Sample records for net radiation measurements

  1. Hyperion net: A distributed measurement system for monitoring background ionizing radiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Šaponjić Đorđe P.


    Full Text Available The distributed measurement system - HYPERION NET, based on the concept of FieldBus technology, has been developed, implemented, and tested as a pilot project, the first WEB enabled on-line networked ionizing radiation monitoring and measurement system. The Net has layered the structure, tree topology, and is based on the Internet infrastructure and TCP/IP communication protocol. The Net' s core element is an intelligent GM transmitter, based on GM tube, used for measuring the absorbed dose in air in the range of 0.087 to 720 μGy/h. The transmitter makes use of an advanced count rate measurement algorithm capable of suppressing the statistical fluctuations of the measured quantity, which significantly improves its measurement performance making it suitable for environmental radiation measurements.

  2. Net Surface Shortwave Radiation from GOES Imagery—Product Evaluation Using Ground-Based Measurements from SURFRAD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anand K. Inamdar


    Full Text Available The Earth’s surface net radiation controls the energy and water exchanges between the Earth’s surface and the atmosphere, and can be derived from satellite observations. The ability to monitor the net surface radiation over large areas at high spatial and temporal resolution is essential for many applications, such as weather forecasting, short-term climate prediction or water resources management. The objective of this paper is to derive the net surface radiation in the shortwave domain at high temporal (half-hourly and spatial resolution (~1 km using visible imagery from Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite (GOES. The retrieval algorithm represents an adaptation to GOES data of a standard algorithm initially developed for the NASA-operated Clouds and Earth’s Radiant Energy System (CERES scanner. The methodology relies on: (1 the estimation of top of atmosphere shortwave radiation from GOES spectral measurements; and (2 the calculation of net surface shortwave (SW radiation accounting for atmospheric effects. Comparison of GOES-retrieved net surface shortwave radiation with ground-measurements at the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration’s (NOAA Surface Radiation (SURFRAD stations yields very good agreement with average bias lower than 5 W·m−2 and root mean square difference around 70 W·m−2. The algorithm performance is usually higher over areas characterized by low spatial variability in term of land cover type and surface biophysical properties. The technique does not involve retrieval and assessment of cloud properties and can be easily adapted to other meteorological satellites around the globe.

  3. Surface Net Solar Radiation Estimated from Satellite Measurements: Comparisons with Tower Observations (United States)

    Li, Zhanqing; Leighton, H. G.; Cess, Robert D.


    A parameterization that relates the reflected solar flux at the top of the atmosphere to the net solar flux at the surface in terms of only the column water vapor amount and the solar zenith angle was tested against surface observations. Net surface fluxes deduced from coincidental collocated satellite-measured radiances and from measurements from towers in Boulder during summer and near Saskatoon in winter have mean differences of about 2 W/sq m, regardless of whether the sky is clear or cloudy. Furthermore, comparisons between the net fluxes deduced from the parameterization and from surface measurements showed equally good agreement when the data were partitioned into morning and afternoon observations. This is in contrast to results from an empirical clear-sky algorithm that is unable to account adequately for the effects of clouds and that shows, at Boulder, a distinct morning to afternoon variation, which is presumably due to the predominance of different cloud types throughout the day. It is also demonstrated that the parameterization may be applied to irradiances at the top of the atmosphere that have been temporally averaged by using the temporally averaged column water vapor amount and the temporally averaged cosine of the solar zenith angle. The good agreement between the results of the parameterization and surface measurements suggests that the algorithm is a useful tool for a variety of climate studies.

  4. Comparison of the performance of net radiation calculation models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjærsgaard, Jeppe Hvelplund; Cuenca, R H; Martinez-Cob, A


    values of net radiation were calculated using three net outgoing long-wave radiation models and compared to measured values. Four meteorological datasets representing two climate regimes, a sub-humid, high-latitude environment and a semi-arid mid-latitude environment, were used to test the models...... or developed for specific climate regimes, the predictions of the physically based model had slightly lower bias and scatter than the empirical models. When used with their original model coefficients, the physically based model had a higher bias than the measurement error of the net radiation instruments used...

  5. RadNet (Environmental Radiation Ambient Monitoring System) (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — RadNet, formerly Environmental Radiation Ambient Monitoring System (ERAMS), is a national network of monitoring stations that regularly collect air, precipitation,...

  6. Global Surface Net-Radiation at 5 km from MODIS Terra

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manish Verma


    Full Text Available Reliable and fine resolution estimates of surface net-radiation are required for estimating latent and sensible heat fluxes between the land surface and the atmosphere. However, currently, fine resolution estimates of net-radiation are not available and consequently it is challenging to develop multi-year estimates of evapotranspiration at scales that can capture land surface heterogeneity and are relevant for policy and decision-making. We developed and evaluated a global net-radiation product at 5 km and 8-day resolution by combining mutually consistent atmosphere and land data from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS on board Terra. Comparison with net-radiation measurements from 154 globally distributed sites (414 site-years from the FLUXNET and Surface Radiation budget network (SURFRAD showed that the net-radiation product agreed well with measurements across seasons and climate types in the extratropics (Wilmott’s index ranged from 0.74 for boreal to 0.63 for Mediterranean sites. Mean absolute deviation between the MODIS and measured net-radiation ranged from 38.0 ± 1.8 W∙m−2 in boreal to 72.0 ± 4.1 W∙m−2 in the tropical climates. The mean bias was small and constituted only 11%, 0.7%, 8.4%, 4.2%, 13.3%, and 5.4% of the mean absolute error in daytime net-radiation in boreal, Mediterranean, temperate-continental, temperate, semi-arid, and tropical climate, respectively. To assess the accuracy of the broader spatiotemporal patterns, we upscaled error-quantified MODIS net-radiation and compared it with the net-radiation estimates from the coarse spatial (1° × 1° but high temporal resolution gridded net-radiation product from the Clouds and Earth’s Radiant Energy System (CERES. Our estimates agreed closely with the net-radiation estimates from the CERES. Difference between the two was less than 10 W·m−2 in 94% of the total land area. MODIS net-radiation product will be a valuable resource for the

  7. Estimating daily net radiation in the FAO Penman-Monteith method (United States)

    Carmona, Facundo; Rivas, Raúl; Kruse, Eduardo


    In this work, we evaluate the procedures of the Manual No. 56 of the FAO (United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization) for predicting daily net radiation using measures collected in Tandil (Argentina) between March 2007 and June 2010. In addition, a new methodology is proposed for estimating daily net radiation over the reference crop considered in the FAO Penman-Monteith method. The calculated and observed values of daily net radiation are compared. Estimation errors are reduced from ±22 to ±12 W m-2 considering the new model. From spring-summer data, estimation errors of less than ±10 % were observed for the new physical model, which represents an error of just ±0.4 mm d-1 for computing reference evapotranspiration. The new model presented here is not restricted to a climate regime and is mainly appropriate for application in the FAO Penman-Monteith method to determine the reference crop evapotranspiration.

  8. Solar and Net Radiation for Estimating Potential Evaporation from Three Vegetation Canopies (United States)

    D.M. Amatya; R.W. Skaggs; G.W. Cheschier; G.P. Fernandez


    Solar and net radiation data are frequent/y used in estimating potential evaporation (PE) from various vegetative surfaces needed for water balance and hydrologic modeling studies. Weather parameters such as air temperature, relative humidity, wind speed, solar radiation, and net radiation have been continuously monitored using automated sensors to estimate PE for...

  9. Measurement and detection of radiation

    CERN Document Server

    Tsoulfanidis, Nicholas


    This fourth edition reflects recent major developments that have occurred in radiation detector materials, systems, and applications. It continues to provide the most practical and up-to-date introduction to radiation detector technology, proper measurement techniques, and analysis of results for engineers and scientists using radiation sources. New chapters emphasize the expanded use of radiation detection systems in nuclear non-proliferation, homeland security, and nuclear medicine. The book also discusses the correct ways to perform measurements following current health physics procedures.

  10. TAO/TRITON, RAMA, and PIRATA Buoys, Quarterly, Net Longwave Radiation (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset has quarterly Net Longwave Radiation data from the TAO/TRITON (Pacific Ocean,, RAMA (Indian Ocean,...

  11. An Improved Approach for Estimating Daily Net Radiation over the Heihe River Basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bingfang Wu


    Full Text Available Net radiation plays an essential role in determining the thermal conditions of the Earth’s surface and is an important parameter for the study of land-surface processes and global climate change. In this paper, an improved satellite-based approach to estimate the daily net radiation is presented, in which sunshine duration were derived from the geostationary meteorological satellite (FY-2D cloud classification product, the monthly empirical as and bs Angstrom coefficients for net shortwave radiation were calibrated by spatial fitting of the ground data from 1997 to 2006, and the daily net longwave radiation was calibrated with ground data from 2007 to 2010 over the Heihe River Basin in China. The estimated daily net radiation values were validated against ground data for 12 months in 2008 at four stations with different underlying surface types. The average coefficient of determination (R2 was 0.8489, and the averaged Nash-Sutcliffe equation (NSE was 0.8356. The close agreement between the estimated daily net radiation and observations indicates that the proposed method is promising, especially given the comparison between the spatial distribution and the interpolation of sunshine duration. Potential applications include climate research, energy balance studies and the estimation of global evapotranspiration.

  12. Solar and infrared radiation measurements

    CERN Document Server

    Vignola, Frank; Michalsky, Joseph


    The rather specialized field of solar and infrared radiation measurement has become more and more important in the face of growing demands by the renewable energy and climate change research communities for data that are more accurate and have increased temporal and spatial resolution. Updating decades of acquired knowledge in the field, Solar and Infrared Radiation Measurements details the strengths and weaknesses of instruments used to conduct such solar and infrared radiation measurements. Topics covered include: Radiometer design and performance Equipment calibration, installation, operati

  13. Ambient UV-B radiation reduces PSII performance and net photosynthesis in high Arctic Salix arctica

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Albert, Kristian Rost; Mikkelsen, Teis Nørgaard; Ro-Poulsen, H.


    Ambient ultraviolet-B (UV-B) radiation potentially impacts the photosynthetic performance of high Arctic plants. We conducted an UV-B exclusion experiment in a dwarf shrub heath in NE Greenland (74°N), with open control, filter control, UV-B filtering and UV-AB filtering, all in combination...... was characterized by simultaneous gas exchange and chlorophyll fluorescence measurements and the PSII performance through the growing season was investigated with fluorescence measurements. Leaf harvest towards the end of the growing season was done to determine the specific leaf area and the content of carbon......, nitrogen and UV-B absorbing compounds. Compared to a 60% reduced UV-B irradiance, the ambient solar UV-B reduced net photosynthesis in Salix arctica leaves fixed in the 45° position which exposed leaves to maximum natural irradiance. Also a reduced Calvin Cycle capacity was found, i.e. the maximum rate...

  14. Thermal net flux measurements on the Pioneer Venus entry probes (United States)

    Revercomb, H. E.; Sromovsky, L. A.; Suomi, V. E.; Boese, R. W.


    Corrected thermal net (upward minus downward flux) radiation data from four Pioneer Venus probes at latitudes of 4 deg and 60 deg N, and 27 deg and 31 deg S, are presented. Comparisons of these fluxes with radiative transfer calculations were interpreted in terms of cloud properties and the global distribution of water vapor in the lower atmosphere of Venus. The presence of an as yet undetected source of IR opacity is implied by the fluxes in the upper cloud range. It was also shown that beneath the clouds the fluxes at a given altitude increase with latitude, suggesting greater IR cooling below the clouds at high latitudes and a decrease of the water vapor mixing ratios toward the equator.

  15. Assessment of the methods for determining net radiation at different time-scales of meteorological variables

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ni An


    Full Text Available When modeling the soil/atmosphere interaction, it is of paramount importance to determine the net radiation flux. There are two common calculation methods for this purpose. Method 1 relies on use of air temperature, while Method 2 relies on use of both air and soil temperatures. Nowadays, there has been no consensus on the application of these two methods. In this study, the half-hourly data of solar radiation recorded at an experimental embankment are used to calculate the net radiation and long-wave radiation at different time-scales (half-hourly, hourly, and daily using the two methods. The results show that, compared with Method 2 which has been widely adopted in agronomical, geotechnical and geo-environmental applications, Method 1 is more feasible for its simplicity and accuracy at shorter time-scale. Moreover, in case of longer time-scale, daily for instance, less variations of net radiation and long-wave radiation are obtained, suggesting that no detailed soil temperature variations can be obtained. In other words, shorter time-scales are preferred in determining net radiation flux.

  16. Measurement and detection of radiation

    CERN Document Server

    Tsoulfanidis, Nicholas


    This is an update of the standard textbook for the field of radiation measurement. It includes illustrative examples and new problems. The research and applications of nuclear instrumentation have grown substantially since publication of the previous editions. With the miniaturization of equipment, increased speed of electronic components, and more sophisticated software, radiation detection systems are now more productively used in many disciplines, including nuclear nonproliferation, homeland security, and nuclear medicine. Continuing in the tradition of its bestselling predecessors, "Measurement and Detection of Radiation, Third Edition" illustrates the fundamentals of nuclear interactions and radiation detection with a multitude of examples and problems. It offers a clearly written, accessible introduction to nuclear instrumentation concepts. The following are new to the third edition: a new chapter on the latest applications of radiation detection, covering nuclear medicine, dosimetry, health physics, no...

  17. Single interval longwave radiation scheme based on the net exchanged rate decomposition with bracketing

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Geleyn, J.- F.; Mašek, Jan; Brožková, Radmila; Kuma, P.; Degrauwe, D.; Hello, G.; Pristov, N.


    Roč. 143, č. 704 (2017), s. 1313-1335 ISSN 0035-9009 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LO1415 Keywords : numerical weather prediction * climate models * clouds * parameterization * atmospheres * formulation * absorption * scattering * accurate * database * longwave radiative transfer * broadband approach * idealized optical paths * net exchanged rate decomposition * bracketing * selective intermittency Impact factor: 3.444, year: 2016

  18. The energy balance experiment EBEX-2000. Part III: Behaviour and quality of the radiation measurements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kohsiek, W.; Liebethal, C.; Foken, T.; Vogt, R.; Oncley, S.P.; Bernhofer, C.; Debruin, H.A.R.


    An important part of the Energy Balance Experiment (EBEX-2000) was the measurement of the net radiation and its components. Since the terrain, an irrigated cotton field, could not be considered homogeneous, radiation measurements were made at nine sites using a variety of radiation instruments,

  19. The positive net radiative greenhouse gas forcing of increasing methane emissions from a thawing boreal forest-wetland landscape. (United States)

    Helbig, Manuel; Chasmer, Laura E; Kljun, NatasCha; Quinton, William L; Treat, Claire C; Sonnentag, Oliver


    At the southern margin of permafrost in North America, climate change causes widespread permafrost thaw. In boreal lowlands, thawing forested permafrost peat plateaus ('forest') lead to expansion of permafrost-free wetlands ('wetland'). Expanding wetland area with saturated and warmer organic soils is expected to increase landscape methane (CH4 ) emissions. Here, we quantify the thaw-induced increase in CH4 emissions for a boreal forest-wetland landscape in the southern Taiga Plains, Canada, and evaluate its impact on net radiative forcing relative to potential long-term net carbon dioxide (CO2 ) exchange. Using nested wetland and landscape eddy covariance net CH4 flux measurements in combination with flux footprint modeling, we find that landscape CH4 emissions increase with increasing wetland-to-forest ratio. Landscape CH4 emissions are most sensitive to this ratio during peak emission periods, when wetland soils are up to 10 °C warmer than forest soils. The cumulative growing season (May-October) wetland CH4 emission of ~13 g CH4  m-2 is the dominating contribution to the landscape CH4 emission of ~7 g CH4  m-2 . In contrast, forest contributions to landscape CH4 emissions appear to be negligible. The rapid wetland expansion of 0.26 ± 0.05% yr-1 in this region causes an estimated growing season increase of 0.034 ± 0.007 g CH4  m-2  yr-1 in landscape CH4 emissions. A long-term net CO2 uptake of >200 g CO2  m-2  yr-1 is required to offset the positive radiative forcing of increasing CH4 emissions until the end of the 21st century as indicated by an atmospheric CH4 and CO2 concentration model. However, long-term apparent carbon accumulation rates in similar boreal forest-wetland landscapes and eddy covariance landscape net CO2 flux measurements suggest a long-term net CO2 uptake between 49 and 157 g CO2  m-2  yr-1 . Thus, thaw-induced CH4 emission increases likely exert a positive net radiative greenhouse gas forcing through the 21st century.

  20. Measuring space radiation shielding effectiveness (United States)

    Bahadori, Amir; Semones, Edward; Ewert, Michael; Broyan, James; Walker, Steven


    Passive radiation shielding is one strategy to mitigate the problem of space radiation exposure. While space vehicles are constructed largely of aluminum, polyethylene has been demonstrated to have superior shielding characteristics for both galactic cosmic rays and solar particle events due to the high hydrogen content. A method to calculate the shielding effectiveness of a material relative to reference material from Bragg peak measurements performed using energetic heavy charged particles is described. Using accelerated alpha particles at the National Aeronautics and Space Administration Space Radiation Laboratory at Brookhaven National Laboratory, the method is applied to sample tiles from the Heat Melt Compactor, which were created by melting material from a simulated astronaut waste stream, consisting of materials such as trash and unconsumed food. The shielding effectiveness calculated from measurements of the Heat Melt Compactor sample tiles is about 10% less than the shielding effectiveness of polyethylene. Shielding material produced from the astronaut waste stream in the form of Heat Melt Compactor tiles is therefore found to be an attractive solution for protection against space radiation.

  1. Measuring space radiation shielding effectiveness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bahadori Amir


    Full Text Available Passive radiation shielding is one strategy to mitigate the problem of space radiation exposure. While space vehicles are constructed largely of aluminum, polyethylene has been demonstrated to have superior shielding characteristics for both galactic cosmic rays and solar particle events due to the high hydrogen content. A method to calculate the shielding effectiveness of a material relative to reference material from Bragg peak measurements performed using energetic heavy charged particles is described. Using accelerated alpha particles at the National Aeronautics and Space Administration Space Radiation Laboratory at Brookhaven National Laboratory, the method is applied to sample tiles from the Heat Melt Compactor, which were created by melting material from a simulated astronaut waste stream, consisting of materials such as trash and unconsumed food. The shielding effectiveness calculated from measurements of the Heat Melt Compactor sample tiles is about 10% less than the shielding effectiveness of polyethylene. Shielding material produced from the astronaut waste stream in the form of Heat Melt Compactor tiles is therefore found to be an attractive solution for protection against space radiation.

  2. Equipment for measuring radiation. Part 3. Technique of measuring radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Radwanowski, L.J.


    Difficulties are noted in measuring the effects of radiation because of the excessively low energy of the measured fields. In nature there are different magnetic-dynamic and magnetic-hydrodynamic generators which are sources of very low intensity which changes in time. The equipment of measurements is examined in the example of one of the generators, underground water current. The apparatus is described in detail for measuring the intensity of the electromagnetic SHF field. Under the underground water currents a change is observed in the intensity of the electromagnetic field. The possibilities are also examined of direct measurement of ultrasonic elastic fluctuations caused by the underground current, as well as the possibility of recording other physical fields (spontaneous polarization, soil temperature). A study was made of the effect of the underground water current on the occurrence of physical, chemical and biological processes: photochemical reactions, reactions of metal oxidation, Golomb effect (change in the rate of sedimentation of argillaceous particles in water under the influence of a biofield), change in air humidity and soil water content, change in intensity of the magnetic field, Hall effect, change in luminescence of certain organisms or the luminophore released by them. Basic plans are presented of certain measurement and recording devices.

  3. Comparative Assessment of Satellite-Retrieved Surface Net Radiation: An Examination on CERES and SRB Datasets in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xin Pan


    Full Text Available Surface net radiation plays an important role in land–atmosphere interactions. The net radiation can be retrieved from satellite radiative products, yet its accuracy needs comprehensive assessment. This study evaluates monthly surface net radiation generated from the Clouds and the Earth’s Radiant Energy System (CERES and the Surface Radiation Budget project (SRB products, respectively, with quality-controlled radiation data from 50 meteorological stations in China for the period from March 2000 to December 2007. Our results show that surface net radiation is generally overestimated for CERES (SRB, with a bias of 26.52 W/m2 (18.57 W/m2 and a root mean square error of 34.58 W/m2 (29.49 W/m2. Spatially, the satellite-retrieved monthly mean of surface net radiation has relatively small errors for both CERES and SRB at inland sites in south China. Substantial errors are found at northeastern sites for two datasets, in addition to coastal sites for CERES. Temporally, multi-year averaged monthly mean errors are large at sites in western China in spring and summer, and in northeastern China in spring and winter. The annual mean error fluctuates for SRB, but decreases for CERES between 2000 and 2007. For CERES, 56% of net radiation errors come from net shortwave (NSW radiation and 44% from net longwave (NLW radiation. The errors are attributable to environmental parameters including surface albedo, surface water vapor pressure, land surface temperature, normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI of land surface proxy, and visibility for CERES. For SRB, 65% of the errors come from NSW and 35% from NLW radiation. The major influencing factors in a descending order are surface water vapor pressure, surface albedo, land surface temperature, NDVI, and visibility. Our findings offer an insight into error patterns in satellite-retrieved surface net radiation and should be valuable to improving retrieval accuracy of surface net radiation. Moreover, our

  4. Net ZEB case study buildings, measures and solution sets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aelenei, Laura; Waldren, David; Aelenei, Daniel


    The chapter summarises techniques - combined in solution sets - used in the case studied buildings to achieve buildings with net zero energy or energy neutral standard.......The chapter summarises techniques - combined in solution sets - used in the case studied buildings to achieve buildings with net zero energy or energy neutral standard....

  5. Validation of Empirical and Semi-empirical Net Radiation Models versus Observed Data for Cold Semi-arid Climate Condition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    aliakbar sabziparvar


    Full Text Available Introduction: Solar Net Radiation (Rn is one of the most important component which influences soil heat flux, evapotranspiration rate and hydrological cycle. This parameter (Rn is measured based on the difference between downward and upward shortwave (SW and longwave (LW irradiances reaching the Earth’s surface. Field measurements of Rn are scarce, expensive and difficult due to the instrumental maintenance. As a result, in most research cases, Rn is estimated by the empirical, semi-empirical and physical radiation models. Almorox et al. (2008 suggested a net radiation model based on a linear regression model by using global solar radiation (Rs and sunshine hours. Alados et al. (2003 evaluated the relation between Rn and Rs for Spain. They showed that the models based on shortwave radiation works perfect in estimating solar net radiation. In another work, Irmak et al. (2003 presented two empirical Rn models, which worked with the minimum numbers of weather parameters. They evaluated their models for humid, dry, inland and coastal regions of the United States. They concluded that both Rn models work better than FAO-56 Penman-Monteith model. Sabziparvar et al. (2016 estimated the daily Rn for four climate types in Iran. They examined various net radiation models namely: Wright, Basic Regression Model (BRM, Linacre, Berliand, Irmak, and Monteith. Their results highlighted that on regional averages, the linear BRM model has the superior performance in generating the most accurate daily ET0. They also showed that for 70% of the study sites, the linear Rn models can be reliable candidates instead of sophisticated nonlinear Rn models. Having considered the importance of Rn in determining crop water requirement, the aim of this study is to obtain the best performance Rn model for cold semi-arid climate of Hamedan. Materials and Methods: We employed hourly and daily weather data and Rn data, which were measured during December 2011 to June 2013 in

  6. Effects of UVB radiation on net community production in the upper global ocean

    KAUST Repository

    Garcia-Corral, Lara S.


    Aim Erosion of the stratospheric ozone layer together with oligotrophication of the subtropical ocean is leading to enhanced exposure to ultraviolet B (UVB) radiation in ocean surface waters. The impact of increased exposure to UVB on planktonic primary producers and heterotrophs is uncertain. Here we test the null hypothesis that net community production (NCP) of plankton communities in surface waters of the tropical and subtropical ocean is not affected by ambient UVB radiation and extend this test to the global ocean, including the polar oceans and the Mediterranean Sea using previous results. Location We conducted experiments with 131 surface communities sampled during a circumnavigation cruise along the tropical and subtropical ocean and combined these results with 89 previous reports encompassing the Atlantic, Pacific, Arctic and Southern Oceans and the Mediterranean Sea. Methods The use of quartz (transparent to UVB radiation) and borosilicate glass materials (opaque to most UVB) for incubations allowed us to compare NCP between communities where UVB is excluded and those receiving natural UVB radiation. Results We found that NCP varies when exposed to natural UVB radiation compared to those where UVB was removed. NCP of autotrophic communities tended to decrease under natural UVB radiation, whereas the NCP of heterotrophic communities tended to increase. However, these variations showed the opposite trend under higher levels of UVB radiation. Main conclusions Our results suggest that earlier estimates of NCP for surface communities, which were hitherto derived using materials blocking UVB radiation were biased, with the direction and magnitude of this bias depending on the metabolic status of the communities and the underwater penetration of UVB radiation.

  7. RadNet Air Data From Little Rock, AR (United States)

    This page presents radiation air monitoring and air filter analysis data for Little Rock, AR from EPA's RadNet system. RadNet is a nationwide network of monitoring stations that measure radiation in air, drinking water and precipitation.

  8. RadNet Air Data From Pittsburgh, PA (United States)

    This page presents radiation air monitoring and air filter analysis data for Pittsburgh, PA from EPA's RadNet system. RadNet is a nationwide network of monitoring stations that measure radiation in air, drinking water and precipitation.

  9. RadNet Air Data From Montgomery, AL (United States)

    This page presents radiation air monitoring and air filter analysis data for Montgomery, AL from EPA's RadNet system. RadNet is a nationwide network of monitoring stations that measure radiation in air, drinking water and precipitation.

  10. RadNet Air Data From Toledo, OH (United States)

    This page presents radiation air monitoring and air filter analysis data for Toledo, OH from EPA's RadNet system. RadNet is a nationwide network of monitoring stations that measure radiation in air, drinking water and precipitation.

  11. RadNet Air Data From Honolulu, HI (United States)

    This page presents radiation air monitoring and air filter analysis data for Honolulu, HI from EPA's RadNet system. RadNet is a nationwide network of monitoring stations that measure radiation in air, drinking water and precipitation.

  12. Net radiative forcing and air quality responses to regional CO emission reductions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. M. Fry


    Full Text Available Carbon monoxide (CO emissions influence global and regional air quality and global climate change by affecting atmospheric oxidants and secondary species. We simulate the influence of halving anthropogenic CO emissions globally and individually from 10 regions on surface and tropospheric ozone, methane, and aerosol concentrations using a global chemical transport model (MOZART-4 for the year 2005. Net radiative forcing (RF is then estimated using the GFDL (Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory standalone radiative transfer model. We estimate that halving global CO emissions decreases global annual average concentrations of surface ozone by 0.45 ppbv, tropospheric methane by 73 ppbv, and global annual net RF by 36.1 mW m−2, nearly equal to the sum of changes from the 10 regional reductions. Global annual net RF per unit change in emissions and the 100 yr global warming potential (GWP100 are estimated as −0.124 mW m−2 (Tg CO−1 and 1.34, respectively, for the global CO reduction, and ranging from −0.115 to −0.131 mW m−2 (Tg CO−1 and 1.26 to 1.44 across 10 regions, with the greatest sensitivities for regions in the tropics. The net RF distributions show widespread cooling corresponding to the O3 and CH4 decreases, and localized positive and negative net RFs due to changes in aerosols. The strongest annual net RF impacts occur within the tropics (28° S–28° N followed by the northern midlatitudes (28° N–60° N, independent of reduction region, while the greatest changes in surface CO and ozone concentrations occur within the reduction region. Some regional reductions strongly influence the air quality in other regions, such as East Asia, which has an impact on US surface ozone that is 93% of that from North America. Changes in the transport of CO and downwind ozone production clearly exceed the direct export of ozone from each reduction region. The small variation in CO GWPs among world regions suggests that future international

  13. Numerical Computation of Net Radiative Heat Transfer within a Non Absorbing Furnace Enclosure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuaibu Ndache MOHAMMED


    Full Text Available The numerical evaluation of the net radiative heat transfer rate in a single zone, non absorbing furnace enclosure is reported. In this analysis, simplified mathematical furnace model namely, the long furnace model is used to determine furnace performance. The formulation assumes some known temperature values. Thus, heat transfer equations were set up and solved numerically. A FORTRAN computer program was developed and debugged. Results obtained from this study compare favourably well with the results from the traditional graphical method. Also, the computer program developed can handle variations in furnace operating conditions, temperatures, thermal properties and dimensions.

  14. Net radiative forcing due to changes in regional emissions of tropospheric ozone precursors (United States)

    Naik, Vaishali; Mauzerall, Denise; Horowitz, Larry; Schwarzkopf, M. Daniel; Ramaswamy, V.; Oppenheimer, Michael


    emissions of NOx, CO, and NMHCs, changes in O3 and CH4 concentrations result in a net negative radiative forcing (cooling). Thus we conclude that simultaneous reductions of CO, NMHCs, and NOx lead to a net reduction in radiative forcing due to resulting changes in tropospheric O3 and CH4 while reductions in NOx emissions alone do not.

  15. A more accurate formula for calculating the net longwave radiation flux in the Baltic Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomasz Zapadka


    Full Text Available A new, more accurate formula for calculating the net longwave radiation fluxLW ↑↓ has been devised for the Baltic Sea region. To this end,the following sets of simultaneously measured data regarding the longwave radiation of the sea andthe atmosphere were used: the temperatures of the sea surface and its contiguous air layer,the water vapour pressure in the air above the water, and the cloud cover.These data were gathered during numerous research cruises in the Baltic in 2000-03 and were supplemented by satellitedata from Karlsson (2001 characterising the cloud cover over the whole Baltic. The formulaestablished for LW ↑↓ can be written in the form of three alternative equations,differing with respect to their cloud cover functions:LW ↑↓ =0.985σT4s - σT4a (0.685+0.00452e{(1 + d n2 average for all cloud types (Z1(1 + din2 separately for low-, mid- and high-level clouds (Z2(1 + dinϒi separately for low-, mid- and high-level clouds (Z3where σ - Stefan-Boltzmann constant; Ts - sea surface temperature [K]; Ta - air temperature [K]; e - water vapour pressure [mbar]; n - total cloud amount [0 - 1]; d - mean empirical dimensionless coefficient, determined for all cloud types or for particular months (see Tables 3 and 4; da - empirical coefficient determined for the quadratic function: d1 = 0.39 for low-level clouds, d2 = 0.305 for mid-level clouds, d3 = 0.22 for high-level clouds; di - empirical coefficient determined as follows: d1 = 0.39 for low-level clouds when γ1 = 1.3, d2 = 0.29 for mid-level clouds when γ2 = 1.1; d3 = 0.17 for high-level clouds when γ3 = 0.96. The improved accuracy of this formula (RMSE ≅ 10 W m-2 is due chiefly to the establishment of functions and coefficients characterising the cloud cover over the Baltic in particular months of the year and their incorporation into it.

  16. Measurement and detection of radiation

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Tsoulfanidis, Nicholas; Landsberger, Sheldon


    .... With the miniaturization of equipment, increased speed of electronic components, and more sophisticated software, radiation detection systems are now more productively used in many disciplines...

  17. Measurement of advanced electromagnetic radiation


    Bajlo, Darko


    For the purpose of detecting advanced electromagnetic radiation predicted by Wheeler-Feynman absorber theory for the case of incomplete absorption of retarded electromagnetic radiation, pulses in duration of 6 ns to 24 ns, wavelength from 91 cm to 200 cm where supplied to three different transmitting antennas. Detection was done with a λ/20 monopole antenna in the advanced time window at a time 2r/c before the arrival of the center of the retarded pulse. At distances ranging from 430 cm to 18...

  18. Ambient UV-B radiation reduces PSII performance and net photosynthesis in high Arctic Salix arctica

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Albert, Kristian Rost; Mikkelsen, Teis Nørgaard; Ro-Poulsen, Helge


    Ambient ultraviolet-B (UV-B) radiation potentially impacts the photosynthetic performance of high Arctic plants. We conducted an UV-B exclusion experiment in a dwarf shrub heath in NE Greenland (74°N), with open control, filter control, UV-B filtering and UV-AB filtering, all in combination......, nitrogen and UV-B absorbing compounds. Compared to a 60% reduced UV-B irradiance, the ambient solar UV-B reduced net photosynthesis in Salix arctica leaves fixed in the 45° position which exposed leaves to maximum natural irradiance. Also a reduced Calvin Cycle capacity was found, i.e. the maximum rate...... across position in the vegetation. These findings add to the evidence that the ambient solar UV-B currently is a significant stress factor for plants in high Arctic Greenland....

  19. Measurement and Applications of Radiation Pressure (United States)

    Ma, Dakang; Garrett, Joseph; Murray, Joseph; Munday, Jeremy; Munday Lab Team

    Light reflected off a material or absorbed within it exerts radiation pressure through the transfer of momentum. Measuring and utilizing radiation pressure have aroused growing interest in a wide spectrum of research fields. Micromechanical transducers and oscillators are good candidates for measuring radiation pressure, but accompanying photothermal effects often obscure the measurement. In this work, we investigate the accurate measurement of the radiation force on microcantilevers in ambient conditions and ways to separate radiation pressure and photothermal effects. Further, we investigate an optically broadband switchable device based on polymer dispersed liquid crystal which has potential applications in solar sails and maneuvering spacecraft without moving parts. The authors would like to thank NASA Early Career Faculty Award and NASA Smallsat Technology Partnership Award for their funding support.

  20. Revisiting a Hydrological Analysis Framework with International Satellite Land Surface Climatology Project Initiative 2 Rainfall, Net Radiation, and Runoff Fields (United States)

    Koster, Randal D.; Fekete, Balazs M.; Huffman, George J.; Stackhouse, Paul W.


    The International Satellite Land Surface Climatology Project Initiative 2 (ISLSCP-2) data set provides the data needed to characterize the surface water budget across much of the globe in terms of energy availability (net radiation) and water availability (precipitation) controls. The data, on average, are shown to be consistent with Budyko s decades-old framework, thereby demonstrating the continuing relevance of Budyko s semiempirical relationships. This consistency, however, appears only when a small subset of the data with hydrologically suspicious behavior is removed from the analysis. In general, the precipitation, net radiation, and runoff data also appear consistent in their interannual variability and in the phasing of their seasonal cycles.

  1. Derivation of Surface Net Radiation at the Valencia Anchor Station from Top of the Atmosphere Gerb Fluxes by Means of Linear Models and Neural Networks (United States)

    Geraldo Ferreira, A.; Lopez-Baeza, Ernesto; Velazquez Blazquez, Almudena; Soria-Olivas, Emilio; Serrano Lopez, Antonio J.; Gomez Chova, Juan


    In this work, Linear Models (LM) and Artificial Neural Networks (ANN) have been developed to estimate net radiation (RN) at the surface. The models have been developed and evaluated by using the synergy between Geostationary Earth Radiation Budget (GERB-1) and Spinning Enhanced Visible and Infrared Imager (SEVIRI) data, both instruments onboard METEOSAT-9, and ``in situ'' measurements. The data used in this work, corresponding to August 2006 and June to August 2007, proceed from Top of the Atmosphere (TOA) broadband fluxes from GERB-1, every 15 min, and from net radiation at the surface measured, every 10 min, at the Valencia Anchor Station (VAS) area, having measured independently the shortwave and the longwave radiation components (downwelling and upwelling) for different land uses and land cover. The adjustment of both temporal resolutions for the satellite and in situ data was achieved by linear interpolation that showed less standard deviation than the cubic one. The LMs were developed and validated by using satellite TOA RN and ground station surface RN measurements, only considering cloudy free days selected from the ground data. The ANN model was developed both for cloudy and cloudy-free conditions using seven input variables selected for the training/validation sets, namely, hour, day, month, surface RN, solar zenith angle and TOA shortwave and longwave fluxes. Both, LMs and ANNs show remarkably good agreement when compared to surface RN measurements. Therefore, this methodology can be successfully applied to estimate RN at surface from GERB/SEVIRI data.

  2. Measuring Cloud Service Health Using NetFlow/IPFIX

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Drago, Idilio; Hofstede, Rick; Sadre, Ramin


    The increasing trend of outsourcing services to cloud providers is changing the way computing power is delivered to enterprises and end users. Although cloud services offer several advantages, they also make cloud consumers strongly dependent on providers. Hence, consumers have a vital interest...... to be immediately informed about any problems in their services. This paper aims at a first step toward a network-based approach to monitor cloud services. We focus on severe problems that affect most services, such as outages or extreme server overload, and propose a method to monitor these problems that relies...... solely on the traffic exchanged between users and cloud providers. Our proposal is entirely based on NetFlow/IPFIX data and, therefore, explicitly targets high-speed networks. By combining a methodology to reassemble and classify flow records with stochastic estimations, our proposal has the distinct...

  3. Measured Zero Net Energy Performance: Results, Lessons, and Surprises

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, Carrie; LaRue, Anna; Pigman, Margaret; Roberts, Jon; Kaneda, David; Connelly, Dylan; Elliott, John; Pless, Shanti; Pande, Abhijeet; Dean, Edward; Anbarlilar, Can


    As more and more zero net energy (ZNE) buildings are built and monitored, we can learn from both careful case studies of individual projects as well as a broader perspective of trends over time. In a forum sponsored by Pacific Gas and Electric Company (PG&E), eight expert speakers discussed: results and lessons from monitoring occupied ZNE buildings; best practices for setting performance targets and getting actionable performance information, and; things that have surprised them about monitored ZNE buildings. This paper distills the content of the forum by laying out the most common hurdles that are encountered in setting up monitoring projects, frequent performance issues that the monitoring uncovers, and lessons learned that can be applied to future projects.

  4. Designing a Broadband Pump for High-Quality Micro-Lasers via Modified Net Radiation Method

    CERN Document Server

    Nechayev, Sergey; Baldo, Marc A; Rotschild, Carmel


    High-quality micro-lasers are key ingredients in non-linear optics, communication, sensing and low-threshold solar-pumped lasers. However, such micro-lasers exhibit negligible absorption of free-space broadband pump light. Recently, this limitation was lifted by cascade energy transfer, in which the absorption and quality factor are modulated with wavelength, enabling non-resonant pumping of high-quality micro-lasers and solar-pumped laser to operate at record low solar concentration. Here, we present a generic theoretical framework for modeling the absorption, emission and energy transfer of incoherent radiation between cascade sensitizer and laser gain media. Our model is based on linear equations of the modified net radiation method and is therefore robust, fast converging and has low complexity. We apply this formalism to compute the optimal parameters of low-threshold solar-pumped lasers. It is revealed that the interplay between the absorption and self-absorption of such lasers defines the optimal pump ...

  5. [Effects of reduced solar radiation on winter wheat flag leaf net photosynthetic rate]. (United States)

    Zheng, You-Fei; Ni, Yan-Li; Mai, Bo-Ru; Wu, Rong-Jun; Feng, Yan; Sun, Jian; Li, Jian; Xu, Jing-Xin


    Taking winter wheat Triticum aestivum L. (cv. Yangmai 13) as test material, a field experiment was conducted in Nanjing City to study the effects of simulated reduced solar radiation on the diurnal variation of winter wheat flag leaf photosynthetic rate and the main affecting factors. Five treatments were installed, i. e., 15% (T15), 20% (T20) , 40% (T40), 60% (T60), and 100% (CK) of total incident solar radiation. Reduced solar irradiance increased the chlorophyll and lutein contents significantly, but decreased the net photosynthetic rate (Pn). Under different solar irradiance, the diurnal variation of Pn had greater difference, and the daily maximum Pn was in the order of CK > T60 > T40 > T 20 > T15. In CK, the Pn exhibited a double peak diurnal curve; while in the other four treatments, the Pn showed a single peak curve, and the peak was lagged behind that of CK. Correlation analysis showed that reduced solar irradiance was the main factor affecting the diurnal variation of Pn, but the physiological parameters also played important roles in determining the diurnal variation of Pn. In treatments T60 and T40, the photosynthesis active radiation (PAR), leaf temperature (T1) , stomatal conductance (Gs) , and transpiration rate (Tr) were significantly positively correlated with Pn, suggesting their positive effects on Pn. The intercellular CO2 concentration (Ci) and stomatal limitation (Ls) had significant negative correlations with Pn in treatments T60 and T40 but significant positive correlations with Pn in treatments T20 and T15, implying that the Ci and Ls had negative (or positive) effects on Pn when the solar irradiance was higher (or lower) than 40% of incident solar irradiance.

  6. Southern Great Plains Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Site (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Southern Great Plains Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Site (SGP-ARM) is the oldest and largest of DOE's Arm sites. It was established in 1992. It consists of...

  7. Applying Artificial Neural Networks to Estimate Net Radiation at Surface Using the Synergy between GERB-SEVIRI and Ground Data (United States)

    Geraldo Ferreira, A.; Soria, Emilio; Lopez-Baeza, Ernesto; Vila, Joan; Serrano, Antonio J.; Martinez, Marcelino; Velazquez Blazquez, Almudena; Clerbaux, Nicolas

    This paper describes the results obtained using Artificial Neural Networks (AAN) models to estimate the diurnal cycle of net radiation (Rn) at surface. The data used as input parameter in the AAN model were that measured by Geostationary Earth Radiation Budget (GERB-1) instrument, on board Meteosat 9 satellite. The data concerning Rn at the surface were collected at the Valencia Anchor Station (VAS), a ground reference meteorological station for the validation of low spatial resolution sensors situated near de city of Valencia, Spain. This data refers to the periods July 31st -August 6th 2006 and June 19th -August 18th 2007. Both, GERB-1 and VAS data are used to train and validate the AAN model. The same data set is also used to develop and validate a Multivariate Linear Regression (MLR) model. A comparison between the estimates provided by the AAN and the MLR models has been carried out; the results obtained with the neural model outperform the linear model. Moreover, the low values of the error indexes show that neural models can be used as an alternative methodology to make atmospheric corrections.

  8. On output measurements via radiation pressure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leeman, S.; Healey, A.J.; Forsberg, F.


    It is shown, by simple physical argument, that measurements of intensity with a radiation pressure balance should not agree with those based on calorimetric techniques. The conclusion is ultimately a consequence of the circumstance that radiation pressure measurements relate to wave momentum, while...... calorimetric methods relate to wave energy. Measurements with some typical ultrasound fields are performed with a novel type of hydrophone, and these allow an estimate to be made of the magnitude of the discrepancy to be expected between the two types of output measurement in a typical case....

  9. Net-proton measurements at RHIC and the quantum ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)


    Oct 17, 2014 ... The 2 and S values at these beam energies deviate from the expectations from Poisson statistics and that from a hadron resonance gas model. Both these measurements have implications towards understanding the quantum chromodynamics (QCD) phase structures, the first-order phase transition ...

  10. Phantoms for Radiation Measurements of Mobile Phones

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Gert Frølund


    Measurements of radiation efficiency for a handheld phone equipped with a patch and a helical antenna operated near the human user have been performed. Both measurements include a simple head plus hand phantom and live persons are considered. The position of the hand on the phone is found...

  11. Development of radiation protection and measurement technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chang, Si Young; Lee, T. Y.; Kim, J. L.; Kim, B. H.; Lee, B. J.; Chung, K. K.; Lee, K. C.; Chung, R. I.; Han, Y. D.; Kim, J. S.; Lee, H. S.; Kim, C. K.; Yoon, K. S.; Jeong, D. Y.; Yoon, S. C.; Yoon, Y. C.; Lee, S. Y.; Kim, J. S.; Seo, K. W. [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of); Kim, J. K.; Lee, J. K. [Hanyang Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)


    Reference X-, gamma, beta and neutron radiation fields complying with the ISO and ANSI standards have been established and evaluated to provide a basic technical support in national radiation protection dosimetry program and to provide calibration measurement devices. Personal dose evaluation algorithm has been developed with these reference radiation fields, which comply well with both domestic and the new ANSI N13.11, to evaluate accurate personal dose equivalents. A personal internal dosimetry algorithm which can estimate the intakes of radionuclides from the results of in vivo bioassay and the resulting internal doses has been developed and verified its performance. It was also evaluated to be equality excellent compared with those being used in foreign countries and used to make a computer code for internal dose evaluation which can be run with PC under the Windows environment. A BOMAB phantom for precise calibration of in vivo system has been also designed, fabricated and test-evaluated. Based on the ALARA concept of the optimization principle of radiation protection, a method for estimating the cost for radiation protection has been studied and an objective monetary cost of detriment due to radiation exposure, called {alpha} value ($/man-Sv) has been derived and proposed based on the Korean socio-economic situation and human risk factors to provide basic data for the radiation protection optimization study in Korea. (author). 100 refs., 104 tabs., 69 figs.


    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Galileo Probe Net Flux Radiometer (NFR) measured net and upward radiation fluxes in Jupiter's atmosphere between about 0.44 bars and 14 bars, using five spectral...

  13. Tropical forests are a net carbon source based on aboveground measurements of gain and loss (United States)

    Baccini, A.; Walker, W.; Carvalho, L.; Farina, M.; Sulla-Menashe, D.; Houghton, R. A.


    The carbon balance of tropical ecosystems remains uncertain, with top-down atmospheric studies suggesting an overall sink and bottom-up ecological approaches indicating a modest net source. Here we use 12 years (2003 to 2014) of MODIS pantropical satellite data to quantify net annual changes in the aboveground carbon density of tropical woody live vegetation, providing direct, measurement-based evidence that the world’s tropical forests are a net carbon source of 425.2 ± 92.0 teragrams of carbon per year (Tg C year–1). This net release of carbon consists of losses of 861.7 ± 80.2 Tg C year–1 and gains of 436.5 ± 31.0 Tg C year–1. Gains result from forest growth; losses result from deforestation and from reductions in carbon density within standing forests (degradation or disturbance), with the latter accounting for 68.9% of overall losses.

  14. Remote sensing as a tool for watershed-wide estimation of net solar radiation and water loss to the atmosphere (United States)

    Khorram, S.; Thomas, R. W.


    Results are presented for a study intended to develop a general remote sensing-aided cost-effective procedure to estimate watershed-wide water loss to the atmosphere via evapotranspiration and to estimate net solar radiation over the watershed. Evapotranspiration estimation employs a basic two-stage two-phase sample of three information resolution levels. Net solar radiation is taken as one of the variables at each level of evapotranspiration modeling. The input information for models requiring spatial information will be provided by Landsat digital data, environmental satellite data, ground meteorological data, ground sample unit information, and topographic data. The outputs of the sampling-estimation/data bank system will be in-place maps of evapotranspiration on a data resolution element basis, watershed-wide evapotranspiration isopleths, and estimates of watershed and subbasin total evapotranspiration with associated statistical confidence bounds. The methodology developed is being tested primarily on the Spanish Creek Watershed Plumas County, California.

  15. Radiation measurements aboard the fourth Gemini flight. (United States)

    Janni, J F; Schneider, M F


    Two special tissue-equivalent ionization chambers and 5 highly sensitive passive dosimetry packages were flown aboard the recent Gemini 4 flight for the purpose of obtaining precise values of instantaneous dose rate, accumulated dose. and shielding effectiveness. This experiment marked the first time that well-defined tissue dose and radiation survey measurements have been carried out in manned spaceflight operations. Since all measurements were accomplished under normal spacecraft environmental conditions, the biological dose resulted primarily from trapped inner Van Allen Belt radiation encountered by the spacecraft in the South Atlantic Anomaly. The experiment determined the particle type, ionizing and penetrating power, and variation with time and position within the Gemini spacecraft. Measured dose rates ranged from 100 mrad/hr for passes penetrating deeply into the South Atlantic Anomaly to less than 0.1 mrad/hr from lower latitude cosmic radiation. The accumulated tissue dose measured by the active ionization chambers, shielded by 0.4 gm/cm2 for the 4-day mission, was 82 mrad. Since the 5 passive dosimetry packages were each located in different positions within the spacecraft, the total mission surface dose measured by these detectors varied from 73 to 27 mrad, depending upon location and shielding. The particles within the spacecraft were recorded in nuclear emulsion, which established that over 90% of the tissue dose was attributable to penetrating protons. This experiment indicates that the radiation environment under shielded conditions at Gemini altitudes was not hazardous.

  16. Artificial and Natural Radioactivity Measurements and Radiation ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Artificial and Natural Radioactivity Measurements and Radiation Dose Assessment in the Vicinity of Ghana Nuclear Research Reactor-1 (GHARR-1) ... In the case of water samples, the average value was higher than the guidance level of 0.1 mSv y-1, as recommended by the European Union and the World ...

  17. Global and Regional Climate Responses Solar Radiation Management: Results from a Geoengineering Experiment (United States)

    Ricke, Katharine; Allen, Myles; Ingram, William; Keith, David; Granger Morgan, M.


    To date modeling studies suggest that, while significant hydrological anomalies could result from the artificial addition of reflecting aerosols in the stratosphere for the purpose of solar radiation management (SRM), even at the regional level such a geoengineered world would bear a much closer resemblance to a low CO2 world, than to an unmodified high CO2 world. These previous modeling studies have generally compared one or two SRM forcing scenarios to various business-as-usual controls. However, such approaches cannot provide much information about regional sensitivities to the levels of SRM that might realistically result. Should engaging in SRM every be seriously contemplated, such regional analysis of a range of realistic scenarios will be an essential input to any process of geopolitical decision-making. Here we present the results from a large-ensemble experiment that used the HadCM3L GCM, implemented through The analysis examines 135 globally-uniform stratospheric optical depth modification scenarios designed to stabilize global temperatures under SRES A1B. Scenarios were tested using ten-member subensembles which made small perturbations to initial conditions. All simulations use identical standard settings of model physics parameters and are initiated from historically-forced runs from 1920-2005. A total of 7,331 simulations of the years 2000-2080 were performed for this experiment using computing resources donated by the general public. Our analysis of regional temperature and precipitation anomalies, normalized to account for variability, shows that SRM compensations for anthropogenic greenhouse gas forcing do generally return regional climates closer to their baseline climate states than the no-geoengineering, business-as-usual scenarios. However, we find that the magnitudes and sensitivities of regional responses to this type of activity, as modeled in HadCM3L, are highly variable. As the amount of SRM increases to compensate

  18. Measuring Earth's Radiation Imbalance using Cubesat Constellations (United States)

    Collins, W. D.; Courtade, S.; Immel, T. J.; Feldman, D.; Lorentz, S. R.; Dyrud, L. P.


    At present, the global annual-mean Earth Radiation Imbalance (ERI) is estimated to be of order 1 W/m2, although the uncertainty in ERI is much larger than this estimate. The best current satellite-only observational determinations of ERI range from -2 to +7 W/m2 unless major adjustments are made using ocean observations. Since measurements of ERI accurate to better than 0.5 W/m2 are essential for understanding and predicting changes in our climate, new missions to determine ERI in conjunction with ongoing ocean observations are urgently needed. These missions should reliably determine Earth's radiation balance at the temporal and spatial scales sufficient for relating ERI to the physical processes responsible for variability. The compelling objective of measuring ERI can be met using a constellation of satellites making global, high-frequency radiation measurements of the solar energy reflected and infrared energy radiated back to space with sufficient accuracy to determine the ERI to within 0.5 W/m2. In this presentation, we discuss the reasons and prospects for deploying a Cubesat constellation to realize this objective, simulations of the data that could be produced by this constellation, and the advantages of the spatial coverage and high temporal frequency afforded by the constellation. These advantages apply both to estimating long-term ERI and to quantifying the radiation budgets of individual synoptic-scale weather systems. The innovations in this system involve both the use of Cubesats and of compact, continuously calibrated wide-field-of-view radiometers. We demonstrate the feasibility of such a constellation using the ongoing proof-of-concept deployment of the target radiometers onboard the upcoming NASA RAVAN (Radiometer Assessment using Vertically Aligned Nanotubes) mission.

  19. RadNet Map Interface for Near-Real-Time Radiation Monitoring Data (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — RadNet is a national network of monitoring stations that regularly collect air, precipitation, drinking water, and milk samples for analysis of radioactivity. The...

  20. Validation of a minimum microclimate disturbance chamber for net ecosystem flux measurements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Graf, A.; Werner, J.; Langensiepen, M.; Boer, van de A.; Schmidt, M.; Kupisch, M.; Vereecken, H.


    A minimum-disturbance chamber for canopy net CO2 and H2O flux measurements is described. The system is a passively (optionally actively) ventilated tunnel with large (similar to 0.14 m2) in- and outlet cross sections covering a surface area of approximately 1.6 m2. A differential, non-drying

  1. Net ecosystem CO2 exchange and evapotranspiration of a sphagnum mire: field measurements and model simulations (United States)

    Olchev, Alexander; Volkova, Elena; Karataeva, Tatiana; Zatsarinnaya, Dina; Novenko, Elena


    The spatial and temporal variability of net ecosystem exchange of CO2 (NEE) and evapotranspiration (ET) of a karst-hole sphagnum peat mire situated at the boundary between broad-leaved and forest-steppe zones in the central part of European Russia (54.06N, 37.59E, 260 m a.s.l.) was described using results of field measurements and simulations with Mixfor-3D model. The area of the mire is about 1.2 ha and it is surrounded by a broadleaved forest stand. It is a typical peat mire according to water and mineral supply as well as to vegetation composition. The vegetation of the peripheral parts of the mire is typical eutrophic whereas the vegetation in its central part is represented by meso-oligothrophic plant communities. To describe the spatial variability of NEE and ET within the mire a portable measuring system consisting of a transparent ventilated chamber combined with an infrared CO2 and H2O analyzer LI-840A (Li-Cor, USA) was used. The measurements were provided along a transect from the southern peripheral part of the mire to its center under sunny clear-sky weather conditions in the period from May to September of 2012 and from May 2013 to October 2013. The chamber method was used for measurements of NEE and ET fluxes because of small size of the mire, a very uniform surrounding forest stand and the mosaic mire vegetation. All these factors promote very heterogeneous exchange conditions within the mire and make it difficult to apply, for example, an eddy covariance method that is widely used for flux measurements in the field. The results of the field measurements showed a significant spatial and temporal variability of NEE and ET that was mainly influenced by incoming solar radiation, air temperature and ground water level. During the entire growing season the central part of the mire was a sink of CO2 for the atmosphere (up to 6.8±4.2 µmol m-2 s-1 in June) whereas its peripheral part, due to strong shading by the surrounding forest, was mainly a source of

  2. The use of gamma radiation in fluid flow measurements

    CERN Document Server

    Tjugum, S A; Holstad, M B


    Different measurement techniques involving the use of gamma radiation in flow measurement are discussed. In the Dual Modality Densitometry project at the University of Bergen, salinity-independent gas volume fraction measurements are obtained by combining scattered and transmitted radiation.

  3. Continuous measurements of net CO2 exchange by vegetation and soils in a suburban landscape (United States)

    Peters, Emily B.; McFadden, Joseph P.


    In a suburban neighborhood of Minneapolis-Saint Paul, Minnesota, USA, we simultaneously measured net CO2 exchange of trees using sap flow and leaf gas exchange measurements, net CO2exchange of a turfgrass lawn using eddy covariance from a portable tower, and total surface-atmosphere CO2 fluxes (FC) using an eddy covariance system on a tall tower. Two years of continuous measurements showed that net CO2exchange varied among vegetation types, with the largest growing-season (Apr-Nov) net CO2 uptake on a per cover area basis from evergreen needleleaf trees (-603 g C m-2), followed by deciduous broadleaf trees (-216 g C m-2), irrigated turfgrass (-211 g C m-2), and non-irrigated turfgrass (-115 g C m-2). Vegetation types showed seasonal patterns of CO2exchange similar to those observed in natural ecosystems. Scaled-up net CO2 exchange from vegetation and soils (FC(VegSoil)) agreed closely with landscape FC measurements from the tall tower at times when fossil fuel emissions were at a minimum. Although FC(VegSoil) did not offset fossil fuel emissions on an annual basis, the temporal pattern of FC(VegSoil) did significantly alter the seasonality of FC. Total growing season FC(VegSoil)in recreational land-use areas averaged -165 g C m-2 and was dominated by turfgrass CO2 exchange (representing 77% of the total), whereas FC(VegSoil) in residential areas averaged -124 g C m-2 and was dominated by trees (representing 78% of the total). Our results suggest urban vegetation types can capture much of the variability required to predict seasonal patterns and differences in FC(VegSoil) that could result from changes in land use or vegetation composition in temperate cities.

  4. Do dose area product meter measurements reflect radiation doses ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    accurately measures the radiation emitted from the source. The study included the interventional radiolo ... mined as most sensitive to radiation. The use of a thyroid guard also decreases the effective dose by approx- ... al radiation is necessary. Thermo- luminescent dosimetry is used to measure radiation and the apparatus.

  5. Effect of the Aerosol Type Selection for the Retrieval of Shortwave Ground Net Radiation: Case Study Using Landsat 8 Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristiana Bassani


    Full Text Available This paper discusses the aerosol radiative effects involved in the accuracy of shortwave net radiation, R n . s w , with s w ∈ (400–900 nm, retrieved by the Operational Land Imager (OLI, the new generation sensor of the Landsat mission. Net radiation is a key parameter for the energy exchange between the land and atmosphere; thus, R n . s w retrieval from space is under investigation by exploiting the increased spatial resolution of the visible and near-infrared OLI data. We adopted the latest version of the Second Simulation of a Satellite Signal in the Solar Spectrum (6SV atmospheric radiative transfer model implemented in the atmospheric correction algorithm (OLI Atmospherically-Corrected Reflectance Imagery (OLI@CRI developed specifically for OLI data. The values of R n . s w were obtained by varying the microphysical properties of the aerosol during the OLI@CRI retrieval of both the OLI surface reflectance, ρ p x l o l i , and the incoming solar irradiance at the surface. The analysis of the aerosol effects on the R n . s w was carried out on a spectrally-homogeneous desert area located in the southwestern Nile Delta. The results reveal that the R n . s w available for energy exchange between the land and atmosphere reduces the accuracy (NRMSE ≃ 14% when the local aerosol microphysical properties are not considered during the processing of space data. Consequently, these findings suggest that the aerosol type should be considered for variables retrieved by satellite observations concerning the energy exchange in the natural ecosystems, such as Photosynthetically-Active Radiation (PAR. This will also improve the accuracy of land monitoring and of solar energy for power generation when space data are used.

  6. Measuring ionizing radiation with a mobile device (United States)

    Michelsburg, Matthias; Fehrenbach, Thomas; Puente León, Fernando


    In cases of nuclear disasters it is desirable to know one's personal exposure to radioactivity and the related health risk. Usually, Geiger-Mueller tubes are used to assess the situation. Equipping everyone with such a device in a short period of time is very expensive. We propose a method to detect ionizing radiation using the integrated camera of a mobile consumer device, e.g., a cell phone. In emergency cases, millions of existing mobile devices could then be used to monitor the exposure of its owners. In combination with internet access and GPS, measured data can be collected by a central server to get an overview of the situation. During a measurement, the CMOS sensor of a mobile device is shielded from surrounding light by an attachment in front of the lens or an internal shutter. The high-energy radiation produces free electrons on the sensor chip resulting in an image signal. By image analysis by means of the mobile device, signal components due to incident ionizing radiation are separated from the sensor noise. With radioactive sources present significant increases in detected pixels can be seen. Furthermore, the cell phone application can make a preliminary estimate on the collected dose of an individual and the associated health risks.

  7. Methods of and apparatus for radiation measurement, and specifically for in vivo radiation measurement (United States)

    Huffman, D.D.; Hughes, R.C.; Kelsey, C.A.; Lane, R.; Ricco, A.J.; Snelling, J.B.; Zipperian, T.E.


    Methods of and apparatus for in vivo radiation measurements rely on a MOSFET dosimeter of high radiation sensitivity which operates in both the passive mode to provide an integrated dose detector and active mode to provide an irradiation rate detector. A compensating circuit with a matched unirradiated MOSFET is provided to operate at a current designed to eliminate temperature dependence of the device. Preferably, the MOSFET is rigidly mounted in the end of a miniature catheter and the catheter is implanted in the patient proximate the radiation source.

  8. Photocatalytic Active Radiation Measurements and Use (United States)

    Davis, Bruce A.; Underwood, Lauren W.


    Photocatalytic materials are being used to purify air, to kill microbes, and to keep surfaces clean. A wide variety of materials are being developed, many of which have different abilities to absorb various wavelengths of light. Material variability, combined with both spectral illumination intensity and spectral distribution variability, will produce a wide range of performance results. The proposed technology estimates photocatalytic active radiation (PcAR), a unit of radiation that normalizes the amount of light based on its spectral distribution and on the ability of the material to absorb that radiation. Photocatalytic reactions depend upon the number of electron-hole pairs generated at the photocatalytic surface. The number of electron-hole pairs produced depends on the number of photons per unit area per second striking the surface that can be absorbed and whose energy exceeds the bandgap of the photocatalytic material. A convenient parameter to describe the number of useful photons is the number of moles of photons striking the surface per unit area per second. The unit of micro-einsteins (or micromoles) of photons per m2 per sec is commonly used for photochemical and photoelectric-like phenomena. This type of parameter is used in photochemistry, such as in the conversion of light energy for photosynthesis. Photosynthetic response correlates with the number of photons rather than by energy because, in this photochemical process, each molecule is activated by the absorption of one photon. In photosynthesis, the number of photons absorbed in the 400 700 nm spectral range is estimated and is referred to as photosynthetic active radiation (PAR). PAR is defined in terms of the photosynthetic photon flux density measured in micro-einsteins of photons per m2 per sec. PcAR is an equivalent, similarly modeled parameter that has been defined for the photocatalytic processes. Two methods to measure the PcAR level are being proposed. In the first method, a calibrated

  9. Evaluation of Model Results and Measured Performance of Net-Zero Energy Homes in Hawaii: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Norton, P.; Kiatreungwattana, K.; Kelly, K. J.


    The Kaupuni community consists of 19 affordable net-zero energy homes that were built within the Waianae Valley of Oahu, Hawaii in 2011. The project was developed for the native Hawaiian community led by the Department of Hawaiian Homelands. This paper presents a comparison of the modeled and measured energy performance of the homes. Over the first year of occupancy, the community as a whole performed within 1% of the net-zero energy goals. The data show a range of performance from house to house with the majority of the homes consistently near or exceeding net-zero, while a few fall short of the predicted net-zero energy performance. The impact of building floor plan, weather, and cooling set point on this comparison is discussed. The project demonstrates the value of using building energy simulations as a tool to assist the project to achieve energy performance goals. Lessons learned from the energy performance monitoring has had immediate benefits in providing feedback to the homeowners, and will be used to influence future energy efficient designs in Hawaii and other tropical climates.

  10. Solar Radiation: Models and Measurement Techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. K. Pandey


    Full Text Available In order to grasp the significance of the work accomplished by the author, it is necessary to keep abreast of the present developments in this field. The research work reported in the paper is an attempt to get knowledge to assess the solar energy potential for practical and efficient utilization in India. Our work is centered on estimating realistic values of solar (global and diffuse radiation on horizontal and tilted surfaces using measured meteorological data and geographical and geometrical parameters for India.

  11. Why Net Domestic Product Should Replace Gross Domestic Product as a Measure of Economic Growth


    Roland Spant


    In the third article, Roland Spant, a Swedish trade union economist, argues that Net Domestic Product (NDP) should replace GDP as a measure of economic growth for a number of purposes. The key difference between GDP and NDP is depreciation. With the shift in investment toward information technology assets with relatively short service lives, the share of depreciation in GDP has increased in most OECD countries and GDP growth now exceeds NDP growth. Spant points out that this means that the us...

  12. Radiation damage measurements in room-temperature semiconductor radiation detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Franks, L A; Olsen, R W; Walsh, D S; Vizkelethy, G; Trombka, J I; Doyle, B L; James, R B


    The literature of radiation damage measurements on cadmium zinc telluride (CZT), cadmium telluride (CT), and mercuric iodide (HgI sub 2) is reviewed and in the case of CZT supplemented by new alpha particle data. CZT strip detectors exposed to intermediate energy (1.3 MeV) proton fluences exhibit increased interstrip leakage after 10 sup 1 sup 0 p/cm sup 2 and significant bulk leakage after 10 sup 1 sup 2 p/cm sup 2. CZT exposed to 200 MeV protons shows a two-fold loss in energy resolution after a fluence of 5x10 sup 9 p/cm sup 2 in thick (3 mm) planar devices but little effect in 2 mm devices. No energy resolution effects were noted from a moderated fission spectrum of neutrons after fluences up to 10 sup 1 sup 0 n/cm sup 2 , although activation was evident. Exposures of CZT to 5 MeV alpha particles at fluences up to 1.5x10 sup 1 sup 0 alpha/cm sup 2 produced a near linear decrease in peak position with fluence and increases in FWHM beginning at about 7.5x10 sup 9 alpha/cm sup 2. CT detectors show resolution...

  13. Measurements of background radiation at LAFN

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodrigues, A.V.G.A.; Medina, N.H.; Seale, W.A.; Oliveira, J.B.R.; Cybulska, E.W.; Ribas, R.V. [Universidade de Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Inst. de Fisica


    The background gamma radiation at four sites in the 'Laboratorio Aberto de Fisica Nuclear (LAFN) at the Instituto de Fisica of the Universidade de Sao Paulo was measured with a GeHP detector with an efficiency of 20% and a resolution of 2.5 keV. This detector was coupled to conventional electronics connected to a computer which stored the gamma ray spectra. The four sites were: the control room of the Pelletron accelerator; near the 30 deg A, and 45 deg B beam lines of the experimental room of the Pelletron accelerator; and the experimental room of the Linac accelerator. For each of the four locations, the data were accumulated, on average, during one week. Gamma rays from the radioactive series of {sup 238} U, {sup 235} U and {sup 232} Th have been observed. Another important element observed in background radiation was {sup 40} K, very common in soil and in construction materials. The analysis of the data showed no significant differences among the four site locations, except for an increase of the 661-keV gamma ray line from {sup 137} Cs, near the 30 deg A beam line. After a careful search, a few fragments of the capsule of a calibration source were found. The fragments were collected and the total source strength was measured to be 29.0(2)kBq. (author)

  14. Detailed Characteristics of Radiation Belt Electrons Revealed by CSSWE/REPTile Measurements (United States)

    Zhang, K.; Li, X.; Schiller, Q.; Gerhardt, D. T.; Millan, R. M.


    The outer radiation belt electrons are highly dynamic. We study the detailed characteristics of the relativistic electrons in the outer belt using measurements from the Colorado Student Space Weather Experiment (CSSWE) mission, a low Earth orbit Cubesat, which transverses the radiation belt four times in one orbit ( 1.5 hr) and has the advantage of measuring the dynamic activities of the electrons including their rapid precipitations. Among the features of the relativistic electrons, we show the measured electron distribution as a function of geomagnetic activities and local magnetic field strength. Moreover, a specific precipitation band, which happened on 19 Jan 2013, is investigated based on the conjunctive measurement of CSSWE and the Balloon Array for Radiation belt Relativistic Electron Losses (BARREL). In this precipitation band event, the net loss of the 0.58 1.63 MeV electrons (L=3.5 6) is estimated to account for 6.84% of the total electron content.

  15. Cosmic Radiation Measurements in Airline Service

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bagshaw, M


    Ionising radiation monitoring equipment is installed in all Concordes and much data have been derived. To validate the measurements from the on-board monitoring equipment, a programme of measurements on Concorde has been carried out using passive dosemeters in association with the UK National Radiological Protection Board. Data from a typical month (in this case October 1997) shows an arithmetic mean dose across the British Airways Concorde fleet of 12.9 ({+-}0.4) {mu}Sv.h{sup -1}. Results from the NRPB measurements for the same month give a dose of 11.4 ({+-}0.5) {mu}Sv.h{sup -1} and application of the CARI 3Q programme gives a dose of 9.6 {mu}Sv.h{sup -1} for the same month. The effective route dose between London and New York gives a mean value of 43.1 {mu}Sv for the Concorde detectors. The NRPB results give a route dose of 38.9 {mu}Sv whereas the CARI 3Q programme gives a route dose of 32.5 {mu}Sv. Measurements have also been performed on the Boeing 747-400 aircraft on the high latitude ultralonghaul direct London-Tokyo flight and these give values in the region of 6 {mu}Sv.h{sup -1}, against the CARI 3Q estimate of 3.7 {mu}Sv.h{sup -1}. (author)

  16. Method and apparatus for measuring electromagnetic radiation (United States)

    Been, J. F. (Inventor)


    An apparatus and method are described in which the capacitance of a semiconductor junction subjected to an electromagnetic radiation field is utilized to indicate the intensity or strength of the radiation.

  17. SUMER: Solar Ultraviolet Measurements of Emitted Radiation (United States)

    Wilhelm, K.; Axford, W. I.; Curdt, W.; Gabriel, A. H.; Grewing, M.; Huber, M. C. E.; Jordan, M. C. E.; Lemaire, P.; Marsch, E.; Poland, A. I.


    The SUMER (solar ultraviolet measurements of emitted radiation) experiment is described. It will study flows, turbulent motions, waves, temperatures and densities of the plasma in the upper atmosphere of the Sun. Structures and events associated with solar magnetic activity will be observed on various spatial and temporal scales. This will contribute to the understanding of coronal heating processes and the solar wind expansion. The instrument will take images of the Sun in EUV (extreme ultra violet) light with high resolution in space, wavelength and time. The spatial resolution and spectral resolving power of the instrument are described. Spectral shifts can be determined with subpixel accuracy. The wavelength range extends from 500 to 1600 angstroms. The integration time can be as short as one second. Line profiles, shifts and broadenings are studied. Ratios of temperature and density sensitive EUV emission lines are established.

  18. A review of welding radiation and associated protection measures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tenkate, T.


    Welding processes emit electromagnetic radiation that poses risk to the eyes and skin of workers. This paper reviews the health effects associated with exposure to welding radiation, the types of radiation emitted and the factors that influence the radiation emission. Studies on personal ultraviolet radiation levels of workers exposed to welding are reviewed, and engineering and personal protective measures that limit welding radiation are discussed. These measures include the design of the work area, and the use of semi-transparent welding curtains, protective clothing, safety spectacles and welding helmets. 41 refs., 1 tab., 6 figs.

  19. RadNet Air Data From Salt Lake City, UT (United States)

    This page presents radiation air monitoring and air filter analysis data for Salt Lake City, UT from EPA's RadNet system. RadNet is a nationwide network of monitoring stations that measure radiation in air, drinking water and precipitation.

  20. Validação do balanço de radiação obtido a partir de dados MODIS/TERRA na Amazônia com medidas de superfície do LBA Validation of net radiation obtained from MODIS/TERRA data in Amazonia with LBA surface measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel de Oliveira


    Full Text Available Este estudo tem como objetivo estimar os componentes do balanço de radiação em duas regiões do estado de Rondônia (sudoeste da Amazônia brasileira, a partir de dados do Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS/TERRA por intermédio do modelo Surface Energy Balance Algorithms for Land (SEBAL, e validar os resultados com informações adquiridas por torres micrometeorológicas do projeto LBA sob as condições de pastagem (Fazenda Nossa Senhora Aparecida e floresta (Reserva Biológica do Jaru. A implementação do modelo SEBAL foi realizada diretamente sobre os dados MODIS e incluiu etapas envolvendo o cômputo de índices de vegetação, albedo e transmitância atmosférica. A comparação das estimativas geradas a partir de dados MODIS com as observações resultou em erros relativos para a condição de pastagem variando entre 0,2 e 19,2%, e para a condição de floresta variando entre 0,8 e 15,6%. A integração de dados em diferentes escalas constituiu uma proposição útil para a estimativa e espacialização dos fluxos de radiação na região amazônica, o que pode contribuir para a melhor compreensão da interação entre a floresta tropical e a atmosfera e gerar informações de entrada necessárias aos modelos de superfície acoplados aos modelos de circulação geral da atmosfera.This study aims to estimate the components of net radiation in two regions located in the state of Rondônia (southwest of the Brazilian Amazon, using Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS/TERRA data based on Surface Energy Balance Algorithms for Land (SEBAL model, and to validate the results with information acquired by the micrometeorological towers of LBA under the conditions of pasture (Fazenda Nossa Senhora Aparecida and forest (Reserva Biológica do Jaru. Implementation of SEBAL model was performed directly on the MODIS data and included steps involving the computation of vegetation indices, albedo and atmospheric

  1. Modification of Sunlight Radiation through Colored Photo-Selective Nets Affects Anthocyanin Profile in Vaccinium spp. Berries.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Zoratti

    Full Text Available In recent years, the interest on the effects of the specific wavelengths of the light spectrum on growth and metabolism of plants has been increasing markedly. The present study covers the effect of modified sunlight conditions on the accumulation of anthocyanin pigments in two Vaccinium species: the European wild bilberry (V. myrtillus L. and the cultivated highbush blueberry (V. corymbosum L..The two Vaccinium species were grown in the same test field in the Alps of Trentino (Northern Italy under modified light environment. The modification of sunlight radiation was carried out in field, through the use of colored photo-selective nets throughout the berry ripening during two consecutive growing seasons. The anthocyanin profile was then assessed in berries at ripeness.The results indicated that the light responses of the two Vaccinium species studied were different. Although both studied species are shade-adapted plants, 90% shading of sunlight radiation was beneficial only for bilberry plants, which accumulated the highest content of anthocyanins in both seasons. The same condition, instead, was not favorable for blueberries, whose maturation was delayed for at least two weeks, and anthocyanin accumulation was significantly decreased compared to berries grown under sunlight conditions. Moreover, the growing season had strong influence on the anthocyanin accumulation in both species, in relation to temperature flow and sunlight spectra composition during the berry ripening period.Our results suggest that the use of colored photo-selective nets may be a complementary agricultural practice for cultivation of Vaccinium species. However, further studies are needed to analyze the effect of the light spectra modifications to other nutritional properties, and to elucidate the molecular mechanisms behind the detected differences between the two relative Vaccinium species.

  2. Modification of Sunlight Radiation through Colored Photo-Selective Nets Affects Anthocyanin Profile in Vaccinium spp. Berries. (United States)

    Zoratti, Laura; Jaakola, Laura; Häggman, Hely; Giongo, Lara


    In recent years, the interest on the effects of the specific wavelengths of the light spectrum on growth and metabolism of plants has been increasing markedly. The present study covers the effect of modified sunlight conditions on the accumulation of anthocyanin pigments in two Vaccinium species: the European wild bilberry (V. myrtillus L.) and the cultivated highbush blueberry (V. corymbosum L.). The two Vaccinium species were grown in the same test field in the Alps of Trentino (Northern Italy) under modified light environment. The modification of sunlight radiation was carried out in field, through the use of colored photo-selective nets throughout the berry ripening during two consecutive growing seasons. The anthocyanin profile was then assessed in berries at ripeness. The results indicated that the light responses of the two Vaccinium species studied were different. Although both studied species are shade-adapted plants, 90% shading of sunlight radiation was beneficial only for bilberry plants, which accumulated the highest content of anthocyanins in both seasons. The same condition, instead, was not favorable for blueberries, whose maturation was delayed for at least two weeks, and anthocyanin accumulation was significantly decreased compared to berries grown under sunlight conditions. Moreover, the growing season had strong influence on the anthocyanin accumulation in both species, in relation to temperature flow and sunlight spectra composition during the berry ripening period. Our results suggest that the use of colored photo-selective nets may be a complementary agricultural practice for cultivation of Vaccinium species. However, further studies are needed to analyze the effect of the light spectra modifications to other nutritional properties, and to elucidate the molecular mechanisms behind the detected differences between the two relative Vaccinium species.

  3. Modification of Sunlight Radiation through Colored Photo-Selective Nets Affects Anthocyanin Profile in Vaccinium spp. Berries (United States)

    Zoratti, Laura; Jaakola, Laura; Häggman, Hely; Giongo, Lara


    Objectives In recent years, the interest on the effects of the specific wavelengths of the light spectrum on growth and metabolism of plants has been increasing markedly. The present study covers the effect of modified sunlight conditions on the accumulation of anthocyanin pigments in two Vaccinium species: the European wild bilberry (V. myrtillus L.) and the cultivated highbush blueberry (V. corymbosum L.). Methods The two Vaccinium species were grown in the same test field in the Alps of Trentino (Northern Italy) under modified light environment. The modification of sunlight radiation was carried out in field, through the use of colored photo-selective nets throughout the berry ripening during two consecutive growing seasons. The anthocyanin profile was then assessed in berries at ripeness. Results The results indicated that the light responses of the two Vaccinium species studied were different. Although both studied species are shade-adapted plants, 90% shading of sunlight radiation was beneficial only for bilberry plants, which accumulated the highest content of anthocyanins in both seasons. The same condition, instead, was not favorable for blueberries, whose maturation was delayed for at least two weeks, and anthocyanin accumulation was significantly decreased compared to berries grown under sunlight conditions. Moreover, the growing season had strong influence on the anthocyanin accumulation in both species, in relation to temperature flow and sunlight spectra composition during the berry ripening period. Conclusions Our results suggest that the use of colored photo-selective nets may be a complementary agricultural practice for cultivation of Vaccinium species. However, further studies are needed to analyze the effect of the light spectra modifications to other nutritional properties, and to elucidate the molecular mechanisms behind the detected differences between the two relative Vaccinium species. PMID:26288240

  4. NOy production, ozone loss and changes in net radiative heating due to energetic particle precipitation in 2002–2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Sinnhuber


    Full Text Available We analyze the impact of energetic particle precipitation on the stratospheric nitrogen budget, ozone abundances and net radiative heating using results from three global chemistry-climate models considering solar protons and geomagnetic forcing due to auroral or radiation belt electrons. Two of the models cover the atmosphere up to the lower thermosphere, the source region of auroral NO production. Geomagnetic forcing in these models is included by prescribed ionization rates. One model reaches up to about 80 km, and geomagnetic forcing is included by applying an upper boundary condition of auroral NO mixing ratios parameterized as a function of geomagnetic activity. Despite the differences in the implementation of the particle effect, the resulting modeled NOy in the upper mesosphere agrees well between all three models, demonstrating that geomagnetic forcing is represented in a consistent way either by prescribing ionization rates or by prescribing NOy at the model top.Compared with observations of stratospheric and mesospheric NOy from the Michelson Interferometer for Passive Atmospheric Sounding (MIPAS instrument for the years 2002–2010, the model simulations reproduce the spatial pattern and temporal evolution well. However, after strong sudden stratospheric warmings, particle-induced NOy is underestimated by both high-top models, and after the solar proton event in October 2003, NOy is overestimated by all three models. Model results indicate that the large solar proton event in October 2003 contributed about 1–2 Gmol (109 mol NOy per hemisphere to the stratospheric NOy budget, while downwelling of auroral NOx from the upper mesosphere and lower thermosphere contributes up to 4 Gmol NOy. Accumulation over time leads to a constant particle-induced background of about 0.5–1 Gmol per hemisphere during solar minimum, and up to 2 Gmol per hemisphere during solar maximum. Related negative anomalies of ozone are predicted by

  5. Measurement of indoor background ionizing radiation in some ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Certain types of building materials are known to be radioactive. Exposure to indoor ionizing radiation like exposure to any other type of ionizing radiation results in critical health challenges. Measurement of the background ionizing radiation profile within the Chemistry Research Laboratory and Physics Laboratory III all of ...

  6. Southern Hemisphere Measurement of the Anisotropy in the CosmicMicrowave Background Radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smoot, George F.; Lubin, Phil M.


    A recent measurement of the anisotropy in the Cosmic Background Radiation from the southern hemisphere (Lima, Peru) is essentially in agreement with previous measurements from the northern hemisphere. The net anisotropy can be described as a first order spherical harmonic (Doppler) anisotropy of amplitude 3.1 {+-} 0.4 m{sup o}K with a quadrupole anisotropy of less than 1 m{sup o}K. In addition, measurements of the linear polarization yield an upper limit of 1 m{sup o}K, or one part in 3000, at 95% C.L. for the amplitudes of any spherical harmonic through third order.

  7. Radiation Budget Profiles measured through the Atmosphere with a Return Glider Radiosonde (United States)

    Philipona, R.; Kraeuchi, A.; Kivi, R.


    Very promising radiation budget profile measurements through the atmosphere were made in 2011 with a balloon borne short- and longwave net radiometer. New and improved radiation sensors from Kipp&Zonen are now used in a glider aircraft together with a standard Swiss radiosonde from Meteolabor AG. This new return glider radiosonde (RG-R), is lifted up with double balloon technique to prevent pendulum motion and to keep the radiation instruments as horizontal as possible during the ascent measuring phase. The RG-R is equipped with a release mechanism and an autopilot that flies the glider radiosonde back to the launch site, or to a predefined open space, where it releases a parachute for landing once it is 100 meter above ground. The RG-R was successfully tested and deployed for tropospheric and stratospheric radiation measurements up to 30 hPa (24 km altitude) at the GRUAN sites Payerne (Switzerland) and Sodankylä (Finland). Radiation profiles and the radiation budget through the atmosphere during different daytimes and under cloud-free and cloudy situations will be shown in relation to temperature and humidity at the surface and in the atmosphere. The RG-R flight characteristics and new measurement possibilities will also be discussed.

  8. Impact of land-use change in the net radiation of the Cerrado of the southern Mato Grosso

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos Alves Fausto


    Full Text Available Changes resulting from land use and occupation modify the surface radioactive balance. This paper evaluated the impact on the net radiation caused by the conversion of a Cerrado area in an agricultural zone in the southern Mato Grosso using Landsat 5 TM sensor imagery acquired between June and October 2011. The analyses were performed of the following land use classes: Cerrado, riparian vegetation, sugarcane, soybean, pasture, bare soil and water. The replacement of Cerrado by agricultural areas changed the biophysical indices of the surface due to the change in biomass and the optical properties of the surface as observed in this study. The NDVI values were higher in the typical Cerrado vegetation and Riparian Forest than in agricultural areas. The surface temperature and the surface albedo showed an inverse pattern of NDVI, with lower values in the typical Cerrado vegetation and Riparian Forest and higher values in agricultural areas and bare soil. The replacement of Cerrado by cultivated crops in the south of Mato Grosso decreased the available energy at the surface, as indicated by the radiation balance.

  9. Calibrating a custom-made densitometer for radiation hardness measurements

    CERN Document Server

    Vaananen, Mika Petteri


    A custom-made densitometer was set up to be used in radiation hardness measurements of scintillating fibres. Also, a measurement setup to measure the minimal bending radius of scintillating fibres was designed and implemented.

  10. Radiative and convective properties of 316L Stainless Steel fabricated using the Laser Engineered Net Shaping process (United States)

    Knopp, Jonathan

    Temperature evolution of metallic materials during the additive manufacturing process has direct influence in determining the materials microstructure and resultant characteristics. Through the power of Infrared (IR) thermography it is now possible to monitor thermal trends in a build structure, giving the power to adjust building parameters in real time. The IR camera views radiation in the IR wavelengths and determines temperature of an object by the amount of radiation emitted from the object in those wavelengths. Determining the amount of radiation emitted from the material, known as a materials emissivity, can be difficult in that emissivity is affected by both temperature and surface finish. It has been shown that the use of a micro-blackbody cavity can be used as an accurate reference temperature when the sample is held at thermal equilibrium. A micro-blackbody cavity was created in a sample of 316L Stainless Steel after being fabricated during using the Laser Engineered Net Shaping (LENS) process. Holding the sample at thermal equilibrium and using the micro-blackbody cavity as a reference and thermocouple as a second reference emissivity values were able to be obtained. IR thermography was also used to observe the manufacturing of these samples. When observing the IR thermography, patterns in the thermal history of the build were shown to be present as well as distinct cooling rates of the material. This information can be used to find true temperatures of 316L Stainless Steel during the LENS process for better control of desired material properties as well as future work in determining complete energy balance.

  11. Using the Synergy Between GERB/SEVIRI and Micrometeorological Data to Study the Relationship Between Surface Net Radiation and Soil Heat Flux at Local and Regional Scales (United States)

    Ferreira, A. G.; Velázquez Blázquez, A.; Soria, E.; Lopez-Baeza, E.


    The surface energy exchange between the land surface and the atmosphere can be described by the energy balance equation Rn - H - LE - G = 0, where Rn represents net radiation, H the sensible heat flux, LE, the latent heat flux and G the soil heat flux. In this work the relationship between Rn and G is studied over vineyard crops, a relative sparse vegetation cover crop where, according to the literature, it is expected that G consumes a significant proportion of Rn. In order to study this relationship at local and regional scales, micrometeorological observations and METEOSAT Second Generation (MSG) satellite data have been used. MSG through the GERB (Geostationary Earth Radiation Budget) and the SEVIRI (Spinning Enhanced Visible and Infrared Imager) sensors can provide estimates of net radiation and required land surface temperature (LST) information with a frequency of 15 min intervals. The necessary micrometeorological parameters, to compare with satellite data, were collected during the full vine growing season of 2007 (May to September) in a field experiment carried out at the Valencia Anchor Station (VAS) site area. The VAS is a robust reference meteorological station which is successfully used preferentially for validation of low spatial resolution satellite data and products. It is located on the natural region of the Utiel-Requena Plateau, at about 80 km west from the city of Valencia, Spain, and represents a reasonable homogeneous area of about 50 km x 50 km dedicated primarily to growing vines. The methodology utilized to study the relationship between Rn and G at local and regional scales, was that proposed by Santanello and Friedel (2002), where surface temperature can be obtained from SEVIRI that provides estimates of LST with unprecedented frequency of 15 min intervals with a spatial resolution of 3.1 km, thus totally covering its diurnal course. The preliminary results show that: 1- the correlation between the ground measurements and SEVIRI LST is

  12. Estimativa do saldo de radiação em girassol como função da radiação solar global Estimation of net radiation in sunflower as a function of solar radiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arno B Heldwein


    Full Text Available Objetivou-se com este trabalho a obtenção de modelos para a estimativa do saldo de radiação (Q* a partir da radiação solar global incidente (Rg sobre dosseis de plantas de girassol. Os experimentos foram conduzidos na área experimental da Universidade Federal de Santa Maria, nos anos de 2007, 2008 e 2009. O Q* foi medido com saldos radiômetros instalados acima das plantas e a Rg em estações meteorológicas automáticas. Para fins de cálculo foram efetuadas as somas diárias de Q* e de Rg, obtendo-se a relação entre Q* e Rg para cada dia. Obtiveram-se, então, modelos com elevado coeficiente de determinação e baixo RQME no teste entre valores medidos e estimados de um banco de dados independente, indicando precisão na estimativa do saldo de radiação em dosseis de girassol, independendo da época de cultivo no ano. A função linear geral obtida com dados de diferentes épocas de cultivo foi: Q* = 0,5285 Rg (R² = 0,95, que no teste apresentou RQME = 1,04 MJ m-2 d-1. Conclui-se que o saldo de radiação (Q* pode ser estimado utilizando-se a radiação solar global medida em estações automáticas, com precisão suficiente para os diferentes fins na agrometeorologia do girassol.This study aimed to develop models for estimating the net radiation (Q * from the incident solar radiation (Rg on canopies of sunflower plants. The experiments were conducted at the Plant Science Department of the Federal University of Santa Maria in 2007, 2008 and 2009 years. Q* was measured by net radiometers above the plants and Rg by automatic weather stations. For purposes of calculation, daily sums of Q* and Rg were performed, obtaining the relationship between Q* and Rg for each day. Models with high coefficient of determination and low RQME were obtained in test between measured and estimated values from an independent database, indicating precision to estimate net radiation in sunflower canopies, regardless of cultivation time in year. The general

  13. Eddy covariance measurements of net C exchange in the CAM bioenergy crop, Agave tequiliana (United States)

    Owen, Nick A.; Choncubhair, Órlaith Ní; Males, Jamie; del Real Laborde, José Ignacio; Rubio-Cortés, Ramón; Griffiths, Howard; Lanigan, Gary


    Bioenergy crop cultivation may focus more on low grade and marginal lands in order to avoid competition with food production for land and water resources. However, in many regions, this would require improvements in plant water-use efficiency that are beyond the physiological capacity of most C3 and C4 bioenergy crop candidates. Crassulacean acid metabolism (CAM) plants, such as Agave tequiliana, can combine high above-ground productivity with as little as 20% of the water demand of C3 and C4 crops. This is achieved through temporal separation of carboxylase activities, with stomata opening at night to allow gas exchange and minimise transpirational losses. Previous studies have employed 'bottom-up' methodologies to investigate carbon (C) accumulation and productivity in Agave, by scaling leaf-level gas exchange and titratable acidity (TA) with leaf area index or maximum productivity. We used the eddy covariance (EC) technique to quantify ecosystem-scale gas exchange over an Agave plantation in Mexico ('top-down' approach). Measurements were made over 252 days, including the transition from wet to dry periods. Results were cross-validated against diel changes in titratable acidity, leaf-unfurling rates, energy exchange fluxes and reported biomass yields. Net ecosystem exchange of CO2 displayed a CAM rhythm that alternated from a net C sink at night to a net C source during the day and partitioned canopy fluxes (gross C assimilation, FA,EC) showed a characteristic four-phase CO2 exchange pattern. The projected ecosystem C balance indicated that the site was a net sink of -333 ± 24 g C m-2 y-1, comprising cumulative soil respiration of 692 ± 7 g C m-2 y-1 and FA,EC of -1025 ± 25 g C m-2 y-1. EC-estimated biomass yield was 20.1 Mg ha-1 y-1. Average integrated daily FA,EC was -234 ± 5 mmol CO2 m-2 d-1 and persisted almost unchanged after 70 days of drought conditions. Our results suggest that the carbon acquisition strategy of drought avoidance employed by Agave

  14. Partitioning net ecosystem carbon exchange into net assimilation and respiration using 13CO2 measurements: A cost-effective sampling strategy (United States)

    OgéE, J.; Peylin, P.; Ciais, P.; Bariac, T.; Brunet, Y.; Berbigier, P.; Roche, C.; Richard, P.; Bardoux, G.; Bonnefond, J.-M.


    The current emphasis on global climate studies has led the scientific community to set up a number of sites for measuring the long-term biosphere-atmosphere net CO2 exchange (net ecosystem exchange, NEE). Partitioning this flux into its elementary components, net assimilation (FA), and respiration (FR), remains necessary in order to get a better understanding of biosphere functioning and design better surface exchange models. Noting that FR and FA have different isotopic signatures, we evaluate the potential of isotopic 13CO2 measurements in the air (combined with CO2 flux and concentration measurements) to partition NEE into FR and FA on a routine basis. The study is conducted at a temperate coniferous forest where intensive isotopic measurements in air, soil, and biomass were performed in summer 1997. The multilayer soil-vegetation-atmosphere transfer model MuSICA is adapted to compute 13CO2 flux and concentration profiles. Using MuSICA as a "perfect" simulator and taking advantage of the very dense spatiotemporal resolution of the isotopic data set (341 flasks over a 24-hour period) enable us to test each hypothesis and estimate the performance of the method. The partitioning works better in midafternoon when isotopic disequilibrium is strong. With only 15 flasks, i.e., two 13CO2 nighttime profiles (to estimate the isotopic signature of FR) and five daytime measurements (to perform the partitioning) we get mean daily estimates of FR and FA that agree with the model within 15-20%. However, knowledge of the mesophyll conductance seems crucial and may be a limitation to the method.

  15. Radiation detection and measurement student solutions manual

    CERN Document Server

    Wehe, David K


    This is the resource that engineers turn to in the study of radiation detection. The fourth edition takes into account the technical developments that continue to enhance the instruments and techniques available for the detection and spectroscopy of ionizing radiation. New coverage is presented on ROC curves, micropattern gas detectors, new sensors for scintillation light, and the excess noise factor. Revised discussions are also included on TLDs and cryogenic spectrometers, radiation backgrounds, and the VME standard. Engineers will gain a strong understanding of the field with this updated book.

  16. About Solar Radiation Intensity Measurements and Data Processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MICH-VANCEA Claudiu


    Full Text Available Measuring the intensity of solar radiation is one of the directions of investigation necessary for the implementation of photovoltaic systems in a particular geographical area. This can be done by using specific measuring equipment (pyranometer sensors based onthermal or photovoltaic principle. In this paper it is presented a method for measuring solar radiation (which has two main components - direct radiation and diffuse radiation with sensors based on photovoltaic principle. Such data are processed for positioning solarpanels, in order their efficiency to be maximized.

  17. Do dose area product meter measurements reflect radiation doses ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    between radiation doses absorbed by health care workers and dose area product meter (DAP) measurements at Universitas Hospital, Bloemfontein. The DAP is an instrument which accurately measures the radiation emitted from the source. The study included the interventional radiolo- gists, radiographers and nurses ...

  18. Calibration of solar radiation measuring instruments. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bahm, R J; Nakos, J C


    A review of solar radiation measurement of instruments and some types of errors is given; and procedures for calibrating solar radiation measuring instruments are detailed. An appendix contains a description of various agencies who perform calibration of solar instruments and a description of the methods they used at the time this report was prepared. (WHK)

  19. Measurement of Background Gamma Radiation Levels at Two ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An in-situ measurement of the background radiation level was carried out at the vicinity of three campuses of two major tertiary institutions in Minna. A portable Geiger-Mueller tube-based environmental radiation dosimeter was used for the measurement. A total of 34 point was surveyed across the three institutions for ...

  20. QoS measurement of workflow-based web service compositions using Colored Petri net. (United States)

    Nematzadeh, Hossein; Motameni, Homayun; Mohamad, Radziah; Nematzadeh, Zahra


    Workflow-based web service compositions (WB-WSCs) is one of the main composition categories in service oriented architecture (SOA). Eflow, polymorphic process model (PPM), and business process execution language (BPEL) are the main techniques of the category of WB-WSCs. Due to maturity of web services, measuring the quality of composite web services being developed by different techniques becomes one of the most important challenges in today's web environments. Business should try to provide good quality regarding the customers' requirements to a composed web service. Thus, quality of service (QoS) which refers to nonfunctional parameters is important to be measured since the quality degree of a certain web service composition could be achieved. This paper tried to find a deterministic analytical method for dependability and performance measurement using Colored Petri net (CPN) with explicit routing constructs and application of theory of probability. A computer tool called WSET was also developed for modeling and supporting QoS measurement through simulation.

  1. QoS Measurement of Workflow-Based Web Service Compositions Using Colored Petri Net

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hossein Nematzadeh


    Full Text Available Workflow-based web service compositions (WB-WSCs is one of the main composition categories in service oriented architecture (SOA. Eflow, polymorphic process model (PPM, and business process execution language (BPEL are the main techniques of the category of WB-WSCs. Due to maturity of web services, measuring the quality of composite web services being developed by different techniques becomes one of the most important challenges in today’s web environments. Business should try to provide good quality regarding the customers’ requirements to a composed web service. Thus, quality of service (QoS which refers to nonfunctional parameters is important to be measured since the quality degree of a certain web service composition could be achieved. This paper tried to find a deterministic analytical method for dependability and performance measurement using Colored Petri net (CPN with explicit routing constructs and application of theory of probability. A computer tool called WSET was also developed for modeling and supporting QoS measurement through simulation.

  2. Simulated Seasonal Spatio-Temporal Patterns of Soil Moisture, Temperature, and Net Radiation in a Deciduous Forest (United States)

    Ballard, Jerrell R., Jr.; Howington, Stacy E.; Cinnella, Pasquale; Smith, James A.


    The temperature and moisture regimes in a forest are key components in the forest ecosystem dynamics. Observations and studies indicate that the internal temperature distribution and moisture content of the tree influence not only growth and development, but onset and cessation of cambial activity [1], resistance to insect predation[2], and even affect the population dynamics of the insects [3]. Moreover, temperature directly affects the uptake and metabolism of population from the soil into the tree tissue [4]. Additional studies show that soil and atmospheric temperatures are significant parameters that limit the growth of trees and impose treeline elevation limitation [5]. Directional thermal infrared radiance effects have long been observed in natural backgrounds [6]. In earlier work, we illustrated the use of physically-based models to simulate directional effects in thermal imaging [7-8]. In this paper, we illustrated the use of physically-based models to simulate directional effects in thermal, and net radiation in a adeciduous forest using our recently developed three-dimensional, macro-scale computational tool that simulates the heat and mass transfer interaction in a soil-root-stem systems (SRSS). The SRSS model includes the coupling of existing heat and mass transport tools to stimulate the diurnal internal and external temperatures, internal fluid flow and moisture distribution, and heat flow in the system.

  3. Undoped InSb radiation detector for radiation measurement

    CERN Document Server

    Hishiki, S; Sugiura, O; Murase, Y; Nakamura, T; Katagiri, M


    A Schottky type detector was fabricated with undoped InSb wafer. We could measure the energy of sup 2 sup 4 sup 1 Am alpha particles with this InSb detector at the operating temperature from 2 K to 65 K.

  4. Energy intensity ratios as net energy measures of United States energy production and expenditures (United States)

    King, C. W.


    In this letter I compare two measures of energy quality, energy return on energy invested (EROI) and energy intensity ratio (EIR) for the fossil fuel consumption and production of the United States. All other characteristics being equal, a fuel or energy system with a higher EROI or EIR is of better quality because more energy is provided to society. I define and calculate the EIR for oil, natural gas, coal, and electricity as measures of the energy intensity (units of energy divided by money) of the energy resource relative to the energy intensity of the overall economy. EIR measures based upon various unit prices for energy (e.g. /Btu of a barrel of oil) as well as total expenditures on energy supplies (e.g. total dollars spent on petroleum) indicate net energy at different points in the supply chain of the overall energy system. The results indicate that EIR is an easily calculated and effective proxy for EROI for US oil, gas, coal, and electricity. The EIR correlates well with previous EROI calculations, but adds additional information on energy resource quality within the supply chain. Furthermore, the EIR and EROI of oil and gas as well as coal were all in decline for two time periods within the last 40 years, and both time periods preceded economic recessions.

  5. Optical tomography for measuring dose distribution in radiation therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kauppinen Matti


    Full Text Available The dosimetry is used to verify the dose magnitude with artificial samples (phantoms before giving the planned radiation therapy to the patient. Typically, dose distribution is measured only in a single point or on a two-dimensional matrix plane. New techniques of radiation therapy ensure more detailed planning of radiation dose distribution which will lead to the need of measuring the radiation dose distribution three-dimensionally. The gel dosimetry is used to indicate and determine the ionizing radiation three-dimensionally. The radiation causes changes in chemical properties of the gel. The radiation dose distribution is defined by measuring the chemical changes. A conventional method is the magnetic resonance imaging and a new possibility is optical computed tomography (optical-CT. The optical-CT is much cheaper and more practical than magnetic resonance imaging. In this project, an optical-CT based method device was built by aiming at low material costs and a simple realization. The constructed device applies the charge coupled device camera and fluorescent lamp technologies. The test results show that the opacity level of the radiated gel can be measured accurately enough. The imaging accuracy is restricted by the optical distortion, e. g. vignetting, of the lenses, the distortion of a fluorescent lamp as the light source and a noisy measuring environment.

  6. Modeling electroencephalography waveforms with semi-supervised deep belief nets: fast classification and anomaly measurement (United States)

    Wulsin, D. F.; Gupta, J. R.; Mani, R.; Blanco, J. A.; Litt, B.


    Clinical electroencephalography (EEG) records vast amounts of human complex data yet is still reviewed primarily by human readers. Deep belief nets (DBNs) are a relatively new type of multi-layer neural network commonly tested on two-dimensional image data but are rarely applied to times-series data such as EEG. We apply DBNs in a semi-supervised paradigm to model EEG waveforms for classification and anomaly detection. DBN performance was comparable to standard classifiers on our EEG dataset, and classification time was found to be 1.7-103.7 times faster than the other high-performing classifiers. We demonstrate how the unsupervised step of DBN learning produces an autoencoder that can naturally be used in anomaly measurement. We compare the use of raw, unprocessed data—a rarity in automated physiological waveform analysis—with hand-chosen features and find that raw data produce comparable classification and better anomaly measurement performance. These results indicate that DBNs and raw data inputs may be more effective for online automated EEG waveform recognition than other common techniques.

  7. Dynamic measurement of near-field radiative heat transfer. (United States)

    Lang, S; Sharma, G; Molesky, S; Kränzien, P U; Jalas, T; Jacob, Z; Petrov, A Yu; Eich, M


    Super-Planckian near-field radiative heat transfer allows effective heat transfer between a hot and a cold body to increase beyond the limits long known for black bodies. Until present, experimental techniques to measure the radiative heat flow relied on steady-state systems. Here, we present a dynamic measurement approach based on the transient plane source technique, which extracts thermal properties from a temperature transient caused by a step input power function. Using this versatile method, that requires only single sided contact, we measure enhanced radiative conduction up to 16 times higher than the blackbody limit on centimeter sized glass samples without any specialized sample preparation or nanofabrication.

  8. Measurement of environmental radiation levels and contour map ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The mean environmental background radiation for four local government areas namely. Mubi North, Mubi South, Michika and Madagali, all in the northern zone of Adamawa State, Nigeria was measured using a Radiation Alert Monitor 4 solid state G.M. tube. From the data obtained the exposure rate, absorbed dose and ...

  9. Radiative corrections in nucleon time-like form factors measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van de Wiele, Jacques [Universite de Paris-Sud, Institut de Physique Nucleaire, Orsay Cedex (France); Ong, Saro [Universite de Paris-Sud, Institut de Physique Nucleaire, Orsay Cedex (France); Universite de Picardie Jules Verne, Amiens (France)


    The completely general radiative corrections to lowest order, including the final- and initial-state radiations, are studied in proton-antiproton annihilation into an electron-positron pair. Numerical estimates have been made in a realistic configuration of the PANDA detector at FAIR for the proton time-like form factors measurements. (orig.)

  10. measurement of indoor background ionizing radiation in some

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    These science laboratories also harbour a number of active radiation sources. The radiation levels were measured ... and the International Commission on Radiological Protection. (ICRP) show that residents of temperate climates ..... house construction. African Journal of Natural Sciences 5. Wentz, C. A. (1998): Safety, ...

  11. Traceability of radiation measurements: musings of a user

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kathren, R.L.


    Although users of radiation desire measurement traceability for a number of reasons, including legal, regulatory, contractual, and quality assurance requirements, there exists no real definition of the term in the technical literature. Definitions are proposed for both traceability and traceability to the National Bureau of Standards. The hierarchy of radiation standards is discussed and allowable uncertainties are given for each level. Areas of need with respect to radiation standards are identified, and a system of secondary radiation calibration laboratories is proposed as a means of providing quality calibrations and traceability on a routine basis.

  12. Chapter 21: Estimating Net Savings - Common Practices. The Uniform Methods Project: Methods for Determining Energy Efficiency Savings for Specific Measures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kurnik, Charles W [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Violette, Daniel M. [Navigant, Boulder, CO (United States); Rathbun, Pamela [Tetra Tech, Madison, WI (United States)


    This chapter focuses on the methods used to estimate net energy savings in evaluation, measurement, and verification (EM and V) studies for energy efficiency (EE) programs. The chapter provides a definition of net savings, which remains an unsettled topic both within the EE evaluation community and across the broader public policy evaluation community, particularly in the context of attribution of savings to a program. The chapter differs from the measure-specific Uniform Methods Project (UMP) chapters in both its approach and work product. Unlike other UMP resources that provide recommended protocols for determining gross energy savings, this chapter describes and compares the current industry practices for determining net energy savings but does not prescribe methods.

  13. Estimating Green Net National Product for Puerto Rico: An Economic Measure of Sustainability. (United States)

    Wu, Shanshan; Heberling, Matthew T


    This paper presents the data sources and methodology used to estimate Green Net National Product (GNNP), an economic metric of sustainability, for Puerto Rico. Using the change in GNNP as a one-sided test of weak sustainability (i.e., positive growth in GNNP is not enough to show the economy is sustainable), we measure the movement away from sustainability by examining the change in GNNP from 1993 to 2009. In order to calculate GNNP, we require both economic and natural capital data, but limited data for Puerto Rico require a number of simplifying assumptions. Based on the environmental challenges faced by Puerto Rico, we include damages from air emissions and solid waste, the storm protection value of mangroves and the value of extracting crushed stone as components in the depreciation of natural capital. Our estimate of GNNP also includes the value of time, which captures the effects of technological progress. The results show that GNNP had an increasing trend over the 17 years studied with two periods of negative growth (2004-2006 and 2007-2008). Our additional analysis suggests that the negative growth in 2004-2006 was possibly due to a temporary economic downturn. However, the negative growth in 2007-2008 was likely from the decline in the value of time, suggesting the island of Puerto Rico was moving away from sustainability during this time.

  14. Dynamic measurement of near-field radiative heat transfer


    Lang, S.; G. Sharma; Molesky, S.; Kränzien, P. U.; Jalas, T.; Z. Jacob; Petrov, A. Yu.; Eich, M.


    Super-Planckian near-field radiative heat transfer allows effective heat transfer between a hot and a cold body to increase beyond the limits long known for black bodies. Until present, experimental techniques to measure the radiative heat flow relied on steady-state systems. Here, we present a dynamic measurement approach based on the transient plane source technique, which extracts thermal properties from a temperature transient caused by a step input power function. Using this versatile me...

  15. Development of radiation detection and measurement systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moon, B. S.; Ham, C. S.; Chung, C. E. and others


    This report contains descriptions on the following six items. The first item is the result of a study on CsI(TI) crystals with their light emitting characteristics and the result of a study on plastic scintillators. The second item is the result of a study on advanced radiation detectors and includes experiments for the effect of using a Compton suppressor with an HPGe detector. For the third item, we describe the results of a design work done using EGS4 for a thickness gauge, a density gauge, and a level gauge. The fourth item contains descriptions on the prototype circuit systems developed for a level gauge, a thickness gauge, and for a survey meter. The fifth part contains the computed tomography algorithm and a prototype scanning system developed for a CT system. As the sixth and the last item, we describe the prototype high precision heat source and the prototype heat-voltage converter which we have designed and fabricated.

  16. Radiation risk estimation based on measurement error models

    CERN Document Server

    Masiuk, Sergii; Shklyar, Sergiy; Chepurny, Mykola; Likhtarov, Illya


    This monograph discusses statistics and risk estimates applied to radiation damage under the presence of measurement errors. The first part covers nonlinear measurement error models, with a particular emphasis on efficiency of regression parameter estimators. In the second part, risk estimation in models with measurement errors is considered. Efficiency of the methods presented is verified using data from radio-epidemiological studies.

  17. Radiation dose measurement of paediatric patients in Estonia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kepler, K. [Training Centre of Medical Physics and Biomedical Engineering, University of Tartu (Estonia); Lintrop, M. [Department of Radiology, Tartu University Hospital, Tartu (Estonia); Servomaa, A.; Parviainen, T. [STUK - Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority, Helsinki (Finland); Eek, V.; Filippova, I. [Estonian Radiation Protection Centre, Tallinn (Estonia)


    According to the Medical Exposure Directive (97/43/Euratom) the radiation doses to patients should be measured in every hospital and doses should be compared to the reference doses established by the competent authorities. Special attention should be paid to the paediatric x-ray examinations, because the paediatric patients are more radiosensitive than adult patients. The requirement of measurements of radiation dose to patients is not yet included in the Estonian radiation act, but the purpose to join the European Communities makes the quality control in radiology very actual in Estonia. The necessity exists to introduce suitable measurement methods in the Xray departments of Estonian hospitals for establishing feedback system for radiologists, radiographers and medical physicists in optimising the radiation burden of patients and image quality. (orig.)

  18. ISS and Space Shuttle Radiation Measurements at Solar Minimum (United States)

    Gaza, Ramona; Welton, Andrew; Dunegan, Audrey; Lee, Kerry


    A summary of 2008-2011 ISS and Space Shuttle radiation dosimetry results for inside vehicle radiation monitoring in low-Earth orbit will be presented. Results include new data from ISS Expedition 22-25/20A radiation area monitors (RAM) and Shuttle Missions STS127-STS133 passive radiation dosimeters (PRD). ISS 20A radiation measurement locations included three Node 2 crew quarters locations at NOD2S5_CQ, NOD2P5_CQ and CQ-3 (Deck), as well as ESA Columbus, and JAXA Kibo locations. ISS 20A and STS127-STS133 missions were flown at 51.6 inclination with an altitude range of 330-350 km. The passive radiation results will be presented in terms of measured daily dose obtained using luminescence detectors (i.e., Al2O3:C, LiF:Mg,Ti and CaF2:Tm). In addition, preliminary results from the DOSIS 2 Project, in collaboration with the German Space Agency (DLR) will be presented. SRAG s participation to the DOSIS 2 exposure on ISS (11/16/2009-05/26/2010) involved passive radiation measurements at 10 different shielding locations inside the ESA Columbus Module.

  19. Measurement of radiative widths at COMPASS

    CERN Document Server

    Krämer, Markus


    COMPASS is a multipurpose fixed-target experiment at the CERN SPS, which addresses a wide variety of physic topics, in particular the structure and spectroscopy of hadrons. Diffractive dissociation of pions on nuclear targets allows for clean access to the light meson spectrum. In addition meson production can be studied in pion-photon reactions via the Primakoff effect, where high-energetic pions react with the quasi-real photon field surrounding the target nuclei. At low pion-photon center-of-mass energies, these reactions are governed by chiral dynamics and contain information relevant for chiral perturbation theory. At higher energies, resonances are produced and their radiative coupling is investigated. During a short run using a 190GeV $\\pi^-$ beam and a lead target in the year 2004, 3 million exclusive $\\pi^-\\pi^-\\pi^+$ events in the region of small squared four-momentum transfer, i.e. t' < 0:01GeV$^2$=c$^2$, have been recorded. At very low t' < 0:001GeV$^2$=c$^2$, the contribution from electroma...

  20. Measurement of radiation dose in dental radiology. (United States)

    Helmrot, Ebba; Alm Carlsson, Gudrun


    Patient dose audit is an important tool for quality control and it is important to have a well-defined and easy to use method for dose measurements. In dental radiology, the most commonly used dose parameters for the setting of diagnostic reference levels (DRLs) are the entrance surface air kerma (ESAK) for intraoral examinations and dose width product (DWP) for panoramic examinations. DWP is the air kerma at the front side of the secondary collimator integrated over the collimator width and an exposure cycle. ESAK or DWP is usually measured in the absence of the patient but with the same settings of tube voltage (kV), tube current (mA) and exposure time as with the patient present. Neither of these methods is easy to use, and, in addition, DWP is not a risk related quantity. A better method of monitoring patient dose would be to use a dose area product (DAP) meter for all types of dental examinations. In this study, measurements with a DAP meter are reported for intraoral and panoramic examinations. The DWP is also measured with a pencil ionisation chamber and the product of DWP and the height H (DWP x H) of the secondary collimator (measured using film) was compared to DAP. The results show that it is feasible to measure DAP using a DAP meter for both intraoral and panoramic examinations. The DAP is therefore recommended for the setting of DRLs.

  1. Green Net Regional Product for the San Luis Basin, Colorado: an economic measure of regional sustainability. (United States)

    Heberling, Matthew T; Templeton, Joshua J; Wu, Shanshan


    This paper presents the data sources and methodology used to estimate Green Net Regional Product (GNRP), a green accounting approach, for the San Luis Basin (SLB). We measured the movement away from sustainability by examining the change in GNRP over time. Any attempt at green accounting requires both economic and natural capital data. However, limited data for the Basin requires a number of simplifying assumptions and requires transforming economic data at the national, state, and county levels to the level of the SLB. Given the contribution of agribusiness to the SLB, we included the depletion of both groundwater and soil as components in the depreciation of natural capital. We also captured the effect of the consumption of energy on climate change for future generations through carbon dioxide (CO(2)) emissions. In order to estimate the depreciation of natural capital, the shadow price of water for agriculture, the economic damages from soil erosion due to wind, and the social cost of carbon emissions were obtained from the literature and applied to the SLB using benefit transfer. We used Colorado's total factor productivity for agriculture to estimate the value of time (i.e., to include the effects of exogenous technological progress). We aggregated the economic data and the depreciation of natural capital for the SLB from 1980 to 2005. The results suggest that GNRP had a slight upward trend through most of this time period, despite temporary negative trends, the longest of which occurred during the period 1985-86 to 1987-88. However, given the upward trend in GNRP and the possibility of business cycles causing the temporary declines, there is no definitive evidence of moving away from sustainability. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  2. Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Climate Research Facility (ACRF) Annual Report 2008

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    LR Roeder


    The Importance of Clouds and Radiation for Climate Change: The Earth’s surface temperature is determined by the balance between incoming solar radiation and thermal (or infrared) radiation emitted by the Earth back to space. Changes in atmospheric composition, including greenhouse gases, clouds, and aerosols, can alter this balance and produce significant climate change. Global climate models (GCMs) are the primary tool for quantifying future climate change; however, there remain significant uncertainties in the GCM treatment of clouds, aerosol, and their effects on the Earth’s energy balance. In 1989, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Science created the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program to address scientific uncertainties related to global climate change, with a specific focus on the crucial role of clouds and their influence on the transfer of radiation in the atmosphere. To reduce these scientific uncertainties, the ARM Program uses a unique twopronged approach: • The ARM Climate Research Facility, a scientific user facility for obtaining long-term measurements of radiative fluxes, cloud and aerosol properties, and related atmospheric characteristics in diverse climate regimes; and • The ARM Science Program, focused on the analysis of ACRF and other data to address climate science issues associated with clouds, aerosols, and radiation, and to improve GCMs. This report provides an overview of each of these components and a sample of achievements for each in fiscal year (FY) 2008.

  3. Measurement and Modeling of Particle Radiation in Coal Flames

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bäckström, Daniel; Johansson, Robert; Andersson, Klas Jerker


    This work aims at developing a methodology that can provide information of in-flame particle radiation in industrial-scale flames. The method is based on a combination of experimental and modeling work. The experiments have been performed in the high-temperature zone of a 77 kWth swirling lignite...... properties. The in-flame particle radiation was measured with a Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectrometer connected to a water-cooled probe via fiber optics. In the cross-section of the flame investigated, the particles were found to be the dominating source of radiation. Apart from giving information...

  4. Uncertainty of dose measurement in radiation processing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Miller, A.


    The major standard organizations of the world have addressed the issue of reporting uncertainties in measurement reports and certificates. There is, however, still some ambiguity in the minds of many people who try to implement the recommendations in real life. This paper is a contribution...

  5. Coordinated weather balloon solar radiation measurements during a solar eclipse. (United States)

    Harrison, R G; Marlton, G J; Williams, P D; Nicoll, K A


    Solar eclipses provide a rapidly changing solar radiation environment. These changes can be studied using simple photodiode sensors, if the radiation reaching the sensors is unaffected by cloud. Transporting the sensors aloft using standard meteorological instrument packages modified to carry extra sensors, provides one promising but hitherto unexploited possibility for making solar eclipse radiation measurements. For the 20 March 2015 solar eclipse, a coordinated campaign of balloon-carried solar radiation measurements was undertaken from Reading (51.44°N, 0.94°W), Lerwick (60.15°N, 1.13°W) and Reykjavik (64.13°N, 21.90°W), straddling the path of the eclipse. The balloons reached sufficient altitude at the eclipse time for eclipse-induced variations in solar radiation and solar limb darkening to be measured above cloud. Because the sensor platforms were free to swing, techniques have been evaluated to correct the measurements for their changing orientation. In the swing-averaged technique, the mean value across a set of swings was used to approximate the radiation falling on a horizontal surface; in the swing-maximum technique, the direct beam was estimated by assuming that the maximum solar radiation during a swing occurs when the photodiode sensing surface becomes normal to the direction of the solar beam. Both approaches, essentially independent, give values that agree with theoretical expectations for the eclipse-induced radiation changes.This article is part of the themed issue 'Atmospheric effects of solar eclipses stimulated by the 2015 UK eclipse'. © 2016 The Authors.

  6. The measurements of temperature and deformations of car radiators (United States)

    Peta, Katarzyna; Grochalski, Karol


    In the study main factors influencing the exploitative durability of the aluminum radiators used in motorization were classified. Special attention was put to thermal strains occurring during the usage of a car. The causes of theirs formation were identified, including disproportionate distribution of temperature in the construction of radiator, which changes cyclically depending on the characteristics of cooling fluid flow. In order to evaluate the influence of temperature and deformations of radiators on their durability, resistance tensometry method was used supplemented with temperature measurements with the use of thermoelements. Three linear resistive tensometers and three thermoelements were placed in the key areas of radiator (the inlet and outlet of cooling liquid to the heat exchanger and separator of the areas). Measurements were carried out during the examination of the durability of radiators on thermal shocks, which is one of the most basic examinations that imitates conditions of their work and verifies mechanical durability of products. Critical areas in the radiator were located, which are the most vulnerable to damages, including cracks. After the conducted research measurements of tightness were carried out, which verification is one of the most important requirements set for products in contact with intermediary medium in heat exchange. The study was supplemented with the observation of metallographic structures of the areas of fatigue cracks.

  7. An Experiment in Radiation Measurement Using the Depron Instrument (United States)

    Benghin, Victor V.; Nechaev, Oleg Y.; Zolotarev, Ivan A.; Amelyushkin, Alexander M.; Petrov, Vasiliy L.; Panasyuk, Milhail I.; Yashin, Ivan V.


    Most of the radiation measurements have been made onboard spacecraft flying along orbits with an inclination of up to 51.6 degrees. Due to the prospect of manned missions at orbits with larger inclinations, it is advisable to conduct preliminary detailed dosimetry measurements at a high-inclination orbit; due to its polar orbit, the Lomonosov satellite provides good opportunities for such study. We chose a method of cosmic radiation dosimetry based on semiconductor detectors. This method is widely used onboard spacecraft, including full-time radiation monitoring onboard the International Space Station (ISS). It should be noted that not only did the charged particles contribute significantly in the dose equivalent, but also did the neutrons. Semiconductor detectors have low sensitivity to neutron radiation and are not sufficient for detecting the expected flux of neutrons. We add a thermal neutron counter to the proposed device in order to provide an opportunity for estimation of neutron flux variations along the satellite trajectory. Thus, the design of the instrument DEPRON (Dosimeter of Electrons, PROtons and Neutrons) was determined. DEPRON is intended for registration of the absorbed doses and linear energy transfer spectra for high-energy electrons, protons and nuclei of space radiation, as well as registration of thermal neutrons. The present paper provides a brief description of the DEPRON instrument. Its calibration results and the first mission results of background radiation measurements are also presented.

  8. Measurements of terahertz radiation generated using a metallic, corrugated pipe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bane, Karl, E-mail: [SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, Menlo Park, CA 94025 (United States); Stupakov, Gennady [SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, Menlo Park, CA 94025 (United States); Antipov, Sergey [Euclid Techlabs LLC, Bolingbrook, IL 60440 (United States); Fedurin, Mikhail; Kusche, Karl; Swinson, Christina [Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY 11973 (United States); Xiang, Dao [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200240 (China)


    A method for producing narrow-band THz radiation proposes passing an ultra-relativistic beam through a metallic pipe with small periodic corrugations. We present results of a measurement of such an arrangement at Brookhaven's Accelerator Test Facility (ATF). Our pipe was copper and was 5 cm long; the aperture was cylindrically symmetric, with a 1 mm (radius) bore and a corrugation depth (peak-to-peak) of 60 µm. In the experiment we measured both the effect on the beam of the structure wakefield and the spectral properties of the radiation excited by the beam. We began by injecting a relatively long beam compared to the wavelength of the radiation, but with short rise time, to excite the structure, and then used a downstream spectrometer to infer the radiation wavelength. This was followed by injecting a shorter bunch, and then using an interferometer (also downstream of the corrugated pipe) to measure the spectrum of the induced THz radiation. For the THz pulse we obtain and compare with calculations: the central frequency, the bandwidth, and the spectral power—compared to a diffraction radiation background signal.

  9. Methods for measuring RF radiation properties of small antennas


    Icheln, Clemens


    In this work significant improvements for measurements of the radio-frequency (RF) radiation properties of small antennas have been proposed and investigated. The main focus is on electrically small antennas as used in mobile communications systems. The methods proposed and evaluated in this thesis allow the minimisation of the dimensions of measurement chambers, and the methods also allow pattern measurements with a minimised error from the RF feed cable and thus lower measurement uncertaint...

  10. Comparative Assessment of Satellite-Retrieved Surface Net Radiation: An Examination on CERES and SRB Datasets in China

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Xin Pan; Yuanbo Liu; Xingwang Fan


    ...) and the Surface Radiation Budget project (SRB) products, respectively, with quality-controlled radiation data from 50 meteorological stations in China for the period from March 2000 to December 2007...

  11. Temperature measurements using multicolor pyrometry in thermal radiation heating environments. (United States)

    Fu, Tairan; Liu, Jiangfan; Duan, Minghao; Zong, Anzhou


    Temperature measurements are important for thermal-structural experiments in the thermal radiation heating environments such as used for thermal-structural stress analyses. This paper describes the use of multicolor pyrometry for the measurements of diffuse surfaces in thermal radiation environments that eliminates the effects of background radiation reflections and unknown emissivities based on a least-squares algorithm. The near-infrared multicolor pyrometer had a spectral range of 1100-2400 nm, spectrum resolution of 6 nm, maximum sampling frequency of 2 kHz, working distance of 0.6 m to infinity, temperature range of 700-1700 K. The pyrometer wavelength response, nonlinear intensity response, and spectral response were all calibrated. The temperature of a graphite sample irradiated by quartz lamps was then measured during heating and cooling using the least-squares algorithm based on the calibrated irradiation data. The experiments show that higher temperatures and longer wavelengths are more suitable for the thermal measurements in the quartz lamp radiation heating system. This analysis provides a valuable method for temperature measurements of diffuse surfaces in thermal radiation environments.

  12. Temperature measurements using multicolor pyrometry in thermal radiation heating environments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fu, Tairan, E-mail: [Key Laboratory for Thermal Science and Power Engineering of Ministry of Education, Department of Thermal Engineering, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Beijing Key Laboratory of CO2 Utilization and Reduction Technology, Beijing 100084 (China); Liu, Jiangfan; Duan, Minghao; Zong, Anzhou [Key Laboratory for Thermal Science and Power Engineering of Ministry of Education, Department of Thermal Engineering, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China)


    Temperature measurements are important for thermal-structural experiments in the thermal radiation heating environments such as used for thermal-structural stress analyses. This paper describes the use of multicolor pyrometry for the measurements of diffuse surfaces in thermal radiation environments that eliminates the effects of background radiation reflections and unknown emissivities based on a least-squares algorithm. The near-infrared multicolor pyrometer had a spectral range of 1100–2400 nm, spectrum resolution of 6 nm, maximum sampling frequency of 2 kHz, working distance of 0.6 m to infinity, temperature range of 700–1700 K. The pyrometer wavelength response, nonlinear intensity response, and spectral response were all calibrated. The temperature of a graphite sample irradiated by quartz lamps was then measured during heating and cooling using the least-squares algorithm based on the calibrated irradiation data. The experiments show that higher temperatures and longer wavelengths are more suitable for the thermal measurements in the quartz lamp radiation heating system. This analysis provides a valuable method for temperature measurements of diffuse surfaces in thermal radiation environments.

  13. Temperature measurements using multicolor pyrometry in thermal radiation heating environments (United States)

    Fu, Tairan; Liu, Jiangfan; Duan, Minghao; Zong, Anzhou


    Temperature measurements are important for thermal-structural experiments in the thermal radiation heating environments such as used for thermal-structural stress analyses. This paper describes the use of multicolor pyrometry for the measurements of diffuse surfaces in thermal radiation environments that eliminates the effects of background radiation reflections and unknown emissivities based on a least-squares algorithm. The near-infrared multicolor pyrometer had a spectral range of 1100-2400 nm, spectrum resolution of 6 nm, maximum sampling frequency of 2 kHz, working distance of 0.6 m to infinity, temperature range of 700-1700 K. The pyrometer wavelength response, nonlinear intensity response, and spectral response were all calibrated. The temperature of a graphite sample irradiated by quartz lamps was then measured during heating and cooling using the least-squares algorithm based on the calibrated irradiation data. The experiments show that higher temperatures and longer wavelengths are more suitable for the thermal measurements in the quartz lamp radiation heating system. This analysis provides a valuable method for temperature measurements of diffuse surfaces in thermal radiation environments.

  14. Mobile Handset Performance Evaluation Using Radiation Pattern Measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jesper Ødum; Pedersen, Gert Frølund


    The mean effective gain is an attractive performance measure of mobile handsets, since it incorporates both directional and polarization properties of the handset and environment. In this work the mean effective gain is computed from measured spherical radiation patterns of five different mobile...

  15. Using Radiation Pattern Measurements for Mobile Handset Performance Evaluation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jesper Ødum; Pedersen, Gert Frølund


    The mean effective gain (MEG) is an attractive performance measure of mobile handsets, since it incorporates both directional and polarization properties of the handset and environment. In this work the MEG is computed from measured spherical radiation patterns of five different mobile handsets...

  16. Measurement of Gamma Radiation in an Automobile Mechanic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Environmental radiation measurement was carried out in an automobile mechanic village, Apo, Abuja, Nigeria. An in-situ measurement approach was adopted using RDS-200 Universal Survey Meter and a handheld Global Positioning System (Garmin GPS 76S) equipment. It was observed that the dose equivalent varied ...

  17. Accredited dose measurements for validation of radiation sterilized products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Miller, A.


    for control of radiation sterilization. The accredited services include: 1. 1. Irradiation of dosimeters and test samples with cobalt-60 gamma rays. 2. 2. Irradiation of dosimeters and test samples with 10 MeV electrons. 3. 3. Issue of and measurement with calibrated dosimeters. 4. 4. Measurement...

  18. Satellite data sets for the atmospheric radiation measurement (ARM) program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shi, L.; Bernstein, R.L. [SeaSpace Corp., San Diego, CA (United States)


    This abstract describes the type of data obtained from satellite measurements in the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) program. The data sets have been widely used by the ARM team to derive cloud-top altitude, cloud cover, snow and ice cover, surface temperature, water vapor, and wind, vertical profiles of temperature, and continuoous observations of weather needed to track and predict severe weather.

  19. WegenerNet climate station network region Feldbach/Austria: From local measurements to weather and climate data products at 1 km-scale resolution (United States)

    Kabas, T.; Leuprecht, A.; Bichler, C.; Kirchengast, G.


    South-eastern Austria is characteristic for experiencing a rich variety of weather and climate patterns. For this reason, the county of Feldbach was selected by the Wegener Center as a focus area for a pioneering observation experiment at very high resolution: The WegenerNet climate station network (in brief WegenerNet) comprises 151 meteorological stations within an area of about 20 km × 15 km (~ 1.4 km × 1.4 km station grid). All stations measure the main parameters temperature, humidity and precipitation with 5 minute sampling. Selected further stations include measurements of wind speed and direction completed by soil parameters as well as air pressure and net radiation. The collected data is integrated in an automatic processing system including data transfer, quality control, product generation, and visualization. Each station is equipped with an internet-attached data logger and the measurements are transferred as binary files via GPRS to the WegenerNet server in 1 hour intervals. The incoming raw data files of measured parameters as well as several operating values of the data logger are stored in a relational database (PostgreSQL). Next, the raw data pass the Quality Control System (QCS) in which the data are checked for its technical and physical plausibility (e.g., sensor specifications, temporal and spatial variability). In consideration of the data quality (quality flag), the Data Product Generator (DPG) results in weather and climate data products on various temporal scales (from 5 min to annual) for single stations and regular grids. Gridded data are derived by vertical scaling and squared inverse distance interpolation (1 km × 1 km and 0.01° × 0.01° grids). Both subsystems (QCS and DPG) are realized by the programming language Python. For application purposes the resulting data products are available via the bi-lingual (dt, en) WegenerNet data portal ( At this time, the main interface is still online in a system in which

  20. Optimizing kick rate and amplitude for Paralympic swimmers via net force measures. (United States)

    Fulton, Sacha K; Pyne, David; Burkett, Brendan


    Kicking is a key component of freestyle swimming yet the optimum combination of kick rate and kick amplitude remains unknown. For Paralympic swimmers, with upper and lower limb disabilities, the influence of the kick plays an important role in net force production. To determine optimum kick characteristics, 12 Paralympic swimmers aged 19.8 ± 2.9 years (mean ± s) were towed at their individual peak freestyle speed. The experimental conditions were (i) a prone streamline glide for passive trials and (ii) maximal freestyle kicking in a prone streamline for active trials at different speeds and kick amplitudes. Kick rate was quantified using inertial sensor technology. Towing speed was assessed using a novel and validated dynamometer, and net force was assessed using a Kistler force-platform system. When peak speed was increased by 5%, the active force increased 24.2 ± 5.3% (90% confidence limits), while kick rate remained at approximately 150 kicks per minute. Larger amplitude kicking increased the net active force by 25.1 ± 10.6%, although kick rate decreased substantially by 13.6 ± 5.1%. Based on the current kick rate and amplitude profile adopted by Paralympic swimmers, these characteristics are appropriate for optimizing net force.

  1. Estimating Green Net National Product for Puerto Rico: An Economic Measure of Sustainability (Journal article) (United States)

    This paper presents the data sources and methodology used to estimate Green Net National Product (GNNP), an economic metric of sustainability, for Puerto Rico. Using the change in GNNP as a one-sided test of weak sustainability (i.e., positive growth in GNNP is not enough to show...

  2. Measurement-based upscaling of pan Arctic net ecosystem exchange: the PANEEx project

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mbufong, Herbert Njuabe; Kusbach, Antonin; Lund, Magnus


    The high variability in Arctic tundra net ecosystem exchange (NEE) of carbon (C) can be attributed to the high spatial heterogeneity of Arctic tundra due to the complex topography. Current models of C exchange handle the Arctic as either a single or few ecosystems, responding to environmental cha...

  3. Measurement and analysis of near ultraviolet solar radiation (United States)

    Mehos, M. S.; Pacheco, K. A.; Link, H. F.


    The photocatalytic detoxification of organic contaminants is currently being investigated by a number of laboratories, universities, and institutions throughout the world. The photocatalytic oxidation process requires that contaminants come in contact with a photocatalyst such as titanium dioxide, under illumination of ultraviolet (UV) radiation in order for the decomposition reaction to take place. Researches from the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) and Sandia National Laboratories are currently investigating the use of solar energy as a means of driving this photocatalytic process. Measurements of direct-normal and global horizontal ultraviolet (280 to 385 nm) and full spectrum (280 to 4000 nm) solar radiation taken in Golden, Colorado over a one-year period are analyzed, and comparisons are made with data generated from a clear sky solar radiation model (BRITE) currently in use for predicting the performance of solar detoxification processes. Analysis of the data indicates a ratio of global horizontal ultraviolet to full spectrum radiation of 4 to 6 pct. that is weakly dependent on air mass. Conversely, data for direct normal ultraviolet radiation indicate a much larger dependence on air mass, with a ratio of approx. 5 pct. at low air mass to 1 pct. at higher masses. Results show excellent agreement between the measured data and clear sky predictions for both the ultraviolet and the full spectrum global horizontal radiation. For the direct normal components, however, the tendency is for the clear sky model to underpredict the measured data. Averaged monthly ultraviolet radiation available for the detoxification process indicates that the global horizontal component of the radiation exceeds the direct normal component throughout the year.

  4. Measurement and analysis of near ultraviolet solar radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mehos, M.S.; Pacheco, K.A.; Link, H.F.


    The photocatalytic detoxification of organic contaminants is currently being investigated by a number of laboratories, universities, and institutions throughout the world. The photocatalytic oxidation process requires that contaminants come in contact with a photocatalyst such as titanium dioxide, under illumination of ultraviolet (UV) radiation in order for the decomposition reaction to take place. Researches from the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) and Sandia National Laboratories are currently investigating the use of solar energy as a means of driving this photocatalytic process. Measurements of direct-normal and global-horizontal ultraviolet (280--385 nm) and full-spectrum (280--4000 nm) solar radiation taken in Golden, Colorado over a one-year period are analyzed, and comparisons are made with data generated from a clear-sky solar radiation model (BRITE) currently in use for predicting the performance of solar detoxification processes. Analysis of the data indicates a ratio of global-horizontal ultraviolet to full-spectrum radiation of 4%--6% that is weakly dependent on air mass. Conversely, data for direct-normal ultraviolet radiation indicate a much large dependence on air mass, with a ratio of approximately 5% at low air mass to 1% at higher at masses. Results show excellent agreement between the measured data and clear-sky predictions for both the ultraviolet and the full-spectrum global-horizontal radiation. For the direct-normal components, however, the tendency is for the clear-sky model to underpredict the measured that. Averaged monthly ultraviolet radiation available for the detoxification process indicates that the global-horizontal component of the radiation exceeds the direct-normal component throughout the year. 9 refs., 7 figs.

  5. Online Radiation Dose Measurement System for ATLAS experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Mandić, I; The ATLAS collaboration


    Particle detectors and readout electronics in the high energy physics experiment ATLAS at the Large Hadron Collider at CERN operate in radiation field containing photons, charged particles and neutrons. The particles in the radiation field originate from proton-proton interactions as well as from interactions of these particles with material in the experimental apparatus. In the innermost parts of ATLAS detector components will be exposed to ionizing doses exceeding 100 kGy. Energetic hadrons will also cause displacement damage in silicon equivalent to fluences of several times 10e14 1 MeV-neutrons per cm2. Such radiation doses can have severe influence on the performance of detectors. It is therefore very important to continuously monitor the accumulated doses to understand the detector performance and to correctly predict the lifetime of radiation sensitive components. Measurements of doses are important also to verify the simulations and represent a crucial input into the models used for predicting future ...

  6. Testing of environmental radiation monitors using the Risø low-level radiation measurement stations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bøtter-Jensen, L.


    reference standards used. Photon radiation fields, including ground and air scatter components, were determined for certified Co-60, Cs-137 and Ra-226 gamma sources using Monte Carlo calculations. It is shown that an agreement between the measured and the calculated values is typically within 1%. Also......To harmonise the measurement of environmental dose rates from photon radiation within the EU countries. an EU sponsored intercomparison of environmental dose rate meters used for early warning of nuclear accidents was performed in June 1999. The intercomparison was organised by the EURADOS...... June, 1999. The chief aims of such experiments are to allow the participants to check their home calibrations of their detectors and to compare the responses of the individual environmental radiation measurement systems used in the different EU member states and making a link between the different...

  7. Modeling EEG Waveforms with Semi-Supervised Deep Belief Nets: Fast Classification and Anomaly Measurement


    Wulsin, D. F.; Gupta, J.R; Mani, R; Blanco, J. A.; Litt, B.


    Clinical electroencephalography (EEG) records vast amounts of human complex data yet is still reviewed primarily by human readers. Deep Belief Nets (DBNs) are a relatively new type of multi-layer neural network commonly tested on two-dimensional image data, but are rarely applied to times-series data such as EEG. We apply DBNs in a semi-supervised paradigm to model EEG waveforms for classification and anomaly detection. DBN performance was comparable to standard classifiers on our EEG dataset...

  8. Measuring Longwave Radiative Flux Divergence in an Urban Canyon (United States)

    Soux, A.; Oke, T. R.; Nunez, M.; Wilson, M.


    There has been very little measurement of longwave radiation divergence since the urban studies of Fuggle, Oke and Nunez in the mid 1970's or the rural work of Funk in the early 1960's. Although radiative divergence has been widely ignored for sometime there is the belief that it may play an important role in balancing nocturnal energy budgets in a range of environments. For example, in urban environments surface temperature relates well to the energy balance whereas air temperature does not, even in non-turbulent conditions. This is probably due at least in part to the effects of longwave divergence. To help answer issues related to longwave divergence a new dual-channel infrared radiometer (DCIR) has been developed. The DCIR, as the name implies, measures the directional infrared radiation in two wavebands and can, through differencing of the signals and further signal processing, give a direct measurement of longwave radiative flux divergence. The DCIR was deployed for the first time as part of a larger study (BUBBLE) of the urban boundary layer of Basel, Switzerland. The objective is to further study the thermal regime of a city at the canyon scale. To this end, a street canyon was carefully selected, in the city of Basel. The canyon surface and air volume were instrumented, including turbulent and conductive fluxes, and standard meteorological variables in addition to radiation. A unique data set was obtained to allow the complete energy balance of the canyon system to be evaluated without the need to resort to using residuals to quantify the magnitude of the longwave radiative flux divergence. Measured values of longwave flux-divergence are converted to cooling rates to compare with measured air temperature cooling. Preliminary results show that at the onset of canyon air-volume cooling, measured cooling rates are slightly lower than radiative cooling rates. The differences are less than 0.5° C. This contrasts sharply with previously measured above roof

  9. Measurement of net nitrogen and phosphorus mineralization in wetland soils using a modification of the resin-core technique (United States)

    Noe, Gregory B.


    A modification of the resin-core method was developed and tested for measuring in situ soil N and P net mineralization rates in wetland soils where temporal variation in bidirectional vertical water movement and saturation can complicate measurement. The modified design includes three mixed-bed ion-exchange resin bags located above and three resin bags located below soil incubating inside a core tube. The two inner resin bags adjacent to the soil capture NH4+, NO3-, and soluble reactive phosphorus (SRP) transported out of the soil during incubation; the two outer resin bags remove inorganic nutrients transported into the modified resin core; and the two middle resin bags serve as quality-control checks on the function of the inner and outer resin bags. Modified resin cores were incubated monthly for a year along the hydrogeomorphic gradient through a floodplain wetland. Only small amounts of NH4+, NO3-, and SRP were found in the two middle resin bags, indicating that the modified resin-core design was effective. Soil moisture and pH inside the modified resin cores typically tracked changes in the surrounding soil abiotic environment. In contrast, use of the closed polyethylene bag method provided substantially different net P and N mineralization rates than modified resin cores and did not track changes in soil moisture or pH. Net ammonification, nitrifi cation, N mineralization, and P mineralization rates measured using modified resin cores varied through space and time associated with hydrologic, geomorphic, and climatic gradients in the floodplain wetland. The modified resin-core technique successfully characterized spatiotemporal variation of net mineralization fluxes in situ and is a viable technique for assessing soil nutrient availability and developing ecosystem budgets.

  10. Radiation profiles measured through clouds using a return glider radiosonde (United States)

    Kräuchi, Andreas; Philipona, Rolf; Kivi, Rigel


    With new and improved radiation sensors in a small glider aircraft vertical flights through clouds have been conducted. This new Return Glider Radiosonde (RG-R) is lifted up with double balloon technique to keep the radiation instruments as horizontal as possible during ascent. The RG-R is equipped with a routine radiosonde to transmit the data to a ground station and an autopilot to fly the glider radiosonde back to the launch site, where it lands autonomous with a parachute. The RG-R was successfully tested and deployed for tropospheric and stratospheric radiation measurements up to 30 hPa (24 km altitude) at the GRUAN sites Payerne (Switzerland) and Sodankylä (Finland). Radiation profiles and the radiation budget through the atmosphere during different daytimes and under cloud-free and cloudy situations will be shown in relation to temperature and humidity at the surface and in the atmosphere. The RG-R flight characteristics and new measurement possibilities will also be discussed.

  11. The combined method for uncertainty evaluation in electromagnetic radiation measurement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kovačević Aleksandar M.


    Full Text Available Electromagnetic radiation of all frequencies represents one of the most common and fastest growing environmental influence. All populations are now exposed to varying degrees of electromagnetic radiation and the levels will continue to increase as technology advances. An electronic or electrical product should not generate electromagnetic radiation which may impact the environment. In addition, electromagnetic radiation measurement results need to be accompanied by quantitative statements about their accuracy. This is particularly important when decisions about product specifications are taken. This paper presents an uncertainty budget for disturbance power measurements of the equipment as part of electromagnetic radiation. We propose a model which uses a mixed distribution for uncertainty evaluation. The evaluation of the probability density function for the measurand has been done using the Monte Carlo method and a modified least-squares method (combined method. For illustration, this paper presents mixed distributions of two normal distributions, normal and rectangular, respectively. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. III 43009 i br. 171007

  12. Detection and spectral measurements of coherent synchrotron radiation at FLASH

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Behrens, Christopher


    The operation of high-gain free-electron laser (FEL) underlies tremendous demands on high quality electron beams with high peak currents. At the Free-Electron-Laser in Hamburg (FLASH), two magnetic bunch compressors are used to compress the electron bunches longitudinally. In the bunch compressor magnets, these short electron bunches generate coherent synchrotron radiation (CSR). This CSR contains information on the longitudinal bunch profile, which is relevant for driving an FEL. In order to investigate coherent synchrotron radiation at the second bunch compressor BC3 at FLASH, a new setup behind the last dipole was installed. For the detection of coherent synchrotron radiation, which is emitted in the infrared regime, pyroelectric detectors were used. These pyroelectric detectors have been calibrated at the free-electron laser FELIX in the wavelength range from 5 {mu}m to 110 {mu}m. For characterisation of the emitted radiation, a transverse scanning device was used to measure the transverse intensity distribution. Various transmission filters were used to obtain additional information about the spectral content. In order to get spectral information with high resolution over a wide wavelength range, a rotating mirror spectrometer using reflective blazed gratings was installed. Using this spectrometer, the first spectral measurements of coherent synchrotron radiation at FLASH in a wavelength range from 10 {mu}m to 160 {mu}m were done. (orig.)

  13. Listing of solar radiation measuring equipment and glossary (United States)

    Carter, E. A.; Greenbaum, S. A.; Patel, A. M.


    An attempt is made to list and provide all available information about solar radiation measuring equipment which are being manufactured and are available on the market. The list is in tabular form and includes sensor type, response time, cost data and comments for each model. A cost code is included which shows ranges only.

  14. Measurement of radio frequency radiation (RFR) power levels from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    With the upsurge in the number of network providers and the attendant increase in the installation of mast in Nigeria, the environment is being inundated with radiofrequency radiation (RFR). There is, therefore, increasing concern about the health implications of this development. In this study measurements of RFR output ...

  15. Measurement of Background Gamma Radiation Levels at Two ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    *Dept. of Physics, Federal University of Technology, Minna, Niger state, Nigeria. **Dept. of Science Lab. Tech., Rufus Giwa Poly., Owo, Ondo state, Nigeria.; 07067533885. ABSTRACT: An in-situ measurement of the background radiation level was carried out at the vicinity of three campuses of two ...

  16. Solar absorption estimated from surface radiation measurements and collocated satellite products over Europe (United States)

    Zyta Hakuba, Maria; Folini, Doris; Wild, Martin; Sanchez-Lorenzo, Arturo


    Anthropogenic climate change is physically speaking a perturbation of the atmospheric energy budget through the insertion of constituents such as greenhouse gases or aerosols. Changes in the atmospheric energy budget largely affect the global climate and hydrological cycle, but the quantification of the different energy balance components is still afflicted with large uncertainties. The overall aim of the present study is the assessment of the mean state and the spatio-temporal variations in the solar energy disposition, in which we focus on obtaining an accurate partitioning of absorbed solar radiation between the surface and the atmosphere. Surface based measurements of solar radiation (GEBA, BSRN) are combined with collocated satellite-retrieved surface albedo (MODIS, CERES FSW, or CM SAF GAC-SAL) and top-of-atmosphere net incoming solar radiation (CERES EBAF) to quantify the absorbed solar radiation (ASR) at the surface and within the atmosphere over Europe for the period 2001-2005. In a first step, we examine the quality and temporal homogeneity of the monthly time series beyond 2000 provided by GEBA in order to identify a subset of sufficient quality. We find the vast majority of monthly time series to be suitable for our purposes. Using the satellite-derived CM SAF surface solar radiation product at 0.03° spatial resolution, we assess the spatial representativeness of the GEBA and BSRN sites for their collocated 1° grid cells as we intend to combine the point measurements with the coarser resolved CERES EBAF products (1° resolution), and we find spatial sampling errors of on average 3 Wm-2 or 2% (normalized by point values). Based on the combination of 134 GEBA surface solar radiation (SSR) time series with MODIS white-sky albedo and CERES EBAF top-of-atmosphere net radiation (TOAnet), we obtain a European mean partitioning (2001-2005) of absorbed solar radiation (relative to total incoming radiation) of: ASRsurf= 41% and ASRatm= 25%, together equaling

  17. Technical measures without enforcement tools: is there any sense? A methodological approach for the estimation of passive net length in small scale fisheries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available Passive nets are currently among the most important fishing gears largely used along the Mediterranean coasts by the small scale fisheries sector. The fishing effort exerted by this sector is strongly correlated with net dimensions. Therefore, the use of passive nets is worldwide managed by defining net length and net drop. The EC Reg. 1967/2006 reports that the length of bottom-set and drifting nets may be also defined considering their weight or volume; however, no practical suggestions for fisheries inspectors are yet available. Consequently,  even if such technical measures are reasonable from a theoretical viewpoint, they are hardly suitable as a management tool, due to the difficulties in harbour control. The overall objective of this paper is to provide a quick methodological approach for the gross estimation of passive net length (by net type on the basis of net volume. The final goal is to support fisheries managers with suitable advice for enforcement and control purposes. The results obtained are important for the management of the fishing effort exerted by small scale fisheries. The methodology developed in this study should be considered as a first attempt to tackle the tangled problem of net length estimation that can be easily applied in other fisheries and areas in order to improve the precision of the models developed herein.

  18. Annual Net Community Production in the Western Subtropical North Pacific Determined from Argo-O2 Measurements (United States)

    Yang, B.; Emerson, S. R.; Bushinsky, S. M.


    Export of organic carbon from the surface ocean to depth (the biological pump) helps maintain the pCO2 of the atmosphere and the O2 content of the oxygen minimum zones of the ocean. In the upper ocean, at steady state over a seasonal cycle the net organic carbon export is equal to the Annual Net Community Production (ANCP). The geographic distribution of this quantity determined by satellite-predicted Net Primary Production (NPP) and the recycling efficiency in the euphotic zone is more heterogeneous than the limited experimental estimates of ANCP. We evaluate the relationship between these two estimates of ANCP in the subtropical Western North Pacific Ocean ( 165o E and 20o N) using oxygen measurements on Argo Floats. In January of 2015 we deployed four floats with Anderaa oxygen sensors attached to a 60 cm stick on top of the float end cap, which can be readily calibrated against atmospheric pO2. We present data from these floats and air-sea oxygen flux calculations. The degree of oxygen supersaturation in summer is 1-2 percent, and in winter it fluctuates between being over and undersaturated. Evaluating the role of bubbles in winter is critical to an accurate determination of the annual flux. While there is not a full year of data at the time of writing this abstract, there will be when the Ocean Science meeting is held. So far, after nine months of measurements, there is a net flux of oxygen to the atmosphere, indicating that photosynthesis exceeds respiration. In February we will present a full annual cycle of air-sea oxygen flux and an estimate of ANCP in this very rarely studied region of the ocean.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evelia Schettini


    Full Text Available The aim of this paper was to investigate the radiometric properties of coloured nets used to protect a peach cultivation. The modifications of the solar spectral distribution, mainly in the R and FR wavelength band, influence plant photomorphogenesis by means of the phytochrome and cryptochrome. The phytochrome response is characterized in terms of radiation rate in the red wavelengths (R, 600-700 nm to that in the farred radiation (FR, 700-800 nm, i.e. the R/FR ratio. The effects of the blue radiation (B, 400-500 nm is investigated by the ratio between the blue radiation and the far-red radiation, i.e. the B/FR ratio. A BLUE net, a RED net, a YELLOW net, a PEARL net, a GREY net and a NEUTRAL net were tested in Bari (Italy, latitude 41° 05’ N. Peach trees were located in pots inside the greenhouses and in open field. The growth of the trees cultivated in open field was lower in comparison to the growth of the trees grown under the nets. The RED, PEARL, YELLOW and GREY nets increased the growth of the trees more than the other nets. The nets positively influenced the fruit characteristics, such as fruit weight and flesh firmness.

  20. Measurement of the Vertical Distribution of Reflected Solar Radiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tetsu Aoki


    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to develop a devicefor measuring the vertical distribution of the reflected radiation to the inside of a room from terrace to building.The proposed device is attached to aluminum plates that are painted matte black at intervals of 20 cm on polystyrene insulation. The surface temperature of the aluminum plate, called the SAT (sol-air temperature, is used as an indicator of the quantity of solar radiation. In order to compare terrace materials, two of the measuring devices were located facing south.Concrete tile, artificial turf, and wood chips were selected as materials to be comparedfor the surface of the terrace and were laid in front of the measuring devices. The results indicate that the SAT reflected onto a vertical plane was higher closer to the ground for all materials. Hourly fluctuations of the vertical distribution of the reflected solar radiation differed, depending on the terrace surface material. When concrete tiles of different thicknesses were compared, the temporal heating patterns varied due to differences in heat capacity. These results lead us to the conclusion that using the developed measuringdevice enables grasping the effect of vertical distribution of reflected solar radiation from a terrace.

  1. Measurement of parameters in Indus-2 synchrotron radiation source. (United States)

    Ghodke, A D; Husain, Riyasat; Kumar, Pradeep; Yadav, Surendra; Puntambekar, T A


    The paper presents the measurement of optics parameters in Indus-2 synchrotron radiation source, which include betatron tune, beta function, dispersion function, natural chromaticity, corrected chromaticity, central RF frequency, momentum compaction factor, and linear betatron coupling. Two methods were used for beta function measurement; a conventional quadrupole scan method and a method using the fitting of the orbit response matrix. A robust Levenberg-Marquardt algorithm was used for nonlinear least square fitting of the orbit response matrix. In this paper, detailed methods for the parameter measurements are described. The measured results are discussed and compared with the theoretical values obtained using accelerator simulation code Accelerator Toolbox in MATLAB.

  2. Recent measurements for hadrontherapy and space radiation: nuclear physics (United States)

    Miller, J.


    The particles and energies commonly used for hadron therapy overlap the low end of the charge and energy range of greatest interest for space radiation applications, Z=1-26 and approximately 100-1000 MeV/nucleon. It has been known for some time that the nuclear interactions of the incident ions must be taken into account both in treatment planning and in understanding and addressing the effects of galactic cosmic ray ions on humans in space. Until relatively recently, most of the studies of nuclear fragmentation and transport in matter were driven by the interests of the nuclear physics and later, the hadron therapy communities. However, the experimental and theoretical methods and the accelerator facilities developed for use in heavy ion nuclear physics are directly applicable to radiotherapy and space radiation studies. I will briefly review relevant data taken recently at various accelerators, and discuss the implications of the measurements for radiotherapy, radiobiology and space radiation research.

  3. Measurements of Compton Scattered Transition Radiation at High Lorentz Factors

    CERN Document Server

    Case, Gary L.; Cherry, Michael L.; Isbert, Joachim; Mitchell, John W.; Patterson, Donald; Case, Gary L.; Cherry, Michael L.; Isbert, Joachim; Mitchell, John W.; Patterson, Donald


    X-ray transition radiation can be used to measure the Lorentz factor of relativistic particles. Standard transition radiation detectors (TRDs) typically incorporate thin plastic foil radiators and gas-filled x-ray detectors, and are sensitive up to \\gamma ~ 10^4. To reach higher Lorentz factors (up to \\gamma ~ 10^5), thicker, denser radiators can be used, which consequently produce x-rays of harder energies (>100 keV). At these energies, scintillator detectors are more efficient in detecting the hard x-rays, and Compton scattering of the x-rays out of the path of the particle becomes an important effect. The Compton scattering can be utilized to separate the transition radiation from the ionization background spatially. The use of conducting metal foils is predicted to yield enhanced signals compared to standard nonconducting plastic foils of the same dimensions. We have designed and built a Compton Scatter TRD optimized for high Lorentz factors and exposed it to high energy electrons at the CERN SPS. We pres...

  4. Half-brightness measurements of candidate radiation sensors (United States)

    Williams, Stephen Alexander

    Ionizing radiation poses a significant challenge for human and robotic space missions. Practical luminescent sensors will depend heavily upon research investigating the resistance of these materials to ionizing radiation and the ability to anneal or self-heal the damage caused by such radiation. In 1951, Birks and Black experimentally showed that the luminescent efficiency of anthracene bombarded by alpha particles varies with total fluence. From 1990 to the present, we found that the Birks and Black relation describes the reduction in light emission yield for every tested luminescent material except lead phosphate glass due to proton irradiation. These results indicate that radiation produced quenching centers compete with emission for absorbed energy. The purpose of this thesis is to present new results from related luminescent materials by exposing them to a 1-3 MeV proton beam. Particular emphasis will be placed on recent measurements made with bright luminescent materials, such as zinc sulfide doped with manganese (ZnS:Mn), europium tetrakis dibenzoylmethide triethylammonium (EuD4TEA), an magnesium tetrakis dibenzoylmethide triethylammonium (MgD4TEA). This research can be used to help determine if luminescent materials can be used as a real-time sensor to detect ionizing radiation.

  5. Assessment and comparison of methods for solar ultraviolet radiation measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leszczynski, K.


    In the study, the different methods to measure the solar ultraviolet radiation are compared. The methods included are spectroradiometric, erythemally weighted broadband and multi-channel measurements. The comparison of the different methods is based on a literature review and assessments of optical characteristics of the spectroradiometer Optronic 742 of the Finnish Centre for Radiation and Nuclear Safety (STUK) and of the erythemally weighted Robertson-Berger type broadband radiometers Solar Light models 500 and 501 of the Finnish Meteorological Institute and STUK. An introduction to the sources of error in solar UV measurements, to methods for radiometric characterization of UV radiometers together with methods for error reduction are presented. Reviews on experiences from world-wide UV monitoring efforts and instrumentation as well as on the results from international UV radiometer intercomparisons are also presented. (62 refs.).

  6. Distributed solar radiation fast dynamic measurement for PV cells (United States)

    Wan, Xuefen; Yang, Yi; Cui, Jian; Du, Xingjing; Zheng, Tao; Sardar, Muhammad Sohail


    To study the operating characteristics about PV cells, attention must be given to the dynamic behavior of the solar radiation. The dynamic behaviors of annual, monthly, daily and hourly averages of solar radiation have been studied in detail. But faster dynamic behaviors of solar radiation need more researches. The solar radiation random fluctuations in minute-long or second-long range, which lead to alternating radiation and cool down/warm up PV cell frequently, decrease conversion efficiency. Fast dynamic processes of solar radiation are mainly relevant to stochastic moving of clouds. Even in clear sky condition, the solar irradiations show a certain degree of fast variation. To evaluate operating characteristics of PV cells under fast dynamic irradiation, a solar radiation measuring array (SRMA) based on large active area photodiode, LoRa spread spectrum communication and nanoWatt MCU is proposed. This cross photodiodes structure tracks fast stochastic moving of clouds. To compensate response time of pyranometer and reduce system cost, the terminal nodes with low-cost fast-responded large active area photodiode are placed besides positions of tested PV cells. A central node, consists with pyranometer, large active area photodiode, wind detector and host computer, is placed in the center of the central topologies coordinate to scale temporal envelope of solar irradiation and get calibration information between pyranometer and large active area photodiodes. In our SRMA system, the terminal nodes are designed based on Microchip's nanoWatt XLP PIC16F1947. FDS-100 is adopted for large active area photodiode in terminal nodes and host computer. The output current and voltage of each PV cell are monitored by I/V measurement. AS62-T27/SX1278 LoRa communication modules are used for communicating between terminal nodes and host computer. Because the LoRa LPWAN (Low Power Wide Area Network) specification provides seamless interoperability among Smart Things without the

  7. netCDF Operators for Rapid Analysis of Measured and Modeled Swath-like Data (United States)

    Zender, C. S.


    Swath-like data (hereafter SLD) are defined by non-rectangular and/or time-varying spatial grids in which one or more coordinates are multi-dimensional. It is often challenging and time-consuming to work with SLD, including all Level 2 satellite-retrieved data, non-rectangular subsets of Level 3 data, and model data on curvilinear grids. Researchers and data centers want user-friendly, fast, and powerful methods to specify, extract, serve, manipulate, and thus analyze, SLD. To meet these needs, large research-oriented agencies and modeling center such as NASA, DOE, and NOAA increasingly employ the netCDF Operators (NCO), an open-source scientific data analysis software package applicable to netCDF and HDF data. NCO includes extensive, fast, parallelized regridding features to facilitate analysis and intercomparison of SLD and model data. Remote sensing, weather and climate modeling and analysis communities face similar problems in handling SLD including how to easily: 1. Specify and mask irregular regions such as ocean basins and political boundaries in SLD (and rectangular) grids. 2. Bin, interpolate, average, or re-map SLD to regular grids. 3. Derive secondary data from given quality levels of SLD. These common tasks require a data extraction and analysis toolkit that is SLD-friendly and, like NCO, familiar in all these communities. With NCO users can 1. Quickly project SLD onto the most useful regular grids for intercomparison. 2. Access sophisticated statistical and regridding functions that are robust to missing data and allow easy specification of quality control metrics. These capabilities improve interoperability, software-reuse, and, because they apply to SLD, minimize transmission, storage, and handling of unwanted data. While SLD analysis still poses many challenges compared to regularly gridded, rectangular data, the custom analyses scripts SLD once required are now shorter, more powerful, and user-friendly.

  8. Measuring Radiation Damage from Heavy Energetic Ions in Aluminum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kostin, M., PI-MSU; Ronningen, R., PI-MSU; Ahle, L., PI-LLNL; Gabriel, T., Scientific Investigation and Development; Mansur, L., PI-ORNL; Leonard, K., ORNL; Mokhov, N., FNAL; Niita, K., RIST, Japan


    An intense beam of 122 MeV/u (9.3 GeV) 76Ge ions was stopped in aluminum samples at the Coupled Cyclotron Facility at NSCL, MSU. Attempts were made at ORNL to measure changes in material properties by measuring changes in electrical resistivity and microhardness, and by transmission electron microscopy characterization, for defect density caused by radiation damage, as a function of depth and integrated ion flux. These measurements are relevant for estimating damage to components at a rare isotope beam facility.

  9. Measurements of diversity gain and radiation efficiency of the eleven antenna by using different measurement techniques

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yang, Jian; Pivnenko, Sergey; Laitinen, Tommi


    This paper presents measurement results of diversity gain and radiation efficiency by using three different measurement techniques: reverberation chamber, spherical near-field anechoic chamber, and multi-probe anechoic chamber. The results are measured over a large 2–8 GHz bandwidth which...

  10. Radiation protection: Radiation dose units and fundamentals. Correct use of radiation dose units, measurements, risk assessment; Dosisbegriffe und Grundlagen im Strahlenschutz. Dosisbegriffe richtig anwenden, Messgroessen bestimmen, Risiken bewerten

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Folkerts, K.H.; Wolf, H.


    Radiation protection intends to prevent radiation damage by appropriate staff-related and technical measures in accordance with the specifications of the German X-Ray Ordinance (RoV) and Radiation Protection Ordinance (StrlSchV) and in agreement with the ICRLP (International Commission on Radiological Protection). They require that radiation use must be justified, exposure conditions must be optimised, and exposure times must be limited to the shortest time necessary. In practical use, this requires considerable practical and theoretical knowledge from the user concerning the physical properties of radiation sources, interactions with tissue and matter of different types of radiation, and biological effects of radiation. National and international organizations and committees have specified the knowledge which a user must have as follows: Physical fundamentals of radiation protection; Measuring quantities and specified standard units; Organisational and constructional radiation protection; Legal knowledge. (orig.)

  11. Intercomparison of spectral-UV-radiation measurement systems. (United States)

    Seckmeyer, G; Thiel, S; Blumthaler, M; Fabian, P; Gerber, S; Gugg-Helminger, A; Häder, D P; Huber, M; Kettner, C; Köhler, U; Köpke, P; Maier, H; Schäfer, J; Suppan, P; Tamm, E; Thomalla, E


    The results of what is to our knowledge the first intercomparison of seven independent spectroradiometers measuring solar UV irradiances are presented. The intercomparison was carried out in the GSF-Forschungszentrum für Umwelt und Gesundheit, Neuherberg (near Munich, Germany), on 13 July 1990. The spectroradiometric measurements were supplemented by other meteorological, optical, and chemical measurements at the same time. As this day was cloudless, the data can be compared with the measurements taken by Bener in Switzerland in the 1960's and with the results of radiative transfer models. The measured irradiances at noon differed by factors of up to 100. These large differences demonstrate the great difficulties with this type of measurement. Some instrument systems, however, ranged within tolerances of ±10%, thus allowing us to make recommendations for the spectroradiometry of solar UV irradiances.

  12. Influence of Spherical Radiation Pattern Measurement Uncertainty on Handset Performance Measures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jesper Ødum; Pedersen, Gert Frølund


    ), and mean effective gain (MEG) can be computed. Often this kind of measurements are made with a phantom head next to the handsets in order to simulate the influence of a real user. The measured radiation patterns are only expected to be repeatable if the same setup is used, i.e., the same phantom...... system that may introduce errors in standardized performance measurements. Radiation patterns of six handsets have been measured while they were mounted at various offsets from the reference position defined by the Cellular Telecommunications & Internet Association (CTIA) certification. The change...

  13. Changes in Handset Performance Measures due to Spherical Radiation Pattern Measurement Uncertainty

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jesper Ødum; Pedersen, Gert Frølund

    ), and mean effective gain (MEG) can be computed. Often this kind of measurements are made with a phantom head next to the handsets in order to simulate the influence of a real user. The measured radiation patterns are only expected to be repeatable if the same setup is used, i.e., the same phantom...... system that may introduce errors in standardized performance measurements. Radiation patterns of six handsets have been measured while they were mounted at various offsets from the reference position defined by the Cellular Telecommunications & Internet Association (CTIA) certification. The change...

  14. Net ecosystem exchange and energy fluxes measured with the eddy covariance technique in a western Siberian bog

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Alekseychik


    Full Text Available Very few studies of ecosystem–atmosphere exchange involving eddy covariance data have been conducted in Siberia, with none in the western Siberian middle taiga. This work provides the first estimates of carbon dioxide (CO2 and energy budgets in a typical bog of the western Siberian middle taiga based on May–August measurements in 2015. The footprint of measured fluxes consisted of a homogeneous mixture of tree-covered ridges and hollows with the vegetation represented by typical sedges and shrubs. Generally, the surface exchange rates resembled those of pine-covered bogs elsewhere. The surface energy balance closure approached 100 %. Net CO2 uptake was comparatively high, summing up to 202 gC m−2 for the four measurement months, while the Bowen ratio was seasonally stable at 28 %. The ecosystem turned into a net CO2 source during several front passage events in June and July. The periods of heavy rain helped keep the water table at a sustainably high level, preventing a usual drawdown in summer. However, because of the cloudy and rainy weather, the observed fluxes might rather represent the special weather conditions of 2015 than their typical magnitudes.

  15. Characterization of a radiation detector for aircraft measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holanda M, L. de; Federico, C. A.; Caldas, L. V. E., E-mail: [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares, Av. Lineu Prestes 2242, Cidade Universitaria, CEP 05508-000, Sao Paulo (Brazil)


    Air crews, as pilots and flight attendants, are subjected to cosmic ray doses which can be higher than the average doses on workers from the nuclear industry. The diversity of particles of high energies present in the radiation field on board of air crafts turns the determination of the incident dose difficult, and requires special care regarding dosimetric systems to be used in this kind of radiation field. The Brazilian Air Force, through its Institute for Advanced Studies (Instituto de Estudos Avancados, IEAv/DCTA) in conjunction with the Institute of Energetic and Nuclear Research (Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares - IPEN/CNEN-SP) are working on this subject since 2008. A prototype of a radiation detector for aircraft measurements was previously built and tested in flight and laboratory conditions. The detector is able of measuring a quantity known as absorbed dose (using passive dosimeters), which will subsequently be correlated to the ambient dose equivalent and the effective dose received by air crews. In this context, a theoretical approach through Monte Carlo simulations with the computational codes MCNP5 and MCNPX was used to model and characterize the detector response at such experimental conditions. This work presents the preliminary results of the computational modeling, with special emphasis on the comparison between the absorbed doses measured and simulated, and its relationship with the ambient dose equivalent and the effective dose for this detector. (author)

  16. Investigation of Radiation Protection Methodologies for Radiation Therapy Shielding Using Monte Carlo Simulation and Measurement (United States)

    Tanny, Sean

    The advent of high-energy linear accelerators for dedicated medical use in the 1950's by Henry Kaplan and the Stanford University physics department began a revolution in radiation oncology. Today, linear accelerators are the standard of care for modern radiation therapy and can generate high-energy beams that can produce tens of Gy per minute at isocenter. This creates a need for a large amount of shielding material to properly protect members of the public and hospital staff. Standardized vault designs and guidance on shielding properties of various materials are provided by the National Council on Radiation Protection (NCRP) Report 151. However, physicists are seeking ways to minimize the footprint and volume of shielding material needed which leads to the use of non-standard vault configurations and less-studied materials, such as high-density concrete. The University of Toledo Dana Cancer Center has utilized both of these methods to minimize the cost and spatial footprint of the requisite radiation shielding. To ensure a safe work environment, computer simulations were performed to verify the attenuation properties and shielding workloads produced by a variety of situations where standard recommendations and guidance documents were insufficient. This project studies two areas of concern that are not addressed by NCRP 151, the radiation shielding workload for the vault door with a non-standard design, and the attenuation properties of high-density concrete for both photon and neutron radiation. Simulations have been performed using a Monte-Carlo code produced by the Los Alamos National Lab (LANL), Monte Carlo Neutrons, Photons 5 (MCNP5). Measurements have been performed using a shielding test port designed into the maze of the Varian Edge treatment vault.

  17. Science Plan for the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program (ARM)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    The purpose of this Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Science Plan is to articulate the scientific issues driving the ARM Program, and to relate them to DOE`s programmatic objectives for ARM, based on the experience and scientific progress gained over the past five years. ARM programmatic objectives are to: (1) Relate observed radiative fluxes and radiances in the atmosphere, spectrally resolved and as a function of position and time, to the temperature and composition of the atmosphere, specifically including water vapor and clouds, and to surface properties, and sample sufficient variety of situations so as to span a wide range of climatologically relevant possibilities; (2) develop and test parameterizations that can be used to accurately predict the radiative properties and to model the radiative interactions involving water vapor and clouds within the atmosphere, with the objective of incorporating these parameterizations into general circulation models. The primary observational methods remote sending and other observations at the surface, particularly remote sensing of clouds, water vapor and aerosols.

  18. Net community production and calcification from 7 years of NOAA Station Papa Mooring measurements (United States)

    Fassbender, Andrea J.; Sabine, Christopher L.; Cronin, Meghan F.


    Seven years of near-continuous observations from the Ocean Station Papa (OSP) surface mooring were used to evaluate drivers of marine carbon cycling in the eastern subarctic Pacific. Processes contributing to mixed layer carbon inventory changes throughout each deployment year were quantitatively assessed using a time-dependent mass balance approach in which total alkalinity and dissolved inorganic carbon were used as tracers. By using two mixed layer carbon tracers, it was possible to isolate the influences of net community production (NCP) and calcification. Our results indicate that the annual NCP at OSP is 2 ± 1 mol C m-2 yr-1 and the annual calcification is 0.3 ± 0.3 mol C m-2 yr-1. Piecing together evidence for potentially significant dissolved organic carbon cycling in this region, we estimate a particulate inorganic carbon to particulate organic carbon ratio between 0.15 and 0.25. This is at least double the global average, adding to the growing evidence that calcifying organisms play an important role in carbon export at this location. These results, coupled with significant seasonality in the NCP, suggest that carbon cycling near OSP may be more complex than previously thought and highlight the importance of continuous observations for robust assessments of biogeochemical cycling.

  19. Global real-time dose measurements using the Automated Radiation Measurements for Aerospace Safety (ARMAS) system (United States)

    Tobiska, W. Kent; Bouwer, D.; Smart, D.; Shea, M.; Bailey, J.; Didkovsky, L.; Judge, K.; Garrett, H.; Atwell, W.; Gersey, B.; Wilkins, R.; Rice, D.; Schunk, R.; Bell, D.; Mertens, C.; Xu, X.; Wiltberger, M.; Wiley, S.; Teets, E.; Jones, B.; Hong, S.; Yoon, K.


    The Automated Radiation Measurements for Aerospace Safety (ARMAS) program has successfully deployed a fleet of six instruments measuring the ambient radiation environment at commercial aircraft altitudes. ARMAS transmits real-time data to the ground and provides quality, tissue-relevant ambient dose equivalent rates with 5 min latency for dose rates on 213 flights up to 17.3 km (56,700 ft). We show five cases from different aircraft; the source particles are dominated by galactic cosmic rays but include particle fluxes for minor radiation periods and geomagnetically disturbed conditions. The measurements from 2013 to 2016 do not cover a period of time to quantify galactic cosmic rays' dependence on solar cycle variation and their effect on aviation radiation. However, we report on small radiation "clouds" in specific magnetic latitude regions and note that active geomagnetic, variable space weather conditions may sufficiently modify the magnetospheric magnetic field that can enhance the radiation environment, particularly at high altitudes and middle to high latitudes. When there is no significant space weather, high-latitude flights produce a dose rate analogous to a chest X-ray every 12.5 h, every 25 h for midlatitudes, and every 100 h for equatorial latitudes at typical commercial flight altitudes of 37,000 ft ( 11 km). The dose rate doubles every 2 km altitude increase, suggesting a radiation event management strategy for pilots or air traffic control; i.e., where event-driven radiation regions can be identified, they can be treated like volcanic ash clouds to achieve radiation safety goals with slightly lower flight altitudes or more equatorial flight paths.

  20. Spectral aerosol direct radiative forcing from airborne radiative measurements during CalNex and ARCTAS (United States)

    Leblanc, Samuel E.; Schmidt, K. S.; Pilewskie, P.; Redemann, J.; Hostetler, C.; Ferrare, R.; Hair, J.; Langridge, J. M.; Lack, D. A.


    This study presents the aerosol radiative forcing derived from airborne measurements of shortwave spectral irradiance during the 2010 Research at the Nexus of Air Quality and Climate Change (CalNex). Relative forcing efficiency, the radiative forcing normalized by aerosol optical thickness and incident irradiance, is a means of comparing the aerosol radiative forcing for different conditions. In this study, it is used to put the aerosol radiative effects of an air mass in the Los Angeles basin in context with case studies from three field missions that targeted other regions and aerosol types, including a case study from the Arctic Research of the Composition of the Troposphere from Aircraft and Satellites (ARCTAS). For CalNex, we relied on irradiance measurements onboard the NOAA P-3 aircraft during a flight on 19 May 2010 over a ground station. CalNex presented a difficulty for determining forcing efficiency since one of the input parameters, optical thickness, was not available from the same aircraft. However, extinction profiles were available from a nearby aircraft. An existing retrieval algorithm was modified to use those measurements as initial estimate for the missing optical thickness. In addition, single scattering albedo and asymmetry parameter (secondary products of the method), were compared with CalNex in situ measurements. The CalNex relative forcing efficiency spectra agreed with earlier studies that found this parameter to be constrained at each wavelength within 20% per unit of aerosol optical thickness at 500 nm regardless of aerosol type and experiment, except for highly absorbing aerosols sampled near Mexico City. The diurnally averaged below-layer forcing efficiency integrated over the wavelength range of 350-700 nm for CalNex is estimated to be -58.6 ± 13.8 W/m2, whereas for the ARCTAS case it is -48.7 ± 11.5 W/m2.

  1. Developing and measuring healthcare capacity and quality in Burundi: LifeNet International’s horizontal conversion franchise model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael F Brooks


    Full Text Available In a departure from traditional “vertical” healthcare interventions in low-resource settings that work to combat a single specific health issue, LifeNet International (LN uses a horizontal conversion franchise to develop and measure healthcare capacity and quality in primarily faith-based health centers in East Africa. Through a comprehensive franchise package of Medical Training, Management Training, Pharmaceutical Supply, and Growth Financing, LN is able to leverage existing resources and respond to a greater number of the obstacles preventing facilities from providing quality care. Through its Quality Score Card, LN measures improvements in quality of care within its network. This tool has measured consistent and significant improvements in quality of care following LN partnership. Together, these services improve quality of care at East African primary care facilities in ways that issue-specific, “vertical” interventions cannot.

  2. Electron bunch length measurement with a wakefield radiation decelerator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weiwei Li


    Full Text Available In this paper, we propose a novel method to measure the electron bunch length with a dielectric wakefield radiation (DWR decelerator which is composed of two dielectric-lined waveguides (DLWs and an electron spectrometer. When an electron beam passes through a DLW, the DWR is excited which leads to an energy loss of the electron beam. The energy loss is found to be largely dependent on the electron bunch length and can be easily measured by an electron spectrometer which is essential for a normal accelerator facility. Our study shows that this method has a high resolution and a great simplicity.

  3. Measurement techniques for UMTS signals radiated by radio base stations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buscaglia, F.; Gianola, P


    In the most European countries radio coverage for the third radio mobile generation, i.e. the UMTS (Universal Mobile Telecommunications System), will soon be started. In the past few years, national laws specifying limits on exposure to electromagnetic fields have drawn much attention on electromagnetic test bed and measurement procedures for radio mobile equipment/systems. An overview is given of the UMTS system, showing the main characteristics of the radio access network UTRAN (UMTS Terrestrial Radio Access Network). An analysis is also provided as to the measurement techniques and related instrumentation for the electric field intensity radiated by a UMTS radio station. (author)

  4. Ionisation Chamber for Measurement of Pulsed Photon Radiation Fields. (United States)

    Ginzburg, D


    The use of pulsed photon radiation in medical, industrial and security sectors has vastly increased during the recent years. The length of pulse from different X-ray flash generators that are commonly used as either portable, battery-operated or fixed systems can be as low as a few femtoseconds. However, the majority of radiation protection instruments, especially various active electronic dosemeters, have limitations when operated in pulsed fields. This study presents measurements that were performed using the dose-integration mode of the RI-02 and Ram Ion survey metres, which are based on ventilated ionisation chamber, when exposed to different pulsed X-ray sources. An intercomparison between the results that were obtained with the survey metres and those that were obtained with thermoluminescence dosemeter, reference passive dosemeter, show good agreement (deviation lies within 10%). © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email:

  5. Electromagnetic Radiation Measurements and Safety Issues of some Cellular

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Mousa


    Full Text Available As the mobile telecommunication systems are tremendously growing allover the world then the numbers of handheld andbase stations are also rapidly growing and it became very popular to see these base stations distributed everywhere in theneighborhood and on roof tops which has caused a considerable amount of panic to the public in Palestine concerning witherthe radiated electromagnetic field from these base stations may cause any health effect or hazard. This paper focuses on theradiated electromagnetic energy from some typical mobile base stations around the city of Nablus. The exposure levels dueto these stations were measured and compared to some international standard guidelines like ICNIRP and FCC to see if itmeets these standards, this is in order to answer some of the public fear and concern. The results are presented and somecomments are made on the other sources of electromagnetic radiation in the 200 kHz to 3 GHz range.

  6. Radiation exposure in nuclear medicine: real-time measurement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sylvain, Iara [Beaujon Hospital, Clichy (France). Dept. of Nuclear Medicine; E-mail:; Bok, Bernard [Beaujon Hospital, Clichy (France). Dept. of Nuclear Medicine; X. Bichat University, Paris (France). Biophysics Lab.; E-mail:


    French regulations have introduced the use of electronic dosimeters for personnel monitoring of workers. In order to evaluate the exposure from diagnostic procedures to nuclear medicine staff, individual whole-body doses were measured daily with electronic (digital) personal dosimeters during 20 consecutive weeks and correlated with the work load of each day. Personal doses remained always below 20 mu Sv/d under normal working conditions. Radiation exposure levels were highest to tech staff, nurses and stretcher-bearers. The extrapolated annual cumulative doses for all staff remained less than 10% of the maximum legal limit for exposed workers (2 mSv/yr). Electronic dosimeters are not technically justified for routine survey of staff. The high sensitivity and immediate reading of electronic semiconductor dosimeters may become very useful for exposure control under risky working conditions. It may become an important help for optimising radiation protection. (author)

  7. Mining and biodiversity offsets: a transparent and science-based approach to measure "no-net-loss". (United States)

    Virah-Sawmy, Malika; Ebeling, Johannes; Taplin, Roslyn


    Mining and associated infrastructure developments can present themselves as economic opportunities that are difficult to forego for developing and industrialised countries alike. Almost inevitably, however, they lead to biodiversity loss. This trade-off can be greatest in economically poor but highly biodiverse regions. Biodiversity offsets have, therefore, increasingly been promoted as a mechanism to help achieve both the aims of development and biodiversity conservation. Accordingly, this mechanism is emerging as a key tool for multinational mining companies to demonstrate good environmental stewardship. Relying on offsets to achieve "no-net-loss" of biodiversity, however, requires certainty in their ecological integrity where they are used to sanction habitat destruction. Here, we discuss real-world practices in biodiversity offsetting by assessing how well some leading initiatives internationally integrate critical aspects of biodiversity attributes, net loss accounting and project management. With the aim of improving, rather than merely critiquing the approach, we analyse different aspects of biodiversity offsetting. Further, we analyse the potential pitfalls of developing counterfactual scenarios of biodiversity loss or gains in a project's absence. In this, we draw on insights from experience with carbon offsetting. This informs our discussion of realistic projections of project effectiveness and permanence of benefits to ensure no net losses, and the risk of displacing, rather than avoiding biodiversity losses ("leakage"). We show that the most prominent existing biodiversity offset initiatives employ broad and somewhat arbitrary parameters to measure habitat value and do not sufficiently consider real-world challenges in compensating losses in an effective and lasting manner. We propose a more transparent and science-based approach, supported with a new formula, to help design biodiversity offsets to realise their potential in enabling more responsible

  8. Measurement of Branching Fractions of Radiative Charm Decays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aubert, B


    We present a measurement of the branching fractions for the Cabibbo-favored radiative decay, D{sup 0} {yields} {bar K}*{sup 0}{gamma}, and the Cabibbo-suppressed radiative decay, D{sup 0} {yields} {phi}{gamma}. These measurements are based on a data sample corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 387.1 fb{sup -1}, recorded with the BABAR detector at the PEP-II e{sup +}e{sup -} asymmetric-energy collider operating at center-of-mass energies 10.58 and 10.54 GeV. We measure the branching fractions relative to the well-studied decay D{sup 0} {yields} K{sup -}{pi}{sup +} and find {Beta}(D{sup 0} {yields} {bar K}*{sup 0}{gamma})/{Beta}(D{sup 0} {yields} K{sup -}{pi}{sup +}) = (8.43 {+-} 0.51 {+-} 0.70) x 10{sup -3} and {Beta}(D{sup 0} {yields} {phi}{gamma})/{Beta}(D{sup 0} {yields} K{sup -}{pi}{sup +}) = (7.15 {+-} 0.78 {+-} 0.69) x 10{sup -4}, where the first error is statistical and the second is systematic. This is the first measurement of {Beta}(D{sup 0} {yields} {bar K}*{sup 0} {gamma}).

  9. Sol-Rad Net Flux (L 1.0, 1.5, 2.0) (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — SolRad-Net (Solar Radiation Network) is an established network of ground-based sensors providing high-frequency solar flux measurements in quasi-realtime to the...

  10. Transition radiation detectors for energy measurements at high Lorentz factors

    CERN Document Server

    Wakely, S P; Müller, D; Hörandel, J R; Gahbauer, F


    The characteristic dependence of the intensity of transition radiation (TR) on the Lorentz factor gamma = E/mc**2 of a primary particle is key to a number of practical applications. In particular, one may use TR detectors for energy measurements of heavy cosmic-ray nuclei in a region where alternate techniques are difficult to apply. However, a serious constraint can be the saturation of the TR yield at high gamma-values. We investigate how the onset of saturation can be pushed to as high a Lorentz factor as possible. We then describe the results of test measurements at CERN, which demonstrate the possibility of practical configurations for measurements over the Lorentz factor range of a few hundred to about 10**5.

  11. Nuclear fragmentation measurements for hadrontherapy and space radiation protection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Napoli, M. [INFN - Sezione di Catania (Italy); Agodi, C.; Blancato, A. A.; Cavallaro, M.; Cirrone, G. A. P.; Cuttone, G.; Sardina, D.; Scuderi, V. [INFN - Laboratori Nazionali del Sud (Italy); Battistoni, G. [INFN - Sezione di Milano (Italy); Bondi, M.; Cappuzzello, F.; Carbone, D.; Nicolosi, D.; Raciti, G.; Tropea, S. [INFN - Laboratori Nazionali del Sud, Italy and Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia, Universita degli Studi di Catania (Italy); Giacoppo, F. [Department of Physics, University of Oslo (Norway); Morone, M. C. [Dipartimento di Biopatologia e Diagnostica per Immagini, Universita di Roma Tor Vergata (Italy); Pandola, L. [INFN-Laboratori Nazionali del Gran Sasso (Italy); Rapisarda, E. [Nuclear and Radiation Physics Section, Katholieke Universiteit Leuven Celestijnenlaan Heverlee (Belgium); Romano, F. [INFN - Laboratori Nazionali del Sud (Italy) and Museo Storico della Fisica e Centro Studi e Ricerche E. Fermi Roma (Italy); and others


    Nuclear fragmentation measurements are necessary in hadrontherapy and space radiation protection, to predict the effects of the ion nuclear interactions within the human body. Nowadays, a very limited set of carbon fragmentation cross sections has been measured and in particular, to our knowledge, no double differential fragmentation cross sections at intermediate energies are available in literature. We have measured the double differential cross sections and the angular distributions of the secondary fragments produced in the {sup 12}C fragmentation at 62 AMeV on a thin carbon target. The experimental data have been also used to benchmark the prediction capability of the Geant4 Monte Carlo code at intermediate energies, where it was never tested before.

  12. Estimation of Asian Dust Aerosol Effect on Cloud Radiation Forcing Using Fu-Liou Radiative Model and CERES Measurements (United States)

    Su, Jing; Huang, Jianping; Fu, Qiang; Minnis, Patrick; Ge, Jinming; Bi, Jianrong


    The impact of Asian dust on cloud radiative forcing during 2003-2006 is studied by using the Earth's Radiant Energy Budget Scanner (CERES) data and the Fu-Liou radiative transfer model. Analysis of satellite data shows that the dust aerosol significantly reduced the cloud cooling effect at TOA. In dust contaminated cloudy regions, the 4-year mean values of the instantaneous shortwave, longwave and net cloud radiative forcing are -138.9, 69.1, and -69.7 Wm(sup -2), which are 57.0, 74.2, and 46.3%, respectively, of the corresponding values in more pristine cloudy regions. The satellite-retrieved cloud properties are significantly different in the dusty regions and can influence the radiative forcing indirectly. The contributions to the cloud radiation forcing by the dust direct, indirect and semi-direct effects are estimated using combined satellite observations and Fu-Liou model simulation. The 4-year mean value of combination of indirect and semi-direct shortwave radiative forcing (SWRF) is 82.2 Wm(sup -2), which is 78.4% of the total dust effect. The direct effect is only 22.7 Wm(sup -2), which is 21.6% of the total effect. Because both first and second indirect effects enhance cloud cooling, the aerosol-induced cloud warming is mainly the result of the semi-direct effect of dust.


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kurzeja, R.


    Experiments and calculations were conducted with a 0.13 mm fine wire thermocouple within a naturally-aspirated Gill radiation shield to assess and improve the accuracy of air temperature measurements without the use of mechanical aspiration, wind speed or radiation measurements. It was found that this thermocouple measured the air temperature with root-mean-square errors of 0.35 K within the Gill shield without correction. A linear temperature correction was evaluated based on the difference between the interior plate and thermocouple temperatures. This correction was found to be relatively insensitive to shield design and yielded an error of 0.16 K for combined day and night observations. The correction was reliable in the daytime when the wind speed usually exceeds 1 m s{sup -1} but occasionally performed poorly at night during very light winds. Inspection of the standard deviation in the thermocouple wire temperature identified these periods but did not unambiguously locate the most serious events. However, estimates of sensor accuracy during these periods is complicated by the much larger sampling volume of the mechanically-aspirated sensor compared with the naturally-aspirated sensor and the presence of significant near surface temperature gradients. The root-mean-square errors therefore are upper limits to the aspiration error since they include intrinsic sensor differences and intermittent volume sampling differences.

  14. Environmental assessment for the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program: Southern Great Plains Cloud and Radiation Testbed (CART) site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Policastro, A.J.; Pfingston, J.M.; Maloney, D.M.; Wasmer, F.; Pentecost, E.D.


    The Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program is aimed at supplying improved predictive capability of climate change, particularly the prediction of cloud-climate feedback. The objective will be achieved by measuring the atmospheric radiation and physical and meteorological quantities that control solar radiation in the earth`s atmosphere and using this information to test global climate and related models. The proposed action is to construct and operate a Cloud and Radiation Testbed (CART) research site in the southern Great Plains as part of the Department of Energy`s Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program whose objective is to develop an improved predictive capability of global climate change. The purpose of this CART research site in southern Kansas and northern Oklahoma would be to collect meteorological and other scientific information to better characterize the processes controlling radiation transfer on a global scale. Impacts which could result from this facility are described.

  15. 3D measurement of absolute radiation dose in grid therapy (United States)

    Trapp, J. V.; Warrington, A. P.; Partridge, M.; Philps, A.; Leach, M. O.; Webb, S.


    Spatially fractionated radiotherapy through a grid is a concept which has a long history and was routinely used in orthovoltage radiation therapy in the middle of last century to minimize damage to the skin and subcutaneous tissue. With the advent of megavoltage radiotherapy and its skin sparing effects the use of grids in radiotherapy declined in the 1970s. However there has recently been a revival of the technique for use in palliative treatments with a single fraction of 10 to 20 Gy. In this work the absolute 3D dose distribution in a grid irradiation is measured for photons using a combination of film and gel dosimetry.

  16. Development of radiation detection and measurement system - Development of scintillation radiation sensor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, Hee Dong; Kim, Wan [Kyungpook National University, Taegu (Korea); Kim, Do Sung [Taegu University, Taegu (Korea)


    We have been fabricated CsI(Tl) scintillation crystals and plastic scintillators for radiation-based measuring equipment. CsI (Tl) single crystals doped with thallium as an activator were grown using the Czochralski method. The crystal structure of grown CsI(Tl) was bcc, and it was confirmed that its lattice constant was 4,568 A. The spectral range of luminescence of CsI(Tl) was 350 {approx} 700 nm independent of thallium concentration, and the fast component of the luminescence was decreased with increasing thallium concentration. The energy resolution of CsI(Tl) scintillator doped with 0.1 mole% thallium was about 9% for 137 Cs {gamma}-rays. The relation formula of {gamma}-ray energy versus energy resolution was ln(FWHM%)=-0.705ln({epsilon})+6.75. The radiation damage of CsI(Tl) increased in proportion to thallium concentration and radiation damage of CsI(Tl) increased in proportion to thallium concentration and radiation dosage, and the irradiated crystals were colored reddish. The radiation induced absorption bands appeared around 355, 425, 520 and 555 nm, and their energy level were about 3.50, 2.88, 2.39 and 2.21 eV. Plastic scintillators were fabricated thermal polymerization method. Those were polymerizing at 120 deg. C, during 72 hours, and annealing at 75 deg. C, during 24 hours. When the concentration of 1st solute was 1.5 wt% and concentration of 2nd solute was 0.01 wt%, the characteristics of scintillation were very excellent. Also 3.0 wt% tetraphenyl lead were loaded to improve the detection efficiency of {gamma}-ray. The range of emission spectrum was 400 {approx} 450nm, and the central peak was 415 nm. The radiation damage was not appear under 1*10{sup 3}Gy, but the color of plastic scintillator was changed to brown, over 1*10{sup 4}Gy exposured. 84 refs., 39 figs. (Author)

  17. A New Method for Measuring Text Similarity in Learning Management Systems Using WordNet (United States)

    Alkhatib, Bassel; Alnahhas, Ammar; Albadawi, Firas


    As text sources are getting broader, measuring text similarity is becoming more compelling. Automatic text classification, search engines and auto answering systems are samples of applications that rely on text similarity. Learning management systems (LMS) are becoming more important since electronic media is getting more publicly available. As…

  18. Ionizing radiation measurements and assay of corresponding dose

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    Nuclear Radiation Meters and Global Positioning System. The survey meters were held ... process release radiation to the environment. (IAEA, 2004). ..... Energy. DE-AC06-76RLO 1830. United Nations Scientific Committee on the. Effects of Atomic Radiation. (UNSCEAR). (2001). Hereditary effects of radiation. Report to the ...

  19. Galileo probe measurements of thermal and solar radiation fluxes in the Jovian atmosphere (United States)

    Sromovsky, L. A.; Collard, A. D.; Fry, P. M.; Orton, G. S.; Lemmon, M. T.; Tomasko, M. G.; Freedman, R. S.


    The Galileo probe net flux radiometer (NFR) measured radiation fluxes in Jupiter's atmosphere from about 0.44 to 14 bars, using five spectral channels to separate solar and thermal components. Onboard calibration results confirm that the NFR responded to radiation approximately as expected. NFR channels also responded to a superimposed thermal perturbation, which can be approximately removed using blind channel measurements and physical constraints. Evidence for the expected NH3 cloud was seen in the spectral character of spin-induced modulations of the direct solar beam signals. These results are consistent with an overlying cloud of small NH3 ice particles (0.5-0.75 μm in radius) of optical depth 1.5-2 at 0.5 μm. Such a cloud would have so little effect on thermal fluxes that NFR thermal channels provide no additional constraints on its properties. However, evidence for heating near 0.45 bar in the NFR thermal channels would seem to require either an additional opacity source beyond this small-particle cloud, implying a heterogeneous cloud structure to avoid conflicts with solar modulation results, or a change in temperature lapse rate just above the probe measurements. The large thermal flux levels imply water vapor mixing ratios that are only 6% of solar at 10 bars, but possibly increasing with depth, and significantly subsaturated ammonia at pressures less than 3 bars. If deep NH3 mixing ratios at the probe entry site are 3-4 times ground-based inferences, as suggested by probe radio signal attenuation, then only half as much water is needed to match NFR observations. No evidence of a water cloud was seen near the 5-bar level. The 5-μm thermal channel detected the presumed NH4SH cloud base near 1.35 bars. Effects of this cloud were also seen in the solar channel upflux measurements but not in the solar net fluxes, implying that the cloud is a conservative scatterer of sunlight. The minor thermal signature of this cloud is compatible with particle radii near

  20. Detailed characteristics of radiation belt electrons revealed by CSSWE/REPTile measurements: Geomagnetic activity response and precipitation observation (United States)

    Zhang, K.; Li, X.; Schiller, Q.; Gerhardt, D.; Zhao, H.; Millan, R.


    Earth's outer radiation belt electrons are highly dynamic. We study the detailed characteristics of relativistic electrons in the outer belt using measurements from the Colorado Student Space Weather Experiment (CSSWE) mission, a low Earth orbit (LEO) CubeSat, which traverses the radiation belt four times in one orbit ( 1.5 h) and has the advantage of measuring the dynamic activities of the electrons including their rapid precipitation. We focus on the measured electron response to geomagnetic activity for different energies to show that there are abundant sub-MeV electrons in the inner belt and slot region. These electrons are further enhanced during active times, while there is a lack of >1.63 MeV electrons in these regions. We also show that the variation of measured electron flux at LEO is strongly dependent on the local magnetic field strength, which is far from a dipole approximation. Moreover, a specific precipitation band, which happened on 19 January 2013, is investigated based on the conjunctive measurement of CSSWE, the Balloon Array for Radiation belt Relativistic Electron Losses, and one of the Polar Operational Environmental Satellites. In this precipitation band event, the net loss of the 0.58-1.63 MeV electrons (L = 3.5-6) is estimated to account for 6.8% of the total electron content.

  1. Spatial autocorrelation of radiation measured by the Earth Radiation Budget Experiment: Scene inhomogeneity and reciprocity violation (United States)

    Davies, Roger


    The spatial autocorrelation functions of broad-band longwave and shortwave radiances measured by the Earth Radiation Budget Experiment (ERBE) are analyzed as a function of view angle in an investigation of the general effects of scene inhomogeneity on radiation. For nadir views, the correlation distance of the autocorrelation function is about 900 km for longwave radiance and about 500 km for shortwave radiance, consistent with higher degrees of freedom in shortwave reflection. Both functions rise monotonically with view angle, but there is a substantial difference in the relative angular dependence of the shortwave and longwave functions, especially for view angles less than 50 deg. In this range, the increase with angle of the longwave functions is found to depend only on the expansion of pixel area with angle, whereas the shortwave functions show an additional dependence on angle that is attributed to the occlusion of inhomogeneities by cloud height variations. Beyond a view angle of about 50 deg, both longwave and shortwave functions appear to be affected by cloud sides. The shortwave autocorrelation functions do not satisfy the principle of directional reciprocity, thereby proving that the average scene is horizontally inhomogeneous over the scale of an ERBE pixel (1500 sq km). Coarse stratification of the measurements by cloud amount, however, indicates that the average cloud-free scene does satisfy directional reciprocity on this scale.

  2. Space charge dosimeters for extremely low power measurements of radiation in shipping containers (United States)

    Britton, Jr; Charles, L [Alcoa, TN; Buckner, Mark A [Oak Ridge, TN; Hanson, Gregory R [Clinton, TN; Bryan, William L [Knoxville, TN


    Methods and apparatus are described for space charge dosimeters for extremely low power measurements of radiation in shipping containers. A method includes in situ polling a suite of passive integrating ionizing radiation sensors including reading-out dosimetric data from a first passive integrating ionizing radiation sensor and a second passive integrating ionizing radiation sensor, where the first passive integrating ionizing radiation sensor and the second passive integrating ionizing radiation sensor remain situated where the dosimetric data was integrated while reading-out. Another method includes arranging a plurality of ionizing radiation sensors in a spatially dispersed array; determining a relative position of each of the plurality of ionizing radiation sensors to define a volume of interest; collecting ionizing radiation data from at least a subset of the plurality of ionizing radiation sensors; and triggering an alarm condition when a dose level of an ionizing radiation source is calculated to exceed a threshold.

  3. Combining MODIS data and tower based measurements to estimate net ecosystem carbon exchange for the Republic of Ireland (United States)

    Murphy, K.; Clement, F.; Kiely, G.


    A number of previous studies have employed Fluxnet data in developing models to upscale localised eddy covariance (EC) footprints in order to determine net ecosystem carbon exchange (NEE) over regional or national scales. This study combined measured EC flux data (from three EC stations in Ireland over the period 2002-2007) with data from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectrometer (MODIS) onboard the Terra (EOS-AM) Satellite, and land cover maps (Corine Land Cover for 2006) to develop predictive NEE models using an adapted regression tree method allowing upscaling to wider areas with MODIS products. Separate models were developed for the four main ecosystem types found in the Republic of Ireland: grassland, peatland, forestry and cropland. The NEE models showed promising correlations with the EC measurements of NEE for training and predictive data sets. Excluding urban and water areas, the results indicate that Ireland's terrestrial ecosystems are a sink for CO2 of -1.3Mg C-CO2 ha-1 y-1 giving a national estimate of -9.3 Tg C-CO2 y-1. This uptake compares to the national inventory estimate for emissions from agriculture of 5.03 Tg C-CO2 eq y-1. The models also captured well the spatiotemporal variations over the Republic of Ireland relative to the measured NEE in different ecosystem types over different seasons. The method shows potential in accounting for carbon fluxes over large areas.

  4. Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Climate Research Facility (ACRF) Annual Report 2007

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    LR Roeder


    This annual report describes the purpose and structure of the program, and presents key accomplishments in 2007. Notable achievements include: • Successful review of the ACRF as a user facility by the DOE Biological and Environmental Research Advisory Committee. The subcommittee reinforced the importance of the scientific impacts of this facility, and its value for the international research community. • Leadership of the Cloud Land Surface Interaction Campaign. This multi-agency, interdisciplinary field campaign involved enhanced surface instrumentation at the ACRF Southern Great Plains site and, in concert with the Cumulus Humilis Aerosol Processing Study sponsored by the DOE Atmospheric Science Program, coordination of nine aircraft through the ARM Aerial Vehicles Program. • Successful deployment of the ARM Mobile Facility in Germany, including hosting nearly a dozen guest instruments and drawing almost 5000 visitors to the site. • Key advancements in the representation of radiative transfer in weather forecast models from the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts. • Development of several new enhanced data sets, ranging from best estimate surface radiation measurements from multiple sensors at all ACRF sites to the extension of time-height cloud occurrence profiles to Niamey, Niger, Africa. • Publication of three research papers in a single issue (February 2007) of the Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society.

  5. On the use of a recombination chamber for radiation measurements in CERN-EU high energy reference radiation fields

    CERN Document Server

    Golnik, N; Otto, T


    Ambient dose equivalent was determined in high energy reference radiation fields at CERN (CERF facility) using a recombination chamber and recombination methods developed in IAE. The chamber was also used for measuring the low LET background radiation which locally accompanies the fields at CERF. The measurements included determination of the absorbed dose and recombination index of radiation quality at different beam intensities. It was shown that the background might considerably influence the measurements of the absorbed dose, however, its influence on the ambient dose equivalent remains important only at low beam intensities. (16 refs).

  6. Net Locality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Souza e Silva, Adriana Araujo; Gordon, Eric

    Provides an introduction to the new theory of Net Locality and the profound effect on individuals and societies when everything is located or locatable. Describes net locality as an emerging form of location awareness central to all aspects of digital media, from mobile phones, to Google Maps...... of emerging technologies, from GeoCities to GPS, Wi-Fi, Wiki Me, and Google Android....

  7. Net Neutrality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Savin, Andrej


    Repealing “net neutrality” in the US will have no bearing on Internet freedom or security there or anywhere else.......Repealing “net neutrality” in the US will have no bearing on Internet freedom or security there or anywhere else....

  8. Coherent Transition Radiation to Measure the SLAC Electron Bunch Length

    CERN Document Server

    Muggli, Patric; Hogan, Mark; Ischebeck, Rasmus; Krejcik, Patrick; Schlarb, Holger; Siemann, Robert; Walz, Dieter


    Ultrashort electron bunches are now available at Stanford Linear Accelerator Center and are use mainly to produce short bursts of x-rays in a magnetic undulator and for plasma wakefield acceleration experiments. The shortest bunches have an rms longitudinal width of ˜10 microns, and a peak current of about 30 kA. Methods to measure such short bunch lengths include electro-optic modulation of a short laser pulse in a nonlinear crystal and coherent transition (CTR) autocorrelation. The transition radiation spectrum emitted by the bunches when traversing a 1 micron thin titanium foil is coherent for wavelengths longer that the bunch length and extends into the millimeter wavelength range. A CTR far-infrared autocorrelator was used to measure the bunch length as a function of the accelerator. The results obtained with this autocorrelator are the only measurements of the SLAC ultra-short bunches to date. Experimental results, as well as the limitations of the measurements and the future improvements to the autoco...

  9. Noise Radiation Measure-Sound Power and its Test Methods


    Zeng Xianren; Zuo Yanyan


    This study mainly aims to study the characteristics and theory of sound radiation of steady-state vibration. Study shows that sound radiation power of steady-state vibration is constant. And taking excavator for experimental object by hemisphere surface method, the radiated sound power of the excavator is the same as testing the sound pressure on various surfaces based on relevant international standard. Finally, a test method of radiated sound power for cylindrical vibration object is proposed.

  10. Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Climate Research Facility Management Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mather, James [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)


    Mission and Vision Statements for the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)’s Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Climate Research Facility Mission The ARM Climate Research Facility, a DOE scientific user facility, provides the climate research community with strategically located in situ and remote-sensing observatories designed to improve the understanding and representation, in climate and earth system models, of clouds and aerosols as well as their interactions and coupling with the Earth’s surface. Vision To provide a detailed and accurate description of the Earth atmosphere in diverse climate regimes to resolve the uncertainties in climate and Earth system models toward the development of sustainable solutions for the nation's energy and environmental challenges.

  11. Measurement and analysis of coherent synchrotron radiation effects at FLASH

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beutner, B.


    The vacuum-ultra-violet Free Electron Laser in Hamburg (FLASH) is a linac driven SASE-FEL. High peak currents are produced using magnetic bunch compression chicanes. In these magnetic chicanes, the energy distribution along an electron bunch is changed by eff ects of Coherent Synchrotron Radiation (CSR). Energy changes in dispersive bunch compressor chicanes lead to transverse displacements along the bunch. These CSR induced displacements are studied using a transverse deflecting RF-structure. Experiments and simulations concerning the charge dependence of such transverse displacements are presented and analysed. In these experiments an over-compression scheme is used which reduces the peak current downstream the bunch compressor chicanes. Therefore other self interactions like space charge forces which might complicate the measurements are suppressed. Numerical simulations are used to analyse the beam dynamics under the influence of CSR forces. The results of these numerical simulations are compared with the data obtained in the over-compression experiments at FLASH. (orig.)

  12. new model for solar radiation estimation from measured air

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    solar radiation data, the use of artificial intelligence for solar radiation ... intelligence technique for solar radiation prediction. The .... are mean values of respectively. Also n is the total number of the test data. When higher value of is obtained, it shows that the model has a better performance while RMSE with smaller value ...

  13. Mars' surface radiation environment measured with the Mars science laboratory's curiosity rover

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hassler, D.M; Zeitlin, C; Wimmer-Schweingruber, R.F; Ehresmann, B; Rafkin, S; Eigenbrode, J.L; Brinza, D.E; Weigle, G; Böttcher, S; Böhm, E; Burmeister, S; Guo, J; Köhler, J; Martin, C; Reitz, G; Cucinotta, F.A; Kim, M.-H; Grinspoon, D; Bullock, M.A; Posner, A; Gómez-Elvira, J; Vasavada, A; Grotzinger, J.P; MSL Science Team, the|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/292012217


    The Radiation Assessment Detector (RAD) on the Mars Science Laboratory’s Curiosity rover began making detailed measurements of the cosmic ray and energetic particle radiation environment on the surface of Mars on 7 August 2012...

  14. Saldo de radiação diurno em dosséis de batata como função da radiação solar global Daytime net radiation on potato canopies as a function of global solar radiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arno Bernardo Heldwein


    Full Text Available Objetivou-se determinar a relação entre o saldo de radiação (Rn e a radiação solar global incidente (Rg sobre dosséis de plantas de batata em diferentes épocas de cultivo e fases de desenvolvimento para a geração de modelos lineares que representem essa relação. Os experimentos foram conduzidos na área experimental da Universidade Federal de Santa Maria, RS, nos anos de 2004 a 2007. O Rn foi medido acima do dossel de plantas de seis experimentos de batata e a Rg em uma estação meteorológica automática distante 30 a 80 m dos experimentos. Para fins de cálculo, foram efetuadas as somas do período diurno, de Rn e de Rg, obtendo-se a relação entre Rn e Rg para cada dia. Também foi estimado o índice de área foliar das plantas. Foram obtidos modelos com elevado coeficiente de determinação e baixa raiz do quadrado médio do erro no teste entre valores independentes medidos e estimados, indicando boa precisão para a estimativa do saldo de radiação em dosséis de batata, em função da radiação solar global, independentemente da época do ano. A função linear geral obtida com dados de diferentes anos, épocas de cultivo e genótipos não foi sensível ao índice de área foliar, resultando em: Rn = 0,6410 Rg (R² = 0,976, que no teste apresentou RQME = 0,75 MJ m-2 dia-1. Conclui-se que o Rn pode ser estimado por meio da Rg medida nas estações automáticas com precisão suficiente para fins de modelagem.The objective of this work was to determine the relationship between net radiation (Rn and incident solar radiation (Rg in potato canopy at six different cultivation periods and stages of development in order to generate linear models that describe this relationship. The experiments were conducted in the experimental area of University of Santa Maria, RS, in the years of 2004 to 2007. Rn was measured by net radiometers in six experiments and Rg by automatic weather station, situated 30 to 80 m from the experiments. For

  15. PARduino: A Simple Device Measuring and Logging Photosynthetically Active Radiation (United States)

    Barnard, H. R.; Findley, M. C.


    Photosynthetically Active Radiation (PAR, 400 to 700 nm) is one of the primary controls of forest carbon and water relations. In complex terrain, PAR has high spatial-variability. Given the high cost of commercial datalogging equipment, spatially-distributed measurements of PAR have been typically modeled using geographic coordinates and terrain indices. Here, we present a design for a low cost, field-deployable device for measuring and logging PAR built around an Arduino microcontroller (we named it PARduino). PARduino provides for widely distributed sensor arrays and tests the feasibility of using hobbyist-grade electronics for collecting scientific data. PARduino components include a LiCor quantum sensor, EME Systems signal converter/amplifier, and Sparkfun's Arduino Pro Mini microcontroller. Additional components include a real time clock, a microSD flash memory card, and a custom printed circuit board (PCB). We selected the components with an eye towards ease of assembly. Everything can be connected to the PCB using through-hole soldering techniques. Since the device will be deployed in remote research plots that lack easy access to line power, battery life was also a consideration in the design. Extended deployment is possible because PARduino's software keeps it in a low-power sleep mode until ready to make a measurement. PARduino will be open-source hardware for use and improvement by others.

  16. Solar radiation measurements and their applications in climate research (United States)

    Yin, Bangsheng

    Aerosols and clouds play important roles in the climate system through their radiative effects and their vital link in the hydrological cycle. Accurate measurements of aerosol and cloud optical and microphysical properties are crucial for the study of climate and climate change. This study develops/improves retrieval algorithms for aerosol single scattering albedo (SSA) and low liquid water path (LWP) cloud optical properties, evaluates a new spectrometer, and applies long-term measurements to establish climatology of aerosol and cloud optical properties. The following results were obtained. (1) The ratio of diffuse horizontal and direct normal fluxes measured from Multifilter Rotating Shadowband Radiometer (MFRSR) has been used to derive the aerosol SSA. Various issues have impacts on the accuracy of SSA retrieval, from measurements (e.g., calibration accuracy, cosine respond correction, and forward scattering correction) to input parameters and assumptions (e.g., asymmetry factor, Rayleigh scattering optical depth, and surface albedo). This study carefully analyzed these issues and extensively assessed their impacts on the retrieval accuracy. Furthermore, the retrievals of aerosol SSA from MFRSR are compared with independent measurements from co-located instruments. (2) The Thin-Cloud Rotating Shadowband Radiometer (TCRSR) has been used to derive simultaneously the cloud optical depth (COD) and cloud drop effective radius (DER), subsequently inferring the cloud liquid-water path (LWP). The evaluation of the TCRSR indicates that the error of radiometric calibration has limited impact on the cloud DER retrievals. However, the retrieval accuracy of cloud DER is sensitive to the uncertainties of background setting (e.g., aerosol loading and the existence of ice cloud) and the measured solar aureole shape. (3) A new high resolution oxygen A-band spectrometer (HABS) has been developed, which has the ability to measure both direct-beam and zenith diffuse solar radiation

  17. Estimation of Asian dust aerosol effect on cloud radiation forcing using Fu-Liou radiative model and CERES measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Su


    Full Text Available The impact of Asian dust on cloud radiative forcing during 2003–2006 is studied by using the Clouds and Earth's Radiant Energy Budget Scanner (CERES data and the Fu-Liou radiative transfer model. Analysis of satellite data shows that the dust aerosol significantly reduced the cloud cooling effect at TOA. In dust contaminated cloudy regions, the 4-year mean values of the instantaneous shortwave, longwave and net cloud radiative forcing are −138.9, 69.1, and −69.7 Wm−2, which are 57.0, 74.2, and 46.3%, respectively, of the corresponding values in pristine cloudy regions. The satellite-retrieved cloud properties are significantly different in the dusty regions and can influence the radiative forcing indirectly. The contributions to the cloud radiation forcing by the dust direct, indirect and semi-direct effects are estimated using combined satellite observations and Fu-Liou model simulation. The 4-year mean value of combination of dust indirect and semi-direct shortwave radiative forcing (SWRF is 82.2 Wm−2, which is 78.4% of the total dust effect. The dust direct effect is only 22.7 Wm−2, which is 21.6% of the total effect. Because both first and second indirect effects enhance cloud cooling, the aerosol-induced cloud warming is mainly the result of the semi-direct effect of dust.

  18. Measurement of patient radiation doses in certain urography procedures. (United States)

    Sulieman, A; Barakat, H; Zailae, A; Abuderman, A; Theodorou, K


    Patients are exposed to significant radiation doses during diagnostic and interventional urologic procedures. This study aimed to measure patient entrance surface air kerma (ESAK) and to estimate the effective dose during intravenous urography (IVU), extracorporeal shock-wave lithotripsy (ESWL), and ascending urethogram (ASU) procedures. ESAK was measured in patients using calibrated thermo luminance dosimeters, GR200A). Effective doses (E) were calculated using the National Radiological Protection Board (NRPB) software. A total of 179 procedures were investigated. 27.9 % of the patients underwent IVU procedures, 27.9 % underwent ESWL procedures and 44.2 % underwent ASU procedures. The mean ESAK was 2.1, 4.18 and 4.9 mGy for IVU, ESWL, and ASU procedures, respectively. Differences in patient ESAK for the same procedure were observed. The mean ESAK values were comparable with those in previous studies. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email:

  19. Computational Fluid Dynamics Analysis on Radiation Error of Surface Air Temperature Measurement (United States)

    Yang, Jie; Liu, Qing-Quan; Ding, Ren-Hui


    Due to solar radiation effect, current air temperature sensors inside a naturally ventilated radiation shield may produce a measurement error that is 0.8 K or higher. To improve air temperature observation accuracy and correct historical temperature of weather stations, a radiation error correction method is proposed. The correction method is based on a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) method and a genetic algorithm (GA) method. The CFD method is implemented to obtain the radiation error of the naturally ventilated radiation shield under various environmental conditions. Then, a radiation error correction equation is obtained by fitting the CFD results using the GA method. To verify the performance of the correction equation, the naturally ventilated radiation shield and an aspirated temperature measurement platform are characterized in the same environment to conduct the intercomparison. The aspirated temperature measurement platform serves as an air temperature reference. The mean radiation error given by the intercomparison experiments is 0.23 K, and the mean radiation error given by the correction equation is 0.2 K. This radiation error correction method allows the radiation error to be reduced by approximately 87 %. The mean absolute error and the root mean square error between the radiation errors given by the correction equation and the radiation errors given by the experiments are 0.036 K and 0.045 K, respectively.

  20. Measuring the impact of motivation on achievement and course completion rates in MarineNet distance education


    Lindshield, Timothy D.


    Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited The Marine Corps Distance Learning Network (MarineNet) is the primary source for distance education (DE) and online training for the Marine Corps. This research applies the learning theory of human motivation to archival MarineNet data to determine if motivation factors impact academic performance and course completion. The literature on motivation divides this variable into multiple types of intrinsic and extrinsic motivations. Each t...

  1. Technology Development for Radiation Dose Measurement and Evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Bong Hwan; Chang, S. Y.; Lee, T. Y. (and others)


    The correction factors essential for the operation of In-Vivo counting system were produced and implemented into a field operation for the improvement of accuracy in measurement of the radioactivity inside a human body. The BiDAS2007 code which calculate an internal dose was developed by upgrading the former code prepared in the previous stage of this project. The method of using the multibioassy data, the maximum likelihood function and the Bayesian statistics were established to an internal dose based on the measurement data of radioactivity, intakes and retention of radioactivity in a human body and it can improve the accuracy in estimation of the intakes of radioactivity and the committed effective dose equivalent. In order to solve the problem of low detection efficiency of the conventional Bonner Sphere (BS) to a high energy neutron, the extended BS's were manufactured and the technique for neutron field spectrometry was established. The fast neutron and gamma spectrometry system with a BC501A scintillation detector was also prepared. Several neutron fluence spectra at several nuclear facilities were measured and collected by using the extended BS. The spectrum weighted responses of some neutron monitoring instruments were also derived by using these spectra and the detector response functions. A high efficient TL material for the neutron personal dosimeter was developed. It solved the main problem of low thermal stability and high residual dose of the commercial TLDs and has the sensitivity to neutron and to gamma radiation with 40 and 10 times higher respectively than them.

  2. Measurements relating fire radiative energy density and surface fuel consumption - RxCADRE 2011 and 2012 (United States)

    Andrew T. Hudak; Matthew B. Dickinson; Benjamin C. Bright; Robert L. Kremens; E. Louise Loudermilk; Joseph J. O' Brien; Benjamin S. Hornsby; Roger D. Ottmar


    Small-scale experiments have demonstrated that fire radiative energy is linearly related to fuel combusted but such a relationship has not been shown at the landscape level of prescribed fires. This paper presents field and remotely sensed measures of pre-fire fuel loads, consumption, fire radiative energy density (FRED) and fire radiative power flux density (FRFD),...

  3. Measurement of Gamma Radiation in an Automobile Mechanic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    imeh james

    through radiation monitoring, sample collection and data analysis, the environment is protected from hazards associated with ionizing radiation. There are more than 1,577,000 metric tons of irradiated scrap metals available and these metals come from decommissioned nuclear reactors and nuclear weapons, tons of steel ...

  4. Ionizing radiation measurements and assay of corresponding dose

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    tic effects of radiation to an acceptable level. (ICRP, 2012; 2013; UNSCEAR, 2001;. USNRC, 2005). According to international recommendations, occupational exposure to radiation should not exceed 20 mSv/yr, while the public should not be exposed to more than an average of 1 mSv/yr (IAEA, 2004; Strom,. 2003; USNRC ...

  5. Climatological and radiative properties of midlatitude cirrus clouds derived by automatic evaluation of lidar measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Kienast-Sjögren


    Full Text Available Cirrus, i.e., high, thin clouds that are fully glaciated, play an important role in the Earth's radiation budget as they interact with both long- and shortwave radiation and affect the water vapor budget of the upper troposphere and stratosphere. Here, we present a climatology of midlatitude cirrus clouds measured with the same type of ground-based lidar at three midlatitude research stations: at the Swiss high alpine Jungfraujoch station (3580 m a.s.l., in Zürich (Switzerland, 510 m a.s.l., and in Jülich (Germany, 100 m a.s.l.. The analysis is based on 13 000 h of measurements from 2010 to 2014. To automatically evaluate this extensive data set, we have developed the Fast LIdar Cirrus Algorithm (FLICA, which combines a pixel-based cloud-detection scheme with the classic lidar evaluation techniques. We find mean cirrus optical depths of 0.12 on Jungfraujoch and of 0.14 and 0.17 in Zürich and Jülich, respectively. Above Jungfraujoch, subvisible cirrus clouds (τ < 0.03 have been observed during 6 % of the observation time, whereas above Zürich and Jülich fewer clouds of that type were observed. Cirrus have been observed up to altitudes of 14.4 km a.s.l. above Jungfraujoch, whereas they have only been observed to about 1 km lower at the other stations. These features highlight the advantage of the high-altitude station Jungfraujoch, which is often in the free troposphere above the polluted boundary layer, thus enabling lidar measurements of thinner and higher clouds. In addition, the measurements suggest a change in cloud morphology at Jungfraujoch above ∼ 13 km, possibly because high particle number densities form in the observed cirrus clouds, when many ice crystals nucleate in the high supersaturations following rapid uplifts in lee waves above mountainous terrain. The retrieved optical properties are used as input for a radiative transfer model to estimate the net cloud radiative forcing, CRFNET, for the

  6. Noise Reduction on Nasal Skin Temperature Measured by Radiation Thermometer with Differential Revision Filtering (United States)

    Mizuno, Tota; Nozawa, Akio; Ide, Hideto

    This paper shows noise reduction on nasal skin temperature measured by a radiation thermometer with differential revision filtering. We evaluated and examined emotion stress from the nasal skin temperature fluctuation of the space-time with the radiation thermometer. The measured data with the radiation thermometer consists of three kind of factor, because of one point [24±3φ/m] measurement system. Three kinds of factors are temperature fluctuation dependent feelings stress, noise of the radiation thermometer and the other parts which it should measure as the subject moves. We make threshold processing on a change of an area in time of a measurement signal provided in a radiation thermometer. We suggested Differential Revision Filtering (DRF) that a new method use a measurement value of change of one second and a low pass filter go through. By using this method, we got the possibility that decrease movement of a measurement and a noise of measurement device.

  7. Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program facilities newsletter, November 2002.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holdridge, D. J.


    Fall 2002 Intensive Operation Periods: Single Column Model and Unmanned Aerospace Vehicle--In an Intensive Operation Period (IOP) on November 3-23, 2002, researchers at the SGP CART site are collecting a detailed data set for use in improving the Single Column Model (SCM), a scaled-down climate model. The SCM represents one vertical column of air above Earth's surface and requires less computation time than a full-scale global climate model. Researchers first use the SCM to efficiently improve submodels of clouds, solar radiation transfer, and atmosphere-surface interactions, then implement the results in large-scale global models. With measured values for a starting point, the SCM predicts atmospheric variables during prescribed time periods. A computer calculates values for such quantities as the amount of solar radiation reaching the surface and predicts how clouds will evolve and interact with incoming light from the sun. Researchers compare the SCM's predictions with actual measurements made during the IOP, then adjust the submodels to make predictions more reliable. A second IOP conducted concurrently with the SCM IOP involves high-altitude, long-duration aircraft flights. The original plan was to use an unmanned aerospace vehicle (UAV), but the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) aircraft Proteus will be substituted because all UAVs have been deployed elsewhere. The UAV is a small, instrument-equipped, remote-control plane that is operated from the ground by a computer. The Proteus is a manned aircraft, originally designed to carry telecommunications relay equipment, that can be reconfigured for uses such as reconnaissance and surveillance, commercial imaging, launching of small space satellites, and atmospheric research. The plane is designed for two on-board pilots in a pressurized cabin, flying to altitudes up to 65,000 feet for as long as 18 hours. The Proteus has a variable wingspan of 77-92 feet and is 56 feet long. The plane

  8. Analysis of recent trends of global radiation ground measurements (United States)

    Remund, Jan


    This analysis is focused on long time series of global radiation with a duration of at least 40 years within the period 1950 - 2009. Like this work lies in-between the analysis for worldwide (satellite) data with approx. 20 years of duration and those for some few sites with very long measurements. A total of 24 sites based on Global Energy Balance Archive (GEBA, have been used. These 24 sites have been grouped to 10 regional clusters including 2 - 13 stations. The following three questions have been investigated: 1. Trend of the time series of monthly data (full period and several sub periods); 2. Trends of 5, 10 and 20 years means; 3. Dependence of the variability on the length of a measured period. Trends of monthly values: For the whole period between 1950 and 2009 and all sites a negative and statistically significant trend of -1.41 W/m2 per decade could be found. For most grouped sites no significant trend is visible. Nevertheless for Germany / Austria a slightly positive trend can be seen and for Switzerland, Asia, India and Canada a negative trend. For the two sub periods 1950 - 1985 and 1985 - 2009 a significant trend could be found for most groups and stations. For the first period 1950-1985 only negative trends were found. For the second period 1985-2009 (including data for most sites up to 2005) all regions except India and Canada showed a positive trend. For the mean of all sites the dimming for the period 1950 - 85 and the brightening for the period 1985 - 2009 is statistically significant. The negative trend during the dimming period is clearly stronger (approx. factor 2) than the positive trend during the brightening phase. The individual regions and groups show a great variety of different trends for the analyzed sub periods. The negative trend found in Hinkelman et al. (2009) for the period after 2000 could be found only at 2 stations out of the 24. Trends of 5, 10 and 20 year means: Similar to the trends of the monthly

  9. Radiation exposure in nuclear medicine: real-time measurement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iara Sylvain


    Full Text Available French regulations have introduced the use of electronic dosimeters for personal monitoring of workers. In order to evaluate the exposure from diagnostic procedures to nuclear medicine staff, individual whole-body doses were measured daily with electronic (digital personal dosimeters during 20 consecutive weeks and correlated with the work load of each day. Personal doses remained always below 20 µSv/d under normal working conditions. Radiation exposure levels were highest to tech staff, nurses and stretcher-bearers. The extrapolated annual cumulative doses for all staff remained less than 10 % of the maximum legal limit for exposed workers (2 mSv/yr. Electronic dosimeters are not technically justified for routine survey of staff. The high sensitivity and immediate reading of electronic semiconductor dosimeters may become very useful for exposure control under risky working conditions. It may become an important help for optimising radiation protection.A legislação francesa introduziu o uso de dosímetros eletrônicos para monitoração da exposição do trabalhador. Afim de avaliar a exposição do trabalhador proveniente de exames diagnósticos em medicina nuclear, doses individuais do corpo inteiro foram medidas diariamente com dosímetros eletrônicos (digitais durante 20 semanas consecutivas e correlatas com as atividades de trabalho de cada dia. As doses foram sempre inferiores à 20 µSv por dia em condições normais de trabalho. Os níveis de exposição de radiação mais elevados foram para os enfermeiros, manipuladores e maqueiros. A extrapolação da dose anual para todos os trabalhadores foi menos que 10 % do limite máximo legal para os trabalhadores expostos (2 mSv/ano. Dosímetros eletrônicos não são tecnicamente justificados para a o controle de rotina da exposição dos trabalhadores, mas a alta sensibilidade e a leitura imediata desses dosímetros podem vir a serem muito úteis para o controle da exposição em condi

  10. Getting to Net Zero

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)


    The technology necessary to build net zero energy buildings (NZEBs) is ready and available today, however, building to net zero energy performance levels can be challenging. Energy efficiency measures, onsite energy generation resources, load matching and grid interaction, climatic factors, and local policies vary from location to location and require unique methods of constructing NZEBs. It is recommended that Components start looking into how to construct and operate NZEBs now as there is a learning curve to net zero construction and FY 2020 is just around the corner.

  11. Radiation Protection in Educational Institutions. Recommendations of the National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements. (United States)

    National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements, Washington, DC.

    The problems involved when radiation-producing devices of our contemporary technology are used in the teaching of science at the high school and undergraduate college level are discussed. Information is provided on the hazards involved in the use of radiation-producing equipment or radioactive materials in science demonstrations and experiments…

  12. RESTful NET

    CERN Document Server

    Flanders, Jon


    RESTful .NET is the first book that teaches Windows developers to build RESTful web services using the latest Microsoft tools. Written by Windows Communication Foundation (WFC) expert Jon Flanders, this hands-on tutorial demonstrates how you can use WCF and other components of the .NET 3.5 Framework to build, deploy and use REST-based web services in a variety of application scenarios. RESTful architecture offers a simpler approach to building web services than SOAP, SOA, and the cumbersome WS- stack. And WCF has proven to be a flexible technology for building distributed systems not necessa

  13. Automated Radiation Measurements for Aviation Safety (ARMAS) Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Commercial aircrew members and frequent flyers face radiation hazards from the effects of cosmic rays and solar energetic particles. During significant solar events,...

  14. Automated Radiation Measurements for Aviation Safety (ARMAS) Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The existing state-of-the-art for physics-based, data-driven, climatological specification of the global radiation environment is the capability embodied by Nowcast...

  15. Net clinical benefit analysis of radiation therapy oncology group 0525: a phase III trial comparing conventional adjuvant temozolomide with dose-intensive temozolomide in patients with newly diagnosed glioblastoma. (United States)

    Armstrong, Terri S; Wefel, Jeffrey S; Wang, Meihua; Gilbert, Mark R; Won, Minhee; Bottomley, Andrew; Mendoza, Tito R; Coens, Corneel; Werner-Wasik, Maria; Brachman, David G; Choucair, Ali K; Mehta, Minesh


    Radiation Therapy Oncology Group trial 0525 tested whether dose-intensifying temozolomide versus standard chemoradiotherapy improves overall survival (OS) or progression-free survival (PFS) in newly diagnosed glioblastoma. Tests of neurocognitive function (NCF) and symptoms (using the MD Anderson Symptom Inventory-Brain Tumor module; MDASI-BT) and of quality of life (European Organisation for the Research and Treatment of Cancer Quality of Life Questionnaire [EORTC QLQ] -C30/BN20) examined the net clinical benefit (NCB) of therapy. NCF tests (Hopkins Verbal Learning Test-Revised, Trail Making Test, and Controlled Oral Word Association), MDASI-BT, and EORTC QLQ-C30/BN20 were completed in a subset of patients. Multivariate Cox proportional hazard regression modeling determined the prognostic value of baseline and early change from baseline to cycle 1 for OS and PFS. Two-sample proportional test statistic was used to evaluate differences between treatments (dose-dense v standard-dose) on NCB measures from baseline to cycle 4 in stable patients. Overall, 182 patients participated in the study. Baseline NCF tests and the physical functioning quality of life scale were associated with OS and PFS. Baseline to cycle 1 in all NCB components were associated with OS and PFS. There was greater deterioration in the dose-dense arm from baseline to cycle 4 in the Global Health and Motor Function subscales (EORTC QLQ-C30/BN20) as well as in overall symptom burden, overall symptom interference, and activity-related symptom interference subscales (MDASI-BT). There were no between-arm differences in NCF. Longitudinal collection of NCB measures is feasible in cooperative group studies and provides an added dimension to standard outcome measures. Greater adverse symptom burden and functional interference, as well as decreased global health and motor function were observed in patients randomly assigned to the dose-dense arm. Baseline and early change in NCB measures were associated with

  16. British Airways measurement of cosmic radiation exposure on Concorde supersonic transport. (United States)

    Bagshaw, M


    The galactic cosmic radiation field at aircraft operating altitudes is complex, with a large energy range and the presence of all particle types. The calculation of the complex radiation fields is difficult, as is the measurement. British Airways continues to cooperate with the U.K. National Radiological Protection Board in measuring cosmic radiation doses on supersonic and subsonic aircraft using a range of devices.

  17. Dynamic response of the thermometric net radiometer (United States)

    J. D. Wilson; W. J. Massman; G. E. Swaters


    We computed the dynamic response of an idealized thermometric net radiometer, when driven by an oscillating net longwave radiation intended roughly to simulate rapid fluctuations of the radiative environment such as might be expected during field use of such devices. The study was motivated by curiosity as to whether non-linearity of the surface boundary conditions...

  18. Monte Carlo analysis of radiative transport in oceanographic lidar measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cupini, E.; Ferro, G. [ENEA, Divisione Fisica Applicata, Centro Ricerche Ezio Clementel, Bologna (Italy); Ferrari, N. [Bologna Univ., Bologna (Italy). Dipt. Ingegneria Energetica, Nucleare e del Controllo Ambientale


    The analysis of oceanographic lidar systems measurements is often carried out with semi-empirical methods, since there is only a rough understanding of the effects of many environmental variables. The development of techniques for interpreting the accuracy of lidar measurements is needed to evaluate the effects of various environmental situations, as well as of different experimental geometric configurations and boundary conditions. A Monte Carlo simulation model represents a tool that is particularly well suited for answering these important questions. The PREMAR-2F Monte Carlo code has been developed taking into account the main molecular and non-molecular components of the marine environment. The laser radiation interaction processes of diffusion, re-emission, refraction and absorption are treated. In particular are considered: the Rayleigh elastic scattering, produced by atoms and molecules with small dimensions with respect to the laser emission wavelength (i.e. water molecules), the Mie elastic scattering, arising from atoms or molecules with dimensions comparable to the laser wavelength (hydrosols), the Raman inelastic scattering, typical of water, the absorption of water, inorganic (sediments) and organic (phytoplankton and CDOM) hydrosols, the fluorescence re-emission of chlorophyll and yellow substances. PREMAR-2F is an extension of a code for the simulation of the radiative transport in atmospheric environments (PREMAR-2). The approach followed in PREMAR-2 was to combine conventional Monte Carlo techniques with analytical estimates of the probability of the receiver to have a contribution from photons coming back after an interaction in the field of view of the lidar fluorosensor collecting apparatus. This offers an effective mean for modelling a lidar system with realistic geometric constraints. The retrieved semianalytic Monte Carlo radiative transfer model has been developed in the frame of the Italian Research Program for Antarctica (PNRA) and it is

  19. Petri Nets

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Associate Professor of. Computer Science and. Automation at the Indian. Institute of Science,. Bangalore. His research interests are broadly in the areas of stochastic modeling and scheduling methodologies for future factories; and object oriented modeling. GENERAL I ARTICLE. Petri Nets. 1. Overview and Foundations.

  20. Petri Nets

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 4; Issue 8. Petri Nets - Overview and Foundations. Y Narahari. General Article Volume 4 Issue 8 August 1999 pp ... Author Affiliations. Y Narahari1. Department ot Computer Science and Automation, Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore 560 012, India.

  1. Estimation of Aerosol Direct Radiative Effects Over the Mid-Latitude North Atlantic from Satellite and In Situ Measurements (United States)

    Bergstrom, Robert W.; Russell, P. B.


    We estimate solar radiative flux changes due to aerosols over the mid-latitude North Atlantic by combining optical depths from AVHRR measurements with aerosol properties from the recent TARFOX program. Results show that, over the ocean the aerosol decreases the net radiative flux at the tropopause and therefore has a cooling effect. Cloud-free, 24-hour average flux changes range from -9 W/sq m near the eastern US coast in summer to -1 W/sq m in the mid-Atlantic during winter. Cloud-free North Atlantic regional averages range from -5.1 W/sq m in summer to -1.7 W/sq m in winter, with an annual average of -3.5 W/sq m. Cloud effects estimated from ISCCP data, reduce the regional annual average to -0.8 W/sq m. All values are for the moderately absorbing TARFOX aerosol (omega(0.55 microns) = 0.9); values for a nonabsorbing aerosol are approx. 30% more negative. We compare our results to a variety of other calculations of aerosol radiative effects.

  2. Mars' surface radiation environment measured with the Mars science laboratory's curiosity rover

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hassler, D.M.; Zeitlin, C.; Wimmer-Schweingruber, R.F.; Ehresmann, B.; Rafkin, S.; Eigenbrode, J.L.; Brinza, D.E.; Weigle, G.; Böttcher, S.; Böhm, E.; Burmeister, S.; Guo, J.; Köhler, J.; Martin, C.; Reitz, G.; Cucinotta, F.A.; Kim, M.-H.; Grinspoon, D.; Bullock, M.A.; Posner, A.; Gómez-Elvira, J.; Vasavada, A.; Grotzinger, J.P.; MSL Science Team, the|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/292012217


    The Radiation Assessment Detector (RAD) on the Mars Science Laboratory’s Curiosity rover began making detailed measurements of the cosmic ray and energetic particle radiation environment on the surface of Mars on 7 August 2012. We report and discuss measurements of the absorbed dose and dose

  3. Assessing the retrieval of cloud properties from radiation measurements over snow and ice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuipers Munneke, P.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/304831891; Reijmer, C.H.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/229345956; van den Broeke, M.R.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/073765643


    We critically review and improve a simple method to extract year-round records of cloud optical thickness from radiation measurements made by automatic weather stations (AWSs) over snow and ice surfaces. A ‘longwave-equivalent cloudiness’, Nε, obtained from longwave radiation measurements, is

  4. Measuring main-ion temperatures in ASDEX upgrade using scattering of ECRH radiation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Morten Stejner; Nielsen, Stefan Kragh; Jacobsen, Asger Schou


    We demonstrate that collective Thomson scattering of millimeter wave electron cyclotron resonance heating radiation can be used for measurements of the main-ion temperature in the ASDEX Upgrade tokamak.......We demonstrate that collective Thomson scattering of millimeter wave electron cyclotron resonance heating radiation can be used for measurements of the main-ion temperature in the ASDEX Upgrade tokamak....

  5. Radiation dose measurements during kilovoltage-cone beam computed tomography imaging in radiotherapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Sathish Kumar


    Conclusion: Radiation dose to the eye, breast, and the surface of the pelvis have been arrived at during CBCT. The doses measured on patients agreed closely with those measured on humanoid phantom and with published values.

  6. Development of radiation detection and measurement system - Development of microcalorimeter for the radioactivity measurement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jun, Jae Shik; Jung, H. J.; Chai, H. S.; Han, W. S. [Chungnam National University, Taejon (Korea)


    A unique multi-purpose radiation transport code has been developed and expected to be used in various fields of radiation physics and engineering. The present model is a hybrid in which the restricted energy-loss straggling is applied as in the Class I algorithm and the correlation in the secondary electron production is maintained explicitly. Output electromotive forces from the several types of the heat flux sensors have been measured as a function of the temperature differences between both end-plates of the sensors. Based on the analysis of the measurements, we could select the most appropriate type for our purpose, the sensitivity of which is greater than 45 mV/K. Heat source has also been fabricated with manganin wires and the uncertainty has been estimated to be less than 0.1%. The calorimetric core has been installed in the temporary thermal jacket surrounded by thick styrofoam and the signal from the core has been measured with power varying in the range {mu}W {approx} mW. The reproducibility has been found to be better than 0.5% for power greater than 60 {mu}W/s. In addition, it is confirmed that the heat generated by Co-60 and Ir-192 sources frequently used in industries, medicine and biology with very high level of the activity could be measured with the reproducibility better than that above mentioned. On the whole, the performance characteristics of the calorimetric core could be comparable to those commercially available. 139 refs., 40 figs., 7 tabs. (Author)

  7. Measurements of energetic particle radiation in transit to Mars on the Mars Science Laboratory. (United States)

    Zeitlin, C; Hassler, D M; Cucinotta, F A; Ehresmann, B; Wimmer-Schweingruber, R F; Brinza, D E; Kang, S; Weigle, G; Böttcher, S; Böhm, E; Burmeister, S; Guo, J; Köhler, J; Martin, C; Posner, A; Rafkin, S; Reitz, G


    The Mars Science Laboratory spacecraft, containing the Curiosity rover, was launched to Mars on 26 November 2011, and for most of the 253-day, 560-million-kilometer cruise to Mars, the Radiation Assessment Detector made detailed measurements of the energetic particle radiation environment inside the spacecraft. These data provide insights into the radiation hazards that would be associated with a human mission to Mars. We report measurements of the radiation dose, dose equivalent, and linear energy transfer spectra. The dose equivalent for even the shortest round-trip with current propulsion systems and comparable shielding is found to be 0.66 ± 0.12 sievert.

  8. Controlled platform for the radiation dose data measured in Radiation controlled area of KOMAC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Sung Kyun; Min, Yi Sub; Park, Jeong Min; Cho, Yong Sub [KAERI, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)


    Korea multi-purpose accelerator complex (KOMAC), the branch institute of Korea atomic energy research institute (KAERI), is a multi-user facility to provide a high-intensity proton beam with the energy from 20 MeV to the 100 MeV. This proton beam is accelerated via the proton linear accelerator that is comprised of a 50-keV injector, 3-MeV radio frequency quadrupole (RFQ), and 100-MeV drift tube linac (DTL). The KOMAC site is classified into General public area and Radiation controlled area, according to the dose rate of 0.25 μSv/h. The system for the data made in Radiation controlled area should have the database to save and the data in the database could be expressed on the monitor in the any form which user wants. The control platform to satisfy these conditions will be made on the basis of the Qt program and MYSQL program. The place with the maximum average values about the alpha and beta detected is the entrance of Radiation controlled area. However, their values are very small in comparison to the criteria to decide the contamination area in KOMAC. That is, KOMAC is safe from the radioactive contamination. The reason why the radiation dose value is twice the background value in Klystron gallery is the klystron to generate the radiation. However, actually the klystron gallery is controlled by the control room when the proton beam is accelerated.

  9. Measurement of Background Gamma Radiation Levels at Two ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    Corresponding author: Olarinoye, I.O.. 60 enrolment in educational institutions and consequently the increase in business activities in the town. Although the town does not boast of any manufacturing company which utilizes radioactive materials, the geology of the state suggests that environmental radiation level in the state ...

  10. Out-door radiation level measurement in Abeokuta, Nigeria, by ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Environmental radiation level and its spatial variability have been investigated at 34 locations in Abeokuta and environs using the technique of thermoluminescent dosimetry (TLD) with LiF phosphor calibrated with a 137Cs standard source operating at a Secondary Standard Dosimetry Laboratory (SSDL). The human dose ...

  11. Radiation damage measurements on CZT drift strip detectors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kuvvetli, Irfan; Budtz-Jørgensen, Carl; Korsbech, Uffe C C


    At DSRI, in collaboration with the cyclotron facility at Copenhagen University Hospital, we have performed a study of radiation effects exposing a 2.7 mm thick CZT drift strip detector to 30 MeV protons. The detector characteristics were evaluated after exposure to a number of fluences in the ran...

  12. Nuclear Technology Series. Course 11: Radiation Detection and Measurement. (United States)

    Technical Education Research Center, Waco, TX.

    This technical specialty course is one of thirty-five courses designed for use by two-year postsecondary institutions in five nuclear technician curriculum areas: (1) radiation protection technician, (2) nuclear instrumentation and control technician, (3) nuclear materials processing technician, (4) nuclear quality-assurance/quality-control…

  13. Methodology and measurement of radiation interception by quantum sensor of the oil palm plantation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johari Endan


    Full Text Available Interception of light by a canopy is a fundamental requirement for crop growth and is important for biomass production and plant growth modeling. Solar radiation is an important parameter for photosynthesis and evapotranspiration. These two phenomena are dependent not only on the intensity of radiation but also on the distribution of intercepted radiation within the canopy. In this study, two operational methods for estimating the amount of photosynthetically active radiation (PAR intercepted by a canopy of the oil palm are presented. LICOR radiation sensors, model LI-190SA and model LI-191SA were used for photosynthetically active radiation (PAR measurement above and below the canopy. We developed two methods, namely "Triangular" method and "Circular" method for PAR measurement. Results show that both methods were suitable for oil palm PAR measurement. The triangular method is recommended for PAR measurements with respect to the whole plantation and the circular method is recommended for specific purposes, such as growth analysis or growth modeling of the oil palm. However, practical considerations such as equipment availability, purpose of the measurement, age of the palm, and the number of measuring points to be sampled should be taken into account in the selection of a suitable method for a particular study. The results indicate that the interception of radiation was affected by spatial variation, and the radiation transmission decreased towards the frond tips.

  14. The Chance Model: A Tool For Separating The Photosynthetic and Respiration Components of Forest Net Ecosystem Exchange and For Data Gap Filling In The Eddy Covariance Measurement Database (United States)

    Longdoz, B.; Aubinet, M.; Francois, L.

    The CHANCE model simulates CO2, H2O and energy fluxes in temperate forest ecosystems. It has been calibrated and validated for a beech forest located in Viel- salm (Belgium), an experimental site included in the CARBOEUROFLUX network and equipped with an eddy covariance system measuring CO2, latent and sensible heat net fluxes exchanged between the ecosystem and the atmosphere. CHANCE has been used to fill the gaps in the eddy covariance measurement database. The results of this method are compared with those obtained by the interpolation and parameterization usually adopted in the CARBOEUROFLUX community. Each term of the net CO2 flux (CO2 exchanges by leaf, aerial wood and soil) are computed by CHANCE. The time integration of these terms provides estimates of the gross primary productivity (GPP) and ecosystem respiration (Re). The temporal evolution of GPP and Re during the year is analysed.

  15. An information theory approach for evaluating earth radiation budget (ERB) measurements - Nonuniform sampling of reflected shortwave radiation (United States)

    Barkstrom, Bruce R.; Direskeneli, Haldun; Halyo, Nesim


    An information theory approach to examine the temporal nonuniform sampling characteristics of shortwave (SW) flux for earth radiation budget (ERB) measurements is suggested. The information gain is computed by computing the information content before and after the measurements. A stochastic diurnal model for the SW flux is developed, and measurements for different orbital parameters are examined. The methodology is applied to specific NASA Polar platform and Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) orbital parameters. The information theory approach, coupled with the developed SW diurnal model, is found to be promising for measurements involving nonuniform orbital sampling characteristics.

  16. Spatial representativeness of ground-based solar radiation measurements (United States)

    Zyta Hakuba, Maria; Folini, Doris; Wild, Martin


    The validation of gridded surface solar radiation (SSR) data, i.e., satellite-derived or climate model calculated, relies on the comparison with ground-based in-situ measurements. Detached from any modeling or temporal averaging biases, the question remains how representative a point measurement is for a larger-scale grid cell. In the present study, we make extensive use of high-resolution (0.03°) SSR data from the Satellite Application Facility on climate monitoring (CM SAF) to study in detail: 1) the spatial variability in SSR over Europe, 2) the sub-grid variability within an example grid of 1° resolution, 3) the representativeness of 143 surface sites (BSRN and GEBA) for their corresponding 1° grid cells, and 4) the point-centered and grid-independent surface sites' representativeness for larger-grid cells up to 3°. These analyses are done on a climatological annual mean basis over the period 2001-2005. Annually, the spatial variability as given in the CM SAF data set is largest in regions of sudden changes in weather conditions and topography, e.g., in Northern Spain, the Alpine region, the Carpathians, and Adriatic coast. The 1° sub-grid variability (mean absolute deviation from grid cell mean, relative to grid cell mean, RMAD) is on average 1.64 % (2.43 Wm-2) over European land, with maximum RMAD of up to 10% in Northern Spain. The surface sites' (GEBA and BSRN) representativeness for larger-grid cells is highly dependent on region and grid size. The difference between the CM SAF value at the GEBA site's location and the grid cell mean (calculated from CM SAF data) can vary from almost 0% to more than 10% for a 1° grid cell, and up to 15% for a 3° grid cell. On average, this spatial sampling error is below 5% even for grid cells of 3° resolution. We show that the latitudinal shift of a point relative to the larger-grid cell center may account for a spatial sampling error of up to +-1.81 Wm-2 (for a maximum distance of +-0.5° within 1° grid cell

  17. Comparison of Martian Surface Radiation Predictions to the Measurements of Mars Science Laboratory Radiation Assessment Detector (MSL/RAD) (United States)

    Kim, M. H. Y.; Cucinotta, F.; Zeitlin, C. J.; Hassler, D.; Ehresmann, B.; Rafkin, S. C.; Wimmer-Schweingruber, R. F.; Böttcher, S. I.; Boehm, E.; Guo, J.; Kohler, J.; Martin-Garcia, C.; Reitz, G.; Posner, A.


    For the analysis of radiation risks to astronauts and planning exploratory space missions, detailed knowledge of particle spectra is an important factor. Detailed measurements of the energetic particle radiation environment on the surface of Mars have been made by the Mars Science Laboratory Radiation Assessment Detector (MSL-RAD) on the Curiosity rover since August 2012, and particle fluxes for a wide range of ion species (up to several hundred MeV/u) and high energy neutrons (8 - 1000 MeV) have been available for the first 200 sols. Although the data obtained on the surface of Mars for 200 sols are limited in the narrow energy spectra, the simulation results using the Badhwar-O'Neill galactic cosmic ray (GCR) environment model and the high-charge and energy transport (HZETRN) code are compared to the data. For the nuclear interactions of primary GCR through Mars atmosphere and Curiosity rover, the quantum multiple scattering theory of nuclear fragmentation (QMSFRG) is used, which includes direct knockout, evaporation and nuclear coalescence. Daily atmospheric pressure measurements at Gale Crater by the MSL Rover Environmental Monitoring Station are implemented into transport calculations for describing the daily column depth of atmosphere. Particles impinging on top of the Martian atmosphere reach the RAD after traversing varying depths of atmosphere that depend on the slant angles, and the model accounts for shielding of the RAD by the rest of the instrument. Calculations of stopping particle spectra are in good agreement with the RAD measurements for the first 200 sols by accounting changing heliospheric conditions and atmospheric pressure. Detailed comparisons between model predictions and spectral data of various particle types provide the validation of radiation transport models, and thus increase the accuracy of the predictions of future radiation environments on Mars. These contributions lend support to the understanding of radiation health risks to

  18. A modified Wheeler cap method for radiation efficiency measurement of balanced electrically small antennas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Jiaying; Pivnenko, Sergey; Breinbjerg, Olav


    Measurement of radiation efficiency for ultra small antennas represents a great challenge due to influence of the feeding cable. The Wheeler cap method is often used to measure the radiation efficiency of small antennas. However, it is well applicable for antennas on a ground plane......, but not for balanced antennas like loops or dipoles. In this paper, a modified Wheeler cap method is proposed for the radiation efficiency measurement of balanced electrically small antennas and a three-port network model of the Wheeler cap measurement is introduced. The advantage of the modified method...... is that it is wideband, thus does not require any balun, and both the antenna input impedance and radiation efficiency can be obtained. An electrically small loop antenna and a wideband dipole were simulated and measured according to the proposed method and the results of measurements and simulations are presented...

  19. Dose equivalent measurements in mixed and time varying radiation fields around high-energy accelerators

    CERN Document Server

    Mayer, S


    Measurements of ambient dose equivalent in stray radiation fields behind the shielding of high-energy accelerators are a challenging task. Several radiation components (photons, neutrons, charged particles, muons, etc.), spanning a wide range of energies, contribute to the total dose equivalent. The radiation fields are produced by beam losses interacting with structural material during the acceleration or at the ejection to experimental areas or other accelerators. The particle beam is usually not continuous but separated in "bunches" or pulses, which further complicates dose measurements at high-energy accelerators. An ideal dosimeter for operational radiation protection should measure dose equivalent for any composition of radiation components in the entire energy range even when the field is strongly pulsed. The objective of this work was to find out if an ionisation chamber operated as a "recombination chamber" and a TEPC instrument using the variance-covariance method ("Sievert Instrument") are capable ...

  20. Measurements of the neutron dose equivalent for various radiation qualities, treatment machines and delivery techniques in radiation therapy. (United States)

    Hälg, R A; Besserer, J; Boschung, M; Mayer, S; Lomax, A J; Schneider, U


    In radiation therapy, high energy photon and proton beams cause the production of secondary neutrons. This leads to an unwanted dose contribution, which can be considerable for tissues outside of the target volume regarding the long term health of cancer patients. Due to the high biological effectiveness of neutrons in regards to cancer induction, small neutron doses can be important. This study quantified the neutron doses for different radiation therapy modalities. Most of the reports in the literature used neutron dose measurements free in air or on the surface of phantoms to estimate the amount of neutron dose to the patient. In this study, dose measurements were performed in terms of neutron dose equivalent inside an anthropomorphic phantom. The neutron dose equivalent was determined using track etch detectors as a function of the distance to the isocenter, as well as for radiation sensitive organs. The dose distributions were compared with respect to treatment techniques (3D-conformal, volumetric modulated arc therapy and intensity-modulated radiation therapy for photons; spot scanning and passive scattering for protons), therapy machines (Varian, Elekta and Siemens linear accelerators) and radiation quality (photons and protons). The neutron dose equivalent varied between 0.002 and 3 mSv per treatment gray over all measurements. Only small differences were found when comparing treatment techniques, but substantial differences were observed between the linear accelerator models. The neutron dose equivalent for proton therapy was higher than for photons in general and in particular for double-scattered protons. The overall neutron dose equivalent measured in this study was an order of magnitude lower than the stray dose of a treatment using 6 MV photons, suggesting that the contribution of the secondary neutron dose equivalent to the integral dose of a radiotherapy patient is small.

  1. Evaluation of Diversity Antenna Designs Using Ray Tracing, Measured Radiation Patterns, and MIMO Channel Measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pal Arindam


    Full Text Available This paper presents an evaluation of the MIMO performance of three candidate antenna array designs, each embedded within a PDA footprint, using indoor wideband channel measurements at 5.2 GHz alongside channel simulations. A channel model which employs the plane-wave approximation was used to combine the embedded antenna radiation patterns of the candidate devices obtained from far-field pattern measurements and multipath component parameters from an indoor ray-tracer. The 4-element candidate arrays were each constructed using a different type of antenna element, and despite the diverse element directivities, pattern characteristics, and polarization purities, all three devices were constructed to fully exploit diversity in polarization, space, and angle. Thus, low correlation and high information theoretic capacity was observed in each case. A good match between the model and the measurements is also demonstrated, especially for MIMO subsets of identically or orthogonally polarized linear slot antennas. The interdependencies between the channel XPD, directional spread and pathloss, and the respective impact on channel capacity are also discussed in this paper.

  2. Evaluation of Diversity Antenna Designs Using Ray Tracing, Measured Radiation Patterns, and MIMO Channel Measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arindam Pal


    Full Text Available This paper presents an evaluation of the MIMO performance of three candidate antenna array designs, each embedded within a PDA footprint, using indoor wideband channel measurements at 5.2 GHz alongside channel simulations. A channel model which employs the plane-wave approximation was used to combine the embedded antenna radiation patterns of the candidate devices obtained from far-field pattern measurements and multipath component parameters from an indoor ray-tracer. The 4-element candidate arrays were each constructed using a different type of antenna element, and despite the diverse element directivities, pattern characteristics, and polarization purities, all three devices were constructed to fully exploit diversity in polarization, space, and angle. Thus, low correlation and high information theoretic capacity was observed in each case. A good match between the model and the measurements is also demonstrated, especially for 2×2 MIMO subsets of identically or orthogonally polarized linear slot antennas. The interdependencies between the channel XPD, directional spread and pathloss, and the respective impact on channel capacity are also discussed in this paper.

  3. Effect of gamma radiation on chlorophylls content, net photosynthesis and respiration of Chlorella pyrenoidosa; Efecto de la radiacion gamma sobre la fotosintesis neta y la respiracion de Chlorella pyrenoidosa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martin, C.; Fernandez, J.


    The effect of five doses of gamma radiation: 10, 100, 500, 1000 and 5000 Gy on chlorophylls content, net photosynthesis and respiration of Chlorella pyrenoidosa has been studied. A decrease in chlorophylls levels is produced after irradiation at 500, 1000 and 5000 Gy, being, at first b chlorophyll affected to a greater extent than a chlorophyll. Net photosynthesis and respiration decline throughout the time of the observation after irradiation, this depressing effect being much more remarkable for the first one. Met photosynthesis inhibition levels of about 30% are got only five hours post irradiation at a dose of 5000 Gy. Radio estimation by low doses, although obtained in some cases for tho 10 Gy dose, has not been statistically confirmed. (Author) 23 refs.

  4. Raman distributed temperature measurement at CERN high energy accelerator mixed field radiation test facility (CHARM) (United States)

    Toccafondo, Iacopo; Nannipieri, Tiziano; Signorini, Alessandro; Guillermain, Elisa; Kuhnhenn, Jochen; Brugger, Markus; Di Pasquale, Fabrizio


    In this paper we present a validation of distributed Raman temperature sensing (RDTS) at the CERN high energy accelerator mixed field radiation test facility (CHARM), newly developed in order to qualify electronics for the challenging radiation environment of accelerators and connected high energy physics experiments. By investigating the effect of wavelength dependent radiation induced absorption (RIA) on the Raman Stokes and anti-Stokes light components in radiation tolerant Ge-doped multi-mode (MM) graded-index optical fibers, we demonstrate that Raman DTS used in loop configuration is robust to harsh environments in which the fiber is exposed to a mixed radiation field. The temperature profiles measured on commercial Ge-doped optical fibers is fully reliable and therefore, can be used to correct the RIA temperature dependence in distributed radiation sensing systems based on P-doped optical fibers.

  5. Environmental gamma radiation measurement in district Swat, Pakistan. (United States)

    Jabbar, T; Khan, K; Subhani, M S; Akhter, P; Jabbar, A


    External exposure to environmental gamma ray sources is an important component of exposure to the public. A survey was carried out to determine activity concentration levels and associated doses from (226)Ra, (232)Th, (40)K and (137)Cs by means of high-resolution gamma ray spectrometry in the Swat district, famous for tourism. The mean concentrations for (226)Ra, (232)Th and (40)K were found to be 50.4 +/- 0.7, 34.8 +/- 0.7 and 434.5 +/- 7.4 Bq kg(-1), respectively, in soil samples, which are slightly more than the world average values. However, (137)Cs was only found in the soil sample of Barikot with an activity concentration of 34 +/- 1.2 Bq kg(-1). Only (40)K was determined in vegetation samples with an average activity of 172.2 +/- 1.7 Bq kg(-1), whereas in water samples, all radionuclides were found below lower limits of detection. The radium equivalent activity in all soil samples is lower than the limit set in the Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development report (370 Bq kg(-1)). The value of the external exposure dose has been determined from the content of these radionuclides in soil. The average terrestrial gamma air absorbed dose rate was observed to be 62.4 nGy h(-1), which yields an annual effective dose of 0.08 mSv. The average value of the annual effective dose lies close to the global range of outdoor radiation exposure given in United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation. However, the main component of the radiation dose to the population residing in the study area arises from cosmic ray due to high altitude.

  6. The measuring station for research of effects of increased radiation on CCD and CMOS sensors (Radiation effects on photonics devices)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kalicki, A.


    This work comes into being as a part of projects, realized by PERG group in cooperation with DESY (Deutsches Elektronen - Synchrotron) in Hamburg, Germany. There are two new projects being developed. X-FEL - X-ray Free Electron Laser and VUV-FEL - Vacuum Ultraviolet Free Electron Laser. The new idea is to place some electronic control systems in collider tunnel, where during operation a dose of neutron and gamma parasitic radiation is produced. Exposure to increased radiation may cause many problems in regular work of electronic devices. The goal of this diploma work was to perform irradiation sensitivity experiments of electronic components, especially CCD and CMOS sensors. As well development of low cost and real time measurement methods of radiation level using those sensors and neutron bubble detectors. Study of radiation influence on electronics components was done, physics aspects of possible effects and methods of recognition and counting. There were developed proper algorithms used for CCD and CMOS cameras and image recognition algorithm for reading neutron bubble detectors - Optical Bubble Counting Algorithm (OBCA) with user friendly graphical interface written in JAVA. This paper presents developed algorithms, scheme of measurement and results. (orig.)

  7. Cosmic Radiation Dose Measurements from the RaD-X Flight Campaign (United States)

    Mertens, Christopher J.; Gronoff, Guillaume P.; Norman, Ryan B.; Hayes, Bryan M.; Lusby, Terry C.; Straume, Tore; Tobiska, W. Kent; Hands, Alex; Ryden, Keith; Benton, Eric; hide


    The NASA Radiation Dosimetry Experiment (RaD-X) stratospheric balloon flight mission obtained measurements for improving the understanding of cosmic radiation transport in the atmosphere and human exposure to this ionizing radiation field in the aircraft environment. The value of dosimetric measurements from the balloon platform is that they can be used to characterize cosmic ray primaries, the ultimate source of aviation radiation exposure. In addition, radiation detectors were flown to assess their potential application to long-term, continuous monitoring of the aircraft radiation environment. The RaD-X balloon was successfully launched from Fort Sumner, New Mexico (34.5 degrees North, 104.2 degrees West) on 25 September 2015. Over 18 hours of flight data were obtained from each of the four different science instruments at altitudes above 20 kilometers. The RaD-X balloon flight was supplemented by contemporaneous aircraft measurements. Flight-averaged dosimetric quantities are reported at seven altitudes to provide benchmark measurements for improving aviation radiation models. The altitude range of the flight data extends from commercial aircraft altitudes to above the Pfotzer maximum where the dosimetric quantities are influenced by cosmic ray primaries. The RaD-X balloon flight observed an absence of the Pfotzer maximum in the measurements of dose equivalent rate.

  8. Development of multi-purpose 2-dimensional detectors for radiation beam profile measurement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moon, Myungkook; Chio, Younghyun; Kim, Hyunok; Lim, Changhwy; Park, Jeehyun


    In recent years, accelerators for radiation generation of variety purposes have been developed and used. The most important part of the radiation emitting device is the accuracy and consistency of the generated radiation dose rate and the dose distribution. In this study, we developed the position sensitive MWPC (Multi-Wire Proportional Chamber) and THGEM (Thick-Gas Electron Multiplier) for measurement of the 2-dimensional radiation dose distribution and measured the radiation dose distribution using them. And we developed devices for conversion, transmission and amplification of radiation signal as the low noise preamplifier and the TDC (Time to Digital Convertor). Through to develop the new high-speed data transmission system, we installed the system that can transfer a stable signal. The developed radiation dose distribution measurement system is expected to be used the measurement of the dose distribution beam of accelerator, as well as measurement of the low energy X-ray dose distribution as the SAXS (Small Angle X-ray Scattering)

  9. Dose equivalent measurements in a strongly pulsed high-energy radiation field

    CERN Document Server

    Mayer, S; Kyllonen, J E; Menzel, Hans Gregor; Otto, Thomas


    The stray radiation field outside the shielding of high-energy accelerators comprises neutrons, photons and charged particles with a wide range of energies. Often, accelerators operate by accelerating and ejecting short pulses of particles, creating an analogue, pulsed radiation field. The pulses can be as short as 10 mu s with high instantaneous fluence rates and dose rates. Measurements of average dose equivalent (rate) for radiation protection purposes in these fields present a challenge for instrumentation. The performance of three instruments (i.e. a recombination chamber, the Sievert Instrument and a HANDITEPC) measuring total dose equivalent is compared in a high-energy reference radiation field (CERF) and a strongly pulsed, high-energy radiation field at the CERN proton synchrotron (PS).

  10. Measurements of Radiation Exposure on Commercial Aircraft with the LIULIN-3M Instrument (United States)

    Stassinopoulos, E. G.; Stauffer, C. A.; Dachev, T. P.; Brucker, G. J.; Tomov, B. T.; Dimitrov, P. G.


    This paper reports on the development of a compact radiation monitor/dosimeter, the LIULIN-3M, and on extended measurements conducted on the ground and on commercial aircraft on domestic and international flights.

  11. Radiation Thermometry—Sources of Uncertainty During Contactless Temperature Measurement (United States)

    Reichel, Denise; Schumann, T.; Skorupa, W.; Lerch, W.; Gelpey, J.

    Short Time Annealing on a microsecond to nanosecond scale presents new challenges to temperature measurement. Pyrometers are widely used owing to their commercial availability, short response time, easy handling and contactless operation. However, they hold a source for considerable measurement errors. False readings are easily gained producing large errors during temperature measurement.

  12. Development of Precision Information Measuring System for Ultraviolet Radiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available Results of studying the neural network method are presented to reduce the amount of calibration points for the multisensor (MS, in particular for the photodiode. This allows transmitting to the MS individual conversion function and provides the high accuracy of measurement. The structure of synthesized information-measuring system and its measuring channel has created for implementing of the proposed approach. A structural scheme is proposed as well for values transmitting the etalon measures to measuring systems. Its used to determine the errors of photodiodes, as those which are produced for customers. This assures the interchangeability of sensors when using the individual conversion function.

  13. Nuclear Targets for a Precision Measurement of the Neutral Pion Radiative Width

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martel, Philippe; Clinton, Eric; McWilliams, R.; Lawrence, Dave; Miskimen, Rory; Ahmidouch, Abdellah; Ambrozewicz, Pawel; Asaturyan, Arshak; Baker, O.; Benton, LaRay; Bernstein, Aron; Cole, Philip; Collins, Patrick; Dale, Daniel; Danagoulian, Samuel; Davidenko, G.; Demirchyan, Raphael; Deur, Alexandre; DOLGOLENKO, A.; Dzyubenko, Georgiy; Evdokimov, Anatoly; Feng, JIng; Gabrielyan, Marianna; Gan, Liping; Gasparian, Ashot; Glamazdin, Oleksandr; Goryachev, Vladimir; Gyurjyan, Vardan; Hardy, K.; Ito, Mark; Khandaker, Mahbubul; Kingsberry, Paul; Kolarkar, Ameya; Konchatnyi, Mykhailo; Korchin, O.; Korsch, Wolfgang; Kowalski, Stanley; Kubantsev, Mikhail; Kubarovsky, Valery; LARIN, Ilya; MATVEEV, V.; McNulty, Dustin; Milbrath, Brian; Minehart, Ralph; Mochalov, Vasiliy; Mtingwa, Sekazi; Nakagawa, Itaru; Overby, Steven; Pasyuk, Evgueni; Payen, Marvin; Pedroni, Ronald; Prok, Yelena; Ritchie, Barry; Salgado, Carlos; Sitnikov, Anatoly; Sober, Daniel; Stephens, W.; Teymurazyan, Aram; Underwood, Jarreas; VASILIEV, A.; VEREBRYUSOV, V.; Vishnyakov, Vladimir; Wood, Michael


    A technique is presented for precision measurements of the area densities, density * T, of approximately 5% radiation length carbon and 208Pb targets used in an experiment at Jefferson Laboratory to measure the neutral pion radiative width. The precision obtained in the area density for the carbon target is +/- 0.050%, and that obtained for the lead target through an x-ray attenuation technique is +/- 0.43%.

  14. Survey of radiofrequency radiation levels around GSM base stations and evaluation of measurement uncertainty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vulević Branislav D.


    Full Text Available This paper is a summary of broadband measurement values of radiofrequency radiation around GSM base stations in the vicinity of residential areas in Belgrade and 12 other cities in Serbia. It will be useful for determining non-ionizing radiation exposure levels of the general public in the future. The purpose of this paper is also an appropriate representation of basic information on the evaluation of measurement uncertainty.

  15. Measurement of Machining Temperature Using Infrared Radiation Pyrometer With Optical Fiber: Characteristics of Pyrometer


    上田, 隆司; 金田, 泰幸; 佐藤, 昌彦; 杉田, 忠彰


    The fundamental characteristics of a new type of infrared radiation pyrometer using an optical fiber are investigated theoretically and experimentally. The structure of this pyrometer is that the optical fiber accepts the infrared flux radiated from the object and transmits it to an infrared detector InSb cell. This I. R. P. is suitable for measuring the temperature of a very small object whose temperature changes rapidly. The flexibility of the optical fiber also makes it possible to measure...

  16. Radiation Transmission-based Thickness Measurement Systems - Theory and Applications to Flat Rolled Strip Products


    Zipf, Mark E.


    This chapter has explored the underlying physics and methods associated with radiation based measurements of material thickness. The intent of this chapter has been to provide a tutorial foundation of these principles, to support subsequent discussions (Zipf, 2010). The primary components of this form of measurement system have been presented and discussed. Natural and artificial radiation sources / generators have been examined and considered for application. The nature of the material's int...

  17. A unified approach to deconvolution radiation spectra measured by radiochromic films

    CERN Document Server

    Stancic, V; Ljubenov, V


    A method for the evaluation of energy distribution of a radiation source on the basis of measured space distribution of deposited energy is proposed. The measured data were obtained by using radiochromic films. Mathematical modeling is defined as a Fredholm integral equation inversion problem. Negative solutions were treated as an additional condition expressed through undefined energy group boundaries, caused by virtue of the physical phenomenon of statistical uncertainty. Examples are given of the electron source and neutron radiation field.

  18. Radiation Measurements Performed with Active Detectors Relevant for Human Space Exploration. (United States)

    Narici, Livio; Berger, Thomas; Matthiä, Daniel; Reitz, Günther


    A reliable radiation risk assessment in space is a mandatory step for the development of countermeasures and long-duration mission planning in human spaceflight. Research in radiobiology provides information about possible risks linked to radiation. In addition, for a meaningful risk evaluation, the radiation exposure has to be assessed to a sufficient level of accuracy. Consequently, both the radiation models predicting the risks and the measurements used to validate such models must have an equivalent precision. Corresponding measurements can be performed both with passive and active devices. The former is easier to handle, cheaper, lighter, and smaller but they measure neither the time dependence of the radiation environment nor some of the details useful for a comprehensive radiation risk assessment. Active detectors provide most of these details and have been extensively used in the International Space Station. To easily access such an amount of data, a single point access is becoming essential. This review presents an ongoing work on the development of a tool that allows obtaining information about all relevant measurements performed with active detectors providing reliable inputs for radiation model validation.

  19. Measurements of Ionizing Radiation Doses Induced by High Irradiance Laser on Targets in LCLS MEC Instrument

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bauer, J. [SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States); Liu, J. C. [SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States); Prinz, A. A. [SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States); Rokni, S. [SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States); Tran, H. [SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States); Woods, M. [SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States); Xia, Z. [SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States); Galter, e. [SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States); Lee, H. -J. [SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States); Milathianaki, D. [SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States); Nagler, B. [SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States)


    Comprehensive measurements for photon and neutron radiation doses generated from laser-plasma interaction at SLAC’s MEC laser facility have been conducted. The goals of the measurements were to; determine the radiation dose per laser shot as a function of laser, optic and target parameters that are relevant to the MEC laser operations; validate the RPD-developed analytic model for photon dose calculations; and evaluate the performance of various types of passive and active detectors in the laser-induced radiation fields.

  20. Contribution of thermal radiation in measurements of thermal conductivity of sandstone (United States)

    Zarichnyak, Yu. P.; Ramazanova, A. E.; Emirov, S. N.


    The effective thermal conductivity of sandstone at high pressures of up to 400 MPa and temperatures of 273-523 K has been studied. It has been shown that the degree of crystallization of rock-forming minerals substantially influences the temperature and pressure dependences of the thermal conductivity. The contribution of the radiation heat transfer in measurements of the thermal conductivity of sandstone at various temperatures has been analyzed taking into account the reflection and attenuation of the thermal radiation. The results of measuring the reflection and absorption spectra of the thermal radiation have been presented.

  1. Note: Measurement system for the radiative forcing of greenhouse gases in a laboratory scale. (United States)

    Kawamura, Yoshiyuki


    The radiative forcing of the greenhouse gases has been studied being based on computational simulations or the observation of the real atmosphere meteorologically. In order to know the greenhouse effect more deeply and to study it from various viewpoints, the study on it in a laboratory scale is important. We have developed a direct measurement system for the infrared back radiation from the carbon dioxide (CO2) gas. The system configuration is similar with that of the practical earth-atmosphere-space system. Using this system, the back radiation from the CO2 gas was directly measured in a laboratory scale, which roughly coincides with meteorologically predicted value.

  2. Measurements of radiation effects on a 4 Mb PSRAM memory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonçalez, Odair Lelis; Pereira Junior, Evaldo Carlos Fonseca; Vaz, Rafael Galhardo; Pereira, Marlon Antonio [Instituto de Estudos Avançados (IEAv/DCTA) - São José dos Campos, SP (Brazil); Wirth, Gilson Inácio; Both, Thiago Hanna [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul (UFRGS) - Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil)


    The results of a static test of total ionizing dose (TID) effects on an ISSI 4Mb PSRAM memory are reported in this work. The irradiation was performed at the IEAv’s Laboratory of Ionizing Radiation with 1.17 and 1.32 MeV gamma-rays from a {sup 60}Co source at a dose rate of 2.5 krad/h up to an accumulated dose of 215.7 krad. The TID threshold for bit flip found in this experiment was 52.5 krad. From a sampling of 4096 memory addresses it was estimated a bit flip rate of approximately 50% at an accumulated dose of 215.7 krad.

  3. Validation of Environmental Stress Index by Measuring Infrared Radiation as a Substitute for Solar Radiation in Indoor Workplaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peymaneh Habibi


    Full Text Available Background The exposure of individuals to heat at different jobs warrants the use of heat stress evaluation indices. Objectives The aim of this study was to validate environmental stress index using an infrared radiation (IR measurement instrument as a substitute for pyranometer in indoor workplaces. Methods This study was conducted on 2303 indoor workstations in different industries in Isfahan, Iran, during July, August, and September in 2012. The intensity of the Infrared Radiation (IR (w/m2 was measured at five-centimeter distances in six different directions, above, opposite, right, left, behind and below the globe thermometer. Then, the dry globe temperature (Ta, wet globe temperature (Tnw, globe temperature (Tg and relative humidity (RH were also simultaneously measured. The data were analyzed using correlation and regression by the SPSS18 software. Results The study results indicate that a high correlation (r = 0.96 exists between the environmental stress index (ESI and the values of wet bulb globe temperature (P < 0.01. According to the following equation, WBGT = 1.086 × ESI - 1.846, the environmental stress index is able to explain 91% (R2 = 0.91 of the WBGT index variations (P < 0.01. Conclusions Based on the results, to study heat stress in indoor workplaces when the WBGT measurement instrument is not available and also in short-term exposures (shorter than 30 minutes when measuring the wet bulb globe temperature shows a considerable error, it is possible to calculate the environmental stress index and accordingly to the WBGT index, by measuring the parameters of dry bulb temperature (Ta, relative humidity (RH, and infrared radiation intensity that can be easily measured in a short time.

  4. Modeling and design of radiative hydrodynamic experiments with X-ray Thomson Scattering measurements on NIF (United States)

    Ma, K. H.; Lefevre, H. J.; Belancourt, P. X.; MacDonald, M. J.; Doeppner, T.; Keiter, P. A.; Kuranz, C. C.; Johnsen, E.


    Recent experiments at the National Ignition Facility studied the effect of radiation on shock-driven hydrodynamic instability growth. X-ray radiography images from these experiments indicate that perturbation growth is lower in highly radiative shocks compared to shocks with negligible radiation flux. The reduction in instability growth is attributed to ablation from higher temperatures in the foam for highly radiative shocks. The proposed design implements the X-ray Thomson Scattering (XRTS) technique in the radiative shock tube platform to measure electron temperatures and densities in the shocked foam. We model these experiments with CRASH, an Eulerian radiation hydrodynamics code with block-adaptive mesh refinement, multi-group radiation transport and electron heat conduction. Simulations are presented with SiO2 and carbon foams for both the high temperature, radiative shock and the low-temperature, hydrodynamic shock cases. Calculations from CRASH give estimations for shock speed, electron temperature, effective ionization, and other quantities necessary for designing the XRTS diagnostic measurement. This work is funded by the LLNL under subcontract B614207, and was performed under the auspices of the U.S. DOE by LLNL under Contract No. DE-AC52-07NA27344.

  5. Eddy covariance flux measurements of net ecosystem carbon dioxide exchange from a lowland peatland flux tower network in England and Wales (United States)

    Morrison, Ross; Balzter, Heiko; Burden, Annette; Callaghan, Nathan; Cumming, Alenander; Dixon, Simon; Evans, Jonathan; Kaduk, Joerg; Page, Susan; Pan, Gong; Rayment, Mark; Ridley, Luke; Rylett, Daniel; Worrall, Fred; Evans, Christopher


    Peatlands store disproportionately large amounts of soil carbon relative to other terrestrial ecosystems. Over recent decades, the large amount of carbon stored as peat has proved vulnerable to a range of land use pressures as well as the increasing impacts of climate change. In temperate Europe and elsewhere, large tracts of lowland peatland have been drained and converted to agricultural land use. Such changes have resulted in widespread losses of lowland peatland habitat, land subsidence across extensive areas and the transfer of historically accumulated soil carbon to the atmosphere as carbon dioxide (CO2). More recently, there has been growth in activities aiming to reduce these impacts through improved land management and peatland restoration. Despite a long history of productive land use and management, the magnitude and controls on greenhouse gas emissions from lowland peatland environments remain poorly quantified. Here, results of surface-atmosphere measurements of net ecosystem CO2 exchange (NEE) from a network of seven eddy covariance (EC) flux towers located at a range of lowland peatland ecosystems across the United Kingdom (UK) are presented. This spatially-dense peatland flux tower network forms part of a wider observation programme aiming to quantify carbon, water and greenhouse gas balances for lowland peatlands across the UK. EC measurements totalling over seventeen site years were obtained at sites exhibiting large differences in vegetation cover, hydrological functioning and land management. The sites in the network show remarkable spatial and temporal variability in NEE. Across sites, annual NEE ranged from a net sink of -194 ±38 g CO2-C m-2 yr-1 to a net source of 784±70 g CO2-C m-2 yr-1. The results suggest that semi-natural sites remain net sinks for atmospheric CO2. Sites that are drained for intensive agricultural production range from a small net sink to the largest observed source for atmospheric CO2 within the flux tower network

  6. Measurement of higher cumulants of net-charge multiplicity distributions in Au$+$Au collisions at $\\sqrt{s_{_{NN}}}=7.7-200$ GeV

    CERN Document Server

    Adare, A; Aidala, C; Ajitanand, N N; Akiba, Y; Akimoto, R; Al-Bataineh, H; Alexander, J; Al-Ta'ani, H; Angerami, A; Aoki, K; Apadula, N; Aramaki, Y; Asano, H; Aschenauer, E C; Atomssa, E T; Averbeck, R; Awes, T C; Azmoun, B; Babintsev, V; Bai, M; Baksay, G; Baksay, L; Bannier, B; Barish, K N; Bassalleck, B; Basye, A T; Bathe, S; Baublis, V; Baumann, C; Baumgart, S; Bazilevsky, A; Belikov, S; Belmont, R; Bennett, R; Berdnikov, A; Berdnikov, Y; Bickley, A A; Black, D; Blau, D S; Bok, J S; Boyle, K; Brooks, M L; Bryslawskyj, J; Buesching, H; Bumazhnov, V; Bunce, G; Butsyk, S; Camacho, C M; Campbell, S; Castera, P; Chen, C -H; Chi, C Y; Chiu, M; Choi, I J; Choi, J B; Choi, S; Choudhury, R K; Christiansen, P; Chujo, T; Chung, P; Chvala, O; Cianciolo, V; Citron, Z; Cole, B A; Connors, M; Constantin, P; Cronin, N; Crossette, N; Csanád, M; Csörgő, T; Dahms, T; Dairaku, S; Danchev, I; Das, K; Datta, A; Daugherity, M S; David, G; Dehmelt, K; Denisov, A; Deshpande, A; Desmond, E J; Dharmawardane, K V; Dietzsch, O; Ding, L; Dion, A; Do, J H; Donadelli, M; D'Orazio, L; Drapier, O; Drees, A; Drees, K A; Durham, J M; Durum, A; Dutta, D; Edwards, S; Efremenko, Y V; Ellinghaus, F; Engelmore, T; Enokizono, A; En'yo, H; Esumi, S; Eyser, K O; Fadem, B; Fields, D E; Finger, M; Jr., \\,; Fleuret, F; Fokin, S L; Fraenkel, Z; Frantz, J E; Franz, A; Frawley, A D; Fujiwara, K; Fukao, Y; Fusayasu, T; Gainey, K; Gal, C; Garg, P; Garishvili, A; Garishvili, I; Giordano, F; Glenn, A; Gong, H; Gong, X; Gonin, M; Goto, Y; de Cassagnac, R Granier; Grau, N; Greene, S V; Perdekamp, M Grosse; Gu, Y; Gunji, T; Guo, L; Gustafsson, H -Å; Hachiya, T; Haggerty, J S; Hahn, K I; Hamagaki, H; Hamblen, J; Han, R; Hanks, J; Hartouni, E P; Hashimoto, K; Haslum, E; Hayano, R; Hayashi, S; He, X; Heffner, M; Hemmick, T K; Hester, T; Hill, J C; Hohlmann, M; Hollis, R S; Holzmann, W; Homma, K; Hong, B; Horaguchi, T; Hori, Y; Hornback, D; Huang, S; Ichihara, T; Ichimiya, R; Ide, J; Iinuma, H; Ikeda, Y; Imai, K; Imazu, Y; Imrek, J; Inaba, M; Iordanova, A; Isenhower, D; Ishihara, M; Isinhue, A; Isobe, T; Issah, M; Isupov, A; Ivanishchev, D; Jacak, B V; Javani, M; Jia, J; Jiang, X; Jin, J; Johnson, B M; Joo, K S; Jouan, D; Jumper, D S; Kajihara, F; Kametani, S; Kamihara, N; Kamin, J; Kaneti, S; Kang, B H; Kang, J H; Kang, J S; Kapustinsky, J; Karatsu, K; Kasai, M; Kawall, D; Kawashima, M; Kazantsev, A V; Kempel, T; Key, J A; Khandai, P K; Khanzadeev, A; Kijima, K M; Kim, B I; Kim, C; Kim, D H; Kim, D J; Kim, E; Kim, E -J; Kim, H J; Kim, K -B; Kim, S H; Kim, Y -J; Kim, Y K; Kinney, E; Kiriluk, K; Kiss, Á; Kistenev, E; Klatsky, J; Kleinjan, D; Kline, P; Kochenda, L; Komatsu, Y; Komkov, B; Konno, M; Koster, J; Kotchetkov, D; Kotov, D; Kozlov, A; Král, A; Kravitz, A; Krizek, F; Kunde, G J; Kurita, K; Kurosawa, M; Kwon, Y; Kyle, G S; Lacey, R; Lai, Y S; Lajoie, J G; Lebedev, A; Lee, B; Lee, D M; Lee, J; Lee, K; Lee, K B; Lee, K S; Lee, S H; Lee, S R; Leitch, M J; Leite, M A L; Leitgab, M; Leitner, E; Lenzi, B; Lewis, B; Li, X; Liebing, P; Lim, S H; Levy, L A Linden; Liška, T; Litvinenko, A; Liu, H; Liu, M X; Love, B; Luechtenborg, R; Lynch, D; Maguire, C F; Makdisi, Y I; Makek, M; Malakhov, A; Malik, M D; Manion, A; Manko, V I; Mannel, E; Mao, Y; Maruyama, T; Masui, H; Masumoto, S; Matathias, F; McCumber, M; McGaughey, P L; McGlinchey, D; McKinney, C; Means, N; Meles, A; Mendoza, M; Meredith, B; Miake, Y; Mibe, T; Midori, J; Mignerey, A C; Mikeš, P; Miki, K; Milov, A; Mishra, D K; Mishra, M; Mitchell, J T; Miyachi, Y; Miyasaka, S; Mohanty, A K; Mohapatra, S; Moon, H J; Morino, Y; Morreale, A; Morrison, D P; Moskowitz, M; Motschwiller, S; Moukhanova, T V; Murakami, T; Murata, J; Mwai, A; Nagae, T; Nagamiya, S; Nagle, J L; Naglis, M; Nagy, M I; Nakagawa, I; Nakamiya, Y; Nakamura, K R; Nakamura, T; Nakano, K; Nattrass, C; Nederlof, A; Netrakanti, P K; Newby, J; Nguyen, M; Nihashi, M; Niida, T; Nouicer, R; Novitzky, N; Nukariya, A; Nyanin, A S; Obayashi, H; O'Brien, E; Oda, S X; Ogilvie, C A; Oka, M; Okada, K; Onuki, Y; Oskarsson, A; Ouchida, M; Ozawa, K; Pak, R; Pantuev, V; Papavassiliou, V; Park, B H; Park, I H; Park, J; Park, S; Park, S K; Park, W J; Pate, S F; Patel, L; Pei, H; Peng, J -C; Pereira, H; Perepelitsa, D V; Peresedov, V; Peressounko, D Yu; Petti, R; Pinkenburg, C; Pisani, R P; Proissl, M; Purschke, M L; Purwar, A K; Qu, H; Rak, J; Rakotozafindrabe, A; Ravinovich, I; Read, K F; Reygers, K; Reynolds, D; Riabov, V; Riabov, Y; Richardson, E; Riveli, N; Roach, D; Roche, G; Rolnick, S D; Rosati, M; Rosen, C A; Rosendahl, S S E; Rosnet, P; Rukoyatkin, P; Ružička, P; Ryu, M S; Sahlmueller, B; Saito, N; Sakaguchi, T; Sakashita, K; Sako, H; Samsonov, V; Sano, M; Sano, S; Sarsour, M; Sato, S; Sato, T; Sawada, S; Sedgwick, K; Seele, J; Seidl, R; Semenov, A Yu; Sen, A; Seto, R; Sett, P; Sharma, D; Shein, I; Shibata, T -A; Shigaki, K; Shimomura, M; Shoji, K; Shukla, P; Sickles, A; Silva, C L; Silvermyr, D; Silvestre, C; Sim, K S; Singh, B K; Singh, C P; Singh, V; Skolnik, M; Slunečka, M; Solano, S; Soltz, R A; Sondheim, W E; Sorensen, S P; Sourikova, I V; Sparks, N A; Stankus, P W; Steinberg, P; Stenlund, E; Stepanov, M; Ster, A; Stoll, S P; Sugitate, T; Sukhanov, A; Sun, J; Sziklai, J; Takagui, E M; Takahara, A; Taketani, A; Tanabe, R; Tanaka, Y; Taneja, S; Tanida, K; Tannenbaum, M J; Tarafdar, S; Taranenko, A; Tarján, P; Tennant, E; Themann, H; Thomas, T L; Todoroki, T; Togawa, M; Toia, A; Tomášek, L; Tomášek, M; Torii, H; Towell, R S; Tserruya, I; Tsuchimoto, Y; Tsuji, T; Vale, C; Valle, H; van Hecke, H W; Vargyas, M; Vazquez-Zambrano, E; Veicht, A; Velkovska, J; Vértesi, R; Vinogradov, A A; Virius, M; Voas, B; Vossen, A; Vrba, V; Vznuzdaev, E; Wang, X R; Watanabe, D; Watanabe, K; Watanabe, Y; Watanabe, Y S; Wei, F; Wei, R; Wessels, J; Whitaker, S; White, S N; Winter, D; Wolin, S; Wood, J P; Woody, C L; Wright, R M; Wysocki, M; Xia, B; Xie, W; Yamaguchi, Y L; Yamaura, K; Yang, R; Yanovich, A; Ying, J; Yokkaichi, S; You, Z; Young, G R; Younus, I; Yushmanov, I E; Zajc, W A; Zelenski, A; Zhang, C; Zhou, S; Zolin, L


    We report the measurement of cumulants ($C_n, n=1\\ldots4$) of the net-charge distributions measured within pseudorapidity ($|\\eta|<0.35$) in Au$+$Au collisions at $\\sqrt{s_{_{NN}}}=7.7-200$ GeV with the PHENIX experiment at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider. The ratios of cumulants (e.g. $C_1/C_2$, $C_3/C_1$) of the net-charge distributions, which can be related to volume independent susceptibility ratios, are studied as a function of centrality and energy. These quantities are important to understand the quantum-chromodynamics phase diagram and possible existence of a critical end point. The measured values are very well described by expectation from negative binomial distributions. We do not observe any nonmonotonic behavior in the ratios of the cumulants as a function of collision energy. The measured values of $C_1/C_2 = \\mu/\\sigma^2$ and $C_3/C_1 = S\\sigma^3/\\mu$ can be directly compared to lattice quantum-chromodynamics calculations and thus allow extraction of both the chemical freeze-out temperat...

  7. Mars' surface radiation environment measured with the Mars Science Laboratory's Curiosity rover. (United States)

    Hassler, Donald M; Zeitlin, Cary; Wimmer-Schweingruber, Robert F; Ehresmann, Bent; Rafkin, Scot; Eigenbrode, Jennifer L; Brinza, David E; Weigle, Gerald; Böttcher, Stephan; Böhm, Eckart; Burmeister, Soenke; Guo, Jingnan; Köhler, Jan; Martin, Cesar; Reitz, Guenther; Cucinotta, Francis A; Kim, Myung-Hee; Grinspoon, David; Bullock, Mark A; Posner, Arik; Gómez-Elvira, Javier; Vasavada, Ashwin; Grotzinger, John P


    The Radiation Assessment Detector (RAD) on the Mars Science Laboratory's Curiosity rover began making detailed measurements of the cosmic ray and energetic particle radiation environment on the surface of Mars on 7 August 2012. We report and discuss measurements of the absorbed dose and dose equivalent from galactic cosmic rays and solar energetic particles on the martian surface for ~300 days of observations during the current solar maximum. These measurements provide insight into the radiation hazards associated with a human mission to the surface of Mars and provide an anchor point with which to model the subsurface radiation environment, with implications for microbial survival times of any possible extant or past life, as well as for the preservation of potential organic biosignatures of the ancient martian environment.

  8. Solar Radiation Measurement Using Raspberry Pi and Its Modelling Using Artificial Neural Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priya Selvanathan Shanmuga


    Full Text Available The advent of solar energy as the best alternative to traditional energy sources has led to an extensive study on the measurement and prediction of solar radiation. Devices such as pyranometer, pyrrheliometer, global UV radiometer are used for the measurement of solar radiation. The solar radiation measuring instruments available at Innovation Center, MIT Manipal were integrated with a Raspberry Pi to allow remote access to the data through the university Local Area Network. The connections of the data loggers and the Raspberry Pi were enclosed in a plastic box to prevent damage from the rainfall and humidity in Manipal. The solar radiation data was used to validate an Artificial Neural Network model which was developed using various meterological data from 2011-2015.

  9. Measurements of convective and radiative heating in wildland fires (United States)

    David Frankman; Brent W. Webb; Bret W. Butler; Daniel Jimenez; Jason M. Forthofer; Paul Sopko; Kyle S. Shannon; J. Kevin Hiers; Roger D. Ottmar


    Time-resolved irradiance and convective heating and cooling of fast-response thermopile sensors were measured in 13 natural and prescribed wildland fires under a variety of fuel and ambient conditions. It was shown that a sensor exposed to the fire environment was subject to rapid fluctuations of convective transfer whereas irradiance measured by a windowed sensor was...

  10. Situational awareness of hazards: Validation of multi-source radiation measurements (United States)

    Hultquist, C.; Cervone, G.


    Citizen-led movements producing scientific hazard data during disasters are increasingly common. After the Japanese earthquake-triggered tsunami in 2011, and the resulting radioactive releases at the damaged Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plants, citizens monitored on-ground levels of radiation with innovative mobile devices built from off-the-shelf components. To date, the citizen-led SAFECAST project has recorded 50 million radiation measurements worldwide, with the majority of these measurements from Japan. The analysis of data which are multi-dimensional, not vetted, and provided from multiple devices presents big data challenges due to their volume, velocity, variety, and veracity. While the SAFECAST project produced massive open-source radiation measurements at specific coordinates and times, the reliability and validity of the overall data have not yet been assessed. The nuclear disaster provides a case for assessing the SAFECAST data with official aerial remote sensing radiation data jointly collected by the governments of the United States and Japan. A spatial and statistical assessment of SAFECAST requires several preprocessing steps. First, SAFECAST ionized radiation sensors collected data using different units of measure than the government data, and they had to be converted. Secondly, the normally occurring radiation and decay rates of Cesium from deposition surveys were used to properly compare measurements in space and time. Finally, the GPS located points were selected within overlapping extents at multiple spatial resolutions. Quantitative measures were used to assess the similarity and differences in the observed measurements. Radiation measurements from the same geographic extents show similar spatial variations and statistically significant correlations. The results suggest that actionable scientific data for disasters and emergencies can be inferred from non-traditional and not vetted data generated through citizen science projects. This

  11. Diabetes and hypertension quality measurement in four safety-net sites: lessons learned after implementation of the same commercial electronic health record. (United States)

    Benkert, R; Dennehy, P; White, J; Hamilton, A; Tanner, C; Pohl, J M


    In this new era after the Health Information Technology for Economic and Clinical Health (HITECH) Act of 2009, the literature on lessons learned with electronic health record (EHR) implementation needs to be revisited. Our objective was to describe what implementation of a commercially available EHR with built-in quality query algorithms showed us about our care for diabetes and hypertension populations in four safety net clinics, specifically feasibility of data retrieval, measurements over time, quality of data, and how our teams used this data. A cross-sectional study was conducted from October 2008 to October 2012 in four safety-net clinics located in the Midwest and Western United States. A data warehouse that stores data from across the U.S was utilized for data extraction from patients with diabetes or hypertension diagnoses and at least two office visits per year. Standard quality measures were collected over a period of two to four years. All sites were engaged in a partnership model with the IT staff and a shared learning process to enhance the use of the quality metrics. While use of the algorithms was feasible across sites, challenges occurred when attempting to use the query results for research purposes. There was wide variation of both process and outcome results by individual centers. Composite calculations balanced out the differences seen in the individual measures. Despite using consistent quality definitions, the differences across centers had an impact on numerators and denominators. All sites agreed to a partnership model of EHR implementation, and each center utilized the available resources of the partnership for Center-specific quality initiatives. Utilizing a shared EHR, a Regional Extension Center-like partnership model, and similar quality query algorithms allowed safety-net clinics to benchmark and improve the quality of care across differing patient populations and health care delivery models.

  12. Statistical partitioning of a three-year time series of direct urban net CO2 flux measurements into biogenic and anthropogenic components (United States)

    Menzer, Olaf; McFadden, Joseph P.


    Eddy covariance flux measurements are increasingly used to quantify the net carbon dioxide exchange (FC) in urban areas. FC represents the sum of anthropogenic emissions, biogenic carbon release from plant and soil respiration, and carbon uptake by plant photosynthesis. When FC is measured in natural ecosystems, partitioning into respiration and photosynthesis is a well-established procedure. In contrast, few studies have partitioned FC at urban flux tower sites due to the difficulty of accounting for the temporal and spatial variability of the multiple sources and sinks. Here, we partitioned a three-year time series of flux measurements from a suburban neighborhood of Minneapolis-Saint Paul, Minnesota, USA. We segregated FC into one subset that captured fluxes from a residential neighborhood and into another subset that covered a golf course. For both land use types we modeled anthropogenic flux components based on winter data and extrapolated them to the growing season, to estimate gross primary production (GPP) and ecosystem respiration (Reco) at half-hourly, daily, monthly and annual scales. During the growing season, GPP had the largest magnitude (up to - 9.83 g C m-2 d-1) of any component CO2 flux, biogenic or anthropogenic, and both GPP and Reco were more dynamic seasonally than anthropogenic fluxes. Owing to the balancing of Reco against GPP, and the limitations of the growing season in a cold temperate climate zone, the net biogenic flux was only 1.5%-4.5% of the anthropogenic flux in the dominant residential land use type, and between 25%-31% of the anthropogenic flux in highly managed greenspace. Still, the vegetation sink at our site was stronger than net anthropogenic emissions on 16-20 days over the residential area and on 66-91 days over the recreational area. The reported carbon flux sums and dynamics are a critical step toward developing models of urban CO2 fluxes within and across cities that differ in vegetation cover.

  13. Workshop on measurement quality assurance for ionizing radiation: Proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heath, J.A.; Swinth, K.L. [comps.


    This workshop was held to review the status of secondary level calibration accreditation programs, review related measurement accreditation programs, document lessons learned, and to present changes in programs due to new national priorities involving radioactivity measurements. Contents include: fundamentals of measurement quality assurance (MQA), standards for MQA programs; perspectives and policies; complete MQA programs; future MQA programs; QA/QC programs--radioactivity; QA/QC programs--dosimetry; laboratory procedures for QA/QC; in-house control of reference dosimetry laboratories; in-house controls of radioactivity laboratories; and poster session. Selected papers are indexed separately for inclusion in the Energy Science and Technology Database.

  14. Design Specifications for a Radiation Tolerant Beam Loss Measurement ASIC

    CERN Document Server

    Venturini, G G; Effinger, E; Zamantzas, C


    A novel radiation-hardened current digitizer ASIC is in planning stage, aimed at the acquisition of the current signals from the ionization chambers employed in the Beam Loss Monitoring system at CERN. The purpose is to match and exceed the performance of the existing discrete component design, currently in operation in the Large Hadron Collider (LHC). The specifications include: a dynamic range of nine decades, defaulting to the 1 pA-1mA range but adjustable by the user, ability to withstand a total integrated dose of 10 kGy at least in 20 years of operation and user selectable integrating windows, as low as 500 ns. Moreover, the integrated circuit should be able to digitize currents of both polarity with a minimum number of external components and without needing any configuration. The target technology is the IBM 130nm CMOS process. The specifications, the architecture choices and the reasons on which they are based upon are discussed in this paper.

  15. Radiochromic Plastic Films for Accurate Measurement of Radiation Absorbed Dose and Dose Distributions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McLaughlin, W. L.; Miller, Arne; Fidan, S.


    Thin radiochromic dye films are useful for measuring large radiation absorbed doses (105–108 rads) and for high-resolution imaging of dose patterns produced by penetrating radiation beams passing through non-homogeneous media. Certain types of amino-substituted triarylmethane cyanides dissolved...... in polymeric solutions can be cast into flexible free-standing thin films of uniform thickness and reproducible response to ultraviolet and ionizing radiation. The increase in optical density versus energy deposited by radiation is linear over a wide range of doses and is for practical purposes independent...... of dose rate (1–1014 rad s−1). Upon irradiation of the film, the profile of the radiation field is registered as a permanent colored image of the dose distribution. Unlike most other types of dyed plastic dose meters, the optical density produced by irradiation is in most cases stable for periods...

  16. Measurement of XUV-absorption spectra of ZnS radiatively heated foils

    CERN Document Server

    Kontogiannopoulmos, Nikolaos; Thais, Frédéric; Chenais-Popovics, Claude; Sauvan, Pascal; Schott, R; Fölsner, Wolfgang; Arnault, Philippe; Poirier, Michel; Blenski, Thomas


    Time-resolved absorption of zinc sulfide (ZnS) and aluminum in the XUV-range has been measured. Thin foils in conditions close to local thermodynamic equilibrium were heated by radiation from laser-irradiated gold spherical cavities. Analysis of the aluminum foil radiative hydrodynamic expansion, based on the detailed atomic calculations of its absorption spectra, showed that the cavity emitted flux that heated the absorption foils corresponds to a radiation temperature in the range 55 60 eV. Comparison of the ZnS absorption spectra with calculations based on a superconfiguration approach identified the presence of species Zn6+ - Zn8+ and S5+ - S6+. Based on the validation of the radiative source simulations, experimental spectra were then compared to calculations performed by post-processing the radiative hydrodynamic simulations of ZnS. Satisfying agreement is found when temperature gradients are accounted for.

  17. Ultraviolet radiation in the rhône river lenses of low salinity and in marine waters of the northwestern mediterranean sea: attenuation and effects on bacterial activities and net community production. (United States)

    Joux, Fabien; Jeffrey, Wade H; Abboudi, Maher; Neveux, Jacques; Pujo-Pay, Mireille; Oriol, Louise; Naudin, Jean-Jacques


    The high content in nutrients of freshwater outflows induces highly productive and buoyant plumes spreading over marine waters (MW). As a consequence, the growth of organisms developing in these low-salinity waters (LSW) might be potentially affected by UV-R (280-400 nm). This study investigated the penetration of UV-R and its impact on net community production (NCP) and bacterial protein (B(PROT)S) and DNA (B(DNA)S) synthesis in mesotrophic-LSW formed from the Rhône River and in oligotrophic MW of the Northwestern Mediterranean Sea (Gulf of Lions) in May 2006. High concentrations of chlorophyll a (up to 8 microg L(-1)) measured in the LSW (<37.8 psu, 0-10 m) were the main factor influencing the diffuse attenuation coefficients (K(d)) of both UV-R and photosynthetically active radiation (PAR). The mean ratio of the K(d) measured between the LSW and the MW increased with wavelength from 2.4 at 305 nm to 2.9 at 380 nm and 3.1 for PAR indicating more similarity in the UV region. NCP was severely inhibited by UV-R at the surface of the LSW, whereas no effect was measured in the surrounding MW. In contrast, B(PROT)S and B(DNA)S were affected deeper by UV-R in the MW (up to 8 m depth) compared to the LSW where inhibition was only observed at the surface. Differences in response of bacteria in LSW and MW are largely explained by differences in UV-R transparency; however, transplant experiments indicate that bacterial assemblages from the MW were also more sensitive to UV-R than those present in the LSW. We also observed that higher activity of bacteria after nutrient additions increased their sensitivity to UV-R during the day, but favored their recovery during the night incubation period for both LSW and MW. Results suggest that riverine and nutrient inputs may alter the effects of UV-R on microbial activity by attenuating the UV-R penetration and by modifying the physiology of bacteria.

  18. Ionization of liquids by radiation: measurement by charge scavenging. (United States)

    Capellos, C; Allen, A O


    Pulse radiolysis of dilute solutions of triphenylcarbinol in saturated hydrocarbon gives spectra of the triphenylmethyl free radical, (C(6)H(5))(3)C., and cation, (C(6)H(5))(5)C(+). The yield of the ion is independent of the carbinol concentration, and is thought to measure the yield of free ions generated in the solvent. The relative yields of ions thus found in cyclohexane and 2,2,4-trimethylpentane agree with measurements made by the clearing-field method.

  19. Open-Path FTIR Spectral Radiation Intensity Of Hot Combustion Gases – Measurement And Interpretation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cięszczyk Sławomir


    Full Text Available Spectral remote sensing is a very popular method in atmospheric monitoring. The paper presents an approach that involves mid-infrared spectral measurements of combustion processes. The dominant feature in this spectral range is CO2 radiation, which is used to determine the maximum temperature of nonluminous flames. Efforts are also made to determine the temperature profile of hot CO2, but they are limited to the laboratory conditions. The paper presents an analysis of the radiation spectrum of a non-uniform-temperature gas environment using a radiative transfer equation. Particularly important are the presented experimental measurements of various stages of the combustion process. They allow for a qualitative description of the physical phenomena involved in the process and therefore permit diagnostics. The next step is determination of a non-uniform-temperature profile based on the spectral radiation intensity with the 8 m optical path length.

  20. Evaluation of long-term global radiation measurements in Denmark and Sweden

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skalík, Lukáš; Lulkovičová, Otília; Furbo, Simon

    The climate, especially global radiation is one of the key factors influencing the energy yield of solar energy systems. In connection with planning and optimization of energy efficient buildings and solar energy systems it is important to know the climate data of the area where the buildings....../systems are located. This study is based on yearly and monthly values of global radiation based on measurements from a climate station placed on the roof of building 119 at Technical University of Denmark in Kgs. Lyngby, from different Danish climate stations runned by Danish Meteorological Institute and from...... different Swedish climate stations of Swedish Meteorological and Hydrological Institute. The global horizontal radiation has been measured for a high number of years at all of these stations. The values show a tendency of increased annual global radiation, most likely due to decreased pollution...

  1. RadNet Air Quality (Deployable) Data (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — RadNet Deployable Monitoring is designed to collect radiological and meteorological information and data asset needed to establish the impact of radiation levels on...

  2. First measurement of proton's charge form factor at very low Q2 with initial state radiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Mihovilovič


    Full Text Available We report on a new experimental method based on initial-state radiation (ISR in e–p scattering, which exploits the radiative tail of the elastic peak to study the properties of electromagnetic processes and to extract the proton charge form factor (GEp at extremely small Q2. The ISR technique was implemented in an experiment at the three-spectrometer facility of the Mainz Microtron (MAMI. This led to a precise validation of radiative corrections far away from elastic line and provided first measurements of GEp for 0.001≤Q2≤0.004(GeV/c2.

  3. TFTR radiation contour and shielding efficiency measurements during D-D operations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kugel, H.W.; Ascione, G.; Elwood, S.; Gilbert, J.; Hwang, D.; Lewis, M.; Levine, J.; Ku, L.P.; Rule, K. [Princeton Plasma Physics Lab., NJ (United States); Hajnal, F. [Department of Energy, New York, NY (United States)] [and others


    Extensive neutron and gamma radiation contour, shielding efficiency, and spectral measurements were performed during high power TFTR D-D operations at the tokamak Test Cell inner walls, ceiling, roof, and outer walls, in nearby control rooms, work areas, and personnel pathways, outdoors along the site fence at 125 m, and out to the nearest property lines at 180 m. The results confirmed that the efficiency of the basic radiation shielding was sufficient to allow the TFTR D-T experimental plan, and provide empirical guidance for simulating the radiation fields of future fusion reactors.

  4. Vacuum ultraviolet line radiation measurements of a shock-heated nitrogen plasma (United States)

    Mcclenahan, J. O.


    Line radiation, in the wavelength region from 1040 to 2500 A from nitrogen plasmas, was measured at conditions typical of those produced in the shock layer in front of vehicles entering the earth's atmosphere at superorbital velocities. The radiation was also predicted with a typical radiation transport computer program to determine whether such calculations adequately model plasmas for the conditions tested. The results of the comparison show that the radiant intensities of the lines between 1040 and 1700 A are actually lower than are predicted by such computer models.

  5. Measurement of radiative lifetime in atomic samarium using ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)


    Feb 8, 2014 ... In this paper, we report the investigations of lifetime measurement of odd-parity energy level 19009.52 cm. −1 .... introduced by an electronic delay generator between the two Q-switch pulses of Nd-YAG laser. The slope of the .... Our values of the lifetimes are free from the common systematic errors. Thus ...

  6. In situ gamma radiation measurements in the Neoproterozoic rocks ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Natural gamma ray measurements using a portable device were performed at 157 sites in the area around Sirohi town and Sindreth village in Rajasthan (NW India). This region comprises sedimentary rocks, metasediments, granites and gneisses that bear characteristic GR dose values and U/Th ratios corresponding with ...

  7. Radiative transfer with POLARIS: I. Analysis of magnetic fields through synthetic dust continuum polarization measurements


    Reissl, Stefan; Wolf, Sebastian; Brauer, Robert


    Aims: We present POLARIS (POLArized RadIation Simulator), a newly developed three-dimensional Monte-Carlo radiative transfer code. POLARIS was designed to calculate dust temperature, polarization maps, and spectral energy distributions. It is optimized to handle data that results from sophisticated magneto-hydrodynamic simulations. The main purpose of the code is to prepare and analyze multi-wavelength continuum polarization measurements in the context of magnetic field studies in the interst...

  8. Estimation of Aerosol Direct Radiative Effects from Satellite and In Situ Measurements (United States)

    Bergstrom, Robert W.; Russell, Philip B.; Schmid, Beat; Redemann, Jens; McIntosh, Dawn


    Ames researchers have combined measurements from satellite, aircraft, and the surface to estimate the effect of airborne particles (aerosols) on the solar radiation over the North Atlantic region. These aerosols (which come from both natural and pollution sources) can reflect solar radiation, causing a cooling effect that opposes the warming caused by carbon dioxide. Recently, increased attention has been paid to aerosol effects to better understand the Earth climate system.

  9. Twilight tropospheric and stratospheric photodissociation rates derived from balloon borne radiation measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Kylling


    Full Text Available A new ligthweight multichannel moderate bandwidth filter instrument designed to be flown on balloons, is described. The instrument measures the radiation field within the short UV (center wavelength at 312 nm and long UV (center wavelength at 340 nm. The angular and spectral characteristics of the instrument are discussed and the calibration procedure outlined. Measurements made during a stratospheric balloon flight at twilight conditions from Gap-Tallard, France, are presented and compared with state-of-the-art radiative transfer model simulations. The model simulations and the measurements agree within ±10% (±20% for solar zenith angles smaller than 93° (90° for the 340 (312 nm channel. Based on the model simulations of the measured radiation, actinic flux spectra are reconstructed. These are used to calculate various photodissociation rates.

  10. Preventive measures and lifestyle habits against exertional heat illness in radiation decontamination workers. (United States)

    Endo, Shota; Kakamu, Takeyasu; Sato, Sei; Hidaka, Tomoo; Kumagai, Tomohiro; Nakano, Shinichi; Koyama, Kikuo; Fukushima, Tetsuhito


    The aim of this study was to reveal the current state of preventive measures and lifestyle habits against heat illness in radiation decontamination workers and to examine whether young radiation decontamination workers take less preventive measures and have worse lifestyle habits than the elder workers. This was a cross-sectional study. Self-administered questionnaires were sent to 1,505 radiation decontamination workers in Fukushima, Japan. Five hundred fifty-eight men who replied and answered all questions were included in the statistical analysis. The questionnaire included age, duration of decontamination work, previous occupation, lifestyle habit, and preventive measures for heat illness. We classified age of the respondents into five groups: decontamination workers are more likely to have worse lifestyle habits and take insufficient preventive measures for heat illness. This may be the cause of higher incidence of heat illness among young workers.

  11. Multi Channel Agile Comb Generator for Antenna Radiation Pattern Measurements (United States)


    pattern measurement of log-periodic antenna on gnu radio platform,” in Green Computing Communication and Electrical Engineering (ICGCCEE), 2014...International Conference on, pp. 1–4, March 2014. [3] M. Abirami, V. Hariharan, M. Sruthi, R. Gandhiraj, and K. Soman, “Exploiting gnu radio and usrp: An...receiver, which can range from a spectrum analyzer to a low-cost software- defined radio [2], [3]. Distribution A: Public Release. This work was

  12. An overview of global solar radiation measurements in Ghardaia area, south Algeria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gairaa, Kacem; Bakelli, Yahia [Applied Research Unit for Renewables Energies, Ouargla Road, Ghardaia (Algeria)


    This paper presents an overview of actual solar radiation data measurements in Ghardaia site (32.360 N, 3.810 W, 450 m above MSL). Global solar radiation and surface temperatures were measured and analyzed for one complete year from 1 January-31December 2005. The data thus recorded are compared with corresponding data of the 22-year average of NASA's surface meteorology and solar energy-model. Hourly, daily and monthly solar radiation was made from five-minute recorded by EKO Pyranometer. The highest measured daily and monthly mean solar radiation was found to be 369 and 326 (W/m2), and the highest five minute averaged solar radiation values up to 1268 (W/m2) were observed in the summer season from May to September, and the yearly average daily energy input was 21.83 (MJ/m2/day). Besides the global solar radiation, the daily and monthly average temperature variations are discussed. The collected data indicate that Ghardaia has a strong potential for solar energy applications.

  13. Measurement of heat pump processes induced by laser radiation (United States)

    Garbuny, M.; Henningsen, T.


    A series of experiments was performed in which a suitably tuned CO2 laser, frequency doubled by a Tl3AsSe37 crystal, was brought into resonance with a P-line or two R-lines in the fundamental vibration spectrum of CO. Cooling or heating produced by absorption in CO was measured in a gas-thermometer arrangement. P-line cooling and R-line heating could be demonstrated, measured, and compared. The experiments were continued with CO mixed with N2 added in partial pressures from 9 to 200 Torr. It was found that an efficient collisional resonance energy transfer from CO to N2 existed which increased the cooling effects by one to two orders of magnitude over those in pure CO. Temperature reductions in the order of tens of degrees Kelvin were obtained by a single pulse in the core of the irradiated volume. These measurements followed predicted values rather closely, and it is expected that increase of pulse energies and durations will enhance the heat pump effects. The experiments confirm the feasibility of quasi-isentropic engines which convert laser power into work without the need for heat rejection. Of more immediate potential interest is the possibility of remotely powered heat pumps for cryogenic use, such applications are discussed to the extent possible at the present stage.

  14. Measurement of the cosmic background radiation temperature at 6. 3 cm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mandolesi, N.; Calzolari, P.; Cortiglioni, S.; Morigi, G.


    We present results of a measurement of the cosmic background radiation temperature at a wavelength of 6.3 cm. We obtained the value T/sub CBR/ = 2.71 +- 0.20 K. This is in good agreement with, and has a smaller error than, any previous measurement at equal or longer wavelengths.

  15. Measurement of the Radiative Ke3 Branching Ratio

    CERN Document Server

    Anzivino, Giuseppina; Becker, H G; Bertanza, L; Bevan, A; Biino, C; Bocquet, G; Calvetti, M; Carosi, R; Cartiglia, N; Casali, R; Ceccucci, A; Cenci, P; Cerri, C; Cheshkov, C; Chèze, J B; Chollet, J C; Cirilli, M; Cogan, J; Collazuol, G; Contalbrigo, M; Costantini, F; Çuhadar-Dönszelmann, T; Cundy, Donald C; D'Agostini, G; Dalpiaz, Pietro; De Beer, M; Debu, P; Dibon, Heinz; Doble, Niels T; Dosanjh, R S; Duclos, J; Eppard, K; Eppard, M; Falaleev, V; Fantechi, R; Fayard, L; Fischer, G; Formica, A; Fox, H; Frabetti, P L; Gatignon, L; Gershon, T J; Gianoli, A; Giudici, Sergio; Gonidec, A; Gorini, B; Govi, G; Grafström, P; Granier de Cassagnac, R; Graziani, G; Hay, B; Holder, M; Khristov, P Z; Iacopini, E; Iconomidou-Fayard, L; Imbergamo, E; Jeitler, Manfred; Kalmus, George Ernest; Kalter, A; Kekelidze, Vladimir D; Kleinknecht, K; Knowles, I; Koch, U; Köpke, L; Kubischta, Werner; Lacourt, A; Lai, A; Lazzeroni, C; Lenti, M; Litov, L; Lopes da Silva, P; Lubrano, P; Madigozhin, D T; Maier, A; Mannelli, I; Marchetto, F; Markytan, Manfred; Marouelli, P; Marras, D; Martelli, F; Martin, V; Martini, M; Mazzucato, E; Menichetti, E; Mestvirishvili, A; Mikulec, I; Molokanova, N A; Munday, D J; Nappi, A; Nassalski, J P; Neuhofer, G; Norton, A; Ocariz, J; Olaiya, E; Palestini, S; Panzer-Steindel, B; Parker, M A; Pastrone, N; Pellmann, I A; Pepé, M; Pernicka, M; Peters, A; Petrucci, F; Peyaud, B; Piccini, M; Pierazzini, G M; Potrebenikov, Yu K; Renk, B; Rondio, Ewa; Sacco, R; Savrié, M; Schmidt, S A; Schönharting, V; Schué, Yu; Sozzi, M; Stoynev, S; Szleper, M; Taureg, H; Taurok, A; Turlay, René; Unal, G; Vallage, B; Velasco, M; Veltri, M; Wahl, H; Walker, A; Wanke, R; White, T O; Widhalm, L; Wingerter-Seez, I; Winhart, A; Wislicki, W; Wittgen, M; Wotton, S A; Wronka, S; Zinchenko, A I; Ziolkowski, M


    We present a measurement of the relative branching ratio of the decay KL -> pi e nu gamma (Ke3gamma) with respect to KL-> pi e nu (gamma) (Ke3+Ke3gamma) decay. The result is based on observation of 19 000 Ke3gamma and 5.6 x 10^6 Ke3 decays. The value of the branching ratio is Br(Ke3gamma, Egamma^*>30 MeV,theta(e,gamma)^*>20^o)/Br(Ke3)= (0.964+-0.008+0.011-0.009)%. This result agrees with theoretical predictions but is at variance with a recently published result.

  16. Plasma scattering of electromagnetic radiation theory and measurement techniques

    CERN Document Server

    Froula, Dustin H; Luhmann, Neville C Jr; Sheffield, John


    This work presents one of the most powerful methods of plasma diagnosis in exquisite detail to guide researchers in the theory and measurement techniques of light scattering in plasmas. Light scattering in plasmas is essential in the research and development of fusion energy, environmental solutions, and electronics.Referred to as the "Bible" by researchers the work encompasses fusion and industrial applications essential in plasma research. It is the only comprehensive resource specific to the plasma scattering technique. It provides a wide-range of experimental examples and discussion of the

  17. Measurement of environmental radiation using medical scintillation detector in well counter system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lyu, Kwang Yeul; Park, Yeon Joon; Kim, Min Jeong; Ham, Eun Hye; Yoon, Ji Yeol; Kim, Hyun in; Min, Jung Hwan; Park, Hoon Hee [Dept. of Radiological Technology, Shingu College, Sungnam (Korea, Republic of)


    After the Fukushima nuclear accident in 2011, concerns about radiation by people are increasing rapidly. If people could know how much they will be exposed by radiation, it may help them avoiding it and understand what exactly radiation is. By doing this, we were helping to reduce the anxiety of radiation contamination. In this study, we have researched figures of radioactivity with ‘Captus-3000 thyroid uptake measurement systems’ in well counter detector system. The materials were measured with Briquette, Shiitake, Pollock, Button type battery, Alkaline battery, Topsoil, Asphalt, Gasoline, Milk powder, Pine, Basalt stone, Pencil lead, Wasabi, Coarse salt, Tuna(can) Cigar, Beer, and then we categorized those samples into Land resources, Water resources, Foodstuff and Etc (Beer classified as a water resources has been categorized into Foodstuff). Also, we selected the standard radiation source linear 137Cs to measure the sensitivity of well counter detector. After that, we took cpm(counter per minute) for the well counter detector of thyroid uptake system’s sensitivity. Then we compared the results of each material’s cpm and converted those results to Bq/kg unit. There were a little limitation with the measurement equipment because it has less sensitivity than other professional equipment like ‘High purity germanium radiation detector’. Moreover, We didn’t have many choices to decide the materials. As a result, there are macroscopic differences among the rates of material’s spectrum. Therefore, it had meaningful results that showed how much each material had emitted radiation. To compare the material’s cpm with BKG, we’ve compounded their spectrums. By doing that, we were able to detect some differences among the spectrums at specific peak section. Lastly, Button type battery, Alkaline Battery, Briquette, Asphalt and Topsoil showed high value. There were classified emitting high radiation Group A and emitted lower radiation Group B. The Group A

  18. Measurement of the Radiative $K_{e3}$ Branching Ratio

    CERN Document Server

    Lai, A; Bevan, A; Dosanjh, R S; Gershon, T J; Hay, B; Kalmus, George Ernest; Lazzeroni, C; Munday, D J; Olaiya, E; Parker, M A; White, T O; Wotton, S A; Barr, G; Bocquet,; Ceccucci, A; Çuhadar-Dönszelmann, T; Cundy, Donald C; D'Agostini, G; Doble, Niels T; Falaleev, V; Gatignon, L; Gonidec, A; Gorini, B; Govi, G; Grafström, P; Kubischta, Werner; Mikulec, I; Lacourt, A; Norton, A; Palestini, S; Panzer-Steindel, B; Taureg, H; Velasco, M; Wahl, H; Cheshkov, C; Khristov, P Z; Kekelidze, Vladimir D; Litov, L; Madigozhin, D T; Molokanova, N A; Potrebenikov, Yu K; Stoynev, S; Zinchenko, A I; Knowles, I; Martin, V; Sacco, R; Walker, A; Contalbrigo, M; Dalpiaz, Pietro; Duclos, J; Frabetti, P L; Gianoli, A; Martini, M; Petrucci, F; Savrié, M; Bizzeti, A; Calvetti, M; Collazuol, G; Graziani, G; Iacopini, E; Lenti, M; Martelli, F; Veltri, M; Becker, H G; Eppard, K; Eppard, M; Fox, H; Kalter, A; Kleinknecht, K; Koch, U; Köpke, L; Lopes da Silva, P; Marouelli, P; Pellmann, I A; Peters, A; Renk, B; Schmidt, S A; Schönharting, V; Schué, Yu; Wanke, R; Winhart, A; Wittgen, M; Chollet, J C; Fayard, L; Iconomidou-Fayard, L; Ocariz, J; Unal, G; Wingerter-Seez, I; Anzivino, Giuseppina; Cenci, P; Imbergamo, E; Lubrano, P; Mestvirishvili, A; Nappi, A; Pepé, M; Piccini, M; Bertanza, L; Carosi, R; Casali, R; Cerri, C; Cirilli, M; Costantini, F; Fantechi, R; Giudici, Sergio; Mannelli, I; Pierazzini, G M; Sozzi, M; Chèze, J B; Cogan, J; De Beer, M; Debu, P; Formica, A; Granier de Cassagnac, R; Mazzucato, E; Peyaud, B; Turlay, René; Vallage, B; Holder, M; Maier, A; Ziolkowski, M; Arcidiacono, R; Biino, C; Cartiglia, N; Marchetto, F; Menichetti, E; Pastrone, N; Nassalski, J P; Rondio, Ewa; Szleper, M; Wislicki, W; Wronka, S; Dibon, Heinz; Fischer, G; Jeitler, Manfred; Markytan, Manfred; Neuhofer, G; Pernicka, M; Taurok, A; Widhalm, L


    We present a measurement of the relative branching ratio of the decay {K}^0 -> pi+-e-+ nu gamma ({K}_e3 gamma) with respect to {K}^0 -> pi+- e-+ nu (gamma) ({k}_e3 + k}_e3 gamma) decay. The result is based on observation of 19 000 {K}_e3 gamma and 5.6 . {10}^6 {K}_e3 decays. The value of branching ratio is Br({K}^0 _e3 gamma{E}^*_gamma > 30 MeV, {theta}^*_e gamma > 20 deg) / Br({K}^0_e3 = (0.964 +- {0.008}^+0.011_0.009)%. This result agrees with the theoretical predictions but is at variance with a recently published result.

  19. Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Climate Research Facility Annual Report 2006

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    LR Roeder


    This annual report describes the purpose and structure of the ARM Climate Research Facility and ARM Science programs and presents key accomplishments in 2006. Noteworthy scientific and infrastructure accomplishments in 2006 include: • Collaborating with the Australian Bureau of Meteorology to lead the Tropical Warm Pool-International Cloud Experiment, a major international field campaign held in Darwin, Australia • Successfully deploying the ARM Mobile Facility in Niger, Africa • Developing the new ARM Aerial Vehicles Program (AVP) to provide airborne measurements • Publishing a new finding on the impacts of aerosols on surface energy budget in polar latitudes • Mitigating a long-standing double-Intertropical Convergence Zone problem in climate models using ARM data and a new cumulus parameterization scheme.

  20. Real-time evolvable pulse shaper for radiation measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lanchares, Juan, E-mail: [Facultad de Informática, Universidad Complutense de Madrid (UCM), C/Prof. José García Santesmases s/n, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Garnica, Oscar, E-mail: [Facultad de Informática, Universidad Complutense de Madrid (UCM), C/Prof. José García Santesmases s/n, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Risco-Martín, José L., E-mail: [Facultad de Informática, Universidad Complutense de Madrid (UCM), C/Prof. José García Santesmases s/n, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Ignacio Hidalgo, J., E-mail: [Facultad de Informática, Universidad Complutense de Madrid (UCM), C/Prof. José García Santesmases s/n, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Regadío, Alberto, E-mail: [Área de Tecnologías Electrónicas, Instituto Nacional de Técnica Aeroespacial (INTA), 28850 Torrejón de Ardoz, Madrid (Spain)


    In the last two decades, recursive algorithms for real-time digital pulse shaping in pulse height measurements have been developed and published in number of articles and textbooks. All these algorithms try to synthesize in real time optimum or near optimum shapes in the presence of noise. Even though some of these shapers can be considered effective designs, some side effects like aging cannot be ignored. We may observe that after sensors degradation, the signal obtained is not valid. In this regard, we present in this paper a novel technique that, based on evolvable hardware concepts, is able to evolve the degenerated shaper into a new design with better performance than the original one under the new sensor features.

  1. Beam Size Measurement by Optical Diffraction Radiation and Laser System for Compton Polarimeter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Chuyu [Peking Univ., Beijing (China)


    Beam diagnostics is an essential constituent of any accelerator, so that it is named as "organs of sense" or "eyes of the accelerator." Beam diagnostics is a rich field. A great variety of physical effects or physical principles are made use of in this field. Some devices are based on electro-magnetic influence by moving charges, such as faraday cups, beam transformers, pick-ups; Some are related to Coulomb interaction of charged particles with matter, such as scintillators, viewing screens, ionization chambers; Nuclear or elementary particle physics interactions happen in some other devices, like beam loss monitors, polarimeters, luminosity monitors; Some measure photons emitted by moving charges, such as transition radiation, synchrotron radiation monitors and diffraction radiation-which is the topic of the first part of this thesis; Also, some make use of interaction of particles with photons, such as laser wire and Compton polarimeters-which is the second part of my thesis. Diagnostics let us perceive what properties a beam has and how it behaves in a machine, give us guideline for commissioning, controlling the machine and indispensable parameters vital to physics experiments. In the next two decades, the research highlight will be colliders (TESLA, CLIC, JLC) and fourth-generation light sources (TESLA FEL, LCLS, Spring 8 FEL) based on linear accelerator. These machines require a new generation of accelerator with smaller beam, better stability and greater efficiency. Compared with those existing linear accelerators, the performance of next generation linear accelerator will be doubled in all aspects, such as 10 times smaller horizontal beam size, more than 10 times smaller vertical beam size and a few or more times higher peak power. Furthermore, some special positions in the accelerator have even more stringent requirements, such as the interaction point of colliders and wigglor of free electron lasers. Higher performance of these accelerators increases the

  2. First measurement of plasma stagnation radiation in a hohlraum in the Shenguang-III prototype (United States)

    Ren, Kuan; Liu, Shenye; Xie, Xufei; Du, Huabing; Hou, Lifei; Jing, Longfei; Yang, Dong; Zhao, Yang; Yan, Ji; Yang, Zhiwen; Li, Zhichao; Dong, Jianjun; Xiao, Min; Yang, Guohong; Li, Sanwei; Cao, Zhurong; Chen, Yaohua; Lan, Ke; Ren, Guoli; Liu, Jie; Ding, Yongkun; Jiang, Shaoen


    The measurement of plasma stagnation radiation in a hohlraum is of key importance when exploring the influence of plasma stagnation on hohlraum drive symmetry in indirectly driven inertial confinement fusion experiments. In two typical hohlraum experiments conducted on the Shenguang-III prototype laser facility, the x-ray flux and radiation temperature from a plasma stagnation area 0.2 mm in diameter inside the hohlraum were measured for the first time through the hohlraum laser entrance hole (LEH) using a time and space-resolving flux detector (SRFD). The different flux intensities and radiation temperatures of the plasma stagnation area in the LEH measured using the SRFD were compared with the results detected for the entire LEH using flat-response x-ray detectors. The stagnation area radiation detected using the SRFD was found to be transient and 8.57% lower than that of the entire LEH, which is obviously higher than the tolerable drive asymmetry of an implosion. This important improvement in x-ray radiation measurement of plasma stagnation will further the quantitative understanding of the drive symmetry inside the hohlraum and conduct a strict adjustment for that.

  3. Noncontact localized internal infrared radiation measurement using an infrared point detector (United States)

    Hisaka, Masaki


    The techniques for temperature measurement within the human body are important for clinical applications. A method for noncontact local infrared (IR) radiation measurements was investigated deep within an object to simulate how the core human body temperature can be obtained. To isolate the IR light emitted from a specific area within the object from the external noise, the radiating IR light was detected using an IR point detector, which comprises a pinhole and a thermopile positioned at an imaging relation with the region of interest within the object. The structure of the helical filament radiating IR light inside a light bulb was thermally imaged by scanning the bulb in two dimensions. Moreover, this approach was used to effectively measure IR light in the range of human body temperature using a glass plate placed in front of the heat source, mimicking the ocular fundus.

  4. Net Gain

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    %) in malaria disease rates following introduction of ITNs. The results of standard clinical trials (randomized, controlled, and using sufficiently large samples) that measured impact on malaria disease in Africa are shown in Table 1. Other studies ...

  5. Charged Particle Measurements with the Mars Science Laboratory's Radiation Assessment Detector (MSL/RAD) (United States)

    Ehresmann, B.; Hassler, D.; Zeitlin, C. J.; Kohler, J.; Wimmer-Schweingruber, R. F.; Appel, J. K.; Boehm, E.; Böttcher, S. I.; Brinza, D. E.; Burmeister, S.; Guo, J.; Lohf, H.; Martin-Garcia, C.; Matthiae, D.; Posner, A.; Rafkin, S. C.; Reitz, G.


    Since the Curiosity rover's landing in Gale crater on the surface of Mars, the Radiation Assessment Detector (RAD) on board the rover has been conducting the first-ever measurements of the Martian surface radiation field. This field is induced by Galactic Cosmic Rays (GCRs) and their interactions with the atoms of the Martian atmosphere and soil. Furthermore, sporadic Solar Energetic Particle (SEP) events can lead to large, but short-term enhancements in the intensity of the radiation field. A large part of the radiation environment is made up of charged particles, e.g., ions and their isotopes, electrons, and positrons amongst others. There are mainly two factors influencing the surface radiation field: the modulation of the incoming GCR flux due to the solar magnetic field correlating with the solar cycle; the amount of atmospheric column mass above Gale crater resulting in changes of GCR penetration depth into the atmosphere, as well as influencing the secondary particle production rate. Here, we focus on the temporal evolution of the radiation environment since the landing, analyzing changes in the measured particle spectra for different phases in the Martian seasonal cycle and solar activity. Furthermore, we present enhancements in the proton flux during directly observed SEP events.

  6. The Association Between Internal and External Measures of Training Load in Batsmen and Medium-Fast Bowlers During Net-Based Cricket Training. (United States)

    Vickery, Will; Dascombe, Ben; Duffield, Rob


    To examine the relationship between session rating of perceived exertion (sRPE) and measures of internal and external training load (TL) in cricket batsmen and medium-fast bowlers during net-based training sessions. The internal (heart rate), external (movement demands, PlayerLoad), and technical (cricket-specific skills) loads of 30 male cricket players (age 21.2 ± 3.8 y, height 1.82 ± 0.07 m, body mass 79.0 ± 8.7 kg) were determined from net-based cricket-training sessions (n = 118). The relationships between sRPE and measures of TL were quantified using Pearson product-moment correlations respective to playing position. Stepwise multiple-regression techniques provided key internal- and external-load determinants of sRPE in cricket players. Significant correlations were evident (r = -.34 to .87, P < .05) between internal and external measures of TL and sRPE, with the strongest correlations (r ≥ .62) for GPS-derived measures for both playing positions. In batsmen, stepwise multiple-regression analysis revealed that 67.8% of the adjusted variance in sRPE could be explained by PlayerLoad and high-intensity distance (y = 27.43 + 0.81 PlayerLoad + 0.29 high-intensity distance). For medium-fast bowlers, 76.3% of the adjusted variance could be explained by total distance and mean heart rate (y = 101.82 + total distance 0.05 + HR mean - 0.48). These results suggest that sRPE is a valid method of reporting TL among cricket batsmen and medium-fast bowlers. Position-specific responses are evident and should be considered when monitoring the TL of cricket players.

  7. Atmospheric radiation measurement unmanned aerospace vehicle (ARM-UAV) program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bolton, W.R. [Sandia National Laboratories, Livermore, CA (United States)


    ARM-UAV is part of the multi-agency U.S. Global Change Research Program and is addressing the largest source of uncertainty in predicting climatic response: the interaction of clouds and the sun`s energy in the Earth`s atmosphere. An important aspect of the program is the use of unmanned aerospace vehicles (UAVs) as the primary airborne platform. The ARM-UAV Program has completed two major flight series: The first series conducted in April, 1994, using an existing UAV (the General Atomics Gnat 750) consisted of eight highly successful flights at the DOE climate site in Oklahoma. The second series conducted in September/October, 1995, using two piloted aircraft (Egrett and Twin Otter), featured simultaneous measurements above and below clouds and in clear sky. Additional flight series are planned to continue study of the cloudy and clear sky energy budget in the Spring and Fall of 1996 over the DOE climate site in Oklahoma. 3 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

  8. Automated System of Area Radiation Measurement (ASARM); Sistema Automatizado de Medicion de Radiacion de Area (SAMRA)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hernandez G, J., E-mail: [ININ, Carretera Mexico-Toluca s/n, 52750 Ocoyoacac, Estado de Mexico (Mexico)


    The realized activities in nuclear facilities involve the determination of the presence of ionizing radiation fields in the workspaces. The instruments designed to detect and to measure these radiation fields provide useful information (specific type of radiation, intensity, etc.) to take the appropriate radiological protection measures, with the purpose of reducing to the minimum the workers exposition and the people in general. The radiological protection program of Reactor TRIGA Mark III contains the instructions and procedures to implement a periodic radiological monitoring, surveillance, rising of contamination levels, type and number of the instruments required for the radiological monitoring of areas and personal. The ana logical monitoring system model Rms II used to detect and measuring exposition speed and neutron radiation fields in several areas of the installation, provides the information in a logarithmic scale measurer of 4 or 5 decades located in a shelf where the previously mentioned measurement channels are centralized. Also inside the reactor monitoring system are two monitors of radioactive material concentration in the air: The particles continuous monitor and the gaseous effluents monitor which present the referred information of the diverse detectors through ana logical readers. These monitors when operating with an ana logical indication does not present the possibility to generate historical files electronically of each monitor previously mentioned neither to generate visual and audible indications of the alarms. This work presents the Automated System of Area Radiation Measurement which potentiated the functionality of the area monitors for gamma and neutron radiation, as well as of the particles continuous monitor and the gaseous effluents of reactor TRIGA Mark III, when being developed a computer system that captures in real time the information of all the monitors, generating this way an electronic binnacle, a visual and audible alarm

  9. Evaluation of a model to Simulate Net Radiation Over a Vineyar cv. Cabernet Sauvignon Evaluación de un Modelo para Simular el Flujo de Radiación Neta Sobre un Viñedo cv. Cabernet Sauvignon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos Carrasco


    Full Text Available Net radiation (Rn is the main energy balance component controlling evaporation and transpiration processes. In this regard, this study evaluated two models to estimate Rno above a commercial vineyard (Vitis vinifera cv. Cabernet Sauvignon located in Pencahue Valley, Maule Region (35º22’ S; 71°47’ Wl; 75 m.a.s.l.. An automatic meteorological station (AMS was installed in the central part of the vineyard and used to measure Rn, solar radiation (Rsi, air temperature (Ta, canopy temperature (Tf and relative humidity (RH. On a 30 min interval, results indicated that model Rne1 (assuming Ta ≠ Tf and model Rne2 (assuming Ta = Tf were able to estimate Rn with a mean absolute error (MAE of less than 40 W m-2 and root mean square error (RMSE of less than 61 W m-2. On daily intervals, the two models estimated Rno with MAE and RMSE values of less than 1.68 and 1.75 MJ m-2 d-1, respectively. In global terms, the models presented errors below 9 and 11% on 30 min and daily intervals, respectively. Furthermore, this study indicated that the incorporation of canopy temperature did not improve the Rno estimation substantially, in spite of having a temperature gradient (dT = Tf - Ta between -3 and to 4ºC. These results suggest that an Rne2 model could be used to estimate Rno using Rsi, Ta and RH measurements.El flujo de radiación neta (Rn es el principal componente del balance de energía que determina los procesos de evaporación y transpiración. En este contexto, este estudio evaluó dos modelos para estimar Rno sobre un viñedo (Vitis vinifera L. cv. Cabernet Sauvignon comercial ubicado en el Valle de Pencahue, Región del Maule (35º22’ S; 71º47’ Oeste; 75 m.s.n.m.. Para esto, se ubicó una estación meteorológica automática (AME en la parte central del viñedo para medir Rn, radiación solar (Rsi, temperatura del aire (Ta, temperatura del dosel (Tf y humedad relativa (HR. En intervalos de tiempo de 30 min, los resultados indicaron que el

  10. Radiação, fotossíntese, rendimento e qualidade de frutos em macieiras 'Royal Gala' cobertas com telas antigranizo Radiation, photosynthesis, yield, and fruit quality of 'Royal Gala' apples under hail protection nets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cassandro Vidal Talamini do Amarante


    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a intensidade e a qualidade da radiação solar disponibilizada às plantas e os seus impactos sobre a fotossíntese, rendimento e qualidade dos frutos, em macieiras 'Royal Gala', cobertas ou não com telas antigranizo nas cores branca e preta. A tela preta provocou redução maior na densidade de fluxo de fótons fotossinteticamente ativos acima do dossel das plantas (24,8%, em comparação à tela branca (21,2%. O interior do dossel das plantas sob tela preta recebeu menores valores de radiação ultravioleta, azul, verde, vermelho e vermelho distante, bem como da relação vermelho:vermelho distante, em relação às plantas descobertas. Estas alterações na quantidade e qualidade da luz sob tela preta aumentaram o teor de clorofila total e a área específica nas folhas, e reduziram a taxa fotossintética potencial, o peso de frutos por cm² de seção transversal de tronco e a coloração vermelha dos frutos. As telas antigranizo branca e preta reduziram a incidência de queimadura de sol, porém não tiveram efeito sobre a severidade de "russeting" e sobre o número de sementes por fruto.The objective of this work was to assess the amount and quality of the light supplied to plants, and the resulting impacts on photosynthesis, yield, and fruit quality of 'Royal Gala' apple trees uncovered or covered with white and black hail protection nets. The black net caused a higher reduction (24.8% of photosynthetic photon flux density, accumulated over the plant canopy during the day, than the white net (21.2%. The canopy internal portion of plants covered by black net received lower levels of ultraviolet, blue, green, red, and far red radiation, and light with a lower red:far red ratio, in comparison to uncovered plants; these ligth changes increased chlorophyll content and specific area of the leaves, and reduced the potential photosynthesis, the weight of fruits per cm² of trunk cross section area, and the

  11. Research on EPR measurement methods of sucrose used in radiation accident dose reconstruction. (United States)

    Ding, Yanqiu; Jiao, Ling; Zhang, Wenyi; Zhou, Li; Zhang, Xiaodong; Zhang, Liang'an


    Sucrose is a convenient, common, tissue-equivalent material suitable for electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) dosimetry of ionising radiation. A number of publications have reported on the dosimetric properties of sucrose and their use in radiation accident dose reconstruction. However, previous studies did not include specially the description of measurement methods of sucrose by EPR. The aim of this work is to introduce particularly the EPR measurement methods of sucrose. In this regard, practical considerations of sample size, microwave power, modulation amplitude, EPR spectrum and signal stability are discussed.

  12. UV sensitivity of planktonic net community production in ocean surface waters (United States)

    Regaudie-de-Gioux, Aurore; Agustí, Susana; Duarte, Carlos M.


    The net plankton community metabolism of oceanic surface waters is particularly important as it more directly affects the partial pressure of CO2 in surface waters and thus the air-sea fluxes of CO2. Plankton communities in surface waters are exposed to high irradiance that includes significant ultraviolet blue (UVB, 280-315 nm) radiation. UVB radiation affects both photosynthetic and respiration rates, increase plankton mortality rates, and other metabolic and chemical processes. Here we test the sensitivity of net community production (NCP) to UVB of planktonic communities in surface waters across contrasting regions of the ocean. We observed here that UVB radiation affects net plankton community production at the ocean surface, imposing a shift in NCP by, on average, 50% relative to the values measured when excluding partly UVB. Our results show that under full solar radiation, the metabolic balance shows the prevalence of net heterotrophic community production. The demonstration of an important effect of UVB radiation on NCP in surface waters presented here is of particular relevance in relation to the increased UVB radiation derived from the erosion of the stratospheric ozone layer. Our results encourage design future research to further our understanding of UVB effects on the metabolic balance of plankton communities.

  13. Using a simple apparatus to measure direct and diffuse photosynthetically active radiation at remote locations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael J Cruse

    Full Text Available Plant canopy interception of photosynthetically active radiation (PAR drives carbon dioxide (CO2, water and energy cycling in the soil-plant-atmosphere system. Quantifying intercepted PAR requires accurate measurements of total incident PAR above canopies and direct beam and diffuse PAR components. While some regional data sets include these data, e.g. from Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM Program sites, they are not often applicable to local research sites because of the variable nature (spatial and temporal of environmental variables that influence incoming PAR. Currently available instrumentation that measures diffuse and direct beam radiation separately can be cost prohibitive and require frequent adjustments. Alternatively, generalized empirical relationships that relate atmospheric variables and radiation components can be used but require assumptions that increase the potential for error. Our goal here was to construct and test a cheaper, highly portable instrument alternative that could be used at remote field sites to measure total, diffuse and direct beam PAR for extended time periods without supervision. The apparatus tested here uses a fabricated, solar powered rotating shadowband and other commercially available parts to collect continuous hourly PAR data. Measurements of total incident PAR had nearly a one-to-one relationship with total incident radiation measurements taken at the same research site by an unobstructed point quantum sensor. Additionally, measurements of diffuse PAR compared favorably with modeled estimates from previously published data, but displayed significant differences that were attributed to the important influence of rapidly changing local environmental conditions. The cost of the system is about 50% less than comparable commercially available systems that require periodic, but not continual adjustments. Overall, the data produced using this apparatus indicates that this instrumentation has the

  14. Space Radiation Measurement on the Polar Route onboard the Korean Commercial Flights

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junga Hwang


    Full Text Available This study was performed by the policy research project of Ministry of Land, Transport and Maritime Affairs, which title is “Developing safety standards and management of space radiation on the polar route”. In this research, total six experiments were performed using Korean commercial flights (B747. Three of those are on the polar route and the other three are on the north pacific route. Space radiation exposure measured on the polar route is the average 84.7 uSv. The simulation result using CARI-6M program gives 84.9 uSv, which is very similar to measured value. For the departure flight using the north pacific route, the measured space radiation is the average 74.4 uSv. It seems that is not so different to use the polar route or not for the return flight because the higher latitude effect causing the increase of space radiation is compensated by the shortened flight time effect causing decreasing space radiation exposure.

  15. The development of practice manual for LSC based on job analysis in radiation measurement and analysis (United States)

    Shin, W. H.; Park, T. J.


    Radiation technology is closely related to the industrial growth and the creation of employment in Korea. The techniques as radiation or/and radioactivity measurement, and the practical skills achieving a higher level analysis are required. In this study, practice manual for liquid scintillation counter were developed by job analysis. Raw data applied in job analysis are collected by on/off line survey by 420 workers employed in KOREA. Importance-priority analysis was performed to make duties and competency unit that consists of knowledge, skills as each task. Refined data was reviewed by expert who experienced actual duties on site. Classification was conducted by focus group interview to deduct duties and competency unit. From the radiation devices in measurement and analysis, liquid scintillation counter was preferentially selected because of the high demands for training. Investigation of build-up status to liquid scintillation counter in KOREA was conducted. Then technical specification and operating procedure of 2 main devices were analyzed and integrated by practice manual. Duties and competency unit were applied to integrated materials respectively. To validate effectiveness, test curriculum was designed by the advanced course to workers who engaged in radiation measurement and analysis. The developed manual is structured to take advantage of test training. This manual will be a practical handbook that can improve the knowledge, skills of radiation workers in Korea.

  16. Trends in solar radiation in NCEP/NCAR database and measurements in northeastern Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Vicente de Paulo Rodrigues da; Silva, Roberta Araujo e; Cavalcanti, Enilson Palmeira; Braga, Celia Campos; Azevedo, Pedro Vieira de; Pereira, Emerson Ricardo Rodrigues [Federal University of Campina Grande/Center of Technology and Natural Resources/Academic Unity of Atmospheric Sciences, Av. Aprigio Veloso, 882, Bodocongo, 58109 970, Campina Grande, PB (Brazil); Singh, Vijay P. [Dept. of Biological and Agricultural Engineering, Texas A and M Univ., TX 77843-2117 (United States)


    The database from the National Center for Environmental Prediction/National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCEP/NCAR) re-analysis project available for the period from 1948 to 2009 was used for obtaining long-term solar radiation for northeastern Brazil. Measurements of global solar radiation (R{sub s}) from data collection platform (DCP) for four climatic zones of northeastern Brazil were compared to the re-analysis data. Applying cluster analysis to R{sub s} from database, homogeneous sub-regions in northeastern Brazil were determined. Long times series of R{sub s} and sunshine duration measurements data for two sites, Petrolina (09 09'S, 40 22'W) and Juazeiro (09 24'S, 40 26'W), exceeding 30 years, were analyzed. In order to exclude the decadal variations which are linked to the Pacific Decadal Oscillation, high-frequency cycles in the solar radiation and sunshine duration time series were eliminated by using a 14-year moving average, and the Mann-Kendall test was employed to assess the long-term variability of re-analysis and measured solar radiation. This study provides an overview of the decrease in solar radiation in a large area, which can be attributed to the global dimming effect. The global solar radiation obtained from the NCEP/NCAR re-analysis data overestimate that obtained from DCP measurements by 1.6% to 18.6%. Results show that there is a notable symmetry between R{sub s} from the re-analysis data and sunshine duration measurements. (author)

  17. Internal stray radiation measurement for cryogenic infrared imaging systems using a spherical mirror. (United States)

    Tian, Qijie; Chang, Songtao; He, Fengyun; Li, Zhou; Qiao, Yanfeng


    Internal stray radiation is a key factor that influences infrared imaging systems, and its suppression level is an important criterion to evaluate system performance, especially for cryogenic infrared imaging systems, which are highly sensitive to thermal sources. In order to achieve accurate measurement for internal stray radiation, an approach is proposed, which is based on radiometric calibration using a spherical mirror. First of all, the theory of spherical mirror design is introduced. Then, the calibration formula considering the integration time is presented. Following this, the details regarding the measurement method are presented. By placing a spherical mirror in front of the infrared detector, the influence of internal factors of the detector on system output can be obtained. According to the calibration results of the infrared imaging system, the output caused by internal stray radiation can be acquired. Finally, several experiments are performed in a chamber with controllable inside temperatures to validate the theory proposed in this paper. Experimental results show that the measurement results are in good accordance with the theoretical analysis, and demonstrate that the proposed theories are valid and can be employed in practical applications. The proposed method can achieve accurate measurement for internal stray radiation at arbitrary integration time and ambient temperatures. The measurement result can be used to evaluate whether the suppression level meets the system requirement.

  18. A new method for simultaneous measurement of convective and radiative heat flux in car underhood applications (United States)

    Khaled, M.; Garnier, B.; Harambat, F.; Peerhossaini, H.


    A new experimental technique is presented that allows simultaneous measurement of convective and radiative heat flux in the underhood. The goal is to devise an easily implemented and accurate experimental method for application in the vehicle underhood compartment. The new method is based on a technique for heat-flux measurement developed by the authors (Heat flow (flux) sensors for measurement of convection, conduction and radiation heat flow 27036-2, © Rhopoint Components Ltd, Hurst Green, Oxted, RH8 9AX, UK) that uses several thermocouples in the thickness of a thermal resistive layer (foil heat-flux sensor). The method proposed here uses a pair of these thermocouples with different radiative properties. Measurements validating this novel technique are carried out on a flat plate with a prescribed constant temperature in both natural- and forced-convection flow regimes. The test flat plate is instrumented by this new technique, and also with a different technique that is intrusive but very accurate, used as reference here (Bardon J P and Jarny Y 1994 Procédé et dispositif de mesure transitoire de température et flux surfacique Brevet n°94.011996, 22 February). Discrepancies between the measurements by the two techniques are less than 10% for both convective and radiative heat flux. Error identification and sensitivity analysis of the new method are also presented.

  19. Radiation-use efficiency and gas exchange responses to water and nutrient availability in irrigated and fertilized stands of sweetgum and sycamore (United States)

    Christopher B. Allen; Rodney E. Will; Robert C. McGravey; David R. Coyle; Mark D. Coleman


    We investigated how water and nutrient availability affect radiation-use effeciency (e) and assessed leaf gas exchange as a possible mechanism for shifts in e. We measured aboveground net primary production (ANPP) and annual photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) capture to calculate e as well as leaf-level physiological variables (light-saturated net photosynthesis...

  20. Optimization of Thermal Neutron Converter in SiC Sensors for Spectral Radiation Measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krolikowski, Igor; Cetnar, Jerzy [Department of Nuclear Energy, Faculty of Energy and Fuels at AGH University of Science and Technology, Al. Mickiewicza 30, 30-059 Cracow (Poland); Issa, Fatima; Ferrone, Raffaello; Ottaviani, Laurent [IM2NP, UMR CNRS 7334, Aix-Marseille University, Case 231, 13397 Marseille Cedex 20 (France); Szalkai, Dora; Klix, Axel [KIT- Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Institute of Neutron Physics and Reactor Technology, Karlsruhe 76344 (Germany); Vermeeren, Ludo [SCK-CEN, Boeretang 200, B-2400 Mol (Belgium); Lyoussi, Abdalla [CEA, DEN, DER, Instrumentation Sensors and Dosimetry Laboratory, Cadarache, F-13108 St-Paul-Lez-Durance (France); Saenger, Richard [Etudes et Productions Schlumberger, Clamart (France)


    Optimization of the neutron converter in SiC sensors is presented. The sensors are used for spectral radiation measurements of thermal and fast neutrons and optionally gamma ray at elevated temperature in harsh radiation environment. The neutron converter, which is based on 10B, allows to detect thermal neutrons by means of neutron capture reaction. Two construction of the sensors were used to measure radiation in experiments. Sensor responses collected in experiments have been reproduced by the computer tool created by authors, it allows to validate the tool. The tool creates the response matrix function describing the characteristic of the sensors and it was used for detailed analyses of the sensor responses. Obtained results help to optimize the neutron converter in order to increase thermal neutron detection. Several enhanced construction of the sensors, which includes the neutron converter based on {sup 10}B or {sup 6}Li, were proposed. (authors)

  1. Cavity optomechanics with micromirrors: Measuring and reducing radiation pressure noise with bright squeezed light (United States)

    Cripe, Jonathan; Singh, Robinjeet; Yap, Min Jet; Cole, Garrett; Corbitt, Thomas; LIGO Collaboration

    On September 14, 2015, LIGO made the first direct detection of gravitational waves. Advanced LIGO is predicted to be limited by quantum noise at intermediate and high frequencies when it reaches design sensitivity in the next couple years. The quantum noise, including radiation pressure noise at intermediate frequencies, will need to be reduced in order to increase the sensitivity of future gravitational wave interferometers. We report recent progress towards measuring quantum radiation pressure noise in an optomechanical cavity and the reduction of radiation pressure noise using bright squeezed light. The low noise, microfabricated mechanical oscillator also allows for direct broadband thermal noise measurements which test thermal noise models and damping mechanisms and serves as a test bed for the application of crystalline coatings in future gravitational wave detectors. These techniques may be applicable to an upgrade of Advanced LIGO or the next generation of gravitational wave detectors. NSF Grant PHY-1150531.

  2. Radiation Dose Measurement for High-Intensity Laser Interactions with Solid Targets at SLAC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liang, Taiee [SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States)


    A systematic study of photon and neutron radiation doses generated in high-intensity laser-solid interactions is underway at SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory. We found that these laser-solid experiments are being performed using a 25 TW (up to 1 J in 40 fs) femtosecond pulsed Ti:sapphire laser at the Linac Coherent Light Source’s (LCLS) Matter in Extreme Conditions (MEC) facility. Additionally, radiation measurements were performed with passive and active detectors deployed at various locations inside and outside the target chamber. Results from radiation dose measurements for laser-solid experiments at SLAC MEC in 2014 with peak intensity between 1018 to 7.1x1019 W/cm2 are presented.

  3. Deconvolution of wide field-of-view radiometer measurements of earth-emitted radiation. I - Theory (United States)

    Smith, G. L.; Green, R. N.


    The theory of deconvolution of wide field-of-view (WFOV) radiometer measurements of earth-emitted radiation provides a technique by which the resolution of such measurements can be enhanced to provide radiant exitance at the top of the atmosphere with a finer resolution than the field of view. An analytical solution for the earth-emitted radiant exitance in terms of WFOV radiometer measurements is derived for the nonaxisymmetric (or regional) case, in which the measurements and radiant exitance are considered to be functions of both latitude and longitude. This solution makes it possible to deconvolve a set of WFOV radiometer measurements of earth-emitted radiation and obtain information with a finer resolution than the instantaneous field of view of the instrument. It is shown that there are tradeoffs involved in the selection between WFOV and scanning radiometers.

  4. The Measurement of ‘Fiscal Burden’ on GDP instead of on National Net Value Added Produced: A Chapter in Fiscal Illusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. FORTE


    Full Text Available The work calls attention to a major macroeconomic fiscal illusion: that arising from the current official practice of expressing the main fiscal indicators, and particularly the tax burden, as a percentage of GDP rather than NDPF (Net Domestic Product at Factor Costs. This methodology causes a systematic undervaluation of the tax burden, by something between 25% (Sweden and Austria and 15% (Switzerland. Correctly measured, the tax burden in most European countries is above 50% and in the Nordic countries above 65%, or close to it! Thus, tax payers are deceived about the true cost and size of the public economy. GDP’s origin and widespread adoption is examined as well as the development of the notion of national income adopted to assess the tax burden.

  5. Towards a standardized processing of Net Ecosystem Exchange measured with eddy covariance technique: algorithms and uncertainty estimation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Papale


    Full Text Available Eddy covariance technique to measure CO2, water and energy fluxes between biosphere and atmosphere is widely spread and used in various regional networks. Currently more than 250 eddy covariance sites are active around the world measuring carbon exchange at high temporal resolution for different biomes and climatic conditions. In this paper a new standardized set of corrections is introduced and the uncertainties associated with these corrections are assessed for eight different forest sites in Europe with a total of 12 yearly datasets. The uncertainties introduced on the two components GPP (Gross Primary Production and TER (Terrestrial Ecosystem Respiration are also discussed and a quantitative analysis presented. Through a factorial analysis we find that generally, uncertainties by different corrections are additive without interactions and that the heuristic u*-correction introduces the largest uncertainty. The results show that a standardized data processing is needed for an effective comparison across biomes and for underpinning inter-annual variability. The methodology presented in this paper has also been integrated in the European database of the eddy covariance measurements.

  6. New 33 GHz Measurements of the Cosmic Background RadiationIntensity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Amici, G.; Smoot, G.; Friedman, S.G.; Witebsky, C.


    New measurements have been made of the intensity of the cosmic background radiation (CBR) at 33 GHz (0.91 cm). The experiment was part of a larger effort to measure the spectrum of the CBR between 2.5 and 90 GHz (12 and 0.33 cm). Details are given of the experimental equipment and measurement procedures. The results of measurements made in 1982 and 1983 are presented and discussed in relation to preliminary results from the other radiometers. The measured value, T{sub CBR} = (2.81 {+-} 0.12) K, is in very good agreement both with those previously published and those reported by our collaborators.

  7. Proceedings of the third Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) science team meeting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)


    This document contains the summaries of papers presented at the 1993 Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Science Team meeting held in Morman, Oklahoma. To put these papers in context, it is useful to consider the history and status of the ARM Program at the time of the meeting. Individual papers have been cataloged separately.

  8. On-site radiated emissions measurements in Semi-reverberant environments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vogt-Ardatjew, R.A.; Lundgren, Urban; Fernandez-Romero, Sergio; Leferink, Frank Bernardus Johannes


    Radiated emission tests are generally performed in either free space, reflection-free environments, such as an open area test site or semi- or full-anechoic chambers, or in reverberation chambers. This paper describes measurements in semireflecting environments such as an office, a workshop of a

  9. The measurable distinction between the spin and orbital angular momenta of electromagnetic radiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James H. Crichton


    Full Text Available We show how the angular momentum of electromagnetic radiation may be decomposed into spin and orbital parts, of which the spin part is measurable in terms of Stokes parameters, thereby providing an unambiguous, gauge-invariant, distinction between the two parts.

  10. Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Climate Research Facility (ACRF Instrumentation Status: New, Current, and Future)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    JW Voyles


    The purpose of this report is to provide a concise but comprehensive overview of Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Climate Research Facility instrumentation status. The report is divided into the following four sections: (1) new instrumentation in the process of being acquired and deployed, (2) existing instrumentation and progress on improvements or upgrades, (3) proposed future instrumentation, and (4) Small Business Innovation Research instrument development.

  11. Cosmic radiation exposure of aircraft crew: compilation of measured and calculated data

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Lindborg, L.; Bartlett, D.; Beck, P.; McAulay, I.; Schnuer, K.; Schraube, H.; Spurný, František


    Roč. 110, 1-4 (2004), s. 417-422 ISSN 0144-8420 Grant - others:EC project(XE) FIGM-CT2000-00068 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z1048901 Keywords : cosmic radiation exposure * aircraft crew * measurement Subject RIV: BG - Nuclear, Atomic and Molecular Physics, Colliders Impact factor: 0.617, year: 2003

  12. Simulação do saldo de radiação na Serra da Mantiqueira Simulation of net radiation in the Mantiqueira mountain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pabricio M. O. Lopes


    Full Text Available A influência do desmatamento da Mata Atlântica sobre o microclima da Serra da Mantiqueira ainda não é totalmente compreendida. Para conhecer as consequências do desmatamento sobre o clima serrano é necessário realizar estudos sobre o balanço de radiação na superfície. A falta de dados possibilita conjugar imagens de satélite com dados meteorológicos em um Sistema de Informação Geográfica na determinação do balanço de radiação. O presente estudo teve por objetivo avaliar o modelo MTCLIM em dias de céu claro ou nublado para simular o balanço de radiação na Serra da Mantiqueira, divisa entre os estados de São Paulo, Minas Gerais e Rio de Janeiro, Brasil. Imagens diárias, semanais e dezesseis dias do sensor MODIS disponíveis em 2003 foram utilizadas em rotinas específicas do MTCLIM. Alvos específicos foram selecionados para avaliar o comportamento do balanço de radiação. Observou-se que o balanço de radiação acompanhou a topografia local e é influenciado pelo tipo de uso da terra. Conclui-se que a temperatura da superfície contribui para aumentar a temperatura do ar implicando em diminuição do balanço de radiação sobre pastagem. O modelo MTCLIM demonstrou boa correlação para a temperatura do ar (R² = 0,82 e para a radiação solar global (R² = 0,71.The influence of deforestation of the Atlantic Forest on the microclimate of the mountain Mantiqueira is not yet fully understood. To understand the consequences of deforestation on the highland climate research is needed about the surface radiation balance. The lack of data allows combining satellite images with meteorological data in a Geographic Information System in determining the radiation balance. The study aimed to evaluate the MTCLIM model in cloudless days or cloudy sky and simulate the radiation balance in the Mantiqueira mountain, between São Paulo, Minas Gerais and Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Daily images, weekly and sixteen days MODIS available in

  13. The Measurement of Radiative Lifetimes Using Laser-Induced Fluorescence: Experimental Review and Astrophysical Application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hartog, E.A. den; Lawler, J.E. [Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States). Dept. of Physics; Sneden, C. [Univ. of Texas, Austin, TX (United States). Dept. of Astronomy and McDonald Observatory


    One of the standard methods for determining atomic transition probabilities is to combine branching fractions measured using Fourier-transform spectrometry with radiative lifetimes measurements using laser-induced fluorescence (LIF). This combination of techniques provides an efficient method for measuring large sets of accurate, absolute transition probabilities. The radiative lifetimes, which provide the overall scaling for the transition probabilities, can be measured routinely to {+-}5% accuracy using time-resolved LIF. Although the time-resolved LIF technique we use does not achieve the accuracy of fast-beam LIF, the time-resolved technique does enable us to make measurements at a far greater rate (hundreds of level lifetimes per year). Care must be taken, however, to understand and control the systematic effects in time-resolved LIF measurements to maintain {+-}5% accuracy over a wide dynamic range and hundreds of lifetime measurements. Over the last 25 years, we have measured lifetimes for 47 spectra using time resolved LIF. Our atomic beam source can produce a slow beam of neutral and singly ionized atoms of nearly any element. Lifetimes from 2 ns to {approx}2{mu}s can be measured for energy levels ranging from 15,000 to {approx}60,000/cm. In this review we will describe our method of measuring radiative lifetimes with an emphasis on possible errors and techniques used for controlling them. The electronic bandwidth, linearity, and overall fidelity of the fast photomultiplier, cable connections, and transient waveform digitizer are concerns. Possible errors from atomic collisions, radiation trapping, Zeeman quantum beats, hyperfine quantum beats, atoms/ions escaping from the observation region before radiating, and from radiative cascade through lower levels must be understood and controlled. We will then present a recent example of the application of our transition probability data to abundance determinations in the sun and in metal-poor halo stars. Our

  14. Terrestrial gamma radiation dose measurement and health hazard along river Alaknanda and Ganges in India

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    Prerna Sharma


    Full Text Available Direct measurement of absorbed dose rate in air due to exposure from outdoor terrestrial γ radiation and assessment of consequent public health hazard continues to be of environmental and public concern. Present study was aimed to establish a baseline data of annual effective dose and to assess the associated health risk from outdoor terrestrial γ radiation along the river Alaknanda and Ganges of India. Terrestrial γ radiation exposure doses (excluding cosmic radiation were measured using a Plastic Scintillation Counter. Absorbed dose rates in air were measured at eight designated locations from Nandprayag to Allahabad along the river. From the average absorbed dose rates, annual effective dose (AED and excess life time cancer risks (ELCR were calculated by standard method. Results showed that absorbed dose rates in air ranged between 81.33 ± 2.34 nSv.h−1 and 144 ± 5.77 nSv.h−1 and calculated AED ranged between 0.10 ± 0.012 mSv.y−1 to 0.18 ± 0.007 mSv.y−1 at the designated locations along these rivers. Calculated ELCR were found in the range of 0.375 × 10−3 to 0.662 × 10−3. Present study measured the outdoor γ radiation levels along the rivers. The calculated annual effective doses and life time cancer risk were found higher than the world average value at higher altitudes. But the measured doses and calculated risks at plains were close to that of reported average values.

  15. A sensitive time-resolved radiation pyrometer for shock-temperature measurements above 1500 K (United States)

    Boslough, Mark B.; Ahrens, Thomas J.


    The general design, calibration, and performance of a new high-sensitivity radiation pyrometer are described. The pyrometer can determine time-resolved temperatures (as low as 1500 K) in shocked materials by measuring the spectral radiance of light emitted from shocked solid samples in the visible and near-infrared wavelength range (0.5-1.0 micron). The high sensitivity of the radiation pyrometer is attributed to the large angular aperture (0.06 sr), the large bandwidth per channel (up to 0.1 micron), the large photodiode detection areas (1.0 sq cm), and the small number of calibrated channels (4) among which light is divided.

  16. Rocket Measurements of the Direct Solar Lyman-alpha Radiation Penetrating in the Atmosphere (United States)

    Guineva, V. H.; Witt, G.; Gumbel, J.; Khaplanov, M.; Tashev, V. L.


    The resonance transition 2P-2S of the atomic hydrogen (Lyman-alpha emission) is the strongest and most conspicuous feature in the solar EUV spectrum. The Lyman-alpha radiation transfer depends on the resonance scattering from the hydrogen atoms in the atmosphere and on the O2 absorption. Since the Lyman-alpha extinction in the atmosphere is a measure for the column density of the oxygen molecules, the atmospheric temperature profile can be calculated thereof. Rocket measurements of the direct Lyman-alpha radiation vertical profile in the summer mesosphere and thermosphere (up to 120 km), at high latitudes will be carried out in June 2006. The Lyman-alpha flux will be registered by a detector of solar Lyman-alpha radiation, manufactured in the Stara Zagora Department of the Solar-Terrestrial Influences Laboratory (STIL BAS). Its basic part is an ionization camera, filled in with NO. The scientific data analysis will include raw data reduction, radiative transfer simulations, temperature retrieval as well as co-analysis with other parameters, measured near the polar summer mesopause. This project is a scientific cooperation between STIL-BAS, Stara Zagora Department and the Atmospheric Physics Group at the Department of Meteorology (MISU), Stockholm University, Sweden. The joint project is part from the rocket experiment HotPay I, in the ALOMAR eARI Project, EU's 6th Framework Programme, Andoya Rocket Range, Andenes, Norway.

  17. Measurement of solar ultraviolet radiation intensity type A and B in Qazvin (2013-14

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    SAR. Babaee


    Full Text Available Background: Solar ultraviolet radiation (UVR is considered one of the most important biological risk factors in the world. Most health damages from solar ultraviolet radiation at ground level are mainly caused by UVA and UVB spectrums. Objective: The aim of this study was to Measure the solar ultraviolet radiation intensity type A and B in Qazvin city. Methods: In this cross-sectional study, the intensity of solar ultraviolet radiation type A and B was measured in Qazvin on years of 2013-14 (during one year every monthly at three times, in the morning, afternoon and evening by using a UV Radiometer. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics. Findings: The maximum average intensity of UVA and UVB rays during the one year with 28.36±1.88 W/m2 and 0.156±0.035 W/m2 respectively was in Tir month (June 22–July 22 and the minimum average intensity of UVA and UVB rays with 10.36±0.83 W/m2 and 0.041±0.010 W/m2 respectively was in Dai month (December 22–January 20. Conclusion: With regards to the results, it is recommended that individuals were less exposed to exposure time with direct sunshine and use appropriate protective measures such as; wear appropriate clothing, sunglasses, and sunscreen.

  18. Measurements of individual radiation doses in residents living around the Fukushima Nuclear Power Plant. (United States)

    Nagataki, Shigenobu; Takamura, Noboru; Kamiya, Kenji; Akashi, Makoto


    At the outset of the accident at Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant in March 2011, the radiation doses experienced by residents were calculated from the readings at monitoring posts, with several assumptions being made from the point of view of protection and safety. However, health effects should also be estimated by obtaining measurements of the individual radiation doses. The individual external radiation doses, determined by a behavior survey in the "evacuation and deliberate evacuation area" in the first 4 months, were <5 mSv in 97.4% of residents (maximum: 15 mSv). Doses in Fukushima Prefecture were <3 mSv in 99.3% of 386,572 residents analyzed. External doses in Fukushima City determined by personal dosimeters were <1 mSv/3 months (September-November, 2011) in 99.7% of residents (maximum: 2.7 mSv). Thyroid radiation doses, determined in March using a NaI (TI) scintillation survey meter in children in the evacuation and deliberate evacuation area, were <10 mSv in 95.7% of children (maximum: 35 mSv). Therefore, all doses were less than the intervention level of 50 mSv proposed by international organizations. Internal radiation doses determined by cesium-134 ((134)C) and cesium-137 ((137)C) whole-body counters (WBCs) were <1 mSv in 99% of the residents, and the maximum thyroid equivalent dose by iodine-131 WBCs was 20 mSv. The exploratory committee of the Fukushima Health Management Survey mentions on its website that radiation from the accident is unlikely to be a cause of adverse health effects in the future. In any event, sincere scientific efforts must continue to obtain individual radiation doses that are as accurate as possible. However, observation of the health effects of the radiation doses described above will require reevaluation of the protocol used for determining adverse health effects. The dose-response relationship is crucial, and the aim of the survey should be to collect sufficient data to confirm the presence or absence of radiation health

  19. Energy exchanges in a Central Business District - Interpretation of Eddy Covariance and radiation flux measurements (London UK) (United States)

    Kotthaus, S.; Grimmond, S.


    all year round, even at night. QH systematically exceeds input from net all-wave radiation (Q*), probably sustained by a both storage and anthropogenic heat fluxes (QF). Model estimates suggest QF can exceed the Q* nearly all year round. The positive QH inhibits stable conditions, but the stability classification is determined predominantly by the pattern of friction velocity over the rough urban surface. Turbulent latent heat flux variations are controlled (beyond the available energy) by rainfall due to the small vegetation cover. The Bowen ratio is mostly larger than one. Analysis of the eddy covariance footprint surface controls for the different land cover types by flow patterns for measurements at the two heights suggests the spatial variations of the sensible heat flux observed are partly related to changes in surface roughness, even at the local scale. Where the source areas are most homogeneous, flow conditions are vertically consistent - even if initial morphometric parameters suggested the measurements may be below the blending height. Turbulence statistics and momentum flux patterns prove useful for the interpretation of turbulent heat exchanges observed.

  20. Economic impact and effectiveness of radiation protection measures in aviation during a ground level enhancement

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    Matthiä Daniel


    Full Text Available In addition to the omnipresent irradiation from galactic cosmic rays (GCR and their secondary products, passengers and aircraft crew may be exposed to radiation from solar cosmic rays during ground level enhancements (GLE. In general, lowering the flight altitude and changing the flight route to lower latitudes are procedures applicable to immediately reduce the radiation exposure at aviation altitudes. In practice, however, taking such action necessarily leads to modifications in the flight plan and the consequential, additional fuel consumption constrains the mitigating measures. In this work we investigate in a case study of the ground level event of December 13th 2006 how potential mitigation procedures affect the total radiation exposure during a transatlantic flight from Seattle to Cologne taking into account constraints concerning fuel consumption and range.

  1. Method and apparatus for measuring solar radiation in a vegetative canopy (United States)

    Gutschick, V.P.; Barron, M.H.; Waechter, D.A.; Wolf, M.A.


    An apparatus and method for measuring solar radiation received in a vegetative canopy. A multiplicity of sensors selectively generates electrical signals in response to impinging photosynthetically active radiation in sunlight. Each sensor is attached to a plant within the canopy and is electrically connected to a separate port in a junction box having a multiplicity of ports. Each port is connected to an operational amplifier. Each amplifier amplifies the signals generated by the sensors. Each amplifier is connected to an analog-to-digital convertor which digitizes each signal. A computer is connected to the convertors and accumulates and stores solar radiation data. A data output device such as a printer is connected to the computer and displays the data.

  2. Direct Radiative Effect and Heating Rate of black carbon aerosol: high time resolution measurements and source-identified forcing effects (United States)

    Ferrero, Luca; Mocnik, Grisa; Cogliati, Sergio; Comi, Alberto; Degni, Francesca; Di Mauro, Biagio; Colombo, Roberto; Bolzacchini, Ezio


    Black carbon (BC) absorbs sunlight in the atmosphere heating it. However, up to now, heating rate (HR) calculations from the divergence of the net radiative flux with altitude or from the modelling activity are too sparse. This work fills the aforementioned gap presenting a new methodology based on a full set of physical equations to experimentally determine both the radiative power density absorbed into a ground-based atmospheric layer (ADRE), and the consequent HR induced by the absorptive component of aerosol. In urban context, it is essentially related to the BC. The methodology is also applicable to natural components (i.e. dust) and is obtained solving the first derivative of the main radiative transfer equations. The ADRE and the consequent HR can be determined coupling spectral aerosol absorption measurements with the spectrally resolved measurements of the direct, diffuse downward radiation and the surface reflected radiance components. Moreover, the spectral absorption of BC aerosol allows its source apportionment (traffic and biomass burning (BB)) allowing the same apportionment on HR. This work reports one year of high-time resolution measurements (5 min) of sunlight absorption and HR induced by BC aerosol over Milan. A unique sampling site was set up from March 2015 with: 1) Aethalometer (AE-31, Magee Scientific, 7-λ), 2) the Multiplexer-Radiometer-Irradiometer which detects downward and reflected radiance (350-1000 nm in 3648 spectral bands) coupled with a rotating shadow-band to measure spectrally-resolved global and diffuse radiation (thus direct), 3) a meteorological station (LSI-Lastem) equipped with 3 pyranometers (global, diffuse and refrected radiation; 300-3000 nm), a thermohygrometer, a barometer, an anemometer, 4) condensation and optical particle counters (TSI 3775 and Grimm 1.107), 5) low volume sampler (FAI Hydra dual sampler, PM2.5 and PM10) for sample collection and chemistry determination. Results concerning the radiative power

  3. Measuring the Social Recreation Per-Day Net Benefit of the Wildlife Amenities of a National Park: A Count-Data Travel-Cost Approach (United States)

    Mendes, Isabel; Proença, Isabel


    In this article, we apply count-data travel-cost methods to a truncated sample of visitors to estimate the Peneda-Gerês National Park (PGNP) average consumer surplus (CS) for each day of visit. The measurement of recreation demand is highly specific because it is calculated by number of days of stay per visit. We therefore propose the application of altered truncated count-data models or truncated count-data models on grouped data to estimate a single, on-site individual recreation demand function, with the price (cost) of each recreation day per trip equal to out-of-pocket and time travel plus out-of-pocket and on-site time costs. We further check the sensitivity of coefficient estimations to alternative models and analyse the welfare measure precision by using the delta and simulation methods by Creel and Loomis. With simulated limits, CS is estimated to be €194 (range €116 to €448). This information is of use in the quest to improve government policy and PNPG management and conservation as well as promote nature-based tourism. To our knowledge, this is the first attempt to measure the average recreation net benefits of each day of stay generated by a national park by using truncated altered and truncated grouped count-data travel-cost models based on observing the individual number of days of stay.

  4. Measuring the social recreation per-day net benefit of the wildlife amenities of a national park: a count-data travel-cost approach. (United States)

    Mendes, Isabel; Proença, Isabel


    In this article, we apply count-data travel-cost methods to a truncated sample of visitors to estimate the Peneda-Gerês National Park (PGNP) average consumer surplus (CS) for each day of visit. The measurement of recreation demand is highly specific because it is calculated by number of days of stay per visit. We therefore propose the application of altered truncated count-data models or truncated count-data models on grouped data to estimate a single, on-site individual recreation demand function, with the price (cost) of each recreation day per trip equal to out-of-pocket and time travel plus out-of-pocket and on-site time costs. We further check the sensitivity of coefficient estimations to alternative models and analyse the welfare measure precision by using the delta and simulation methods by Creel and Loomis. With simulated limits, CS is estimated to be 194 (range 116 to 448). This information is of use in the quest to improve government policy and PNPG management and conservation as well as promote nature-based tourism. To our knowledge, this is the first attempt to measure the average recreation net benefits of each day of stay generated by a national park by using truncated altered and truncated grouped count-data travel-cost models based on observing the individual number of days of stay.

  5. Meeting the Needs of the Nation for Radiation Protection: Summary of the 52nd Annual Meeting of the National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements. (United States)

    Toohey, Richard E


    The 52nd Annual Meeting of the National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements (NCRP) was held in Bethesda, MD, 11-12 April 2016, on the topic of "Meeting National Needs for Radiation Protection." This meeting was an outgrowth of the NCRP initiative "Where are the Radiation Professionals?" (WARP), which addresses looming shortages in professional personnel trained in the radiological disciplines, including but not limited to health physics, radiological engineering, radiobiology, radiochemistry, radioecology, radiation emergency response; and the medical disciplines of diagnostic and interventional radiology, radiation oncology, nuclear medicine, and medical physics. A shortage of radiation professionals has been predicted for at least 20 y but now seems to be imminent. Obviously radiation professionals are needed for regulatory responsibilities at both state and federal levels, national defense, energy production, waste management, industrial applications, education, and medicine. Although the supply of radiation professionals in medicine appears to be adequate for the next decade or so, the use of radiation in medical diagnosis and therapy will continue to increase with the aging of the general population.


    Fragkopoulou, A. F.; Margaritis, L. H.


    The extended use of wireless technology throughout the globe in almost all developed and non-developed countries has forced a large number of scientists to get involved in the investigation of the effects. The major issue is that unlike other forms of radiation exposure, this “non-ionizing electromagnetic radiation” was not present throughout the evolution of life in earth and therefore there are no adaptive mechanisms evolved. All organisms are vulnerable to the possible effects of radiation depending on the actual exposure level. “Safety limits” on the power density have been proposed but ongoing research has shown that these limits are not really safe for humans, not mentioning the entire population of living creatures on earth. The so called “Electrosmog Pollution” originating from the numerous radio and TV stations, communication satellite emission, but most importantly from mobile phone mast antennas, are of major concern, because it is gradually increasing at exponential rate. Therefore the key question is, do living organisms react upon their exposure to fields of non ionizing electromagnetic radiation? To have this question answered extensive research is being performed in various laboratories. One approach of our research includes field measurements within houses and classrooms, since a considerable proportion of the population in each country is exposed to the radiation coming from the nearby mast stations, in order to make a risk assessment. The measurements showed that in many cases the actual radiation present was potentially harmful. In other words, although the measured values were below the national safety levels, nevertheless they were above the levels of other countries. Therefore it has been suggested that a new cellular network should be constructed in order to minimize radiation levels in living areas and schools. Our experimental work is focusing on the elucidation of the effects of non-ionizing EMFs on mice exposed to mobile

  7. Surface radiation at sea validation of satellite-derived data with shipboard measurements

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    Hein Dieter Behr


    Full Text Available Quality-controlled and validated radiation products are the basis for their ability to serve the climate and solar energy community. Satellite-derived radiation fluxes are well preferred for this task as they cover the whole research area in time and space. In order to monitor the accuracy of these data, validation with well maintained and calibrated ground based measurements is necessary. Over sea, however, long-term accurate reference data sets from calibrated instruments recording radiation are scarce. Therefore data from research vessels operating at sea are used to perform a reasonable validation. A prerequisite is that the instruments on board are maintained as well as land borne stations. This paper focuses on the comparison of radiation data recorded on board of the German Research Vessel "Meteor" during her 13 months cruise across the Mediterranean and the Black Sea with CM-SAF products using NOAA- and MSG-data (August 2006-August 2007: surface incoming short-wave radiation (SIS and surface downward long-wave radiation (SDL. Measuring radiation fluxes at sea causes inevitable errors, e.g.shadowing of fields of view of the radiometers by parts of the ship. These ship-inherent difficulties are discussed at first. A comparison of pairs of ship-recorded and satellite-derived mean fluxes for the complete measuring period delivers a good agreement: the mean bias deviation (MBD for SIS daily means is −7.6 W/m2 with a median bias of −4 W/m2 and consistently the MBD for monthly means is −7.3 W/m2, for SDL daily means the MBD is 8.1 and 6 W/m2 median bias respectively. The MBD for monthly means is 8.2 W/m2. The variances of the daily means (ship and satellite have the same annual courses for both fluxes. No significant dependence of the bias on the total cloud cover recorded according to WMO (1969 has been found. The results of the comparison between ship-based observations and satellite retrieved surface radiation reveal the good accuracy

  8. Statistical theory for estimating sampling errors of regional radiation averages based on satellite measurements (United States)

    Smith, G. L.; Bess, T. D.; Minnis, P.


    The processes which determine the weather and climate are driven by the radiation received by the earth and the radiation subsequently emitted. A knowledge of the absorbed and emitted components of radiation is thus fundamental for the study of these processes. In connection with the desire to improve the quality of long-range forecasting, NASA is developing the Earth Radiation Budget Experiment (ERBE), consisting of a three-channel scanning radiometer and a package of nonscanning radiometers. A set of these instruments is to be flown on both the NOAA-F and NOAA-G spacecraft, in sun-synchronous orbits, and on an Earth Radiation Budget Satellite. The purpose of the scanning radiometer is to obtain measurements from which the average reflected solar radiant exitance and the average earth-emitted radiant exitance at a reference level can be established. The estimate of regional average exitance obtained will not exactly equal the true value of the regional average exitance, but will differ due to spatial sampling. A method is presented for evaluating this spatial sampling error.

  9. Establishment of Experimental Equipment for Training of Professionals in the Nuclear Radiation Measurement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahn, S. K.; Seo, K. W.; Joo, Y. C.; Kim, I. C.; Woo, C. K.; Yoo, B. H. [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)


    The main purpose of this project is to establish experimental equipment for training of professionals and students in the field of radiation measurement, and settle the foundation for the advanced education system and program. The priority for the experimental equipment had been deduced by reviewing of the Nuclear Training and Education Center of KAERI and other country's training courses. Equipment for training of radiation professionals are High-Purity Germanium spectroscopic systems, alpha analyzers, and hand-held gamma/neutron inspector systems. For the basic experiments, electric personal dosimeters and a reader, radiation survey meters, and various alpha, beta and gamma radiation isotopes have been equipped. Some old or disused equipment and devices were disposed and re-arranged, and a new experiment lab had been settled for gamma spectroscopy. Along with the preparation of equipment, 14 experimental modules have been selected for practical and essential experiments training to professionals from industries, universities and research organizations. Among the modules, 7 important experiment notes had been prepared in Korea and also in English. As a consequence, these advanced radiation experimental setting would be a basis to cooperate with IAEA or other countries for international training courses. These activities would be a foundation for our contribution to the international nuclear society and for improving our nuclear competitiveness. The experimental equipment and application notes developed in this study will be used also by other training institutes and educational organizations through introducing and encouraging to use them to the nuclear society.

  10. Measurement and standardization of eye safety for optical radiation of LED products (United States)

    Mou, Tongsheng; Peng, Zhenjian


    The blue light hazard (BLH) to human eye's retina is now a new issue emerging in applications of artificial light sources. Especially for solid state lighting sources based on the blue chip-LED(GaN), the photons with their energy more than 2.4 eV show photochemical effects on the retina significantly, raising damage both in photoreceptors and retinal pigment epithelium. The photobiological safety of artificial light sources emitting optical radiation has gained more and more attention worldwide and addressed by international standards IEC 62471-2006(CIE S009/E: 2002). Meanwhile, it is involved in IEC safety specifications of LED lighting products and covered by European Directive 2006/25/EC on the minimum health and safety requirements regarding the exposure of the workers to artificial optical radiation. In practical applications of the safety standards, the measuring methods of optical radiation from LED products to eyes are important in establishment of executable methods in the industry. In 2011, a new project to develop the international standard of IEC TR62471-4,that is "Measuring methods of optical radiation related to photobiological safety", was approved and are now under way. This paper presents the concerned methods for the assessment of optical radiation hazards in the standards. Furthermore, a retina radiance meter simulating eye's optical geometry is also described, which is a potential tool for blue light hazard assessment of retinal exposure to optical radiation. The spectroradiometric method integrated with charge-coupled device(CCD) imaging system is introduced to provide more reliable results.

  11. Methods of Evaluating Thermodynamic Properties of Landscape Cover Using Multispectral Reflected Radiation Measurements by the Landsat Satellite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuriy Puzachenko


    Full Text Available The paper discusses methods of evaluating thermodynamic properties of landscape cover based on multi-spectral measurements by the Landsat satellites. Authors demonstrate how these methods could be used for studying functionality of landscapes and for spatial interpolation of Flux NET system measurements.

  12. Mapeamento do saldo de radiação com imagens Landsat 5 e modelo de elevação digital Mapping net radiation using Landsat 5 imagery and digital elevation model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frederico T. Di Pace


    Full Text Available O saldo de radiação é um importante componente do balanço de energia e tem grande relevância em estudos de evapotranspiração em áreas irrigadas e em bacias hidrográficas. Obteve-se, através do estudo, a estimativa do saldo de radiação à superfície terrestre, mediante imagens multiespectrais do Mapeador Temático do satélite Landsat 5, utilizando-se o SEBAL (Surface Energy Balance Algorithm for Land e o MED (Modelo de Elevação Digital. Os cálculos foram realizados com e sem utilização do MED, nos dias 04 de dezembro de 2000 e 04 de outubro de 2001. A temperatura da superfície (Ts e os valores do albedo estimados com o MED em 04/12/2000, foram um pouco superiores aos valores de Ts estimados sem a utilização deste modelo. Os resultados demonstraram que na estimativa do saldo de radiação com base em imagens MT - Landsat 5, se deve levar em consideração os efeitos topográficos da região de estudo.Net radiation is an important component of the surface energy balance in studies of evapotranspiration of irrigated crops and in evaporation of hydrological basins. The objective of this research was to determine the surface radiation balance, by using multispectral imagery of the Thematic Mapper (Landsat 5 satellite. In this study the SEBAL (Surface Energy Balance Algorithm for Land and DEM (Digital Elevation Model were used in order to correct the albedo and vegetation indices under the influence of the slope aspects were used for each study area. TM (Thematic Mapper imageries were used for two different dates (December 4, 2000 and October 4, 2001. The calculations were accomplished with and without use of the DEM. The land surface temperature and albedo values with DEM were larger than without DEM in both years, for two selected areas. Results also show that for obtaining net radiation based on imagery of the TM - Landsat 5 the topographical effects of the study area must be considered.

  13. Olive Crown Porosity Measurement Based on Radiation Transmittance: An Assessment of Pruning Effect

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    Francisco J. Castillo-Ruiz


    Full Text Available Crown porosity influences radiation interception, air movement through the fruit orchard, spray penetration, and harvesting operation in fruit crops. The aim of the present study was to develop an accurate and reliable methodology based on transmitted radiation measurements to assess the porosity of traditional olive trees under different pruning treatments. Transmitted radiation was employed as an indirect method to measure crown porosity in two olive orchards of the Picual and Hojiblanca cultivars. Additionally, three different pruning treatments were considered to determine if the pruning system influences crown porosity. This study evaluated the accuracy and repeatability of four algorithms in measuring crown porosity under different solar zenith angles. From a 14° to 30° solar zenith angle, the selected algorithm produced an absolute error of less than 5% and a repeatability higher than 0.9. The described method and selected algorithm proved satisfactory in field results, making it possible to measure crown porosity at different solar zenith angles. However, pruning fresh weight did not show any relationship with crown porosity due to the great differences between removed branches. A robust and accurate algorithm was selected for crown porosity measurements in traditional olive trees, making it possible to discern between different pruning treatments.

  14. Ross filter development for absolute measurement of Al line radiation on MST (United States)

    Lauersdorf, N.; Reusch, L. M.; den Hartog, D. J.; Goetz, J. A.; Franz, P.; Vanmeter, P.


    The MST has a two-color soft x-ray tomography (SXT) diagnostic that, using the double-filter technique, measures electron temperature (Te) from the slope of the soft x-ray (SXR) continuum. Because MST has an aluminum plasma-facing surface, bright Al line radiation occurs in the SXR spectrum. In past application of the double-filter technique, these lines have been filtered out using thick Be filters ( 400 μm and 800 μm), restricting the measurement temperature range to >=1 keV due to the signal strength having a positive correlation with Te. Another way to deal with the line radiation is to explicitly include it into the SXR spectrum analysis from which Te is derived. A Ross filter set has been designed to measure this line radiation, and will enable the absolute intensities of the aluminum lines to be quantified and incorporated into the analysis. The Ross filter will be used to measure Al+11 and Al+12 lines, occurring between 1.59 and 2.04 keV. By using multiple detectors with filters made of varying element concentrations, we create spectral bins in which the dominant transmission is the line radiation. Absolute measurement of Al line intensities will enable use of thinner filters in the SXT diagnostic and accurate measurement of Te < 1 keV. This material is based upon work supported by the U.S. Department of Energy Office of Science, Office of Fusion Energy Sciences program under Award Numbers DE-FC02-05ER54814 and DE-SC0015474.

  15. Calculation of the Scattered Radiation Profile in 64 Slice CT Scanners Using Experimental Measurement

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    Afshin Akbarzadeh


    Full Text Available Introduction: One of the most important parameters in x-ray CT imaging is the noise induced by detected scattered radiation. The detected scattered radiation is completely dependent on the scanner geometry as well as size, shape and material of the scanned object. The magnitude and spatial distribution of the scattered radiation in x-ray CT should be quantified for development of robust scatter correction techniques. Empirical methods based on blocking the primary photons in a small region are not able to extract scatter in all elements of the detector array while the scatter profile is required for a scatter correction procedure. In this study, we measured scatter profiles in 64 slice CT scanners using a new experimental measurement. Material and Methods: To measure the scatter profile, a lead block array was inserted under the collimator and the phantom was exposed at the isocenter. The raw data file, which contained detector array readouts, was transferred to a PC and was read using a dedicated GUI running under MatLab 7.5. The scatter profile was extracted by interpolating the shadowed area. Results: The scatter and SPR profiles were measured. Increasing the tube voltage from 80 to 140 kVp resulted in an 80% fall off in SPR for a water phantom (d=210 mm and 86% for a polypropylene phantom (d = 350 mm. Increasing the air gap to 20.9 cm caused a 30% decrease in SPR. Conclusion: In this study, we presented a novel approach for measurement of scattered radiation distribution and SPR in a CT scanner with 64-slice capability using a lead block array. The method can also be used on other multi-slice CT scanners. The proposed technique can accurately estimate scatter profiles. It is relatively straightforward, easy to use, and can be used for any related measurement.

  16. Intended and unintended effects of policy measures aimed at promoting net neutrality: an examination of the value chain for video distribution

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nooren, P.; Leurdijk, A.; van Eijk, N.


    Net neutrality has, for a number of years, been a topic of often heated discussion in the Internet and telecom community. Net neutrality, in essence, requires that Internet users have open access to content and applications on the Internet, and, vice versa, that providers of applications can reach

  17. Measurement of the optical fiber numeric aperture exposed to thermal and radiation aging (United States)

    Vanderka, Ales; Bednarek, Lukas; Hajek, Lukas; Latal, Jan; Poboril, Radek; Zavodny, Petr; Vasinek, Vladimir


    This paper deals with the aging of optical fibers influenced by temperature and radiation. There are analyzed changes in the structure of the optical fiber, related to the propagation of light in the fiber structure. In this case for numerical aperture. For experimental measurement was used MM fiber OM1 with core diameter 62.5 μm, cladding diameter 125 μm in 2.8 mm secondary coating. Aging of the optical fiber was achieved with dry heat and radiation. For this purpose, we were using a temperature chamber with a stable temperature of 105 °C where the cables after two months. Cables were then irradiated with gamma radiation 60Co in doses of 1.5 kGy and then 60 kGy. These conditions simulated 50 years aging process of optical cables. According to European Standard EN 60793-1-43:2015 was created the automatic device for angular scan working with LabVIEW software interface. Numerical aperture was tested at a wavelength of 850 nm, with an output power 1 mW. Scanning angle was set to 50° with step 0.25°. Numerical aperture was calculated from the position where power has fallen from maximal power at e2 power. The measurement of each sample was performed 10 hours after thermal and radiation aging. The samples were subsequently tested after six months from the last irradiation. In conclusion, the results of the experiment were analyzed and compared.

  18. Measurements of the radiation quality factor Q at aviation altitudes during solar minimum (2006-2008) (United States)

    Meier, Matthias M.; Hubiak, Melina


    In radiation protection, the Q-factor has been defined to describe the biological effectiveness of the energy deposition or absorbed dose to humans in the mixed radiation fields at aviation altitudes. This particular radiation field is generated by the interactions of primary cosmic particles with the atoms of the constituents of the Earth’s atmosphere. Thus the intensity, characterized by the ambient dose equivalent rate H∗(10), depends on the flight altitude and the energy spectra of the particles, mainly protons and alpha particles, impinging on the atmosphere. These charged cosmic projectiles are deflected both by the interplanetary and the Earth’s magnetic field such that the corresponding energy spectra are modulated by these fields. The solar minimum is a time period of particular interest since the interplanetary magnetic field is weakest within the 11-year solar cycle and the dose rates at aviation altitudes reach their maximum due to the reduced shielding of galactic cosmic radiation. For this reason, the German Aerospace Center (DLR) performed repeated dosimetric on-board measurements in cooperation with several German airlines during the past solar minimum from March 2006 to August 2008. The Q-factors measured with a TEPC range from 1.98 at the equator to 2.60 in the polar region.

  19. Integration of acoustic radiation force and optical imaging for blood plasma clot stiffness measurement.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caroline W Wang

    Full Text Available Despite the life-preserving function blood clotting serves in the body, inadequate or excessive blood clot stiffness has been associated with life-threatening diseases such as stroke, hemorrhage, and heart attack. The relationship between blood clot stiffness and vascular diseases underscores the importance of quantifying the magnitude and kinetics of blood's transformation from a fluid to a viscoelastic solid. To measure blood plasma clot stiffness, we have developed a method that uses ultrasound acoustic radiation force (ARF to induce micron-scaled displacements (1-500 μm on microbeads suspended in blood plasma. The displacements were detected by optical microscopy and took place within a micro-liter sized clot region formed within a larger volume (2 mL sample to minimize container surface effects. Modulation of the ultrasound generated acoustic radiation force allowed stiffness measurements to be made in blood plasma from before its gel point to the stage where it was a fully developed viscoelastic solid. A 0.5 wt % agarose hydrogel was 9.8-fold stiffer than the plasma (platelet-rich clot at 1 h post-kaolin stimulus. The acoustic radiation force microbead method was sensitive to the presence of platelets and strength of coagulation stimulus. Platelet depletion reduced clot stiffness 6.9 fold relative to platelet rich plasma. The sensitivity of acoustic radiation force based stiffness assessment may allow for studying platelet regulation of both incipient and mature clot mechanical properties.

  20. SU-E-QI-12: Morphometry Based Measurements of the Structural Response to Whole Brain Radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fuentes, D; Castillo, R; Castillo, E; Guerrero, T [UT MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX (United States)


    Purpose: Although state of the art radiation therapy techniques for treating intracranial malignancies have eliminated acute brain injury, cognitive impairment occurs in 50–90% of patients who survive >6mo post irradiation. Quantitative characterization of therapy response is needed to facilitate therapeutic strategies to minimize radiation induced cognitive impairment [1]. Deformation based morphometry techniques [2, 3] are presented as a quantitative imaging biomarker of therapy response in patients receiving whole brain radiation for treating medulloblastoma. Methods: Post-irradiation magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) data sets were retrospectively analyzed in N=15 patients, >60 MR image datasets. As seen in Fig 1(a), volume changes at multiple time points post-irradiation were quantitatively measured in the cerebrum and ventricles with respect to pre-irradiation MRI. A high resolution image Template, was registered to the pre-irradiation MRI of each patient to create a brain atlas for the cerebrum, cerebellum, and ventricles. Skull stripped images for each patient were registered to the initial pre-treatment scan. Average volume changes in the labeled regions were measured using the determinant of the displacement field Jacobian. Results: Longitudinal measurements, Fig 1(b-c), show a negative correlation p=.06, of the cerebral volume change with the time interval from irradiation. A corresponding positive correlation, p=.01, between ventricular volume change and time interval from irradiation is seen. One sample t-test for correlations were computed using a Spearman method. An average decrease in cerebral volume, p=.08, and increase in ventricular volume, p<.001, was observed. The radiation dose was seen directly proportional to the induced volume changes in the cerebrum, r=−.44, p<.001, Fig 1(d). Conclusion: Results indicate that morphometric monitoring of brain tissue volume changes may potentially be used to quantitatively assess toxicity and response to

  1. The Martian surface radiation environment – a comparison of models and MSL/RAD measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthiä Daniel


    Full Text Available Context: The Radiation Assessment Detector (RAD on the Mars Science Laboratory (MSL has been measuring the radiation environment on the surface of Mars since August 6th 2012. MSL-RAD is the first instrument to provide detailed information about charged and neutral particle spectra and dose rates on the Martian surface, and one of the primary objectives of the RAD investigation is to help improve and validate current radiation transport models. Aims: Applying different numerical transport models with boundary conditions derived from the MSL-RAD environment the goal of this work was to both provide predictions for the particle spectra and the radiation exposure on the Martian surface complementing the RAD sensitive range and, at the same time, validate the results with the experimental data, where applicable. Such validated models can be used to predict dose rates for future manned missions as well as for performing shield optimization studies. Methods: Several particle transport models (GEANT4, PHITS, HZETRN/OLTARIS were used to predict the particle flux and the corresponding radiation environment caused by galactic cosmic radiation on Mars. From the calculated particle spectra the dose rates on the surface are estimated. Results: Calculations of particle spectra and dose rates induced by galactic cosmic radiation on the Martian surface are presented. Although good agreement is found in many cases for the different transport codes, GEANT4, PHITS, and HZETRN/OLTARIS, some models still show large, sometimes order of magnitude discrepancies in certain particle spectra. We have found that RAD data is helping to make better choices of input parameters and physical models. Elements of these validated models can be applied to more detailed studies on how the radiation environment is influenced by solar modulation, Martian atmosphere and soil, and changes due to the Martian seasonal pressure cycle. By extending the range of the calculated particle

  2. Understanding Net Zero Energy Buildings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Salom, Jaume; Widén, Joakim; Candanedo, José


    Although several alternative definitions exist, a Net-Zero Energy Building (Net ZEB) can be succinctly described as a grid-connected building that generates as much energy as it uses over a year. The “net-zero” balance is attained by applying energy conservation and efficiency measures...... and by incorporating renewable energy systems. While based on annual balances, a complete description of a Net ZEB requires examining the system at smaller time-scales. This assessment should address: (a) the relationship between power generation and building loads and (b) the resulting interaction with the power grid....... This paper presents and categorizes quantitative indicators suitable to describe both aspects of the building’s performance. These indicators, named LMGI - Load Matching and Grid Interaction indicators, are easily quantifiable and could complement the output variables of existing building simulation tools...

  3. Broadband Outdoor Radiometer Calibration Process for the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dooraghi, Michael [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)


    The Atmospheric Radiation Measurement program (ARM) maintains a fleet of monitoring stations to aid in the improved scientific understanding of the basic physics related to radiative feedback processes in the atmosphere, particularly the interactions among clouds and aerosols. ARM obtains continuous measurements and conducts field campaigns to provide data products that aid in the improvement and further development of climate models. All of the measurement campaigns include a suite of solar measurements. The Solar Radiation Research Laboratory at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory supports ARM's full suite of stations in a number of ways, including troubleshooting issues that arise as part of the data-quality reviews; managing engineering changes to the standard setup; and providing calibration services and assistance to the full fleet of solar-related instruments, including pyranometers, pyrgeometers, pyrheliometers, as well as the temperature/relative humidity probes, multimeters, and data acquisition systems that are used in the calibrations performed at the Southern Great Plains Radiometer Calibration Facility. This paper discusses all aspects related to the support provided to the calibration of the instruments in the solar monitoring fleet.

  4. A Platform for X-Ray Thomson Scattering Measurements of Radiation Hydrodynamics Experiments on the NIF (United States)

    Lefevre, Heath; Ma, Kevin; Belancourt, Patrick; MacDonald, Michael; Doeppner, Tilo; Keiter, Paul; Kuranz, Carolyn


    A recent experiment on the National Ignition Facility (NIF) radiographed the evolution of the Rayleigh-Taylor (RT) instability under high and low drive cases. This experiment showed that under a high drive the growth rate of the RT instability is reduced relative to the low drive case. The high drive launches a radiative shock, increases the temperature of the post-shock region, and ablates the spikes, which reduces the RT growth rate. The plasma parameters must be measured to validate this claim. We present a target design for making X-Ray Thomson Scattering (XRTS) measurements on radiation hydrodynamics experiments on NIF to measure the electron temperature of the shocked region in the above cases. Specifically, we show that a previously fielded NIF radiation hydrodynamics platform can be modified to allow sufficient signal and temperature resolution for XRTS measurements. This work is funded by the NNSA-DS and SC-OFES Joint Program in High-Energy-Density Laboratory Plasmas, Grant Number DE-NA0002956 and the National Science Foundation through the Basic Plasma Science and Engineering program.

  5. Electrical measurements of a multi-mode hybrid pixel detector ASIC for radiation detection (United States)

    Wong, W. S.; Anton, G.; Ballabriga, R.; Blaj, G.; Böhnel, M.; Campbell, M.; Gabor, T.; Heijne, E.; Llopart, X.; Michel, T.; Ritter, I.; Poikela, T.; Sievers, P.; Tlustos, L.; Valerio, P.


    We present the first electrical measurements of an application-specific integrated circuit (ASIC) to be used in a hybrid pixel detector intended for dosimetry and radiation detection. The dosimeter has three programmable modes of operation: photon counting mode, energy integration mode, and dosimetry mode. The ASIC comprises a matrix of 16 by 16 (256 total) square pixels of 220 μm pitch, providing 12.4 mm2 of segmented active area. Each pixel can be configured to operate in one of the three radiation measurement modes, with programmable-depth counters and shift registers to tailor the data word size and optimise the readout frame-rate in a given mode. The individual energies of impinging photons are determined through programmable analogue energy threshold discrimination, time over threshold measurement, or a combination thereof. Furthermore, the dosimetry mode contains 16 digital energy thresholds and automatically sorts data into 16 corresponding energy bin registers. The chip's output is therefore pre-processed charge spectra of the radiation field. This paper discusses results from measurements taken using programmable test-pulses to inject controlled stimuli into the pixel circuits.

  6. Radiation Hard Hybrid Pixel Detectors, and a bbbar Cross Section Measurement at the CMS Experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Sibille, Jennifer Ann; Rohe, Tilman Volker


    Measurements of heavy flavor quark production at hadron colliders provide agood test of the perturbative quantum chromodynamics (pQCD) theory. Itis also essential to have a good understanding of the heavy quark productionin the search for new physics. Heavy quarks contribute to backgrounds andsignals in measurements of higher mass objects, such as the Higgs boson. Akey component to each of these measurements is good vertex resolution. Inorder to ensure reliable operation of the pixel detector, as well as confidencein the results of analyses utilizing it, it is important to study the effects ofthe radiation on the detector.In the first part of this dissertation, the design of the CMS silicon pixeldetector is described. Emphasis is placed on the effects of the high radiation environment on the detector operation. Measurements of the chargecollection efficiency, interpixel capacitance, and other properties of the pixelsensors as a function of the radiation damage are presented.In the second part, a measurem...

  7. Measurements on Concorde of the Cosmic Radiation Field at Aviation Altitudes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bartlett, D.T.; Hager, L.G.; Irvine, D.; Bagshaw, M


    The results are reported of the first three years of a five year measurement programme of average route doses on board Concorde. Measurements of the complex cosmic radiation field are made with a passive survey meter comprising thermoluminescent detectors and etched track detectors. The 15% determination level for total dose equivalent is 100 {mu}Sv. The evidence is that the passive survey meter provides a reliable determination of route dose. The average route effective dose for a return flight by Concorde between London and New York measured during the period January 1997 to October 1999, was 74 {mu}Sv. (author)

  8. A Leakage Current-based Measurement of the Radiation Damage in the ATLAS Pixel Detector

    CERN Document Server

    Gorelov, Igor; The ATLAS collaboration


    A measurement has been made of the radiation damage incurred by the ATLAS Pixel Detector barrel silicon modules from the beginning of operations through the end of 2012. This translates to hadronic fluence received over the full period of operation at energies up to and including 8 TeV. The measurement is based on a per-module measurement of the silicon sensor leakage current. The results are presented as a function of integrated luminosity and compared to predictions by the Hamburg Model. This information can be used to predict limits on the lifetime of the Pixel Detector due to current, for various operating scenarios.

  9. Measurements of the radiation environment from CREDO-II on STRV & APEX (United States)

    Dyer, C. S.; Watson, C. J.; Peerless, C. L.; Sims, A. J.; Barth, J.


    The Cosmic Radiation Environment and Dosimetry experiments (CREDO) have now been operational in complementary orbits onboard the Advanced Photovoltaics & Electronics Experiment Spacecraft and Space Technology Research Vehicle since the summer of 1994 enabling extensive comparisons of measured dose and linear energy transfer (LET) spectra with the standard environment models. Measurements have been made at a range of shielding depths and detailed spacecraft models are employed. Significant discrepancies are seen for the outer-belt electron component which shows large time variations. Shielding effects are shown to be highly significant for both dose and LET spectra. Even allowing for this the measured LET spectra are somewhat below the predictions for solar minimum.

  10. NA-NET numerical analysis net

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dongarra, J. [Tennessee Univ., Knoxville, TN (United States). Dept. of Computer Science]|[Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Rosener, B. [Tennessee Univ., Knoxville, TN (United States). Dept. of Computer Science


    This report describes a facility called NA-NET created to allow numerical analysts (na) an easy method of communicating with one another. The main advantage of the NA-NET is uniformity of addressing. All mail is addressed to the Internet host ```` at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Hence, members of the NA-NET do not need to remember complicated addresses or even where a member is currently located. As long as moving members change their e-mail address in the NA-NET everything works smoothly. The NA-NET system is currently located at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. It is running on the same machine that serves netlib. Netlib is a separate facility that distributes mathematical software via electronic mail. For more information on netlib consult, or send the one-line message ``send index`` to netlib{at} The following report describes the current NA-NET system from both a user`s perspective and from an implementation perspective. Currently, there are over 2100 members in the NA-NET. An average of 110 mail messages pass through this facility daily.

  11. NA-NET numerical analysis net

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dongarra, J. (Tennessee Univ., Knoxville, TN (United States). Dept. of Computer Science Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)); Rosener, B. (Tennessee Univ., Knoxville, TN (United States). Dept. of Computer Science)


    This report describes a facility called NA-NET created to allow numerical analysts (na) an easy method of communicating with one another. The main advantage of the NA-NET is uniformity of addressing. All mail is addressed to the Internet host'' at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Hence, members of the NA-NET do not need to remember complicated addresses or even where a member is currently located. As long as moving members change their e-mail address in the NA-NET everything works smoothly. The NA-NET system is currently located at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. It is running on the same machine that serves netlib. Netlib is a separate facility that distributes mathematical software via electronic mail. For more information on netlib consult, or send the one-line message send index'' to netlib{at} The following report describes the current NA-NET system from both a user's perspective and from an implementation perspective. Currently, there are over 2100 members in the NA-NET. An average of 110 mail messages pass through this facility daily.

  12. Stored-fluorography mode reduces radiation dose during cardiac catheterization measured with OSLD dosimeter (United States)

    Ting, Chien-Yi; Chen, Zhih-Cherng; Tang, Kuo-Ting; Liu, Wei-Chung; Lin, Chun-Chih; Wang, Hsin-Ell


    Coronary angiogram is an imperative tool for diagnosis of coronary artery diseases, in which cine-angiography is a commonly used method. Although the angiography proceeds under radiation, the potential risk of radiation exposure for both the patients and the operators was seldom noticed. In this study, the absorbed radiation dose in stored-fluorography mode was compared with that in cine-angiography mode by using optically simulated luminescent dosimeters to realize their effects on radiation dose. Patients received coronary angiogram via radial artery approach were randomized into the stored-fluorography group (N=30) or the cine-angiography group (N=30). The excluded criteria were: 1. women at pregnancy or on breast feeding, 2. chronic kidney diseases with glomerular filtration rate less than 60 mL/min. During the coronary angiogram, absorbed dose of the patients and the operator radiation exposure was measured with optically simulated luminescent dosimeter (OSLD). The absorbed dose of the patients in the stored-fluorography group (3.13±0.25 mGy) was apparently lower than that in the cine-angiography group (65.57±5.37 mGy; P<0.001). For the operator, a statistical difference (P<0.001) was also found between the stored-fluorography group (0.09163 μGy) and the cine-angiography (0.6519μGy). Compared with traditional cine-angiography mode, the stored-fluorography mode can apparently reduce radiation exposure of the patients and the operator in coronary angiogram.

  13. Extending measurements in long-term permanent sites using a mobile observation system: Tradeoffs between carbon sequestration and radiation budget across a climatic gradient (United States)

    Ramati, Efrat; Rohatyn, Shani; Rotenberg, Eyal; Tatarinov, Fyodor; Yakir, Dan


    Recent observations from the semi-arid region in Israel showed that conversion of the local sparse shrubland to pine forest resulted in greatly increased surface radiation load due to reduced canopy albedo combined with reduced emission of thermal radiations, which overwhelmed the beneficial effects of the relatively high rates of the forest carbon sequestration. Here we extend this study across the local climatic gradient, and test the hypothesis that increased carbon sequestration and reduced differences in surface radiation budgets along the precipitation gradient, diminish the surface effects of forestation while enhancing the benefits of carbon sequestration. We used a custom-built mobile laboratory (for eddy-flux and surface radiation measurements) on a campaign basis (about two weeks per site repeated along the seasonal cycle) to compare surface-atmosphere radiative (short- and long-wave radiation) and non-radiative (net carbon uptake, NEE, evapotranspiration, ET, and sensible heat, H) fluxes in three paired sites of pine forest (Pinus halepensis) and nearby non-forested ecosystems with mean annual precipitation/temperature of 291/19.5, 543/20.8, and 755/16.4 mm/˚C, respectively. Forests NEE and ET increased with increasing precipitation along the gradient from 0.8, to 1.5 gC m-2d-1, and 0.7 to 1.3 mmol H2O m-2s-1. Forests albedo did not changed along the gradient or along the seasonal cycle (αF ~0.12), while shrub land albedo (αS) varied along the gradient and the seasonal cycle due in part to variability in soil types (from 0.31 to 0.19, on average for dry and wet sites). Sensible heat flux did not markedly changed (HF~110 Wm-2 and HS~60 Wm-2), and the net thermal radiation emission along the climatic gradient increased in the forests (-90, to -105 Wm-2) and decreased in the shrub land (-112 to -104 Wm-2). The results showed, on average, enhanced carbon sink associated with forestation of shrub land (ΔNEEF-S) increased with precipitation (from near

  14. Passive and Active Radiation Measurements Capability at the INL Zero Power Physics Reactor (ZPPR) Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robert Neibert; John Zabriskie; Collin Knight; James L. Jones


    The Zero Power Physics Reactor (ZPPR) facility is a Department of Energy facility located in the Idaho National Laboratory’s (INL) Materials and Fuels Complex. It contains various nuclear and non-nuclear materials that are available to support many radiation measurement assessments. User-selected, single material, nuclear and non-nuclear materials can be readily utilized with ZPPR clamshell containers with almost no criticality concerns. If custom, multi-material configurations are desired, the ZPPR clamshell or an approved aluminum Inspection Object (IO) Box container may be utilized, yet each specific material configuration will require a criticality assessment. As an example of the specialized material configurations possible, the National Nuclear Security Agency’s Office of Nuclear Verification (NNSA/NA 243) has sponsored the assembly of six material configurations. These are shown in the Appendixes and have been designated for semi-permanent storage that can be available to support various radiation measurement applications.

  15. A new measurement method for separating airborne and structureborne noise radiated by aircraft type panels (United States)

    Mcgary, M. C.


    The theoretical basis for and experimental validation of a measurement method for separating airborne and structure borne noise radiated by aircraft type panels are presented. An extension of the two microphone, cross spectral, acoustic intensity method combined with existing theory of sound radiation of thin shell structures of various designs, is restricted to the frequency range below the coincidence frequency of the structure. Consequently, the method lends itself to low frequency noise problems such as propeller harmonics. Both an aluminum sheet and two built up aircraft panel designs (two aluminum panels with frames and stringers) with and without added damping were measured. Results indicate that the method is quick, reliable, inexpensive, and can be applied to thin shell structures of various designs.

  16. Measurement and analysis for optical radiation of glow discharge plasma at atmospheric pressure (United States)

    Ren, Qinglei; Lin, Qi


    The optical radiation measurement and analysis to the glow discharge plasma at atmospheric pressure have been done in the paper. The low temperature plasma due to atmospheric pressure glow discharge (APGD) in air has been produced on the planar surface of designed electrode plate. The optical radiation spectra of the plasma produced in two kinds of electrode plats with different power values loaded have been measured and sampled with the minitype grating spectrograph system. The acquired spectra data are processed averagely and analyzed. The results of analysis indicate that the optical characteristic of the APGD plasma is related to the loaded power and layout of the electrode plate. This shows that it is feasible to describe the characteristic parameters of APGD plasma qualitatively and control the strength of the APGD plasma quantitatively by the obtained relationship, which provides a convenient approach for utilizing APGD plasma effectively and also establishes some foundation to investigate APGD plasma further.

  17. Effect of substrate on the results of measuring coating thickness according to radiation scattered by substrate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nedavnij, O.I.; Khripunov, L.Z. (Tomskij Politekhnicheskij Inst. (USSR). Nauchno-Issledovatel' skij Inst. Ehlektronnoj Introskopii)


    The effect of a substrate on the results of measuring tantalum coating thickness in two-layer compositions according to gamma radiation scattered by the substrate is studied. It is shown that by means of an albedo-radiometer realizing the physical model absorber-scatterer one can determine the thickness (application uniformity) of tantalum coatings up to 150-300 depending on the substrate material (plexiglas, aluminium, iron, copper). In case of testing coatings on substrates of alloys and high-alloy steels in order to ensure high accuracy of measurement it is expedient with the above albedo-radiometer to determine the value of the backscattered radiation flux for the substrate before coating application.

  18. Study of the clinical thermoluminescent dosimeter in the direct measurement of radiation absorbed dose for radioimmunotherapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chiou, R.K.; Wessels, B.W.; Woodson, Mildred; Limas, Catherine (Veterans Affairs Medical Center, Minneapolis, MN (USA) George Washington Univ. Medical Center, Washington, DC (USA). Div. of Radiation Oncology and Biophysics)


    One of the major obstacles facing radioimmunotherapy (RIT) is the lack of a device to measure directly tumor and normal tissue radiation absorbed dose. Calculations based on the clearance and imaging scans have several limitations; hence we design and fabricate a sheathed clinical thermoluminescent dosimeter (TLD) for the measurement of absorbed dose by implantation in humans. Preclinical studies are performed in nine normal rabbits. Complete blood count, body temperature monitoring, clinical observation and necropsy show no untoward effects from the TLD. Consistent bone marrow radiation doses are noted in the four rabbits receiving {sup 131}I-labeled monoclonal antibody A6H. By using up to 20 clinical TLDs in one sheath, it will be possible to determine macroscopic heterogeneities in organs undergoing RIT. (author).

  19. Measurement Of Solar Radiation at New Delhi, High Altitude Observatory, Hanle and Maitri Antarctica (United States)

    Jain, S. L.; Arya, B. C.

    The measurement of solar radiation plays an important role in climate and environmental change studies. The enhanced UV-B radiations at the ground level has the potential to cause adverse biological and environmental impacts. The amount of UV-B radiation at ground level depends on various temporal, spatial and meteorological factors such as time of the day, season, altitude, clouds, surface albedo, ozone, aerosols, etc. The risks for the human health, plant, animals and material are growing because of high exposition of the solar radiation which is caused by ozone depletion and other anthropogenic activities. A limited measurements have been made at high altitudes and Antarctica which are very crucial to inhabitants of these locations. In view of the above, measurements of solar radiation along with other parameters were carried out at Leh (34°77' N, 77°36' E), 3311 meter above mean sea level as well as at Indian Astronomical Observatory , Leh / Hanle ( Indian Institute of Astrophysics, Bangalore), Hanle (Mount Saraswati), Jammu and Kashmir (India) (32°43' N, 77°34' E), 4467 meter above mean sea level during July 13-31, 1999, June 2000 and July 2003 in a campaign mode. These measurements are first of its kind at a unique location well deep inside the troposphere as it happens to be one of the highest observatory in the world. The regular measurements are also being carried out at NPL, New Delhi(280 65^' N, 770 21^' E) and Maitri, Antarctica(70.440 S, 11.450 E). Also the data were collected during our voyage to Antarctica to cover latitudinal distribution of these parameters from Goa, India (15.240 N, 73.420 E) to Maitri, Antarctica (70.440 S, 11.450 E) using a highly sophisticated and microprocessor based compact hand held sun photometer consisting of five filter channels at 300, 305, 312, 940 and 1020 nm to measure solar radiation at all the sites. The measurements were used to derive total column ozone, water vapour and aerosol optical depth etc. The solar

  20. Infrared response measurements on radiation-damaged Si/Li/ detectors. (United States)

    Sher, A. H.; Liu, Y. M.; Keery, W. J.


    The improved infrared response (IRR) technique has been used to qualitatively compare radiation effects on Si(Li) detectors with energy levels reported for silicon in the literature. Measurements have been made on five commercial silicon detectors and one fabricated in-house, both before and after irradiation with fast neutrons, 1.9-MeV protons, and 1.6-MeV electrons. Effects dependent upon the extent of radiation damage have been observed. It seems likely that the photo-EMF, or photo-voltage, effect is the basic mechanism for the observation of IRR in p-i-n diodes with a wide i-region. Experimental characteristics of the IRR measurement are in agreement with those of the photovoltage effect.

  1. Distributed optical fibre temperature measurements in a low dose rate radiation environment based on Rayleigh backscattering (United States)

    Faustov, A.; Gussarov, A.; Wuilpart, M.; Fotiadi, A. A.; Liokumovich, L. B.; Kotov, O. I.; Zolotovskiy, I. O.; Tomashuk, A. L.; Deschoutheete, T.; Mégret, P.


    On-line monitoring of environmental conditions in nuclear facilities is becoming a more and more important problem. Standard electronic sensors are not the ideal solution due to radiation sensitivity and difficulties in installation of multiple sensors. In contrast, radiation-hard optical fibres can sustain very high radiation doses and also naturally offer multi-point or distributed monitoring of external perturbations. Multiple local electro-mechanical sensors can be replaced by just one measuring fibre. At present, there are over four hundred operational nuclear power plants (NPPs) in the world 1. Operating experience has shown that ineffective control of the ageing degradation of major NPP components can threaten plant safety and also plant life. Among those elements, cables are vital components of I&C systems in NPPs. To ensure their safe operation and predict remaining life, environmental monitoring is necessary. In particular, temperature and radiation dose are considered to be the two most important parameters. The aim of this paper is to assess experimentally the feasibility of optical fibre temperature measurements in a low doserate radiation environment, using a commercially available reflectometer based on Rayleigh backscattering. Four different fibres were installed in the Sub-Pile Room of the BR2 Material testing nuclear reactor in Mol, Belgium. This place is man-accessible during the reactor shut-down, allowing easy fibre installation. When the reactor operates, the dose-rates in the room are in a range 0.005-5 Gy/h with temperatures of 40-60 °C, depending on the location. Such a surrounding is not much different to some "hot" environments in NPPs, where I&C cables are located.

  2. Spatio-temporal representativeness of ground-based downward solar radiation measurements (United States)

    Schwarz, Matthias; Wild, Martin; Folini, Doris


    Surface solar radiation (SSR) is most directly observed with ground based pyranometer measurements. Besides measurement uncertainties, which arise from the pyranometer instrument itself, also errors attributed to the limited spatial representativeness of observations from single sites for their large-scale surrounding have to be taken into account when using such measurements for energy balance studies. In this study the spatial representativeness of 157 homogeneous European downward surface solar radiation time series from the Global Energy Balance Archive (GEBA) and the Baseline Surface Radiation Network (BSRN) were examined for the period 1983-2015 by using the high resolution (0.05°) surface solar radiation data set from the Satellite Application Facility on Climate Monitoring (CM-SAF SARAH) as a proxy for the spatiotemporal variability of SSR. By correlating deseasonalized monthly SSR time series form surface observations against single collocated satellite derived SSR time series, a mean spatial correlation pattern was calculated and validated against purely observational based patterns. Generally decreasing correlations with increasing distance from station, with high correlations (R2 = 0.7) in proximity to the observational sites (±0.5°), was found. When correlating surface observations against time series from spatially averaged satellite derived SSR data (and thereby simulating coarser and coarser grids), very high correspondence between sites and the collocated pixels has been found for pixel sizes up to several degrees. Moreover, special focus was put on the quantification of errors which arise in conjunction to spatial sampling when estimating the temporal variability and trends for a larger region from a single surface observation site. For 15-year trends on a 1° grid, errors due to spatial sampling in the order of half of the measurement uncertainty for monthly mean values were found.

  3. Introduction of Nuclear Instrumentations and Radiation Measurements in Experimental Fast Reactor 「JOYO」


    大戸 敏弘; 鈴木 惣十


    This report introduces the nuclear instrumentation system and major R&D (research and development) activities using radiation measurement techniques in Experimental Fast Reactor "JOYO". In the introduction of the nuclear instrumentation system, following items are described; (1)system function (2)roles as a reactor plant equipment (3)specifications and charactelistics of neutron detectors, (4)construction and layout of the system. For reactor dosimetry at various irradiation tests and surveil...

  4. Radiative lifetime measurements and oscillator strengths of astrophysical interest in HoIII


    Zhang, Zhiguo; Somesfalean, Gabriel; Svanberg, Sune; Palmeri, P.; Quinet, P.; Biemont, E.


    Radiative lifetimes of three long-lived levels belonging to the 4f(10)5d configuration of Ho III have been measured, for the first time, using the time-resolved laser-induced fluorescence technique. A good agreement between the experimental lifetimes and theoretical results obtained within a multiconfigurational pseudo-relativistic Hartree-Fock (HFR) approach including core-polarization (CP) effects is observed provided an adequate scaling factor is applied to the <4f&VERBAR;r&VERB...

  5. Solar absorption estimated from surface radiation measurements and collocated satellite products (United States)

    Hakuba, M. Z.; Wild, M.; Folini, D.; Sanchez-Lorenzo, A.; Schaepman-Strub, G.


    The Earth's climate and life-relevant processes are governed by the incoming solar radiation as part of the global energy balance. Changes in the atmospheric energy budget largely affect the global climate and hydrological cycle, but the quantification of the different energy balance components is still afflicted with large uncertainties. The overall aim of the research presented here is an improved understanding of the mean state and spatio-temporal variations of the global energy balance through reducing the uncertainties in one of its components, i.e., the absorption of solar radiation within the climate system. To quantify the solar absorption at the surface and within the atmospheric column, we combine the worldwide surface radiation measurements of the Global Energy Balance archive (GEBA) and Baseline Surface Radiation Network (BSRN) with collocated satellite-inferred surface albedo and top-of-atmosphere (TOA) radiation data (MODIS, CERES). Our analysis of the present mean state, temporal and spatial variability during the last decade (2000-2010) focuses on Europe and Asia, and will expand worldwide in a later step. We examined the quality and homogeneity of station records beyond 2000 provided by GEBA to identify a subset of station records of sufficient quality. We find the vast majority of monthly records to be suitable for our purposes. The considered GEBA sites indicate overall positive trends in Europe, and mostly negative trends over Asia during the last decade (2000-2010). To derive the surface solar absorption at the measurement sites, we intend to combine the shortwave fluxes with the collocated surface albedo from MODIS. The MODIS products include the so-called black-sky albedo (under the assumption of direct radiation only) and white-sky albedo (under diffuse isotropic conditions). The majority of GEBA sites comprises only global radiation data, which do not differentiate between direct and diffuse components. To determine solar absorption from

  6. An Automated System for Measuring Microphysical and Radiative Cloud Characteristics from a Tethered Balloon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dr. Paul Lawson


    OAK-B135 The rate of climate change in polar regions is now felt to be a harbinger of possible global warming. Long-lived, relatively thin stratus clouds play a predominant role in transmitting solar radiation and trapping long wave radiation emitted from open water and melt ponds. In situ measurements of microphysical and radiative properties of Arctic and Antarctic stratus clouds are needed to validate retrievals from remote measurements and simulations using numerical models. While research aircraft can collect comprehensive microphysical and radiative data in clouds, the duration of these aircraft is relatively short (up to about 12 hours). During the course of the Phase II research, a tethered balloon system was developed that supports miniaturized meteorological, microphysical and radiation sensors that can collect data in stratus clouds for days at a time. The tethered balloon system uses a 43 cubic meter balloon to loft a 17 kg sensor package to altitudes u p to 2 km. Power is supplied to the instrument package via two copper conductors in the custom tether. Meteorological, microphysical and radiation data are recorded by the sensor package. Meteorological measurements include pressure, temperature, humidity, wind speed and wind direction. Radiation measurements are made using a 4-pi radiometer that measures actinic flux at 500 and 800 nm. Position is recorded using a GPS receiver. Microphysical data are obtained using a miniaturized version of an airborne cloud particle imager (CPI). The miniaturized CPI measures the size distribution of water drops and ice crystals from 9 microns to 1.4 mm. Data are recorded onboard the sensor package and also telemetered via a 802.11b wireless communications link. Command signals can also be sent to the computer in the sensor package via the wireless link. In the event of a broken tether, a GMRS radio link to the balloon package is used to heat a wire that burns 15 cm opening in the top of the balloon. The balloon and

  7. Electronic instrumentation for the nuclear radiation measurement; Instrumentacion electronica para la medicion de la radiacion nuclear

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramirez J, F.J


    This work presents the obtained results in the research, development and construction of the electronic instrumentation required for the measurement of the essential characteristics of the nuclear radiation: The quantity of radiation and its energy components. With this information, many practical instruments can be developed and applied in different fields of science and technology. In this work, some instruments were developed for their application in the areas of medicine, industry, and particle physics research. Several measurement systems based on PIN type diodes are proposed for: a) the measurement of the operational characteristics of the X-ray machines and the X-rays emitted in medical radio-diagnostic, b) X-ray spectroscopy and c) radiation spectroscopy of charged particles. The contribution of this work is, precisely, the development of new instruments that use the PIN diode as the sensorial element. In this way, existing problems in nuclear instrumentation are overcame, specially in the fields of medical physics and particle physics. Likewise, different types of charge and current preamplifiers, with a high signal-to-noise ratio, were developed for these instruments. (Author)

  8. Determination of electron bunch shape using transition radiation and phase-energy measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crosson, E.R.; Berryman, K.W.; Richman, B.A. [Stanford Univ., CA (United States)] [and others


    We present data comparing microbunch temporal information obtained from electron beam phase-energy measurements with that obtained from transition radiation auto-correlation measurements. The data was taken to resolve some of the ambiguities in previous transition radiation results. By measuring the energy spectrum of the electron beam as a function of its phase relative to the accelerating field, phase-energy information was extracted. This data was analyzed using tomographic techniques to reconstruct the phase-space distribution assuming an electron energy dependence of E({var_phi}) = E{sub o} + E{sub acc}cos({var_phi}), where E{sub o} is the energy of an electron entering the field, E{sub acc} is the peak energy gain, and {var_phi} is the phase between the crest of the RF wave and an electron. Temporal information about the beam was obtained from the phase space distribution by taking the one dimensional projection along the time axis. We discuss the use of this technique to verify other transition radiation analysis methods.

  9. The use of clinical broadband UV radiometers for optical radiation hazard measurements. (United States)

    Foy, Trevelyan


    The implementation of the UK Control of Artificial Optical Radiation at Work Regulations 2010 requires the employer to perform a risk assessment of workers' exposure to UV radiation from phototherapy equipment in the hospital environment. The objective of this study was to demonstrate that, where the source spectrum is known, an assessment of exposure to UV sources commonly used in hospitals, including assessment of reflections and transmission through personal protective equipment, may be performed with sufficient reliability by radiometer measurement rather than by complex spectroradiometric measurements. An intercomparison of radiometer and spectroradiometer measurements of exposure to UV sources was carried out. Direct exposure was considered, as well as exposure to reflected or scattered beams and that transmitted through eyewear. Assessment by radiometer of direct exposure and exposure to reflections demonstrated an acceptable measurement error in the context of the inherent uncertainty in the assumptions of the exposure scenario. Assessment of transmitted beams may result in a greater measurement error due to spectral mismatch; however, for typical exposure scenarios the error remained acceptable in comparison with the exposure limit value. The methodology presented reduces the complexity of the measurement of UV hazard levels for common phototherapy equipment.

  10. A new method to estimate photosynthetic parameters through net assimilation rate-intercellular space CO2 concentration (A-Ci ) curve and chlorophyll fluorescence measurements. (United States)

    Moualeu-Ngangue, Dany P; Chen, Tsu-Wei; Stützel, Hartmut


    Gas exchange (GE) and chlorophyll fluorescence (CF) measurements are widely used to noninvasively study photosynthetic parameters, for example the rates of maximum Rubisco carboxylation (Vcmax ), electron transport rate (J), daytime respiration (Rd ) and mesophyll conductance (gm ). Existing methods for fitting GE data (net assimilation rate-intercellular space CO2 concentration (A-Ci ) curve) are based on two assumptions: gm is unvaried with CO2 concentration in the intercellular space (Ci ); and light absorption (α) and the proportion of quanta absorbed by photosystem II (β) are constant in the data set. These may result in significant bias in estimating photosynthetic parameters. To avoid the above-mentioned hypotheses, we present a new method for fitting A-Ci curves and CF data simultaneously. This method was applied to a data set obtained from cucumber (Cucumis sativus) leaves of various leaf ages and grown under eight different light conditions. The new method had significantly lower root mean square error and a lower rate of failures compared with previously published methods (6.72% versus 24.1%, respectively) and the effect of light conditions on Vcmax and J was better observed. Furthermore, the new method allows the estimation of a new parameter, the fraction of incoming irradiance harvested by photosystem II, and the dependence of gm on Ci . © 2016 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2016 New Phytologist Trust.

  11. Measurement of therapeutic photon beams-induced Cerenkov radiation generated in PMMA- and PS-based plastic optical fibers (United States)

    Lee, Bongsoo; Shin, Sang Hun; Yoo, Wook Jae; Jang, Kyoung Won


    In this study, we characterized Cerenkov radiation generated in polystyrene (PS)- and polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA)-based plastic optical fibers (POFs) to select an adequate optical fiber for producing Cerenkov radiation. To determine the relationship between the absorbed dose and the intensity of Cerenkov radiation, we calculated the energy depositions of photon beams and fluxes of electrons inducing Cerenkov radiation using the Monte Carlo N-Particle eXtended code. Also, intensities of Cerenkov radiation generated in PS- and PMMA-based POFs were measured as functions of dose rate and monitor unit. At last, therapeutic photon beams-induced Cerenkov radiation in PS- and PMMA-based POFs was measured according to depths of solid water phantom.

  12. Assessing the net effect of long-term drainage on a permafrost ecosystem through year-round eddy-covariance flux measurements (United States)

    Kittler, F.; Heimann, M.; Goeckede, M.; Zimov, S. A.; Zimov, N.


    Permafrost regions in the Northern high latitudes play a key role in the carbon budget of the earth system because of their massive carbon reservoir and the uncertain feedback processes with future climate change. For an improved understanding of mechanisms and drivers dominating permafrost carbon cycling, more observations in high-latitude regions are needed. Particularly the contribution of wintertime fluxes to the annual carbon budget and the impact of disturbances on biogeochemical and biogeophysical ecosystem properties, and the resulting modification of the carbon cycle, have rarely been studied to date. In summer of 2013, we established a new eddy-covariance station for continuous, year-round monitoring of carbon fluxes and their environmental drivers near Cherskii in Northeast Siberia (68.75°N, 161.33°E). Parts of the observation area have been disturbed by drainage since 2004, altering the soil water conditions in a way that is expected for degrading ice-rich permafrost under a warming climate. With two eddy-covariance towers running in parallel over the disturbed (drained) area and a reference area nearby, respectively, we can directly infer the disturbance effect on the carbon cycle budgets and the dominating biogeochemical mechanisms. This study presents findings based on 16 months of continuous eddy-covariance CO2 flux measurements (July 2013 - October 2014) for both observation areas. At both towers, we observed systematic, non-zero flux contributions outside the growing seasons that significantly altered annual CO2 budgets. A direct comparison of fluxes between the two disturbance regimes indicates a net reduction of the sink strength for CO2 in the disturbed area during the growing season, mostly caused by reduced CO2 uptake with low water levels in late summer. Moreover, shifts in soil temperatures and snow cover caused by reduced soil water levels result in lower net CO2 emissions during the winter at the drained area, which is partly

  13. Net Ecosystem Carbon Flux (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Net Ecosystem Carbon Flux is defined as the year-over-year change in Total Ecosystem Carbon Stock, or the net rate of carbon exchange between an ecosystem and the...

  14. A measurement of the low frequency spectrum of the cosmic microwave background radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Levin, S.M.


    As part of a larger effort to measure the spectrum of the Cosmic Background Radiation (CBR) at low frequencies, the intensity of the CBR has been measured at a frequency of 1.410 GHz. The measurement was made by comparing the power received from the sky with the power received from a specially designed cooled calibration target with known properties. Sources of radiation other than the CBR were then identified and subtracted to calculate the antenna temperature of the CBR at 1.410 GHz. The instrument used to measure the CBR was a total-power microwave radiometer with a 25 MHz bandwidth centered at 1.410 GHz. The radiometer had a noise temperature of 80 K, and sufficient data were taken that radiometer noise did not contribute significantly to the total measurement error. The sources of error were predominantly systematic in nature, and the largest error was due to uncertainty in the reflection characteristics of the cold-load calibrator. Identification and subtraction of signals from the Galaxy (0.7 K) and the Earth's atmosphere (0.8 K) were also significant parts of the data reduction and error analysis. The brightness temperature of the Cosmic Background Radiation at 1.410 GHz is 222. +- 0.55 Kelvin. The spectrum of the CBR, as determined by this measurement and other published results, is consistent with a blackbody spectrum of temperature 2.741 +- 0.016. Constraints on the amount by which the CBR spectrum deviates from Planck spectrum are used to place limits on energy releases early in the history of the universe. 55 refs., 25 figs., 8 tabs.

  15. Measurements of Neutron Radiation on the International Space Station: ISS-34 to ISS-40 (United States)

    Smith, Martin

    Radiation protection associated with human spaceflight is an important issue that becomes more vital as both the length of the mission and the distance from Earth increase. Radiation in deep space is a mixed field due to galactic cosmic rays (GCRs) and solar particle events (SPEs). In low-Earth orbit (LEO), protons and electrons trapped in the Van Allen radiation belts also make a major contribution to the radiation field. Neutrons encountered in LEO, for example on the International Space Station (ISS), are produced by nuclear interactions of GCRs and trapped protons with various elements in the walls and interior components of the spacecraft, and by neutron albedo after GCRs are incident on the Earth’s atmosphere. Previous investigations using bubble detectors (on Russian satellites, the Mir space station, the space shuttle, and the ISS) have shown that neutrons contribute significantly to the total biologically-equivalent radiation dose received by astronauts. As part of the ongoing Matroshka-R experiment, bubble detectors have been used to characterize neutron radiation on the ISS, starting with the ISS-13 mission in 2006. Two types of bubble detectors have been used for these experiments, namely space personal neutron dosimeters (SPNDs) and the space bubble-detector spectrometer (SBDS). The SBDS is a set of six detectors with different energy thresholds, which is used to determine the neutron energy spectrum. During the ISS-34 to ISS-40 expeditions (2012 - 2014) bubble detectors were used in both the US Orbital Segment (USOS) and the Russian segment of the ISS. The Radi-N2 experiment, a repeat of the 2009 Radi-N investigation, started during ISS-34 and included repeated measurements in four USOS modules: Columbus, the Japanese Experiment Module, the US Laboratory, and Node 2. Parallel experiments using a second set of detectors in the Russian segment included the first characterization of the neutron spectrum inside the tissue-equivalent Matroshka-R phantom

  16. Development of a research reactor power measurement system using Cherenkov radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salles, Brício M.; Mesquita, Amir Z., E-mail:, E-mail: [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN/CNEN-MG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)


    Nuclear research reactors are usually located in open pools, to allow visibility to the core and bluish luminosity of Cherenkov radiation. Usually the thermal power released in these reactors is monitored by chambers that measure the neutron flux, as it is proportional to the power. There are other methods used for power measurement, such as monitoring the core temperature and the energy balance in the heat exchanger. The brightness of Cherenkov's radiation is caused by the emission of visible electromagnetic radiation (in the blue band) by charged particles that pass through an insulating medium (water in nuclear research reactors) at a speed higher than that of light in this medium. This effect was characterized by Pavel Cherenkov, which earned him the Nobel Prize for Physics in 1958. The project's objective is to develop an innovative and alternative method for monitoring the power of nuclear research reactors. It will be performed by analyzing and monitoring the intensity of luminosity generated by Cherenkov radiation in the reactor core. This method will be valid for powers up to 250 kW, since above that value the luminosity saturates, as determined by previous studies. The reactor that will be used to test the method is the TRIGA, located at Nuclear Technology Development Center (CDTN), which currently has a maximum operating power of 250 kW. This project complies with International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) recommendations on reactor safety. It will give more redundancy and diversification in this measure and will not interfere with its operation. (author)

  17. Automated Directional Measurement System for the Acquisition of Thermal Radiative Measurements of Vegetative Canopies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhongbo Su


    Full Text Available The potential for directional optical and thermal imagery is very large. Field measurements have been performed with a goniometer on which thermal instruments were attached. In order to reduce dynamical effects the goniometer was adjusted to run in automated mode, for zenith and azimuthal direction. Directional measurements were performed over various crops with increasing heterogeneity. The improvements to the goniometer proved successful. For all the crops, except the vineyard, the acquisition of the directional thermal brightness temperatures of the crops went successfully. The large scale heterogeneity of the vineyard proved to be larger then the goniometer was capable of. The potential of directional thermal brightness temperatures has been proven.

  18. Accurate determination of gain and radiation patterns by radar cross-section measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Appel-Hansen, Jørgen


    Using a two-port network and geometrical interpretation of equations involved in antenna scattering, it can be derived that antenna characteristics may be determined in properly designed scattering measurements. As an alternative to this approach it is shown that measurement procedures for gain...... and radiation pattern can be developed from simple considerations of the receiving, transmitting, and scattering properties of antennas. The main advantages of the technique are that no gain standard is required and a disturbing feedline to the antenna can be avoided. In addition to this the technique seems...

  19. Radiation Pattern Reconstruction from the Near-Field Amplitude Measurement on Two Planes Using PSO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. Novacek


    Full Text Available The paper presents a new approach to the radiation patternreconstruction from near-field amplitude only measurement over a twoplanar scanning surfaces. This new method for antenna patternreconstruction is based on the global optimization PSO (Particle SwarmOptimization. The paper presents appropriate phaseless measurementrequirements and phase retrieval algorithm together with a briefdescription of the particle swarm optimization method. In order toexamine the methodologies developed in this paper, phaselessmeasurement results for two different antennas are presented andcompared to results obtained by a complex measurement (amplitude andphase.

  20. Summary of round robin measurements of radiation induced conductivity in Wesgo AL995 alumina

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zinkle, S.J. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)


    This existing data on radiation induced conductivity (RIC) measurements performed on the same heat of the IEA reference ceramic insulator are summarized. Six different sets of RIC measurements have been performed on Wesgo AL995 at dose rates between 10 Gy/s and 1 MGy/s. In general, good agreement was obtained between the different groups of researchers. The data indicate that the RIC at a test temperature of 400-500{degrees}C is approximately linear with ionizing dose rate up to {approximately}1000 Gy/s, and exhibits an approximately square root dependence on dose rate between 1 kGy/s and 1 MGy/s.

  1. Measurements of the Cosmic Background Radiation Temperature at 3.3and 9.1 MM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Witebsky, C.; De Amici, G.; Smoot, G.F.; Friedman, S.D.


    The authors report the results of measurements of the cosmic background radiation temperature at wavelengths of 9.1 and 3.3 mm. The 9.1 mm result, T{sub CBR} = 2.87 {+-} 0.21 K, is in good agreement with previous results and those obtained at longer wavelengths during the same experiment. The 3.3 mm result, T{sub CBR} = 2.4 {+-} 1.0 K, is consistent with previous measurements, but has a large error due to uncertainty in the atmospheric correction.

  2. Multispectral radiation detection of small changes in target emissivity. [ice measurements on space shuttle external tank (United States)

    Gagliano, J. A.; Newton, J. M.; Schuchardt, J. M.


    An investigation into the multispectral radiation detection of small changes in target emissivity has been performed by Georgia Tech. A series of ice detection measurements on the shuttle external tank (ET) were performed using an advanced instrumentation radiometer operating at 35/95 GHz. Actual shuttle ET ice detection measurements were run at NASA's National Space Technology Laboratory (NSTL) during cryogenic fueling operations prior to orbiter engine firing tests. Investigations revealed that ET icing caused an increase in surface brightness temperature and the test results further demonstrated the usefulness of millimeter wave radiometry for the detection of ice on the ET.

  3. Measuring radiation damage dynamics by pulsed ion beam irradiation: 2016 project annual report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kucheyev, Sergei O. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)


    The major goal of this project is to develop and demonstrate a novel experimental approach to access the dynamic regime of radiation damage formation in nuclear materials. In particular, the project exploits a pulsed-ion-beam method in order to gain insight into defect interaction dynamics by measuring effective defect interaction time constants and defect diffusion lengths. For Year 3, this project had the following two major milestones: (i) the demonstration of the measurement of thermally activated defect-interaction processes by pulsed ion beam techniques and (ii) the demonstration of alternative characterization techniques to study defect dynamics. As we describe below, both of these milestones have been met.

  4. Automated directional measurement system for the acquisition of thermal radiative measurements of vegetative canopies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Timmermans, J.; Gieske, A.; Tol, van der C.; Verhoef, W.; Su, Z.


    The potential for directional optical and thermal imagery is very large. Field measurements have been performed with a goniometer on which thermal instruments were attached. In order to reduce dynamical effects the goniometer was adjusted to run in automated mode, for zenith and azimuthal direction.

  5. Measured Radiation and Background Levels During Transmission of Megawatt Electron Beams Through Millimeter Apertures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alarcon, Ricardo [Arizona State University, Glendale, AZ (United States); Balascuta, S. [Arizona State University, Glendale, AZ (United States); Benson, Stephen V. [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility, Newport News, VA (United States); Bertozzi, William [Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA (United States); Boyce, James R. [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility, Newport News, VA (United States); Cowan, Ray [Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA (United States); Douglas, David R. [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility, Newport News, VA (United States); Evtushenko, Pavel [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility, Newport News, VA (United States); Fisher, P. [Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA (United States); Ihloff, Ernest E. [Hampton University, Hampton, VA (United States); Kalantarians, Narbe [Hampton University, Hampton, VA (United States); Kelleher, Aidan Michael [Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA (United States); Krossler, W. J. [William and Mary College, Williamsburg, VA (United States); Legg, Robert A. [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility, Newport News, VA (United States); Long, Elena [University of New Hampshire, Durham, NH (United States); Milner, Richard [Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA (United States); Neil, George R. [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility, Newport News, VA (United States); Ou, Longwu [Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA (United States); Schmookler, Barack Abraham [Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA (United States); Tennant, Christopher D. [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility, Newport News, VA (United States); Tschalar, C. [Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA (United States); Williams, Gwyn P. [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility, Newport News, VA (United States); Zhang, Shukui [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility, Newport News, VA (United States)


    We report measurements of photon and neutron radiation levels observed while transmitting a 0.43 MW electron beam through millimeter-sized apertures and during beam-off, but accelerating gradient RF-on, operation. These measurements were conducted at the Free-Electron Laser (FEL) facility of the Jefferson National Accelerator Laboratory (JLab) using a 100 MeV electron beam from an energy-recovery linear accelerator. The beam was directed successively through 6 mm, 4 mm, and 2 mm diameter apertures of length 127 mm in aluminum at a maximum current of 4.3 mA (430 kW beam power). This study was conducted to characterize radiation levels for experiments that need to operate in this environment, such as the proposed DarkLight Experiment. We find that sustained transmission of a 430 kW continuous-wave (CW) beam through a 2 mm aperture is feasible with manageable beam-related backgrounds. We also find that during beam-off, RF-on operation, multipactoring inside the niobium cavities of the accelerator cryomodules is the primary source of ambient radiation when the machine is tuned for 130 MeV operation.

  6. Measurement of thermal radiation using regular glass optics and short-wave infrared detectors. (United States)

    Yoon, H W; Eppeldauer, G P


    The measurement of thermal radiation from ambient-temperature objects using short-wave infrared detectors and regular glass optics is described. The detectors are chosen to operate in the 2.0 microm to 2.5 microm atmospheric window. Selection of detectors with high shunt resistance along with the 4-stage thermo-electric cooling of the detectors to -85 degrees C results in detectivity, D*, of 4 x 10(13) cm Hz(1/2)/W which is near the background limited performance at 295 K. Furthermore, the use of regular-glass commercial optics to collect the thermal radiation results in diffraction-limited imaging. The use of a radiation thermometer constructed with these elements for the measurement of a blackbody from 20 degrees C to 50 degrees C results in noise-equivalent temperature difference (NETD) of thermal sensors also leads to lower sensitivity to the emissivity of the object in determining the temperature of the object. These elements are used to construct a calibrator for an infrared collimator, and such a system demonstrates noise-equivalent irradiances of thermal infrared detectors.

  7. Influence of pretreatment polarographically measured oxygenation levels in spontaneous canine tumors treated with radiation therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bley, C.R.; Ohlerth, S.; Wergin, M.; Achermann, R.; Kaser-Hotz, B. [Section of Diagnostic Imaging and Radiation Oncology, Vetsuisse Faculty, Univ. of Zurich (Switzerland); Roos, M. [Biostatistics, ISPM, Univ. of Zurich (Switzerland)


    Background and purpose: the level of hypoxia in primary tumors has been described to influence response to treatment. The aim of the present study was to investigate the impact of pretreatment oxygen level measurements in spontaneous canine tumors on treatment outcome. Material and methods: data of pretreatment tumor oxygenation status and local tumor response after primary radiation therapy in a group of spontaneously occurring tumors in dogs (n = 52) was collected. Radiation therapy was given with curative (14-17 x 3-3.5 Gy) or palliative intent (3 x 8 Gy or 4-5 x 6 Gy). Progression-free interval and overall survival were correlated to polarographically measured tumor oxygenation status. Results: in the curatively irradiated group, tumors with median p0{sub 2} values {<=} 10 mmHg tended to have shorter median progression-free interval compared to better oxygenated tumors (246 vs. 739 days). The same trend could be shown for overall survival (330 vs. 745 days), indicating a cutoff value in this region. In the group treated with lower doses of radiation, the level of oxygen was no longer found to be of prognostic value; however, in this group hemoglobin had a significant impact on outcome. Conclusion: in curatively irradiated spontaneous canine tumors, tumor hypoxia was found to be a prognostic indicator, independent of tumor histologies and volume. (orig.)

  8. Creation of a homogeneous plasma column by means of hohlraum radiation for ion-stopping measurements (United States)

    Faik, Steffen; Tauschwitz, Anna; Basko, Mikhail M.; Maruhn, Joachim A.; Rosmej, Olga; Rienecker, Tim; Novikov, Vladimir G.; Grushin, Alexander S.


    In this work, we present the results of two-dimensional radiation-hydrodynamics simulations of a hohlraum target whose outgoing radiation is used to produce a homogeneously ionized carbon plasma for ion-beam stopping measurements. The cylindrical hohlraum with gold walls is heated by a frequency-doubled (λl = 526.5 μm) 1.4 ns long laser pulse with the total energy of El = 180  J. At the laser spot, the peak matter and radiation temperatures of, respectively, T ≈ 380 eV and Tr ≈ 120 eV are observed. X-rays from the hohlraum heat the attached carbon foam with a mean density of ρC = 2 mg/cm3 to a temperature of T ≈ 25 eV. The simulation shows that the carbon ionization degree (Z ≈ 3.75) and its column density stay relatively stable (within variations of about ±7%) long enough to conduct the ion-stopping measurements. Also, it is found that a special attention should be paid to the shock wave, emerging from the X-ray heated copper support plate, which at later times may significantly distort the carbon column density traversed by the fast ions.

  9. High-resolution Tangential AXUV Arrays for Radiated Power Density Measurements on NSTX-U

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Delgado-Aparicio, L [PPPL; Bell, R E [PPPL; Faust, I [MIT; Tritz, K [The Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD, 21209, USA; Diallo, A [PPPL; Gerhardt, S P [PPPL; Kozub, T A [PPPL; LeBlanc, B P [PPPL; Stratton, B C [PPPL


    Precise measurements of the local radiated power density and total radiated power are a matter of the uttermost importance for understanding the onset of impurity-induced instabilities and the study of particle and heat transport. Accounting of power balance is also needed for the understanding the physics of various divertor con gurations for present and future high-power fusion devices. Poloidal asymmetries in the impurity density can result from high Mach numbers and can impact the assessment of their flux-surface-average and hence vary the estimates of P[sub]rad (r, t) and (Z[sub]eff); the latter is used in the calculation of the neoclassical conductivity and the interpretation of non-inductive and inductive current fractions. To this end, the bolometric diagnostic in NSTX-U will be upgraded, enhancing the midplane coverage and radial resolution with two tangential views, and adding a new set of poloidally-viewing arrays to measure the 2D radiation distribution. These systems are designed to contribute to the near- and long-term highest priority research goals for NSTX-U which will integrate non-inductive operation at reduced collisionality, with high-pressure, long energy-confinement-times and a divertor solution with metal walls.

  10. Low-cost teleoperator-controlled vehicle for damage assessment and radiation dose measurement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tyree, W.H.


    A low-cost, disposable, radio-controlled, remote-reading, ionizing radiation and surveillance teleoperator re-entry vehicle has been built. The vehicle carries equipment, measures radiation levels, and evaluates building conditions. The basic vehicle, radio control with amplifiers, telemetry, elevator, and video camera with monitor cost less than $2500. Velcro-mounted alpha, beta-gamma, and neutron sensing equipment is used in the present system. Many types of health physics radiation measuring equipment may be substituted on the vehicle. The system includes a black-and-white video camera to observe the environment surrounding the vehicle. The camera is mounted on a vertical elevator extendible to 11 feet above the floor. The present vehicle uses a video camera with an umbilical cord between the vehicle and the operators. Preferred operation would eliminate the umbilical. Video monitoring equipment is part of the operator control system. Power for the vehicle equipment is carried on board and supplied by sealed lead-acid batteries. Radios are powered by 9-V alkaline batteries. The radio control receiver, servo drivers, high-power amplifier and 49-MHz FM transceivers were irradiated at moderate rates with neutron and gamma doses to 3000 Rem and 300 Rem, respectively, to ensure system operation.

  11. Creation of a homogeneous plasma column by means of hohlraum radiation for ion-stopping measurements

    CERN Document Server

    Faik, Steffen; Basko, Mikhail M; Maruhn, Joachim A; Rosmej, Olga; Rienecker, Tim; Novikov, Vladimir G; Grushin, Alexander S


    In this work, we present the results of two-dimensional radiation-hydrodynamics simulations of a hohlraum target whose outgoing radiation is used to produce a homogeneously ionized carbon plasma for ion-beam stopping measurements. The cylindrical hohlraum with gold walls is heated by a frequency-doubled (\\lambda_l = 526.5 \\mu m) 1.4 ns long laser pulse with the total energy of E_l = 180 J. At the laser spot, the peak matter and radiation temperatures of, respectively, T ~ 380 eV and T_r ~ 120 eV are observed. X-rays from the hohlraum heat the attached carbon foam with a mean density of \\rho_C = 2 mg/cm^3 to a temperature of T ~ 25 eV. The simulation shows that the carbon ionization degree (Z ~ 3.75) and its column density stay relatively stable (within variations of about +-7%) long enough to conduct the ion-stopping measurements. Also, it is found that a special attention should be paid to the shock wave, emerging from the x-ray heated copper support plate, which at later times may significantly distort the ...

  12. Synchrotron radiation measurement of multiphase fluid saturations in porous media: Experimental technique and error analysis (United States)

    Tuck, David M.; Bierck, Barnes R.; Jaffé, Peter R.


    Multiphase flow in porous media is an important research topic. In situ, nondestructive experimental methods for studying multiphase flow are important for improving our understanding and the theory. Rapid changes in fluid saturation, characteristic of immiscible displacement, are difficult to measure accurately using gamma rays due to practical restrictions on source strength. Our objective is to describe a synchrotron radiation technique for rapid, nondestructive saturation measurements of multiple fluids in porous media, and to present a precision and accuracy analysis of the technique. Synchrotron radiation provides a high intensity, inherently collimated photon beam of tunable energy which can yield accurate measurements of fluid saturation in just one second. Measurements were obtained with precision of ±0.01 or better for tetrachloroethylene (PCE) in a 2.5 cm thick glass-bead porous medium using a counting time of 1 s. The normal distribution was shown to provide acceptable confidence limits for PCE saturation changes. Sources of error include heat load on the monochromator, periodic movement of the source beam, and errors in stepping-motor positioning system. Hypodermic needles pushed into the medium to inject PCE changed porosity in a region approximately ±1 mm of the injection point. Improved mass balance between the known and measured PCE injection volumes was obtained when appropriate corrections were applied to calibration values near the injection point.

  13. Near-infrared Bremsstrahlung radiation measurements in an advanced beam-driven FRC plasma (United States)

    Nations, Marcel; Gupta, Deepak; Bolte, Nathan; Thompson, Matthew C.; TAE Team


    In magnetically confined fusion plasmas, the effective ionic charge (Zeff) is a measure of plasma impurity content. Knowledge of Zeff profiles is critical since impurities can account for substantial radiative power losses. One method to determine Zeff is to measure the Bremsstrahlung continuum over a small spectral range free from line radiation. In TAE's C-2 and C-2U machines, impurities in apparently line-free regions near 523 nm overwhelmed the expected Bremsstrahlung signals and resulted in overestimated values of Zeff. The near-infrared region is less affected by impurities and better suited for accurate Bremsstrahlung continuum measurements. For C-2W, an upgraded diagnostic system will be deployed to measure Bremsstrahlung signals near 1000 nm. The near-infrared system uses a suite of silicon avalanche photodetectors paired with a Dα system to remove contributions from neutrals and attain improved Zeff estimates. A design scheme for measurements in an FRC at multiple lines-of-sight is presented and discussed.

  14. Biologically relevant physical measurements in the ice-free valleys of southern Victoria Land: soil temperature profiles and ultraviolet radiation (United States)

    Nienow, J. A.; Meyer, M. A.; Friedmann, E. I. (Principal Investigator)


    As part of the ongoing comprehensive study of the cryptoendolithic microbial community in the ice-free valleys of southern Victoria Land, thermal properties of the soil and the ultraviolet radiation regime were measured. Although soil temperature profiles have been measured in the ice-free valleys (e.g., Cameron et al. 1970; Cameron 1972), these are the first such data from higher elevations. This is apparently the first time the ultraviolet radiation regime has been measured in the Antarctic.

  15. First measurements of subpicosecond electron beam structure by autocorrelation of coherent diffraction radiation

    CERN Document Server

    Lumpkin, Alex H; Rule, D W


    We report the initial measurements of subpicosecond electron beam structure using a nonintercepting technique based on the autocorrelation of coherent diffraction radiation (CDR). A far infrared (FIR) Michelson interferometer with a Golay detector was used to obtain the autocorrelation. The radiation was generated by a thermionic rf gun beam at 40 MeV as it passed through a 5-mm-tall slit/aperture in a metal screen whose surface was at 45 deg. to the beam direction. For the observed bunch lengths of about 450 fs (FWHM) with a shorter time spike on the leading edge, peak currents of about 100 A are indicated. Also a model was developed and used to calculate the CDR from the back of two metal strips separated by a 5-mm vertical gap. The demonstrated nonintercepting aspect of this method could allow on-line bunch length characterizations to be done during free-electron laser experiments.

  16. UV/X-Ray Diffraction Radiation for non-intercepting Micron-Scale Beam Size Measurement

    CERN Document Server

    -; Lefevre, T; Karataev, P; Billing, M


    Diffraction radiation (DR) is produced when a relativistic charged particle moves in the vicinity of a medium. The electric field of the charged particle polarizes the target atoms which then oscillate, emitting radiation with a very broad spectrum. The spatial-spectral properties of DR are sensitive to a range of electron beam parameters. Furthermore, the energy loss due to DR is so small that the electron beam parameters are unchanged. Therefore DR can be used to develop non-invasive diagnostic tools. The aim of this project is to measure the transverse (vertical) beam size using incoherent DR. To achieve the micron-scale resolution required by CLIC, DR in UV and X-ray spectral-range must be investigated. During the next few years, experimental validation of such a scheme will be conducted on the CesrTA at Cornell University, USA. Here we present the current status of the experiment preparation.

  17. Spatial resolution measurement of triple-GEM detector and diffraction imaging test at synchrotron radiation (United States)

    Zhang, Y. L.; Qi, H. R.; Wen, Z. W.; Wang, H. Y.; Ouyang, Q.; Chen, Y. B.; Zhang, J.; Hu, B. T.


    A triple-GEM detector with two-dimensional readout is developed. The detector provides high position resolution for powder diffraction experiments at synchrotron radiation. Spatial resolution of the detector is measured in the lab using a 55Fe X-ray source. A resolution of about 110 μm FWHM is achieved. The energy resolution is better than 27% for 5.9 keV X-rays. The detector's validity under illumination of photons in particular energy range is verified using a Cu X-ray tube. Imaging of the head of a wire stripper with X-ray tube demonstrates its imaging ability. A diffraction imaging experiment using the sample of powder SiO2 is successfully carried out at 1W2B laboratory of Beijing Synchrotron Radiation Facility (BSRF). Different diffraction rings are clearly seen under various X-ray energies.

  18. Experimental measurements of the radiation hazards associated with manned space flights. (United States)

    Clark, B C; Adams, D A


    Tissue-equivalent ionization chambers of special design have been flown on U.S. satellites to determine dose-rate levels in space. A chamber shielded by 4.7 g/cm2 measured doses from energetic protons in the inner Van Allen belt and bremsstrahlung radiation produced by relativistic electrons from the artificial radiation belt formed in July 1962. In November 1962, the maximum dose-rate in space for this shield was 30 rad/hr. Behind 0.4 g/cm2 shielding, the dose-rate peak was 20000 rad/hr. These doses have been determined to be due to artificial electrons in most regions of space, masking the dose arising from energetic protons.

  19. Measurement of the acoustic radiation force on a sphere embedded in a soft solid

    CERN Document Server

    Lidon, Pierre; Taberlet, Nicolas; Manneville, Sébastien


    The acoustic radiation force exerted on a small sphere located at the focus of an ultrasonic beam is measured in a soft gel. It is proved to evolve quadratically with the local amplitude of the acoustic field. Strong oscillations of the local pressure are observed and attributed to an acoustic Fabry-P{\\'e}rot effect between the ultrasonic emitter and the sphere. Taking this effect into account with a simple model, a quantitative link between the radiation force and the acoustic pressure is proposed and compared to theoretical predictions in the absence of dissipation. The discrepancy between experiment and theory suggests that dissipative effects should be taken into account for fully modeling the observations.

  20. Dual energy versus single energy MDCT: measurement of radiation dose using adult abdominal imaging protocols. (United States)

    Ho, Lisa M; Yoshizumi, Terry T; Hurwitz, Lynne M; Nelson, Rendon C; Marin, Daniele; Toncheva, Greta; Schindera, Sebastian T


    The aim of this study was to measure the radiation dose of dual-energy and single-energy multidetector computed tomographic (CT) imaging using adult liver, renal, and aortic imaging protocols. Dual-energy CT (DECT) imaging was performed on a conventional 64-detector CT scanner using a software upgrade (Volume Dual Energy) at tube voltages of 140 and 80 kVp (with tube currents of 385 and 675 mA, respectively), with a 0.8-second gantry revolution time in axial mode. Parameters for single-energy CT (SECT) imaging were a tube voltage of 140 kVp, a tube current of 385 mA, a 0.5-second gantry revolution time, helical mode, and pitch of 1.375:1. The volume CT dose index (CTDI(vol)) value displayed on the console for each scan was recorded. Organ doses were measured using metal oxide semiconductor field-effect transistor technology. Effective dose was calculated as the sum of 20 organ doses multiplied by a weighting factor found in International Commission on Radiological Protection Publication 60. Radiation dose saving with virtual noncontrast imaging reconstruction was also determined. The CTDI(vol) values were 49.4 mGy for DECT imaging and 16.2 mGy for SECT imaging. Effective dose ranged from 22.5 to 36.4 mSv for DECT imaging and from 9.4 to 13.8 mSv for SECT imaging. Virtual noncontrast imaging reconstruction reduced the total effective dose of multiphase DECT imaging by 19% to 28%. Using the current Volume Dual Energy software, radiation doses with DECT imaging were higher than those with SECT imaging. Substantial radiation dose savings are possible with DECT imaging if virtual noncontrast imaging reconstruction replaces precontrast imaging.

  1. First characterization and comparison of TEB model simulations with in situ measurements regarding radiation balance in a single urban canyon at the BOKU site (Vienna) (United States)

    Oswald, Sandro; Trimmel, Heidelinde; Revesz, Michael; Nadeem, Imran; Masson, Valéry; Weihs, Philipp


    According to the World Health Organization more than half of the world population lives in a city since 2010. Predictions foresee that by 2030 six out of ten people will live in an urban area. As a result, many cities are expanding in size. Almost 10% of all urban dwellers live in megacities (defined according to UN HABITAT as a city with a population of more than 10 million). There are several effects in cities which strongly influence human health. Visible influences like the severe emissions of air pollutants by industry and traffic (e.g. Mayer H., 1999, Grimmond et al., 2010) are obvious to people but thermal stress in urban areas is only recently recognized for its strong devastating effect on human health. As a consequence, the urban environment virtually influences all weather parameters that have an impact on human comfort and thermal stress. Within this study, we investigate effects of city growth and the development of outlying districts on the local climate of Vienna. We focus particularly on the influence of urban heat island and consequent the risk for heat related illnesses or thermal stress for people. To quantify radiation balance and other important meteorological factors, we performed an extensive field campaign with three types of net radiometer in three different heights at BOKU site in August 2016. The first results indicated a strong correlation (ρ=0.96) between the Town Energy Balance (TEB) model and the measurements of the top net radiometer regarding radiation balance at roof level, meanwhile the TEB results are slightly underestimated. Further check if the measurements are reasonable, a comparison of the input values (global and direct solar radiation) for the TEB simulation with Secondary Standard measurements of ARAD site Wien Hohe Warte shows a deviation under 2% concerning interquartile range on clear sky days. The next steps will enclose TEB simulations, coupled with the mesoscale Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model, for

  2. Measurement of the radiative vacancy transfer probabilities from the $L_{3}$ to M and to N shells for W, Re and Pb using synchrotron radiation

    CERN Document Server

    Bonzi, E V


    The radiative vacancy transfer probabilities from L/sub 3/ to M shell, eta/sub L3/M(R) and L/sub 3/ to N shell, eta/sub L3/N(R), have been determined for W, Re and Pb. The pure elements samples were excited by monochromatic synchrotron radiation. The X-rays were generated by excitation of L/sub 3/ edge and measured using a high resolution Si(Li) detector. The experimentally determined radiative vacancy transfer probabilities were compared with the theoretical values deduced using radiative X-ray emission rates based on the relativistic Dirac-Hartree-Slater (RDHS) model. In the case of Pb, the experimental data were compared as well with experimental values of Simsek. In both cases, a good agreement was found between the datasets.

  3. Professional Enterprise NET

    CERN Document Server

    Arking, Jon


    Comprehensive coverage to help experienced .NET developers create flexible, extensible enterprise application code If you're an experienced Microsoft .NET developer, you'll find in this book a road map to the latest enterprise development methodologies. It covers the tools you will use in addition to Visual Studio, including Spring.NET and nUnit, and applies to development with ASP.NET, C#, VB, Office (VBA), and database. You will find comprehensive coverage of the tools and practices that professional .NET developers need to master in order to build enterprise more flexible, testable, and ext

  4. New Measurements of the Cosmic Background Radiation Temperature at3.3 mm Wavelength

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Witebsky, C.; Smoot, G.; De Amici, G.; Friedman, S.D.


    We have measured the temperature of the cosmic background radiation (CBR) at 3.3 mm wavelength in 1982, 1983, and 1984 as part of a larger project to determine the CBR temperature at five wavelengths from 12 cm to 3.3 mm (Smoot et al. 1985). The 3.3-mm measurements yield a brightness temperature of 2.57 K with a 1{sigma} uncertainty of 20.12 K. This paper describes the instrument, the measurement techniques, and the data-analysis procedures used. Our result is in good agreement with recent measurements at comparable wavelengths by Meyer and Jura (1985) and by Peterson, Richards, and Timusk (1985), but it disagrees with the temperatures reported by Woody and Richards (1981).


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. V. Boiprav


    Full Text Available An information-measuring system and realized on the basis of its methodology used for evaluation of electromagnetic radiation power levels passing via the protective shielding construction are described. It’s proposed to use the developed methodology for the testing of electromagnetic radiation shields for anechoic chambers

  6. Measuring the Galactic Cosmic Ray flux with the LISA Pathfinder radiation monitor (United States)

    Armano, M.; Audley, H.; Baird, J.; Binetruy, P.; Born, M.; Bortoluzzi, D.; Castelli, E.; Cavalleri, A.; Cesarini, A.; Cruise, A. M.; Danzmann, K.; de Deus Silva, M.; Diepholz, I.; Dixon, G.; Dolesi, R.; Ferraioli, L.; Ferroni, V.; Finetti, N.; Fitzsimons, E. D.; Freschi, M.; Gesa, L.; Gibert, F.; Giardini, D.; Giusteri, R.; Grimani, C.; Grzymisch, J.; Harrison, I.; Heinzel, G.; Hewitson, M.; Hollington, D.; Hoyland, D.; Hueller, M.; Inchauspé, H.; Jennrich, O.; Jetzer, P.; Karnesis, N.; Kaune, B.; Korsakova, N.; Killow, C. J.; Lobo, J. A.; Lloro, I.; Liu, L.; Lopez-Zaragoza, J. P.; Maarschalkerweerd, R.; Mance, D.; Meshskar, N.; Martín, V.; Martin-Polo, L.; Martino, J.; Martin-Porqueras, F.; Mateos, I.; McNamara, P. W.; Mendes, J.; Mendes, L.; Nofrarias, M.; Paczkowski, S.; Perreur-Lloyd, M.; Petiteau, A.; Pivato, P.; Plagnol, E.; Ramos-Castro, J.; Reiche, J.; Robertson, D. I.; Rivas, F.; Russano, G.; Slutsky, J.; Sopuerta, C. F.; Sumner, T.; Texier, D.; Thorpe, J. I.; Vetrugno, D.; Vitale, S.; Wanner, G.; Ward, H.; Wass, P.; Weber, W. J.; Wissel, L.; Wittchen, A.; Zweifel, P.


    Test mass charging caused by cosmic rays will be a significant source of acceleration noise for space-based gravitational wave detectors like LISA. Operating between December 2015 and July 2017, the technology demonstration mission LISA Pathfinder included a bespoke monitor to help characterise the relationship between test mass charging and the local radiation environment. The radiation monitor made in situ measurements of the cosmic ray flux while also providing information about its energy spectrum. We describe the monitor and present measurements which show a gradual 40% increase in count rate coinciding with the declining phase of the solar cycle. Modulations of up to 10% were also observed with periods of 13 and 26 days that are associated with co-rotating interaction regions and heliospheric current sheet crossings. These variations in the flux above the monitor detection threshold ( ≈ 70 MeV) are shown to be coherent with measurements made by the IREM monitor on-board the Earth orbiting INTEGRAL spacecraft. Finally we use the measured deposited energy spectra, in combination with a GEANT4 model, to estimate the galactic cosmic ray differential energy spectrum over the course of the mission.

  7. Spatiotemporal characteristics of ultraviolet radiation in recent 54 years from measurements and reconstructions over the Tibetan Plateau (United States)

    Liu, H.; Hu, B.; Zhang, L.; Wang, Y. S.; Tian, P. F.


    Based on measurements of ultraviolet radiation (UV) for the period of 2005-2014 that were obtained from the Chinese Ecosystem Research Network, we developed an efficient model to estimate UV radiation under various sky conditions. This model can provide an accurate reconstruction of UV radiation data with absolute mean bias error less than 9.65%. We combined this reconstruction model with a hybrid model to obtain the historical data set of daily UV radiation from 1961 to 2014 at 37 weather stations belonging to the China Meteorological Administration over the Tibetan Plateau (TP). Based on the historical data set, the spatial distribution and temporal variation of UV radiation over the TP region were discussed. The decreasing and increasing periods of ultraviolet radiation over the TP were significantly different from those over the entire China. There was an increasing trend in UV radiation over the TP from 1961 to 1983, followed by a decreasing one until 2014, while UV radiation decreased from 1961 to 1989 and then increased slightly after 1989 for the entire China. The average UV radiation values in the increasing and decreasing periods over the TP were 0.598 MJ · m-2 · d-1 and 0.594 MJ · m-2 · d-1, respectively. In addition, aerosol optical depth, column ozone, and cloud prevent approximately 7.13%, 1.31%, and 15.05% of UV radiation reaching the Earth's surface, respectively.

  8. Calibration of GOES-derived solar radiation data using a distributed network of surface measurements in Florida, USA (United States)

    Sumner, David M.; Pathak, Chandra S.; Mecikalski, John R.; Paech, Simon J.; Wu, Qinglong; Sangoyomi, Taiye; Babcock, Roger W.; Walton, Raymond


    Solar radiation data are critically important for the estimation of evapotranspiration. Analysis of visible-channel data derived from Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellites (GOES) using radiative transfer modeling has been used to produce spatially- and temporally-distributed datasets of solar radiation. An extensive network of (pyranometer) surface measurements of solar radiation in the State of Florida has allowed refined calibration of a GOES-derived daily integrated radiation data product. This refinement of radiation data allowed for corrections of satellite sensor drift, satellite generational change, and consideration of the highly-variable cloudy conditions that are typical of Florida. To aid in calibration of a GOES-derived radiation product, solar radiation data for the period 1995–2004 from 58 field stations that are located throughout the State were compiled. The GOES radiation product was calibrated by way of a three-step process: 1) comparison with ground-based pyranometer measurements on clear reference days, 2) correcting for a bias related to cloud cover, and 3) deriving month-by-month bias correction factors. Pre-calibration results indicated good model performance, with a station-averaged model error of 2.2 MJ m–2 day–1 (13 percent). Calibration reduced errors to 1.7 MJ m–2 day–1 (10 percent) and also removed time- and cloudiness-related biases. The final dataset has been used to produce Statewide evapotranspiration estimates.

  9. Improvements to water use and water stress estimates with the addition of IR and net radiometers to weather stations (United States)

    Evapotranspiration (ET) is often estimated with the Penman-Monteith (P-M) equation. Net radiation (Rn) is a major component of the surface energy balance and an input to the P-M equation, but it is challenging and expensive to measure accurately. For these reasons, most weather stations do not inclu...

  10. Radiative transfer with POLARIS. I. Analysis of magnetic fields through synthetic dust continuum polarization measurements (United States)

    Reissl, S.; Wolf, S.; Brauer, R.


    Aims: We present POLARIS (POLArized RadIation Simulator), a newly developed three-dimensional Monte-Carlo radiative transfer code. POLARIS was designed to calculate dust temperature, polarization maps, and spectral energy distributions. It is optimized to handle data that results from sophisticated magneto-hydrodynamic simulations. The main purpose of the code is to prepare and analyze multi-wavelength continuum polarization measurements in the context of magnetic field studies in the interstellar medium. An exemplary application is the investigation of the role of magnetic fields in star formation processes. Methods: We combine currently discussed state-of-the-art grain alignment theories with existing dust heating and polarization algorithms. We test the POLARIS code on multiple scales in complex astrophysical systems that are associated with different stages of star formation. POLARIS uses the full spectrum of dust polarization mechanisms to trace the underlying magnetic field morphology. Results: Resulting temperature distributions are consistent with the density and position of radiation sources resulting from magneto-hydrodynamic (MHD) - collapse simulations. The calculated layers of aligned dust grains in the considered cirumstellar disk models are in excellent agreement with theoretical predictions. Finally, we compute unique patterns in synthetic multi-wavelength polarization maps that are dependent on applied dust-model and grain-alignment theory in analytical cloud models.

  11. Measurements of secondary neutrons from cosmic radiation with a Bonner sphere spectrometer at 79 degrees N. (United States)

    Rühm, Werner; Mares, V; Pioch, C; Weitzenegger, E; Vockenroth, R; Paretzke, H G


    Air crew members and airline passengers are continuously exposed to cosmic radiation during their flights. Particles ejected by the sun during so-called solar particle events (SPEs) in periods of high solar activity can contribute to this exposure. In rare cases the dose from a single SPE might even exceed the annual dose limit of 1 mSv above which dose monitoring of air crews is legally required in Germany. Measurements performed by means of neutron monitors have already shown that the relative intensity of secondary neutrons from cosmic radiation is enhanced during an SPE, particularly at regions close to the magnetic poles of the Earth where shielding of the cosmic radiation by the geomagnetic field is low. Here we describe a Bonner sphere spectrometer installed at the Koldewey station at 79 degrees N, i.e. about 1,000 km from the geographic North pole, which is designed to provide first experimental data on the time-dependent energy spectrum of neutrons produced in the atmosphere during an SPE. This will be important to calculate doses from these neutrons to air crew members. The system is described in detail and first results are shown that were obtained during quiet periods of sun activity.

  12. Direct chemical measurement of DNA synthesis and net rates of differentiation of rat lens epithelial cells in vivo: applied to the selenium cataract. (United States)

    Cenedella, R J


    This report describes a direct chemical method for rapidly estimating DNA synthesis and net rates of epithelial cell differentiation in the ocular lens in vivo. DNA synthesis in the lens of control and selenium-treated rats (12- or 13 days of age) was estimated by chemically isolating and measuring trichloroacetic acid (TCA)-insoluble 3H from the lens following injection of [3H]thymidine. Labeled substrate for DNA synthesis peaked in the lens at 1 hr after injection, decreased markedly by the third hour and was essentially gone by hour 12. Synthesis of labeled DNA in the lens was largely complete by about 3 hr. The [3H]DNA content of the whole lens, measured as TCA-insoluble 3H, remained constant for at least 4 months. The distribution of labeled epithelial cells between the epithelial-cell layer and fiber-cell mass was followed for up to 1 month after injection by measuring the ratio of [3H]DNA in the capsule (epithelial-cell layer) to lens body. Between days 2-3 and day 14 after injection, the ratio of [3H]DNA in the epithelial-cell layer to lens fiber cells decreased linearly in a semilogarithmic plot of the ratio vs. time; i.e. the rate of change of the ratio followed first-order kinetics. Thus, the rate constant (k) for the rate of change in the ratio of [3H]DNA in the capsule layer to lens body can provide an estimate of the percentage of the labeled epithelial cells which leave the capsule per day through differentiation into fiber cells. An apparent rate constant of 0.27 day-1 was estimated from the mean of five experiments; i.e. 27% of labeled epithelial cells were differentiating into cortical fiber cells per day. Therefore, about 70% of the germinative epithelial cells would be replaced every 4 days in these rats. This value is in good agreement with results of studies using autoradiographic technics. The selenium cataract is reported to involve rapid damage to lens epithelial cells. Incorporation of [3H]thymidine into DNA was decreased by at least 60

  13. Time variations of secondary neutrons from cosmic radiation measured at mountain altitude and at 79 °N -Implications for radiation dose (United States)

    Ruehm, Werner; Mares, Vladimir; Pioch, Christian

    Time variations of secondary neutrons from cosmic radiation measured at mountain altitude and at 79 ° N -Implications for radiation dose Werner Ruehm, Vladimir Mares, Christian Pioch, Helmholtz Zentrum Muenchen, German Research Center for Environmental Health (GmbH), Ingolstaedter Landstrasse 1, 85764 Neuherberg, Germany Energy spectra of secondary neutrons from cosmic radiation are being continuously measured by means of Bonner Sphere Spectrometers, on the Zugspitze mountain, Germany (altitude: 2,650 m; latitude: 47,4 ° N; cutoff rigidity: 4.4 GV) since 2005, and on Spitsbergen (sea level; latitude: 79° N; cutoff: ˜0 GV) since 2007, respectively. It was already noted that these neutron spectra change with season in a systematic way, for both measurement sites. In order to obtain information on dose from secondary neutrons from cosmic radiation, the measured neutron spectra were folded with dose conversion coefficients, to calculate time-dependent neutron doses. The resulting doses are discussed as a function of time (short-term and long-term variations) and compared to measurements performed with different types of rem counters.

  14. Measurements of environmental radiation exposure dose rates at selected sites in Brazil. (United States)

    Pfeiffer, W C; Penna-Franca, E; Ribeiro, C C; Nogueira, A R; Londres, H; Oliveira, A E


    Two types of portable instruments were developed by the former Health and Safety Laboratory of the U.S. Atomic Energy Commission to characterize external gamma radiation fields and to estimate individual exposure dose rates from major natural or fission radionuclides distributed in the soil: a pressurized ionization chamber and a NaI(T1) gamma-ray spectrometer. The two instruments were used to measure environmental radiation exposure rates at three distinct geological areas of Brazil: - in the towns of Guarapari and Meaípe located on the monazite sand belt, ES. - on the vicinities of the uranium mine of Poços de Caldas, MG. - around the site of the Brazilian first nuclear power plant, in Angra dos Reis, RJ. The radiometric survey demonstrated once more the usefulness and versatility of the two instruments used. The measurements around the nuclear installations of Poços de Caldas and Angra dos Reis, allowed a rapid assessment of the local radiation background and its variability, as well as the selection of stations for the routine monitoring program. Radioactive anomalies were detected and characterized previously to the start of plant operations. The survey in Guarapari and Meaípe confirmed the results obtained by Roser and Cullen in 1958 and 1962, except on sites where considerable changes took place since then. The spectrometric measurements gave estimations of the relative proportion of 40K, 238U and 232Th series in the ground and also indications on the homogeneity of their distribution in the soil.

  15. Dual type fiber-optic radiation sensor for measuring alpha and beta particles (United States)

    Shin, Sang Hun; Song, Young Beom; Kim, Mingeon; Kim, Hye Jin; Yoo, Wook Jae; Jang, Kyoung Won; Lee, Bongsoo


    In this study, we fabricated a dual type fiber-optic radiation sensor (DFORS) system using a spectroscopic technique to measure alpha and beta particles simultaneously and separately. The DFORS is composed of a sensing probe, a plastic optical fiber (POF), a photomultiplier tube (PMT)-amplifier system, and a multichannel analyzer (MCA). As sensing probes, a ZnS(Ag) film and CaF2(Eu) crystal were used for alpha and beta spectroscopy. And, we measured the alpha and beta energy spectra using the proposed DFORS system to discriminate species of the radioisotopes emitting alpha or beta particle. From the experimental results, we demonstrated that the small-sized, flexible, and insertable DFORS system can measure and discriminate the alpha and beta successfully with the spectral information of each radioisotope.

  16. Simultaneous equatorial measurements of waves and precipitating electrons in the outer radiation belt (United States)

    Imhof, W. L.; Robinson, R. M.; Collin, H. L.; Wygant, J. R.; Anderson, R. R.


    Simultaneous wave and precipitating electron measurements near the equator in the outer radiation belt have been made from the CRRES satellite. The electron data of principal concern here were acquired in and about the loss cone with narrow angular resolution spectrometers covering the energy range 340 eV to 5 MeV. The wave data included electric field measurements spanning frequencies from 5 Hz to 400 kHz and magnetic field measurements from 5 Hz to 10 kHz. This paper presents examples in which the variations in electron fluxes in the loss cone and the wave intensities were correlated. These variations in electron flux were confined to pitch angles less than about 30 deg. The association between the flux enhancements and the waves is consistent with wave-induced pitch angle diffusion processes.

  17. Instrumentation for beam radiation and luminosity measurement in the CMS experiment using novel detector technologies

    CERN Document Server

    Guthoff, Moritz


    The higher energy and luminosity of the LHC initiated the development of dedicated technologies for radiation monitoring and luminosity measurement. A pixelated luminosity detector counts coincidences in several three layer telescopes of silicon pixel detectors to measure the luminosity for each colliding LHC bunch pair. In addition, charged particle tracking allows to monitor the location of the collision point.The upgraded fast beam conditions monitor measures the particle flux using 24 two pad single crystalline diamond sensors, equipped with a fast front-end ASIC produced in 130 nm CMOS technology. The excellent time resolution is used to separate collision products from machine induced background.A new beam-halo monitor at larger radius exploits Cerenkov light produced by relativistic charged particles in fused quartz crystals to provide direction sensitivity and time resolution to separate incoming and outgoing particles. The back-end electronics of the beam monitoring systems includes dedicated modules...

  18. Measurement of Elastic Properties of Tissue by Shear Wave Propagation Generated by Acoustic Radiation Force (United States)

    Tabaru, Marie; Azuma, Takashi; Hashiba, Kunio


    Acoustic radiation force (ARF) imaging has been developed as a novel elastography technology to diagnose hepatic disease and breast cancer. The accuracy of shear wave speed estimation, which is one of the applications of ARF elastography, is studied. The Young's moduli of pig liver and foie gras samples estimated from the shear wave speed were compared with those measured the static Young's modulus measurement. The difference in the two methods was 8%. Distance attenuation characteristics of the shear wave were also studied using finite element method (FEM) analysis. We found that the differences in the axial and lateral beam widths in pressure and ARF are 16 and 9% at F-number=0.9. We studied the relationship between two branch points in distance attenuation characteristics and the shape of ARF. We found that the maximum measurable length to estimate shear wave speed for one ARF excitation was 8 mm.

  19. Measurements and simulations of the BLM response to a radiation field inside the CERF target area

    CERN Document Server

    Lebbos, E; Dehning, B; Effinger, E; Ferrari, A; Kramer, D; Nordt, A; Roeed, K; Roesler, S; Sapinski, M; Vlachoudis, V; CERN. Geneva. EN Department


    The CERN-EU high-energy reference field (CERF) facility is installed in one of the secondary beam lines (H6) of the Super Proton Synchrotron (SPS), in the North Experimental Area at CERN. This facility is used as a reference for testing, inter-comparing and calibrating passive and active instruments. In May 2009, the SPS provided a mixed hadron beam (protons, pions and kaons) during a few days, in order to perform several measurements with different devices such as the Radiation Protection Monitor used for residual dose rates due to Induced Radioactivity in the LHC (PMI), the Secondary Emission Monitor used for high beam losses (SEM), the Radiation Monitor for electronics (RadMon), and the Beam Loss Monitor for the LHC (BLM). This report focuses on the measurements of the BLM response during this year’s operation at CERF. The measurements evaluate the sensitivity of the BLM signal to the particle energy spectrum, with special attention to the contribution coming from thermal neutrons. For this purpose, meas...

  20. Absolute scale power measurements of frequency-locked coherent transition radiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roark A. Marsh


    Full Text Available We report the absolute power measurement of frequency-locked terahertz coherent transition radiation (CTR from a train of electron bunches produced by a 17.14 GHz accelerator. Frequency measurements were obtained by two independent techniques: a wave meter with a video diode detector, and a double heterodyne system. Good agreement was seen between these two techniques. The emitted radiation was observed to be a comb of frequencies that are harmonics of the 17.14 GHz accelerator frequency. The heterodyne receiver system showed that each of the emitted harmonics has a very narrow bandwidth, about 25 MHz, which corresponds to the transform-limited bandwidth for the bunch train length of 40 ns. The highest observed frequency was 377.08 GHz, the 22nd harmonic of the 17.14 GHz accelerator frequency. The emitted CTR power was measured on an absolute scale to test the theory of CTR. The power was compared with calculations made using an electric field integral equation (EFIE formulation and excellent agreement was obtained. This agreement serves as a valuable benchmark of the EFIE code, proof of both its validity and usefulness.

  1. Collective dose as a performance measure for occupational radiation protection programs: Issues and recommendations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strom, D.J.; Harty, R.; Hickey, E.E.; Martin, J.B.; Peffers, M.S. [Pacific Northwest National Lab., Richland, WA (United States); Kathren, R.L. [Washington State Univ., Pullman, WA (United States)


    Collective dose is one of the performance measures used at many US Department of Energy (DOE) contractor facilities to quantitatively assess the objectives of the radiation protection program. It can also be used as a management tool to improve the program for keeping worker doses as low as reasonably achievable (ALARA). Collective dose is used here to mean the sum of all total effective dose equivalent values for all workers in a specified group over a specified time. It is often used as a surrogate estimate of radiological risk. In principle, improvements in radiation protection programs and procedures will result in reduction of collective dose, all other things being equal. Within the DOE, most frequently, a single collective dose number, which may or may not be adjusted for workload and other factors, is used as a performance measure for a contractor. The purpose of this report is to evaluate the use of collective dose as a performance measure for ALARA programs at DOE sites.

  2. FY 1998 annual summary report on International Clean Energy Network Using Hydrogen Conversion (WE-NET) system technology. Subtask 2. Examination and promotion of measures to obtain international understanding and cooperation; 1998 nendo seika hokokusho. Suiso riyo kokusai clean energy system gijutsu (WE-NET) subtask 2 (kokusai kyoryoku shuishin no tame no chosa kento)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    Described herein are the results of examination and promotion of measures to obtain international understanding and cooperation, and examination and development of measures to promote international exchange of technical information, conducted in the FY 1998 continuously from the previous year, with the object to realize the International Clean Energy Network Using Hydrogen Conversion (WE-NET) project. In the FY 1998, the English version of the 1997 annual summary report was distributed to a total of about 150 overseas organizations. The WE-NET project activities were presented to the 12th World Hydrogen Energy Conference, International Joint Power Generation Conference held in 1998 by American Society of Mechanical Engineers, and 2nd International Symposium on Advanced Energy Conversion Systems and Related Technologies. For the examination and development of measures to promote international exchange of technical information, the contracting party of Japan for the Hydrogen Implementation Agreement with IEA has been shifted from the government of Japan to NEDO. NEDO has been representing Japan for various workshops on the tasks. The hydrogen projects conducted by Germany and USA were also surveyed. The WE-NET project homepage was opened in June, 1998. (NEDO)

  3. Method and apparatus for simultaneously measuring a plurality of spectral wavelengths present in electromagnetic radiation (United States)

    Buican, Tudor N.; Martin, John C.


    An apparatus and method simultaneously measures a plurality of spectral wavelengths present in electromagnetic radiation. A modulatable birefringent optical element is employed to divide a polarized light beam into two components, thereby producing a phase difference in two resulting light beams such that the two beams can be made to interfere with one another when recombined, the interference pattern providing the wavelength information required for the analysis of the incident light. The interferometer thus created performs in a similar manner to a Michelson interferometer, but with no moving parts, and with a resolution dependent on the degree of phase shift introduced by the modulator.

  4. Radon measurements by etched track detectors applications in radiation protection, earth sciences and the environment

    CERN Document Server

    Durrani, Saeed A


    Exposure to radon gas, which is present in the environment naturally, constitutes over half the radiation dose received by the general public annually. At present, the most widely used method of measuring radon concentration levels throughout the world, both in dwellings and in the field, is by etched track detectors - also known as Solid State Nuclear Detectors (SSNTDs). Although this is not only the most widely used method but is also the simplest and the cheapest, yet there is at present no book available on the market globally, devoted exclusively or largely to the methodology of, and deal

  5. The Measurement of Spectral Characteristics and Composition of Radiation in ATLAS with MEDIPIX2-USB Devices

    CERN Document Server

    Campbell, M.; Greiffenberg, D.; Heijne, E.; Holy, T.; Idárraga, J.; Jakubek, J.; Král, V.; Králík, M.; Lebel, C.; Leroy, C.; Llopart, X.; Lord, G.; Maneuski, D.; Ouellette, O.; Sochor, V.; Prospísil, S.; Suk, M; Tlustos, L.; Vykydal, Z.; Wilhelm, I.


    A network of devices to perform real-time measurements of the spectral characteristics and composition of radiation in the ATLAS detector and cavern during its operation is being built. This system of detectors will be a stand alone system fully capable of delivering real-time images of fluxes and spectral composition of different particle species including slow and fast neutrons. The devices are based on MEDIPIX2 pixel silicon detectors that will be operated via active USB cables and USB-Ethernet extenders through an Ethernet network by a PC located in the USA15 ATLAS control room. The installation of 14 devices inside ATLAS (detector and cavern) is in progress.

  6. User interface development and metadata considerations for the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) archive (United States)

    Singley, P. T.; Bell, J. D.; Daugherty, P. F.; Hubbs, C. A.; Tuggle, J. G.


    This paper will discuss user interface development and the structure and use of metadata for the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Archive. The ARM Archive, located at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) in Oak Ridge, Tennessee, is the data repository for the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE's) ARM Project. After a short description of the ARM Project and the ARM Archive's role, we will consider the philosophy and goals, constraints, and prototype implementation of the user interface for the archive. We will also describe the metadata that are stored at the archive and support the user interface.

  7. Arctic Radiation Measurement in Column: Atmosphere-Surface (ARMCAS) MODIS Airborne Simulator (MAS) Level-1B Data Products (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The objective of the Arctic Radiation Measurement in Column: Atmosphere-Surface (ARMCAS) experiment was to detect and differentiate between clouds, ice, and snow...

  8. Blue Light Hazard and Risk Group Classification of 8 W LED Tubes, Replacing Fluorescent Tubes, through Optical Radiation Measurements

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Francesco Leccese; Viola Vandelanotte; Giacomo Salvadori; Michele Rocca


      In this paper, the authors discuss the results of a measurement survey of artificial optical radiation emitted by 8 W LED tubes suitable for the substitution of 18 W fluorescent lamps used for general lighting...

  9. A tandem approach for collocated measurements of microphysical and radiative cirrus properties (United States)

    Klingebiel, Marcus; Ehrlich, André; Finger, Fanny; Röschenthaler, Timo; Jakirlić, Suad; Voigt, Matthias; Müller, Stefan; Maser, Rolf; Wendisch, Manfred; Hoor, Peter; Spichtinger, Peter; Borrmann, Stephan


    Microphysical and radiation measurements were collected with the novel AIRcraft TOwed Sensor Shuttle (AIRTOSS) - Learjet tandem platform. The platform is a combination of an instrumented Learjet 35A research aircraft and an aerodynamic bird, which is detached from and retracted back to the aircraft during flight via a steel wire with a length of 4000 m. Both platforms are equipped with radiative, cloud microphysical, trace gas, and meteorological instruments. The purpose of the development of this tandem set-up is to study the inhomogeneity of cirrus as well as other stratiform clouds. Sophisticated numerical flow simulations were conducted in order to optimally integrate an axially asymmetric Cloud Combination Probe (CCP) inside AIRTOSS. The tandem platform was applied during measurements at altitudes up to 36 000 ft (10 970 m) in the framework of the AIRTOSS - Inhomogeneous Cirrus Experiment (AIRTOSS-ICE). Ten flights were performed above the North Sea and Baltic Sea to probe frontal and in situ formed cirrus, as well as anvil outflow cirrus. For one flight, cirrus microphysical and radiative properties displayed significant inhomogeneities resolved by both measurement platforms. The CCP data show that the maximum of the observed particle number size distributions shifts with decreasing altitude from 30 to 300 µm, which is typical for frontal, midlatitude cirrus. Theoretical considerations imply that cloud particle aggregation inside the studied cirrus is very unlikely. Consequently, diffusional growth was identified to be the dominant microphysical growth process. Measurements of solar downward and upward irradiances at 670 nm wavelength were conducted above, below, and in the cirrus on both the Learjet and AIRTOSS. The observed variability of the downward irradiance below the cirrus reflects the horizontal heterogeneity of the observed thin cirrus. Vertically resolved solar heating rates were derived by either using single-platform measurements at different

  10. Space charge effect measurements for a multi-channel ionization chamber used for synchrotron radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nasr, Amgad


    In vivo coronary angiography is one of the techniques used to investigate the heart diseases, by using catheter to inject a contrast medium of a given absorption coefficient into the heart vessels. Taking X-ray images produced by X-ray tube or synchrotron radiation for visualizing the blood in the coronary arteries. As the synchrotron radiation generated by the relativistic charged particle at the bending magnets, which emits high intensity photons in comparison with the X-ray tube. The intensity of the synchrotron radiation is varies with time. However for medical imaging it's necessary to measure the incoming intensity with the integrated time. The thesis work includes building a Multi-channel ionization chamber which can be filled with noble gases N{sub 2}, Ar and Xe with controlled inner pressure up to 30 bar. This affects the better absorption efficiency in measuring the high intensity synchrotron beam fluctuation. The detector is a part of the experimental setup used in the k-edge digital subtraction angiography project, which will be used for correcting the angiography images taken by another detector at the same time. The Multi-channel ionization chamber calibration characteristics are measured using 2 kW X-ray tube with molybdenum anode with characteristic energy of 17.44 keV. According to the fast drift velocity of the electrons relative to the positive ions, the electrons will be collected faster at the anode and will induce current signals, while the positive ions is still drifting towards the cathode. However the accumulation of the slow ions inside the detector disturbs the homogeneous applied electric field and leads to what is known a space charge effect. In this work the space charge effect is measured with very high synchrotron photons intensity from EDR beam line at BESSYII. The strong attenuation in the measured amplitude signal occurs when operating the chamber in the recombination region. A plateau is observed at the amplitude signal when


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laszlo Menyhart


    Full Text Available Albedo measurements have been carried out since 2007 above the Lake Balaton near Keszthely and Siofok. It turned out that a systematic offset error was superposed to both the global and the reflex radiation. The value of this systematic error was approximately constant per pyranometer within a year but on the other hand it varied from year to year and from pyranometer to pyranometer. In this paper the values of this systematic errors were determined with two different methods. The difference between the values measured at night-time and the intrinsic thermal offset error of pyranometers were examined with both methods. The base of the first method is the empirical observation, that the values measured at night-time by a global radiometer are typically negative whereas by a reflex radiometer are typically positive. The substance of the second method is utilizing the air temperature measured within 1 as well as 5 hours before the radiation measuring to +select the fully overcast nights, when the thermal offset error of the global radiometer is zero. In addition, the cases where the thermal offset error of the reflex radiometer is zero were selected on the basis of the difference between water and air temperature. When the thermal offset error is zero the measured value is equal to the systematic error. Comparing the results of the two methods showed that the systematic error of the global radiometer were determined with uncertainty of 1 Wm–2, whereas that of the reflex radiometer with uncertainty of 2 Wm–2. The calibration constants were recalculated from the values being in the calibration reports taking the systematic errors into account.

  12. Neutron Measurements for Radiation Protection in Low Earth Orbit - History and Future (United States)

    Golightly, M. J.; Se,pmes. E/


    The neutron environment inside spacecraft has been of interest from a scientific and radiation protection perspective since early in the history of manned spaceflight. With 1:.1e exception of a few missions which carried plutonium-fueled radioisotope thermoelectric generators, all of the neutrons inside the spacecraft are secondary radiations resulting from interactions of high-energy charged particles with nuclei in the Earth's atmosphere, spacecraft structural materials, and the astronaut's own bodies. Although of great interest, definitive measurements of the spacecraft neutron field have been difficult due to the wide particle energy range and the limited available volume and power for traditional techniques involving Bonner spheres. A multitude of measurements, however, have been made of the neutron environment inside spacecraft. The majority of measurements were made using passive techniques including metal activation fo ils, fission foils, nuclear photoemulsions, plastic track detectors, and thermoluminescent detectors. Active measurements have utilized proton recoil spectrometers (stilbene), Bonner Spheres eRe proportional counter based), and LiI(Eu)phoswich scintillation detectors. For the International Space Station (ISS), only the plastic track! thermoluminescent detectors are used with any regularity. A monitoring program utilizing a set of active Bonner spheres was carried out in the ISS Lab module from March - December 200l. These measurements provide a very limited look at the crew neutron exposure, both in time coverage and neutron energy coverage. A review of the currently published data from past flights will be made and compared with the more recent results from the ISS. Future measurement efforts using currently available techniques and those in development will be also discussed.

  13. TimeNET Optimization Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christoph Bodenstein


    Full Text Available In this paper a novel tool for simulation-based optimization and design-space exploration of Stochastic Colored Petri nets (SCPN is introduced. The working title of this tool is TimeNET Optimization Environment (TOE. Targeted users of this tool are people modeling complex systems with SCPNs in TimeNET who want to find parameter sets that are optimal for a certain performance measure (fitness function. It allows users to create and simulate sets of SCPNs and to run different optimization algorithms based on parameter variation. The development of this tool was motivated by the need to automate and speed up tests of heuristic optimization algorithms to be applied for SCPN optimization. A result caching mechanism is used to avoid recalculations.

  14. A high-resolution optical measurement system for rapid acquisition of radiation flux density maps (United States)

    Thelen, Martin; Raeder, Christian; Willsch, Christian; Dibowski, Gerd


    To identify the power and flux density of concentrated solar radiation the Institute of Solar Research at the German Aerospace Center (DLR - Deutsches Zentrum für Luft-und Raumfahrt e. V.) has used the camera-based measurement system FATMES (Flux and Temperature Measurement System) since 1995. The disadvantages of low resolution, difficult handling and poor computing power required a revision of the existing measurement system. The measurement system FMAS (Flux Mapping Acquisition system) is equipped with state-of-the-art-hardware, is compatible with computers off-the-shelf and is programmed in LabView. The expenditure of time for an image evaluation is reduced by the factor 60 compared to FATMES. The new measurement system is no longer associated with the facilities Solar Furnace and High Flux Solar Simulator at the DLR in Cologne but is also applicable as a mobile system. The data and the algorithms are transparent throughout the complete process. The measurement accuracy of FMAS is determined to at most ±3 % until now. The error of measurement of FATMES is at least 2 % higher according to the conducted comparison tests.

  15. Long wavelength infrared radiation thermometry for non-contact temperature measurements in gas turbines (United States)

    Manara, J.; Zipf, M.; Stark, T.; Arduini, M.; Ebert, H.-P.; Tutschke, A.; Hallam, A.; Hanspal, J.; Langley, M.; Hodge, D.; Hartmann, J.


    The objective of the EU project "Sensors Towards Advanced Monitoring and Control of Gas Turbine Engines (acronym STARGATE)" is the development of a suite of advanced sensors, instrumentation and related systems in order to contribute to the developing of the next generation of green and efficient gas turbine engines. One work package of the project deals with the design and development of a long wavelength infrared (LWIR) radiation thermometer for the non-contact measurement of the surface temperature of thermal barrier coatings (TBCs) during the operation of gas turbine engines. For opaque surfaces (e.g. metals or superalloys) radiation thermometers which are sensitive in the near or short wavelength infrared are used as state-of-the-art method for non-contact temperature measurements. But this is not suitable for oxide ceramic based TBCs (e.g. partially yttria stabilized zirconia) as oxide ceramics are semi-transparent in the near and short wavelength infrared spectral region. Fortunately the applied ceramic materials are non-transparent in the long wavelength infrared and additionally exhibit a high emittance in this wavelength region. Therefore, a LWIR pyrometer can be used for non-contact temperature measurements of the surfaces of TBCs as such pyrometers overcome the described limitation of existing techniques. For performing non-contact temperature measurements in gas turbines one has to know the infrared-optical properties of the applied TBCs as well as of the hot combustion gas in order to properly analyse the measurement data. For reaching a low uncertainty on the one hand the emittance of the TBC should be high (>0.9) in order to reduce reflections from the hot surrounding and on the other hand the absorbance of the hot combustion gas should be low (pyrometer and the selection of the optimal wavelength band where the detector should be sensitive. Besides determining the spectral infrared-optical properties (emittance, transmittance and absorbance) of the

  16. Radiative Energetics of Mineral Dust Aerosols from Ground-Based Measurements (United States)

    Tsay, Si-Chee; Hansell, Richard A.


    Airborne dust aerosols worldwide contribute a significant part to air quality problems and, to some extent, regional climatic issues (e.g., radiative forcing, hydrological cycle, and primary biological productivity in oceans). Evaluating the direct solar radiative effect of dust aerosols is relatively straightforward due in part to the relatively large SIN ratio in broadband irradiance measurements. The longwave (LW) impact, on the other hand, is rather difficult to ascertain since the measured dust signal level (approx.10 W/sq m) is on the same order as the instrumental uncertainties. Although the magnitude of the LW impact is much smaller than that of the shortwave (SW), it can still have a noticeable influence on the energy distribution of Earth-atmosphere system, particularly due to the strong light-absorptive properties commonly found in many terrestrial minerals. The current effort is part of an ongoing research study to perform a global assessment of dust direct aerosol radiative effects (DARE) during major field deployments of key dust source regions worldwide. In this work we present results stemming from two previous field deployments: the 2006 NASA African Monsoon Multidisciplinary Activities and the 2008 Asian Monsoon Years, both utilizing NASA Goddard's mobile ground-based facility. The former study focused on transported Saharan dust at Sal (16.73degN, 22.93degW), Cape Verde along the west coast of Africa while the latter focused on Asian dust at Zhangye (39.082degN, 100.276degE), China near the source between the Taklimakan and Gobi deserts. Due to the compelling variability in spatial and temporal scale of dust properties during field experiments, a deterministic I-D radiative transfer model constrained by local measurements (i.e., spectral photometry/interferometry and lidar for physical/microphysical, mineralogy, and single-scattering properties) is employed to evaluate dust's local instantaneous SW/LW DARE both at the surface and at the top of

  17. Measurement of scattered radiation in a volumetric 64-slice CT scanner using three experimental techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akbarzadeh, A; Ay, M R; Sarkar, S [Department of Medical Physics and Biomedical Engineering, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Ghadiri, H [Research Center for Science and Technology in Medicine, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Zaidi, H [Division of Nuclear Medicine, Geneva University Hospital, CH-1211 Geneva (Switzerland)], E-mail:


    Compton scatter poses a significant threat to volumetric x-ray computed tomography, bringing cupping and streak artefacts thus impacting qualitative and quantitative imaging procedures. To perform appropriate scatter compensation, it is necessary to estimate the magnitude and spatial distribution of x-ray scatter. The aim of this study is to compare three experimental methods for measurement of the scattered radiation profile in a 64-slice CT scanner. The explored techniques involve the use of collimator shadow, a single blocker (a lead bar that suppresses the primary radiation) and an array blocker. The latter was recently proposed and validated by our group. The collimator shadow technique was used as reference for comparison since it established itself as the most accurate experimental procedure available today. The mean relative error of measurements in all tube voltages was 3.9 {+-} 5.5% (with a maximum value of 20%) for the single blocker method whereas it was 1.4 {+-} 1.1% (with a maximum value of 5%) for the proposed blocker array method. The calculated scatter-to-primary ratio (SPR) using the blocker array method for the tube voltages of 140 kVp and 80 kVp was 0.148 and 1.034, respectively. For a larger polypropylene phantom, the maximum SPR achieved was 0.803 and 6.458 at 140 kVp and 80 kVp, respectively. Although the three compared methods present a reasonable accuracy for calculation of the scattered profile in the region corresponding to the object, the collimator shadow method is by far the most accurate empirical technique. Nevertheless, the blocker array method is relatively straightforward for scatter estimation providing minor additional radiation exposure to the patient.

  18. WaveNet (United States)


    Coastal Inlets Research Program WaveNet WaveNet is a web-based, Graphical-User-Interface ( GUI ) data management tool developed for Corps coastal...generates tabular and graphical information for project planning and design documents. The WaveNet is a web-based GUI designed to provide users with from different sources, and employs a combination of Fortran, Python and Matlab codes to process and analyze data for USACE applications

  19. Measuring health-relevant businesses over 21 years: refining the National Establishment Time-Series (NETS), a dynamic longitudinal data set. (United States)

    Kaufman, Tanya K; Sheehan, Daniel M; Rundle, Andrew; Neckerman, Kathryn M; Bader, Michael D M; Jack, Darby; Lovasi, Gina S


    The densities of food retailers, alcohol outlets, physical activity facilities, and medical facilities have been associated with diet, physical activity, and management of medical conditions. Most of the research, however, has relied on cross-sectional studies. In this paper, we assess methodological issues raised by a data source that is increasingly used to characterize change in the local business environment: the National Establishment Time Series (NETS) dataset. Longitudinal data, such as NETS, offer opportunities to assess how differential access to resources impacts population health, to consider correlations among multiple environmental influences across the life course, and to gain a better understanding of their interactions and cumulative health effects. Longitudinal data also introduce new data management, geoprocessing, and business categorization challenges. Examining geocoding accuracy and categorization over 21 years of data in 23 counties surrounding New York City (NY, USA), we find that health-related business environments change considerably over time. We note that re-geocoding data may improve spatial precision, particularly in early years. Our intent with this paper is to make future public health applications of NETS data more efficient, since the size and complexity of the data can be difficult to exploit fully within its 2-year data-licensing period. Further, standardized approaches to NETS and other "big data" will facilitate the veracity and comparability of results across studies.

  20. Coloured Petri Nets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Kurt


    This paper describes how Coloured Petri Nets (CP-nets) have been developed — from being a promising theoretical model to being a full-fledged language for the design, specification, simulation, validation and implementation of large software systems (and other systems in which human beings and...... use of CP-nets — because it means that the function representation and the translations (which are a bit mathematically complex) no longer are parts of the basic definition of CP-nets. Instead they are parts of the invariant method (which anyway demands considerable mathematical skills...

  1. Game Coloured Petri Nets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Westergaard, Michael


    This paper introduces the notion of game coloured Petri nets. This allows the modeler to explicitly model what parts of the model comprise the modeled system and what parts are the environment of the modeled system. We give the formal definition of game coloured Petri nets, a means of reachability...... analysis of this net class, and an application of game coloured Petri nets to automatically generate easy-to-understand visualizations of the model by exploiting the knowledge that some parts of the model are not interesting from a visualization perspective (i.e. they are part of the environment...

  2. Programming NET Web Services

    CERN Document Server

    Ferrara, Alex


    Web services are poised to become a key technology for a wide range of Internet-enabled applications, spanning everything from straight B2B systems to mobile devices and proprietary in-house software. While there are several tools and platforms that can be used for building web services, developers are finding a powerful tool in Microsoft's .NET Framework and Visual Studio .NET. Designed from scratch to support the development of web services, the .NET Framework simplifies the process--programmers find that tasks that took an hour using the SOAP Toolkit take just minutes. Programming .NET

  3. Annotating Coloured Petri Nets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindstrøm, Bo; Wells, Lisa Marie


    -net. An example of such auxiliary information is a counter which is associated with a token to be able to do performance analysis. Modifying colour sets and arc inscriptions in a CP-net to support a specific use may lead to creation of several slightly different CP-nets – only to support the different uses...... a method which makes it possible to associate auxiliary information, called annotations, with tokens without modifying the colour sets of the CP-net. Annotations are pieces of information that are not essential for determining the behaviour of the system being modelled, but are rather added to support...

  4. Measurement Of Electromagnetic Field Radiation In The Internet Halls And Educational Computer Laboratories

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghanim Thiab Hasan


    Full Text Available     There are more concerns about possible health effects related to electromagnetic fields from computer monitors and other video display terminals because of the widespread using of computers in laboratories ,offices and internet halls. This research aims to detect the effect of electromagnetic field radiations in these halls and laboratories and study the successful ways of minimizing its negative  health  effect on human health. The research has been performed on both the mathematical calculations and practical measurements. The obtaining results show that the practical measurements are consistent with the  mathematical calculations results. Comparison of  these results with the safety standard guideline  limits shows that they are within the acceptable exposuring limits recommended by the International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection  (ICNIRP and that means there is no health risk from exposure to these fields if the exposure is within the acceptable limits.     

  5. Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Madden-Julian Oscillation Investigation Experiment Field Campaign Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Long, Chuck [National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), Boulder, CO (United States). Earth System Research Lab.


    Every 30–90 days during the Northern Hemisphere winter, the equatorial tropical atmosphere experiences pulses of extraordinarily strong deep convection and rainfall. This phenomenon is referred to as the Madden–Julian Oscillation, or MJO, named after the scientists who identified this cycle. The MJO significantly affects weather and rainfall patterns around the world (Zhang 2013). To improve predictions of the MJO—especially about how it forms and evolves throughout its lifecycle—an international group of scientists collected an unprecedented set of observations from the Indian Ocean and western Pacific region from October 2011 through March 2012 through several coordinated efforts. The coordinated field campaigns captured six distinct MJO cycles in the Indian Ocean. The rich set of observations capturing several MJO events from these efforts will be used for many years to study the physics of the MJO. Here we highlight early research results using data from the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Madden-Julian Oscillation Investigation Experiment (AMIE), sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Climate Research Facility.

  6. Measurement of tissue-radiation dosage using a thermal steady-state elastic shear wave. (United States)

    Chang, Sheng-Yi; Hsieh, Tung-Sheng; Chen, Wei-Ru; Chen, Jin-Chung; Chou, Chien


    A biodosimeter based on thermal-induced elastic shear wave (TIESW) in silicone acellular porcine dermis (SAPD) at thermal steady state has been proposed and demonstrated. A square slab SAPD treated with ionizing radiation was tested. The SAPD becomes a continuous homogeneous and isotropic viscoelastic medium due to the generation of randomly coiled collagen fibers formed from their bundle-like structure in the dermis. A harmonic TIESW then propagates on the surface of the SAPD as measured by a nanometer-scaled strain-stress response under thermal equilibrium conditions at room temperature. TIESW oscillation frequency was noninvasively measured in real time by monitoring the transverse displacement of the TIESW on the SAPD surface. Because the elastic shear modulus is highly sensitive to absorbed doses of ionizing radiation, this proposed biodosimeter can become a highly sensitive and noninvasive method for quantitatively determining tissue-absorbed dosage in terms of TIESW’s oscillation frequency. Detection sensitivity at 1 cGy and dynamic ranges covering 1 to 40 cGy and 80 to 500 cGy were demonstrated.

  7. Fundamental R and D on neutron cross sections for innovative reactors using advanced radiation measurement technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Igashira, M. [Tokyo Inst. of Tech. (Japan); Mizumoto, M.; Oshima, M.; Hasegawa, A. [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst. (Japan); Harada, H. [Japan Nuclear Cycle Dept. Inst. (Japan); Yamano, N. [Sumitomo Atomic Energy Industries, Ltd. (Japan); Yamana, H. [Kyoto Univ. (Japan); Baba, M. [Tohoku Univ. (Japan); Kato, K. [Hokkaido Univ. (Japan); Sugawara, M. [Chiba Inst. of Tech. (Japan); Nagai, Y. [Osaka Univ. (Japan); Kawade, K. [Nagoya Univ. (Japan)


    ross Sections for Innovative Reactors using Advanced Radiation Measurement Technology'' to the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology (MEXT) and it was approved as one of ''Innovative Nuclear Energy System Technology (INEST) Development Projects (Field of Innovative Nuclear Reactor Technology)''. This project consists of three R and D items, i.e. (1) the development of advanced measurement technology, (2) the acquirement of neutron cross sections of minor actinides, and (3) the development of neutron cross section utilization system. In the development of advanced measurement technology, we will construct a 4{pi} Ge spectrometer consisting HPGe crystals and BGO shields for the measurement of capture cross sections. New fission chambers are also being developed for the measurement of fission cross sections. The measurement of capture and fission cross sections of minor actinides such as Am-241 and Am-243 will be performed from 2005 to 2007, using the existing neutron sources at Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute, Kyoto University, and Tohoku University. The preparation of neutron beam lines, neutron monitor detectors, and minor actinide samples is in progress. (orig.)

  8. Simultaneous measurement of neutron and gamma-ray radiation levels from a TRIGA reactor core using silicon carbide semiconductor detectors (United States)

    Dulloo, A. R.; Ruddy, F. H.; Seidel, J. G.; Davison, C.; Flinchbaugh, T.; Daubenspeck, T.


    The ability of a silicon carbide radiation detector to measure neutron and gamma radiation levels in a TRIGA reactor's mixed neutron/gamma field was demonstrated. Linear responses to epicadmium neutron fluence rate (up to 3/spl times/10/sup 7/ cm/sup -2/ s/sup -1/) and to gamma dose rate (0.6-234 krad-Si h/sup -1/) were obtained with the detector. Axial profiles of the reactor core's neutron and gamma-ray radiation levels were successfully generated through sequential measurements along the length of the core. The SiC detector shows a high level of precision for both neutrons and gamma rays in high-intensity radiation environments-1.9% for neutrons and better than 0.6% for gamma rays. These results indicate that SiC detectors are well suited for applications such as spent fuel monitoring where measurements in mixed neutron/gamma fields are desired.

  9. An experiment to measure the one-way velocity of propagation of electromagnetic radiation (United States)

    Kolen, P.; Torr, D. G.


    An experiment involving commercially available instrumentation to measure the velocity of the earth with respect to absolute space is described. The experiment involves the measurement of the one-way propagation velocity of electromagnetic radiation down a high-quality coaxial cable. It is demonstrated that the experiment is both physically meaningful and exceedingly simple in concept and in implementation. It is shown that with currently available commercial equipment one might expect to detect a threshold value for the component of velocity of the earth's motion with respect to absolute space in the equatorial plane of approximately 10 km/s, which greatly exceeds the velocity resolution required to detect the motion of the solar system with respect to the center of the galaxy.

  10. External radiation doses from patients administered with radiopharmaceuticals measurements and Monte Carlo simulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kinsara Abdul Raheem


    Full Text Available Monte Carlo simulations and dose measurements were performed for radionuclides in the whole body and trunks of different sizes in order to estimate external radiation whole body doses from patients administered with radiopharmaceuticals. Calculations were performed on cylindrical water phantoms whose height was 176 cm and for three body diameters: of 24 cm, 30 cm, and 36 cm. The investigated radionuclides were: 99mTc, 131I, 23I, 67Ga, 201Tl, and 111In. Measured and MCNP-calculated values were 2-6 times lower than the values calculated by the point source method. Additionaly, the total dose received by the public until a radionuclide is completely disintegrated was calculated. The other purpose of this work is to provide data on whole body and finger occupational doses received by technologists working in nuclear medicine. Data showed a wide variation in doses that depended on the individual technologist and the position of the dosimeter.

  11. Practical measurements of radiation dose in a neonatal intensive care unit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smans, K.; Vanhavere, F.; Bosmans, H.


    The EURATOM directive 97/43 and the Belgian Royal Decree of July 20, 2001 impose today the application of the ALARA principle in medical practices. Priority should be given to paediatric examinations, especially for X-ray examinations undertaken in neonatal intensive care units. Within this framework, a dose study was started to assess the patient doses in one neonatal intensive care unit for the most common examinations. Direct measurement of radiation dose was done using highly sensitive thermoluminescent dosemeters (TLDs). The ESD was on average 66 {mu}Gy. Also DAP-measurements were performed. For RX-thorax an average DAP-value of 1,27{sub w}as calculated. (Author)

  12. [Radiation exposure of radiologists during angiography: dose measurements outside the lead apron]. (United States)

    Fischer, H; Przetak, C; Teubert, G; Ewen, K; Mödder, U


    The aim of this study was to provide practical information to angiographers concerning radiation exposure to body parts not covered by lead aprons. Individual doses to the neck and hands of radiologists measured in micro-Sieverts were obtained during the course of 80 angiographies of various types. The number of diagnostic and interventional procedures, which might lead to exceeding permissible doses, have been calculated. Possibilities of estimating doses during angiography by means of parameters such as screening times were examined statistically. Especially with regard to the hands, estimations of the doses are insufficient (correlation r = 0.21). Radiologists who undertake much angiographic and particularly interventional work may reach exposure levels requiring protective measures in addition to lead aprons.

  13. Optical transition radiation measurements for the Los Alamos and Boeing Free-Electron Laser experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lumpkin, A.H.; Feldman, R.B.; Feldman, D.W.; Apgar, S.A.; Calsten, B.E.; Fiorito, R.B.; Rule, D.W.


    Optical transition radiation (OTR) measurements of the electron-beam emittance have been performed at a location just before the wiggler in the Los Alamos Free-Electron Laser (FEL) experiment. Beam profiles and beam divergence patterns from a single macropulse were recorded simultaneously using two intensified charge-injection device (CID) television cameras and an optical beamsplitter. Both single-foil OTR and two-foil OTR interference experiments were performed. Preliminary results are compared to a reference variable quadrupole, single screen technique. New aspects of using OTR properties for pointing the e-beam on the FEL oscillator axis, as well as measuring e-beam emittance are addressed. 7 refs., 9 figs.

  14. Second Order Harmonics Suppression With Glass Filters for Synchrotron UV Radiation Calibration Measurement

    CERN Document Server

    Burattini, E; Gambicorti, L; Malvezzi, F; Marcelli, A; Monti, F; Pace, E


    This development is the latest result of the cooperation between the National Laboratories of Frascati and the Department of Astronomy and Space Science of the University of Florence to improve the capabilities of the existing DXR-2 beam line at the DAΦNE-LIGHT laboratories. This collaboration has assessed a new facility in order to characterize optics and sensors in a wide spectral range (ranging from VUV to IR). Previous measurements [1] have highlighted some limitations in the present setup, as higher signal levels due to the diffracted radiation of the grating in the second order have to be removed to allow an accurate detection. In this work a glass filter is used to remove such spurious signal present in the spectral region with λ > 360 nm. The characteristics of the filter and its application to the optical system used to measure the sensitivity of a diamond-based photoconductor have been discussed.

  15. Measuring the Cosmic Particle Radiation from electrons to actinides - HNX/TIGERISS (United States)

    Mitchell, John


    The Heavy Nuclei eXplorer (HNX) mission will measure the abundances of nuclei from Carbon (Z =6) to Curium (Z =96) in the cosmic radiation with the resolution to identify the atomic number of each detected nucleus. HNX will measure a significant number of actinides. HNX utilizes two high-precision instruments, the Extremely-heavy Cosmic-ray Composition Observer (ECCO) and the Cosmic-Ray Trans-Iron Galactic Element Recorder (CosmicTIGER), located in a SpaceX DragonLab capsule orbiting the Earth. This talk will discuss the motivating science, the HNX mission, the design and performance of the HNX instruments, and another new instrument, TIGERISS (Trans-Iron Galactic Element Recorder on the ISS), that will be proposed as an intermediate between SuperTIGER and HNX.

  16. An empirical approach to the measurement of the cosmic radiation field at jet aircraft altitudes

    CERN Document Server

    Green, A R; Lewis, B J; Kitching, F; McCall, M J; Desormeaux, M; Butler, A A


    Researchers at the Royal Military College of Canada have accumulated extensive dose measurements performed at jet altitudes on over 160 flights and with a wide variety of detectors including a tissue equivalent proportional counter (TEPC), a smart wide energy neutron detection instrument (SWENDI), bubble detectors, thermoluminescent detectors (TLD) and an ion chamber. The summation of the individual low and high LET results from the latter equipment compared successfully to those from the TEPC on each flight. The data from these numerous worldwide flights have been encapsulated into a program that calculates the radiation dose for any flight in the world at any period in the solar cycle. This experimentally based program, Predictive Code for AIRcrew Exposure (PCAIRE) has been designed to be used by the airline industry to meet national dosimetry requirements. In Canada, for example, such a code can be used, supported by periodic measurements. With this latter requirement in mind and a desire to decrease equip...

  17. Measurement of cosmic radiation exposure of aircraft crew at commercial aviation altitudes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vujičić Vladimir M.


    Full Text Available The measurement results of ambient dose equivalent rate in an aircraft, performed by a standard portable dosimeter, at a non-commercial flight Belgrade - Podgorica at altitudes up to 9000 meters, are shown. By numerical interpolation of the measurement results, a functional dependency of the ambient dose equivalent rate on the altitude of the airplane flight is determined, obtaining a good agreement with the reference values. For commercial airlines in the Balkan region, total ambient dose equivalent, regarding the aircraft crew occupationally exposed to radiation in the course of a flight, was calculated and the maximum permitted number of flight hours per year, was estimated. [Project of the Serbian Ministry of Education, Science and Technological Development, Grant no. ON171007

  18. Analysis and Measurements of Artificial Optical Radiation (AOR Emitted by Lighting Sources Found in Offices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Leccese


    Full Text Available In this paper the authors describe in detail the exposure limit values concerning artificial optical radiation due to the main incoherent light sources found in offices. In particular, for some examples of significant sources chosen as case studies, we discuss the results of in situ measurements of the exposure values using a broadband photoradiometer. By comparing the measurement results with the exposure limit values specified in the European legislation, the maximum exposure times for workers have been evaluated. From the analysis of the results it can be concluded that the lighting sources typically present in indoor workplaces under usual conditions of use, do not pose a health risks for workers. However, in the case of accidental exposure during work activities or exposure linked to maintenance activities (short exposure distance, values in excess of the limit values have been observed, with decidedly short maximum exposure times.

  19. Measurement of the large-scale anisotropy of the cosmic background radiation at 3mm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Epstein, G.L.


    A balloon-borne differential radiometer has measured the large-scale anisotropy of the cosmic background radiation (CBR) with high sensitivity. The antenna temperature dipole anistropy at 90 GHz (3 mm wavelength) is 2.82 +- 0.19 mK, corresponding to a thermodynamic anistropy of 3.48 +- mK for a 2.7 K blackbody CBR. The dipole direction, 11.3 +- 0.1 hours right ascension and -5.7/sup 0/ +- 1.8/sup 0/ declination, agrees well with measurements at other frequencies. Calibration error dominates magnitude uncertainty, with statistical errors on dipole terms being under 0.1 mK. No significant quadrupole power is found, placing a 90% confidence-level upper limit of 0.27 mK on the RMS thermodynamic quadrupolar anistropy. 22 figures, 17 tables.

  20. Comparisons of Aquarius Measurements over Oceans with Radiative Transfer Models at L-Band (United States)

    Dinnat, E.; LeVine, D.; Abraham, S.; DeMattheis, P.; Utku, C.


    The Aquarius/SAC-D spacecraft includes three L-band (1.4 GHz) radiometers dedicated to measuring sea surface salinity. It was launched in June 2011 by NASA and CONAE (Argentine space agency). We report detailed comparisons of Aquarius measurements with radiative transfer model predictions. These comparisons are used as part of the initial assessment of Aquarius data and to estimate the radiometer calibration bias and stability. Comparisons are also being performed to assess the performance of models used in the retrieval algorithm for correcting the effect of various sources of geophysical "noise" (e.g. Faraday rotation, surface roughness). Such corrections are critical in bringing the error in retrieved salinity down to the required 0.2 practical salinity unit on monthly global maps at 150 km by 150 km resolution.