. But it takes carefully crafted code to turn that potential into responsive, scalable applications.With Pro Asynchronous Programming

  11. Conformal Nets II: Conformal Blocks (United States)

    Bartels, Arthur; Douglas, Christopher L.; Henriques, André


    Conformal nets provide a mathematical formalism for conformal field theory. Associated to a conformal net with finite index, we give a construction of the `bundle of conformal blocks', a representation of the mapping class groupoid of closed topological surfaces into the category of finite-dimensional projective Hilbert spaces. We also construct infinite-dimensional spaces of conformal blocks for topological surfaces with smooth boundary. We prove that the conformal blocks satisfy a factorization formula for gluing surfaces along circles, and an analogous formula for gluing surfaces along intervals. We use this interval factorization property to give a new proof of the modularity of the category of representations of a conformal net.

  12. Effect of SiC particle size on the microstructure and properties of cold-sprayed Al/SiCp composite coating (United States)

    Yu, Min; Hua, Junwei


    The Al5056/SiC composite coatings were prepared by cold spraying. Experimental results show that the SiC content in the composite coating deposited with the SiC powder having an average size of 67 μm (Al5056/SiC-67) is similar to that deposited with the SiC powder having an average size of 27 μm (Al5056/SiC-27). The microhardness and cohesion strength of Al5056/SiC-67 coating are higher than those of the Al5056/SiC-27 coating. In addition, the Al5056/SiC-67 coating having a superior wear resistance because of the coarse SiC powder with a superior kinetic energy contributes to the deformation resistance of the matrix Al5056 particles.

  13. Mechanical Spectroscopy of MgB2 Containing Sic / Spektroskopia Mechaniczna MgB2 Zawierającego Sic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silva M.R.


    Full Text Available The compound magnesium diboride (MgB2 has been well-known since the 1950s; however, its superconducting properties were unknown. Intrinsic characteristics of MgB2 make this material a promising candidate for technological applications, although the low value of the irreversibility field and the decrease in critical current density with the increase in the magnetic field considerably reduce its utility. The present work aimed to study the effect of carbon-based doping on anelastic properties of MgB2 as measured by mechanical spectroscopy. The samples were prepared by using the powder-intube method. The samples were made with 5, 7.5, and 10 wt.% of silicon carbide (SiC. The results reveal complex mechanical loss spectra caused by the interaction between point defects and surface defects in the crystalline lattice of MgB2.

  14. Petri Net Tool Overview 1986

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Kurt; Feldbrugge, Frits


    This paper provides an overview of the characteristics of all currently available net based tools. It is a compilation of information provided by tool authors or contact persons. A concise one page overview is provided as well....

  15. Understanding Net Zero Energy Buildings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Salom, Jaume; Widén, Joakim; Candanedo, José


    Although several alternative definitions exist, a Net-Zero Energy Building (Net ZEB) can be succinctly described as a grid-connected building that generates as much energy as it uses over a year. The “net-zero” balance is attained by applying energy conservation and efficiency measures...... and by incorporating renewable energy systems. While based on annual balances, a complete description of a Net ZEB requires examining the system at smaller time-scales. This assessment should address: (a) the relationship between power generation and building loads and (b) the resulting interaction with the power grid....... This paper presents and categorizes quantitative indicators suitable to describe both aspects of the building’s performance. These indicators, named LMGI - Load Matching and Grid Interaction indicators, are easily quantifiable and could complement the output variables of existing building simulation tools...

  16. PolicyNet Publication System (United States)

    Social Security Administration — The PolicyNet Publication System project will merge the Oracle-based Policy Repository (POMS) and the SQL-Server CAMP system (MSOM) into a new system with an Oracle...

  17. KM3NeT

    CERN Multimedia

    KM3NeT is a large scale next-generation neutrino telescope located in the deep waters of the Mediterranean Sea, optimized for the discovery of galactic neutrino sources emitting in the TeV energy region.

  18. Net Neutrality: Background and Issues

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Gilroy, Angele A


    .... The move to place restrictions on the owners of the networks that compose and provide access to the Internet, to ensure equal access and nondiscriminatory treatment, is referred to as "net neutrality...

  19. Petri Nets in Cryptographic Protocols

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Crazzolara, Federico; Winskel, Glynn


    A process language for security protocols is presented together with a semantics in terms of sets of events. The denotation of process is a set of events, and as each event specifies a set of pre and postconditions, this denotation can be viewed as a Petri net. By means of an example we illustrate...... how the Petri-net semantics can be used to prove security properties....

  20. The Economics of Net Neutrality


    Hahn, Robert W.; Wallsten, Scott


    This essay examines the economics of "net neutrality" and broadband Internet access. We argue that mandating net neutrality would be likely to reduce economic welfare. Instead, the government should focus on creating competition in the broadband market by liberalizing more spectrum and reducing entry barriers created by certain local regulations. In cases where a broadband provider can exercise market power the government should use its antitrust enforcement authority to police anticompetitiv...

  1. Silicon Carbide (SiC) Power Processing Unit (PPU) for Hall Effect Thrusters Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — In this SBIR project, APEI, Inc. is proposing to develop a high efficiency, rad-hard 3.8 kW silicon carbide (SiC) Power Processing Unit (PPU) for Hall Effect...

  2. Light extraction efficiency enhancement for fluorescent SiC based white light-emitting diodes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ou, Haiyan; Ou, Yiyu; Argyraki, Aikaterini

    Fluorescent SiC based white light-emitting diodes(LEDs) light source, as an innovative energy-efficient light source, would even have longer lifetime, better light quality and eliminated blue-tone effect, compared to the current phosphor based white LED light source. In this paper, the yellow....... At a device level, the focus is on improving the light extraction efficiency due to the rather high refractive index of SiC by nanostructuring the surface of SiC. Both periodic nanostructures made by e-beam lithography and nanosphere lithography and random nanostructures made by self-assembled Au nanosphere...... fluorescent Boron-Nitrogen co-doped 6H SiC is optimized in terms of source material, growth condition, dopant concentration, and carrier lifetime by using photoluminescence, pump-probe spectroscopy etc. The internal quantum efficiency is measured and the methods to increase the efficiency have been explored...

  3. Research Progress on Preparation for Biomass-based SiC Ceramic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CUI He-shuai


    Full Text Available Silicon carbide (SiC ceramics prepared by the conventional process has excellent properties and wide application prospects, but the increased cost of high-temperature preparation process restricts its further development. In contrast, the abundant porous structure of biomass makes itself to be ideal replacement of SiC ceramic prepared at low temperature. This paper reviewed the structure characteristics, preparation methods, pyrolysis mechanism and influence parameters of biomass-based SiC ceramic, and eventually explored the current problems and development trends of the pretreatment of carbon source and silicon source, the pyrolysis process and the application research on the preparation for biomass-based SiC ceramic.

  4. Breakthrough in Power Electronics from SiC: May 25, 2004 - May 31, 2005

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marckx, D. A.


    This report explores the premise that silicon carbide (SiC) devices would reduce substantially the cost of energy of large wind turbines that need power electronics for variable speed generation systems.

  5. Synthesis of One-Dimensional SiC Nanostructures from a Glassy Buckypaper

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ding, Mengning; Star, Alexander


    A simple and scalable synthetic strategy was developed for the fabrication of one-dimensional SiC nanostructures - nanorods and nanowires. Thin sheets of single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) were prepared by vacuum filtration and were washed repeatedly with sodium silicate (Na₂SiO₃) solution. The resulting “glassy buckypaper” was heated at 1300 - 1500 °C under Ar/H₂ to allow a solid state reaction between C and Si precursors to form a variety of SiC nanostructures. The morphology and crystal structures of SiC nanorods and nanowires were characterized using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HR-TEM), energy dispersive xray spectroscopy (EDX), electron diffraction (ED) and x-ray diffraction (XRD) techniques. Furthermore, electrical conductance measurements were performed on SiC nanorods, demonstrating their potential applications in high-temperature sensors and control systems.

  6. Ultra-Lightweight, High Efficiency Silicon-Carbide (SIC) Based Power Electronic Converters Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — In Phase I of this project, APEI, Inc. proved the feasibility of creating ultra-lightweight power converters (utilizing now emerging silicon carbide [SiC] power...

  7. Promise and Challenges of High-Voltage SiC Bipolar Power Devices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsunenobu Kimoto


    Full Text Available Although various silicon carbide (SiC power devices with very high blocking voltages over 10 kV have been demonstrated, basic issues associated with the device operation are still not well understood. In this paper, the promise and limitations of high-voltage SiC bipolar devices are presented, taking account of the injection-level dependence of carrier lifetimes. It is shown that the major limitation of SiC bipolar devices originates from band-to-band recombination, which becomes significant at a high-injection level. A trial of unipolar/bipolar hybrid operation to reduce power loss is introduced, and an 11 kV SiC hybrid (merged pin-Schottky diodes is experimentally demonstrated. The fabricated diodes with an epitaxial anode exhibit much better forward characteristics than diodes with an implanted anode. The temperature dependence of forward characteristics is discussed.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available The fabrication methods and requirements of the fiber, interphase, and matrix of nuclear grade SiCf/SiC composites are briefly reviewed. A CVI-processed SiCf/SiC composite with a PyC or (PyC-SiCn interphase utilizing Hi-Nicalon Type S or Tyranno SA3 fiber is currently the best combination in terms of the irradiation performance. We also describe important material issues for the application of SiC composites to LWR fuel cladding. The kinetics of the SiC corrosion under LWR conditions needs to be clarified to confirm the possibility of a burn-up extension and the cost-benefit effect of the SiC composite cladding. In addition, the development of end-plug joining technology and fission products retention capability of the ceramic composite tube would be key challenges for the successful application of SiC composite cladding.

  9. Ultra-Lightweight, High Efficiency Silicon-Carbide (SIC) Based Power Electronic Converters Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This Small Business of Innovation Research Phase I proposal seeks to investigate and prove the feasibility of developing highly efficient, ultra-lightweight SiC...

  10. Decentralized Nonlinear Controller Based SiC Parallel DC-DC Converter Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This proposal is aimed at demonstrating the feasibility of a Decentralized Control based SiC Parallel DC-DC Converter Unit (DDCU) with targeted application for...

  11. Carbon Nanotube (CNT) and Carbon Fiber Reinforced SiC Optical Components Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — M Cubed has developed and patented technology to make carbon fiber reinforced SiC composites and components. In addition, the feasibility of doubling the toughness...

  12. SiC nanocrystals as Pt catalyst supports for fuel cell applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dhiman, Rajnish; Johnson, Erik; Skou, Eivind Morten


    on the nanocrystals of SiC-SPR and SiC-NS by the polyol method. The SiC substrates are subjected to an acid treatment to introduce the surface groups, which help to anchor the Pt nano-catalysts. These SiC based catalysts have been found to have a higher electrochemical activity than commercially available Vulcan......A robust catalyst support is pivotal to Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cells (PEMFCs) to overcome challenges such as catalyst support corrosion, low catalyst utilization and overall capital cost. SiC is a promising candidate material which could be applied as a catalyst support in PEMFCs. Si...... based catalysts (BASF & HISPEC). These promising results signal a new era of SiC based catalysts for fuel cell...

  13. Synthesis of boron nitride nanotubes with SiC nanowire as template

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhong, B.; Song, L. [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Harbin Institute of Technology at Weihai, Weihai 264209 (China); Huang, X.X. [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin 150001 (China); Wen, G.W., E-mail: [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Harbin Institute of Technology at Weihai, Weihai 264209 (China); School of Materials Science and Engineering, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin 150001 (China); Xia, L. [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Harbin Institute of Technology at Weihai, Weihai 264209 (China)


    Highlights: {yields} Boron nitride nanotubes (BNNTs) have been fabricated using SiC nanowires as template. {yields} SiC nanowires could be effectively etched out by the vapors decomposed from ammonia borane, leading to the formation of BNNTs. {yields} A template self-sacrificing mechanism is responsible for the formation of BNNTs. -- Abstract: A novel template method for the preparation of boron nitride nanotubes (BNNTs) using SiC nanowire as template and ammonia borane as precursor is reported. We find out that the SiC nanowires could be effectively etched out by the vapors decomposed from ammonia borane, leading to the formation of BNNTs. The as-prepared products are well characterized by means of complementary analytical techniques. A possible formation mechanism is disclosed. The method developed here paves the way for large scale production of BNNTs.

  14. Large area SiC coating technology of RBSC for semiconductor processing component

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Ji Yeon; Kim, Weon Ju


    As the semiconductor process is developed for the larger area wafer and the larger-scale integration, the processing fixtures are required to have excellent mechanical and high temperature properties. This highlights the importance of silicon carbide-based materials as a substitute for quartz-based susceptors. In this study, SiC coating technology on reaction sintered (RS) SiC with thickness variation of +/- 10% within a diameter of 8 inch by low pressure chemical vapor deposition has been developed for making a plate type SiC fixture such as heater, baffle, etc., with a diameter of 12 inch. Additionally, a state of art on fabrication technology and products of the current commercial SiC fixtures has been described.

  15. Detection of effective recombination centers in fluorescent SiC using thermally stimulated luminescence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wei, Yi; Künecke, Ulrike; Wellmann, Peter

    Two n-type 6H fluorescent SiC (f-SiC) samples have been characterized using thermally stimulated luminescence (TSL) spectroscopy, where the dominant carriers recombination regime has been found via the numerical simulations....

  16. 40 CFR 372.23 - SIC and NAICS codes to which this Part applies. (United States)


    ..., and Confectionery Stores); Except 311340—Exception is limited to facilities primarily engaged in the... premises (previously classified under SIC 5441, Candy, Nut, and Confectionery Stores); Except 311811—Retail...


    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — SSG/Tinsley proposes an innovative optical manufacturing process that will allow the advancement of state-of-the-art Silicon Carbide (SiC) mirrors for large aperture...

  18. Visible Blind SiC Array with Low Noise Readout Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — To date, we have (i) designed and fabricated both common cathode and common anode SiC detector arrays; (ii) designed and fabricated the detector packaging (FPA), and...

  19. Brazing of SiC using Cu-Si non reactive alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gasse, A. [C.E.A., CEREM-DEM, Grenoble (France); Chaumat, G. [C.E.A., CEREM-DEM, Grenoble (France); Rado, C. [INPG/LTCM-ENSEEG, Saint Martin d`Heres (France); Eustathopoulos, N. [INPG/LTCM-ENSEEG, Saint Martin d`Heres (France)


    SiC was brazed with a Cu 24 at% Si alloy under high vacuum at 1473 K. This alloy well wets SiC without any measurable reactivity and after cooling, leads to an interface which appears to be strong. It was found that the degree of filling of the joint by the alloy depends mainly on the geometry of the ceramic-metal-vapour system. It is shown that geometrical factors influence the kinetics of deoxidation of both alloys and SiC surfaces and, as a consequence, considerably modify the wetting kinetics and filling of the joint. Successful helium-tight tube/plate brazed joints have been obtained. Nevertheless, thermal expansion mismatch remains considerable between the SiC and the Cu-Si alloy. Further work is needed to improve the mechanical behaviour of such junctions to avoid crack formation. (orig./MM)

  20. Switching Investigations on a SiC MOSFET in a TO-247 Package

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Anthon, Alexander; Hernandez Botella, Juan Carlos; Zhang, Zhe


    This paper deals with the switching behavior of a SiC MOSFET in a TO-247 package. Based on simulations, critical parasitic inductances in the circuit layout are analyzed and their effect on the switching losses highlighted. Especially the common source inductance, a critical parameter in a TO-247...... package, has a major influence on the switching energy. Crucial design guidelines for an improved double pulse test circuit are introduced which are used for practical investigations on the switching behavior. Switching energies of a SiC MOSFET in a TO-247 package is measured depending on varying gate...... resistance and loop inductances. With total switching energy of 340.24 μJ, the SiC MOSFET has more than six times lower switching losses than a regular Si IGBT. Implementing the SiC switches in a 3 kW T-Type inverter topology, efficiency improvements of 0.8 % are achieved and maximum efficiency of 97...

  1. Effect of dopants on the morphology of porous SiC

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lu, Weifang; Iwasa, Yoshimi; Ou, Yiyu

    Porous SiC samples with different doping level were fabricated and investigated by using anodic oxidation method. The morphology of the porous structures was explained by space charge layer width, which was affected by the free carrier-dopants concentration.......Porous SiC samples with different doping level were fabricated and investigated by using anodic oxidation method. The morphology of the porous structures was explained by space charge layer width, which was affected by the free carrier-dopants concentration....

  2. Josephson coupling in junctions made of monolayer graphene on SiC


    Jouault, B.; Charpentier, S.; Massarotti, D.; Michon, A.; Paillet, M.; Huntzinger, J. -R.; Tiberj, A.; Zahab, A.; Bauch, T.; Lucignano, P.; Tagliacozzo, A.; Lombardi, F.; Tafuri, F.


    Graphene on silicon carbide (SiC) has proved to be highly successful in Hall conductance quantization for its homogeneity at the centimetre scale. Robust Josephson coupling has been measured in co-planar diffusive Al/monololayer graphene/Al junctions. Graphene on SiC substrates is a concrete candidate to provide scalability of hybrid Josephson graphene/superconductor devices, giving also promise of ballistic propagation.

  3. Manufacturing: SiC Power Electronics for Variable Frequency Motor Drives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Horowitz, Kelsey A [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Bench Reese, Samantha R [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Remo, Timothy W [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)


    This brochure, published as an annual research highlight of the Clean Energy Manufacturing Analysis Center (CEMAC), summarizes CEMAC analysis of silicon carbide (SiC) power electronics for variable frequency motor drives. The key finding presented is that variations in manufacturing expertise, yields, and access to existing facilities impact regional costs and manufacturing location decisions for SiC ingots, wafers, chips, and power modules more than do core country-specific factors such as labor and electricity costs.

  4. SiC fibre by chemical vapour deposition on tungsten filament

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    A CVD system for the production of continuous SiC fibre was set up. The process of SiC coating on 19 m diameter tungsten substrate was studied. Methyl trichloro silane (CH3SiCl3) and hydrogen reactants were used. Effect of substrate temperature (1300–1500°C) and concentration of reactants on the formation of SiC ...

  5. The development of chemically vapor deposited mullite coatings for the corrosion protection of SiC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Auger, M.; Hou, P.; Sengupta, A.; Basu, S.; Sarin, V. [Boston Univ., MA (United States)


    Crystalline mullite coatings have been chemically vapor deposited onto SiC substrates to enhance the corrosion and oxidation resistance of the substrate. Current research has been divided into three distinct areas: (1) Development of the deposition processing conditions for increased control over coating`s growth rate, microstructure, and morphology; (2) Analysis of the coating`s crystal structure and stability; (3) The corrosion resistance of the CVD mullite coating on SiC.

  6. Investigation on the Short Circuit Safe Operation Area of SiC MOSFET Power Modules

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reigosa, Paula Diaz; Luo, Haoze; Iannuzzo, Francesco


    This paper gives a better insight of the short circuit capability of state-of-the-art SiC MOSFET power modules rated at 1.2 kV by highlighting the physical limits under different operating conditions. Two different failure mechanisms have been identified, both reducing the short-circuit capability......) of the studied SiC MOSFET power modules is formulated based on the two proposed criteria....

  7. Passivation of surface-nanostructured f-SiC and porous SiC

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ou, Haiyan; Lu, Weifang; Ou, Yiyu

    The further enhancement of photoluminescence from nanostructured fluorescent silicon carbide (f-SiC) and porous SiC by using atomic layer deposited (ALD) Al2O3 is studied in this paper.......The further enhancement of photoluminescence from nanostructured fluorescent silicon carbide (f-SiC) and porous SiC by using atomic layer deposited (ALD) Al2O3 is studied in this paper....

  8. 26 CFR 1.904(f)-3 - Allocation of net operating losses and net capital losses. (United States)


    ... 26 Internal Revenue 9 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Allocation of net operating losses and net....904(f)-3 Allocation of net operating losses and net capital losses. For rules relating to the allocation of net operating losses and net capital losses, see § 1.904(g)-3T. ...

  9. 29 CFR 4204.13 - Net income and net tangible assets tests. (United States)


    ... 29 Labor 9 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Net income and net tangible assets tests. 4204.13 Section....13 Net income and net tangible assets tests. (a) General. The criteria under this section are that either— (1) Net income test. The purchaser's average net income after taxes for its three most recent...

  10. Processing and Structural Advantages of the Sylramic-iBN SiC Fiber for SiC/SiC Components (United States)

    Yun, H. M.; Dicarlo, J. A.; Bhatt, R. T.; Hurst, J. B.


    The successful high-temperature application of complex-shaped SiC/SiC components will depend on achieving as high a fraction of the as-produced fiber strength as possible during component fabrication and service. Key issues center on a variety of component architecture, processing, and service-related factors that can reduce fiber strength, such as fiber-fiber abrasion during architecture shaping, surface chemical attack during interphase deposition and service, and intrinsic flaw growth during high-temperature matrix formation and composite creep. The objective of this paper is to show that the NASA-developed Sylramic-iBN SiC fiber minimizes many of these issues for state-of-the-art melt-infiltrated (MI) SiC/BN/SiC composites. To accomplish this, data from various mechanical tests are presented that compare how different high performance SiC fiber types retain strength during formation of complex architectures, during processing of BN interphases and MI matrices, and during simulated composite service at high temperatures.

  11. Structural and thermal characterization of polyvinylalcohol grafted SiC nanocrystals (United States)

    Saini, Isha; Sharma, Annu; Dhiman, Rajnish; Ram, Sita; Sharma, Pawan K.


    In the present work, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), Raman spectroscopy, x-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) were employed to ascertain the grafting of an organic layer of polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) onto the surface of semiconducting SiC nanocrystals using a novel method. FTIR spectroscopy reveals the introduction of new peaks corresponding to various functional groups of PVA alongwith the presence of characteristic Si-C vibrational peak in the spectra of grafted SiC nanocrystals. Raman spectra depict the presence of changes introduced in the characteristic TO and LO mode of vibration of SiC nanocrystals after grafting procedure. XRD analysis confirmed that the grafting procedure did not alter the crystalline geometry of SiC nanocrystals. TEM and SEM images further support the FTIR and Raman spectroscopic results and confirm the presence of PVA layer around SiC nanocrystals. Thermal degradation behavior of PVA-g-SiC nanocrystals has been studied using TGA analysis.

  12. Applications, Prospects and Challenges of Silicon Carbide Junction Field Effect Transistor (SIC JFET

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frederick Ojiemhende Ehiagwina


    Full Text Available Properties of Silicon Carbide Junction Field Effect Transistor (SiC JFET such as high switching speed, low forward voltage drop and high temperature operation have attracted the interest of power electronic researchers and technologists, who for many years developed devices based on Silicon (Si.  A number of power system Engineers have made efforts to develop more robust equipment including circuits or modules with higher power density. However, it was realized that several available power semiconductor devices were approaching theoretical limits offered by Si material with respect to capability to block high voltage, provide low on-state voltage drop and switch at high frequencies. This paper presents an overview of the current applications of SiC JFET in circuits such as inverters, rectifiers and amplifiers. Other areas of application reviewed include; usage of the SiC JFET in pulse signal circuits and boost converters. Efforts directed toward mitigating the observed increase in electromagnetic interference were also discussed. It also presented some areas for further research, such as having more applications of SiC JFET in harsh, high temperature environment. More work is needed with regards to SiC JFET drivers so as to ensure stable and reliable operation, and reduction in the prices of SiC JFETs through mass production by industries.

  13. Hydrogen generation due to water splitting on Si - terminated 4H-Sic(0001) surfaces (United States)

    Li, Qingfang; Li, Qiqi; Yang, Cuihong; Rao, Weifeng


    The chemical reactions of hydrogen gas generation via water splitting on Si-terminated 4H-SiC surfaces with or without C/Si vacancies were studied by using first-principles. We studied the reaction mechanisms of hydrogen generation on the 4H-SiC(0001) surface. Our calculations demonstrate that there are major rearrangements in surface when H2O approaches the SiC(0001) surface. The first H splitting from water can occur with ground-state electronic structures. The second H splitting involves an energy barrier of 0.65 eV. However, the energy barrier for two H atoms desorbing from the Si-face and forming H2 gas is 3.04 eV. In addition, it is found that C and Si vacancies can form easier in SiC(0001)surfaces than in SiC bulk and nanoribbons. The C/Si vacancies introduced can enhance photocatalytic activities. It is easier to split OH on SiC(0001) surface with vacancies compared to the case of clean SiC surface. H2 can form on the 4H-SiC(0001) surface with C and Si vacancies if the energy barriers of 1.02 and 2.28 eV are surmounted, respectively. Therefore, SiC(0001) surface with C vacancy has potential applications in photocatalytic water-splitting.

  14. TimeNET Optimization Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christoph Bodenstein


    Full Text Available In this paper a novel tool for simulation-based optimization and design-space exploration of Stochastic Colored Petri nets (SCPN is introduced. The working title of this tool is TimeNET Optimization Environment (TOE. Targeted users of this tool are people modeling complex systems with SCPNs in TimeNET who want to find parameter sets that are optimal for a certain performance measure (fitness function. It allows users to create and simulate sets of SCPNs and to run different optimization algorithms based on parameter variation. The development of this tool was motivated by the need to automate and speed up tests of heuristic optimization algorithms to be applied for SCPN optimization. A result caching mechanism is used to avoid recalculations.

  15. Implementing NetScaler VPX

    CERN Document Server

    Sandbu, Marius


    An easy-to-follow guide with detailed step-by step-instructions on how to implement the different key components in NetScaler, with real-world examples and sample scenarios.If you are a Citrix or network administrator who needs to implement NetScaler in your virtual environment to gain an insight on its functionality, this book is ideal for you. A basic understanding of networking and familiarity with some of the different Citrix products such as XenApp or XenDesktop is a prerequisite.

  16. Net4Care PHMR Library

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)


    The Net4Care PHMR library contains a) A GreenCDA approach for constructing a data object representing a PHMR document: SimpleClinicalDocument, and b) A Builder which can produce a XML document representing a valid Danish PHMR (following the MedCom profile) document from the SimpleClinicalDocument......The Net4Care PHMR library contains a) A GreenCDA approach for constructing a data object representing a PHMR document: SimpleClinicalDocument, and b) A Builder which can produce a XML document representing a valid Danish PHMR (following the MedCom profile) document from the Simple...

  17. Pro DLR in NET 4

    CERN Document Server

    Wu, Chaur


    Microsoft's Dynamic Language Runtime (DLR) is a platform for running dynamic languages such as Ruby and Python on an equal footing with compiled languages such as C#. Furthermore, the runtime is the foundation for many useful software design and architecture techniques you can apply as you develop your .NET applications. Pro DLR in .NET 4 introduces you to the DLR, showing how you can use it to write software that combines dynamic and static languages, letting you choose the right tool for the job. You will learn the core DLR components such as LINQ expressions, call sites, binders, and dynami

  18. Hierarchies in Coloured Petri Nets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huber, Peter; Jensen, Kurt; Shapiro, Robert M.


    The paper shows how to extend Coloured Petri Nets with a hierarchy concept. The paper proposes five different hierarchy constructs, which allow the analyst to structure large CP-nets as a set of interrelated subnets (called pages). The paper discusses the properties of the proposed hierarchy...... constructs, and it illustrates them by means of two examples. The hierarchy constructs can be used for theoretical considerations, but their main use is to describe and analyse large real-world systems. All of the hierarchy constructs are supported by the editing and analysis facilities in the CPN Palette...

  19. Wear Behaviour of Al-6061/SiC Metal Matrix Composites (United States)

    Mishra, Ashok Kumar; Srivastava, Rajesh Kumar


    Aluminium Al-6061 base composites, reinforced with SiC particles having mesh size of 150 and 600, which is fabricated by stir casting method and their wear resistance and coefficient of friction has been investigated in the present study as a function of applied load and weight fraction of SiC varying from 5, 10, 15, 20, 25, 30, 35 and 40 %. The dry sliding wear properties of composites were investigated by using Pin-on-disk testing machine at sliding velocity of 2 m/s and sliding distance of 2000 m over a various loads of 10, 20 and 30 N. The result shows that the reinforcement of the metal matrix with SiC particulates up to weight percentage of 35 % reduces the wear rate. The result also show that the wear of the test specimens increases with the increasing load and sliding distance. The coefficient of friction slightly decreases with increasing weight percentage of reinforcements. The wear surfaces are examined by optical microscopy which shows that the large grooved regions and cavities with ceramic particles are found on the worn surface of the composite alloy. This indicates an abrasive wear mechanism, which is essentially a result of hard ceramic particles exposed on the worn surfaces. Further, it was found from the experimentation that the wear rate decreases linearly with increasing weight fraction of SiC and average coefficient of friction decreases linearly with increasing applied load, weight fraction of SiC and mesh size of SiC. The best result has been obtained at 35 % weight fraction and 600 mesh size of SiC.

  20. A review of SiC reactive ion etching in fluorinated plasmas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yih, P.H. [Bell Labs., Orlando, FL (United States). Lucent Technologies; Saxena, V.; Steckl, A.J. [Cincinnati Univ., OH (United States). Dept. of Electrical and Computer Engineering


    Research and development in semiconducting silicon carbide (SiC) technology has produced significant progress in the past five years in many areas: material (bulk and thin film) growth, device fabrication, and applications. A major factor in this rapid growth has been the development of SiC bulk crystals and the availability of crystalline substrates. Current leading applications for SiC devices include high power and high temperature devices and light emitting diodes. Due to the strong bonding between Si and C (Si-C = 1.34 x Si-Si), wet chemical etching can only be performed at high temperature. Therefore, plasma-based (``dry``) etching plays the crucial role of patterning SiC for the fabrication of various electronic devices. In the past several years, reactive ion etching (RIE) of SiC polytypes (3C and 6H) has been investigated in fluorinated gases (primarily CHF{sub 3}, CBrF{sub 3}, CF{sub 4}, SF{sub 6}, and NF{sub 3}), usually mixed with oxygen and occasionally with other additives or in a mixture of fluorinated gases. In this paper, a review of SiC RIE is presented. The primary emphasis is on etching of the 3C and 6H polytypes, but some results on RIE of the 4H polytype are included. The paper covers the basic etching mechanisms, provides typical etching properties in selected plasma conditions, discusses the effects of changes in various etching parameters, such as plasma pressure, density and power, etching time, etc. The etching of features of sizes varying from sub-{mu}m to tens of {mu}m`s is addressed. Finally, optimum etching conditions and trade-offs are considered for various device configurations. (orig.) 122 refs.

  1. A Review of SiC Reactive Ion Etching in Fluorinated Plasmas (United States)

    Yih, P. H.; Saxena, V.; Steckl, A. J.


    Research and development in semiconducting silicon carbide (SiC) technology has produced significant progress in the past five years in many areas: material (bulk and thin film) growth, device fabrication, and applications. A major factor in this rapid growth has been the development of SiC bulk crystals and the availability of crystalline substrates. Current leading applications for SiC devices include high power and high temperature devices and light emitting diodes. Due to the strong bonding between Si and C (Si-C = 1.34×Si-Si), wet chemical etching can only be performed at high temperature. Therefore, plasma-based (dry) etching plays the crucial role of patterning SiC for the fabrication of various electronic devices. In the past several years, reactive ion etching (RIE) of SiC polytypes (3C and 6H) has been investigated in fluorinated gases (primarily CHF3, CBrF3, CF4, SF6, and NF3), usually mixed with oxygen and occasionally with other additives or in a mixture of fluorinated gases. In this paper, a review of SiC RIE is presented. The primary emphasis is on etching of the 3C and 6H polytypes, but some results on RIE of the 4H polytype are included. The paper covers the basic etching mechanisms, provides typical etching properties in selected plasma conditions, discusses the effects of changes in various etching parameters, such as plasma pressure, density and power, etching time, etc. The etching of features of sizes varying from sub-m to tens of μm's is addressed. Finally, optimum etching conditions and trade-offs are considered for various device configurations.

  2. The benefits and current progress of SiC SGTOs for pulsed power applications (United States)

    Ogunniyi, Aderinto; O'Brien, Heather; Lelis, Aivars; Scozzie, Charles; Shaheen, William; Agarwal, Anant; Zhang, Jon; Callanan, Robert; Temple, Victor


    Silicon Carbide (SiC) is an extremely attractive material for semiconductor power devices because of its electrical and physical characteristics. This paper describes the benefits of utilizing SiC Super Gate Turn-Off thyristors (SGTO) in pulsed power applications, reviews the current progress and development of SiC GTOs, and presents the static and pulsed characteristics of large area GTOs with high blocking capabilities. The wide pulsed evaluation of the 0.5 cm 2 SiC SGTOs has been demonstrated and reported by the Army Research Laboratory (ARL). This paper presents the wide pulsed capabilities of the 1 cm 2 SiC SGTOs. The 1 cm 2 SiC SGTO devices handled up to twice the peak current of the 0.5 cm 2 SiC SGTOs at a 1 ms pulse width. The wide pulsed evaluation of these devices was demonstrated at ARL. ARL evaluated the static and pulsed characteristics of six of these devices. The devices had a forward blocking voltage rating of 9 kV and a trigger requirement of a negative pulse of 1 A to the gate for a millisecond pulse width. These devices were pulsed as high as 3.5 kA at 1 ms, equating to an action rate of 6 × 10 3 A 2 s and a current density of 4.8 kA/cm 2, based on the device active area. The narrow pulsed evaluation of this device has been demonstrated by Cree Inc. A peak current of 12.8 kA with a pulse width of 17 μs (corresponding to 12.8 kA/cm 2 based on the chip size) was conducted with this device.

  3. SiC JFET Transistor Circuit Model for Extreme Temperature Range (United States)

    Neudeck, Philip G.


    A technique for simulating extreme-temperature operation of integrated circuits that incorporate silicon carbide (SiC) junction field-effect transistors (JFETs) has been developed. The technique involves modification of NGSPICE, which is an open-source version of the popular Simulation Program with Integrated Circuit Emphasis (SPICE) general-purpose analog-integrated-circuit-simulating software. NGSPICE in its unmodified form is used for simulating and designing circuits made from silicon-based transistors that operate at or near room temperature. Two rapid modifications of NGSPICE source code enable SiC JFETs to be simulated to 500 C using the well-known Level 1 model for silicon metal oxide semiconductor field-effect transistors (MOSFETs). First, the default value of the MOSFET surface potential must be changed. In the unmodified source code, this parameter has a value of 0.6, which corresponds to slightly more than half the bandgap of silicon. In NGSPICE modified to simulate SiC JFETs, this parameter is changed to a value of 1.6, corresponding to slightly more than half the bandgap of SiC. The second modification consists of changing the temperature dependence of MOSFET transconductance and saturation parameters. The unmodified NGSPICE source code implements a T(sup -1.5) temperature dependence for these parameters. In order to mimic the temperature behavior of experimental SiC JFETs, a T(sup -1.3) temperature dependence must be implemented in the NGSPICE source code. Following these two simple modifications, the Level 1 MOSFET model of the NGSPICE circuit simulation program reasonably approximates the measured high-temperature behavior of experimental SiC JFETs properly operated with zero or reverse bias applied to the gate terminal. Modification of additional silicon parameters in the NGSPICE source code was not necessary to model experimental SiC JFET current-voltage performance across the entire temperature range from 25 to 500 C.

  4. D.NET case study

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)


    developing products, marketing tools and building capacity of the grass root telecentre workers. D.Net recognized that it had several ideas worth developing into small interventions that would make big differences, but resource constraints were a barrier for scaling-up these initiatives. More demands, limited resources.

  5. Surgery for GEP-NETs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knigge, Ulrich; Hansen, Carsten Palnæs


    Surgery is the only treatment that may cure the patient with gastroentero-pancreatic (GEP) neuroendocrine tumours (NET) and neuroendocrine carcinomas (NEC) and should always be considered as first line treatment if R0/R1 resection can be achieved. The surgical and interventional procedures for GEP...

  6. Net Neutrality in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Eijk, N.


    The Netherlands is among the first countries that have put specific net neutrality standards in place. The decision to implement specific regulation was influenced by at least three factors. The first was the prevailing social and academic debate, partly due to developments in the United States. The

  7. Complexity Metrics for Workflow Nets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lassen, Kristian Bisgaard; van der Aalst, Wil M.P.


    Process modeling languages such as EPCs, BPMN, flow charts, UML activity diagrams, Petri nets, etc.\\ are used to model business processes and to configure process-aware information systems. It is known that users have problems understanding these diagrams. In fact, even process engineers and system...

  8. A description of particle shape homogeneity in the space of composite suspension casting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Gawdzińska


    Full Text Available The presented analysis of the particle shape homogeneity of the reinforcement phase in the space of composite casting is made by meansof the descriptive statistics method and the analysis of variance. The reinforcement phase consisted of SiC particles with 15% content,while the matrix was an AlSi11 alloy. The composites were made by the mechanical stir casting method.

  9. Theoretical characterization of the SiC3H- anion. (United States)

    Inostroza, N; Senent, M L


    Highly correlated ab initio methods are used to predict the equilibrium structures and spectroscopic parameters of the SiC(3)H(-) anion. The total energies and physical properties are reported using CASSCF/MRCI, RCCSD(T), and RCCSD(T)-F12 approaches and extended basis sets. The search of stable geometries leads to a total of 12 isomers (4 linear and 8 cyclic), for which electronic ground states have close-shell configurations. The stability of the linear form, l-SiC(3)H(-), is prominent. For the most stable linear isomer, the B(e) equilibrium rotational constant has been calculated with RCCSD(T) and a complete basis set. Core-correlation and vibrational effects have been taken into account to predict a B(0) of 2621.68 MHz for l-SiC(3)H(-) and 2460.48 MHz for l-SiC(3)D(-). The dipole moment of l-SiC(3)H(-) was found to be 2.9707 D with CASSCF/aug-cc-pV5Z and the electron affinity to be 2.7 eV with RCCSD(T)-F12A/aug-cc-pVTZ. Anharmonic spectroscopic parameters are derived from a quadratic, cubic, and quartic RCCSD(T)-F12A force field and second order perturbation theory. CASSCF/MRCI vertical excitations supply three metastable electronic states, (1)Σ(+) (3)Σ(+) and (3)Δ. Electron affinities calculated for a series of chains type SiC(n)H and SiC(n) (n=1-5) allow us to discuss the anion formation probabilities.

  10. Thermal conductivity analysis of SiC ceramics and fully ceramic microencapsulated fuel composites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Hyeon-Geun, E-mail: [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, 989-111 Daedeok-daero, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Daejong [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, 989-111 Daedeok-daero, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Seung Jae [KEPCO Nuclear Fuel, 242, Daedeok-daero, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Park, Ji Yeon; Kim, Weon-Ju [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, 989-111 Daedeok-daero, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)


    Highlights: • Thermal conductivity of SiC ceramics and FCM pellets was measured and discussed. • Thermal conductivity of FCM pellets was analyzed by the Maxwell-Eucken equation. • Effective thermal conductivity of TRISO particles applied in this study was assumed. - Abstract: The thermal conductivity of SiC ceramics and FCM fuel composites, consisting of a SiC matrix and TRISO coated particles, was measured and analyzed. SiC ceramics and FCM pellets were fabricated by hot press sintering with Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} and Y{sub 2}O{sub 3} sintering additives. Several factors that influence thermal conductivity, specifically the content of sintering additives for SiC ceramics and the volume fraction of TRISO particles and the matrix thermal conductivity of FCM pellets, were investigated. The thermal conductivity values of samples were analyzed on the basis of their microstructure and the arrangement of TRISO particles. The thermal conductivity of the FCM pellets was compared to that predicted by the Maxwell-Eucken equation and the thermal conductivity of TRISO coated particles was calculated. The thermal conductivity of FCM pellets in various sintering conditions was in close agreement to that predicted by the Maxwell-Eucken equation with the fitted thermal conductivity value of TRISO particles.

  11. Characteristics of Al-Si-Mg Reinforced SiC Composites Produced by Stir Casting Route (United States)

    Zulfia, A.; Zhakiah, T.; Dhaneswara, D.; Sutopo


    Al-Si-Mg alloy that is strengthened by silicon carbide particles has the potential to have excellent mechanical properties with light weight. In this study, metal matrix composites reinforced silicon carbide from 2 vf-% to 15 vf-% and magnesium amounted to 10 wt-% as an external dopant were fabricated by stir casting route. The magnesium was added to promote the wetting between Al matrix and reinforced SiC. The process involved SiC blended inside the molten Al by a stirrer with a rotational speed of 500 rpm at 800 °C for 2 minutes and degassed with Ar gas for 4 minutes to remove all of the gas content in the molten Al. The molten composite was then cast into the plate and tensile test sample molds. The effect of SiC addition on the mechanical properties and microstructure of the composites was investigated. The result showed that the optimum tensile strength was reached at 8 vf-% SiC with the value of 175 MPa, while the elongation was 9.1%. The maximum hardness and wear rate were achieved at 10 vf-% SiC with the values of 57 HRB and 0.0022 mm3/m, respectively. Such increase was related to the microstructures dominated by the presence of Chinese script, primary and eutectic Mg2Si which were contributed to the mechanical properties of the composites.

  12. Nucleation and void formation mechanisms in SiC thin film growth on Si by carbonization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, J.P.; Steckl, A.J. [Univ. of Cincinnati, OH (United States)


    The nucleation mechanisms for SiC thin films on Si were investigated by interrupting the growth at very brief times ({approximately}1 to 10 s) using rapid thermal chemical vapor deposition in conjunction with hydrocarbon carbonization. The resulting SiC nuclei and films on Si have been studied by scanning electron microscopy and atomic force microscopy. The hydrocarbon partial pressure in the gas stream was found to determine the nucleation mode. Low precursor concentration results in initial three-dimensional (island) growth which enables the study or trench and void formation. Voids were observed to initiate when two neighboring nuclei come in contact. Trenches in the Si substrate surround each isolated nucleus, with the trench depth increasing with the diameter of the island. SiC films grown for a nominal reaction time of 1 s indicate that increasing the propane concentration results in decreases in SiC grain size and surface roughness and an increase in the nuclei density. A model is proposed for the nucleation process of SiC growth on Si by carbonization consisting of the following key steps: (1) the initial nucleation density is determined by the precursor concentration; (2) lateral and vertical growth of individual nuclei proceeds by consumption of Si atoms around their periphery, forming trenches in the substrate; (3) Si voids are formed in the Si substrate near the SiC/Si interface when nuclei grow large enough to come in contact and, thus, restrict the supply of Si atoms.

  13. White light emission from fluorescent SiC with porous surface

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lu, Weifang; Ou, Yiyu; Fiordaliso, Elisabetta Maria


    We report for the frst time a NUV light to white light conversion in a N-B co-doped 6H-SiC (fuorescent SiC) layer containing a hybrid structure. The surface of fuorescent SiC sample contains porous structures fabricated by anodic oxidation method. After passivation by 20nm thick Al2O3, the photol......We report for the frst time a NUV light to white light conversion in a N-B co-doped 6H-SiC (fuorescent SiC) layer containing a hybrid structure. The surface of fuorescent SiC sample contains porous structures fabricated by anodic oxidation method. After passivation by 20nm thick Al2O3......, the photoluminescence intensity from the porous layer was signifcant enhanced by a factor of more than 12. Using a porous layer of moderate thickness (~10µm), high-quality white light emission was realized by combining the independent emissions of blue-green emission from the porous layer and yellow emission from...... the bulk fuorescent SiC layer. A high color rendering index of 81.1 has been achieved. Photoluminescence spectra in porous layers fabricated in both commercial n-type and lab grown N-B co-doped 6H-SiC show two emission peaks centered approximately at 460nm and 530nm. Such bluegreen emission phenomenon can...

  14. Highly flexible and robust N-doped SiC nanoneedle field emitters

    KAUST Repository

    Chen, Shanliang


    Flexible field emission (FE) emitters, whose unique advantages are lightweight and conformable, promise to enable a wide range of technologies, such as roll-up flexible FE displays, e-papers and flexible light-emitting diodes. In this work, we demonstrate for the first time highly flexible SiC field emitters with low turn-on fields and excellent emission stabilities. n-Type SiC nanoneedles with ultra-sharp tips and tailored N-doping levels were synthesized via a catalyst-assisted pyrolysis process on carbon fabrics by controlling the gas mixture and cooling rate. The turn-on field, threshold field and current emission fluctuation of SiC nanoneedle emitters with an N-doping level of 7.58 at.% are 1.11 V μm-1, 1.55 V μm-1 and 8.1%, respectively, suggesting the best overall performance for such flexible field emitters. Furthermore, characterization of the FE properties under repeated bending cycles and different bending states reveal that the SiC field emitters are mechanically and electrically robust with unprecedentedly high flexibility and stabilities. These findings underscore the importance of concurrent morphology and composition controls in nanomaterial synthesis and establish SiC nanoneedles as the most promising candidate for flexible FE applications. © 2015 Nature Publishing Group All rights reserved.

  15. SiC Conversion Coating Prepared from Silica-Graphite Reaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Back-Sub Sung


    Full Text Available The β-SiC conversion coatings were successfully synthesized by the SiO(v-graphite(s reaction between silica powder and graphite specimen. This paper is to describe the effects on the characteristics of the SiC conversion coatings, fabricated according to two different reaction conditions. FE-SEM, FE-TEM microstructural morphologies, XRD patterns, pore size distribution, and oxidation behavior of the SiC-coated graphite were investigated. In the XRD pattern and SAD pattern, the coating layers showed cubic SiC peak as well as hexagonal SiC peak. The SiC coatings showed somewhat different characteristics with the reaction conditions according to the position arrangement of the graphite samples. The SiC coating on graphite, prepared in reaction zone (2, shows higher intensity of beta-SiC main peak (111 in XRD pattern as well as rather lower porosity and smaller main pore size peak under 1 μm.

  16. Ag Transport Through Non-Irradiated and Irradiated SiC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Szlufarska, Izabela [Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States); Morgan, Dane [Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States); Blanchard, James [Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States)


    Silicon carbide is the main barrier to diffusion of fission products in the current design of TRistuctural ISOtropic (TRISO) coated fuel particles, and Ag is one of the few fission products that have been shown to escape through this barrier. Because the SiC coating in TRISO is exposed to radiation throughout the lifetime of the fuel, understanding of how radiation changes the transport of the fission products is essential for the safety of the reactor. The goals of this project are: (i) to determine whether observed variation in integral release measurements of Ag through SiC can be explained by differences in grain size and grain boundary (GB) types among the samples; (2) to identify the effects of irradiation on diffusion of Ag through SiC; (3) to discover phenomena responsible for significant solubility of Ag in polycrystalline SiC. To address these goals, we combined experimental analysis of SiC diffusion couples with modeling studies of diffusion mechanisms through bulk and GBs of this material. Comparison between results obtained for pristine and irradiated samples brings in insights into the effects of radiation on Ag transport.

  17. Caught in the Net: Perineuronal Nets and Addiction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Megan Slaker


    Full Text Available Exposure to drugs of abuse induces plasticity in the brain and creates persistent drug-related memories. These changes in plasticity and persistent drug memories are believed to produce aberrant motivation and reinforcement contributing to addiction. Most studies have explored the effect drugs of abuse have on pre- and postsynaptic cells and astrocytes; however, more recently, attention has shifted to explore the effect these drugs have on the extracellular matrix (ECM. Within the ECM are unique structures arranged in a net-like manner, surrounding a subset of neurons called perineuronal nets (PNNs. This review focuses on drug-induced changes in PNNs, the molecules that regulate PNNs, and the expression of PNNs within brain circuitry mediating motivation, reward, and reinforcement as it pertains to addiction.

  18. Army Net Zero Prove Out. Army Net Zero Training Report (United States)


    sensors were strategically placed throughout the installation by magnetically attaching them to water main valve stems. The sensors check sound...Recycle Wrap  Substitutes for Packaging Materials  Re-Use of Textiles and Linens  Setting Printers to Double-Sided Printing Net Zero Waste...can effectively achieve source reduction. Clean and Re-Use Shop Rags - Shop rags represent a large textile waste stream at many installations. As a

  19. Army Net Zero Prove Out. Net Zero Waste Best Practices (United States)


    Anaerobic Digesters – Although anaerobic digestion is not a new technology and has been used on a large-scale basis in wastewater treatment , and has been used on a large-scale basis in wastewater treatment , the use of the technology should be demonstrated with other...approaches can be used for cardboard and cellulose -based packaging materials. This approach is in line with the Net Zero Waste hierarchy in terms of

  20. Cluster Formation and Joint Power-Bandwidth Allocation for Imperfect NOMA in DL-HetNets

    KAUST Repository

    Celik, Abdulkadir


    Non-orthogonal multiple access (NOMA) has recently drawn attentions on its ability to fairly serve multiple users on the same radio resource with a desirable performance. However, achievable NOMA gain is primarily limited by channel gain disparity and successive interference cancellation (SIC) receiver characteristics. Accordingly, we introduce an imperfect SIC receiver model considering the power disparity and sensitivity constraints, delay tolerance, and residual interference due to detection and estimation errors. Then, a generic cluster formation (CF) and Power-Bandwidth Allocation (PBA) is formulated as a mixed-integer non-linear programming (MINLP) problem for downlink (DL) heterogeneous networks (HetNets). After dividing the MINLP problem into mixed-integer and non-linear subprobems, we first transform CF into a multi-partite matching, which is solved sequentially using bi-partite matching techniques. For sumrate maximization, max-min fairness, and energy & spectrum efficiency objectives, we secondly put highly non-convex joint PBA into a convex form using geometric programming (GP). Extensive simulations unleash the potential of NOMA to handle large number of users, traffic offloading, and user fairness.

  1. HANPP Collection: Human Appropriation of Net Primary Productivity as a Percentage of Net Primary Productivity (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Human Appropriation of Net Primary Productivity (HANPP) as a Percentage of Net Primary Productivity (NPP) portion of the Human Appropriation of Net Primary...

  2. Hydrodynamic characteristics of plane netting used for aquaculture net cages in uniform current

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library



      The hydrodynamic characteristics of polyethylene (PE) netting and chain link wire netting with different types of twine diameter and mesh size for aquaculture net cages were examined by experiments in a flume tank...

  3. Effect of silicon source and carbon source on the morphology of SiC powders (United States)

    Wang, Zhao; Wang, Shu-lin; Ji, Jia-you; Xu, Man


    Silicon carbide (SiC) powders were prepared by carbothermal reduction method with silica fume and carbon-white as the silicon source; glucose, phenolic resin, polyvinyl pyrrolidone (PVP) as carbon source. The effects of reaction temperature, silicon source and carbon source on the morphology of silicon carbide powder were investigated. The result shows that: The optimum temperature for preparation of silicon carbide powder was 1400 °C When the glucose was used as carbon source, the morphology of SiC powder was greatly affected by the kinds of silicon sources; When the phenolic resin and PVP were used as carbon source, the morphology of SiC powder was greatly influenced by the carbon source.

  4. Pseudo Dirac dispersion in Mn-intercalated graphene on SiC

    KAUST Repository

    Kahaly, M. Upadhyay


    The atomic and electronic structures of bulk C6Mn, bulk C 8Mn, and Mn-intercalated graphene on SiC(0 0 0 1) and SiC(0001̄) are investigated by density functional theory. We find for both configurations of Mn-intercalated graphene a nonmagnetic state, in agreement with the experimental situation for SiC(0 0 0 1), and explain this property. The electronic structures around the Fermi energy are dominated by Dirac-like cones at energies consistent with data from angular resolved photoelectron spectroscopy [Gao et al., ACS Nano. 6 (2012) 6562]. However, our results demonstrate that the corresponding states trace back to hybridized Mn d orbitals, and not to the graphene. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Friction stir spot welding of 2024-T3 aluminum alloy with SiC nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paidar, Moslem; Sarab, Mahsa Laali [Islamic Azad University, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)


    In this study, the Friction stir spot welding (FSSW) of 2024-T3 aluminum alloy with 1.6 mm thickness was investigated. The effects of the silicon carbide (SiC) nanoparticles on the metallurgical and mechanical properties were discussed. The effects of particles on tension shear and wear tests were also investigated. The process was conducted at a constant rotational speed of 1000 rpm. Results showed that adding SiC nanoparticles to the weld during FSSW had a major effect on the mechanical properties. In fact, the addition of nanoparticles as barriers prevented grain growth in the Stir zone (SZ). The data obtained in the tensile-shear and wear tests showed that tensile-shear load and wear resistance increased with the addition of SiC nanoparticles, which was attributed to the fine grain size produced in the SZ.

  6. Characteristics of hot-pressed fiber-reinforced ceramics with SiC matrix (United States)

    Miyoshi, Tadahiko; Kodama, Hironori; Sakamoto, Hiroshi; Goto, Akihiro; Iijima, Shiroo


    Silicon carbide ceramics’ matrix composites with SiC or C filaments were fabricated through hot pressing, and the effects of the filament pullout on their fracture toughness were experimentally investigated. The C-rich coating layers on the SiC filaments were found to have a significant effect on the frictional stress at the filament/matrix interfaces, through assising the filamet pullout from the matrix. Although the coating layers were apt to burn out in the sintering process of SiC matrix compposites, a small addition of carbon to the raw materials was found to be effective for the retention of the layers on the fibers, thus increasing the fracture toughness of the composites. The fracture toughness of the C filament/SiC matrix composite increased with temperature due to the larger interfacial frictional stress at higher temperatures, because of the higher thermal expansion of the filament in the radial direction than that of the matrix.

  7. Al4SiC4 wurtzite crystal: Structural, optoelectronic, elastic, and piezoelectric properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Pedesseau


    Full Text Available New experimental results supported by theoretical analyses are proposed for aluminum silicon carbide (Al4SiC4. A state of the art implementation of the density functional theory is used to analyze the experimental crystal structure, the Born charges, the elastic properties, and the piezoelectric properties. The Born charge tensor is correlated to the local bonding environment for each atom. The electronic band structure is computed including self-consistent many-body corrections. Al4SiC4 material properties are compared to other wide band gap wurtzite materials. From a comparison between an ellipsometry study of the optical properties and theoretical results, we conclude that the Al4SiC4 material has indirect and direct band gap energies of about 2.5 eV and 3.2 eV, respectively.

  8. Heteroepitaxial growth of SiC on Si by gas source MBE with silacyclobutane

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, J.; Steckl, A.J. [Cincinnati Univ., OH (United States). Nanoelectronics Lab.; Loboda, M.J. [Dow Corning Corp., Midland, MI (United States)


    3C-SiC films have been grown by MBE on Si(100) and Si(111) from the organosilane precursor silacyclobutane at temperatures of 800 to 1000 C and pressures of 1 to 5 x 10{sup -6} Torr. The chemical composition of the grown films provided by SIMS indicates a Si to C atomic ratio of about 1. The chemical structure of SiC was confirmed by FTIR. The surface morphology and crystallinity of SiC films were studied by SEM and RHEED. X-ray diffraction reveals that SiC films grown on Si(111) with the presence of native oxide exhibit better crystallinity than those grown on Si(111) surfaces from which the oxide is removed in-situ prior to growth. (orig.) 11 refs.

  9. Origin of the high p-doping in F intercalated graphene on SiC

    KAUST Repository

    Cheng, Yingchun


    The atomic and electronic structures of F intercalated epitaxialgraphene on a SiC(0001) substrate are studied by first-principles calculations. A three-step fluorination process is proposed. First, F atoms are intercalated between the graphene and the SiC, which restores the Dirac point in the band structure. Second, saturation of the topmost Si dangling bonds introduces p-doping up to 0.37 eV. Third, F atoms bond covalently to the graphene to enhance the p-doping. Our model explains the highly p-doped state of graphene on SiC after fluorination [A. L. Walter et al., Appl. Phys. Lett. 98, 184102 (2011)].

  10. Fluorescent SiC with pseudo-periodic moth-eye structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ou, Yiyu; Aijaz, Imran; Ou, Haiyan


    White light-emitting diodes (LEDs) consisting of a nitride-based blue LED chip and phosphor are very promising candidates for the general lighting applications as energy-saving sources. Recently, donor-acceptor doped fluorescent SiC has been proven as a highly efficient wavelength converter...... material much superior to the phosphors in terms of high color rendering index value and long lifetime. The light extraction efficiency of the fluorescent SiC based all semiconductor LED light sources is usually low due to the large refractive index difference between the semiconductor and air. In order......-eye structure as an effective and simple method to enhance the extraction efficiency of fluorescent SiC based white LEDs.© (2012) COPYRIGHT Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers (SPIE). Downloading of the abstract is permitted for personal use only....

  11. Deposition of thin ultrafiltration membranes on commercial SiC microfiltration tubes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Facciotti, Marco; Boffa, Vittorio; Magnacca, Giuliana


    . After 5 times coating, a 5.6 µm thick γ-Al2O3 layer was obtained. This membrane shows retention of ~75% for polyethylene glycol molecules with Mn of 8 and 35 kDa, indicating that, despite their intrinsic surface roughness, commercial SiC microfiltration tubes can be applied as carrier for thin......Porous SiC based materials present high mechanical, chemical and thermal robustness, and thus have been largely applied to water-filtration technologies. In this study, commercial SiC microfiltration tubes with nominal pore size of 0.04 m were used as carrier for depositing thin aluminium oxide...... (Al2O3) ultrafiltration membranes. These ultrafiltration membranes were obtained by coating, drying and calcination of a colloidal suspension of boehmite particles. After calcination, the membrane material consisted of nano-sized Υ-Al2O3 crystallites and had a narrow pore size distribution...

  12. Cl-intercalated graphene on SiC: Influence of van der Waals forces

    KAUST Repository

    Cheng, Yingchun


    The atomic and electronic structures of Cl-intercalated epitaxial graphene on SiC are studied by first-principles calculations. By increasing the Cl concentration, doping levels from n-type to slightly p-type are achieved on the SiC(0001) surface, while a wider range of doping levels is possible on the SiC(0001̄) surface. We find that the Cl atoms prefer bonding to the substrate rather than to the graphene. By varying the Cl concentration the doping level can be tailored. Consideration of van der Waals forces improves the distance between the graphene and the substrate as well as the binding energy, but it is not essential for the formation energy. For understanding the doping mechanism the introduction of non-local van der Waals contributions to the exchange correlation functional is shown to be essential. Copyright © EPLA, 2013.

  13. Isolated unit tests in .Net


    Haukilehto, Tero


    In this thesis isolation in unit testing is studied to get a precise picture of the isolation frameworks available for .Net environment. At the beginning testing is discussed in theory with the benefits and the problems it may have been linked with. The theory includes software development in general in connection with testing. Theory of isolation is also described before the actual isolation frameworks are represented. Common frameworks are described in more detail and comparable informa...

  14. An Audit of the Knowledge and Attitudes of Doctors towards Surgical Informed Consent (SIC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bushra Ashraf


    Full Text Available Background The Surgical Informed Consent (SIC is a comprehensive process that establishes an informationbased agreement between the patient and his doctor to undertake a clearly outlined medical or surgical intervention. It is neither a casual formality nor a casually signed piece of paper. The present study was designed to audit the current knowledge and attitudes of doctors towards SIC at a tertiary care teaching hospital in Pakistan. Methods This cross-sectional qualitative investigation was conducted under the auspices of the Department of Medical Education (DME, Pakistan Institute of Medical Sciences (PIMS, Shaheed Zulfiqar Ali Bhutto Medical University (SZABMU, Islamabad over three months period. A 19-item questionnaire was employed for data collection. The participants were selected at random from the list of the surgeons maintained in the hospital and approached face-to-face with the help of a team of junior doctors detailed for questionnaire distribution among them. The target was to cover over 50% of these doctors by convenience sampling. Results Out of 231 respondents, there were 32 seniors while 199 junior doctors, constituting a ratio of 1:6.22. The respondents variably responded to the questions regarding various attributes of the process of SIC. Overall, the junior doctors performed poorer compared to the seniors. Conclusion The knowledge and attitudes of our doctors particularly the junior ones, towards the SIC are less than ideal. This results in their failure to avail this golden opportunity of doctor-patient communication to guide their patients through a solidly informative and legally valid SIC. They are often unaware of the essential preconditions of the SIC; provide incomplete information to their patients; and quite often do not ensure direct involvement of their patients in the process. Additionally they lack an understanding of using interactive computer-based programs as well as the concept of nocebo effect of informed

  15. Fabrication of SiC Reinforced Zr0{sub 2} Composites via Polymeric Precursor Route

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mistarihi, Qusai M.; Hong, Soon Hyung; Ryu, Ho Jin [KAIST, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)


    This indicates that as a result of the decomposition of the SMP-730 at temperatures less than or equal to 1500 .deg. C, amorphous SiC was formed. This study suggests that a higher compaction pressure followed by an intermediate decomposition temperature of the polymeric precursor and a higher sintering temperature are needed in order to fabricate interconnected SiC-ZrO{sub 2} composites. A. Ortona et al. fabricated ZrB2-SiC composites with SiC phase surrounding the grains of ZrB2 matrix through a polymeric precursor route by using Si and phenol. S. Li et al. measured the thermal conductivity of Al composites reinforced with a continuous phase SiC and SiC particles and found that the difference in the thermal conductivity measured at room temperature was about 70.2 W/m.K. To the best of authors' knowledge, no study has been performed about the fabrication of the connected SiC microstructure to improve the thermophysical properties of oxides. Zirconium dioxide (ZrO{sub 2}) is one of the potential candidates for use as a matrix for inert matrix fuels (IMF) due to its low neutron absorption cross section, chemical stability, and the compatibility with water. Irradiation and chemical stability testes performed on yttria stabilized zirconia (YSZ) and calcium stabilized zirconia (CSZ) have shown that they have a good irradiation and chemical stability. Despite the good irradiation and chemical stability, its low thermal conductivity is considered the main disadvantage of YSZ. Core loading with the YSZ IMF pellets experienced about a 100 K higher center line temperature than the limit specified for UO{sub 2}.

  16. Advantages and Limits of 4H-SIC Detectors for High- and Low-Flux Radiations (United States)

    Sciuto, A.; Torrisi, L.; Cannavò, A.; Mazzillo, M.; Calcagno, L.


    Silicon carbide (SiC) detectors based on Schottky diodes were used to monitor low and high fluxes of photons and ions. An appropriate choice of the epilayer thickness and geometry of the surface Schottky contact allows the tailoring and optimizing the detector efficiency. SiC detectors with a continuous front electrode were employed to monitor alpha particles in a low-flux regime emitted by a radioactive source with high energy (>5.0 MeV) or generated in an ion implanter with sub-MeV energy. An energy resolution value of 0.5% was measured in the high energy range, while, at energy below 1.0 MeV, the resolution becomes 10%; these values are close to those measured with a traditional silicon detector. The same SiC devices were used in a high-flux regime to monitor high-energy ions, x-rays and electrons of the plasma generated by a high-intensity (1016 W/cm2) pulsed laser. Furthermore, SiC devices with an interdigit Schottky front electrode were proposed and studied to overcome the limits of the such SiC detectors in the detection of low-energy (˜1.0 keV) ions and photons of the plasmas generated by a low-intensity (1010 W/cm2) pulsed laser. SiC detectors are expected to be a powerful tool for the monitoring of radioactive sources and ion beams produced by accelerators, for a complete characterization of radiations emitted from laser-generated plasmas at high and low temperatures, and for dosimetry in a radioprotection field.

  17. Mechanism of Enhancement in Electromagnetic Properties of MgB2 by Nano SiC Doping

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dou, S.X.; Shcherbakova, O.; Yeoh, W.K.; Kim, J.H.; Soltanian, S.; Wang, X.L.; Senatore, C.; Flukiger, R.; Dhalle, Marc M.J.; Husnjak, O.; Babic, E.


    A comparative study of pure, SiC, and C doped MgB2 wires has revealed that the SiC doping allowed C substitution and MgB2 formation to take place simultaneously at low temperatures. C substitution enhances Hc2, while the defects, small grain size, and nanoinclusions induced by C incorporation and

  18. Two new constructions of approximately SIC-POVMs from multiplicative characters (United States)

    Luo, Gaojun; Cao, Xiwang


    In quantum information theory, symmetric informationally complete positive operator-valued measures (SIC-POVMs) are relevant to quantum state tomography [8], quantum cryptography [15], and foundational studies [16]. In general, it is hard to construct SIC-POVMs and only a few classes of them existed, as we know. Moreover, we do not know whether there exists an infinite class of them. Many researchers tried to construct approximately symmetric informationally complete positive operator-valued measures (ASIC-POVMs). In this paper, we propose two new constructions of ASIC-POVMs for prime power dimensions only by using multiplicative characters over finite fields.

  19. Neurocisticercosis racemosa (sic), diagnóstico orientado por neuroimágenes


    Carlos Hugo Zapata; Sergio Alberto Vargas; Carlos Santiago Uribe


    La neurocisticercosis es la primera causa de parasitosis del sistema nervioso central y de epilepsia adquirida en países en desarrollo. Sus manifestaciones clínicas, especialmente de la variante racemosa (sic), son pleomorfas e inespecíficas, características que hacen de su diagnóstico un desafío para el clínico. El objetivo de este informe fue describir dos casos de neurocisticercosis racemosa (sic), en los cuales las neuroimágenes permitieron hacer el diagnóstico definitivo. El primer ca...



    Kim, Weon-Ju; Kim, Daejong; Park, Ji Yeon


    The fabrication methods and requirements of the fiber, interphase, and matrix of nuclear grade SiCf/SiC composites are briefly reviewed. A CVI-processed SiCf/SiC composite with a PyC or (PyC-SiC)n interphase utilizing Hi-Nicalon Type S or Tyranno SA3 fiber is currently the best combination in terms of the irradiation performance. We also describe important material issues for the application of SiC composites to LWR fuel cladding. The kinetics of the SiC corrosion under LWR conditions needs t...

  1. Spallation recoil II: Xenon evidence for young SiC grains (United States)

    Ott, U.; Altmaier, M.; Herpers, U.; Kuhnhenn, J.; Merchel, S.; Michel, R.; Mohapatra, R. K.


    We have determined the recoil range of spallation xenon produced by irradiation of Ba glass targets with ˜1190 and ˜268 MeV protons, using a catcher technique, where spallation products are measured in target and catcher foils. The inferred range for 126Xe produced in silicon carbide is ˜0.19 μm, which implies retention of ˜70% for 126Xe produced in "typical" presolar silicon carbide grains of 1 μm size. Recoil loss of spallation xenon poses a significantly smaller problem than loss of the spallation neon from SiC grains. Ranges differ for the various Xe isotopes and scale approximately linearly as function of the mass difference between the target element, Ba, and the product. As a consequence, SiC grains of various sizes will have differences in spallation Xe composition. In an additional experiment at ˜66 MeV, where the recoil ranges of 22Na and 127Xe produced on Ba glass were determined using γ-spectrometry, we found no evidence for recoil ranges being systematically different at this lower energy. We have used the new data to put constraints on the possible presolar age of the SiC grains analyzed for Xe by Lewis et al. (1994). Uncertainties in the composition of the approximately normal Xe component in SiC (Xe-N) constitute the most serious problem in determining an age, surpassing remaining uncertainties in Xe retention and production rate. A possible interpretation is that spallation contributions are negligible and that trapped 124Xe/126Xe is ˜5% lower in Xe-N than in Q-Xe. But also for other reasonable assumptions for the 124Xe/126Xe ratio in Xe-N (e.g., as in Q-Xe), inferred exposure ages are considerably shorter than theoretically expected lifetimes for interstellar grains. A short presolar age is in line with observations by others (appearance, grain size distribution) that indicate little processing in the interstellar medium (ISM) of surviving (crystalline) SiC. This may be due to amorphization of SiC in the ISM on a much shorter time scale

  2. Development of Gate and Base Drive Using SiC Junction Field Effect Transistors (United States)


    junction transistor ( BJT ). The circuit rapidly drove a SiC BJT on and off with 4H-SiC semiconductor devices to perform to 150 °C. For the gate of an n...Figures iv List of Tables iv SiC Power Transistors : Focus on JFETs 1 JFET Background 1 JFETs Used, and Circuit Using Normally-Off JFET to Drive BJT On...induction transistors . JFET Background JFET and MOS have unipolar conduction without conductivity modulation by injected minority carriers as for BJT

  3. Role of Defects in Swelling and Creep of Irradiated SiC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Szlufarska, Izabela [Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States); Voyles, Paul [Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States); Sridharan, Kumar [Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States); Katoh, Yutai [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)


    Silicon carbide is a promising cladding material because of its high strength and relatively good corrosion resistance. However, SiC is brittle and therefore SiC-based components need to be carefully designed to avoid cracking and failure by fracture. In design of SiC-based composites for nuclear reactor applications it is essential to take into account how mechanical properties are affected by radiation and temperature, or in other words, what strains and stresses develop in this material due to environmental conditions. While thermal strains in SiC can be predicted using classical theories, radiation-induced strains are much less understood. In particular, it is critical to correctly account for radiation swelling and radiation creep, which contribute significantly to dimensional instability of SiC under radiation. Swelling typically increases logarithmically with radiation dose and saturates at relatively low doses (damage levels of a few dpa). Consequently, swelling-induced stresses are likely to develop within a few months of operation of a reactor. Radiation-induced volume swelling in SiC can be as high as 2%, which is significantly higher than the cracking strain of 0.1% in SiC. Swelling-induced strains will lead to enormous stresses and fracture, unless these stresses can be relaxed via some other mechanism. An effective way to achieve stress relaxation is via radiation creep. Although it has been hypothesized that both radiation swelling and radiation creep are driven by formation of defect clusters, existing models for swelling and creep in SiC are limited by the lack of understanding of specific defects that form due to radiation in the range of temperatures relevant to fuel cladding in light water reactors (LWRs) (<1000°C). For example, defects that can be detected with traditional transmission electron microscopy (TEM) techniques account only for 10-45% of the swelling measured in irradiated SiC. Here, we have undertaken an integrated experimental and

  4. Quasi-Freestanding multilayer graphene films on the carbon face of SiC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Siegel, D. A.; Hwang, C. G.; Fedorov, A. V.; Lanzara, A.


    The electronic band structure of as-grown and doped graphene grown on the carbon face of SiC is studied by high-resolution angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy, where we observe both rotations between adjacent layers and AB-stacking. The band structure of quasi-freestanding AB-bilayers is directly compared with bilayer graphene grown on the Si-face of SiC to study the impact of the substrate on the electronic properties of epitaxial graphene. Our results show that the C-face films are nearly freestanding from an electronic point of view, due to the rotations between graphene layers.

  5. High efficiency battery converter with SiC devices for residential PV systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pham, Cam; Teodorescu, Remus; Kerekes, Tamas


    The demand for high efficiency and higher power density is a challenge for Si-based semiconductors due to the physical characteristics of material. These can be overcome by employing wide-band-gap materials like SiC. This paper compares a second generator SiC MOSFETs against a normally-on Trench ...... JFETs and theirs performances in a high efficiency battery converter for residential photovoltaic systems. The prototypes are 3 kW converters with more than 98% efficiency and high simplicity and power density....

  6. System for the growth of bulk SiC crystals by modified CVD techniques (United States)

    Steckl, Andrew J.


    The goal of this program was the development of a SiC CVD growth of films thick enough to be useful as pseudo-substrates. The cold-walled CVD system was designed, assembled, and tested. Extrapolating from preliminary evaluation of SiC films grown in the system at relatively low temperatures indicates that the growth rate at the final temperatures will be high enough to make our approach practical. Modifications of the system to allow high temperature growth and cleaner growth conditions are in progress. This program was jointly funded by Wright Laboratory, Materials Directorate and NASA LeRC and monitored by NASA.

  7. Structural and thermal characterization of polyvinylalcohol grafted SiC nanocrystals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Saini, Isha; Sharma, Annu; Dhiman, Rajnish


    In the present work, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), Raman spectroscopy, x-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) were employed to ascertain the grafting of an organic layer of polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) onto the surface...... introduced in the characteristic TO and LO mode of vibration of SiC nanocrystals after grafting procedure.XRD analysis confirmed that the grafting procedure did not alter the crystalline geometry of SiC nanocrystals. TEM and SEM images further support the FTIR and Raman spectroscopic results and confirm...

  8. Brazing of SiC using Cu-Si non reactive alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gasse, A.; Chaumat, G. [CEA Centre d`Etudes de Grenoble, 38 (France). Dept. d`Etudes des Materiaux; Rado, C.; Eustathopoulos, N. [Institut National Polytechnique, 38 - Grenoble (France)


    Wetting and adherence of filler metals on ceramics used to be achieved with active elements such as titanium. However, sessile drop experiments had already showed that a Cu 24 at % Si alloy has excellent wetting and adherence properties on SiC substrates under high vacuum without any measurable reactivity. Despite this good wetting, incomplete filling of joints was sometimes observed with such alloys in certain brazing experiments. This discrepancy is explained by a detailed analysis of Cu-Si alloy wetting mechanisms on SiC and confirmed by brazing experiments in different geometries. (authors). 8 figs.

  9. A Novel DBC Layout for Current Imbalance Mitigation in SiC MOSFET Multichip Power Modules

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Helong; Munk-Nielsen, Stig; Beczkowski, Szymon


    This paper proposes a novel Direct Bonded Copper (DBC) layout for mitigating the current imbalance among the paralleled SiC MOSFET dies in multichip power modules. Compared to the traditional layout, the proposed DBC layout significantly reduces the circuit mismatch and current coupling effect......, which consequently improves the current sharing among the paralleled SiC MOSFET dies in power module. Mathematic analysis and circuit model of the DBC layout are presented to elaborate on the superior features of the proposed DBC layout. Simulation and experimental results further verify the theoretical...

  10. A survey of SiC power MOSFETs short-circuit robustness and failure mode analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ceccarelli, L.; Reigosa, P. D.; Iannuzzo, F.


    The aim of this paper is to provide an extensive overview about the state-of-art commercially available SiC power MOSFET, focusing on their short-circuit ruggedness. A detailed literature investigation has been carried out, in order to collect and understand the latest research contribution within...... this topic and create a survey of the present scenario of SiC MOSFETs reliability evaluation and failure mode analysis, pointing out the evolution and improvements as well as the future challenges in this promising device technology....

  11. A Novel DBC Layout for Current Imbalance Mitigation in SiC MOSFET Multichip Power Modules

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Helong; Munk-Nielsen, Stig; Beczkowski, Szymon


    This letter proposes a novel direct bonded copper (DBC) layout for mitigating the current imbalance among the paralleled SiC MOSFET dies in multichip power modules. Compared to the traditional layout, the proposed DBC layout significantly reduces the circuit mismatch and current coupling effect......, which consequently improves the current sharing among the paralleled SiC MOSFET dies in power module. Mathematic analysis and circuit model of the DBC layout are presented to elaborate the superior features of the proposed DBC layout. Simulation and experimental results further verify the theoretical...

  12. CVD solutions for new directions in SiC and GaN epitaxy


    Li, Xun


    This thesis aims to develop a chemical vapor deposition (CVD) process for the new directions in both silicon carbon (SiC) and gallium nitride (GaN) epitaxial growth. The properties of the grown epitaxial layers are investigated in detail in order to have a deep understanding. SiC is a promising wide band gap semiconductor material which could be utilized for fabricating high-power and high-frequency devices. 3C-SiC is the only polytype with a cubic structure and has superior physical properti...

  13. Children's schemes for anticipating the validity of nets for solids (United States)

    Wright, Vince; Smith, Ken


    There is growing acknowledgement of the importance of spatial abilities to student achievement across a broad range of domains and disciplines. Nets are one way to connect three-dimensional shapes and their two-dimensional representations and are a common focus of geometry curricula. Thirty-four students at year 6 (upper primary school) were interviewed on two occasions about their anticipation of whether or not given nets for the cube- and square-based pyramid would fold to form the target solid. Vergnaud's ( Journal of Mathematical Behavior, 17(2), 167-181, 1998, Human Development, 52, 83-94, 2009) four characteristics of schemes were used as a theoretical lens to analyse the data. Successful schemes depended on the interaction of operational invariants, such as strategic choice of the base, rules for action, particularly rotation of shapes, and anticipations of composites of polygons in the net forming arrangements of faces in the solid. Inferences were rare. These data suggest that students need teacher support to make inferences, in order to create transferable schemes.

  14. Improvement of Strength and Oxidation Resistance for SiC/graphite Composites by SiC coating (United States)

    Yang, Wanli; Shi, Zhongqi; Li, Hongwei; Li, Zhen; Jin, Zhihao; Qiao, Guanjun


    SiC/graphite composites with exelent machinable properties and thermal shock behaviour were successfully fabricated by pressureless sintering at 1700°C in nitrogen atmosphere. A dipping infiltration process was applied to improve the strength and oxidation resistance of the composites. Dense SiC coating was covered on the composites' surface by heat-treating at 1400°C in nitrogen atmosphere with dipping infiltration of silica sol and phenolic resin solutions. The flexural strength of the SiC coated composites were improved from 60 MPa to 140 MPa obviously, and the weight loss of the SiC coated composites was reduced more than 20 % comparing with the uncoated composites by oxidation resistance testing at 1000 °C for 24 h in air. SEM micrographs shows that SiC coating was surrounded the surface of pores and XRD pattern revealed that the new layer was SiC.

  15. Event hierarchies in DanNet

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Bolette Sandford; Nimb, Sanni


    Artiklen omhandler udarbejdelsen af et verbumshierarki i det leksikalsk-semantiske ordnet, DanNet.......Artiklen omhandler udarbejdelsen af et verbumshierarki i det leksikalsk-semantiske ordnet, DanNet....

  16. The Uniframe .Net Web Service Discovery Service

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Berbeco, Robert W


    Microsoft .NET allows the creation of distributed systems in a seamless manner Within NET small, discrete applications, referred to as Web services, are utilized to connect to each other or larger applications...

  17. Long Term RadNet Quality Data (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This RadNet Quality Data Asset includes all data since initiation and when ERAMS was expanded to become RadNet, name changed to reflect new mission. This includes...

  18. PsychoNet: a psycholinguistc commonsense ontology


    Mohtasseb, Haytham; Ahmed, Amr


    Ontologies have been widely accepted as the most advanced knowledge representation model. This paper introduces PsychoNet, a new knowledgebase that forms the link between psycholinguistic taxonomy, existing in LIWC, and its semantic textual representation in the form of commonsense semantic ontology, represented by ConceptNet. The integration of LIWC and ConceptNet and the added functionalities facilitate employing ConceptNet in psycholinguistic studies. Furthermore, it simplifies utilization...

  19. Testing of porous SiC with dense coating under relevant conditions for Flow Channel Insert application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ordás, N., E-mail: [CEIT and Tecnun (University of Navarra), Manuel de Lardizábal 15, 20018 San Sebastián (Spain); Bereciartu, A.; García-Rosales, C. [CEIT and Tecnun (University of Navarra), Manuel de Lardizábal 15, 20018 San Sebastián (Spain); Moroño, A.; Malo, M.; Hodgson, E.R. [CIEMAT, Avenida Complutense 22, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Abellà, J.; Colominas, S. [Institut Químic de Sarrià, University Ramon Llull, Via Augusta 390, 08017 Barcelona (Spain); Sedano, L. [CIEMAT, Avenida Complutense 22, 28040 Madrid (Spain)


    Highlights: • Porous SiC coated by CVD with a dense coating was developed for Flow Channel Inserts (FCI) in dual-coolant blanket concept. • Porous SiC was obtained following the sacrificial template technique, using Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} and Y{sub 2}O{sub 3} as sintering additives. • Flexural strength, thermal and electrical conductivity, and microstructure of uncoated and coated porous SiC are presented. • Adhesion of coating to porous SiC and its corrosion behavior under Pb-17.5Li at 700 °C are shown. - Abstract: Thermally and electrically insulating porous SiC ceramics are attractive candidates for Flow Channel Inserts (FCI) in dual-coolant blanket concepts thanks to its relatively inexpensive manufacturing route. To prevent tritium permeation and corrosion by Pb-15.7 a dense coating has to be applied on the porous SiC. Despite not having structural function, FCI must exhibit sufficient mechanical strength to withstand strong thermal gradients and thermo-electrical stresses during operation. This work summarizes the results on the development of coated porous SiC for FCI. Porous SiC was obtained following the sacrificial template technique, using Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} and Y{sub 2}O{sub 3} as sintering additives and a carbonaceous phase as pore former. Sintering was performed in inert gas at 1850–1950 °C during 15 min to 3 h, followed by oxidation at 650 °C to eliminate the carbonaceous phase. The most promising bulk materials were coated with a ∼30 μm thick dense SiC by CVD. Results on porosity, bending tests, thermal and electrical conductivity are presented. The microstructure of the coating, its adhesion to the porous SiC and its corrosion behavior under Pb-17.5Li are also shown.

  20. Internal friction and microplasticity of carbon-fiber-reinforced SiC ceramics; Tanso sen`i kyoka SiC ceramics no hakai zenku katei ni okeru naibu masatsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ogawa, H.; Nishino, Y.; Asano, S. [Nagoya Institute of Technology, Nagoya (Japan)


    Mechanical responses of carbon-fiber-reinforced SiC ceramics before fracture were measured in the strain range below 2 {times} 10{sup {minus}3} by two experimental methods: mechanical hysteresis and internal friction. Load-deflection curves were obtained by the three-point bending deformation in loading-unloading cycles. A little permanent strain was found after the first cycle even in the range where fracture never occurred. A closed hysteresis loop was observed after several cycles and stabilized with a symmetrical shape after more than twenty cycles. Such a stabilized hysteresis loop is attributed to the steady-state microplastic deformation and may cause the amplitude-dependent internal friction. Internal friction was measured in the fundamental mode of free-free resonant vibration as a function of strain amplitude. With increasing the amount of prestrain in the bending deformation, internal friction increased and became sensitive to the strain amplitude. The amplitude-dependent internal friction in the composites is considered to originate from fiber pull-out or microcrack propagation. The internal friction data were analyzed on the basis of the microplasticity theory and converted into the plastic strain expressed as a function of stress. Therefore, it becomes possible to non-destructively study the forerunning process of fracture of the fiber-reinforced ceramics. 23 refs., 6 figs.

  1. 78 FR 72451 - Net Investment Income Tax (United States)


    ... Revenue Service 26 CFR Part 1 RIN 1545-BL74 Net Investment Income Tax AGENCY: Internal Revenue Service...). These regulations provide guidance on the computation of net investment income. The regulations affect... lesser of: (A) The individual's net investment income for such taxable year, or (B) the excess (if any...

  2. 47 CFR 69.302 - Net investment. (United States)


    ... 47 Telecommunication 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Net investment. 69.302 Section 69.302... Apportionment of Net Investment § 69.302 Net investment. (a) Investment in Accounts 2001, 1220 and Class B Rural...) Investment in Accounts 2002, 2003 and to the extent such inclusions are allowed by this Commission, Account...

  3. 47 CFR 65.450 - Net income. (United States)


    ... 47 Telecommunication 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Net income. 65.450 Section 65.450... OF RETURN PRESCRIPTION PROCEDURES AND METHODOLOGIES Exchange Carriers § 65.450 Net income. (a) Net income shall consist of all revenues derived from the provision of interstate telecommunications services...

  4. 47 CFR 65.500 - Net income. (United States)


    ... 47 Telecommunication 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Net income. 65.500 Section 65.500... OF RETURN PRESCRIPTION PROCEDURES AND METHODOLOGIES Interexchange Carriers § 65.500 Net income. The net income methodology specified in § 65.450 shall be utilized by all interexchange carriers that are...

  5. NetBeans IDE 8 cookbook

    CERN Document Server

    Salter, David


    If you're a Java developer of any level using NetBeans and want to learn how to get the most out of NetBeans, then this book is for you. Learning how to utilize NetBeans will provide a firm foundation for your Java application development.

  6. Characterizing behavioural congruences for Petri nets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Mogens; Priese, Lutz; Sassone, Vladimiro


    We exploit a notion of interface for Petri nets in order to design a set of net combinators. For such a calculus of nets, we focus on the behavioural congruences arising from four simple notions of behaviour, viz., traces, maximal traces, step, and maximal step traces, and from the corresponding...

  7. 27 CFR 4.37 - Net contents. (United States)


    ... the volume of wine within the container, except that the following tolerances shall be allowed: (1... THE TREASURY LIQUORS LABELING AND ADVERTISING OF WINE Labeling Requirements for Wine § 4.37 Net contents. (a) Statement of net contents. The net contents of wine for which a standard of fill is...

  8. NET 40 Generics Beginner's Guide

    CERN Document Server

    Mukherjee, Sudipta


    This is a concise, practical guide that will help you learn Generics in .NET, with lots of real world and fun-to-build examples and clear explanations. It is packed with screenshots to aid your understanding of the process. This book is aimed at beginners in Generics. It assumes some working knowledge of C# , but it isn't mandatory. The following would get the most use out of the book: Newbie C# developers struggling with Generics. Experienced C++ and Java Programmers who are migrating to C# and looking for an alternative to other generic frameworks like STL and JCF would find this book handy.

  9. The Net Reclassification Index (NRI)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pepe, Margaret S.; Fan, Jing; Feng, Ziding


    The Net Reclassification Index (NRI) is a very popular measure for evaluating the improvement in prediction performance gained by adding a marker to a set of baseline predictors. However, the statistical properties of this novel measure have not been explored in depth. We demonstrate the alarming...... marker is proven to erroneously yield a positive NRI. Some insight into this phenomenon is provided. Since large values for the NRI statistic may simply be due to use of poorly fitting risk models, we suggest caution in using the NRI as the basis for marker evaluation. Other measures of prediction...

  10. Biomimetic synthesis of cellular SiC based ceramics from plant ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)


    Abstract. A novel biomimetic approach in designing and fabricating engineering ceramic materials has gained much interest in recent times. Following this approach, synthesis has been made of dense Si–SiC duplex ceramic composites and highly porous SiC ceramics in the image of the morphological features inherent in ...


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brad J. Merrill; Shannon M Bragg-Sitton


    The Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Nuclear Energy (NE) Light Water Reactor (LWR) Sustainability Program encompasses strategic research focused on improving reactor core economics and safety margins through the development of an advanced fuel cladding system. The Fuels Pathway within this program focuses on fuel system components outside of the fuel pellet, allowing for alteration of the existing zirconium-based clad system through coatings, addition of ceramic sleeves, or complete replacement (e.g. fully ceramic cladding). The DOE-NE Fuel Cycle Research & Development (FCRD) Advanced Fuels Campaign (AFC) is also conducting research on materials for advanced, accident tolerant fuels and cladding for application in operating LWRs. To aide in this assessment, a silicon carbide (SiC) version of the MELCOR code was developed by substituting SiC in place of Zircaloy in MELCOR’s reactor core oxidation and material property routines. The purpose of this development effort is to provide a numerical capability for estimating the safety advantages of replacing Zr-alloy components in LWRs with SiC components. This modified version of the MELCOR code was applied to the Three Mile Island (TMI-2) plant accident. While the results are considered preliminary, SiC cladding showed a dramatic safety advantage over Zircaloy cladding during this accident.

  12. Transformation from amorphous to nano-crystalline SiC thin films ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)


    Abstract. Silicon carbide (SiC) thin films were deposited on Si(111) by the hot wire chemical vapour deposi- tion (HWCVD) technique using silane (SiH4) and methane (CH4) gases without hydrogen dilution. The effects of SiH4 to CH4 gas flow ratio (R) on the structural properties, chemical composition and ...

  13. Localized Surface Plasmon on 6H SiC with Ag Nanoparticles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wei, Yi; Fadil, Ahmed; Ou, Haiyan


    ) of the emissions of the donor-acceptor pairs of the SiC substrate. Roomtemperature measurements of photoluminescence (PL), transmittance and time-resolved photoluminescence (TRPL) were applied to characterize the LSP resonances. Through the finitedifference time-domain (FDTD) simulation of the LSP resonance...

  14. Residual stress measurements in an SiC continuous fiber reinforced Ti matrix composite

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Willemse, P.F.; Mulder, F.M.; Wei, W.; Rekveldt, M.Th.; Knight, K.S.


    During the fabrication of ceramic fiber reinforced metal matrix composites mismatch stresses will be introduced due to differences in thermal expansion coefficients between the matrix and the fibers. Calculations, based on a coaxial cylinder model, [1 and 2] predict that, for a Ti matrix SiC

  15. A Comparison of SiC Power Switches for High-Rel Defense Applications (preprint) (United States)


    junction transistor ( BJT ). The VJFET is principally valued for having demonstrated the highest current and voltage combinations, positive...for defense applications. They are the vertical junction field effect transistor (VJFET), the metal-oxide-semiconductor FET (MOSFET), and the bipolar...most technologically ready SiC power switch, the vertical junction field effect transistor (VJFET), has been demonstrated in preproduction devices at

  16. Temperature dependence of a microstructured SiC coherent thermal source (United States)

    Hervé, Armande; Drévillon, Jérémie; Ezzahri, Younès; Joulain, Karl; De Sousa Meneses, Domingos; Hugonin, Jean-Paul


    By ruling a grating on a polar material that supports surface phonon-polaritons such as silicon carbide (SiC), it is possible to create directional and monochromatic thermal sources. So far, most of the studies have considered only materials with room temperature properties as the ones tabulated in Palik's handbooks. Recently, measurements have provided experimental data of the SiC dielectric function at different temperatures. Here we study, numerically, the effect of the temperature dependence of the dielectric function on the thermal emission of SiC gratings (1D grating, in a first approach), heated at different temperatures. When materials are heated, the position of the grating emissivity peak shifts towards higher wavelength values. A second consequence of the temperature dependence of optical properties is that room temperature designed gratings are not optimal for higher temperatures. However, by modifying the grating parameters, it is possible to find an emission peak, with a maximum of emissivity near 1, for each temperature. We tried first to catch some patterns in the emissivity variation. Then, we obtained a grating, which leads to an optimum emissivity for all available temperature data for SiC.

  17. Nanocrystalline Grapheme Layer Induced on Surface of SiC Thin Film by Electron Beam Irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jin, Hanbyul; Jeon, Youngeun; Jung, Sungchul; Kwak, Jinsung; Kim, Sung Youb; Kwon, Soonyong [Ulsan National Institute of Science and Technology, Ulsan (Korea, Republic of); Ko, Jaehyeon [Hallym Univ., Chuncheon (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Byung Cheol; Kang, Hyun Suk [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)


    It is observed that a graphene layer forms on the surface of a thin film of SiC by irradiating electron beam (e-beam) directly on the sample surface in high vacuum ({approx}10{sup -6} Torr) environment. A SiC thin film was deposited on a sapphire substrate by RF magnetron sputtering at the substrate temperature of {approx}200 .deg. C. The e-beam irradiation on the sample surface was performed at an acceleration voltage of 8 kV. The graphene layer formation was revealed by the characteristic peaks (D, G, 2D) in the measured Raman spectra. Based on the relatively large D peak in the Raman spectra, the formed graphene layer is thought to be nanocrystalline. The quality of e-beam induced graphene layer was found to be improved noticeably by a Ni film over-coating on the SiC thin film before electron beam irradiation, which is confirmed by the significant changes of measured Raman spectra compared with the spectra without Ni over-coating. The Ni film is believed to enhance the carbon adatom motion, leading to the formation of graphene layer with larger grain size. Our experimental results propose a plausible method for directly writing graphene patterns on SiC thin film just by irradiating e-beam on the sample surface without using conventional pattering processes.

  18. Conformal Thin Film Packaging for SiC Sensor Circuits in Harsh Environments (United States)

    Scardelletti, Maximilian C.; Karnick, David A.; Ponchak, George E.; Zorman, Christian A.


    In this investigation sputtered silicon carbide annealed at 300 C for one hour is used as a conformal thin film package. A RF magnetron sputterer was used to deposit 500 nm silicon carbide films on gold metal structures on alumina wafers. To determine the reliability and resistance to immersion in harsh environments, samples were submerged in gold etchant for 24 hours, in BOE for 24 hours, and in an O2 plasma etch for one hour. The adhesion strength of the thin film was measured by a pull test before and after the chemical immersion, which indicated that the film has an adhesion strength better than 10(exp 8) N/m2; this is similar to the adhesion of the gold layer to the alumina wafer. MIM capacitors are used to determine the dielectric constant, which is dependent on the SiC anneal temperature. Finally, to demonstrate that the SiC, conformal, thin film may be used to package RF circuits and sensors, an LC resonator circuit was fabricated and tested with and without the conformal SiC thin film packaging. The results indicate that the SiC coating adds no appreciable degradation to the circuits RF performance. Index Terms Sputter, silicon carbide, MIM capacitors, LC resonators, gold etchants, BOE, O2 plasma

  19. Silicon Carbide (SiC) Power Processing Unit (PPU) for Hall Effect Thrusters Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — In this SBIR project, APEI, Inc. is proposing to develop a high efficiency, rad-hard 3.8 kW silicon carbide (SiC) power supply for the Power Processing Unit (PPU) of...

  20. SiC fibre by chemical vapour deposition on tungsten filament

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)


    Jones 1975). The next generation aircraft engines need lighter high performance structural materials with high temperature capabilities (Sorensen 1993). ... 1997). Ti–6Al–4V/sigma-1240(SiC) composites exhibit a high elastic stiffness (axial elastic modulus above 200 GPa) and fracture strength (UTS ≈ 1⋅8 GPa) and a ...

  1. Machinability evaluation of Al–4% Cu–7.5% SiC metal matrix ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Machinability evaluation of Al–4%Cu–7.5%SiC metal matrix composite (MMC) prepared by powder metallurgy (P/M) process is presented. Specimens are prepared with 99.85% pure aluminum added with 4% copper and 7.5% silicon carbide particles by volume fraction. Scanning electron microscope image shows even ...

  2. Zirconia toughened SiC whisker reinforced alumina composites small business innovation research (United States)

    Loutfy, R. O.; Stuffle, K. L.; Withers, J. C.; Lee, C. T.


    The objective of this phase 1 project was to develop a ceramic composite with superior fracture toughness and high strength, based on combining two toughness inducing materials: zirconia for transformation toughening and SiC whiskers for reinforcement, in a controlled microstructure alumina matrix. The controlled matrix microstructure is obtained by controlling the nucleation frequency of the alumina gel with seeds (submicron alpha-alumina). The results demonstrate the technical feasibility of producing superior binary composites (Al2O3-ZrO2) and tertiary composites (Al2O3-ZrO2-SiC). Thirty-two composites were prepared, consolidated, and fracture toughness tested. Statistical analysis of the results showed that: (1) the SiC type is the key statistically significant factor for increased toughness; (2) sol-gel processing with a-alumina seed had a statistically significant effect on increasing toughness of the binary and tertiary composites compared to the corresponding mixed powder processing; and (3) ZrO2 content within the range investigated had a minor effect. Binary composites with an average critical fracture toughness of 6.6MPam sup 1/2, were obtained. Tertiary composites with critical fracture toughness in the range of 9.3 to 10.1 MPam sup 1/2 were obtained. Results indicate that these composites are superior to zirconia toughened alumina and SiC whisker reinforced alumina ceramic composites produced by conventional techniques with similar composition from published data.

  3. Fabrication and characterization of Ti3SiC2–SiC nanocomposite by ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)


    in situ reaction synthesis of TiC/Si/Al powders. BAOYAN LIANG†, MINGZHI WANG*, ... The microstructure and mechanical properties of Ti3SiC2–SiC nanocomposite fabricated by in situ hot pressing (HP) synthesis process were .... 7 mm × 27 mm bars for measuring the three-point bend- ing strength with a span of 20 mm. 3.

  4. Transformation from amorphous to nano-crystalline SiC thin films ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Silicon carbide (SiC) thin films were deposited on Si(111) by the hot wire chemical vapour deposition (HWCVD) technique using silane (SiH4) and methane (CH4) gases without hydrogen dilution. The effects of SiH4 to CH4 gas flow ratio (R) on the structural properties, chemical composition and photoluminescence (PL) ...

  5. Selected mechanical properties of aluminum composite materials reinforced with SiC particles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Kurzawa


    Full Text Available This work presents the results of research concerning influence of ceramic particles’ content of silicon carbide on selected mechanical properties of type AW-AlCu4Mg2Mn - SiC composite materials. Composites produced of SiC particles with pressure infiltration method of porous preform and subject to hot plastic forming in the form of open die forging were investigated. The experimental samples contained from 5% up to 45% of reinforcing SiC particles of 8÷10μm diameter. Studies of strength properties demonstrated that the best results, in case of tensile strength as well as offset yield strength, might be obtained while applying reinforcement in the amount of 20-25% vol. of SiC. Application of higher than 25% vol. contents of reinforcing particles leads to gradual strength loss. The investigated composites were characterized by very high functional properties, such as hardness and abrasive wear resistance, whose values increase strongly with the increase of reinforcement amount. The presented results of the experiments shall allow for a more precise component selection of composite materials at the stage of planning and design of their properties.

  6. Photoluminescence topography of fluorescent SiC and its corresponding source crystals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wilhelm, M.; Kaiser, M.; Jokubavicus, V.


    The preparation and application of co-doped polycrystalline SiC as source in sublimation growth of fluorescent layers is a complex topic. Photoluminescence topographies of luminescent 6H-SiC layers and their corresponding source crystals have been studied in order to investigate the dependence of...

  7. Fabrication of broadband antireflective sub-wavelength structures on fluorescent SiC

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ou, Yiyu; Jokubavicus, V.; Kaiser, M.


    Surface nanocones on 6H-SiC have been developed and demonstrated as an effective method of enhancing the light extraction efficiency from fluorescent SiC layers. The surface reflectance, measured from the opposite direction of light emission, over a broad bandwidth range is significantly suppress...

  8. Laser alloying of AI with mixed Ni, Ti and SiC powders

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Mabhali, Luyolo AB


    Full Text Available Laser alloying of aluminium AA1200 was performed with a 4.4kW Rofin Sinar Nd:YAG laser to improve the surface hardness. Alloying was carried out by depositing Ni, Ti and SiC powders of different weight ratios on the aluminum substrate. The aim...

  9. Effect of SiC interlayer between Ti6Al4V alloy and hydroxyapatite films. (United States)

    Azem, Funda Ak; Birlik, Isil; Braic, Viorel; Toparli, Mustafa; Celik, Erdal; Parau, Anca; Kiss, Adrian; Titorencu, Irina; Vladescu, Alina


    Bioactive coatings are frequently used to improve the osseointegration of the metallic implants used in dentistry or orthopaedics. Among different types of bioactive coatings, hydroxyapatite (Ca10(PO4)6(OH)2) is one of the most extensively used due to its chemical similarities to the components of bones and teeth. In this article, production and characterization of hydroxyapatite films deposited on Ti6Al4V alloy prepared by magnetron sputtering were reported. Besides, SiC was deposited on substrate surface to study the interlayer effect. Obtained coatings were annealed at 600 °C for 30 and 120 min in a mixed atmosphere of N2 + H2O vapours with the heating rate of 12 °C min(-1). The effects of SiC interlayer and heat treatment parameters on the structural, mechanical and corrosion properties were investigated. After heat treatment process, the crystalline hydroxyapatite was obtained. Additionally, cell viability tests were performed. The results show that the presence of the SiC interlayer contributes a decrease in surface roughness and improves the mechanical properties and corrosion performance of the hydroxyapatite coatings. Biological properties were not affected by the presence of the SiC interlayer. © IMechE 2015.

  10. Laser surface alloying of aluminum (AA1200) with Ni and SiC Powders

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Mabhali, Luyolo AB


    Full Text Available An Nd:YAG laser was used for surface alloying of aluminum AA1200. The alloying powder was a mixture of Ni and SiC in different ratios. A study of the microstructures obtained after alloying was conducted using optical and scanning electron...

  11. Study of indentation induced cracks in MoSi2-reaction bonded SiC ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The infiltrated sample had a density > 92% of the theoretical density (TD) and microstructurally contained SiC, MoSi2, residual Si and unreacted C. The material was tested for indentation fracture toughness at room temperature with a Vicker's indenter and KIC was found to be 4.42 MPa√m which is around 39% higher than ...

  12. PSpice Modeling Platform for SiC Power MOSFET Modules with Extensive Experimental Validation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ceccarelli, Lorenzo; Iannuzzo, Francesco; Nawaz, Muhammad


    The aim of this work is to present a PSpice implementation for a well-established and compact physics-based SiC MOSFET model, including a fast, experimental-based parameter extraction procedure in a MATLAB GUI environment. The model, originally meant for single-die devices, has been used...

  13. A Fast Electro-Thermal Co-Simulation Modeling Approach for SiC Power MOSFETs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ceccarelli, Lorenzo; Bahman, Amir Sajjad; Iannuzzo, Francesco


    the FEM simulation of the DUT’s structure, performed in ANSYS Icepack. A MATLAB script is used to process the simulation data and feed the needed settings and parameters back into the simulation. The parameters for a CREE 1.2 kV/30 A SiC MOSFET have been identified and the electro-thermal model has been...

  14. TiO2 and SiC nanostructured films, organized CNT structures

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    some nanomaterials (TiO2 and SiC nanostructured films, organized CNT structures, ZnO ... to remove micro and nanoscale contaminants from water and heavy hydrocarbons from petroleum. ZnO has been ... The possible mechanism for photocatalytic degradation of phenol using nano- structured TiO2 as a photocatalyst is ...

  15. Reactivity and wettability of SiC by Ni and Ni-Si alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rado, C. [INPG, 38 - Saint Martin d`Heres (France). LTPCM; Kalogeropoulou, S. [INPG, 38 - Saint Martin d`Heres (France). LTPCM; Eustathopoulos, N. [INPG, 38 - Saint Martin d`Heres (France). LTPCM


    Wettability of SiC by Ni and Ni-Si alloys was studied at 1633K by the sessile drop technique under high vacuum or pure He. It is shown that reactivity in this system can be controlled and even nearly suppressed while obtaining good wetting and strong interface. (orig.)

  16. Fabrication and characterization of Ti3SiC2–SiC nanocomposite by ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Bulletin of Materials Science; Volume 34; Issue 7. Fabrication and characterization of Ti3SiC2–SiC nanocomposite by in situ reaction synthesis of TiC/Si/Al powders. Baoyan Liang Mingzhi Wang Xiaopu Li Yunchao Mu. Volume 34 Issue 7 December 2011 pp 1309-1311 ...

  17. Síntesis de whiskers de SiC asistida por microondas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Garza-Méndez, F. J.


    Full Text Available We developed a new process for the synthesis of SiC whiskers assisted by microwaves; this is based on the mixture of silica xerogels and graphite powder. As energy source were used microwaves of 2.45 GHz and 1.0 kW of power RMS. On the other hand, mesoporous silica was synthesized via sol-gel, the precursors used were TEOS/H2O and ethanol. Throughanalysis of the BET is determined the value of averageporesize (3.0 nm and the surface area (1090 m2/g.By mean of X-Ray diffraction it was demonstrated that the silica obtained is an amorphous solid and, the powders obtained in the microwave synthesis are β-SiC. Synthesized SiC powders were observed using a SEM in secondary electron mode, it was observed that this powders consists of SiC whiskers. The effect of microwaves on the synthesis of whiskers of SiC is discussed in the present work.Se desarrolló un nuevo proceso para la síntesis de whiskers de SiC asistida por microondas, basada en la mezcla de xerogeles de sílice y grafito en polvo. Como fuente de energía se emplearon microondas de 2.45 GHz y 1.5 kW de potencia. La sílice mesoporosa se sintetizó vía sol-gel, los precursores usados para esta síntesis fueron TEOS/H2O y etanol. A través del análisis BET se determinó el valor de tamaño de poro promedio (3.0 nm y el área superficial (1090 m2/g. Mediante difracción de rayos-x método de polvos se demostró que la sílice sintetizada es amorfa y que los polvos obtenidos en el microondas corresponden a β-SiC. Para determinar la morfología de los whiskers de SiC se analizó por MEB en el modo de electrones secundarios. El efecto de las microondas en la síntesis de whiskers de SiC se discute en el presente trabajo.

  18. Elaboration of silicon carbides nano particles (SiC): from the powder synthesis to the sintered ceramic; Elaboration de ceramiques nanostructurees en carbure de silicium (SiC): de la synthese de poudre a la ceramique frittee

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reau, A. [CEA Saclay, Dept. des Materiaux pour le Nucleaire (DEN/DANS/DMN/SRMA), 91 - Gif-sur-Yvette (France)


    Materials for the reactor cores of the fourth generation will need materials supporting high temperatures with fast neutrons flux. SiC{sub f}/SiC ceramics are proposed. One of the possible elaboration process is to fill SiC fiber piece with nano particles SiC powder and to strengthen by sintering. The aim of this thesis is to obtain a nano structured SiC ceramic as a reference for the SiC{sub f}/SiC composite development and to study the influence of the fabrication parameters. (A.L.B.)

  19. Comparative assessment of 3.3kV/400A SiC MOSFET and Si IGBT power modules

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ionita, Claudiu; Nawaz, Muhammad; Ilves, Kalle


    In this paper, a comparative evaluation between a commercial 3.3 kV/400 A Si-IGBT and a 3.3 kV/400 A SiC MOSFET power module in half-bridge configuration is presented. With a constant current of 250 A, a lower forward voltage (VDS) drop of 1.6 V is obtained for SiC MOSFET at 300 K compared to Si...... IGBT. At 400 A, the difference is reduced to 1.3 V. SiC MOSFET offers an on-state resistance of 8.7 mΩ, and blocking voltage of 3.5 kV at 300 K. Compared to Si-IGBT, a significant lower leakage current for the SiC MOSFET is obtained with varying temperature from 300 K to 400 K. SiC MOSFET offers 7.......5 times lower switching losses compared to Si-IGBTs for a supply voltage of 2000 V at 300 K. The switching losses of the SiC MOSFET are not affected by the temperature. Total energy loss increases (3.5 times) linearly with variation of the gate resistance from 6 Ω to 27 Ω. The capability of the SiC MOSFET...

  20. Investigations of Ar ion irradiation effects on nanocrystalline SiC thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Craciun, V., E-mail: [Laser Department, National Institute for Laser, Plasma, and Radiation Physics, Bucharest-Magurele (Romania); Craciun, D.; Socol, G. [Laser Department, National Institute for Laser, Plasma, and Radiation Physics, Bucharest-Magurele (Romania); Behdad, S.; Boesl, B. [Department of Mechanical and Materials Engineering, Florida International University, Miami, FL 33174 (United States); Himcinschi, C. [Institute of Theoretical Physics, TU Bergakademie Freiberg, Freiberg (Germany); Makino, H. [Research Institute, Kochi University of Technology, Kami, Kochi 782-8502 (Japan); Socol, M. [National Institute for Materials Physics, Bucharest-Magurele (Romania); Simeone, D. [CEA/DEN/DANS/DM2S/SRMA/LA2M-LRC CARMEN CEN, Saclay (France); CNRS/SPMS UMR8785 LRC CARMEN, Ecole Centrale de Paris, 92292 Chatenay Malabry (France)


    Highlights: • Thin polycrystalline SiC films grown by the pulsed laser deposition technique were irradiated by 800 keV Ar ions at a dose of 2.6 × 10{sup 14} at/cm{sup 2}. • The SiC films hardness and Young modulus values significantly decreased after irradiation. • Glancing X-ray diffraction investigations showed a partial transformation of the SiC hexagonal phase into the cubic phase. • Smooth PLD grown thin films are excellent for radiation effects investigations using XRR, GIXRD and nanoindentation techniques. - Abstract: The effects of 800 keV Ar ion irradiation on thin nanocrystalline SiC films grown on (100) Si substrates using the pulsed laser deposition (PLD) technique were investigated. On such PLD grown films, which were very dense, flat and smooth, X-ray reflectivity, glancing incidence X-ray diffraction and nanoindentation investigations were easily performed to evaluate changes induced by irradiation on the density, surface roughness, crystalline structure, and mechanical properties. Results indicated that the SiC films retained their crystalline nature, the cubic phase partially transforming into the hexagonal phase, which had a slightly higher lattice parameter then the as-deposited films. Simulations of X-ray reflectivity curves indicated a 3% decrease of the films density after irradiation. Nanoindentation results showed a significant decrease of the hardness and Young's modulus values with respect to those measured on as-deposited films. Raman and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy investigations found an increase of the C−C bonds and a corresponding decrease of the Si−C bonds in the irradiated area, which could explain the degradation of mechanical properties.

  1. High yield polycarbosilane precursors to stoichiometric SiC. Synthesis, pyrolysis and application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Interrante, L.V.; Wu, H.J. [Rensselaer Polytechnic Inst., Troy, NY (United States). Dept. of Chemistry; Whitmarsh, C.W.; Sherwood, W. [Starfire Systems, Inc., Glenville, NY (United States); Lewis, R.; Maciel, G. [Colorado State Univ., Fort Collins, CO (United States). Dept. of Chemistry


    The synthesis and properties of two polycarbosilanes that have essentially a ``SiH{sub 2}CH{sub 2}`` composition is described. One of these polymers is a highly branched hydridopolycarbosilane (HPCS) derived from Grignard coupling of Cl{sub 3}SiCH{sub 2}Cl followed by LiAlH{sub 4} reduction. This synthesis is amenable to large scale production and the authors are exploring applications of HPCS as a source of SiC coatings and its allyl-derivative, AHPCS, as a matrix source for SiC and C-fiber reinforced composites. These polymers thermoset on heating at 200--400 C (or at 100 C with a catalyst) and give near stoichiometric SiC with low O content in ca. 80% yield on pyrolysis to 1,000 C. The second method involves ring-opening polymerization of 1,1,3,3-tetrachlorodisilacyclobutane and yields a high molecular weight, linear polymer that can be reduced to [SiH{sub 2}CH{sub 2}]{sub n} (PSE), the monosilicon analog of polyethylene. In contrast to high density polyethylene which melts at 135 C, PSE is a liquid at room temperature which crystallizes at ca. 5 C. On pyrolysis to 1,000 C, PSE gives stoichiometric, nanocrystalline, SiC in virtually quantitative yield. The polymer-to-ceramic conversion was examined for PSE by using TGA, mass spec., solid state NMR, and IR methods yielding information regarding the cross-linking and structural evolution processes. The results of these studies of the polymer-to-ceramic conversion process and their efforts to employ the AHPCS polymer as a source of SiC matrices are described.

  2. Construction Progress of the S-IC Test Stand-Excavation (United States)


    At its founding, the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) inherited the Army's Jupiter and Redstone test stands, but much larger facilities were needed for the giant stages of the Saturn V. From 1960 to 1964, the existing stands were remodeled and a sizable new test area was developed. The new comprehensive test complex for propulsion and structural dynamics was unique within the nation and the free world, and they remain so today because they were constructed with foresight to meet the future as well as on going needs. Construction of the S-IC Static test stand complex began in 1961 in the west test area of MSFC, and was completed in 1964. The S-IC static test stand was designed to develop and test the 138-ft long and 33-ft diameter Saturn V S-IC first stage, or booster stage, weighing in at 280,000 pounds. Required to hold down the brute force of a 7,500,000-pound thrust produced by 5 F-1 engines, the S-IC static test stand was designed and constructed with the strength of hundreds of tons of steel and 12,000,000 pounds of cement, planted down to bedrock 40 feet below ground level. The foundation walls, constructed with concrete and steel, are 4 feet thick. The base structure consists of four towers with 40-foot-thick walls extending upward 144 feet above ground level. The structure was topped by a crane with a 135-foot boom. With the boom in the upright position, the stand was given an overall height of 405 feet, placing it among the highest structures in Alabama at the time. In this photo, taken July 13, 1961, progress is made with the excavation and preparation of the S-IC test stand site.

  3. Joining technology—A challenge for the use of SiC components in HTRs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herrmann, M., E-mail:; Meisel, P.; Lippmann, W.; Hurtado, A.


    The availability of suitable joining technologies is paramount to the further advancement of ceramic components and their use in HTRs. Among other joining technologies, a modified brazing technology using a laser beam for heating the components to be joined has been developed at TU Dresden. The laser-induced heating behavior of the ceramic material is determined by the interactions between the material and the laser beam. This was shown in two different silicon carbide materials (SSiC and SiC{sub f}-reinforced ceramic material) using a diode laser with wavelengths 808 nm and 940 nm. The laser-based technique was illustrated by three different examples: sealing of monolithic SiC with a pin configuration for fuel claddings, sealing of SiC heat pipes with a length of 1 m, and demonstration of the transferability of the laser technique to fiber-reinforced components by means of a SiC{sub f}/SiCN material. Because the covalent bonding of SiC does not allow conventional welding, much research has been devoted to developing alternative filler systems. Glass or glass–ceramic fillers enable the tailoring of properties such as CTE and viscosity. Glasses are thermally stable up to their glass transition temperatures. It was shown that the crystallization of the yttrium aluminosilicate glass composition of the present work allows it to be used at 1050 °C without any significant changes occurring in braze tightness. For the SiC heat pipes with sodium as the working fluid, a sodium-resistant metal braze consisting of Ni–Ti–Si was formed. The long-term resistance of this filler to sodium at 800 °C was proven. The results demonstrate the possibility of using the laser-based joining technique for the joining of different SiC materials as well as for different brazing materials.

  4. Mechanical performance of SiC based MEMS capacitive microphone for ultrasonic detection in harsh environment (United States)

    Zawawi, S. A.; Hamzah, A. A.; Mohd-Yasin, F.; Majlis, B. Y.


    In this project, SiC based MEMS capacitive microphone was developed for detecting leaked gas in extremely harsh environment such as coal mines and petroleum processing plants via ultrasonic detection. The MEMS capacitive microphone consists of two parallel plates; top plate (movable diaphragm) and bottom (fixed) plate, which separated by an air gap. While, the vent holes were fabricated on the back plate to release trapped air and reduce damping. In order to withstand high temperature and pressure, a 1.0 μm thick SiC diaphragm was utilized as the top membrane. The developed SiC could withstand a temperature up to 1400°C. Moreover, the 3 μm air gap is invented between the top membrane and the bottom plate via wafer bonding. COMSOL Multiphysics simulation software was used for design optimization. Various diaphragms with sizes of 600 μm2, 700 μm2, 800 μm2, 900 μm2 and 1000 μm2 are loaded with external pressure. From this analysis, it was observed that SiC microphone with diaphragm width of 1000 μm2 produced optimal surface vibrations, with first-mode resonant frequency of approximately 36 kHz. The maximum deflection value at resonant frequency is less than the air gap thickness of 8 mu;m, thus eliminating the possibility of shortage between plates during operation. As summary, the designed SiC capacitive microphone has high potential and it is suitable to be applied in ultrasonic gas leaking detection in harsh environment.

  5. Rapid Damage-Free Shaping of Lightweight SiC Using Reactive Atom Plasma (RAP) Processing Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The proposed Phase II effort seeks to demonstrate a dramatic reduction of the manufacturing cost and cycle time of lightweight silicon carbide mirrors by...

  6. Rapid Damage-Free Shaping of Lightweight SiC Using Reactive Atom Plasma (RAP) Processing Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The proposed effort seeks to determine the feasibility of dramatically reducing the manufacturing cost and cycle time of lightweight silicon carbide mirrors by...

  7. Shape memory polymers (United States)

    Wilson, Thomas S.; Bearinger, Jane P.


    New shape memory polymer compositions, methods for synthesizing new shape memory polymers, and apparatus comprising an actuator and a shape memory polymer wherein the shape memory polymer comprises at least a portion of the actuator. A shape memory polymer comprising a polymer composition which physically forms a network structure wherein the polymer composition has shape-memory behavior and can be formed into a permanent primary shape, re-formed into a stable secondary shape, and controllably actuated to recover the permanent primary shape. Polymers have optimal aliphatic network structures due to minimization of dangling chains by using monomers that are symmetrical and that have matching amine and hydroxyl groups providing polymers and polymer foams with clarity, tight (narrow temperature range) single transitions, and high shape recovery and recovery force that are especially useful for implanting in the human body.

  8. Shape memory polymers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilson, Thomas S.; Bearinger, Jane P.


    New shape memory polymer compositions, methods for synthesizing new shape memory polymers, and apparatus comprising an actuator and a shape memory polymer wherein the shape memory polymer comprises at least a portion of the actuator. A shape memory polymer comprising a polymer composition which physically forms a network structure wherein the polymer composition has shape-memory behavior and can be formed into a permanent primary shape, re-formed into a stable secondary shape, and controllably actuated to recover the permanent primary shape. Polymers have optimal aliphatic network structures due to minimization of dangling chains by using monomers that are symmetrical and that have matching amine and hydroxl groups providing polymers and polymer foams with clarity, tight (narrow temperature range) single transitions, and high shape recovery and recovery force that are especially useful for implanting in the human body.

  9. The Benefits of SiC MOSFETs in a T-Type Inverter for Grid-Tie Applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Anthon, Alexander; Zhang, Zhe; Andersen, Michael A. E.


    at the expense of increased switching losses since these outer switches must now block the full DC link voltage. Silicon Carbide (SiC) MOSFET devices potentially offer substantial advantage in this context with their lower switching losses, but the benefit of replacing all switching devices in a T-Type inverter...... with SiC MOSFETs is not so clear-cut. This paper now explores this issue by presenting a detailed comparison of the use of Si and SiC devices for a three-level T-Type inverter operating in grid-tie applications. The study uses datasheet values, switching loss measurements and calibrated heat sink thermal...

  10. Hi-Nicalon(trademark)-S SiC Fiber Strength after Low pO2 Oxidation (Preprint) (United States)


    AFRL-RX-WP-JA-2017-0357 HI -NICALONTM-S SIC FIBER STRENGTH AFTER LOW pO2 OXIDATION (PREPRINT) Randall S. Hay AFRL/RX T.A...DD-MM-YY) 2. REPORT TYPE 3. DATES COVERED (From - To) 17 May 2017 Interim 22 July 2013 – 17 April 2017 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE HI -NICALONTM-S SIC...and has the right to use, modify, reproduce, release, perform, display, or disclose the work. 14. ABSTRACT (Maximum 200 words) Hi -NicalonTM-S SiC

  11. Synergistically toughening effect of SiC whiskers and nanoparticles in Al2O3-based composite ceramic cutting tool material (United States)

    Liu, Xuefei; Liu, Hanlian; Huang, Chuanzhen; Wang, Limei; Zou, Bin; Zhao, Bin


    In recent decades, many additives with different characteristics have been applied to strengthen and toughen Al2O3-based ceramic cutting tool materials. Among them, SiC whiskers and SiC nanoparticles showed excellent performance in improving the material properties. While no attempts have been made to add SiC whiskers and SiC nanoparticles together into the ceramic matrix and the synergistically toughening effects of them have not been studied. An Al2O3-SiCw-SiCnp advanced ceramic cutting tool material is fabricated by adding both one-dimensional SiC whiskers and zero-dimensional SiC nanoparticles into the Al2O3 matrix with an effective dispersing and mixing process. The composites with 25 vol% SiC whiskers and 25 vol% SiC nanoparticles alone are also investegated for comparison purposes. Results show that the Al2O3-SiCw-SiCnp composite with both 20 vol% SiC whiskers and 5 vol% SiC nanoparticles additives have much improved mechanical properties. The flexural strength of Al2O3-SiCw-SiCnp is 730±95 MPa and fracture toughness is 5.6±0.6 MPa·m1/2. The toughening and strengthening mechanisms of SiC whiskers and nanoparticles are studied when they are added either individually or in combination. It is indicated that when SiC whiskers and nanoparticles are added together, the grains are further refined and homogenized, so that the microstructure and fracture mode ratio is modified. The SiC nanoparticles are found helpful to enhance the toughening effects of the SiC whiskers. The proposed research helps to enrich the types of ceramic cutting tool and is benefit to expand the application range of ceramic cutting tool.

  12. NETS - Danish participation. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alsen, S. (Grontmij - Carl Bro, Glostrup (Denmark)); Theel, C. (Baltic Sea Solutions, Holeby (Denmark))


    Within the NICe-funded project 'Nordic Environmental Technology Solutions (NETS)' a new type of networking at the Nordic level was organized in order to jointly exploit the rapidly growing market potential in the environmental technology sector. The project aimed at increased and professionalized commercialization of Nordic Cleantech in energy and water business segments through 1) closer cooperation and joint marketing activities, 2) a website, 3) cleantech product information via brochures and publications 4) and participating in relevant trade fairs and other industry events. Facilitating business-to-business activities was another core task for the NETS project partners from Norway, Sweden, Finland and Denmark with the aim to encourage total solutions for combined Cleantech system offers. The project has achieved to establish a Cleantech register of 600 Nordic Cleantech companies, a network of 86 member enterprises, produced several publications and brochures for direct technology promotion and a website for direct access to company profiles and contact data. The project partners have attended 14 relevant international Cleantech trade fairs and conferences and facilitated business-to-business contacts added by capacity building offers through two company workshops. The future challenge for the project partners and Nordic Cleantech will be to coordinate the numerous efforts within the Nordic countries in order to reach concerted action and binding of member companies for reliable services, an improved visibility and knowledge exchange. With Cleantech's growing market influence and public awareness, the need to develop total solutions is increasing likewise. Marketing efforts should be encouraged cross-sectional and cross-border among the various levels of involved actors from both the public and the private sector. (au)

  13. Minimal Edge-Transitive Nets for the Design and Construction of Metal-Organic Frameworks

    KAUST Repository

    Eddaoudi, Mohamed


    Highly-connected and minimal edge-transitive nets (with one or two kinds of edge) can be regarded as ideal blueprints for the rational design and construction of metal-organic frameworks (MOFs). Here we report and affirm the prominence of highly-connected nets as suitable targets in reticular chemistry for the design and synthesis of MOFs. Of special interest are augmented highly-connected binodal edge-transitive nets embedding a unique and precise positioning and connectivity of the net vertex figures, regarded as net-coded building units (net-cBUs). Explicitly, a definite net-cBU encompasses precise geometrical information that codes uniquely and matchlessly a selected net, a compelling perquisite for the rational design of MOFs. Interestingly, the double six-membered ring (d6R) building unit offers great prospective to be deployed as a net-cBU for the deliberate reticulation of the sole two edge-transitive nets with a vertex figure as a d6R, namely the (4,12)-coordinated shp net (square and hexagonal prism) and the (6,12)-coordinated alb net (aluminium diboride, hexagonal prism and trigonal prism). Conceivably, we envisioned and proposed various MOF structures based on the derived shp and alb nets. Gaining access to the requisite net-cBUs is essential for the successful practice of reticular chemistry; correspondingly organic and organic chemistries were deployed to afford concomitant molecular building blocks (MBBs) with the looked-for shape and connectivity. Practically, the combination of the 12-connected (12-c) rare-earth (RE) polynuclear, points of extension matching the 12 vertices of the hexagonal prism (d6R) with a 4-connected tetracarboxylate ligand or a 6-connected hexacarboxylate ligand afforded the targeted shp-MOF or alb-MOF, respectively. Intuitively, a dodecacarboxylate ligand can be conceived and purported as a compatible 12-c MBB, plausibly affording the positioning of the carbon centers of the twelve carboxylate groups on the vertices of the

  14. Net ecosystem calcification and net primary production in two Hawaii back-reef systems (United States)

    Kiili, S.; Colbert, S.; Hart, K.


    Back-reef systems have complex carbon cycling, driven by dominant benthic communities that change with environmental conditions and display characteristic patterns of net primary production (NP) and net ecosystem calcification (G). The G/NP ratio provides a fundamental community-level assessment to compare systems spatially and to evaluate temporal changes in carbon cycling. Carbon dynamics were examined at leeward Hōnaunau and windward Waíōpae, Hawaíi Island. Both locations discharge brackish groundwater, including geothermal water at Waíōpae. The change in total CO2 (TCO2) and total alkalinity (TA) between morning and afternoon was measured to calculate the G/NP ratio along a salinity gradient. At both sites, aragonite saturation (ΩAr) was lower than open ocean conditions, and increased with salinity. Between the morning and afternoon, ΩAr increased by at least 1 as photosynthesis consumed CO2. At Waíōpae, water was corrosive to aragonite due to the input of acidic groundwater, but not at Honaunau, demonstrating the importance of local watershed characteristics on ΩAr. Across the salinity gradient, TA and TCO2 decreased between morning and afternoon. At Hōnaunau, G/NP increased from 0.11 to 0.31 with salinity, consistent with an offshore increase in coral cover. But at Waíōpae, G/NP decreased from 0.49 to 0.0 with salinity, despite an increase in coral cover with salinity. Low G may be caused by benthic processes, including coral bleaching or high rates of carbonate dissolution in interstitial waters between tide pools. Broader environmental conditions than just salinity, including pH of fresh groundwater inputs, shape the carbon cycling in the back-reef system. Examining the G/NP ratio of a back-reef system allows for a simple method to establish community level activity, and possibly indicate changes in a dynamic system.

  15. Children's Schemes for Anticipating the Validity of Nets for Solids (United States)

    Wright, Vince; Smith, Ken


    There is growing acknowledgement of the importance of spatial abilities to student achievement across a broad range of domains and disciplines. Nets are one way to connect three-dimensional shapes and their two-dimensional representations and are a common focus of geometry curricula. Thirty-four students at year 6 (upper primary school) were…

  16. Application and Theory of Petri Nets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    This volume contains the proceedings of the 13th International Conference onApplication and Theory of Petri Nets, held in Sheffield, England, in June 1992. The aim of the Petri net conferences is to create a forum for discussing progress in the application and theory of Petri nets. Typically....... Balbo and W. Reisig, 18 submitted papers, and seven project papers. The submitted papers and project presentations were selectedby the programme committee and a panel of referees from a large number of submissions....

  17. Are You Neutral About Net Neutrality (United States)


    Information Resources Management College National Defense University Are You Neutral About Net Neutrality ? A presentation for Systems & uses Verizon FiOS for phone, TV, and internet service 3 Agenda Net Neutrality —Through 2 Lenses Who Are the Players & What Are They Saying...Medical Treatment Mini-Case Studies Updates Closing Thoughts 4 Working Definitions of Net Neutrality "Network Neutrality" is the concept that

  18. Texture Based Image Analysis With Neural Nets (United States)

    Ilovici, Irina S.; Ong, Hoo-Tee; Ostrander, Kim E.


    In this paper, we combine direct image statistics and spatial frequency domain techniques with a neural net model to analyze texture based images. The resultant optimal texture features obtained from the direct and transformed image form the exemplar pattern of the neural net. The proposed approach introduces an automated texture analysis applied to metallography for determining the cooling rate and mechanical working of the materials. The results suggest that the proposed method enhances the practical applications of neural nets and texture extraction features.

  19. Factors associated with mosquito net use by individuals in households owning nets in Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Graves Patricia M


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Ownership of insecticidal mosquito nets has dramatically increased in Ethiopia since 2006, but the proportion of persons with access to such nets who use them has declined. It is important to understand individual level net use factors in the context of the home to modify programmes so as to maximize net use. Methods Generalized linear latent and mixed models (GLLAMM were used to investigate net use using individual level data from people living in net-owning households from two surveys in Ethiopia: baseline 2006 included 12,678 individuals from 2,468 households and a sub-sample of the Malaria Indicator Survey (MIS in 2007 included 14,663 individuals from 3,353 households. Individual factors (age, sex, pregnancy; net factors (condition, age, net density; household factors (number of rooms [2006] or sleeping spaces [2007], IRS, women's knowledge and school attendance [2007 only], wealth, altitude; and cluster level factors (rural or urban were investigated in univariate and multi-variable models for each survey. Results In 2006, increased net use was associated with: age 25-49 years (adjusted (a OR = 1.4, 95% confidence interval (CI 1.2-1.7 compared to children U5; female gender (aOR = 1.4; 95% CI 1.2-1.5; fewer nets with holes (Ptrend = 0.002; and increasing net density (Ptrend [all nets in HH good] = 1.6; 95% CI 1.2-2.1; increasing net density (Ptrend [per additional space] = 0.6, 95% CI 0.5-0.7; more old nets (aOR [all nets in HH older than 12 months] = 0.5; 95% CI 0.3-0.7; and increasing household altitude (Ptrend Conclusion In both surveys, net use was more likely by women, if nets had fewer holes and were at higher net per person density within households. School-age children and young adults were much less likely to use a net. Increasing availability of nets within households (i.e. increasing net density, and improving net condition while focusing on education and promotion of net use, especially in school-age children


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paul K.T. Liu


    A hydrogen selective membrane as a membrane reactor (MR) can significantly improve the power generation efficiency with a reduced capital and operating cost for the waster-gas-shift reaction. Existing hydrogen selective ceramic membranes are not suitable for the proposed MR due to their poor hydrothermal stability. In this project we have focused on the development of innovative silicon carbide (SiC) based hydrogen selective membranes, which can potentially overcome this technical barrier. SiC macro-porous membranes have been successfully fabricated via extrusion of commercially available SiC powder. Also, an SiC hydrogen selective thin film was prepared via our CVD/I technique. This composite membrane demonstrated excellent hydrogen selectivity at high temperature ({approx}600 C). More importantly, this membrane also exhibited a much improved hydrothermal stability at 600 C with 50% steam (atmospheric pressure) for nearly 100 hours. In parallel, we have explored an alternative approach to develop a H{sub 2} selective SiC membrane via pyrolysis of selected pre-ceramic polymers and sol-gel techniques. Building upon the positive progress made in the membrane development study, we conducted an optimization study to develop an H{sub 2} selective SiC membrane with sufficient hydrothermal stability suitable for the WGS environment. In addition, mathematical simulation has been performed to compare the performance of the membrane reactor (MR) vs conventional packed bed reactor for WGS reaction. Our result demonstrates that >99.999% conversion can be accomplished via WGS-MR using the hydrogen selective membrane developed by us. Further, water/CO ratio can be reduced, and >97% hydrogen recovery and <200 ppm CO can be accomplished according to the mathematical simulation. Thus, we believe that the operating economics of WGS can be improved significantly based upon the proposed MR concept. In parallel, gas separations and hydrothermal and long-term-storage stability of the

  1. Packaging Technology Developed for High-Temperature SiC Sensors and Electronics (United States)

    Chen, Liang-Yu; Hunter, Gary W.; Neudeck, Philip G.; Lei, Jih-Fen


    A ceramic- and thick-film-materials-based prototype electronic package designed for silicon carbide (SiC) high-temperature sensors and electronics has been successfully tested at 500 C in an oxygen-containing air environment for 500 hours. This package was designed, fabricated, assembled, and electronically evaluated at the NASA Glenn Research Center at Lewis Field with an in-house-fabricated SiC semiconductor test chip. High-temperature electronics and sensors are necessary for harsh-environment space and aeronautical applications, such as space missions to the inner solar system or the emission control electronics and sensors in aeronautical engines. Single-crystal SiC has such excellent physical and chemical material properties that SiC-based semiconductor electronics can operate at temperatures over 600 C, which is significantly higher than the limit for Si-based semiconductor devices. SiC semiconductor chips were recently demonstrated to be operable at temperatures as high as 600 C, but only in the probe station environment because suitable packaging technology for sensors and electronics at temperatures of 500 C and beyond did not exist. Thus, packaging technology for SiC-based sensors and electronics is immediately needed for both application and commercialization of high-temperature SiC sensors and electronics. In response to this need, researchers at Glenn designed, fabricated, and assembled a prototype electronic package for high-temperature electronics, sensors, and microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) using aluminum nitride (AlN) substrate and gold (Au) thick-film materials. This prototype package successfully survived a soak test at 500 C in air for 500 hours. Packaging components tested included thick-film high-temperature metallization, internal wire bonds, external lead bonds, and a SiC diode chip die-attachment. Each test loop, which was composed of thick-film printed wire, wire bond, and lead bond was subjected to a 50-mA direct current for 250

  2. Pro Agile NET Development with Scrum

    CERN Document Server

    Blankenship, Jerrel; Millett, Scott


    Pro Agile .NET Development with SCRUM guides you through a real-world ASP.NET project and shows how agile methodology is put into practice. There is plenty of literature on the theory behind agile methodologies, but no book on the market takes the concepts of agile practices and applies these in a practical manner to an end-to-end ASP.NET project, especially the estimating, requirements and management aspects of a project. Pro Agile .NET Development with SCRUM takes you through the initial stages of a project - gathering requirements and setting up an environment - through to the development a

  3. Pro ASP.NET MVC 4

    CERN Document Server

    Freeman, Adam


    The ASP.NET MVC 4 Framework is the latest evolution of Microsoft's ASP.NET web platform. It provides a high-productivity programming model that promotes cleaner code architecture, test-driven development, and powerful extensibility, combined with all the benefits of ASP.NET. ASP.NET MVC 4 contains a number of significant advances over previous versions. New mobile and desktop templates (employing adaptive rendering) are included together with support for jQuery Mobile for the first time. New display modes allow your application to select views based on the browser that's making the request whi

  4. Professional Visual Basic 2010 and .NET 4

    CERN Document Server

    Sheldon, Bill; Sharkey, Kent


    Intermediate and advanced coverage of Visual Basic 2010 and .NET 4 for professional developers. If you've already covered the basics and want to dive deep into VB and .NET topics that professional programmers use most, this is your book. You'll find a quick review of introductory topics-always helpful-before the author team of experts moves you quickly into such topics as data access with ADO.NET, Language Integrated Query (LINQ), security, ASP.NET web programming with Visual Basic, Windows workflow, threading, and more. You'll explore all the new features of Visual Basic 2010 as well as all t

  5. NASA Net Zero Energy Buildings Roadmap

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pless, S.; Scheib, J.; Torcellini, P.; Hendron, B.; Slovensky, M.


    In preparation for the time-phased net zero energy requirement for new federal buildings starting in 2020, set forth in Executive Order 13514, NASA requested that the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) to develop a roadmap for NASA's compliance. NASA detailed a Statement of Work that requested information on strategic, organizational, and tactical aspects of net zero energy buildings. In response, this document presents a high-level approach to net zero energy planning, design, construction, and operations, based on NREL's first-hand experience procuring net zero energy construction, and based on NREL and other industry research on net zero energy feasibility. The strategic approach to net zero energy starts with an interpretation of the executive order language relating to net zero energy. Specifically, this roadmap defines a net zero energy acquisition process as one that sets an aggressive energy use intensity goal for the building in project planning, meets the reduced demand goal through energy efficiency strategies and technologies, then adds renewable energy in a prioritized manner, using building-associated, emission- free sources first, to offset the annual energy use required at the building; the net zero energy process extends through the life of the building, requiring a balance of energy use and production in each calendar year.

  6. Towards a Standard for Modular Petri Nets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kindler, Ekkart; Petrucci, Laure


    When designing complex systems, mechanisms for structuring, composing, and reusing system components are crucial. Today, there are many approaches for equipping Petri nets with such mechanisms. In the context of defining a standard interchange format for Petri nets, modular PNML was defined....... Moreover, we present and discuss some more advanced features of modular Petri nets that could be included in the standard. This way, we provide a formal foundation and a basis for a discussion of features to be included in the upcoming standard of a module concept for Petri nets in general and for high...

  7. Discriminative Shape Alignment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Loog, M.; de Bruijne, M.


    The alignment of shape data to a common mean before its subsequent processing is an ubiquitous step within the area shape analysis. Current approaches to shape analysis or, as more specifically considered in this work, shape classification perform the alignment in a fully unsupervised way......, not taking into account that eventually the shapes are to be assigned to two or more different classes. This work introduces a discriminative variation to well-known Procrustes alignment and demonstrates its benefit over this classical method in shape classification tasks. The focus is on two...

  8. Gyral net: A new representation of cortical folding organization. (United States)

    Chen, Hanbo; Li, Yujie; Ge, Fangfei; Li, Gang; Shen, Dinggang; Liu, Tianming


    One distinct feature of the cerebral cortex is its convex (gyri) and concave (sulci) folding patterns. Due to the remarkable complexity and variability of gyral/sulcal shapes, it has been challenging to quantitatively model their organization patterns. Inspired by the observation that the lines of gyral crests can form a connected graph on each brain hemisphere, we propose a new representation of cortical gyri/sulci organization pattern - gyral net, which models cortical architecture from a graph perspective, starting with nodes and edges obtained from the reconstructed cortical surfaces. A novel computational framework is developed to efficiently and automatically construct gyral nets from surface meshes, and four measurements are devised to quantify the folding patterns. Using an MRI dataset for autism study as a test bed, we identified reduced local connectivity cost and increased curviness of gyral net bilaterally on the parietal lobe, occipital lobe, and temporal lobe in autistic patients. Additionally, we found that the cortical thickness and the gyral straightness of gyral joints are higher than the rest of gyral crest regions. The proposed representation offers a new tool for a comprehensive and reliable characterization of the cortical folding organization. This novel computational framework will enable large-scale analyses of cortical folding patterns in the future. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Electromagnetic interference shielding performance of nano-layered Ti3SiC2 ceramics at high-temperatures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sigong Li


    Full Text Available The X-band electromagnetic interference (EMI shielding properties of nano-layered Ti3SiC2 ceramics were evaluated from room temperature up to 800°C in order to explore the feasibility of Ti3SiC2 as efficient high temperature EMI shielding material. It was found that Ti3SiC2 exhibits satisfactory EMI shielding effectiveness (SE close to 30 dB at room temperature and the EMI SE shows good temperature stability. The remarkable EMI shielding properties of Ti3SiC2 can be mainly attributed to high electrical conductivity, high dielectric loss and more importantly the multiple reflections due to the layered structure.

  10. NOAA JPSS Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) Sea Ice Characterization (SIC) Environmental Data Record (EDR) from IDPS (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset contains an Environmental Data Record (EDR) of Sea Ice Characterization (SIC) from the Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) instrument...

  11. A study of metal-ceramic wettability in SiC-Al using dynamic melt infiltration of SiC (United States)

    Asthana, R.; Rohatgi, P. K.


    Pressure-assisted infiltration with a 2014 Al alloy of plain and Cu-coated single crystal platelets of alpha silicon carbide was used to study particulate wettability under dynamic conditions relevant to pressure casting of metal-matrix composites. The total penetration length of infiltrant metal in porous compacts was measured at the conclusion of solidification as a function of pressure, infiltration time, and SiC size for both plain and Cu-coated SiC. The experimental data were analyzed to obtain a threshold pressure for the effect of melt intrusion through SiC compacts. The threshold pressure was taken either directly as a measure of wettability or converted to an effective wetting angle using the Young-Laplace capillary equation. Cu coating resulted in partial but beneficial improvements in wettability as a result of its dissolution in the melt, compared to uncoated SiC.

  12. High Temperature All Silicon-Carbide (SiC) DC Motor Drives for Venus Exploration Vehicles Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This Small Business Innovation Research Phase I project seeks to prove the feasibility of creating high-temperature silicon-carbide (SiC) based motor drives for...

  13. Quantitative Analysis of Efficiency Improvement of a Propulsion Drive by Using SiC Devices: A Case of Study

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kumar, Kundan; Bertoluzzo, Manuele; Buja, Giuseppe; Ortenzi, Fernando


    ...) IGBT devices with silicon carbide (SiC) MOSFETs. To this end, the paper starts by deriving the voltage-current solicitations of the inverter over the working torque-speed plane of the propulsion motor...

  14. Direct Detection of Unnatural DNA Nucleotides dNaM and d5SICS using the MspA Nanopore.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan M Craig

    Full Text Available Malyshev et al. showed that the four-letter genetic code within a living organism could be expanded to include the unnatural DNA bases dNaM and d5SICS. However, verification and detection of these unnatural bases in DNA requires new sequencing techniques. Here we provide proof of concept detection of dNaM and d5SICS in DNA oligomers via nanopore sequencing using the nanopore MspA. We find that both phi29 DNA polymerase and Hel308 helicase are capable of controlling the motion of DNA containing dNaM and d5SICS through the pore and that single reads are sufficient to detect the presence and location of dNaM and d5SICS within single molecules.

  15. High Quality, Low-Scatter SiC Optics Suitable for Space-based UV & EUV Applications Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — SSG Precision Optronics proposes the development and demonstration of a new optical fabrication process for the production of EUV quality Silicon Carbide (SiC)...

  16. High Quality, Low-Scatter SiC Optics Suitable for Space-based UV & EUV Applicati Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — SSG Precision Optronics proposes the development of a novel optical manufacturing process that will allow the production of state-of-the-art Silicon Carbide (SiC)...

  17. Effect of SiC Nano powder on Multiaxial Woven and Chopped Randomly Oriented Flax/Sisal Fiber Reinforced composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kalagi Ganesh R.


    Full Text Available A study has been carried out to investigate effect of SiC Nano powder on tensile and impact properties of Multiaxial layers of Flax and Sisal fiber reinforced composites and randomly oriented chopped Flax and Sisal fiber reinforced composites. It has been observed that tensile strength and impact strength were improved using 6% of SiC Nanopowder into Multiaxial layer (+45º/-45º, 0º/90º of Flax and Sisal where as randomly oriented chopped Flax and Sisal fiber reinforced composites are improved in its stiffnes for the same composition of fiber, epoxy and SiC Nano powder. SEM Analysis are done to analyse the distribution of SiC in both Multiaxial layers of Flax and Sisal fiber reinforced composites and randomly oriented chopped Flax and Sisal fiber reinforced composites.

  18. Experiments and simulation of a net closing mechanism for tether-net capture of space debris (United States)

    Sharf, Inna; Thomsen, Benjamin; Botta, Eleonora M.; Misra, Arun K.


    This research addresses the design and testing of a debris containment system for use in a tether-net approach to space debris removal. The tether-net active debris removal involves the ejection of a net from a spacecraft by applying impulses to masses on the net, subsequent expansion of the net, the envelopment and capture of the debris target, and the de-orbiting of the debris via a tether to the chaser spacecraft. To ensure a debris removal mission's success, it is important that the debris be successfully captured and then, secured within the net. To this end, we present a concept for a net closing mechanism, which we believe will permit consistently successful debris capture via a simple and unobtrusive design. This net closing system functions by extending the main tether connecting the chaser spacecraft and the net vertex to the perimeter and around the perimeter of the net, allowing the tether to actuate closure of the net in a manner similar to a cinch cord. A particular embodiment of the design in a laboratory test-bed is described: the test-bed itself is comprised of a scaled-down tether-net, a supporting frame and a mock-up debris. Experiments conducted with the facility demonstrate the practicality of the net closing system. A model of the net closure concept has been integrated into the previously developed dynamics simulator of the chaser/tether-net/debris system. Simulations under tether tensioning conditions demonstrate the effectiveness of the closure concept for debris containment, in the gravity-free environment of space, for a realistic debris target. The on-ground experimental test-bed is also used to showcase its utility for validating the dynamics simulation of the net deployment, and a full-scale automated setup would make possible a range of validation studies of other aspects of a tether-net debris capture mission.

  19. FE simulation of the indentation deformation of SiC modified vinylester composites in respect to their abrasive wear performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)


    Full Text Available The abrasive sliding friction and wear behaviours of silicon carbide (SiC filled vinylester (VE composites were investigated. The average grain size of the incorporated SiC particles was varied, holding the volume content of them in every case at 16 vol%. Mechanical properties (hardness, compression modulus, yield stress of the filled and neat VE were determined. The tribological properties were investigated in block (composite – on – ring (steel test configuration. The steel counter bodies were covered with abrasive papers of different graining. Coefficient of friction (COF and specific wear rate of the VE + SiC composites were determined. It was observed that the wear resistance increases with increasing average filler grain size and with decreasing abrasiveness of the counter surface. The COF of the VE + SiC composites is independent of the size of the incorporated particles, but it is strongly influenced by the abrasiveness of the counter body. The worn surfaces of the VE + SiC systems were analysed in scanning electron microscope (SEM to deduce the typical wear mechanisms. The size effect of the SiC filler particles onto the abrasive wear characteristics was investigated by assuming that the roughness peaks of the abrasive paper and the indenter of the microhardness test cause similar micro scaled contact deformations in the composites. Therefore FE method was used to simulate the micro scaled deformation process in the VE + SiC systems during microindentation tests. The FE results provided valuable information on how to explain the size effect of the incorporated SiC filler.

  20. HANPP Collection: Human Appropriation of Net Primary Productivity as a Percentage of Net Primary Productivity (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Human Appropriation of Net Primary Productivity (HANPP) as a Percentage of Net Primary Product (NPP) portion of the HANPP Collection represents a map identifying...

  1. Self-erecting shapes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reading, Matthew W.


    Technologies for making self-erecting structures are described herein. An exemplary self-erecting structure comprises a plurality of shape-memory members that connect two or more hub components. When forces are applied to the self-erecting structure, the shape-memory members can deform, and when the forces are removed the shape-memory members can return to their original pre-deformation shape, allowing the self-erecting structure to return to its own original shape under its own power. A shape of the self-erecting structure depends on a spatial orientation of the hub components, and a relative orientation of the shape-memory members, which in turn depends on an orientation of joining of the shape-memory members with the hub components.

  2. Shaped Recess Flow Control (United States)

    Shyam, Vikram (Inventor); Poinsatte, Philip (Inventor); Thurman, Douglas (Inventor)


    One or more embodiments of techniques or systems for shaped recess flow control are provided herein. A shaped recess or cavity can be formed on a surface associated with fluid flow. The shaped recess can be configured to create or induce fluid effects, temperature effects, or shedding effects that interact with a free stream or other structures. The shaped recess can be formed at an angle to a free stream flow and may be substantially "V" shaped. The shaped recess can be coupled with a cooling channel, for example. The shaped recess can be upstream or downstream from a cooling channel and aligned in a variety of manners. Due to the fluid effects, shedding effects, and temperature effects created by a shaped recess, lift-off or separation of cooling jets of cooling channels can be mitigated, thereby enhancing film cooling effectiveness.

  3. Price smarter on the Net. (United States)

    Baker, W; Marn, M; Zawada, C


    Companies generally have set prices on the Internet in two ways. Many start-ups have offered untenably low prices in a rush to capture first-mover advantage. Many incumbents have simply charged the same prices on-line as they do off-line. Either way, companies are missing a big opportunity. The fundamental value of the Internet lies not in lowering prices or making them consistent but in optimizing them. After all, if it's easy for customers to compare prices on the Internet, it's also easy for companies to track customers' behavior and adjust prices accordingly. The Net lets companies optimize prices in three ways. First, it lets them set and announce prices with greater precision. Different prices can be tested easily, and customers' responses can be collected instantly. Companies can set the most profitable prices, and they can tap into previously hidden customer demand. Second, because it's so easy to change prices on the Internet, companies can adjust prices in response to even small fluctuations in market conditions, customer demand, or competitors' behavior. Third, companies can use the clickstream data and purchase histories that it collects through the Internet to segment customers quickly. Then it can offer segment-specific prices or promotions immediately. By taking full advantage of the unique possibilities afforded by the Internet to set prices with precision, adapt to changing circumstances quickly, and segment customers accurately, companies can get their pricing right. It's one of the ultimate drivers of e-business success.

  4. In-pile Hydrothermal Corrosion Evaluation of Coated SiC Ceramics and Composites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carpenter, David [Massachusetts Inst. of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, MA (United States); Ang, Caen [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States); Katoh, Yutai [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Linton, Kory D. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Terrani, Kurt A. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)


    Hydrothermal corrosion accelerated by water radiolysis during normal operation is among the most critical technical feasibility issues remaining for silicon carbide (SiC) composite-based cladding that could provide enhanced accident-tolerance fuel technology for light water reactors. An integrated in-pile test was developed and performed to determine the synergistic effects of neutron irradiation, radiolysis, and pressurized water flow, all of which are relevant to a typical pressurized water reactor (PWR). The test specimens were chosen to cover a range of SiC materials and a variety of potential options for environmental barrier coatings. This document provides a summary of the irradiation vehicle design, operations of the experiment, and the specimen loading into the irradiation vehicle.

  5. Nonreciprocal optical properties of thermal radiation with SiC grating magneto-optical materials. (United States)

    Wang, Han; Wu, Hao; Shen, Zhiyuan


    We demonstrate the nonreciprocal optical phenomenon of SiC gratings on substrate in infrared band, in which the Lorentz-Drude equations of dielectric constant tensor are proposed to describe the nonreciprocal optical properties as magnetic field applied on the magneto-optical materials, under variable intensity and wavelength. Moreover, the properly designed geometrical factors are proposed, and the good nonreciprocal absorption properties of SiC in thermal radiation wavelength band are presented. The dependence of the absorptivity as a function of different structure parameters, such as thickness of different layers, filling ratios, is studied in details. Furthermore, the electric field intensity is also presented for understanding light coupling, propagation. Numerical evidence shows that the nonreciprocal absorption performance is sensitive to the incidence angle, as well as the magnetic field strength. The relative study is useful to the thermal radiative design in photovoltaic and optical instrument.

  6. Silicon Carbide (SiC) Power Processing Unit (PPU) for Hall Effect Thrusters (United States)

    Reese, Bradley


    Arkansas Power Electronics International (APEI), Inc., is developing a high-efficiency, radiation-hardened 3.8-kW SiC power supply for the PPU of Hall effect thrusters. This project specifically targets the design of a PPU for the high-voltage Hall accelerator (HiVHAC) thruster, with target specifications of 80- to 160-V input, 200- to 700-V/5A output, efficiency greater than 96 percent, and peak power density in excess of 2.5 kW/kg. The PPU under development uses SiC junction field-effect transistor power switches, components that APEI, Inc., has irradiated under total ionizing dose conditions to greater than 3 MRad with little to no change in device performance.

  7. Production of Rare Earth Isotope Beams for Radiotracer-DLTS on SiC

    CERN Multimedia


    Electrical properties of semiconductors are extremely sensitive to minor traces of impurities and defects. This fact allows to intentionally modify material properties and is thus the very basis of semiconductor electronics and optoelectronics. In the present project, electronic properties and doping effects of rare-earth elements in the technologically important semiconductor SiC are to be investigated using optical and electrical characterization techniques like Photoluminescence, Deep Level Transient Spectroscopy and Thermal Admittance Spectroscopy. By using the elemental transmutation of radioactive isotopes as a tracer, it will be guaranteed that the impurity-related band gap states can definitively be distinguished from intrinsic or process-induced defects. For SiC up to now only detailed investigation of Er- related deep levels have been reported, preliminary data exist for Sm- and Gd- impurities. In this project we propose the implantation of Pr and Eu isotopes for detailed level studies.

  8. Development of nanoporous TiO2 and SiC membranes for membrane filtration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    König, Katja; Vigna, Erika; Farsi, Ali

    Reverse osmosis membranes are increasingly used for the production of drinking water (desalination of sea water or brackish water), for demineralisation of water in industrial processes (boiled feed water, microelectronics production) as well as in food processing and pharmaceutical production....... Today´s reverse osmosis membranes are made of polymers; however, these membranes have several technical limitations, for example, low water fluxes and high sensitivity to oxidizing chemicals. Since membrane fouling is still a major problem in reverse osmosis desalination plants, replacement of polymer...... reverse osmosis membranes by ceramic counterparts would provide higher fluxes and allow more efficient cleaning of the membranes. The aim of this work was to prepare defect-free nanoporous ceramic (TiO2 and SiC) layers on macroporous SiC supports by using electrophoretic deposition and dip...

  9. Synthesis of biomorphic SiC and SiO2 ceramics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available Coniferous wood (fir was transformed by pyrolysis into carbon preforms, which were subsequently converted into biomorphic ceramics by the pressure infiltration technique with colloidal silica. An in situ reaction between the silica and the carbon template occurred in the cellular wall at a high sintering temperature. Depending on the employed atmosphere, non-oxide (SiC or oxide (SiO2 ceramics were obtained. The morphology of the resulting porous ceramics and their phase composition were investigated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM/EDX and X-ray diffraction (XRD. The experimental results showed that the biomorphic cellular morphology of the wood maintained in both the SiC and silica ceramics, which consisted of only the b-SiC phase and SiO2, respectively.

  10. Ubiquitous interstellar diamond and SiC in primitive chondrites - Abundances reflect metamorphism (United States)

    Huss, Gary R.


    It is shown here that interstellar diamond and SiC were incorporated into all groups of chondrite meteorites. Abundances rapidly go to zero with increasing metamorphic grade, suggesting that metamorphic destruction is responsible for the apparent absence of these grains in most chondrites. In unmetamorphosed chondrites, abundances normalized to matrix content are similar for different classes. Diamond samples from chondrites of different classes have remarkably similar noble-gas constants and isotropic compositions, although constituent diamonds may have come from many sources. SiC seems to be more diverse, partly because grains are large enough to measure individually, but average characteristics seem to be similar from meteorite to meteorite. These observations suggest that various classes of chondritic meteorites sample the same solar system-wide reservoir of interstellar grains.

  11. Joining of SiC ceramics and SiC/SiC composites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rabin, B.H. [Idaho National Engineering Lab., Idaho Falls, ID (United States)


    This project has successfully developed a practical and reliable method for fabricating SiC ceramic-ceramic joints. This joining method has the potential to facilitate the use of SiC-based ceramics in a variety of elevated temperature fossil energy applications. The technique is based on a reaction bonding approach that provides joint interlayers compatible with SiC, and excellent joint mechanical properties at temperatures exceeding 1000{degrees}C. Recent efforts have focused on transferring the joining technology to industry. Several industrial partners have been identified and collaborative research projects are in progress. Investigations are focusing on applying the joining method to sintered a-SiC and fiber-reinforced SiC/SiC composites for use in applications such as heat exchangers, radiant burners and gas turbine components.

  12. Joining of SiC ceramics and SiC/SiC composites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rabin, B.H. [Idaho National Engineering Lab., Idaho Falls, ID (United States)


    This project has successfully developed a practical and reliable method for fabricating SiC ceramic-ceramic joints. This joining method will permit the use of SiC-based ceramics in a variety of elevated temperature fossil energy applications. The technique is based on a reaction bonding approach that provides joint interlayers compatible with SiC, and excellent joint mechanical properties at temperatures exceeding 1000{degrees}C. Recent emphasis has been given to technology transfer activities, and several collaborative research efforts are in progress. Investigations are focusing on applying the joining method to sintered {alpha}-SiC and fiber-reinforced SiC/SiC composites for use in applications such as heat exchangers, radiant burners and gas turbine components.

  13. Design, preparation and microwave absorbing properties of resin matrix composites reinforced by SiC fibers with different electrical properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Haitao, E-mail: [Science and Technology on Advanced Ceramic Fibers and Composites Laboratory, College of Aerospace Science and Engineering, National University of Defense Technology, Changsha 410073 (China); Science and Technology on Scramjet Laboratory, College of Aerospace Science and Engineering, National University of Defense Technology, Changsha 410073 (China); Cheng, Haifeng; Tian, Hao [Science and Technology on Advanced Ceramic Fibers and Composites Laboratory, College of Aerospace Science and Engineering, National University of Defense Technology, Changsha 410073 (China)


    Highlights: • SSMASs have better microwave absorbing properties in smaller thickness. • SSMASs can be realized by SiC fibers with different electrical resistivity. • Resistivity of SiC fibers can be regulated by adjusting surface characteristics. • The bandwidth of SSMASs at reflectivity below −10 dB can reach 11.6 GHz. -- Abstract: One kind of sandwich structure microwave absorbing structures (SSMASs) derived from Salisbury absorbers is reported. The impedance characteristics of SSMASs are analyzed, and the mechanisms of broadening microwave absorbing bandwidth are interpreted by Smith chart. In order to realize SSMASs, high electrical resistivity SiC fibers with Si–C–O surface layers and low electrical resistivity SiC fibers with pyrocarbon surface layers are employed and analyzed by SEM, XPS, AES and HRTEM. The conductive model of SiC fibers with pyrocarbon layers is built and electrical resistivity simulation is done. The SSMASs are fabricated by employing plain woven SiC fiber fabrics with high and low electrical resistivity as reinforcements of dielectric layers and lossy layer, respectively. The microwave absorbing properties of SSMASs are measured and compared with simulated results. The results show that the experimental and simulated results are in good agreement, the SSMASs have better wideband microwave absorbing properties, and the microwave absorbing bandwidth at reflectivity below −10 dB can reach 11.6 GHz.

  14. Light and Strong Hierarchical Porous SiC Foam for Efficient Electromagnetic Interference Shielding and Thermal Insulation at Elevated Temperatures. (United States)

    Liang, Caiyun; Wang, Zhenfeng; Wu, Lina; Zhang, Xiaochen; Wang, Huan; Wang, Zhijiang


    A novel light but strong SiC foam with hierarchical porous architecture was fabricated by using dough as raw material via carbonization followed by carbothermal reduction with silicon source. A significant synergistic effect is achieved by embedding meso- and nanopores in a microsized porous skeleton, which endows the SiC foam with high-performance electromagnetic interference (EMI) shielding, thermal insulation, and mechanical properties. The microsized skeleton withstands high stress. The meso- and nanosized pores enhance multiple reflection of the incident electromagnetic waves and elongate the path of heat transfer. For the hierarchical porous SiC foam with 72.8% porosity, EMI shielding can be higher than 20 dB, and specific EMI effectiveness exceeds 24.8 dB·cm3·g-1 at a frequency of 11 GHz at 25-600 °C, which is 3 times higher than that of dense SiC ceramic. The thermal conductivity reaches as low as 0.02 W·m-1·K-1, which is comparable to that of aerogel. The compressive strength is as high as 9.8 MPa. Given the chemical and high-temperature stability of SiC, the fabricated SiC foam is a promising candidate for modern aircraft and automobile applications.

  15. First-Principles Study of Vacancies in Ti3SiC2 and Ti3AlC2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui Wang


    Full Text Available MAX phase materials have attracted increased attention due to their unique combination of ceramic and metallic properties. In this study, the properties of vacancies in Ti3AlC2 and Ti3SiC2, which are two of the most widely studied MAX phases, were investigated using first-principles calculations. Our calculations indicate that the stabilities of vacancies in Ti3SiC2 and Ti3AlC2 differ greatly from those previously reported for Cr2AlC. The order of the formation energies of vacancies is VTi(a > VTi(b > VC > VA for both Ti3SiC2 and Ti3AlC2. Although the diffusion barriers for Ti3SiC2 and Ti3AlC2 are similar (~0.95 eV, the properties of their vacancies are significantly different. Our results show that the vacancy–vacancy interaction is attractive in Ti3AlC2 but repulsive in Ti3SiC2. The introduction of VTi and VC vacancies results in the lattice constant c along the [0001] direction increasing for both Ti3SiC2 and Ti3AlC2. In contrast, the lattice constant c decreases significantly when VA are introduced. The different effect of VA on the lattice constants is explained by enhanced interactions of nearby Ti layers.

  16. Ab initio potential energy surface and vibration-rotation energy levels of silicon dicarbide, SiC2. (United States)

    Koput, Jacek


    The accurate ground-state potential energy surface of silicon dicarbide, SiC2 , has been determined from ab initio calculations using the coupled-cluster approach. Results obtained with the conventional and explicitly correlated coupled-cluster methods were compared. The core-electron correlation, higher-order valence-electron correlation, and scalar relativistic effects were taken into account. The potential energy barrier to the linear SiCC configuration was predicted to be 1782 cm(-1) . The vibration-rotation energy levels of the SiC2 , (29) SiC2 , (30) SiC2 , and SiC(13) C isotopologues were calculated using a variational method. The experimental vibration-rotation energy levels of the main isotopologue were reproduced to high accuracy. In particular, the experimental energy levels of the highly anharmonic vibrational ν3 mode of SiC2 were reproduced to within 6.7 cm(-1) , up to as high as the v3  = 16 state. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Effect of organic additives on mechanical properties of SiC ceramics prepared by a modified gelcasting method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feng Wang


    Full Text Available A novel and simple gel system of isobutylene and maleic anhydride (PIBM was used to prepare SiC ceramics. The rheological behaviour of the SiC slurries was investigated as function of organic additives. The SiC slurries with 0.2 wt.% PIBM and 0.2 wt.% tetramethylammonium hydroxide (TMAH showed low viscosity, which was favourable for casting SiC green bodies. In order to obtain homogeneous green bodies, polyvinyl alcohol (PVA was used to assist the dispersion of carbon black in the slurries, and polyethylene glycol (PEG was added to inhibit the surface exfoliation of green bodies. The content of PVA was controlled carefully to avoid the warpage of green bodies during the drying process. Finally, homogeneous defect-free SiC green bodies were successfully fabricated via aqueous gelcasting. The SiC ceramics sintered at 2100 °C (prepared from slurries with solid content of 60 wt.% showed an average flexural strength of 305.7 MPa with porosity of 19.92%.

  18. Halogenation of SiC for band-gap engineering and excitonic functionalization


    Drissi, L.B.; Ramadan, F. Z.; Lounis, S.


    The optical excitation spectra and excitonic resonances are investigated in systematically functionalized SiC with Fluorine and/or Chlorine utilizing density functional theory in combination with many-body perturbation theory. The latter is required for a realistic description of the energy band-gaps as well as for the theoretical realization of excitons. Structural, electronic and optical properties are scrutinized and show the high stability of the predicted two-dimensional materials. Their...

  19. Interfacial characterisation in transparent spinel matrix reinforced by SiC fibre

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Chlup, Zdeněk; Dlouhý, Ivo; Gürbüz, S.; Dericioglu, A. F.; Kozák, Vladislav


    Roč. 409, - (2009), s. 252-259 ISSN 1013-9826. [Fractography of Advanced Ceramics III. Stará Lesná, 07.09.20058-10.09.2008] R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA106/06/0724; GA AV ČR IAA200410502 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20410507 Keywords : interface * composite * transparent spinel * SiC fibre * fracture characteristics Subject RIV: JI - Composite Materials

  20. A Highly intense DC muon source, MuSIC and muon CLFV search

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hino, Y.; Kuno, Y.; Sato, A. [Department of Physics, Osaka University, 1-1 Machikaneyama, Toyonaka, Osaka 560-0043 (Japan); Sakamoto, H. [Department of Physics, Osaka University, 1-1 Machikaneyama, Toyonaka, Osaka 560-0043 (Japan); Research Center of Nuclear Physics, 10-1 Mihogaoka, Ibaraki, Osaka 567-0047 (Japan); Matsumoto, Y.; Tran, N.H.; Hashim, I.H. [Department of Physics, Osaka University, 1-1 Machikaneyama, Toyonaka, Osaka 560-0043 (Japan); Fukuda, M.; Hayashida, Y. [Research Center of Nuclear Physics, 10-1 Mihogaoka, Ibaraki, Osaka 567-0047 (Japan); Ogitsu, T.; Yamamoto, A.; Yoshida, M. [High Energy Accelerator Research Organization, 1-1 Oho, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0801 (Japan)


    MuSIC is a new muon facility, which provides the world's highest intense muon beam with continuous time structure at Research Center of Nuclear Physics (RCNP), Osaka University. It's intensity is designed to be 10{sup 8} muons per second with only 0.4 kW proton beam. Such a high intense muon beam is very important for searches of rare decay processes, for example search for the muon to electron conversion.

  1. Relaxations of fluorouracil tautomers by decorations of fullerene-like SiCs: DFT studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kouchaki, Alireza [Department of Pharmaceutical Chemistry, Faculty of Pharmaceutical Chemistry, Pharmaceutical Sciences Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Gülseren, Oğuz [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Bilkent University, Ankara (Turkey); Hadipour, Nasser [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Tarbiat Modares University, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Mirzaei, Mahmoud, E-mail: [Bioinformatics Research Center, School of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan (Iran, Islamic Republic of)


    Decorations of silicon carbide (SiC) fullerene-like nanoparticles by fluorouracil (FU) and its tautomers are investigated through density functional theory (DFT) calculations. Two models of fullerene-like particles including Si{sub 12}C{sub 8} and Si{sub 8}C{sub 12} are constructed to be counterparts of decorated hybrid structures, FU@Si{sub 12}C{sub 8} and FU@Si{sub 8}C{sub 12}, respectively. The initial models including original FU and tautomeric structures and SiC nanoparticles are individually optimized and then combined for further optimizations in the hybrid forms. Covalent bonds are observed for FU@Si{sub 12}C{sub 8} hybrids, whereas non-covalent interactions are seen for FU@Si{sub 8}C{sub 12} ones. The obtained properties indicated that Si{sub 12}C{sub 8} model could be considered as a better counterpart for interactions with FU structures than Si{sub 8}C{sub 12} model. The results also showed significant effects of interactions on the properties of atoms close to the interacting regions in nanoparticles. Finally, the tautomeric structures show different behaviors in interactions with SiC nanoparticles, in which the SiC nanoparticles could be employed to detect the situations of tautomeric processes for FU structures. - Highlights: • Possibilities of interaction between fluorouracil and silicon carbides have been recognized. • Possibilities for covalent and non-covalent interactions have been indicated. • Detections of tautomeric structures have been investigated.

  2. Creep of SiC Hot-Pressed with Al, B, and C

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sixta, Mark Eldon [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)


    The creep of a high strength, high toughness SiC, sintered with Al, B, and C was investigated. For elevated temperature applications, the time-dependent deformation, creep response, must be fully characterized for candidate materials. The mechanisms responsible for high temperature deformation in ABC-SiC were evaluated. The creep response was compared to materials that have glassy grain boundary phases but do not have interlocked grains. The creep mechanisms were assessed.

  3. High Power Silicon Carbide (SiC) Power Processing Unit Development (United States)

    Scheidegger, Robert J.; Santiago, Walter; Bozak, Karin E.; Pinero, Luis R.; Birchenough, Arthur G.


    NASA GRC successfully designed, built and tested a technology-push power processing unit for electric propulsion applications that utilizes high voltage silicon carbide (SiC) technology. The development specifically addresses the need for high power electronics to enable electric propulsion systems in the 100s of kilowatts. This unit demonstrated how high voltage combined with superior semiconductor components resulted in exceptional converter performance.

  4. SiC Design Guide: Manufacture of Silicon Carbide Products (Briefing charts) (United States)


    adhesive fails  Can provides a pad for precision machining (coplanarity) without SiC grinding Page 22 Adhesives  Cryogenic conditions would present...Master Bond® EP21TCH and EP29LSP have service temperatures as low as 4 Kelvin and are resistant to cryogenic shock  EP21TCHT works well with porous...Accurate positioning of critical features such as attachment faces and tabs may be accomplished by grinding . • Tolerances resulting from precision

  5. Notes on the plasma resonance peak employed to determine doping in SiC (United States)

    Engelbrecht, J. A. A.; van Rooyen, I. J.; Henry, A.; Janzén, E.; Sephton, B.


    The doping level of a semiconductor material can be determined using the plasma resonance frequency to obtain the carrier concentration associated with doping. This paper provides an overview of the procedure for the three most common polytypes of SiC. Results for 3C-SiC are presented and discussed. In phosphorus doped samples analysed, it is submitted that the 2nd plasma resonance cannot be detected due to high values of the free carrier damping constant γ.

  6. Diffusion of carbon oxides in SiO2 during SiC oxidation (United States)

    Akiyama, Toru; Nakamura, Kohji; Ito, Tomonori; Kageshima, Hiroyuki; Uematsu, Masashi


    SiC is a wide-band-gap semiconductor and has an advantage to fabricate electronic devices such as MOSFETs due to the ability to thermally oxidize to SiO2. Despite many studies conducted on the oxidation of SiC, the kinetics such as diffusion and interface reaction is not fully understood. Here, we focus on the diffusion process during SiC oxidation, and clarify the diffusion mechanism of carbon oxides (CO and CO2) in SiO2 by means of density functional calculations. Our calculations demonstrate that the CO without any chemical bonds with host SiO2 is stabilized while the CO2 is incorporated between Si-O bonds of SiO2 to form a carbonate group. The energy of CO2 is found to be lower than that of CO by 3.7 eV, indicating that the most stable form of carbon oxides in SiO2 is CO2. Furthermore, the calculated energy barriers for diffusion of CO and CO2 are found to be 0.1 and 1.8 eV, respectively. These results thus imply that CO molecules easily react with oxidant such as O2 to form CO2 and the outward diffusion of resultant CO2 is rate-limiting. Indeed, the estimated activation energy for CO2 diffusion (3.5 eV) reasonably agrees with that for Si-face SiC (3.1 eV) obtained by Deal-Grove model considering product gas out-diffusion. This work was supported in part by Grant-in-Aid for Scientific Research (No. 24560025) from the Japan Society for the Promotion of Science.

  7. An Investigation of DC-DC Converter Power Density Using Si and SiC MOSFETS (United States)


    were fabricated by Cree Inc., for use in vehicular converter applications. The MOSFETs are rated for 1200V and 50A. Device characteristics were...Washington, DC, 2008. [5] Callanan, R. J., and Et Al. "Recent Progress in SiC DMOSFETs and JBS Diodes at Cree ", 34th Annual Conference of IEEE...1 -- 16 X 2 LCD Module LCD_ON, -- Power ON/OFF LCD_BLON, -- Back Light ON/OFF

  8. Switching Investigations on a SiC MOSFET in a TO-247 Package


    Anthon, Alexander; Hernandez Botella, Juan Carlos; Zhang, Zhe; Andersen, Michael A. E.


    This paper deals with the switching behavior of a SiC MOSFET in a TO-247 package. Based on simulations, critical parasitic inductances in the circuit layout are analyzed and their effect on the switching losses highlighted. Especially the common source inductance, a critical parameter in a TO-247 package, has a major influence on the switching energy. Crucial design guidelines for an improved double pulse test circuit are introduced which are used for practical investigations on the switching...

  9. The Hue of Shapes (United States)

    Albertazzi, Liliana; Da Pos, Osvaldo; Canal, Luisa; Micciolo, Rocco; Malfatti, Michela; Vescovi, Massimo


    This article presents an experimental study on the naturally biased association between shape and color. For each basic geometric shape studied, participants were asked to indicate the color perceived as most closely related to it, choosing from the Natural Color System Hue Circle. Results show that the choices of color for each shape were not…

  10. Building with shapes

    CERN Document Server

    Mooney, Carla


    There are shapes everywhere you look. You can put shapes together or build with them. What can you build with three circles? In this title, students will explore and understand that certain attributes define what a shape is called. This title will allow students to identify the main purpose of a text, including what the author wants to answer, explain, or describe.

  11. 78 FR 72393 - Net Investment Income Tax (United States)


    ... Investment Income Tax; Final and Proposed Rules #0;#0;Federal Register / Vol. 78, No. 231 / Monday, December... Parts 1 and 602 RIN 1545-BK44 Net Investment Income Tax AGENCY: Internal Revenue Service (IRS), Treasury... Investment Income Tax and the computation of Net Investment Income. The regulations affect individuals...

  12. 77 FR 72611 - Net Investment Income Tax (United States)


    ... December 5, 2012 Part V Department of the Treasury Internal Revenue Service 26 CFR Part 1 Net Investment... Investment Income Tax AGENCY: Internal Revenue Service (IRS), Treasury. ACTION: Notice of proposed rulemaking...) the individual's net investment income for such taxable year, or (B) the excess (if any) of (i) the...

  13. Net analyte signal based statistical quality control

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Skibsted, E.T.S.; Boelens, H.F.M.; Westerhuis, J.A.; Smilde, A.K.; Broad, N.W.; Rees, D.R.; Witte, D.T.


    Net analyte signal statistical quality control (NAS-SQC) is a new methodology to perform multivariate product quality monitoring based on the net analyte signal approach. The main advantage of NAS-SQC is that the systematic variation in the product due to the analyte (or property) of interest is

  14. Asynchronous stream processing with S-Net

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grelck, C.; Scholz, S.-B.; Shafarenko, A.


    We present the rationale and design of S-Net, a coordination language for asynchronous stream processing. The language achieves a near-complete separation between the application code, written in any conventional programming language, and the coordination/communication code written in S-Net. Our

  15. Using the MVC architecture on . NET platform


    Ježek, David


    This thesis deals with usage of MVC (Model View Controller) technology in web development on ASP.NET platform from Microsoft. Mainly it deals with latest version of framework ASP.NET MVC 3. First part describes MVC architecture and the second describes usage of MVC in certain parts of web application an comparing with PHP.

  16. Analysis of Petri Nets and Transition Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eike Best


    Full Text Available This paper describes a stand-alone, no-frills tool supporting the analysis of (labelled place/transition Petri nets and the synthesis of labelled transition systems into Petri nets. It is implemented as a collection of independent, dedicated algorithms which have been designed to operate modularly, portably, extensibly, and efficiently.

  17. 27 CFR 7.27 - Net contents. (United States)


    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Net contents. 7.27 Section 7.27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF... the net contents are displayed by having the same blown, branded, or burned in the container in...

  18. Petri nets and other models of concurrency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Mogens; Sassone, Vladimiro


    This paper retraces, collects, and summarises contributions of the authors - in collaboration with others - on the theme of Petri nets and their categorical relationships to other models of concurrency.......This paper retraces, collects, and summarises contributions of the authors - in collaboration with others - on the theme of Petri nets and their categorical relationships to other models of concurrency....

  19. Delta Semantics Defined By Petri Nets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Kurt; Kyng, Morten; Madsen, Ole Lehrmann

    This report is identical to an earlier version of May 1978 except that Chapter 5 has been revised. A new paper: "A Petri Net Definition of a System Description Language", DAIMI, April 1979, 20 pages, extends the Petri net model to include a data state representing the program variables. Delta...

  20. Net neutrality and inflation of traffic

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peitz, M.; Schütt, Florian

    Under strict net neutrality Internet service providers (ISPs) are required to carry data without any differentiation and at no cost to the content provider. We provide a simple framework with a monopoly ISP to evaluate the short-run effects of different net neutrality rules. Content differs in its

  1. Net Neutrality and Inflation of Traffic

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peitz, M.; Schütt, F.


    Under strict net neutrality Internet service providers (ISPs) are required to carry data without any differentiation and at no cost to the content provider. We provide a simple framework with a monopoly ISP to evaluate different net neutrality rules. Content differs in its sensitivity to delay.

  2. The Net Neutrality Debate: The Basics (United States)

    Greenfield, Rich


    Rich Greenfield examines the basics of today's net neutrality debate that is likely to be an ongoing issue for society. Greenfield states the problems inherent in the definition of "net neutrality" used by Common Cause: "Network neutrality is the principle that Internet users should be able to access any web content they choose and…

  3. Dynamic response of the thermometric net radiometer (United States)

    J. D. Wilson; W. J. Massman; G. E. Swaters


    We computed the dynamic response of an idealized thermometric net radiometer, when driven by an oscillating net longwave radiation intended roughly to simulate rapid fluctuations of the radiative environment such as might be expected during field use of such devices. The study was motivated by curiosity as to whether non-linearity of the surface boundary conditions...

  4. Teaching and Learning with the Net Generation (United States)

    Barnes, Kassandra; Marateo, Raymond C.; Ferris, S. Pixy


    As the Net Generation places increasingly greater demands on educators, students and teachers must jointly consider innovative ways of teaching and learning. In this, educators are supported by the fact that the Net Generation wants to learn. However, these same educators should not fail to realize that this generation learns differently from…

  5. Verification of Timed-Arc Petri Nets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Lasse; Jacobsen, Morten; Møller, Mikael Harkjær


    Timed-Arc Petri Nets (TAPN) are an extension of the classical P/T nets with continuous time. Tokens in TAPN carry an age and arcs between places and transitions are labelled with time intervals restricting the age of tokens available for transition firing. The TAPN model posses a number...

  6. A Brief Introduction to Coloured Petri Nets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Kurt


    Coloured Petri Nets (CP-nets or CPN) is a graphical oriented language for design, specification, simulation and verification of systems. It is in particular well- suited for systems in which communication, synchronisation and resource sharing are important. Typical examples of application areas a...

  7. Designing for scale: How relationships shape curriculum change

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pareja Roblin, Natalie; Corbalan, Gemma; McKenney, Susan; Nieveen, Nienke; Van den Akker, Jan


    Pareja Roblin, N., Corbalan Perez, G., McKenney, S., Nieveen, N., & Van den Akker, J. (2012, 13-17 April). Designing for scale: How relationships shape curriculum change. Paper presentation at the AERA annual meeting, Vancouver, Canada. Please see also:

  8. Designing for scale: How relationships shape curriculum change

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pareja Roblin, Natalie; Corbalan, Gemma; McKenney, Susan; Nieveen, Nienke; Van den Akker, Jan


    Pareja Roblin, N., Corbalan Perez, G., McKenney, S., Nieveen, N., & Van den Akker, J. (2012, 13-17 April). Designing for scale: How relationships shape curriculum change. Presentation at the AERA annual meeting, Vancouver, Canada. Please see also

  9. Gill net and trammel net selectivity in the northern Aegean Sea, Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Saadet Karakulak


    Full Text Available Fishing trials were carried out with gill nets and trammel nets in the northern Aegean Sea from March 2004 to February 2005. Four different mesh sizes for the gill nets and the inner panel of trammel nets (16, 18, 20 and 22 mm bar length were used. Selectivity parameters for the five most economically important species, bogue (Boops boops, annular sea bream (Diplodus annularis, striped red mullet (Mullus surmuletus, axillary sea bream (Pagellus acarne and blotched picarel (Spicara maena, caught by the two gears were estimated. The SELECT method was used to estimate the selectivity parameters of a variety of models. Catch composition and catch proportion of several species were different in gill and trammel nets. The length frequency distributions of the species caught by the two gears were significantly different. The bi-modal model selectivity curve gave the best fit for gill net and trammel net data, and there was little difference between the modal lengths of these nets. However, a clear difference was found in catching efficiency. The highest catch rates were obtained with the trammel net. Given that many discard species and small fish are caught by gill nets and trammel nets with a mesh size of 16 mm, it is clear that these nets are not appropriate for fisheries. Consequently, the best mesh size for multispecies fisheries is 18 mm. This mesh size will considerably reduce the numbers of small sized individuals and discard species in the catch.

  10. Halogenation of SiC for band-gap engineering and excitonic functionalization. (United States)

    Drissi, Lalla Btissam; Ramadan, Fatima Zahra; Lounis, Samir


    The optical excitation spectra and excitonic resonances are investigated in systematically functionalized SiC with Fluorine and/or Chlorine utilizing density functional theory in combination with many-body perturbation theory. The latter is required for a realistic description of the energy band-gaps as well as for the theoretical realization of excitons. Structural, electronic and optical properties are scrutinized and show the high stability of the predicted two-dimensional materials. Their realization in laboratory is thus possible. Large band-gaps of the order of 4 eV are found in the so-called GW approximation, with the occurrence of bright excitons, optically active in the four investigated materials. Their binding energies vary from 0.9 eV to 1.75 eV depending on the decoration choice and in one case, a dark exciton is foreseen to exist in the fully chlorinated SiC. The wide variety of opto-electronic properties suggest halogenated SiC as interesting materials with potential not only for solar cell applications, anti-reflection coatings or high-reflective systems but also for a possible realization of excitonic Bose-Einstein condensation. © 2017 IOP Publishing Ltd.

  11. Melting of SiC powders preplaced duplex stainless steel using TIG welding (United States)

    Maleque, M. A.; Afiq, M.


    TIG torch welding technique is a conventional melting technique for the cladding of metallic materials. Duplex stainless steels (DSS) show decrease in performance under aggressive environment which may lead to unanticipated failure due to poor surface properties. In this research, surface modification is done by using TIG torch method where silicon carbide (SiC) particles are fused into DSS substrate in order to form a new intermetallic compound at the surface. The effect of particle size, feed rate of SiC preplacement, energy input and shielding gas flow rate on surface topography, microstructure, microstructure and hardness are investigated. Deepest melt pool (1.237 mm) is produced via TIG torch with highest energy input of 1080 J/mm. Observations of surface topography shows rippling marks which confirms that re-solidification process has taken place. Melt microstructure consist of dendritic and globular carbides precipitate as well as partially melted silicon carbides (SiC) particles. Micro hardness recorded at value ranging from 316 HV0.5 to 1277 HV0.5 which shows increment from base hardness of 260 HV0.5kgf. The analyzed result showed that incorporation of silicon carbide particles via TIG Torch method increase the hardness of DSS.

  12. Comparative study by IBIC of Si and SiC diodes irradiated with high energy protons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia Lopez, J., E-mail: [Dpto. Física Atómica, Molecular y Nuclear, Universidad de Sevilla, 41080 Sevilla (Spain); CNA (U. Sevilla, J. Andalucia, CSIC), Av. Thomas A. Edison 7, 41092 Sevilla (Spain); Jimenez-Ramos, M.C.; Rodriguez-Ramos, M. [CNA (U. Sevilla, J. Andalucia, CSIC), Av. Thomas A. Edison 7, 41092 Sevilla (Spain); Ceballos, J. [Institute of Microelectronics of Seville, IMSE-CNM (CSIC/University of Seville), Seville 41092 (Spain); Linez, F. [Department of Applied Physics, Aalto University, 02150 Espoo (Finland); Raisanen, J. [Department of Physics, University of Helsinki, Helsinki 00014 (Finland)


    The transport properties of a series of Si and SiC diodes have been studied using the Ion Beam Induced Charge (IBIC) technique. Structural defects were induced into the samples during the irradiation with 17 MeV protons. The experimental values of the charge collection efficiency (CCE) vs bias voltages have been analyzed using a modified drift-diffusion model, which takes into account the recombination of carriers in the neutral and depletion regions. From these simulations, we have obtained the values of the carrier’s lifetime for pristine and irradiated diodes, which are found to degrade faster in the case of the SiC samples. However, the decrease of the CCE at high bias voltages is more important for the Si detectors, indicative of the lower radiation hardness of this material compared to SiC. The nature of the proton-induced defects on Si wafers has been studied by Positron Annihilation Spectroscopy (PAS) and Doppler Broadening Spectroscopy (DBS). The results suggest that the main defect detected by the positrons in p-type samples is the divacancy while for n-type at least a fraction of the positron annihilate in another defect. The concentration of defects is much lower than the number of vacancies predicted by SRIM.

  13. A Structural Based Thermal Model Description for Vertical SiC Power MOSFETs under Fault Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas Maerz


    Full Text Available The accurate prediction of the SiC MOSFET withstanding time for single fault events greatly influences the requirements for device protection circuits for these devices in power converter applications, like voltage source inverters or power electronic transformers. For this reason, a thermal model, based on the structural design and the physical dimensions of the chip as well as material properties of 4H-SiC, is proposed. This article gives a general description of the thermal behaviour of vertical SiC MOSFET under various driving and boundary conditions in case of a short-circuit event. The thermal model substitutes destructive tests of a device for an individual set of boundary conditions of an occurring fault event. The validity of the analytically parametrised thermal model is verified by experimental short-circuit tests of state-of-the-art vertical SiC MOSFETs for a set of various boundary conditions. The investigated thermal model can furthermore be used to standardise different gate-oxide degradation values from the literature for means of lifetime prediction of the gate oxide for an individual application under repetitive occurring fault or overload conditions. These manufacturer specific reported values measured with no standardised testing procedures can be translated into a maximum junction temperature, which is repeatedly reached. The thermal model therefore provides a unifying parameter for the gate-oxide lifetime calculation for an individual chip and application.

  14. Damage formation and optical absorption in neutron irradiated SiC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wendler, E., E-mail: [Institut fuer Festkoerperphysik, Friedrich-Schiller-Universitaet Jena, Max-Wien-Platz 1, 07743 Jena (Germany); Bierschenk, Th.; Felgentraeger, F.; Sommerfeld, J.; Wesch, W. [Institut fuer Festkoerperphysik, Friedrich-Schiller-Universitaet Jena, Max-Wien-Platz 1, 07743 Jena (Germany); Alber, D.; Bukalis, G. [Campus Lise-Meitner, Abteilung F-A1, Elementanalytik, Helmholtz-Zentrum Berlin fuer Materialien und Energie GmbH, Hahn-Meitner-Platz 1, 14109 Berlin (Germany); Prinsloo, L.C.; Berg, N. van der; Friedland, E.; Malherbe, J.B. [Department of Physics, University of Pretoria, 0002 Pretoria (South Africa)


    The defect formation in neutron irradiated SiC was investigated by means of Rutherford backscattering spectrometry in channelling mode (RBS), optical absorption and Raman spectroscopy. The relative defect concentration determined by RBS increases linearly with the neutron fluence without any saturation in the investigated fluence region. The spectral dependence of the absorption coefficient {alpha} at photon energies below 3.2 eV is independent of the neutron fluence and corresponds to that observed in low-fluence ion implanted SiC. An increase of the defect concentration exhibits only in an increase of the absolute value of {alpha}. For photon energies above 3.3 eV again an exponential increase of the absorption coefficient is found but with a slope increasing with rising defect concentration. This absorption is assumed to be of the Urbach type. Around 1.56 eV a broad absorption band is observed which is most probably caused by divacancies V{sub Si}V{sub C}. The defects produced by the neutron irradiation of SiC result in a decrease of the peak intensity and a shift of the position of TO and LO Raman peaks towards lower wave numbers. The latter can be explained by tensile stress due to defects and mass increase of lattice atoms due to neutron capturing.

  15. Halogenation of SiC for band-gap engineering and excitonic functionalization (United States)

    Drissi, L. B.; Ramadan, F. Z.; Lounis, S.


    The optical excitation spectra and excitonic resonances are investigated in systematically functionalized SiC with Fluorine and/or Chlorine utilizing density functional theory in combination with many-body perturbation theory. The latter is required for a realistic description of the energy band-gaps as well as for the theoretical realization of excitons. Structural, electronic and optical properties are scrutinized and show the high stability of the predicted two-dimensional materials. Their realization in laboratory is thus possible. Large band-gaps of the order of 4 eV are found in the so-called GW approximation, with the occurrence of bright excitons, optically active in the four investigated materials. Their binding energies vary from 0.9 eV to 1.75 eV depending on the decoration choice and in one case, a dark exciton is foreseen to exist in the fully chlorinated SiC. The wide variety of opto-electronic properties suggest halogenated SiC as interesting materials with potential not only for solar cell applications, anti-reflection coatings or high-reflective systems but also for a possible realization of excitonic Bose–Einstein condensation.

  16. Technology roadmap for development of SiC sensors at plasma processes laboratory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana Amorim Fraga


    Full Text Available Recognizing the need to consolidate the research and development (R&D activities in microelectronics fields in a strategic manner, the Plasma Processes Laboratory of the Technological Institute of Aeronautics (LPP-ITA has established a technology roadmap to serve as a guide for activities related to development of sensors based on silicon carbide (SiC thin films. These sensors have also potential interest to the aerospace field due to their ability to operate in harsh environment such as high temperatures and intense radiation. In the present paper, this roadmap is described and presented in four main sections: i introduction, ii what we have already done in the past, iii what we are doing in this moment, and iv our targets up to 2015. The critical technological issues were evaluated for different categories: SiC deposition techniques, SiC processing techniques for sensors fabrication and sensors characterization. This roadmap also presents a shared vision of how R&D activities in microelectronics should develop over the next five years in our laboratory.

  17. High voltage 4H SiC rectifiers using Pt and Ni metallization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saxena, V.; Steckl, A.J. [Cincinnati Univ., OH (United States). Nanoelectronic Lab.


    We have fabricated high voltage 4H SiC rectifier diodes using Ni and Pt as metals for the Schottky contacts. At a current density of 100 A/cm{sup 2}, these diodes had a forward voltage drop of 1.76 and 1.86 V, respectively. Both Ni- and Pt-SiC diodes had breakdown voltages >1000 V. Pt-based SiC diodes exhibited a higher on-off current ratio (>10{sup 8}) and lower ideality factor (1.11) at room temperature than the Ni-based diodes (>10{sup 6} and 1.29). The diodes were operated at elevated temperatures up to 450 C for forward bias and 300 C for reverse bias. The room temperature barrier height of Ni on 4H SiC was determined to be 1.31 eV and the specific on-resistance of the diodes was found to be {proportional_to}8 m{Omega}-cm{sup 2}. (orig.) 9 refs.

  18. Early implementation of SiC cladding fuel performance models in BISON

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Powers, Jeffrey J. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)


    SiC-based ceramic matrix composites (CMCs) [5–8] are being developed and evaluated internationally as potential LWR cladding options. These development activities include interests within both the DOE-NE LWR Sustainability (LWRS) Program and the DOE-NE Advanced Fuels Campaign. The LWRS Program considers SiC ceramic matrix composites (CMCs) as offering potentially revolutionary gains as a cladding material, with possible benefits including more efficient normal operating conditions and higher safety margins under accident conditions [9]. Within the Advanced Fuels Campaign, SiC-based composites are a candidate ATF cladding material that could achieve several goals, such as reducing the rates of heat and hydrogen generation due to lower cladding oxidation rates in HT steam [10]. This work focuses on the application of SiC cladding as an ATF cladding material in PWRs, but these work efforts also support the general development and assessment of SiC as an LWR cladding material in a much broader sense.

  19. [SIC algorithm based model updating for near infrared analysis of Salvia miltiorrhiza alcohol extraction process]. (United States)

    Jia, Shuai-Yun; Xu, Bing; Yang, Chan; Cui, Xiang-Long; Shi, Xin-Yuan; Qiao, Yan-Jiang


    The near-infrared (NIR) spectroscopy for offline monitoring of alcohol extraction process of Salvia miltiorrhiza was investigated, with high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) determination of value for reference. The partial least squares method was adopted to establish the tanshinone ⅡA quantitative calibration model, so as to detect extraction process of Salvia miltiorrhiza. Because the differences between batches of raw materials may endanger the robustness of the original model, the simple interval calculation (SIC) was applied in updating the near-infrared quantitative model for traditional Chinese medicine extraction process for the first time, and compared with Random Selection (RS) method. SIC's final updating results showed that root mean square with cross validation (RMSECV), root mean square error of prediction (RMSEP) and residual predictive deviation (RPD) of tanshinone ⅡA were 0.006 8 g•L⁻¹, 0.005 4 g•L⁻¹ and 3.14, respectively; but RS' final updating results showed that RMSECV, RMSEP and RPD were 0.006 4 g•L⁻¹, 0.006 8 g•L⁻¹ and 2.50, respectively. This study suggested that SIC is superior to RS, and provided a research foundation for quality control and monitoring of S. miltiorrhiza extraction process in the future. Copyright© by the Chinese Pharmaceutical Association.

  20. 240 GHz EPR Studies of Intrinsic Defects in 4H SiC (United States)

    Konovalov, V. V.; Zvanut, M. E.; van Tol, J.; Brunel, L.-C.


    Intrinsic defects may strongly influence the conductivity and optical behavior of SiC. Several groups have reported 9.5 GHz EPR studies of a carbon vacancy in electron irradiated p-type and as-grown nominally semi-insulating SiC. Recently, Son et al. interpreted two lines in a 95 GHz EPR spectrum as a carbon vacancy and silicon antisite. We report 240 GHz EPR studies of intrinsic defects in as-grown 4H SiC provided by Cree Inc. The ID-1 line we observed earlier at 9.5 GHz and assigned to a carbon vacancy was resolved at 240 GHz into two lines, ID-1a and ID-1b. As the temperature decreased from 80 to 4 K, with H//c-axis the g-value of ID-1a remained constant at 2.00307, but the g-value of ID-1b decreased from 2.00272 to 2.00235. Concomitantly, the intensity of ID-1a decreased while that of ID-1b increased. Although our data are close to Son’s 95 GHz spectrum, preliminary interpretation of the highly resolved lines obtained at 240 GHz does not suggest a silicon antisite. Illumination with IR light quenches both ID-1a and ID-1b simultaneously, indicating close defect levels. The work is supported by the ONR.