Sample records for net h2 generated

  1. Refinements in an Mg/MgH2/H2O-Based Hydrogen Generator (United States)

    Kindler, Andrew; Huang, Yuhong


    Some refinements have been conceived for a proposed apparatus that would generate hydrogen (for use in a fuel cell) by means of chemical reactions among magnesium, magnesium hydride, and steam. The refinements lie in tailoring spatial and temporal distributions of steam and liquid water so as to obtain greater overall energy-storage or energy-generation efficiency than would otherwise be possible. A description of the prior art is prerequisite to a meaningful description of the present refinements. The hydrogen-generating apparatus in question is one of two versions of what was called the "advanced hydrogen generator" in "Fuel-Cell Power Systems Incorporating Mg-Based H2 Generators" (NPO-43554), NASA Tech Briefs, Vol. 33, No. 1 (January 2009), page 52. To recapitulate: The apparatus would include a reactor vessel that would be initially charged with magnesium hydride. The apparatus would exploit two reactions: The endothermic decomposition reaction MgH2-->Mg + H2, which occurs at a temperature greater than or equal to 300 C, and The exothermic oxidation reaction MgH2 + H2O MgO + 2H2, which occurs at a temperature greater than or equal to 330 C.

  2. Continuous/Batch Mg/MgH2/H2O-Based Hydrogen Generator (United States)

    Kindler, Andrew; Huang, Yuhong


    A proposed apparatus for generating hydrogen by means of chemical reactions of magnesium and magnesium hydride with steam would exploit the same basic principles as those discussed in the immediately preceding article, but would be designed to implement a hybrid continuous/batch mode of operation. The design concept would simplify the problem of optimizing thermal management and would help to minimize the size and weight necessary for generating a given amount of hydrogen.

  3. Teaching and Learning with the Net Generation (United States)

    Barnes, Kassandra; Marateo, Raymond C.; Ferris, S. Pixy


    As the Net Generation places increasingly greater demands on educators, students and teachers must jointly consider innovative ways of teaching and learning. In this, educators are supported by the fact that the Net Generation wants to learn. However, these same educators should not fail to realize that this generation learns differently from…

  4. Membranes for H2 generation from nuclear powered thermochemical cycles.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nenoff, Tina Maria; Ambrosini, Andrea; Garino, Terry J.; Gelbard, Fred; Leung, Kevin; Navrotsky, Alexandra (University of California, Davis, CA); Iyer, Ratnasabapathy G. (University of California, Davis, CA); Axness, Marlene


    In an effort to produce hydrogen without the unwanted greenhouse gas byproducts, high-temperature thermochemical cycles driven by heat from solar energy or next-generation nuclear power plants are being explored. The process being developed is the thermochemical production of Hydrogen. The Sulfur-Iodide (SI) cycle was deemed to be one of the most promising cycles to explore. The first step of the SI cycle involves the decomposition of H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} into O{sub 2}, SO{sub 2}, and H{sub 2}O at temperatures around 850 C. In-situ removal of O{sub 2} from this reaction pushes the equilibrium towards dissociation, thus increasing the overall efficiency of the decomposition reaction. A membrane is required for this oxygen separation step that is capable of withstanding the high temperatures and corrosive conditions inherent in this process. Mixed ionic-electronic perovskites and perovskite-related structures are potential materials for oxygen separation membranes owing to their robustness, ability to form dense ceramics, capacity to stabilize oxygen nonstoichiometry, and mixed ionic/electronic conductivity. Two oxide families with promising results were studied: the double-substituted perovskite A{sub x}Sr{sub 1-x}Co{sub 1-y}B{sub y}O{sub 3-{delta}} (A=La, Y; B=Cr-Ni), in particular the family La{sub x}Sr{sub 1-x}Co{sub 1-y}Mn{sub y}O{sub 3-{delta}} (LSCM), and doped La{sub 2}Ni{sub 1-x}M{sub x}O{sub 4} (M = Cu, Zn). Materials and membranes were synthesized by solid state methods and characterized by X-ray and neutron diffraction, SEM, thermal analyses, calorimetry and conductivity. Furthermore, we were able to leverage our program with a DOE/NE sponsored H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} decomposition reactor study (at Sandia), in which our membranes were tested in the actual H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} decomposition step.

  5. H2O2-triggered bubble generating antioxidant polymeric nanoparticles as ischemia/reperfusion targeted nanotheranostics. (United States)

    Kang, Changsun; Cho, Wooram; Park, Minhyung; Kim, Jinsub; Park, Sanghoon; Shin, Dongho; Song, Chulgyu; Lee, Dongwon


    Overproduction of reactive oxygen species (ROS) such as hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) leads to oxidative stress, causing inflammation and cellular damages and death. H2O2 is one of the most stable and abundant ROS and H2O2-mediated oxidative stress is considered as a key mediator of cellular and tissue damages during ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury. Therefore, H2O2 could hold tremendous potential as a diagnostic biomarker and therapeutic target for oxidative stress-associated inflammatory conditions such as I/R injury. Here, we report a novel nanotheranostic agent that can express ultrasound imaging and simultaneous therapeutic effects for hepatic I/R treatment, which is based on H2O2-triggered CO2-generating antioxidant poly(vanillin oxalate) (PVO). PVO nanoparticles generate CO2 through H2O2-triggered oxidation of peroxalate esters and release vanillin, which exerts antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities. PVO nanoparticles intravenously administrated remarkably enhanced the ultrasound signal in the site of hepatic I/R injury and also effectively suppressed the liver damages by inhibiting inflammation and apoptosis. To our best understanding, H2O2-responsive PVO is the first platform which generates bubbles to serve as ultrasound contrast agents and also exerts therapeutic activities. We therefore anticipate that H2O2-triggered bubble-generating antioxidant PVO nanoparticles have great potential for ultrasound imaging and therapy of H2O2-associated diseases. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Electrochemical Generation of Individual O2 Nanobubbles via H2O2 Oxidation. (United States)

    Ren, Hang; German, Sean R; Edwards, Martin A; Chen, Qianjin; White, Henry S


    Herein, we use Pt nanodisk electrodes (apparent radii from 4 to 80 nm) to investigate the nucleation of individual O2 nanobubbles generated by electrooxidation of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2). A single bubble reproducibly nucleates when the dissolved O2 concentration reaches ∼0.17 M at the Pt electrode surface. This nucleation concentration is ∼130 times higher than the equilibrium saturation concentration of O2 and is independent of electrode size. Moreover, in acidic H2O2 solutions (1 M HClO4), in addition to producing an O2 nanobubble through H2O2 oxidation at positive potentials, individual H2 nanobubbles can also be generated at negative potentials. Alternating generation of single O2 and H2 bubbles within the same experiment allows direct comparison of the critical concentrations for nucleation of each nanobubble without knowing the precise size/geometry of the electrode or the exact viscosity/temperature of the solution.

  7. Educating College Students of the Net Generation (United States)

    Worley, Karen


    Faculty and administrators of higher education today face a challenge with their student populations, many of whom are part of what is known as the net generation. As students become more technologically advanced, faculty must be technologically ready to meet the needs of students. Many college faculty and administrators are from earlier…

  8. Cardiac H2S Generation Is Reduced in Ageing Diabetic Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheng Jin


    Full Text Available Aims. To examine whether hydrogen sulfide (H2S generation changed in ageing diabetic mouse hearts. Results. Compared to mice that were fed tap water only, mice that were fed 30% fructose solution for 15 months exhibited typical characteristics of a severe diabetic phenotype with cardiac hypertrophy, fibrosis, and dysfunction. H2S levels in plasma, heart tissues, and urine were significantly reduced in these mice as compared to those in controls. The expression of the H2S-generating enzymes, cystathionine γ-lyase and 3-mercaptopyruvate sulfurtransferase, was significantly decreased in the hearts of fructose-fed mice, whereas cystathionine-β-synthase levels were significantly increased. Conclusion. Our results suggest that this ageing diabetic mouse model developed diabetic cardiomyopathy and that H2S levels were reduced in the diabetic heart due to alterations in three H2S-producing enzymes, which may be involved in the pathogenesis of diabetic cardiomyopathy.

  9. Net Generation's Learning Styles in Nursing Education. (United States)

    Christodoulou, Eleni; Kalokairinou, Athina


    Numerous surveys have confirmed that emerging technologies and Web 2.0 tools have been a defining feature in the lives of current students, estimating that there is a fundamental shift in the way young people communicate, socialize and learn. Nursing students in higher education are characterized as digital literate with distinct traits which influence their learning styles. Millennials exhibit distinct learning preferences such as teamwork, experiential activities, structure, instant feedback and technology integration. Higher education institutions should be aware of the implications of the Net Generation coming to university and be prepared to meet their expectations and learning needs.

  10. Quantification and kinetics of H2 generation during hydrothermal serpentinisation experiments (United States)

    Castelain, Teddy; Fauguerolles, Colin; Villeneuve, Johan; Pichavant, Michel


    H2-rich hydrothermal fluids generated by serpentinisation of mantle rocks at slow-spreading ridges have been revealed by recent studies [1, 2]. Fluxes and the future of the H2 produced by this process are poorly constrained [1, 3]. In this study, we aim to quantitatively evaluate the H2 production fluxes associated with these hydrothermal systems and to document the kinetics of the hydrogen-producing reaction. For this matter, hydrothermal serpentinisation experiments are being undertaken on mixtures composed of a natural peridotite from the Pindus ophiolite and olivine crystals from San Carlos. The experiments are conducted at a temperature of ~ 300° C and a pressure of 450-500 bars in large-volume Dickson-Seyfried bombs for periods of × 1 month. Starting materials are powders between 1 - 100 μm for the peridotites and individual grains ranging from 1 - 2 mm for the San Carlos olivine. They are reacted with a homemade artificial seawater in such proportion that water-rock ratio = 1.8. The reactants are loaded in a modified Ti cell fitted with a semi-permeable Au-Pd membrane simultaneously allowing direct sampling of the hydrothermal fluid and in situ monitoring of the pH2 during the advancement of the reaction. The gas fraction of the fluid sampled is then analyzed by gas chromatography (GC). The pH2 readings show traces of H2 to be present from the second day of experiment. The increase of the pH2 reaches a maximum after ~ 6 days and the pH2 finally stabilizes after ~ 16 days at ~ 12.5 bars, which corresponds to a local fO2 of about NNO-4. The GC measurements, performed after 30, 43, 51 and 65 days, yield respectively, H2 concentrations of 82.4, 89.7, 90.3 and 101 of water, in reasonable agreement with results from previous studies [4-6]. Further experiments are being undertaken in order to: duplicate observations, especially the pH2 readings, more closely link the GC measurements and the in situ pH2 readings, especially during the first 15 days of

  11. Net Generation: Visions for their Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Davila


    Full Text Available This study discusses the changes that are demanded in the conception and culture of the learning, focuses the attention on the effect that the new digital environments have cause on the person, the education and the society. The main reflection is over the digital culture that characterizes to the Net generation (people that had from zero to 20 years for the year 1999 and their requirements of knowing or knowledge and of how to learn that knowledge today and always. This research was carried out a bibliographical and documental revision. The information makes us meditate about the change of the traditional transmission learning to the interactive learning defendant in the digital environments; they involve a new culture of educational system, of teaching and learning, where this responsible the own individual, the family and the society. This will contribute with the understanding, acceptance, adaptation, use, development and life in an interconnected world, digital and communicated globally.

  12. Numerical simulation of H2S and CO2 generation during SAGD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perez-Perez, A.; Kamp, A.M. [CHLOE, UFR Science, University of Pau, 64000, Pau (France); Soleimani, H. (IFP School (France)); Darche, G. (TOTAL, Pau (France))


    In the heavy oil industry, the steam assisted gravity drainage process is often used to enhance oil recovery but the production of undesirable gases occurs during this process. These gases are mainly hydrogen sulphide and carbon dioxide, generated through chemical reactions triggered by high temperatures and water presence. The aim of this paper is to create a kinetic model for H2S and CO2 generation and to insert it in a reservoir simulation. This model was then tested under steam injection conditions in an SAGD system using experimental data available in the literature. The model developed successfully reproduced gas plateaus at different temperatures and results from the test showed that the model's predicted gas emissions are of the same order of magnitude as the field results. This paper presented a new kinetic model which can predict H2S and CO2 emissions of a SAGD system and could thus be used in the design of treatment facilities.

  13. Resonance-modulated wavelength scaling of high-order-harmonic generation from H2+ (United States)

    Wang, Baoning; He, Lixin; Wang, Feng; Yuan, Hua; Zhu, Xiaosong; Lan, Pengfei; Lu, Peixiang


    Wavelength scaling of high-order harmonic generation (HHG) in a non-Born-Oppenheimer treatment of H2+ is investigated by numerical simulations of the time-dependent Schrödinger equation. The results show that the decrease in the wavelength-dependent HHG yield is reduced compared to that in the fixed-nucleus approximation. This slower wavelength scaling is related to the charge-resonance-enhanced ionization effect, which considerably increases the ionization rate at longer driving laser wavelengths due to the relatively larger nuclear separation. In addition, we find an oscillation structure in the wavelength scaling of HHG from H2+. Upon decreasing the laser intensity or increasing the nuclear mass, the oscillation structure will shift towards a longer wavelength of the laser pulse. These results permit the generation of an efficient harmonic spectrum in the midinfrared regime by manipulating the nuclear dynamics of molecules.

  14. Fuel-Cell Power Systems Incorporating Mg-Based H2 Generators (United States)

    Kindler, Andrew; Narayan, Sri R.


    Two hydrogen generators based on reactions involving magnesium and steam have been proposed as means for generating the fuel (hydrogen gas) for such fuel-cell power systems as those to be used in the drive systems of advanced motor vehicles. The hydrogen generators would make it unnecessary to rely on any of the hydrogen storage systems developed thus far that are, variously, too expensive, too heavy, too bulky, and/or too unsafe to be practical. The two proposed hydrogen generators are denoted basic and advanced, respectively. In the basic hydrogen generator (see figure), steam at a temperature greater than or equals 330 C would be fed into a reactor charged with magnesium, wherein hydrogen would be released in the exothermic reaction Mg + H2O yields MgO + H2. The steam would be made in a flash boiler. To initiate the reaction, the boiler could be heated electrically by energy borrowed from a storage battery that would be recharged during normal operation of the associated fuel-cell subsystem. Once the reaction was underway, heat from the reaction would be fed to the boiler. If the boiler were made an integral part of the hydrogen-generator reactor vessel, then the problem of transfer of heat from the reactor to the boiler would be greatly simplified. A pump would be used to feed water from a storage tank to the boiler.

  15. Resonance enhanced high-order harmonic generation in H2+ by two sequential laser pulses. (United States)

    Wang, Baoning; He, Lixin; Wang, Feng; Yuan, Hua; Zhu, Xiaosong; Lan, Pengfei; Lu, Peixiang


    We investigate high-order harmonic generation in H2+ by using two sequential laser pulses, which consist of a 800-nm pump pulse and a time-delayed 1600-nm probe pulse. Based on the solution of the time-dependent Schrödinger equation, we demonstrate that the harmonic cutoff in our two-pulse scheme is significantly extended compared to that in the 1600-nm probe pulse alone. Meanwhile, the harmonic efficiency is enhanced by 2-3 orders of magnitude due to charge-resonance-enhanced ionization steered by the 800-nm pump pulse. By using a probe pulse with longer wavelength, our scheme can be used for efficient high harmonic generation in the water window region. In addition, the influence of the intensity of the pump pulse and the relative time delay of the two laser pulses on the harmonic generation are also investigated.

  16. Enhanced Hydrogen Generation Properties of MgH2-Based Hydrides by Breaking the Magnesium Hydroxide Passivation Layer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liuzhang Ouyang


    Full Text Available Due to its relatively low cost, high hydrogen yield, and environmentally friendly hydrolysis byproducts, magnesium hydride (MgH2 appears to be an attractive candidate for hydrogen generation. However, the hydrolysis reaction of MgH2 is rapidly inhibited by the formation of a magnesium hydroxide passivation layer. To improve the hydrolysis properties of MgH2-based hydrides we investigated three different approaches: ball milling, synthesis of MgH2-based composites, and tuning of the solution composition. We demonstrate that the formation of a composite system, such as the MgH2/LaH3 composite, through ball milling and in situ synthesis, can improve the hydrolysis properties of MgH2 in pure water. Furthermore, the addition of Ni to the MgH2/LaH3 composite resulted in the synthesis of LaH3/MgH2/Ni composites. The LaH3/MgH2/Ni composites exhibited a higher hydrolysis rate—120 mL/(g·min of H2 in the first 5 min—than the MgH2/LaH3 composite— 95 mL/(g·min—without the formation of the magnesium hydroxide passivation layer. Moreover, the yield rate was controlled by manipulation of the particle size via ball milling. The hydrolysis of MgH2 was also improved by optimizing the solution. The MgH2 produced 1711.2 mL/g of H2 in 10 min at 298 K in the 27.1% ammonium chloride solution, and the hydrolytic conversion rate reached the value of 99.5%.

  17. Antimicrobial mechanism based on H2O2 generation at oxygen vacancies in ZnO crystals. (United States)

    Xu, Xiaoling; Chen, Dan; Yi, Zhigang; Jiang, Man; Wang, Li; Zhou, Zuowan; Fan, Ximei; Wang, Yong; Hui, David


    The production of H2O2 has been taken for a crucial reason for antimicrobial activity of ZnO without light irradiation. However, how the H2O2 generates in ZnO suspension is not clear. In the present work, the comparatively detections on three kinds of ZnO, tetrapod-like ZnO whiskers (t-ZnO), nanosized ZnO particles (n-ZnO), and microsized ZnO particles (m-ZnO), showed that the antimicrobial activity of ZnO was correlated with its production of H2O2. Oxygen vacancy (V(O)) in the surface layer of ZnO crystals determined by XPS indicated that it was quite probably involved in the production of H2O2. To validate the role of V(O), the concentration of VO in t-ZnO was adjusted by heat-treatment under the atmospheres of H2, vacuum, and O2, respectively, and the H2O2 production and antimicrobial effect were detected. Consistently, the t-ZnO treated in H2, which possessed the most V(O) in its crystal, produced the most H2O2 and displayed the best antimicrobial activity. These results provide the basis for developing a more detailed mechanism for H2O2 generation catalyzed by ZnO and for taking greater advantage of this type of antimicrobial agent.

  18. Numerical Simulation and Experimental Study on Formation of High Concentration of H2 Generated by Gas Explosion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lei Baiwei


    Full Text Available In coal mine fire rescues, if the abnormal increase of gas concentration occurs, it is the primary thing to analyze the reasons and identify sources of the abnormal forming, which is also the basis of judge the combustion state of fire area and formulate proper fire reliefs. Nowadays, related researches have recognized the methane explosion as the source of high concentration of H2 formation, but there are few studies about the conditions and reaction mechanism of gas explosion generating high concentration of H2.Therefore, this paper uses the chemical kinetic calculation software, ChemKin, and the 20L spherical explosion experimental device to simulate the generating process and formation conditions of H2 in gas explosion. The experimental results show that: the decomposition of water vapor is the main base element reaction (R84 which leads to the generation of H2.The free radical H is the key factor to influence the formation of H2 generated from gas explosion. With the gradual increase of gas explosion concentration, the explosive reaction becomes more incomplete, and then the generating quantity of H2 increases gradually. Experimental results of 20L spherical explosion are consistent with the change trend about simulation results, which verifies the accuracy of simulation analysis. The results of explosion experiments show that when gas concentration is higher than 9%, the incomplete reaction of methane explosion increases which leads to the gradual increase of H2 formation.

  19. Air-stable hydrogen generation materials and enhanced hydrolysis performance of MgH2-LiNH2 composites (United States)

    Ma, Miaolian; Ouyang, Liuzhang; Liu, Jiangwen; Wang, Hui; Shao, Huaiyu; Zhu, Min


    Hydrolysis of materials in water can be a promising solution of onsite hydrogen generation for realization of hydrogen economy. In this work, it was the first time that the MgH2-LiNH2 composites were explored as air-stable hydrolysis system for hydrogen generation. The MgH2-LiNH2 composites with different composition ratios were synthesized by ball milling with various durations and the hydrogen generation performances of the composite samples were investigated and compared. X-ray diffraction, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy techniques were adopted to elucidate the performance improvement mechanisms. The hydrolysis properties of MgH2 were found to be significantly enhanced by the introduction of LiNH2. The 4MgH2-LiNH2 composite ball milled for 5 h can generate 887.2 mL g-1 hydrogen in 1 min and 1016 mL g-1 in 50 min, one of the best results so far for Mg based hydrolysis materials. The LiOH·H2O and NH4OH phases of hydrolysis products from LiNH2 may prevent formation of Mg(OH)2 passivation layer on the surface and supply enough channels for hydrolysis of MgH2. The MgH2-LiNH2 composites appeared to be very stable in air and no obvious negative effect on kinetics and hydrogen generation yield was observed. These good performances demonstrate that the studied MgH2-LiNH2 composites can be a promising and practicable hydrogen generation system.

  20. Marketing library services to the Net Generation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadia Haji azizi


    Full Text Available This paper aims to examine the role of marketing to new generations of library users. The paper reviews classical marketing texts and current user studies for applicability to library service. The paper finds that libraries can apply classic marketing principles to attract and better serve new generations of users. Although libraries no longer have a monopoly on information sources, libraries do offer value-added services. By understanding the users and their contexts, the paper proposes various strategies of value to market librarians and library resources.

  1. Getting Ready for the Net Generation Learner (United States)

    Dobbins, Kenneth W.


    Kenneth W. Dobbins, president of Southeast Missouri State University, discusses attending a June 2004 conference on "The Key to Competitiveness: Understanding the Next Generation Learner," sponsored by the American Association of State Colleges and Universities, EDUCAUSE, and Microsoft. The conference addressed what today's students, the…

  2. Mycorrhiza-induced lower oxidative burst is related with higher antioxidant enzyme activities, net H2O2 effluxes, and Ca2+ influxes in trifoliate orange roots under drought stress. (United States)

    Zou, Ying-Ning; Huang, Yong-Ming; Wu, Qiang-Sheng; He, Xin-Hua


    Mechanisms of arbuscular mycorrhiza (AM)-induced lower oxidative burst of host plants under drought stress (DS) are not elucidated. A noninvasive microtest technology (NMT) was used to investigate the effects of Funneliformis mosseae on net fluxes of root hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and calcium ions (Ca2+) in 5-month-old Poncirus trifoliata, in combination with catalase (CAT) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activities as well as tissue superoxide radical (O2•-) and H2O2 concentrations under DS and well-watered (WW) conditions. A 2-month DS (55% maximum water holding capacity of growth substrates) significantly inhibited AM fungal root colonization, while AM symbiosis significantly increased plant biomass production, irrespective of water status. F. mosseae inoculation generally increased SOD and CAT activity but decreased O2•- and H2O2 concentrations in leaves and roots under WW and DS. Compared with non-AM seedlings, roots of AM seedlings had significantly higher net H2O2 effluxes and net Ca2+ influxes, especially in the meristem zone, but lower net H2O2 efflux in the elongation zone. Net Ca2+ influxes into roots were significantly positively correlated with root net H2O2 effluxes but negatively with root H2O2 concentrations. Results from this study suggest that AM-induced lower oxidative burst is related with higher antioxidant enzyme activities, root net H2O2 effluxes, and Ca2+ influxes under WW and DS.

  3. The Intersection of NO and H2S: Persulfides Generate NO from Nitrite through Polysulfide Formation. (United States)

    Bailey, T Spencer; Henthorn, Hillary A; Pluth, Michael D


    Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) and nitric oxide (NO) are important biosignaling molecules, and their biochemistries are increasingly recognized to be intertwined. Persulfides are an oxidized product of biological H2S and have emerged as important species involved in the biological action of reactive sulfur species. Using isolated persulfides, we employed a combination of experimental and computational methods to investigate the contribution of persulfides to H2S/NO crosstalk. Our studies demonstrate that isolated persulfides react with nitrite to produce NO via polysulfide and perthionitrite intermediates. These results highlight the importance of persulfides, polysulfides, and perthionitrite as intertwined reactive nitrogen and sulfur species.

  4. Renewable Generation Effect on Net Regional Energy Interchange: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diakov, Victor; Brinkman, Gregory; Denholm, Paul; Jenkin, Thomas; Margolis, Robert


    Using production-cost model (PLEXOS), we simulate the Western Interchange (WECC) at several levels of the yearly renewable energy (RE) generation, between 13% and 40% of the total load for the year. We look at the overall energy exchange between a region and the rest of the system (net interchange, NI), and find it useful to examine separately (i) (time-)variable and (ii) year-average components of the NI. Both contribute to inter-regional energy exchange, and are affected by wind and PV generation in the system. We find that net load variability (in relatively large portions of WECC) is the leading factor affecting the variable component of inter-regional energy exchange, and the effect is quantifiable: higher regional net load correlation with the rest of the WECC lowers net interchange variability. Further, as the power mix significantly varies between WECC regions, effects of ‘flexibility import’ (regions ‘borrow’ ramping capability) are also observed.

  5. Quantifying Fenton reaction pathways driven by self-generated H2O2 on pyrite surfaces (United States)

    Gil-Lozano, C.; Davila, A. F.; Losa-Adams, E.; Fairén, A. G.; Gago-Duport, L.


    Oxidation of pyrite (FeS2) plays a significant role in the redox cycling of iron and sulfur on Earth and is the primary cause of acid mine drainage (AMD). It has been established that this process involves multi-step electron-transfer reactions between surface defects and adsorbed O2 and H2O, releasing sulfoxy species (e.g., S2O32-, SO42-) and ferrous iron (Fe2+) to the solution and also producing intermediate by-products, such as hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and other reactive oxygen species (ROS), however, our understanding of the kinetics of these transient species is still limited. We investigated the kinetics of H2O2 formation in aqueous suspensions of FeS2 microparticles by monitoring, in real time, the H2O2 and dissolved O2 concentration under oxic and anoxic conditions using amperometric microsensors. Additional spectroscopic and structural analyses were done to track the dependencies between the process of FeS2 dissolution and the degradation of H2O2 through the Fenton reaction. Based on our experimental results, we built a kinetic model which explains the observed trend of H2O2, showing that FeS2 dissolution can act as a natural Fenton reagent, influencing the oxidation of third-party species during the long term evolution of geochemical systems, even in oxygen-limited environments.

  6. Biofilter for generation of concentrated sulphuric acid from H2S. (United States)

    Rabbani, K A; Charles, W; Kayaalp, A; Cord-Ruwisch, R; Ho, G


    Biofilters are used for the conversion of odorous hydrogen sulphide to odourless sulphate in wastewater treatment plants under the right conditions of moisture and pH. One of the consequences of maintaining the suitable pH and moisture content is the production of large volumes of weakly acidic leachate. This paper presents a biofilter with a maximum H2S elimination capacity of 16.3 g m(-3) h(-1) and removal efficiency greater than 95 % which produces small volumes (1 mL of solution L(-1) of reactor day(-1)) of sulphuric acid with a concentration greater than 5.5 M after 150 days of continuous operation. The concentrated sulphuric acid was produced by intermittently trickling a minimum amount of nutrient solution down the upflow biofilter which created a moisture and pH gradient within the biofilter resulting in an environment at the top for the bacterial conversion of H2S, while sulphuric acid was accumulated at the base. Genetic diversity profiling of samples taken from different sections of the biofilter confirms that the upper sections of the biofilter had the best environment for the bacteria to convert H2S to sulphate. The formation of concentrated sulphuric acid presents an opportunity for the recovery of sulphur from the waste stream as a usable product.

  7. Alkaline-acid Zn-H2O Fuel Cell for Simultaneous Generation of Hydrogen and Electricity. (United States)

    Wen, Zhenhai; Cai, Pingwei; Li, Yan; Wang, Genxiang


    An alkaline-acid Zn-H2O fuel cell is proposed for simultaneously generating electricity with an open circuit voltage of about 1.25 V and producing H2 with almost 100% Faradic efficiency. We demonstrate the as-developed hybrids cell, thanks to harvesting energy from both the electrochemical neutralization and electrochemical Zn oxidation, can deliver a power density of up to 80 mW cm-2, an energy density of 934 Wh kg-1, and maintain long-term stability for H2 producing with an output voltage of 1.16 V at a current density of 10 mA cm-2. © 2018 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  8. Photochemistry of HI on argon and water nanoparticles: hydronium radical generation in HI·(H2O)n. (United States)

    Poterya, Viktoriya; Fedor, Juraj; Pysanenko, Andriy; Tkáč, Ondřej; Lengyel, Jozef; Ončák, Milan; Slavíček, Petr; Fárník, Michal


    Photochemistry of HI molecules on large Ar(n) and (H(2)O)(n), n ∼ 100-500, clusters was investigated after excitation with 243 nm and 193 nm laser radiation. The measured H-fragment kinetic energy distributions pointed to a completely different photodissociation mechanism of HI on water than on argon clusters. Distinct features corresponding to the fragment caging (slow fragments) and direct exit (fast fragments) were observed in the spectra from HI photodissociation on Ar(n) clusters. On the other hand, the fast fragments were entirely missing in the spectrum from HI·(H(2)O)(n) and the slow-fragment part of the spectrum had a different shape from HI·Ar(n). The HI·(H(2)O)(n) spectrum was interpreted in terms of the acidic dissociation of HI on (H(2)O)(n) in the ground state, and hydronium radical H(3)O formation following the UV excitation of the ionically dissociated species into states of a charge-transfer-to-solvent character. The H(3)O generation was proved by experiments with deuterated species DI and D(2)O. The experiment was complemented by ab initio calculations of structures and absorption spectra for small HI·(H(2)O)(n) clusters, n = 0-5, supporting the proposed model.

  9. Numerical Simulation and Experimental Study on Formation of High Concentration of H2 Generated by Gas Explosion


    Lei Baiwei; Wu Bing; Zhao Yatong; Ashraf Muhammad Aqeel


    In coal mine fire rescues, if the abnormal increase of gas concentration occurs, it is the primary thing to analyze the reasons and identify sources of the abnormal forming, which is also the basis of judge the combustion state of fire area and formulate proper fire reliefs. Nowadays, related researches have recognized the methane explosion as the source of high concentration of H2 formation, but there are few studies about the conditions and reaction mechanism of gas explosion generating hig...

  10. Simultaneous photoinduced generation of Fe(2+) and H2O2 in rivers: An indicator for photo-Fenton reaction. (United States)

    Mostofa, Khan M G; Sakugawa, Hiroshi


    The photo-Fenton reaction is a key source of the highly reactive hydroxyl radical (HO) that is produced by the reaction of simultaneous photo-induced generation of Fe(2)(+)-dissolved organic matter (DOM) with H2O2 in sunlit surface waters as well as in the treatment of organic pollutants in the advanced oxidation processes (AOPs). Concentrations of both H2O2 and Fe(2)(+)-DOM were dependent on time and total solar intensity flux, and their levels were highest in the diurnal samples collected at noon compared with the samples collected during the period before sunrise and after sunset. H2O2 and Fe(2)(+)-DOM concentrations during monthly readings were also found higher in comparison with the diurnal samples, shortly before sunrise or after sunset. A π-electron bonding system is formed between Fe and the functional groups in DOM (Fe-DOM), through electron donation from the functional groups of DOM to an empty d-orbital of Fe. The π-electron is loosely bound and is highly susceptible to a rapid excitation upon light exposure that will provide better understanding of the formation of aqueous electrons, superoxide radical anions, H2O2 and finally, photo-Fenton reactions, too. Our results imply that simultaneous generation of H2O2 and Fe(2)(+)-DOM upon sunlight exposure during the daytime is most likely to be the key photo-Fenton reaction pathway, taking place in surface waters. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  11. High harmonic generation in H2 and HD by two-colour femtosecond ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    bonding molecular orbital (MO) [36], and the harmonics are generated by the nuclear motions on the two lowest ... strongly suppresses the long electronic trajectories, due to the rapidly decaying behaviour of the (vibrational) autocorrelation function ... free electron trajectory loses its relevance. Thus, from this viewpoint also, ...

  12. High harmonic generation in H2 and HD by two-colour femtosecond ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    We have taken the pulse duration of T = 50 fs for both the fields, and the molecular initial vibrational level 0 = 0. We have argued that for these combinations, the harmonic generation due to transitions in the electronic continuum by tunnelling or multiphoton ionization may be neglected and only the electronic transitions ...

  13. Pd-catalytic in situ generation of H2O2 from H2 and O2 produced by water electrolysis for the efficient electro-fenton degradation of rhodamine B. (United States)

    Yuan, Songhu; Fan, Ye; Zhang, Yucheng; Tong, Man; Liao, Peng


    A novel electro-Fenton process was developed for wastewater treatment using a modified divided electrolytic system in which H2O2 was generated in situ from electro-generated H2 and O2 in the presence of Pd/C catalyst. Appropriate pH conditions were obtained by the excessive H+ produced at the anode. The performance of the novel process was assessed by Rhodamine B (RhB) degradation in an aqueous solution. Experimental results showed that the accumulation of H2O2 occurred when the pH decreased and time elapsed. The maximum concentration of H2O2 reached 53.1 mg/L within 120 min at pH 2 and a current of 100 mA. Upon the formation of the Fenton reagent by the addition of Fe2+, RhB degraded completely within 30 min at pH 2 with a pseudo first order rate constant of 0.109 ± 0.009 min(-1). An insignificant decline in H2O2 generation and RhB degradation was found after six repetitions. RhB degradation was achieved by the chemisorption of H2O2 on the Pd/C surface, which subsequently decomposed into •OH upon catalysis by Pd0 and Fe2+. The catalytic decomposition of H2O2 to •OH by Fe2+ was more powerful than that by Pd0, which was responsible for the high efficiency of this novel electro-Fenton process.

  14. Electricity and H2 generation from hemicellulose by sequential fermentation and microbial fuel/electrolysis cell (United States)

    Yan, Di; Yang, Xuewei; Yuan, Wenqiao


    Electricity and hydrogen generation by bacteria Geobacter sulfurreducens in a dual-chamber microbial fuel/electrolysis cell following the fermentation of hemicellulose by bacteria Moorella thermoacetica was investigated. Experimental results showed that 10 g l-1 xylose under 60 °C was appropriate for the fermentation of xylose by M. thermoacetica, yielding 0.87 g-acetic acid per gram of xylose consumed. Corncob hydrolysate could also be fermented to produce acetic acid, but with lower yield (0.74 g-acid per g-xylose). The broths of xylose and corncob hydrolysate fermented by M. thermoacetica containing acetic acid were fed to G. sulfurreducens in a dual-chamber microbial fuel/electrolysis cell for electricity and hydrogen generation. The highest open-circuit cell voltages generated were 802 and 745 mV, and hydrogen yields were 41.7 and 23.3 mmol per mol-acetate, in xylose and corncob hydrolysate fermentation broth media, respectively. The internal resistance of the microbial fuel/electrolysis cell fed with corncob hydrolysate fermentation broth (3472 Ω) was much higher than that with xylose fermentation broth (1993 Ω) or sodium acetate medium (467 Ω), which was believed to be the main cause of the variation in hydrogen yield of the three feeding media.

  15. Peristaltic flow with thermal conductivity of H2O + Cu nanofluid and entropy generation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noreen Sher Akbar


    Full Text Available In this article, it is opted to investigate the effects of entropy and induced magnetic field for the peristaltic flow of copper water fluid in the asymmetric horizontal channel , the mathematical formulation is presented, the resulting equations are solved exactly. The obtained expressions for pressure gradient , pressure rise, temperature, axial magnetic field, current density, velocity phenomenon entropy generation number and Bejan number are described through graphs for various pertinent parameters. The streamlines are drawn for some physical quantities to discuss the trapping phenomenon.

  16. Zn-Fe-CNTs catalytic in situ generation of H2O2 for Fenton-like degradation of sulfamethoxazole. (United States)

    Liu, Yong; Fan, Qin; Wang, Jianlong


    A novel Fenton-like catalyst (Zn-Fe-CNTs) capable of converting O2 to H2O2 and further to OH was prepared through infiltration fusion method followed by chemical replacement in argon atmosphere. The catalyst was characterized by SEM, EDS, TEM, XRD and XPS. The reaction between Zn-Fe-CNTs and O2 in aqueous solution could generate H2O2 in situ, which was further transferred to OH. The Fenton-like degradation of sulfamethoxazole (SMX) using Zn-Fe-CNTs as catalyst was evaluated. The results indicated that Zn-Fe-CNTs had a coral porous structure with a BET area of 51.67m(2)/g, exhibiting excellent adsorption capacity for SMX, which enhanced its degradation. The particles of Zn(0) and Fe(0)/Fe2O3 were observed on the surface of Zn-Fe-CNTs. The mixture of Zn(0) and CNTs could reduce O2 into H2O2 by micro-electrolysis and Fe(0)/Fe2O3 could catalyze in-situ generation of H2O2 to produce OH through Fenton-like process. When initial pH=1.5, T=25°C, O2 flow rate=400mL/min, Zn-Fe-CNTs=0.6g/L, SMX=25mg/L and reaction time=10min, the removal efficiency of SMX and TOC was 100% and 51.3%, respectively. The intermediates were detected and the possible pathway of SMX degradation and the mechanism of Zn-Fe-CNTs/O2 process were tentatively proposed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. The Strategies of Academic Library to Serve Net-Generation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chandra Pratama Setiawan


    Full Text Available The  fast  developments  in  information  and  communication  technology  have  rapidly  shaped  and created enormous changes in the way people live and use libraries. The generation who grow in this era is called net generation. Academic libraries, where the majority of the users are the net-generation,  have  started  to  implement  the  concept  of  hybrid  library  as  a  response  of  the technological  advances.  The  trend  of  digital  collections  usage  is  getting  increase,  on  the  other hand,  the  number  of  library  visitor  is  getting  lower  significantly.  The  condition  make  librarians afraid  of  being  abandoned  by  its  users,  whereas  libraries  still  have  many  physical  collections. This paper is written as a result of simple observation in some libraries where the needs of net-generation  has  accommodated.  The  concept  of library  as  place,  and  library  marketing  offer  the solutions to deal with the problem. Libraries can develop and provide some facilities that suitable with  the net-generation  characteristics.  In  addition,  libraries  can  create  some  events  to  promote their services even the collections to attract the users to visit library.

  18. Automatic Structure-Based Code Generation from Coloured Petri Nets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Lars Michael; Westergaard, Michael


    Automatic code generation based on Coloured Petri Net (CPN) models is challenging because CPNs allow for the construction of abstract models that intermix control flow and data processing, making translation into conventional programming constructs difficult. We introduce Process-Partitioned CPNs...... (PP-CPNs) which is a subclass of CPNs equipped with an explicit separation of process control flow, message passing, and access to shared and local data. We show how PP-CPNs caters for a four phase structure-based automatic code generation process directed by the control flow of processes....... The viability of our approach is demonstrated by applying it to automatically generate an Erlang implementation of the Dynamic MANET On-demand (DYMO) routing protocol specified by the Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF)....

  19. The Strategies of Academic Library to Serve Net-Generation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    candra pratama setiawan


    Full Text Available The fast developments in information and communication technology have rapidly shaped and created enormous changes in the way people live and use libraries. The generation who grow in this era is called net generation. Academic libraries, where the majority of the users are the netgeneration, have started to implement the concept of hybrid library as a response of the technological advances. The trend of digital collections usage is getting increase, on the other hand, the number of library visitor is getting lower significantly. The condition make librarians afraid of being abandoned by its users, whereas libraries still have many physical collections. This paper is written as a result of simple observation in some libraries where the needs of netgeneration has accomodated. The concept of library as place, and library marketing offer the solutions to deal with the problem. Libraries can develop and provide some facilities that suitable with the net-generation characteristics. In addition, libraries can create some events to promote their services even the collections to attract the users to visit library.

  20. Synthesis of porous ZnS:Ag2S nanosheets by ion exchange for photocatalytic H2 generation. (United States)

    Yang, Xia; Xue, Hongtao; Xu, Jun; Huang, Xing; Zhang, Jie; Tang, Yong-Bing; Ng, Tsz-Wai; Kwong, Hoi-Lun; Meng, Xiang-Min; Lee, Chun-Sing


    ZnS:Ag2S porous nanostructures are prepared by a simple ion-exchange route using ZnS nanosheets as sacrificial templates. In solutions of different Ag ion concentrations, ZnS nanosheets are partially converted to Ag2S, resulting in porous ZnS:Ag2S nanosheet composites with different pore sizes. With the Ag2S nanocrystals playing the role of hole scavengers, the porous nanosheets exhibit a high photocatalytic H2 generation rate of 104.9 μmol/h/g without using any noble metal cocatalyst.

  1. Critical role of H2O2 generated by NOX4 during cellular response under glucose deprivation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satoshi Owada

    Full Text Available Glucose is the most efficient energy source, and various cancer cells depend on glycolysis for energy production. For maintenance of survival and proliferation, glucose sensing and adaptation to poor nutritional circumstances must be well organized in cancer cells. While the glucose sensing machinery has been well studied in yeasts, the molecular mechanism of glucose sensing in mammalian cells remains to be elucidated. We have reported glucose deprivation rapidly induces AKT phosphorylation through PI3K activation. We assumed that regulation of AKT is relevant to glucose sensing and further investigated the underlying mechanisms. In this study, AKT phosphorylation under glucose deprivation was inhibited by galactose and fructose, but induced by 2-deoxyglucose (2-DG. Both 2-DG treatment and glucose deprivation were found to induce AKT phosphorylation in HepG2 cells. These findings suggested that glucose transporter may not be involved in the sensing of glucose and induction of AKT phosphorylation, and that downstream metabolic events may have important roles. A variety of metabolic stresses reportedly induce the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS. In the present study, glucose deprivation was found to induce intracellular hydrogen peroxide (H2O2 production in HepG2 cells. N-acetylcysteine (NAC, an antioxidant reagent, reduced both the increase in cellular H2O2 levels and AKT phosphorylation induced by glucose deprivation. These results strongly suggest that the glucose deprivation-induced increase of H2O2 in the cells mediated the AKT phosphorylation. RNA interference of NOX4, but not of NOX5, completely suppressed the glucose deprivation-induced AKT phosphorylation as well as increase of the intracellular levels of ROS, whereas exogenous H2O2 could still induce AKT phosphorylation in the NOX4-knockdown cells. In this study, we demonstrated that the ROS generated by NOX4 are involved in the intracellular adaptive responses by recognizing

  2. Development of net energy ratio for quad-generation pathways

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rudra, Souman; Rosendahl, Lasse; Kumar, Amit


    The conversion of biomass to four different outputs via gasification and catalytic methanation is a renewable technology that could reduce the use of fossil fuels and GHG emissions. This study investigates the energy aspects of producing electricity, heat, methanol and methane. The Gas Technology......-based power, heat, methanol and methane production pathway using GTI technology. Since more efficient alternatives exist for the generation of heat and electricity from biomass, it is argued that syngas is best used for methanol production. The aim of this study was to evaluate the energy performance...... Institute (GTI) gasifier and Circulating Fluidized Bed (CFB) technologies are used for this quad generation process. Three different biomass feedstocks are considered in this study. The net energy ratio for six different pathways having the range of between 1.3–9.3. The lowest limit corresponds to the straw...

  3. Detailed study of the plasma-activated catalytic generation of ammonia in N2-H2 plasmas (United States)

    van Helden, J. H.; Wagemans, W.; Yagci, G.; Zijlmans, R. A. B.; Schram, D. C.; Engeln, R.; Lombardi, G.; Stancu, G. D.; Röpcke, J.


    We investigated the efficiency and formation mechanism of ammonia generation in recombining plasmas generated from mixtures of N2 and H2 under various plasma conditions. In contrast to the Haber-Bosch process, in which the molecules are dissociated on a catalytic surface, under these plasma conditions the precursor molecules, N2 and H2, are already dissociated in the gas phase. Surfaces are thus exposed to large fluxes of atomic N and H radicals. The ammonia production turns out to be strongly dependent on the fluxes of atomic N and H radicals to the surface. By optimizing the atomic N and H fluxes to the surface using an atomic nitrogen and hydrogen source ammonia can be formed efficiently, i.e., more than 10% of the total background pressure is measured to be ammonia. The results obtained show a strong similarity with results reported in literature, which were explained by the production of ammonia at the surface by stepwise addition reactions between adsorbed nitrogen and hydrogen containing radicals at the surface and incoming N and H containing radicals. Furthermore, our results indicate that the ammonia production is independent of wall material. The high fluxes of N and H radicals in our experiments result in a passivated surface, and the actual chemistry, leading to the formation of ammonia, takes place in an additional layer on top of this passivated surface.

  4. H2 Reconstitution

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Skipper, Mike


    .... The H2 source is an existing wideband source that was developed at the AFRL. A recent AFRL requirement for a wideband impulse generator to use in materials tests has provided the need to update the H2 source for the current test requirements...

  5. Enzymatic in-situ generation of H2O2 for decolorization of Acid Blue 113 by fenton process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karimi Afzal


    Full Text Available Decolorization of Acid Blue 113 in an aqueous medium by bio-Fenton process has been investigated in this research. Enzymatic oxidation of glucose was performed to in-situ generation of H2O2 which was employed to react with Fe2+ for producing hydroxyl radicals. The effect of various parameters include concentrations of 113, glucose, and FeSO4, activity of glucose oxidase (GOx and the effect of pH were assessed. The highest decolorization of AB 113 were achieved at Fe2+ concentration of 0.2 mmol/L, pH =4.0, glucose concentration of 0.018 mol/L, and glucose oxidase activity of 2500 U/L in the constant temperature (23 ±0.1ºC and constant shaking rate (160 r/min, while the concentration of 113 was 40 mg/L. In these conditions, 113 decolorization efficiency after 60 min was obtained about 95%.

  6. Redox-cycling and H2O2 generation by fabricated catecholic films in the absence of enzymes. (United States)

    Kim, Eunkyoung; Liu, Yi; Baker, C Jacyn; Owens, Robert; Xiao, Shunyuan; Bentley, William E; Payne, Gregory F


    Phenolic matrices are ubiquitous in nature (e.g., lignin, melanin, and humics) but remain largely intractable to characterize. We examined an abiotic phenol-polysaccharide matrix fabricated by the anodic grafting of catechol to chitosan films. Previous studies have shown that catechol-modified chitosan films are redox-active and can be repeatedly interconverted between oxidized and reduced states. Here we developed quantitative electrochemical methods to characterize biorelevant redox properties of the catechol-modified chitosan films. Our analysis demonstrates that these films can (i) accept electrons from biological reductants (e.g., ascorbate and nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate, NADPH) and (ii) donate electrons in a model biological oxidation process. Furthermore, these films can donate electrons to O(2) to generate H(2)O(2). The demonstration that abiotic catechol-chitosan films possess catalytic activities in the absence of enzymes suggests the possibility that phenolic matrices may play an important role in redox cycling and reactive oxygen species (ROS) signaling in biology and the environment.

  7. Intensity distributions and isolated attosecond pulse generation from molecular high-order harmonic generation in H2+ driven by nonhomogeneous field (United States)

    Feng, Liqiang; Chu, Tianshu


    Intensity distributions and isolated attosecond pulse generation from the molecular high-order harmonic generation (MHHG) in H2+ and T2+ driven by the nonhomogeneous field have been theoretically investigated. (i) Generally speaking, the intensities of the harmonics driven by the homogeneous field can be enhanced as the initial vibrational state increases and much more intense harmonics can be obtained from the light nuclei. However, with the introduction of the nonhomogeneous effect, the enhanced ratios of the harmonic yields are decreased as the initial vibrational state increases. Moreover, the intensities of the harmonics from H2+ and T2+ are very sensitive to the nonhomogeneous effect of the laser field. (ii) The contributions of the MHHG from the two-H nuclei present the periodic variation as a function of the laser phase for the case of the symmetric nonhomogeneous field. However, for the case of the positive and the negative asymmetric nonhomogeneous fields, the left-H and the right-H play the dominating role in the MHHG, respectively. Moreover, as the angle between the laser polarization direction and the molecular axis increases, the intensity differences of the harmonics from the two-H nuclei are increased. (iii) By properly adding a half-cycle pulse into the positive asymmetric nonhomogeneous field, a supercontinuum with the bandwidth of 279 eV and an isolated 25 as pulse can be obtained.

  8. Anaerobic methane oxidation and a deep H2S sink generate isotopically heavy sulfides in Black Sea sediments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, BB; Bottcher, ME; Luschen, H.


    The main terminal processes of organic matter mineralization in anoxic Black Sea sediments underlying the sulfidic water column are sulfate reduction in the upper 2-4 m and methanogenesis below the sulfate zone. The modern marine deposits comprise a ca. 1-m-deep layer of coccolith ooze....... The pore water gradients respond dynamically to environmental changes in the Black Sea with relatively short time constants of ca. 500 yr for SO42- and 10 yr for H2S, whereas the FeS in the black band has taken ca. 3000 yr to accumulate. The dual diffusion interfaces of SO42--CH4 and H2S-Fe2+ cause...... and underlying sapropel, below which sea water ions penetrate deep down into the limnic Pleistocene deposits from >9000 years BP. Sulfate reduction rates have a subsurface maximum at the SO42--CH4 transition where H2S reaches 4 maximum concentration. Because of an excess of reactive iron in the deep limnic...

  9. Pragmatics Annotated Coloured Petri Nets for Protocol Software Generation and Verification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simonsen, Kent Inge; Kristensen, Lars Michael; Kindler, Ekkart

    This paper presents the formal definition of Pragmatics Annotated Coloured Petri Nets (PA-CPNs). PA-CPNs represent a class of Coloured Petri Nets (CPNs) that are designed to support automated code genera-tion of protocol software. PA-CPNs restrict the structure of CPN models and allow Petri net...... elements to be annotated with so-called pragmatics, which are exploited for code generation. The approach and tool for gen-erating code is called PetriCode and has been discussed and evaluated in earlier work already. The contribution of this paper is to give a formal def-inition for PA-CPNs; in addition...

  10. Pragmatics Annotated Coloured Petri Nets for Protocol Software Generation and Verification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fagerland Simonsen, Kent Inge; Kristensen, Lars Michael; Kindler, Ekkart


    PetriCode is a tool that supports automated generation of protocol software from a restricted class of Coloured Petri Nets (CPNs) called Pragmatics Annotated Coloured Petri Nets (PA-CPNs). Petri-Code and PA-CPNs have been designed with five main requirements in mind, which include the same model...

  11. Enhanced visible-light photocatalytic H2-generation activity of carbon/g-C3N4 nanocomposites prepared by two-step thermal treatment. (United States)

    Xu, Quanlong; Jiang, Chuanjia; Cheng, Bei; Yu, Jiaguo


    Photocatalytic hydrogen (H2) production from water by using solar energy and a photocatalyst is a green and sustainable route to tackle the energy issues. Herein, carbon/g-C3N4 nanocomposites were successfully synthesized via a two-step thermal treatment of urea and glucose with different ratios. As confirmed by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, a C-O-C bond was formed between carbon and g-C3N4, which leads to a strong interaction between carbon and g-C3N4. The prepared samples were evaluated for photocatalytic H2 generation under visible light irradiation. The experimental results indicate that the carbon/g-C3N4 nanocomposites show great photocatalytic H2 evolution activity, as high as 410.1 μmol g(-1) h(-1), which is 13.6-fold of pure g-C3N4. The enhanced photocatalytic performance not only originates from the enlarged surface area and extended visible light response range, but also from the effectively separated photo-generated charge carriers. This spatial charge separation greatly suppresses the recombination of photo-generated hole-electron pairs and facilitates efficient H2 production. This work provides a facile way to design highly efficient carbon nitride-based photocatalysts for potential application in photocatalytic reaction by using solar energy.

  12. Code Generation from Pragmatics Annotated Coloured Petri Nets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simonsen, Kent Inge

    implemented in a prototype tool called PetriCode. We defined several criteria for our code generation approach, the approach should be scalable so that is can be used to generate code for industrial sized protocols. The models should be verifiable and it should be possible to perform efficient verification...... the PA-CPN model that describe the protocol design. The generated code is also shown to be readable and we demonstrate that a generated implementation can be easily integrated with third party software. We also show that our approach scales to industrial sized protocols by applying our approach...

  13. Synthesis of In2O3-In2S3 core-shell nanorods with inverted type-I structure for photocatalytic H2 generation. (United States)

    Yang, Xia; Xu, Jun; Wong, Tailun; Yang, Qingdan; Lee, Chun-Sing


    In2O3-In2S3 core-shell nanostructures were prepared via a simple hydrothermal process at low temperatures. Ultraviolet photoelectron spectroscopy (UPS) shows that the In2O3-In2S3 nanorod is an inverted type I nanostructure. The energy potential in this structure would drive both the photo-generated holes and electrons towards the shell to facilitate photocatalytic H2 generation. Such inverted type-I nanostructure is firstly used for hydrogen generation. Comparing with reported indium-based photocatalysts upon UV-Vis illumination, the core-shell In2O3-In2S3 nanostructure obtained here exhibits a good H2 evolution rate of 61.4 μmol h(-1) g(-1).

  14. Hollow Mesoporous Silica Supported Ruthenium Nanoparticles: A Highly Active and Reusable Catalyst for H2 Generation from the Hydrolysis of NaBH4

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuge Peng


    Full Text Available Ru nanoparticles supported on hollow mesoporous silica (HMS, which are prepared via in situ wet chemical reduction, have been investigated as the highly efficient heterogeneous catalyst for H2 generation from the hydrolysis of an alkaline NaBH4 solution. Many techniques, including X-ray diffraction (XRD, transmission electron microscope (TEM, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS, are used to characterize the as-prepared nanocatalyst (Ru/HMS. Factors, such as Ru loadings in HMS, catalyst concentration, and solution temperature, on catalytic property and reutilization are investigated in this work. A rate of H2 generation as high as 18.6 L min−1 g−1 (Ru using 1 wt% NaBH4 solution containing 3 wt% NaOH and 40 mg of Ru/HMS catalyst can be reached at room temperature. The minimum apparent activation energy (Ea of H2 generation, obtained by fitting the curve of Ea values versus catalyst amount, is determined to be 46.7 ± 1 kJ/mol. The residual catalytic activity of the repeated Ru/HMS still remains 47.7% after 15 runs, which perhaps results from the incorporation of the residual by-product (NaBO2 in the pores of HMS based on the analysis of XPS.

  15. Treatment of industrial effluents by electrochemical generation of H2O2 using an RVC cathode in a parallel plate reactor. (United States)

    Bustos, Yaneth A; Rangel-Peraza, Jesús Gabriel; Rojas-Valencia, Ma Neftalí; Bandala, Erick R; Álvarez-Gallegos, Alberto; Vargas-Estrada, Laura


    Electrochemical techniques have been used for the discolouration of synthetic textile industrial wastewater by Fenton's process using a parallel plate reactor with a reticulated vitreous carbon (RVC) cathode. It has been shown that RVC is capable of electro-generating and activating H2O2 in the presence of Fe(2+) added as catalyst and using a stainless steel mesh as anode material. A catholyte comprising 0.05 M Na2SO4, 0.001 M FeSO4.7H2O, 0.01 M H2SO4 and fed with oxygen was used to activate H2O2.The anolyte contained only 0.8 M H2SO4. The operating experimental conditions were 170 mA (2.0 V H2O2. Synthetic effluents containing various concentrations (millimolar - mM) of three different dyes, Blue Basic 9 (BB9), Reactive Black 5 (RB5) and Acid Orange 7 (AO7), were evaluated for discolouration using the electro-assisted Fenton reaction. Water discolouration was measured by UV-VIS absorbance reduction. Dye removal by electrolysis was a function of time: 90% discolouration of 0.08, 0.04 and 0.02 mM BB9 was obtained at 14, 10 and 6 min, respectively. In the same way, 90% discolouration of 0.063, 0.031 and 0.016 mM RB5 was achieved at 90, 60 and 30 min, respectively. Finally, 90% discolouration of 0.14, 0.07 and 0.035 mM AO7 was achieved at 70, 40 and 20 min, respectively. The experimental results confirmed the effectiveness of electro-assisted Fenton reaction as a strong oxidizing process in water discolouration and the ability of RVC cathode to electro-generate and activate H2O2 in situ.

  16. Generation of a vacuum ultraviolet to visible Raman frequency comb in H2-filled kagomé photonic crystal fiber. (United States)

    Mridha, M K; Novoa, D; Bauerschmidt, S T; Abdolvand, A; St J Russell, P


    We report on the generation of a purely vibrational Raman comb, extending from the vacuum ultraviolet (184 nm) to the visible (478 nm), in hydrogen-filled kagomé-style photonic crystal fiber pumped at 266 nm. Stimulated Raman scattering and molecular modulation processes are enhanced by higher Raman gain in the ultraviolet. Owing to the pressure-tunable normal dispersion landscape of the "fiber + gas" system in the ultraviolet, higher-order anti-Stokes bands are generated preferentially in higher-order fiber modes. The results pave the way toward tunable fiber-based sources of deep and vacuum ultraviolet light for applications in, e.g., spectroscopy and biomedicine.

  17. Parametric image of myocardial blood flow generated from dynamic H2(15)O PET using factor analysis and cluster analysis. (United States)

    Lee, J S; Lee, D S; Ahn, J Y; Cheon, G J; Kim, S-K; Yeo, J S; Park, K S; Chung, J-K; Lee, M C


    Algorithm-based parametric imaging of myocardial blood flow (MBF), as measured by H2(15)O PET, has been the goal of many research efforts. A method for generating parametric images of regional MBF by factor and cluster analysis on H2(15)O dynamic myocardial PET was validated by its comparison with gold-standard MBF values determined invasively using radiolabelled microspheres. Right and left ventricular blood pool activities and their factor images were obtained by the application of factor analysis to dynamic frames. By subtraction of the factor images multiplied by their corresponding values on the factors from the original dynamic images for each frame, pure tissue dynamic images were obtained, from which arterial blood activities were excluded. Cluster analysis that averaged pixels having time-activity curves with the same shape was applied to pure tissue images to generate parametric MBF images. The usefulness of this method for quantifying regional MBF was evaluated using canine experiment data. H2(15)O PET scans and microsphere studies were performed on seven dogs at rest and after pharmacological stress. The image qualities and the contrast of parametric images obtained using the proposed method were significantly improved over either the tissue factor images or the parametric images obtained using a conventional method. Regional MBFs obtained using the proposed method correlated well with those obtained by the region of interest method (r = 0.94) and by the microsphere technique (r = 0.90). A non-invasive method is presented for generating parametric images of MBF from H2(15)O PET, using factor and cluster analysis.

  18. Fabricated catecholic films are capable of redox-cycling and H2O2-generation in the absence of enzymes (United States)

    The redox activity of quinones is integral to their physiological function in the electron transfer pathways of respiration and photosynthesis. Quinones and phenolic radicals are also intermediates in the biosynthesis of macromolecular structures (lignins and melanins) generated by plants and insec...

  19. H2O2 induced cost effective microwave disintegration of dairy waste activated sludge in acidic environment for efficient biomethane generation. (United States)

    Eswari, A Parvathy; Kavitha, S; Banu, J Rajesh; Karthikeyan, O Parthiba; Yeom, Ick-Tae


    This study aimed to improve the biomethane potential of dairy waste activated sludge (WAS) by H2O2-acidic pH induced microwave disintegration (HAMW-D) pretreatment approach. The results of HAMW-D compared with the microwave disintegration (MW-D) alone for energy and economic factors. In the two phase disintegration process, the H2O2 concentration of about 0.5mg/g SS under acid pH of 5 was found to be optimum for effective dissociation of Extracellular Polymeric Substances (EPS) matrix. A higher liquefaction of about 46.6% was achieved in HAMW-D when compared to that of MW-D (30%). It subsequently improved the methane yield of about 250mL/g VS in HAMW-D, which was 9.6% higher than MW-D. A net profit of about 49€/ton was achieved for HAMW-D, therefore it is highly recommended for WAS pretreatment. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Pragmatics annotated coloured petri nets for protocol software generation and verification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simonsen, Kent Inge Fagerland; Kristensen, Lars M.; Kindler, Ekkart


    Pragmatics Annotated Coloured Petri Nets (PA-CPNs) are a restricted class of Coloured Petri Nets (CPNs) developed to support automated generation of protocol software. The practical application of PA-CPNs and the supporting PetriCode software tool have been discussed and evaluated in earlier pape...... already. The contribution of this paper is to give a formal definition of PA-CPNs, motivate the definitions, and demonstrate how the structure of PA-CPNs can be exploited for more efficient verification....

  1. Web 2.0 and the Net Generation - A Critical Perspective

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ryberg, Thomas


    , and books have revolved around social media, web 2.0, personal learning environments, student-centred learning, and student-generated content. Alongside these internet developments we have witnessed debates on what schools and universities can do to cater to the 'net-generation' or the 'digital natives' in...

  2. ABA Suppresses Botrytis cinerea Elicited NO Production in Tomato to Influence H2O2 Generation and Increase Host Susceptibility (United States)

    Sivakumaran, Anushen; Akinyemi, Aderemi; Mandon, Julian; Cristescu, Simona M.; Hall, Michael A.; Harren, Frans J. M.; Mur, Luis A. J.


    Abscisic acid (ABA) production has emerged a susceptibility factor in plant-pathogen interactions. This work examined the interaction of ABA with nitric oxide (NO) in tomato following challenge with the ABA-synthesizing pathogen, Botrytis cinerea. Trace gas detection using a quantum cascade laser detected NO production within minutes of challenge with B. cinerea whilst photoacoustic laser detection detected ethylene production – an established mediator of defense against this pathogen – occurring after 6 h. Application of the NO generation inhibitor N-Nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME) suppressed both NO and ethylene production and resistance against B. cinerea. The tomato mutant sitiens fails to accumulate ABA, shows increased resistance to B. cinerea and we noted exhibited elevated NO and ethylene production. Exogenous application of L-NAME or ABA reduced NO production in sitiens and reduced resistance to B. cinerea. Increased resistance to B. cinerea in sitiens have previously been linked to increased reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation but this was reduced in both L-NAME and ABA-treated sitiens. Taken together, our data suggests that ABA can decreases resistance to B. cinerea via reduction of NO production which also suppresses both ROS and ethylene production. PMID:27252724

  3. ABA suppresses Botrytis cinerea elicited NO production in tomato to influence H2O2 generation and increase host susceptibility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anushen eSivakumaran


    Full Text Available Abscisic acid (ABA production has emerged a susceptibility factor in plant-pathogen interactions. This work examined the interaction of ABA with NO in tomato following challenge with the ABA-synthesising pathogen, Botrytis cinerea. Trace gas detection using a quantum cascade laser detected NO production within minutes of challenge with B. cinerea whilst photoacoustic laser detection detected ethylene production – an established mediator of defence against this pathogen - occurring after 6 h. Application of the NO generation inhibitor N-Nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME suppressed both NO and ethylene production and resistance against B. cinerea. The tomato mutant sitiens fails to accumulate ABA (abscisic acid, shows increased resistance to B. cinerea and we noted exhibited elevated NO and ethylene production. Exogenous application of L-NAME or ABA reduced NO production in sitiens and reduced resistance to B. cinerea. Increased resistance to B. cinerea in sitiens have previously been linked to increased reactive oxygen species (ROS generation but this was reduced in both L-NAME and ABA treated sitiens. Taken together, our data suggests that ABA can decreases resistance to B. cinerea via reduction of NO production which also suppresses both ROS and ethylene production.

  4. ABA Suppresses Botrytis cinerea Elicited NO Production in Tomato to Influence H2O2 Generation and Increase Host Susceptibility. (United States)

    Sivakumaran, Anushen; Akinyemi, Aderemi; Mandon, Julian; Cristescu, Simona M; Hall, Michael A; Harren, Frans J M; Mur, Luis A J


    Abscisic acid (ABA) production has emerged a susceptibility factor in plant-pathogen interactions. This work examined the interaction of ABA with nitric oxide (NO) in tomato following challenge with the ABA-synthesizing pathogen, Botrytis cinerea. Trace gas detection using a quantum cascade laser detected NO production within minutes of challenge with B. cinerea whilst photoacoustic laser detection detected ethylene production - an established mediator of defense against this pathogen - occurring after 6 h. Application of the NO generation inhibitor N-Nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME) suppressed both NO and ethylene production and resistance against B. cinerea. The tomato mutant sitiens fails to accumulate ABA, shows increased resistance to B. cinerea and we noted exhibited elevated NO and ethylene production. Exogenous application of L-NAME or ABA reduced NO production in sitiens and reduced resistance to B. cinerea. Increased resistance to B. cinerea in sitiens have previously been linked to increased reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation but this was reduced in both L-NAME and ABA-treated sitiens. Taken together, our data suggests that ABA can decreases resistance to B. cinerea via reduction of NO production which also suppresses both ROS and ethylene production.

  5. Probing multirescattering dynamics and electron quantum paths for below- and near-threshold harmonic generation of H2 in an intense laser field (United States)

    Heslar, John; Chu, Shih-I.


    Most previous studies of high-order-harmonic generation have focused on the regime beyond the ionization threshold; the dynamical origin of below- and near-threshold harmonics, particularly for the molecular systems, is less understood and largely unexplored. Here, we report a self-interaction free time-dependent density-functional-theory study along with an extended semiclassical study for the nonperturbative probing of the dynamical origin of below- and near-threshold harmonic generation of the H2 molecule in an intense near-infrared laser field. Our approach allows an accurate study of the electron trajectories as a function of energy, time, and position for below-, near-, and above-threshold harmonics for electrons departing initially from each of the individual hydrogen cores of the H2 molecule. We discover that short trajectories are multiphoton dominated and can have multiple returns for below-threshold harmonics, and excited-state resonances can have significant effects on the generation of neighboring below-threshold harmonics. Furthermore, we find that the electron dynamics for below-threshold long, short, and resonant trajectories differ greatly depending upon which hydrogen core (left or right) the electron was released from initially. An intuitive and appealing picture of near- and below-threshold harmonic generation discovered in our study can give guidance to future experiments in this forefront area of ultrafast atomic, molecular, and optical physics.

  6. A hierarchical construction scheme for accurate potential energy surface generation: an application to the F+H2 reaction. (United States)

    Fu, Bina; Xu, Xin; Zhang, Dong H


    We present a hierarchical construction scheme for accurate ab initio potential energy surface generation. The scheme is based on the observation that when molecular configuration changes, the variation in the potential energy difference between different ab initio methods is much smaller than the variation for potential energy itself. This means that it is easier to numerically represent energy difference to achieve a desired accuracy. Because the computational cost for ab initio calculations increases very rapidly with the accuracy, one can gain substantial saving in computational time by constructing a high accurate potential energy surface as a sum of a low accurate surface based on extensive ab initio data points and an energy difference surface for high and low accuracy ab initio methods based on much fewer data points. The new scheme was applied to construct an accurate ground potential energy surface for the FH(2) system using the coupled-cluster method and a very large basis set. The constructed potential energy surface is found to be more accurate on describing the resonance states in the FH(2) and FHD systems than the existing surfaces.

  7. Constructing Multifunctional Metallic Ni Interface Layers in the g-C3N4 Nanosheets/Amorphous NiS Heterojunctions for Efficient Photocatalytic H2 Generation. (United States)

    Wen, Jiuqing; Xie, Jun; Zhang, Hongdan; Zhang, Aiping; Liu, Yingju; Chen, Xiaobo; Li, Xin


    The construction of exceptionally robust and high-quality semiconductor-cocatalyst heterojunctions remains a grand challenge toward highly efficient and durable solar-to-fuel conversion. Herein, novel graphitic carbon nitride (g-C3N4) nanosheets decorated with multifunctional metallic Ni interface layers and amorphous NiS cocatalysts were fabricated via a facile three-step process: the loading of Ni(OH)2 nanosheets, high-temperature H2 reduction, and further deposition of amorphous NiS nanosheets. The results demonstrated that both robust metallic Ni interface layers and amorphous NiS can be utilized as electron cocatalysts to markedly boost the visible-light H2 evolution over g-C3N4 semiconductor. The optimized g-C3N4-based photocatalyst containing 0.5 wt % Ni and 1.0 wt % NiS presented the highest hydrogen evolution of 515 μmol g-1 h-1, which was about 2.8 and 4.6 times as much as those obtained on binary g-C3N4-1.0%NiS and g-C3N4-0.5%Ni, respectively. Apparently, the metallic Ni interface layers play multifunctional roles in enhancing the visible-light H2 evolution, which could first collect the photogenerated electrons from g-C3N4, and then accelerate the surface H2-evolution reaction kinetics over amorphous NiS cocatalysts. More interestingly, the synergetic effects of metallic Ni and amorphous NiS dual-layer electron cocatalysts could also improve the TEOA-oxidation capacity through upshifting the VB levels of g-C3N4. Comparatively speaking, the multifunctional metallic Ni layers are dominantly favorable for separating and transferring photoexcited charge carriers from g-C3N4 to amorphous NiS cocatalysts owing to the formation of Schottky junctions, whereas the amorphous NiS nanosheets are mainly advantageous for decreasing the thermodynamic overpotentials for surface H2-evolution reactions. It is hoped that the implantation of multifunctional metallic interface layers can provide a versatile approach to enhance the photocatalytic H2 generation over

  8. Compromised Photosynthetic Electron Flow And H2O2 Generation Correlate with Genotype-Specific Stomatal Dysfunctions During Resistance Against Powdery Mildew In Oats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier Sánchez-Martín


    Full Text Available Stomatal dysfunction known as locking has been linked to the elicitation of a hypersensitive response (HR following attack of fungal pathogens in cereals. We here assess how spatial and temporal patterns of different resistance mechanisms, such as HR and penetration resistance influence stomatal and photosynthetic parameters in oat (Avena sativa and the possible involvement of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2 in the dysfunctions observed. Four oat cultivars with differential resistance responses (i.e. penetration resistance, early and late HR to powdery mildew (Blumeria graminis f. sp. avenae, Bga were used. Results demonstrated that stomatal dysfunctions were genotype but not response-type dependent since genotypes with similar resistance responses when assessed histologically showed very different locking patterns. Maximum quantum yield (Fv/Fm of photosystem II were compromised in most Bga–oat interactions and photoinhibition increased. However, the extent of the photosynthetic alterations was not directly related to the extent of HR. H2O2 generation is triggered during the execution of resistance responses and can influence stomatal function. Artificially increasing H2O2 by exposing plants to increased light intensity further reduced Fv/Fm ratios and augmented the patterns of stomatal dysfunctions previously observed. The latter results suggest that the observed dysfunctions and hence a cost of resistance may be linked with oxidative stress occurring during defence induced photosynthetic disruption.

  9. Net Generation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Konstantin Lidin


    Full Text Available Unlike television, where the role of the viewer is limited by channel changing, the Internet allows to demonstrate your own will, to ask questions and get answers, to express your opinion and, on the whole, to self-actualize. It is the conversational nature of the Internet that gave rise to the most common forms of the Internet addiction: surfing, cybersex and cybercommunication.

  10. Electron-Nuclear Dynamics on Amplitude and Frequency Modulation of Molecular High-Order Harmonic Generation from H2+ and its Isotopes (United States)

    Liu, Hang; Feng, Liqiang


    Electron-nuclear dynamics of molecular high-order harmonic generation from H2+ and its isotopes has been theoretically investigated beyond the Born-Oppenheimer approximations. The results show that (i) due to the different ionisation probabilities and the harmonic emission times, the intensities of the harmonics from H2+ and its isotopes are very sensitive to the initial vibrational state, the pulse duration, and the pulse intensity. (ii) Due to the nonadiabatic effects in molecular high-order harmonic generation, the red-shifts of the harmonics can be found in the lower pulse intensity. With the increase of the pulse intensity, the harmonics are from the red-shifts to the blue-shifts. Moreover, as the pulse duration increases, the blue-shifts of the harmonics can be enhanced. As the initial vibrational state increases, the red-shifts of the harmonics can be decreased, whereas the blue-shifts of the harmonics can be enhanced. However, the shifts of the harmonics are decreased as the nuclear mass increases. (iii) Due to the coupled electron-nuclear dynamics in molecules, the spatial symmetry of the system is broken. As a result, non-odd harmonics can be generated at the larger internuclear distance. With the increase of the initial vibrational state or the nuclear mass, the generation of the non-odd harmonics can be enhanced and reduced, respectively. As the pulse duration or the pulse intensity increase, the generation of the non-odd harmonics can be enhanced. However, the intensities of the non-odd harmonics are decreased when using the longer pulse duration with the much higher laser intensity.

  11. H2@Scale Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruth, Mark


    'H2@Scale' is a concept based on the opportunity for hydrogen to act as an intermediate between energy sources and uses. Hydrogen has the potential to be used like the primary intermediate in use today, electricity, because it too is fungible. This presentation summarizes the H2@Scale analysis efforts performed during the first third of 2017. Results of technical potential uses and supply options are summarized and show that the technical potential demand for hydrogen is 60 million metric tons per year and that the U.S. has sufficient domestic resources to meet that demand. A high level infrastructure analysis is also presented that shows an 85% increase in energy on the grid if all hydrogen is produced from grid electricity. However, a preliminary spatial assessment shows that supply is sufficient in most counties across the U.S. The presentation also shows plans for analysis of the economic potential for the H2@Scale concept. Those plans involve developing supply and demand curves for potential hydrogen generation options and as compared to other options for use of that hydrogen.

  12. The Knowledge Building Paradigm: A Model of Learning for Net Generation Students (United States)

    Philip, Donald


    In this article Donald Philip describes Knowledge Building, a pedagogy based on the way research organizations function. The global economy, Philip argues, is driving a shift from older, industrial models to the model of the business as a learning organization. The cognitive patterns of today's Net Generation students, formed by lifetime exposure…

  13. An Expanded Study of Net Generation Perceptions on Privacy and Security on Social Networking Sites (SNS) (United States)

    Lawler, James P.; Molluzzo, John C.; Doshi, Vijal


    Social networking on the Internet continues to be a frequent avenue of communication, especially among Net Generation consumers, giving benefits both personal and professional. The benefits may be eventually hindered by issues in information gathering and sharing on social networking sites. This study evaluates the perceptions of students taking a…

  14. Analysis of the design and economics of molten carbonate fuel cell tri-generation systems providing heat and power for commercial buildings and H2 for FC vehicles (United States)

    Li, Xuping; Ogden, Joan; Yang, Christopher


    This study models the operation of molten carbonate fuel cell (MCFC) tri-generation systems for “big box” store businesses that combine grocery and retail business, and sometimes gasoline retail. Efficiency accounting methods and parameters for MCFC tri-generation systems have been developed. Interdisciplinary analysis and an engineering/economic model were applied for evaluating the technical, economic, and environmental performance of distributed MCFC tri-generation systems, and for exploring the optimal system design. Model results show that tri-generation is economically competitive with the conventional system, in which the stores purchase grid electricity and NG for heat, and sell gasoline fuel. The results are robust based on sensitivity analysis considering the uncertainty in energy prices and capital cost. Varying system sizes with base case engineering inputs, energy prices, and cost assumptions, it is found that there is a clear tradeoff between the portion of electricity demand covered and the capital cost increase of bigger system size. MCFC Tri-generation technology provides lower emission electricity, heat, and H2 fuel. With NG as feedstock the CO2 emission can be reduced by 10%-43.6%, depending on how the grid electricity is generated. With renewable methane as feedstock CO2 emission can be further reduced to near zero.

  15. Generation of parametric image of regional myocardial blood flow using H(2)(15)O dynamic PET and a linear least-squares method. (United States)

    Lee, Jae Sung; Lee, Dong Soo; Ahn, Ji Young; Yeo, Jeong Seok; Cheon, Gi Jeong; Kim, Seok-Ki; Park, Kwang Suk; Chung, June-Key; Lee, Myung Chul


    Although a parametric image of myocardial blood flow (MBF) can be obtained from H(2)(15)O PET using factor and cluster analysis, this approach is limited when factor analysis fails to extract each cardiac component. In this study, a linear least-squares (LLS) method for estimating MBF and generating a MBF parametric image was developed to overcome this limitation. The computer simulation was performed to investigate the statistical properties of the LLS method, and MBF values obtained from the MBF parametric images in dogs were compared with those obtained using the conventional region of interest (ROI) and invasive microsphere methods. A differential model equation for H(2)(15)O in the myocardium was modified to incorporate the partial-volume and spillover effect. The equation was integrated from time 0 to each PET sampling point to obtain a linearlized H(2)(15)O model equation. The LLS solution of this equation was estimated and used to calculate the MBF, the perfusable tissue fraction (PTF), and the arterial blood volume fraction (V(a)). A computer simulation was performed using the input function obtained from canine experiments and the tissue time-activity curves contaminated by various levels of Poisson noise. The parametric image of the MBF, PTF, and V(a) was constructed using the PET data from dogs (n = 7) at rest and after pharmacologic stress. The regional MBF from the parametric image was compared with those produced by the ROI method using a nonlinear least-squares (NLS) estimation and an invasive radiolabeled microsphere technique. The simulation study showed that the LLS method was better than the NLS method in terms of statistical reliability, and the parametric images of the MBF, PTF, and V(a) using the LLS method had good image quality and contrast. The regional MBF values using the parametric image showed a good correlation with those using the ROI method (y = 0.84x + 0.40; r = 0.99) and the microsphere technique (y = 0.95x + 0.29; r = 0.96). The

  16. Synthesizing Dynamic Patterns by Spatial-Temporal Generative ConvNet


    Xie, Jianwen; Zhu, Song-Chun; Wu, Ying Nian


    Video sequences contain rich dynamic patterns, such as dynamic texture patterns that exhibit stationarity in the temporal domain, and action patterns that are non-stationary in either spatial or temporal domain. We show that a spatial-temporal generative ConvNet can be used to model and synthesize dynamic patterns. The model defines a probability distribution on the video sequence, and the log probability is defined by a spatial-temporal ConvNet that consists of multiple layers of spatial-tem...

  17. 5.5-7.5 MeV proton generation by a moderate-intensity ultrashort-pulse laser interaction with H2O nanowire targets. (United States)

    Zigler, A; Palchan, T; Bruner, N; Schleifer, E; Eisenmann, S; Botton, M; Henis, Z; Pikuz, S A; Faenov, A Y; Gordon, D; Sprangle, P


    We report on the first generation of 5.5-7.5 MeV protons by a moderate-intensity short-pulse laser (∼5×10(17)  W/cm(2), 40 fsec) interacting with frozen H(2)O nanometer-size structure droplets (snow nanowires) deposited on a sapphire substrate. In this setup, the laser intensity is locally enhanced by the snow nanowire, leading to high spatial gradients. Accordingly, the nanoplasma is subject to enhanced ponderomotive potential, and confined charge separation is obtained. Electrostatic fields of extremely high intensities are produced over the short scale length, and protons are accelerated to MeV-level energies. © 2011 American Physical Society

  18. Synthesis of MoS2 and MoO2 for their applications in H2 generation and lithium ion batteries: a review (United States)

    Zhao, Yufei; Zhang, Yuxia; Yang, Zhiyu; Yan, Yiming; Sun, Kening


    Scientists increasingly witness the applications of MoS2 and MoO2 in the field of energy conversion and energy storage. On the one hand, MoS2 and MoO2 have been widely utilized as promising catalysts for electrocatalytic or photocatalytic hydrogen evolution in aqueous solution. On the other hand, MoS2 and MoO2 have also been verified as efficient electrode material for lithium ion batteries. In this review, the synthesis, structure and properties of MoS2 and MoO2 are briefly summarized according to their applications for H2 generation and lithium ion batteries. Firstly, we overview the recent advancements in the morphology control of MoS2 and MoO2 and their applications as electrocatalysts for hydrogen evolution reactions. Secondly, we focus on the photo-induced water splitting for H2 generation, in which MoS2 acts as an important co-catalyst when combined with other semiconductor catalysts. The newly reported research results of the significant functions of MoS2 nanocomposites in photo-induced water splitting are presented. Thirdly, we introduce the advantages of MoS2 and MoO2 for their enhanced cyclic performance and high capacity as electrode materials of lithium ion batteries. Recent key achievements in MoS2- and MoO2-based lithium ion batteries are highlighted. Finally, we discuss the future scope and the important challenges emerging from these fascinating materials. PMID:27877584

  19. Net-generation attributes and seductive properties of the internet as predictors of online activities and internet addiction. (United States)

    Leung, Louis


    Born between 1977 and 1997, Net-generation is the first generation to grow up surrounded by home computers, video games, and the Internet. As children of the Baby Boomers, the Internet is the medium of choice for the Net-geners. Based on the assumption that Net-generation has unique characteristics, this study examined (1) how Net-geners addicted to the Internet differ from the non-addicted and (2) how these attributes, together with the seductive properties of the Internet, are related to Internet addiction. Data were gathered from a probability sample of 699 Net-geners between the ages of 16 and 24. Results show that Net-geners addicted to the Internet tend to be young female students. Being emotionally open on the Net and a heavy user of ICQ were most influential in predicting Net-geners' problematic use of the Internet. Addicted Net-geners are also strongly linked to the pleasure of being able to control the simulated world in online games. The finding reinforces previous research that "dependents" of the Internet spend most of their time in the synchronous communication environment engaging in interactive online games, chat rooms, and ICQ for pleasure-seeking or escape, while "non-dependents" use information-gathering functions available on the Internet. Furthermore, Internet addicts tend to watch television significantly less, indicating a displacement effect on traditional media use for the Net-generation.

  20. H2O2 generated from mitochondrial electron transport chain in thoracic perivascular adipose tissue is crucial for modulation of vascular smooth muscle contraction. (United States)

    Costa, Rafael M; Filgueira, Fernando P; Tostes, Rita C; Carvalho, Maria Helena C; Akamine, Eliana H; Lobato, Nubia S


    The perivascular adipose tissue (PVAT) releases a variety of factors that affect vascular function. PVAT in the thoracic aorta shares characteristics with the brown adipose tissue, including a large amount of mitochondria. PVAT-derived factors influence both endothelial and smooth muscle function via several signaling mechanisms including the release/generation of reactive nitrogen and oxygen species. Considering the importance of reactive oxygen species (ROS) on vascular function and that mitochondria are an important source of ROS, we hypothesized that mitochondria-derived ROS in the PVAT modulates vascular reactivity. Vascular reactivity to norephinephrine (NE) was evaluated in thoracic aortic rings, with or without endothelium and/or PVAT, from male Wistar rats. Mitochondrial uncoupling, as well as hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) removal, increased the contraction in vessels surrounded by PVAT. PVAT stimulated with NE exhibited increased protein expression, determined by Western blot analysis, of manganese superoxide dismutase (Mn-SOD) and decreased protein expression of catalase. Ultimately, NE increased superoxide anion (O2(-)) generation in PVAT via increases in intracellular calcium. These results clearly demonstrate that mitochondrial electron transport chain (mETC) in PVAT contributes to modulation of aortic muscle contraction by generating higher amounts of O2(-) that is, in turn, dismutated to hydrogen peroxide, which then acts as a pivotal signaling molecule regulating vascular smooth muscle contraction. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Tenfold enhancement of MeV Proton generation by a moderate ultra-short laser interaction with H2O nano-wire targets

    CERN Document Server

    Zigler, A; Bruner, N; Schleifer, E; Eisenmann, S; Henis, Z; Botton, M; Pikuz, S A; Faenov, A Y; Gordon, D; Sprangle, P


    Compact sources of high energy protons (50-500MeV) are expected to be key technology in a wide range of scientific applications. Particularly promising is the target normal sheath acceleration (TNSA) scheme, holding record level of 67MeV protons generated by a peta-Watt laser. In general, laser intensity exceeding 10^18 W/cm2 is required to produce MeV level protons. Enhancing the energy of generated protons using compact laser sources is very attractive task nowadays. Recently, nano-scale targets were used to accelerate ions. Here we report on the first generation of 5.5-7.5MeV protons by modest laser intensities (4.5 x 10^17 W/cm2) interacting with H2O nano-wires (snow) deposited on a Sapphire substrate. In this setup, the plasma near the tip of the nano-wire is subject to locally enhanced laser intensity with high spatial gradients, and confined charge separation is obtained. Electrostatic fields of extremely high intensities are produced, and protons are accelerated to MeV-level energies. Nano-wire engine...

  2. Generation of DNA-damaging reactive oxygen species via the autoxidation of hydrogen sulfide under physiologically-relevant conditions: chemistry relevant to both the genotoxic and cell signaling properties of H2S (United States)

    Hoffman, Marjorie; Rajapakse, Anuruddha; Shen, Xiulong; Gates, Kent S.


    Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) has long been known for its toxic properties; however, in recent years, evidence has emerged that this small, gaseous molecule may serve as an endogenous cell-signaling agent. Though perhaps surprising in light of its potential role as an endogenous signaling agent, a number of studies have provided evidence that H2S is a DNA-damaging mutagen. In the work reported here, the chemical mechanisms of DNA damage by H2S were examined. Using a plasmid-based DNA strand cleavage assay, it was found that micromolar concentrations of H2S generated single-strand DNA cleavage. Mechanistic studies indicate that this process involved autoxidation of H2S to generate superoxide, hydrogen peroxide and, ultimately, the well-known DNA-damaging agent hydroxyl radical via a trace metal-mediated Fenton-type reaction. Strand cleavage by H2S proceeded in the presence of physiological thiol concentrations and the known byproducts of H2S oxidation such as thiosulfate, sulfite, and sulfate do not contribute to the strand cleavage process. On the other hand, initially-generated oxidation products such as persulfide (S22−) likely undergo rapid autoxidation reactions that contribute to the generation of superoxide. The potential relevance of autoxidation processes to the genotoxic and cell signaling properties of H2S is discussed. PMID:22621314

  3. Generation of DNA-damaging reactive oxygen species via the autoxidation of hydrogen sulfide under physiologically relevant conditions: chemistry relevant to both the genotoxic and cell signaling properties of H(2)S. (United States)

    Hoffman, Marjorie; Rajapakse, Anuruddha; Shen, Xiulong; Gates, Kent S


    Hydrogen sulfide (H(2)S) has long been known for its toxic properties; however, in recent years, evidence has emerged that this small, gaseous molecule may serve as an endogenous cell-signaling agent. Though perhaps surprising in light of its potential role as an endogenous signaling agent, a number of studies have provided evidence that H(2)S is a DNA-damaging mutagen. In the work reported here, the chemical mechanisms of DNA damage by H(2)S were examined. Using a plasmid-based DNA strand cleavage assay, we found that micromolar concentrations of H(2)S generated single-strand DNA cleavage. Mechanistic studies indicate that this process involved autoxidation of H(2)S to generate superoxide, hydrogen peroxide, and, ultimately, the well-known DNA-damaging agent hydroxyl radical via a trace metal-mediated Fenton-type reaction. Strand cleavage by H(2)S proceeded in the presence of physiological thiol concentrations, and the known byproducts of H(2)S oxidation such as thiosulfate, sulfite, and sulfate do not contribute to the strand cleavage process. However, initially generated oxidation products such as persulfide (S(2)(2-)) likely undergo rapid autoxidation reactions that contribute to the generation of superoxide. The potential relevance of autoxidation processes to the genotoxic and cell signaling properties of H(2)S is discussed.

  4. Cystathionine γ-lyase, a H2S-generating enzyme, is a GPBAR1-regulated gene and contributes to vasodilation caused by secondary bile acids. (United States)

    Renga, Barbara; Bucci, Mariarosaria; Cipriani, Sabrina; Carino, Adriana; Monti, Maria Chiara; Zampella, Angela; Gargiulo, Antonella; d'Emmanuele di Villa Bianca, Roberta; Distrutti, Eleonora; Fiorucci, Stefano


    GPBAR1 is a bile acid-activated receptor (BAR) for secondary bile acids, lithocholic (LCA) and deoxycholic acid (DCA), expressed in the enterohepatic tissues and in the vasculature by endothelial and smooth muscle cells. Despite that bile acids cause vasodilation, it is unclear why these effects involve GPBAR1, and the vascular phenotype of GPBAR1 deficient mice remains poorly defined. Previous studies have suggested a role for nitric oxide (NO) in regulatory activity exerted by GPBAR1 in liver endothelial cells. Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) is a vasodilatory agent generated in endothelial cells by cystathionine-γ-lyase (CSE). Here we demonstrate that GPBAR1 null mice had increased levels of primary and secondary bile acids and impaired vasoconstriction to phenylephrine. In aortic ring preparations, vasodilation caused by chenodeoxycholic acid (CDCA), a weak GPBAR1 ligand and farnesoid-x-receptor agonist (FXR), was iberiotoxin-dependent and GPBAR1-independent. In contrast, vasodilation caused by LCA was GPBAR1 dependent and abrogated by propargyl-glycine, a CSE inhibitor, and by 5β-cholanic acid, a GPBAR1 antagonist, but not by N(5)-(1-iminoethyl)-l-ornithine (l-NIO), an endothelial NO synthase inhibitor, or iberiotoxin, a large-conductance calcium-activated potassium (BKCa) channels antagonist. In venular and aortic endothelial (HUVEC and HAEC) cells GPBAR1 activation increases CSE expression/activity and H2S production. Two cAMP response element binding protein (CREB) sites (CREs) were identified in the CSE promoter. In addition, TLCA stimulates CSE phosphorylation on serine residues. In conclusion we demonstrate that GPBAR1 mediates the vasodilatory activity of LCA and regulates the expression/activity of CSE. Vasodilation caused by CDCA involves BKCa channels. The GPBAR1/CSE pathway might contribute to endothelial dysfunction and hyperdynamic circulation in liver cirrhosis. Copyright © 2015 the American Physiological Society.

  5. H2O-driven generation of picritic melts in the Middle to Late Triassic Stuhini arc of the Stikine terrane, British Columbia, Canada (United States)

    Milidragovic, Dejan; Chapman, John B.; Bichlmaier, Sebastian; Canil, Dante; Zagorevski, Alex


    Basaltic to andesitic compositions predominate island arc magmatism; ultramafic magmas are rare. Ultramafic (MgO = 21-33 wt.%) tuff breccia, lapilli tuff, and ash tuff of the Middle to Upper Triassic Stuhini Group were erupted in the Stikine arc of the North American Cordillera shortly preceding an episode of prolific porphyry Cu-Mo(-Au) mineralization. The ultramafic tuff shows accumulation (20-65%) of olivine (Fo91) and minor chromite into a subalkaline picritic parental magma with MgO ∼16 wt.%. Despite the inferred high MgO content of the parental liquid, chromite phenocrysts record relatively low liquidus temperatures (temperature, hydrous melts, at oxygen fugacities one to three log units above the fayalite-magnetite-quartz (FMQ) buffer. The primary picritic magmas likely contained 5-7 wt.% H2O, inferred on the basis of olivine-liquid thermometry and thermal models for subduction zones, thus alleviating the need for catastrophic thermal perturbations in the mantle wedge. Instead, efficient release of water through slab dehydration at 2.5-3.0 GPa allows generation of picritic melts at ordinary mantle wedge temperatures through moderate degrees (F = 0.10- 0.15) of hydrous flux melting. The volatile-rich nature of the melt and the predominant extensional regime in the overlying lithosphere of Stikinia facilitated the near-adiabatic ascent of the Stuhini Group picrites. The high H2O content of the rapidly ascending picrite melt may have played a key role in transport of metals into the crust of the Stikinia and subsequent porphyry mineralization.

  6. Web 2.0 and the Net Generation - A Critical Perspective

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)


    , and books have revolved around social media, web 2.0, personal learning environments, student-centred learning, and student-generated content. Alongside these internet developments we have witnessed debates on what schools and universities can do to cater to the 'net-generation' or the 'digital natives' in......In the recent years, social media and web 2.0 have been hot topics within educational debates and within the research area of networked learning. The latter is evident from symposia and papers from the last years' networked learning conferences, but also European research projects, special issues...

  7. k-Same-Net: k-Anonymity with Generative Deep Neural Networks for Face Deidentification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blaž Meden


    Full Text Available Image and video data are today being shared between government entities and other relevant stakeholders on a regular basis and require careful handling of the personal information contained therein. A popular approach to ensure privacy protection in such data is the use of deidentification techniques, which aim at concealing the identity of individuals in the imagery while still preserving certain aspects of the data after deidentification. In this work, we propose a novel approach towards face deidentification, called k-Same-Net, which combines recent Generative Neural Networks (GNNs with the well-known k-Anonymitymechanism and provides formal guarantees regarding privacy protection on a closed set of identities. Our GNN is able to generate synthetic surrogate face images for deidentification by seamlessly combining features of identities used to train the GNN model. Furthermore, it allows us to control the image-generation process with a small set of appearance-related parameters that can be used to alter specific aspects (e.g., facial expressions, age, gender of the synthesized surrogate images. We demonstrate the feasibility of k-Same-Net in comprehensive experiments on the XM2VTS and CK+ datasets. We evaluate the efficacy of the proposed approach through reidentification experiments with recent recognition models and compare our results with competing deidentification techniques from the literature. We also present facial expression recognition experiments to demonstrate the utility-preservation capabilities of k-Same-Net. Our experimental results suggest that k-Same-Net is a viable option for facial deidentification that exhibits several desirable characteristics when compared to existing solutions in this area.

  8. The Influence of Output Variability from Renewable Electricity Generation on Net Energy Calculations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hannes Kunz


    Full Text Available One key approach to analyzing the feasibility of energy extraction and generation technologies is to understand the net energy they contribute to society. These analyses most commonly focus on a simple comparison of a source’s expected energy outputs to the required energy inputs, measured in the form of energy return on investment (EROI. What is not typically factored into net energy analysis is the influence of output variability. This omission ignores a key attribute of biological organisms and societies alike: the preference for stable returns with low dispersion versus equivalent returns that are intermittent or variable. This biologic predilection for stability, observed and refined in academic financial literature, has a direct relationship to many new energy technologies whose outputs are much more variable than traditional energy sources. We investigate the impact of variability on net energy metrics and develop a theoretical framework to evaluate energy systems based on existing financial and biological risk models. We then illustrate the impact of variability on nominal energy return using representative technologies in electricity generation, with a more detailed analysis on wind power, where intermittence and stochastic availability of hard-to-store electricity will be factored into theoretical returns.

  9. Development of net energy ratio and emission factor for quad-generation pathways

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rudra, Souman; Rosendahl, Lasse; Kumar, Amit


    The conversion of biomass to four different outputs via gasification is a renewable technology that could reduce the use of fossil fuels and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. This study investigates the energy aspects for a new concept of biomass based quad-generation plant producing power, heat......, methanol and methane. Circulating fluidized bed gasifier and the gas technology institute (GTI) gasifier technologies are used for this quad-generation process. Two different biomass feedstocks are considered in this study. The net energy ratio for six different pathways having the range of between 1.......3 and 7.2. The lowest limit corresponds to the wood chips-based power, heat, methanol and methane production pathway using GTI technology. Since more efficient alternatives exist for the generation of heat and electricity from biomass, it is argued that syngas is best used for methanol production. The aim...

  10. [Relationships amongst work values, job characteristics and job involvement in "net generation" nurses]. (United States)

    Chen, Sue-Hui; Chiou, Chii-Jun


    Children of the so-called "net generation" began joining the nurse workforce from the mid-1990s. Studies on the characteristics of this generation have been done primarily outside of Taiwan, and results may not adequately reflect conditions in Taiwan due to cultural differences. This study aimed to investigate the relationships amongst work values, job characteristics and job involvement in "net generation" nurses. This study employed a cross-sectional design. A randomized sample of 370 nurses born between 1977 and 1985 working in a medical center or a community hospital in Southern Taiwan accepted our invitation to join this study. A structured questionnaire was used to collect data. (1) Variables including work values, job characteristics, head nurse leadership qualities, job structure and opportunities for in-service education all correlated significantly with job involvement. (2) Regression analysis showed work values, job characteristics, head nurse leadership and religious belief to be significant predictors of job involvement, explaining 22.6% of the variance. This study provides insights that may be of potential value to nursing administrators. We suggest that administrators adopt democratic management practices, build diverse learning methods, strengthen autonomy, completeness, and feedback, and provide appropriate work guidance for nurses to increase job involvement.

  11. C code generation from Petri-net-based logic controller specification (United States)

    Grobelny, Michał; Grobelna, Iwona; Karatkevich, Andrei


    The article focuses on programming of logic controllers. It is important that a programming code of a logic controller is executed flawlessly according to the primary specification. In the presented approach we generate C code for an AVR microcontroller from a rule-based logical model of a control process derived from a control interpreted Petri net. The same logical model is also used for formal verification of the specification by means of the model checking technique. The proposed rule-based logical model and formal rules of transformation ensure that the obtained implementation is consistent with the already verified specification. The approach is validated by practical experiments.

  12. Abundance and primary production of filamentous green algae Zygogonium ericetorum in an extremely acid (pH 2.9) mining lake and its impact on alkalinity generation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andreas Kleeberg; Hendrik Schubert; Matthias Koschorreck; Brigitte Nixdorf [Leibniz Institute of Freshwater Ecology and Inland Fisheries, Berlin (Germany)


    In extremely acid mining lakes, benthic filamentous green algae (Zygnemataceae, Chlorophyta) thrive as effective competitors for limited carbon (C). These algae could supply C for microbial-mediated benthic alkalinity generation. However, biomass, productivity and impact of the acidobiontic filamentous green algae at pH {le}3 have not previously been determined. Periphytic filamentous green algae was mapped by harvesting their biomass from 85 1 x 1 m quadrats in mining lake Gruenewalder Lauch. Zygogonium ericetorum colonised water depths between 1.6 and 10.5 m covering 88% of total area. Biomass peaked at 5-6 m depth. Total Zygogonium biomass amounted to 72.2 t dry weight for the whole lake (0.94 km{sup 2}), which corresponds to 16.1 t C and the accumulation of primary production from 2.2 years. Growth of Zygogonium is moderately N, C and extremely P deficient, and seriously stressed by high rates of Fe deposition during summer. Consequently, net primary production (NPP) of Zygogonium, calculated from measured photosynthesis versus irradiance characteristics and calculated underwater irradiance (0.13 g C m{sup -2} year{sup -1}) and in situ oxygen measurements (7.8 g C m{sup -2} year{sup -1}), corresponds to only 0.3% and 18.1% of pelagic NPP. Neither pelagic nor benthic Zygogonium primary production can supply enough C for efficient acidity removal. However, at rates of benthic NPP in summer of 21.4 mg C m{sup -2} day{sup -1}, Zygogonium contributed 26% of the C equivalents to remove acidity associated with ferric iron, contributing at least seasonally to efficient alkalinity generation.

  13. Constructing 2D layered hybrid CdS nanosheets/MoS2 heterojunctions for enhanced visible-light photocatalytic H2 generation (United States)

    Ma, Song; Xie, Jun; Wen, Jiuqing; He, Kelin; Li, Xin; Liu, Wei; Zhang, Xiangchao


    In this work, a 2D hybrid CdS nanosheets(NSs)/MoS2 layered heterojunctions were successfully synthesized by a two-step hydrothermal method and subsequent ultrasonic treatment. The results showed that the loading ultrathin MoS2 NSs as co-catalysts could significantly boost the photocatalytic H2-evolution activity of CdS NSs. It is demonstrated that the optimized 2D CdS NSs/MoS2 (1.0 wt%) layered heterojunctions could achieve the highest photocatalytic H2-evolution activity of 1.75 mmol g-1 h-1 from an aqueous solution containing sulfide and sulfite under visible light, which is 2.03 times as high as that of the pristine CdS NSs. It is believed that the deposition of ultrathin MoS2 NSs and intimate 2D-2D coupling interfaces are mainly responsible for the excellent H2-evolution performance of 2D CdS NSs/MoS2 layered heterojunctions, owing to the effectively promoted separation and transportation of charge carriers and the enhanced following surface H2-evolution kinetics. Interestingly, the lactic acid and formic acid have also been demonstrated to be better sacrificial reagents than the Na2S/Na2SO3, for the photocatalytic H2 evolution over the 2D CdS NSs/MoS2 layered heterojunctions. It is hoped that the strategy of 2D-2D interfacical coupling based on CdS NSs can become a general strategy to improve the H2-evolution activity over various kinds of conventional semiconductor NSs.

  14. PyBoolNet: a python package for the generation, analysis and visualization of boolean networks. (United States)

    Klarner, Hannes; Streck, Adam; Siebert, Heike


    The goal of this project is to provide a simple interface to working with Boolean networks. Emphasis is put on easy access to a large number of common tasks including the generation and manipulation of networks, attractor and basin computation, model checking and trap space computation, execution of established graph algorithms as well as graph drawing and layouts. P y B ool N et is a Python package for working with Boolean networks that supports simple access to model checking via N u SMV, standard graph algorithms via N etwork X and visualization via dot . In addition, state of the art attractor computation exploiting P otassco ASP is implemented. The package is function-based and uses only native Python and N etwork X data types.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. Gurskiy


    Full Text Available The coordinating control system by drives of the robot-manipulator is presented in this article. The purpose of the scientific work is the development and research of the new algorithms for parametric synthesis of the coordinating control systems. To achieve this aim it is necessary to develop the system generating the required parametric synthesis algorithms and performing the necessary procedures according to the generated algorithm. This scientific work deals with the synthesis of Petri net in the specific case with the automatic generation of Petri nets.

  16. On the generation of OH(·) radical species from H2O2 by Cu(I) amyloid beta peptide model complexes: a DFT investigation. (United States)

    Prosdocimi, Tommaso; De Gioia, Luca; Zampella, Giuseppe; Bertini, Luca


    According to different studies, the interaction between amyloid β-peptide (Aβ) and copper ions could yield radical oxygen species production, in particular the highly toxic hydroxyl radical OH(·) that is suspected to contribute to Alzheimer's disease pathogenesis. Despite intensive experimental and computational studies, the nature of the interaction between copper and Aβ peptide, as well as the redox reactivity of the system, are still matter of debate. It was proposed that in Cu(II) → Cu(I) reduction the complex Cu(II)-Aβ could follow a multi-step conformational change with redox active intermediates that may be responsible for OH(·) radical production from H2O2 through a Fenton-like process. The purpose of this work is to evaluate, using ab initio Density Functional Theory computations, the reactivity of different Cu(I)-Aβ coordination modes proposed in the literature, in terms of OH(·) production. For each coordination model, we considered the corresponding H2O2 adduct and performed a potential energy surface scan along the reaction coordinate of O-O bond dissociation of the peroxide, resulting in the production of OH(·) radical, obtaining reaction profiles for the evaluation of the energetic of the process. This procedure allowed us to confirm the hypothesis according to which the most populated Cu(I)-Aβ two-histidine coordination is not able to perform efficiently H2O2 reduction, while a less populated three-coordinated form would be responsible for the OH(·) production. We show that coordination modes featuring a third nitrogen containing electron-donor ligand (an imidazole ring of an histidine residue is slightly favored over the N-terminal amine group) are more active towards H2O2 reduction.

  17. Late Holocene hydrous mafic magmatism at the Paint Pot Crater and Callahan flows, Medicine Lake Volcano, N. California and the influence of H2O in the generation of silicic magmas (United States)

    Kinzler, R.J.; Donnelly-Nolan, J. M.; Grove, T.L.


    This paper characterizes late Holocene basalts and basaltic andesites at Medicine Lake volcano that contain high pre-eruptive H2O contents inherited from a subduction related hydrous component in the mantle. The basaltic andesite of Paint Pot Crater and the compositionally zoned basaltic to andesitic lavas of the Callahan flow erupted approximately 1000 14C years Before Present (14C years B.P.). Petrologic, geochemical and isotopic evidence indicates that this late Holocene mafic magmatism was characterized by H2O contents of 3 to 6 wt% H2O and elevated abundances of large ion lithophile elements (LILE). These hydrous mafic inputs contrast with the preceding episodes of mafic magmatism (from 10,600 to ~3000 14C years B.P.) that was characterized by the eruption of primitive high alumina olivine tholeiite (HAOT) with low H2O (Paint Pot Crater. The influence of H2O on fractional crystallization of hydrous mafic magma and melting of pre-existing granite crust beneath the volcano combined to produce the rhyolite. Fractionation under hydrous conditions at upper crustal pressures leads to the early crystallization of Fe-Mg silicates and the suppression of plagioclase as an early crystallizing phase. In addition, H2O lowers the saturation temperature of Fe and Mg silicates, and brings the temperature of oxide crystallization closer to the liquidus. These combined effects generate SiO2-enrichment that leads to rhyodacitic differentiated lavas. In contrast, low H2O HAOT magmas at Medicine Lake differentiate to iron-rich basaltic liquids. When these Fe-enriched basalts mix with melted granitic crust, the result is an andesitic magma. Since mid-Holocene time, mafic volcanism has been dominated primarily by hydrous basaltic andesite and andesite at Medicine Lake Volcano. However, during the late Holocene, H2O-poor mafic magmas continued to be erupted along with hydrous mafic magmas, although in significantly smaller volumes.

  18. The NetVISA automatic association tool. Next generation software testing and performance under realistic conditions. (United States)

    Le Bras, Ronan; Arora, Nimar; Kushida, Noriyuki; Tomuta, Elena; Kebede, Fekadu; Feitio, Paulino


    The CTBTO's International Data Centre is in the process of developing the next generation software to perform the automatic association step. The NetVISA software uses a Bayesian approach with a forward physical model using probabilistic representations of the propagation, station capabilities, background seismicity, noise detection statistics, and coda phase statistics. The software has been in development for a few years and is now reaching the stage where it is being tested in a realistic operational context. An interactive module has been developed where the NetVISA automatic events that are in addition to the Global Association (GA) results are presented to the analysts. We report on a series of tests where the results are examined and evaluated by seasoned analysts. Consistent with the statistics previously reported (Arora et al., 2013), the first test shows that the software is able to enhance analysis work by providing additional event hypothesis for consideration by analysts. A test on a three-day data set was performed and showed that the system found 42 additional real events out of 116 examined, including 6 that pass the criterion for the Reviewed Event Bulletin of the IDC. The software was functional in a realistic, real-time mode, during the occurrence of the fourth nuclear test claimed by the Democratic People's Republic of Korea on January 6th, 2016. Confirming a previous statistical observation, the software found more associated stations (51, including 35 primary stations) than GA (36, including 26 primary stations) for this event. Nimar S. Arora, Stuart Russell, Erik Sudderth. Bulletin of the Seismological Society of America (BSSA) April 2013, vol. 103 no. 2A pp709-729.

  19. Fault Diagnosis System of Wind Turbine Generator Based on Petri Net (United States)

    Zhang, Han

    Petri net is an important tool for discrete event dynamic systems modeling and analysis. And it has great ability to handle concurrent phenomena and non-deterministic phenomena. Currently Petri nets used in wind turbine fault diagnosis have not participated in the actual system. This article will combine the existing fuzzy Petri net algorithms; build wind turbine control system simulation based on Siemens S7-1200 PLC, while making matlab gui interface for migration of the system to different platforms.

  20. Control of interface between anatase TiO2 nanoparticles and rutile TiO2 nanorods for efficient photocatalytic H2 generation (United States)

    Xia, Xiaohong; Peng, Shuai; Bao, Yuwen; Wang, Yu; Lei, Binglong; Wang, Zhuo; Huang, Zhongbing; Gao, Yun


    In recent years, production of H2 through photocatalytic water splitting has attracted considerable attention in the chemistry and material fields. In this work, TiO2 based heterojunction photocatalyst, which is consisted of rutile nanorods and anatase nanoparticles, is systematically studied by controlling the HCl concentration in hydrothermal process. With the help of loaded Pt, an interesting two-peak feature ("M" shape) is observed in the HCl-dependent H2 production efficiency. The peak values are 54.3 mmol h-1 g-1 and 74.4 mmol h-1 g-1, corresponding to 83.9% and 12% anatase phase, respectively. A detailed analysis based on the microstructure and photoluminescence (PL) spectra indicate that the "M" shape feature is directly linked to the HCl-controlled interface area. Moreover, an unexpected zero interface area is revealed at an intermediate HCl concentration. In terms of homogeneous and heterogeneous nucleations, an interface growth mechanism is proposed to clarify its HCl-sensitive character. This work provides a route to enhance the photocatalytic activity in TiO2 based photocatalyst via increasing the interface area.

  1. H2O2: A Dynamic Neuromodulator (United States)

    Rice, Margaret E.


    Increasing evidence implicates hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) as an intra- and intercellular signaling molecule that can influence processes from embryonic development to cell death. Most research has focused on relatively slow signaling, on the order of minutes to days, via second messenger cascades. However, H2O2 can also mediate subsecond signaling via ion channel activation. This rapid signaling has been examined most thoroughly in the nigrostriatal dopamine (DA) pathway, which plays a key role in facilitating movement mediated by the basal ganglia. In DA neurons of the substantia nigra, endogenously generated H2O2 activates ATP-sensitive K+ (KATP) channels that inhibit DA neuron firing. In the striatum, H2O2 generated downstream from glutamatergic AMPA receptor activation in medium spiny neurons acts as a diffusible messenger that inhibits axonal DA release, also via KATP channels. The source of dynamically generated H2O2 is mitochondrial respiration; thus, H2O2 provides a novel link between activity and metabolism via KATP channels. Additional targets of H2O2 include transient receptor potential (TRP) channels. In contrast to the inhibitory effect of H2O2 acting via KATP channels, TRP channel activation is excitatory. This review describes emerging roles of H2O2 as a signaling agent in the nigrostriatal pathway and other basal ganglia neurons. PMID:21666063

  2. H2 Reconstitution (United States)


    AFRL-DE-TR-2002-1033 AFRL-DE-TR- 2002-1033 H2 RECONSTITUTION Mike Skipper et al. ASR Corporation 7817 Bursera NW Albuquerque, NM 87120 February 2002...PERFORMING ORGANIZATION REPORT NUMBER ASR Corporation 7817 Bursera NW Albuquerque, NM 87120 DC-TR-0328.008-1 9. SPONSORING / MONITORING AGENCY NAME...Albuquerque, NM 87110 1 cy ASR Corporation 7817 Bursera NW Albuquerque, NM 87120 1 cy Jeff Berger AFRL/DEHP Kirtland AFB, NM 87117 1 cy Tyrone Tran AFRL/DEHP Kirtland AFB, NM 87117 1 cy 40

  3. Synthesis of p-Cu2O/rGO composite films for enhancing photocurrent of p-Cu2O and H2 generation (United States)

    Samarakoon, S. P. A. U. K.; Karunarathna, P. G. D. C. K.; Hemachandra, K. A. S. K.; Fernando, C. A. N.


    Composites of p type cuprous oxide (p-Cu2O) and reduced graphene oxide (rGO) were prepared by depositing an rGO layer on top of nano-sized Cu2O particles prepared on a Cu substrate. These synthesized composites help to enhance the photocurrent over that of bare Cu2O, which means rGO acts as an excellent electron acceptor to separate electrons from Cu2O particles. Here the p-Cu2O layer was fabricated using thermal oxidation and the rGO layer was fabricated using electrophoretic deposition (EPD). The samples thus fabricated were characterized using diffuse reflectance spectra, Fourier transmission infrared (FTIR) spectra, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) images, time development of the photocurrent of photoelectrochemical cells, and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) measurements. H2 evolution was observed using a gas chromatograph system.

  4. How to protect the distribution net with the increase of the distributed generation; Como proteger as redes de distribuicao com o crescimento da geracao distribuida

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rintamaki, Olli [ABB Oy, Zurich (Switzerland); Kauhaniemi, Kimmo [Vaasa University (Finland)


    The growth of the distributed generation impose new challenges to the protection of the distribution nets. The main critical point has been the net drop, which needs the separation between the generator unit and the net. A possible solution is the use of the line differential relay. Using appropriate communication channel, it guarantees selective protection for the feeder. This solution makes possible the correct operation of the feeder and the generator unit.

  5. Particles with similar LET values generate DNA breaks of different complexity and reparability: a high-resolution microscopy analysis of γH2AX/53BP1 foci. (United States)

    Jezkova, Lucie; Zadneprianetc, Mariia; Kulikova, Elena; Smirnova, Elena; Bulanova, Tatiana; Depes, Daniel; Falkova, Iva; Boreyko, Alla; Krasavin, Evgeny; Davidkova, Marie; Kozubek, Stanislav; Valentova, Olga; Falk, Martin


    Biological effects of high-LET (linear energy transfer) radiation have received increasing attention, particularly in the context of more efficient radiotherapy and space exploration. Efficient cell killing by high-LET radiation depends on the physical ability of accelerated particles to generate complex DNA damage, which is largely mediated by LET. However, the characteristics of DNA damage and repair upon exposure to different particles with similar LET parameters remain unexplored. We employed high-resolution confocal microscopy to examine phosphorylated histone H2AX (γH2AX)/p53-binding protein 1 (53BP1) focus streaks at the microscale level, focusing on the complexity, spatiotemporal behaviour and repair of DNA double-strand breaks generated by boron and neon ions accelerated at similar LET values (∼135 keV μm-1) and low energies (8 and 47 MeV per n, respectively). Cells were irradiated using sharp-angle geometry and were spatially (3D) fixed to maximize the resolution of these analyses. Both high-LET radiation types generated highly complex γH2AX/53BP1 focus clusters with a larger size, increased irregularity and slower elimination than low-LET γ-rays. Surprisingly, neon ions produced even more complex γH2AX/53BP1 focus clusters than boron ions, consistent with DSB repair kinetics. Although the exposure of cells to γ-rays and boron ions eliminated a vast majority of foci (94% and 74%, respectively) within 24 h, 45% of the foci persisted in cells irradiated with neon. Our calculations suggest that the complexity of DSB damage critically depends on (increases with) the particle track core diameter. Thus, different particles with similar LET and energy may generate different types of DNA damage, which should be considered in future research.

  6. Noble metal free photocatalytic H2 generation on black TiO2: On the influence of crystal facets vs. crystal damage (United States)

    Liu, Ning; Steinrück, Hans-Georg; Osvet, Andres; Yang, Yuyun; Schmuki, Patrik


    In this study, we investigate noble metal free photocatalytic water splitting on natural anatase single crystal facets and on wafer slices of the [001] plane before and after these surfaces have been modified by high pressure hydrogenation and hydrogen ion-implantation. We find that on the natural, intact low index planes, photocatalytic H2 evolution (in the absence of a noble metal co-catalyst) can only be achieved when the hydrogenation treatment is accompanied by the introduction of crystal damage, such as simple scratching and miscut in the crystal, or by implantation damage. X-ray reflectivity, Raman, and optical reflection measurements show that plain hydrogenation leads to a ≈ 1 nm thick black titania surface layer without activity, while a colorless, density modified, and ≈7 nm thick layer with broken crystal symmetry is present on the ion implanted surface. These results demonstrate that (i) the H-treatment of an intact anatase surface needs to be combined with defect formation for catalytic activation and (ii) activation does not necessarily coincide with the presence of black color.

  7. An Integrated Model to Compare Net Electricity Generation for Carbon Dioxide- and Water-Based Geothermal Systems (United States)

    Agarwal, Vikas

    Utilization of supercritical CO2 as a geothermal fluid instead of water has been proposed by Brown in 2000 and its advantages have been discussed by him and other researchers such as Karsten Pruess and Fouillac. This work assesses the net electricity that could be generated by using supercritical CO2 as a geothermal working fluid and compares it with water under the same temperature and pressure reservoir conditions. This procedure provides a method of direct comparison of water and CO2 as geothermal working fluids, in terms of net electricity generation over time given a constant geothermal fluid flow rate. An integrated three-part model has been developed to determine net electricity generation for CO2- and water-based geothermal reservoirs. This model consists of a wellbore model, reservoir simulation, and surface plant simulation. To determine the bottomhole pressure and temperature of the geothermal fluid (either water or CO2) in the injection well, a wellbore model was developed using fluid-phase, thermodynamic equations of state, fluid dynamics, and heat transfer models. A computer program was developed that solves for the temperature and pressure of the working fluid (either water or CO 2) down the wellbore by simultaneously solving for the fluid thermophysical properties, heat transfer, and frictional losses. For the reservoir simulation, TOUGH2, a general purpose numerical simulator has been used to model the temperature and pressure characteristics of the working fluid in the reservoir. The EOS1 module of TOUGH2 has been used for the water system and the EOS2 module of the TOUGH2 code has been employed for the CO2 case. The surface plant is simulated using CHEMCAD, a chemical process simulator, to determine the net electricity generated. A binary organic (iso-pentane) Rankine cycle is simulated. The calculated net electricity generated for the optimized water and CO2 systems are compared over the working time of the reservoir. Based on the theoretical

  8. Reactions between olivine and CO2-rich seawater at 300 °C: Implications for H2 generation and CO2 sequestration on the early Earth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hisahiro Ueda


    Full Text Available To understand the influence of fluid CO2 on ultramafic rock-hosted seafloor hydrothermal systems on the early Earth, we monitored the reaction between San Carlos olivine and a CO2-rich NaCl fluid at 300 °C and 500 bars. During the experiments, the total carbonic acid concentration (ΣCO2 in the fluid decreased from approximately 65 to 9 mmol/kg. Carbonate minerals, magnesite, and subordinate amount of dolomite were formed via the water-rock interaction. The H2 concentration in the fluid reached approximately 39 mmol/kg within 2736 h, which is relatively lower than the concentration generated by the reaction between olivine and a CO2-free NaCl solution at the same temperature. As seen in previous hydrothermal experiments using komatiite, ferrous iron incorporation into Mg-bearing carbonate minerals likely limited iron oxidation in the fluids and the resulting H2 generation during the olivine alteration. Considering carbonate mineralogy over the temperature range of natural hydrothermal fields, H2 generation is likely suppressed at temperatures below approximately 300 °C due to the formation of the Mg-bearing carbonates. Nevertheless, H2 concentration in fluid at 300 °C could be still high due to the temperature dependency of magnetite stability in ultramafic systems. Moreover, the Mg-bearing carbonates may play a key role in the ocean-atmosphere system on the early Earth. Recent studies suggest that the subduction of carbonated ultramafic rocks may transport surface CO2 species into the deep mantle. This process may have reduced the huge initial amount of CO2 on the surface of the early Earth. Our approximate calculations demonstrate that the subduction of the Mg-bearing carbonates formed in komatiite likely played a crucial role as one of the CO2 carriers from the surface to the deep mantle, even in hot subduction zones.

  9. Perceived intrusiveness and trust in relation to online advertising : A qualitative study amongst individuals of the Net Generation


    Beauvillain, Antoine; Tiger, Oskar


    The purpose of this qualitative study is to advance an understanding of trust and perceived intrusiveness in online advertising. The theoretical framework in this thesis is based upon theories about trust and intrusiveness that derives from previous research. The theory of psychological reactance is a further constituent. These concepts and theories are defined and discussed. and possible models are introduced. Semi-structured interviews with eight individuals of the Net Generation have been ...

  10. Optical Spectroscopy of Radiation Processed Cosmic Ices & PAH-doped Water-rich Ices (Facile Generation & Storage of PAH-Ions in H2O Ices) (United States)

    Gudipati, M. S.; Allamandola, L. J.


    Water-rich ices, which harbor a wide variety of organic and inorganic species, are common throughout the Solar System and interstellar molecular clouds. Chemical reactions induced within these cosmic ices by high-energy photons and cosmic rays, as well as thermal cycling, play a vital role in the chemical evolution of these icy objects. Recent laboratory studies show that complex organic molecules are generated in these simple cosmic ice analogs upon energetic processing, including amino acids amphiphillic molecules -- the fundamental building the blocks of life. We have discovered that energetic processing of cryogenic water-rich ices containing organic molecules such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) below 50 K produce high-energy species such as radical ions. These ions absorb in the visible-near infrared region, resulting strong coloration. Upon thermal cycling these ions react with the water resulting in oxygenated organic molecules. Applications of our laboratory findings to Planetary Ices will be presented.

  11. Proposal of a new generation of Laser Beacon for time calibration in the KM3NeT neutrino telescope

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Real, Diego [IFIC, Instituto de Física Corpuscular, CSIC-Universidad de Valencia, C/Catedrático José Beltrán, 2. 46980 Paterna (Spain); Collaboration: KM3NeT Collaboration


    The KM3NeT collaboration aims at the construction of a multi-km3 high-energy neutrino telescope in the Mediterranean Sea consisting of a matrix of pressure resistant glass spheres holding each a set (31) of small area photomultipliers. The main motivation of the telescope is to observe cosmic neutrinos through the Cherenkov light induced in sea water by charged particles produced in neutrino interactions with the surrounding medium. A relative time calibration between photomultipliers of the order of 1 ns is required to achieve an optimal performance. To this end, several time calibration subsystems have been developed. In this article, the proposal of a last generation Laser Beacon, to be used in KM3NeT and developed to measure and monitor the relative time offsets between photomultipliers, is presented.

  12. A novel and facile synthesis of black TiO2 with improved visible-light photocatalytic H2 generation: Impact of surface modification with CTAB on morphology, structure and property (United States)

    Wang, Ting; Li, Wanwen; Xu, Dandan; Wu, Xuanmin; Cao, Liwei; Meng, Jianxin


    A novel and facile approach to prepare black TiO2 nanoparticles has been developed using cetyltrimethyl ammonium bromide (CTAB) as structure guiding agent. CTAB has played a crucial role in the formation process of TiO2 nanoparticles by altering the morphology and pore structures, promoting the generation of oxygen vacancies and effectively improving the visible light absorption intensity. Synthetic black TiO2-CTAB-300 °C nanoparticles have a high crystallinity with regular mesoporous structure, possessing small particle size, high surface area, and an efficient response to broadband light covering the entire UV-vis-near IR spectrum. Moreover, as-prepared black TiO2-CTAB-300 °C nanoparticles showed higher photocatalytic H2 generation activity under visible light compared with control TiO2.

  13. Photo-induced H2 production from a CH3OH-H2O solution at insulator surface

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Li, Rengui; Wang, Xiuli; Jin, Shaoqing; Zhou, Xin; Feng, Zhaochi; Li, Zheng; Shi, Jingying; Zhang, Qiao; Li, Can


    .... However, in this work, we found that a considerable amount of H2 can be generated from a CH3OH-H2O solution at a quartz surface using light with energy far outside the electronic absorbance range...

  14. Generation time, net reproductive rate, and growth in stage-age-structured populations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steiner, Uli; Tuljapurkar, Shripad; Coulson, Tim


    Abstract Major insights into the relationship between life-history features and fitness have come from Lotka's proof that population growth rate is determined by the level (expected amount) of reproduction and the average timing of reproduction of an individual. But this classical result is limited...... to age-structured populations. Here we generalize this result to populations structured by stage and age by providing a new, unique measure of reproductive timing (Tc) that, along with net reproductive rate (R0), has a direct mathematical relationship to and approximates growth rate (r). We use simple...... features of the life history determine population growth rate r and reveal a complex interplay of trait dynamics, timing, and level of reproduction. Our results contribute to a new framework of population and evolutionary dynamics in stage-and-age-structured populations....

  15. Effect of N2O-doped buffer layer on the optical properties of ZnO films grown on glass substrates using high-energy H2O generated by catalytic reaction (United States)

    Kanauchi, Shingo; Ohashi, Yuki; Ohishi, Koichiro; Katagiri, Hironori; Tamayama, Yasuhiro; Kato, Takahiro; Yasui, Kanji


    Improvement in the optical properties of ZnO films grown on glass substrates was investigated using a N2O-doped buffer layer inserted between the glass substrate and a ZnO film deposited by chemical vapor deposition (CVD). ZnO films were grown at 773 K using dimethylzinc (DMZn) and high-temperature H2O generated by catalytic reaction as zinc and oxygen sources, respectively. Crystal growth was enhanced for the ZnO film grown on the N2O-doped buffer layer, and the fluctuation in crystal orientation along the c-axis became less than that for a film grown directly on the glass substrate by CVD. The optical transmittance of the film in the wavelength range of 375-700 nm also increased with insertion of the buffer layer.

  16. Far-infrared cw difference-frequency generation using vertically integrated and planar low temperature grown GaAs photomixers: application to H2S rotational spectrum up to 3 THz (United States)

    Mouret, G.; Matton, S.; Bocquet, R.; Hindle, F.; Peytavit, E.; Lampin, J. F.; Lippens, D.


    The generation of continuous coherent THz radiation by mixing two cw Ti:Sa laser beams with a well-controlled frequency separation for a new scheme of vertically integrated low temperature grown GaAs (LTG-GaAs) spiral photomixer is reported. For this new photomixer device used in THz emission, the LTG-GaAs active layer is sandwiched between the two parallel metal plates of a high-speed photodetector loaded by a broadband spiral antenna. We have exploited the advantage of a higher delivered power in the low part of the spectrum (detector was used at the upper frequency. The performances of the spectroscopic setup in terms of spectral resolution (5 MHz), tunability and frequency capability are assessed by measurements of the pure rotational spectra of hydrogen sulfide (H2S) up to 3000 GHz.

  17. New-generation radiotracers for nAChR and NET

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ding Yushin [Chemistry Department, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY 11973 (United States)]. E-mail:; Fowler, Joanna [Chemistry Department, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY 11973 (United States)


    Advances in radiotracer chemistry and instrumentation have merged to make positron emission tomography (PET) a powerful tool in the biomedical sciences. Positron emission tomography has found increased application in the study of drugs affecting the brain and whole body, including the measurement of drug pharmacokinetics (using a positron-emitter-labeled drug) and drug pharmacodynamics (using a labeled tracer). Thus, radiotracers are major scientific tools enabling investigations of molecular phenomena, which are at the heart of understanding human disease and developing effective treatments; however, there is evidently a bottleneck in translating basic research to clinical practice. In the meantime, the poor ability to predict the in vivo behavior of chemical compounds based on their log P's and affinities emphasizes the need for more knowledge in this area. In this article, we focus on the development and translation of radiotracers for PET studies of the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) and the norepinephrine transporter (NET), two molecular systems that urgently need such an important tool to better understand their functional significance in the living human brain.

  18. Cases for the Net Generation: An Empirical Examination of Students' Attitude toward Multimedia Case Studies (United States)

    Sheppard, Michael; Vibert, Conor


    Case studies have been an important tool in business, legal, and medical education for generations of students. Traditional text-based cases tend to be self-contained and structured in such a way as to teach a particular concept. The multimedia cases introduced in this study feature unscripted web-hosted video interviews with business owners and…

  19. Assessment of cleaner electricity generation technologies for net CO{sub 2} mitigation in Thailand

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Limmeechokchai, B.; Suksuntornsiri, P. [Thammasat University, Pathum Thani (Thailand)


    The choice of electricity generation technologies not only directly affects the amount of CO{sub 2} emission from the power sector, but also indirectly affects the economy-wide CO{sub 2} emission. It is because electricity is the basic requirement of economic sectors and final consumption within the economy. In Thailand, although the power development plan (PDP) has been planned for the committed capacity to meet the future electricity demand, there are some undecided electricity generation technologies that will be studied for technological options. The economy-wide CO{sub 2} mitigations between selecting cleaner power generation options instead of pulverized coal-thermal technology of the undecided capacity are assessed by energy input-output analysis (IOA). The decomposition of IOA presents the fuel-mix effect, input structural effect, and final demand effect by the change in technology of the undecided capacity. The cleaner technologies include biomass power generation, hydroelectricity and integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC). Results of the analyses show that if the conventional pulverized coal technology is selected in the undecided capacity, the economy-wide CO{sub 2} emission would be increased from 223 million ton in 2006 to 406 million ton in 2016. Renewable technology presents better mitigation option for replacement of conventional pulverized coal technology than the cleaner coal technology. The major contributor of CO{sub 2} mitigation in cleaner coal technology is the fuel mix effect due to higher conversion efficiency.

  20. H2@Scale Workshop Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pivovar, Bryan


    Final report from the H2@Scale Workshop held November 16-17, 2016, at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory in Golden, Colorado. The U.S. Department of Energy's National Renewable Energy Laboratory hosted a technology workshop to identify the current barriers and research needs of the H2@Scale concept. H2@Scale is a concept regarding the potential for wide-scale impact of hydrogen produced from diverse domestic resources to enhance U.S. energy security and enable growth of innovative technologies and domestic industries. Feedback received from a diverse set of stakeholders at the workshop will guide the development of an H2@Scale roadmap for research, development, and early stage demonstration activities that can enable hydrogen as an energy carrier at a national scale.

  1. Catering to the Needs of the "Digital Natives" or Educating the "Net Generation"?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ryberg, Thomas; Dirckinck-Holmfeld, Lone; Jones, Chris


    that there is a generation of digital natives, but that young people may need to develop skills often associated with the digital natives. The authors present a case reflecting these pedagogical aims, involving an online Web 2.0 learning environment called Ekademia. The findings of the case reflect a gap between...... to curricular activities, involve a more concerted pedagogical effort, and be supported by a higher degree of institutionalization....

  2. Generation of daily solar irradiation by means of artificial neural net works

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Siqueira, Adalberto N.; Tiba, Chigueru; Fraidenraich, Naum [Departamento de Energia Nuclear, da Universidade Federal de Pernambuco, Av. Prof. Luiz Freire, 1000 - CDU, CEP 50.740-540 Recife, Pernambuco (Brazil)


    The present study proposes the utilization of Artificial Neural Networks (ANN) as an alternative for generating synthetic series of daily solar irradiation. The sequences were generated from the use of daily temporal series of a group of meteorological variables that were measured simultaneously. The data used were measured between the years of 1998 and 2006 in two temperate climate localities of Brazil, Ilha Solteira (Sao Paulo) and Pelotas (Rio Grande do Sul). The estimates were taken for the months of January, April, July and October, through two models which are distinguished regarding the use or nonuse of measured bright sunshine hours as an input variable. An evaluation of the performance of the 56 months of solar irradiation generated by way of ANN showed that by using the measured bright sunshine hours as an input variable (model 1), the RMSE obtained were less or equal to 23.2% being that of those, although 43 of those months presented RMSE less or equal to 12.3%. In the case of the model that did not use the measured bright sunshine hours but used a daylight length (model 2), RMSE were obtained that varied from 8.5% to 37.5%, although 38 of those months presented RMSE less or equal to 20.0%. A comparison of the monthly series for all of the years, achieved by means of the Kolmogorov-Smirnov test (to a confidence level of 99%), demonstrated that of the 16 series generated by ANN model only two, obtained by model 2 for the months of April and July in Pelotas, presented significant difference in relation to the distributions of the measured series and that all mean deviations obtained were inferior to 0.39 MJ/m{sup 2}. It was also verified that the two ANN models were able to reproduce the principal statistical characteristics of the frequency distributions of the measured series such as: mean, mode, asymmetry and Kurtosis. (author)

  3. Net Influence of an Internally Generated Guasi-biennial Oscillation on Modelled Stratospheric Climate and Chemistry (United States)

    Hurwitz, Margaret M.; Oman, Luke David; Newman, Paul A.; Song, InSun


    A Goddard Earth Observing System Chemistry- Climate Model (GEOSCCM) simulation with strong tropical non-orographic gravity wave drag (GWD) is compared to an otherwise identical simulation with near-zero tropical non-orographic GWD. The GEOSCCM generates a quasibiennial oscillation (QBO) zonal wind signal in response to a tropical peak in GWD that resembles the zonal and climatological mean precipitation field. The modelled QBO has a frequency and amplitude that closely resembles observations. As expected, the modelled QBO improves the simulation of tropical zonal winds and enhances tropical and subtropical stratospheric variability. Also, inclusion of the QBO slows the meridional overturning circulation, resulting in a generally older stratospheric mean age of air. Slowing of the overturning circulation, changes in stratospheric temperature and enhanced subtropical mixing all affect the annual mean distributions of ozone, methane and nitrous oxide. Furthermore, the modelled QBO enhances polar stratospheric variability in winter. Because tropical zonal winds are easterly in the simulation without a QBO, there is a relative increase in tropical zonal winds in the simulation with a QBO. Extratropical differences between the simulations with and without a QBO thus reflect the westerly shift in tropical zonal winds: a relative strengthening of the polar stratospheric jet, polar stratospheric cooling and a weak reduction in Arctic lower stratospheric ozone.

  4. Photonic microstructures for energy-generating clear glass and net-zero energy buildings (United States)

    Vasiliev, Mikhail; Alghamedi, Ramzy; Nur-E-Alam, Mohammad; Alameh, Kamal


    Transparent energy-harvesting windows are emerging as practical building-integrated photovoltaics (BIPV), capable of generating electricity while simultaneously reducing heating and cooling demands. By incorporating spectrally-selective diffraction gratings as light deflecting structures of high visible transparency into lamination interlayers and using improved spectrally-selective thin-film coatings, most of the visible solar radiation can be transmitted through the glass windows with minimum attenuation. At the same time, the ultraviolet (UV) and a part of incident solar infrared (IR) radiation energy are converted and/or deflected geometrically towards the panel edge for collection by CuInSe2 solar cells. Experimental results show power conversion efficiencies in excess of 3.04% in 10 cm × 10 cm vertically-placed clear glass panels facing direct sunlight, and up to 2.08% in 50 cm × 50 cm installation-ready framed window systems. These results confirm the emergence of a new class of solar window system ready for industrial application.

  5. Genotoxicity testing of samples generated during UV/H2O2 treatment of surface water for the production of drinking water using the Ames test in vitro and the Comet assay and the SCE test in vivo

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Penders, E.J.M.; Martijn, A.J.; Spenkelink, A.; Alink, G.M.; Rietjens, I.; Hoogenboezem, W.


    UV/H2O2 treatment can be part of the process converting surface water to drinking water, but would pose a potential problem when resulting in genotoxicity. This study investigates the genotoxicity of samples collected from the water treatment plant Andijk, applying UV/H2O2 treatment with an

  6. Effects of sputtered buffer layer on the characteristics of ZnO:Al films grown on glass substrates using high-temperature H2O generated by a catalytic reaction (United States)

    Nishiyama, Tomoya; Takezawa, Kazuki; Nakazawa, Yuta; Oyanagi, Takahiro; Kato, Takahiro; Oishi, Koichiro; Nakamura, Susumu; Yasui, Kanji


    The improvement in the quality of ZnO:Al films grown on glass substrates was investigated using a sputtered buffer layer inserted between a glass substrate and a ZnO:Al CVD film. ZnO:Al layers were grown at 773 K using dimethylzinc (DMZn), trimethylaluminum (TMAl), and high-temperature H2O generated by a catalytic reaction as zinc, aluminum, and oxygen sources, respectively. The electron mobility increased by approximately 20 cm2 V-1 s-1 with the use of a buffer layer with a thickness of approximately 40 nm. In addition, the optical transmittance in the wavelength range of 380-600 nm increased with the insertion of the buffer layer. For the growth of ZnO films on a sputtered buffer layer, the average surface roughness was reduced, and as a result the fluctuation in crystal orientation along the c-axis became smaller than that of the film grown directly on the glass substrate by the proposed CVD. This resulted in improvements in the optical transmittance and electron mobility of the ZnO:Al films.

  7. Ni(dmgH)2 complex coupled with metal-organic frameworks MIL-101(Cr) for photocatalytic H2 evolution under visible light irradiation

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Rong Wang; Li Wu; Bryant Chica; Lina Gu; Gengsheng Xu; Yupeng Yuan


    .... Lacking native active sites (so-called co-catalyst) for H2 generation motivates the incorporation of noble metals and their molecular complexes, hydrogenase active site mimics into MOFs to promote H2 generation...

  8. Beyond the Net Generation Debate: A Comparison of Digital Learners in Face-to-Face and Virtual Universities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Begoña Gros


    Full Text Available In the last decade, an important debate has arisen about the characteristics of today’s students due to their intensive experience as users of ICT. The main belief is that frequent use of technologies in everyday life implies that competent users are able to transfer their digital skills to learning activities. However, empirical studies developed in different countries reveal similar results suggesting that the “digital native” label does not provide evidence of a better use of technology to support learning. The debate has to go beyond the characteristics of the new generation and focus on the implications of being a learner in a digitalised world. This paper is based on the hypothesis that the use of technology to support learning is not related to whether a student belongs to the Net Generation, but that it is mainly influenced by the teaching model.The study compares behaviour and preferences towards ICT use in two groups of university students: face-to-face students and online students. A questionnaire was applied to a sample of students from five universities with different characteristics (one offers online education and four offer face-to-face education with LMS teaching support.Findings suggest that although access to and use of ICT is widespread, the influence of teaching methodology is very decisive. For academic purposes, students seem to respond to the requirements of their courses, programmes, and universities. There is a clear relationship between students’ perception of usefulness regarding certain ICT resources and their teachers’ suggested uses of technologies. The most highly rated technologies correspond with those proposed by teachers. The study shows that the educational model (face-to-face or online has a stronger influence on students’ perception of usefulness regarding ICT support for learning than the fact of being a digital native.

  9. Is the "Net Generation" Ready for Digital Citizenship? Perspectives from the IEA International Computer and Information Literacy Study 2013. Policy Brief No. 6 (United States)

    Watkins, Ryan; Engel, Laura C.; Hastedt, Dirk


    The rise of digital information and communication technologies (ICT) has made the acquisition of computer and information literacy (CIL) a leading factor in creating an engaged, informed, and employable citizenry. However, are young people, often described as "digital natives" or the "net generation," developing the necessary…

  10. Transport of H2S and HS(-) across the human red blood cell membrane: rapid H2S diffusion and AE1-mediated Cl(-)/HS(-) exchange. (United States)

    Jennings, Michael L


    The rates of H2S and HS(-) transport across the human erythrocyte membrane were estimated by measuring rates of dissipation of pH gradients in media containing 250 μM H2S/HS(-). Net acid efflux is caused by H2S/HS(-) acting analogously to CO2/HCO3(-) in the Jacobs-Stewart cycle. The steps are as follows: 1) H2S efflux through the lipid bilayer and/or a gas channel, 2) extracellular H2S deprotonation, 3) HS(-) influx in exchange for Cl(-), catalyzed by the anion exchange protein AE1, and 4) intracellular HS(-) protonation. Net acid transport by the Cl(-)/HS(-)/H2S cycle is more efficient than by the Cl(-)/HCO3(-)/CO2 cycle because of the rapid H2S-HS(-) interconversion in cells and medium. The rates of acid transport were analyzed by solving the mass flow equations for the cycle to produce estimates of the HS(-) and H2S transport rates. The data indicate that HS(-) is a very good substrate for AE1; the Cl(-)/HS(-) exchange rate is about one-third as rapid as Cl(-)/HCO3(-) exchange. The H2S permeability coefficient must also be high (>10(-2) cm/s, half time <0.003 s) to account for the pH equilibration data. The results imply that H2S and HS(-) enter erythrocytes very rapidly in the microcirculation of H2S-producing tissues, thereby acting as a sink for H2S and lowering the local extracellular concentration, and the fact that HS(-) is a substrate for a Cl(-)/HCO3(-) exchanger indicates that some effects of exogenous H2S/HS(-) may not result from a regulatory role of H2S but, rather, from net acid flux by H2S and HS(-) transport in a Jacobs-Stewart cycle.

  11. Hydrogen polysulfide (H2S n ) signaling along with hydrogen sulfide (H2S) and nitric oxide (NO). (United States)

    Kimura, Hideo


    Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) is a physiological mediator with various roles, including neuro-modulation, vascular tone regulation, and cytoprotection against ischemia-reperfusion injury, angiogenesis, and oxygen sensing. Hydrogen polysulfide (H2S n ), which possesses a higher number of sulfur atoms than H2S, recently emerged as a potential signaling molecule that regulates the activity of ion channels, a tumor suppressor, transcription factors, and protein kinases. Some of the previously reported effects of H2S are now attributed to the more potent H2S n . H2S n is produced by 3-mercaptopyruvate sulfurtransferase (3MST) from 3-mercaptopyruvate (3MP) and is generated by the chemical interaction of H2S with nitric oxide (NO). H2S n sulfhydrates (sulfurates) cysteine residues of target proteins and modifies their activity, whereas H2S sulfurates oxidized cysteine residues as well as reduces cysteine disulfide bonds. This review focuses on the recent progress made in studies concerning the production and physiological roles of H2S n and H2S.

  12. Is there a "net generation" in veterinary medicine? A comparative study on the use of the Internet and Web 2.0 by students and the veterinary profession. (United States)

    Tenhaven, Christoph; Tipold, Andrea; Fischer, Martin R; Ehlers, Jan P


    Informal and formal lifelong learning is essential at university and in the workplace. Apart from classical learning techniques, Web 2.0 tools can be used. It is controversial whether there is a so-called net generation amongst people under 30. To test the hypothesis that a net generation among students and young veterinarians exists. An online survey of students and veterinarians was conducted in the German-speaking countries which was advertised via online media and traditional print media. 1780 people took part in the survey. Students and veterinarians have different usage patterns regarding social networks (91.9% vs. 69%) and IM (55.9% vs. 24.5%). All tools were predominantly used passively and in private, to a lesser extent also professionally and for studying. The use of Web 2.0 tools is useful, however, teaching information and media skills, preparing codes of conduct for the internet and verification of user generated content is essential.

  13. Ni(dmgH)2 complex coupled with metal-organic frameworks MIL-101(Cr) for photocatalytic H2 evolution under visible light irradiation


    Wang, Rong; Wu, Li; Chica, Bryant; Gu, Lina; Xu, Gengsheng; Yuan, Yupeng


    Metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) have been tremendously used as photocatalysts for H2 generation in recent years. Lacking native active sites (so-called co-catalyst) for H2 generation motivates the incorporation of noble metals and their molecular complexes, hydrogenase active site mimics into MOFs to promote H2 generation. We herein report an noble-metal-free photocatalytic H2 generation system consisting of Erythrosin B dye-sensitized MIL-101(Cr) as a light absorber and Ni(dmgH)2 as a co-cat...

  14. Pyruvate Protects Pathogenic Spirochetes from H2O2 Killing (United States)

    Troxell, Bryan; Zhang, Jun-Jie; Bourret, Travis J.; Zeng, Melody Yue; Blum, Janice; Gherardini, Frank; Hassan, Hosni M.; Yang, X. Frank


    Pathogenic spirochetes cause clinically relevant diseases in humans and animals, such as Lyme disease and leptospirosis. The causative agent of Lyme disease, Borrelia burgdorferi, and the causative agent of leptospirosis, Leptospria interrogans, encounter reactive oxygen species (ROS) during their enzootic cycles. This report demonstrated that physiologically relevant concentrations of pyruvate, a potent H2O2 scavenger, and provided passive protection to B. burgdorferi and L. interrogans against H2O2. When extracellular pyruvate was absent, both spirochetes were sensitive to a low dose of H2O2 (≈0.6 µM per h) generated by glucose oxidase (GOX). Despite encoding a functional catalase, L. interrogans was more sensitive than B. burgdorferi to H2O2 generated by GOX, which may be due to the inherent resistance of B. burgdorferi because of the virtual absence of intracellular iron. In B. burgdorferi, the nucleotide excision repair (NER) and the DNA mismatch repair (MMR) pathways were important for survival during H2O2 challenge since deletion of the uvrB or the mutS genes enhanced its sensitivity to H2O2 killing; however, the presence of pyruvate fully protected ΔuvrB and ΔmutS from H2O2 killing further demonstrating the importance of pyruvate in protection. These findings demonstrated that pyruvate, in addition to its classical role in central carbon metabolism, serves as an important H2O2 scavenger for pathogenic spirochetes. Furthermore, pyruvate reduced ROS generated by human neutrophils in response to the Toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2) agonist zymosan. In addition, pyruvate reduced neutrophil-derived ROS in response to B. burgdorferi, which also activates host expression through TLR2 signaling. Thus, pathogenic spirochetes may exploit the metabolite pyruvate, present in blood and tissues, to survive H2O2 generated by the host antibacterial response generated during infection. PMID:24392147

  15. In situ one-pot fabrication of g-C3N4 nanosheets/NiS cocatalyst heterojunction with intimate interfaces for efficient visible light photocatalytic H2 generation (United States)

    He, Kelin; Xie, Jun; Li, Mingli; Li, Xin


    Constructing high-quality earth-abundant semionconductor/cocatalyst heterojunction remains a grand challenge in the promising fields of photocatalytic solar fuel H2 production. Herein, an intimate g-C3N4 nanosheet/NiS cocatalyst heterojunction is fabricated by in situ one-step calcination of urea, thiourea and nickel acetate. Interestingly, thiourea could act as both the precursor of g-C3N4 and the sulfur source of NiS. The H2-evolution activity of as-obtained photocatalysts was tested in a triethanolamine (TEOA) scavenger solution under visible light irradiation. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) mapping analysis clearly demonstrated that the NiS catalyst nanoparticles could be in situ fabricated and homogeneously distributed on the surface of g-C3N4 nanosheets without an obvious aggregation. The maximum H2-production rate of 29.68 μmol h-1 could be achieved, which is nearly comparable to that of 0.5 wt% Pt loaded sample. It is believed that the intimate heterojunction interfaces between NiS nanoparticles and g-C3N4 nanosheets could be in situ constructed by high temperature calcination, which achieved the improved charge separation, the enhanced oxidation ability of TEOA and the accelerated the sluggish H2-evolution kinetics, thus resulting in the remarkably enhanced hydrogen evolution. Therefore, our study provides insights into constructing high-quality robust g-C3N4-based heterojunction material for photocatalytic applications by using a simple one-step in-situ calcination technique.

  16. Ni(dmgH2 complex coupled with metal-organic frameworks MIL-101(Cr for photocatalytic H2 evolution under visible light irradiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rong Wang


    Full Text Available Metal-organic frameworks (MOFs have been tremendously used as photocatalysts for H2 generation in recent years. Lacking native active sites (so-called co-catalyst for H2 generation motivates the incorporation of noble metals and their molecular complexes, hydrogenase active site mimics into MOFs to promote H2 generation. We herein report an noble-metal-free photocatalytic H2 generation system consisting of Erythrosin B dye-sensitized MIL-101(Cr as a light absorber and Ni(dmgH2 as a co-catalyst. It is found that Ni(dmgH2 can serve as an efficient co-catalyst to boost H2 generation in the presence of triethanolamine (TEOA as an electron donor under visible light irradiation. The optimal MIL-101(Cr/Ni(dmgH2 hybrid (5 wt% Ni(dmgH2 displays a hydrogen H2 rate of 45.5 μmol h−1, which is 10 times greater than the control sample without Ni(dmgH2 loading. This paper provides a novel design route for active H2 generation systems by combining molecular complexes of earth-abundant metal and MOFs photocatalysts.

  17. WaveNet (United States)


    Coastal Inlets Research Program WaveNet WaveNet is a web-based, Graphical-User-Interface ( GUI ) data management tool developed for Corps coastal...generates tabular and graphical information for project planning and design documents. The WaveNet is a web-based GUI designed to provide users with from different sources, and employs a combination of Fortran, Python and Matlab codes to process and analyze data for USACE applications

  18. NET-VISA, a Bayesian method next-generation automatic association software. Latest developments and operational assessment. (United States)

    Le Bras, Ronan; Kushida, Noriyuki; Mialle, Pierrick; Tomuta, Elena; Arora, Nimar


    The Preparatory Commission for the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty Organization (CTBTO) has been developing a Bayesian method and software to perform the key step of automatic association of seismological, hydroacoustic, and infrasound (SHI) parametric data. In our preliminary testing in the CTBTO, NET_VISA shows much better performance than its currently operating automatic association module, with a rate for automatic events matching the analyst-reviewed events increased by 10%, signifying that the percentage of missed events is lowered by 40%. Initial tests involving analysts also showed that the new software will complete the automatic bulletins of the CTBTO by adding previously missed events. Because products by the CTBTO are also widely distributed to its member States as well as throughout the seismological community, the introduction of a new technology must be carried out carefully, and the first step of operational integration is to first use NET-VISA results within the interactive analysts' software so that the analysts can check the robustness of the Bayesian approach. We report on the latest results both on the progress for automatic processing and for the initial introduction of NET-VISA results in the analyst review process

  19. Generation of high-resolution wind fields from the dense meteorological station network WegenerNet in South-Eastern Austria (United States)

    Schlager, Christoph; Kirchengast, Gottfried; Fuchsberger, Jürgen


    To investigate weather and climate on a local scale as well as for evaluating regional climate models (RCMs) the Wegener Center at the University of Graz established the long-term field experiment WegenerNet Feldbach region, a dense grid of 153 meteorological stations. The observations of these stations are managed by an automatic WegenerNet Processing system. This system includes a quality check of collected observations and a Data Product Generator (DPG), among other subsystems. Products already implemented in the DPG are gridded weather and climate products, generated from the main parameters temperature, precipitation and relative humidity (Kirchengast et. al., Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc., 95, 227-242, 2014). Missing elements are gridded wind fields from wind observations. Wind is considered as one of the most difficult meteorological variables to model and depends on many different parameters such as topography and surface roughness. Therefore a simple interpolation can only be performed in case of uniform characteristics of landscape. The presentation introduces our method of generation of wind fields from near real-time observations of the WegenerNet. Purpose of this work is to provide a database with 3D wind fields in a high spatial and time resolution as addition to the existing products, for evaluating convection permitting climate models as well as investigating weather and climate on a local scale. Core of the application is the diagnostic California Meteorological Model (CALMET). This model computes 3D wind fields based on meteorological observational data, a digital elevation model and land use categories. The application generates the required input files from meteorological stations of the WegenerNet Feldbach region and triggers the start of the CALMET model with these input files. In a next step the modeled wind fields are stored automatically every 30 minutes with a spatial resolution of 100 x 100 m in the WegenerNet database. To verify the

  20. Game Coloured Petri Nets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Westergaard, Michael


    This paper introduces the notion of game coloured Petri nets. This allows the modeler to explicitly model what parts of the model comprise the modeled system and what parts are the environment of the modeled system. We give the formal definition of game coloured Petri nets, a means of reachability...... analysis of this net class, and an application of game coloured Petri nets to automatically generate easy-to-understand visualizations of the model by exploiting the knowledge that some parts of the model are not interesting from a visualization perspective (i.e. they are part of the environment...

  1. Destruction and Sequestration of H2O on Mars (United States)

    Clark, Benton


    The availability of water in biologically useable form on any planet is a quintessential resource, even if the planet is in a zone habitable with temperature regimes required for growth of organisms (above -18 °C). Mars and most other planetary objects in the solar system do not have sufficient liquid water at their surfaces that photosynthesis or chemolithoautotrophic metabolism could occur. Given clear evidence of hydrous mineral alteration and geomorphological constructs requiring abundant supplies of liquid water in the past, the question arises whether this H2O only became trapped physically as ice, or whether there could be other, more or less accessible reservoirs that it has evolved into. Salts containing S or Cl appear to be ubiquitous on Mars, having been measured in soils by all six Mars landed missions, and detected in additional areas by orbital investigations. Volcanoes emit gaseous H2S, S, SO2, HCl and Cl2. A variety of evidence indicates the geochemical fate of these gases is to be transformed into sulfates, chlorides, chlorates and perchlorates. Depending on the gas, the net reaction causes the destruction of between one and up to eight molecules of H2O per atom of S or Cl (although hydrogen atoms are also released, they are lost relatively rapidly to atmospheric escape). Furthermore, the salt minerals formed often incorporate H2O into their crystalline structures, and can result in the sequestration of up to yet another six (sometimes, more) molecules of H2O. In addition, if the salts are microcrystalline or amorphous, they are potent adsorbents for H2O. In certain cases, they are even deliquescent under martian conditions. Finally, the high solubility of the vast majority of these salts (with notable exception of CaSO4) can result in dense brines with low water activity, aH, as well as cations which can be inimical to microbial metabolism, effectively "poisoning the well." The original geologic materials on Mars, igneous rocks, also provide some

  2. Relaxation of H2O from its |04>- vibrational state in collisions with H2O, Ar, H2, N2, and O2 (United States)

    Barnes, Peter W.; Sims, Ian R.; Smith, Ian W. M.


    We report rate coefficients at 293 K for the collisional relaxation of H2O molecules from the highly excited |04>± vibrational states in collisions with H2O, Ar, H2, N2, and O2. In our experiments, the |04>- state is populated by direct absorption of radiation from a pulsed dye laser tuned to ˜719 nm. Evolution of the population in the (|04>±) levels is observed using the combination of a frequency-quadrupled Nd:YAG laser, which selectively photolyses H2O(|04>±), and a frequency-doubled dye laser, which observes the OH(v=0) produced by photodissociation via laser-induced fluorescence. The delay between the pulse from the pump laser and those from the photolysis and probe lasers was systematically varied to generate kinetic decays. The rate coefficients for relaxation of H2O(|04>±) obtained from these experiments, in units of cm3 molecule-1 s-1, are: k(H2O)=(4.1±1.2)×10-10, k(Ar)=(4.9±1.1)×10-12, k(H2)=(6.8±1.1)×10-12, k(N2)=(7.7±1.5)×10-12, k(O2)=(6.7±1.4)×10-12. The implications of these results for our previous reports of rate constants for the removal of H2O molecules in selected vibrational states by collisions with H atoms (P. W. Barnes et al., Faraday Discuss. Chem. Soc. 113, 167 (1999) and P. W. Barnes et al., J. Chem. Phys. 115, 4586 (2001).) are fully discussed.

  3. The HLA-net GENE[RATE] pipeline for effective HLA data analysis and its application to 145 population samples from Europe and neighbouring areas. (United States)

    Nunes, J M; Buhler, S; Roessli, D; Sanchez-Mazas, A


    In this review, we present for the first time an integrated version of the Gene[rate] computer tools which have been developed during the last 5 years to analyse human leukocyte antigen (HLA) data in human populations, as well as the results of their application to a large dataset of 145 HLA-typed population samples from Europe and its two neighbouring areas, North Africa and West Asia, now forming part of the Gene[va] database. All these computer tools and genetic data are, from now, publicly available through a newly designed bioinformatics platform, HLA-net, here presented as a main achievement of the HLA-NET scientific programme. The Gene[rate] pipeline offers user-friendly computer tools to estimate allele and haplotype frequencies, to test Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium (HWE), selective neutrality and linkage disequilibrium, to recode HLA data, to convert file formats, to display population frequencies of chosen alleles and haplotypes in selected geographic regions, and to perform genetic comparisons among chosen sets of population samples, including new data provided by the user. Both numerical and graphical outputs are generated, the latter being highly explicit and of publication quality. All these analyses can be performed on the pipeline after scrupulous validation of the population sample's characterisation and HLA typing reporting according to HLA-NET recommendations. The Gene[va] database offers direct access to the HLA-A, -B, -C, -DQA1, -DQB1, -DRB1 and -DPB1 frequencies and summary statistics of 145 population samples having successfully passed these HLA-NET 'filters', and representing three European subregions (South-East, North-East and Central-West Europe) and two neighbouring areas (North Africa, as far as Sudan, and West Asia, as far as South India). The analysis of these data, summarized in this review, shows a substantial genetic variation at the regional level in this continental area. These results have main implications for population genetics

  4. Photolysis of H2O-H2O2 Mixtures: The Destruction of H2O2 (United States)

    Loeffler, M. J.; Fama, M.; Baragiola, R. A.; Carlson, R. W.


    We present laboratory results on the loss of H2O2 in solid H2O + H2O2 mixtures at temperatures between 21 and 145 K initiated by UV photolysis (193 nm). Using infrared spectroscopy and microbalance gravimetry, we measured the decrease of the 3.5 micrometer infrared absorption band during UV irradiation and obtained a photodestruction cross section that varies with temperature, being lowest at 70 K. We use our results, along with our previously measured H2O2 production rates via ionizing radiation and ion energy fluxes from the spacecraft to compare H2O2 creation and destruction at icy satellites by ions from their planetary magnetosphere and from solar UV photons. We conclude that, in many cases, H2O2 is not observed on icy satellite surfaces because the H2O2 photodestruction rate is much higher than the production rate via energetic particles, effectively keeping the H2O2 infrared signature at or below the noise level.

  5. H2A and H2B tails are essential to properly reconstitute nucleosome core particles. (United States)

    Bertin, Aurélie; Durand, Dominique; Renouard, Madalena; Livolant, Françoise; Mangenot, Stéphanie


    The conformation of recombinant Nucleosome Core Particles (NCPs) lacking H2A and H2B histone tails (gH2AgH2B) are studied. The migration of these particles in acrylamide native gels is slowed down compared to intact reconstituted NCPs. gH2AgH2B NCPs are also much more sensitive to nuclease digestion than intact NCPs. Small angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) experiments point out that the absence of H2A and H2B tails produces small but significant conformational changes of the octamers conformation (without wrapped DNA), whereas gH2AgH2B NCP conformations are significantly altered. A separation of about 25-30 bp from the core could account for the experimental curves, but other types of DNA superhelix deformation cannot be excluded. The distorted gH2AgH2B octamer may not allow the correct winding of DNA around the core. The absence of the H2A and H2B tails would further prevent the secondary sliding of the DNA around the core and therefore impedes the stabilisation of the particle. Cryo-electron microscopy on the same particles also shows a detachment of DNA portions from the particle core. The effect is even stronger because the vitrification of the samples worsens the instability of gH2AgH2B NCPs.

  6. Hot hydrogen atom reactions moderated by H2 and He (United States)

    Aronowitz, S.; Scattergood, T.; Flores, J.; Chang, S.


    Photolysis experiments were performed on the H2-CD4-NH3 and He-CD4-NH3 systems. The photolysis (1849 A) involved only NH3. Mixtures of H2:CD4:NH3 included all combinations of the ratios (200,400,800):(10,20,40):4. Two He:CD4:NH3 mixtures were examined where the ratios equalled the combinations 100:(10,20):4. Abstraction of a D from CD4 by the photolytically produced hot hydrogen from ammonia was monitored by mass spectrometric determination of HD. Both experiment and semiempirical hot-atom theory show that H2 is a very poor thermalizer of hot hydrogens with excess kinetic energy of about 2 eV. Applications of the hard-sphere collision model to the H2-CD4-NH3 system resulted in predicted ratios of net HD production to NH3 decomposition that were two orders of magnitude smaller than the experimental ratios. On the other hand, helium is found to be a very efficient thermalizer; here, the classical model yields reasonable agreement with experiments. Application of a semiempirical hot-atom program gave quantitative agreement with experiment for either system.

  7. Net Locality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Souza e Silva, Adriana Araujo; Gordon, Eric

    Provides an introduction to the new theory of Net Locality and the profound effect on individuals and societies when everything is located or locatable. Describes net locality as an emerging form of location awareness central to all aspects of digital media, from mobile phones, to Google Maps...... of emerging technologies, from GeoCities to GPS, Wi-Fi, Wiki Me, and Google Android....

  8. Net Neutrality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Savin, Andrej


    Repealing “net neutrality” in the US will have no bearing on Internet freedom or security there or anywhere else.......Repealing “net neutrality” in the US will have no bearing on Internet freedom or security there or anywhere else....

  9. Getting to Net Zero

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)


    The technology necessary to build net zero energy buildings (NZEBs) is ready and available today, however, building to net zero energy performance levels can be challenging. Energy efficiency measures, onsite energy generation resources, load matching and grid interaction, climatic factors, and local policies vary from location to location and require unique methods of constructing NZEBs. It is recommended that Components start looking into how to construct and operate NZEBs now as there is a learning curve to net zero construction and FY 2020 is just around the corner.

  10. Does residual H2O2 result in inhibitory effect on enhanced anaerobic digestion of sludge pretreated by microwave-H2O2 pretreatment process? (United States)

    Liu, Jibao; Jia, Ruilai; Wang, Yawei; Wei, Yuansong; Zhang, Junya; Wang, Rui; Cai, Xing


    This study investigated the effects of residual H2O2 on hydrolysis-acidification and methanogenesis stages of anaerobic digestion after microwave-H2O2 (MW-H2O2) pretreatment of waste activated sludge (WAS). Results showed that high sludge solubilization at 35-45 % was achieved after pretreatment, while large amounts of residual H2O2 remained and refractory compounds were thus generated with high dosage of H2O2 (0.6 g H2O2/g total solids (TS), 1.0 g H2O2/g TS) pretreatment. The residual H2O2 not only inhibited hydrolysis-acidification stage mildly, such as hydrolase activity, but also had acute toxic effect on methanogens, resulting in long lag phase, low methane yield rate, and no increase of cumulative methane production during the 30-day BMP tests. When the low dosage of H2O2 at 0.2 g H2O2/g TS was used in MW-H2O2 pretreatment, sludge anaerobic digestion was significantly enhanced. The cumulative methane production increased by 29.02 %, but still with a lag phase of 1.0 day. With removing the residual H2O2 by catalase, the initial lag phase of hydrolysis-acidification stage decreased from 1.0 to 0.5 day.

  11. Environmental regulation of H2 utilization ( (3)H 2 exchange) among natural and laboratory populations of N2 and non-N 2 fixing phytoplankton. (United States)

    Paerl, H W


    Regulation of H2 utilization, as monitored by the hydrogenase-mediated(3)H2 exchange reaction, was examined among phytoplankton communitiesin situ and populations in culture. During a 2-year study in the Chowan River, North Carolina, at least 2 major groups of phytoplankton dominated(3)H2 exchange rates. They included N2 fixing cyanobacteria and NO3 (})- utilizing genera. Utilization of(3)H2 by N2 fixers was mainly dark-mediated, whereas(3)H2 utilization associated with periods of NO3 (})- abundance revealed an increasing dependence on light. Inhibitors of N2 fixation (C2H2 and NH4 (+)) negatively affected(3)H2 utilization, substantiating previous findings that close metabolic coupling of both processes exists among N2 fixing cyanobacteria. Conversely, NO3 (})- stimulated(3)H2 utilization among N2 and non-N2 fixing genera, particularly under illuminated conditions. A variety of environmental factors were shown to control(3)H2 exchange. In addition to the nitrogen sources discussed above, dissolved O2, photosynthetically available radiation (PAR), temperature, and pH changes altered(3)H2 exchange rates. It is likely that other factors not addressed here could also affect(3)H2 exchange rates. At least 2 ecological benefits from H2 utilization in natural phytoplankton can be offered. They include the simultaneous generation of adenosine triphosphate (ATP) and consumption of O2 during the oxidation of H2 via an oxyhydrogen or "Knallgas" reaction. Both processes could help sustain phytoplankton, and particularly cyanobacterial, bloom intensity under natural conditions when O2 supersaturation is common in surface waters. H2 utilization appeared to be a general feature of natural and laboratory phytoplankton populations. The magnitudes of(3)H2 utilization rates were directly related to community biomass. Although it can be shown that utilization rates are controlled by specific environmental factors, the potential relationships between H2 utilization and phytoplankton

  12. NASA Lewis H2-O2 MHD program (United States)

    Smith, M.; Nichols, L. D.; Seikel, G. R.


    Performance and power costs of H2-O2 combustion powered steam-MHD central power systems are estimated. Hydrogen gas is assumed to be transmitted by pipe from a remote coal gasifier into the city and converted to electricity in a steam MHD plant having an integral gaseous oxygen plant. These steam MHD systems appear to offer an attractive alternative to both in-city clean fueled conventional steam power plants and to remote coal fired power plants with underground electric transmission into the city. Status and plans are outlined for an experimental evaluation of H2-O2 combustion-driven MHD power generators at NASA Lewis Research Center.

  13. Oxygen sensitivity of algal H2- production. (United States)

    Ghirardi, M L; Togasaki, R K; Seibert, M


    Photoproduction of H2 by green algae utilizes electrons originating from the photosynthetic oxidation of water and does not require metabolic intermediates. However, algal hydrogenases are extremely sensitive to O(2), which limits their usefulness in future commercial H2-production systems. We designed an experimental technique for the selection of O2-tolerant, H2-producing variants of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii based on the ability of wild-type cells to survive a short (20 min) exposure to metronidazole in the presence of controlled concentrations of O2. The number of survivors depends on the metronidazole concentration, light intensity, preinduction of the hydrogenase, and the presence or absence of O2. Finally, we demonstrate that some of the selected survivors in fact exhibit H2-production capacity that is less sensitive to O2 than the original wild-type population.

  14. Variations in H2O+/H2O ratios toward massive star-forming regions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wyrowski, F.; van der Tak, F.; Herpin, F.; Baudry, A.; Bontemps, S.; Chavarria, L.; Frieswijk, W.; Jacq, T.; Marseille, M.; Shipman, R.; van Dishoeck, E. F.; Benz, A. O.; Caselli, P.; Hogerheijde, M. R.; Johnstone, D.; Liseau, R.; Bachiller, R.; Benedettini, M.; Bergin, E.; Bjerkeli, P.; Blake, G.; Braine, J.; Bruderer, S.; Cernicharo, J.; Codella, C.; Daniel, F.; di Giorgio, A. M.; Dominik, C.; Doty, S. D.; Encrenaz, P.; Fich, M.; Fuente, A.; Giannini, T.; Goicoechea, J. R.; de Graauw, Th; Helmich, F.; Herczeg, G. J.; Jørgensen, J. K.; Kristensen, L. E.; Larsson, B.; Lis, D.; McCoey, C.; Melnick, G.; Nisini, B.; Olberg, M.; Parise, B.; Pearson, J. C.; Plume, R.; Risacher, C.; Santiago, J.; Saraceno, P.; Tafalla, M.; van Kempen, T. A.; Visser, R.; Wampfler, S.; Yıldız, U. A.; Black, J. H.; Falgarone, E.; Gerin, M.; Roelfsema, P.; Dieleman, P.; Beintema, D.; de Jonge, A.; Whyborn, N.; Stutzki, J.; Ossenkopf, V.


    Early results from the Herschel Space Observatory revealed the water cation H2O+ to be an abundant ingredient of the interstellar medium. Here we present new observations of the H2O and H2O+ lines at 1113.3 and 1115.2 GHz using the Herschel Space Observatory toward a sample of high-mass star-forming

  15. An H2A Histone Isotype, H2ac, Associates with Telomere and Maintains Telomere Integrity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chia-Hsin Su

    Full Text Available Telomeres are capped at the ends of eukaryotic chromosomes and are composed of TTAGGG repeats bound to the shelterin complex. Here we report that a replication-dependent histone H2A isotype, H2ac, was associated with telomeres in human cells and co-immunoprecipitates with telomere repeat factor 2 (TRF2 and protection of telomeres protein 1 (POT1, whereas other histone H2A isotypes and mutations of H2ac did not bind to telomeres or these two proteins. The amino terminal basic domain of TRF2 was necessary for the association with H2ac and for the recruitment of H2ac to telomeres. Depletion of H2ac led to loss of telomeric repeat sequences, the appearance of dysfunctional telomeres, and chromosomal instability, including chromosomal breaks and anaphase bridges, as well as accumulation of telomere-associated DNA damage factors in H2ac depleted cells. Additionally, knockdown of H2ac elicits an ATM-dependent DNA damage response at telomeres and depletion of XPF protects telomeres against H2ac-deficiency-induced G-strand overhangs loss and DNA damage response, and prevents chromosomal instability. These findings suggest that the H2A isotype, H2ac, plays an essential role in maintaining telomere functional integrity.

  16. Electrochemical, H2O2-Boosted Catalytic Oxidation System (United States)

    Akse, James R.; Thompson, John O.; Schussel, Leonard J.


    An improved water-sterilizing aqueous-phase catalytic oxidation system (APCOS) is based partly on the electrochemical generation of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2). This H2O2-boosted system offers significant improvements over prior dissolved-oxygen water-sterilizing systems in the way in which it increases oxidation capabilities, supplies H2O2 when needed, reduces the total organic carbon (TOC) content of treated water to a low level, consumes less energy than prior systems do, reduces the risk of contamination, and costs less to operate. This system was developed as a variant of part of an improved waste-management subsystem of the life-support system of a spacecraft. Going beyond its original intended purpose, it offers the advantage of being able to produce H2O2 on demand for surface sterilization and/or decontamination: this is a major advantage inasmuch as the benign byproducts of this H2O2 system, unlike those of systems that utilize other chemical sterilants, place no additional burden of containment control on other spacecraft air- or water-reclamation systems.

  17. H2SO4-HNO3-H2O ternary system in the stratosphere (United States)

    Kiang, C. S.; Hamill, P.


    Estimation of the equilibrium vapor pressure over the ternary system H2SO4-HNO3-H2O to study the possibility of stratospheric aerosol formation involving HNO3. It is shown that the vapor pressures for the ternary system H2SO4-HNO3-H2O with weight composition around 70-80% H2SO4, 10-20% HNO3, 10-20% H2O at -50 C are below the order of 10 to the minus 8th mm Hg. It is concluded that there exists more than sufficient nitric acid and water vapor in the stratosphere to participate in ternary system aerosol formation at -50 C. Therefore, HNO3 should be present in stratospheric aerosols, provided that H2SO4 is also present.

  18. Exciting H2 Molecules for Graphene Functionalization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kyhl, Line; Bisson, Regis; Balog, Richard


    Hydrogen functionalization of graphene by exposure to vibrationally excited H2 molecules is investigated by combined scanning tunneling microscopy, high resolution electron energy loss spectroscopy, x-ray photoemission spectroscopy measurements and density functional theory calculations. The meas......Hydrogen functionalization of graphene by exposure to vibrationally excited H2 molecules is investigated by combined scanning tunneling microscopy, high resolution electron energy loss spectroscopy, x-ray photoemission spectroscopy measurements and density functional theory calculations....... The measurements reveal that vibrationally excited H2 molecules dissociatively adsorb on graphene on Ir(111) resulting in nano-patterned hydrogen functionalization structures. Calculations demonstrate that the presence of the Ir surface below the graphene lowers the H2 dissociative adsorption barrier and allows...... for the adsorption reaction at energies well below the dissociation threshold of the H-H bond. The first reacting H2 molecule must contain considerable vibrational energy to overcome the dissociative adsorption barrier. However, this initial adsorption further activates the surface resulting in reduced barriers...

  19. Physical chemistry of the H2SO4/HNO3/H2O system - Implications for polar stratospheric clouds (United States)

    Molina, M. J.; Zhang, R.; Wooldridge, P. J.; Mcmahon, J. R.; Kim, J. E.; Chang, H. Y.; Beyer, K. D.


    Polar stratospheric clouds (PSCs) play a key role in stratospheric ozone depletion. Surface-catalyzed reactions on PSC particles generate chlorine compounds that photolyze readily to yield chlorine radicals, which in turn destroy ozone very efficiently. The most prevalent PSCs form at temperatures several degrees above the ice frost point and are believed to consist of HNO3 hydrates; however, their formation mechanism is unclear. Results of laboratory experiments are presented which indicate that the background stratospheric H2SO4/H2O aerosols provide an essential link in this mechanism: These liquid aerosols absorb significant amounts of HNO3 vapor, leading most likely to the crystallization of nitric acid trihydrate (NAT). The frozen particles then grow to form PSCs by condensation of additional amounts of HNO3 and H2O vapor. Furthermore, reaction probability measurements reveal that the chlorine radical precursors are formed readily at polar stratospheric temperatures not just on NAT and ice crystals, but also on liquid H2SO4 solutions and on solid H2SO4 hydrates. These results imply that the chlorine activation efficiency of the aerosol particles increases rapidly as the temperature approaches the ice frost point regardless of the phase or composition of the particles.

  20. H2@Scale Resource and Market Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruth, Mark


    The 'H2@Scale' concept is based on the potential for wide-scale utilization of hydrogen as an energy intermediate where the hydrogen is produced from low cost energy resources and it is used in both the transportation and industrial sectors. H2@Scale has the potential to address grid resiliency, energy security, and cross-sectoral emissions reductions. This presentation summarizes the status of an ongoing analysis effort to quantify the benefits of H2@Scale. It includes initial results regarding market potential, resource potential, and impacts of when electrolytic hydrogen is produced with renewable electricity to meet the potential market demands. It also proposes additional analysis efforts to better quantify each of the factors.

  1. RESTful NET

    CERN Document Server

    Flanders, Jon


    RESTful .NET is the first book that teaches Windows developers to build RESTful web services using the latest Microsoft tools. Written by Windows Communication Foundation (WFC) expert Jon Flanders, this hands-on tutorial demonstrates how you can use WCF and other components of the .NET 3.5 Framework to build, deploy and use REST-based web services in a variety of application scenarios. RESTful architecture offers a simpler approach to building web services than SOAP, SOA, and the cumbersome WS- stack. And WCF has proven to be a flexible technology for building distributed systems not necessa

  2. Recent developments in solar H 2 generation from water splitting

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Hydrogen production from water and sunlight through photocatalysis could become one of the channels, in the not-so-distant future, to meet a part of ever growing energy demands. However, accomplishing solar water splitting through semiconductor particulate photocatalysis seems to be the 'Holy Grail' problem of science.

  3. Recent developments in solar H2 generation from water splitting

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    35. Figure 3. Flowchart representation of the basic and critical processes involved in heterogeneous semiconductor photocatalysis. ... Schematic representation of one-step and two-step photoexcitation processes. (Reproduced with permission from ACS). ..... literature reports.5,6,8. 3.4 Composites. Electronic coupling of two ...

  4. H2O2 levels in rainwater collected in south Florida and the Bahama Islands (United States)

    Zika, R.; Saltzman, E.; Chameides, W. L.; Davis, D. D.


    Measurements of H2O2 in rainwater collected in Miami, Florida, and the Bahama Islands area indicate the presence of H2O2 concentration levels ranging from 100,000 to 700,000 M. No systematic trends in H2O2 concentration were observed during an individual storm, in marked contrast to the behavior of other anions for example, NO3(-), SO4(-2), and Cl(-). The data suggest that a substantial fraction of the H2O2 found in precipitation is generated by aqueous-phase reactions within the cloudwater rather than via rainout and washout of gaseous H2O2.

  5. H2 MAGIE: H2 as a Major Agent to Galaxy Interaction and Evolution (United States)

    Guillard, Pierre


    Spitzer space telescope spectroscopy reveal a new class of H2-luminous galaxies with enhanced H2 line emission, but where star formation is strongly suppressed. This is in sharp contrast with what is observed in standard star forming galaxies. These sources are all in active phases of galaxy evolution (galaxy interactions, AGN feedback, gas accretion in galaxy clusters, etc.). Why is H2 present in violent phases of galaxy evolution? How is the H2 emission powered? Why is the H2 gas inefficient at forming stars? What can we learn from these "H2 galaxies" about galaxy formation? This thesis addresses these questions, and discuss the theoretical and observational perspectives of this work (in particular Herschel and JWST).

  6. Petri Nets

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Associate Professor of. Computer Science and. Automation at the Indian. Institute of Science,. Bangalore. His research interests are broadly in the areas of stochastic modeling and scheduling methodologies for future factories; and object oriented modeling. GENERAL I ARTICLE. Petri Nets. 1. Overview and Foundations.

  7. Petri Nets

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 4; Issue 8. Petri Nets - Overview and Foundations. Y Narahari. General Article Volume 4 Issue 8 August 1999 pp ... Author Affiliations. Y Narahari1. Department ot Computer Science and Automation, Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore 560 012, India.

  8. Advanced Colloids Experiment (ACE-H-2) (United States)

    Meyer, William V.; Sicker, Ron; Chmiel, Alan J.; Eustace, John; LaBarbera, Melissa


    Increment 43 - 44 Science Symposium presentation of Advanced Colloids Experiment (ACE-H-2) to RPO. The purpose of this event is for Principal Investigators to present their science objectives, testing approach, and measurement methods to agency scientists, managers, and other investigators.

  9. EPA H2O Software Tool (United States)

    EPA H2O allows user to: Understand the significance of EGS in Tampa Bay watershed; visually analyze spatial distribution of the EGS in Tampa Bay watershed; obtain map and summary statistics of EGS values in Tampa Bay watershed; analyze and compare potential impacts of development...

  10. Communicating with the Net Generation (United States)


    minimizes viral attacks but significant threats still remain that need to be defended against. 60 17 Smartphones, particularly iPhones and Android measures to safeguard smart phones from Blended Attacks, worms and viruses, and Peer-to-Peer applications where adversaries gain access to...military App Store for Android , 3G for battlefields,‖ Syfy Network online, March 4, 2010,, (accessed

  11. Challenges and opportunities associated with the introduction of next-generation long-lasting insecticidal nets for malaria control: a case study from Burkina Faso. (United States)

    Tesfazghi, Kemi; Traore, Adama; Ranson, Hilary; N'Fale, Sagnon; Hill, Jenny; Worrall, Eve


    Reductions in malaria incidence in Africa can largely be attributed to increases in malaria vector control activities; predominately the use of long-lasting insecticidal nets (LLINs). With insecticide resistance affecting an increasing number of malaria-endemic countries and threatening the effectiveness of conventional LLINs, there is an increasing urgency to implement alternative tools that control these resistant populations. The aim of this study was to identify potential challenges and opportunities for accelerating access to next-generation LLINs in Burkina Faso, a country with areas of high levels of insecticide resistance. An analytical framework was used to guide the selection of interviewees, data collection and analysis. Semi-structured interviews were carried out with key informants in April 2014 in Burkina Faso. Interviews were conducted in French and English, audio recorded, transcribed and entered into NVivo 10 for data management and analysis. Data were coded according to the framework themes and then analysed to provide a description of the key points and explain patterns in the data. Interviewees reported that the policy architecture in Burkina Faso is characterised by a strong framework of actors that contribute to policymaking and strong national research capacity which indirectly contributes to national policy change via collaboration with internationally led research. Financing significantly impacts the potential adoption, availability and affordability of next-generation LLINs. This confers significant power on international donors that fund vector control. National decisions around which LLINs to procure were restricted to quantity and delivery dates; the potential to tackle insecticide resistance was not part of the decision-making process. Furthermore, at the time of the study, there was no World Health Organization (WHO) guidance on where and when next-generation LLINs might positively impact on malaria transmission, severely limiting

  12. Collisional Quenching of Highly-Excited H2 due to H2 Collisions (United States)

    Wan, Yier; Yang, Benhui H.; Stancil, Phillip C.; Naduvalath, Balakrishnan; Forrey, Robert C.; This work was partially support by Hubble grant HST-AT-13899. We thank Kyle Walkerassistance with vrrmm.


    Collision-induced energy transfer involving H2 molecules are of significant interest, since H2 is the most abundant molecular species in the universe. Collisional de-excitation rate coefficients of the H2-H2 system are necessary to produce accurate models of astrophysical environments. However, accurate calculations of collisional energy transfer are still a challenging problem, especially for highly-excited H2 because a large number of levels must be included in the calculation.Currently, most data are limited to initial rotational levels j up to 8 or initial vibrational levels up to 3. The vast majority of these results involve some form of a reduced-dimensional approach which may be of questionable accuracy. A reliable and accurate four-dimensional PES computed by Patkowski et al. is used in this work along with two quantum scattering programs (MOLSCAT and vrrmm). Another accurate full-dimensional PES has been reported for the H2-H2 system by Hinde.Not all transitions will be explicitly calculated. A zero-energy scaling technique (ZEST) is used to estimate some intermediate transitions from calculated rate coefficients. New inelastic quenching cross section for para-H2+para-H2 collisions with initial level j= 10, 12, 14, 18, 24 are calculated. Calculations for other de-excitation transitions from higher initial levels and collisions involving other spin isomer of hydrogen, ortho-H2+para-H2, ortho-H2+ortho-H2 and para-H2+ortho-H2 are in progress. The coupled- states approximation is also applied to obtain cross sections at high energy.K. Patkowski, et al., J. Chem. Phys. 129, 094304 (2008).J. M. Hutson and S. Green, MOLSCAT Computer code, v14 (1994).K. Walker, 2013, VRRMM: Vibrational/Rotational Rich Man’s MOLSCAT v3.1.K. Walker, Song, L., Yang, B. H.,et al. 2015, ApJ, \\811,27.S. Green, J. Chem. Phys. 62, 2271 (1975).Flower, D. R., Roueff, E. 1998, J. Phys. B, 31, 2935.T. -G. Lee, N. Balakrishnan, R. C. Forrey, P. C. Stancil, G. Shaw, D. R. Schultz, and G. J

  13. Interactions between metal cations with H 2 in the M-H 2 complexes ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Interactions between metal cations with H2 in the M+- H2 complexes: Performance of DFT and DFT-D methods ... Graduate School of Information Science, Nagoya University, Chukusa-ku, Nagoya 464-8601, Aichi, Japan; Department of Spectroscopy, Indian Association for the Cultivation of Science, Jadavpur, Kolkata 700 ...

  14. High purity H2/H2O/Ni/SZ electrodes at 500º C

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høgh, Jens Valdemar Thorvald; Hansen, Karin Vels; Norrman, Kion


    of stabilized zirconia (SZ) with 10, 13 and 18 mol% yttria and one with 6 mol% scandia plus 4 mol% yttria were studied at open circuit voltage at 400-500 C in mixtures of H2/H2O over 46 days. The polarization resistances (Rp) for all samples increased significantly during the first 10-20 days at 500 C...

  15. Reactions of Monomeric [1,2,4-(Me3C)3C5H2]2CeH and CO with orwithout H2:An Experimental and Computational Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Werkema, Evan L.; Maron, Laurent; Eisenstein, Odile; Andersen,Richard A.


    Addition of CO to [1,2,4-(Me3C)3C5H2]2CeH, Cp'2CeH, intoluene yields the cis (Cp'2Ce)2(mu-OCHCHO), in which the cis enediolategroup bridges the two metallocene fragments. The cis enediolatequantitatively isomerizes intramolecularly to the trans-enediolate inC6D6 at 100oC over seven months. When the solvent is pentane,Cp'2Ce(OCH2)CeCp'2 forms, in which the oxomethylene group or theformaldehyde dianion bridges the two metallocene fragments. The cisenediolate is suggested to form by insertion of CO into the Ce-C bond ofCp'2Ce(OCH2)CeCp'2 generating Cp'2CeOCH2COCeCp'2. The stereochemistry ofthe cis-enediolate is determined by a 1,2-hydrogen shift in the OCH2COfragment that has the OC(H2) bond anti periplanar relative to the carbenelone pair. The bridging oxomethylene complex reacts with H2, but not withCH4, to give Cp'2CeOMe, which is also the product of the reaction betweenCp'2CeH and a mixture of CO and H2. The oxomethylene complex reacts withCO to give the cis enediolate complex. DFT calculations on C5H5 modelmetallocenes show that the reaction of Cp2CeH with CO and H2 to giveCp2CeOMe is exoergic by 50 kcal mol-1. The net reaction proceeds by aseries of elementary reactions that occur after the formyl complex,Cp2Ce(eta-2 CHO), is formed by further reaction with H2. The key pointthat emerges from the calculated potential energy surface is thebifunctional nature of the metal formyl in which the carbon atom behavesas a donor and acceptor. Replacing H2 by CH4 increases the activationenergy barrier by 17 kcal mol-1.

  16. H2O Paradox and its Implications on H2O in Moon (United States)

    Zhang, Youxue


    The concentration of H2O in the mantle of a planetary body plays a significant role in the viscosity and partial melting and hence the convection and evolution of the planetary body. Even though the composition of the primitive terrestrial mantle (PTM) is thought to be well known [1-2], the concentration of H2O in PTM remains paradoxial because different methods of estimation give different results [3]: Using H2O/Ce ratio in MORB and OIB and Ce concentration in PTM, the H2O concentration in PTM would be (300÷×1.5) ppm; using mass balance by adding surface water to the mantle [3-4], H2O concentration in PTM would be (900÷×1.3) ppm [2-3]. The inconsistency based on these two seemingly reliable methods is referred to as the H2O paradox [3]. For Moon, H2O contents in the primitive lunar mantle (PLM) estimated from H2O in plagioclase in lunar anorthosite and that from H2O/Ce ratio in melt inclusions are roughly consistent at ˜110 ppm [5-6] even though there is still debate about the volatile depletion trend [7]. One possible solution to the H2O paradox in PTM is to assume that early Earth experienced whole mantle degassing, which lowered the H2O/Ce ratio in the whole mantle but without depleting Ce in the mantle. The second possible solution is that some deep Earth reservoirs with high H2O/Ce ratios have not been sampled by MORB and OIB. Candidates include the transition zone [8] and the D" layer. The third possible solution is that ocean water only partially originated from mantle degassing, but partially from extraterrestrial sources such as comets [9-10]. At present, there is not enough information to determine which scenario is the answer to the H2O paradox. On the other hand, each scenario would have its own implications to H2O in PLM. If the first scenario applies to Moon, because degassed H2O or H2 would have escaped from the lunar surface, the very early lunar mantle could have much higher H2O [11] than that obtained using the H2O/Ce ratio method. The

  17. Reference Guide Microsoft.NET

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zee M van der; Verspaij GJ; Rosbergen S; IMP; NMD


    Developers, administrators and managers can get more understanding of the .NET technology with this report. They can also make better choices how to use this technology. The report describes the results and conclusions of a study of the usability for the RIVM of this new generation .NET development

  18. Electron mass stopping power in H2 (United States)

    Fursa, Dmitry V.; Zammit, Mark C.; Threlfall, Robert L.; Savage, Jeremy S.; Bray, Igor


    Calculations of electron mass stopping power (SP) of electrons in H2 have been performed using the convergent close-coupling method for incident electron energies up to 2000 eV. Convergence of the calculated SP has been established by increasing the size of the close-coupling expansion from 9 to 491 states. Good agreement was found with the SP measurements of Munoz et al. [Chem. Phys. Lett. 433, 253 (2007), 10.1016/j.cplett.2006.10.114].

  19. Synthesis of 2,3-Dihydro-1H-2-benzazepin-1-ones and 3H-2-Benzoxepin-1-ones by Isocyanide-Based Multicomponent Reaction/Wittig Sequence Starting from Phosphonium Salt Precursors. (United States)

    Wang, Long; Ren, Zhi-Lin; Ding, Ming-Wu


    A one-pot synthesis of multisubstituted 2,3-dihydro-1H-2-benzazepin-1-ones and 3H-2-benzoxepin-1-ones by an I-MCR/Wittig sequence was developed. The reaction of phosphonium salt 3, arylglyoxals 4, amine 5 (or without), and isocyanide 6 produced the 2,3-dihydro-1H-2-benzazepin-1-ones 8 or 3H-2-benzoxepin-1-ones 10 in good yields via a sequential Ugi or Passerini condensation and intramolecular Wittig reaction in the presence of NEt3.

  20. Human Milk H2O2 content: Does it benefit preterm infants? (United States)

    Cieslak, Monika; Ferreira, Cristina H F; Shifrin, Yulia; Pan, Jingyi; Belik, Jaques


    Human milk has a high content of the antimicrobial compound hydrogen peroxide (H2O2). As opposed to healthy full-term infants, preterm neonates are fed previously expressed and stored maternal milk. These practices may favor H2O2 decomposition, thus limiting its potential benefit to preterm infants. The goal of this study was to evaluate the factors responsible for H2O2 generation and degradation in breastmilk. Human donors' and rat milk, along with rat mammary tissue were evaluated. The role of oxytocin and xanthine oxidase on H2O2 generation, its pH-dependent stability, as well as its degradation via lactoperoxidase and catalase were measured in milk. Breast tissue xanthine oxidase is responsible for the H2O2 generation and its milk content is dependent on oxytocin stimulation. Stability of the human milk H2O2 content is pH dependent and greatest in the acidic range. Complete H2O2 degradation occurs when human milk is maintained, longer than 10 min, at room temperature and this process is suppressed by lactoperoxidase and catalase inhibition. Fresh breastmilk H2O2 content is labile and quickly degrades at room temperature. Further investigation on breastmilk handling techniques to preserve its H2O2 content, when gavage-fed to preterm infants is warranted.Pediatric Research accepted article preview online, 22 November 2017. doi:10.1038/pr.2017.303.

  1. KM3NeT

    CERN Multimedia

    KM3NeT is a large scale next-generation neutrino telescope located in the deep waters of the Mediterranean Sea, optimized for the discovery of galactic neutrino sources emitting in the TeV energy region.

  2. H2@Scale Resource and Market Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruth, Mark


    This presentation overviews progress to date on the H2@Scale resource and market analysis work. The work finds, for example, that hydrogen demand of 60 MMT/yr is possible when transportation and industry are considered; resources are available to meet that demand; using renewable resources would reduce emissions and fossil use by over 15%; further impacts are possible when considering synergistic benefits; additional analysis is underway to improve understanding of potential markets and synergistic impacts; and further analysis will be necessary to estimate impacts due to spatial characteristics, feedback effects in the economy, and inertia characteristics.

  3. NK Cell Receptor/H2-Dk–Dependent Host Resistance to Viral Infection Is Quantitatively Modulated by H2 q Inhibitory Signals (United States)

    Fodil-Cornu, Nassima; Loredo-Osti, J. Concepción; Vidal, Silvia M.


    The cytomegalovirus resistance locus Cmv3 has been linked to an epistatic interaction between two loci: a Natural Killer (NK) cell receptor gene and the major histocompatibility complex class I (MHC-I) locus. To demonstrate the interaction between Cmv3 and H2k, we generated double congenic mice between MA/My and BALB.K mice and an F2 cross between FVB/N (H-2q) and BALB.K (H2k) mice, two strains susceptible to mouse cytomegalovirus (MCMV). Only mice expressing H2k in conjunction with Cmv3MA/My or Cmv3FVB were resistant to MCMV infection. Subsequently, an F3 cross was carried out between transgenic FVB/H2-Dk and MHC-I deficient mice in which only the progeny expressing Cmv3FVB and a single H2-Dk class-I molecule completely controlled MCMV viral loads. This phenotype was shown to be NK cell–dependent and associated with subsequent NK cell proliferation. Finally, we demonstrated that a number of H2q alleles influence the expression level of H2q molecules, but not intrinsic functional properties of NK cells; viral loads, however, were quantitatively proportional to the number of H2q alleles. Our results support a model in which H-2q molecules convey Ly49-dependent inhibitory signals that interfere with the action of H2-Dk on NK cell activation against MCMV infection. Thus, the integration of activating and inhibitory signals emanating from various MHC-I/NK cell receptor interactions regulates NK cell–mediated control of viral load. PMID:21533075

  4. NK cell receptor/H2-Dk-dependent host resistance to viral infection is quantitatively modulated by H2q inhibitory signals. (United States)

    Fodil-Cornu, Nassima; Loredo-Osti, J Concepción; Vidal, Silvia M


    The cytomegalovirus resistance locus Cmv3 has been linked to an epistatic interaction between two loci: a Natural Killer (NK) cell receptor gene and the major histocompatibility complex class I (MHC-I) locus. To demonstrate the interaction between Cmv3 and H2(k), we generated double congenic mice between MA/My and BALB.K mice and an F(2) cross between FVB/N (H-2(q)) and BALB.K (H2(k)) mice, two strains susceptible to mouse cytomegalovirus (MCMV). Only mice expressing H2(k) in conjunction with Cmv3(MA/My) or Cmv3(FVB) were resistant to MCMV infection. Subsequently, an F(3) cross was carried out between transgenic FVB/H2-D(k) and MHC-I deficient mice in which only the progeny expressing Cmv3(FVB) and a single H2-D(k) class-I molecule completely controlled MCMV viral loads. This phenotype was shown to be NK cell-dependent and associated with subsequent NK cell proliferation. Finally, we demonstrated that a number of H2(q) alleles influence the expression level of H2(q) molecules, but not intrinsic functional properties of NK cells; viral loads, however, were quantitatively proportional to the number of H2(q) alleles. Our results support a model in which H-2(q) molecules convey Ly49-dependent inhibitory signals that interfere with the action of H2-D(k) on NK cell activation against MCMV infection. Thus, the integration of activating and inhibitory signals emanating from various MHC-I/NK cell receptor interactions regulates NK cell-mediated control of viral load.

  5. A SAFT equation of state for the quaternary H2S-CO2-H2O-NaCl system (United States)

    Ji, Xiaoyan; Zhu, Chen


    Phase equilibria and thermodynamic properties of the quaternary H2S-CO2-H2O-NaCl system were studied using a statistical associating fluid theory (SAFT)-based equation of state (EOS) at temperatures from 0 to 200 °C (373.15-473.15 K), pressures up to 600 bar (60 MPa) and concentrations of NaCl up to 6 mol/kgH2O. The understanding of the physical-chemical properties of this system is critical for predicting the consequences of co-injection of CO2 and H2S into geological formations (geological carbon sequestration) as an option for mitigating the global warming trend. Equation of state parameters were generated from regression of available and reliable experimental data and incorporation of existing parameters for some subsystems. Densities were predicted and compared with available experimental results. Using the EOS developed in this study, we predicted equilibrium compositions in both liquid and vapor phases, fugacity coefficients of components, the equilibrium pressures at a given composition of the H2O-rich phase in electrolyte solutions with NaCl varying from 0 to 4 mol/kgH2O, and the aqueous solution densities. These predicted values are tabulated and available as supplementary data in the electronic version online. These predictions provide information and guidance for future experiments regarding the thermodynamic properties and phase behaviors in the H2S-CO2-H2O-NaCl system.

  6. Periodic H-2 Synthesis for Spacecraft Attitude Control with Magnetometers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wisniewski, Rafal; Stoustrup, Jakob


    A control synthesis for a spacecraft equipped with a set of magnetorquer coils is addressed. The electromagnetic actuation is particularly attractive for small low-cost spacecraft missions, due to their relatively low price, high reliability, light weight, and low power consumption. The interaction...... between the Earth´s magnetic field and an artificial magnetic field generated by the coils produces a control torque. The magnetic attitude control is intrinsically periodic due to cyclic variation of the geomagnetic field in orbit. The control performance is specified by the generalized H2 operator norm...

  7. Differentiating between apparent and actual rates of H2O2 metabolism by isolated rat muscle mitochondria to test a simple model of mitochondria as regulators of H2O2 concentration (United States)

    Treberg, Jason R.; Munro, Daniel; Banh, Sheena; Zacharias, Pamela; Sotiri, Emianka


    Mitochondria are often regarded as a major source of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in animal cells, with H2O2 being the predominant ROS released from mitochondria; however, it has been recently demonstrated that energized brain mitochondria may act as stabilizers of H2O2 concentration (Starkov et al. [1]) based on the balance between production and the consumption of H2O2, the later of which is a function of [H2O2] and follows first order kinetics. Here we test the hypothesis that isolated skeletal muscle mitochondria, from the rat, are able to modulate [H2O2] based upon the interaction between the production of ROS, as superoxide/H2O2, and the H2O2 decomposition capacity. The compartmentalization of detection systems for H2O2 and the intramitochondrial metabolism of H2O2 leads to spacial separation between these two components of the assay system. This results in an underestimation of rates when relying solely on extramitochondrial H2O2 detection. We find that differentiating between these apparent rates found when using extramitochondrial H2O2 detection and the actual rates of metabolism is important to determining the rate constant for H2O2 consumption by mitochondria in kinetic experiments. Using the high rate of ROS production by mitochondria respiring on succinate, we demonstrate that net H2O2 metabolism by mitochondria can approach a stable steady-state of extramitochondrial [H2O2]. Importantly, the rate constant determined by extrapolation of kinetic experiments is similar to the rate constant determined as the [H2O2] approaches a steady state. PMID:26001520

  8. Differentiating between apparent and actual rates of H2O2 metabolism by isolated rat muscle mitochondria to test a simple model of mitochondria as regulators of H2O2 concentration. (United States)

    Treberg, Jason R; Munro, Daniel; Banh, Sheena; Zacharias, Pamela; Sotiri, Emianka


    Mitochondria are often regarded as a major source of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in animal cells, with H2O2 being the predominant ROS released from mitochondria; however, it has been recently demonstrated that energized brain mitochondria may act as stabilizers of H2O2 concentration (Starkov et al. [1]) based on the balance between production and the consumption of H2O2, the later of which is a function of [H2O2] and follows first order kinetics. Here we test the hypothesis that isolated skeletal muscle mitochondria, from the rat, are able to modulate [H2O2] based upon the interaction between the production of ROS, as superoxide/H2O2, and the H2O2 decomposition capacity. The compartmentalization of detection systems for H2O2 and the intramitochondrial metabolism of H2O2 leads to spacial separation between these two components of the assay system. This results in an underestimation of rates when relying solely on extramitochondrial H2O2 detection. We find that differentiating between these apparent rates found when using extramitochondrial H2O2 detection and the actual rates of metabolism is important to determining the rate constant for H2O2 consumption by mitochondria in kinetic experiments. Using the high rate of ROS production by mitochondria respiring on succinate, we demonstrate that net H2O2 metabolism by mitochondria can approach a stable steady-state of extramitochondrial [H2O2]. Importantly, the rate constant determined by extrapolation of kinetic experiments is similar to the rate constant determined as the [H2O2] approaches a steady state. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. The H2O2-H2O Hypothesis: Extremophiles Adapted to Conditions on Mars? (United States)

    Houtkooper, Joop M.; Schulze-Makuch, Dirk


    The discovery of extremophiles on Earth is a sequence of discoveries of life in environments where it had been deemed impossible a few decades ago. The next frontier may be the Martian surface environment: could life have adapted to this harsh environment? What we learned from terrestrial extremophiles is that life adapts to every available niche where energy, liquid water and organic materials are available so that in principle metabolism and propagation are possible. A feasible adaptation mechanism to the Martian surface environment would be the incorporation of a high concentration of hydrogen peroxide in the intracellular fluid of organisms. The H2O2-H2O hypothesis suggests the existence of Martian organisms that have a mixture of H2O2 and H2O instead of salty water as their intracellular liquid (Houtkooper and Schulze-Makuch, 2007). The advantages are that the freezing point is low (the eutectic freezes at 56.5°C) and that the mixture is hygroscopic. This would enable the organisms to scavenge water from the atmosphere or from the adsorbed layers of water molecules on mineral grains, with H2O2 being also a source of oxygen. Moreover, below its freezing point the H2O2-H2O mixture has the tendency to supercool. Hydrogen peroxide is not unknown to biochemistry on Earth. There are organisms for which H2O2 plays a significant role: the bombardier beetle, Brachinus crepitans, produces a 25% H2O2 solution and, when attacked by a predator, mixes it with a fluid containing hydroquinone and a catalyst, which produces an audible steam explosion and noxious fumes. Another example is Acetobacter peroxidans, which uses H2O2 in its metabolism. H2O2 plays various other roles, such as the mediation of physiological responses such as cell proliferation, differentiation, and migration. Moreover, most eukaryotic cells contain an organelle, the peroxisome, which mediates the reactions involving H2O2. Therefore it is feasible that in the course of evolution, water-based organisms

  10. Kinetic Energy Distribution of H(2p) Atoms from Dissociative Excitation of H2 (United States)

    Ajello, Joseph M.; Ahmed, Syed M.; Kanik, Isik; Multari, Rosalie


    The kinetic energy distribution of H(2p) atoms resulting from electron impact dissociation of H2 has been measured for the first time with uv spectroscopy. A high resolution uv spectrometer was used for the measurement of the H Lyman-alpha emission line profiles at 20 and 100 eV electron impact energies. Analysis of the deconvolved 100 eV line profile reveals the existence of a narrow line peak and a broad pedestal base. Slow H(2p) atoms with peak energy near 80 meV produce the peak profile, which is nearly independent of impact energy. The wings of H Lyman-alpha arise from dissociative excitation of a series of doubly excited Q(sub 1) and Q(sub 2) states, which define the core orbitals. The fast atom energy distribution peaks at 4 eV.

  11. FLYING-WATER Renewables-H2-H2O TERRAFORMING: PERMANENT Drought(s)-Elimination FOREVER!!! (United States)

    Ertl, G.; Alefeld, G.; Youdelis, W.; Radd, H.; Oertle, G.; Siegel, Edward


    "H2O H2O everywhere; ne'er a drop to drink"[Coleridge(1798)]; now: "H2 H2 everywhere; STILL ne'er a drop to drink": ONLY H2 (or methane CH4) can be FLYING-WATER(F-W) chemical-rain-in-pipelines Hindenberg-effect (H2-UP;H2O-DOWN): {O/H2O}=[16]/[18] 90 % ; O already in air uphill; NO H2O pumping need! In global-warming driven H2O-starved glacial-melting world, rescue is possible ONLY by Siegel [{3rd Intl. Conf. Alt.-Energy }(1980)-vol.5/p.459!!!] Renewables-H2-H2O purposely flexible versatile agile customizable scaleable retrofitable integrated operating-system. Rosenfeld[Science 315,1396(3/9/2007)]-Biello [Sci.Am.(3/9/2007)] crucial geomorph-ology which ONLY maximal-buoyancy H2 can exploit, to again make "Mountains into Fountains", ``upthrust rocks trapping the clouds to precipitate their rain/snow/H2O'': "terraforming"(and ocean-rebasificaton!!!) Siegel proprietary magnetic-hydrogen-valve (MHV) permits H2 flow in already in-ground dense BCC/ferritic-steels pipelines-network (NO new infrastructure) counters Tromp[Science 300,1740(2003)] dire warning of global-pandemics (cancers/ blindness/famine) Hydrogen-economy CATASTROPHIC H2 ozone-layer destruction sobering cavat to dangerous H2-automotion-economy panacea hype!!!

  12. Cyclic mononucleotides modulate potassium and calcium flux responses to H2O2 in Arabidopsis roots

    KAUST Repository

    Ordoñez, Natalia Maria


    Cyclic mononucleotides are messengers in plant stress responses. Here we show that hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) induces rapid net K+-efflux and Ca2+-influx in Arabidopsis roots. Pre-treatment with either 10 μM cAMP or cGMP for 1 or 24 h does significantly reduce net K+-leakage and Ca2+-influx, and in the case of the K+-fluxes, the cell permeant cyclic mononucleotides are more effective. We also examined the effect of 10 μM of the cell permeant 8-Br-cGMP on the Arabidopsis microsomal proteome and noted a specific increase in proteins with a role in stress responses and ion transport, suggesting that cGMP is sufficient to directly and/or indirectly induce complex adaptive changes to cellular stresses induced by H2O2. © 2014 Federation of European Biochemical Societies. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. 20 CFR 655.132 - H-2A labor contractor (H-2ALC) filing requirements. (United States)


    ... LABOR TEMPORARY EMPLOYMENT OF FOREIGN WORKERS IN THE UNITED STATES Labor Certification Process for Temporary Agricultural Employment in the United States (H-2A Workers) Application for Temporary Employment... applicable Federal, State, or local laws and regulations and must provide, at a minimum, the same vehicle...

  14. Interactions between metal cations with H2 in the M - H2 complexes ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Cu. +. , Zn. +. ) and H2 molecule have been investigated in detail using dispersion-corrected and -uncorrected double hybrid density functional (DHDF), gradient cor- rected density ... works (MOFs) and zeolites.5 In a recent article6 we have studied the .... term is swapped by the modified Perdew-Wang (mPW) functional of ...

  15. H2O2 space shuttle APU (United States)


    A cryogenic H2-O2 auxiliary power unit (APU) was developed and successfully demonstrated. It has potential application as a minimum weight alternate to the space shuttle baseline APU because of its (1) low specific propellant consumption and (2) heat sink capabilities that reduce the amount of expendable evaporants. A reference system was designed with the necessary heat exchangers, combustor, turbine-gearbox, valves, and electronic controls to provide 400 shp to two aircraft hydraulic pumps. Development testing was carried out first on the combustor and control valves. This was followed by development of the control subsystem including the controller, the hydrogen and oxygen control valves, the combustor, and a turbine simulator. The complete APU system was hot tested for 10 hr with ambient and cryogenic propellants. Demonstrated at 95 percent of design power was 2.25 lb/hp-hr. At 10 percent design power, specific propellant consumption was 4 lb/hp-hr with space simulated exhaust and 5.2 lb/hp-hr with ambient exhaust. A 10 percent specific propellant consumption improvement is possible with some seal modifications. It was demonstrated that APU power levels could be changed by several hundred horsepower in less than 100 msec without exceeding allowable turbine inlet temperatures or turbine speed.

  16. Profiling of cytosolic and mitochondrial H2O2production using the H2O2-sensitive protein HyPer in LPS-induced microglia cells. (United States)

    Park, Junghyung; Lee, Seunghoon; Lee, Hyun-Shik; Lee, Sang-Rae; Lee, Dong-Seok


    Dysregulation of the production of pro-inflammatory mediators in microglia exacerbates the pathologic process of neurodegenerative disease. ROS actively affect microglia activation by regulating transcription factors that control the expression of pro-inflammatory genes. However, accurate information regarding the function of ROS in different subcellular organelles has not yet been established. Here, we analyzed the pattern of cytosolic and mitochondrial H 2 O 2 formation in LPS-activated BV-2 microglia using the H 2 O 2- sensitive protein HyPer targeted to specific subcellular compartments. Our results show that from an early time, cytosolic H 2 O 2 started increasing constantly, whereas mitochondrial H 2 O 2 rapidly increased later. In addition, we found that MAPK affected cytosolic H 2 O 2 , but not mitochondrial H 2 O 2 . Consequently, our study provides the basic information about subcellular H 2 O 2 generation in activated microglia, and a useful tool for investigating molecular targets that can modulate neuroinflammatory responses. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Understanding Net Zero Energy Buildings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Salom, Jaume; Widén, Joakim; Candanedo, José


    Although several alternative definitions exist, a Net-Zero Energy Building (Net ZEB) can be succinctly described as a grid-connected building that generates as much energy as it uses over a year. The “net-zero” balance is attained by applying energy conservation and efficiency measures...... and by incorporating renewable energy systems. While based on annual balances, a complete description of a Net ZEB requires examining the system at smaller time-scales. This assessment should address: (a) the relationship between power generation and building loads and (b) the resulting interaction with the power grid....... This paper presents and categorizes quantitative indicators suitable to describe both aspects of the building’s performance. These indicators, named LMGI - Load Matching and Grid Interaction indicators, are easily quantifiable and could complement the output variables of existing building simulation tools...

  18. Methodological aspects of breath hydrogen (H2) analysis. Evaluation of a H2 monitor and interpretation of the breath H2 test

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rumessen, J J; Kokholm, G; Gudmand-Høyer, E


    The reliability of end-expiratory hydrogen (H2) breath tests were assessed and the significance of some important pitfalls were studied, using a compact, rapid H2-monitor with electrochemical cells. The H2 response was shown to be linear and stable. The reproducibility of the breath collection...... were studied in 10 healthy adults during a 4-month period and they showed very marked inter- and intra-individual variability (16% above 40 p.p.m.). Initial peaks (early, short-lived H2 rises unrelated to carbohydrate malabsorption) were identified in 25% of the breath tests (in 4% above 20 p.......p.m). It is concluded that the technique used for interval sampling of end-expiratory breath samples for H2 concentration gives reliable results. The biological significance of H2 concentration increments can only be evaluated if the limitations of the technical procedures and the individual ability to produce H2...

  19. Phase transition and optoelectronic properties of MgH2 (United States)

    Nayak, Vikas; Verma, U. P.


    In this article, structural and electronic properties of MgH2 have been studied. The aim behind this study was to find out the ground state crystal structure of MgH2. For the purpose, density functional theory (DFT)-based full-potential linearized augmented plane wave (FP-LAPW) calculations have been performed in three different space groups: P42/mnm (α-MgH2), Pa3 (β-MgH2) and Pbcn (γ-MgH2). It has been found that the ground state structure of MgH2 is α-MgH2. The present study shows that α-MgH2 transforms into γ-MgH2 at a pressure of 0.41 GPa. After further increase in pressure, γ-MgH2 transforms into β-MgH2 at a pressure of 3.67 GPa. The obtained results are in good agreement with previously reported experimental data. In all the studied phases, the behavior of MgH2 is insulating and its optical conductivity is around 6.0 eV. The α-MgH2 and γ-MgH2 are anisotropic materials while β-MgH2 is isotropic in nature.

  20. Histone H2A and H2B are monoubiquitinated at AID-targeted loci.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Glen M Borchert

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Somatic hypermutation introduces base substitutions into the rearranged and expressed immunoglobulin (Ig variable regions to promote immunity. This pathway requires and is initiated by the Activation Induced Deaminase (AID protein, which deaminates cytidine to produce uracils and UG mismatches at the Ig genes. Subsequent processing of uracil by mismatch repair and base excision repair factors contributes to mutagenesis. While selective for certain genomic targets, the chromatin modifications which distinguish hypermutating from non-hypermutating loci are not defined. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Here, we show that AID-targeted loci in mammalian B cells contain ubiquitinated chromatin. Chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP analysis of a constitutively hypermutating Burkitt's B cell line, Ramos, revealed the presence of monoubiquitinated forms of both histone H2A and H2B at two AID-associated loci, but not at control loci which are expressed but not hypermutated. Similar analysis using LPS activated primary murine splenocytes showed enrichment of the expressed V(H and Sgamma3 switch regions upon ChIP with antibody specific to AID and to monoubiquitinated H2A and H2B. In the mechanism of mammalian hypermutation, AID may interact with ubiquitinated chromatin because confocal immunofluorescence microscopy visualized AID colocalized with monoubiquitinated H2B within discrete nuclear foci. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our results indicate that monoubiquitinated histones accompany active somatic hypermutation, revealing part of the histone code marking AID-targeted loci. This expands the current view of the chromatin state during hypermutation by identifying a specific nucleosome architecture associated with somatic hypermutation.

  1. Full-dimensional, high-level ab initio potential energy surfaces for H2(H2O) and H2(H2O)2 with application to hydrogen clathrate hydrates. (United States)

    Homayoon, Zahra; Conte, Riccardo; Qu, Chen; Bowman, Joel M


    New, full-dimensional potential energy surfaces (PESs), obtained using precise least-squares fitting of high-level electronic energy databases, are reported for intrinsic H2(H2O) two-body and H2(H2O)2 three-body potentials. The database for H2(H2O) consists of approximately 44 000 energies at the coupled cluster singles and doubles plus perturbative triples (CCSD(T))-F12a/haQZ (aug-cc-pVQZ for O and cc-pVQZ for H) level of theory, while the database for the three-body interaction consists of more than 36 000 energies at the CCSD(T)-F12a/haTZ (aug-cc-pVTZ for O, cc-pVTZ for H) level of theory. Two precise potentials are based on the invariant-polynomial technique and are compared to computationally faster ones obtained via "purified" symmetrization. All fits use reduced permutational symmetry appropriate for these non-covalent interactions. These intrinsic potentials are employed together with existing ones for H2, H2O, and (H2O)2, to obtain full PESs for H2(H2O) and H2(H2O)2. Properties of these full PESs are presented, including a diffusion Monte Carlo calculation of the zero-point energy and wavefunction, and dissociation energy of the H2(H2O) dimer. These PESs together with an existing one for water clusters are used in a many-body representation of the PES of hydrogen clathrate hydrates, illustrated for H2@(H2O)20. An analysis of this hydrate is presented, including the electronic dissociation energy to remove H2 from the calculated equilibrium structure.

  2. Hydrogen constituents of the mesosphere inferred from positive ions - H2O, CH4, H2CO, H2O2, and HCN (United States)

    Kopp, E.


    The concentrations in the mesosphere of H2O, CH4, H2CO, H2O2, and HCN were inferred from data on positive ion compositions, obtained from one mid-latitude and four high-latitude rocket flights. The inferred concentrations were found to agree only partially with the ground-based microwave measurements and/or model prediction by Garcia and Solomon (1985). The CH4 concentration was found to vary between 70 and 4 ppb in daytime and 900 and 100 ppbv at night, respectively. Unexpectedly high H2CO concentrations were obtained, with H2CO/H2O ratios between 0.0006 and 0.1, and a mean HCN volume mixing ratio of 6 x 10 to the -10th was inferred.

  3. Production of superoxide/H2O2 by dihydroorotate dehydrogenase in rat skeletal muscle mitochondria. (United States)

    Hey-Mogensen, Martin; Goncalves, Renata L S; Orr, Adam L; Brand, Martin D


    Dehydrogenases that use ubiquinone as an electron acceptor, including complex I of the respiratory chain, complex II, and glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase, are known to be direct generators of superoxide and/or H2O2. Dihydroorotate dehydrogenase oxidizes dihydroorotate to orotate and reduces ubiquinone to ubiquinol during pyrimidine metabolism, but it is unclear whether it produces superoxide and/or H2O2 directly or does so only indirectly from other sites in the electron transport chain. Using mitochondria isolated from rat skeletal muscle we establish that dihydroorotate oxidation leads to superoxide/H2O2 production at a fairly high rate of about 300pmol H2O2·min(-1)·mg protein(-1) when oxidation of ubiquinol is prevented and complex II is uninhibited. This H2O2 production is abolished by brequinar or leflunomide, known inhibitors of dihydroorotate dehydrogenase. Eighty percent of this rate is indirect, originating from site IIF of complex II, because it can be prevented by malonate or atpenin A5, inhibitors of complex II. In the presence of inhibitors of all known sites of superoxide/H2O2 production (rotenone to inhibit sites in complex I (site IQ and, indirectly, site IF), myxothiazol to inhibit site IIIQo in complex III, and malonate plus atpenin A5 to inhibit site IIF in complex II), dihydroorotate dehydrogenase generates superoxide/H2O2, at a small but significant rate (23pmol H2O2·min(-1)·mg protein(-1)), from the ubiquinone-binding site. We conclude that dihydroorotate dehydrogenase can generate superoxide and/or H2O2 directly at low rates and is also capable of indirect production at higher rates from other sites through its ability to reduce the ubiquinone pool. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Art/Net/Work

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Christian Ulrik; Lindstrøm, Hanne


    The seminar Art|Net|Work deals with two important changes in our culture. On one side, the network has become essential in the latest technological development. The Internet has entered a new phase, Web 2.0, including the occurrence of as ‘Wiki’s’, ‘Peer-2-Peer’ distribution, user controlled...... the praxis of the artist. We see different kinds of interventions and activism (including ‘hacktivism’) using the network as a way of questioning the invisible rules that govern public and semi-public spaces. Who ‘owns’ them? What kind of social relationships do they generate? On what principle...

  5. Image-Based Measurement of H2O2 Reaction-Diffusion in Wounded Zebrafish Larvae. (United States)

    Jelcic, Mark; Enyedi, Balázs; Xavier, João B; Niethammer, Philipp


    Epithelial injury induces rapid recruitment of antimicrobial leukocytes to the wound site. In zebrafish larvae, activation of the epithelial NADPH oxidase Duox at the wound margin is required early during this response. Before injury, leukocytes are near the vascular region, that is, ∼100-300 μm away from the injury site. How Duox establishes long-range signaling to leukocytes is unclear. We conceived that extracellular hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) generated by Duox diffuses through the tissue to directly regulate chemotactic signaling in these cells. But before it can oxidize cellular proteins, H2O2 must get past the antioxidant barriers that protect the cellular proteome. To test whether, or on which length scales this occurs during physiological wound signaling, we developed a computational method based on reaction-diffusion principles that infers H2O2 degradation rates from intravital H2O2-biosensor imaging data. Our results indicate that at high tissue H2O2 levels the peroxiredoxin-thioredoxin antioxidant chain becomes overwhelmed, and H2O2 degradation stalls or ceases. Although the wound H2O2 gradient reaches deep into the tissue, it likely overcomes antioxidant barriers only within ∼30 μm of the wound margin. Thus, Duox-mediated long-range signaling may require other spatial relay mechanisms besides extracellular H2O2 diffusion. Copyright © 2017 Biophysical Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Alleviation of drought stress by mycorrhizas is related to increased root H2O2 efflux in trifoliate orange. (United States)

    Huang, Yong-Ming; Zou, Ying-Ning; Wu, Qiang-Sheng


    The Non-invasive Micro-test Technique (NMT) is used to measure dynamic changes of specific ions/molecules non-invasively, but information about hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) fluxes in different classes of roots by mycorrhiza is scarce in terms of NMT. Effects of Funneliformis mosseae on plant growth, H2O2, superoxide radical (O2·-), malondialdehyde (MDA) concentrations, and H2O2 fluxes in the taproot (TR) and lateral roots (LRs) of trifoliate orange seedlings under well-watered (WW) and drought stress (DS) conditions were studied. DS strongly inhibited mycorrhizal colonization in the TR and LRs, whereas mycorrhizal inoculation significantly promoted plant growth and biomass production. H2O2, O2·-, and MDA concentrations in leaves and roots were dramatically lower in mycorrhizal seedlings than in non-mycorrhizal seedlings under DS. Compared with non-mycorrhizal seedlings, mycorrhizal seedlings had relatively higher net root H2O2 effluxes in the TR and LRs especially under WW, as well as significantly higher total root H2O2 effluxes in the TR and LRs under WW and DS. Total root H2O2 effluxes were significantly positively correlated with root colonization but negatively with root H2O2 and MDA concentrations. It suggested that mycorrhizas induces more H2O2 effluxes of the TR and LRs, thus, alleviating oxidative damage of DS in the host plant.

  7. Rate constant for the H˙ + H2O → ˙OH + H2reaction at elevated temperatures measured by pulse radiolysis. (United States)

    Muroya, Y; Yamashita, S; Lertnaisat, P; Sanguanmith, S; Meesungnoen, J; Jay-Gerin, J-P; Katsumura, Y


    Maintaining the structural integrity of materials in nuclear power plants is an essential issue associated with safe operation. Hydrogen (H 2 ) addition or injection to coolants is a powerful technique that has been widely applied such that the reducing conditions in the coolant water avoid corrosion and stress corrosion cracking (SCC). Because the radiation-induced reaction of ˙OH + H 2 → H˙ + H 2 O plays a crucial role in these systems, the rate constant has been measured at operation temperatures of the reactors (285-300 °C) by pulse radiolysis, generating sufficient data for analysis. The reverse reaction H˙ + H 2 O → ˙OH + H 2 is negligibly slow at ambient temperature; however, it accelerates considerably quickly at elevated temperatures. Although the reverse reaction reduces the effectiveness of H 2 addition, reliable rate constants have not yet been measured. In this study, the rate constants have been determined in a temperature range of 250-350 °C by pulse radiolysis in an aqueous I - solution.

  8. Analysis list: Suv39h2 [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Suv39h2 Pluripotent stem cell + mm9

  9. ATM and SIRT6/SNF2H Mediate Transient H2AX Stabilization When DSBs Form by Blocking HUWE1 to Allow Efficient γH2AX Foci Formation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuko Atsumi


    Full Text Available In response to DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs, H2AX is rapidly phosphorylated at Ser139 to promote DSB repair. Here we show that H2AX is rapidly stabilized in response to DSBs to efficiently generate γH2AX foci. This mechanism operated even in quiescent cells that barely expressed H2AX. H2AX stabilization resulted from the inhibition of proteasome-mediated degradation. Synthesized H2AX ordinarily underwent degradation through poly-ubiquitination mediated by the E3 ligase HUWE1; however, H2AX ubiquitination was transiently halted upon DSB formation. Such rapid H2AX stabilization by DSBs was associated with chromatin incorporation of H2AX and halting of its poly-ubiquitination mediated by the ATM kinase, the sirtuin protein SIRT6, and the chromatin remodeler SNF2H. H2AX Ser139, the ATM phosphorylation site, was essential for H2AX stabilization upon DSB formation. Our results reveal a pathway controlled by ATM, SIRT6, and SNF2H to block HUWE1, which stabilizes H2AX and induces its incorporation into chromatin only when cells are damaged.

  10. 45 CFR 1626.11 - H-2 agricultural workers. (United States)


    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false H-2 agricultural workers. 1626.11 Section 1626.11... ON LEGAL ASSISTANCE TO ALIENS § 1626.11 H-2 agricultural workers. (a) Nonimmigrant agricultural workers admitted under the provisions of 8 U.S.C. 1101(a)(15)(h)(ii), commonly called H-2 workers, may be...

  11. Characterization of the histone H2A.Z-1 and H2A.Z-2 isoforms in vertebrates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helbing Caren C


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Within chromatin, the histone variant H2A.Z plays a role in many diverse nuclear processes including transcription, preventing the spread of heterochromatin and epigenetic transcriptional memory. The molecular mechanisms of how H2A.Z mediates its effects are not entirely understood. However, it is now known that H2A.Z has two protein isoforms in vertebrates, H2A.Z-1 and H2A.Z-2, which are encoded by separate genes and differ by 3 amino acid residues. Results We report that H2A.Z-1 and H2A.Z-2 are expressed across a wide range of human tissues, they are both acetylated at lysine residues within the N-terminal region and they exhibit similar, but nonidentical, distributions within chromatin. Our results suggest that H2A.Z-2 preferentially associates with H3 trimethylated at lysine 4 compared to H2A.Z-1. The phylogenetic analysis of the promoter regions of H2A.Z-1 and H2A.Z-2 indicate that they have evolved separately during vertebrate evolution. Conclusions Our biochemical, gene expression, and phylogenetic data suggest that the H2A.Z-1 and H2A.Z-2 variants function similarly yet they may have acquired a degree of functional independence.

  12. Biosynthesis and Degradation of H2O2 by Vaginal Lactobacilli▿


    Martín, Rebeca; Suárez, Juan E.


    Hydrogen peroxide production by vaginal lactobacilli represents one of the most important defense mechanisms against vaginal colonization by undesirable microorganisms. To quantify the ability of a collection of 45 vaginal Lactobacillus strains to generate H2O2, we first compared three published colorimetric methods. It was found that the use of DA-64 as a substrate rendered the highest sensitivity, while tetramethyl-benzidine (TMB) maintained its linearity from nanomolar to millimolar H2O2 c...

  13. EERE-SBIR technology transfer opportunity. H2 Safety Sensors for H2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnston, Mariann R. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)


    The Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy’s Fuel Cell Technologies Office (FCTO) works in partnership with industry (including small businesses), academia, and DOE's national laboratories to establish fuel cell and hydrogen energy technologies as economically competitive contributors to U.S. transportation needs. The work that is envisioned between the SBIR/STTR grantee and Los Alamos National Laboratory would involve Technical Transfer of Los Alamos Intellectual Property (IP) on Thin-film Mixed Potential Sensor (U.S. Patent 7,264,700) and associated know-how for H2 sensor manufacturing and packaging.

  14. Classification of H2O2 as a Neuromodulator that Regulates Striatal Dopamine Release on a Subsecond Time Scale (United States)


    Here we review evidence that the reactive oxygen species, hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), meets the criteria for classification as a neuromodulator through its effects on striatal dopamine (DA) release. This evidence was obtained using fast-scan cyclic voltammetry to detect evoked DA release in striatal slices, along with whole-cell and fluorescence imaging to monitor cellular activity and H2O2 generation in striatal medium spiny neurons (MSNs). The data show that (1) exogenous H2O2 suppresses DA release in dorsal striatum and nucleus accumbens shell and the same effect is seen with elevation of endogenous H2O2 levels; (2) H2O2 is generated downstream from glutamatergic AMPA receptor activation in MSNs, but not DA axons; (3) generation of modulatory H2O2 is activity dependent; (4) H2O2 generated in MSNs diffuses to DA axons to cause transient DA release suppression by activating ATP-sensitive K+ (KATP) channels on DA axons; and (5) the amplitude of H2O2-dependent inhibition of DA release is attenuated by enzymatic degradation of H2O2, but the subsecond time course is determined by H2O2 diffusion rate and/or KATP-channel kinetics. In the dorsal striatum, neuromodulatory H2O2 is an intermediate in the regulation of DA release by the classical neurotransmitters glutamate and GABA, as well as other neuromodulators, including cannabinoids. However, modulatory actions of H2O2 occur in other regions and cell types, as well, consistent with the widespread expression of KATP and other H2O2-sensitive channels throughout the CNS. PMID:23259034

  15. The Role of Endogenous H(2)S in Cardiovascular Physiology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skovgaard, Nini; Gouliaev, Anja; Aalling, Mathilde


    Recent research has shown that the endogenous gas hydrogen sulphide (H(2)S) is a signalling molecule of considerable biological potential and has been suggested to be involved in a vast number of physiological processes. In the vascular system, H(2)S is synthesized from cysteine by cystathionine......-γ-lyase (CSE) in smooth muscle cells (SMC) and 3-mercaptopyruvate sulfuresterase (3MST) and CSE in the endothelial cells. In pulmonary and systemic arteries, H(2)S induces relaxation and/or contraction dependent on the concentration of H(2)S, type of vessel and species. H(2)S relaxes SMC through a direct...

  16. Mechanism of H2S-mediated protection against oxidative stress in Escherichia coli. (United States)

    Mironov, Alexander; Seregina, Tatyana; Nagornykh, Maxim; Luhachack, Lyly G; Korolkova, Natalya; Lopes, Liubov Errais; Kotova, Vera; Zavilgelsky, Gennady; Shakulov, Rustem; Shatalin, Konstantin; Nudler, Evgeny


    Endogenous hydrogen sulfide (H2S) renders bacteria highly resistant to oxidative stress, but its mechanism remains poorly understood. Here, we report that 3-mercaptopyruvate sulfurtransferase (3MST) is the major source of endogenous H2S in Escherichia coli Cellular resistance to H2O2 strongly depends on the activity of mstA, a gene that encodes 3MST. Deletion of the ferric uptake regulator (Fur) renders ∆mstA cells hypersensitive to H2O2 Conversely, induction of chromosomal mstA from a strong pLtetO-1 promoter (P tet -mstA) renders ∆fur cells fully resistant to H2O2 Furthermore, the endogenous level of H2S is reduced in ∆fur or ∆sodA ∆sodB cells but restored after the addition of an iron chelator dipyridyl. Using a highly sensitive reporter of the global response to DNA damage (SOS) and the TUNEL assay, we show that 3MST-derived H2S protects chromosomal DNA from oxidative damage. We also show that the induction of the CysB regulon in response to oxidative stress depends on 3MST, whereas the CysB-regulated l-cystine transporter, TcyP, plays the principle role in the 3MST-mediated generation of H2S. These findings led us to propose a model to explain the interplay between l-cysteine metabolism, H2S production, and oxidative stress, in which 3MST protects E. coli against oxidative stress via l-cysteine utilization and H2S-mediated sequestration of free iron necessary for the genotoxic Fenton reaction.

  17. Dynamic investigation of the diffusion absorption refrigeration system NH3-H2O-H2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Izzedine Serge Adjibade


    Full Text Available This paper reports on a numerical and experimental study of a diffusion absorption refrigerator. The performance of the system is examined by computer simulation using MATLAB software and Engineering Equations Solver. A dynamic model is developed for each component of the system and solved numerically in order to predict the transient state of the diffusion absorption refrigeration. The experiment set included 0.04 m3 commercial absorption diffusion refrigerator working with the ammonia-water-hydrogen (NH3-H2O-H2 solution. The transient numerical results were validated with the experimental data. The investigations are focused on the dynamic profile of the temperature of each component. The results obtained agree with the experiment; the relative error between numerical and experimental models doesn’t exceed 15% for all temperatures of each component. The increase of the average ambient temperature from 23.04 °C to 32.56 °C causes an increase of the condensation temperature from 29.46 °C to 37.51 °C, and the best evaporation temperature obtained was 3 °C, with an ambient temperature of 23.04 °C. The results show that a minimum starting temperature of 152 °C and 63.8 W electric power are required to initiate the decrease of evaporation temperature.

  18. [Hydrogen sulfide (H2S), an endogenous gas with odor of rotten eggs might be a cardiovascular function regulator]. (United States)

    Rochette, L; Vergely, C


    A novel concept of "gasotransmitter" arrived recently. They are small molecules of endogenous gases. Hydrogene sulfide (H2S) is qualified as the third gasotransmitter beside nitric oxide (NO) and carbon monoxide (CO). The physiological functions of endogenous H2S are not well-known. The location of the H2S synthetizing enzymes as well as the detector of endogenous levels of H2S in the tissues suggests that the cardiovascular system is a source of H2S generation. This gas relaxes vascular smooth muscle both in vitro and in vivo probably by opening smooth K+ATP channels. Being a reducing agent, H2S may alter cellular redox status. It is able to produce thiyls free radicals: SH degrees and S degrees . The advances in H2S researchs may revolutionize many conventional doctrines in the cardiovascular area.

  19. FLYING-WATER Renewables-H2-H2O TERRAFORMING: PERMANENT ETERNAL Drought(s)-Elimination FOREVER!!! (United States)

    Wignall, J.; Lyons, Marv; Ertl, G.; Alefeld, Georg; Youdelis, W.; Radd, H.; Oertle, G.; Siegel, Edward


    ''H2O H2O everywhere; ne'er a drop to drink''[Coleridge(1798)] now: ''H2 H2 everywhere; STILL ne'er a drop to drink'': ONLY H2 (or methane CH4) can be FLYING-WATER(F-W) chemical-rain-in-pipelines Hindenberg-effect (H2-UP;H2O-DOWN): { ∖{}O/H2O{ ∖}} =[16]/[18] ∖sim 90{ ∖%} O already in air uphill; NO H2O pumping need! In global-warming driven H2O-starved glacial-melting world, rescue is possible ONLY by Siegel [ ∖underline {3rd Intl. Conf. Alt.-Energy }(1980)-vol.5/p.459!!!] Renewables-H2-H2O purposely flexible versatile agile customizable scaleable retrofitable integrated operating-system. Rosenfeld[Science 315,1396(3/9/2007)]-Biello [Sci.Am.(3/9 /2007)] crucial geomorphology which ONLY maximal-buoyancy H2 can exploit, to again make ''Mountains into Fountains'', ``upthrust rocks trapping the clouds to precipitate their rain/snow/H2O'': ''terraforming''(and ocean-rebasificaton!!!) ONLY VIA Siegel[APS March MTGS.:1960s-2000ss) DIFFUSIVE-MAGNETORESISTANCE (DMR) proprietary MAGNETIC-HYDROGEN-VALVE(MHV) ALL-IMPORTANT PRECLUDED RADIAL-diffusion, permitting ONLY AXIAL-H2-BALLISTIC-flow (``G.A''.''/DoE''/''Terrapower''/''Intellectual-Ventures''/ ''Gileland''/ ''Myhrvold''/''Gates'' ``ARCHIMEDES'') in ALREADY IN-ground dense BCC/ferritic-steels pipelines-network (NO new infrastructure) counters Tromp[Science 300,1740(2003)] dire warning of global-pandemics (cancers/ blindness/ famine)

  20. Characteristics of {gamma}-H2AX foci at DNA double-strand breaks sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pilch, D.R.; Sedelnikova, O.A.; Redon, C. [National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health, Lab. of Molecular Pharmacology, Bethesda, Maryland (United States); Celeste, A.; Nussenzweig, A. [National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health, Experimental Immunology Branch, Bethesda, Maryland (United States); Bonner, W.M. [National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health, Lab. of Molecular Pharmacology, Bethesda, Maryland (United States)


    Phosphorylated H2AX ({gamma}-H2AX) is essential to the efficient recognition and (or) repair of DNA double strand breaks (DSBs), and many molecules, often thousands, of H2AX become rapidly phosphorylated at the site of each nascent DSB. An antibody to {gamma}-H2AX reveals that this highly amplified process generates nuclear foci. The phosphorylation site is a serine four residues from the C-terminus which has been evolutionarily conserved in organisms from giardia intestinalis to humans. Mice and yeast lacking the conserved serine residue demonstrate a variety of defects in DNA DSB processing. H2AX{sup {delta}}{sup /{delta}} mice are smaller, sensitive to ionizing radiation, defective in class switch recombination and spermatogenesis while cells from the mice demonstrate substantially increased numbers of genomic defects. {gamma}-H2AX foci formation is a sensitive biological dosimeter and presents new and exciting opportunities to understand important biological processes, human diseases, and individual variations in radiation sensitivity. These potentialities demonstrate the importance of understanding the parameters and functions of {gamma}-H2AX formation. (author)

  1. Superoxide radicals have a protective role during H2O2 stress (United States)

    Thorpe, Geoffrey W.; Reodica, Mayfebelle; Davies, Michael J.; Heeren, Gino; Jarolim, Stefanie; Pillay, Bethany; Breitenbach, Michael; Higgins, Vincent J.; Dawes, Ian W.


    Reactive oxygen species (ROS) consist of potentially toxic, partly reduced oxygen species and free radicals. After H2O2 treatment, yeast cells significantly increase superoxide radical production. Respiratory chain complex III and possibly cytochrome b function are essential for this increase. Disruption of complex III renders cells sensitive to H2O2 but not to the superoxide radical generator menadione. Of interest, the same H2O2-sensitive mutant strains have the lowest superoxide radical levels, and strains with the highest resistance to H2O2 have the highest levels of superoxide radicals. Consistent with this correlation, overexpression of superoxide dismutase increases sensitivity to H2O2, and this phenotype is partially rescued by addition of small concentrations of menadione. Small increases in levels of mitochondrially produced superoxide radicals have a protective effect during H2O2-induced stress, and in response to H2O2, the wild-type strain increases superoxide radical production to activate this defense mechanism. This provides a direct link between complex III as the main source of ROS and its role in defense against ROS. High levels of the superoxide radical are still toxic. These opposing, concentration-dependent roles of the superoxide radical comprise a form of hormesis and show one ROS having a hormetic effect on the toxicity of another. PMID:23864711

  2. Role of Elemental Sulfur in Forming Latent Precursors of H2S in Wine. (United States)

    Jastrzembski, Jillian A; Allison, Rachel B; Friedberg, Elle; Sacks, Gavin L


    The level of hydrogen sulfide (H 2 S) can increase during abiotic storage of wines, and potential latent sources of H 2 S are still under investigation. We demonstrate that elemental sulfur (S 0 ) residues on grapes not only can produce H 2 S during fermentation but also can form precursors capable of generating additional H 2 S after bottle storage for 3 months. H 2 S could be released from S 0 -derived precursors by addition of a reducing agent (TCEP), but not by addition of strong brine to induce release of H 2 S from metal sulfide complexes. The size of the TCEP-releasable pool varied among yeast strains. Using the TCEP assay, multiple polar S 0 -derived precursors were detected following normal-phase preparative chromatography. Using reversed-phase liquid chromatography and high-resolution mass spectrometry, we detected an increase in the levels of diglutathione trisulfane (GSSSG) and glutathione disulfide (GSSG) in S 0 -fermented red wine and an increase in the levels of glutathione S-sulfonate (GSSO 3 - ) and tetrathionate (S 4 O 6 2- ) in S 0 -fermented white wine as compared to controls. GSSSG, but not S 4 O 6 2- , was shown to evolve H 2 S in the presence of TCEP. Pathways for the formation of GSSSG, GSSG, GSSO 3 - , and S 4 O 6 2- from S 0 are proposed.

  3. Detectability of H2-Ar and H2-Ne Dimers in Jovian Atmospheres

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Young-Key Minn


    Full Text Available The detection of jovian hydrogen-hydrogen dimers through the clear telluric 2-micron window(Kim et al. 1995, Trafton et al. 1997 suggests possibility to detect noble gases in the form of dimer with hydrogen in jovian atmospheres. Since noble gases do not have spectral structures in the infrared, it has been difficult to derive their abundances in the atmospheres of jovian planets. If there is a significant component of noble gases other than helium in the jovian atmospheres. it might be detected through its dimer spectrum with hydrogen molecule. The relatively sharp spectral structures of hydrogen-argon and hydrogen-neon dimers compared with those of hydrogen-hydrogen dimers are useful for the detection, if an adequate signal-to-noise (S/N is obtained. If we use a large telescope, such as the Keck telescope, with a long exposure time (>24 hours, then H2-Ar spectral structure may be detected.

  4. A potential energy surface for the process H2 + H2O yielding H + H + H2O - Ab initio calculations and analytical representation (United States)

    Schwenke, David W.; Walch, Stephen P.; Taylor, Peter R.


    Extensive ab initio calculations on the ground state potential energy surface of H2 + H2O were performed using a large contracted Gaussian basis set and a high level of correlation treatment. An analytical representation of the potential energy surface was then obtained which reproduces the calculated energies with an overall root-mean-square error of only 0.64 mEh. The analytic representation explicitly includes all nine internal degrees of freedom and is also well behaved as the H2 dissociates; it thus can be used to study collision-induced dissociation or recombination of H2. The strategy used to minimize the number of energy calculations is discussed, as well as other advantages of the present method for determining the analytical representation.

  5. Electron scattering and ionization of H2O; OH, H2O2, HO2 radicals and (H2O)2 dimer (United States)

    Joshipura, Kamalnayan N.; Pandya, Siddharth H.; Mason, Nigel J.


    Water, its dimer and their dissociative products (OH, H2O2, HO2) play an important role in several diverse processes including atmospheric chemistry, radiation induced damage within cellular systems and atmospheric plasmas used in industry. The interaction of electrons with these species is therefore an important collision process but since OH, H2O2 and HO2 are difficult to prepare as isolated experimental targets to date, electron scattering cross sections from such species are lacking in the literature. In this paper we report the results of a semi-empirical method to estimate such cross sections, benchmarking these cross sections against our knowledge of electron scattering from the water monomer. Calculations on HO2, H2O2 and (H2O2)2 are performed with improved Additivity Rules.

  6. The thioredoxin and glutathione-dependent H2O2 consumption pathways in muscle mitochondria: Involvement in H2O2 metabolism and consequence to H2O2 efflux assays. (United States)

    Munro, Daniel; Banh, Sheena; Sotiri, Emianka; Tamanna, Nahid; Treberg, Jason R


    assays. This finding confirms that a high degree of inhibition of all matrix consumers is attained with the double inhibition. Importantly, this double inhibition of the matrix consumers allowed revealing that a large part of the H2O2 produced in muscle mitochondria is consumed before escaping the matrix during traditional HRP-based efflux assays. The degree of this underestimation was substrate dependent, reaching >80% with malate, which complicates comparisons of substrates for their capacity to generate H2O2 in normal conditions i.e. when matrix consumers are active. Our results also urge caution in interpreting changes in H2O2 efflux in response to a treatment; when HRP-based assays are used, large changes in apparent H2O2 efflux may come from altered capacity of the matrix consumers. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Quantitative Relationships between Photosynthetic, Nitrogen Fixing, and Fermentative H2 Metabolism in a Photosynthetic Microbial Mat (United States)

    Hoehler, Tori M.; Albert, Daniel B.; Bebout, Brad M.; Turk, Kendra A.; DesMarais, David J.


    The ultimate potential of any microbial ecosystem to contribute chemically to its environment - and therefore, to impact planetary biogeochemistry or to generate recognizable biosignatures - depends not only on the individual metabolic capabilities of constituent organisms, but also on how those capabilities are expressed through interactions with neighboring organisms. This is particularly important for microbial mats, which compress an extremely broad range of metabolic potential into a small and dynamic system. H2 participates in many of these metabolic processes, including the major elemental cycling processes of photosynthesis, nitrogen fixation, sulfate reduction, and fermentation, and may therefore serve as a mediator of microbial interactions within the mat system. Collectively, the requirements of energy, electron transfer, and biomass element stoichiometry suggest quantitative relationships among the major element cycling processes, as regards H2 metabolism We determined experimentally the major contributions to 32 cycling in hypersaline microbial mats from Baja California, Mexico, and compared them to predicted relationships. Fermentation under dark, anoxic conditions is quantitatively the most important mechanism of H2 production, consistent with expectations for non-heterocystous mats such as those under study. Up to 16% of reducing equivalents fixed by photosynthesis during the day may be released by this mechanism. The direct contribution of nitrogen fixation to H2 production is small in comparison, but this process may indirectly stimulate substantial H2 generation, by requiring higher rates of fermentation. Sulfate reduction, aerobic consumption, diffusive and ebulitive loss, and possibly H2-based photoreduction of CO2 serve as the principal H2 sinks. Collectively, these processes interact to create an orders-of-magnitude daily variation in H2 concentrations and fluxes, and thereby in the oxidation-reduction potential that is imposed on microbial

  8. NA-NET numerical analysis net

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dongarra, J. [Tennessee Univ., Knoxville, TN (United States). Dept. of Computer Science]|[Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Rosener, B. [Tennessee Univ., Knoxville, TN (United States). Dept. of Computer Science


    This report describes a facility called NA-NET created to allow numerical analysts (na) an easy method of communicating with one another. The main advantage of the NA-NET is uniformity of addressing. All mail is addressed to the Internet host ```` at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Hence, members of the NA-NET do not need to remember complicated addresses or even where a member is currently located. As long as moving members change their e-mail address in the NA-NET everything works smoothly. The NA-NET system is currently located at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. It is running on the same machine that serves netlib. Netlib is a separate facility that distributes mathematical software via electronic mail. For more information on netlib consult, or send the one-line message ``send index`` to netlib{at} The following report describes the current NA-NET system from both a user`s perspective and from an implementation perspective. Currently, there are over 2100 members in the NA-NET. An average of 110 mail messages pass through this facility daily.

  9. NA-NET numerical analysis net

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dongarra, J. (Tennessee Univ., Knoxville, TN (United States). Dept. of Computer Science Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)); Rosener, B. (Tennessee Univ., Knoxville, TN (United States). Dept. of Computer Science)


    This report describes a facility called NA-NET created to allow numerical analysts (na) an easy method of communicating with one another. The main advantage of the NA-NET is uniformity of addressing. All mail is addressed to the Internet host'' at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Hence, members of the NA-NET do not need to remember complicated addresses or even where a member is currently located. As long as moving members change their e-mail address in the NA-NET everything works smoothly. The NA-NET system is currently located at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. It is running on the same machine that serves netlib. Netlib is a separate facility that distributes mathematical software via electronic mail. For more information on netlib consult, or send the one-line message send index'' to netlib{at} The following report describes the current NA-NET system from both a user's perspective and from an implementation perspective. Currently, there are over 2100 members in the NA-NET. An average of 110 mail messages pass through this facility daily.

  10. DFT Calculation of IR Absorption Spectra for PCE-nH2O, TCE-nH2O, DCE-nH2O, VC-nH2O for Small and Water-Dominated Molecular Clusters (United States)


    202) 767-2601 Calculations are presented of vibrational absorption spectra for energy minimized structures of PCE-nH2O, TCE-nH2O, DCE-nH2O, and VC...2 Energy- Minimized Structures and Their IR Spectra………………. ………………………...….4 Conclusion...for calculation of absorption spectra is presented. Second, DFT calculations of energy- minimized structures and vibration resonance structure for

  11. Development of immunoaffinity chromatographic method for Ara h 2 isolation. (United States)

    Wu, Zhihua; Zhang, Ying; Zhan, Shaode; Lian, Jun; Zhao, Ruifang; Li, Kun; Tong, Ping; Li, Xin; Yang, Anshu; Chen, Hongbing


    Ara h 2 is considered a major allergen in peanut. Due to the difficulty of separation, Ara h 2 had not been fully studied. Immunoaffinity chromatography (IAC) column can separate target protein with high selectivity, which made it possible to purify Ara h 2 from different samples. In this study, IAC method was developed to purify Ara h 2 and its effect was evaluated. By coupling polyclonal antibody (pAb) on CNBr-activated Sepharose 4B, the column for specific extraction was constructed. The coupling efficiency of the IAC column was higher than 90%, which made the capacity of column reached 0.56 mg per 0.15 g medium (dry weight). The recovery of Ara h 2 ranged from 93% to 100% for different concentrations of pure Ara h 2 solutions in 15 min. After using a column 10 times, about 88% of the column capacity remained. When applied to extract Ara h 2 from raw peanut protein extract and boiled peanut protein extract, the IAC column could recovery 94% and 88% target protein from the mixture. SDS-PAGE and Western blotting analysis confirmed the purified protein was Ara h 2, its purity reached about 90%. Significantly, the IAC column could capture dimer of Ara h 2, which made it feasible to prepared derivative of protein after processing. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Particulate filtration for sorbent-based H2 storage (United States)

    van Hassel, Bart A.; Karra, Jagadeswara R.


    A method was developed for sizing the particulate filter that can be used inside a sorption-based onboard hydrogen storage system for light-duty vehicles. The method is based on a trade-off between the pressure drop across the particulate filter (during the fill of the H2 storage tank or during its discharge while driving) and the effect of this pressure drop on the usable amount of H2 gas from the H2 storage system. The permeability and filtration efficiency of the particulate filters (in the absence and presence of MOF-5 particulates) was quantified in this study, with an emphasis on meeting DOE's H2 purity requirements.

  13. Relative importance of H2 and H2S as energy sources for primary production in geothermal springs. (United States)

    D'Imperio, Seth; Lehr, Corinne R; Oduro, Harry; Druschel, Greg; Kühl, Michael; McDermott, Timothy R


    Geothermal waters contain numerous potential electron donors capable of supporting chemolithotrophy-based primary production. Thermodynamic predictions of energy yields for specific electron donor and acceptor pairs in such systems are available, although direct assessments of these predictions are rare. This study assessed the relative importance of dissolved H(2) and H(2)S as energy sources for the support of chemolithotrophic metabolism in an acidic geothermal spring in Yellowstone National Park. H(2)S and H(2) concentration gradients were observed in the outflow channel, and vertical H(2)S and O(2) gradients were evident within the microbial mat. H(2)S levels and microbial consumption rates were approximately three orders of magnitude greater than those of H(2). Hydrogenobaculum-like organisms dominated the bacterial component of the microbial community, and isolates representing three distinct 16S rRNA gene phylotypes (phylotype = 100% identity) were isolated and characterized. Within a phylotype, O(2) requirements varied, as did energy source utilization: some isolates could grow only with H(2)S, some only with H(2), while others could utilize either as an energy source. These metabolic phenotypes were consistent with in situ geochemical conditions measured using aqueous chemical analysis and in-field measurements made by using gas chromatography and microelectrodes. Pure-culture experiments with an isolate that could utilize H(2)S and H(2) and that represented the dominant phylotype (70% of the PCR clones) showed that H(2)S and H(2) were used simultaneously, without evidence of induction or catabolite repression, and at relative rate differences comparable to those measured in ex situ field assays. Under in situ-relevant concentrations, growth of this isolate with H(2)S was better than that with H(2). The major conclusions drawn from this study are that phylogeny may not necessarily be reliable for predicting physiology and that H(2)S can dominate over H(2

  14. Comparison of the cis-bending and C-H stretching vibration on the reaction of C2H2+ with H2 using laser induced reactions. (United States)

    Schlemmer, Stephan; Asvany, Oskar; Giesen, Thomas


    Laser induced reaction (LIR) of C2H2(+) + H2 in a 22-pole ion trap at 90 K has been employed to detect the v3 C-H stretching vibration and the v5 cis bending vibration of the acetylene parent ion using the wide tunability of the free electron laser FELIX. The vibrational frequency of the bending vibration, omega5, and the corresponding Renner-Teller parameter, epsilon5, are determined to be 710 cm(-1) and 0.03, respectively. These results differ quite substantially from previous experimental work but are in line with the most recent and advanced theoretical work. The dependence of the LIR-signal of the two vibrational modes is studied systematically with respect to the laser power, storage time, and number density of the hydrogen collision partner. A reaction scheme describing all steps involved in the LIR process is set up. The corresponding rate equation system is solved numerically. From this solution the lifetimes for the vibrational excited states, tau3 = (3 +/- 1) ms and t5 = (200 +/- 50) ms and the vibrational dipole moments micro3 = 0.19(2) D and micro2 = 0.21(2) D are determined under the assumption that the excited parent ion relaxes or reacts with a net rate coefficient equal to the Langevin limit. The lifetime for the C-H stretching vibration is in agreement with a previous LIR experiment and with ab initio calculations. C-H stretching turns out to be about an order of magnitude more efficient than bending in promoting hydrogen abstraction. This strong mode dependence is discussed on the basis of the energetics for hydrogen abstraction and a possible inhibition of complex formation in the entrance channel of the C2H2+..H2 collision system.

  15. CFD Recombiner Modelling and Validation on the H2-Par and Kali-H2 Experiments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stéphane Mimouni


    Full Text Available A large amount of Hydrogen gas is expected to be released within the dry containment of a pressurized water reactor (PWR, shortly after the hypothetical beginning of a severe accident leading to the melting of the core. According to local gas concentrations, the gaseous mixture of hydrogen, air and steam can reach the flammability limit, threatening the containment integrity. In order to prevent mechanical loads resulting from a possible conflagration of the gas mixture, French and German reactor containments are equipped with passive autocatalytic recombiners (PARs which preventively oxidize hydrogen for concentrations lower than that of the flammability limit. The objective of the paper is to present numerical assessments of the recombiner models implemented in CFD solvers NEPTUNE_CFD and Code_Saturne. Under the EDF/EPRI agreement, CEA has been committed to perform 42 tests of PARs. The experimental program named KALI-H2, consists checking the performance and behaviour of PAR. Unrealistic values for the gas temperature are calculated if the conjugate heat transfer and the wall steam condensation are not taken into account. The combined effects of these models give a good agreement between computational results and experimental data.

  16. Improved photobiological H2 production in engineered green algal cells. (United States)

    Kruse, Olaf; Rupprecht, Jens; Bader, Klaus-Peter; Thomas-Hall, Skye; Schenk, Peer Martin; Finazzi, Giovanni; Hankamer, Ben


    Oxygenic photosynthetic organisms use solar energy to split water (H2O) into protons (H+), electrons (e-), and oxygen. A select group of photosynthetic microorganisms, including the green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, has evolved the additional ability to redirect the derived H+ and e- to drive hydrogen (H2) production via the chloroplast hydrogenases HydA1 and A2 (H2 ase). This process occurs under anaerobic conditions and provides a biological basis for solar-driven H2 production. However, its relatively poor yield is a major limitation for the economic viability of this process. To improve H2 production in Chlamydomonas, we have developed a new approach to increase H+ and e- supply to the hydrogenases. In a first step, mutants blocked in the state 1 transition were selected. These mutants are inhibited in cyclic e- transfer around photosystem I, eliminating possible competition for e- with H2ase. Selected strains were further screened for increased H2 production rates, leading to the isolation of Stm6. This strain has a modified respiratory metabolism, providing it with two additional important properties as follows: large starch reserves (i.e. enhanced substrate availability), and a low dissolved O2 concentration (40% of the wild type (WT)), resulting in reduced inhibition of H2ase activation. The H2 production rates of Stm6 were 5-13 times that of the control WT strain over a range of conditions (light intensity, culture time, +/- uncoupler). Typically, approximately 540 ml of H2 liter(-1) culture (up to 98% pure) were produced over a 10-14-day period at a maximal rate of 4 ml h(-1) (efficiency = approximately 5 times the WT). Stm6 therefore represents an important step toward the development of future solar-powered H2 production systems.

  17. gammaH2AX foci form preferentially in euchromatin after ionising-radiation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ian G Cowell

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The histone variant histone H2A.X comprises up to 25% of the H2A complement in mammalian cells. It is rapidly phosphorylated following exposure of cells to double-strand break (DSB inducing agents such as ionising radiation. Within minutes of DSB generation, H2AX molecules are phosphorylated in large chromatin domains flanking DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs; these domains can be observed by immunofluorescence microscopy and are termed gammaH2AX foci. H2AX phosphorylation is believed to have a role mounting an efficient cellular response to DNA damage. Theoretical considerations suggest an essentially random chromosomal distribution of X-ray induced DSBs, and experimental evidence does not consistently indicate otherwise. However, we observed an apparently uneven distribution of gammaH2AX foci following X-irradiation with regions of the nucleus devoid of foci. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPLE FINDINGS: Using immunofluorescence microscopy, we show that focal phosphorylation of histone H2AX occurs preferentially in euchromatic regions of the genome following X-irradiation. H2AX phosphorylation has also been demonstrated previously to occur at stalled replication forks induced by UV radiation or exposure to agents such as hydroxyurea. In this study, treatment of S-phase cells with hydroxyurea lead to efficient H2AX phosphorylation in both euchromatin and heterochromatin at times when these chromatin compartments were undergoing replication. This suggests a block to H2AX phosphorylation in heterochromatin that is at least partially relieved by ongoing DNA replication. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: We discuss a number of possible mechanisms that could account for the observed pattern of H2AX phosphorylation. Since gammaH2AX is regarded as forming a platform for the recruitment or retention of other DNA repair and signaling molecules, these findings imply that the processing of DSBs in heterochromatin differs from that in euchromatic regions. The

  18. Synthesis, X-ray crystal structure, and EPR study of [Na(H 2O) 2] 2[VO(H 2O) 5][SiW 12O 40]·4H 2O (United States)

    Tézé, André; Marchal-Roch, Catherine; So, Hyunsoo; Fournier, Michel; Hervé, Gilbert


    The vanadyl salt [Na(H 2O) 2] 2[VO(H 2O) 5][SiW 12O 40]·4H 2O has been synthesized in mild conditions by cationic exchanges from dodecasilicotungstic acid. Structural determination and EPR study have been achieved on single crystals. They are tetragonal, space group P4/ n with a=14.7759(1), c=10.4709(2) Å, V=2286(1) Å 3 and Z=2. A three-dimensional framework built from Keggin anions [SiW 12O 40] 4- linked by sodium cations in (110) and ( 1 1¯0 ) planes generates channels along the c axis in which are localized aquo vanadyl complexes [VO(H 2O) 5] 2+ and water molecules. Single crystal EPR spectra show eight hyperfine lines of the vanadium atom ( I=7/2) which are split into 1:2:1 pattern when the magnetic field is parallel to the c axis. The triplet pattern may be attributed to weak dipolar interactions between the nearest-neighbor vanadium atoms which are 10.47 Å apart in the infinite chain. A ring model was used to simulate the spectrum, and a very small antiferromagnetic exchange interaction was determined accurately . The EPR parameters determined are gx= gy=1.980, gz=1.9336, Ax= Ay=0.0072 cm -1, and Az=0.01805 cm -1, J=-0.00025 cm -1.

  19. Net Ecosystem Carbon Flux (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Net Ecosystem Carbon Flux is defined as the year-over-year change in Total Ecosystem Carbon Stock, or the net rate of carbon exchange between an ecosystem and the...

  20. Molecular adsorption of H2 on small cationic nickel clusters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Swart, I.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/304837652; Gruene, P.; Fielicke, A.; Meijer, G.; Weckhuysen, B.M.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/285484397; de Groot, F.M.F.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/08747610X


    The adsorption of H2 on metal clusters is of interest in several fields, including metallurgy, catalysis and hydrogen storage. Hydrogen interacting with small Ni clusters is of special interest, as Ni is widely used as a hydrogenation catalyst. In general, reactions of H2 with extended Ni surfaces

  1. H2O Formation in C-rich AGB Winds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lombaert, R.; Decin, L.; Royer, P.; de Koter, A.; Cox, N.L.J.; De Ridder, J.; Khouri, T.; Agúndez, M.; Blommaert, J.A.D.L.; Gernicharo, J.; González-Alfonso, E.; Groenewegen, M.A.T.; Kerschbaum, F.; Neufeld, D.; Vandenbussche, B.; Waelkens, C.


    The Herschel detection of warm H2O vapor emission from C-rich winds of AGB stars challenges the current understanding of circumstellar chemistry. Two mechanisms have been invoked to explain warm H2O formation. In the first, penetration of UV interstellar radiation through a clumpy circumstellar

  2. Reining in H2O2 for Safe Signaling


    Planson, Anne-Gaëlle; Delaunay‐Moisan, Agnès


    Mammalian cells use hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)) not only to kill invading pathogens, but also as a signaling modulator. Woo et al. (2010) now show that the local inactivation of a H(2)O(2)-degrading enzyme ensures that the production of this oxidant is restricted to the signaling site.

  3. Dissociation path for H2 on Al(110)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hammer, Bjørk; Jacobsen, Karsten Wedel; Nørskov, Jens Kehlet


    The minimum energy path is calculated for an H2 molecule dissociating on an Al(110) surface within local density functional theory. The properties of the potential energy surface along the five H2 ionic coordinates perpendicular to the reaction path are also determined and shown to be essential f...

  4. An Accurate Potential Energy Surface for H2O (United States)

    Schwenke, David W.; Partridge, Harry; Langhoff, Stephen R. (Technical Monitor)


    We have carried out extensive high quality ab initio electronic structure calculations of the ground state potential energy surface (PES) and dipole moment function (DMF) for H2O. A small adjustment is made to the PES to improve the agreement of line positions from theory and experiment. The theoretical line positions are obtained from variational ro-vibrational calculations using the exact kinetic energy operator. For the lines being fitted, the root-mean-square error was reduced from 6.9 to 0.08 /cm. We were then able to match 30,092 of the 30,117 lines from the HITRAN 96 data base to theoretical lines, and 80% of the line positions differed less than 0.1 /cm. About 3% of the line positions in the experimental data base appear to be incorrect. Theory predicts the existence of many additional weak lines with intensities above the cutoff used in the data base. To obtain results of similar accuracy for HDO, a mass dependent correction to the PH is introduced and is parameterized by simultaneously fitting line positions for HDO and D2O. The mass dependent PH has good predictive value for T2O and HTO. Nonadiabatic effects are not explicitly included. Line strengths for vibrational bands summed over rotational levels usually agree well between theory and experiment, but individual line strengths can differ greatly. A high temperature line list containing about 380 million lines has been generated using the present PES and DMF

  5. Enhancement of sludge anaerobic biodegradability by combined microwave-H2O2 pretreatment in acidic conditions. (United States)

    Eswari, Parvathy; Kavitha, S; Kaliappan, S; Yeom, Ick-Tae; Banu, J Rajesh


    The aim of this study was to increase the sludge disintegration and reduce the cost of microwave (MW) pretreatment. Thermodynamic analysis of MW hydrolysis revealed the best fit with a first-order kinetic model at a specific energy of 18,600 kJ/kg total solids (TS). Combining H2O2 with MW resulted in a significant increment in solubilization from 30 to 50 % at 18,600 kJ/kg TS. The pH of H2O2-assisted MW-pretreated sludge (MW + H2O2) was in the alkaline range (pH 9-10), and it made the sludge unfavorable for subsequent anaerobic digestion and inhibits methane production. In order to nullify the alkaline effect caused by the MW + H2O2 combination, the addition of acid was considered for pH adjustment. H2O2-assisted MW-pretreated sludge in acidic conditions (MW + H2O2 + acid) showed a maximum methane production of 323 mL/g volatile solids (VS) than others during anaerobic biodegradability. A cost analysis of this study reveals that MW + H2O2 + acid was the most economical method with a net profit of 59.90 €/t of sludge.

  6. Hormetic Effect of H2O2 in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Halyna M. Semchyshyn PhD


    Full Text Available In this study, we investigated the relationship between target of rapamycin (TOR and H2O2-induced hormetic response in the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae grown on glucose or fructose. In general, our data suggest that: (1 hydrogen peroxide (H2O2 induces hormesis in a TOR-dependent manner; (2 the H2O2-induced hormetic dose–response in yeast depends on the type of carbohydrate in growth medium; (3 the concentration-dependent effect of H2O2 on yeast colony growth positively correlates with the activity of glutathione reductase that suggests the enzyme involvement in the H2O2-induced hormetic response; and (4 both TOR1 and TOR2 are involved in the reciprocal regulation of the activity of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase and glyoxalase 1.

  7. Allogeneic H-2 antigen expression is insufficient for tumor rejection. (United States)

    Cole, G A; Cole, G A; Clements, V K; Garcia, E P; Ostrand-Rosenberg, S


    Murine A strain (KkDdLd) sarcoma I (SaI) tumor cells have been transfected with a cloned H-2Kb gene. The resulting clones (SKB clones) stably express high levels of a molecule that is serologically and biochemically indistinguishable from the H-2Kb antigen. SKB clones are not susceptible to cytotoxic T lymphocyte-mediated lysis by H-2Kb-specific bulk, cloned, or H-2Kb-restricted lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus-specific effectors. Survival times of A/J and B10.A mice challenged i.p. with the H-2Kb-expressing transfectants and the parental SaI cells are similar, suggesting that the presence of an allogeneic major histocompatibility complex class I antigen on the surface of this tumor line is insufficient for tumor rejection.

  8. H2, CO, and dust absorption through cold molecular clouds (United States)

    Lacy, John H.; Sneden, Chris; Kim, Hwihyun; Jaffe, Daniel Thomas


    We have made observations with IGRINS on the Harlan J. Smith telescope at McDonald Observatory of near-infrared absorption by H2, CO, and dust toward stars behind molecular clouds, primarily the TMC. Prior to these observations, the abundance of H2 in molecular clouds, relative to the commonly used tracer CO, had only been measured toward a few embedded stars, which may be surrounded by atypical gas. The new observations provide a representative sample of these molecules in cold molecular gas. We find N(H2)/Av ~ 0.9e+21, N(CO)/Av ~ 1.6e+17, and H2/CO ~ 6000. The measured H2/CO ratio is consistent with that measured toward embedded stars in various molecular clouds, but half that derived from mm-wave observations of CO emission and star counts or other determinations of Av.

  9. Polysulfides Link H2S to Protein Thiol Oxidation (United States)

    Greiner, Romy; Pálinkás, Zoltán; Bäsell, Katrin; Becher, Dörte; Antelmann, Haike; Nagy, Péter


    Abstract Aims: Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) is suggested to act as a gaseous signaling molecule in a variety of physiological processes. Its molecular mechanism of action was proposed to involve protein S-sulfhydration, that is, conversion of cysteinyl thiolates (Cys-S−) to persulfides (Cys-S-S−). A central and unresolved question is how H2S—that is, a molecule with sulfur in its lowest possible oxidation state (−2)—can lead to oxidative thiol modifications. Results: Using the lipid phosphatase PTEN as a model protein, we find that the “H2S donor” sodium hydrosulfide (NaHS) leads to very rapid reversible oxidation of the enzyme in vitro. We identify polysulfides formed in NaHS solutions as the oxidizing species, and present evidence that sulfane sulfur is added to the active site cysteine. Polysulfide-mediated oxidation of PTEN was induced by all “H2S donors” tested, including sodium sulfide (Na2S), gaseous H2S, and morpholin-4-ium 4-methoxyphenyl(morpholino) phosphinodithioate (GYY4137). Moreover, we show that polysulfides formed in H2S solutions readily modify PTEN inside intact cells. Innovation: Our results shed light on the previously unresolved question of how H2S leads to protein thiol oxidation, and suggest that polysulfides formed in solutions of H2S mediate this process. Conclusion: This study suggests that the effects that have been attributed to H2S in previous reports may in fact have been mediated by polysulfides. It also supports the notion that sulfane sulfur rather than sulfide is the actual in vivo agent of H2S signaling. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 19, 1749–1765. PMID:23646934

  10. Free radical behaviours during methylene blue degradation in Fe2+/H2O2 system. (United States)

    Wang, Zhonghua; Zhao, Haiqian; Qi, Hanbing; Liu, Xiaoyan; Liu, Yang


    Behaviours of the free radicals during methylene blue (MB) oxidation process in Fe2+/H2O2 system were studied to reveal the reason for the low utilization efficiency of H2O2. The roles of O2-·, OH and HO2· radicals were proven to be different in MB oxidation process. The results showed that O2-·radicals had a strong ability to oxidize MB, however, they were not the main active substances for MB degradation due to the low concentration in traditional Fe2+/H2O2 system. HO2 radicals could not oxidize MB. OH radicals were the main active substances for MB oxidation. In the short initial stage, the utilization efficiency of H2O2 was high, because the generation rate of OH was much higher than that of HO2. More·OH radicals were involved in MB oxidation reaction. In the long deceleration stage (after the short initial stage), a large amount of H2O2 was consumed, but the amount of oxidized MB was very small. Most of the·OH radicals were consumed via the rapid useless reaction between ·OH and HO2· in this stage, resulting in the serious useless consumption of H2O2. It is a feasible method to improve the utilization efficiency of H2O2 by adding suitable additives into the Fe2+/H2O2 system to weaken the useless reaction between OH and HO2.

  11. Effects of H2O2 at rat myenteric neurones in culture. (United States)

    Pouokam, Ervice; Rehn, Matthias; Diener, Martin


    Oxidants, produced e.g. during inflammation, alter gastrointestinal functions finally leading to diarrhoea and/or tissue damage. There is only scarce information about the action of oxidants on enteric neurones, which play a central role in the regulation of many gastrointestinal processes. Therefore, the effect of an oxidant, H(2)O(2), on cultured rat myenteric neurones was studied with the whole-cell patch-clamp and imaging (fura-2) techniques. H(2)O(2) (5 mmol/l) induced an increase in the cytosolic Ca(2+) concentration. Both an intracellular release via IP(3) and ryanodine receptors as well as a Gd(3+)-sensitive Ca(2+) influx contributed to this response. Measurement of the membrane potential revealed that the neuronal membrane hyperpolarized by 11.3+/-0.8 mV in the presence of H(2)O(2). Inhibition of Ca(2+)-dependent K(+) channels prevented this hyperpolarization. Voltage-clamp experiments revealed a second action of the oxidant, i.e. a strong inhibition of the fast Na(+) current responsible for the generation of action potentials. This effect seemed to be mediated by the hydroxyl radical (*OH), as Fe(2+) (100 micromol/l), which leads to the generation of this radical from H(2)O(2) via the Fenton reaction, strongly potentiated the action of an ineffective concentration (100 micromol/l) of the oxidant. Protein phosphorylation/dephosphorylation seems to be involved in the mechanism of action of H(2)O(2), as the protein phosphatase inhibitor calyculin A (100 nmol/l) strongly reduced the inhibition of Na(+) current by H(2)O(2). This effect was mimicked by the protein phosphatase 2A specific inhibitor endothall (100 nmol/l), whereas the PP1 blocker tautomycin (3 nmol/l) was less effective. These results suggest that H(2)O(2) reduces the excitability of rat myenteric neurones by a change of basal membrane potential and an inhibition of Na(+) currents.

  12. Sources of superoxide/H2O2 during mitochondrial proline oxidation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata L.S. Goncalves


    Full Text Available p53 Inducible gene 6 (PIG6 encodes mitochondrial proline dehydrogenase (PRODH and is up-regulated several fold upon p53 activation. Proline dehydrogenase is proposed to generate radicals that contribute to cancer cell apoptosis. However, there are at least 10 mitochondrial sites that can produce superoxide and/or H2O2, and it is unclear whether proline dehydrogenase generates these species directly, or instead drives production by other sites. Amongst six cancer cell lines, ZR75-30 human breast cancer cells had the highest basal proline dehydrogenase levels, and mitochondria isolated from ZR75-30 cells consumed oxygen and produced H2O2 with proline as sole substrate. Insects use proline oxidation to fuel flight, and mitochondria isolated from Drosophila melanogaster were even more active with proline as sole substrate than ZR75-30 mitochondria. Using mitochondria from these two models we identified the sites involved in formation of superoxide/H2O2 during proline oxidation. In mitochondria from Drosophila the main sites were respiratory complexes I and II. In mitochondria from ZR75-30 breast cancer cells the main sites were complex I and the oxoglutarate dehydrogenase complex. Even with combinations of substrates and respiratory chain inhibitors designed to minimize the contributions of other sites and maximize any superoxide/H2O2 production from proline dehydrogenase itself, there was no significant direct contribution of proline dehydrogenase to the observed H2O2 production. Thus proline oxidation by proline dehydrogenase drives superoxide/H2O2 production, but it does so mainly or exclusively by providing anaplerotic carbon for other mitochondrial dehydrogenases and not by producing superoxide/H2O2 directly.

  13. Sources of superoxide/H2O2 during mitochondrial proline oxidation. (United States)

    Goncalves, Renata L S; Rothschild, Daniel E; Quinlan, Casey L; Scott, Gary K; Benz, Christopher C; Brand, Martin D


    p53 Inducible gene 6 (PIG6) encodes mitochondrial proline dehydrogenase (PRODH) and is up-regulated several fold upon p53 activation. Proline dehydrogenase is proposed to generate radicals that contribute to cancer cell apoptosis. However, there are at least 10 mitochondrial sites that can produce superoxide and/or H2O2, and it is unclear whether proline dehydrogenase generates these species directly, or instead drives production by other sites. Amongst six cancer cell lines, ZR75-30 human breast cancer cells had the highest basal proline dehydrogenase levels, and mitochondria isolated from ZR75-30 cells consumed oxygen and produced H2O2 with proline as sole substrate. Insects use proline oxidation to fuel flight, and mitochondria isolated from Drosophila melanogaster were even more active with proline as sole substrate than ZR75-30 mitochondria. Using mitochondria from these two models we identified the sites involved in formation of superoxide/H2O2 during proline oxidation. In mitochondria from Drosophila the main sites were respiratory complexes I and II. In mitochondria from ZR75-30 breast cancer cells the main sites were complex I and the oxoglutarate dehydrogenase complex. Even with combinations of substrates and respiratory chain inhibitors designed to minimize the contributions of other sites and maximize any superoxide/H2O2 production from proline dehydrogenase itself, there was no significant direct contribution of proline dehydrogenase to the observed H2O2 production. Thus proline oxidation by proline dehydrogenase drives superoxide/H2O2 production, but it does so mainly or exclusively by providing anaplerotic carbon for other mitochondrial dehydrogenases and not by producing superoxide/H2O2 directly.

  14. [Degradation mechanisms of dimethyl phthalate in the UV-H2O2 system]. (United States)

    Liu, Qing; Chen, Cheng; Chen, Hong-Zhe; Yang, Shao-Gui; He, Huan; Sun, Cheng


    To investigate the photodegradation process of dimethyl phthalate (DMP) in the ultraviolet light (UV)-H2O2 system, mass spectrometer was used to identify degradation products and further more, to speculate the possible mechanisms of degradation process. Experimental results showed that the degradation efficiency of 10 mg x L(-1) DMP reached 92.3% in 90 minutes in the UV-H2O2 system, and the more H2O2 was added, the faster DMP decomposed. The pH of DMP solution decreased from the initial 6.5 to 4.98, because of the generating of organic phenolic acids and small acid molecules generated by the degradation of DMP. By the GC/MS as well as LC/MS analysis, degradation products of the DMP in the UV-H2O2 system were thought to comprise six categories, from which we could infer that hydrolysis occurs simultaneously on the two side chains of the DMP, generating phthalic acid that can quickly change to the more stable terephthalic acid. In addition, DMP could also occur benzene ring replacement as well as the ring condensed of the side chains. Finally, by the role of *OH, DMP and its aromatic intermediates occurred ring-opening reaction, and benzene ring was destroyed and generated organic acids of small molecular, which was further mineralized to CO2 and water.

  15. Organic-inorganic hybrid solution-processed H2-evolving photocathodes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lai, L.H.; Gomulya, W.; Berghuis, M.; Protesescu, L.; Detz, R.J.; Reek, J.N.H.; Kovalenko, M.V.; Loi, M.A.


    Here we report for the first time an H2-evolving photocathode fabricated by a solution-processed organic inorganic hybrid composed of CdSe and P3HT. The CdSe:P3HT (10:1 (w/w)) hybrid bulk heterojunction treated with 1,2-ethanedithiol (EDT) showed efficient water reduction and hydrogen generation. A

  16. Organic-Inorganic Hybrid Solution-Processed H-2-Evolving Photocathodes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lai, Lai-Hung; Gomulya, Widianta; Berghuis, Matthijs; Protesescu, Loredana; Detz, Remko J.; Reek, Joost N. H.; Kovalenko, Maksym V.; Loi, Maria A.


    Here we report for the first time an H-2-evolving photocathode fabricated by a solution-processed organic inorganic hybrid composed of CdSe and P3HT. The CdSe:P3HT (10:1 (w/w)) hybrid bulk heterojunction treated with 1,2-ethanedithiol (EDT) showed efficient water reduction and hydrogen generation. A

  17. Atmospheric H2O2 measurement: comparison of cold trap method with impinger bubbling method (United States)

    Sakugawa, H.; Kaplan, I. R.


    Collection of atmospheric H2O2 was performed by a cold trap method using dry ice-acetone as the refrigerant. The air was drawn by a pump into a glass gas trap immersed in the dry ice-acetone slush in a dewar flask at a flow rate of 2.5 l min-1 for approximately 2 h. Collection efficiency was > 99% and negligible interferences by O3, SO2 or organic matter with the collected H2O2 in the trap were observed. This method was compared with the air impinger bubbling method which has been previously described (Kok et al., 1978a, b, Envir. Sci. Technol. 12, 1072-1080). The measured total peroxide (H2O2 + organic peroxide) values in a series of aim samples collected by the impinger bubbling method (0.06-3.7 ppb) were always higher than those obtained by the cold trap method (0.02-1.2 ppb). Laboratory experiments suggest that the difference in values between the two methods probably results from the aqueous phase generation of H2O2 and organic peroxide in the impinger solution by a reaction of atmospheric O3 with olefinic and aromatic compounds. If these O3-organic compound reactions which occur in the impinger also occur in aqueous droplets in the atmosphere, the process could be very important for aqueous phase generation of H2O2 in clouds and rainwater.

  18. A novel H2S/H2O2 fuel cell operating at the room temperature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanli, Ayse Elif [Gazi University (Turkey)], email:; Aytac, Aylin [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Gazi University, Teknikokullar (Turkey)], email:


    This study concerns the oxidation mechanism of hydrogen sulfide and a fuel cell; acidic peroxide is used as the oxidant and basic hydrogen sulfide is the fuel. A solid state H2S/H2O2 stable fuel cell was produced at room temperature. A cell potential of 0.85 V was reached; this is quite remarkable in comparison to the H2S/O2 fuel cell potential of 0.85 V obtained at 850-1000 degree celsius. The hydrogen sulfide goes through an oxidation reaction in the alkaline fuel cell (H2S/H2O2 fuel cell) which opens up the possibility of using the cheaper nickel as a catalyst. As a result, the fuel cell becomes a potentially low cost technology. A further benefit from using H2S as the alkaline liquid H2S/H2O2 fuel cell, is that sulfide ions are oxidized at the anode, releasing electrons. Sulfur produced reacts with the other sulfide ions and forms disulfide and polysulfide ions in basic electrolytes (such as Black Sea water).

  19. Professional Enterprise NET

    CERN Document Server

    Arking, Jon


    Comprehensive coverage to help experienced .NET developers create flexible, extensible enterprise application code If you're an experienced Microsoft .NET developer, you'll find in this book a road map to the latest enterprise development methodologies. It covers the tools you will use in addition to Visual Studio, including Spring.NET and nUnit, and applies to development with ASP.NET, C#, VB, Office (VBA), and database. You will find comprehensive coverage of the tools and practices that professional .NET developers need to master in order to build enterprise more flexible, testable, and ext

  20. Structures and H2 adsorption properties of porous scandium metal-organic frameworks. (United States)

    Ibarra, Ilich A; Lin, Xiang; Yang, Sihai; Blake, Alexander J; Walker, Gavin S; Barnett, Sarah A; Allan, David R; Champness, Neil R; Hubberstey, Peter; Schröder, Martin


    Two new three-dimensional Sc(III) metal-organic frameworks {[Sc(3)O(L(1))(3)(H(2)O)(3)]·Cl(0.5)(OH)(0.5)(DMF)(4)(H(2)O)(3)}(∞) (1) (H(2)L(1)=1,4-benzene-dicarboxylic acid) and {[Sc(3)O(L(2))(2)(H(2)O)(3)](OH)(H(2)O)(5)(DMF)}(∞) (2) (H(3)L(2)=1,3,5-tris(4-carboxyphenyl)benzene) have been synthesised and characterised. The structures of both 1 and 2 incorporate the trinuclear trigonal planar [Sc(3)(O)(O(2)CR)(6)] building block featuring three Sc(III) centres joined by a central μ(3)-O(2-) donor. Each Sc(III) centre is further bound by four oxygen donors from four different bridging carboxylate anions, and a molecule of water located trans to the μ(3)-O(2-) donor completes the six coordination at the metal centre. Frameworks 1 and 2 show high thermal stability with retention of crystallinity up to 350 °C. The desolvated materials 1a and 2a, in which the solvent has been removed from the pores but with water or hydroxide remaining coordinated to Sc(III), show BET surface areas based upon N(2) uptake of 634 and 1233 m(2) g(-1), respectively, and pore volumes calculated from the maximum N(2) adsorption of 0.25 cm(3) g(-1) and 0.62 cm(3) g(-1), respectively. At 20 bar and 78 K, the H(2) isotherms for desolvated 1a and 2a confirm 2.48 and 1.99 wt% total H(2) uptake, respectively. The isosteric heats of adsorption were estimated to be 5.25 and 2.59 kJ mol(-1) at zero surface coverage for 1a and 2a, respectively. Treatment of 2 with acetone followed by thermal desolvation in vacuo generated free metal coordination sites in a new material 2b. Framework 2b shows an enhanced BET surface area of 1511 m(2) g(-1) and a pore volume of 0.76 cm(3) g(-1), with improved H(2) uptake capacity and a higher heat of H(2) adsorption. At 20 bar, H(2) capacity increases from 1.99 wt% in 2a to 2.64 wt% for 2b, and the H(2) adsorption enthalpy rises markedly from 2.59 to 6.90 kJ mol(-1).

  1. H2 separation using defect-free, inorganic composite membranes. (United States)

    Yu, Miao; Funke, Hans H; Noble, Richard D; Falconer, John L


    Defect-free, microporous Al(2)O(3)/SAPO-34 zeolite composite membranes were prepared by coating hydrothermally grown zeolite membranes with microporous alumina using molecular layer deposition. These inorganic composite membranes are highly efficient for H(2) separation: their highest H(2)/N(2) mixture selectivity was 1040, in contrast with selectivities of 8 for SAPO-34 membranes. The composite membranes were selective for H(2) for temperatures up to at least 473 K and feed pressures up to at least 1.5 MPa; at 473 K and 1.5 MPa, the H(2)/N(2) separation selectivity was 750. The H(2)/CO(2) separation selectivity was lower than the H(2)/N(2) selectivity and decreased slightly with increasing pressure; the selectivity was 20 at 473 K and 1.5 MPa. The high H(2) selectivity resulted either because most of the pores in the Al(2)O(3) layer were slightly smaller than 0.36 nm (the kinetic diameter of N(2)) or because the Al(2)O(3) layer slightly narrowed the SAPO-34 pore entrance. These composite membranes may represent a new class of inorganic membranes for gas separation.

  2. H2 metabolism in the photosynthetic bacterium Rhodopseudomonas capsulata: production and utilization of H2 by resting cells. (United States)

    Hillmer, P; Gest, H


    Photoproduction of H2 and activation of H2 for CO2 reduction (photoreduction) by Rhodopseudomonas capsulata are catalyzed by different enzyme systems. Formation of H2 from organic compounds is mediated by nitrogenase and is nto inhibited by an atmosphere of 99% H2. Cells grown photoheterotrophically on C4 dicarboxylic acids (with glutamate as N source) evolve H2 from the C4 acids and also from lactate and pyruvate; cells grown on C3 carbon sources, however, are inactive with the C4 acids, presumably because they lack inducible transport systems. Ammonia is known to inhibit N2 fixation by photosynthetic bacteria, and it also effectively prevents photoproduction of H2; these effects are due to inhibition and, in part, inactivation of nitrogenase. Biosynthesis of the latter, as measured by both H2 production and acetylene reduction assays, is markedly increased when cells are grown at high light intensity; synthesis of the photoreduction system, on the other hand, is not appreciably influenced by light intensity during photoheterotrophic growth. The photoreduction activity of cells grown on lactate + glutamate (which contain active nitrogenase) is greatly activated by NH4+, but this effect is not observed in cells grown with NH4+ as N source (nitrogenase repressed) or in a Nif- mutant that is unable to produce H2. Lactate, malate, and succinate, which are readily used as growth substrates by R. capsulata and are excellent H donors for photoproduction of H2, abolish photoreduction activity. The physiological significances of this phenomenon and of the reciprocal regulatory effects of NH4+ on H2 production and photoreduction are discussed.

  3. Histamine H2 receptor - Involvement in gastric ulceration (United States)

    Brown, P. A.; Vernikos-Danellis, J.; Brown, T. H.


    The involvement of the H1 and H2 receptors for histamine in the pathogenesis of gastric ulcers was investigated in rats. Metiamide, an H2 receptor antagonist, reliably reduced ulceration produced by stress alone or by a combination of stress and aspirin. In contrast, pyrilamine, which blocks only the H1 receptor, was without effect under these same conditions. The results support the hypothesis that histamine mediates both stress and stress plus aspirin induced ulceration by a mechanism involving the H2 receptor.

  4. The role of H2 antagonists in perennial allergic rhinitis. (United States)

    Testa, B; Mesolella, C; Filippini, P; Campagnano, N; Testa, D; Mesolella, M; Sagnelli, E


    The biological effects of anti-H2 in allergic reactions are dose dependent: low doses enhance, and high doses significantly decrease the reaction of hypersensitivity. The administration of cimetidine H2 antagonist to 20 perennial allergic rhinitis patients brought about an abatement in the symptoms and a decrease in the total serum immunoglobulin E (IgE) levels in 72% of treated patients, but no variation was perceived in placebo-treated patients. These results strengthen the hypothesis of anti-H2-induced immunoregulatory effects and suggest a possible way of inhibiting IgE synthesis in vivo.

  5. A global potential energy surface for ArH2 (United States)

    Schwenke, David W.; Walch, Stephen P.; Taylor, Peter R.


    We describe a simple analytic representation of the ArH2 potential energy surface which well reproduces the results of extensive ab initio electronic structure calculations. The analytic representation smoothly interpolates between the dissociated H2 and strong bonding limits. In the fitting process, emphasis is made on accurately reproducing regions of the potential expected to be important for high temperature (ca. 3000 K) collision processes. Overall, the anisotropy and H2 bond length dependence of the analytic representation well reproduce the input data.

  6. A LiBr-H2O Absorption Refrigerator Incorporating a Thermally Activated Solution Pumping Mechanism


    Ian W. Eames


    This paper provides an illustrated description of a proposed LiBr-H2O vapour absorption refrigerator which uses a thermally activated solution pumping mechanism that combines controlled variations in generator vapour pressure with changes it produces in static-head pressure difference to circulate the absorbent solution between the generator and absorber vessels. The proposed system is different and potentially more efficient than a bubble pump system previously proposed and avoids the need f...

  7. Probing substituent effects on the activation of H(2) by phosphorus and boron frustrated Lewis pairs. (United States)

    Neu, Rebecca C; Ouyang, Eva Y; Geier, Stephen J; Zhao, Xiaoxi; Ramos, Alberto; Stephan, Douglas W


    The impact of substituent changes on phosphorus and boron-containing frustrated Lewis pairs (FLPs) has been examined. The phosphites (RO)(3)P R = Me, Ph form classical Lewis acid-base adducts of the formula (RO)(3)PB(C(6)F(5))(3) R = Me ; R = Ph , whereas P(O-2,4-(t)Bu(2)C(6)H(3))(3) and P(O-2,6-Me(2)C(6)H(3))(3) generate FLPs. Nonetheless, these latter combinations do not react with H(2). The more basic phosphinite tBu(2)POR, R = tBu reacts with B(C(6)F(5))(3) to give (tBu(2)(H)PO)B(C(6)F(5))(3). The related species tBu(2)POR, R = Ph ; 2,6-Me(2)C(6)H(3) showed no reaction with B(C(6)F(5))(3) but the FLPs react under H(2) (4 atm) to give [tBu(2)P(OR)H][HB(C(6)F(5))(3)] R = Ph and 2,6-Me(2)C(6)H(3). Similarly, tBu(2)PCl in combination with B(C(6)F(5))(3), generates an FLP that upon addition of H(2), gives [tBu(2)PH(2)][ClB(C(6)F(5))(3)] albeit in low yield. The diborane 1,4-(C(6)F(5))(2)B(C(6)F(4))B(C(6)F(5))(2) in combination with either tBu(3)P or (C(6)H(2)Me(3))(3)P generates FLPs that react with H(2) to give [R(3)PH](2)[1,4-(C(6)F(5))(2)HB(C(6)F(4))BH(C(6)F(5))(2)] (R = tBu , C(6)H(2)Me(3)). Similarly PhB(C(6)F(5))(2) and tBu(3)P react with H(2) giving [tBu(3)PH][HBPh(C(6)F(5))(2)] . The combination of B(OC(6)F(5))(3) and PtBu(3) also generate an FLP which reacts with H(2) to give [HPtBu(3)][B(OC(6)F(5))(4)] , the product of substituent redistribution. The boronic esters, (C(6)H(4)O(2))BC(6)F(5), (C(6)H(3)FO(2))BC(6)F(5) and (C(6)F(4)O(2))BC(6)F(5), and the borate esters B(OC(6)H(3)(CF(3))(2))(3), B(OC(6)H(2)F(3))(3) and B(OC(6)H(4)CF(3))(3) were prepared and shown to generate FLPs with tBu(3)P or (C(6)H(2)Me(3))(3)P. Nonetheless, no reaction with H(2) was observed for . Collectively these data suggest that there is a threshold of combined Lewis acidity and basicity that is required to effect the splitting of H(2).

  8. Rapid increase in resistance to third generation cephalosporins, imipenem and co-resistance in Klebsiella pneumoniae from isolated from 7,140 blood-cultures (2010-2014) using EARS-Net data in Spain. (United States)

    Aracil-García, Belén; Oteo-Iglesias, Jesús; Cuevas-Lobato, Óscar; Lara-Fuella, Noelia; Pérez-Grajera, Isabel; Fernández-Romero, Sara; Pérez-Vázquez, María; Campos, José


    An analysis was made about the evolution of resistance to 3rd generation cephalosporins, imipenem, and other antibiotics in invasive isolates of Klebsiella pneumoniae (K. pneumoniae) according to the Spanish EARS-Net database (2010-2014). Forty-two hospitals from 16 Autonomous Communities with an approximate population coverage of 33% participated. A total 7,140 pneumoniae corresponding to the same number of patients were studied. Overall resistance percentages (I+R) were: cefotaxime 15.8%, ceftazidime 13.7%, imipenem 1.7%, ciprofloxacin 20.1%, tobramycin 14.1%, gentamicin 10.4%, and amikacin 1.9%. Resistance to 3rd generation cephalosporins increased from 9.8% (2010) to 19% (2014); to ciprofloxacin from 15.4% (2010) to 19.6% (2014); to gentamicin from 6.2% (2010) to 10.3% (2014) and to tobramycin from 7.1% (2010) to 14.2% (2014) (presistance to 3rd generation cephalosporins, ciprofloxacin, and aminoglycosides increased from 3.3% (2010) to 9.7% (2014) (pResistance to imipenem also increased from 0.27% (2010) to 3.46% (2014) (presistant to imipenem, of which 104 (86%) produced carbapenemases: 74 OXA-48, 14 VIM, 9 KPC (6 KPC-2 and 3 KPC-3), 6 IMP, and 1 GES. Over the 5 year period (2010-2014), resistance to 3rd generation cephalosporins in invasive K. pneumoniae in Spain has doubled. The combined resistance to 3rd generation cephalosporins, ciprofloxacin, and aminoglycosides has tripled, and imipenem resistance has increased almost 13 times, mostly due to the spread of carbapenemase-producing isolates. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier España, S.L.U. y Sociedad Española de Enfermedades Infecciosas y Microbiología Clínica. All rights reserved.

  9. A comparison of ice VII formed in the H2O, NaCl-H2O, and CH3OH-H2O systems: Implications for H2O-rich planets (United States)

    Frank, Mark R.; Aarestad, Elizabeth; Scott, Henry P.; Prakapenka, Vitali B.


    High-pressure H2O polymorphs, namely ice VI, ice VII, and ice X, are hypothesized to make up a considerable portion of the interiors of large icy satellites and select extra-solar planets. The incorporation of foreign ions or molecules into these high-pressure phases is possible through ocean-ice interaction, rock-ice interaction at depth, or processes that occurred during accretion. Recent research concerning the effects charged ions have on ice VII has shown that these ions notably affect the structure of ice VII (Frank et al., 2006; Klotz et al., 2009). This study was designed to determine the effects of a molecular impurity on ice VII and compare those effects to both pure H2O ice and ice with an ionic impurity. Ice samples were formed in this study via compression in a diamond anvil cell from either H2O, a 1.60 mol% NaCl aqueous solution, a 1.60 mol% CH3OH aqueous solution, or a 5.00 mol% CH3OH aqueous solution and were compressed up to 71 GPa at room temperature. Ice formed from pure H2O had no impurities whereas ices formed in the NaCl-H2O and CH3OH-H2O systems contained the impurities Na+ and Cl- and CH3OH, respectively. Pressure-volume relations were observed in situ by using synchrotron based X-ray diffraction and were used to determine the equations of state for ices formed in the H2O, NaCl-H2O and CH3OH-H2O systems. The data illustrate that ice VII formed from a NaCl-bearing aqueous solution exhibited a depressed volume when compared to that of H2O-only ice VII at any given pressure, whereas ice VII formed from CH3OH-bearing aqueous solutions showed an opposite trend, with an increase in volume relative to that of pure ice VII. The ices within planetary bodies will most likely have both ionic and molecular impurities and the trends outlined in this study can be used to improve density profiles of H2O-rich planetary bodies.

  10. The biomass gasification project Blauer Turm H2Herten; Das Biomassevergasungsprojekt BLAUER TURM H2Herten

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greiler, Erwin [TheOeCompany (TOC) Renewable Energy Consulting, Graz (Austria)


    Blue Tower refers to a technology for utilising residues from renewable resources for energy production. Its output is a clean, climatically neutral gas referred to as Blue Gas. In the first stage of the process residues from renewable resources (e.g. green waste, roadside grass cuttings, olive stones, wine marc, fermentation residues from biogas plants, poultry excrements, expired animal feed, sewage sludge and others) are fed into the Blue Tower. The input material is then caused to degrade at temperatures of around 600 C (pyrolysis). In the process 80% of its mass is converted into a gas, leaving 20% of solid residue (coke), which is subsequently used to generate the process heat required for operating the Blue Tower. The gas resulting from the first stage undergoes a second stage where steam is added at around 950 C to create a clean, climatically neutral product gas referred to as Blue Gas (reforming stage). Blue Gas has an extremely high hydrogen content (ca. 50%) and a low tar content. After filtration it can be used to drive gas engines for electricity or heat generation. Alternatively it can be processed for use as bio natural gas.

  11. Spatial H2O2 signaling specificity: H2O2 from chloroplasts and peroxisomes modulates the plant transcriptome differentially. (United States)

    Sewelam, Nasser; Jaspert, Nils; Van Der Kelen, Katrien; Tognetti, Vanesa B; Schmitz, Jessica; Frerigmann, Henning; Stahl, Elia; Zeier, Jürgen; Van Breusegem, Frank; Maurino, Veronica G


    Hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) operates as a signaling molecule in eukaryotes, but the specificity of its signaling capacities remains largely unrevealed. Here, we analyzed whether a moderate production of H2O2 from two different plant cellular compartments has divergent effects on the plant transcriptome. Arabidopsis thaliana overexpressing glycolate oxidase in the chloroplast (Fahnenstich et al., 2008; Balazadeh et al., 2012) and plants deficient in peroxisomal catalase (Queval et al., 2007; Inzé et al., 2012) were grown under non-photorespiratory conditions and then transferred to photorespiratory conditions to foster the production of H2O2 in both organelles. We show that H2O2 originating in a specific organelle induces two types of responses: one that integrates signals independently from the subcellular site of H2O2 production and another that is dependent on the H2O2 production site. H2O2 produced in peroxisomes induces transcripts involved in protein repair responses, while H2O2 produced in chloroplasts induces early signaling responses, including transcription factors and biosynthetic genes involved in production of secondary signaling messengers. There is a significant bias towards the induction of genes involved in responses to wounding and pathogen attack by chloroplastic-produced H2O2, including indolic glucosinolates-, camalexin-, and stigmasterol-biosynthetic genes. These transcriptional responses were accompanied by the accumulation of 4-methoxy-indol-3-ylmethyl glucosinolate and stigmasterol. © The Author 2014. Published by the Molecular Plant Shanghai Editorial Office in association with Oxford University Press on behalf of CSPB and IPPE, SIBS, CAS.

  12. The interstellar chemistry of H2C3O isomers. (United States)

    Loison, Jean-Christophe; Agúndez, Marcelino; Marcelino, Núria; Wakelam, Valentine; Hickson, Kevin M; Cernicharo, José; Gerin, Maryvonne; Roueff, Evelyne; Guélin, Michel


    We present the detection of two H2C3O isomers, propynal and cyclopropenone, toward various starless cores and molecular clouds, together with upper limits for the third isomer propadienone. We review the processes controlling the abundances of H2C3O isomers in interstellar media showing that the reactions involved are gas-phase ones. We show that the abundances of these species are controlled by kinetic rather than thermodynamic effects.

  13. Double strand break repair functions of histone H2AX

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scully, Ralph, E-mail:; Xie, Anyong


    Chromosomal double strand breaks provoke an extensive reaction in neighboring chromatin, characterized by phosphorylation of histone H2AX on serine 139 of its C-terminal tail (to form “γH2AX”). The γH2AX response contributes to the repair of double strand breaks encountered in a variety of different contexts, including those induced by ionizing radiation, physiologically programmed breaks that characterize normal immune cell development and the pathological exposure of DNA ends triggered by telomere dysfunction. γH2AX also participates in the evolutionarily conserved process of sister chromatid recombination, a homologous recombination pathway involved in the suppression of genomic instability during DNA replication and directly implicated in tumor suppression. At a biochemical level, the γH2AX response provides a compelling example of how the “histone code” is adapted to the regulation of double strand break repair. Here, we review progress in research aimed at understanding how γH2AX contributes to double strand break repair in mammalian cells.

  14. H2S Hazard on ODP Leg 146 (United States)

    Francis, T. J. G.; Olivas, R. E.

    On the Ocean Drilling Program's Leg 146, extremely high concentrations of hydrogen sulfide (H2S) were encountered in cores acquired from the top 17 m of the sedimentary section at Site 892, in 674-m water depth off the coast of Oregon. The amount of H2S given off by these cores on the deck of the drill ship was sufficient to create a safety hazard and, if improperly handled, could have administered a lethal dose. The purpose of this article is to warn the scientific community of the dangers of handling this naturally occurring material.The cores were several orders of magnitude richer in H2S than any previously recovered by DSDP/ODP in 25 years of scientific ocean drilling. Gas hydrates were recovered from the same interval, and it is possible that the H2S may have been stored in a hydrate structure. The cores were split and allowed to degas in the open air before being taken into the ship's laboratory. ODP technical staff handling the cores wore breathing apparatus and used hand-held H2S detector instruments. Key personnel on the drill ship are regularly trained in the hazards of H2S, which is commonly encountered in oil and gas drilling.

  15. Modulating and Measuring Intracellular H2O2 Using Genetically Encoded Tools to Study Its Toxicity to Human Cells. (United States)

    Huang, Beijing K; Stein, Kassi T; Sikes, Hadley D


    Reactive oxygen species (ROS) such as H2O2 play paradoxical roles in mammalian physiology. It is hypothesized that low, baseline levels of H2O2 are necessary for growth and differentiation, while increased intracellular H2O2 concentrations are associated with pathological phenotypes and genetic instability, eventually reaching a toxic threshold that causes cell death. However, the quantities of intracellular H2O2 that lead to these different responses remain an unanswered question in the field. To address this question, we used genetically encoded constructs that both generate and quantify H2O2 in a dose-response study of H2O2-mediated toxicity. We found that, rather than a simple concentration-response relationship, a combination of intracellular concentration and the cumulative metric of H2O2 concentration multiplied by time (i.e., the area under the curve) determined the occurrence and level of cell death. Establishing the quantitative relationship between H2O2 and cell toxicity promotes a deeper understanding of the intracellular effects of H2O2 specifically as an individual reactive oxygen species, and it contributes to an understanding of its role in various redox-related diseases.

  16. CN radical hydrogenation from solid H2 reactions, an alternative way of HCN formation in the interstellar medium (United States)

    Borget, Fabien; Müller, Sandra; Grote, Dirk; Theulé, Patrice; Vinogradoff, Vassilissa; Chiavassa, Thierry; Sander, Wolfram


    Context. Molecular hydrogen (H2) is the most abundant molecule of the interstellar medium (ISM) in gas phase and it has been assumed to exist in solid state or as coating on grains. Aims: Our goal is to show that solid H2 can act as a hydrogenation agent, reacting with CN radicals to form HCN. Methods: In a H2 matrix, we studied the hydrogenation of the CN radical generated from the vacuum ultraviolet photolysis (VUV-photolysis) of C2N2 at 3.8 K. We modified the wavelengths and the host gas in order to be sure that CN radicals can abstract H from H2 molecules. Results: HCN monomers, dimers, and oligomers have been characterised by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). H2CN as well as CN radicals have also been clearly observed during the photolysis performed at 3.8 K. Conclusions: H2 is a hydrogenation reagent towards CN radicals producing HCN. This type of reaction should be taken into account for the reactivity at low temperature in contaminated H2 ice macro-particles (CHIMPs), H2 flakes or in the first sublayers of grains where solid H2 has accumulated.

  17. Reduced gas seepages in ophiolitic complexes: Evidences for multiple origins of the H2-CH4-N2 gas mixtures (United States)

    Vacquand, Christèle; Deville, Eric; Beaumont, Valérie; Guyot, François; Sissmann, Olivier; Pillot, Daniel; Arcilla, Carlo; Prinzhofer, Alain


    This paper proposes a comparative study of reduced gas seepages occurring in ultrabasic to basic rocks outcropping in ophiolitic complexes based on the study of seepages from Oman, the Philippines, Turkey and New Caledonia. This study is based on analyses of the gas chemical composition, noble gases contents, stable isotopes of carbon, hydrogen and nitrogen. These seepages are mostly made of mixtures of three main components which are H2, CH4 and N2 in various proportions. The relative contents of the three main gas components show 4 distinct types of gas mixtures (H2-rich, N2-rich, N2-H2-CH4 and H2-CH4). These types are interpreted as reflecting different zones of gas generation within or below the ophiolitic complexes. In the H2-rich type, associated noble gases display signatures close to the value of air. In addition to the atmospheric component, mantle and crustal contributions are present in the N2-rich, N2-H2-CH4 and H2-CH4 types. H2-bearing gases are either associated with ultra-basic (pH 10-12) spring waters or they seep directly in fracture systems from the ophiolitic rocks. In ophiolitic contexts, ultrabasic rocks provide an adequate environment with available Fe2+ and alkaline conditions that favor H2 production. CH4 is produced either directly by reaction of dissolved CO2 with basic-ultrabasic rocks during the serpentinization process or in a second step by H2-CO2 interaction. H2 is present in the gas when no more carbon is available in the system to generate CH4. The N2-rich type is notably associated with relatively high contents of crustal 4He and in this gas type N2 is interpreted as issued mainly from sediments located below the ophiolitic units.

  18. Kinetics of H2O2-driven degradation of chitin by a bacterial lytic polysaccharide monooxygenase. (United States)

    Kuusk, Silja; Bissaro, Bastien; Kuusk, Piret; Forsberg, Zarah; Eijsink, Vincent G H; Sørlie, Morten; Väljamäe, Priit


    Lytic polysaccharide monooxygenases (LPMOs) catalyze the oxidative cleavage of glycosidic bonds in recalcitrant polysaccharides, such as cellulose and chitin, and are of interest in biotechnological utilization of these abundant biomaterials. It has recently been shown that LPMOs can use H2O2, instead of O2, as a co-substrate. This peroxygenase-like reaction by a mono-copper enzyme is unprecedented in nature and opens new avenues in chemistry and enzymology. Here, we provide the first detailed kinetic characterization of chitin degradation by the bacterial LPMO chitin-binding protein CBP21 using H2O2 as co-substrate. The use of [14C]-labeled chitin provided convenient and sensitive detection of the released soluble products, which enabled detailed kinetic measurements. The kcat for chitin oxidation found here (5.6 s-1) is more than an order of magnitude higher than previously reported (apparent) rate constants for reactions containing O2 but no added H2O2 The kcat/KM for H2O2-driven degradation of chitin was on the order of 106 M-1 s-1, indicating that LPMOs have catalytic efficiencies similar to those of peroxygenases. Of note, H2O2 also inactivated CBP21, but the second-order rate constant for inactivation was about three orders of magnitude lower than that for catalysis. In light of the observed CBP21 inactivation at higher H2O2 levels we conclude that controlled generation of H2O2, in situ, seems most optimal for fueling LPMO-catalyzed oxidation of polysaccharides. Copyright © 2017, The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology.

  19. Eddy Covariance measurements of stable CO2 and H2O isotopologues (United States)

    Braden-Behrens, Jelka; Knohl, Alexander


    The analysis of the stable isotope composition of CO2 and H2O fluxes (such as 13C, 18O and 2H in H2O and CO2) has provided valuable insights into ecosystem gas exchange. The approach builds on differences in the isotope signature of different ecosystem components that are primarily caused by the preference for or the discrimination against respective isotope species by important processes within the ecosystem (e.g. photosynthesis or leaf water diffusion). With the ongoing development of laser spectrometric methods, fast and precise measurements of isotopologue mixing ratios became possible, hence also enabling Eddy Covariance (EC) based approaches to directly measure the isotopic composition of CO2 and H2Ov net fluxes on ecosystem scale. During an eight month long measurement campaign in 2015, we plan to simultaneously measure CO2 and H2Ov isotopologue fluxes using an EC approach in a managed beech forest in Thuringia, Germany. For this purpose, we will use two different laser spectrometers for high frequency measurements of isotopic compositions: For H2Ov measurements, we will use an off axis cavity output water vapour isotope analyser (WVIA, Los Gatos Research Inc.) with 5 Hz response; and for CO2 measurements, we will use a quantum cascade laser-based system (QCLAS, Aerodyne Research Inc.) with thermoelectrically cooled detectors and up to 10 Hz measurement capability. The resulting continuous isotopologue flux measurements will be accompanied by intensive sampling campaigns on the leaf scale: Water from leaf, twig, soil and precipitation samples will be analysed in the lab using isotope ratio mass spectrometry. During data analysis we will put a focus on (i) the influence of carbon and oxygen discrimination on the isotopic signature of respective net ecosystem exchange, (ii) on the relationship between evapotranspiration and leaf water enrichment, and (iii) on the 18O exchange between carbon dioxide and water. At present, we already carried out extensive

  20. Supercritical water gasification of biomass for H2 production: process design. (United States)

    Fiori, Luca; Valbusa, Michele; Castello, Daniele


    The supercritical water gasification (SCWG) of biomass for H(2) production is analyzed in terms of process development and energetic self-sustainability. The conceptual design of a plant is proposed and the SCWG process involving several substrates (glycerol, microalgae, sewage sludge, grape marc, phenol) is simulated by means of AspenPlus™. The influence of various parameters - biomass concentration and typology, reaction pressure and temperature - is analyzed. The process accounts for the possibility of exploiting the mechanical energy of compressed syngas (later burned to sustain the SCWG reaction) through expansion in turbines, while purified H(2) is fed to fuel cells. Results show that the SCWG reaction can be energetically self-sustained if minimum feed biomass concentrations of 15-25% are adopted. Interestingly, the H(2) yields are found to be maximal at similar feed concentrations. Finally, an energy balance is performed showing that the whole process could provide a net power of about 150 kW(e)/(1000 kg(feed)/h). Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Kinetics of the reaction OH + H2O2 yields HO2 + H2O (United States)

    Sridharan, U. C.; Reimann, B.; Kaufman, F.


    The paper describes an experimental study of the title reaction that uses the discharge-flow technique, laser-induced-fluorescence detection of OH and simultaneous monitoring of O and H atoms in the 250-459 K range. The reaction is normal and free from surface effect interference in Teflon or halocarbon wax-coated tube, but not in clean Pyrex. OH radicals are generated in three ways and at low concentrations to eliminate side reactions. The rate constants were determined at 298 K and over the 250-459 K range, with a factor of two higher at 298 K and factors of 3 to 5 higher at 10 to 30 km altitude in the terrestrial atmosphere than previous studies have indicated. The effect of the higher rate constant on atmospheric processes and on recent laboratory measurements of other reactions is also discussed.

  2. Sailuotong Prevents Hydrogen Peroxide (H2O2-Induced Injury in EA.hy926 Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sai Wang Seto


    Full Text Available Sailuotong (SLT is a standardised three-herb formulation consisting of Panax ginseng, Ginkgo biloba, and Crocus sativus designed for the management of vascular dementia. While the latest clinical trials have demonstrated beneficial effects of SLT in vascular dementia, the underlying cellular mechanisms have not been fully explored. The aim of this study was to assess the ability and mechanisms of SLT to act against hydrogen peroxide (H2O2-induced oxidative damage in cultured human vascular endothelial cells (EAhy926. SLT (1–50 µg/mL significantly suppressed the H2O2-induced cell death and abolished the H2O2-induced reactive oxygen species (ROS generation in a concentration-dependent manner. Similarly, H2O2 (0.5 mM; 24 h caused a ~2-fold increase in lactate dehydrogenase (LDH release from the EA.hy926 cells which were significantly suppressed by SLT (1–50 µg/mL in a concentration-dependent manner. Incubation of SLT (50 µg/mL increased superoxide dismutase (SOD activity and suppressed the H2O2-enhanced Bax/Bcl-2 ratio and cleaved caspase-3 expression. In conclusion, our results suggest that SLT protects EA.hy916 cells against H2O2-mediated injury via direct reduction of intracellular ROS generation and an increase in SOD activity. These protective effects are closely associated with the inhibition of the apoptotic death cascade via the suppression of caspase-3 activation and reduction of Bax/Bcl-2 ratio, thereby indicating a potential mechanism of action for the clinical effects observed.

  3. Treatment of hospital laundry wastewater by UV/H2O2 process. (United States)

    Zotesso, Jaqueline Pirão; Cossich, Eneida Sala; Janeiro, Vanderly; Tavares, Célia Regina Granhen


    Hospitals consume a large volume of water to carry out their activities and, hence, generate a large volume of effluent that is commonly discharged into the local sewage system without any treatment. Among the various sectors of healthcare facilities, the laundry is responsible for the majority of water consumption and generates a highly complex effluent. Although several advanced oxidation processes (AOPs) are currently under investigation on the degradation of a variety of contaminants, few of them are based on real wastewater samples. In this paper, the UV/H2O2 AOP was evaluated on the treatment of a hospital laundry wastewater, after the application of a physicochemical pretreatment composed of coagulation-flocculation and anthracite filtration. For the UV/H2O2 process, a photoreactor equipped with a low-pressure UV-C lamp was used and the effects of initial pH and [H2O2]/chemical oxygen demand (COD) ratio on COD removal were investigated through a randomized factorial block design that considered the batches of effluent as blocks. The results indicated that the initial pH had no significant effect on the COD removal, and the process was favored by the increase in [H2O2]/COD ratio. Color and turbidity were satisfactorily reduced after the application of the physicochemical pretreatment, and COD was completely removed by the UV/H2O2 process under suitable conditions. The results of this study show that the UV/H2O2 AOP is a promising candidate for hospital laundry wastewater treatment and should be explored to enable wastewater reuse in the washing process.

  4. Enhanced Synthesis of Alkyl Amino Acids in Miller's 1958 H2S Experiment (United States)

    Parker, Eric T.; Cleaves, H. James; Callahan, Michael P.; Dworkin, James P.; Glavin, Daniel P.; Lazcano, Antonio; Bada, Jeffrey L.


    Stanley Miller's 1958 H2S-containing experiment, which included a simulated prebiotic atmosphere of methane (CH4), ammonia (NH3), carbon dioxide (CO2), and hydrogen sulfide (H2S) produced several alkyl amino acids, including the alpha-, beta-, and gamma-isomers of aminobutyric acid (ABA) in greater relative yields than had previously been reported from his spark discharge experiments. In the presence of H2S, aspariic and glutamic acids could yield alkyl amino acids via the formation of thioimide intermediates. Radical chemistry initiated by passing H2S through a spark discharge could have also enhanced alkyl amino acid synthesis by generating alkyl radicals that can help form the aldehyde and ketone precursors to these amino acids. We propose mechanisms that may have influenced the synthesis of certain amino acids in localized environments rich in H2S and lightning discharges, similar to conditions near volcanic systems on the early Earth, thus contributing to the prebiotic chemical inventory of the primordial Earth.

  5. On the combustion mechanisms of ZrH2 in double-base propellant. (United States)

    Yang, Yanjing; Zhao, Fengqi; Yuan, Zhifeng; Wang, Ying; An, Ting; Chen, Xueli; Xuan, Chunlei; Zhang, Jiankan


    Metal hydrides are regarded as a series of promising hydrogen-supplying fuel for solid rocket propellants. Their effects on the energetic and combustion performances of propellants are closely related to their reaction mechanisms. Here we report a first attempt to determine the reaction mechanism of ZrH2, a high-density metal hydride, in the combustion of a double-base propellant to evaluate its potential as a fuel. ZrH2 is determined to possess good resistance to oxidation by nitrocellulose and nitroglycerine. Thus its combustion starts with dehydrogenation to generate H2 and metallic Zr. Subsequently, the newly formed Zr and H2 participate in the combustion and, especially, Zr melts and then combusts on the burning surface which favors the heat feedback to the propellant. This phenomenon is completely different from the combustion behavior of the traditional fuel Al, where the Al particles are ejected off the burning surface of the propellant to get into the luminous flame zone to burn. The findings in this work validate the potential of ZrH2 as a hydrogen-supplying fuel for double-base propellants.

  6. RSF governs silent chromatin formation via histone H2Av replacement.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazuma Hanai


    Full Text Available Human remodeling and spacing factor (RSF consists of a heterodimer of Rsf-1 and hSNF2H, a counterpart of Drosophila ISWI. RSF possesses not only chromatin remodeling activity but also chromatin assembly activity in vitro. While no other single factor can execute the same activities as RSF, the biological significance of RSF remained unknown. To investigate the in vivo function of RSF, we generated a mutant allele of Drosophila Rsf-1 (dRsf-1. The dRsf-1 mutant behaved as a dominant suppressor of position effect variegation. In dRsf-1 mutant, the levels of histone H3K9 dimethylation and histone H2A variant H2Av were significantly reduced in an euchromatic region juxtaposed with heterochromatin. Furthermore, using both genetic and biochemical approaches, we demonstrate that dRsf-1 interacts with H2Av and the H2Av-exchanging machinery Tip60 complex. These results suggest that RSF contributes to histone H2Av replacement in the pathway of silent chromatin formation.

  7. Molecular hydrogen (H2) emissions from gasoline and diesel vehicles. (United States)

    Bond, S W; Alvarez, R; Vollmer, M K; Steinbacher, M; Weilenmann, M; Reimann, S


    This study assesses individual-vehicle molecular hydrogen (H2) emissions in exhaust gas from current gasoline and diesel vehicles measured on a chassis dynamometer. Absolute H2 emissions were found to be highest for motorcycles and scooters (141+/-38.6 mg km(-1)), approximately 5 times higher than for gasoline-powered automobiles (26.5+/-12.1 mg km(-1)). All diesel-powered vehicles emitted marginal amounts of H2 ( approximately 0.1 mg km(-1)). For automobiles, the highest emission factors were observed for sub-cycles subject to a cold-start (mean of 53.1+/-17.0 mg km(-1)). High speeds also caused elevated H2 emission factors for sub-cycles reaching at least 150 km h(-1) (mean of 40.4+/-7.1 mg km(-1)). We show that H2/CO ratios (mol mol(-1)) from gasoline-powered vehicles are variable (sub-cycle means of 0.44-5.69) and are typically higher (mean for automobiles 1.02, for 2-wheelers 0.59) than previous atmospheric ratios characteristic of traffic-influenced measurements. The lowest mean individual sub-cycle ratios, which correspond to high absolute emissions of both H2 and CO, were observed during cold starts (for automobiles 0.48, for 2-wheelers 0.44) and at high vehicle speeds (for automobiles 0.73, for 2-wheelers 0.45). This finding illustrates the importance of these conditions to observed H2/CO ratios in ambient air. Overall, 2-wheelers displayed lower H2/CO ratios (0.48-0.69) than those from gasoline-powered automobiles (0.75-3.18). This observation, along with the lower H2/CO ratios observed through studies without catalytic converters, suggests that less developed (e.g. 2-wheelers) and older vehicle technologies are largely responsible for the atmospheric H2/CO ratios reported in past literature. 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Chemistry of energetically activated cumulenes - from allene (H2CCCH2) to hexapentaene (H2CCCCCCH2). (United States)

    Gu, Xibin; Kaiser, Ralf I; Mebel, Alexander M


    During the last decade, experimental and theoretical studies on the unimolecular decomposition of cumulenes (H(2)C(n)H(2)) from propadiene (H(2)CCCH(2)) to hexapentaene (H(2)CCCCCCH(2)) have received considerable attention due to the importance of these carbon-bearing molecules in combustion flames, chemical vapor deposition processes, atmospheric chemistry, and the chemistry of the interstellar medium. Cumulenes and their substituted counterparts also have significant technical potential as elements for molecular machines (nanomechanics), molecular wires (nano-electronics), nonlinear optics, and molecular sensors. In this review, we present a systematic overview of the stability, formation, and unimolecular decomposition of chemically, photo-chemically, and thermally activated small to medium-sized cumulenes in extreme environments. By concentrating on reactions under gas phase thermal conditions (pyrolysis) and on molecular beam experiments conducted under single-collision conditions (crossed beam and photodissociation studies), a comprehensive picture on the unimolecular decomposition dynamics of cumulenes transpires.

  9. Kinetics of oxidation of H2 and reduction of H2O in Ni-YSZ based solid oxide cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ebbesen, Sune Dalgaard; Mogensen, Mogens Bjerg


    Reduction of H2O and oxidation of H2 was studied in a Ni-YSZ electrode supported Solid Oxide Cells produced at DTU Energy conversion (former Risø DTU). Polarisation (i-V) and electrochemical impedance spectroscopic characterisation show that the kinetics for reduction of H 2O is slower compared...... to oxidation of H2. The kinetic differences cannot be explained by the reaction mechanisms which are similar in the two cases but are rather an effect of the thermodynamics. The preliminary analysis performed in this study show that the slow kinetic for reduction is partly related to the endothermic nature...... of the reaction, cooling the active electrode, thereby leading to slower kinetics at low current densities. Likewise, the increased kinetic for oxidation was found to be related to the exothermic nature of the reaction, heating the active electrode, and thereby leading to faster kinetics. At higher current...

  10. Coloured Petri Nets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Kurt


    This paper describes how Coloured Petri Nets (CP-nets) have been developed — from being a promising theoretical model to being a full-fledged language for the design, specification, simulation, validation and implementation of large software systems (and other systems in which human beings and...... use of CP-nets — because it means that the function representation and the translations (which are a bit mathematically complex) no longer are parts of the basic definition of CP-nets. Instead they are parts of the invariant method (which anyway demands considerable mathematical skills...

  11. Programming NET Web Services

    CERN Document Server

    Ferrara, Alex


    Web services are poised to become a key technology for a wide range of Internet-enabled applications, spanning everything from straight B2B systems to mobile devices and proprietary in-house software. While there are several tools and platforms that can be used for building web services, developers are finding a powerful tool in Microsoft's .NET Framework and Visual Studio .NET. Designed from scratch to support the development of web services, the .NET Framework simplifies the process--programmers find that tasks that took an hour using the SOAP Toolkit take just minutes. Programming .NET

  12. Annotating Coloured Petri Nets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindstrøm, Bo; Wells, Lisa Marie


    -net. An example of such auxiliary information is a counter which is associated with a token to be able to do performance analysis. Modifying colour sets and arc inscriptions in a CP-net to support a specific use may lead to creation of several slightly different CP-nets – only to support the different uses...... a method which makes it possible to associate auxiliary information, called annotations, with tokens without modifying the colour sets of the CP-net. Annotations are pieces of information that are not essential for determining the behaviour of the system being modelled, but are rather added to support...

  13. Evaluation of multivalent H2 influenza pandemic vaccines in mice. (United States)

    Lenny, Brian J; Sonnberg, Stephanie; Danner, Angela F; Friedman, Kimberly; Webby, Richard J; Webster, Robert G; Jones, Jeremy C


    Subtype H2 Influenza A viruses were the cause of a severe pandemic in the winter of 1957. However, this subtype no longer circulates in humans and is no longer included in seasonal vaccines. As a result, individuals under 50years of age are immunologically naïve. H2 viruses persist in aquatic birds, which were a contributing source for the 1957 pandemic, and have also been isolated from swine. Reintroduction of the H2 via zoonotic transmission has been identified as a pandemic risk, so pre-pandemic planning should include preparation and testing of vaccine candidates against this subtype. We evaluated the immunogenicity of two inactivated, whole virus influenza vaccines (IVV) in mice: a monovalent IVV containing human pandemic virus A/Singapore/1/1957 (H2N2), and a multivalent IVV containing human A/Singapore/1/1957, avian A/Duck/HongKong/319/1978 (H2N2), and swine A/Swine/Missouri/2124514/2006 (H2N3) viruses. While both vaccines induced protective immunity compared to naïve animals, the multivalent formulation was advantageous over the monovalent in terms of level and breadth of serological responses, neutralization of infectious virus, and reduction of clinical disease and respiratory tissue replication in mice. Therefore, multivalent pandemic H2 vaccines containing diverse viruses from animal reservoirs, are a potential option to improve the immune responses in a pre-pandemic scenario where antigenic identity cannot be predicted. Copyright © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  14. Calculation of intermolecular potentials for H2sbnd H2 and H2sbnd O2 dimers ab initio and prediction of second virial coefficients (United States)

    Pham Van, Tat; Deiters, Ulrich K.


    The intermolecular interaction potentials of the dimers H2sbnd H2 and H2sbnd O2 were calculated from quantum mechanics, using coupled-cluster theory CCSD(T) and correlation-consistent basis sets aug-cc-pVmZ (m = 2, 3); the results were extrapolated to the basis set limit aug-cc-pV23Z. The interaction energies were corrected for the basis set superposition error with the counterpoise scheme. For comparison also Møller-Plesset perturbation theory (at levels 2-4) with the basis sets aug-cc-pVTZ were considered, but the results proved inferior. The quantum mechanical results were used to construct analytical pair potential functions. From these functions the second virial coefficients of hydrogen and the cross virial coefficients of the hydrogen-oxygen system were obtained by integration; in both cases corrections for quantum effects were included. The results agree well with experimental data, if available, or with empirical correlations.

  15. Preparation of polyaniline/PbS core-shell nano/microcomposite and its application for photocatalytic H2 electrogeneration from H2O. (United States)

    Rabia, Mohamed; Mohamed, H S H; Shaban, Mohamed; Taha, S


    Lead sulfide (PbS) and polyaniline (PANI) nano/microparticles were prepared. Then, PANI/PbS core-shell nano/microcomposites (I, II, and III) were prepared by oxidative polymerization of different aniline concentrations (0.01, 0.03, and 0.05 M), respectively, in the presence of 0.05 M PbS. FT-IR, XRD, SEM, HR-TEM, and UV-Vis analyses were carried out to characterize the samples. From the FT-IR data, there are redshifts in PbS and PANI nano/microparticles bands in comparison with PANI/PbS nano/microcomposites. The average crystallite sizes of PANI/PbS core-shell nano/microcomposites (I, II, and III) from XRD analyses were 46.5, 55, and 42.16 nm, respectively. From the optical analyses, nano/microcomposite (II) has the optimum optical properties with two band gaps values of 1.41 and 2.79 eV. Then, the nano/microcomposite (II) membrane electrode supported on ITO glass was prepared and applied on the photoelectrochemical (PEC) H2 generation from H2O. The characteristics current-voltage and current-time behaviors were measured at different wavelengths from 390 to 636 nm. Also, the incident photon-to-current conversion efficiency (IPCE) under monochromatic illumination condition was calculated. The optimum values for IPCE were 36.5 and 35.2% at 390 and 405 nm, respectively. Finally, a simple mechanism for PEC H2 generation from H2O using the nano/microcomposite (II) membrane electrode was mentioned.

  16. A new variant of Petri net controlled grammars (United States)

    Jan, Nurhidaya Mohamad; Turaev, Sherzod; Fong, Wan Heng; Sarmin, Nor Haniza


    A Petri net controlled grammar is a Petri net with respect to a context-free grammar where the successful derivations of the grammar can be simulated using the occurrence sequences of the net. In this paper, we introduce a new variant of Petri net controlled grammars, called a place-labeled Petri net controlled grammar, which is a context-free grammar equipped with a Petri net and a function which maps places of the net to productions of the grammar. The language consists of all terminal strings that can be obtained by parallelly applying multisets of the rules which are the images of the sets of the input places of transitions in a successful occurrence sequence of the Petri net. We study the effect of the different labeling strategies to the computational power and establish lower and upper bounds for the generative capacity of place-labeled Petri net controlled grammars.

  17. A novel near-infrared fluorescent probe for H2O2 in alkaline environment and the application for H2O2 imaging in vitro and in vivo. (United States)

    Liu, Keyin; Shang, Huiming; Kong, Xiuqi; Ren, Mingguang; Wang, Jian-Yong; Liu, Yong; Lin, Weiying


    H2O2 as one of the most important ROS (Reactive Oxygen Species) has more attack activity to biomolecules such as DNA, RNA, protein and enzyme in alkaline environment and leads to a series of disease. However, no attention has been paid to the fluorescent detection of H2O2 in alkaline environment in the past. Herein, we reported the first ratiometric near-infrared fluorescent probe based on a boric acid derivative of Changsha near-infrared dye (CSBOH) for H2O2 detection in alkaline condition and the application for H2O2 imaging in vivo. ICT (intra-molecular charge transfer) mechanism was used in CSBOH to modulate the fluorescence change. The photophysical change of CSBOH was investigated by comparison with a phenol derivative of Changsha near-infrared dye (CSOH), a structural analogue bearing phenol group. In the presence of H2O2, CSBOH exhibited remarkably different fluorescence change at 650 nm and 720 nm when excited by 560 nm and 670 nm light respectively in alkaline buffer and showed high selectivity toward H2O2. Cellular experiments demonstrate that CSBOH can image endogenously generated H2O2 in macrophages and A431 cells. In vivo experiment demonstrates that both CSOH and CSBOH can be used for bio-imaging, and CSBOH can image H2O2 in living animal successfully. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Net zero water

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Lindeque, M


    Full Text Available Is it possible to develop a building that uses a net zero amount of water? In recent years it has become evident that it is possible to have buildings that use a net zero amount of electricity. This is possible when the building is taken off...

  19. SolNet

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jordan, Ulrike; Vajen, Klaus; Bales, Chris


    SolNet, founded in 2006, is the first coordinated International PhD education program on Solar Thermal Engineering. The SolNet network is coordinated by the Institute of Thermal Engineering at Kassel University, Germany. The network offers PhD courses on solar heating and cooling, conference...

  20. Kunstige neurale net

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hørning, Annette


    Artiklen beskæftiger sig med muligheden for at anvende kunstige neurale net i forbindelse med datamatisk procession af naturligt sprog, specielt automatisk talegenkendelse.......Artiklen beskæftiger sig med muligheden for at anvende kunstige neurale net i forbindelse med datamatisk procession af naturligt sprog, specielt automatisk talegenkendelse....

  1. H∞ /H2 model reduction through dilated linear matrix inequalities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Adegas, Fabiano Daher; Stoustrup, Jakob


    This paper presents sufficient dilated linear matrix inequalities (LMI) conditions to the $H_{infty}$ and $H_{2}$ model reduction problem. A special structure of the auxiliary (slack) variables allows the original model of order $n$ to be reduced to an order $r=n/s$ where $n,r,s in field{N}$. Arb......This paper presents sufficient dilated linear matrix inequalities (LMI) conditions to the $H_{infty}$ and $H_{2}$ model reduction problem. A special structure of the auxiliary (slack) variables allows the original model of order $n$ to be reduced to an order $r=n/s$ where $n,r,s in field...... not satisfactorily approximates the original system, an iterative algorithm based on dilated LMIs is proposed to significantly improve the approximation bound. The effectiveness of the method is accessed by numerical experiments. The method is also applied to the $H_2$ order reduction of a flexible wind turbine...

  2. Data-Driven Controller Design The H2 Approach

    CERN Document Server

    Sanfelice Bazanella, Alexandre; Eckhard, Diego


    Data-driven methodologies have recently emerged as an important paradigm alternative to model-based controller design and several such methodologies are formulated as an H2 performance optimization. This book presents a comprehensive theoretical treatment of the H2 approach to data-driven control design. The fundamental properties implied by the H2 problem formulation are analyzed in detail, so that common features to all solutions are identified. Direct methods (VRFT) and iterative methods (IFT, DFT, CbT) are put under a common theoretical framework. The choice of the reference model, the experimental conditions, the optimization method to be used, and several other designer’s choices are crucial to the quality of the final outcome, and firm guidelines for all these choices are derived from the theoretical analysis presented. The practical application of the concepts in the book is illustrated with a large number of practical designs performed for different classes of processes: thermal, fluid processing a...

  3. A Global PLASIMO Model for H2O Chemistry (United States)

    Tadayon Mousavi, Samaneh; Koelman, Peter; Graef, Wouter; Mihailova, Diana; van Dijk, Jan; EPG/ Applied Physics/ Eindhoven University of Technology Team; Plasma Matters B. V. Team


    Global warming is one of the critical contemporary problems for mankind. Transformation of CO2 into fuels, like CH4, that are transportable with the current infrastructure seems a promising idea to solve this threatening issue. The final aim of this research is to produce CH4 by using microwave plasma in CO2 -H2 O mixture and follow-up catalytic processes. In this contribution we present a global model for H2 O chemistry that is based on the PLASIMO plasma modeling toolkit. The time variation of the electron energy and the species' densities are calculated based on the source and loss terms in plasma due to chemical reactions. The short simulation times of such models allow an efficient assessment and chemical reduction of the H2O chemistry, which is required for full spatially resolved simulations.

  4. Physicochemical characteristics of anaerobic H2-producing granular sludge. (United States)

    Li, Wen-Wei; Yu, Han-Qing


    Granule-based biological H2 production processes are gaining great popularity in recent years. An efficient and stable operating of such systems relies heavily on the performance of the H2-producing granules (HPGs), which possess many unique properties compared with floc sludge and methanogenic granules. Hence, a full understanding of the sludge characteristics is essential. Especially, the physicochemical properties of HPGs may provide useful information for effective evaluation of system status. This review offers a systematical introduction of the physicochemical properties of HPGs, including size, morphology, settling velocity, permeability, rheology, surface charge, hydrophobicity and extracellular polymeric substances (EPS). We also analyze the relationships between these physicochemical factors and the system performance, and discuss the remaining challenges and future implications for sludge characterization and process monitoring. This work may facilitate a better understanding of granule-based biological H2 production processes and offer a basis for timely process monitoring and manipulation. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Characterization of titanium dioxide nanoparticles modified with polyacrylic acid and H2O2 for use as a novel radiosensitizer. (United States)

    Morita, Kenta; Miyazaki, Serika; Numako, Chiya; Ikeno, Shinya; Sasaki, Ryohei; Nishimura, Yuya; Ogino, Chiaki; Kondo, Akihiko


    An induction of polyacrylic acid-modified titanium dioxide with hydrogen peroxide nanoparticles (PAA-TiO2/H2O2 NPs) to a tumor exerted a therapeutic enhancement of X-ray irradiation in our previous study. To understand the mechanism of the radiosensitizing effect of PAA-TiO2/H2O2 NPs, analytical observations that included DLS, FE-SEM, FT-IR, XAFS, and Raman spectrometry were performed. In addition, highly reactive oxygen species (hROS) which PAA-TiO2/H2O2 NPs produced with X-ray irradiation were quantified by using a chemiluminescence method and a EPR spin-trapping method. We found that PAA-TiO2/H2O2 NPs have almost the same characteristics as PAA-TiO2. Surprisingly, there were no significant differences in hROS generation. However, the existence of H2O2 was confirmed in PAA-TiO2/H2O2 NPs, because spontaneous hROS production was observed w/o X-ray irradiation. In addition, PAA-TiO2/H2O2 NPs had a curious characteristic whereby they absorbed H2O2 molecules and released them gradually into a liquid phase. Based on these results, the H2O2 was continuously released from PAA-TiO2/H2O2 NPs, and then released H2O2 assumed to be functioned indirectly as a radiosensitizing factor.

  6. H2O2_COD_EPA; MEC_acclimation (United States)

    H2O2_COD_EPA: Measurements of hydrogen peroxide and COD concentrations for water samples from the MEC reactors.MEC_acclimation: raw data for current and voltage of the anode in the MEC reactor.This dataset is associated with the following publication:Sim, J., J. An, E. Elbeshbishy, R. Hodon, and H. Lee. Characterization and optimization of cathodic conditions for H2O2 synthesis in microbial electrochemical cells. Bioresource Technology. Elsevier Online, New York, NY, USA, 195: 31-36, (2015).

  7. Reduction of nitrobenzene with H2 using a microbial consortium. (United States)

    Cao, Hong-Bin; Li, Yu-Ping; Zhang, Gui-Feng; Zhang, Yi


    Proof of concept was obtained that nitrobenzene can be reduced to aniline by a mixed reductive microbial culture using H2 as the sole electron donor source. In a continuous-flow anaerobic bioreactor, both pH and temperature affected nitrobenzene reduction with optima of pH 6.5-6.8 and 30 degrees C. The efficiency of nitrobenzene degradation increased with H2 up to 10% (v/v). An increase in sulfate concentration decreased the removal rate of nitrobenzene.

  8. Proses Absorpsi Gas H2S Menggunakan Metildietanolamin


    W, Ririen; Bahruddin, Bahruddin; Zultiniar, Zultiniar


    H2S in the oil and gas industry is undesirable because it can lead to corrosion of pipes and equipment production. The purpose of this research is to study the effect of distance and the injection of absorbent flow rate. Absorption processes carried out continuously with free variables absorbent flow rate of 40 ml/min, 60 ml/min, 80 ml/min and 100 ml/min, with a distance of injection of 110 m, 140 m , and 170 m. The results of absorption H2S was measured by using a gas detector tube sys...

  9. Inhibition of PKR protects against H2O2-induced injury on neonatal cardiac myocytes by attenuating apoptosis and inflammation. (United States)

    Wang, Yongyi; Men, Min; Xie, Bo; Shan, Jianggui; Wang, Chengxi; Liu, Jidong; Zheng, Hui; Yang, Wengang; Xue, Song; Guo, Changfa


    Reactive oxygenation species (ROS) generated from reperfusion results in cardiac injury through apoptosis and inflammation, while PKR has the ability to promote apoptosis and inflammation. The aim of the study was to investigate whether PKR is involved in hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) induced neonatal cardiac myocytes (NCM) injury. In our study, NCM, when exposed to H2O2, resulted in persistent activation of PKR due to NCM endogenous RNA. Inhibition of PKR by 2-aminopurine (2-AP) or siRNA protected against H2O2 induced apoptosis and injury. To elucidate the mechanism, we revealed that inhibition of PKR alleviated H2O2 induced apoptosis companied by decreased caspase3/7 activity, BAX and caspase-3 expression. We also revealed that inhibition of PKR suppressed H2O2 induced NFκB pathway and NLRP3 activation. Finally, we found ADAR1 mRNA and protein expression were both induced after H2O2 treatment through STAT-2 dependent pathway. By gain and loss of ADAR1 expression, we confirmed ADAR1 modulated PKR activity. Therefore, we concluded inhibition of PKR protected against H2O2-induced injury by attenuating apoptosis and inflammation. A self-preservation mechanism existed in NCM that ADAR1 expression is induced by H2O2 to limit PKR activation simultaneously. These findings identify a novel role for PKR/ADAR1 in myocardial reperfusion injury.

  10. MHC class I Dk locus and Ly49G2+ NK cells confer H-2k resistance to murine cytomegalovirus. (United States)

    Xie, Xuefang; Stadnisky, Michael D; Brown, Michael G


    Essential NK cell-mediated murine CMV (MCMV) resistance is under histocompatibility-2(k) (H-2(k)) control in MA/My mice. We generated a panel of intra-H2(k) recombinant strains from congenic C57L.M-H2(k/b) (MCMV resistant) mice for precise genetic mapping of the critical interval. Recombination breakpoint sites were precisely mapped and MCMV resistance/susceptibility traits were determined for each of the new lines to identify the MHC locus. Strains C57L.M-H2(k)(R7) (MCMV resistant) and C57L.M-H2(k)(R2) (MCMV susceptible) are especially informative; we found that allelic variation in a 0.3-megabase interval in the class I D locus confers substantial difference in MCMV control phenotypes. When NK cell subsets responding to MCMV were examined, we found that Ly49G2(+) NK cells rapidly expand and selectively acquire an enhanced capacity for cytolytic functions only in C57L.M-H2(k)(R7). We further show that depletion of Ly49G2(+) NK cells before infection abrogated MCMV resistance in C57L.M-H2(k)(R7). We conclude that the MHC class I D locus prompts expansion and activation of Ly49G2(+) NK cells that are needed in H-2(k) MCMV resistance.

  11. Differential deposition of H2A.Z in rice seedling tissue during the day-night cycle. (United States)

    Zhang, Kang; Xu, Wenying; Wang, Chunchao; Yi, Xin; Su, Zhen


    Chromatin structure has an important role in modulating gene expression. The incorporation of histone variants into the nucleosome leads to important changes in the chromatin structure. The histone variant H2A.Z is highly conserved between different species of fungi, animals, and plants. However, dynamic changes to H2A.Z in rice have not been reported during the day-night cycle. In this study, we generated genome wide maps of H2A.Z for day and night time in harvested seedling tissues by combining chromatin immunoprecipitation and high-throughput sequencing. The analysis results for the H2A.Z data sets detected 7099 genes with higher depositions of H2A.Z in seedling tissues harvested at night compared with seedling tissues harvested during the day, whereas 4597 genes had higher H2A.Z depositions in seedlings harvested during the day. The gene expression profiles data suggested that H2A.Z probably negatively regulated gene expression during the day-night cycle and was involved in many important biologic processes. In general, our results indicated that H2A.Z may play an important role in plant responses to the diurnal oscillation process.

  12. Single Molecular Junction Study on H2 O@C60 : H2 O is "Electrostatically Isolated". (United States)

    Kaneko, Satoshi; Hashikawa, Yoshifumi; Fujii, Shintaro; Murata, Yasujiro; Kiguchi, Manabu


    A water molecule exhibits characteristic properties on the basis of hydrogen bonding. In the past decade, single water molecules placed in non-hydrogen-bonding environments have attracted growing attention. To reveal the fundamental properties of a single water molecule, endohedral fullerene H2 O@C60 is an ideal and suitable model. We examined the electronic properties of H2 O@C60 by performing single-molecule measurements. The conductance of a single molecular junction based on H2 O@C60 was found to be comparable to that of empty C60 . The observed values were remarkably higher than those obtained for conventional molecular junctions due to the effective hybridization of the π-conjugated system to the metal electrode. Additionally, the results undoubtedly exclude the possibility of electrostatic contact of entrapped H2 O with the carbon wall of C60 . We finally concluded that H2 O entrapped inside a C60 cage can be regarded as an electrostatically isolated molecule. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  13. The H2 + CO ↔ H2CO Reaction: Rate Constants and Relevance to Hot and Dense Astrophysical Media (United States)

    Vichietti, R. M.; Spada, R. F. K.; da Silva, A. B. F.; Machado, F. B. C.; Haiduke, R. L. A.


    A theoretical thermochemical and kinetic investigation of the thermal H2 + CO ↔ H2CO reaction was performed for a temperature range from 200 to 4000 K. Geometries and vibrational frequencies of reactants, product, and transition state (TS) were obtained at CCSD/cc-pVxZ (x = T and Q) levels and scaling factors were employed to consider anharmonicity effects on vibrational frequencies, zero-point energies, and thermal corrections provided by these methodologies. Enthalpies Gibbs energies, and rate constants for this reaction were determined by including a complete basis set extrapolation correction for the electronic properties calculated at CCSD(T)/cc-pVyZ (y = Q and 5) levels. Our study indicates that enthalpy changes for this reaction are highly dependent on temperature. Moreover, forward and reverse (high-pressure limit) rate constants were obtained from variational TS theory with quantum tunneling corrections. Thus, modified Arrhenius’ equations were fitted by means of the best forward and reverse rate constant values, which provide very reliable estimates for these quantities within the temperature range between 700 and 4000 K. To our knowledge, this is the first kinetic study done for the forward H2 + CO \\to H2CO process in a wide temperature range. Finally, these results can be used to explain the formaldehyde abundance in hot and dense interstellar media, possibly providing data about the physical conditions associated with H2CO masers close to massive star-forming regions.

  14. Seasonal change in CO2 and H2O exchange between grassland and atmosphere

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Saigusa


    Full Text Available The seasonal change in CO2 flux over an artificial grassland was analyzed from the ecological and meteorological point of view. This grassland contains C3 and C4 plants; the three dominant species belonging to the Gramineae; Festuca elatior (C3 dominated in early spring, and Imperata cylindrica (C4 and Andropogon virginicus (C4 grew during early summer and became dominant in mid-summer. CO2 flux was measured by the gradient method, and the routinely observed data for the surface-heat budget were used to analyze the CO2 and H2O exchange between the grassland and atmosphere. From August to October in 1993, CO2 flux was reduced to around half under the same solar-radiation conditions, while H2O flux decreased 20% during the same period. The monthly values of water use efficiency, i.e., ratio of CO2 flux to H2O flux decreased from 5.8 to 3.3 mg CO2/g H2O from August to October, the Bowen ratio increased from 0.20 to 0.30, and the ratio of the bulk latent heat transfer coefficient CE to the sensible heat transfer coefficient CH was maintained around 0.40-0.50. The increase in the Bowen ratio was explained by the decrease in air temperature from 22.3 °C in August to 16.6 °C in October without considering biological effects such as stomatal closure on the individual leaves. The nearly constant CE/CH ratios suggested that the contribution ratio of canopy resistance to aerodynamic resistance did not change markedly, although the meteorological conditions changed seasonally. The decrease in the water use efficiency, however, suggested that the photosynthetic rate decreased for individual leaves from August to October under the same radiation conditions. Diurnal variations of CO2 exchange were simulated by the multi-layer canopy model taking into account the differences in the stomatal conductance and photosynthetic pathway between C3 and C4 plants. The results suggested that C4 plants played a major role in the CO2 exchange in August, the contribution

  15. Seasonal change in CO2 and H2O exchange between grassland and atmosphere

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Oikawa

    Full Text Available The seasonal change in CO2 flux over an artificial grassland was analyzed from the ecological and meteorological point of view. This grassland contains C3 and C4 plants; the three dominant species belonging to the Gramineae; Festuca elatior (C3 dominated in early spring, and Imperata cylindrica (C4 and Andropogon virginicus (C4 grew during early summer and became dominant in mid-summer. CO2 flux was measured by the gradient method, and the routinely observed data for the surface-heat budget were used to analyze the CO2 and H2O exchange between the grassland and atmosphere. From August to October in 1993, CO2 flux was reduced to around half under the same solar-radiation conditions, while H2O flux decreased 20% during the same period. The monthly values of water use efficiency, i.e., ratio of CO2 flux to H2O flux decreased from 5.8 to 3.3 mg CO2/g H2O from August to October, the Bowen ratio increased from 0.20 to 0.30, and the ratio of the bulk latent heat transfer coefficient CE to the sensible heat transfer coefficient CH was maintained around 0.40-0.50. The increase in the Bowen ratio was explained by the decrease in air temperature from 22.3 °C in August to 16.6 °C in October without considering biological effects such as stomatal closure on the individual leaves. The nearly constant CE/CH ratios suggested that the contribution ratio of canopy resistance to aerodynamic resistance did not change markedly, although the meteorological conditions changed seasonally. The decrease in the water use efficiency, however, suggested that the photosynthetic rate decreased for individual leaves from August to October under the same radiation conditions. Diurnal variations of CO2 exchange were simulated by the multi-layer canopy model taking into account the differences in the stomatal conductance and photosynthetic pathway between C3 and C4 plants. The results suggested that C4 plants played a major role in the CO2 exchange in August, the contribution

  16. Interfacial contributions of H2O2 decomposition-induced reaction current on mesoporous Pt/TiO2 systems (United States)

    Ray, Nathan J.; Styrov, Vladislav V.; Karpov, Eduard G.


    We report on conversion of energy released due to chemical reactions into current for the decomposition of aqueous hydrogen peroxide solution on single phases Pt and TiO2, in addition to Pt and TiO2 simultaneously. We observe that H2O2 decomposition-induced current on TiO2 drastically overshadows the current generated by H2O2 decomposition on Pt. Photo-effects avoided, H2O2 decomposition was found to yield a conversion efficiency of 10-3 electrons generated per H2O2 molecule. Further understanding of chemical reaction-induced current shows promise as a metric with which the surface reaction may be monitored and could be greatly extended into the field of analytical chemistry.

  17. A Lightweight TwiddleNet Portal (United States)


    designed to exploit the multiple networking modalities available in the current generation of smartphones . TwiddleNet enables well-organized and well...of Sonopia and will have a comprehensive review of the service in the coming weeks [12]. Twango, which was acquired by Nokia in July 2007, is an...EXPERIMENTATION As already mentioned the main purpose of this thesis is the development of a TwiddleNet portal running on a smartphone or a PDA, which can allow

  18. 3D H2BC: A novel experiment for small-molecule and biomolecular NMR at natural isotopic abundance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meier, Sebastian; Benie, Andrew J; Duus, Jens Øllgaard


    3D H2BC is introduced for heteronuclear assignment on natural abundance samples even for biomolecules up to at least 10 kDa in low millimolar concentrations as an overnight experiment using the latest generation of cryogenically cooled probes. The short pulse sequence duration of H2BC is maintained...... in the 3D version due to multiple use of the constant-time delay. Applications ranging from a small lipid to a non-recombinant protein demonstrate the merits of 3D H2BC and the ease of obtaining assignments in chains of protonated carbons....

  19. A Critical Review of Models of the H-2/H2O/Ni/SZ Electrode Kinetics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mogensen, Mogens Bjerg; Høgh, Jens Valdemar Thorvald; Hansen, Karin Vels


    sets, which do not fit the model. We have inspected some models in the literature, and problems (e.g. no quantitative model has explained the large variation in reported values of apparent activation energy of the electrode kinetics) as well as strengths of the models are discussed. We point out......Various models of the H-2/H2O/Ni/SZ (SZ = stabilized zirconia) electrode kinetics have been presented in the literature in order to explain the reported experimental data. However, there has been a strong tendency of using a limited set of data to "verify" a given model, disregarding other data...... experimental findings that a useful model must be able to explain such as difference in sensitivity to poisoning by H2S due to differences in the detailed composition of the SZ and large change in apparent activation energy by change in cermet preparation. Finally, we will point out some elements, which seem...

  20. Solar kerosene from H2O and CO2 (United States)

    Furler, P.; Marxer, D.; Scheffe, J.; Reinalda, D.; Geerlings, H.; Falter, C.; Batteiger, V.; Sizmann, A.; Steinfeld, A.


    The entire production chain for renewable kerosene obtained directly from sunlight, H2O, and CO2 is experimentally demonstrated. The key component of the production process is a high-temperature solar reactor containing a reticulated porous ceramic (RPC) structure made of ceria, which enables the splitting of H2O and CO2 via a 2-step thermochemical redox cycle. In the 1st reduction step, ceria is endo-thermally reduced using concentrated solar radiation as the energy source of process heat. In the 2nd oxidation step, nonstoichiometric ceria reacts with H2O and CO2 to form H2 and CO - syngas - which is finally converted into kerosene by the Fischer-Tropsch process. The RPC featured dual-scale porosity for enhanced heat and mass transfer: mm-size pores for volumetric radiation absorption during the reduction step and μm-size pores within its struts for fast kinetics during the oxidation step. We report on the engineering design of the solar reactor and the experimental demonstration of over 290 consecutive redox cycles for producing high-quality syngas suitable for the processing of liquid hydrocarbon fuels.

  1. Intermolecular Interactions in Ternary Glycerol–Sample–H2O

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Westh, Peter; Rasmussen, Erik Lumby; Koga, Yoshikata


    We studied the intermolecular interactions in ternary glycerol (Gly)–sample (S)–H2O systems at 25 °C. By measuring the excess partial molar enthalpy of Gly, HGlyEHEGly, we evaluated the Gly–Gly enthalpic interaction, HGly-GlyEHEGly--Gly, in the presence of various samples (S). For S, tert...

  2. Selective effects of H2O2 on cyanobacterial photosynthesis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Drabkova, M.; Matthijs, H.C.P.; Admiraal, W.; Marsalek, B.


    Abstract: The sensitivity of phytoplankton species for hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) was analyzed by pulse amplitude modulated (PAM) fluorometry. The inhibition of photosynthesis was more severe in five tested cyanobacterial species than in three green algal species and one diatom species. Hence the

  3. Robust H2 performance for sampled-data systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rank, Mike Lind


    Robust H2 performance conditions under structured uncertainty, analogous to well known methods for H∞ performance, have recently emerged in both discrete and continuous-time. This paper considers the extension into uncertain sampled-data systems, taking into account inter-sample behavior. Convex...

  4. PEM Electrolysis H2A Production Case Study Documentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    James, Brian [Strategic Analysis Inc. (SA), Arlington, Virginia; Colella, Whitney [Strategic Analysis Inc. (SA), Arlington, Virginia; Moton, Jennie [Strategic Analysis Inc. (SA), Arlington, Virginia; Saur, G. [Strategic Analysis Inc. (SA), Arlington, Virginia; Ramsden, T. [Strategic Analysis Inc. (SA), Arlington, Virginia


    This report documents the development of four DOE Hydrogen Analysis (H2A) case studies for polymer electrolyte membrane (PEM) electrolysis. The four cases characterize PEM electrolyzer technology for two hydrogen production plant sizes (Forecourt and Central) and for two technology development time horizons (Current and Future).

  5. Ultrafast Librational Relaxation of H2O in Liquid Water

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Jakob; Møller, Klaus Braagaard; Rey, Rossend


    The ultrafast librational (hindered rotational) relaxation of a rotationally excited H2O molecule in pure liquid water is investigated by means of classical nonequilibrium molecular dynamics simulations and a power and work analysis. This analysis allows the mechanism of the energy transfer from...

  6. Inelastic scattering in metal-H-2-metal junctions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, I. S.; Paulsson, Magnus; Thygesen, Kristian Sommer


    of longitudinal vibrations of the H-2 molecule. In the case of Pt electrodes, the transverse vibrations can mediate transport through otherwise nontransmitting Pt d channels leading to an increase in the differential conductance even though the hydrogen junction is characterized predominately by a single almost...

  7. Atmospheric photochemical loss of H and H2 from formaldehyde

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simonsen, Jens Bæk; Rusteika, Nerijus; Johnson, Matthew Stanley


    We have performed ab initio calculations to examine the potential energy along the normal modes of ground-state HCHO and along the reaction coordinates for loss of H2 and atomic hydrogen, respectively. This exploration showed that there are no specific features that will lead to reaction on the e...

  8. ISO Spectroscopy of H2 in Star Forming Regions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van den Ancker, M. E.; Wesselius, P. R.; Tielens, A. G. G. M.


    Abstract: We have studied molecular hydrogen emission in a sample of 21 YSOs using spectra obtained with the Infrared Space Observatory (ISO). H2 emission was detected in 12 sources and can be explained as arising in either a shock, caused by the interaction of an outflow from an embedded YSO with

  9. submitter Thermodynamics of the formation of sulfuric acid dimers in the binary (H2SO4–H2O) and ternary (H2SO4–H2O–NH3) system

    CERN Document Server

    Kürten, A; Rondo, L; Bianchi, F; Duplissy, J; Jokinen, T; Junninen, H; Sarnela, N; Schobesberger, S; Simon, M; Sipilä, M; Almeida, J; Amorim, A; Dommen, J; Donahue, N M; Dunne, E M; Flagan, R C; Franchin, A; Kirkby, J; Kupc, A; Makhmutov, V; Petäjä, T; Praplan, A P; Riccobono, F; Steiner, G; Tomé, A; Tsagkogeorgas, G; Wagner, P E; Wimmer, D; Baltensperger, U; Kulmala, M; Worsnop, D R; Curtius, J


    Sulfuric acid is an important gas influencing atmospheric new particle formation (NPF). Both the binary $(H_2SO_4–H_2O)$ system and the ternary system involving ammonia $(H_2SO_4–H_2O–NH_3)$ may be important in the free troposphere. An essential step in the nucleation of aerosol particles from gas-phase precursors is the formation of a dimer, so an understanding of the thermodynamics of dimer formation over a wide range of atmospheric conditions is essential to describe NPF. We have used the CLOUD chamber to conduct nucleation experiments for these systems at temperatures from 208 to 248 K. Neutral monomer and dimer concentrations of sulfuric acid were measured using a chemical ionization mass spectrometer (CIMS). From these measurements, dimer evaporation rates in the binary system were derived for temperatures of 208 and 223 K. We compare these results to literature data from a previous study that was conducted at higher temperatures but is in good agreement with the present study. For the ternary sys...

  10. Dynamics of H2 on Ti/Al(100) surfaces

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chen, Jian-Cheng


    What is the catalytic role played by titanium in the hydrogen storage material NaAlH4? This thesis aims at unraveling the dynamics of an elementary reaction: H2 dissociation on Ti/Al(100) surfaces. Although this reaction is not the rate limiting step in the hydrogen storage of NaAlH4, it is an

  11. Hydrogen Financial Analysis Scenario Tool (H2FAST); NREL (National Renewable Energy Laboratory)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Melaina, Marc


    This presentation describes the Hydrogen Financial Analysis Scenario Tool, H2FAST, and provides an overview of each of the three H2FAST formats: the H2FAST web tool, the H2FAST Excel spreadsheet, and the H2FAST Business Case Scenario (BCS) tool. Examples are presented to illustrate the types of questions that H2FAST can help answer.

  12. Vibrational investigations of CO2-H2O, CO2-(H2O)2, and (CO2)2-H2O complexes isolated in solid neon. (United States)

    Soulard, P; Tremblay, B


    The van der Waals complex of H2O with CO2 has attracted considerable theoretical interest as a typical example of a weak binding complex with a dissociation energy less than 3 kcal/mol. Up to now, experimental vibrational data are sparse. We have studied by FTIR the complexes involving CO2 and water molecules in solid neon. Many new absorption bands close to the well known monomers fundamentals give evidence for at least three (CO2)n-(H2O)m complexes, noted n:m. Concentration effects combined with a detailed vibrational analysis allow for the identification of sixteen, twelve, and five transitions for the 1:1, 1:2, and 2:1 complexes, respectively. Careful examination of the far infrared spectral region allows the assignment of several 1:1 and 1:2 intermolecular modes, confirmed by the observation of combinations of intra + intermolecular transitions, and anharmonic coupling constants have been derived. Our results demonstrate the high sensibility of the solid neon isolation to investigate the hydrogen-bonded complexes in contrast with the gas phase experiments for which two quanta transitions cannot be easily observed.

  13. Pro NET Best Practices

    CERN Document Server

    Ritchie, Stephen D


    Pro .NET Best Practices is a practical reference to the best practices that you can apply to your .NET projects today. You will learn standards, techniques, and conventions that are sharply focused, realistic and helpful for achieving results, steering clear of unproven, idealistic, and impractical recommendations. Pro .NET Best Practices covers a broad range of practices and principles that development experts agree are the right ways to develop software, which includes continuous integration, automated testing, automated deployment, and code analysis. Whether the solution is from a free and

  14. Instant Lucene.NET

    CERN Document Server

    Heydt, Michael


    Filled with practical, step-by-step instructions and clear explanations for the most important and useful tasks. A step-by-step guide that helps you to index, search, and retrieve unstructured data with the help of Lucene.NET.Instant Lucene.NET How-to is essential for developers new to Lucene and Lucene.NET who are looking to get an immediate foundational understanding of how to use the library in their application. It's assumed you have programming experience in C# already, but not that you have experience with search techniques such as information retrieval theory (although there will be a l

  15. H2 emission from non-stationary magnetized bow shocks (United States)

    Tram, L. N.; Lesaffre, P.; Cabrit, S.; Gusdorf, A.; Nhung, P. T.


    When a fast moving star or a protostellar jet hits an interstellar cloud, the surrounding gas gets heated and illuminated: a bow shock is born that delineates the wake of the impact. In such a process, the new molecules that are formed and excited in the gas phase become accessible to observations. In this paper, we revisit models of H2 emission in these bow shocks. We approximate the bow shock by a statistical distribution of planar shocks computed with a magnetized shock model. We improve on previous works by considering arbitrary bow shapes, a finite irradiation field and by including the age effect of non-stationary C-type shocks on the excitation diagram and line profiles of H2. We also examine the dependence of the line profiles on the shock velocity and on the viewing angle: we suggest that spectrally resolved observations may greatly help to probe the dynamics inside the bow shock. For reasonable bow shapes, our analysis shows that low-velocity shocks largely contribute to H2 excitation diagram. This can result in an observational bias towards low velocities when planar shocks are used to interpret H2 emission from an unresolved bow. We also report a large magnetization bias when the velocity of the planar model is set independently. Our 3D models reproduce excitation diagrams in BHR 71 and Orion bow shocks better than previous 1D models. Our 3D model is also able to reproduce the shape and width of the broad H2 1-0S(1) line profile in an Orion bow shock (Brand et al. 1989).

  16. Tricyclic sesquiterpene copaene prevents H2O2-induced neurotoxicity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hasan Turkez


    Full Text Available Aim: Copaene (COP, a tricyclic sesquiterpene, is present in several essential oils of medicinal and aromatic plants and has antioxidant and anticarcinogenic features. But, very little information is known about the effects of COP on oxidative stress induced neurotoxicity. Method: We used hydrogen peroxide (H2O2 exposure for 6 h to model oxidative stress. Therefore, this experimental design allowed us to explore the neuroprotective potential of COP in H2O2-induced toxicity in rat cerebral cortex cell cultures for the first time. For this purpose, methyl thiazolyl tetrazolium (MTT and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH release assays were carried out to evaluate cytotoxicity. Total antioxidant capacity (TAC and total oxidative stress (TOS parameters were used to evaluate oxidative changes. In addition to determining of 8-hydroxy-2-deoxyguanosine (8-OH-dG levels, the single cell gel electrophoresis (SCGE or comet assay was also performed for measuring the resistance of neuronal DNA to H2O2-induced challenge. Result: The results of this study showed that survival and TAC levels of the cells decreased, while TOS, 8-OH-dG levels and the mean values of the total scores of cells showing DNA damage increased in the H2O2 alone treated cultures. But pre-treatment of COP suppressed the cytotoxicity, genotoxicity and oxidative stress which were increased by H2O2. Conclusion: It is proposed that COP as a natural product with an antioxidant capacity in mitigating oxidative injuries in the field of neurodegenerative diseases. [J Intercult Ethnopharmacol 2014; 3(1.000: 21-28

  17. CPN Tools for Editing, Simulating, and Analysing Coloured Petri Nets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ratzer, Anne Vinter; Wells, Lisa Marie; Lassen, Henry Michael


    elements. The tool features incremental syntax checking and code generation which take place while a net is being constructed. A fast simulator efficiently handles both untimed and timed nets. Full and partial state spaces can be generated and analysed, and a standard state space report contains...... information such as boundedness properties and liveness properties. The functionality of the simulation engine and state space facilities are similar to the corresponding components in Design/CPN, which is a widespread tool for Coloured Petri Nets....

  18. A homogeneous group of persons with multiple sclerosis seem to use different net joint power strategies to increase gait speed - a pilot study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brincks, John

    PwMS with an EDSS score median at 2.5 (Inter quartile range=1) participated. The gait patterns were analysed using 3D motion analysis at self-selected and maximum gait speed. The net joint power peaks were measured for H1-S, H2-S, H3-S, H1-F, H2-F, H3-F, K1-S, K2-S, K3-S, A1-S and A2-S......Background: Major symptoms associated with multiple sclerosis are muscle weakness, fatique and loss of limb coordination, all of which contribute to an unsafe gait. To improve gait function in persons with multiple sclerosis (PwMS) it is essential to determine which problems underlie gait...... dysfunction. Aims: This pilot study examined changes in net joint power generated or absorbed by hip flexors (H2-S, H3-S), hip extensors (H1-S), hip abductors (H1-F, H2-F, H3-F) knee extensors (K1-S, K2-S, K3-S) and ankle plantar flexors (A1-S, A2-S) bilaterally, when gait speed increased. Methods: Fourteen...

  19. A homogeneous group of persons with multiple sclerosis seem to use different net joint power strategies to increase gait speed - a pilot study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brincks, John


    PwMS with an EDSS score median at 2.5 (Inter quartile range=1) participated. The gait patterns were analysed using 3D motion analysis at self-selected and maximum gait speed. The net joint power peaks were measured for H1-S, H2-S, H3-S, H1-F, H2-F, H3-F, K1-S, K2-S, K3-S, A1-S and A2-S......Background: Major symptoms associated with multiple sclerosis are muscle weakness, fatique and loss of limb coordination, all of which contribute to an unsafe gait. To improve gait function in persons with multiple sclerosis (PwMS) it is essential to determine which problems underlie gait...... dysfunction. Aims: This pilot study examined changes in net joint power generated or absorbed by hip flexors (H2-S, H3-S), hip extensors (H1-S), hip abductors (H1-F, H2-F, H3-F) knee extensors (K1-S, K2-S, K3-S) and ankle plantar flexors (A1-S, A2-S) bilaterally, when gait speed increased. Methods: Fourteen...

  20. Interaction between HY1 and H2O2 in auxin-induced lateral root formation in Arabidopsis. (United States)

    Ma, Fei; Wang, Lijuan; Li, Jiale; Samma, Muhammad Kaleem; Xie, Yanjie; Wang, Ren; Wang, Jin; Zhang, Jing; Shen, Wenbiao


    Haem oxygenase-1 (HO-1) and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) are two key downstream signals of auxin, a well-known phytohormone regulating plant growth and development. However, the inter-relationship between HO-1 and H2O2 in auxin-mediated lateral root (LR) formation is poorly understood. Herein, we revealed that exogenous auxin, 1-naphthylacetic acid (NAA), could simultaneously stimulate Arabidopsis HO-1 (HY1) gene expression and H2O2 generation. Subsequently, LR formation was induced. NAA-induced HY1 expression is dependent on H2O2. This conclusion was supported by analyzing the removal of H2O2 with ascorbic acid (AsA) and dimethylthiourea (DMTU), both of which could block NAA-induced HY1 expression and LR formation. H2O2-induced LR formation was inhibited by an HO-1 inhibitor zinc protoporphyrin IX (Znpp) in wild-type and severely impaired in HY1 mutant hy1-100. Simultaneously, HY1 is required for NAA-mediated H2O2 generation, since Znpp inhibition of HY1 blocked the NAA-induced H2O2 production and LR formation. Genetic data demonstrated that hy1-100 was significantly impaired in H2O2 production and LR formation in response to NAA, compared with wild-type plants. The addition of carbon monoxide-releasing molecule-2 (CORM-2), the carbon monoxide (CO) donor, induced H2O2 production and LR formation, both of which were decreased by DMTU. Moreover, H2O2 and CORM-2 mimicked the NAA responses in the regulation of cell cycle genes expression, all of which were blocked by Znpp or DMTU, respectively, confirming that both H2O2 and CO were important in the early LR initiation. In summary, our pharmacological, genetic and molecular evidence demonstrated a close inter-relationship between HY1 and H2O2 existing in auxin-induced LR formation in Arabidopsis.

  1. Investigating γ H2AX as a Biomarker of Radiosensitivity Using Flow Cytometry Methods. (United States)

    Beaton, Lindsay A; Marro, Leonora; Malone, Shawn; Samiee, Sara; Grimes, Scott; Malone, Kyle; Wilkins, Ruth C


    Background and Purpose. This project examined the in vitro   γ H2AX response in lymphocytes of prostate cancer patients who had a radiosensitive response after receiving radiotherapy. The goal of this project was to determine whether the γ H2AX response, as measured by flow cytometry, could be used as a marker of individual patient radiosensitivity. Materials and Methods. Patients were selected from a randomized clinical trial evaluating the optimal timing of Dose Escalated Radiation and short-course Androgen Deprivation Therapy. Of 438 patients, 3% developed Grade 3 late radiation proctitis and were considered to be radiosensitive. Blood was drawn from 10 of these patients along with 20 matched samples from patients with Grade 0 proctitis. Dose response curves up to 10 Gy along with time response curves after 2 Gy (0-24 h) were generated for each sample. The γ H2AX response in lymphocytes and lymphocyte subsets was analyzed by flow cytometry. Results. There were no significant differences between the radiosensitive and control samples for either the dose course or the time course. Conclusions. Although γ H2AX response has previously been demonstrated to be an indicator of individual patient radiosensitivity, flow cytometry lacks the sensitivity necessary to distinguish any differences between samples from control and radiosensitive patients.

  2. H2O2-responsive liposomal nanoprobe for photoacoustic inflammation imaging and tumor theranostics via in vivo chromogenic assay. (United States)

    Chen, Qian; Liang, Chao; Sun, Xiaoqi; Chen, Jiawen; Yang, Zhijuan; Zhao, He; Feng, Liangzhu; Liu, Zhuang


    Abnormal H2O2 levels are closely related to many diseases, including inflammation and cancers. Herein, we simultaneously load HRP and its substrate, 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) (ABTS), into liposomal nanoparticles, obtaining a Lipo@HRP&ABTS optical nanoprobe for in vivo H2O2-responsive chromogenic assay with great specificity and sensitivity. In the presence of H2O2, colorless ABTS would be converted by HRP into the oxidized form with strong near-infrared (NIR) absorbance, enabling photoacoustic detection of H2O2 down to submicromolar concentrations. Using Lipo@HRP&ABTS as an H2O2-responsive nanoprobe, we could accurately detect the inflammation processes induced by LPS or bacterial infection in which H2O2 is generated. Meanwhile, upon systemic administration of this nanoprobe we realize in vivo photoacoustic imaging of small s.c. tumors (∼2 mm in size) as well as orthotopic brain gliomas, by detecting H2O2 produced by tumor cells. Interestingly, local injection of Lipo@HRP&ABTS further enables differentiation of metastatic lymph nodes from those nonmetastatic ones, based on their difference in H2O2 contents. Moreover, using the H2O2-dependent strong NIR absorbance of Lipo@HRP&ABTS, tumor-specific photothermal therapy is also achieved. This work thus develops a sensitive H2O2-responsive optical nanoprobe useful not only for in vivo detection of inflammation but also for tumor-specific theranostic applications.

  3. Net Zero Energy Buildings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marszal, Anna Joanna; Bourrelle, Julien S.; Musall, Eike


    and identify possible renewable energy supply options which may be considered in calculations. Finally, the gap between the methodology proposed by each organisation and their respective national building code is assessed; providing an overview of the possible changes building codes will need to undergo......The international cooperation project IEA SHC Task 40 / ECBCS Annex 52 “Towards Net Zero Energy Solar Buildings”, attempts to develop a common understanding and to set up the basis for an international definition framework of Net Zero Energy Buildings (Net ZEBs). The understanding of such buildings...... parameters used in the calculations are discussed and the various renewable supply options considered in the methodologies are summarised graphically. Thus, the paper helps to understand different existing approaches to calculate energy balance in Net ZEBs, highlights the importance of variables selection...

  4. PhysioNet (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The PhysioNet Resource is intended to stimulate current research and new investigations in the study of complex biomedical and physiologic signals. It offers free...

  5. NetSig

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Horn, Heiko; Lawrence, Michael S; Chouinard, Candace R


    Methods that integrate molecular network information and tumor genome data could complement gene-based statistical tests to identify likely new cancer genes; but such approaches are challenging to validate at scale, and their predictive value remains unclear. We developed a robust statistic (Net......Sig) that integrates protein interaction networks with data from 4,742 tumor exomes. NetSig can accurately classify known driver genes in 60% of tested tumor types and predicts 62 new driver candidates. Using a quantitative experimental framework to determine in vivo tumorigenic potential in mice, we found that Net......Sig candidates induce tumors at rates that are comparable to those of known oncogenes and are ten-fold higher than those of random genes. By reanalyzing nine tumor-inducing NetSig candidates in 242 patients with oncogene-negative lung adenocarcinomas, we find that two (AKT2 and TFDP2) are significantly amplified...

  6. TideNet (United States)


    query tide data sources in a desired geographic region of USA and its territories (Figure 1). Users can select a tide data source through the Google Map data sources according to the desired geographic region. It uses the Google Map interface to display data from different sources. Recent...Coastal Inlets Research Program TideNet The TideNet is a web-based Graphical User Interface (GUI) that provides users with GIS mapping tools to

  7. Building Neural Net Software


    Neto, João Pedro; Costa, José Félix


    In a recent paper [Neto et al. 97] we showed that programming languages can be translated on recurrent (analog, rational weighted) neural nets. The goal was not efficiency but simplicity. Indeed we used a number-theoretic approach to machine programming, where (integer) numbers were coded in a unary fashion, introducing a exponential slow down in the computations, with respect to a two-symbol tape Turing machine. Implementation of programming languages in neural nets turns to be not only theo...

  8. Interaction Nets in Russian


    Salikhmetov, Anton


    Draft translation to Russian of Chapter 7, Interaction-Based Models of Computation, from Models of Computation: An Introduction to Computability Theory by Maribel Fernandez. "In this chapter, we study interaction nets, a model of computation that can be seen as a representative of a class of models based on the notion of 'computation as interaction'. Interaction nets are a graphical model of computation devised by Yves Lafont in 1990 as a generalisation of the proof structures of linear logic...

  9. Programming NET 35

    CERN Document Server

    Liberty, Jesse


    Bestselling author Jesse Liberty and industry expert Alex Horovitz uncover the common threads that unite the .NET 3.5 technologies, so you can benefit from the best practices and architectural patterns baked into the new Microsoft frameworks. The book offers a Grand Tour" of .NET 3.5 that describes how the principal technologies can be used together, with Ajax, to build modern n-tier and service-oriented applications. "

  10. Vibrational kinetics of electronically excited states in H2 discharges (United States)

    Colonna, Gianpiero; Pietanza, Lucia D.; D'Ammando, Giuliano; Celiberto, Roberto; Capitelli, Mario; Laricchiuta, Annarita


    The evolution of atmospheric pressure hydrogen plasma under the action of repetitively ns electrical pulse has been investigated using a 0D state-to-state kinetic model that self-consistently couples the master equation of heavy particles and the Boltzmann equation for free electrons. The kinetic model includes, together with atomic hydrogen states and the vibrational kinetics of H2 ground state, vibrational levels of singlet states, accounting for the collisional quenching, having a relevant role because of the high pressure. The mechanisms of excitations, radiative decay and collisional quenching involving the excited H2 states and the corresponding cross sections, integrated over the non-equilibrium electron energy distribution function (EEDF) to obtain kinetic rates, are discussed in the light of the kinetic simulation results, i.e. the time evolution during the pulse of the plasma composition, of the EEDF and of the vibrational distributions of ground and singlet excited states.

  11. Co3(PO42·4H2O

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Kim


    Full Text Available Single crystals of Co3(PO42·4H2O, tricobalt(II bis[orthophosphate(V] tetrahydrate, were obtained under hydrothermal conditions. The title compound is isotypic with its zinc analogue Zn3(PO42·4H2O (mineral name hopeite and contains two independent Co2+ cations. One Co2+ cation exhibits a slightly distorted tetrahedral coordination, while the second, located on a mirror plane, has a distorted octahedral coordination environment. The tetrahedrally coordinated Co2+ is bonded to four O atoms of four PO43− anions, whereas the six-coordinate Co2+ is cis-bonded to two phosphate groups and to four O atoms of four water molecules (two of which are located on mirror planes, forming a framework structure. In addition, hydrogen bonds of the type O—H...O are present throughout the crystal structure.

  12. Mixed H2/H∞ control of flexible structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. P. De Farias


    Full Text Available This paper addresses the design of full order linear dynamic output feedback controllers for flexible structures. Unstructured H∞ uncertainty models are introduced for systems in modal coordinates and in reduced order form. Then a controller is designed in order to minimize a given H2 performance function while keeping the maximum supported H∞ perturbation below some appropriate level. To solve this problem we develop an algorithm able to provide local optimal solutions to optimization problems with convex constraints and non-convex but differentiable objective functions. A controller design procedure based on a trade-off curve is proposed and a simple example is solved, providing a comparison between the proposed method and the usual minimization of an upper bound H2 to the norm. The method is applied to two different flexible structure theoretical models and the properties of the resulting controllers are shown in several simulations.

  13. Mixed H 2 / H ∞ control of flexible structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    De Farias D. P.


    Full Text Available This paper addresses the design of full order linear dynamic output feedback controllers for flexible structures. Unstructured H ∞ uncertainty models are introduced for systems in modal coordinates and in reduced order form. Then a controller is designed in order to minimize a given H 2 performance function while keeping the maximum supported H ∞ perturbation below some appropriate level. To solve this problem we develop an algorithm able to provide local optimal solutions to optimization problems with convex constraints and non-convex but differentiable objective functions. A controller design procedure based on a trade-off curve is proposed and a simple example is solved, providing a comparison between the proposed method and the usual minimization of an upper bound H 2 to the norm. The method is applied to two different flexible structure theoretical models and the properties of the resulting controllers are shown in several simulations.

  14. Ab initio Potential Energy Surface for H-H2 (United States)

    Partridge, Harry; Bauschlicher, Charles W., Jr.; Stallcop, James R.; Levin, Eugene


    Ab initio calculations employing large basis sets are performed to determine an accurate potential energy surface for H-H2 interactions for a broad range of separation distances. At large distances, the spherically averaged potential determined from the calculated energies agrees well with the corresponding results determined from dispersion coefficients; the van der Waals well depth is predicted to be 75 +/- (mu)E(sub h). Large basis sets have also been applied to reexamine the accuracy of theoretical repulsive potential energy surfaces. Multipolar expansions of the computed H-H2 potential energy surface are reported for four internuclear separation distances (1.2, 1.401, 1.449, and 1.7a(sub 0) of the hydrogen molecule. The differential elastic scattering cross section calculated from the present results is compared with the measurements from a crossed beam experiment.

  15. H 2 guaranteed cost control of discrete linear systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Colmenares W.


    Full Text Available This paper presents necessary and sufficient conditions for the existence of a quadratically stabilizing output feedback controller which also assures H 2 guaranteed cost performance on a discrete linear uncertain system where the uncertainty is of the norm bounded type. The conditions are presented as a collection of linear matrix inequalities.The solution, however requires a search over a scalar parameter space.

  16. Fast metastable hydrogen atoms from H2 molecules: twin atoms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trimèche A.


    Full Text Available It is a difficult task to obtain “twin atoms”, i.e. pairs of massive particles such that one can perform experiments in the same fashion that is routinely done with “twin photons”. One possible route to obtain such pairs is by dissociating homonuclear diatomic molecules. We address this possibility by investigating the production of metastable H(2s atoms coming from the dissociation of cold H2 molecules produced in a Campargue nozzle beam crossing an electron beam from a high intensity pulsed electron gun. Dissociation by electron impact was chosen to avoid limitations of target molecular excited states due to selection rules. Detectors placed several centimeters away from the collision center, and aligned with respect to possible common molecular dissociation channel, analyze the neutral fragments as a function of their time-of-flight (TOF through Lyman-α detection. Evidence for the first time observed coincidence of pairs of H(2s atoms obtained this way is presented.

  17. H2 sensing properties of modified silicon nanowires

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Latefa Baba Ahmed


    Full Text Available It has been found that the silicon nanowires modified with noble metals can be used to fabricate an effective H2 gas sensor in the present study. The preparation and surface modification of silicon nanowires (SiNWs were carried out by chemical methods. The morphology of the silicon nanowires unmodified and modified with nanoparticles of platinum, palladium, silver and gold was investigated using scanning electron microscopy (SEM. The chemical composition of the silicon nanowire layers was studied by secondary ion mass spectroscopy (SIMS and energy dispersive X-ray analysis (EDX. The structures of type metal/SiNWs/p-Si/Al were fabricated. The electrical characterization (I–V was performed in primary vacuum and H2 at different concentrations. It was found that the metal type used to modify the SiNWs strongly influenced the I–V characteristics. The response of these structures toward H2 gas was studied as a function of the metal type. Finally, the sensing characteristics and performance of the sensors were investigated.

  18. Graphene oxide and H2 production from bioelectrochemical graphite oxidation. (United States)

    Lu, Lu; Zeng, Cuiping; Wang, Luda; Yin, Xiaobo; Jin, Song; Lu, Anhuai; Jason Ren, Zhiyong


    Graphene oxide (GO) is an emerging material for energy and environmental applications, but it has been primarily produced using chemical processes involving high energy consumption and hazardous chemicals. In this study, we reported a new bioelectrochemical method to produce GO from graphite under ambient conditions without chemical amendments, value-added organic compounds and high rate H2 were also produced. Compared with abiotic electrochemical electrolysis control, the microbial assisted graphite oxidation produced high rate of graphite oxide and graphene oxide (BEGO) sheets, CO2, and current at lower applied voltage. The resultant electrons are transferred to a biocathode, where H2 and organic compounds are produced by microbial reduction of protons and CO2, respectively, a process known as microbial electrosynthesis (MES). Pseudomonas is the dominant population on the anode, while abundant anaerobic solvent-producing bacteria Clostridium carboxidivorans is likely responsible for electrosynthesis on the cathode. Oxygen production through water electrolysis was not detected on the anode due to the presence of facultative and aerobic bacteria as O2 sinkers. This new method provides a sustainable route for producing graphene materials and renewable H2 at low cost, and it may stimulate a new area of research in MES.

  19. State Specific Stabilization of H+ + H2(j) Collision Complexes (United States)

    Gerlich, D.; Plašil, R.; Zymak, I.; Hejduk, M.; Jusko, P.; Mulin, D.; Glosík, J.


    Stabilization of H3+ collision complexes has been studied at nominal temperatures between 11 and 33 K using a 22-pole radio frequency (rf) ion trap. Apparent binary rate coefficients, k* = kr + k3[H2], have been measured for para- and normal-hydrogen at number densities between some 1011 and 1014 cm-3. The state specific rate coefficients extracted for radiative stabilization, kr(T;j), are all below 2 - 10-16 cm3 s-1. There is a slight tendency to decrease with increasing temperature. In contrast to simple expectations, kr(11 K;j) is for j = 0 a factor of 2 smaller than for j = 1. The ternary rate coefficients for p-H2 show a rather steep T-dependence; however, they are increasing with temperature. The state specific ternary rate coefficients, k3(T;j), measured for j = 0 and derived for j = 1 from measurements with n-H2, differ by an order of magnitude. Most of these surprising observations are in disagreement with predictions from standard association models, which are based on statistical assumptions and the separation of complex formation and competition between stabilization and decay. Most probably, the unexpected collision dynamics are due to the fact that, at the low translational energies of the present experiment, only a small number of partial waves participate. This should make exact quantum mechanical calculations of kr feasible. More complex is three-body stabilization, because it occurs on the H5+ potential energy surface.

  20. Thermodynamics and H2 Transfer in a Methanogenic, Syntrophic Community (United States)

    Hamilton, Joshua J.; Calixto Contreras, Montserrat; Reed, Jennifer L.


    Microorganisms in nature do not exist in isolation but rather interact with other species in their environment. Some microbes interact via syntrophic associations, in which the metabolic by-products of one species serve as nutrients for another. These associations sustain a variety of natural communities, including those involved in methanogenesis. In anaerobic syntrophic communities, energy is transferred from one species to another, either through direct contact and exchange of electrons, or through small molecule diffusion. Thermodynamics plays an important role in governing these interactions, as the oxidation reactions carried out by the first community member are only possible because degradation products are consumed by the second community member. This work presents the development and analysis of genome-scale network reconstructions of the bacterium Syntrophobacter fumaroxidans and the methanogenic archaeon Methanospirillum hungatei. The models were used to verify proposed mechanisms of ATP production within each species. We then identified additional constraints and the cellular objective function required to match experimental observations. The thermodynamic S. fumaroxidans model could not explain why S. fumaroxidans does not produce H2 in monoculture, indicating that current methods might not adequately estimate the thermodynamics, or that other cellular processes (e.g., regulation) play a role. We also developed a thermodynamic coculture model of the association between the organisms. The coculture model correctly predicted the exchange of both H2 and formate between the two species and suggested conditions under which H2 and formate produced by S. fumaroxidans would be fully consumed by M. hungatei. PMID:26147299

  1. Degradation of 5-FU by means of advanced (photo)oxidation processes: UV/H2O2, UV/Fe2+/H2O2 and UV/TiO2--Comparison of transformation products, ready biodegradability and toxicity. (United States)

    Lutterbeck, Carlos Alexandre; Wilde, Marcelo Luís; Baginska, Ewelina; Leder, Christoph; Machado, Ênio Leandro; Kümmerer, Klaus


    The present study investigates the degradation of the antimetabolite 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) by three different advanced photo oxidation processes: UV/H2O2, UV/Fe(2+)/H2O2 and UV/TiO2. Prescreening experiments varying the H2O2 and TiO2 concentrations were performed in order to set the best catalyst concentrations in the UV/H2O2 and UV/TiO2 experiments, whereas the UV/Fe(2+)/H2O2 process was optimized varying the pH, Fe(2+) and H2O2 concentrations by means of the Box-Behnken design (BBD). 5-FU was quickly removed in all the irradiation experiments. The UV/Fe(2+)/H2O2 and UV/TiO2 processes achieved the highest degree of mineralization, whereas the lowest one resulted from the UV/H2O2 treatment. Six transformation products were formed during the advanced (photo)oxidation processes and identified using low and high resolution mass spectrometry. Most of them were formed and further eliminated during the reactions. The parent compound of 5-FU was not biodegraded, whereas the photolytic mixture formed in the UV/H2O2 treatment after 256 min showed a noticeable improvement of the biodegradability in the closed bottle test (CBT) and was nontoxic towards Vibrio fischeri. In silico predictions showed positive alerts for mutagenic and genotoxic effects of 5-FU. In contrast, several of the transformation products (TPs) generated along the processes did not provide indications for mutagenic or genotoxic activity. One exception was TP with m/z 146 with positive alerts in several models of bacterial mutagenicity which could demand further experimental testing. Results demonstrate that advanced treatment can eliminate parent compounds and its toxicity. However, transformation products formed can still be toxic. Therefore toxicity screening after advanced treatment is recommendable. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Global rates of mantle serpentinization and H2 production at oceanic transform faults in 3-D geodynamic models (United States)

    Rüpke, Lars H.; Hasenclever, Jörg


    Previous studies have estimated that mantle serpentinization reactions generate H2 at a rate of 1010-1012 mol/yr along the global mid-ocean ridge (MOR) system. Here we present results of 3-D geodynamic simulations that predict rates of additional mantle serpentinization and H2 production at oceanic transform faults (OTF). We find that the extent and rate of mantle serpentinization increases with OTF length and is maximum at intermediate slip rates of 5 to 10 cm/yr. The additional global OTF-related production of H2 is found to be between 6.1 and 10.7 × 1011 mol/yr, which is comparable to the predicted background MOR rate of 4.1-15.0 × 1011 mol H2/yr. This points to oceanic transform faults as potential sites of intense fluid-rock interaction, where chemosynthetic life could be sustained by serpentinization reactions.

  3. Mixed H2/H∞ Pitch Control of Wind Turbine with a Markovian Jump Model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lin, Zhongwei; Liu, Jizhen; Wu, Qiuwei


    This paper proposes a Markovian jump model and the corresponding H2 /H∞ control strategy for the wind turbine driven by the stochastic switching wind speed, which can be used to regulate the generator speed in order to harvest the rated power while reducing the fatigue loads on the mechanical side...... of wind turbine. Through sampling the low-frequency wind speed data into separate intervals, the stochastic characteristic of the steady wind speed can be represented as a Markov process, while the high-frequency wind speed in the each interval is regarded as the disturbance input. Then, the traditional...... operating points of wind turbine can be divided into separate subregions correspondingly, where the model parameters and the control mode can be fixed in each mode. Then, the mixed H2 /H∞ control problem is discussed for such a class of Markovian jump wind turbine working above the rated wind speed...

  4. Energetic Constraints on H-2-Dependent Terminal Electron Accepting Processes in Anoxic Environments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heimann, Axel Colin; Jakobsen, Rasmus; Blodau, C.


    for terminal respiration are physiologically based and often near -20 W mol(-1), depending on the mechanism of ATP generation; more positive free energy values have been reported under "starvation conditions" for methanogenesis and lower values for TEAPs that provide more energy. H-2-dependent methanogenesis...... illustrating this concept and the quantitative description of thermodynamic controls in modeling. Other electron transfer processes are considered where appropriate. The work reviewed shows that thermodynamics and microbial kinetics are connected near thermodynamic equilibrium. Free energy thresholds...... and sulfate reduction are under direct thermodynamic control in soils and sediments and generally approach theoretical minimum energy thresholds. If H-2 concentrations are lowered by thermodynamically more potent TEAPs, these processes are inhibited. This principle is also valid for TEAPS providing more free...

  5. Direct Coupling of Thermo- and Photocatalysis for Conversion of CO2-H2O into Fuels. (United States)

    Zhang, Li; Kong, Guoguo; Meng, Yaping; Tian, Jinshu; Zhang, Lijie; Wan, Shaolong; Lin, Jingdong; Wang, Yong


    Photocatalytic CO 2 reduction into renewable hydrocarbon solar fuels is considered as a promising strategy to simultaneously address global energy and environmental issues. This study focused on the direct coupling of photocatalytic water splitting and thermocatalytic hydrogenation of CO 2 in the conversion of CO 2 -H 2 O into fuels. Specifically, it was found that direct coupling of thermo- and photocatalysis over Au-Ru/TiO 2 leads to activity 15 times higher (T=358 K; ca. 99 % CH 4 selectivity) in the conversion of CO 2 -H 2 O into fuels than that of photocatalytic water splitting. This is ascribed to the promoting effect of thermocatalytic hydrogenation of CO 2 by hydrogen atoms generated in situ by photocatalytic water splitting. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  6. Mesospheric H2O and H2O2 densities inferred from in situ positive ion composition measurement (United States)

    Kopp, E.


    A model for production and loss of oxonium ions in the high-latitude D-region is developed, based on the observed excess of 34(+) which has been interpreted as H2O2(+). The loss mechanism suggested in the study is the attachment of N2 and/or CO2 in three-body reactions. Furthermore, mesospheric water vapor and H2O2 densities are inferred from measurements of four high-latitude ion compositions, based on the oxonium model. Mixing ratios of hydrogen peroxide of up to two orders of magnitude higher than previous values were obtained. A number of reactions, reaction constants, and a block diagram of the oxonium ion chemistry in the D-region are given.

  7. Effective potentials for H2O-He and H2O-Ar systems. Isotropic induction-dispersion potentials (United States)

    Starikov, Vitali I.; Petrova, Tatiana M.; Solodov, Alexander M.; Solodov, Alexander A.; Deichuli, Vladimir M.


    The vibrational and rotational dependence of the effective isotropic interaction potential of H2O-He and H2O-Ar systems, taken in the form of Lennard-Jones 6-12 potential has been analyzed. The analysis is based on the experimental line broadening (γ) and line shift (δ) coefficients obtained for different vibrational bands of H2O molecule perturbed by He and Ar. The first and second derivatives of the function C(1)(q) for the long-range part of the induction-dispersion potential with respect to the dimensionless normal coordinates q were calculated using literature information for the dipole moment and mean polarizability functions μ(q) and α(q), respectively. These derivatives have been used in the calculations of the quantities which determine the vibrational and rotational dependence of the long-range part of the effective isotropic potential. The optimal set of the derivatives for the function C(1)(q) is proposed. The comparison with the experimental data has been performed.

  8. Capture and dissociation in the complex-forming CH + H2 → CH2 + H, CH + H2 reactions. (United States)

    González, Miguel; Saracibar, Amaia; Garcia, Ernesto


    The rate coefficients for the capture process CH + H(2)→ CH(3) and the reactions CH + H(2)→ CH(2) + H (abstraction), CH + H(2) (exchange) have been calculated in the 200-800 K temperature range, using the quasiclassical trajectory (QCT) method and the most recent global potential energy surface. The reactions, which are of interest in combustion and in astrochemistry, proceed via the formation of long-lived CH(3) collision complexes, and the three H atoms become equivalent. QCT rate coefficients for capture are in quite good agreement with experiments. However, an important zero point energy (ZPE) leakage problem occurs in the QCT calculations for the abstraction, exchange and inelastic exit channels. To account for this issue, a pragmatic but accurate approach has been applied, leading to a good agreement with experimental abstraction rate coefficients. Exchange rate coefficients have also been calculated using this approach. Finally, calculations employing QCT capture/phase space theory (PST) models have been carried out, leading to similar values for the abstraction rate coefficients as the QCT and previous quantum mechanical capture/PST methods. This suggests that QCT capture/PST models are a good alternative to the QCT method for this and similar systems.

  9. Genomic characterization and dynamic methylation of promoter facilitates transcriptional regulation of H2A variants, H2A.1 and H2A.2 in various pathophysiological states of hepatocyte. (United States)

    Tyagi, Monica; Reddy, Divya; Gupta, Sanjay


    Differential expression of homomorphous variants of H2A family of histone H2A.1 and H2A.2 have been associated with hepatocellular carcinoma and maintenance of undifferentiated state of hepatocyte. However, not much is known about the transcriptional regulation of these H2A variants. The current study revealed the presence of 43bp 5'-regulatory region upstream of translation start site and a 26bp 3' stem loop conserved region for both the H2A.1 and H2A.2 variants. However, alignment of both H2A.1 and H2A.2 5'-untranslated region (UTR) sequences revealed no significant degree of homology between them despite the coding exon being very similar amongst the variants. Further, transient transfection coupled with dual luciferase assay of cloned 5' upstream sequences of H2A.1 and H2A.2 of length 1.2 (-1056 to +144) and 1.379kb (-1160 to +219) from experimentally identified 5'UTR in rat liver cell line (CL38) confirmed their promoter activity. Moreover, in silico analysis revealed a presence of multiple CpG sites interspersed in the cloned promoter of H2A.1 and a CpG island near TSS for H2A.2, suggesting that histone variants transcription might be regulated epigenetically. Indeed, treatment with DNMT and HDAC inhibitors increased the expression of H2A.2 with no significant change in H2A.1 levels. Further, methyl DNA immunoprecipitation coupled with quantitative analysis of DNA methylation using real-time PCR revealed hypo-methylation and hyper-methylation of H2A.1 and H2A.2 respectively in embryonic and HCC compared to control adult liver tissue. Collectively, the data suggests that differential DNA methylation on histone promoters is a dynamic player regulating their expression status in different pathophysiological stages of liver. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. The ultraviolet photochemistry of diacetylene - Direct detection of primary products of the metastable C4H2* + C4H2 reaction (United States)

    Bandy, Ralph E.; Lakshminarayan, Chitra; Frost, Rex K.; Zwier, Timothy S.


    The products of diacetylene's ultraviolet photochemistry over the 245-220 nm region were directly determined in experiments where C4H2 was excited within a small reaction tube attached to a pulsed nozzle. The products formed in the collisions of C4H2* with C4H2 were subsequently ionized by vacuum UV radiation (at 118 nm) in the ion source of a time-of-flight mass spectrometer. It was found that the reaction of C4H2* with C4H2 produces C6H2 (+C2H2), C8H2 (+2H,H2), and C8H3 (+H), confirming the results of Glicker and Okabe (1987). Under certain conditions, secondary products were observed. Mechanisms for the observed reactions are proposed.

  11. X Chromosome Inactivation and Differentiation Occur Readily in ES Cells Doubly-Deficient for MacroH2A1 and MacroH2A2 (United States)

    Tanasijevic, Borko; Rasmussen, Theodore P.


    Macrohistones (mH2As) are unusual histone variants found exclusively in vertebrate chromatin. In mice, the H2afy gene encodes two splice variants, mH2A1.1 and mH2A1.2 and a second gene, H2afy2, encodes an additional mH2A2 protein. Both mH2A isoforms have been found enriched on the inactive X chromosome (Xi) in differentiated mammalian female cells, and are incorporated into the chromatin of developmentally-regulated genes. To investigate the functional significance of mH2A isoforms for X chromosome inactivation (XCI), we produced male and female embryonic stem cell (ESC) lines with stably-integrated shRNA constructs that simultaneously target both mH2A1 and mH2A2. Surprisingly, we find that female ESCs deficient for both mH2A1 and mH2A2 readily execute and maintain XCI upon differentiation. Furthermore, male and female mH2A-deficient ESCs proliferate normally under pluripotency culture conditions, and respond to several standard differentiation procedures efficiently. Our results show that XCI can readily proceed with substantially reduced total mH2A content. PMID:21738686

  12. A convective study of Al2O3-H2O and Cu- H2O nano-liquid films sprayed over a stretching cylinder with viscous dissipation (United States)

    Alshomrani, Ali Saleh; Gul, Taza


    This study is related with the analysis of spray distribution considering a nanofluid thin layer over the slippery and stretching surface of a cylinder with thermal radiation. The distribution of the spray rate is designated as a function of the nanolayer thickness. The applied temperature used during spray phenomenon has been assumed as a reference temperature with the addition of the viscous dissipation term. The diverse behavior of the thermal radiation with magnetic and chemical reaction has been cautiously observed, which has consequences in causing variations in the spray distribution and heat transmission. Nanofluids have been used as water-based like Al2O3-H2O, Cu- H2O and have been examined under the consideration of momentum and thermal slip boundary conditions. The basic equations have been transformed into a set of nonlinear equations by using suitable variables for alteration. The approximate results of the problem have been achieved by using the optimal approach of the Homotopy Analysis Method (HAM). We demonstrate our results with the help of the numerical (ND-Solve) method. In addition, we found a close agreement of the two methods which is confirmed through graphs and tables. The rate of the spray pattern under the applied pressure term has also been obtained. The maximum cooling performance has been obtained by using the Cu water with the small values of the magnetic parameter and alumina for large values of the magnetic parameter. The outcomes of the Cu-water and Al2O3-H2O nanofluids have been linked to the published results in the literature. The impact of the physical parameters, like the skin friction coefficient, and the local Nusselt number have also been observed and compared with the published work. The momentum slip and thermal slip parameters, thermal radiation parameter, magnetic parameter and heat generation/absorption parameter effects on the spray rate have been calculated and discussed.

  13. La plataforma .NET


    Fornas Estrada, Miquel


    L'aparició de la plataforma .NET Framework ha suposat un canvi molt important en la forma de crear i distribuir aplicacions, degut a que incorpora una sèrie d'innovacions tècniques i productives que simplifiquen molt les tasques necessàries per desenvolupar un projecte. La aparición de la plataforma. NET Framework ha supuesto un cambio muy importante en la forma de crear y distribuir aplicaciones, debido a que incorpora una serie de innovaciones técnicas y productivas que simplifican mucho...

  14. Biological Petri Nets

    CERN Document Server

    Wingender, E


    It was suggested some years ago that Petri nets might be well suited to modeling metabolic networks, overcoming some of the limitations encountered by the use of systems employing ODEs (ordinary differential equations). Much work has been done since then which confirms this and demonstrates the usefulness of this concept for systems biology. Petri net technology is not only intuitively understood by scientists trained in the life sciences, it also has a robust mathematical foundation and provides the required degree of flexibility. As a result it appears to be a very promising approach to mode

  15. A SAFT Equation of State for the H2S-CO2-H2O-NaCl System and Applications for CO2 - H2S Transportation and Geological Storage

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ji, Xiaoyan; Zhu, Chen


    When H2S is co-injected with CO2, we need to know thermodynamic properties and phase equilibria for the CO2-H2S- H2O-NaCl system in order to evaluate the sequestration capacity, optimal transportation...

  16. Assessment of the performance of common density functional methods for describing the interaction energies of (H2O)6 clusters (United States)

    Wang, F.-F.; Jenness, G.; Al-Saidi, W. A.; Jordan, K. D.


    Localized molecular orbital energy decomposition analysis and symmetry-adapted perturbation theory (SAPT) calculations are used to analyze the two- and three-body interaction energies of four low-energy isomers of (H2O)6 in order to gain insight into the performance of several popular density functionals for describing the electrostatic, exchange-repulsion, induction, and short-range dispersion interactions between water molecules. The energy decomposition analyses indicate that all density functionals considered significantly overestimate the contributions of charge transfer to the interaction energies. Moreover, in contrast to some studies that state that density functional theory (DFT) does not include dispersion interactions, we adopt a broader definition and conclude that for (H2O)6 the short-range dispersion interactions recovered in the DFT calculations account about 75% or more of the net (short-range plus long-range) dispersion energies obtained from the SAPT calculations.

  17. In vivo incorporation of tritium from 3H2O into pulmonary lipids of meal-fed and starved rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Todhunter, D.A.; Scholz, R.W.


    In vivo fatty acid synthesis, as measured by tritium incorporation from 3H2O into fatty acids, was examined in the lungs of meal-fed and starved rats. In meal-fed animals, 74% of the radioactivity isolated from pulmonary lipids was found in the phospholipid fraction. Starving rats for 72 h markedly reduced in vivo 3H2O incorporation into pulmonary lipids. These studies demonstrated net in vivo synthesis of fatty acids in pulmonary tissue of rats using a method that is not complicated by potential differences in metabolic pool sizes or peculiarities of specific carbon substrate sources. Synthesis of fatty acids in vivo was affected by the nutritional state of the animal and citrate appears to be a significant source of cytoplasmic acetyl-CoA for de novo pulmonary lipogenesis in the fed rat.

  18. Hydrogen Learning for Local Leaders – H2L3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Serfass, Patrick [Technology Transition Corporation, Washington, DC (United States)


    The Hydrogen Learning for Local Leaders program, H2L3, elevates the knowledge about hydrogen by local government officials across the United States. The program reaches local leaders directly through “Hydrogen 101” workshops and webinar sessions; the creation and dissemination of a unique report on the hydrogen and fuel cell market in the US, covering 57 different sectors; and support of the Hydrogen Student Design Contest, a competition for interdisciplinary teams of university students to design hydrogen and fuel cell systems based on technology that’s currently commercially available.

  19. First infrared investigations of OCS-H2O, OCS-(H2O)2, and (OCS)2-H2O complexes isolated in solid neon: Highlighting the presence of two isomers for OCS-H2O. (United States)

    Soulard, P; Madebène, B; Tremblay, B


    For the first time, complexes involving carbonyl sulfide (OCS) and water molecules are studied by FTIR in solid neon. Many new absorption bands close to the known fundamental modes for the monomers give evidence for at least three (OCS)n-(H2O)m complexes, noted n:m. With the help of theoretical calculations, two isomers of the 1:1 complex are clearly identified. Concentration effects combined with a detailed vibrational analysis allow for the identification of transitions for the 1:1, 1:2, and 2:1 complexes. Anharmonic coupling constants have been derived from the observations of overtones and combinations.

  20. γ-H2AX induced by linear alkylbenzene sulfonates is due to deoxyribonuclease-1 translocation to the nucleus via actin disruption

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhao, Xiaoxu; Toyooka, Tatsushi; Kubota, Toru; Yang, Guang; Ibuki, Yuko, E-mail:


    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Non-genotoxic linear alkylbenzene sulfonates (LAS) generated γ-H2AX. • The γ-H2AX was not induced through direct LAS-induced DNA damage. • LAS weakened interactions between actin and DNase I. • Released DNase I translocated to nucleus and broke DNA strands, generating γ-H2AX. • This is a novel pathway for chemically induced γ-H2AX. - Abstract: Phosphorylation of histone H2AX (γ-H2AX) occurs following formation of DNA double strand breaks (DSBs). Other types of DNA damage also generate DSBs through DNA replication and repair, leading to the production of γ-H2AX. In the present study, we demonstrated that linear alkylbenzene sulfonates (LAS), the most widely used and non-genotoxic anionic surfactants, could generate γ-H2AX via a novel pathway. Breast adenocarcinoma MCF-7 cells were treated with five kinds of LAS with alkyl chains ranging from 10 to 14 carbon units (C{sub 10}–C{sub 14}LAS). The generation of DSBs and subsequent production of γ-H2AX increased in a manner that depended on the number of carbon units in LAS. γ-H2AX could also be generated with non-cytotoxic doses of LAS and was independent of the cell cycle, indicating the non-apoptotic and DNA replication-independent formation of DSBs. The generation of γ-H2AX could be attenuated by EGTA and ZnCl{sub 2}, deoxyribonuclease-1 (DNase I) inhibitors, as well as by the knockdown of DNase I. LAS weakened the interaction between DNase I and actin, and the enhanced release of DNase I was dependent on the number of carbon units in LAS. DNase I released by the LAS treatment translocated to the nucleus, in which DNase I attacked DNA and generated γ-H2AX. These results suggested that the LAS-induced generation of γ-H2AX could be attributed to the translocation of DNase I to the nucleus through the disruption of actin, and not to LAS-induced DNA damage.

  1. Obesity and asthma: beyond T(H)2 inflammation. (United States)

    Leiria, Luiz O S; Martins, Milton A; Saad, Mário J A


    Obesity is a major risk factor for asthma. Likewise, obesity is known to increase disease severity in asthmatic subjects and also to impair the efficacy of first-line treatment medications for asthma, worsening asthma control in obese patients. This concept is in agreement with the current understanding that some asthma phenotypes are not accompanied by detectable inflammation, and may not be ameliorated by classical anti-inflammatory therapy. There are growing evidences suggesting that the obesity-related asthma phenotype does not necessarily involve the classical T(H)2-dependent inflammatory process. Hormones involved in glucose homeostasis and in the pathogeneses of obesity likely directly or indirectly link obesity and asthma through inflammatory and non-inflammatory pathways. Furthermore, the endocrine regulation of the airway-related pre-ganglionic nerves likely contributes to airway hyperreactivity (AHR) in obese states. In this review, we focused our efforts on understanding the mechanism underlying obesity-related asthma by exploring the T(H)2-independent mechanisms leading to this disease. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Proton ordering in tetragonal and monoclinic H2O ice

    CERN Document Server

    Yen, Fei; Berlie, Adam; Liu, Xiaodi; Goncharov, Alexander F


    H2O ice remains one of the most enigmatic materials as its phase diagram reveals up to sixteen solid phases. While the crystal structure of these phases has been determined, the phase boundaries and mechanisms of formation of the proton-ordered phases remain unclear. From high precision measurements of the complex dielectric constant, we probe directly the degree of ordering of the protons in H2O tetragonal ice III and monoclinic ice V down to 80 K. A broadened first-order phase transition is found to occur near 202 K we attribute to a quenched disorder of the protons which causes a continuous disordering of the protons during cooling and metastable behavior. At 126 K the protons in ice III become fully ordered, and for the case of ice V becoming fully ordered at 113 K forming ice XIII. Two triple points are proposed to exist: one at 0.35 GPa and 126 K where ices III, IX and V coexist; and another at 0.35 GPa and 113 K where ices V, IX and XIII coexist. Our findings unravel the underlying mechanism driving th...

  3. Geometric phase effects in the ultracold H + H2 reaction. (United States)

    Kendrick, B K; Hazra, Jisha; Balakrishnan, N


    The H3 system has served as a prototype for geometric phase (GP) effects in bimolecular chemical reactions for over three decades. Despite a large number of theoretical and experimental efforts, no conclusive evidence of GP effects in the integral cross section or reaction rate has been presented until recently [B. Kendrick et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 115, 153201 (2015)]. Here we report a more detailed account of GP effects in the H + H2(v = 4, j = 0) → H + H2(v', j') (para-para) reaction rate coefficients for temperatures between 1 μK (8.6 × 10(-11) eV) and 100 K (8.6 × 10(-3) eV). The GP effect is found to persist in both vibrationally resolved and total rate coefficients for collision energies up to about 10 K. The GP effect also appears in rotationally resolved differential cross sections leading to a very different oscillatory structure in both energy and scattering angle. It is shown to suppress a prominent shape resonance near 1 K and enhance a shape resonance near 8 K, providing new experimentally verifiable signatures of the GP effect in the fundamental hydrogen exchange reaction. The GP effect in the D + D2 and T + T2 reactions is also examined in the ultracold limit and its sensitivity to the potential energy surface is explored.

  4. Petri Nets-Applications

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 4; Issue 9. Petri Nets - Applications. Y Narahari. General Article Volume 4 Issue 9 September 1999 pp 44-52. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link: Author Affiliations. Y Narahari ...

  5. Safety nets or straitjackets?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ilsøe, Anna


    Does regulation of working hours at national and sector level impose straitjackets, or offer safety nets to employees seeking working time flexibility? This article compares legislation and collective agreements in the metal industries of Denmark, Germany and the USA. The industry has historically...

  6. Coloured Petri Nets

    CERN Document Server

    Jensen, Kurt


    Coloured Petri Nets (CPN) is a graphical language for modelling and validating concurrent and distributed systems, and other systems in which concurrency plays a major role. This book introduces the constructs of the CPN modelling language and presents the related analysis methods. It provides a comprehensive road map for the practical use of CPN.

  7. Boom Booom Net Radio

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grimshaw, Mark Nicholas; Yong, Louisa; Dobie, Ian


    of an existing Internet radio station; Boom Booom Net Radio. Whilst necessity dictates some use of technology-related terminology, wherever possible we have endeavoured to keep such jargon to a minimum and to either explain it in the text or to provide further explanation in the appended glossary....

  8. Game Theory .net. (United States)

    Shor, Mikhael


    States making game theory relevant and accessible to students is challenging. Describes the primary goal of is to provide interactive teaching tools. Indicates the site strives to unite educators from economics, political and computer science, and ecology by providing a repository of lecture notes and tests for courses using…

  9. Coloured Petri Nets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Kurt; Kristensen, Lars Michael

    Coloured Petri Nets (CPN) is a graphical language for modelling and validating concurrent and distributed systems, and other systems in which concurrency plays a major role. The development of such systems is particularly challenging because of inherent intricacies like possible nondeterminism...

  10. H2-saturation of high affinity H2-oxidizing bacteria alters the ecological niche of soil microorganisms unevenly among taxonomic groups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Piché-Choquette


    Full Text Available Soil microbial communities are continuously exposed to H2 diffusing into the soil from the atmosphere. N2-fixing nodules represent a peculiar microniche in soil where H2 can reach concentrations up to 20,000 fold higher than in the global atmosphere (0.530 ppmv. In this study, we investigated the impact of H2 exposure on soil bacterial community structure using dynamic microcosm chambers simulating soil H2 exposure from the atmosphere and N2-fixing nodules. Biphasic kinetic parameters governing H2 oxidation activity in soil changed drastically upon elevated H2 exposure, corresponding to a slight but significant decay of high affinity H2-oxidizing bacteria population, accompanied by an enrichment or activation of microorganisms displaying low-affinity for H2. In contrast to previous studies that unveiled limited response by a few species, the relative abundance of 958 bacterial ribotypes distributed among various taxonomic groups, rather than a few distinct taxa, was influenced by H2 exposure. Furthermore, correlation networks showed important alterations of ribotype covariation in response to H2 exposure, suggesting that H2 affects microbe-microbe interactions in soil. Taken together, our results demonstrate that H2-rich environments exert a direct influence on soil H2-oxidizing bacteria in addition to indirect effects on other members of the bacterial communities.

  11. The Redox Chemistry and Chemical Biology of H2S, Hydropersulfides and Derived Species: Implications to Their Possible Biological Activity and Utility (United States)

    Ono, Katsuhiko; Akaike, Takaake; Sawa, Tomohiro; Kumagai, Yoshito; Wink, David A.; Tantillo, Dean J.; Hobbs, Adrian J.; Nagy, Peter; Xian, Ming; Lin, Joseph; Fukuto, Jon M.


    Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) is an endogenously generated and putative signaling/effector molecule. In spite of its numerous reported functions, the chemistry by which it elicits its functions is not understood. Moreover, recent studies allude to the existence of other sulfur species besides H2S that may play critical physiological roles. Herein, the basic chemical biology of H2S as well as other related or derived species is discussed and reviewed. A particular focus of this review are the per- and poly-sulfides which are likely in equilibrium with free H2S and which may be important biological effectors themselves. PMID:25229186

  12. Redox chemistry and chemical biology of H2S, hydropersulfides, and derived species: implications of their possible biological activity and utility. (United States)

    Ono, Katsuhiko; Akaike, Takaaki; Sawa, Tomohiro; Kumagai, Yoshito; Wink, David A; Tantillo, Dean J; Hobbs, Adrian J; Nagy, Peter; Xian, Ming; Lin, Joseph; Fukuto, Jon M


    Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) is an endogenously generated and putative signaling/effector molecule. Despite its numerous reported functions, the chemistry by which it elicits its functions is not understood. Moreover, recent studies allude to the existence of other sulfur species besides H2S that may play critical physiological roles. Herein, the basic chemical biology of H2S as well as other related or derived species is discussed and reviewed. This review particularly focuses on the per- and polysulfides which are likely in equilibrium with free H2S and which may be important biological effectors themselves. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Laboratory studies of H2SO4/H2O binary homogeneous nucleation from the SO2+OH reaction: evaluation of the experimental setup and preliminary results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Kulmala


    Full Text Available Binary homogeneous nucleation (BHN of sulphuric acid and water (H2SO4/H2O is one of the most important atmospheric nucleation processes, but laboratory observations of this nucleation process are very limited and there are also large discrepancies between different laboratory studies. The difficulties associated with these experiments include wall loss of H2SO4 and uncertainties in estimation of H2SO4 concentration ([H2SO4] involved in nucleation. We have developed a new laboratory nucleation setup to study H2SO4/H2O BHN kinetics and provide relatively constrained [H2SO4] needed for nucleation. H2SO4 is produced from the SO2+OH→HSO3 reaction and OH radicals are produced from water vapor UV absorption. The residual [H2SO4] were measured at the end of the nucleation reactor with a chemical ionization mass spectrometer (CIMS. Wall loss factors (WLFs of H2SO4 were estimated by assuming that wall loss is diffusion limited and these calculated WLFs were in good agreement with simultaneous measurements of the initial and residual [H2SO4] with two CIMSs. The nucleation zone was estimated from numerical simulations based on the measured aerosol sizes (particle diameter, Dp and [H2SO4]. The measured BHN rates (J ranged from 0.01–220 cm−3 s−1 at the initial and residual [H2SO4] from 108−1010 cm−3, a temperature of 288 K and relative humidity (RH from 11–23%; J increased with increasing [H2SO4] and RH. J also showed a power dependence on [H2SO4] with the exponential power of 3–8. These power dependences are consistent with other laboratory studies under similar [H2SO4] and RH, but different from atmospheric field observations which showed that particle number concentrations are often linearly dependent on [H2SO4]. These results, together with a higher [H2SO4] threshold (108–109 cm−3 needed to produce the unit J measured from the laboratory studies compared to the atmospheric conditions (106–107 cm−3, imply that H2SO4/H2O BHN alone is

  14. Ga-Promoted Photocatalytic H2 Production over Pt/ZnO Nanostructures. (United States)

    Núñez, Julio; Fresno, Fernando; Platero-Prats, Ana E; Jana, Prabhas; Fierro, José L G; Coronado, Juan M; Serrano, David P; de la Peña O'Shea, Víctor A


    Photocatalytic H2 generation is investigated over a series of Ga-modified ZnO photocatalysts that were prepared by hydrothermal methods. It is found that the structural, textural, and optoelectronic properties remarkably depend on the Ga content. The photocatalytic activity is higher in samples with Ga content equal to or lower than 5.4 wt %, which are constituted by Zn1-xGaxO phases. Structural, textural, and optoelectronic characterization, combined with theoretical calculations, reveals the effect of Ga in the doped ZnO structures. Higher Ga incorporation leads to the formation of an additional ZnGa2O4 phase with spinel structure. The presence of such a phase is detrimental for the textural and optoelectronic properties of the photocatalysts, leading to a decrease in H2 production. When Pt is used as the cocatalyst, there is an increase of 1 order of magnitude in the activity with respect to the bare photocatalysts. This is a result of Pt acting as an electron scavenger, decreasing the electron-hole recombination rate and boosting the H2 evolution reaction.

  15. Activation of PAD4 in NET formation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amanda eRohrbach


    Full Text Available Peptidyl arginine deiminases, or PADs, convert arginine residues to the non-ribosomally encoded amino acid citrulline in a variety of protein substrates. PAD4 is expressed in granulocytes and is essential for the formation of neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs via PAD4-mediated histone citrullination. Citrullination of histones is thought to promote NET formation by inducing chromatin decondensation and facilitating the expulsion of chromosomal DNA that is coated with antimicrobial molecules. Numerous stimuli have been reported to lead to PAD4 activation and NET formation. However, how this signaling process proceeds and how PAD4 becomes activated in cells is largely unknown. Herein, we describe the various stimuli and signaling pathways that have been implicated in PAD4 activation and NET formation, including the role of reactive oxygen species generation. To provide a foundation for the above discussion, we first describe PAD4 structure and function, and how these studies led to the development of PAD-specific inhibitors. A comprehensive survey of the receptors and signaling pathways that regulate PAD4 activation will be important for our understanding of innate immunity, and the identification of signaling intermediates in PAD4 activation may also lead to the generation of pharmaceuticals to target NET-related pathogenesis.

  16. H2O and CO2 exchange between a sphagnum mire ecosystem and the atmosphere (United States)

    Olchev, Alexander; Volkova, Elena; Karataeva, Tatiana; Novenko, Elena


    part of the mire in June and reached 6.8+-4.2 mkmol m-2 s-1. In July the net CO2 flux is lower and doesn't not exceed -4.2 +- 2.8 mkmol m-2 s-1. Maximal values of H2O flux (0.23 +- 0.10 mm hour-1) was observed in August in central part of the mire. Do describe the spatial pattern of the H2O and CO2 exchange within the mire ecosystem a three dimensional model 3D Forbog-3D was applied. The model operates with the horizontal grid resolution - 2 m x 2 m, vertical resolution - 1 m, and primary time step - 1 hour. Forbog-3D uses data about position of each individual tree around the mire, mean height, crown and stem diameters of the trees to simulate patterns of plant and leaf area densities of a forest stand. The model algorithm describing solar radiation transfer through a forest canopy considers direct and diffuse radiation penetrating through gaps in the canopy, transmitted by leaves and reflected from leaves, bark and soil surface. It uses information about the 3D structure of each tree species in the forest stand, and about the optical properties of their leaves and bark. It takes into account clumping and gapping of foliage, spatial variations in leaf orientation angles and site topography. The study was supported by grants 11-04-97538-r_center_a, 11-04-01622-a and 11-05-00557-a of the Russian Foundation of the Basic Research (RFBR) and the grant of the government of Russian Federation (11.G34.31.0079).

  17. Photoionization-induced water migration in the amide group of trans-acetanilide-(H2O)1 in the gas phase. (United States)

    Sakota, Kenji; Harada, Satoshi; Shimazaki, Yuiga; Sekiya, Hiroshi


    IR-dip spectra of trans-acetanilide-water 1:1 cluster, AA-(H(2)O)(1), have been measured for the S(0) and D(0) state in the gas phase. Two structural isomers, where a water molecule binds to the NH group or the CO group of AA, AA(NH)-(H(2)O)(1) and AA(CO)-(H(2)O)(1), are identified in the S(0) state. One-color resonance-enhanced two-photon ionization, (1 + 1) RE2PI, of AA(NH)-(H(2)O)(1) via the S(1)-S(0) origin generates [AA(NH)-(H(2)O)(1)](+) in the D(0) state, however, photoionization of [AA(CO)-(H(2)O)(1)] does not produce [AA(CO)-(H(2)O)(1)](+), leading to [AA(NH)-(H(2)O)(1)](+). This observation explicitly indicates that the water molecule in [AA-(H(2)O)(1)](+) migrates from the CO group to the NH group in the D(0) state. The reorganization of the charge distribution from the neutral to the D(0) state of AA induces the repulsive force between the water molecule and the CO group of AA(+), which is the trigger of the water migration in [AA-(H(2)O)(1)](+).

  18. Alternative splicing of neuronal differentiation factor TRF2 regulated by HNRNPH1/H2


    Grammatikakis, Ioannis; Zhang, Peisu; Panda, Amaresh C.; Kim, Jiyoung; Maudsley, Stuart; Abdelmohsen, Kotb; Yang, Xiaoling; Martindale, Jennifer L.; Motiño, Omar; Hutchison, Emmette R.; Mattson, Mark P.; Gorospe, Myriam


    During neuronal differentiation, use of an alternative splice site on the rat telomere repeat-binding factor 2 (TRF2) mRNA generates a short TRF2 protein isoform (TRF2-S) capable of derepressing neuronal genes. However, the RNA-binding proteins (RBPs) controlling this splicing event are unknown. Here, using affinity pull-down analysis, we identified heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoproteins H1 and H2(HNRNPH) as RBPs specifically capable of interacting with the spliced RNA segment (exon 7) of T...

  19. Enabling direct H2O2 production through rational electrocatalyst design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Siahrostami, Samira; Verdaguer Casadevall, Arnau; Karamad, Mohammadreza


    electrocatalysts are needed. Using density functional theory calculations, we identify Pt-Hg as a promising candidate. Electrochemical measurements on Pt-Hg nanoparticles show more than an order of magnitude improvement in mass activity, that is, A g(-1) precious metal, for H2O2 production, over the best......Future generations require more efficient and localized processes for energy conversion and chemical synthesis. The continuous on-site production of hydrogen peroxide would provide an attractive alternative to the present state-of-the-art, which is based on the complex anthraquinone process...


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available The development of the process and electrochemical materials for conversion of H2S in a fuel cell to co-generate electrical power and benign products is outlined. While the thermodynamic basis for the process was clear, it was necessary to perform extensive research into the development of materials as catalysts and electrolytes, and to determine the optimal process and operating conditions. Through the use of composite anode catalysts and compatible new protonic electrolytes that are both chemically and thermally stable in the operating environment, we have achieved good and sustainable power densities. The only products are power, elemental sulfur and steam.

  1. Lactone radical cyclizations and cyclization cascades mediated by SmI2-H2O. (United States)

    Parmar, Dixit; Matsubara, Hiroshi; Price, Kieran; Spain, Malcolm; Procter, David J


    Unsaturated lactones undergo reductive radical cyclizations upon treatment with SmI(2)-H(2)O to give decorated cycloheptanes in a single highly selective operation during which up to three contiguous stereocenters are generated. Furthermore, cascade processes involving lactones bearing two alkenes, an alkene and an alkyne, or an allene and an alkene allow "one-pot" access to biologically significant molecular scaffolds with the construction of up to four contiguous stereocenters. The cyclizations proceed by the trapping of radical anions formed by electron transfer reduction of the lactone carbonyl.

  2. Regulation of dual oxidase expression and H2O2 production by thyroglobulin. (United States)

    Yoshihara, Aya; Hara, Takeshi; Kawashima, Akira; Akama, Takeshi; Tanigawa, Kazunari; Wu, Huhehasi; Sue, Mariko; Ishido, Yuko; Hiroi, Naoki; Ishii, Norihisa; Yoshino, Gen; Suzuki, Koichi


    Thyroglobulin (Tg) is a macromolecular precursor in thyroid hormone synthesis to which iodine is stably bound. Tg, which is stored in the follicular space, is also a potent negative feedback regulator of follicular function, and this is achieved by suppressing mRNA levels of thyroid-specific genes such as the sodium/iodide symporter (Slc5a5), Tg, and thyroid peroxidase. Dual oxidase 1 (DUOX1) and DUOX2, originally identified in the thyroid, are nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) oxidases that are necessary to produce the H2O2 required for thyroid hormone biosynthesis. Since follicular Tg regulates the expression of genes that are essential for thyroid hormone synthesis, we hypothesized that Tg might also regulate DUOX expression and H2O2 production. Rat thyroid FRTL-5 cells were treated with Tg, and the mRNA expression of Duox1 and Duox2 and their corresponding maturation factors Duoxa1 and Duoxa2 were evaluated by DNA microarray and real-time PCR. Duox2 promoter activity was examined by luciferase reporter gene assay. Protein levels of DUOX2 were also examined by Western blot analysis. Intracellular H2O2 generation was quantified by a fluorescent dye, 5-(and-6)-chloromethyl-2',7'-dichlorodihydrofluorescein diacetate, and acetyl ester (CM-H2DCFDA). mRNA levels of Duox2 and its activation factor Duoxa2 (but not Duox1 or Duoxa1) were significantly suppressed by Tg in a dose-dependent manner and a time-dependent fashion in rat thyroid FRTL-5 cells. DUOX2 promoter activity was significantly suppressed by Tg in a dose-dependent manner. Protein levels of DUOX2 and H2O2 generation in cells were also reduced by Tg treatment. We show that physiological concentrations of Tg suppressed the expression and function of DUOX2 in thyroid cells. These results suggest that Tg is a strong suppressor of the expression and the activity of DUOX2/DUOXA2, thereby regulating iodide organification and hormone synthesis in the thyroid. The evidence supports a reported model

  3. Chronic hypoxia promotes pulmonary artery endothelial cell proliferation through H2O2-induced 5-lipoxygenase.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristi M Porter

    Full Text Available Pulmonary Hypertension (PH is a progressive disorder characterized by endothelial dysfunction and proliferation. Hypoxia induces PH by increasing vascular remodeling. A potential mediator in hypoxia-induced PH development is arachidonate 5-Lipoxygenase (ALOX5. While ALOX5 metabolites have been shown to promote pulmonary vasoconstriction and endothelial cell proliferation, the contribution of ALOX5 to hypoxia-induced proliferation remains unknown. We hypothesize that hypoxia exposure stimulates HPAEC proliferation by increasing ALOX5 expression and activity. To test this, human pulmonary artery endothelial cells (HPAEC were cultured under normoxic (21% O2 or hypoxic (1% O2 conditions for 24-, 48-, or 72 hours. In a subset of cells, the ALOX5 inhibitor, zileuton, or the 5-lipoxygenase activating protein inhibitor, MK-886, was administered during hypoxia exposure. ALOX5 expression was measured by qRT-PCR and western blot and HPAEC proliferation was assessed. Our results demonstrate that 24 and 48 hours of hypoxia exposure have no effect on HPAEC proliferation or ALOX5 expression. Seventy two hours of hypoxia significantly increases HPAEC ALOX5 expression, hydrogen peroxide (H2O2 release, and HPAEC proliferation. We also demonstrate that targeted ALOX5 gene silencing or inhibition of the ALOX5 pathway by pharmacological blockade attenuates hypoxia-induced HPAEC proliferation. Furthermore, our findings indicate that hypoxia-induced increases in cell proliferation and ALOX5 expression are dependent on H2O2 production, as administration of the antioxidant PEG-catalase blocks these effects and addition of H2O2 to HPAEC promotes proliferation. Overall, these studies indicate that hypoxia exposure induces HPAEC proliferation by activating the ALOX5 pathway via the generation of H2O2.

  4. Gamma-H2AX-based dose estimation for whole and partial body radiation exposure.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon Horn

    Full Text Available Most human exposures to ionising radiation are partial body exposures. However, to date only limited tools are available for rapid and accurate estimation of the dose distribution and the extent of the body spared from the exposure. These parameters are of great importance for emergency triage and clinical management of exposed individuals. Here, measurements of γ-H2AX immunofluorescence by microscopy and flow cytometry were compared as rapid biodosimetric tools for whole and partial body exposures. Ex vivo uniformly X-irradiated blood lymphocytes from one donor were used to generate a universal biexponential calibration function for γ-H2AX foci/intensity yields per unit dose for time points up to 96 hours post exposure. Foci--but not intensity--levels remained significantly above background for 96 hours for doses of 0.5 Gy or more. Foci-based dose estimates for ex vivo X-irradiated blood samples from 13 volunteers were in excellent agreement with the actual dose delivered to the targeted samples. Flow cytometric dose estimates for X-irradiated blood samples from 8 volunteers were in excellent agreement with the actual dose delivered at 1 hour post exposure but less so at 24 hours post exposure. In partial body exposures, simulated by mixing ex vivo irradiated and unirradiated lymphocytes, foci/intensity distributions were significantly over-dispersed compared to uniformly irradiated lymphocytes. For both methods and in all cases the estimated fraction of irradiated lymphocytes and dose to that fraction, calculated using the zero contaminated Poisson test and γ-H2AX calibration function, were in good agreement with the actual mixing ratios and doses delivered to the samples. In conclusion, γ-H2AX analysis of irradiated lymphocytes enables rapid and accurate assessment of whole body doses while dispersion analysis of foci or intensity distributions helps determine partial body doses and the irradiated fraction size in cases of partial body

  5. An exact calculation of the N2+ and H2+ influx at cathode surface in N2–H2 discharges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K.S. Suraj


    Full Text Available An exact calculation of N2+ and H2+ influx, at cathode surface in N2–H2 discharge, has been derived using electron impact ionization cross-section at plasma sheath boundary. The analytical formula is very convenient in practical applications. Through the analysis of experimental parameters for glow discharge plasma nitriding, the formula explains, why treatment in an N2–H2 mixture with H2 percentage ∼70% gives most enhanced result.

  6. Insecticidal Activity of [Cu(H2NTA2].2H2O in Aedes aegypti Larvae (Diptera: Culicidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandra Ramos Lima


    Full Text Available The demand for new insecticides and alternative strategies for the population control of Aedes aegypti has stimulated research to obtain new compounds with broad biological activity. Accordingly, the dihydrogen nitrilotriacetate complex of copper (II dihydrate, [Cu(H2NTA2].2H2O, was synthesized by the stoichiometric reaction of nitrilotriacetic acid (H3NTA hydroxide with basic copper carbonate (II (Cu2(OH2CO3 and characterized by the spectroscopic techniques UV-Vis and FT-IR. The biological toxicity in A. aegypti was determined by bioassay using concentrations ranging from 90.0 mg L−1 to 897.4 mg L−1. The LC50 obtained was 146.11 mg L−1 [132.18–160.10] and the LT50 obtained at a concentration of 897.4 mg L−1 was 70.61 min [38.21–94.90]. The results showed that the complex obtained in this work is a potential metal-insecticide. DOI: 

  7. Evaluation of plasma H2S levels and H2S synthesis in streptozotocin induced Type-2 diabetes-an experimental study based on Swietenia macrophylla seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moumita Dutta


    Conclusions: Although considering a small sample size, it can conclude that the fasting blood glucose levels are inversely related to plasma H2S levels as well as H2S synthesis activity in plasma and the extract of S. macrophylla is associated with increased plasma H2S levels with effective lowering of blood glucose in streptozotocin induced diabetic rats.

  8. H2A.Z: view from the top. (United States)

    Zlatanova, Jordanka; Thakar, Amit


    For a couple of decades the chromatin field has endured undeserved neglect. Indeed, what could be so exciting about a monotonous repeating structure whose purpose in life was to package DNA? Chromatin glamour is triumphantly back, due to the realization that chromatin is a major player in the regulation of gene expression and other nuclear processes that occur on the DNA template. The dynamics of the structure that regulates transcription is itself regulated by a variety of complex processes, including histone postsynthetic modifications, chromatin remodeling, and the use of nonallelic histone variants. This review is an attempt to understand the mechanisms of action of the evolutionarily conserved variant H2A.Z, a player with a variety of seemingly unrelated, even contrary, functions. This attempt was prompted by the recent avalanche of genome-wide studies that provide insights that were unthinkable until very recently.

  9. Utilization of membranes for H2O recycle system (United States)

    Ohya, H.; Oguchi, M.


    Conceptual studies of closed ecological life support systems (CELSS) carried out at NAL in Japan for a water recycle system using membranes are reviewed. The system will treat water from shower room, urine, impure condensation from gas recycle system, and so on. The H2O recycle system is composed of prefilter, ultrafiltration membrane, reverse osmosis membrane, and distillator. Some results are shown for a bullet train of toilet-flushing water recycle equipment with an ultraviltration membrane module. The constant value of the permeation rate with a 4.7 square meters of module is about 70 1/h after 500th of operation. Thermovaporization with porous polytetrafluorocarbon membrane is also proposed to replce the distillator.

  10. Observation of Heavy Rydberg States in H_2 and HD (United States)

    Beyer, Maximilian; Merkt, Frederic


    The binding energies of the hydrogen atom are given by the Rydberg formula E_n = - {{R}_∞μ/m_e}/{(n-δ)^2}, where the quantum defect δ vanishes in the case of a pure Coulomb potential. Heavy Rydberg systems can be realized when the electron is replaced by an anion, which leads in the case of H^+H^- to an almost 1000 times larger Rydberg constant and to an infinite number of vibrational states. In the diabatic molecular basis, these ion-pair states are described by long-range Coulomb potentials with ^1Σ_g^+ and ^1Σ_u^+ symmetry. In this basis, the level energies are described by an almost energy-independent, nonzero quantum defect, reflecting the finite size of H^-. Strong interactions at small internuclear distances lead to strong variation of δ with n. Gerade [2] and ungerade [3] ion-pair states have been observed in H_2 with principal quantum numbers up to n=240. The quantum defects in this range were found to vary with energy, indicating the inadequacy of a pure diabatic picture. Spectra of ungerade heavy Rydberg states of H_2 with n=160-520 showing that the quantum defect only becomes energy independent for n>350 will be presented, supporting the description using a diabatic basis. I will also present first observations of ion-pair states in HD, showing two series of heavy Rydberg states, H^+D^- and H^-D^+, which have different series limits. The experimental results will be discussed and compared with calculations using both an adiabatic and a diabatic basis. [1] S. Pan, and F. H. Mies, J. Chem. Phys. 89, 3096 (1988). [2] M. O. Vieitez, T. I. Ivanov, E. Reinhold, C. A. de Lange, and W. Ubachs, Phys. Rev. Lett. 101, 163001 (2008). [3] R. C. Ekey, and E. F. McCormack, Phys. Rev. A 84, 020501(R) (2011).

  11. Chlorogenic acid analogues from Gynura nepalensis protect H9c2 cardiomyoblasts against H2O2-induced apoptosis. (United States)

    Yu, Bang-Wei; Li, Jin-Long; Guo, Bin-Bin; Fan, Hui-Min; Zhao, Wei-Min; Wang, He-Yao


    Chlorogenic acid has shown protective effect on cardiomyocytes against oxidative stress-induced damage. Herein, we evaluated nine caffeoylquinic acid analogues (1-9) isolated from the leaves of Gynura nepalensis for their protective effect against H2O2-induced H9c2 cardiomyoblast damage and explored the underlying mechanisms. H9c2 cardiomyoblasts were exposed to H2O2 (0.3 mmol/L) for 3 h, and cell viability was detected with MTT assay. Hoechst 33342 staining was performed to evaluate cell apoptosis. MMPs (mitochondrial membrane potentials) were measured using a JC-1 assay kit, and ROS (reactive oxygen species) generation was measured using CM-H2 DCFDA. The expression levels of relevant proteins were detected using Western blot analysis. Exposure to H2O2 markedly decreased the viability of H9c2 cells and catalase activity, and increased LDH release and intracellular ROS production; accompanied by a loss of MMP and increased apoptotic rate. Among the 9 chlorogenic acid analogues as well as the positive control drug epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) tested, compound 6 (3,5-dicaffeoylquinic acid ethyl ester) was the most effective in protecting H9c2 cells from H2O2-induced cell death. Pretreatment with compound 6 (1.56-100 μmol/L) dose-dependently alleviated all the H2O2-induced detrimental effects. Moreover, exposure to H2O2 significantly increased the levels of Bax, p53, cleaved caspase-8, and cleaved caspase-9, and decreased the level of Bcl-2, resulting in cell apoptosis. Exposure to H2O2 also significantly increased the phosphorylation of p38, JNK and ERK in the H9c2 cells. Pretreatment with compound 6 (12.5 and 25 μmol/L) dose-dependently inhibited the H2O2-induced increase in the level of cleaved caspase-9 but not of cleaved caspase-8. It also dose-dependently suppressed the H2O2-induced phosphorylation of JNK and ERK but not that of p38. Compound 6 isolated from the leaves of Gynura nepalensis potently protects H9c2 cardiomyoblasts against H2O2-induced

  12. H(2) production through anaerobic mixed culture: effect of batch S(0)/X(0) and shock loading in CSTR. (United States)

    Fan, Kuo-Shuh; Chen, Ya-Yun


    Biological production of H(2) has received considerable attention lately. The present study was undertaken to observe the effects of substrate/seeding ratios (S(0)/X(0)) on batch H(2) generation. The H(2)-producing seeding spores were obtained from the heat treatment (88 degrees C for 12h) of the compost from a grass composting facility. A dehydrated brewery mixture was used as feed substrate. The results indicate that the pattern of the cumulative H(2) production with time is similar to the growth curve with a typical lag, exponential and stationary phase; the results were successfully modeled with a modified Gompertz equation. It appears that maximum H(2) yield potential (27ml g(-1)COD(added)) occurs at an S(0)/X(0) ratio of about 4, whereas the maximum specific H(2) yield (205ml g(-1) VSSd(-1)) occurs at approximately S(0)/X(0)=3. The S(0)/X(0) ratios higher than 4 would inhibit H(2) production. An attempt was made to waste a certain amount of reactor content and replaced it with fresh substrate in order to enhance H(2) production. After this medium replacement, the H(2) production was initially inhibited and the system then exhibited a long lag before it reached an active H(2) production stage. For a continuous-stirred tank-reactor (CSTR) system, the results of replacing 25% of the reactor content indicate that there is still a lag time before a sudden increase in H(2) production after the addition of the new substrate feed. The major low molecular weight acids identified are HAc and HBu with total volatile acids of about 6000-8000mg l(-1). The ratio of HAc/HBu in the present study is relatively constant (about 5) and appears not significantly affected by the medium replacement. The concentration of total alcohols is about 2000mg l(-1). All in all, the CSTR system is able to recover to its previous performance after such a dramatic 25% medium replacement.

  13. Increasing extracellular H2O2 produces a bi-phasic response in intracellular H2O2, with peroxiredoxin hyperoxidation only triggered once the cellular H2O2-buffering capacity is overwhelmed. (United States)

    Tomalin, Lewis Elwood; Day, Alison Michelle; Underwood, Zoe Elizabeth; Smith, Graham Robert; Dalle Pezze, Piero; Rallis, Charalampos; Patel, Waseema; Dickinson, Bryan Craig; Bähler, Jürg; Brewer, Thomas Francis; Chang, Christopher Joh-Leung; Shanley, Daryl Pierson; Veal, Elizabeth Ann


    Reactive oxygen species, such as H2O2, can damage cells but also promote fundamental processes, including growth, differentiation and migration. The mechanisms allowing cells to differentially respond to toxic or signaling H2O2 levels are poorly defined. Here we reveal that increasing external H2O2 produces a bi-phasic response in intracellular H2O2. Peroxiredoxins (Prx) are abundant peroxidases which protect against genome instability, ageing and cancer. We have developed a dynamic model simulating in vivo changes in Prx oxidation. Remarkably, we show that the thioredoxin peroxidase activity of Prx does not provide any significant protection against external rises in H2O2. Instead, our model and experimental data are consistent with low levels of extracellular H2O2 being efficiently buffered by other thioredoxin-dependent activities, including H2O2-reactive cysteines in the thiol-proteome. We show that when extracellular H2O2 levels overwhelm this buffering capacity, the consequent rise in intracellular H2O2 triggers hyperoxidation of Prx to thioredoxin-resistant, peroxidase-inactive form/s. Accordingly, Prx hyperoxidation signals that H2O2 defenses are breached, diverting thioredoxin to repair damage. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. The neural organization of discourse: an H2 15O-PET study of narrative production in English and American sign language

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Braun, A R; Guillemin, A; Hosey, L; Varga, M


    In order to identify brain regions that play an essential role in the production of discourse, H2 15O-PET scans were acquired during spontaneous generation of autobiographical narratives in English...

  15. An ECNO semantics for Petri nets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kindler, Ekkart


    The Event Coordination Notation (ECNO) allows modelling the behaviour of software on top of structural software models - and to generate program code from these models fully automatically. ECNO distinguishes between the local behaviour of elements (objects) and the global behaviour, which denes t...... work. In this paper, we will show that the ECNO, in turn, can be used for modelling the behaviour of Petri nets in a simple and concise way. What is more, we will show that the ECNO semantics of Place/Transition Systems can easily be extended to so-called signal-event nets....

  16. Performance Analysis Using Coloured Petri Nets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wells, Lisa Marie


    This paper provides an overview of improved facilities for performance analysis using coloured Petri nets. Coloured Petri nets is a formal method that is well suited for modeling and analyzing large and complex systems. The paper describes steps that have been taken to make a distinction between...... modeling the behavior of a system and observing the behavior of a model. Performance-related facilities are discussed, including facilities for collecting data, running multiple simulations, generating statistically reliable simulation output, and comparing alternative system configurations....

  17. Food Safety Nets:


    Haggblade, Steven; Diallo, Boubacar; Staatz, John; Theriault, Veronique; Traoré, Abdramane


    Food and social safety nets have a history as long as human civilization. In hunter gatherer societies, food sharing is pervasive. Group members who prove unlucky in the short run, hunting or foraging, receive food from other households in anticipation of reciprocal consideration at a later time (Smith 1988). With the emergence of the first large sedentary civilizations in the Middle East, administrative systems developed specifically around food storage and distribution. The ancient Egyptian...

  18. Net technical assessment


    Wegmann, David G.


    Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. The present and near term military balance of power between the U.S. and the Soviet Union can be expressed in a variety of net assessments. One can examine the strategic nuclear balance, the conventional balance in Europe, the maritime balance, and many others. Such assessments are essential not only for policy making but for arms control purposes and future force structure planning. However, to project the future military balance, on...

  19. Numerical Simulation of Wave Interaction with Moving Net Structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Hao; Christensen, Erik Damgaard


    was described as a sheet of porous media with prescribed rigid body motion and mesh motion was incorporated to conform the motion of the net. Free surface wave generation and absorption framework was also introduced to simulate wave interaction with moving net structures. The results showed that mesh motion...

  20. Catalase activity is stimulated by H2O2 in rich culture medium and is required for H2O2 resistance and adaptation in yeast


    Dorival Martins; Ann M. English


    Catalases are efficient scavengers of H2O2 and protect cells against H2O2 stress. Examination of the H2O2 stimulon in Saccharomyces cerevisiae revealed that the cytosolic catalase T (Ctt1) protein level increases 15-fold on H2O2 challenge in synthetic complete media although previous work revealed that deletion of the CCT1 or CTA1 genes (encoding peroxisomal/mitochondrial catalase A) does not increase the H2O2 sensitivity of yeast challenged in phosphate buffer (pH 7.4). This we attributed to...

  1. Using WordNet for Building WordNets

    CERN Document Server

    Farreres, X; Farreres, Xavier; Rodriguez, Horacio; Rigau, German


    This paper summarises a set of methodologies and techniques for the fast construction of multilingual WordNets. The English WordNet is used in this approach as a backbone for Catalan and Spanish WordNets and as a lexical knowledge resource for several subtasks.

  2. CO2-H2O based pretreatment and enzyme hydrolysis of soybean hulls. (United States)

    Islam, S M Mahfuzul; Li, Qian; Loman, Abdullah Al; Ju, Lu-Kwang


    The high carbohydrate content of soybean hull makes it an attractive biorefinery resource. But hydrolyzing its complex structure requires concerted enzyme activities, at least cellulase, xylanase, pectinase and α-galactosidase. Effective pretreatment that generates minimal inhibitory products is important to facilitate enzymatic hydrolysis. Combined CO2-H2O pretreatment and enzymatic hydrolysis by Aspergillus niger and Trichoderma reesei enzyme broths was studied here. The pretreatment was evaluated at 80°C-180°C temperature and 750psi-1800psi pressure, with fixed moisture content (66.7%) and pretreatment time (30min). Ground hulls without and with different pretreatments were hydrolyzed by enzyme at 50°C and pH 4.8 and compared for glucose, xylose, galactose, arabinose, mannose and total reducing sugar release. CO2-H2O pretreatment at 1250psi and 130°C was found to be optimal. Compared to the unpretreated hulls hydrolyzed with 2.5-fold more enzyme, this pretreatment improved glucose, xylose, galactose, arabinose and mannose releases by 55%, 35%, 105%, 683% and 52%, respectively. Conversions of 97% for glucose, 98% for xylose, 41% for galactose, 59% for arabinose, 87% for mannose and 89% for total reducing sugar were achieved with Spezyme CP at 18FPU/g hull. Monomerization of all carbohydrate types was demonstrated. At the optimum pretreatment condition, generation of inhibitors acetic acid, furfural and hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF) was negligible, 1.5mg/g hull in total. The results confirmed the effective CO2-H2O pretreatment of soybean hulls at much lower pressure and temperature than those reported for biomass of higher lignin contents. The lower pressure requirement reduces the reactor cost and makes this new pretreatment method more practical and economical. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Towards practical application of H2 generation from ammonia decomposition guided by rational catalyst design


    García-Bordejé, Enrique


    This perspective article focuses on the recent advances in the rational design of catalyst for NH3 decomposition at different length scales, from catalyst nanoparticles to reactor design. For an overall optimum performance, all scales should be optimised in a concerted manner. The study of the mechanism of reaction has given guidelines for the catalyst design. As far as reactor design is concerned, a structured reactor is beneficial for this reaction because minimises the inhibiting effect of...

  4. [Am]Mn(H2POO)3: A New Family of Hybrid Perovskites Based on the Hypophosphite Ligand. (United States)

    Wu, Yue; Shaker, Sammy; Brivio, Federico; Murugavel, Ramaswamy; Bristowe, Paul D; Cheetham, Anthony K


    A family of five hybrid ABX3 perovskites has been synthesized using hypophosphite (H2POO)(-) as the X-site ion. These compounds adopt the general formula [Am]Mn(H2POO)3, where Am = guanidinium (GUA), formamidinium (FA), imidazolium, triazolium, and dabconium. We explore the diverse structural and phase transition behavior of these materials through single-crystal diffraction measurements and demonstrate contrasting magnetism in two of the phases, Am = GUA and FA, that arises from structural distortions. The results show that hypophosphite perovskites offer a promising platform for generating new functional materials.

  5. Putrescine protects hulless barley from damage due to UV-B stress via H2S- and H2O2-mediated signaling pathways. (United States)

    Li, Qien; Wang, Zhaofeng; Zhao, Yanning; Zhang, Xiaochen; Zhang, Shuaijun; Bo, Letao; Wang, Yao; Ding, Yingfeng; An, Lizhe


    In hulless barley, H 2 S mediated increases in H 2 O 2 induced by putrescine, and their interaction enhanced tolerance to UV-B by maintaining redox homeostasis and promoting the accumulation of UV-absorbing compounds. This study investigated the possible relationship between putrescence (Put), hydrogen sulfide (H2S) and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) as well as the underlying mechanism of their interaction in reducing UV-B induced damage. UV-B radiation increased electrolyte leakage (EL) and the levels of malondialdehyde (MDA) and UV-absorbing compounds but reduced antioxidant enzyme activities and glutathione (GSH) and ascorbic acid (AsA) contents. Exogenous application of Put, H2S or H2O2 reduced some of the above-mentioned negative effects, but were enhanced by the addition of Put, H2S and H2O2 inhibitors. Moreover, the protective effect of Put against UV-B radiation-induced damage to hulless barley was diminished by DL-propargylglycine (PAG, a H2S biosynthesis inhibitor), hydroxylamine (HT, a H2S scavenger), diphenylene iodonium (DPI, a PM-NADPH oxidase inhibitor) and dimethylthiourea (DMTU, a ROS scavenger), and the effect of Put on H2O2 accumulation was abolished by HT. Taken together, as the downstream component of the Put signaling pathway, H2S mediated H2O2 accumulation, and H2O2 induced the accumulation of UV-absorbing compounds and maintained redox homeostasis under UV-B stress, thereby increasing the tolerance of hulless barley seedlings to UV-B stress.

  6. Increased H$_2$CO production in the outer disk around HD 163296


    Carney, M. T.; Hogerheijde, M. R.; Loomis, R. A.; Salinas, V. N.; Öberg, K.I.; Qi, C.; Wilner, D. J.


    Three formaldehyde lines were observed (H$_2$CO 3$_{03}$--2$_{02}$, H$_2$CO 3$_{22}$--2$_{21}$, and H$_2$CO 3$_{21}$--2$_{20}$) in the protoplanetary disk around the Herbig Ae star HD 163296 with ALMA at 0.5 arcsecond (60 AU) spatial resolution. H$_2$CO 3$_{03}$--2$_{02}$ was readily detected via imaging, while the weaker H$_2$CO 3$_{22}$--2$_{21}$ and H$_2$CO 3$_{21}$--2$_{20}$ lines required matched filter analysis to detect. H$_2$CO is present throughout most of the gaseous disk, extending...

  7. High-Level ab initio electronic structure calculations of Water Clusters (H2O)16 and (H2O)17: a new global minimum for (H2O)16

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoo, Soohaeng; Apra, Edoardo; Zeng, Xiao Cheng; Xantheas, Sotiris S.


    The lowest-energy structures of water clusters (H2O)16 and (H2O)17 were revisited at the MP2 and CCSD(T) levels of theory. A new global minimum structure for (H2O)16 was found at the MP2 and CCSD(T) levels of theory and the effect of zero-point energy corrections on the relative stability of the low-lying minimum energy structures was assessed. For (H2O)17 the CCSD(T) calculations confirm the previously found at the MP2 level of theory "interior" arrangement (fully coordinated water molecule inside a spherical cluster) as the global minimum.

  8. Aquifer-test data for wells H-1, H-2A, H-2B, H-2C, and H-3 at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant, southeastern New Mexico (United States)

    Huff, G.F.; Gregory, Angela


    A series of aquifer tests was performed by the U.S. Geological Survey on geologic units of Permian age at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant site between February 1979 and July 1980 in wells H-1, H-2 complex (H-2A, H-2B, and H-2C), and H-3. The tested geologic units included the Magenta Dolomite and Culebra Dolomite Members of the Rustler Formation, and the contact zone between the Rustler and Salado Formations. Selected information on the tested formations, test dates, pre-test static water levels, test configurations, and raw data collected during these tests are tabulated in this report.

  9. Mixed H2/H∞ Pitch Control of Wind Turbine with a Markovian Jump Model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lin, Zhongwei; Liu, Jizhen; Wu, Qiuwei


    to guarantee both the disturbance rejection and the mechanical loads objectives, which can reduce the power volatility and the generator torque fluctuation of the whole transmission mechanism efficiently. Simulation results for a 2 MW wind turbine show the effectiveness of the proposed method.......This paper proposes a Markovian jump model and the corresponding H2 /H∞ control strategy for the wind turbine driven by the stochastic switching wind speed, which can be used to regulate the generator speed in order to harvest the rated power while reducing the fatigue loads on the mechanical side...... of wind turbine. Through sampling the low-frequency wind speed data into separate intervals, the stochastic characteristic of the steady wind speed can be represented as a Markov process, while the high-frequency wind speed in the each interval is regarded as the disturbance input. Then, the traditional...

  10. Proof nets for lingusitic analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moot, R.C.A.


    This book investigates the possible linguistic applications of proof nets, redundancy free representations of proofs, which were introduced by Girard for linear logic. We will adapt the notion of proof net to allow the formulation of a proof net calculus which is soundand complete for the

  11. Teaching Tennis for Net Success. (United States)

    Young, Bryce


    A program for teaching tennis to beginners, NET (Net Easy Teaching) is described. The program addresses three common needs shared by tennis students: active involvement in hitting the ball, clearing the net, and positive reinforcement. A sample lesson plan is included. (IAH)

  12. Net4Care Ecosystem Website

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Henrik Bærbak; Hansen, Klaus Marius; Rasmussen, Morten


    is a tele-monitoring scenario in which Net4Care clients are deployed in a gateway in private homes. Medical devices then connect to these gateways and transmit their observations to a Net4Care server. In turn the Net4Care server creates valid clinical HL7 documents, stores them in a national XDS repository...

  13. Air Force NiH2 IPV storage testing (United States)

    Smellie, Shawn; Hill, Carole A.


    USAF Phillips Laboratory Nickel Hydrogen IPV storage test, performed at the Naval Surface Warfare Center (NSWC) at Crane Indiana, is discussed. The storage tests is just one component of the USAF Phillips Laboratory Nickel Hydrogen IPV Test Program. The plan was to store cells for a defined period and cycle matching cells to determine the effect on cycle life. The storage period was completed in April 95 and the cycling cells have achieved five years of real time LEO cycling. The two main objectives of the storage test are: to investigate various methods on NiH2 cells by using two different manufacturers and two different storage methods or conditions, and to determine the effect of storage method on cycle performance and cycle life by using matching cells cycling at 25% depth of discharge. The comparisons between individual cycle performance as well as cycle life are also reported. During the test the following variables has been considered: constant potential, cell current, open circuit voltage, and temperature. The results of the test are also discussed using charts and tables.

  14. Non-BCS thermodynamic properties of H2 S superconductor (United States)

    Durajski, Artur P.; Szcze&şacute; niak, Radosław; Li, Yinwei


    The present paper determines the thermodynamic properties of the superconducting state in the H2S compound. The values of the pressure from 130 GPa to 180 GPa were taken into consideration. The calculations were performed in the framework of the Eliashberg formalism. In the first step, the experimental course of the dependence of the critical temperature on the pressure was reproduced: TC ∈ K, whereas the Coulomb pseudopotential equal to 0.15 was adopted. Next, the following quantities were calculated: the order parameter at the temperature of zero Kelvin (Δ (0)), the specific heat jump at the critical temperature (ΔC (TC) ≡CS (TC) -CN (TC)), and the thermodynamic critical field (HC (0)). It was found that the values of the dimensionless ratios: RΔ ≡ 2 Δ (0) /kBTC , RC ≡ ΔC(TC) /CN (TC) , and RH ≡TCCN (TC) / HC2(0) deviate from the predictions of the BCS theory: RΔ ∈ , RC ∈ , and RH ∈ . Generalizing the results on the whole family of the HnS -type compounds, it was shown that the maximum value of the critical temperature can be equal to ˜290 K, while RΔ,RC and RH adopt the following values: 6.53, 3.99, and 0.093, respectively.

  15. Surpassing the current limitations of high purity H2 production in microbial electrolysis cell (MECs): Strategies for inhibiting growth of methanogens. (United States)

    Kadier, Abudukeremu; Kalil, Mohd Sahaid; Chandrasekhar, Kuppam; Mohanakrishna, Gunda; Saratale, Ganesh Dattatraya; Saratale, Rijuta Ganesh; Kumar, Gopalakrishnan; Pugazhendhi, Arivalagan; Sivagurunathan, Periyasamy


    Microbial electrolysis cells (MECs) are perceived as a potential and promising innovative biotechnological tool that can convert carbon-rich waste biomass or wastewater into hydrogen (H2) or other value-added chemicals. Undesired methane (CH4) producing H2 sinks, including methanogens, is a serious challenge faced by MECs to achieve high-rate H2 production. Methanogens can consume H2 to produce CH4 in MECs, which has led to a drop of H2 production efficiency, H2 production rate (HPR) and also a low percentage of H2 in the produced biogas. Organized inference related to the interactions of microbes and potential processes has assisted in understanding approaches and concepts for inhibiting the growth of methanogens and profitable scale up design. Thus, here in we review the current developments and also the improvements constituted for the reduction of microbial H2 losses to methanogens. Firstly, the greatest challenge in achieving practical applications of MECs; undesirable microorganisms (methanogens) growth and various studied techniques for eliminating and reducing methanogens activities in MECs were discussed. Additionally, this extensive review also considers prospects for stimulating future research that could help to achieve more information and would provide the focus and path towards MECs as well as their possibilities for simultaneously generating H2 and waste remediation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Differential deposition of H2A.Z in combination with histone modifications within related genes in Oryza sativa callus and seedling. (United States)

    Zhang, Kang; Xu, Wenying; Wang, Chunchao; Yi, Xin; Zhang, Wenli; Su, Zhen


    As a histone variant, H2A.Z is highly conserved among species and plays a significant role in diverse cellular processes. Here, we generated genome-wide maps of H2A.Z in Oryza sativa (rice) callus and seedling by combining chromatin immunoprecipitation using H2A.Z antibody and high-throughput sequencing. We found a significantly high peak and a small peak of H2A.Z distributed at the 5' and 3' ends of highly expressed genes, respectively. H2A.Z was also associated with inactive genes in both tissues. H3 lysine 4 trimethylation was associated with H2A.Z deposition at the 5' end of expressed genes, and H3 lysine 27 trimethylation peaks were partially associated with H2A.Z. In summary, our study provides global analysis data for the distribution of H2A.Z in the rice genome. Our results demonstrate that the differential deposition of H2A.Z might play important roles in gene transcription during rice development. © 2016 The Authors The Plant Journal © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Ultra-selective defect-free interfacially polymerized molecular sieve thin-film composite membranes for H2 purification

    KAUST Repository

    Ali, Zain


    Purification is a major bottleneck towards generating low-cost commercial hydrogen. In this work, inexpensive high-performance H2 separating membranes were fabricated by modifying the commercially successful interfacial polymerization production method for reverse osmosis membranes. Defect-free thin-film composite membranes were formed demonstrating unprecedented mixed-gas H2/CO2 selectivity of ≈ 50 at 140 °C with H2 permeance of 350 GPU, surpassing the permeance/selectivity upper bound of all known polymer membranes by a wide margin. The combination of exceptional separation performance and low manufacturing cost makes them excellent candidates for cost-effective hydrogen purification from steam cracking and similar processes.

  18. Identification of MHC class I H-2 Kb/Db-restricted immunogenic peptides derived from retinal proteins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Mingjun; Bai, Fang; Pries, Mette


    PURPOSE: To identify H-2 Kb/Db-binding immunogenic peptides derived from retinal proteins. METHODS: Computer-based prediction was used to identify potentially H-2 Kb/Db-binding peptides derived from the interphotoreceptor retinol-binding protein (IRBP), soluble retinal antigen (S......, with individual peptides in incomplete Freund's adjuvant (IFA). Eight days after immunization, splenocytes were isolated for cytotoxic T-lymphocyte (CTL) analysis. A 51chromium-release assay was used to detect specific CTL reactivity generated in the cultures. Eyes were enucleated for histopathological analysis....... The immunogenic peptides alone did not induce inflammation in the eyes, but they could enhance severity of uveitis induced by IRBP. CONCLUSIONS: Five of 21 H-2 Kb/Db-binding retinal protein-derived peptides were found to be immunogenic, suggesting that these peptides could function as autoantigenic epitopes...

  19. Use of H2(18)O2 to measure absolute rates of dark H2O2 production in freshwater systems. (United States)

    Vermilyea, Andrew W; Dixon, Taylor C; Voelker, Bettina M


    Photochemical production is usually considered to be the main source of H2O2 in freshwater systems; here we show that significant dark production also occurs. We used isotope-labeled H2O2 as a tracer to simultaneously determine H2O2 production and decay rates in incubations of unfiltered water samples. Our new technique for H2(18)O2 analysis, requiring only small sample volumes and simple field equipment, allows for preservation of samples in remote locations, followed by gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GCMS) analysis up to six days later. Dark H2O2 production rates of 29-122 nM/h were observed in several lakewater samples. Measured production and decay rates were consistent with pseudo steady-state, early morning [H2O2] measurements made in each water body. Dark H2O2 production is likely to be more important than photochemical production for the total H2O2 budget over 24 h in the freshwater systems we examined. Our results imply that processes usually assumed to be photochemically induced in freshwaters, such as metal redox cycling mediated by H2O2 and O2(-), and production of strong oxidants from the reaction of H2O2 with Fe(II) (Fenton's reaction) could also be occurring at significant rates in the absence of light.

  20. Catalase activity is stimulated by H2O2 in rich culture medium and is required for H2O2 resistance and adaptation in yeast

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorival Martins


    Full Text Available Catalases are efficient scavengers of H2O2 and protect cells against H2O2 stress. Examination of the H2O2 stimulon in Saccharomyces cerevisiae revealed that the cytosolic catalase T (Ctt1 protein level increases 15-fold on H2O2 challenge in synthetic complete media although previous work revealed that deletion of the CCT1 or CTA1 genes (encoding peroxisomal/mitochondrial catalase A does not increase the H2O2 sensitivity of yeast challenged in phosphate buffer (pH 7.4. This we attributed to our observation that catalase activity is depressed when yeast are challenged with H2O2 in nutrient-poor media. Hence, we performed a systematic comparison of catalase activity and cell viability of wild-type yeast and of the single catalase knockouts, ctt1∆ and cta1∆, following H2O2 challenge in nutrient-rich medium (YPD and in phosphate buffer (pH 7.4. Ctt1 but not Cta1 activity is strongly induced by H2O2 when cells are challenged in YPD but suppressed when cells are challenged in buffer. Consistent with the activity results, exponentially growing ctt1∆ cells in YPD are more sensitive to H2O2 than wild-type or cta1∆ cells, whereas in buffer all three strains exhibit comparable H2O2 hypersensitivity. Furthermore, catalase activity is increased during adaptation to sublethal H2O2 concentrations in YPD but not in buffer. We conclude that induction of cytosolic Ctt1 activity is vital in protecting yeast against exogenous H2O2 but this activity is inhibited by H2O2 when cells are challenged in nutrient-free media.

  1. Catalase activity is stimulated by H2O2 in rich culture medium and is required for H2O2 resistance and adaptation in yeast☆ (United States)

    Martins, Dorival; English, Ann M.


    Catalases are efficient scavengers of H2O2 and protect cells against H2O2 stress. Examination of the H2O2 stimulon in Saccharomyces cerevisiae revealed that the cytosolic catalase T (Ctt1) protein level increases 15-fold on H2O2 challenge in synthetic complete media although previous work revealed that deletion of the CCT1 or CTA1 genes (encoding peroxisomal/mitochondrial catalase A) does not increase the H2O2 sensitivity of yeast challenged in phosphate buffer (pH 7.4). This we attributed to our observation that catalase activity is depressed when yeast are challenged with H2O2 in nutrient-poor media. Hence, we performed a systematic comparison of catalase activity and cell viability of wild-type yeast and of the single catalase knockouts, ctt1∆ and cta1∆, following H2O2 challenge in nutrient-rich medium (YPD) and in phosphate buffer (pH 7.4). Ctt1 but not Cta1 activity is strongly induced by H2O2 when cells are challenged in YPD but suppressed when cells are challenged in buffer. Consistent with the activity results, exponentially growing ctt1∆ cells in YPD are more sensitive to H2O2 than wild-type or cta1∆ cells, whereas in buffer all three strains exhibit comparable H2O2 hypersensitivity. Furthermore, catalase activity is increased during adaptation to sublethal H2O2 concentrations in YPD but not in buffer. We conclude that induction of cytosolic Ctt1 activity is vital in protecting yeast against exogenous H2O2 but this activity is inhibited by H2O2 when cells are challenged in nutrient-free media. PMID:24563848

  2. Catalase activity is stimulated by H(2)O(2) in rich culture medium and is required for H(2)O(2) resistance and adaptation in yeast. (United States)

    Martins, Dorival; English, Ann M


    Catalases are efficient scavengers of H2O2 and protect cells against H2O2 stress. Examination of the H2O2 stimulon in Saccharomyces cerevisiae revealed that the cytosolic catalase T (Ctt1) protein level increases 15-fold on H2O2 challenge in synthetic complete media although previous work revealed that deletion of the CCT1 or CTA1 genes (encoding peroxisomal/mitochondrial catalase A) does not increase the H2O2 sensitivity of yeast challenged in phosphate buffer (pH 7.4). This we attributed to our observation that catalase activity is depressed when yeast are challenged with H2O2 in nutrient-poor media. Hence, we performed a systematic comparison of catalase activity and cell viability of wild-type yeast and of the single catalase knockouts, ctt1∆ and cta1∆, following H2O2 challenge in nutrient-rich medium (YPD) and in phosphate buffer (pH 7.4). Ctt1 but not Cta1 activity is strongly induced by H2O2 when cells are challenged in YPD but suppressed when cells are challenged in buffer. Consistent with the activity results, exponentially growing ctt1∆ cells in YPD are more sensitive to H2O2 than wild-type or cta1∆ cells, whereas in buffer all three strains exhibit comparable H2O2 hypersensitivity. Furthermore, catalase activity is increased during adaptation to sublethal H2O2 concentrations in YPD but not in buffer. We conclude that induction of cytosolic Ctt1 activity is vital in protecting yeast against exogenous H2O2 but this activity is inhibited by H2O2 when cells are challenged in nutrient-free media.

  3. Master Robotic Net

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir Lipunov


    Full Text Available The main goal of the MASTER-Net project is to produce a unique fast sky survey with all sky observed over a single night down to a limiting magnitude of 19-20. Such a survey will make it possible to address a number of fundamental problems: search for dark energy via the discovery and photometry of supernovae (including SNIa, search for exoplanets, microlensing effects, discovery of minor bodies in the Solar System, and space-junk monitoring. All MASTER telescopes can be guided by alerts, and we plan to observe prompt optical emission from gamma-ray bursts synchronously in several filters and in several polarization planes.

  4. Manganese ions enhance mitochondrial H2O2emission from Krebs cycle oxidoreductases by inducing permeability transition. (United States)

    Bonke, Erik; Siebels, Ilka; Zwicker, Klaus; Dröse, Stefan


    Manganese-induced toxicity has been linked to mitochondrial dysfunction and an increased generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS). We could recently show in mechanistic studies that Mn 2+ ions induce hydrogen peroxide (H 2 O 2 ) production from the ubiquinone binding site of mitochondrial complex II (II Q ) and generally enhance H 2 O 2 formation by accelerating the rate of superoxide dismutation. The present study with intact mitochondria reveals that manganese additionally enhances H 2 O 2 emission by inducing mitochondrial permeability transition (mPT). In mitochondria fed by NADH-generating substrates, the combination of Mn 2+ and different respiratory chain inhibitors led to a dynamically increasing H 2 O 2 emission which was sensitive to the mPT inhibitor cyclosporine A (CsA) as well as Ru-360, an inhibitor of the mitochondrial calcium uniporter (MCU). Under these conditions, flavin-containing enzymes of the mitochondrial matrix, e.g. the mitochondrial 2-oxoglutaratedehydrogenase (OGDH), were major sources of ROS. With succinate as substrate, Mn 2+ stimulated ROS production mainly at complex II, whereby the applied succinate concentration had a marked effect on the tendency for mPT. Also Ca 2+ increased the rate of H 2 O 2 emission by mPT, while no direct effect on ROS-production of complex II was observed. The present study reveals a complex scenario through which manganese affects mitochondrial H 2 O 2 emission: stimulating its production from distinct sites (e.g. site II Q ), accelerating superoxide dismutation and enhancing the emission via mPT which also leads to the loss of soluble components of the mitochondrial antioxidant systems and favors the ROS production from flavin-containing oxidoreductases of the Krebs cycle. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. A novel bioactive haemodialysis system using dissolved dihydrogen (H2) produced by water electrolysis: a clinical trial. (United States)

    Nakayama, Masaaki; Nakano, Hirofumi; Hamada, Hiromi; Itami, Noritomo; Nakazawa, Ryoichi; Ito, Sadayoshi


    Chronic inflammation in haemodialysis (HD) patients indicates a poor prognosis. However, therapeutic approaches are limited. Hydrogen gas (H(2)) ameliorates oxidative and inflammatory injuries to organs in animal models. We developed an HD system using a dialysis solution with high levels of dissolved H(2) and examined the clinical effects. Dialysis solution with H(2) (average of 48 ppb) was produced by mixing dialysate concentrates and reverse osmosis water containing dissolved H(2) generated by a water electrolysis technique. Subjects comprised 21 stable patients on standard HD who were switched to the test HD for 6 months at three sessions a week. During the study period, no adverse clinical signs or symptoms were observed. A significant decrease in systolic blood pressure (SBP) before and after dialysis was observed during the study, and a significant number of patients achieved SBP <140 mmHg after HD (baseline, 21%; 6 months, 62%; P < 0.05). Changes in dialysis parameters were minimal, while significant decreases in levels of plasma monocyte chemoattractant protein 1 (P < 0.01) and myeloperoxidase (P < 0.05) were identified. Adding H(2) to haemodialysis solutions ameliorated inflammatory reactions and improved BP control. This system could offer a novel therapeutic option for control of uraemia.

  6. Synergistic Effect of H2O2 and NO2 in Cell Death Induced by Cold Atmospheric He Plasma (United States)

    Girard, Pierre-Marie; Arbabian, Atousa; Fleury, Michel; Bauville, Gérard; Puech, Vincent; Dutreix, Marie; Sousa, João Santos


    Cold atmospheric pressure plasmas (CAPPs) have emerged over the last decade as a new promising therapy to fight cancer. CAPPs’ antitumor activity is primarily due to the delivery of reactive oxygen and nitrogen species (RONS), but the precise determination of the constituents linked to this anticancer process remains to be done. In the present study, using a micro-plasma jet produced in helium (He), we demonstrate that the concentration of H2O2, NO2− and NO3− can fully account for the majority of RONS produced in plasma-activated buffer. The role of these species on the viability of normal and tumour cell lines was investigated. Although the degree of sensitivity to H2O2 is cell-type dependent, we show that H2O2 alone cannot account for the toxicity of He plasma. Indeed, NO2−, but not NO3−, acts in synergy with H2O2 to enhance cell death in normal and tumour cell lines to a level similar to that observed after plasma treatment. Our findings suggest that the efficiency of plasma treatment strongly depends on the combination of H2O2 and NO2− in determined concentrations. We also show that the interaction of the He plasma jet with the ambient air is required to generate NO2− and NO3− in solution. PMID:27364563

  7. Growth of desulfovibrio in lactate or ethanol media low in sulfate in association with H2-utilizing methanogenic bacteria. (United States)

    Bryant, M P; Campbell, L L; Reddy, C A; Crabill, M R


    In the analysis of an ethanol-CO(2) enrichment of bacteria from an anaerobic sewage digestor, a strain tentatively identified as Desulfovibrio vulgaris and an H(2)-utilizing methanogen resembling Methanobacterium formicicum were isolated, and they were shown to represent a synergistic association of two bacterial species similar to that previously found between S organism and Methanobacterium strain MOH isolated from Methanobacillus omelianskii. In lowsulfate media, the desulfovibrio produced acetate and H(2) from ethanol and acetate, H(2), and, presumably, CO(2) from lactate; but growth was slight and little of the energy source was catabolized unless the organism was combined with an H(2)-utilizing methanogenic bacterium. The type strains of D. vulgaris and Desulfovibrio desulfuricans carried out the same type of synergistic growth with methanogens. In mixtures of desulfovibrio and strain MOH growing on ethanol, lactate, or pyruvate, diminution of methane produced was stoichiometric with the moles of sulfate added, and the desulfovibrios grew better with sulfate addition. The energetics of the synergistic associations and of the competition between the methanogenic system and sulfate-reducing system as sinks for electrons generated in the oxidation of organic materials such as ethanol, lactate, and acetate are discussed. It is suggested that lack of availability of H(2) for growth of methanogens is a major factor in suppression of methanogenesis by sulfate in natural ecosystems. The results with these known mixtures of bacteria suggest that hydrogenase-forming, sulfate-reducing bacteria could be active in some methanogenic ecosystems that are low in sulfate.

  8. UV-H2O2 degradation of methyl orange catalysed by H3PW12O40/activated clay. (United States)

    Wei, Guangtao; Zhang, Linye; Wei, Tengyou; Luo, Qiyu; Tong, Zhangfa


    A catalyst consisting of phosphotungstic acid (H3PW12O40) combined with activated clay was prepared by the impregnation method, and an experiment was carried out to evaluate the catalytic activity of the H3PW12O40/activated clay for the degradation of methyl orange (MO) in the UV-H2O2 process. The degradation ratio of MO can be affected by H2O2 concentration, reaction time, catalyst dosage, pH and temperature. The reaction temperature should be controlled at less than 70 degrees C, and the catalyst has a wide applicable pH range in the UV-H2O2 process. Hydroxyl radicals were generated in the UV-H2O2 system under the action of H3PW12O40/activated clay, and MO was degraded by hydroxyl radicals. Compared with traditional catalysts used in UV-H2O2 systems, H3PW12O40/activated clay has certain advantages for its practical application.

  9. Site-specific ADP-ribosylation of histone H2B in response to DNA double strand breaks. (United States)

    Rakhimova, Alina; Ura, Seiji; Hsu, Duen-Wei; Wang, Hong-Yu; Pears, Catherine J; Lakin, Nicholas D


    ADP-ribosyltransferases (ARTs) modify proteins with single units or polymers of ADP-ribose to regulate DNA repair. However, the substrates for these enzymes are ill-defined. For example, although histones are modified by ARTs, the sites on these proteins ADP-ribosylated following DNA damage and the ARTs that catalyse these events are unknown. This, in part, is due to the lack of a eukaryotic model that contains ARTs, in addition to histone genes that can be manipulated to assess ADP-ribosylation events in vivo. Here we exploit the model Dictyostelium to identify site-specific histone ADP-ribosylation events in vivo and define the ARTs that mediate these modifications. Dictyostelium histones are modified in response to DNA double strand breaks (DSBs) in vivo by the ARTs Adprt1a and Adprt2. Adprt1a is a mono-ART that modifies H2BE18 in vitro, although disruption of this site allows ADP-ribosylation at H2BE19. Although redundancy between H2BE18 and H2BE19 ADP-ribosylation is also apparent following DSBs in vivo, by generating a strain with mutations at E18/E19 in the h2b locus we demonstrate these are the principal sites modified by Adprt1a/Adprt2. This identifies DNA damage induced histone mono-ADP-ribosylation sites by specific ARTs in vivo, providing a unique platform to assess how histone ADP-ribosylation regulates DNA repair.

  10. Numerical simulations of single and multi-staged injection of H2 in a supersonic scramjet combustor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Abu-Farah


    Full Text Available Computational fluid dynamics (CFD simulations of a single staged injection of H2 through a central wedge shaped strut and a multi-staged injection through wall injectors are carried out by using Ansys CFX-12 code. Unstructured tetrahedral grids for narrow channel and quarter geometries of the combustor are generated by using ICEM CFD. Steady three-dimensional (3D Reynolds-averaged Navier-stokes (RANS simulations are carried out in the case of no H2 injection and compared with the simulations of single staged pilot and/or main H2 injections and multistage injection. Shear stress transport (SST based on k-ω turbulent model is adopted. Flow field visualization (complex shock waves interactions and static pressure distribution along the wall of the combustor are predicted and compared with the experimental schlieren images and measured wall static pressures for validation. A good agreement is found between the CFD predicted results and the measured data. The narrow and quarter geometries of the combustor give similar results with very small differences. Multi-staged injections of H2 enhance the turbulent H2/air mixing by forming vortices and additional shock waves (bow shocks.

  11. TLR agonists downregulate H2-O in CD8α− DCs1 (United States)

    Porter, Gavin W.; Yi, Woelsung; Denzin, Lisa K.


    Peptide loading of MHC class II (MHCII) molecules is catalyzed by the non-classical MHCII-related molecule, H2-M. H2-O, another MHCII-like molecule, associates with H2-M and modulates H2-M function. The MHCII presentation pathway is tightly regulated in dendritic cells (DCs); yet how the key modulators of MHCII presentation, H2-M and H2-O, are affected in different DC subsets in response to maturation is unknown. Here we show that H2-O is markedly downregulated in vivo in mouse CD8α− DCs in response to a broad array of TLR agonists. In contrast, CD8α+ DCs only modestly downregulated H2-O in response to TLR-agonists. H2-M levels were slightly down-modulated in both CD8α− and CD8α+ DCs. As a consequence, H2-M:H2-O ratios significantly increased for CD8α− but not CD8α+ DCs. The TLR-mediated downregulation was DC-specific, as B cells did not show significant H2-O and H2-M downregulation. TLR4 signaling was required to mediate DC H2-O downregulation in response to LPS. Finally, our studies showed that the mechanism of H2-O downregulation was likely due to direct protein degradation of H2-O as well as down regulation of H2-O mRNA levels. The differential H2-O and H2-M modulation after DC maturation support the proposed roles of CD8α− dendritic cells in initiating CD4-restricted immune responses by optimal MHCII presentation and CD8α+ DCs in promoting immune tolerance via presentation of low levels of MHCII-peptide. PMID:21918198

  12. TLR agonists downregulate H2-O in CD8alpha- dendritic cells. (United States)

    Porter, Gavin W; Yi, Woelsung; Denzin, Lisa K


    Peptide loading of MHC class II (MHCII) molecules is catalyzed by the nonclassical MHCII-related molecule H2-M. H2-O, another MHCII-like molecule, associates with H2-M and modulates H2-M function. The MHCII presentation pathway is tightly regulated in dendritic cells (DCs), yet how the key modulators of MHCII presentation, H2-M and H2-O, are affected in different DC subsets in response to maturation is unknown. In this study, we show that H2-O is markedly downregulated in vivo in mouse CD8α(-) DCs in response to a broad array of TLR agonists. In contrast, CD8α(+) DCs only modestly downregulated H2-O in response to TLR agonists. H2-M levels were slightly downmodulated in both CD8α(-) and CD8α(+) DCs. As a consequence, H2-M/H2-O ratios significantly increased for CD8α(-) but not for CD8α(+) DCs. The TLR-mediated downregulation was DC specific, as B cells did not show significant H2-O and H2-M downregulation. TLR4 signaling was required to mediate DC H2-O downregulation in response to LPS. Finally, our studies showed that the mechanism of H2-O downregulation was likely due to direct protein degradation of H2-O as well as downregulation of H2-O mRNA levels. The differential H2-O and H2-M modulation after DC maturation supports the proposed roles of CD8α(-) DCs in initiating CD4-restricted immune responses by optimal MHCII presentation and of CD8α(+) DCs in promoting immune tolerance via presentation of low levels of MHCII-peptide.

  13. expansions to and an introduction to (United States)

    Martin, John; Rosa, Bruce A.; Ozersky, Philip; Hallsworth-Pepin, Kymberlie; Zhang, Xu; Bhonagiri-Palsikar, Veena; Tyagi, Rahul; Wang, Qi; Choi, Young-Jun; Gao, Xin; McNulty, Samantha N.; Brindley, Paul J.; Mitreva, Makedonka

    2015-01-01 ( is the new moniker for a collection of databases: and Within this collection we provide services and resources for parasitic roundworms (nematodes) and flatworms (trematodes), collectively known as helminths. For over a decade we have provided resources for studying nematodes via our veteran site ( In this article, (i) we provide an update on the expansions of that hosts omics data from 84 species and provides advanced search tools to the broad scientific community so that data can be mined in a useful and user-friendly manner and (ii) we introduce, a site dedicated to the dissemination of data from flukes, flatworm parasites of the class Trematoda, phylum Platyhelminthes. is an independent component of and currently hosts data from 16 species, with information ranging from genomic, functional genomic data, enzymatic pathway utilization to microbiome changes associated with helminth infections. The databases’ interface, with a sophisticated query engine as a backbone, is intended to allow users to search for multi-factorial combinations of species’ omics properties. This report describes updates to since its last description in NAR, 2012, and also introduces and presents its new sibling site, PMID:25392426


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evelia Schettini


    Full Text Available The aim of this paper was to investigate the radiometric properties of coloured nets used to protect a peach cultivation. The modifications of the solar spectral distribution, mainly in the R and FR wavelength band, influence plant photomorphogenesis by means of the phytochrome and cryptochrome. The phytochrome response is characterized in terms of radiation rate in the red wavelengths (R, 600-700 nm to that in the farred radiation (FR, 700-800 nm, i.e. the R/FR ratio. The effects of the blue radiation (B, 400-500 nm is investigated by the ratio between the blue radiation and the far-red radiation, i.e. the B/FR ratio. A BLUE net, a RED net, a YELLOW net, a PEARL net, a GREY net and a NEUTRAL net were tested in Bari (Italy, latitude 41° 05’ N. Peach trees were located in pots inside the greenhouses and in open field. The growth of the trees cultivated in open field was lower in comparison to the growth of the trees grown under the nets. The RED, PEARL, YELLOW and GREY nets increased the growth of the trees more than the other nets. The nets positively influenced the fruit characteristics, such as fruit weight and flesh firmness.

  15. Novel Carbon (C)-Boron (B)-Nitrogen (N)-Containing H2 Storage Materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Shih-Yuan [Boston College, Chestnut Hill, MA (United States); Giustra, Zachary X. [Boston College, Chestnut Hill, MA (United States); Autrey, Tom [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Dixon, David A. [Univ. of Alabama, Tuscaloosa, AL (United States); Osenar, Paul [Protonex Technology Corporation, Southborough, MA (United States)


    The following summarizes the research conducted for DOE project DE-EE0005658 “Novel Carbon(C)-Boron(B)-Nitrogen(N)-Containing H2 Storage Materials”. This work focused in part on the continued study of two materials identified from the preceding project DE-FG360GO18143 (“Hydrogen Storage by Novel CBN Heterocycle Materials”) as lead candidates to meet the DOE technical targets for either vehicular or non-automotive hydrogen storage applications. Specifically, a room-temperature liquid, 3-methyl-1,2-cyclopentane (B), and a high H2 capacity solid, 1,2-BN-cyclohexane (J), were selected for further characterization and performance optimization. In addition to these compounds, the current project also aimed to prepare several new materials predicted to be disposed towards direct reversibility of H2 release and uptake, a feature deemed critical to achieving efficient recycling of spent fuel end products. To assist in the rational design of these and other next-generation materials, this project undertook to investigate the mechanism of hydrogen release from established compounds (mainly B and J) using a combined experimental/computational approach. Among this project’s signature accomplishments, the preliminary synthetic route to B was optimized for production on decagram scale. With such quantities of material available, its performance in powering an actual 30 W proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cell stack was tested and found to be identical to that of facility H2. Despite this positive proof-of-concept achievement, however, further consideration of neat B as a potential hydrogen storage material was abandoned due to evidence of thermal instability. Specifically, mass spectrometry-coupled thermogravimetric analysis (TGA-MS) revealed significant H2 release from B to initiate at 50 °C, well below the 60 °C minimum threshold set by the DOE. This result prompted a more extensive investigation in the decomposition mechanism of B vis-à-vis that of J, which

  16. Molecular analysis of an EL4 cell line that expresses H-2Db but not H-2Kb or beta 2-microglobulin. (United States)

    Potter, T A; Zeff, R A; Schmitt-Verhulst, A M; Rajan, T V


    EL4/Mar is a variant cell line that expresses H-2Db but neither H-2Kb nor beta 2-microglobulin (beta 2m). Southern and RNA blot analysis and immunoprecipitation of metabolically labeled proteins established that the B2m gene(s), beta 2m mRNA, and beta 2m protein are normal in this cell line. Somatic cell hybridization showed that the defect in this cell line was in the synthesis of H-2Kb, and RNA blot analysis with an H-2Kb specific oligonucleotide established that the H-2Kb gene(s) in this cell line was not transcribed into a stable mRNA species. The apparent absence of beta 2m on the surface of this cell line suggests that there may be some feature of the H-2Db molecule that allows it to be expressed in the absence of detectable beta 2m. Images PMID:3887412

  17. A thermodynamic study of 1-propanol-glycerol-H2O at 25 degrees C: Effect of glycerol on molecular organization of H2O

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Parsons, M.T.; Westh, Peter; Davies, J.V.


    of H2O. The glycerol molecules do not exert a hydrophobic effect on H2O. Rather, the hydroxyl groups of glycerol, perhaps by forming clusters via its alkyl backbone with hydroxyl groups pointing outward, interact with H2O so as to reduce the characteristics of liquid H2O. The global hydrogen bond......The excess chemical potential, partial molar enthalpy, and volume of 1-propanol were determined in ternary mixtures of 1-propanol-glycerol-H2O at 25degreesC. The mole fraction dependence of all these thermodynamic functions was used to elucidate the effect of glycerol on the molecular organization...... probability and, hence, the percolation nature of the hydrogen bond network is reduced. In addition, the degree of fluctuation inherent in liquid H2O is reduced by glycerol perhaps by participating in the hydrogen bond network via OH groups. At infinite dilution, the pair interaction coefficients in enthalpy...

  18. Localization and expression of histone H2A variants during mouse oogenesis and preimplantation embryo development. (United States)

    Wu, B J; Dong, F L; Ma, X S; Wang, X G; Lin, F; Liu, H L


    Epigenetic modifications of the genome, such as histone H2A variants, ensure appropriate gene activation or silencing during oogenesis and preimplantation embryo development. We examined global localization and expression of the histone H2A variants, including H2A.Bbd, H2A.Z and H2A.X, during mouse oogenesis and preimplantation embryo development. Immunocytochemistry with specific antibodies against various histone H2A variants showed their localization and changes during oogenesis and preimplantation development. H2A.Bbd and H2A.Z were almost absent from nuclei of growing oocytes (except 5-day oocyte), whereas H2A.X was deposited in nuclei throughout oogenesis and in preimplantation embryos. In germinal vesicle (GV) oocyte chromatin, H2A.Bbd was detected as a weak signal, whereas no fluorescent signal was detected in GV breakdown (GVBD) or metaphase II (MII) oocytes; H2A.Z showed intense signals in chromatin of GV, GVBD and MII oocytes. H2A. Bbd showed very weak signals in both pronucleus and 2-cell embryo nuclei, but intense signals were detected in nuclei from 4-cell embryo to blastula. The H2A.Z signal was absent from pronucleus to morula chromatin, whereas a fluorescent signal was detected in blastula nuclei. Our results suggest that histone H2A variants are probably involved in reprogramming of genomes during oocyte meiosis or after fertilization.

  19. Mycobacterial F420H2-Dependent Reductases Promiscuously Reduce Diverse Compounds through a Common Mechanism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chris Greening


    Full Text Available An unusual aspect of actinobacterial metabolism is the use of the redox cofactor F420. Studies have shown that actinobacterial F420H2-dependent reductases promiscuously hydrogenate diverse organic compounds in biodegradative and biosynthetic processes. These enzymes therefore represent promising candidates for next-generation industrial biocatalysts. In this work, we undertook the first broad survey of these enzymes as potential industrial biocatalysts by exploring the extent, as well as mechanistic and structural bases, of their substrate promiscuity. We expressed and purified 11 enzymes from seven subgroups of the flavin/deazaflavin oxidoreductase (FDOR superfamily (A1, A2, A3, B1, B2, B3, B4 from the model soil actinobacterium Mycobacterium smegmatis. These enzymes reduced compounds from six chemical classes, including fundamental monocycles such as a cyclohexenone, a dihydropyran, and pyrones, as well as more complex quinone, coumarin, and arylmethane compounds. Substrate range and reduction rates varied between the enzymes, with the A1, A3, and B1 groups exhibiting greatest promiscuity. Molecular docking studies suggested that structurally diverse compounds are accommodated in the large substrate-binding pocket of the most promiscuous FDOR through hydrophobic interactions with conserved aromatic residues and the isoalloxazine headgroup of F420H2. Liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC/MS and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC/MS analysis of derivatized reaction products showed reduction occurred through a common mechanism involving hydride transfer from F420H- to the electron-deficient alkene groups of substrates. Reduction occurs when the hydride donor (C5 of F420H- is proximal to the acceptor (electrophilic alkene of the substrate. These findings suggest that engineered actinobacterial F420H2-dependent reductases are promising novel biocatalysts for the facile transformation of a wide range of α,β-unsaturated compounds.

  20. Removal of H2S using molten carbonate at high temperature. (United States)

    Kawase, Makoto; Otaka, Maromu


    Gasification is considered to be an effective process for energy conversion from various sources such as coal, biomass, and waste. Cleanup of the hot syngas produced by such a process may improve the thermal efficiency of the overall gasification system. Therefore, the cleanup of hot syngas from biomass gasification using molten carbonate is investigated in bench-scale tests. Molten carbonate acts as an absorbent during desulfurization and dechlorination and as a thermal catalyst for tar cracking. In this study, the performance of molten carbonate for removing H2S was evaluated. The temperature of the molten carbonate was set within the range from 800 to 1000 °C. It is found that the removal of H2S is significantly affected by the concentration of CO2 in the syngas. When only a small percentage of CO2 is present, desulfurization using molten carbonate is inadequate. However, when carbon elements, such as char and tar, are continuously supplied, H2S removal can be maintained at a high level. To confirm the performance of the molten carbonate gas-cleaning system, purified biogas was used as a fuel in power generation tests with a molten carbonate fuel cell (MCFC). The fuel cell is a high-performance sensor for detecting gaseous impurities. When purified gas from a gas-cleaning reactor was continuously supplied to the fuel cell, the cell voltage remained stable. Thus, the molten carbonate gas-cleaning reactor was found to afford good gas-cleaning performance. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.



    Aguado. A.; Roncero O.; Zanchet A.; Herrero V.J.; Agundez M.


    The Astrophysical Journal 146.5 (2013): 125, reproduced by permission of the AAS Specific rate constants for the S++H2 reaction are calculated using the ground quartet state potential energy surface and quasi-classical trajectories method. The calculations are performed for H 2 in different vibrational states v = 0-4 and thermal conditions for rotational and translational energies. The calculations lead to slow rate constants for the H2 vibrational levels v = 0, 1, but a significant enhanc...

  2. The study on single crystal structure of [Zn(Hpdc) 2(H 2O) 2]·2H 2O (Hpdc -=2,5-pyridinedicarboxylic acid group) (United States)

    Haitao, Xu; Nengwu, Zheng; Hanhui, Xu; Yonggang, Wu; Ruyi, Yang; Enyi, Ye; Xianglin, Jin


    The hydrothermal synthesis and structure of a coordination polymer Zn(Hpdc)2(H2O)2]·2H2O were reported. The Zn2+ center was coordinated by two waters and two chelated Hpdc- to form units [Zn(Hpdc)2 (H2O)2] and the units were connected by hydrogen bonds to engender one-dimensional channels through the c axis. Especially, the two lattice waters play an important role in construction of these channels.

  3. Chemical Looping Reforming for H2, CO and Syngas Production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bhavsar,Saurabh; Najera,Michelle; Solunke,Rahul; Veser,Götz


    We demonstrate that the extension of CLC onto oxidants beyond air opens new, highly efficient pathways for production of ultra-pure hydrogen, activation of CO{sub 2} via reduction to CO, and are currently working on production of syngas using nanocomposite Fe-BHA. CLR hold great potential due to fuel flexibility and CO{sub 2} capture. Chemical Looping Combustion (CLC) is a novel clean combustion technology which offers an elegant and highly efficient route for fossil fuel combustion. In CLC, combustion of a fuel is broken down into two spatially separated steps. In the reducer, the oxygen carrier (typically a metal) supplies the stoichiometric oxygen required for fuel combustion. In the oxidizer, the oxygen-depleted carrier is then re-oxidized with air. After condensation of steam from the effluent of the reducer, a high-pressure, high-purity sequestration-ready CO{sub 2} stream is obtained. In the present study, we apply the CLC principle to the production of high-purity H{sub 2}, CO, and syngas streams by replacing air with steam and/or CO{sub 2} as oxidant, respectively. Using H{sub 2}O as oxidant, pure hydrogen streams can be obtained. Similarly, using CO{sub 2} as oxidant, CO is obtained, thus opening an efficient route for CO{sub 2} utilization. Using steam and CO{sub 2} mixtures for carrier oxidation should thus allow production of syngas with adjustable CO:H{sub 2} ratios. Overall, these processes result in Chemical Looping Reforming (CLR), i.e. the net overall reaction is the steam and/or dry reforming of the respective fuel.

  4. Stable solid and aqueous H2CO3 from CO2 and H2O at high pressure and high temperature (United States)

    Wang, Hongbo; Zeuschner, Janek; Eremets, Mikhail; Troyan, Ivan; Willams, Jonathan


    Carbonic acid (H2CO3) forms in small amounts when CO2 dissolves in H2O, yet decomposes rapidly under ambient conditions of temperature and pressure. Despite its fleeting existence, H2CO3 plays an important role in the global carbon cycle and in biological carbonate-containing systems. The short lifetime in water and presumed low concentration under all terrestrial conditions has stifled study of this fundamental species. Here, we have examined CO2/H2O mixtures under conditions of high pressure and high temperature to explore the potential for reaction to H2CO3 inside celestial bodies. We present a novel method to prepare solid H2CO3 by heating CO2/H2O mixtures at high pressure with a CO2 laser. Furthermore, we found that, contrary to present understanding, neutral H2CO3 is a significant component in aqueous CO2 solutions above 2.4 GPa and 110 °C as identified by IR-absorption and Raman spectroscopy. This is highly significant for speciation of deep C-O-H fluids with potential consequences for fluid-carbonate-bearing rock interactions. As conditions inside subduction zones on Earth appear to be most favorable for production of aqueous H2CO3, a role in subduction related phenomena is inferred.

  5. Shell Thickness Engineering Significantly Boosts the Photocatalytic H2 Evolution Efficiency of CdS/CdSe Core/Shell Quantum Dots. (United States)

    Wang, Ping; Wang, Minmin; Zhang, Jie; Li, Chuanping; Xu, Xiaolong; Jin, Yongdong


    Colloidal semiconductor quantum dots (QDs) have recently emerged as a good candidate for photocatalytic hydrogen (H2) evolution in water. A further understanding of the factors that can affect and boost the catalytic activity of the QD-based H2-generating system is of great importance for the future design of such systems for practical use. Here, we report on the fine shell thickness engineering of colloidal CdS/CdSe core/shell QDs and its effect on the photocatalytic H2 production in water. Our results show that, with the proper shell thickness, the H2 photogeneration quantum yield (ΦH2) of CdS/CdSe core/shell QDs could reach 30.9% under the illumination of 420 nm light, which is 49% larger than that of the CdS core. Furthermore, the underlying mechanism has also been tentatively proposed and discussed.

  6. Sediment Resuspension and Deposition on Seagrass Leaves Impedes Internal Plant Aeration and Promotes Phytotoxic H2S Intrusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kasper E. Brodersen


    Full Text Available HIGHLIGHTS:Sedimentation of fine sediment particles onto seagrass leaves severely hampers the plants' performance in both light and darkness, due to inadequate internal plant aeration and intrusion of phytotoxic H2S.Anthropogenic activities leading to sediment re-suspension can have adverse effects on adjacent seagrass meadows, owing to reduced light availability and the settling of suspended particles onto seagrass leaves potentially impeding gas exchange with the surrounding water. We used microsensors to determine O2 fluxes and diffusive boundary layer (DBL thickness on leaves of the seagrass Zostera muelleri with and without fine sediment particles, and combined these laboratory measurements with in situ microsensor measurements of tissue O2 and H2S concentrations. Net photosynthesis rates in leaves with fine sediment particles were down to ~20% of controls without particles, and the compensation photon irradiance increased from a span of 20–53 to 109–145 μmol photons m−2 s−1. An ~2.5-fold thicker DBL around leaves with fine sediment particles impeded O2 influx into the leaves during darkness. In situ leaf meristematic O2 concentrations of plants exposed to fine sediment particles were lower than in control plants and exhibited long time periods of complete meristematic anoxia during night-time. Insufficient internal aeration resulted in H2S intrusion into the leaf meristematic tissues when exposed to sediment resuspension even at relatively high night-time water-column O2 concentrations. Fine sediment particles that settle on seagrass leaves thus negatively affect internal tissue aeration and thereby the plants' resilience against H2S intrusion.

  7. The equivalency between logic Petri workflow nets and workflow nets. (United States)

    Wang, Jing; Yu, ShuXia; Du, YuYue


    Logic Petri nets (LPNs) can describe and analyze batch processing functions and passing value indeterminacy in cooperative systems. Logic Petri workflow nets (LPWNs) are proposed based on LPNs in this paper. Process mining is regarded as an important bridge between modeling and analysis of data mining and business process. Workflow nets (WF-nets) are the extension to Petri nets (PNs), and have successfully been used to process mining. Some shortcomings cannot be avoided in process mining, such as duplicate tasks, invisible tasks, and the noise of logs. The online shop in electronic commerce in this paper is modeled to prove the equivalence between LPWNs and WF-nets, and advantages of LPWNs are presented.

  8. Generator. Generator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knoedler, R.; Bossmann, H.P.


    The invention refers to a thermo-electric generator, whose main part is a sodium concentration cell. In conventional thermo-electric generators of this kind, the sodium moving from a hot space to a colder space must be transported back to the hot space via a circulation pipe and a pump. The purpose of the invention is to avoid the disadvantages of this return transport. According to the invention, the thermo-electric generator is supported so that it can rotate, so that the position of each space relative to its propinquity to the heat source can be changed at any time.

  9. A neural network potential energy surface for the NaH2 system and dynamics studies on the H(2S) + NaH(X1Σ+) → Na(2S) + H2(X1Σg+) reaction. (United States)

    Wang, Shufen; Yuan, Jiuchuang; Li, Huixing; Chen, Maodu


    In order to study the dynamics of the reaction H(2S) + NaH(X1Σ+) → Na(2S) + H2(X1Σg+), a new potential energy surface (PES) for the ground state of the NaH2 system is constructed based on 35 730 ab initio energy points. Using basis sets of quadruple zeta quality, multireference configuration interaction calculations with Davidson correction were carried out to obtain the ab initio energy points. The neural network method is used to fit the PES, and the root mean square error is very small (0.00639 eV). The bond lengths, dissociation energies, zero-point energies and spectroscopic constants of H2(X1Σg+) and NaH(X1Σ+) obtained on the new NaH2 PES are in good agreement with the experiment data. On the new PES, the reactant coordinate-based time-dependent wave packet method is applied to study the reaction dynamics of H(2S) + NaH(X1Σ+) → Na(2S) + H2(X1Σg+), and the reaction probabilities, integral cross-sections (ICSs) and differential cross-sections (DCSs) are obtained. There is no threshold in the reaction due to the absence of an energy barrier on the minimum energy path. When the collision energy increases, the ICSs decrease from a high value at low collision energy. The DCS results show that the angular distribution of the product molecules tends to the forward direction. Compared with the LiH2 system, the NaH2 system has a larger mass and the PES has a larger well at the H-NaH configuration, which leads to a higher ICS value in the H(2S) + NaH(X1Σ+) → Na(2S) + H2(X1Σg+) reaction. Because the H(2S) + NaH(X1Σ+) → Na(2S) + H2(X1Σg+) reaction releases more energy, the product molecules can be excited to a higher vibrational state.

  10. Calculations of thermal radiation transfer of C2H2 and C2H4 together with H2O, CO2, and CO in a one-dimensional enclosure using LBL and SNB models (United States)

    Qi, Chaobo; Zheng, Shu; Zhou, Huaichun


    Generally, the involvement of hydrocarbons such as C2H4 and its derivative C2H2 in thermal radiation has not been accounted in the numerical simulation of their flames, which may cause serious error for estimation of temperature in the early stage of combustion. At the first, the Statistical Narrow-Band (SNB) model parameters for C2H2 and C2H4 are generated from line by line (LBL) calculations. The distributions of the concentrations of radiating gases such as H2O, CO2, CO, C2H2 and C2H4, and the temperature along the centerline of a laminar ethylene/air diffusion flame were chosen to form a one-dimensional, planar enclosure to be tested in this study. Thermal radiation transfer in such an enclosure was calculated using the LBL approach and the SNB model, most of the relative errors are less than 8% and the results of these two models shows an excellent agreement. Below the height of 20 mm, which is the early stage of the flame, the average fraction contributed by C2H2 and C2H4 in the radiative heat source is 33.8%, while that by CO is only 5.8%. This result indicates that the involvement of C2H2 and C2H4 in radiation heat transfer needs to be taken into account in the numerical modeling of the ethylene/air diffusion flame, especially in the early stage of combustion.

  11. Coordination Modes of Americium in the Am2(C2O4)3(H2O)6·4H2O Oxalate: Synthesis, Crystal Structure, Spectroscopic Characterizations and Comparison in the M2(C2O4)3(H2O)6·nH2O (M = Ln, An) Series. (United States)

    Tamain, C; Arab-Chapelet, B; Rivenet, M; Legoff, X F; Loubert, G; Grandjean, S; Abraham, F


    Americium oxalate single crystals, Am2(C2O4)3(H2O)6·4H2O, were prepared by in situ oxalic acid generation by slow hydrolysis of the diester. Their structure was determined by single-crystal X-ray diffraction and was solved by the direct methods and Fourier difference techniques. The structure (space group P21/c, a = 11.184(4) Å, b = 9.489(4) Å, c = 10.234(4) Å, β = 114.308(8)°, Z = 2) consists of layers formed by six-membered rings of actinide metals connected through oxalate ions. The americium atoms are nine-coordinated by six oxygen atoms from three bidentate oxalate ligands and three water molecules. The distances within the coordination sphere as well as infrared and Raman spectra of several isostructural lanthanide (Ce(III), Pr(III), Nd(III), Sm(III), Gd(III)) and actinide (Pu(III), Am(III)) oxalates were compared to evaluate the similarities and the differences between the two series.

  12. Stability Criterion of Linear Stochastic Systems Subject to Mixed H2/Passivity Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheung-Chieh Ku


    Full Text Available The H2 control scheme and passivity theory are applied to investigate the stability criterion of continuous-time linear stochastic system subject to mixed performance. Based on the stochastic differential equation, the stochastic behaviors can be described as multiplicative noise terms. For the considered system, the H2 control scheme is applied to deal with the problem on minimizing output energy. And the asymptotical stability of the system can be guaranteed under desired initial conditions. Besides, the passivity theory is employed to constrain the effect of external disturbance on the system. Moreover, the Itô formula and Lyapunov function are used to derive the sufficient conditions which are converted into linear matrix inequality (LMI form for applying convex optimization algorithm. Via solving the sufficient conditions, the state feedback controller can be established such that the asymptotical stability and mixed performance of the system are achieved in the mean square. Finally, the synchronous generator system is used to verify the effectiveness and applicability of the proposed design method.

  13. Treatment of an industrial stream containing vinylcyclohexene by the H2O2/UV process. (United States)

    Gonçalves, Lenise V F; Azevedo, Eduardo B; de Aquino-Neto, Francisco R; Bila, Daniele M; Sant'Anna, Geraldo L; Dezotti, Márcia


    Petrochemical industries generate wastewaters containing pollutants that can severely impact the biological treatment systems. Some streams from specific production units may contain nonbiodegradable or toxic compounds that impair the performance of the wastewater treatment plant and should be segregated and treated by specific techniques. In this work, the utilization of chemical oxidation (H2O2/UV) was investigated for removing 4-vinylcyclohexene (VCH) from a liquid stream coming from the production of hydroxylated liquid polybutadiene (HLPB). Besides VCH, this stream also contains ethanol, hydrogen peroxide, and many other organic compounds. Experiments were carried out in a small-scale photochemical reactor (0.7 L) using a 25-W low-pressure mercury vapor lamp. The photochemical reactor was operated in batch, and the reaction times were comprised between 10 and 60 min. Assays were also performed with a synthetic medium containing VCH, H2O2, and ethanol to investigate the removal of these substances in a less complex aqueous matrix. By-products formed in the reaction were identified by gas chromatography and mass spectroscopy (GC-MS). VCH was significantly removed by the oxidation process, in most assays to undetectable levels. Ethanol removal varied from 16 to 23 % depending on the reaction conditions. Acetic acid, acetaldehyde, and diols were detected as by-products of the industrial wastewater stream oxidation. A drop on the toxicity of the industrial stream was also observed in assays using the organism Artemia salina.

  14. Coloured Petri Nets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Kurt; Kristensen, Lars Michael

    studies that illustrate the practical use of CPN modelling and validation for design, specification, simulation, verification and implementation in various application domains. Their presentation primarily aims at readers interested in the practical use of CPN. Thus all concepts and constructs are first......Coloured Petri Nets (CPN) is a graphical language for modelling and validating concurrent and distributed systems, and other systems in which concurrency plays a major role. The development of such systems is particularly challenging because of inherent intricacies like possible nondeterminism...... and the immense number of possible execution sequences. In this textbook, Jensen and Kristensen introduce the constructs of the CPN modelling language and present the related analysis methods in detail. They also provide a comprehensive road map for the practical use of CPN by showcasing selected industrial case...

  15. Phylogenomics of unusual histone H2A Variants in Bdelloid rotifers. (United States)

    Van Doninck, Karine; Mandigo, Morgan L; Hur, Jae H; Wang, Peter; Guglielmini, Julien; Milinkovitch, Michel C; Lane, William S; Meselson, Matthew


    Rotifers of Class Bdelloidea are remarkable in having evolved for millions of years, apparently without males and meiosis. In addition, they are unusually resistant to desiccation and ionizing radiation and are able to repair hundreds of radiation-induced DNA double-strand breaks per genome with little effect on viability or reproduction. Because specific histone H2A variants are involved in DSB repair and certain meiotic processes in other eukaryotes, we investigated the histone H2A genes and proteins of two bdelloid species. Genomic libraries were built and probed to identify histone H2A genes in Adineta vaga and Philodina roseola, species representing two different bdelloid families. The expressed H2A proteins were visualized on SDS-PAGE gels and identified by tandem mass spectrometry. We find that neither the core histone H2A, present in nearly all other eukaryotes, nor the H2AX variant, a ubiquitous component of the eukaryotic DSB repair machinery, are present in bdelloid rotifers. Instead, they are replaced by unusual histone H2A variants of higher mass. In contrast, a species of rotifer belonging to the facultatively sexual, desiccation- and radiation-intolerant sister class of bdelloid rotifers, the monogononts, contains a canonical core histone H2A and appears to lack the bdelloid H2A variant genes. Applying phylogenetic tools, we demonstrate that the bdelloid-specific H2A variants arose as distinct lineages from canonical H2A separate from those leading to the H2AX and H2AZ variants. The replacement of core H2A and H2AX in bdelloid rotifers by previously uncharacterized H2A variants with extended carboxy-terminal tails is further evidence for evolutionary diversity within this class of histone H2A genes and may represent adaptation to unusual features specific to bdelloid rotifers.

  16. Decapado del acero inoxidable AISI 316L utilizando una mezcla ecológica de H2O2-H2SO4-HF

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gómez, P. P.


    Full Text Available This study reports the pickling of austenitic AISI 316L stainless steel (SS using a mixture of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2, sulphuric acid (H2SO4 and hydrofluoric acid (HF at pH 2.0. The stability of H2O2 was also studied using different concentrations of ferric ion from 0 to 40 g/l and temperature from 25 to 60 °C. The pickling rate at 50 °C in the presence and absence of 40 g/l ferric ion was 2.6 and 0.2 mg/dm2 day (mdd, respectively. p-Toluene sulphonic acid was used as stabilizer of H2O2.En la presente investigación se estudia el decapado del acero inoxidable AISI 316L utilizando una mezcla de agua oxigenada (H2O2 y los ácidos sulfúrico (H2SO4 y fluorhídrico (HF a pH 2,0. La estabilidad de la mezcla H2O2-H2SO4-HF se ha ensayado variando el contenido de iones férrico de O a 40 g/l y la temperatura de 25 a 60 °C. La velocidad de decapado a 50 °C ha sido de 2,6 y 0,2 mg/dm2 día (mdd, en ausencia y presencia de 40 g/l de iones férrico, respectivamente. Se ha utilizado el ácido p-toluen sulfónico como estabilizante del H2O2.

  17. I + (H2O)2 → HI + (H2O)OH Forward and Reverse Reactions. CCSD(T) Studies Including Spin-Orbit Coupling. (United States)

    Wang, Hui; Li, Guoliang; Li, Qian-Shu; Xie, Yaoming; Schaefer, Henry F


    The potential energy profile for the atomic iodine plus water dimer reaction I + (H2O)2 → HI + (H2O)OH has been explored using the "Gold Standard" CCSD(T) method with quadruple-ζ correlation-consistent basis sets. The corresponding information for the reverse reaction HI + (H2O)OH → I + (H2O)2 is also derived. Both zero-point vibrational energies (ZPVEs) and spin-orbit (SO) coupling are considered, and these notably alter the classical energetics. On the basis of the CCSD(T)/cc-pVQZ-PP results, including ZPVE and SO coupling, the forward reaction is found to be endothermic by 47.4 kcal/mol, implying a significant exothermicity for the reverse reaction. The entrance complex I···(H2O)2 is bound by 1.8 kcal/mol, and this dissociation energy is significantly affected by SO coupling. The reaction barrier lies 45.1 kcal/mol higher than the reactants. The exit complex HI···(H2O)OH is bound by 3.0 kcal/mol relative to the asymptotic limit. At every level of theory, the reverse reaction HI + (H2O)OH → I + (H2O)2 proceeds without a barrier. Compared with the analogous water monomer reaction I + H2O → HI + OH, the additional water molecule reduces the relative energies of the entrance stationary point, transition state, and exit complex by 3-5 kcal/mol. The I + (H2O)2 reaction is related to the valence isoelectronic bromine and chlorine reactions but is distinctly different from the F + (H2O)2 system.

  18. Formation of H2O+ and H3O+ Cations in Reactions of OH+ and H2O+ with H2: Experimental Studies of the Reaction Rate Coefficients from T = 15 to 300 K (United States)

    Dung Tran, Thuy; Rednyk, Serhiy; Kovalenko, Artem; Roučka, Štěpán; Dohnal, Petr; Plašil, Radek; Gerlich, Dieter; Glosík, Juraj


    {{OH}}+ and {{{H}}}2{{{O}}}+ cations play a significant role in the chemistry of the cold interstellar medium and hence their hydrogen abstraction reactions with {{{H}}}2 have to be included in ion chemical models. The reactions lead directly or indirectly to {{{H}}}3{{{O}}}+ ions that subsequently recombine with electrons and dissociate into H atoms and {{{H}}}2{{O}}. The experiments described in this paper provide rate coefficients ({k}{{OH}+} and {k}{{{H}}2{{{O}}}+}) for the reactions of {{OH}}+ and {{{H}}}2{{{O}}}+ with {{{H}}}2 over a wide temperature range (from 15 to 300 K). A cryogenic 22-pole RF ion trap instrument was employed for this purpose. It was found that {k}{{OH}+} increases from (0.76+/- 0.30)× {10}-9 {{cm}}3 {{{s}}}-1 at 17 K to (1.24+/- 0.25)× {10}-9 {{cm}}3 {{{s}}}-1 at 263 K while {k}{{{H}}2{{{O}}}+} is nearly constant, varying from (0.93+/- 0.35) × {10}-9 {{cm}}3 {{{s}}}-1 at 17 K to (1.00+/- 0.25)× {10}-9 {{cm}}3 {{{s}}}-1 at 218 K.

  19. Genetic and epigenetic drivers of neuroendocrine tumours (NET). (United States)

    Di Domenico, Annunziata; Wiedmer, Tabea; Marinoni, Ilaria; Perren, Aurel


    Neuroendocrine tumours (NET) of the gastrointestinal tract and the lung are a rare and heterogeneous group of tumours. The molecular characterization and the clinical classification of these tumours have been evolving slowly and show differences according to organs of origin. Novel technologies such as next-generation sequencing revealed new molecular aspects of NET over the last years. Notably, whole-exome/genome sequencing (WES/WGS) approaches underlined the very low mutation rate of well-differentiated NET of all organs compared to other malignancies, while the engagement of epigenetic changes in driving NET evolution is emerging. Indeed, mutations in genes encoding for proteins directly involved in chromatin remodelling, such as DAXX and ATRX are a frequent event in NET. Epigenetic changes are reversible and targetable; therefore, an attractive target for treatment. The discovery of the mechanisms underlying the epigenetic changes and the implication on gene and miRNA expression in the different subgroups of NET may represent a crucial change in the diagnosis of this disease, reveal new therapy targets and identify predictive markers. Molecular profiles derived from omics data including DNA mutation, methylation, gene and miRNA expression have already shown promising results in distinguishing clinically and molecularly different subtypes of NET. In this review, we recapitulate the major genetic and epigenetic characteristics of pancreatic, lung and small intestinal NET and the affected pathways. We also discuss potential epigenetic mechanisms leading to NET development. © 2017 Society for Endocrinology.

  20. A SAFT Equation of State for the H2S-CO2-H2O-NaCl system and applications for CO2 - H2S transportation and geological storage


    Ji, Xiaoyan; Zhu, Chen


    When H2S is co-injected with CO2, we need to know thermodynamic properties and phase equilibria for the CO2-H2S- H2O-NaCl system in order to evaluate the sequestration capacity, optimal transportation and injection conditions, potential for pipeline corrosion, and increased risk of storage and leakage. Here, we summarize the results of the phase equilibrium and densities for CO2-sequestration related systems from a thermodynamic model that is based on statistical associating fluid theory equa...

  1. Graphitic Carbon Nitride Nanosheets-Based Ratiometric Fluorescent Probe for Highly Sensitive Detection of H2O2 and Glucose. (United States)

    Liu, Jin-Wen; Luo, Ying; Wang, Yu-Min; Duan, Lu-Ying; Jiang, Jian-Hui; Yu, Ru-Qin


    Graphitic carbon nitride (g-C3N4) nanosheets, an emerging graphene-like carbon-based nanomaterial with high fluorescence and large specific surface areas, hold great potential for biosensor applications. Current g-C3N4 nanosheets based fluorescent biosensors majorly rely on single fluorescent intensity reading through fluorescence quenching interactions between the nanosheets and metal ions. Here we report for the first time the development of a novel g-C3N4 nanosheets-based ratiometric fluorescence sensing strategy for highly sensitive detection of H2O2 and glucose. With o-phenylenediamine (OPD) oxidized by H2O2 in the presence of horseradish peroxidase (HRP), the oxidization product can assemble on the g-C3N4 nanosheets through hydrogen bonding and π-π stacking, which effectively quenches the fluorescence of g-C3N4 while delivering a new emission peak. The ratiometric signal variations enable robust and sensitive detection of H2O2. On the basis of the glucose converting into H2O2 through the catalysis of glucose oxidase, the g-C3N4-based ratiometric fluorescence sensing platform is also exploited for glucose assay. The developed strategy is demonstrated to give a detection limit of 50 nM for H2O2 and 0.4 μM for glucose, at the same time, it has been successfully used for glucose levels detection in human serum. This strategy may provide a cost-efficient, robust, and high-throughput platform for detecting various species involving H2O2-generation reactions for biomedical applications.

  2. ALA Inhibits ABA-induced Stomatal Closure via Reducing H2O2 and Ca2+ Levels in Guard Cells (United States)

    An, Yuyan; Liu, Longbo; Chen, Linghui; Wang, Liangju


    5-Aminolevulinic acid (ALA), a newly proved natural plant growth regulator, is well known to improve plant photosynthesis under both normal and stressful conditions. However, its underlying mechanism remains largely unknown. Stomatal closure is one of the major limiting factors for photosynthesis and abscisic acid (ABA) is the most important hormone in provoking stomatal closing. Here, we showed that ALA significantly inhibited ABA-induced stomatal closure using wild-type and ALA-overproducing transgenic Arabidopsis (YHem1). We found that ALA decreased ABA-induced H2O2 and cytosolic Ca2+ accumulation in guard cells with stomatal bioassay, laser-scanning confocal microscopy and pharmacological methods. The inhibitory effect of ALA on ABA-induced stomatal closure was similar to that of AsA (an important reducing substrate for H2O2 removal), CAT (a H2O2-scavenging enzyme), DPI (an inhibitor of the H2O2-generating NADPH oxidase), EGTA (a Ca-chelating agent), and AlCl3 (an inhibitor of calcium channel). Furthermore, ALA inhibited exogenous H2O2- or Ca2+-induced stomatal closure. Taken together, we conclude that ALA inhibits ABA-induced stomatal closure via reducing H2O2, probably by scavenging, and Ca2+ levels in guard cells. Moreover, the inhibitive effect of ALA on ABA-induced stomatal closure was further confirmed in the whole plant. Finally, we demonstrated that ALA inhibits stomatal closing, but significantly improves plant drought tolerance. Our results provide valuable information for the promotion of plant production and development of a sustainable low-carbon society. PMID:27148309

  3. Nanoparticle formation in H2O/N-2 and H2O/Ar mixtures under irradiation by 20 MeV protons and positive corona discharge

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Imanaka, M.; Tomita, S.; Kanda, S.


    To investigate the contribution of ions to gas nucleation, we have performed experiments on the formation of water droplets in H2O/N-2 and H2O/Ar gas mixtures by irradiation with a 20 MeV proton beam and by positive corona discharge. The size of the formed nanoparticles was measured using a diffe...

  4. Molecular hydrogen (H2) emissions and their isotopic signatures (H/D) from a motor vehicle : implications on atmospheric H2

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vollmer, M.K.; Walter, S.; Bond, S.W.; Soltic, P.; Röckmann, T.


    Molecular hydrogen (H2), its isotopic signature (deuterium/hydrogen, δD), carbon monoxide (CO) and other compounds were studied in the exhaust of a passenger car engine fuelled with gasoline or methane and run under variable air-fuel ratios and operating modes. H2 and CO concentrations were largely

  5. Soil carbon content and relative abundance of high affinity H2-oxidizing bacteria predict atmospheric H2 soil uptake activity better than soil microbial community composition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Khdhiri, Mondher; Hesse, Laura; Popa, Maria Elena; Quiza, Liliana; Lalonde, Isabelle; Meredith, Laura K.; Röckmann, Thomas; Constant, Philippe


    Soil-atmosphere exchange of H2 is controlled by gas diffusion and the microbial production and oxidation activities in soil. Among these parameters, the H2 oxidation activity catalyzed by soil microorganisms harboring high affinity hydrogenase is the most difficult variable to parameterize because

  6. Decolorization and Mineralization of Reactive Dyes, by the H2O2/UV Process With Electrochemically Produced H2O2

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jeric, T.; Bisselink, R.J.M.; Tongeren, W. van; Marechal. A.M. Le


    Decolorization of Reactive Red 238, Reactive Orange 16, Reactive Black 5 and Reactive Blue 4 was studied in the UV/H2O2 process with H2O2 being produced electrochemically. The experimental results show that decolorization increased considerably when switching on the electrochemical production of

  7. Self-sufficing H2O2-responsive nanocarriers through tumor-specific H2O2 production for synergistic oxidation-chemotherapy. (United States)

    Li, Junjie; Ke, Wendong; Wang, Lei; Huang, Mingming; Yin, Wei; Zhang, Ping; Chen, Qixian; Ge, Zhishen


    One of distinct features in tumor tissues is the elevated concentration of reactive oxygen species (ROS) during tumor immortality, proliferation and metastasis. However, ROS-responsive materials are rarely utilized in the field of in vivo tumoral ROS-responsive applications due to the fact that the intrinsic ROS level in the tumors could not escalate to an adequate level that the developed materials can possibly respond. Herein, palmitoyl ascorbate (PA) as a prooxidant for hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) production in tumor tissue is strategically compiled into a H2O2-responsive camptothecin (CPT) polymer prodrug micelle, which endowed the nanocarriers with self-sufficing H2O2 stimuli in tumor tissues. Molecular oncology manifests the hallmarks of tumoral physiology with deteriorating propensity in eliminating hazardous ROS. H2O2 production was demonstrated to specifically sustain in tumors, which not only induced tumor cell apoptosis by elevated oxidation stress but also served as autochthonous H2O2 resource to trigger CPT release for chemotherapy. Excess H2O2 and released CPT could penetrate into cells efficiently, which showed synergistic cytotoxicity toward cancer cells. Systemic therapeutic trial revealed potent tumor suppression of the proposed formulation via synergistic oxidation-chemotherapy. This report represents a novel nanomedicine platform combining up-regulation of tumoral H2O2 level and self-sufficing H2O2-responsive drug release to achieve novel synergistic oxidation-chemotherapy. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Effects of macroH2A and H2A.Z on nucleosome structure and dynamics as elucidated by molecular dynamics simulations

    CERN Document Server

    Bowerman, Samuel


    Eukaryotes tune the transcriptional activity of their genome by altering the nucleosome core particle through multiple chemical processes. In particular, replacement of the canonical H2A histone with the variants macroH2A and H2A.Z has been shown to affect DNA accessibility and nucleosome stability; however, the processes by which this occurs remain poorly understood. Here, we elucidate the molecular mechanisms of these variants with an extensive molecular dynamics study of the canonical nucleosome along with three variant-containing structures: H2A.Z, macroH2A, and an H2A mutant with macroH2A-like L1 loops. Simulation results show that variant L1 loops play a pivotal role in stabilizing DNA binding to the octamer through direct interactions, core structural rearrangements, and altered allosteric networks in the nucleosome. All variants influence dynamics; however, macroH2A-like systems have the largest effect on energetics. In addition, we provide a comprehensive analysis of allosteric networks in the nucleo...

  9. Room-Temperature H2 Gas Sensing Characterization of Graphene-Doped Porous Silicon via a Facile Solution Dropping Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nu Si A. Eom


    Full Text Available In this study, a graphene-doped porous silicon (G-doped/p-Si substrate for low ppm H2 gas detection by an inexpensive synthesis route was proposed as a potential noble graphene-based gas sensor material, and to understand the sensing mechanism. The G-doped/p-Si gas sensor was synthesized by a simple capillary force-assisted solution dropping method on p-Si substrates, whose porosity was generated through an electrochemical etching process. G-doped/p-Si was fabricated with various graphene concentrations and exploited as a H2 sensor that was operated at room temperature. The sensing mechanism of the sensor with/without graphene decoration on p-Si was proposed to elucidate the synergetic gas sensing effect that is generated from the interface between the graphene and p-type silicon.

  10. 47 CFR 32.7210 - Operating investment tax credits-net. (United States)


    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Operating investment tax credits-net. 32.7210....7210 Operating investment tax credits—net. (a) This account shall be charged and Account 4320, Unamortized Operating Investment Tax Credits—Net, shall be credited with investment tax credits generated from...

  11. Atomic Layer Deposition of Gadolinium Aluminate using Gd((PrCp)-Pr-i)(3), TMA, and O-3 or H2O


    Adelmann, Christoph; Pierreux, Dieter; Swerts, Johan; DEWULF, Dann; HARDY, An; TIELENS, Hilde; Franquet, Alexis; Brijs, Bert; Moussa, Alain; Conard, Thierry; VAN BAEL, Marlies; Maes, Jan W.; Jurczak, Malgorzata; Kittl, Jorge A.; Van Elshocht, Sven


    For future generations of non-volatile memory applications, the replacement of the interpoly dielectric by a suitable high-K material is required. Rare-earth aluminates are potential candidates because they are predicted to combine a high dielectric permittivity with a large band gap. We demonstrate the atomic layer deposition (ALD) of GdxAl2O3 layers using Gd((PrCp)-Pr-i)(3), trimethyl-aluminum (TMA), and H2O or O-3. Process windows for both H2O and O3 as oxidants are explored. H2O is shown ...

  12. Sirio.NET: A new tool for managing results in eddy current inspection of steam generators and heat exchangers; Sirio.NET: Una nueva herramienta para la gestion de resultados en las inspecciones por Corrientes Inducidas de los Generadores de Vapor y Cambiadores de Calor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mendez, M.; Marquez, A.; Rodriguez, A. L.


    The results management and control of the inspections by currents induced of tube bundles of components such as steam generators, heat exchangers, etc., by the large volume of data generated, requires the use of highly specialized tools of information management, based on database structures. (Author)

  13. Investigation into complexing in ZrO2-H2SO4-Rb2SO4(RbCl)-H2O system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sozinova, Yu.P.; Motov, D.L.; Rys' kina, M.P.


    Solubility method is used to study zirconium and rubidium sulfate complexing: Rb4Zr4O(OH)4(SO4)7x5H2O, RbZrOH(SO4)2x1.5H2O, Rb2Zr(SO4)3x2H2O and Rb4Zr(SO4)4 in ZrO2-H2SO4-Rb2SO4(RbCl)-H2O system at 75 deg C. Introduction of RbCl instead of Rb2SO4 in the system is shown to result in change of concentration boundaries of phase existence, in a less degree - their solubility, as well as in increase of crystal size.

  14. Water Radiolysis: Influence of Oxide Surfaces on H2 Production under Ionizing Radiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sophie Le Caër


    Full Text Available The radiolysis of water due to ionizing radiation results in the production of electrons, H· atoms, ·OH radicals, H3O+ ions and molecules (dihydrogen H2 and hydrogen peroxide H2O2. A brief history of the development of the understanding of water radiolysis is presented, with a focus on the H2 production. This H2 production is strongly modified at oxide surfaces. Different parameters accounting for this behavior are presented.

  15. Hydrogen purification by selective methanation of CO in CO/CO2/H2

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Anne Mette; Johannessen, Tue; Livbjerg, Hans

    : Methanation of CO and the reverse water gas shift reaction: (1) CO + 3H2 -> CH4 + H2O (2) CO2 + H2 -> CO + H2O In experiments with only CO2 and hydrogen in the feed gas there is a significant production of CO and methane. The concentration of CO in the reactor rapidly reaches a level, where it inhibits (or...

  16. Generator. Generator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bossmann, H.P.; Knoedler, R.


    The invention refers to a thermo-electric generator, which contains sodium as the means of heat transport. The sodium moves from the space of higher temperature through a space into the space of lower temperature. One can do without a pump for transporting the sodium back from the space of lower temperature to the space of higher temperature, as the thermo-electric generator can rotate around an axis. It is therefore possible to interchange the position of the two spaces relative to the heat source.

  17. Reassessing the variability in atmospheric H2 using the two-way nested TM5 model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pieterse, G.; Batenburg, A.M; Roeckmann, T. [Institute for Marine and Atmospheric Research Utrecht (IMAU), Utrecht (Netherlands); Krol, M.C. [Department of Meteorology and Air Quality at Wageningen University, Wageningen (Netherlands); Brenninkmeijer, C.A.M. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Chemie, Air Chemistry Division, Mainz (Germany); Popa, M.E.; Vermeulen, A.T. [Department of Air Quality and Climate Research at the Energy Research Centre of the Netherlands ECN, Petten (Netherlands); O' Doherty, S.; Grant, A. [School of Chemistry, University of Bristol, Bristol (United Kingdom); Steele, L.P.; Krummel, P.B.; Langenfelds, R.L. [Centre for Australian Weather and Climate Research, CSIRO Marine and Atmospheric Research, Aspendale, Victoria (Austria); Wang, H.J. [School of Earth and Atmospheric Sciences, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, GA (United States); Schmidt, M.; Yver, C. [Laboratoire des Sciences du Climat et de l' Environnement (LSCE), Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Jordan, A. [Max-Planck Institut fuer Biogeochemie, Jena (Germany); Engel, A. [Institut fuer Meteorologie und Geophysik, Goethe-Universitaet Frankfurt, Frankfurt (Germany); Fisher, R.E.; Lowry, D.; Nisbet, E.G. [Department of Earth Sciences, Royal Holloway, University of London, Egham (United Kingdom); Reimann, S.; Vollmer, M.K.; Steinbacher, M. [Empa, Swiss Federal Institute for Materials Science and Technology, Laboratory for Air Pollution/Environmental Technology, Duebendorf (Switzerland); Hammer, S. [Institut fuer Umweltphysik, Heidelberg Universitaet, Heidelberg (Germany); Forster, G.; Sturges, W.T. [School of Environmental Sciences, University of East Anglia, Norwich (United Kingdom)


    This work reassesses the global atmospheric budget of H2 with the TM5 model. The recent adjustment of the calibration scale for H2 translates into a change in the tropospheric burden. Furthermore, the ECMWF Reanalysis-Interim (ERA-Interim) data from the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF) used in this study show slower vertical transport than the operational data used before. Consequently, more H2 is removed by deposition. The deposition parametrization is updated because significant deposition fluxes for snow, water, and vegetation surfaces were calculated in our previous study. Timescales of 1-2h are asserted for the transport of H2 through the canopies of densely vegetated regions. The global scale variability of H2 and {rho}({Delta}H2) is well represented by the updated model. H2 is slightly overestimated in the Southern Hemisphere because too little H2 is removed by dry deposition to rainforests and savannahs. The variability in H2 over Europe is further investigated using a high-resolution model subdomain. It is shown that discrepancies between the model and the observations are mainly caused by the finite model resolution. The tropospheric burden is estimated at 165{+-}8 Tg H2. The removal rates of H2 by deposition and photochemical oxidation are estimated at 53{+-}4 and 23{+-}2 Tg H2/yr, resulting in a tropospheric lifetime of 2.2{+-}0.2 year.

  18. Rapid desensitization of the histamine H2 receptor on the human monocytic cell line U937

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smit, M J; Leurs, R; Shukrula, S R; Bast, A; Timmerman, H


    In the present study we have subjected the histamine H2 receptor on the monocytic cell line U937 to a thorough pharmacological characterization using a series of selective histamine H1, H2 and H3 receptor agonists and antagonists. Recent reports have demonstrated the existence of a histamine H2

  19. Overview of the Hydrogen Financial Analysis Scenario Tool (H2FAST); NREL (National Renewable Energy Laboratory)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Melaina, Marc; Bush, Brian; Penev, Michael


    This presentation provides an introduction to the Hydrogen Financial Analysis Scenario Tool (H2FAST) and includes an overview of each of the three versions of H2FAST: the Web tool, the Excel spreadsheet version, and the beta version of the H2FAST Business Case Scenario tool.

  20. Rotational quenching of H2CO by molecular hydrogen – Suggestion ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)


    Dec 5, 2016 ... Abstract. Wiesenfeld and Faure investigated rotational quenching of H2CO by molecular hydrogen where they considered 40 rotational levels of o-H2CO and 41 rotational levels of p-H2CO. Data on energies of rota- tional levels of the molecule are fundamental in the investigation. We have found that the ...