WorldWideScience

Sample records for net family income

  1. 78 FR 72451 - Net Investment Income Tax

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-02

    ... Revenue Service 26 CFR Part 1 RIN 1545-BL74 Net Investment Income Tax AGENCY: Internal Revenue Service...). These regulations provide guidance on the computation of net investment income. The regulations affect... lesser of: (A) The individual's net investment income for such taxable year, or (B) the excess (if any...

  2. 47 CFR 65.450 - Net income.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Net income. 65.450 Section 65.450... OF RETURN PRESCRIPTION PROCEDURES AND METHODOLOGIES Exchange Carriers § 65.450 Net income. (a) Net income shall consist of all revenues derived from the provision of interstate telecommunications services...

  3. 47 CFR 65.500 - Net income.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Net income. 65.500 Section 65.500... OF RETURN PRESCRIPTION PROCEDURES AND METHODOLOGIES Interexchange Carriers § 65.500 Net income. The net income methodology specified in § 65.450 shall be utilized by all interexchange carriers that are...

  4. 78 FR 72393 - Net Investment Income Tax

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-02

    ... Investment Income Tax; Final and Proposed Rules #0;#0;Federal Register / Vol. 78, No. 231 / Monday, December... Parts 1 and 602 RIN 1545-BK44 Net Investment Income Tax AGENCY: Internal Revenue Service (IRS), Treasury... Investment Income Tax and the computation of Net Investment Income. The regulations affect individuals...

  5. 77 FR 72611 - Net Investment Income Tax

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-05

    ... December 5, 2012 Part V Department of the Treasury Internal Revenue Service 26 CFR Part 1 Net Investment... Investment Income Tax AGENCY: Internal Revenue Service (IRS), Treasury. ACTION: Notice of proposed rulemaking...) the individual's net investment income for such taxable year, or (B) the excess (if any) of (i) the...

  6. 77 FR 20888 - Proposed Information Collection (Income, Net Worth, and Employment Statement) Activity: Comment...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-06

    ... AFFAIRS Proposed Information Collection (Income, Net Worth, and Employment Statement) Activity: Comment... forms of information technology. Title: Income, Net Worth, and Employment Statement. OMB Control Number... to obtain current employment, dependency, and family income and net worth information to determine a...

  7. 29 CFR 4204.13 - Net income and net tangible assets tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 9 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Net income and net tangible assets tests. 4204.13 Section....13 Net income and net tangible assets tests. (a) General. The criteria under this section are that either— (1) Net income test. The purchaser's average net income after taxes for its three most recent...

  8. AREVA net income: 649 million euros

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2007-03-15

    This document presents the financial statements for 2006 of Areva group: net income: 649 million euros; backlog up by 24.6% to 25.6 billion euros; steady growth of sales revenue: + 7.3%1 to 10.863 billion euros; operating income of 407 million euros: excellent divisional performance and constitution of a significant provision for the OL3 project in Finland; dividend proposed to Annual General Meeting of Shareholders: 8.46 euros per share.

  9. 47 CFR 32.7990 - Nonregulated net income.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... shall be recorded on separate books of account for such operations. Only the net of the total revenues... 47 Telecommunication 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Nonregulated net income. 32.7990 Section 32... Nonregulated net income. (a) This account shall be used by those companies who offer nonregulated activities...

  10. 26 CFR 1.665(a)-1 - Undistributed net income.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Undistributed net income. 1.665(a)-1 Section 1... total of $30,000. The undistributed net income of the trust at the close of taxable year 1963 is $28,500...,500 Total 31,500 Undistributed net income 28,500 Example 2. The facts are the same as in example 1...

  11. Income pooling within families

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bonke, Jens; Uldall-Poulsen, Hans

    This paper analyses the phenomenon of income-pooling by applying the Danish household expenditure survey, merged with authoritative register information. Responses to additional questions on income sharing among 1696 couples also allows us to analyses whether the intra-household distribution...... of resources reflects individual preferences, the distribution of power, and pre-marital experiences. The analyses show that most Danish households use some type of income pooling and that the likelihood of income pooling varies considerably according to individual characteristics (age, education, occupation......, past partners, upbringing) and household characteristics (household income, duration of marriage, location of residence and the existence of public goods, including children). However, when all variables are evaluated in a common model, only the duration of marriage and the existence of children...

  12. 78 FR 6781 - Net Investment Income Tax; Correction

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-31

    ... Internal Revenue Service 26 CFR Part 1 RIN 1545-BK44 Net Investment Income Tax; Correction AGENCY: Internal Revenue Service (IRS), Treasury. ACTION: Correction to notice of proposed rulemaking and notice of public... paragraph heading Sec. 1.1411-4 Definition of net investment income., Sec. 1.1411-4(c)(2), line 3, the...

  13. 47 CFR 36.506 - Net current deferred operating income taxes-Account 4100, Net noncurrent deferred operating...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Net current deferred operating income taxes-Account 4100, Net noncurrent deferred operating income taxes-Account 4340. 36.506 Section 36.506... operating income taxes—Account 4100, Net noncurrent deferred operating income taxes—Account 4340. (a...

  14. 77 FR 39343 - Agency Information Collection (Income-Net Worth and Employment Statement) Activity Under OMB Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-02

    ....Regulations.gov or to VA's OMB Desk Officer, OMB Human Resources ] and Housing Branch, New Executive Office... current employment, dependency, and family income and net worth information to determine a claimant's...

  15. 26 CFR 1.857-5 - Net income and loss from prohibited transactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 9 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Net income and loss from prohibited transactions... (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES Real Estate Investment Trusts § 1.857-5 Net income and loss... equal to 100 percent of the net income derived from prohibited transactions. A prohibited transaction is...

  16. Net Farm Income Analysis of Maize Production in Gwagwalada Area ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study examined net farm income of maize production in Gwagwalada Area Council of Federal Capital Territory. The specific objectives are to: identify the socio-economic characteristics of maize farmers in the study area, evaluate the costs and returns of maize production in the study area, and evaluate factors affecting ...

  17. 40 CFR 73.83 - Secretary of Energy's action on net income neutrality applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Renewable Energy Reserve § 73.83 Secretary of Energy's action on net income neutrality applications. (a) First come, first served. The Secretary of Energy will process and certify net income neutrality... of Energy determines that the net income neutrality certification application does not meet the...

  18. 26 CFR 1.643(a)-0 - Distributable net income; deduction for distributions; in general.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Distributable net income; deduction for... § 1.643(a)-0 Distributable net income; deduction for distributions; in general. The term distributable net income has no application except in the taxation of estates and trusts and their beneficiaries. It...

  19. 47 CFR 32.4100 - Net current deferred operating income taxes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Net current deferred operating income taxes. 32... Accounts § 32.4100 Net current deferred operating income taxes. (a) This account shall include the balance... appropriate deferred income tax shall be reclassified from Account 4340, Net Noncurrent Deferred Operating...

  20. 26 CFR 1.860C-2 - Determination of REMIC taxable income or net loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 9 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Determination of REMIC taxable income or net... REMIC taxable income or net loss. (a) Treatment of gain or loss. For purposes of determining the taxable income or net loss of a REMIC under section 860C(b), any gain or loss from the disposition of any asset...

  1. 26 CFR 1.665(a)-1A - Undistributed net income.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Undistributed net income. 1.665(a)-1A Section 1... income (see § 1.665(d)-1A) 2,190 Total 22,190 Undistributed net income 7,910 (b) Foreign trusts. The... income from Country X sources for a total of $30,000. The undistributed net income of the trust at the...

  2. 26 CFR 1.857-3 - Net income from foreclosure property.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 9 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Net income from foreclosure property. 1.857-3 Section 1.857-3 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES Real Estate Investment Trusts § 1.857-3 Net income from foreclosure...

  3. 26 CFR 1.408-11 - Net income calculation for returned or recharacterized IRA contributions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 5 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Net income calculation for returned or... Internal Revenue Code section that the return of a contribution be accompanied by the amount of net income... OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES Pension, Profit-Sharing, Stock Bonus...

  4. 26 CFR 1.652(a)-2 - Distributions in excess of distributable net income.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Distributions in excess of distributable net income. 1.652(a)-2 Section 1.652(a)-2 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE....652(a)-2 Distributions in excess of distributable net income. If the amount of income required to be...

  5. 47 CFR 32.4350 - Net noncurrent deferred nonoperating income taxes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... included in the determination of book income or for the tax effect of nonoperating expenses and... 47 Telecommunication 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Net noncurrent deferred nonoperating income... Sheet Accounts § 32.4350 Net noncurrent deferred nonoperating income taxes. (a) This account shall...

  6. 47 CFR 32.4340 - Net noncurrent deferred operating income taxes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... book income or for the tax effect of revenues and expenses from regulated operations which have been... 47 Telecommunication 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Net noncurrent deferred operating income taxes... Sheet Accounts § 32.4340 Net noncurrent deferred operating income taxes. (a) This account shall include...

  7. 47 CFR 32.4110 - Net current deferred nonoperating income taxes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Net current deferred nonoperating income taxes... Sheet Accounts § 32.4110 Net current deferred nonoperating income taxes. (a) This account shall include the balance of income tax expense resulting from comprehensive interpreted tax allocation which has...

  8. 26 CFR 1.857-2 - Real estate investment trust taxable income and net capital gain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 9 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Real estate investment trust taxable income and... TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES Real Estate Investment Trusts § 1.857-2 Real estate investment trust taxable income and net capital gain. (a) Real estate investment trust taxable...

  9. 75 FR 39621 - Proposed Information Collection (Income-Net Worth and Employment Statement) Activity: Comment...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-09

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS Proposed Information Collection (Income-Net Worth and Employment Statement) Activity: Comment... forms of information technology. Title: Income-Net Worth and Employment Statement. OMB Control Number...

  10. Trends in the Family Income Distribution by Race/Ethnicity and Income Source, 1988–2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monnat, Shannon M.; Raffalovich, Lawrence E.; Tsao, Hui-shien

    2015-01-01

    The recent dramatic rise in U.S. income inequality has prompted a great deal of research on trends in overall family income and changes in sources of family income, especially among the highest income earners. However, less is known about changes in sources of income among the bottom 99% or about racial/ethnic differences in those trends. The present research contributes to the literatures on income trends and racial economic inequality by using family-level data from the 1988–2009 Current Population Survey to examine changes in overall family income and the proportion of income coming from employment, property/assets, and transfers across five different levels of family income for white-, black, and Hispanic-headed families. We find that at all income levels above the 25th percentile, employment income is by far the largest contributor to family income for all racial/ethnic groups. Employment income trended upward over the period in both real dollars and as a percentage of total family income. In this respect, white, black and Hispanic families are remarkably similar. The racial gap in total family income has remained fairly stable over the period, but this trend conceals a narrowing of racial differences in property income, mostly as a function of the decline in property income among whites, a widening of racial differences in transfer income among the bottom 25%, and a widening of racial differences in employment income, particularly at the top of the family income distribution. Income accrued from wealth is a very small component of overall family income for all three racial groups, even for the highest-income families (top 1%). PMID:26180265

  11. Trends in the Family Income Distribution by Race/Ethnicity and Income Source, 1988-2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monnat, Shannon M; Raffalovich, Lawrence E; Tsao, Hui-Shien

    The recent dramatic rise in U.S. income inequality has prompted a great deal of research on trends in overall family income and changes in sources of family income, especially among the highest income earners. However, less is known about changes in sources of income among the bottom 99% or about racial/ethnic differences in those trends. The present research contributes to the literatures on income trends and racial economic inequality by using family-level data from the 1988-2009 Current Population Survey to examine changes in overall family income and the proportion of income coming from employment, property/assets, and transfers across five different levels of family income for white-, black, and Hispanic-headed families. We find that at all income levels above the 25(th) percentile, employment income is by far the largest contributor to family income for all racial/ethnic groups. Employment income trended upward over the period in both real dollars and as a percentage of total family income. In this respect, white, black and Hispanic families are remarkably similar. The racial gap in total family income has remained fairly stable over the period, but this trend conceals a narrowing of racial differences in property income, mostly as a function of the decline in property income among whites, a widening of racial differences in transfer income among the bottom 25%, and a widening of racial differences in employment income, particularly at the top of the family income distribution. Income accrued from wealth is a very small component of overall family income for all three racial groups, even for the highest-income families (top 1%).

  12. Multiple regression analysis of the net income and consumption expenditure of Chinese rural households during 2007

    OpenAIRE

    Da, Wa; Xiao, Hong; Zhuo, Ma

    2009-01-01

    We use the regression analysis method of multivariate statistical analysis to establish a multiple linear regression model about the net income and consumption expenditure of Chinese rural households during the year 2007. This paper analyzes the internal relation between the net income and consumption expenditure of Chinese rural households according to the regression result. Some reasonable suggestions are put forward for raising the income of rural households and stimulating consumption.

  13. 26 CFR 53.4940-1 - Excise tax on net investment income.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... are includible in gross investment income. Therefore, for example, interest received on a student loan... 26 Internal Revenue 17 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Excise tax on net investment income. 53.4940-1...) MISCELLANEOUS EXCISE TAXES (CONTINUED) FOUNDATION AND SIMILAR EXCISE TAXES Taxes on Investment Income § 53.4940...

  14. 47 CFR 32.7250 - Provision for deferred operating income taxes-net.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Accounts § 32.7250 Provision for deferred operating income taxes—net. (a) This account shall be charged or credited, as appropriate, with contra entries recorded to the following accounts for income tax expense... 47 Telecommunication 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Provision for deferred operating income taxes...

  15. 47 CFR 32.7910 - Income effect of jurisdictional ratemaking differences-net.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Other Income Accounts § 32.7910 Income effect of jurisdictional ratemaking differences—net. This account shall include the impact on revenues and expenses of the jurisdictional ratemaking practices which vary... 47 Telecommunication 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Income effect of jurisdictional ratemaking...

  16. 26 CFR 1.172-5 - Taxable income which is subtracted from net operating loss to determine carryback or carryover.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 1955 net operating loss 3,000 Adjusted gross income 6,000 Less: Deduction for medical expense ($410... 26 Internal Revenue 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Taxable income which is subtracted from net... taxable income is to be deducted. Thus, for such purposes, the net operating loss for the loss year or any...

  17. Family Income, School Attendance, and Academic Achievement in Elementary School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrissey, Taryn W.; Hutchison, Lindsey; Winsler, Adam

    2014-01-01

    Low family income is associated with poor academic achievement among children. Higher rates of school absence and tardiness may be one mechanism through which low family income impacts children's academic success. This study examines relations between family income, as measured by receipt of free or reduced-price lunch, school attendance, and…

  18. Shrinking the Public Safety Net or Helping the Poor Play by the Rules? The Changes in the State-Level Policies That Affected Low-Income Families with Children in the Welfare Reform Era: 1994-2002

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aratani, Yumiko; Lu, Hsien-Hen; Aber, J. Lawrence

    2014-01-01

    Despite the claimed success of the 1996 Welfare Reform, little research using multivariate regression has examined changes in multiple public safety-net programs. Thus, we still do not know whether public safety-net programs for the poor have shrunk or increased nationwide, along with the sharp declines in cash assistance. Using state-level data…

  19. Trends in the Family Income Distribution by Race/Ethnicity and Income Source, 1988–2009

    OpenAIRE

    Monnat, Shannon M.; Raffalovich, Lawrence E.; Tsao, Hui-shien

    2012-01-01

    The recent dramatic rise in U.S. income inequality has prompted a great deal of research on trends in overall family income and changes in sources of family income, especially among the highest income earners. However, less is known about changes in sources of income among the bottom 99% or about racial/ethnic differences in those trends. The present research contributes to the literatures on income trends and racial economic inequality by using family-level data from the 1988–2009 Current Po...

  20. Net Income, Book Value and Cash Flows: The Value Relevance in Jordanian Economic Sectors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DHIAA SHAMKI

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the value relevance of financial statements variables namely net income, book value and cash flows simultaneously relative to Jordanian services and industrial firms for the period from 2000 to 2009. The main findings of this paper are three- dimensional. First, net income is value relevant, while book value and cash flows are irrelevant. Second, net income is more value relevant than book value and cash flows in both sectors. Third, this value relevance is greater in services sector than in industrial sector. The study shows that net income assist more in explaining market values in Jordanian services and industrial firms. Since research on the value relevance of these variables has neglected Jordan (and the Middle Eastern region, the study tries to fill this practical gap. The study is the first in Jordan that examines the value relevance of net income, book value and cash flows simultaneously and compares this value relevance according to Amman Stock Exchange sectors in one study in Jordan.

  1. Timing of Family Income, Borrowing Constraints, and Child Achievement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Humlum, Maria Knoth

    2011-01-01

    to many earlier studies, the results suggest that the timing of income does not matter for long-term child outcomes. This is a reasonable result given the setting in a Scandinavian welfare state with generous child and education subsidies. Actually, later family income (age 12–15) is a more important......I investigate the effects of the timing of family income on child achievement production. Detailed administrative data augmented with Programme for International Student Assessment test scores at age 15 are used to analyze the effects of the timing of family income on child achievement. Contrary...... determinant of child achievement than earlier income....

  2. The Value of a Purposeful Life: Sense of Purpose Predicts Greater Income and Net Worth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Patrick L; Turiano, Nicholas A; Mroczek, Daniel K; Burrow, Anthony L

    2016-12-01

    Having a sense of purpose in life appears valuable across life domains, though it remains unclear whether purpose also provides financial value to individuals. The current study examined sense of purpose as a predictor of concurrent and longitudinal income and net worth levels, using two waves of the MIDUS sample of adults (N = 4660 across both assessments). Participants who reported a higher sense of purpose had higher levels of household income and net worth initially, and were more likely to increase on these financial outcomes over the nine years between assessments. Interaction tests suggested some evidence of age moderation, but gender did not appear to moderate the influence of purpose on economic outcomes.

  3. Net Income of Pharmacy Faculty Compared to Community and Hospital Pharmacists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chisholm-Burns, Marie A; Gatwood, Justin; Spivey, Christina A; Dickey, Susan E

    2016-09-25

    Objective. To compare the net cumulative income of community pharmacists, hospital pharmacists, and full-time pharmacy faculty members (residency-trained or with a PhD after obtaining a PharmD) in pharmacy practice, medicinal chemistry, pharmaceutics, pharmacology, and social and administrative sciences. Methods. Markov modeling was conducted to calculate net projected cumulative earnings of career paths by estimating the costs of education, including the costs of obtaining degrees and student loans. Results. The economic model spanned 49 years, from ages 18 to 67 years. Earning a PharmD and pursuing an academic career resulted in projected net cumulative lifetime earnings ranging from approximately $4.7 million to $6.3 million. A pharmacy practice faculty position following public pharmacy school and one year of residency resulted in higher net cumulative income than community pharmacy. Faculty members with postgraduate year 1 (PGY1) training also had higher net income than other faculty and hospital pharmacy career paths, given similar years of prepharmacy education and type of pharmacy school attended. Faculty members with either a PharmD or PhD in the pharmacology discipline may net as much as $5.9 million and outpace all other PhD graduates by at least $75 000 in lifetime earnings. Projected career earnings of postgraduate year 2 (PGY2) trained faculty and PharmD/PhD faculty members were lower than those of community pharmacists. Findings were more variable when comparing pharmacy faculty members and hospital pharmacists. Conclusion. With the exception of PGY1 trained academic pharmacists, faculty projected net cumulative incomes generally lagged behind community pharmacists, likely because of delayed entry into the job market as a result of advanced training/education. However, nonsalary benefits such as greater flexibility and autonomy may enhance the desirability of academic pharmacy as a career path.

  4. Improving Strategies for Low-Income Family Children's Information Literacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Haiyan; Washington, Rodney; Yin, Jianjun

    2014-01-01

    This article discussed the significance of improving low-income family children's information literacy, which could improve educational quality, enhance children's self-esteem, adapt children to the future competitive world market, as well as the problems in improving low-income family children's information literacy, such as no home computer and…

  5. Racial Inequality Trends and the Intergenerational Persistence of Income and Family Structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloome, Deirdre

    2015-01-01

    Racial disparity in family incomes remained remarkably stable over the past 40 years in the United States despite major legal and social reforms. Previous scholarship presents two primary explanations for persistent inequality through a period of progressive change. One highlights continuity: because socioeconomic status is transmitted from parents to children, disparities created through histories of discrimination and opportunity denial may dissipate slowly. The second highlights change: because family income results from joining individual earnings in family units, changing family compositions can offset individuals’ changing economic chances. I examine whether black-white family income inequality trends are better characterized by the persistence of existing disadvantage (continuity) or shifting forms of disadvantage (change). I combine cross-sectional and panel analysis using Current Population Survey, Panel Study of Income Dynamics, Census, and National Vital Statistics data. Results suggest that African Americans experience relatively extreme intergenerational continuity (low upward mobility) and discontinuity (high downward mobility); both helped maintain racial inequality. Yet, intergenerational discontinuities allow new forms of disadvantage to emerge. On net, racial inequality trends are better characterized by changing forms of disadvantage than by continuity. Economic trends were equalizing but demographic trends were disequalizing; as family structures shifted, family incomes did not fully reflect labor-market gains. PMID:26456973

  6. Racial Inequality Trends and the Intergenerational Persistence of Income and Family Structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloome, Deirdre

    2014-12-01

    Racial disparity in family incomes remained remarkably stable over the past 40 years in the United States despite major legal and social reforms. Previous scholarship presents two primary explanations for persistent inequality through a period of progressive change. One highlights continuity: because socioeconomic status is transmitted from parents to children, disparities created through histories of discrimination and opportunity denial may dissipate slowly. The second highlights change: because family income results from joining individual earnings in family units, changing family compositions can offset individuals' changing economic chances. I examine whether black-white family income inequality trends are better characterized by the persistence of existing disadvantage (continuity) or shifting forms of disadvantage (change). I combine cross-sectional and panel analysis using Current Population Survey, Panel Study of Income Dynamics, Census, and National Vital Statistics data. Results suggest that African Americans experience relatively extreme intergenerational continuity (low upward mobility) and discontinuity (high downward mobility); both helped maintain racial inequality. Yet, intergenerational discontinuities allow new forms of disadvantage to emerge. On net, racial inequality trends are better characterized by changing forms of disadvantage than by continuity. Economic trends were equalizing but demographic trends were disequalizing; as family structures shifted, family incomes did not fully reflect labor-market gains.

  7. 75 FR 56662 - Agency Information Collection (Income-Net Worth and Employment Statement) Activity Under OMB Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-16

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS Agency Information Collection (Income-Net Worth and Employment Statement) Activity Under OMB... INFORMATION: Title: Income-Net Worth and Employment Statement, VA Form 21-527. OMB Control Number: 2900-0002...

  8. Timing of Family Income, Borrowing Constraints and Child Achievement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Humlum, Maria Knoth

    In this paper, I investigate the effects of the timing of family income on child achievement production. Detailed administrative data augmented with PISA test scores at age 15 are used to analyze the effects of the timing of family income on child achievement. Contrary to many earlier studies, te...... with generous child and education subsidies. Actually, later family income (age 12-15) is a more important determinant of child achievement than earlier income.......In this paper, I investigate the effects of the timing of family income on child achievement production. Detailed administrative data augmented with PISA test scores at age 15 are used to analyze the effects of the timing of family income on child achievement. Contrary to many earlier studies......, tests for early borrowing constraints suggest that parents are not constrained in early investments in their children's achievement, and thus that the timing of income does not matter for long-term child outcomes. This is a reasonable result given the setting in a Scandinavian welfare state...

  9. Does Students' Financial Behaviour Differ Based on Their Family Income?

    OpenAIRE

    Dorjana Nano; Teuta Llukani

    2015-01-01

    This study investigates the differences on Financial Behaviour among Albanian university students based on their family income. The main objectives of this study are: i) firstly, to assess the level of financial behaviour of Albanian university students; ii) to examine whether the financial behaviour differs based on the level of students family income; and ii) finally, , to provide some conclusions and policy implications with regard to financial behaviour. An instrument comprised of specifi...

  10. Family income, school attendance, and academic achievement in elementary school.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrissey, Taryn W; Hutchison, Lindsey; Winsler, Adam

    2014-03-01

    Low family income is associated with poor academic achievement among children. Higher rates of school absence and tardiness may be one mechanism through which low family income impacts children's academic success. This study examines relations between family income, as measured by receipt of free or reduced-price lunch, school attendance, and academic achievement among a diverse sample of children from kindergarten to 4th grade (N = 35,419) using both random and within-child fixed-effects models. Generally, results suggest that the receipt of free or reduced-price lunch and duration of receipt have small but positive associations with school absences and tardies. Poor attendance patterns predict poorer grades, with absences more associated with grades than tardies. Given the small associations between receipt of free or reduced-price lunch and school attendance, and between the duration of receipt of free or reduced-price lunch and children's grades, results do not provide strong evidence that absences and tardies meaningfully attenuate relations between the duration of low family income and student achievement; poorer attendance and persistent low income independently predict poorer grades. Implications for policy and future research are discussed. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved.

  11. 24 CFR 984.304 - Total tenant payment, family rent, and increases in family income.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Total tenant payment, family rent... PROGRAM Program Operation § 984.304 Total tenant payment, family rent, and increases in family income. (a... set forth in 24 CFR part 913. (2) Section 8 FSS program: Calculation of family rent. For the rental...

  12. Income Distribution and Economic Well-Being within European Families

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bonke, Jens

    The article analyses the distribution of income within European families and the consequences for the spouses’ economic well-being. Thus, many studies have shown that women nowadays participate on the labour market in an increasing number resulting in a more equal distribution of income within...... is closer to the actual income distribution than in the Continental European and Liberal regimes, and in the Southern European regime the preferences are far away from being achieved. In The Netherlands and in Ireland the preferences are for a traditional bread-winner model, as there is found a u......-shaped relationship between the distribution of income and men and women’s economic well-being....

  13. Managing Personal Income: Teacher Guide. Family Financial Education Program 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Continental Illinois National Bank and Trust Co., Chicago.

    The teacher's guide is for a high school unit on personal income management, part of a family financial education program which also includes a unit on accepting credit responsibility. It can be used by teachers of any subject attempting to develop in students habits and attitudes in the area of earning, saving, and spending. The unit is based on…

  14. ECONOMIES OF THE LOW-INCOME FAMILIES IN KUMASI ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    enterprises (HBEs) in the household economies of low- income families in Kumasi. Specifically, the research examines: (a) the nature and degree of involvement of household members in the organization, operation and management of the HBEs;. (b) the various types and the quantum of economic contributions these HBEs ...

  15. 26 CFR 301.6511(d)-2 - Overpayment of income tax on account of net operating loss or capital loss carrybacks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 18 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Overpayment of income tax on account of net... claim for credit or refund relates to an overpayment of income tax attributable to a net operating loss... net operating loss deduction or capital loss carryback (or the effect of such deduction or carryback...

  16. Family income affects children's altruistic behavior in the dictator game.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yongxiang; Zhu, Liqi; Chen, Zhe

    2013-01-01

    This study aimed to examine how family income and social distance influence young rural Chinese children's altruistic behavior in the dictator game (DG). A total of 469 four-year-old children from eight rural areas in China, including many children left behind by parents who had migrated to urban areas for work, played the DG. Stickers comprised the resource, while recipients in the game were assumed to be either their friends or strangers, with the social distance (i.e., strangers compared to friends) as a between-subjects variable. Children donated significantly more stickers to their friends than to strangers. Moreover, children from lower income families donated more stickers than children from higher income families. However, no gender and parental migrant status differences in children's prosocial behaviors were evident in this sample. Findings of this study suggest that children's altruistic behaviours to peers are influenced by family characteristics since preschool age. The probable influence of local socialization practices on development and the possible adaptive significance were discussed.

  17. Family income affects children's altruistic behavior in the dictator game.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongxiang Chen

    Full Text Available This study aimed to examine how family income and social distance influence young rural Chinese children's altruistic behavior in the dictator game (DG. A total of 469 four-year-old children from eight rural areas in China, including many children left behind by parents who had migrated to urban areas for work, played the DG. Stickers comprised the resource, while recipients in the game were assumed to be either their friends or strangers, with the social distance (i.e., strangers compared to friends as a between-subjects variable. Children donated significantly more stickers to their friends than to strangers. Moreover, children from lower income families donated more stickers than children from higher income families. However, no gender and parental migrant status differences in children's prosocial behaviors were evident in this sample. Findings of this study suggest that children's altruistic behaviours to peers are influenced by family characteristics since preschool age. The probable influence of local socialization practices on development and the possible adaptive significance were discussed.

  18. Design and Evaluation of a Net Zero Energy Low-Income Residential Housing Development in Lafayette, Colorado

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dean, J.; VanGeet, O.; Simkus, S.; Eastment, M.

    2012-03-01

    This report outlines the lessons learned and sub-metered energy performance of an ultra low energy single family ranch home and duplex unit, called the Paradigm Pilot Project and presents the final design recommendations for a 153-unit net zero energy residential development called the Josephine Commons Project. Affordable housing development authorities throughout the United States continually struggle to find the most cost-effective pathway to provide quality, durable, and sustainable housing. The challenge for these authorities is to achieve the mission of delivering affordable housing at the lowest cost per square foot in environments that may be rural, urban, suburban, or within a designated redevelopment district. With the challenges the U.S. faces regarding energy, the environmental impacts of consumer use of fossil fuels and the increased focus on reducing greenhouse gas emissions, housing authorities are pursuing the goal of constructing affordable, energy efficient and sustainable housing at the lowest life-cycle cost of ownership. This report outlines the lessons learned and sub-metered energy performance of an ultra-low-energy single family ranch home and duplex unit, called the Paradigm Pilot Project and presents the final design recommendations for a 153-unit net zero energy residential development called the Josephine Commons Project. In addition to describing the results of the performance monitoring from the pilot project, this paper describes the recommended design process of (1) setting performance goals for energy efficiency and renewable energy on a life-cycle cost basis, (2) using an integrated, whole building design approach, and (3) incorporating systems-built housing, a green jobs training program, and renewable energy technologies into a replicable high performance, low-income housing project development model.

  19. Welfare and the family size decision of low-income, two-parent families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gensler, H

    1997-10-01

    This study determines the increase in family size given an increase in the per child welfare benefit for a family with children in the US. The family size decision was modeled as a discrete choice decision. Data were obtained from the 1980-91 March Current Population Surveys of the US Census Bureau on 13,516 low-income, nonmilitary, non-farm, two-parent families with at least one dependent child. Low income was any amount under twice the official poverty level. Parents were limited to ages 18-40 years. Alaska and Hawaii were excluded. The data sets for 1979-90 were pooled. The sample included 10% Blacks and 27% receiving some amount of welfare. Average ages were 28.9 years for mothers and 30.8 years for fathers. The average number of children was 2.43. Findings from the ordered probit model indicate that education had a negative impact on family size, and age and race had positive impacts. Wages did not have a significant effect. The state unemployment rate and the average state income had negative effects. Unearned income had a small but significant effect on family size. The marginal welfare benefit had a positive impact. Findings reinforce the wealth hypothesis, that wealthier societies have smaller family sizes. Family size declines with increases in wages and education, which reflect increases in opportunity costs for time. Family size increases with age, as rearing children is labor-intensive. Family size increases with unearned income and welfare benefits that make childbearing affordable. It is argued that poor people in developed societies behave more consistently like poor people in developing countries. A 100% increase in the per child welfare benefit resulted in a 2% increase in the number of children. The policy implication is that a considerable increase in welfare benefits will have only trivial behavioral impacts for the poor on family size decisions.

  20. Youth from Low-Income Families. Vulnerable Youth and the Transition to Adulthood. ASPE Research Brief

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kent, Adam

    2009-01-01

    In 2007, nearly 40 percent of children in the United States lived in low-income families--families with incomes at or below 200 percent of the federal poverty level (FPL). Youth from low-income families are vulnerable to poor outcomes as adults, as these youth often lack the resources and opportunities found to lead to better outcomes. This fact…

  1. Differential Calculation Abilities in Young Children from Middle- and Low-Income Families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordan, Nancy. C.; And Others

    1992-01-01

    Examined the performance of kindergartners from middle- and low-income families on arithmetic calculations presented in a nonverbal format and in three verbal formats. Children from middle-income families performed better than those from low-income families on verbal calculation tasks but not on the nonverbal task. (BC)

  2. Government net income in the fuel alcohol marketing; Estimativa do saldo do governo na comercializacao de alcool carburante

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brugnaro, Caetano

    1992-12-31

    This study aims to analyse the fuel price formation structures in order to estimate the governmental net income in fuel alcohol marketing and to develop a mathematical model to forecast these estimates under alternative economic scenarios. Three scenarios - an optimistic, an intermediary and a pessimistic were set up through intuitive projections and the mathematical model developed was applied to them. 33 refs., 9 tabs.

  3. Participation of low-income women in genetic cancer risk assessment and BRCA 1/2 testing: the experience of a safety-net institution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komenaka, Ian K; Nodora, Jesse N; Madlensky, Lisa; Winton, Lisa M; Heberer, Meredith A; Schwab, Richard B; Weitzel, Jeffrey N; Martinez, Maria Elena

    2016-07-01

    Some communities and populations lack access to genetic cancer risk assessment (GCRA) and testing. This is particularly evident in safety-net institutions, which serve a large segment of low-income, uninsured individuals. We describe the experience of a safety-net clinic with limited resources in providing GCRA and BRCA1/2 testing. We compared the proportion and characteristics of high-risk women who were offered and underwent GCRA and genetic testing. We also provide a description of the mutation profile for affected women. All 125 patients who were offered GCRA accepted to undergo GCRA. Of these, 72 % had a breast cancer diagnosis, 70 % were Hispanic, 52.8 % were non-English speakers, and 66 % did not have health insurance. Eighty four (67 %) were offered genetic testing and 81 (96 %) agreed. Hispanic women, those with no medical insurance, and those with a family history of breast cancer were significantly more likely to undergo testing (p > 0.01). Twelve of 81 (15 %) patients were found to have deleterious mutations, seven BRCA1, and five BRCA2. Our experience shows that it is possible to offer GCRA and genetic testing even in the setting of limited resources for these services. This is important given that a large majority of the low-income women in our study agreed to undergo counseling and testing. Our experience could serve as a model for similar low-resource safety-net health settings.

  4. Opportunity for All? Technology and Learning in Lower-Income Families. Appendix: Questionnaire and Topline Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rideout, Victoria; Katz, Vikki S.

    2016-01-01

    The data in this survey offer a unique perspective from low- and moderate-income families with school-age children in the United States. They reveal many of the nuances and complexities of digital life among lower income families today. Because lower-income parents are not usually the focus of studies on technology and learning, this report offers…

  5. Summary Of: The Instability of Family Earnings and Family Income in Canada, 1986 to 1991 and 1996 to 2001

    OpenAIRE

    Morissette, Rene; Ostrovsky, Yuri

    2005-01-01

    This article summarizes findings from the research paper entitled: The Instability of Family Earnings and Family Income in Canada, 1986 to 1991 and 1996 to 2001. Despite its implications for family well-being, little attention has been paid to the analysis of earnings instability in the context of the family versus the earnings profiles of individuals. While a focus on individuals is important, the extent to which families can generate stable income flows from the labour market is a key conce...

  6. Risk, Implicit Contracts and the Family in Rural Areas of Low-Income Countries

    OpenAIRE

    Rosenzweig, Mark R.

    1986-01-01

    In this paper the role of family structure in mitigating income volatility in the absence of income insurance in low-income agricultural environments is discussed. Hypotheses concerning the relationship between the membership, size and composition of households and insurance-based income transfers are tested using longitudinal data from India. A test is also performed of whether a household's ability to reduce risk ex post via family arrangements affects its willingness tobear risk ex ante th...

  7. The effect of family income during childhood on later-life attainment: evidence from Germany

    OpenAIRE

    Jenkins, Stephen P.; Schluter, Christian

    2002-01-01

    We examine the impact of family income during childhood on the type of secondary school that German children attend, a good indicator of their lifetime socioeconomic attainment. By contrast with several US child outcome studies, we find that late-childhood income is a more important determinant of outcomes than early-childhood income, and income effects are not greater for poor households compared to rich households, other things equal. The income effects are small for native-born German chil...

  8. National Income and Income Inequality, Family Affluence and Life Satisfaction Among 13 year Old Boys and Girls

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Levin, Kate Ann; Torsheim, Torbjorn; Vollebergh, Wilma

    2011-01-01

    -nationally. Socioeconomic inequalities were greatest in poor countries and in countries with unequal income distribution. GDP (PPP US$) and Gini did not explain between country variance in socioeconomic inequalities in life satisfaction. The existence of, and variation in, within-country socioeconomic inequalities......Adolescence is a critical period where many patterns of health and health behaviour are formed. The objective of this study was to investigate cross-national variation in the relationship between family affluence and adolescent life satisfaction, and the impact of national income and income....... National income and income inequality were associated with aggregated life satisfaction score and prevalence of high life satisfaction. Within-country socioeconomic inequalities in life satisfaction existed even after adjustment for family structure. This relationship was curvilinear and varied cross...

  9. The Experiences of Low-Income Latina/o Families in an Urban Voucher, Parochial School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joseph, Tatiana; Vélez, William; Antrop-González, René

    2017-01-01

    Catholic schools have become a popular choice for many low income families Latino/a families. Families enrollment in these schools are often faced with the mandate to participate. However, regardless of the mandate, some schools often experience low parental participation. The purpose of this study is to document the experiences of low income,…

  10. Role of expendable income and price in food choice by low income families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns, Cate; Cook, Kay; Mavoa, Helen

    2013-12-01

    The public health literature suggests that the cheapness of energy-dense foods is driving the obesity epidemic. We examined food purchases in low-income families and its relationship to the price of food and availability of funds. In-depth interviews were conducted with 22 parents with children less than 15 years of age whose major source of income was a government pension. A photo taxonomy, where participants sorted 50 photos of commonly purchased foods, was used to explore food choice. The most common food groupings used by the participants were: basic, emergency, treat and comfort. The process of food purchase was described by participants as weighing up the attributes of a food in relation to price and money available. Shoppers nominated the basic unit of measurement as quantity per unit price and the heuristic for food choice when shopping as determining "value for money" in a process of triage relating to food purchase decisions. Participants stated satiation of hunger to be the most common "value" relative to price. Given that the foods nominated as filling tended to be carbohydrate-rich staples, we suggest that public health initiatives need to acknowledge this triage process and shape interventions to promote nutrition over satiation. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. The effects of race/ethnicity, income, and family structure on adolescent risk behaviors

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Blum, RW; Beuhring, T; Shew, ML; Bearinger, LH; Sieving, RE; Resnick, MD

    2000-01-01

    ...: The study examined the unique and combined contributions of race/ethnicity, income, and family structure to adolescent cigarette smoking, alcohol use, involvement with violence, suicidal thoughts...

  12. Early-life family income and subjective well-being in adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gariepy, Genevieve; Elgar, Frank J; Sentenac, Mariane; Barrington-Leigh, Christopher

    2017-01-01

    Subjective well-being (SWB) in youths positively relates to family income, however its association with income during childhood is unclear. Using longitudinal data from the US Panel Study of Income Dynamics (n = 2234 adolescents, age 12-19 years), we examined whether the timing and duration of low family income in childhood was associated with adolescent SWB. We categorized family income during childhood into state-specific quintiles. Adolescent SWB was assessed using a 12-item questionnaire (score range 3-18). We used marginal structural modelling to test for sensitive periods of exposure to low income and tested cumulative effects of income by modelling the number of years spent in the poorest income quintiles. A period in early childhood (age 0-2 years) was particularly sensitive to low family income. Adolescent SWB was 1.65 (95% CI 0.40, 2.91) points lower in those who grew up in the poorest income quintiles during early childhood compared with the top quintile. Further, each childhood year spent in the poorest income quintiles was associated with a 0.10 point (95% CI 0.04, 0.16) lower SWB score in adolescence. The timing and duration of low family income in childhood both predict individual differences in adolescent SWB. Further studies are needed to clarify the mechanisms of these models and inform public policies.

  13. Relations of income inequality and family income to chronic medical conditions and mental health disorders: national survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sturm, Roland; Gresenz, Carole Roan

    2002-01-01

    Objectives To analyse the relation between geographical inequalities in income and the prevalence of common chronic medical conditions and mental health disorders, and to compare it with the relation between family income and these health problems. Design Nationally representative household telephone survey conducted in 1997-8. Setting 60 metropolitan areas or economic areas of the United States. Participants 9585 adults who participated in the community tracking study. Main outcome measures Self report of 17 common chronic medical conditions; current depressive disorder or anxiety disorder assessed by clinical screeners. Results A strong continuous association was seen between health and education or family income. No relation was found between income inequality and the prevalence of chronic medical problems or depressive disorders and anxiety disorders, either across the whole population or among poorer people. Only self reported overall health, the measure used in previous studies, was significantly correlated with inequality at the population level, but this correlation disappeared after adjustment for individual characteristics. Conclusions This study provides no evidence for the hypothesis that income inequality is a major risk factor for common disorders of physical or mental health. What is already known on this topicSeveral studies have found a relation between income inequality and self reported health or mortalityWhat this study addsThere is a strong social gradient in health, as measured by the prevalence of chronic medical conditions and specific mental health disorders, by income or educationNo such association is seen between income inequality and health PMID:11777799

  14. The relationship between children's physical activity and family income in rural settings: A cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lesley Cottrell

    2015-01-01

    Conclusions: Lower income families may utilize their immediate environment and encourage activity among their children whereas more affluent families focus on organized opportunity more often than lower income families. These findings emphasize the need to conceptualize the role family income plays in physical activity patterns and the potential benefit it provides to some families.

  15. Shopping Behaviors of Low-income Families during a 1-Month Period of Time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darko, Janice; Eggett, Dennis L.; Richards, Rickelle

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To explore food shopping behaviors among low-income families over the course of the month. Design: Two researchers conducted 13 90-minute focus groups. Setting: Two community organizations serving low-income populations and a university campus. Participants: Low-income adults (n = 72) who were the primary household food shoppers and who…

  16. Work, Family and Community Support as Predictors of Work-Family Conflict: A Study of Low-Income Workers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griggs, Tracy Lambert; Casper, Wendy J.; Eby, Lillian T.

    2013-01-01

    This study examines relationships between support from work, family and community domains with time- and strain-based work-family conflict in a sample of low-income workers. Results reveal significant within-domain and cross-domain relationships between support from all three life domains with work--family conflict. With respect to family support,…

  17. Childhood Family Structure and Intergenerational Income Mobility in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloome, Deirdre

    2017-04-01

    The declining prevalence of two-parent families helped increase income inequality over recent decades. Does family structure also condition how economic (dis)advantages pass from parents to children? If so, shifts in the organization of family life may contribute to enduring inequality between groups defined by childhood family structure. Using National Longitudinal Survey of Youth data, I combine parametric and nonparametric methods to reveal how family structure moderates intergenerational income mobility in the United States. I find that individuals raised outside stable two-parent homes are much more mobile than individuals from stable two-parent families. Mobility increases with the number of family transitions but does not vary with children's time spent coresiding with both parents or stepparents conditional on a transition. However, this mobility indicates insecurity, not opportunity. Difficulties maintaining middle-class incomes create downward mobility among people raised outside stable two-parent homes. Regardless of parental income, these people are relatively likely to become low-income adults, reflecting a new form of perverse equality. People raised outside stable two-parent families are also less likely to become high-income adults than people from stable two-parent homes. Mobility differences account for about one-quarter of family-structure inequalities in income at the bottom of the income distribution and more than one-third of these inequalities at the top.

  18. Family variables influencing the use of insecticide treated nets ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The mothers were interviewed using a pretested, structured researcher administered questionnaire which elicited information on family demographic variables, inter-spousal discussion, communication, concurrence and participation on the use of ITNs. The period of usage was assessed in the previous six months and ...

  19. 24 CFR 882.515 - Reexamination of family income and composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... composition. 882.515 Section 882.515 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban... composition. (a) Regular reexaminations. The PHA must reexamine the income and composition of all families at... Payment. At the time of the annual reexamination of family income and composition, the PHA must require...

  20. 24 CFR 886.324 - Reexamination of family income and composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... composition. 886.324 Section 886.324 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban... family income and composition. (a) Regular reexaminations. The owner must reexamine the income and composition of all families at least once each year. Upon verification of the information, the owner must make...

  1. 24 CFR 886.124 - Reexamination of family income and composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... composition. 886.124 Section 886.124 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban... family income and composition. (a) Regular reexaminations. The owner must reexamine the income and composition of all families at least once each year. Upon verification of the information, the owner must make...

  2. 24 CFR 884.218 - Reexamination of family income and composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... composition. 884.218 Section 884.218 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban... Reexamination of family income and composition. (a) Regular reexaminations. The owner must reexamine the income and composition of all families at least once each year. Upon verification of the information, the...

  3. Family Structure and Income during the Stages of Childhood and Subsequent Prosocial Behavior in Young Adulthood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bandy, Robert; Ottoni-Wilhelm, Mark

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated whether family structure transition and low income are risk factors in the development of prosocial behavior. Models of young adults' prosocial behavior--charitable giving and volunteering--were estimated as functions of their family structure and income during the stages of childhood. Participants were a representative…

  4. Low Income and Impoverished Families Pay More Disproportionately for Child Care. Policy Brief Number 16

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Kristin; Gozjolko, Kristi

    2010-01-01

    According to research based on the 2004 Survey of Income and Program Participation, working families with young children living in poverty pay 32 percent of their income on child care, nearly five times more than families living at more than 200 percent of the poverty level. This brief asks policy makers to consider allowing more subsidies to be…

  5. The Role of Family Income Dynamics in Predicting Trajectories of Internalizing and Externalizing Problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Portia; Votruba-Drzal, Elizabeth

    2017-04-01

    Economic disparities in children's behavioral functioning have been observed in prior research. Yet, studies have ignored important perspectives from developmental psychopathology and have not delineated how aspects of income dynamics (i.e., cumulative family income versus income volatility) differentially relate to behavior problems. To address these limitations, the current study examined how both cumulative income and income volatility predict trajectories of children's internalizing and externalizing problems from kindergarten through fifth grade in a nationally representative sample of 10,900 children (51.4 % male). Results showed four distinct trajectories of internalizing problems and five distinct externalizing trajectories. Family income dynamics were related to trajectory group membership. Specifically, increased cumulative income decreased risk of membership in mid-increasing and mid-stable internalizing groups, and children whose families experienced multiple waves of income loss were 2.4 times as likely to be in the mid-increasing group instead of the low-stable group. With respect to externalizing, higher cumulative income increased the likelihood of belonging in the group exhibiting stably low externalizing problems. Experiencing income loss increased the risk of belonging in the trajectory group exhibiting chronically high externalizing behaviors. These results enhance our knowledge of the role of family income in the development of behavior problems.

  6. Proximity to safety-net clinics and HPV vaccine uptake among low-income, ethnic minority girls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsui, Jennifer; Singhal, Rita; Rodriguez, Hector P; Gee, Gilbert C; Glenn, Beth A; Bastani, Roshan

    2013-04-12

    Human Papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine uptake remains low. Although publicly funded programs provide free or low cost vaccines to low-income children, barriers aside from cost may prevent disadvantaged girls from getting vaccinated. Prior studies have shown distance to health care as a potential barrier to utilizing pediatric preventive services. This study examines whether HPV vaccines are geographically accessible for low-income girls in Los Angeles County and whether proximity to safety-net clinics is associated with vaccine initiation. Interviews were conducted in multiple languages with largely immigrant, low-income mothers of girls ages 9 to 18 via a county health hotline to assess uptake and correlates of uptake. Addresses of respondents and safety-net clinics that provide the HPV vaccine for free or low cost were geo-coded and linked to create measures of geographic proximity. Logistic regression models were estimated for each proximity measure on HPV vaccine initiation while controlling for other factors. On average, 83% of the 468 girls had at least one clinic within 3-miles of their residence. The average travel time on public transportation to the nearest clinic among all girls was 21min. Average proximity to clinics differed significantly by race/ethnicity. Latinas had both the shortest travel distances (2.2 miles) and public transportation times (16min) compared to other racial/ethnic groups. The overall HPV vaccine initiation rate was 25%. Increased proximity to the nearest clinic was not significantly associated with initiation. By contrast, daughter's age and insurance status were significantly associated with increased uptake. This study is among the first to examine geographic access to HPV vaccines for underserved girls. Although the majority of girls live in close proximity to safety-net vaccination services, rates of initiation were low. Expanding clinic outreach in this urban area is likely more important than increasing geographic access to the

  7. The effects of family income on children’s education: An empirical analysis of CHNS data

    OpenAIRE

    Tao Lin; Han Lv

    2017-01-01

    Education is an important way for children in low-income families to change their social status. In order to quantitatively investigate the intergenerational transmission of education in China, an empirical study based on the CSPF2014 data on the effect of family income on the academic achievement of children was done, after controlling the education of parents, father’s age, residence and the number of family members. OLS and logistic regression models were used to analyze the influence of f...

  8. The effect of changing cow production and fitness traits on net income and greenhouse gas emissions from Australian dairy systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, M J; Eckard, R J; Haile-Mariam, M; Pryce, J E

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the effect of changing a range of biological traits on farm net income and greenhouse gas emissions (expressed in carbon dioxide equivalents, CO2-eq.) in the Australian dairy cow population. An average cow was modeled, using breed-average information for Holsteins and Jerseys from the Australian Dairy Herd Improvement Scheme. A Markov chain approach was used to describe the steady-state herd structure, as well as estimate the CO2-eq. emissions per cow and per kilogram of milk solids. The effects of a single unit change in herd milk volume, fat and protein yields, live weight, survival, dry matter intake, somatic cell count, and calving interval were assessed. With the traits studied, the only single-unit change that would bring about a desirable increase in both net income and reduced emissions intensity per cow and per kilogram of milk solids in Australian dairy herds would be an increase in survival and reductions in milk volume, live weight, DMI, SCC, and calving interval. The models developed can be used to assess lifetime dairy system abatement options by breeding, feeding, and management. Selective breeding and appropriate management can both improve health, fertility, and feed utilization of Australian dairy systems and reduce its environmental impact. Copyright © 2013 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Family income, parental education and brain structure in children and adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noble, Kimberly G; Houston, Suzanne M; Brito, Natalie H; Bartsch, Hauke; Kan, Eric; Kuperman, Joshua M; Akshoomoff, Natacha; Amaral, David G; Bloss, Cinnamon S; Libiger, Ondrej; Schork, Nicholas J; Murray, Sarah S; Casey, B J; Chang, Linda; Ernst, Thomas M; Frazier, Jean A; Gruen, Jeffrey R; Kennedy, David N; Van Zijl, Peter; Mostofsky, Stewart; Kaufmann, Walter E; Kenet, Tal; Dale, Anders M; Jernigan, Terry L; Sowell, Elizabeth R

    2015-05-01

    Socioeconomic disparities are associated with differences in cognitive development. The extent to which this translates to disparities in brain structure is unclear. We investigated relationships between socioeconomic factors and brain morphometry, independently of genetic ancestry, among a cohort of 1,099 typically developing individuals between 3 and 20 years of age. Income was logarithmically associated with brain surface area. Among children from lower income families, small differences in income were associated with relatively large differences in surface area, whereas, among children from higher income families, similar income increments were associated with smaller differences in surface area. These relationships were most prominent in regions supporting language, reading, executive functions and spatial skills; surface area mediated socioeconomic differences in certain neurocognitive abilities. These data imply that income relates most strongly to brain structure among the most disadvantaged children.

  10. 24 CFR 5.657 - Section 8 project-based assistance programs: Reexamination of family income and composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... programs: Reexamination of family income and composition. 5.657 Section 5.657 Housing and Urban Development...: Reexamination of family income and composition. (a) Applicability. This section states requirements for reexamination of family income and composition in the Section 8 project-based assistance programs, except for...

  11. Income, Family Context, and Self-Regulation in 5-Year-Old Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Mengying; Riis, Jenna L; Ghazarian, Sharon R; Johnson, Sara B

    Self-regulation (SR) is a core aspect of child development with enduring effects on health and wellbeing across the lifespan. Early childhood poverty may shape SR development. This study examined the cross-sectional relationship among family income, family context, and SR in 5-year-old children. A total of 140 five-year-old children and their mothers participated in the study. Children completed a battery of SR tasks; mothers completed questionnaires. Cognitive and emotional SR composite scores were generated based on a principal component analysis of the SR tasks. The SR scores were first regressed on family income (in 10 levels ranging from income was associated with 0.04 SD increase in emotional SR (p = .32) and 0.08 SD increase in cognitive SR (p = .01). In fully adjusted models, exposure to household instability and experiencing 10 or more negative life events was associated with worse emotional SR; exposure to mother's depressive symptoms was associated with worse cognitive SR. Higher income buffered children's SR from some contextual risk factors. Family contextual variables explained 62% of the correlation between higher income and better cognitive SR scores. Income-based cognitive SR disparities were associated with family contextual factors. Screening for family adversity in pediatric care and linking families to needed resources may protect children's developing SR capacities, with benefits to health and well-being.

  12. Parental Mathematics Homework Involvement of Low-Income Families with Middle School Students

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Robyn Hackford O'Sullivan; Yung-Chi Chen; Marian C Fish

    2014-01-01

    ...) with mathematics homework for high-achieving and low-achieving students and children's achievement in mathematics in low-income families and examines the impact of parental efficacy on these findings...

  13. [Food intake--family income in a group of teenagers from Iaşi "Dimitrie Cantemir" High School].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Indrei, L L; Rada, Cornelia; Albu, Angela; Crăcană, Irina; Albu, Adriana

    2011-01-01

    Food intake is influenced by a series of factors, including family, income, school and mass-media. A group of 78 teenagers were investigated using a food intake questionary, correlating the results with family income. Our results show that the food intake is influenced more by family dietary habits rather than family income, with no significant differences between families with different socio-economic status. Educational programs for changing the nutritional habits must be implemented.

  14. Smart Choices for Healthy Families: A Pilot Study for the Treatment of Childhood Obesity in Low-Income Families

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinard, Courtney A.; Hart, Michael H.; Hodgkins, Yvonne; Serrano, Elena L.; McFerren, Mary M.; Estabrooks, Paul A.

    2012-01-01

    This pre-post study used a mixed-methods approach to examine the impact of a family-based weight management program among a low-income population. Smart Choices for Healthy Families was developed through an integrated research-practice partnership and piloted with 26 children and parents (50% boys; mean age = 10.5 years; 54% Black) who were…

  15. Family investments in low-income children's achievement and socioemotional functioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longo, Francesca; McPherran Lombardi, Caitlin; Dearing, Eric

    2017-12-01

    Family processes and parenting practices help explain developmental differences between children in low- versus higher-income households. There are, however, few studies addressing the question of: what are the key family processes and parenting practices for promoting low-income children's growth? We address this question in the present study, following conceptual work framing family processes and parenting practices as investments in children. Using secondary analyses of longitudinal data on low-income children from birth to age 15 (n = 528), we estimate several potential family investments in achievement and socioemotional outcomes during early childhood, middle childhood, and adolescence. For achievement outcomes, family investments in learning stimulation were consistently the strongest predictors. For socioemotional outcomes, investments in an orderly household and close parental supervision were the most consistent and strongest predictors, even more so than sensitive parenting. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  16. Child language and parent discipline mediate the relation between family income and false belief understanding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tompkins, Virginia; Logan, Jessica A R; Blosser, Daniel F; Duffy, Kaylin

    2017-06-01

    Achieving false belief understanding is an important cognitive milestone that allows children to understand that thoughts and reality can differ. Researchers have found that low-income children score significantly lower than middle-income children on false belief understanding but have not examined why this difference exists. We hypothesized that children's language and parent discipline mediate the income-false belief relation. Participants were 174 3- to 6-year-olds. False belief understanding was significantly correlated with family income, children's vocabulary, parents' self-reported discussion of children's behavior, discussion of emotions, and power assertion. Family income had a significant indirect effect on false belief understanding through children's vocabulary and parent discipline when examined independently, but only through children's vocabulary when using parallel multiple mediation. This study contributes to our knowledge of individual differences in false belief understanding. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Prospective Association Between Negative Life Events and Initiation of Sexual Intercourse: The Influence of Family Structure and Family Income

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oman, Roy F.; Vesely, Sara K.; Aspy, Cheryl B.; Tolma, Eleni L.; John, Robert

    2015-01-01

    Objectives. We examined the prospective association between negative life events and time to initiation of sexual intercourse and the influence of family structure and family income on this association. Methods. We followed up a randomly selected sample (n = 649) of ethnically diverse parents and their children aged 12 to 17 years over a 5-year period. We conducted Cox proportional hazards regression analysis to examine the relation between negative life events and time to initiation of sexual intercourse. Family structure and family income were assessed as confounders. Results. Negative life events were significant predictors of time to initiation of sexual intercourse in adolescents. After controlling for demographic variables, youths reporting 1 negative life event had a hazard of initiation of sexual intercourse 1.40 times greater and youths reporting 2 or more negative life events had a hazard of initiation of sexual intercourse 1.61 times greater compared with youths reporting no negative life events. Family structure and family income were not significant confounders of the relation between initiation of sexual intercourse and negative life events. Conclusions. Interventions to prevent initiation of sexual intercourse should focus on youths with recent negative life events, regardless of family income and structure. PMID:25602885

  18. Economic Evaluation of Family Planning Interventions in Low and Middle Income Countries : A Systematic Review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zakiyah, Neily; van Asselt, Antoinette D. I.; Roijmans, Frank; Postma, Maarten J.

    2016-01-01

    Background A significant number of women in low and middle income countries (L-MICs) who need any family planning, experience a lack in access to modern effective methods. This study was conducted to review potential cost effectiveness of scaling up family planning interventions in these regions

  19. 45 CFR 1305.4 - Age of children and family income eligibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... DEVELOPMENT SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES THE ADMINISTRATION FOR CHILDREN, YOUTH AND... are programs serving children of migrant families and Early Head Start programs. (b)(1) At least 90... 45 Public Welfare 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Age of children and family income eligibility...

  20. Impact of psoriasis severity on family income and quality of life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawro, T; Zalewska, A; Hawro, M; Kaszuba, A; Królikowska, M; Maurer, M

    2015-03-01

    Psoriasis is a common disease and the costs of its therapy, medical care and loss of productivity are a major financial burden for patients and society. The financial status of psoriasis patients and its relationship with disease severity and quality of life (QoL) remains ill characterized. The aim of this study was to assess the economic status of psoriasis patients and to investigate its correlation with disease severity and its impact on QoL. A total of 83 (45 male) psoriasis patients, treated at a Polish specialty clinic, were assessed for their financial and employment status. QoL was measured with a generic (WHOQOL-BREF) and a skin disease-related QoL instrument (dermatology life quality index--DLQI). The effects of demographic and clinical variables, including disease severity measured by Psoriasis Area and Severity Index (PASI), on the family income of patients were analyzed by multiple logistic regression. The mediating effect of family income between PASI and QoL was assessed by using the Baron and Kenny's procedure. Patients' family income correlate negatively with psoriasis severity (Spearman's rho = -0.356; P family income below the social minimum was significantly higher (PASI: 20.5 ± 12.2) than in patients with a higher family income (PASI: 11.7 ± 7.7, P family income (P Family income was found to link disease severity to global QoL impairment (P < 0.05). Disease severity negatively affects the financial status of psoriasis patients, which in turn, is a mediator of global QoL impairment. Our findings are alarming and call for long-term solutions that equalize employment opportunities for patients with psoriasis. © 2014 European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology.

  1. Job loss and unmet health care needs in the economic recession: different associations by family income.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jin; Birkenmaier, Julie; Kim, Youngmi

    2014-11-01

    We examined heterogeneous associations between job loss and unmet health care needs by family income level in the recent economic recession. We conducted logistic regression analyses with the sample from the 2008 Survey of Income and Program Participation (n = 12,658). Dependent variables were 2 dichotomous measures of unmet health care needs in medical and dental services. The primary independent variables were a dummy indicator of job loss during a 2-year period and the family income-to-needs ratio. We used an interaction term between job loss and the family income-to-needs ratio to test the proposed research question. Job loss was significantly associated with the increased risk of unmet health care needs. The proportion with unmet needs was highest for the lowest-income unemployed, but the association between job loss and health hardship was stronger for the middle- and higher-income unemployed. The unemployed experience health hardship differently by income level. A comprehensive coordination of applications for unemployment and health insurance should be considered to protect the unemployed from health hardship.

  2. Parental education and family income affect birthweight, early longitudinal growth and body mass index development differently.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bramsved, Rebecka; Regber, Susann; Novak, Daniel; Mehlig, Kirsten; Lissner, Lauren; Mårild, Staffan

    2018-01-07

    This study investigated the effects of two parental socio-economic characteristics, education and income, on growth and risk of obesity in children from birth to 8 years of age. Longitudinal growth data and national register-based information on socio-economic characteristics were available for 3,030 Swedish children. The development of body mass index (BMI) and height was compared in groups dichotomised by parental education and income. Low parental education was associated with a higher BMI from 4 years of age, independent of income, immigrant background, maternal BMI and smoking during pregnancy. Low family income was associated with a lower birthweight, but did not independently predict BMI development. At 8 years of age, children from less educated families had a three times higher risk of obesity, independent of parental income. Children whose parents had fewer years of education but high income had significantly higher height than all other children. Parental education protected against childhood obesity, even after adjusting for income and other important parental characteristics. Income-related differences in height, despite similar BMIs, raise questions about body composition and metabolic risk profiles. The dominant role of education underscores the value of health literacy initiatives for the parents of young children. ©2018 Foundation Acta Paediatrica. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Family income and tooth decay in US children: does the association change with age?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernabé, E; Delgado-Angulo, E K; Murasko, J E; Marcenes, W

    2012-01-01

    This study explored whether the association of family income with tooth decay changes with age among children in the United States. A second objective was to explore the role of access to dental health care services in explaining the interrelationships between family income, child age and tooth decay. Data from 7,491 2- to 15-year-old children who participated in the 1999-2004 National and Health and Nutrition Examination Survey were analyzed. The association of family income with the prevalence of tooth decay in primary, permanent and primary or permanent teeth was first estimated in logistic regression models with all children, and then, separately in four age groups that reflect the development of the dentition (2-5, 6-8, 9-11 and 12-15 years, respectively). Findings showed that the income gradient in tooth decay attenuated significantly in 9- to 11-year-olds only to re-emerge in 12- to 15-year-olds. The age profile of the income gradient in tooth decay was not accounted for by a diverse set of family and child characteristics. This is the first study providing some evidence for age variations in the income gradient in tooth decay among children in the United States. Copyright © 2012 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  4. Buffering income loss due to unemployment: Family and welfare state influences on income after job loss in the United States and western Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehlert, Martin

    2012-07-01

    This article analyzes how the family and the welfare state influence household income trajectories after job loss in the United States and in western Germany. Drawing on panel data from the Panel Study of Income Dynamics (PSID) and the German Socio-Economic Panel (GSOEP), I study the income buffering effects of the family and the welfare state in the short an in the long run after job loss. I demonstrate that household income trajectories after job loss in the two countries are similar for couple households. However, men in the United States rely relatively more on family resources to overcome income loss, whereas German men's incomes are secured mostly by the welfare state. Women's unemployment in both countries is mainly buffered by their partners' higher earnings. Because single households have no access to family support, they face much higher losses in the United States than in Germany. I also show that the more generous German welfare state triggers less private self-help in the form of increased labor force participation on the part of women when their partners lose their jobs. Over time, the family has become more important in buffering incomes after job loss in the United States which smoothed men's and roughened women's income trajectories in couple households. In Germany, worsening re-employment chances increased income losses in the long run after job loss. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Family biosocial variables influencing the use of insecticide treated nets for children in Eastern Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel U. P. Iloh

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Effective reduction of malaria morbidity and mortality in Nigerian children under the age of five depends to a large extent on family biosocial factors. Although, the awareness of insecticide treated bed nets (ITNs is reportedly high and increasing in Nigeria there remain large gaps between awareness, possession and use by families with children under the age of five in Nigeria. Aim: To determine the family biosocial variables that influence the use of insecticide treated nets for children in Eastern Nigeria. Materials and Methods: A descriptive hospital-based study was carried out from June 2008-June 2011 on a cross-section of 415 mothers with children under the age of five, who were treated for confirmed malaria, and met the selection criteria were interviewed using a pretested, structured researcher-administered questionnaire. The questionnaire tool elicited information on family socio-demographic variables, inter-spousal discussion, communication, concurrence and participation in the use of insecticide treated bed nets; and reasons for non-utilization. The period of usage in the previous 6 months was assessed and graded using a scoring system of 0-4. Scores of 1-4 indicated usage while score of 0 meant non use. Results: The rate of ITNs use was 53.0%. The family variables that significantly influenced utilization were secondary education and above of parents (mother: P0 = 0.009; father: P = 0.001, monogamy (P value = 0.024, family size of 1-4 (P value = 0.016 and parents living together ( P = 0.001; others included parents′ occupation (mother: P = 0.003; father: P = 0.04 and inter-spousal discussion (P value = 0.001, communication (P value = 0.001, concurrence ( P = 0.000 and participation ( P = 0.000. The commonest reason for non- use was inconvenience during sleep ( P = 0.04. Conclusion: This study shows that the rate of ITN use was marginally good. Specifically, this rate was significantly influenced by some family variables

  6. The Income Volatility See-Saw: Implications for School Lunch. ERS Report Summary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newman, Constance

    2006-01-01

    Income volatility challenges the functioning of the safety net provided by U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) food assistance programs for low-income families in time of need. Low-income families may be on a see-saw of income changes that make it difficult for program administrators to accurately target benefits and to define sensible…

  7. Family Income and Child Cognitive and Noncognitive Development in Australia: Does Money Matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khanam, Rasheda; Nghiem, Son

    2016-06-01

    This article investigates whether family income affects children's cognitive and noncognitive development by exploiting comprehensive information from the Longitudinal Study of Australian Children. We include variables that represent parental investment, parental stress, and neighborhood characteristics to examine if these factors mediate the effects of income. Using dynamic panel data, we find that family income is significantly associated with children's cognitive skills but not with noncognitive skills. Mother's education, parent's physical and mental health, parenting styles, child's own health, and presence of both biological parents are the most important factors for children's noncognitive development. For cognitive development, income as well as parents' education, child's birth weight, and number of books that children have at home are highly significant factors. We also find strong evidence to support the skill formation theory that children's previous cognitive and noncognitive outcomes are significantly related to their current outcomes.

  8. [Process of coping with work-family conflicts in dual-income couples with children].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohori, Ayako

    2010-08-01

    This study elucidates processes of coping with work-family conflicts in double-income couples with children. Eight stories of dilemmas concerning work-family conflicts were constructed. Regular employees (N=20) were instructed to narrate the parts of the story in which they thought about how to cope with work-family conflict situations. The protocol analyses revealed the following: (a) most people prioritized their home over their jobs when their families encountered difficult situations, and (b) in cases where either spouse had a demanding or difficult job, there were gender differences with regard to the process of coping with work-family conflicts. The implications of these results are discussed.

  9. Family economic pressure and health outcomes in low-income ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Consistent with previous research, people with high family economic pressure exhibited significantly poorer health status across all domains. Hierarchical multiple-regression analyses were conducted to examine the relative influence of social support on health status. These preliminary results underscore the importance of ...

  10. Stakeholder Perspectives on Barriers for Healthy Living for Low-income African American Families

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veronnie Faye Jones

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Childhood obesity is a growing problem for children in the United States, especially for children from low-income, African American families. Objective: The purpose of this qualitative study was to understand facilitators and barriers to engaging in healthy lifestyles faced by low-income African American children and their families. Methods: This qualitative study used semi-structured focus group interviews with eight African American children clinically identified as overweight or obese (BMI > 85 and their parents. An expert panel provided insights in developing culturally appropriate intervention strategies. Results: Child and parent focus group analysis revealed eleven barriers and no definitive facilitators for healthy eating and lifestyles. Parents reported confusion regarding what constitutes nutritional eating, varying needs of family members in terms of issues with weight, and difficulty in engaging the family in appropriate and safe physical activities; to name a few themes. Community experts independently suggested that nutritional information is confusing and, often, contradictory. Additionally, they recommended simple messaging and practical interventions such as helping with shopping lists, meal planning, and identifying simple and inexpensive physical activities.Conclusions: Childhood obesity in the context of low-resource families is a complex problem with no simple solutions. Culturally sensitive and family-informed interventions are needed to support low-income African American families in dealing with childhood obesity.

  11. National Income and Income Inequality, Family Affluence and Life Satisfaction among 13 Year Old Boys and Girls: A Multilevel Study in 35 Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levin, Kate Ann; Torsheim, Torbjorn; Vollebergh, Wilma; Richter, Matthias; Davies, Carolyn A.; Schnohr, Christina W.; Due, Pernille; Currie, Candace

    2011-01-01

    Adolescence is a critical period where many patterns of health and health behaviour are formed. The objective of this study was to investigate cross-national variation in the relationship between family affluence and adolescent life satisfaction, and the impact of national income and income inequality on this relationship. Data from the 2006…

  12. Participation of low-income women in genetic cancer risk assessment and BRCA 1/2 testing: the experience of a safety-net institution

    OpenAIRE

    Komenaka, Ian K.; Nodora, Jesse N.; Madlensky, Lisa; Lisa M. Winton; Heberer, Meredith A.; Schwab, Richard B; Weitzel, Jeffrey N.; Martinez, Maria Elena

    2015-01-01

    Some communities and populations lack access to genetic cancer risk assessment (GCRA) and testing. This is particularly evident in safety-net institutions, which serve a large segment of low-income, uninsured individuals. We describe the experience of a safety-net clinic with limited resources in providing GCRA and BRCA1/2 testing. We compared the proportion and characteristics of high-risk women who were offered and underwent GCRA and genetic testing. We also provide a description of the mut...

  13. Marginal Effects of a Gross Income Increase for a Single Parent Family in Six European Countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Willumsen, Marie

    High marginal tax rates constitute an issue in several countries because they are supposed to create barriers for increased labour supply. It is, however, often the case that relatively low income families with children face substantially higher combined marginal rates than even the highest...... marginal tax rates. High combined marginal rates are generated by increasing payment for care for children in childcare institutions and tapering of housing benefits in addition to taxation, when income rises. These effects are often simultaneous and add to the marginal tax rate. This paper explores...... the contributions to the combined marginal rate, the marginal effective tax rate, METR, using the OECD term, from taxation, payment for childcare, tapering of housing benefits and sometimes child benefits, when the income varies from a low level to a high level for a single parent family. Six countries are included...

  14. Service-integration approaches for families with low income: a Families First Edmonton, community-based, randomized, controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drummond, Jane; Wiebe, Natasha; So, Sylvia; Schnirner, Laurie; Bisanz, Jeffrey; Williamson, Deanna L; Mayan, Maria; Templeton, Laura; Fassbender, Konrad

    2016-07-22

    Increasing access to health and social services through service-integration approaches may provide a direct and sustainable way to improve health and social outcomes in low-income families. We did a community-based randomized trial evaluating the effects of two service-integration practices (healthy family lifestyle and recreational activities for children) among low-income families in Alberta, Canada. These two practices in combination formed four groups: Self-Directed (no intervention), Family Healthy Lifestyle, Family Recreation, and Comprehensive (Family Healthy Lifestyle plus Family Recreation programs). The primary outcome was the total number of service linkages. We randomized 1168 families, 50 % of which were retained through the last follow-up visit. The number of service linkages for all three intervention groups was not significantly different from the number of linkages in the Self-Directed group (Comprehensive 1.15 (95 % CI 0.98-1.35), Family Healthy Lifestyle 1.17 (0.99-1.38), and Family Recreation 1.12 (0.95-1.32) rate ratios). However, when we explored the number of linkages by the categories of linkages, we found significantly more healthcare service linkages in the Comprehensive group compared to the Self-Directed group (1.27 (1.06-1.51)) and significantly more linkages with child-development services in the Family Healthy Lifestyle group compared to the Self-Directed group (3.27 (1.59-6.74)). The monthly hours of direct intervention was much lower than the assigned number of hours (ranging from 5 to 32 % of the assigned hours). Our findings are relevant to two challenges faced by policymakers and funders. First, if funds are to be expended on service-integration approaches, then, given the lack of intervention fidelity found in this study, policymakers need to insist, and therefore fund a) a well-described practice, b) auditing of that practice, c) retention of family participants, and d) examination of family use and outcomes. Second, if

  15. Childhood family income, adolescent violent criminality and substance misuse: quasi-experimental total population study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sariaslan, Amir; Larsson, Henrik; D'Onofrio, Brian; Långström, Niklas; Lichtenstein, Paul

    2014-10-01

    Low socioeconomic status in childhood is a well-known predictor of subsequent criminal and substance misuse behaviours but the causal mechanisms are questioned. Aims To investigate whether childhood family income predicts subsequent violent criminality and substance misuse and whether the associations are in turn explained by unobserved familial risk factors. Nationwide Swedish quasi-experimental, family-based study following cohorts born 1989-1993 (n(total) = 526 167, n(cousins) = 262 267, n(siblings) = 216 424) between the ages of 15 and 21 years. Children of parents in the lowest income quintile experienced a seven-fold increased hazard rate (HR) of being convicted of violent criminality compared with peers in the highest quintile (HR = 6.78, 95% CI 6.23-7.38). This association was entirely accounted for by unobserved familial risk factors (HR = 0.95, 95% CI 0.44-2.03). Similar pattern of effects was found for substance misuse. There were no associations between childhood family income and subsequent violent criminality and substance misuse once we had adjusted for unobserved familial risk factors. Royal College of Psychiatrists.

  16. Opportunity for All? Technology and Learning in Lower-Income Families

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rideout, Victoria; Katz, Vikki S.

    2016-01-01

    Because digital devices and the Internet have become so essential, digital inequality can exacerbate educational and economic inequality as well. Therefore, it is critical to understand how low- and moderate-income families in the U.S. are engaging digital technologies and how they perceive the opportunities--and potential risks-- that these…

  17. 24 CFR 5.240 - Family disclosure of income information to the responsible entity and verification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... information to the responsible entity and verification. 5.240 Section 5.240 Housing and Urban Development... Participants § 5.240 Family disclosure of income information to the responsible entity and verification. (a...; WAIVERS Disclosure and Verification of Social Security Numbers and Employer Identification Numbers...

  18. The Intergenerational Flow of Income: Family Structure and the Status of Black Americans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldscheider, Frances K.; Goldscheider, Calvin

    1991-01-01

    Examined how income and family structure affect Black-White differences in intergenerational financial flows, focusing on two-way flow between parents and children in years immediately after high school and how these flows influence educational expectations. Findings from data from High School and Beyond survey showed that Black young adults…

  19. Family background variables as instruments for education in income regressions: a Bayesian analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoogerheide, L.F.; Block, J.H.; Thurik, A.R.

    2012-01-01

    The validity of family background variables instrumenting education in income regressions has been much criticized. In this paper, we use data from the 2004 German Socio-Economic Panel and Bayesian analysis to analyze to what degree violations of the strict validity assumption affect the estimation

  20. Family Background Variables as Instruments for Education in Income Regressions: A Bayesian Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoogerheide, Lennart; Block, Joern H.; Thurik, Roy

    2012-01-01

    The validity of family background variables instrumenting education in income regressions has been much criticized. In this paper, we use data from the 2004 German Socio-Economic Panel and Bayesian analysis to analyze to what degree violations of the strict validity assumption affect the estimation results. We show that, in case of moderate direct…

  1. Bolsa Família (Family Grant) Programme: an analysis of Brazilian income transfer programme

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L. Mourao (Luciana); A. Macedo de Jesus (Anderson)

    2012-01-01

    markdownabstract__Abstract__ Income transfer programmes are common in various countries and play an important role in combating poverty. This article presents a review of the results of the Bolsa Família (Family Grant) Programme, implemented in Brazil by the government of Lula da Silva in

  2. Home Improvements: Within-Family Associations between Income and the Quality of Children's Home Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dearing, Eric; Taylor, Beck A.

    2007-01-01

    Within-family associations between changes in income and changes in the home environment during infancy and early childhood were examined using data from the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development Study of Early Child Care and Youth Development (n = 1364). Linear and nonlinear (i.e., semilog) specifications were estimated for…

  3. Dual Utilization of Medical Services by Low Income Latino Families: An Exploratory Investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coe, Merilyn

    1985-01-01

    Interviews with 50 low income family members who used two health care providers--Kaiser Health Maintenance Organization and La Clinica de La Raza--were used to study how cost, need, access, services, and culture affected choice of provider. Cultural affinity seemed to influence decisions to use and pay for La Clinica's services. (JHZ)

  4. Low-Income Children, Their Families and the Great Recession: What Next in Policy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aber, Lawrence; Chaudry, Ajay

    2010-01-01

    Children and youth vary in their developmental health due to differences in family economic security and exposure to toxic stress. The economic downturn has increased the challenges facing low-income children. The American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009 (ARRA) and the President's first budget made significant down-payments on investments in…

  5. Dual Income Family, Gender and Adolescents´ Self-Esteem ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study examined the influence of dual income family and gender on adolescents' self-esteem in Enugu, Nigeria. Participants comprised 86 (38 males and 46 females) secondary school students between the ages of 12 – 17 years and in Junior Secondary II to Senior Secondary III drawn from six state government ...

  6. School Readiness among Low-Income Black Children: Family Characteristics, Parenting, and Social Support

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bono, Katherine E.; Sy, Susan R.; Kopp, Claire B.

    2016-01-01

    This study focuses on the associations between family variables and academic and social school readiness in low-income Black children. Analyses drew from the National Institute for Child Development (NICHD) Study of Early Child Care and Youth Development dataset. The participants included 122 children and their mothers. Data collection occurred…

  7. Family Income Dynamics, Early Childhood Education and Care, and Early Child Behavior Problems in Norway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zachrisson, Henrik D.; Dearing, Eric

    2015-01-01

    The sociopolitical context of Norway includes low poverty rates and universal access to subsidized and regulated Early Childhood Education and Care (ECEC). In this context, the association between family income dynamics and changes in early child behavior problems was investigated, as well as whether high-quality ECEC buffers children from the…

  8. Process Evaluation of a Parenting Program for Low-Income Families in South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lachman, Jamie M.; Kelly, Jane; Cluver, Lucie; Ward, Catherine L.; Hutchings, Judy; Gardner, Frances

    2018-01-01

    Objective: This mixed-methods process evaluation examined the feasibility of a parenting program delivered by community facilitators to reduce the risk of child maltreatment in low-income families with children aged 3-8 years in Cape Town, South Africa (N = 68). Method: Quantitative measures included attendance registers, fidelity checklists,…

  9. Characterizing the Achievement Motivation Orientation of Children from Low- and Middle-Income Families

    Science.gov (United States)

    Day, Crystal A.; Burns, Barbara M.

    2011-01-01

    Research Findings: The current study examined achievement motivation orientation in preschool-age children from low- and middle-income families. Participants were 126 children who were attending an urban Head Start site or a private preschool. Children's motivation orientation was assessed as being performance oriented or mastery oriented using a…

  10. A Survey of Current Pre-School Education of/for Children from Urban Low-Income Families in Beijing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin-Qinghua; Liu-Yan; Zhang-Yan; Li-Qiong

    2005-01-01

    This study investigated the pre-school education of children from low-income families in six urban districts of Beijing, using questionnaires and in-depth interviews with respondents from district educational committees, sub-district and resident's committees, nursery schools, and low-income families. The results indicated that (1) the number of…

  11. Race, Poverty and SAT Scores: Modeling the Influences of Family Income on Black and White High School Students' SAT Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dixon-Roman, Ezekiel J.; Everson, Howard T.; McArdle, John J.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Educational policy makers and test critics often assert that standardized test scores are strongly influenced by factors beyond individual differences in academic achievement such as family income and wealth. Unfortunately, few empirical studies consider the simultaneous and related influences of family income, parental education, and…

  12. 24 CFR 1000.110 - Under what conditions may non low-income Indian families participate in the program?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... participate in the program? (a) A family who is purchasing housing under a lease purchase agreement and who was low income at the time the lease was signed is eligible without further conditions. (b) A... payments under a lease purchase agreement) to be paid by a non low-income Indian family cannot be less than...

  13. Family income, food prices, and household purchases of fruits and vegetables in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Claro, Rafael Moreira; Monteiro, Carlos Augusto

    2010-12-01

    To analyze the influence of family income and food prices on the participation of fruits and vegetables in the food purchases of Brazilian households. Data analyzed refers to the Household Budget Survey conducted by the Instituto Brasileiro de Geografia e Estatística on a probabilistic sample of 48,470 Brazilian households between 2002 and 2003. Fruit and vegetable participation in total food purchases was expressed as a percentage of total calories purchased and as calories from fruit and vegetables adjusted for total calories purchased. A multiple regression analysis was employed to estimate elasticity coefficients, controlling for sociodemographic variables and price of other foods. Fruit and vegetable participation in total food purchases increased as the price of these foods decreased, or as income increased. A 1% decrease in the price of fruit and vegetables would increase their participation by 0.79%, whereas a 1% increase in family income would increase participation by 0.27%. The effect of income tended to be smaller among higher income strata. Reducing the price of fruit and vegetables, either by supporting their production or through fiscal measures, is a promising public policy instrument, capable of increasing the participation of these foods in the diet of the Brazilian population.

  14. Associations between family food behaviors, maternal depression, and child weight among low-income children

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCurdy, Karen; Gorman, Kathleen S.; Kisler, Tiffani; Metallinos-Katsaras, Metallinos-Katsaras

    2014-01-01

    Although low-income children are at greater risk for overweight and obesity than their higher income counterparts, the majority of poor children are not overweight. The current study examined why such variation exists among diverse young children in poor families. Cross-sectional data were collected on 164 low-income, preschool aged children and their mothers living in two Rhode Island cities. Over half of the sample was Hispanic (55%). Mothers completed measures of family food behaviors and depression while trained assistants collected anthropometric data from children at seven day care centers and a Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program outreach project. Multivariate analysis of covariance revealed that higher maternal depression scores were associated with lower scores on maternal presence when child eats (P routines (P family food behaviors and child weight. Overall, caregiver presence whenever a child eats, not just at meals, and better parental food resource management skills may promote healthier weights in low-income preschoolers. Further research is needed to identify the mechanisms that connect caregiver presence and food resource management skills to healthier weights for this age group. PMID:24768937

  15. Associations between family food behaviors, maternal depression, and child weight among low-income children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCurdy, Karen; Gorman, Kathleen S; Kisler, Tiffani; Metallinos-Katsaras, Elizabeth

    2014-08-01

    Although low-income children are at greater risk for overweight and obesity than their higher income counterparts, the majority of poor children are not overweight. The current study examined why such variation exists among diverse young children in poor families. Cross-sectional data were collected on 164 low-income, preschool aged children and their mothers living in two Rhode Island cities. Over half of the sample was Hispanic (55%). Mothers completed measures of family food behaviors and depression while trained assistants collected anthropometric data from children at seven day care centers and a Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program outreach project. Multivariate analysis of covariance revealed that higher maternal depression scores were associated with lower scores on maternal presence when child eats (P routines (P family food behaviors and child weight. Overall, caregiver presence whenever a child eats, not just at meals, and better parental food resource management skills may promote healthier weights in low-income preschoolers. Further research is needed to identify the mechanisms that connect caregiver presence and food resource management skills to healthier weights for this age group. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. The Role of Sand and Stone Mining to Increase Family Income in Progo Catchment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Su Ritohardoyo

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The conzequence low income of the farmer household in agricultural sector is the increase in their activities as miner of sand and stone. It means for increasing of their household income. However, how important mining role on the increasing of household income has to be studied in deeply. The factual problem is the base for research aims, with the spesific stress on studying socio-economic characteristic of sand and stone miner, and the contribution of the mining income to household income. This research was carried out in Progo catchment area, Yogyakarta Special Region. Survey method was employed by data collecting from respondents. The respondents are head of households (HH working as sand and stone miner. Sampling technique was proportionally simple random sampling in which 120 HH was taken as respondents sample. They were representatives of upper part, middle part, and lower part of Progo catchments area. Data on socio-economic structure of the household and household income were collected by mean of structured interview. Data analysis was performed through descriptive technique in which frequencies and cross tabulation varians statistic, and multiple regression analysis were mostly used. The research shows that there are relatively similarities on socio-economic characteristic of sand and stone miners, between at lower part, middle part with upper part of Progo catchments area. This existing of sand and stone mining employs about 70% labours are local miners and 30% labours came from out of the area. Landless farmers who land own less than 500 m2 characterize them. The most of them are male, withlow formal education, and as small family (4 people evey HH. Some of them have been as sand and stone miners for more than 4 years. Generally, they work less than 8 hours for mining every day. This research is also finding that the income of the sand and stone miners are seasonal. The averages of mining income on dry season (Rp 571,880 per month

  17. Family Obligation Values as a Protective and Vulnerability Factor among Low-Income Adolescent Girls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milan, Stephanie; Wortel, Sanne

    2014-01-01

    Adolescents’ beliefs about family obligation often reflect cultural variations in their family context, and thus are important for understanding development among diverse youth. In this study, we test hypotheses about the role of family obligation values in risk behavior and mental health in a sample of 194 low-income adolescent girls (Mean age = 15.2; 58% Latina, 28% African-American/Black). We hypothesized that family obligation values can be both a protective and vulnerability factor, depending on the type of outcome and the presence of other risk factors. Across the sample, higher family obligation values tended to occur with indicators of positive family functioning (e.g., more frequent communication, less maternal hostility) based on mother and adolescent reports. As hypothesized, family obligation values moderated the relationship between established risk factors and adjustment in distinct ways, such that high family obligation values decreased risk in some domains (i.e., a protective factor) but increased risk in other domains (i.e., a vulnerability factor). Specifically, high family obligation values diminished the relationship between peer norms for risky behavior (sex and substance use) and individual engagement in those behaviors. At the same time, high family obligation values magnified the relationship between exposure to negative life events and poor mental health (PTSD and depressive symptoms). The results suggest that family obligation is an important but complex aspect of development among diverse adolescent girls. PMID:25351163

  18. Well-being of mothers with children in Finnish low-income families--the mother's point of view.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vuori, Anne; Astedt-Kurki, Päivi

    2009-12-01

    Low income correlates with increased health risks. The well-being of low-income families has received only limited attention in nursing research and most of the work has focused on unearthing their problems rather than on identifying their strengths. This article describes the well-being of mothers with children in Finnish low-income families, from a family health point of view. The aim of this study was to generate description of the well-being of mothers with children in low-income families in their everyday life and interpret and understand it from the perspectives of low-incomes mothers. This study is based on the phenomenological method and the informants consisted of 15 mothers of low-income families with children. The data were collected in 2004-2005. The mothers were recruited from three municipalities by means of purposive sampling from amongst families in receipt of income support. Ethical approval was obtained. Well-being appears as a complex and multifaceted phenomenon which, in addition to health, is understood as the opposite of illness and experienced health involves dimensions related to the family's everyday life and situation. Mothers' well-being is described in terms of the flow of everyday life, meaningful family activities, everyday health, the existence of a network of significant others, internal family functioning, the strength received from motherhood and being in the position to influence the well-being of one's family. The results suggest that for purposes of supporting family well-being on the family's own terms, it is important to have a clear understanding of the everyday life of families in different situations and understand the meanings that grow out of their everyday life. This information helps nurses to take into account the social aspect of family health and understand low-income mothers' point of health, in different health situations in nursing practice where they meet one another.

  19. Exploring Cumulative Risk and Family Literacy Practices in Low-Income Latino Families

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcella, Jennifer; Howes, Carollee; Fuligni, Allison Sidle

    2014-01-01

    Research Findings: The home literacy environment and other early learning settings such as preschool play a role in children's language and literacy outcomes, yet research suggests that Latino, Spanish-speaking families are less likely than other families to participate in family literacy activities. This study explored the relations among…

  20. Family orientation, language, and anxiety among low-income Latino youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez, William; Polo, Antonio J; Carter, Jocelyn Smith

    2012-05-01

    There is emerging evidence that Latino youth report higher levels of anxiety symptoms than children from other ethnic groups. Although often implicated, cultural variables have not been systematically evaluated to determine their relationship to anxiety symptoms in Latino youth. The present study examined family orientation values, as measured by family obligation and affiliative obedience, and their relationship to youth anxiety symptoms. The sample consisted of 133 Latino students (grades 5th through 7th) of low-income backgrounds in an urban public school setting. Structural equation models revealed that higher family orientation was associated with separation anxiety/panic (β=.32) and harm avoidance (β=.51). Models employing language proficiency and use mirrored those employing family orientation, suggesting that language fluency captures, in part, family socialization values. The results provide support for the impact of culture in the assessment and specific needs of Latino youth with anxiety problems. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. The role of family incomes in cigarette smoking: evidence from French students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben Lakhdar, Christian; Cauchie, Grégoire; Vaillant, Nicolas Gérard; Wolff, François-Charles

    2012-06-01

    In this paper, we study the smoking behavior of students aged from 18 to 25 using four cross-section data sets collected in France from 1997 to 2006. We focus on the role played by student income and parental resources. We find that both the probability of smoking and the number of cigarettes smoked are positively correlated to family resources. Among students, only wages earned and transfers received from parents increase smoking participation. However, sensitivity to income remains weak since a rise of 1% in income of either the students or their parents leads to an increase in smoking prevalence of about 0.15-0.20%. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Caries affected by calcium and fluoride in drinking water and family income

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arvin, Erik; Jensen, Allan Bardow; Spliid, Henrik

    2017-01-01

    , independently against caries. From the model, the relative importance of fluoride and calcium to protect against caries is quantified. The relationship between caries and family income is also highly significant. It is illustrated how the linear model can be applied in planning and analyzing drinking water...... and fluoride can be described as independent effects of the two ions or, alternatively, in the form of saturation with respect to fluorite (CaF2). A general linear model describes this relationship with high significance and the model confirms the important protective effect of calcium and fluoride......Water quality and socioeconomics influence caries in populations. This study broadens previous studies on how caries is associated with fluoride and calcium in drinking water and with family income by quantifying the combined effect of the three independent variables. The effects of calcium...

  3. Economic Evaluation of Family Planning Interventions in Low and Middle Income Countries; A Systematic Review.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neily Zakiyah

    Full Text Available A significant number of women in low and middle income countries (L-MICs who need any family planning, experience a lack in access to modern effective methods. This study was conducted to review potential cost effectiveness of scaling up family planning interventions in these regions from the published literatures and assess their implication for policy and future research.A systematic review was performed in several electronic databases i.e Medline (Pubmed, Embase, Popline, The National Bureau of Economic Research (NBER, EBSCOHost, and The Cochrane Library. Articles reporting full economic evaluations of strategies to improve family planning interventions in one or more L-MICs, published between 1995 until 2015 were eligible for inclusion. Data was synthesized and analyzed using a narrative approach and the reporting quality of the included studies was assessed using the Consolidated Health Economic Evaluation Reporting Standards (CHEERS statement.From 920 references screened, 9 studies were eligible for inclusion. Six references assessed cost effectiveness of improving family planning interventions in one or more L-MICs, while the rest assessed costs and consequences of integrating family planning and HIV services, concerning sub-Saharan Africa. Assembled evidence suggested that improving family planning interventions is cost effective in a variety of L-MICs as measured against accepted international cost effectiveness benchmarks. In areas with high HIV prevalence, integrating family planning and HIV services can be efficient and cost effective; however the evidence is only supported by a very limited number of studies. The major drivers of cost effectiveness were cost of increasing coverage, effectiveness of the interventions and country-specific factors.Improving family planning interventions in low and middle income countries appears to be cost-effective. Additional economic evaluation studies with improved reporting quality are necessary

  4. Economic Evaluation of Family Planning Interventions in Low and Middle Income Countries; A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zakiyah, Neily; van Asselt, Antoinette D I; Roijmans, Frank; Postma, Maarten J

    2016-01-01

    A significant number of women in low and middle income countries (L-MICs) who need any family planning, experience a lack in access to modern effective methods. This study was conducted to review potential cost effectiveness of scaling up family planning interventions in these regions from the published literatures and assess their implication for policy and future research. A systematic review was performed in several electronic databases i.e Medline (Pubmed), Embase, Popline, The National Bureau of Economic Research (NBER), EBSCOHost, and The Cochrane Library. Articles reporting full economic evaluations of strategies to improve family planning interventions in one or more L-MICs, published between 1995 until 2015 were eligible for inclusion. Data was synthesized and analyzed using a narrative approach and the reporting quality of the included studies was assessed using the Consolidated Health Economic Evaluation Reporting Standards (CHEERS) statement. From 920 references screened, 9 studies were eligible for inclusion. Six references assessed cost effectiveness of improving family planning interventions in one or more L-MICs, while the rest assessed costs and consequences of integrating family planning and HIV services, concerning sub-Saharan Africa. Assembled evidence suggested that improving family planning interventions is cost effective in a variety of L-MICs as measured against accepted international cost effectiveness benchmarks. In areas with high HIV prevalence, integrating family planning and HIV services can be efficient and cost effective; however the evidence is only supported by a very limited number of studies. The major drivers of cost effectiveness were cost of increasing coverage, effectiveness of the interventions and country-specific factors. Improving family planning interventions in low and middle income countries appears to be cost-effective. Additional economic evaluation studies with improved reporting quality are necessary to generate

  5. Poweo half-year 2006 earnings. Positive net income, implementation of the 1. steps of the industrial plan; Poweo resultats du 1. semestre 2006. Resultat net positif, mise en oeuvre des 1. etapes du plan industriel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-09-15

    POWEO, the leading independent energy operator in France, presents in this document its key financial data and highlights for the first half of 2006: - Half-year revenue amounts to euro 119.4 m, multiplied by 3.4 compared to the same period last year; - The Energy Management activity has achieved a net margin of euro 34.3 m; - EBIT amounts to euro 6.2 m, compared to euro -2.9 m in the first half of 2005; - Net income amounts to euro 8.9 m, compared to euro -2.9 m in the first half of 2005; - Completion of the preliminary steps to the building of a first thermal power plant (CCGT) is close at hand, two other projects launched; - Strengthening of internal structures in view of the residential market opening up; - Outlook for 2006: total sales expected to reach euro 220 m and positive EBITDA; - LNG terminal building project in Le Havre.

  6. Cumulative family risks across income levels predict deterioration of children's general health during childhood and adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Yi-Ching; Seo, Dong-Chul

    2017-01-01

    Family is considered an important agent in the health development of children. This process is significant but quite complex because the prevalence of potential risk factors in the family can hinder children's health. This study examined if multiple family risks might have cumulative effect on children and youth's health across various levels of household income. The data in this study were drawn from the 2011-2012 U.S. National Survey of Children's Health (N = 79,601). A cumulative family risk (CFR) index was developed, which included such constructs as single-parenthood, unstable employment, large family, parenting stress, poor maternal education, poor maternal general health and poor maternal mental health. Multiple logistic regression analyses showed that CFR level was significantly related to children and youth's poor health outcome (p families than on those from poor families. Overall there was a consistent pattern of trend in the point estimate as well as confidence limits as levels of affluence and numbers of family risk increased although some of the confidence intervals overlapped. Living in disadvantaged families might serve as a protective factor against CFRs possibly through repeated exposure to hardships and subsequent formation of resilience among some of the disadvantaged children.

  7. Cumulative family risks across income levels predict deterioration of children's general health during childhood and adolescence.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi-Ching Lin

    Full Text Available Family is considered an important agent in the health development of children. This process is significant but quite complex because the prevalence of potential risk factors in the family can hinder children's health. This study examined if multiple family risks might have cumulative effect on children and youth's health across various levels of household income. The data in this study were drawn from the 2011-2012 U.S. National Survey of Children's Health (N = 79,601. A cumulative family risk (CFR index was developed, which included such constructs as single-parenthood, unstable employment, large family, parenting stress, poor maternal education, poor maternal general health and poor maternal mental health. Multiple logistic regression analyses showed that CFR level was significantly related to children and youth's poor health outcome (p < .001. When poverty levels were considered, however, the impact of CFRs on children and youth's health was attenuated. The impact of CFRs was higher on children and youth from affluent families than on those from poor families. Overall there was a consistent pattern of trend in the point estimate as well as confidence limits as levels of affluence and numbers of family risk increased although some of the confidence intervals overlapped. Living in disadvantaged families might serve as a protective factor against CFRs possibly through repeated exposure to hardships and subsequent formation of resilience among some of the disadvantaged children.

  8. Perceptions of family planning among low-income men in Western Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wambui, T; Ek, A-C; Alehagen, S

    2009-09-01

    Men have rarely been involved in either receiving or providing information on sexuality, reproductive health or birth spacing. They have also been ignored or excluded in one way or the other from participating in many family planning programmes as family planning is viewed as a woman's affair. To describe the perceptions of family planning among low-income men in Western Kenya. A qualitative study using focus group interviews and content analysis was conducted, with 64 men aged 15-54 years participating actively. Perceptions of family planning were manifold. For example, some perceived it as meaning having the number of children one is able to provide for. Most men knew about traditional and modern methods of birth control, although their knowledge was poor and misconceived. Modern methods were thought to give side effects, discouraging family planning. Low instances of family planning were also because of the fact that culturally, children are considered wealth. A law advocating family size limitation was regarded as necessary for the future. Men's perceptions of family planning are manifold. Their knowledge about contraception is poor and sometimes misconceived. Preferences regarding a child's gender are strong, thus attitudes and cultural beliefs that might hinder family planning have to be considered. A policy on male contraception and contraceptive services is seen as necessary.

  9. The Income Volatility See-Saw: Implications for School Lunch. Economic Research Report Number 23

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newman, Constance

    2006-01-01

    Income volatility challenges the effectiveness of the safety net that USDA food assistance programs provide low-income families. This study examines income volatility among households with children and the implications of volatility for eligibility in the National School Lunch Program (NSLP). The results show that income volatility was higher for…

  10. Maternal literacy and associations between education and the cognitive home environment in low-income families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Cori M; Berkule, Samantha B; Dreyer, Benard P; Fierman, Arthur H; Huberman, Harris S; Klass, Perri E; Tomopoulos, Suzy; Yin, Hsiang Shonna; Morrow, Lesley M; Mendelsohn, Alan L

    2009-09-01

    To determine whether maternal literacy level accounts for associations between educational level and the cognitive home environment in low-income families. Analysis of 369 mother-infant dyads participating in a long-term study related to early child development. Urban public hospital. Low-income mothers of 6-month-old infants. Maternal literacy level was assessed using the Woodcock-Johnson III/Bateria III Woodcock-Munoz Tests of Achievement, Letter-Word Identification Test. Maternal educational level was assessed by determining the last grade that had been completed by the mother. The cognitive home environment (provision of learning materials, verbal responsivity, teaching, and shared reading) was assessed using StimQ, an office-based interview measure. In unadjusted analyses, a maternal literacy level of ninth grade or higher was associated with increases in scores for the overall StimQ and each of 4 subscales, whereas a maternal educational level of ninth grade or higher was associated with increases in scores for the overall StimQ and 3 of 4 subscales. In simultaneous multiple linear regression models including both literacy and educational levels, literacy continued to be associated with scores for the overall StimQ (adjusted mean difference, 3.7; 95% confidence interval, 1.7-5.7) and all subscales except teaching, whereas maternal educational level was no longer significantly associated with scores for the StimQ (1.8; 0.5-4.0) or any of its subscales. Literacy level may be a more specific indicator of risk than educational level in low-income families. Studies of low-income families should include direct measures of literacy. Pediatricians should develop strategies to identify mothers with low literacy levels and promote parenting behaviors to foster cognitive development in these at-risk families.

  11. Dental caries, parents educational level, family income and dental service attendance among children in Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cianetti, S; Lombardo, G; Lupatelli, E; Rossi, G; Abraha, I; Pagano, S; Paglia, L

    2017-03-01

    The aim of this study was to verify whether socioeconomic determinants, such as parents' educational level, family income and dental service attendance by children, are associated with the presence of caries among an Italian population of children. An observational retrospective study was carried out in a population of children aged 4-14 years who visited the Paediatric Dentistry Department of the University of Perugia, Italy. Children were stratified according to familial socioeconomic level (father's and mother's educational level, family income) and dental service attendance of children. Age- and sex- adjusted odds ratios (ORs) with 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs) were calculated by means of multivariate logistic regression models. A sample of 231 children (mean age 8.1 yrs, SD 2.6; 127 males, 104 females) was recruited. One hundred and sixty three (70.46%) children in the study had caries. Caries presence in children was higher in children where the mothers' educational level was lower (OR =6.1; 95% CI = 3.1 to 12.7), in children where the fathers' educational level was lower (OR =2.9; 95% CI =1.6 to 5.5) and in children with lower family income (OR = 9.9; 95% 95% CI = 5.1 to 20.1). No statistically significant difference were observed in terms of caries presence between the children who were visited at least once by a dentist and children who were not previously seen by a dental practitioner (OR = 0.8; 95% CI = 0.4 to 1.6). Socioeconomic level was an important predictor of caries presence among children. Both low income and low parental educational level were related to an increased presence of caries, whereas previous dental visits experience did not affect caries presence in children.

  12. Effects of ethnicity, family income, and education on dietary intake among adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Bin; Gilliland, Frank D; Li, Yu-Fen; Rockett, Helaine R H

    2003-01-01

    The aim of the study is to describe the overall diet and potential effects of gender, ethnicity, family income, and parents' education on dietary patterns in adolescents aged 11 to 20 years who participated in a cohort study in 12 Southern California communities. A validated 131-item youth/adolescent food frequency questionnaire was administrated among 3,201 participants in the Children's Health Study at follow-up visits between 1998 and 2000. Sociodemographic characteristics included ethnicity, family income, and parents' education. Stratified analysis and analysis of covariance were used to describe the intakes of selected nutrients and food groups. Mean intakes for all nutrients except calcium met 100% of the Recommended Dietary Allowances. Average daily food intakes were below the minimum recommended number of servings for all major food groups. The majority of subjects had an excessive intake of added sugar. A gender difference was found in intakes of energy, total fat (TF), saturated fat (SF), monounsaturated fat (MUSF), and calcium (P parents' education levels increased. Subjects from families with parents who had higher educational attainment were more likely to meet the recommendations of dairy products, fruits, and vegetables. Overall, subjects in our study did not have healthy eating habits. Dietary patterns varied by sex, ethnicity, income, and education.

  13. The association of childhood asthma with mental health and developmental comorbidities in low-income families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arif, Ahmed A; Korgaonkar, Purva

    2016-01-01

    The objective of the study was to determine the relationship of childhood asthma with mental health and developmental indicators in low-income families. Parents/guardians of approximately 400 children, aged 2-14 years, were recruited from a charity hospital serving low income neighborhoods in the outskirts of Karachi, Pakistan. Mothers of children were interviewed in their local language by a trained nurse. Eight self-reported comorbidities were grouped into two constructs based on factor analysis and conveniently labeled as mental health (anxiety, attention and behavioral problems) and developmental problems (learning, developmental delay, hearing impairment, sleep and speech problems). Data were analyzed using multiple logistic regression, adjusted for age, sex, presence of older siblings, number of people in the household, child birth weight, presence of mold, and family history of asthma or hay fever. Children with asthma had 18 times greater odds of mental health problems (adjusted OR = 18.0, 95% CI: 9.2, 35.1) as compared to children without asthma. The odds of developmental problems were more than 14 times greater for children with asthma (adjusted OR = 14.3, 95% CI: 7.8, 26.1) as compared to children without asthma. This study found mental and developmental adverse consequences of childhood asthma in low-income families. Identifying and treating asthma at an early age could reduce the burden of comorbidities in this population.

  14. Early childhood caries and body mass index in young children from low income families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Luciane Rezende; Daher, Anelise; Queiroz, Maria Goretti

    2013-03-05

    The relationship between early childhood caries (ECC) and obesity is controversial. This cross-sectional survey investigated this association in children from low-income families in Goiania, Goias, Brazil and considered the role of several social determinants. A questionnaire examining the characteristics of the children and their families was administered to the primary caregiver during home visits. In addition, children (approximately 6 years of age) had their height, weight, and tooth condition assessed. The primary ECC outcome was categorized as one of the following: caries experience (decayed, missing, filled tooth: "dmft" index > 0), active ECC (decayed teeth > 0), or active severe ECC (decayed teeth ≥ 6). Descriptive, bivariate and logistic regression analyses were conducted. The participants in the current study consisted of 269 caregiver-child dyads, 88.5% of whom were included in the Family Health Program. Caregivers were mostly mothers (67.7%), were 35.3 ± 10.0 years old on average and had 9.8 ± 3.1 years of formal education. The mean family income was 2.3 ± 1.5 times greater than the Brazilian minimum wage. On average, the children in the current study were 68.7 ± 3.8 months old. Of these, 51.7% were boys, 23.4% were overweight or obese, 45.0% had active ECC, and 17.1% had severe ECC. The average body mass index (BMI) of the children was 15.9 ± 2.2, and their dmft index was 2.5 ± 3.2. BMI was not associated with any of the three categories of dental caries (p > 0.05). In contrast, higher family incomes were significantly associated with the lack of caries experience in children (OR 1.22, 95%CI 1.01-1.50), but the mother's level of education was not significantly associated with ECC.

  15. Early Childhood Caries and Body Mass Index in Young Children from Low Income Families

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Goretti Queiroz

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The relationship between early childhood caries (ECC and obesity is controversial. This cross-sectional survey investigated this association in children from low-income families in Goiania, Goias, Brazil and considered the role of several social determinants. A questionnaire examining the characteristics of the children and their families was administered to the primary caregiver during home visits. In addition, children (approximately 6 years of age had their height, weight, and tooth condition assessed. The primary ECC outcome was categorized as one of the following: caries experience (decayed, missing, filled tooth: “dmft” index > 0, active ECC (decayed teeth > 0, or active severe ECC (decayed teeth ≥ 6. Descriptive, bivariate and logistic regression analyses were conducted. The participants in the current study consisted of 269 caregiver-child dyads, 88.5% of whom were included in the Family Health Program. Caregivers were mostly mothers (67.7%, were 35.3 ± 10.0 years old on average and had 9.8 ± 3.1 years of formal education. The mean family income was 2.3 ± 1.5 times greater than the Brazilian minimum wage. On average, the children in the current study were 68.7 ± 3.8 months old. Of these, 51.7% were boys, 23.4% were overweight or obese, 45.0% had active ECC, and 17.1% had severe ECC. The average body mass index (BMI of the children was 15.9 ± 2.2, and their dmft index was 2.5 ± 3.2. BMI was not associated with any of the three categories of dental caries (p > 0.05. In contrast, higher family incomes were significantly associated with the lack of caries experience in children (OR 1.22, 95%CI 1.01–1.50, but the mother’s level of education was not significantly associated with ECC.

  16. Family income trajectory during childhood is associated with adiposity in adolescence: a latent class growth analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kendzor Darla E

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Childhood socioeconomic disadvantage has been linked with obesity in cross-sectional research, although less is known about how changes in socioeconomic status influence the development of obesity. Researchers have hypothesized that upward socioeconomic mobility may attenuate the health effects of earlier socioeconomic disadvantage; while downward socioeconomic mobility might have a negative influence on health despite relative socioeconomic advantages at earlier stages. The purpose of the current study was to characterize trajectories of family income during childhood, and to evaluate the influence of these trajectories on adiposity at age 15. Methods Data were collected as part of the Study of Early Child Care and Youth Development (SECCYD between 1991 and 2007 at 10 sites across the United States. A latent class growth analysis (LCGA was conducted to identify trajectories of family income from birth to 15 years of age. Analyses of covariance (ANCOVAs were conducted to determine whether measures of adiposity differed by trajectory, while controlling for relevant covariates. Results The LCGA supported a 5-class trajectory model, which included two stable, one downward, and two upward trajectories. ANCOVAs indicated that BMI percentile, waist circumference, and skinfold thicknesses at age 15 differed significantly by trajectory, such that those who experienced downward mobility or stable low income had greater adiposity relative to the more advantaged trajectories. Conversely, upwardly mobile children and those with consistently adequate incomes had similar and more positive outcomes relative to the most disadvantaged trajectories. Conclusions Findings suggest that promoting upward socioeconomic mobility among disadvantaged families may have a positive impact on obesity-related outcomes in adolescence.

  17. Family income trajectory during childhood is associated with adiposity in adolescence: a latent class growth analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background Childhood socioeconomic disadvantage has been linked with obesity in cross-sectional research, although less is known about how changes in socioeconomic status influence the development of obesity. Researchers have hypothesized that upward socioeconomic mobility may attenuate the health effects of earlier socioeconomic disadvantage; while downward socioeconomic mobility might have a negative influence on health despite relative socioeconomic advantages at earlier stages. The purpose of the current study was to characterize trajectories of family income during childhood, and to evaluate the influence of these trajectories on adiposity at age 15. Methods Data were collected as part of the Study of Early Child Care and Youth Development (SECCYD) between 1991 and 2007 at 10 sites across the United States. A latent class growth analysis (LCGA) was conducted to identify trajectories of family income from birth to 15 years of age. Analyses of covariance (ANCOVAs) were conducted to determine whether measures of adiposity differed by trajectory, while controlling for relevant covariates. Results The LCGA supported a 5-class trajectory model, which included two stable, one downward, and two upward trajectories. ANCOVAs indicated that BMI percentile, waist circumference, and skinfold thicknesses at age 15 differed significantly by trajectory, such that those who experienced downward mobility or stable low income had greater adiposity relative to the more advantaged trajectories. Conversely, upwardly mobile children and those with consistently adequate incomes had similar and more positive outcomes relative to the most disadvantaged trajectories. Conclusions Findings suggest that promoting upward socioeconomic mobility among disadvantaged families may have a positive impact on obesity-related outcomes in adolescence. PMID:22863369

  18. Understanding the Relation of Low Income to HPA-Axis Functioning in Preschool Children: Cumulative Family Risk and Parenting as Pathways to Disruptions in Cortisol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zalewski, Maureen; Lengua, Liliana J.; Kiff, Cara J.; Fisher, Philip A.

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the relation of low income and poverty to cortisol levels, and tested potential pathways from low income to disruptions in cortisol through cumulative family risk and parenting. The sample of 306 mothers and their preschool children included 29 % families at or near poverty, 27 % families below the median income, and the…

  19. Family income and child cognitive and behavioural development in the United Kingdom: does money matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Violato, Mara; Petrou, Stavros; Gray, Ron; Redshaw, Maggie

    2011-10-01

    This study investigates the extent to which family income is associated with an extensive range of child cognitive and behavioural outcomes in a cohort of almost 19 000 British children born between 2000 and 2001. Merging the economists' and developmental psychologists' approaches, it also attempts to identify the main mechanisms through which family economic resources translate into better developmental outcomes for children. The relative and joint relevance of three groups of mediating factors (parental stress, parental investment and other family-related pathways), identified from the recent economic and psychological literature, are examined both in a cross-sectional ('mopping-up' approach) and in a panel data (fixed effects models) context. Results indicate a weak or absent direct effect of family economic resources on child development after controlling for potential mediating mechanisms. The study also identifies key mediating factors (e.g. maternal depression, a cognitively stimulating home environment, parenting practices and length of breastfeeding) that could be targeted by government initiatives in order to effectively improve children's intellectual development and behaviour beyond what income redistribution can achieve. Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  20. Improving Mental Health Access for Low-Income Children and Families in the Primary Care Setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodgkinson, Stacy; Godoy, Leandra; Beers, Lee Savio; Lewin, Amy

    2017-01-01

    Poverty is a common experience for many children and families in the United States. Children income household has been linked to poor health and increased risk for mental health problems in both children and adults that can persist across the life span. Despite their high need for mental health services, children and families living in poverty are least likely to be connected with high-quality mental health care. Pediatric primary care providers are in a unique position to take a leading role in addressing disparities in access to mental health care, because many low-income families come to them first to address mental health concerns. In this report, we discuss the impact of poverty on mental health, barriers to care, and integrated behavioral health care models that show promise in improving access and outcomes for children and families residing in the contexts of poverty. We also offer practice recommendations, relevant to providers in the primary care setting, that can help improve access to mental health care in this population. Copyright © 2017 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  1. The relationship of family income to the incidence, external causes, and outcomes of serious brain injury, San Diego County, California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraus, J F; Fife, D; Ramstein, K; Conroy, C; Cox, P

    1986-11-01

    Among residents of San Diego County, California the incidence and external causes of serious brain injury were related to the median family income of the census tract of residency. Low income tracts had high incidence rates--a finding not changed by adjustment for age and race/ethnicity. For those injured, the type of emergency transport, time from injury to treatment, and outcome of treatment were not related to the median income of the census tract of residency.

  2. Parenting in low-income families from the perspective of social work

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Banovcinova A.

    2018-01-01

    The goal of the study was to find how poverty affects parenting. For the data collection was used questionnaire Alabama Parenting Questionnaire (APQ, which measures parenthood through five dimensions (1 positive involvement with children, (2 Supervision and monitoring, (3 use of positive discipline techniques, (4 consistency in Theus of discipline chniques, (5 use of corporal punishment. The sample was divided into two groups, with the first group consisted of 188 parents living in poverty The reference group consisted of parents living in households with income standard (N−188.Analysis of the results showed differences between parents living in poverty and between parents with a standard rate of income especially in monitoring and supervision, and also in the use of positive disciplinary techniques. On the contrary, there were no significant differences in cooperation between the parents or the use of corporal punishment. Based on the results it is clear that poverty is one of the factors affecting parenting. Therefore, social worker who works with low-income families should focus attention on this area of family functioning.

  3. Family Income, Parent Education, and Perceived Constraints as Predictors of Observed Program Quality and Parent Rated Program Quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torquati, Julia C.; Raikes, Helen H.; Huddleston-Casas, Catherine A.; Bovaird, James A.; Harris, Beatrice A.

    2011-01-01

    Observed child care quality and parent perceptions of child care quality received by children in poor (below Federal Poverty Line, FPL), low-income (between FPL and 200% of FPL), and non-low-income families were examined. Observations were completed in 359 center- and home-based child care programs in four Midwestern states and surveys were…

  4. Links between Parent-Teacher Relationships and Kindergartners' Social Skills: Do Child Ethnicity and Family Income Matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iruka, Iheoma U.; Winn, Donna-Marie C.; Kingsley, Susan J.; Orthodoxou, Yannick J.

    2011-01-01

    This study uses National Center for Early Development and Learning (NCEDL) data to examine the moderating effects of child ethnicity and family income on the links between parent-teacher relationships and kindergartners' social skills. This study includes 481 Caucasian, African American, and Latino children from low-income households. Overall,…

  5. A Review of the Key Considerations in Mental Health Services Research: A Focus on Low-Income Children and Families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Deborah J; Anton, Margaret; Zachary, Chloe; Pittman, Sarah; Turner, Patrick; Forehand, Rex; Khavjou, Olga

    2016-12-01

    Children have been particularly vulnerable to the economic challenges of the past decade, with half (45 to 51%) of children under the age of 18 living in a low-income home and nearly 22% of those living in poverty. Low-income children are overrepresented in a range of statistics on psychosocial maladjustment issues, but their families are less likely than other socioeconomic groups to participate in mental health services and intervention research. Thus, this review asserts that substantive advances in mental health services and intervention research with low income families must move beyond a between-group, deficit-focused perspective to a more nuanced contemplation of how to: 1) Operationalize the "income" in low-income families; 2) Disentangle the interrelationship of low income, race, and ethnicity; and 3) Optimize recruitment, engagement and retention efforts via sensitivity to the culture of low-income status. Examples of mental health services and intervention research with low-income families will be discussed, and a summary, conclusions, and directions for future research are discussed in the context of these recommendations.

  6. The Family Context of Low-Income Parents Who Restrict Child Screen Time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jurkowski, Janine M.; Davison, Kirsten K.

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Background The American Academy of Pediatrics recommends that parents restrict child screen time to two hours per day, but many preschool-aged children exceed this viewing recommendation. Modifying children's viewing habits will require collaborating with parents, but little is known about the factors that influence parents' capacity for effective screen-related parenting. This study aimed to identify the demographic, family and community contextual factors associated with low-income parents' restriction of child screen time. Methods Parents (N=146) of children (age 2–5 years) attending Head Start centers in the United States completed a self-report survey in 2010 assessing parent and child screen use (television, DVD, video, video games, and leisure-time computer use), parent restriction of child screen time, and family (parent stress, social support, and life pressures) and community (neighborhood safety and social capital) factors. Results Children were more likely to meet the American Academy of Pediatrics screen time recommendation if their parent reported high restriction of child screen time. Parent and child demographic characteristics were not associated with parents' restriction of child screen time. In multivariate analysis, less parent screen time, fewer parent life pressures, and greater social support were associated with parents' high restriction of screen time. Conclusion Family contextual factors may play an important role in enabling low-income parents to restrict their children's screen time. When counseling low-income parents about the importance of restricting child screen time, practitioners should be sensitive to family contextual factors that may influence parents' capacity to implement this behavior change. PMID:24004326

  7. The family context of low-income parents who restrict child screen time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lampard, Amy M; Jurkowski, Janine M; Davison, Kirsten K

    2013-10-01

    The American Academy of Pediatrics recommends that parents restrict child screen time to two hours per day, but many preschool-aged children exceed this viewing recommendation. Modifying children's viewing habits will require collaborating with parents, but little is known about the factors that influence parents' capacity for effective screen-related parenting. This study aimed to identify the demographic, family and community contextual factors associated with low-income parents' restriction of child screen time. Parents (N=146) of children (age 2-5 years) attending Head Start centers in the United States completed a self-report survey in 2010 assessing parent and child screen use (television, DVD, video, video games, and leisure-time computer use), parent restriction of child screen time, and family (parent stress, social support, and life pressures) and community (neighborhood safety and social capital) factors. Children were more likely to meet the American Academy of Pediatrics screen time recommendation if their parent reported high restriction of child screen time. Parent and child demographic characteristics were not associated with parents' restriction of child screen time. In multivariate analysis, less parent screen time, fewer parent life pressures, and greater social support were associated with parents' high restriction of screen time. Family contextual factors may play an important role in enabling low-income parents to restrict their children's screen time. When counseling low-income parents about the importance of restricting child screen time, practitioners should be sensitive to family contextual factors that may influence parents' capacity to implement this behavior change.

  8. Home literacy activities: Accounting for differences in early grade literacy outcomes in low-income families in Zambia

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Tamara Chansa-Kabali

    2017-01-01

    .... These differences are even wider for children in low-income families. This article aims to examine the extent to which home factors account for variation in early literacy outcomes in the first year of schooling...

  9. Family Ecological Predictors of Physical Activity Parenting in Low-Income Families

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lampard, Amy M.; Jurkowski, Janine M.; Lawson, Hal A.; Davison, Kirsten K.

    2013-01-01

    Physical activity (PA) parenting, or strategies parents use to promote PA in children, has been associated with increased PA in children of all ages, including preschool-aged children. However, little is known about the circumstances under which parents adopt such behaviors. This study examined family ecological factors associated with PA…

  10. The effects of parental education and family income on mother-child relationships, father-child relationships, and family environments in the People's Republic of China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiao

    2012-12-01

    Using a cross-sectional design with 407 Chinese children aged 3-5 years and their parents, this study examined the effects of socioeconomic status, specifically parents' education and family income, on the children's mother-child relationships, father-child relationships, and the social environment in their families. The results indicated that income negatively predicted conflict in father-child relationships and positively predicted family active-recreational environments. Income also positively predicted family cohesion among girls but not boys. Maternal education negatively predicted conflict in mother-child relationships and positively predicted closeness in mother-child and father-child relationships, family cohesion, and the intellectual-cultural and active-recreational environments in the family. Paternal education positively predicted family cohesion and intellectual-cultural and active-recreational environments. Income was found to partially mediate the effects of both maternal and paternal education on family active-recreational environments. Findings are discussed in the frameworks of the family stress model and the family investment model. © FPI, Inc.

  11. Welfare reform and child care options for low-income families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuller, Bruce; Kagan, Sharon L; Caspary, Gretchen L; Gauthier, Christiane A

    2002-01-01

    For the changes under welfare reform to positively affect children, the gains that mothers make from employment must lead to improvements in children's daily settings at home, in child care, at school, or in the community. This article focuses on the role child care can play in promoting the development of, and life opportunities for, low-income children. Key observations include: Total federal and state funding for child care for welfare and working poor families has increased dramatically since welfare reform, from $2.8 billion in 1995 to $8.0 billion in 2000. The majority of welfare mothers tend to rely on informal child care arrangements when first participating in welfare-to-work programs, but as they move off welfare and into more stable jobs, they are more likely to choose a center or a family child care home. Although children from poor households stand to benefit the most from high-quality care, they are less likely to be enrolled in high-quality programs than are children from affluent families, partly due to uneven access to high-quality options in their neighborhoods. Less than one-quarter of all eligible families use child care subsidies, and usage varies widely across states and local areas reflecting various barriers to access and scarcity of quality center-based care. The authors conclude that to achieve welfare reform's ultimate goal of breaking the cycle of intergenerational poverty and dependence on government benefits, welfare-to-work programs should promote learning and development among children in welfare and working poor families by increasing access to high-quality child care in low-income neighborhoods.

  12. Family Income Affects Children?s Altruistic Behavior in the Dictator Game

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Yongxiang; Zhu, Liqi; Chen, Zhe

    2013-01-01

    This study aimed to examine how family income and social distance influence young rural Chinese children's altruistic behavior in the dictator game (DG). A total of 469 four-year-old children from eight rural areas in China, including many children left behind by parents who had migrated to urban areas for work, played the DG. Stickers comprised the resource, while recipients in the game were assumed to be either their friends or strangers, with the social distance (i.e., strangers compared t...

  13. A Review of the Key Considerations in Mental Health Services Research: A Focus on Low-Income Children and Families

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Deborah J.; Anton, Margaret; Zachary, Chloe; Pittman, Sarah; Turner, Patrick; Forehand, Rex; Khavjou, Olga

    2016-01-01

    Children have been particularly vulnerable to the economic challenges of the past decade, with half (45 to 51%) of children under the age of 18 living in a low-income home and nearly 22% of those living in poverty. Low-income children are overrepresented in a range of statistics on psychosocial maladjustment issues, but their families are less likely than other socioeconomic groups to participate in mental health services and intervention research. Thus, this review asserts that substantive advances in mental health services and intervention research with low income families must move beyond a between-group, deficit-focused perspective to a more nuanced contemplation of how to: 1) Operationalize the “income” in low-income families; 2) Disentangle the interrelationship of low income, race, and ethnicity; and 3) Optimize recruitment, engagement and retention efforts via sensitivity to the culture of low-income status. Examples of mental health services and intervention research with low-income families will be discussed, and a summary, conclusions, and directions for future research are discussed in the context of these recommendations. PMID:28503361

  14. APROACHING THE ECONOMIC DIMENSION OF SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT FROM A FINANCIAL PERSPECTIVE: A CASE STUDY REGARDING CASH - FLOW ANALYSIS AND THE RELATIONSIPS BETWEEN CASH - FLOW AND NET INCOME

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana Elena Vasiu

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Europe 2020, a strategy for smart, sustainable and inclusive growth stresses the necessity of smart, sustainable and inclusive growth. The objectives of a sustainable economic development include sustaining economic growth, maximizing private profits and expanding markets. Considering this, economic development must based on facts, not on papers. Therefore, considering the economic dimension of sustainable development, it is important to establish if Romanian companies listed and traded on Bucharest Stock Exchange are able to obtain profit while cash is withdrawn. Even if reported in the income statement, net profit is not simultaneously charged due to accrual accounting that makes the balance sheet provide a static picture of the financial position, while the cash flow statement provides a dynamic picture of it. Therefore, the financial performance analysis based on classical indicators of performance must be accompanied by the analysis of treasury, namely of the cash flow, which provides a comprehensive assessment possibility of the financial performance, flexibility and adaptability of the economic entity, in the context of a highly competitive and often unstable environment. A positive net flows is a confirmation of the economic success of the company representing the concrete expression of the net profit and other pecuniary accumulations, interpreted as the real self-financing investment capacity, which would lead to the real asset growth and thus to the increase of the owners' wealth.

  15. Individual Characteristics, Family Factors, and Classroom Experiences as Predictors of Low-Income Kindergarteners’ Social Skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffith, Shayl; Arnold, David; Voegler-Lee, Mary-Ellen; Kupersmidt, Janis

    2017-01-01

    There has been increasing awareness of the need for research and theory to take into account the intersection of individual characteristics and environmental contexts when examining predictors of child outcomes. The present longitudinal, multi-informant study examined the cumulative and interacting contributions of child characteristics (language skills, inattention/hyperactivity, and aggression) and preschool and family contextual factors in predicting kindergarten social skills in 389 low-income preschool children. Child characteristics and classroom factors, but not family factors, predicted teacher-rated kindergarten social skills, while child characteristics alone predicted change in teacher-rated social skills from preschool to kindergarten. Child characteristics and family factors, but not classroom factors, predicted parent-rated kindergarten social skills. Family factors alone predicted change in parent-rated social skills from preschool to kindergarten. Individual child characteristics did not interact with family or classroom factors in predicting parent- or teacher-rated social skills, and support was therefore found for an incremental, rather than an interactive, predictive model of social skills. The findings underscore the importance of assessing outcomes in more than one context, and of considering the impact of both individual and environmental contextual factors on children’s developing social skills when designing targeted intervention programs to prepare children for kindergarten. PMID:28804528

  16. Individual Characteristics, Family Factors, and Classroom Experiences as Predictors of Low-Income Kindergarteners' Social Skills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffith, Shayl; Arnold, David; Voegler-Lee, Mary-Ellen; Kupersmidt, Janis

    2016-01-01

    There has been increasing awareness of the need for research and theory to take into account the intersection of individual characteristics and environmental contexts when examining predictors of child outcomes. The present longitudinal, multi-informant study examined the cumulative and interacting contributions of child characteristics (language skills, inattention/hyperactivity, and aggression) and preschool and family contextual factors in predicting kindergarten social skills in 389 low-income preschool children. Child characteristics and classroom factors, but not family factors, predicted teacher-rated kindergarten social skills, while child characteristics alone predicted change in teacher-rated social skills from preschool to kindergarten. Child characteristics and family factors, but not classroom factors, predicted parent-rated kindergarten social skills. Family factors alone predicted change in parent-rated social skills from preschool to kindergarten. Individual child characteristics did not interact with family or classroom factors in predicting parent- or teacher-rated social skills, and support was therefore found for an incremental, rather than an interactive, predictive model of social skills. The findings underscore the importance of assessing outcomes in more than one context, and of considering the impact of both individual and environmental contextual factors on children's developing social skills when designing targeted intervention programs to prepare children for kindergarten.

  17. Mom-net: Evaluation of an internet-facilitated cognitive behavioral intervention for low-income depressed mothers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheeber, Lisa B; Feil, Edward G; Seeley, John R; Leve, Craig; Gau, Jeff M; Davis, Betsy; Sorensen, Erik; Allan, Steve

    2017-04-01

    Evaluate an Internet-facilitated cognitive-behavioral treatment intervention for depression, tailored to economically disadvantaged mothers of young children. Economically disadvantaged mothers (N = 266) of preschool aged children, who reported elevated levels of depressive symptoms, were randomized to either the 8-session, Internet-facilitated intervention (Mom-Net) or to Motivational Interviewing and Referral to Services (MIRS). Outcomes were measured using the Patient Health Questionnaire 9 (PHQ-9; Spitzer et al., 1999), the Structured Clinical Interview for Diagnostic and Statistical Manual for Mental Disorders-Fourth Edition-Text Revised (DSM-IV-TR) Axis I Disorders (SCID; First, Spitzer, Gibbon, & Williams, 2002), and the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HDRS; Hamilton, 1960). Relative to participants in the MIRS condition, participants in Mom-Net demonstrated significantly greater reduction in depression as indexed by self-report questionnaire (primary outcome), interviewer-rated symptoms, and diagnostic outcomes. Results suggest that the Mom-Net intervention is effective as a remotely delivered intervention for economically disadvantaged mothers. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  18. Race/Ethnicity, Primary Language, and Income Are Not Demographic Drivers of Mortality in Breast Cancer Patients at a Diverse Safety Net Academic Medical Center

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Divya A. Parikh

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To examine the impact of patient demographics on mortality in breast cancer patients receiving care at a safety net academic medical center. Patients and Methods. 1128 patients were diagnosed with breast cancer at our institution between August 2004 and October 2011. Patient demographics were determined as follows: race/ethnicity, primary language, insurance type, age at diagnosis, marital status, income (determined by zip code, and AJCC tumor stage. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was performed to identify factors related to mortality at the end of follow-up in March 2012. Results. There was no significant difference in mortality by race/ethnicity, primary language, insurance type, or income in the multivariate adjusted model. An increased mortality was observed in patients who were single (OR = 2.36, CI = 1.28–4.37, p=0.006, age > 70 years (OR = 3.88, CI = 1.13–11.48, p=0.014, and AJCC stage IV (OR = 171.81, CI = 59.99–492.06, p<0.0001. Conclusions. In this retrospective study, breast cancer patients who were single, presented at a later stage, or were older had increased incidence of mortality. Unlike other large-scale studies, non-White race, non-English primary language, low income, or Medicaid insurance did not result in worse outcomes.

  19. Fathers' Early Contributions to Children's Language Development in Families from Low-income Rural Communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pancsofar, Nadya; Vernon-Feagans, Lynne

    2010-10-01

    This study utilized a large sample of two-parent families from low-income rural communities to examine the contributions of father education and vocabulary, during picture book interactions with their infants at 6 months of age, to children's subsequent communication development at 15 months and expressive language development at 36 months. After controlling for family demographics, child characteristics, as well as mother education and vocabulary, father education and father vocabulary during the picture-book task were related to more advanced language development at both 15 and 36 months of age. Only mother education, but not vocabulary during book-reading was related to children's later language. These findings support the growing evidence on the importance of fathers in understanding children's early communication and language development.

  20. Who buffers income losses after job displacement? The role of alternative income sources, the family, and the state

    OpenAIRE

    Fackler, Daniel; Hank, Eva

    2016-01-01

    Using survey data from the German Socio-Economic Panel (SOEP), this paper analyses to what extent alternative income sources, reactions within the household context, and redistribution by the state attenuate earnings losses after job displacement. Applying propensity score matching and fixed effects estimations, we find high individual earnings losses after job displacement and only limited convergence. Income from selfemployment slightly reduces the earnings gap and severance payments buffer...

  1. Family income and youths' symptoms of depression and anxiety: a longitudinal study of the French GAZEL Youth cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melchior, Maria; Chastang, Jean-François; Walburg, Vera; Arseneault, Louise; Galéra, Cédric; Fombonne, Eric

    2010-12-01

    It is not clear whether socioeconomic inequalities with regard to depression and anxiety are present in adolescence and young adulthood. We tested the hypothesis that in the community, youths growing up in families with low income have elevated rates of such psychological difficulties. We used data from participants of the GAZEL Youth study, a French community-based cohort assessed in 1991 and 1999 (n = 941 youths, 4-18 years of age at baseline). Measures of family income and youths' symptoms of depression and anxiety (assessed using the ASEBA family of instruments) were obtained from parents and youths at study baseline and follow-up. Covariates included family characteristics (parental divorce, parental unemployment or labor force exit, parental health difficulties including psychopathology and the quality of family relations) and youths' characteristics (sex, age, stressful life events, history of internalizing and externalizing problems). Youths from families with low income during the study period had elevated odds of symptoms of depression and anxiety at follow-up (compared to youths from families with intermediate/high income, age-adjusted OR: 1.74, 95% CI 1.17-2.57; fully adjusted OR: 1.94, 95% CI: 1.27-2.97). In particular, the likelihood of psychological difficulties was elevated among youths from families that experienced decreasing and persistently low income over time (fully adjusted ORs, respectively: 2.44, 95% CI 1.24-4.81 and 1. 83, 95% 1.10-3.06). Clinicians need to be aware that youths growing up in low-income families in the community may be at risk of depression and anxiety during the period of transition to adulthood. © 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  2. The Selection of Children from Low-Income Families into Preschool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crosnoe, Robert; Purtell, Kelly M.; Davis-Kean, Pamela; Ansari, Arya; Benner, Aprile D.

    2016-01-01

    Because children from low-income families benefit from preschool but are less likely than other children to enroll, identifying factors that promote their enrollment can support research and policy aiming to reduce socioeconomic disparities in education. In this study, we tested an accommodations model with data on 6,250 children in the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study-Birth Cohort. In general, parental necessity (e.g., maternal employment) and human capital considerations (e.g., maternal education) most consistently predicted preschool enrollment among children from low-income families. Supply side factors (e.g., local child care options) and more necessity and human capital factors (e.g., having fewer children, desiring preparation for school) selected such children into preschool over parental care or other care arrangements, and several necessity factors (e.g., being less concerned about costs) selected them into non-Head Start preschools over Head Start programs. Systemic connections and child elicitation did not consistently predict preschool enrollment in this population. PMID:26890917

  3. Family Resources as Protective Factors for Low-Income Youth Exposed to Community Violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardaway, Cecily R; Sterrett-Hong, Emma; Larkby, Cynthia A; Cornelius, Marie D

    2016-07-01

    Exposure to community violence is a risk factor for internalizing and externalizing problems; however, resources within the family can decrease the likelihood that adolescents will experience internalizing and externalizing problems as a result of such exposure. This study investigates the potential moderating effects of kinship support (i.e., emotional and tangible support from extended family) and parental involvement on the relation between exposure to community violence (i.e., witnessing violence and violent victimization) and socioemotional adjustment (i.e., internalizing and externalizing problems) in low-income adolescents. The sample included 312 (50 % female; 71 % African American and 29 % White) low-income youth who participated in a longitudinal investigation when adolescents were age 14 (M age = 14.49 years) and again when they were 16 (M age = 16.49 years). Exposure to community violence at age 14 was related to more internalizing and externalizing problems at age 16. High levels of kinship support and parental involvement appeared to function as protective factors, weakening the association between exposure to violence and externalizing problems. Contrary to prediction, none of the hypothesized protective factors moderated the association between exposure to violence and internalizing problems. The results from this study suggest that both kinship support and parental involvement help buffer adolescents from externalizing problems that are associated with exposure to community violence.

  4. Does early-life family income influence later dental pain experience? A prospective 14-year study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghorbani, Z; Peres, M A; Liu, P; Mejia, G C; Armfield, J M; Peres, K G

    2017-05-30

    The aim of this study was to investigate the association between early-life family income and dental pain experience from childhood to early adulthood. Data came from a 14-year prospective study (1991/1992-2005/2006) carried out in South Australia, which included children and adolescents aged 4-17 years (N = 9875) at baseline. The outcome was dental pain experience obtained at baseline, 14 years later in adulthood and at a middle point of time. The main explanatory variable was early-life family income collected at baseline. The prevalence of dental pain was 22.8% at baseline, 19.3% at 'middle time' and 39.3% at follow up. The proportion of people classified as 'poor' at baseline was 27.7%. Being poor early in life was significantly associated with dental pain at 14-year follow up (odds ratio = 1.45; 95% confidence interval = 1.27-1.66). Early-life relative poverty is associated with more frequent dental pain across the 14-year follow up and may be a key exposure variable for later dental conditions. © 2017 Australian Dental Association.

  5. The Relations between Contextual Risk, Earned Income, and the School Adjustment of Children from Economically Disadvantaged Families

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ackerman, Brian P.; Brown, Eleanor D.; Izard, Carroll E.

    2004-01-01

    This longitudinal study examined the relations between multiple risk indexes representing contextual adversity, income-to-needs ratios, and the elementary school adjustment of children from economically disadvantaged families. The results provide evidence for volatility in family circumstances over 2-year intervals from preschool to 5th grade, for…

  6. Performance Assessment of High and Low Income Families through "Online RAW Achievement Battery Test" of Primary Grade Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Tamim; Hanif, Maria

    2016-01-01

    This study is intended to investigate student's achievement capability among two families i.e. Low and High income families and designed for primary level learners. A Reading, Arithmetic and Writing (RAW) Achievement test that was developed as a part of another research study (Tamim Ahmed Khan, 2015) was adopted for this study. Both English medium…

  7. Work-family conflict and self-rated health among Japanese workers: How household income modifies associations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Tomoko; Honjo, Kaori; Eshak, Ehab Salah; Iso, Hiroyasu; Sawada, Norie; Tsugane, Shoichiro

    2017-01-01

    To examine associations between work-family conflict and self-rated health among Japanese workers and to determine whether the associations differed by household income. Data was derived from the Japan Public Health Center-based Prospective Study for the Next Generation in Saku area in 2011-2012 (7,663 men and 7,070 women). Multivariate odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for poor self-rated health by work-family conflict consisting of two dimensions (work-to-family and family-to-work conflicts) were calculated by gender and household income. Multivariate ORs of high work-to-family and family-to-work conflicts for poor self-rated health were 2.46 (95% CI; 2.04-2.97) for men and 3.54 (95% CI; 2.92-4.30) for women, with reference to the low work-to-family and family-to-work conflicts (p-value for gender interaction = 0.02). Subgroup analysis indicated that health effects of work-family conflict were likely to be more evident in the low income group only among women. Work-family conflict was associated with poor self-rated health among middle-aged Japanese men and women; its health impact was relatively stronger among women, and particularly economically disadvantaged women.

  8. Does longer duration of breastfeeding prevent childhood asthma in low-income families?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arif, Ahmed A; Racine, Elizabeth F

    2017-08-01

    The objective of this study was to examine the relationship of breastfeeding duration with childhood asthma among low-income families in Karachi, Pakistan. Mothers/caregivers of 200 children with asthma and an equal number of children without asthma were interviewed about breastfeeding duration. Based on the responses, 6 different binary variables were constructed: breastfeeding 3 months or less, 6 months or less, 9 months or less, 12 months or less, 18 months or less, and 24 months or less. Asthma status of the child was determined by clinical examination by a primary care physician. Data was analyzed using multiple logistic regression method, adjusted for age and sex of the child, household income, parental ethnicity, number of older siblings, family history of asthma or hay fever, presence of mold, parental smoking, number of people in the household, and body mass index of the child. The average duration of breastfeeding was 21.4 months (SD = 7.33 months). Breastfeeding for at least 24 months was associated with increased odds of asthma (aOR = 1.77, 95%CI: 0.99, 3.16). Whereas breastfeeding for 12 months or less, and to some extent 18 months or less, was protective against childhood asthma. There was some evidence this protective effect may be delayed in children with a family history of asthma or hay fever. This study found breastfeeding for 12 months or less may have a protective effect against asthma. The protective effect weans down after 18 months, and if continued 24 months or more may place the child at-risk of asthma.

  9. Evaluation of a Sleep Education Program for Low-Income Preschool Children and Their Families

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Katherine E.; Miller, Alison L.; Bonuck, Karen; Lumeng, Julie C.; Chervin, Ronald D.

    2014-01-01

    Study Objectives: To evaluate a novel sleep education program for low-income preschool children and their families. Design: Randomized trial of an educational intervention. Setting: Community-based. Participants: Head Start preschool families (n = 152) in greater Lansing and Detroit, Michigan. Interventions: Classrooms or Head Start sites were randomized to an intervention group (prompt intervention) versus a control group (delayed intervention). Parents attended a one-time, 45-min sleep education program and preschoolers received 2 w (320 total min) of classroom sleep curriculum. Measurements: Parent knowledge, attitudes, self-efficacy, and beliefs were assessed as the primary outcomes just before the 45-min sleep intervention, immediately postintervention, and approximately 1 mo postintervention. Parents reported their child's bedtimes and wake times on 7-day sleep diaries at baseline and at 1-mo follow-up. Average weeknight sleep durations and bedtimes served as secondary outcomes. Results: Linear mixed models showed a time × treatment effect for parents' knowledge, attitudes, and self-efficacy (each P sleep duration at 1-mo follow-up by 30 min (11.0 ± 0.9 h vs. 10.5 ± 1.0 hours at baseline) compared to controls (10.4 ± 0.9 h versus 10.5 ± 0.9 h at baseline) (P = 0.04 for difference between groups). Children did not show statistically significant improvements in bedtime. Conclusions: Educational interventions in early childhood can have an effect on parents' sleep knowledge, attitudes, and self-efficacy, and on children's sleep behavior. However, repeated exposure to the new information may be important for parents as well as their children. Citation: Wilson KE, Miller AL, Bonuck K, Lumeng JC, Chervin RD. Evaluation of a sleep education program for low-income preschool children and their families. SLEEP 2014;37(6):1117-1125. PMID:24882907

  10. Self-care behavior change and depression among low-income predominantly Hispanic patients in safety-net clinics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Hyunsung; Ell, Kathleen; Palinkas, Lawrence A

    2017-09-01

    This study examined whether changes in self-care behaviors during a 12-month period predicted the likelihood of screening positive for depression concurrently and prospectively among low-income Hispanic patients with diabetes. Secondary analyses were conducted with longitudinal data collected from a randomized controlled trial that had tested effectiveness of collaborative depression care. We examined whether changes in self-care behaviors observed during the 12 months after baseline predicted the likelihood of screening positive for depression at 12-, 18-, and 24-month follow-up. Self-care behaviors included healthy diet, exercise, self-blood glucose monitoring, and foot care, which were measured by a validated self-reported instrument. Logistic regression analyses indicated that patients with more frequent healthy diet during the 12 months after baseline had significantly lower likelihood of depression. Patients with more frequent exercise had a lower likelihood of screening for depression at 18- and 24-month follow-up. No significant association was found with self-blood glucose monitoring and foot care. These findings suggest the importance of integrated care that emphasizes healthy diet and exercise, together with traditional depression treatment, when helping low-income Hispanic patients with diabetes and comorbid depression.

  11. Analysis of Life Insurance Premium in Regard to Net Income as an Influencing Factor– the Case of the Republic of Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olja Munitlak Ivanović

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In current business conditions, insurance market in the Republic of Serbia notes positive but relatively slow growing trend. During the last few years, life insurance market in Serbia has an upward trend, however, it still significantly falls back in comparison to developed European countries. Insufficient development of life insurance sector is in direct relation to insufficient economic development, weak financial market, high unemployment rate and poor implementation of economic reforms. Additionally there is a problem due to the lack of both quality and quantity of education with insufficient basic knowledge of potentials that this type of insurance offers. The aim of this paper is to present the projection of life insurance premium on the basis of linear trend parameters and correlation degree between average net income and the amount of life insurance premium and to emphasize the necessity of intense development of life insurance market. Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE X-NONE

  12. Low-Income Working Families With Employer-Sponsored Insurance Turn To Public Insurance For Their Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strane, Douglas; French, Benjamin; Eder, Jennifer; Wong, Charlene A; Noonan, Kathleen G; Rubin, David M

    2016-12-01

    Many families rely on employer-sponsored health insurance for their children. However, the rise in the cost of such insurance has outpaced growth in family income, potentially making public insurance (Medicaid or the Children's Health Insurance Plan) an attractive alternative for affordable dependent coverage. Using data for 2008-13 from the Medical Expenditure Panel Survey, we quantified the coverage rates for children from low- or moderate-income households in which a parent was offered employer-sponsored insurance. Among families in which parents were covered by such insurance, the proportion of children without employer-sponsored coverage increased from 22.5 percent in 2008 to 25.0 percent in 2013. The percentage of children with public insurance when a parent was covered by employer-sponsored insurance increased from 12.1 percent in 2008 to 15.2 percent in 2013. This trend was most pronounced for families with incomes of 100-199 percent of the federal poverty level, for whom the share of children with public insurance increased from 22.8 percent to 29.9 percent. Among families with incomes of 200-299 percent of poverty, uninsurance rates for children increased from 6.0 percent to 9.2 percent. These findings suggest a movement away from employer-sponsored insurance and toward public insurance for children in low-income families, and growth in uninsurance among children in moderate-income families. Project HOPE—The People-to-People Health Foundation, Inc.

  13. Associations Among Family Environment, Sustained Attention, and School Readiness for Low-Income Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Razza, Rachel A.; Martin, Anne; Brooks-Gunn, Jeanne

    2011-01-01

    In this study, we examined the developmental pathways from children’s family environment to school readiness within a low-income sample (N = 1,046), with a specific focus on the role of sustained attention. Six distinct factors of the family environment representing maternal parenting behaviors, the physical home environment, and maternal mental health at 3 years of age were explored as independent predictors of children’s observed sustained attention as well as cognitive and behavioral outcomes at 5 years of age. Children were grouped by poverty status (poor vs. near-poor). Results suggest specificity in the associations among attention (focused attention and lack of impulsivity) and its correlates, with different patterns emerging by poverty status group. Overall, the family environment was largely unrelated to children’s sustained attention. For both groups, focused attention was associated with receptive vocabulary; however, it partially mediated the association between maternal lack of hostility and receptive vocabulary only among the near-poor. In addition, lack of impulsivity was associated with both receptive vocabulary and externalizing behaviors but only for the poor group. Findings indicate sustained attention as a potential target for efforts aimed at enhancing school readiness among predominantly poor children. PMID:20677860

  14. The Effects of the Minimum Wage in Brazil on the Distribution of Family Incomes: 1996-2001

    OpenAIRE

    David Neumark; Wendy Cunningham; Lucas Siga

    2004-01-01

    The Brazilian economy has long relied on the minimum wage, having first implemented a minimum in 1940. Shortly after taking office in 2003, Brazil’s President raised the minimum wage by 20 percent and promised to double the value of the minimum wage before his term ends in 2006. The usual rationale for minimum wage increases is to bring about beneficial changes in the income distribution, by raising incomes of poor and low-income families. The goal of this paper is to evaluate the efficacy of...

  15. Reciprocal influences between maternal language and children's language and cognitive development in low-income families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Lulu; Spier, Elizabeth T; Tamis-Lemonda, Catherine S

    2014-03-01

    We examined reciprocal associations between early maternal language use and children's language and cognitive development in seventy ethnically diverse, low-income families. Mother-child dyads were videotaped when children were aged 2;0 and 3;0. Video transcripts were analyzed for quantity and lexical diversity of maternal and child language. Child cognitive development was assessed at both ages and child receptive vocabulary was assessed at age 3;0. Maternal language related to children's lexical diversity at each age, and maternal language at age 2;0, was associated with children's receptive vocabulary and cognitive development at age 3;0. Furthermore, children's cognitive development at age 2;0 was associated with maternal language at age 3;0 controlling for maternal language at age 2;0, suggesting bi-directionality in mother-child associations. The quantity and diversity of the language children hear at home has developmental implications for children from low-income households. In addition, children's early cognitive skills further feed into their subsequent language experiences.

  16. Accessibility of low-income family flats in North Jakarta city

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feminin, T. A.; Wiranegara, H. W.; Supriatna, Y.

    2018-01-01

    The majority of relocated, low-income families in North Jakarta city who residing the flats, complained at decreasing their accessibility to the workplaces and to the social facilities. The aim of this research was to identify the changing of their accessibility before and after relocated, viewed from three dimensions: distance, travel time, and travel cost to the workplaces, educational facilities, and shopping areas. The research design was questionnaire survey containing the degree of accessibility before and after resided the flats. Five flats were chosen as cases. Their inhabitants were chosen as respondents which used simple random sampling. The result showed that their flats accessibility to the workplaces in all three dimensions was lower than when they resided in the slum area. Also, in distance and travel time accessibility to shopping areas was lower. Only accessibility to educational facilities measured in those three dimensions was higher after they moved. Supply for affordable public transport from their flats to reach their workplaces is needed to raise their accessibility. Also, they need subsidizeto rent of their flats so the burden to their income lesser.Using the ground space of their flats for retail activities was to make more accessible for their shopping activities.

  17. Childhood family income and life outcomes in adulthood: findings from a 30-year longitudinal study in New Zealand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibb, Sheree J; Fergusson, David M; Horwood, L John

    2012-06-01

    The aims of this study were to use data gathered over the course of a 30-year longitudinal study to examine the linkages between economic circumstances in childhood and subsequent developmental outcomes spanning educational achievement; economic circumstances; crime; mental health; and teenage pregnancy. All of these outcomes have been linked with childhood economic conditions and it is frequently argued that reducing income inequalities will mitigate psychosocial risks of children reared in families facing economic hardship. Alternatively it may be suggested that the associations between childhood family economic circumstances and later outcomes are mediated by individual, family and social factors that are correlated with low family income and contribute to later outcomes. To examine these issues, data were drawn from a birth cohort of New Zealand children born in 1977 and followed to age 30. Declining childhood family income was associated with a range of negative outcomes in adulthood, including: lower educational achievement; poorer economic circumstances; higher rates of criminal offending; higher rates of mental health problems; and higher rates of teenage pregnancy. After covariate adjustment, childhood family income remained significantly associated with educational achievement and economic circumstances, but was no longer significantly associated with the mental health, offending and teenage pregnancy outcomes. These findings suggest that, after due allowance has been made for social, family and individual contextual factors, low family income during childhood is associated with a range of educational and economic disadvantages in adulthood but is not directly related to increased risks of crime, mental health problems or teen pregnancy. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Family income and appraisals of parental conflict as predictors of psychological adjustment and diurnal cortisol in emerging adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucas-Thompson, Rachel G; Hostinar, Camelia E

    2013-10-01

    The goal of the current study was to provide the first investigation of whether appraisals of parental marital conflict mediate associations of family income with emerging adult psychological adjustment and diurnal cortisol production. Participants were 178 college students who provided 3 saliva samples across the day and reported their family income, adjustment (depressive symptoms, perceived daily stress, internalizing problems, and externalizing problems), and appraisals of their parents' conflict (including perceptions of frequency, intensity, resolution, stability, as well as perceived threat and self-blame for conflict). Results indicated that emerging adults from low-income families reported more-negative conflict appraisals, which in turn predicted lower levels of adjustment; there was no association between income and patterns of cortisol production across the day. However, emerging adults who felt responsible for their parents' conflict displayed cortisol levels that were lower early in the day, with a tendency toward blunted cortisol slopes across the day; those who appraised their parents' conflict less negatively displayed a more normative pattern of cortisol production. These results suggest that effects of family income on psychological adjustment are explained, in part, by appraisals of parental conflict, particularly of appraisals of conflict as threatening, whereas self-blame conflict appraisals have main effects on cortisol, and predict a dysregulated and potentially maladaptive pattern of cortisol production across the day for emerging adults.

  19. AS INCOME TRANSFER PROGRAM IMPLICATIONS OF LITERACY IN BAG FAMILY BENEFIT IN SANTA MARIA CITY – RS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rita Inês Paetzhold Pauli

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the development of the Low Income Family Benefic (Bolsa Família program in the municipality of Santa Maria-RS and has as main its main objective to show impacts on literacy from the implementation of the family allowance in the municipality and characterise more comprehensively the situation of variables such as per capita family income, the infrastructural conditions of households and school attendance of students linked to the Program. The methodology used was, in addition to a literature review, an econometric analysis and a field research. The data used were from the IBGE's demographic census of 2000 and 2010, information from the Municipal Secretariat of Social Assistance, Citizenship and Human Rights (SMAC and from field research carried out in the months of May and June 2012. The results show that the higher the proportion of people who receive low income family benefit (Bolsa Família in the municipality, the greater the increase in the proportion of literacy. It emphasizes the hight degree of school repetition was noted 44% of households had children reproved in the school year. The program itself is not able to lower all the adversities. It is, indeed, necessary to broader macroeconomic policies of economic growth that, in turn, must result in increased per capita income combined with income distribution.

  20. Immediate postmastectomy breast reconstruction showed limited advantage in patient survival after stratifying by family income.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Yi-Zhou; Liu, Yi-Rong; Yu, Ke-Da; Zuo, Wen-Jia; Shao, Zhi-Ming

    2013-01-01

    Postmastectomy breast reconstruction is widely used in breast cancer patients for its aesthetic effect. Although several studies have casted suspicion upon the oncological safety of immediate breast reconstruction after mastectomy, the potential impact of different reconstruction methods on patient survival remains unclear. We identified 35,126 female patients diagnosed with breast cancer from January 1, 1998 to December 31, 2002 in the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results database. Breast cancer-specific survival (BCSS) and overall survival (OS) were compared among patients who underwent mastectomy with or without immediate breast reconstruction (autologous reconstruction or implant reconstruction) using Cox proportional hazard regression models. In multivariate analysis unadjusted for family income, patients undergoing immediate postmastectomy reconstruction exhibited improved BCSS [POOLED reconstruction (any types of reconstruction): hazard ratio (HR)  =  0.87, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.80-0.95, P = 0.001] and OS (pooled reconstruction: HR = 0.70, 95% CI 0.65-0.75, Padvantage in BCSS and OS compared with those undergoing mastectomy alone. When comparing between the two reconstruction methods, no significant differences were observed in either BCSS (implant versus autologous reconstruction: HR = 1.11, 95%CI 0.90-1.35, P = 0.330) or OS (implant versus autologous reconstruction: HR = 1.07, 95% 0.90-1.28, P = 0.424). Compared to mastectomy alone, immediate postmastectomy reconstruction had limited advantage in survival after adjusting for confounding factor of family income. Our findings, if validated in other large databases, may help to illustrate the actual effect of immediate postmastectomy reconstruction on patient survival.

  1. Food insecurity and maternal depression in rural, low-income families: a longitudinal investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huddleston-Casas, Catherine; Charnigo, Richard; Simmons, Leigh Ann

    2009-08-01

    The purpose of the present study was to examine the relationship between household food insecurity and maternal depression in a rural sample to determine whether food insecurity predicted mothers' depression over time or vice versa. The study employed a prospective design using three waves of data from 'Rural Families Speak', a multi-state study of low-income rural families in the USA. Food insecurity was measured using the Core Food Security Module and depression was measured using the Center for Epidemiologic Studies-Depression Scale. A structural equation model was fit to the data using the AMOS software package. Sixteen states in the USA (California, Indiana, Kentucky, Louisiana, Massachusetts, Maryland, Michigan, Minnesota, Nebraska, New Hampshire, New York, Ohio, Oregon, South Dakota, West Virginia, Wyoming) between 2000 and 2002. Subjects included 413 women with at least one child under the age of 13 years living in the home. Findings based on the 184 subjects with complete data indicated that the causal relationship between household food insecurity and depression is bidirectional (P = 0.034 for causation from depression to food insecurity, P = 0.003 for causation from food insecurity to depression, chi(2)/df = 1.835, root-mean-square error of approximation = 0.068, comparative fit index = 0.989). Findings based on all 413 subjects after imputation of missing values also indicated bidirectionality. The recursive relationship between food insecurity and depression has implications for US nutrition, mental health and poverty policies. The study highlights the need to integrate programmes addressing food insecurity and poor mental health for the population of rural, low-income women.

  2. Evaluation of a sleep education program for low-income preschool children and their families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Katherine E; Miller, Alison L; Bonuck, Karen; Lumeng, Julie C; Chervin, Ronald D

    2014-06-01

    To evaluate a novel sleep education program for low-income preschool children and their families. Randomized trial of an educational intervention. Community-based. Head Start preschool families (n = 152) in greater Lansing and Detroit, Michigan. Classrooms or Head Start sites were randomized to an intervention group (prompt intervention) versus a control group (delayed intervention). Parents attended a one-time, 45-min sleep education program and preschoolers received 2 w (320 total min) of classroom sleep curriculum. Parent knowledge, attitudes, self-efficacy, and beliefs were assessed as the primary outcomes just before the 45-min sleep intervention, immediately postintervention, and approximately 1 mo postintervention. Parents reported their child's bedtimes and wake times on 7-day sleep diaries at baseline and at 1-mo follow-up. Average weeknight sleep durations and bedtimes served as secondary outcomes. Linear mixed models showed a time × treatment effect for parents' knowledge, attitudes, and self-efficacy (each P Educational interventions in early childhood can have an effect on parents' sleep knowledge, attitudes, and self-efficacy, and on children's sleep behavior. However, repeated exposure to the new information may be important for parents as well as their children.

  3. Associations among parental feeding styles and children's food intake in families with limited incomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoerr, Sharon L; Hughes, Sheryl O; Fisher, Jennifer O; Nicklas, Theresa A; Liu, Yan; Shewchuk, Richard M

    2009-08-13

    Although general parenting styles and restrictive parental feeding practices have been associated with children's weight status, few studies have examined the association between feeding styles and proximal outcomes such as children's food intake, especially in multi-ethnic families with limited incomes. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the association of parental feeding styles and young children's evening food intake in a multiethnic sample of families in Head Start. Participants were 715 Head Start children and their parents from Texas and Alabama representing three ethnic groups: African-American (43%), Hispanic (29%), and White (28%). The Caregivers Feeding Styles Questionnaire (Hughes) was used to characterize authoritative, authoritarian (referent), indulgent or uninvolved feeding styles. Food intake in several food groups was calculated from 3 days of dietary recalls for the child for evening food intakes from 3 PM until bedtime. Compared to children of authoritarian parents, intakes of fruits, juice and vegetables were lowest among children of indulgent or uninvolved parents (1.77 +/- 0.09 vs 1.45 +/- 0.09 and 1.42 +/- 0.11 cups) as were intakes of dairy foods (0.84 +/- 0.05 vs 0.67 +/- 0.05 and 0.63+0.06 cups), respectively. Findings suggest that permissive parent feeding styles like indulgent or uninvolved relate negatively to children's intake of nutrient-rich foods fruit, 100% fruit juice, vegetables and dairy foods from 3 PM until bedtime.

  4. NEIGHBORHOOD EFFECT HETEROGENEITY BY FAMILY INCOME AND DEVELOPMENTAL PERIOD: EVIDENCE FROM A COUNTERFACTUAL MODEL OF HIGH SCHOOL GRADUATION

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wodtke, Geoffrey T.; Elwert, Felix; Harding, David J.

    2016-01-01

    Effects of disadvantaged neighborhoods on child educational outcomes likely depend on a family's economic resources and the timing of neighborhood exposures during the course of child development. This study investigates how timing of exposure to disadvantaged neighborhoods during childhood versus adolescence affects high school graduation and whether these effects vary across families with different income levels. It follows 6,137 children in the PSID from childhood through adolescence and overcomes methodological problems associated with the joint endogeneity of neighborhood context and family income by adapting novel counterfactual methods—a structural nested mean model estimated via two-stage regression-with-residuals—for time-varying treatments and time-varying effect moderators. Results indicate that exposure to disadvantaged neighborhoods, particularly during adolescence, has a strong negative effect on high school graduation, and that this negative effect is more severe for children from poor families. PMID:27017709

  5. Social Stratification and Adolescent Overweight in the United States: How Income and Educational Resources Matter across Families and Schools*

    OpenAIRE

    Martin, Molly A.; Frisco, Michelle L.; Nau, Claudia; Burnett, Kristin

    2011-01-01

    The current study examines how poverty and education in both the family and school contexts influence adolescent weight. Prior research has produced an incomplete and often counterintuitive picture. We develop a framework to better understand how income and education operate alone and in conjunction with each other across families and schools. We test it by analyzing data from Wave 1 of the U.S.-based National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (N= 16,133 in 132 schools) collected in 199...

  6. Psychosocial interventions for addiction-affected families in Low and Middle Income Countries: A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rane, Anil; Church, Sydney; Bhatia, Urvita; Orford, Jim; Velleman, Richard; Nadkarni, Abhijit

    2017-11-01

    To review the literature on psychosocial interventions for addiction affected family members in Low and Middle Income Countries (LMIC). A systematic review with a detailed search strategy focussing on psychosocial interventions directed towards people affected by addiction without any gender, year or language specifications was conducted. Identified titles and abstracts were screened; where needed full papers retrieved, and then independently reviewed. Data was extracted based on the aims of the study, to describe the modalities, acceptability, feasibility and effectiveness of the interventions. Four papers met our selection criteria. They were published between 2003 and 2014; the total sample size was 137 participants, and two studies were from Mexico and one each from Vietnam and Malaysia. The predominantly female participants comprised of parents, spouses and siblings. The common components of all the interventions included providing information regarding addiction, teaching coping skills, and providing support. Though preliminary these small studies suggests a positive effect on affected family members (AFM). There was lowering of psychological and physical distress, along with a better understanding of addictive behaviour. The interventions led to better coping; with improvements in self-esteem and assertive behaviour. The interventions, mostly delivered in group settings, were largely acceptable. The limited evidence does suggest positive benefits to AFMs. The scope of research needs to be extended to other addictions, and family members other than spouse and female relatives. Indigenous and locally adapted interventions are needed to address this issue keeping in mind the limited resources of LMIC. This is a field indeed in its infancy and this under recognised and under-served group needs urgent attention of researchers and policy makers. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Self-reported Use of Dental Floss over 13 Years: Relationship with Family Income, Mother's Age and Educational Level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kauer, Bruno; Schütz, Jasper; Colussi, Paulo R G; Oppermann, Rui V; Haas, Alex N; Rösing, Cassiano K

    2016-01-01

    To determine whether family income, age and educational level of the mother of the family are associated with self-reported use of dental floss over a 13-year period in a city in southern Brazil. A comparison of two household surveys was carried out where mothers of the family were interviewed using a structured questionnaire in order to obtain demographic, behavioural and socioeconomic information. In total, 852 and 984 households were included in 1996 and 2009, respectively. Self-reported use of dental floss was assessed dichotomously (yes/no). Poisson regression models were fitted to study the association between sociodemographic variables with the use of dental floss. Proportion ratios (PR) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) were reported. The proportion of dental floss use increased from 48% to 59% over 13 years. The probability of dental floss use increased 1.23 times from 1996 to 2009 (PR = 1.23; 95% CI 1.13-1.34). Households with mothers ≥50 years old presented a 28% lower probability of using dental floss than households with mothers ≤35 years old. In households with higher family income and higher educational level of the mother, probabilities of flossing were 90% and 97% higher. Family income, age and educational level of the mother of the family are associated with self-reported use of dental floss over 13 years.

  8. Nutritional status of pre-school children from low income families

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    de Oliveira Adriana G

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We evaluated growth and nutritional status of preschool children between 2 and 6 years old from low income families from 14 daycare centers. Methods Cross-sectional study with 1544 children from daycare centers of Santo Andre, Brazil. Body weight (W, height (H and body mass index (BMI were classified according to the 2000 National Center for Health Statistics (CDC/NCHS. Cutoff points for nutritional disorders: -2 z scores and 2.5 and 10 percentiles for malnutrition risk, 85 to 95 percentile for overweight and above BMI 95 percentile for obesity. Stepwise Forward Regression method was used including age, gender, birth weight, breastfeeding duration, age of mother at birth and period of time they attended the daycare center. Results Children presented mean z scores of H, W and BMI above the median of the CDC/NCHS reference. Girls were taller and heavier than boys, while we observed similar BMI between both genders. The z scores tended to rise with age. A Pearson Coefficient of Correlation of 0.89 for W, 0.93 for H and 0.95 for BMI was documented indicating positive association of age with weight, height and BMI. The frequency of children below -2 z scores was lower than expected: 1.5% for W, 1.75% for H and 0% for BMI, which suggests that there were no malnourished children. The other extremity of the distribution evidenced prevalence of overweight and obesity of 16.8% and 10.8%, respectively. Conclusion Low income preschool children are in an advanced stage of nutritional transition with a high prevalence of overweight.

  9. Incidence of Obesity Among Young US Children Living in Low-Income Families, 2008–2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Liping; May, Ashleigh L.; Wethington, Holly; Dalenius, Karen; Grummer-Strawn, Laurence M.

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To examine the incidence and reverse of obesity among young low-income children and variations across population subgroups. METHODS We included 1.2 million participants in federally funded child health and nutrition programs who were 0 to 23 months old in 2008 and were followed up 24 to 35 months later in 2010–2011. Weight and height were measured. Obesity at baseline was defined as gender-specific weight-for-length ≥95th percentile on the 2000 Centers for Disease Control and Prevention growth charts. Obesity at follow-up was defined as gender-specific BMI-for-age ≥95th percentile. We used a multivariable log-binomial model to estimate relative risk of obesity adjusting for gender, baseline age, race/ethnicity, duration of follow-up, and baseline weight-for-length percentile. RESULTS The incidence of obesity was 11.0% after the follow-up period. The incidence was significantly higher among boys versus girls and higher among children aged 0 to 11 months at baseline versus those older. Compared with non-Hispanic whites, the risk of obesity was 35% higher among Hispanics and 49% higher among American Indians (AIs)/Alaska Natives (ANs), but 8% lower among non-Hispanic African Americans. Among children who were obese at baseline, 36.5% remained obese and 63.5% were nonobese at follow-up. The proportion of reversing of obesity was significantly lower among Hispanics and AIs/ANs than that among other racial/ethnic groups. CONCLUSIONS The high incidence underscores the importance of early-life obesity prevention in multiple settings for low-income children and their families. The variations within population subgroups suggest that culturally appropriate intervention efforts should be focused on Hispanics and AIs/ANs. PMID:24276843

  10. Reciprocal Influences between Maternal Language and Children's Language and Cognitive Development in Low-Income Families

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Lulu; Spier, Elizabeth T.; Tamis-Lemonda, Catherine S.

    2014-01-01

    We examined reciprocal associations between early maternal language use and children's language and cognitive development in seventy ethnically diverse, low-income families. Mother-child dyads were videotaped when children were aged 2;0 and 3;0. Video transcripts were analyzed for quantity and lexical diversity of maternal and child language.…

  11. Social Support May Buffer the Effect of Intrafamilial Stressors on Preschool Children's Television Viewing Time in Low-Income Families

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Kaigang; Jurkowski, Janine M.; Davison, Kirsten K.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Excessive television (TV) viewing in preschool children has been linked to negative outcomes during childhood, including childhood obesity. In a sample of low-income families, this study examined associations between intrafamilial factors and preschool children's TV-viewing time and the moderating effect of social support from nonfamily members on this association.

  12. Delayed College Entry and the Socioeconomic Gap: Examining the Roles of Student Plans, Family Income, Parental Education, and Parental Occupation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wells, Ryan S.; Lynch, Cassie M.

    2012-01-01

    This study investigates delayed college entry, including how college enrollment differs based on students' plans while in high school. Results confirm that low-SES students are repeatedly disadvantaged in the college transition, but add complexity concerning the influences of family income, parental education, and parental occupational status.…

  13. Academic Performance in ADHD when Controlled for Comorbid Learning Disorders, Family Income, and Parental Education in Brazil

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    Carmine Pastura, Giuseppe Mario; Mattos, Paulo; Campos Araujo, Alexandra Prufer de Queiroz

    2009-01-01

    Objective: Scholastic achievement in a nonclinical sample of ADHD children and adolescents was evaluated taking into consideration variables such as comorbid learning disorders, family income, and parental education which may also be associated with poor academic performance. Method: After screening for ADHD in 396 students, the authors compared…

  14. Pro-Poor PRIMR: Improving Early Literacy Skills for Children from Low-Income Families in Kenya

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    Piper, Benjamin; Jepkemei, Evelyn; Kibukho, Kennedy

    2015-01-01

    Children from low-income families are at risk of learning outcome difficulties, particularly in literacy. Various studies link poor literacy results with performance later in primary and secondary school, and suggest that poverty, literacy skills and weak instructional methods combine to drastically limit the educational opportunities for many…

  15. Functional Brain Organization of Working Memory in Adolescents Varies in Relation to Family Income and Academic Achievement

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    Finn, Amy S.; Minas, Jennifer E.; Leonard, Julia A.; Mackey, Allyson P.; Salvatore, John; Goetz, Calvin; West, Martin R.; Gabrieli, Christopher F. O.; Gabrieli, John D. E.

    2017-01-01

    Working memory (WM) capacity reflects executive functions associated with performance on a wide range of cognitive tasks and education outcomes, including mathematics achievement, and is associated with dorsolateral prefrontal and parietal cortices. Here we asked if family income is associated with variation in the functional brain organization of…

  16. BOUNCE: A community-based mother–daughter healthy lifestyle intervention for low-income Latino families

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    The primary purpose of this study was to assess the efficacy of a family-based exploratory community study titled BOUNCE (Behavior Opportunities Uniting Nutrition, Counseling, and Exercise), to increase physical fitness and activity in low-income Latino mothers and daughters. The BOUNCE study consis...

  17. Trends in Disparities in Low-Income Children's Health Insurance Coverage and Access to Care by Family Immigration Status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarlenski, Marian; Baller, Julia; Borrero, Sonya; Bennett, Wendy L

    2016-03-01

    To examine time trends in disparities in low-income children's health insurance coverage and access to care by family immigration status. We used data from the National Survey of Children's Health in 2003 to 2011-2012, including 83,612 children aged 0 to 17 years with family incomes immigration status categories: citizen children with nonimmigrant parents; citizen children with immigrant parents; and immigrant children. We used multivariable regression analyses to obtain adjusted trends in health insurance coverage and access to care. All low-income children experienced gains in health insurance coverage and access to care from 2003 to 2011-2012, regardless of family immigration status. Relative to citizen children with nonimmigrant parents, citizen children with immigrant parents had a 5 percentage point greater increase in health insurance coverage (P = .06), a 9 percentage point greater increase in having a personal doctor or nurse (P Immigrant children had significantly lower health insurance coverage than other groups. However, the group had a 14 percentage point greater increase in having a personal doctor or nurse (P immigration status have lessened over time among children in low-income families, although large disparities still exist. Policy efforts are needed to ensure that children of immigrant parents and immigrant children are able to access health insurance and health care. Copyright © 2016 Academic Pediatric Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Outcome of a Food Observational Study among Low-Income Preschool Children Participating in a Family-Style Meal Setting

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    Treviño, Roberto P.; Vasquez, Liset; Shaw-Ridley, Mary; Mosley, Desiree; Jechow, Katherine; Piña, Christina

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: In the United States, one out of every seven low-income children between the ages of 2 and 5 years is at risk for overweight and obesity. Formative research was conducted to determine if preschool children participating in family-style meals consumed the minimum food servings according to U.S. Department of Agriculture dietary…

  19. An Emic, Mixed-Methods Approach to Defining and Measuring Positive Parenting among Low-Income Black Families

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    McWayne, Christine M.; Mattis, Jacqueline S.; Green Wright, Linnie E.; Limlingan, Maria Cristina; Harris, Elise

    2017-01-01

    Research Findings: This within-group exploratory sequential mixed-methods investigation sought to identify how ethnically diverse, urban-residing, low-income Black families conceptualize positive parenting. During the item development phase 119 primary caregivers from Head Start programs participated in focus groups and interviews. These…

  20. WORKING WITH LOW-INCOME FAMILIES, PROCEEDINGS OF THE AHEA WORKSHOP (UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO, MARCH 15-19, 1965).

    Science.gov (United States)

    American Home Economics Association, Washington, DC.

    WORK WITH LOW INCOME FAMILIES HAS BEEN PART OF THE BASIC PHILOSOPHY OF THE AMERICAN HOME ECONOMICS ASSOCIATION (AHEA) SINCE ITS INCEPTION. A NATIONAL WORKSHOP WAS ATTENDED BY STATE DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION AND U.S. OFFICE OF EDUCATION PERSONNEL, TEACHER-EDUCATORS, EXTENSION WORKERS, SOCIAL WORKERS, AND PERSONS WITH RELATED INTERESTS. TEXTS OF THE…

  1. iPads Enhance Social Interaction Skills among Hearing-Impaired Children of Low Income Families in Saudi Arabia

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    Bahatheg, Raja Omar

    2015-01-01

    This research tries to investigate the technical contribution on improving the social interaction of hearing-impaired children from low income families in Saudi Arabia. It compares the social interaction skills of hearing-impaired children who do and do not have access to iPads. To achieve the goals of the study; seventeen children aged five years…

  2. Parent emotional distress and feeding styles in low-income families. The role of parent depression and parenting stress

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    Depression and other stressors have been associated with general parenting and child outcomes in low-income families. Given that parents shape child eating behaviors through their feeding interactions with their child, it is important to investigate factors that may influence parental feeding of you...

  3. Studying the Impact of Technology-Infused Activities among Low-Income Spanish-Speaking Immigrant Families

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    Rivera, Héctor H.

    2014-01-01

    This study examines the impact of an intervention technology program--Community Learning Centers--designed to assist low-income Spanish-speaking parents in learning and using technology for family advancement. The study is based on a sample of 408 participants who completed pre- and post-surveys. Data collection was conducted across 2 years in…

  4. Are Mothers Really "Gatekeepers" of Children?: Rural Mothers' Perceptions of Nonresident Fathers' Involvement in Low-Income Families

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    Sano, Yoshie; Richards, Leslie N.; Zvonkovic, Anisa M.

    2008-01-01

    Guided by symbolic interactionism, this qualitative study based on interviews with 83 rural mothers investigated mothers' perceptions of nonresident fathers' involvement in low-income families. Contrary to some fathers' claims that mothers "gatekeep" their access to children, the majority of mothers in our study wanted increased father…

  5. Gender, family income, and the risk of mental emotional disorders in selected population

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    Sri Idaiani

    2016-01-01

    National Instituteof Health Research and Development in 2011. There were 1914 subjects out of a total of 2361 subjects.Sample was choosen purposively. The age ranged from 25-65 years. MED was assessed using SelfReporting Questionnaire (SRQ which consisted of 20 questions, and answered the questions themselvesor assisted by an interviewer. MED was indicated if there was at least 6 “yeses”. Statistical analysis wasby Cox regression with constant time using STATA 10.0 version.Results: The proportion of MED was 27.9%. Low rather than high family income subjects had 26% morerisk to be MED [adjusted relative risk (RRa = 1.26; 95% confidence interval (CI = 1.08 – 1.47]. In termsof gender, females had 43% more risk to be MED (RRa = 1.43; 95% CI = 1.22 - 1.68.Conclusion: Low rather than high family income subject had more risk to be MED. (Health ScienceJournal of Indonesia 2015;6:23-28.Keywords: Family income, mental emotional disorders

  6. Factors influencing healthy lifestyle changes: a qualitative look at low-income families engaged in treatment for overweight children.

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    Cason-Wilkerson, Rochelle; Goldberg, Shauna; Albright, Karen; Allison, Mandy; Haemer, Matthew

    2015-04-01

    Childhood obesity disproportionately affects low-income minority populations, yet there is a paucity of literature about effective interventions in this population. This study sought to understand the experience of low-income majority Hispanic families engaged in obesity treatment. We conducted six focus groups (2=English, 4=Spanish) with families who completed a community-based, family-oriented obesity treatment program, using standard qualitative focus group interview methods. Transcripts were recorded, transcribed, and analyzed for thematic content. Two coders using the software program ATLAS.ti (v.7.0; Scientific Software Development GmbH, Berlin, Germany) coded each transcript independently; reflexive team analysis with three study team members was used to reach a consensus. Participants (n=37) indicated high program satisfaction. Parents reported buying less junk/fast food, increased consumption of fruits and vegetables, preparing and eating more meals as a family, and increasing their families' physical activity (PA). Four barrier and facilitator themes emerged. Barrier themes were time and financial cost, parent's lack of time and energy, influence of family members, and challenges regarding physical environment. Facilitator themes were skill building around healthy eating and parenting, family involvement, and long-term health concerns. Unanticipated findings, parents reported, were that changes resulted in children sleeping better, feeling happier, and less irritability. Despite low-income families experiencing barriers to lifestyle changes to manage obesity, they made positive dietary changes and increased PA by learning specific skills and including the whole family in those changes. Additionally, some unexpected benefits were noted, including improved sleep, less irritability, and children appearing happier. Future studies should consider using these parent-identified outcomes as secondary measures of program effectiveness.

  7. Economic penalties and rewards of family formation, gender and education in the low-income sector in Germany.

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    Aisenbrey, Silke

    2009-03-01

    This article examines the differential effects of changes in family formations on men's and women's economic vulnerability. The motivating question is whether investments in education provide sufficient resources to escape the risk of poverty in the low-income sector or if changes in household characteristics are more important determinants of one's living standard. Changes in household characteristics are defined in terms of partners' entry into and exit from households and partners' different labour market profiles. The analysis focuses on households in the low-income sector in Germany, a population that is at high risk of poverty in a social welfare state that is expected to mitigate the effects of changes in family formation independent of gender. Findings from panel regression analysis demonstrate that women, in contrast to men, benefit economically as much as or more from investing in traditional family formations than in their own labour market position. This is especially the case for women with lower levels of education.

  8. Associations among parental feeding styles and children's food intake in families with limited incomes

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    Liu Yan

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although general parenting styles and restrictive parental feeding practices have been associated with children's weight status, few studies have examined the association between feeding styles and proximal outcomes such as children's food intake, especially in multi-ethnic families with limited incomes. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the association of parental feeding styles and young children's evening food intake in a multiethnic sample of families in Head Start. Methods Participants were 715 Head Start children and their parents from Texas and Alabama representing three ethnic groups: African-American (43%, Hispanic (29%, and White (28%. The Caregivers Feeding Styles Questionnaire (Hughes was used to characterize authoritative, authoritarian (referent, indulgent or uninvolved feeding styles. Food intake in several food groups was calculated from 3 days of dietary recalls for the child for evening food intakes from 3 PM until bedtime. Results Compared to children of authoritarian parents, intakes of fruits, juice and vegetables were lowest among children of indulgent or uninvolved parents (1.77 ± 0.09 vs 1.45 ± 0.09 and 1.42 ± 0.11 cups as were intakes of dairy foods (0.84 ± 0.05 vs 0.67 ± 0.05 and 0.63+0.06 cups, respectively. Conclusion Findings suggest that permissive parent feeding styles like indulgent or uninvolved relate negatively to children's intake of nutrient-rich foods fruit, 100% fruit juice, vegetables and dairy foods from 3 PM until bedtime.

  9. Bolsa Família (Family Grant Programme: an analysis of Brazilian income transfer programme

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    Luciana Mourão

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Income transfer programmes are common in various countries and play an important role in combating poverty. This article presents a review of the results of the Bolsa Família (Family Grant Programme, implemented in Brazil by the government of Lula da Silva in 2004. Over the last seven years many evaluations of the programme have been conducted, allowing an overview of its results and its strong and weak points to be mapped. Five central aspects relating to the programme are discussed in article five: (1 programme access, (2 hunger fighting results, (3 programme financial impacts, (4 conditioning factors of education and health, (5 supplementary programs and social mobility. The results of scientific research were presented for each of these aspects, and any of these believed to be convergent or divergent were discussed. As a general result it was concluded that the programme has generated significant results for the country, but there are still some issues that need to be reviewed, such as conditioning factors and the integrated management of the programme.

  10. Inclusive Development through Providing Vertical Housing for Low Income Family in Yogyakarta Urban Areas

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    Rini Rachmawati

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Inclusive development is mean to accommodate the marginalized people, most of whom are the poor with problem of fulfilling their need of housing. The government has tried hard to meet the need of housing by constructing rusunawa. This paper is aimed at describing about the provision and uses of rusunawa, both in cities and peri urban area by studying the cases in the City of Yogyakarta, Sleman Regency, and Bantul Regency. The study was conducted by doing observation and both structured and in-depth interviews. The research results show that rusunawa was viewed as one solutions to help low-income family in fulfilling their need of housing. In some cases in the City of Yogyakarta, rusunawa plays an important role in preventing the settlement along both sides of rivers from becoming slum areas. Rusunawa in both Regencies of Sleman and Bantul are located near the city so it is easy for the settlers to get to their workplace. The construction of rusunawa has also paid attention to the disabled by providing special facilities. The same case is providing playground for children and facilities for early education for young kids. However, there have not been special facilities for the elderly and pregnant women.

  11. Welfare reform and health insurance coverage of low-income families.

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    Kaestner, Robert; Kaushal, Neeraj

    2003-11-01

    We study whether welfare reform adversely affected the health insurance coverage of low-educated single mothers and their children. Specifically, we investigate whether changes in the welfare caseload during the 1990s were associated with changes in Medicaid participation, private insurance coverage, and the number of uninsured among single mothers and their children. Estimates suggest that between 1996 and 1999, the 42% decrease in the welfare caseload was associated with the following changes in insurance coverage among low-educated, single mothers: a 7-9% decrease in Medicaid coverage; an increase in employer-sponsored, private insurance coverage of 6%; and a 2-9% increase in the proportion uninsured. Among children of low-educated, single mothers, effects were somewhat smaller. Since welfare policy was responsible for only part (e.g. one-third) of the decline in the caseload, welfare reform per se had significantly smaller effects on the health insurance status of low-income families. However, we found limited evidence that changes in the caseload due to state and federal welfare policy had fewer adverse consequences on insurance status than changes in the caseload due to other factors. This implies even smaller effects of welfare reform.

  12. Racial Disparities in Child Adversity in the U.S.: Interactions With Family Immigration History and Income.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slopen, Natalie; Shonkoff, Jack P; Albert, Michelle A; Yoshikawa, Hirokazu; Jacobs, Aryana; Stoltz, Rebecca; Williams, David R

    2016-01-01

    Childhood adversity is an under-addressed dimension of primary prevention of disease in children and adults. Evidence shows racial/ethnic and socioeconomic patterning of childhood adversity in the U.S., yet data on the interaction of race/ethnicity and SES for exposure risk is limited, particularly with consideration of immigration history. This study examined racial/ethnic differences in nine adversities among children (from birth to age 17 years) in the National Survey of Child Health (2011-2012) and determined how differences vary by immigration history and income (N=84,837). We estimated cumulative adversity and individual adversity prevalences among white, black, and Hispanic children of U.S.-born and immigrant parents. We examined whether family income mediated the relationship between race/ethnicity and exposure to adversities, and tested interactions (analyses conducted in 2014-2015). Across all groups, black and Hispanic children were exposed to more adversities compared with white children, and income disparities in exposure were larger than racial/ethnic disparities. For children of U.S.-born parents, these patterns of racial/ethnic and income differences were present for most individual adversities. Among children of immigrant parents, there were few racial/ethnic differences for individual adversities and income gradients were inconsistent. Among children of U.S.-born parents, the Hispanic-white disparity in exposure to adversities persisted after adjustment for income, and racial/ethnic disparities in adversity were largest among children from high-income families. Simultaneous consideration of multiple social statuses offers promising frameworks for fresh thinking about the distribution of disease and the design of targeted interventions to reduce preventable health disparities. Copyright © 2016 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Preschool Enrollment, Classroom Instruction, Elementary School Context, and the Reading Achievement of Children from Low-Income Families

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    Crosnoe, Robert; Benner, Aprile D.; Davis-Kean, Pamela

    2017-01-01

    Purpose The goal of this study was test expectations derived from sociological and developmental perspectives that the association between phonics instruction in kindergarten classrooms and reading achievement during the first year of school in the low-income population would depend on whether children had previously attended preschool as well as the socioeconomic composition of their elementary schools. Methodological approach Autoregressive modeling was applied to nationally representative data from 7,710 children from low-income families in the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study-Kindergarten Cohort, with a series of sensitivity tests to improve causal inference and explore the robustness of results. Findings The association between phonics instruction and achievement was strongest among children from low-income families who had not attended preschool and then enrolled in socioeconomically disadvantaged elementary schools and among children from low-income families who had attended preschool and then enrolled in socioeconomically advantaged elementary schools. Research and practical implications Insight into educational inequality can be gained by situating developing children within their proximate ecologies and institutional settings, especially looking to the match between children and their contexts. These findings are relevant to policy discussions of early education, instructional practices, and desegregation. PMID:28824338

  14. Grannies on the Net: Grandmothers’ Experiences of Facebook in Family Communication

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    Loredana Ivan

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Despite ageist stereotypes about older people’s abilities to engage with information and communication technologies, grandparents are increasingly engaged with digital media. Grandmothers, in particular, are primarily responsible for using of web-based services to communicate with their children and grandchildren (Quadrello et al., 2005. Photos and news from children and grandchildren, especially grandbabies, act as important incentives for grandparents to go online. The purpose of the study, therefore, was to investigate how grandmothers use Facebook to facilitate family communication with children and grandchildren who move far away from home. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with grandmothers living in Romania and Canada, having a Facebook account and relevant family members (children or grandchildren far from home. Three themes emerged from the data indicating: 1 the tendency to switch between different platforms to facilitate family communication; 2 the relative passive use of Facebook, focusing on photos and quotations as content that trigger emotions; 3 that Facebook usage is influenced by social norms around decency and privacy. Findings suggest that family relationships play a central role in grandmothers’ motivations and behaviours surrounding Facebook use.

  15. EARLY HEAD START FAMILIES' EXPERIENCES WITH STRESS: UNDERSTANDING VARIATIONS WITHIN A HIGH-RISK, LOW-INCOME SAMPLE.

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    Hustedt, Jason T; Vu, Jennifer A; Bargreen, Kaitlin N; Hallam, Rena A; Han, Myae

    2017-09-01

    The federal Early Head Start program provides a relevant context to examine families' experiences with stress since participants qualify on the basis of poverty and risk. Building on previous research that has shown variations in demographic and economic risks even among qualifying families, we examined possible variations in families' perceptions of stress. Family, parent, and child data were collected to measure stressors and risk across a variety of domains in families' everyday lives, primarily from self-report measures, but also including assay results from child cortisol samples. A cluster analysis was employed to examine potential differences among groups of Early Head Start families. Results showed that there were three distinct subgroups of families, with some families perceiving that they experienced very high levels of stress while others perceived much lower levels of stress despite also experiencing poverty and heightened risk. These findings have important implications in that they provide an initial step toward distinguishing differences in low-income families' experiences with stress, thereby informing interventions focused on promoting responsive caregiving as a possible mechanism to buffer the effects of family and social stressors on young children. © 2017 Michigan Association for Infant Mental Health.

  16. Home visits by family physicians during the end-of-life: Does patient income or residence play a role?

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    Johnston Grace

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background With a growing trend for those with advanced cancer to die at home, there is a corresponding increase in need for primary medical care in that setting. Yet those with lower incomes and in rural regions are often challenged to have their health care needs met. This study examined the association between patient income and residence and the receipt of Family Physician (FP home visits during the end-of-life among patients with cancer. Methods Data Sources/Study Setting. Secondary analysis of linked population-based data. Information pertaining to all patients who died due to lung, colorectal, breast or prostate cancer between 1992 and 1997 (N = 7,212 in the Canadian province of Nova Scotia (NS was extracted from three administrative health databases and from Statistics Canada census records. Study Design. An ecological measure of income ('neighbourhood' median household income was developed using census information. Multivariate logistic regression was then used to assess the association of income with the receipt of at least one home visit from a FP among all subjects and by region of residency during the end-of-life. Covariates in the initial multivariate model included patient demographics and alternative health services information such as total days spent as a hospital inpatient. Data Extraction Methods. Encrypted patient health card numbers were used to link all administrative health databases whereas the postal code was the link to Statistics Canada census information. Results Over 45% of all subjects received at least one home visit (n = 3265. Compared to those from low income areas, the log odds of receiving at least one home visit was significantly greater among subjects who reside in middle to high income neighbourhoods (for the highest income quintile, adjusted odds ratio [OR] = 1.37, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.15, 1.64; for upper-middle income, adjusted OR = 1.19, 95%CI = 1.02, 1.39; for middle income

  17. SDH-NET: a South-North-South collaboration to build sustainable research capacities on social determinants of health in low- and middle-income countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cash-Gibson, Lucinda; Guerra, German; Salgado-de-Snyder, V Nelly

    2015-10-22

    It is desirable that health researchers have the ability to conduct research on health equity and contribute to the development of their national health system and policymaking processes. However, in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs), there is a limited capacity to conduct this type of research due to reasons mostly associated with the status of national (health) research systems. Building sustainable research capacity in LMICs through the triangulation of South-North-South (S-N-S) collaborative networks seems to be an effective way to maximize limited national resources to strengthen these capacities. This article describes how a collaborative project (SDH-Net), funded by the European Commission, has successfully designed a study protocol and a S-N-S collaborative network to effectively support research capacity building in LMICs, specifically in the area of social determinants of health (SDH); this project seeks to elaborate on the vital role of global collaborative networks in strengthening this practice. The implementation of SDH-Net comprised diverse activities developed in three phases. Phase 1: national level mapping exercises were conducted to assess the needs for SDH capacity building or strengthening in local research systems. Four strategic areas were defined, namely research implementation and system performance, social appropriation of knowledge, institutional and national research infrastructure, and research skills and training/networks. Phase 2: development of tools to address the identified capacity building needs, as well as knowledge management and network strengthening activities. Phase 3: identifying lessons learned in terms of research ethics, and how policies can support the capacity building process in SDH research. The implementation of the protocol has led the network to design innovative tools for strengthening SDH research capacities, under a successful S-N-S collaboration that included national mapping reports, a global open

  18. Abdominal adiposity and family income-to-poverty ratio in American women.

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    Okosun, Ike S; Annor, Francis B; Seale, J Paul; Eriksen, Michael P

    2014-01-01

    We examined (a) secular changes in abdominal fat accumulation (AFA) and family income-to-poverty ratio (PIR) across race/ethnicity, education and age in Mexican (MA), non-Hispanic Whites (NHW), non-Hispanic Black (NHB), and (b) association between PIR and AFA among American women. Data (n = 9787) from 2001-2002 to 2009-2010 NHANES were used. Rates of AFA and poverty by race/ethnic, age and education categories were determined across study time points. Subjects with low and medium PIR values were classified as poor. Linear trends in AFA and PIR were evaluated. Study time-specific odds ratios (OR) from logistic regression models were used to estimate risk of AFA due to low to medium PIR. Statistical adjustments were made for race/ethnicity, education, age, and marital status. Increased trends in low to medium PIR and AFA in MA, NHW, and NHB American women were observed between 2001 and 2010. Poor women had much higher prevalence of AFA compared to richer women. For each of the studied periods, medium and low PIR were each associated with increased odds of AFA. The association between poverty and AFA was weakest in 2001-2002 (OR = 1.49, 95% CI: 1.05-2.11) compared to 2009-2010 (OR = 1.64, 95% CI: 1.21-2.22). Compared to NHW, being of MA and NHB race/ethnicity was also each associated with increased odds of AFA, controlling for other independent variables. Increase in poverty and AFA, and positive association between decreased PIR and increased odds of AFA were observed in the period between 2001 and 2010 in MA, NHW, and NHB American women. A robust economic policy designed to alleviate poverty may be an important means of reducing the trajectory of AFA in American women. © 2014 Asian Oceanian Association for the Study of Obesity . Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Infant and toddlers' feeding practices and obesity amongst low-income families in Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jimenez-Cruz, Arturo; Bacardi-Gascon, Montserrat; Pichardo-Osuna, Alexandra; Mandujano-Trujillo, Zally; Castillo-Ruiz, Octelina

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the risk factors of childhood obesity among infants and toddlers from low-income families from three cities in Mexico. This is a cross-sectional study of mothers and their infants and toddlers attending a vaccination centre at three primary care clinics in Tijuana, Tuxtla, and Reynosa. Anthropometric measurements of the mothers and children were conducted at the clinic and a questionnaire was administered to the mother. Eight-hundred and ten mothers and their 5 to 24 months old infants participated in the study. Average age for the mothers was 24 (21-28) years, and 57% of them were either overweight or obese. The children's average age was 12.7 (5-24) months. Overall overweight prevalence in this sample was 11% and obesity 8%, these increased with age, from 3% for overweight and 6 % for obesity before 6 months, to 13 and 10% between 12 to 24 months respectively. Thirty-five percent of infants were breastfed>or=6 month and 92% were introduced to other solid foods before 6 months. Introduction of high-fat content snacks (HFS) and carbonated and non-carbonated sweetened (CSD) drinks starts before 6 months and more than sixty percent of the children between 12 to 24 months of age were eating HFS and CSD sweetened drinks at least once a week. Consumption of snacks and CSD sweetened drinks (>or=1 week) was associated with being overweight and obese (crude), OR, 1.82; 95% CI=1.24-2.65 (p=0.002). These results suggest that preventive programs should be initiated during pregnancy and continued.

  20. Food insecurity and obesogenic maternal infant feeding styles and practices in low-income families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gross, Rachel S; Mendelsohn, Alan L; Fierman, Arthur H; Racine, Andrew D; Messito, Mary Jo

    2012-08-01

    We explored the relationship between household food insecurity and maternal feeding styles, infant feeding practices, and perceptions and attitudes about infant weight in low-income mothers. Mothers participating in the Special Supplemental Food Program for Women, Infants, and Children with infants aged between 2 weeks and 6 months were interviewed. By using regression analyses, the following relationships were examined between food insecurity and: (1) controlling feeding styles (restrictive and pressuring); (2) infant feeding practices, including breastfeeding, juice consumption, and adding cereal to the bottle; and (3) perceptions and attitudes about infant weight. Path analysis was used to determine if perceptions and attitudes about infant weight mediated the relationships between food insecurity and controlling feeding styles. The sample included 201 mother-infant pairs, with 35% reporting household food insecurity. Food-insecure mothers were more likely to exhibit restrictive (B [SE]: 0.18 [0.08]; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.02-0.34) and pressuring (B [SE]: 0.11 [0.06]; 95% CI: 0.001-0.22) feeding styles compared with food-secure mothers. No associations were found with feeding practices. Concern for their infant becoming overweight in the future was associated with food insecurity (adjusted odds ratio: 2.11 [95% CI: 1.02-4.38]). This concern mediated the relationship between food insecurity and both restrictive (P = .009) and pressuring (P = .01) feeding styles. Increased concern about future overweight and controlling feeding styles represent potential mechanisms by which food insecurity could be related to obesity. Obesity prevention should aim to decrease food insecurity and to reduce controlling feeding styles in families who remain food insecure.

  1. Maternal depressive symptoms and child obesity in low-income urban families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gross, Rachel S; Velazco, Nerissa K; Briggs, Rahil D; Racine, Andrew D

    2013-01-01

    To characterize the relationship between maternal depressive symptoms and child weight status, obesity-promoting feeding practices, and activity-related behaviors in low-income urban families. We conducted a cross-sectional survey of mothers with 5-year-old children receiving pediatric care at a federally qualified community health center. We used regression analyses to examine the relationship between maternal depressive symptoms (trichotomized: none, mild, moderate to severe) and 1) child weight status; 2) obesity-promoting feeding practices, including mealtime practices and feeding styles; and 3) activity-related behaviors, including sleep time, screen time, and outdoor playtime. The sample included 401 mother-child pairs (78.3% response rate), with 23.4% of mothers reporting depressive symptoms (15.7% mild, 7.7% moderate to severe). Mothers with moderate to severe depressive symptoms were more likely to have overweight and obese children than mothers without depressive symptoms (adjusted odds ratio 2.62; 95% confidence interval 1.02-6.70). Children of mildly depressed mothers were more likely to consume sweetened drinks and to eat out at restaurants and were less likely to eat breakfast than children of nondepressed mothers. Mothers with depressive symptoms were less likely to set limits, to use food as a reward, to restrict their child's intake, and to model healthy eating than nondepressed mothers. Children with depressed mothers had less sleep and outdoor playtime per day than children of nondepressed mothers. Maternal depressive symptoms are associated with child overweight and obese status and with several obesity-promoting practices. These results support the need for maternal depression screening in pediatric obesity prevention programs. Further research should explore how to incorporate needed mental health support. Copyright © 2013 Academic Pediatric Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Income Disparities in Preschool Outcomes and the Role of Family, Child, and Parenting Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohen, Dafna; Guèvremont, Anne

    2014-01-01

    The current study examined income disparities in a comprehensive set of preschoolers' outcomes (verbal ability, developmental skills, number knowledge, and hyperactivity) and the factors that could reduce differences in outcomes between children in the lowest and highest household income quartiles. Findings using Cycle 6 data from the Canadian…

  3. Contemporary Work and Family Issues Affecting Marriage and Cohabitation among Low-Income Single Mothers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joshi, Pamela; Quane, James M.; Cherlin, Andrew J.

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, we advance and test an integrative model of the effects of employment status, nonstandard work schedules, male employment, and women's perceptions of economic instability on union formation among low-income single mothers. On the basis of the longitudinal data from 1,299 low-income mothers from the Three-City Welfare Study, results…

  4. Child Disinhibition, Parent Restriction, and Child Body Mass Index in Low-Income Preschool Families

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sparks, Martha A.; Radnitz, Cynthia L.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To examine both unique and interactive effects of parent restrictive feeding and child disinhibited eating behavior on child body mass index (BMI) in low-income Latino and African American preschoolers. Methods: The sample included 229 parent-child pairs, the majority of whom were low-income and Latino (57%) or African American (25%).…

  5. Health and Safety in Family Day Care Homes: Association Between Regulatory Non-compliance and Lower Median Income.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenthal, Marjorie S; Jeon, Sangchoon; Crowley, Angela A

    2016-05-01

    To determine frequency of non-compliance with child care regulations among family day care homes (FDCH) and identify the role of income in compliance. We analyzed non-compliance in 746 routine, unannounced inspection and re-inspection reports of FDCH collected by the Connecticut Department of Public Health licensing specialists in 2007-2008 and linked results to median income of zip code data. We grouped the 83 state regulations into 12 regulation categories, analyzed 11 categories, and used latent class analysis to classify each FDCH as high or low compliance for each category. We used logistic regression analysis to estimate the odds ratios of low compliance. Among the 746 FDCH inspections (594 first inspections and 152 re-inspections), we found high rates of non-compliance in inspection regulations in immunizations (32.9 %), water temperature (35.6 %) and hazards (30.0 %). Among the 11 regulation categories, 4 categories (indoor safety, emergency preparedness, child/family/staff documentation, and qualifications of provider) had regulations with high non-compliance. Median household income of FDCH zip code was lower for re-inspection sites than for inspection sites ($34,715 vs. $57,118, p non-compliance issues in inspections and re-inspections and there are income-based inequities that place children at higher risk who are already at high risk for suboptimal health outcomes.

  6. Stress and mental health in families with different income levels: a strategy to collect multi-actor data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponnet, Koen; Wouters, Edwin

    2014-01-02

    Several studies have focused on family stress processes, examining the association between various sources of stress and the mental health and well-being of parents and adolescents. The majority of these studies take the individual as the unit of analysis. Multi-actor panel data make it possible to examine the dynamics of the family context over time and the differentiating effects of individual roles within the same family. Accurate information about family processes allows practitioners to provide support that enhances family resilience and minimizes the risk of mental health problems. Our study contributes to the research on family stress processes by focusing on families with different income levels, and by collecting panel data from mothers, fathers, and adolescents within the same family. The relationship between mothers, fathers, and children (RMFC) study is an ongoing Flemish multi-actor panel study that aims to enhance our understanding of family processes that protect the mental health and well-being of two-parent families with a target adolescent between 11 and 17 years old. Mothers, fathers, and children provide information about various aspects of family life, including finances, sources of stress, health, mental health, parenting, and coping strategies. Measures have been chosen whenever possible that have sound conceptual underpinnings and robust psychometric properties. The study posed two challenges. First, economically disadvantaged families are difficult to reach. Second, the collection of multi-actor data is often plagued by high nonresponse. To ensure that the families were targeted as successfully as possible, the study employed a purposive nonprobability sampling method. The RMFC study is one of the largest triadic panel studies of its kind. The first wave of quantitative data collection was conducted between February 2012 and January 2013. A total of 2566 individuals of 880 families participated in our study. The second wave of data

  7. Mental health and functioning of children of low-income depressed mothers: Influences of parenting, family environment, and raters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riley, Anne W.; Coiro, Mary Jo; Broitman, Marina; Bandeen-Roche, Karen; Hurley, Kristen; Colantuoni, Elizabeth; Miranda, Jeanne

    2013-01-01

    Purpose To extend understanding of the effects of maternal depression on children to low-income and minority families; to apply advanced analytic methods to incorporate the reports of mothers, fathers, and teachers on the emotional and behavior problems and adaptive skills of 4–10 year old urban children; and to examine parenting quality and family environment as possible explanations of high rates of problems among children whose mothers have depression compared to those whose mothers are not depressed. Methods Mothers who participated either had major depressive disorder (n=84) or did not (n=49). They were predominantly African-American or Latino and lived in low-income, urban communities. Mothers, fathers, and teachers reported on children’s emotional, behavioral and adaptive functioning. Parenting behavior and family stress were examined as potential mediators and generalized estimating equations (GEE) were employed to test mediation and to account for discrepancies in reports by different raters. Results By mother, father and teacher reports, children of depressed mothers had significantly poorer adaptive skills than children of sociodemographically-similar non-depressed mothers; and they had more emotional/behavior problems according to mothers and fathers. The quality of mothers’ parenting mediated these associations, but quality of the family environment did not. Conclusions This study extends the literature on the effects of maternal depression to low-income, minority families, and demonstrates that mothers, fathers and teachers observe worse functioning in children of depressed mothers than those of non-depressed mothers, although their perspectives vary somewhat. The impact of maternal depression suggests the importance of developing and funding services to address the needs of affected families. PMID:19252045

  8. Understanding the linkages between social safety nets and childhood violence: a review of the evidence from low- and middle-income countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterman, Amber; Neijhoft, Anastasia Naomi; Cook, Sarah; Palermo, Tia M

    2017-09-01

    As many as one billion children experience violence every year, and household- and community-level poverty are among the risk factors for child protection violations. Social safety nets (SSNs) are a main policy tool to address poverty and vulnerability, and there is substantial evidence demonstrating positive effects on children's health and human capital. This paper reviews evidence and develops a framework to understand linkages between non-contributory SSNs and the experience of childhood emotional, physical and sexual violence in low- and middle-income countries. We catalogue 14 rigorous impact evaluations, 11 of which are completed, analysing 57 unique impacts on diverse violence indicators. Among these impacts, approximately one in five represent statistically significant protective effects on childhood violence. Promising evidence relates to sexual violence among female adolescents in Africa, while there is less clear evidence of significant impacts in other parts of the developing world, and on young child measures, including violent discipline. Further, few studies are set up to meaningfully unpack mechanisms between SSNs and childhood violence; however, those most commonly hypothesized operate at the household level (through increases in economic security and reductions in poverty-related stress), the interpersonal level (improved parental behaviours, caregiving practices, improved psychosocial well-being) and at the child-level (protective education and decreases in problem or risky behaviours). It is important to emphasize that traditional SSNs are never designed with violence prevention as primary objectives, and thus should not be considered as standalone interventions to reduce risks for childhood violence. However, SSNs, particularly within integrated protection systems, appear to have potential to reduce violence risk. Linkages between SSNs and childhood violence are understudied, and investments should be made to close this evidence gap. © The

  9. Home literacy activities: Accounting for differences in early grade literacy outcomes in low-income families in Zambia

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    Tamara Chansa-Kabali

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Inequalities on child cognitive outcomes exist as children enter the first grade. These differences are even wider for children in low-income families. This article aims to examine the extent to which home factors account for variation in early literacy outcomes in the first year of schooling. A total of 72 first graders and their parents from low-income families in Lusaka, Zambia, participated in the study. A self-reported home literacy questionnaire was used to collect home literacy data − parental education, home possessions, reading materials, language awareness, print experience, writing activities, reading activities and teaching letters. Children’s early literacy skills were assessed using four measures: orthography awareness, spelling, vocabulary and math tests. These tests were measured at two points: at the beginning and at the end of the first grade. Results showed that teaching letters was most predictive of literacy outcomes both at the beginning and end of the first year. The study concludes that formal teaching of letters at home is the parents’ greatest strength for supporting literacy in low-income families. Thus, energies for parental involvement should be directed in ways that are culturally practised and manageable by parents for better literacy outcomes.

  10. Production and maternal report of 16- and 18-month-olds' vocabulary in low- and middle-income families.

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    Furey, Joan E

    2011-02-01

    To compare maternal report of children's vocabularies on the MacArthur Communicative Development Inventories Words and Gestures form (CDI:WG; Fenson et al., 1993) with spontaneous production data in both low- and middle-income families. As part of a longitudinal investigation, language samples were gathered from 23 mother-child dyads based on Stoel-Gammon's (1987) protocol for the Language Production Scale when the children were 16 and 18 months of age. The mothers also completed the CDI:WG at both visits. The words that the children produced were compared with those the mothers reported on the vocabulary checklist, with family income and vocabulary size as grouping factors. Maternal reporting did not differ as a function of socioeconomic status but did increase from 16 to 18 months. The vocabulary differences observed on the CDI:WG for children from low-income families do not appear to be a reflection of inaccurate maternal reporting. Further research is needed to determine whether these findings will generalize more broadly.

  11. Provincial-level spatial statistical modelling of the change in per capita disposable Family Income in Spain, 1975-1983

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    Daniel A. Griffith

    1998-02-01

    Full Text Available Computational simplifications for a space-time autoregressive response model specification are explored for the change in Spain's per capita disposable family income between 1975 and 1983. The geographic resolution for this analysis is the provincial partitioning of part of the Iberian peninsula into Spain's 47 coterminous provinces coupled with its 3 island clusters provinces. In keeping with the Paelinckian tradition of spatial econometrics, exploration focuses on both new spatial econometric estimators and model specifications that emphasize the capturing of spatial dependency effects in the mean response term. One goal of this analysis is to differentiate between spatial, temporal, and space-time interaction information contained in the per capita disposable family income data. A second objective of the application is to illustrate the utility of extending computational simplifications from the spatial to the space-time domain. And a third purpose is to gain some substantive insights into the economic development of one country in a changing Europe. A serendipitous outcome of this investigation is a detailed analysis of locational information latent in Spain's regionally disaggregated per capita disposable family income.

  12. Use of clinic versus private family planning care by low-income women: access, cost, and patient satisfaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radecki, S E; Bernstein, G S

    1989-01-01

    Use of private physicians versus public family planning facilities by poverty level and near poverty level women was examined by means of a sample survey conducted in low-income areas of Los Angeles County. Utilization differed by race/ethnicity, with Hispanics more likely to go to federally subsidized family planning clinics (primarily county-run), Whites and Blacks to private physicians. Private family planning offers easier access, greater convenience, and higher satisfaction, albeit at almost double the cost. Clinic usage is influenced by lack of a regular source of medical care and lack of insurance coverage more than poverty level per se. Clinic patients report greater patient education regarding contraceptive methods, but less general medical care during clinic visits. They are more likely than private patients to express a desire for a different source of family planning care. PMID:2729465

  13. A model for scale up of family health innovations in low-income and middle-income settings: a mixed methods study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradley, Elizabeth H; Curry, Leslie A; Taylor, Lauren A; Pallas, Sarah Wood; Talbert-Slagle, Kristina; Yuan, Christina; Fox, Ashley; Minhas, Dilpreet; Ciccone, Dana Karen; Berg, David; Pérez-Escamilla, Rafael

    2012-01-01

    Many family health innovations that have been shown to be both efficacious and cost-effective fail to scale up for widespread use particularly in low-income and middle-income countries (LMIC). Although individual cases of successful scale-up, in which widespread take up occurs, have been described, we lack an integrated and practical model of scale-up that may be applicable to a wide range of public health innovations in LMIC. To develop an integrated and practical model of scale-up that synthesises experiences of family health programmes in LMICs. We conducted a mixed methods study that included in-depth interviews with 33 key informants and a systematic review of peer-reviewed and grey literature from 11 electronic databases and 20 global health agency web sites. We included key informants and studies that reported on the scale up of several family health innovations including Depo-Provera as an example of a product innovation, exclusive breastfeeding as an example of a health behaviour innovation, community health workers (CHWs) as an example of an organisational innovation and social marketing as an example of a business model innovation. Key informants were drawn from non-governmental, government and international organisations using snowball sampling. An article was excluded if the article: did not meet the study's definition of the innovation; did not address dissemination, diffusion, scale up or sustainability of the innovation; did not address low-income or middle-income countries; was superficial in its discussion and/or did not provide empirical evidence about scale-up of the innovation; was not available online in full text; or was not available in English, French, Spanish or Portuguese, resulting in a final sample of 41 peer-reviewed articles and 30 grey literature sources. We used the constant comparative method of qualitative data analysis to extract recurrent themes from the interviews, and we integrated these themes with findings from the

  14. Geographical Mobility, Income, Life Satisfaction and Family Size Preferences: An Empirical Study on Rural Households in Shaanxi and Henan Provinces in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jiangsheng; Yang, Hong

    Employing data from the China rural-urban mobility survey conducted in 2010, this study investigates the influence of family demographic characteristics on the income, life satisfaction, and potential for rural-urban mobility at the rural household level of two provinces of China: Shaanxi and Henan. A larger labor force in a rural household was found to reduce a family's ability or inclination to move to a city. The findings reveal that family size negatively affects the average income per family member and reduces the marginal income of the labor force and that minor children can improve the life satisfaction of family members. We conclude that a larger family size does not translate to more benefits for a rural household. Family size preference is found to be a reflection of parents' concerns about elderly care and is deemed to be unfavorable for urbanization in P. R. China.

  15. Mental health of children of low-income depressed mothers: influences of parenting, family environment, and raters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riley, Anne W; Coiro, Mary Jo; Broitman, Marina; Colantuoni, Elizabeth; Hurley, Kristen M; Bandeen-Roche, Karen; Miranda, Jeanne

    2009-03-01

    This study examined the association of maternal depression with the emotional and behavioral problems and adaptive skills of four- to ten-year-old children as rated by their mothers, fathers, and teachers. Eighty-four mothers had major depressive disorder, and 49 did not. They were predominantly African American or Latino and lived in low-income, urban communities. Mothers, fathers, and teachers reported on children's emotional and behavioral problems and adaptive functioning. Parenting behavior and family stress were examined as potential mediators, and generalized estimating equations were used to test mediation and to account for discrepancies in reports by different raters. According to the combined reports, children of mothers with depression had significantly poorer adaptive skills than children of sociodemographically similar mothers without depression; according to the reports of mothers and fathers, these children also had more emotional and behavioral problems. The quality of mothers' parenting mediated these associations, but measured family stressors did not. This study contributes to the scientific literature by demonstrating the effects of raters and testing mediators of maternal depression in low-income African-American and Latino families. It demonstrated that mothers, fathers, and teachers observed worse functioning among children of mothers with depression than without depression, although reporters' perspectives varied somewhat. The impact of maternal depression over and above that of poverty suggests the importance of developing and funding services to address the needs of affected families.

  16. Validation of a culture-contextualized measure of family engagement in the early learning of low-income Latino children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McWayne, Christine M; Melzi, Gigliana

    2014-04-01

    Given the increased numbers of Latino children entering the U.S. educational system, there is a need to develop culturally contextualized models to understand the ways Latino parents participate in and support their children's school experiences. Current tools used to measure family engagement have been developed primarily with monolingual English-speaking European American families and thus might not accurately capture the engagement behaviors unique to other ethnic and linguistic groups. The present study builds upon prior mixed-methods research, involving a total of 763 Latino parents, which employed an emic approach to understand family engagement conceptualizations for a pan-Latino population and to develop a new measure for use with this heterogeneous group. In this follow-up study, we examined, with an additional 463 Latino caregivers, the construct validity of a revised 43-item measure across 2 language versions: Parental Engagement of Families from Latino Backgrounds (PEFL-English) and Participación Educativa de Familias Latinas (PEFL-Spanish). The 4 dimensions of family engagement empirically identified in the prior development study were confirmed with this multicity, independent sample of low-income Latino families. Family engagement dimensions demonstrated relations with recency of immigration, home language, employment, education, and caregiver age, as well as caregiver-reported levels of social support. Findings are discussed with respect to future directions for early childhood research and practice. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved.

  17. Changes in Family Income around the Time of Birth of Children in Germany between 1985 and 2004

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    Alexander Schulze

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available While the course and the determinants of fertility behaviour have been investigated intensively, the monetary consequences of birth have hardly been considered empirically to date. Therefore, this paper focuses on the short-term (equivalent household income changes around the time of births in a longitudinal perspective and examines them for their causes. For the analyses of the longitudinal data (GSOEP-Data 1984-2005, fixed effects panel regression models were computed. The results show that the short-term socioeconomic consequences of birth have clearly increased in the last two decades and first births in particular are associated with disproportionately severe socioeconomic consequences, while further births are rarely accompanied by negative changes in the households’ socioeconomic situations. Furthermore, household income losses attributable to births only arise in double income households and increase gradually in line with a rising level of household income before birth. Hence, the analyses suggest the need for more adequate state assistance with respect to family support. Beside the provision of adequate infrastructural conditions which allow mothers to be employed, also the payments to compensate for child-related costs (“Kindergeld” should be – in contrast to the present practice in Germany – increased and re-adjusted with respect to the child’s position in the birth sequence.

  18. Parent emotional distress and feeding styles in low-income families. The role of parent depression and parenting stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Sheryl O; Power, Thomas G; Liu, Yan; Sharp, Carla; Nicklas, Theresa A

    2015-09-01

    Depression and other stressors have been associated with general parenting and child outcomes in low-income families. Given that parents shape child eating behaviors through their feeding interactions with their child, it is important to investigate factors that may influence parental feeding of young children. The aim of this study was to examine how depressive symptoms and parenting stress might influence the nature of parent feeding styles in low-income families. Questionnaires were completed by 290 African-American and Hispanic parents residing in a large urban city in the southwestern United States. Twenty-six percent of the parents reported depressive symptoms above the clinical cutoff. Multivariate logistic regression was used to examine how depressive symptoms and parenting stress might influence the nature of parent feeding styles. After adjusting for potential confounding variables (e.g., ethnicity, education, age), parents with an uninvolved feeding style reported less positive affect and more parenting stress than parents showing the other three feeding styles - authoritative, authoritarian, and indulgent. Because feeding styles tend to be associated with child obesity in low income samples, the results of this study provide important information regarding the parent-child eating dynamic that may promote less optimal child eating behaviors and the development of childhood obesity. This information could be useful for prevention studies aimed at changing parent behaviors that negatively impact the socialization of child eating behaviors. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Effect of Family Income on the Relationship Between Parental Education and Sealant Prevalence, National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 2005-2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al Agili, Dania E; Griffin, Susan O

    2015-08-27

    We examined the association between sealant prevalence and parental education for different levels of family income, controlling for other covariates. We combined data from 2005-2006, 2007-2008, and 2009-2010 cycles of the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. The study sample was 7,090 participants aged 6 to 19 years. Explanatory variables, chosen on the basis of Andersen and Aday's framework of health care utilization, were predisposing variables - child's age, sex, race/ethnicity, and parental education (high school diploma); enabling variables - family income (200% of the FPL), health insurance status, and regular source of medical care; and a need variable - future need for care (perceived child health status is excellent/very good, good, fair/poor). We conducted bivariate and multivariate analyses and included a term for interaction between education and income in the multivariate model. We report significant findings (P ≤ .05). Sealant prevalence was associated with all explanatory variables in bivariate and multivariate analyses. In bivariate analyses, higher parental education and family income were independently associated with higher sealant prevalence. In the multivariate analysis, higher parental education was associated with sealant prevalence among higher income children, but not among low-income children (education greater than a high school diploma versus less than a high school diploma in families with income ≥100% FPL. Our findings suggest that income modifies the association of parental education on sealant prevalence. Recognition of this relationship may be important for health promotion efforts.

  20. Familial environment in high- and middle-low-income municipalities: a survey in Italy to understand the distribution of potentially obesogenic factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregori, D; Foltran, F; Ghidina, M; Zobec, F; Berchialla, P

    2012-09-01

    To explore the familial and social environment in high- and middle-low-income municipalities in Italy to evaluate the distribution of potentially obesogenic factors. A hybrid methodological approach was chosen. A survey of 1215 Italian children was performed to collect information regarding child, family and peer characteristics; additionally, income data were derived from national estimates based on zip codes. A cross-sectional study conducted via computer-assisted telephone interviews (CATI). A CATI facility was used to interview 1215 Italian children aged 6-10 years. Information regarding family composition; body mass index (BMI) of the child, father and mother; mother's perception of the child's weight; levels of physical activity of the child, father and mother; time spent watching television or playing video games; use of social networks; leisure-time habits; and dietary habits of peers was collected. Income per year per person was obtained from the Italian National Institute of Statistics estimates. Municipalities were divided into two groups: one representing the highest ranking income from the total Italian income distribution, and one representing middle-low incomes. Differences between middle-low-income and high-income groups for child and parent BMIs, social networks, and dietary and leisure-time habits were compared using Wilcoxon and McNemar tests, as appropriate. Multivariate analysis was conducted using logistic regression. In total, 604 high-income children and 611 middle-low-income children were identified. A significant difference in father's BMI was found between middle-low- and high-income groups: 10.5% of fathers in middle-low-income municipalities were obese, compared with 3.8% in high-income areas (P middle-low-income children participated in less physical activity than high-income children (22.7% vs 34.8% participated in sporting activities for more than 3 h per week, P middle-low-income children were not isolated and were surrounded by a

  1. Psychosocial effects of stroke in low-income family context - doi: 10.5020/18061230.2010.p343

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Nilson Rodrigues de Menezes

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To understand the psychosocial effects of stroke – cerebrovascular accident (CVA – in a low-income family context. Methods: A qualitative and descriptive research held in one of the units of Associação Beneficente Cearense de Reabilitação (ABCR in Fortaleza, Ceará, in the period from June to December, 2002. Six patients with sequel of CVA and their families joined in the study, regardless of age, with an average of six months of physiotherapy. For data collection we applied free observation and semi-structured interviews to patients and families, mediated by specific guiding questions for each group. From content analysis five categories emerged. Results: The difficulties of family life, the feelings of anguish and anxiety prevailed in the quest for rehabilitation, with the treatment being long, requiring determination and awareness of patient-family dyad. The fear of losing their jobs, the responsibility, the expenses and their family life were present in the discourse of patients and relatives, in addition to questions about the disease and concerns about recovery and / or healing. Final considerations: The stroke (CVA brings as psychological effects feelings of fear, anguish and limitation, contrasting with the determination of the quest for recovery. Socially, the unemployment, both physical and financial dependence and social isolation were highlighted.

  2. Assessing the Productive Vocabulary of Spanish-English Bilingual Toddlers from Low-Income Families

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mancilla-Martinez, Jeannette; Pan, Barbara Alexander; Vagh, Shaher Banu

    2011-01-01

    This study investigates the utility and validity of the MacArthur-Bates Communicative Development Inventory (CDI) for use with low-income parents and their 24- to 36-month-old Spanish-English bilingual children (n = 79). Issues in the interpretation of the integrated CDI/Inventarios del Desarrollo de Habilidades Comunicativas (IDHC) score to index…

  3. Daughter-Father Relationships and Adolescent Psychosocial Functioning in Low-Income African American Families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coley, Rebekah Levine

    2003-01-01

    Examines the role of biological and social fathers in the lives of low-income African American adolescent girls. Analyses indicated that daughters' perceptions of anger and alienation from fathers was related to greater emotional and behavioral problems for adolescents, whereas perceptions of trust and communication with fathers were not…

  4. Transitions to Engagement among Low-Income Cohabiting African American Couples: A Family Perspective for Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaney, Cassandra; Monroe, Pamela

    2011-01-01

    With passage of the Welfare Reform Law of 1996, various national, state, and local programs were created to encourage marriage, particularly among low-income African American cohabiting couples with children. However, policy makers know little about the deterrents to marriage for members of this group. More specifically, there is a lack of data…

  5. Food Insecurity and Obesity: A Dual Challenge for Low-Income Families

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Lynn

    2007-01-01

    "Food insecurity," which is the lack of access to enough food to fully meet basic needs at all times because of economic constraints, afflicts 40.6% of low-income households with children. Research shows that living in a food-insecure household can lead to negative health and developmental consequences for young children, including obesity.…

  6. Strategies used by overweight and obese low-income mothers to feed their families in urban Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Morais Sato, Priscila; Unsain, Ramiro Fernandes; Gittelsohn, Joel; Sanches Tavares da Silva, João Gabriel; Gonçalves Perez, Isabel Cristina; Baeza Scagliusi, Fernanda

    2017-04-01

    To describe and compare strategies adopted by overweight and obese low-income mothers living in different vulnerable contexts to deal with food constraints and feed their families. Qualitative in-depth interviews. Data were analyzed with exploratory content analysis and the number of segments per theme was used to compare neighborhoods. Three low-income neighborhoods in Santos, Brazil. A purposive sample of 21 overweight or obese mothers. We identified three main types of strategies, namely, food acquisition, cooking, and eating. Food acquisition included social support and food-sourcing strategies. Social support strategies ranged from macro (governmental programs) to micro (family) levels. Food-sourcing strategies involved price research and use of credit to buy foods. Cooking approaches included optimizing food (e.g., adding water to beans), avoiding wastefulness, and substitutions (e.g., using water instead of milk when making cakes). Eating themes ranged from lack of quantity to lack of quality. Strategies to deal with the lack of food were affected by family dynamics, such as prioritizing provision of fruits to children. Food choices (e.g., low consumption of fruits and high consumption of fatty meats) derived from strategies may help promote overweight and obesity. Furthermore, for participants, financial constraints were perceived as barriers to following nutritionists' recommendations and weight loss. This study highlights the barriers that low-income women face in adopting a healthy diet and sheds light on the importance of the symbolic value of food, even in the context of food insecurity. Finally, it suggests that environmental aspects could increase the accessibility to fruits and vegetables. These findings could be used to inform the planning and implementation of interventions. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Early Academic Achievement Among American Low-Income Black Students from Immigrant and Non-Immigrant Families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calzada, Esther; Barajas-Gonzalez, R Gabriela; Dawson-McClure, Spring; Huang, Keng-Yen; Palamar, Joseph; Kamboukos, Dimitra; Brotman, Laurie Miller

    2015-11-01

    At least half of the well-documented achievement gap for low-income Black children is already present in kindergarten, due in part to limited opportunities for acquiring foundational skills necessary for school success. There is some evidence that low-income minority children from immigrant families have more positive outcomes than their non-immigrant counterparts, although little is known about how the immigrant paradox may manifest in young children. This study examines foundational school readiness skills (academic and social-emotional learning) at entry into pre-kindergarten (pre-k) and achievement in kindergarten and second grade among Black children from low-income immigrant and non-immigrant families (N = 299). Immigrant and non-immigrant children entered pre-k with comparable readiness scores; in both groups, reading scores decreased significantly from kindergarten to second grade and math scores decreased significantly for non-immigrant children and marginally for immigrant children. Regardless of immigrant status, pre-k school readiness and pre-k classroom quality were associated with elementary school achievement. However, declines in achievement scores were not as steep for immigrant children and several predictive associations were moderated by immigrant status, such that among those with lower pre-k school readiness or in lower quality classrooms, immigrant children had higher achievement test scores than children from non-immigrant families. Findings suggest that immigrant status provides young Black students with some protection against individual- and classroom-level risk factors for early underachievement in elementary school.

  8. A prospective cohort study to investigate parental stress and child health in low-income Chinese families: protocol paper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Rosa Sze Man; Yu, Esther Yee Tak; Guo, Vivian Yawei; Wan, Eric Yuk-Fai; Chin, Weng-Yee; Wong, Carlos King Ho; Fung, Colman Siu Cheung; Tung, Keith Tsz Suen; Wong, Wilfred Hing-Sang; Ip, Patrick; Tiwari, Agnes Fung Yee; Lam, Cindy Lo Kuen

    2018-02-22

    Chronic stress has adverse effects on health. Adults and children from low-income families are subject to multiple sources of stress. Existing literature about economic hardship mostly focuses on either adults or children but not both. Moreover, there is limited knowledge on the relationship between parental generalised stress and child health problems. This study aims to explore the bidirectional relationship between parental stress and child health in Chinese low-income families and to identify other modifiable factors influencing this relationship. This prospective cohort study will sample 254 low-income parent-child pairs and follow them up for 24 months with assessments at three time points (baseline, 12 and 24 months) on parental stress, health-related quality of life (HRQOL) and child health and behaviour using both subjective measures and objective physiological parameters. This study will collect data using standardised measures on HRQOL and behaviours of children as well as on HRQOL, mental health and stress levels of parents along with physiological tests of allostatic load and telomere length. The mediating or moderating effect of family harmony, parenting style and neighbourhood conditions will also be assessed. Data will be analysed using latent growth modelling and cross-lagged path analysis modelling to examine the bidirectional effect of parental stress and child health over time. Mediation and moderation analysis will also be conducted to examine the mechanism by which the variables relate. This study was approved by the institutional review board of the University of Hong Kong-the Hospital Authority Hong Kong West Cluster, reference no: UW 16-415. The study findings will be disseminated through peer-reviewed publications and international conferences. NCT03185273; Pre-results. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise

  9. Food preparation supplies predict children's family meal and home-prepared dinner consumption in low-income households.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Appelhans, Bradley M; Waring, Molly E; Schneider, Kristin L; Pagoto, Sherry L

    2014-05-01

    Frequent family meals and home food preparation are considered important for children's nutritional health and weight maintenance. This cross-sectional study tested whether these parent-driven behaviors are related to the availability of food preparation supplies in low-income urban households. Caregivers of children ages 6-13 provided information on family meal frequency, child consumption of home-prepared dinners, household food insecurity, and attitudes towards cooking. Researchers used a newly developed Food Preparation Checklist (FPC) to assess the availability of 41 food preparation supplies during a physical audit of the home environment. Caregivers and children provided anthropometric measurements and jointly reported on child dietary intake. In ordinal logistic regression models, greater home availability of food preparation supplies was associated with more frequent family meals and child consumption of home-prepared dinners. Associations were independent of household financial strain, food insecurity, caregiver attitudes toward cooking, and sociodemographic characteristics. Fewer food preparation supplies were available in households characterized by greater food insecurity, lower income, and negative caregiver attitudes towards cooking, but did not differ by child or caregiver weight status. As in prior studies, more frequent family meals and consumption of home-prepared dinners were associated with healthier child dietary intake in several areas. We conclude that food preparation supplies are often limited in the most socioeconomically disadvantaged households, and their availability is related to the frequency with which children consume family meals and home-prepared dinners. The potential role of food preparation supplies as contributors to socioeconomic disparities in child nutritional health and obesity deserves further study. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Uncompensated care for children without insurance or from low-income families in a Chinese children's hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Weifang; Wang, Xuefei; Li, Jinzhong; Xu, Zhuopu

    2014-07-08

    In China, children from low-income families, particularly those of rural to urban migrant families, have become one of the most vulnerable populations in terms of healthcare access. Without support, these families will finally give up treatment for their children. Our hospital has sought several ways to fund the uncompensated care for children without insurance or from low-income families. The annual hospital financial report and donated patients' medical records from 2005 to 2011 were reviewed for extracting data, including disease type, and sources and amounts of donations. Files with information on uncompensated care were also reviewed. Uncompensated care was defined as the sum of a hospital's "bad debt" and the charity care it provides. The total expense of uncompensated care increased from 813 597 RMB in 2005 to 4 415 967 RMB in 2011, with a percentage of total budget ranging from 0.24% to 1.6% from 2005 to 2011. The hospital's bad debt accounts for 17.6% of the uncompensated care charge on average per year. The charity care was from: 1) donations from common warm-hearted persons, companies, and institutions after media reporting; 2) governmental charity organizations; 3) non-governmental charity organizations; and 4) special funding from contributions solicited by hospital, media, and governmental charity organizations' collaboration. Leukemia and congenital heart disease were the 2 leading types of diseases benefitted from the uncompensated care from 2005 to 2011. Uncompensated care is still an indispensable complementary supporting measure for pediatric care access in China. Children from rural-to-urban migrant families should be considered as a target population for the government to focus on.

  11. Financial benefits for child health and well-being in low income or socially disadvantaged families in developed world countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucas, P J; McIntosh, K; Petticrew, M; Roberts, H m; Shiell, A

    2008-04-16

    A strong and consistent relationship has been observed between relative poverty and poor child health and wellbeing even among rich nations. This review set out to examine evidence that additional monies provided to poor or disadvantaged families may benefit children by reducing relative poverty and thereby improving children's health, well-being and educational attainment. To assess the effectiveness of direct provision of additional monies to socially or economically disadvantaged families in improving children's health, well-being and educational attainment In total 10 electronic databases were searched including the Cochrane library searched 2006 (Issue 1), Medline searched 1966 to May 2006 , Econlit searched 1969 to June 2006 and PsycINFO searched 1872 to June 2006, together with 3 libraries of working papers (MDRC, SSRN, SRDC). The general search strategy was [terms for income and financial benefits] and [paediatric terms] and [RCT filter] Studies selected provided money to relatively poor families (which included a child under the age of 18 or a pregnant woman), were randomised or quasi-randomised, measured outcomes related to child health or wellbeing and were conducted in a high income country. Titles and abstracts identified in the search were independently assessed for eligibility by two reviewers. Data were extracted and entered into RevMan, synthesised and presented in both written and graphical form (forest plots). Nine trials including more than 25,000 participants were included in this review. No effect was observed on child health, measures of child mental health or emotional state. Non-significant effects favouring the intervention group were seen for child cognitive development and educational achievement, and a non-significant effect favouring controls in rates of teenage pregnancy. The review set out to examine the potential of financial support to poor families to improve circumstances for children. However, on the basis of current evidence we

  12. Recommendation for full-day kindergarten for children of low-income and racial/ethnic-minority families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Community Preventive Services Task Force

    2014-03-01

    The Community Preventive Services Task Force recommends full-day kindergarten programs to improve the health prospects of minority children and children from low-income families, based on strong evidence that, compared with half-day kindergarten or full-day kindergarten on alternating days, full-day programs substantially improve reading and mathematics achievement-determinants of long-term academic and health-related outcomes (e.g., reduced teen pregnancy and risk behaviors). The achievement gains apparent at the beginning of first grade do not, themselves, guarantee academic achievement in later years. Ongoing school environments that support learning and development are essential. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  13. Family income, parental education and internalizing and externalizing psychopathology among 2-3-year-old Chinese children: the mediator effect of parent-child conflict.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiao

    2014-02-01

    Using a sample of 156 Chinese children aged 2-3 years and their parents, this study examined the effects of socio-economic status, specifically family income and parental education, on the children's internalizing and externalizing psychopathology and whether these effects were mediated by mother-child and father-child conflict. Results indicated that family income, maternal education and paternal education all negatively predicted externalizing symptoms. Income also negatively predicted internalizing symptoms among boys but not girls. Maternal education negatively predicted internalizing symptoms among girls but not boys. The effects of income on psychopathology were fully mediated by mother-child and father-child conflict. In contrast, the effects of education were not mediated or only partially mediated by conflict. Findings are discussed in the framework of the family stress model. © 2013 International Union of Psychological Science.

  14. Beyond Immigrant Status: Book-Sharing in Low-Income Mexican-American Families

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salinas, Maria; Pérez-Granados, Deanne R.; Feldman, Heidi M.; Huffman, Lynne C.

    2017-01-01

    Data from a sample (n = 145) of low-income Mexican-American mothers and their toddlers (9-26 months) were used to explore the prevalence of high-frequency book-sharing (?3 days/week) and its association with maternal immigrant status (Mexico-born vs US-born), as well as other demographic and psychosocial factors. Mexico-born mothers were more…

  15. Kinship Support, Family Relations, and Psychological Adjustment among Low-Income African American Mothers and Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Ronald D.; Seaton, Eleanor; Dominguez, Antonio

    2008-01-01

    The association of kin social support with mothers' adjustment and family relations was assessed among 204 African American mothers and adolescents who were on average 14.45 years of age. Also examined was the association of mothers' adjustment with family relations and adolescents' adjustment. Findings revealed that kin social and emotional…

  16. School Readiness among Low-Income, Latino Children Attending Family Childcare versus Centre-Based Care

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ansari, Arya; Winsler, Adam

    2012-01-01

    Latino children often struggle in school. Early childhood education programmes are seen as critical for fostering children's school readiness. Latino families often choose family childcare (FCC) over centre-based childcare (CBC), yet little is known about the school readiness of Latino children attending FCC. We compared school readiness over the…

  17. Conceptualizing Family Risk in a Racially/Ethnically Diverse, Low-Income Kindergarten Population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendricker, Elise; Reinke, Wendy M.

    2017-01-01

    Children who exhibit early behavioral and academic difficulties are at increased risk of later negative outcomes (U.S. Department of Human and Health Services 2009). Within the school setting, conceptualization of family risk, culture, and demographic factors is needed to effectively identify at-risk families to improve child educational outcomes.…

  18. CHILDHOOD DEPRESSION. Exploring the association between family violence and other psychosocial factors in low-income Brazilian schoolchildren

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Avanci Joviana

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Childhood depression affects the morbidity, mortality and life functions of children. Individual, family and environmental factors have been documented as psychosocial risk factors for childhood depression, especially family violence, which results in inadequate support, low family cohesion and poor communication. This study investigates the association between psychosocial depression factors in low-income schoolchildren and reveals the potential trouble spots, highlighting several forms of violence that take place within the family context. Methods The study was based on a cross-sectional analysis of 464 schoolchildren aged between 6 and 10, selected by random sampling from a city in the state of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Socio-economic, family and individual variables were investigated on the strength of the caregivers’ information and organized in blocks for analysis. A binary logistic regression model was applied, according to hierarchical blocks. Results The final hierarchical regression analysis showed that the following variables are potential psychosocial factors associated with depression in childhood: average/poor relationship with the father (OR 3.24, 95% CI 1.32-7.94, high frequency of victimization by psychological violence (humiliation (OR 6.13, 95% CI 2.06-18.31, parental divorce (OR 2.89, 95% CI 1.14-7.32 and externalizing behavior problems (OR 3.53 IC 1.51-8.23. Conclusions The results point to multiple determinants of depressive behavior in children, as well as the potential contribution of psychological family violence. The study also reveals potential key targets for early intervention, especially for children from highly vulnerable families.

  19. Trends in Income Insecurity Among U.S. Children, 1984-2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Western, Bruce; Bloome, Deirdre; Sosnaud, Benjamin; Tach, Laura M

    2016-04-01

    Has income insecurity increased among U.S. children with the emergence of an employment-based safety net and the polarization of labor markets and family structure? We study the trend in insecurity from 1984-2010 by analyzing fluctuations in children's monthly family incomes in the Survey of Income and Program Participation. Going beyond earlier research on income volatility, we examine income insecurity more directly by analyzing income gains and losses separately and by relating them to changes in family composition and employment. The analysis provides new evidence of increased income insecurity by showing that large income losses increased more than large income gains for low-income children. Nearly one-half the increase in extreme income losses is related to trends in single parenthood and parental employment. Large income losses proliferated with the increased incidence of very low incomes (less than $150 per month). Extreme income losses and very low monthly incomes became more common particularly for U.S. children of nonworking single parents from the mid-1990s.

  20. Reproductive and family planning history, knowledge, and needs: A community survey of low-income women in Beijing, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Østbye Truls

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The reproductive health status of China's low-income urban women is believed to be poor. Therefore, understanding their reproductive history and needs and improving services provision is very important. However, few studies have been done to assess reproductive health status, knowledge and needs in this low-income population. The purpose of this study is to broadly assess reproductive and family planning history, knowledge and health needs among low income urban women with an aim to informing health services interventions. Methods 1642 low-income women age 18–49 from Haidian district, Beijing were selected. All were interviewed via a standardized questionnaire in 2006. Results Most women reported at least one pregnancy and delivery (97.7%, 98.3%. Deliveries in hospitals (97.3% by medical personnel (98.5% were commonplace, as was receipt of antenatal care (86.0%. Nearly half had at least one abortion, with most (56.0% performed in district hospitals, by physicians (95.6%, and paid for out-of-pocket (64.4%. Almost all (97.4% used contraception, typically IUDs or condoms. Reproductive knowledge was limited. Health needs emphasized by the participants included popularizing reproductive health information, being able to discuss their reproductive health concerns, free reproductive health insurance, examination and treatment. Conclusion Among poor urban women in Beijing, antenatal care and contraceptive use were common. However, abortions were also common. Knowledge about reproductive health was limited. There is a need for better reproductive health education, free medical care and social support.

  1. Meaning-Less Differences: Exposing Fallacies and Flaws in "The Word Gap" Hypothesis That Conceal a Dangerous "Language Trap" for Low-Income American Families and Their Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baugh, John

    2017-01-01

    The present article compares and contrasts linguistic findings from longitudinal studies of low-income Americans derived from evidence of recorded family speech interactions. Hart and Risley (1995) employed research assistants who spent 1 hour per month observing language usage among families from different socioeconomic backgrounds in their homes…

  2. Economic analysis of scaling up access to modern family planning methods in low and middle-income countries; case studies for Indonesia and Uganda

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zakiyah, N.; Van Asselt, A.; Cao, Q.; Setiawan, D.; Roijmans, F.; Postma, M.J.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: Family planning is one of the initial strategies to improve maternal health in low and middle-income countries (L-MICs), where unmet need can still be high. The aim of this study was to estimate the cost-effectiveness of improved access to family planning in L-MICs, with Indonesia and

  3. Sistema de informação geográfica para mapeamento da renda líquida aplicado no planejamento da agricultura irrigada Algorithm to mapping net income applied in irrigated agriculture planning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilson A. Silva

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi desenvolver um algoritmo na linguagem computacional MATLAB para aplicações em sistemas de informações geográficas, visando ao mapeamento da renda líquida maximizada de cultivos irrigados. O estudo foi desenvolvido para as culturas do maracujá, da cana-de-açúcar, do abacaxi e do mamão, em área de aproximadamente 2.500 ha, localizada no município de Campos dos Goytacazes, norte do Estado do Rio de Janeiro. Os dados de entrada do algoritmo foram informações edafoclimáticas, funções de resposta das culturas à água, dados de localização geográfica da área e índices econômicos referentes ao custo do processo produtivo. Os resultados permitiram concluir que o algoritmo desenvolvido se mostrou eficiente para o mapeamento da renda líquida de cultivos irrigados, sendo capaz de localizar áreas que apresentam maiores retornos econômicos.The objective of this work was to develop an algorithm in MATLAB computational language to be applied in geographical information systems to map net income irrigated crops to plan irrigated agriculture. The study was developed for the crops of passion fruit plant, sugarcane, pineapple and papaya, in an area of approximately 2,500 ha, at Campos dos Goytacazes, located at north of the State of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. The algorithm input data were: information about soil, climate, crop water response functions, geographical location and economical cost indexes of the productive process. The results allowed concluding that developed algorithm was efficient to map net income of irrigated crops, been able to locate areas that present larger economical net income.

  4. Social support may buffer the effect of intrafamilial stressors on preschool children's television viewing time in low-income families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Kaigang; Jurkowski, Janine M; Davison, Kirsten K

    2013-12-01

    Excessive television (TV) viewing in preschool children has been linked to negative outcomes during childhood, including childhood obesity. In a sample of low-income families, this study examined associations between intrafamilial factors and preschool children's TV-viewing time and the moderating effect of social support from nonfamily members on this association. In 2010, 129 mothers/female guardians of 2- to 5-year-old children enrolled at five Head Start centers in Rensselaer County, New York, completed a self-report survey. The survey assessed child TV-viewing time (including TV, DVDs, and videos) and intrafamilial risk factors, including maternal perceived stress, depressive symptoms, TV viewing, leisure-time physical activity (inactivity), and family functioning. Social support from nonfamily members (nonfamily social support) was also measured and examined as an effect modifier. Children watched TV an average of 160 minutes per day. Moderate depressive symptoms (Personal Health Questionnaire depression scale scores ≥10), higher perceived stress, poorer family functioning, and higher maternal TV-viewing were significantly and independently associated with greater minutes of child TV viewing, controlling for covariates. In all instances, nonfamily social support moderated these associations, such that negative experiences within the family environment were linked with higher child TV-viewing time under conditions of low nonfamily social support, but not high nonfamily support. Social support from nonfamily members may buffer potentially negative effects of intrafamilial factors on preschool children's TV-viewing time.

  5. Social Stratification and Adolescent Overweight in the United States: How Income and Educational Resources Matter across Families and Schools*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Molly A.; Frisco, Michelle L.; Nau, Claudia; Burnett, Kristin

    2012-01-01

    The current study examines how poverty and education in both the family and school contexts influence adolescent weight. Prior research has produced an incomplete and often counterintuitive picture. We develop a framework to better understand how income and education operate alone and in conjunction with each other across families and schools. We test it by analyzing data from Wave 1 of the U.S.-based National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (N= 16,133 in 132 schools) collected in 1994–1995. Using hierarchical logistic regression models and parallel indicators of family- and school-level poverty and educational resources, we find that at the family-level, parent’s education, but not poverty status, is associated with adolescent overweight. At the school-level, the concentration of poverty within a school, but not the average level of parent’s education, is associated with adolescent overweight. Further, increases in school poverty diminish the effectiveness of adolescents’ own parents’ education for protecting against the risks of overweight. The findings make a significant contribution by moving beyond the investigation of a single socioeconomic resource or social context. The findings push us to more fully consider when, where, and why money and education matter independently and jointly across health-related contexts. PMID:22240451

  6. Social stratification and adolescent overweight in the United States: how income and educational resources matter across families and schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Molly A; Frisco, Michelle L; Nau, Claudia; Burnett, Kristin

    2012-02-01

    The current study examines how poverty and education in both the family and school contexts influence adolescent weight. Prior research has produced an incomplete and often counterintuitive picture. We develop a framework to better understand how income and education operate alone and in conjunction with each other across families and schools. We test it by analyzing data from Wave 1 of the U.S.-based National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (N = 16,133 in 132 schools) collected in 1994-1995. Using hierarchical logistic regression models and parallel indicators of family- and school-level poverty and educational resources, we find that at the family-level, parent's education, but not poverty status, is associated with adolescent overweight. At the school-level, the concentration of poverty within a school, but not the average level of parent's education, is associated with adolescent overweight. Further, increases in school poverty diminish the effectiveness of adolescents' own parents' education for protecting against the risks of overweight. The findings make a significant contribution by moving beyond the investigation of a single socioeconomic resource or social context. The findings push us to more fully consider when, where, and why money and education matter independently and jointly across health-related contexts. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Factors contributing to the psychological well-being for Hong Kong Chinese children from low-income families: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Ka Yan; Li, William H C; Chung, Joyce Oi Kwan; Lam, Katherine Ka Wai; Chan, Sophia S C; Xia, Wei

    2016-01-01

    Despite compelling evidence demonstrating the negative impact of poverty and income disparity on children's psychological well-being, there has been a lack of qualitative information which addresses its contributing factors. This study aimed to shed light on this area by comparing the experiences toward daily life between children living in low- and high-income families. A qualitative study using a phenomenological approach was conducted from May 2012 to January 2013. A random sample of 42 children aged 10-13, with 25 from low- and 17 from high-income families were asked to voluntarily response to a demographic sheet and undergo individual semi-structured interviews which lasted about 25-30 min. Content analysis was used to analyze the data. Approval for the study was obtained from the Institutional Review Board of the University of Hong Kong/Hospital Authority Hong Kong West Cluster (reference UW 12-237). The findings of this study revealed that the living environment, physical health, social life and ability to function at school of children from low-income families are severely impaired. It fills a gap in the literature by showing how poverty and income disparity affect the daily lives of children from low-income families on different levels. Also, adopting a sedentary lifestyle and unhealthy eating habits are possible factors mediating the effects of poverty and income disparity on the psychological well-being of children from low-income families. It is vital for healthcare professionals going beyond their normal roles to give advice on healthy lifestyles and behaviors by building multidisciplinary partnerships with schools and the community. Additionally, healthcare professionals should also target on these two possible factors to develop and implement appropriate interventions for promoting the psychological well-being among children living in poverty. Trial registration NCT02877719. 19 August 2016 retrospectively registered.

  8. Astronomy for Special Needs Children (Low-income and/or Serious Medical Conditions) and Their Families

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lubowich, Donald

    2015-08-01

    I present the results of two NASA-IDEAS/STScI* sponsored and one IAU OAD grant for astronomy outreach programs for seriously ill or traumatically injured children and their families staying at the Ronald McDonald Houses of Long Island (New Hyde Park, NY) and Chicago or for children hospitalized at the Winthrop University Hospital Children’s Medical Center, (Mineola, NY). An astronomy program was also created for the five Fresh Air Fund Charity summer camps (low-income and special needs) and for a Hofstra summer camp for developmentally challenged youths.These programs are designed for children of all ages include” STSCi’s “Tonight’s Sky” (monthly guide to the sky); telescope observations of the Moon, Sun, planets, nebulae, and stars; and hands-on activities. During cloudy weather remote/robotic telescope observations are shown to the children.The staff and volunteers at the Ronald McDonald House and Children’s Medical Center are trained to use the telescope and to do astronony demonstrations. I created an Activity Book for the staff with demonstrations, participatory hands-on activities, and edible demonstrations using chocolate, marshmallows, and popcorn are to stimulate interest.These educational activities help children and their families learn about astronomy while providing a diversion to take their minds off their illness during a stressful time. The RMHs provide free or low-cost housing in a comfortable, supportive alternative atmosphere where family members sleep, eat, relax and find support from other families in similar situations. Families are kept united when mutual support is as critical as the medical treatment itself. The ill children and their families may stay for a few days or months because of chemotherapy, dialysis, or rehabilitative therapy. Children from 50 states and 50 countries stay the Chicago RMHs and there are 260 RMHs in the US and 65 worldwide.

  9. Basic Opportunity Grants Family Contribution Schedule-1975-76. Hearings Before the Special Subcommittee on Education of the Committee on Education and Labor, House of Representatives, Ninety-Third Congress, Second Session on H. Res. 1396.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. House Committee on Education and Labor.

    Statements, tables, and letters relating to the (Basic Opportunity Grant) program provide materials pertaining to eligibility status and income range, net assets by total income, average family contribution by total income, home equity for all qualified dependent applicants, and family size allowance. (MJM)

  10. The Relationship between Socioeconomic Status, Family Income, and Measures of Muscular and Cardiorespiratory Fitness in Colombian Schoolchildren.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandercock, Gavin R H; Lobelo, Felipe; Correa-Bautista, Jorge E; Tovar, Gustavo; Cohen, Daniel Dylan; Knies, Gundi; Ramírez-Vélez, Robinson

    2017-06-01

    To determine the associations between socioeconomic status (SES) and physical fitness in a sample of Colombian youth. Prueba SER is cross-sectional survey of schoolchildren in Bogota, Colombia. Mass, stature, muscular fitness (standing long-jump, handgrip), and cardiorespiratory fitness (20-m shuttle run) were measured in 52?187 schoolchildren 14-16 years of age. Area-level SES was categorized from 1 (very low) to 4 (high) and parent-reported family income was categorized as low, middle, or high. Converting measures into z scores showed stature, muscular, and cardiorespiratory fitness were significantly (z?=?0.3-0.7) below European values. Children in the mid- and high SES groups jumped significantly further than groups with very low SES. Differences were independent of sex but became nonsignificant when adjusted for anthropometric differences. Participants in the mid-SES and high-SES groups had better handgrip scores when adjusted for body dimension. There were, however, no significant between-group differences in cardiorespiratory fitness, which was strongly clustered by school and significantly greater in students from private schools. Area-level SES is associated with measures of muscular fitness in Colombian schoolchildren. These associations were largely explained by the large differences in body dimensions observed between SES groups. When area-level SES is considered, there was no evidence that family income influenced fitness. The clustering of outcomes reaffirms the potential importance of schools and area-level factors in promoting fitness through opportunities for physical activity. Interventions implemented in schools, can improve academic attainment; a factor likely to be important in promoting the social mobility of children from poorer families. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Association of Demanding Kin Relations With Psychological Distress and School Achievement Among Low-Income, African American Mothers and Adolescents: Moderating Effects of Family Routine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Ronald D

    2016-12-01

    Association of demanding kin relations and family routine with adolescents' psychological distress and school achievement was assessed among 200 low-income, African American mothers and adolescents. Demanding kin relations were significantly associated with adolescents' psychological distress. Family routine was significantly related to adolescents' school achievement. Demanding kin relations were negatively associated with school achievement for adolescents from families low in routine, but unrelated to achievement for adolescents in families high in routine. Additional research is needed on poor families and their social networks. © 2015 The Author. Journal of Research on Adolescence © 2015 Society for Research on Adolescence.

  12. 24 CFR 5.611 - Adjusted income.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Adjusted income. 5.611 Section 5... Serving Persons with Disabilities: Family Income and Family Payment; Occupancy Requirements for Section 8 Project-Based Assistance Family Income § 5.611 Adjusted income. Adjusted income means annual income (as...

  13. Effect of Family Income on the Relationship Between Parental Education and Sealant Prevalence, National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 2005–2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al Agili, Dania E.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction We examined the association between sealant prevalence and parental education for different levels of family income, controlling for other covariates. Methods We combined data from 2005–2006, 2007–2008, and 2009–2010 cycles of the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. The study sample was 7,090 participants aged 6 to 19 years. Explanatory variables, chosen on the basis of Andersen and Aday’s framework of health care utilization, were predisposing variables — child’s age, sex, race/ethnicity, and parental education (high school diploma); enabling variables — family income (poverty level [FPL]; 100%–200% of the FPL; and >200% of the FPL), health insurance status, and regular source of medical care; and a need variable — future need for care (perceived child health status is excellent/very good, good, fair/poor). We conducted bivariate and multivariate analyses and included a term for interaction between education and income in the multivariate model. We report significant findings (P ≤ .05). Results Sealant prevalence was associated with all explanatory variables in bivariate and multivariate analyses. In bivariate analyses, higher parental education and family income were independently associated with higher sealant prevalence. In the multivariate analysis, higher parental education was associated with sealant prevalence among higher income children, but not among low-income children (education greater than a high school diploma versus less than a high school diploma in families with income ≥100% FPL. Conclusion Our findings suggest that income modifies the association of parental education on sealant prevalence. Recognition of this relationship may be important for health promotion efforts. PMID:26312383

  14. Child cortisol moderates the association between family routines and emotion regulation in low-income children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Alison L; Song, Ju-Hyun; Sturza, Julie; Lumeng, Julie C; Rosenblum, Katherine; Kaciroti, Niko; Vazquez, Delia M

    2017-01-01

    Biological and social influences both shape emotion regulation. In 380 low-income children, we tested whether biological stress profile (cortisol) moderated the association among positive and negative home environment factors (routines; chaos) and emotion regulation (negative lability; positive regulation). Children (M age = 50.6, SD = 6.4 months) provided saliva samples to assess diurnal cortisol parameters across 3 days. Parents reported on home environment and child emotion regulation. Structural equation modeling was used to test whether cortisol parameters moderated associations between home environment and child emotion regulation. Results showed that home chaos was negatively associated with emotion regulation outcomes; cortisol did not moderate the association. Child cortisol level moderated the routines-emotion regulation association such that lack of routine was most strongly associated with poor emotion regulation among children with lower cortisol output. Findings suggest that underlying child stress biology may shape response to environmental influences. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Education Tax Credits: Refundability Critical to Making Credits Helpful to Low-Income Students and Families

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saunders, Katherine; Lower-Basch, Elizabeth

    2015-01-01

    Half of all non-loan federal student aid is now offered as tax benefits for educational costs in the form of credits, deductions, and college savings accounts. These benefits help students and families offset the costs of their postsecondary education with tax savings. Yet, as explained in the 2013 report, "Reforming Student Aid: How to…

  16. Role of Family Stressors on Rural Low-Income Children's Behaviors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greder, Kimberly A.; Peng, Cheng; Doudna, Kimberly D.; Sarver, Susan L.

    2017-01-01

    Background: Exposure to multiple stressors and lack of access to resources place rural children at high risk for adverse consequences. Family Stress Model guided this study to examine relations between two stressors--food insecurity and maternal depressive symptoms, and behavior problems among younger and older rural children. Objective: To test…

  17. Washington State recreational marijuana legalization: parent and adolescent perceptions, knowledge, and discussions in a sample of low-income families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mason, W A; Hanson, Koren; Fleming, Charles B; Ringle, Jay L; Haggerty, Kevin P

    2015-04-01

    In November 2012, Washington State and Colorado became the first states in the United States to legalize recreational marijuana use for adults, and Uruguay became the first country to allow the cultivation, distribution, possession, and use of marijuana. One possible consequence of these changes is increased adolescent marijuana use. Parents may mitigate this adverse consequence; however, whether parents and adolescents have accurate knowledge about the laws and are discussing marijuana use in light of the law changes is unknown. We examine perceptions, knowledge, and parent-child discussions about Washington State's recreational marijuana law in a sample of low-income families. Participants were a subset of families (n = 115) in an ongoing study that originally recruited parents and adolescents from middle schools in Tacoma, Washington. In summer 2013, when students were entering the 11(th) grade, students and their parents were asked questions about the recreational marijuana law. Participants perceived that their marijuana-related attitudes and behaviors changed little as a result of the law, and displayed uncertainty about what is legal and illegal. Most parents reported discussing the new law with their children but only occasionally, and conversations emphasized household rules, particularly among parent lifetime marijuana users compared to non-users. Conclusions/Importance: Results suggest that there should be a public health campaign focused on families that provides clear information about the recreational marijuana laws.

  18. Food subsidy programs and the health and nutritional status of disadvantaged families in high income countries: a systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Black Andrew P

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Less healthy diets are common in high income countries, although proportionally higher in those of low socio-economic status. Food subsidy programs are one strategy to promote healthy nutrition and to reduce socio-economic inequalities in health. This review summarises the evidence for the health and nutritional impacts of food subsidy programs among disadvantaged families from high income countries. Methods Relevant studies reporting dietary intake or health outcomes were identified through systematic searching of electronic databases. Cochrane Public Health Group guidelines informed study selection and interpretation. A narrative synthesis was undertaken due to the limited number of studies and heterogeneity of study design and outcomes. Results Fourteen studies were included, with most reporting on the Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants and Children in the USA. Food subsidy program participants, mostly pregnant or postnatal women, were shown to have 10–20% increased intake of targeted foods or nutrients. Evidence for the effectiveness of these programs for men or children was lacking. The main health outcome observed was a small but clinically relevant increase in mean birthweight (23–29g in the two higher quality WIC studies. Conclusions Limited high quality evidence of the impacts of food subsidy programs on the health and nutrition of adults and children in high income countries was identified. The improved intake of targeted nutrients and foods, such as fruit and vegetables, could potentially reduce the rate of non-communicable diseases in adults, if the changes in diet are sustained. Associated improvements in perinatal outcomes were limited and most evident in women who smoked during pregnancy. Thus, food subsidy programs for pregnant women and children should aim to focus on improving nutritional status in the longer term. Further prospective studies and economic analyses are needed to

  19. Large repayments of premium subsidies may be owed to the IRS if family income changes are not promptly reported.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobs, Ken; Graham-Squire, Dave; Gould, Elise; Roby, Dylan

    2013-09-01

    Subsidies for health insurance premiums under the Affordable Care Act are refundable tax credits. They can be taken when taxes are filed or in advance, as reductions in monthly premiums that must be reconciled at tax filing. Recipients who take subsidies in advance will receive tax refunds if their subsidies were too small but will have to make repayments if their subsidies were too high. We analyzed predicted repayments and refunds for people receiving subsidies, using California as a case study. We found that many families could owe large repayments to the Internal Revenue Service at their next tax filing. If income changes were reported and credits adjusted in a timely manner throughout the tax year, the number of filers owing repayments would be reduced by 7-41 percent and the median size of repayments reduced by as much as 61 percent (depending on the level of changes reported and the method used to adjust the subsidy amounts). We recommend that the health insurance exchanges mandated by the Affordable Care Act educate consumers about how the subsidies work and the need to promptly report income changes. We also recommend that they provide tools and assistance to determine the amount of subsidies that enrollees should take in advance.

  20. The Mommy and Me Play Program: a pilot play intervention for low-income, African American preschool families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Linnie Green

    2015-01-01

    In this study the author examined the effects of a dyadic, mother-paired play intervention-The Mommy and Me Play Program-an innovative intervention program designed using a live-action modeling technique in which mothers serve as "natural helpers" to each other. By identifying natural strengths in mothers and employing opportunities for scaffolded learning, this intervention aimed to enhance mother-child play interactions and children's social and emotional competence. Fifty mother-child dyads from a single, low-income, African American, urban community were assessed in this study on measures of mother-child play interactions and children's social and emotional competency. Results from this pilot were not statistically significant, but provide important information regarding future research with this intervention program. These preliminary findings indicated that mothers with fewer play skills pre-intervention demonstrated improvement in their play skills post-intervention beyond other intervention participants; and children of those same mothers showed the greatest decrease in angry and aggressive behaviors in the classroom when compared to other participating children from pre- to post-intervention. Implications for research and practice in community-based, intervention work with low-income, ethnic-minority families are discussed.

  1. Mothers’ and Fathers’ Sensitivity and Children's Cognitive Development in Low-Income, Rural Families

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mills-Koonce, W. Roger; Willoughby, Michael T.; Zvara, Bharathi; Barnett, Melissa; Gustafsson, Hanna; Cox, Martha J

    2015-01-01

    This study examines associations between maternal and paternal sensitive parenting and child cognitive development across the first 3 years of life using longitudinal data from 630 families with co-residing biological mothers and fathers. Sensitive parenting was measured by observational coding of parent-child interactions and child cognitive development was assessed with the Bayley Scales of Infant Development and the Wechsler Preschool and Primary Scales of Intelligence. There were multiple direct and indirect associations between parenting and cognitive development across mothers and fathers, suggesting primary effects, carry-forward effects, spillover effects across parents, and transactional effects across parents and children. Associations between parenting and cognitive development were statistically consistent across mothers and fathers, and the cumulative effects of early parenting on later cognitive development were comparable to the effects of later parenting on later cognitive development. As interpreted through a family systems framework, findings suggest additive and interdependent effects across parents and children. PMID:25954057

  2. Making Health Care a Reality for Low-Income Children and Families.

    OpenAIRE

    Judith Wooldridge

    2007-01-01

    Mathematica’s wide-ranging evaluation of Covering Kids and Families (CKF), a national initiative of the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation, is documenting the program’s success in increasing enrollment in the State Children’s Health Insurance Program and Medicaid. This brief reviews evaluation findings about best practices in this area, including information about the potential value of outreach and other types of program supports. The study found that enrollment increases were most likely when t...

  3. Nutrient intake of low-income, black families in southwestern Mississippi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koh, E T; Caples, V

    1979-12-01

    A dietary intake study for 250 low-income households in Claiborne County in southwestern Mississippi was conducted from June through August 1974. Data were obtained during daily home visits for seven days by trained college students. The adequacy of nutrient intake for individuals was evaluated by comparing the data with the 1974 Recommended Dietary Allowances by age and sex. The data was also compared with those of the Ten-State Nutrition Survey and HANES. Mean intakes of protein, vitamin A, thiamin, riboflavin, and ascorbic acid for all subjects were above the RDAS; those of energy, calcium, iron, and preformed niacin were below the allowances. Whereas calcium was the nutrient least adequately consumed by all persons, protein was most adequately consumed. Sixty per cent of children had calcium intakes below two-thirds of the allowance. By sex, 66.7 per cent of all males and 73.3 per cent of all females had calcium intakes below two-thirds of the standard. None of children received less than two-thirds of the allowance for protein. Nutrient intake was low for a substantial number of the subjects. Adolescents, ages eleven to eighteen years, of both sexes had the poorest diets for all nutrients. Regarding the sex difference, females had better nutrient intakes than did males for all nutrients except calcium and iron.

  4. Children from low-income families have less access to sports facilities, but are no less physically active: cross-sectional study (EarlyBird 35).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voss, L D; Hosking, J; Metcalf, B S; Jeffery, A N; Wilkin, T J

    2008-07-01

    Rising levels of childhood obesity have led to an increasing number of Government sponsored initiatives attempting to stem the problem. Much of the focus to date has been on physical activity and out-of-school activity in particular. There is an assumption that children from low-income families suffer most where there is a lack of structured physical education in school. Accordingly, provision of additional facilities for sport and other forms of active recreation tend to target areas of socio-economic deprivation. We have assessed the relationship between parental income, the use of out-of-school sports facilities and the overall physical activity of young children across a wide socio-economic range. Total weekly physical activity was measured, objectively, over 7 days both at 7 years and 8 years in a healthy cohort of 121 boys and 93 girls using actigraph accelerometers. Questionnaires were used to establish parental income and parents reported the child's weekly use of out-of-school facilities for structured physical activity. Children from low-income families attended significantly fewer sessions of structured out-of-school activities than those from wealthier families (r = 0.39), with a clear dose-response relationship across income groups. Nevertheless, total physical activity, measured objectively over seven continuous days, showed no relationship between parental income and the mean activity level of the children (r = -0.08). Nor did we find a relationship between parental income and time spent in higher intensity activity (r = -0.04). Social inequality appears to have little impact on physical activity in young children. Those from poorer families make less use of facilities for structured activity out-of-school but they nevertheless record the same overall level of activity as others. What they lack in opportunity they appear to make up in the form of unstructured exercise. Improving provision for sport may not lead to the expected rise in activity levels

  5. Long-term housing subsidies and SSI/SSDI income: Creating health-promoting contexts for families experiencing housing instability with disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glendening, Zachary S; McCauley, Erin; Shinn, Marybeth; Brown, Scott R

    2017-08-26

    Though disability and housing instability are discussed separately in public health literature, few studies address families at their intersection. As a result, little is known about families who experience both homelessness and disability, how many receive disability benefits like SSI and SSDI, or the influence of those benefits on health-promoting outcomes like housing stability and self-sufficiency. Moreover, no previous research compares the ability of different housing and service interventions to increase disability benefit access. We examine relationships between disabilities and SSI/SSDI income reported when families enter emergency shelters and later health-promoting outcomes (housing stability and self-sufficiency) and how housing interventions affect SSI/SSDI receipt. Families in the (name removed) Study (N = 1857) were interviewed in emergency shelters, randomly offered of one of three housing interventions or usual care (i.e., no immediate referral to any intervention beyond shelter), and re-interviewed 20 months later. A third of families reported a disability at shelter entry. SSI/SSDI coverage of these families increased nearly 10% points over 20 months but never exceeded 40%. Disabilities predicted greater housing instability, food insecurity, and economic stress and less work and income. Among families reporting disabilities, SSI/SSDI receipt predicted fewer returns to emergency shelter, and more income despite less work. Offers of long-term housing subsidies increased SSI/SSDI receipt. Many families experiencing homelessness have disabilities; those receiving SSI/SSDI benefits have better housing and income outcomes. Providing families experiencing homelessness with long-term housing subsidies and SSI/SSDI could improve public health. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Family formation in the inner city: low-income men's perception of their role in unplanned conception and pregnancy prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Emily; Karasz, Alison; Gold, Marji

    2011-02-01

    Research documents the importance of partners in women's contraception use, pregnancy prevention/planning, and decision-making around unintended pregnancy. Little is known of men's perceptions of this crucial role. Semi-structured, in-depth interviews (n=20) with low-income, inner-city men, aged 18-45 years, who had brought about a pregnancy. Responsibility framed men's understanding of their reproductive and parenting roles. Uniformly, men equated being responsible with providing financially for their families. Interpretations of being responsible evolved over men's reproductive lifetimes, influencing their perceived role in planning or preventing pregnancy, and consideration of abortion for unplanned pregnancies. The desire to take responsibility for children they fathered was limited by the structural realities of these men's lives, which were often characterized by poverty, unemployment, violence, and crime. Though financial responsibility is highly valued, poverty and related social factors are significant barriers to men's ability to achieve this goal. Discussions with men about family planning should reflect these realities.

  7. 26 CFR 1.823-4 - Net premiums.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Net premiums. 1.823-4 Section 1.823-4 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME....823-4 Net premiums. Net premiums are one of the items used, together with the gross amount of income...

  8. Sandwiching it in: spillover of work onto food choices and family roles in low- and moderate-income urban households.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devine, Carol M; Connors, Margaret M; Sobal, Jeffery; Bisogni, Carole A

    2003-02-01

    Lower status jobs, high workloads and lack of control at work have been associated with less healthful diets, but the ways through which work is connected to food choices are not well understood. This analysis was an examination of workers' experience of the relationship of their jobs to their food choices. Fifty-one multi-ethnic, urban, low- and moderate-income adults living in Upstate New York in 1995 participated in a qualitative interview study of fruit and vegetable choices and discussed employment and food choices. The workers who participated in this study described a dynamic relationship between work and food choices that they experienced in the context of their other roles and values. These workers presented a relationship that was characterized by positive and negative spillover between their jobs and their ability to fulfill family roles and promote personal health, linked by a spectrum of food choice strategies. Participants' narratives fit into three different domains: characterizations of work and their resources for food choice, strategies used to manage food choices within the constraints of work, and affect related to the negative and positive spillover of these strategies on family roles and on personal food choices. Characterizations of work as demanding and limiting or demanding and manageable differentiated participants who experienced their food choice strategies as a source of guilt and dissatisfaction (negative spillover) from those who experienced food choices as a source of pride and satisfaction (positive spillover). Ideals and values related to food choice and health were balanced against other values for family closeness and nurturing and personal achievement. Some participants found work unproblematic. These findings direct attention to a broad conceptualization of the relationship of work to food choices in which the demands and resources of the work role are viewed as they spill over into the social and temporal context of other

  9. Influence of Child Behavioral Problems and Parenting Stress on Parent-Child Conflict among Low-Income Families: The Moderating Role of Maternal Nativity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Aileen S.; Ren, Lixin; Esteraich, Jan M.; Raikes, Helen H.

    2017-01-01

    This study was designed to examine whether parenting stress and child behavioral problems are significant predictors of parent-child conflict in the context of low-income families and how these relations are moderated by maternal nativity. The authors conducted multiple regression analyses to examine relations between teachers' report of…

  10. Parental emotional competence and parenting in low-income families with adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kliewer, Wendy; Borre, Alicia; Wright, Anna W; Jäggi, Lena; Drazdowski, Tess; Zaharakis, Nikola

    2016-02-01

    Ample research has demonstrated that alexithymia, which is characterized by difficulty processing emotions, is associated with disruptions in parenting infants and toddlers. Individuals suffering from alexithymia have among other negative outcomes difficulty building and maintaining interpersonal relationships. Research on emotional expression and recognition has documented the importance of these competencies for the quality of the parent-child relationship and for skills critical for parents of adolescents, such as effective monitoring. However, literature linking parental alexithymia to parenting behaviors and related constructs during adolescents is lacking. The present study closes this gap by examining how mothers' (M age = 39.42 years, SD = 7.62; Range = 23-67) alexithymia affects parent-reported behaviors of solicitation and control, as well as youths' (53.6% female; M age = 12.13 years, SD = 1.62; Range = 9-16) reported disclosure and felt acceptance by their mothers among a sample of 358 primarily urban, African American families. Structural equation models (SEM) revealed that mothers' alexithymia was prospectively related to less parental solicitation 2 years later for both males and females, and to lower levels of felt acceptance for males. Multiple group analyses revealed that these models fits equally well for younger and older youth. Contrary to hypotheses, alexithymia was not related to control or to disclosure. Taken together, these findings indicate that parents' difficulty in processing emotions contributes to parenting beyond early childhood. (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  11. Risk and resilience in low-income African American families: Moderating effects of kinship social support.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Ronald D

    2010-07-01

    The moderating effects of kinship social support on the association of mother-adolescent problematic relations and mothers' report of adolescents' internalizing and externalizing problems were assessed among 204 African American mothers of adolescents who were between the ages of 14 and 18 years. Kinship support was negatively associated with both internalizing and externalizing problems. Mother-adolescent communication problems and mothers' psychological control were positively associated with internalizing problems. Mother-adolescent communication problems were positively related to externalizing problems. The interaction of kinship support and mothers' psychological control on internalizing problems was significant. Probing the interaction revealed that the relation of mothers' psychological control with internalizing problems was less apparent for mothers who had higher compared with lower kinship social support. Also, the relation of the interaction of kinship support and mother-adolescent communication problems with externalizing problems was significant. The association of mother-adolescent communication problems with externalizing problems was less apparent when mothers had higher compared with lower kinship support. The findings are discussed in terms of the need for more information on factors that moderate families' access to social support.

  12. Immigration and income inequality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Deding, Mette; Hussain, Azhar; Jakobsen, Vibeke

    2010-01-01

    During the last two decades most Western countries have experienced increased net immigration as well as increased income inequality. This article analyzes the effects on income inequality of an increased number of immigrants in Denmark and Germany for the 20- year period 1984-2003 and how...

  13. Health care for children with diabetes mellitus from low-income families in Ontario and California: a population-based cohort study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaiser, Sunitha V.; Sundaram, Vandana; Cohen, Eyal; Shulman, Rayzel; Guan, Jun; Sanders, Lee; Guttmann, Astrid

    2016-01-01

    Background: Children with diabetes mellitus in low-income families have poor outcomes, but little is known as to how this relates to healthcare system structure. Our objective was to gain insight into how best to structure health systems to serve these children by describing their health care use in 2 health system models: a Canadian model, with an organized diabetes care network that includes generalists, and an American model, with targeted support services for children from low-income families. Methods: We performed a population-based retrospective cohort study involving children aged 1-17 years with type 1 diabetes mellitus. We used administrative data from between 2009 and 2012 from the California Children's Services program and Ontario. We used Ontario Drug Benefit Program enrolment to identify children from low-income families. Proportions of children receiving 2 or more routine diabetes visits per year were compared using χ2 tests, and diabetes-complication hospital admission rates were compared using direct standardization. Results: More California children from low-income families (n = 4922) received routine care for diabetes from pediatric endocrinologists (63.9% v. 26.9%, p < 0.001) and used insulin pumps (22.8% v. 16.4%, p < 0.001) than Ontario children (n = 2050).California children from low-income families were less likely than Ontario children to receive 2 visits for routine diabetes care per year (64.7% v. 75.7%, p < 0.001), and had slightly higher per-patient year hospital admission rates for diabetes complications (absolute differences 0.02, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.02-0.02, for boys; 0.03, 95% CI 0.03-0.03, for girls). Interpretation: Ontario children from low-income families received more routine diabetes care than did California children from low-income families. Both groups of children had clinically comparable rates of hospital admission for diabetes complications. Diabetes care networks that integrate generalists may play a role in

  14. The low-income single-family house and the effectiveness of architects in affecting affordability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ron Dulaney Jr.

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Architects are increasingly engaged in efforts to provide affordable, owner-occupied housing in the United States. Yet architects’ roles in broadly addressing affordable housing remain marginal as was anecdotally evident by the absence of architects at a recent university-sponsored affordable housing workshop. Apparently, the potential contributions of architects in “the development of innovative approaches and best practices” related to affordable, owner-occupied housing is not always valued to housing policymakers and planners such as those who organized this workshop. This paper speculatively explores the gap between the potential value of architects and their actual effectiveness at realizing widespread relevancy, innovation, and change in improving the quality and attainability of affordable, owner occupied housing and how this gap may contribute to the undervaluation and marginalization of architects’ efforts to address affordable housing needs in the United States. Case studies of several recent U.S. house design competitions exemplify these gaps. Potential strategies for closing these gaps and thus appreciating the value of architects’ efforts in this endeavor are identified.To become central in providing much-needed affordable, owner-occupied housing, architects must make the value of their potential contributions evident. This requires a clear definition of design goals, a rigorous assessment of built projects, and the thorough dissemination of findings and methodologies. Architects must engage those fields to which they have, in the U.S., long relinquished affordable, single-family housing. Architects must demonstrate that qualitative design improvements are not just possible within the frameworks and agendas of those other fields but that good design will better enable the achievement of those extra-disciplinary goals.

  15. The effect of increased labor force participation of married women on the distribution of family income in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.H.M. Nelissen (Jan)

    1990-01-01

    textabstractIn this article we analyse the income equalizing effect of wives' income on the combined income of husband and wife in The Netherlands. We will use the Theil coefficient as a measure of inequality. After some preliminary remarks have been made and relevant data have been presented, the

  16. Poverty and health-related quality of life of people living in Hong Kong: comparison of individuals from low-income families and the general population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, Cindy Lo Kuen; Guo, Vivian Yawei; Wong, Carlos King Ho; Yu, Esther Yee Tak; Fung, Colman Siu Cheung

    2017-06-01

    To assess health-related quality of life (HRQOL) among Chinese adults from low-income households in Hong Kong, and to explore any threshold of household income that impaired HRQOL. A cross-sectional analysis was conducted on 298 adults from low-income families when they enrolled into a cohort study between 2012 and 2014. HRQOL was measured by the 12-item Short-Form Health Survey-version 2 (SF-12v2). Their mean SF-12v2 subscale and summary scores were compared with those of 596 age-sex-matched subjects randomly selected from a database of 2763 adults from the Hong Kong general population (ratio = 1:2). Multiple linear regressions were conducted to determine any association between monthly household income and HRQOL. Subjects from low-income households had significantly lower SF-12v2 bodily pain, general health, vitality and physical component summary (PCS) scores than the age-sex matched subjects from the general population. Subgroup analysis showed that a household income <50% of the median monthly household income in Hong Kong (HK$10 000 ≈ US$1290, i.e. poverty line in Hong Kong) was independently associated with poorer PCS and mental component summary (MCS) scores after adjustment for socio-demographics and co-morbidities. Chinese adults from low-income households had poorer HRQOL, and <50% of the median monthly household income seems to be the threshold for impairment of both physical and mental HRQOL. The findings support the current definition of the poverty line.

  17. Losing the Safety Net: How a Time-Limited Welfare Policy Affects Families at Risk of Reaching Time Limits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Pamela A.; Hendra, Richard

    2009-01-01

    The authors examined the effects of Florida's Family Transition Program (FTP), one of the first welfare reform initiatives to include a time limit on the receipt of federal cash assistance with other welfare requirements, on single-mother welfare-receiving families. Using a regression-based subgroup approach, they identified a group of families…

  18. Influence of the Home Food Environment on Children's Fruit and Vegetable Consumption: A Study of Rural Low-Income Families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amuta, Ann O; Jacobs, Wura; Idoko, Ehikowoicho E; Barry, Adam E; McKyer, E Lisako J

    2015-09-01

    This investigation sought to identify micro-level built and sociocultural characteristics of a home food environment that have been theoretically linked with fruit and vegetable (F&V) consumption. We examined rural families (n = 298) from the southeastern United States. Hierarchical multiple regression analyses determined the association between the outcome variable (F&V consumption) and micro-level built and sociocultural characteristics of a home food environment. Demographic characteristics were entered at Step 1, explaining 14% of variance in vegetable consumption and 9% in fruit consumption. After entry of sociocultural factors in the home food environment, such as parenting styles and so on, in Block 2, the total variance explained increased by 25% for vegetable consumption and 12% for fruit consumption. Micro-level built environmental factors such as the availability of F&V in the home was entered at Block 3, total variance explained by the model for vegetable consumption was 67%, F(17, 111) = 13.5, p < .001, and for fruit consumption was 57%, F(17, 160) = 12.5, p < .001. F&V availability was the most important variable influencing a child's consumption of F&V. There are modifiable factors within the rural low-income home that could serve as priorities for intervention to improve F&V consumption. © 2015 Society for Public Health Education.

  19. BOUNCE: a community-based mother-daughter healthy lifestyle intervention for low-income Latino families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olvera, Norma; Bush, Jill A; Sharma, Shreela V; Knox, B Brook; Scherer, Rhonda L; Butte, Nancy F

    2010-02-01

    The primary purpose of this study was to assess the efficacy of a family-based exploratory community study titled BOUNCE (Behavior Opportunities Uniting Nutrition, Counseling, and Exercise) to increase physical fitness and activity in low-income Latino mothers and daughters. The BOUNCE study consisted of a 12-week exercise (e.g., Latin dance), nutrition education, and counseling intervention. The design included a two-arm parallel group assignment to an experimental group (EG; included 26 mother-daughter dyads) and comparison group (CG; included 20 mother-daughter dyads). Pre- and postintervention 20-Meter Endurance Shuttle Run Test and accelerometry were used to measure children's aerobic capacity and physical activity, respectively. For the mothers, the Rockport Walk test and Non-Exercise Physical Activity Rating test were employed to assess aerobic fitness and physical activity. Anthropometric, demographic, and dietary assessments were also collected pre- and postintervention. Differences in outcome measures between groups were tested using repeated measures analysis of covariance. The BOUNCE intervention had a significant effect on EG Latino daughters' aerobic capacity (P = 0.044). Although not statistically significant, EG daughters reported a higher reduction of high fat food and sweetened beverages and an increase in fruit and vegetable consumption compared to CG daughters. Similarly, EG mothers reported more strategies to increase fruit/vegetable consumption and reduce fat intake compared to CG mothers. No changes in physical activity or BMI were observed between EG and CG mother-daughter dyads.

  20. Feeding style differences in food parenting practices associated with fruit and vegetable intake in children from low-income families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papaioannou, Maria A; Cross, Matthew B; Power, Thomas G; Liu, Yan; Qu, Haiyan; Shewchuk, Richard M; Hughes, Sheryl O

    2013-01-01

    To examine the moderating effects of feeding styles on the relationship between food parenting practices and fruit and vegetable (F & V) intake in low-income families with preschool-aged children. Focus group meetings with Head Start parents were conducted by using the nominal group technique. Parents completed information on food parenting practices and feeding styles. Three dietary recalls were collected on each child. Parents completed measures in Head Start centers and/or over the telephone. 667 parents of preschool-aged children participated. Food parenting practices and F & V intake. Mean differences in the food parenting practices across the 4 feeding styles were established through multivariate general linear modeling using MANOVA. Moderated multiple regression analysis was conducted to examine the moderating role of feeding style on food parenting practices and child F & V intake. The indulgent feeding style moderated the relationship between food parenting practices and child F & V intake. This study indicates that parents' feeding styles have a moderating effect on the relationship between the food parenting practices and children's F & V intake. This finding can facilitate the development of interventions aimed at reducing childhood overweight. Copyright © 2013 Society for Nutrition Education and Behavior. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Association of Healthy Home Environments and Use of Patient-Centered Medical Homes by Children of Low-Income Families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Xin; Phillips, Victoria L; Gaydos, Laura M; Joski, Peter

    Medicaid agencies have been promoting the patient-centered medical home (PCMH) model. Most caregivers choose physician practices for their children, and we hypothesized that those following healthier childrearing practices are more likely to seek care in a PCMH. We selected children with public insurance plans (n = 20,801) from the 2011-2012 National Survey of Children's Health. We used generalized ordinal logistic regression with state fixed effects to assess the association between home environments and children's use of PCMHs. Children living in the healthiest homes were 1.33 times (p = .001) more likely to receive care from the highest level of PCMH. In states with early PCMH implementation, the odds increased to 2.11 times (p = .001). Our results show a significant, sizeable relationship between healthier home environments and the use of PCMH by children from low-income families. They provide implications for assessing the effect of PCMH use on health outcomes and use patterns. Copyright © 2016 National Association of Pediatric Nurse Practitioners. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Do changes in income, deprivation, labour force status and family status influence smoking behaviour over the short run? Panel study of 15,000 adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blakely, Tony; van der Deen, Frederieke S; Woodward, Alistair; Kawachi, Ichiro; Carter, Kristie

    2014-11-01

    Improving social circumstances (e.g., an increase in income, finding a job or moving into a good neighbourhood) may reduce tobacco use, but robust evidence on the effects of such improvements is scarce. Accordingly we investigated the link between changing social circumstances and changing tobacco smoking using repeated measures data. 15 000 adults with at least two observations over three waves (each 2 years apart) of a panel study had data on smoking status, family, labour force, income and deprivation (both neighbourhood and individual). Fixed effects regression modelling was used. The odds of smoking increased 1.42-fold (95% CI 1.16 to 1.74) for a one log-unit increase in personal income among 15-24-year-olds, but there was no association of increased smoking with an increase in income among 25+ year olds. Moving out of a family nucleus, increasing neighbourhood deprivation (e.g., 1.83-fold (95% CI 1.18 to 2.83) increased odds of smoking for moving from least to most deprived quintile of neighbourhoods), increasing personal deprivation and moving into employment were all associated with increased odds of smoking. The number of cigarettes smoked a day changed little with changing social circumstances. Worsening social circumstances over the short run are generally associated with higher smoking risk. However, there were counter examples: for instance, decreasing personal income among young people was associated with decreased odds of smoking, a finding consistent with income elasticity of demand (the less one's income, the less one can consume). This paper suggests that improving social circumstances is not always pro-health over the short run; a more nuanced approach to the social determinants of health is required. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  3. Family income and young adolescents' perceived social position: associations with self-esteem and life satisfaction in the UK Millennium Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bannink, Rienke; Pearce, Anna; Hope, Steven

    2016-10-01

    Self-esteem and life satisfaction are important aspects of positive mental health in young people, and both are socially distributed. However, the majority of evidence is based on socioeconomic characteristics of the family. As children enter adolescence and gain independence, perceptions of their own social position are likely to influence mental health. Using data on 11-year-olds from the UK Millennium Cohort Study, we investigated associations of both family income and young adolescents' perception of their social position with self-esteem and life satisfaction. We hypothesised that there would be differences in the impact of perceived social position on positive mental health when investigating the full scale scoring distribution or the bottom of the distribution. Therefore, we estimated proportional odds for having greater positive mental health (across the distribution of scores) and ORs for poor outcomes (lowest 10% scores). The likelihood of greater self-esteem and life satisfaction increased with income; similarly, the risk of having poor self-esteem and life satisfaction increased as income decreased. Young adolescents who perceived their family as poorer than their friends (instead of about the same) were less likely to have greater self-esteem and life satisfaction and were more likely to have poor outcomes. Young adolescents who perceived their family as richer were more likely to have poor self-esteem, but were not less likely to have greater self-esteem. For life satisfaction, young adolescents who perceived their families as richer were less likely to have greater and more likely to have poor life satisfaction. Policies to redistribute income in families with children are likely to benefit the mental health of young people. However, it is also important to consider the impact of social comparison on young people's mental health as they enter adolescence. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted

  4. Field Test Evaluation of Conservation Retrofits of Low-Income Single Family Buildings in Wisconsin: Summary Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ternes, M.P.

    2001-05-21

    During the winter of 1985-86, a retrofit field test was performed in 66 occupied, low-income, single-family homes in Madison, Wisconsin. The primary objectives of the field test were to (1) determine the measured energy savings and the relative benefits of a combination of envelope and mechanical equipment retrofits that were selected following a new audit-directed retrofit procedure, (2) determine the energy savings and benefits due to performing infiltration reduction work following a recently developed infiltration reduction procedure, and (3) study general occupant behavior and house thermal characteristics and their possible change following retrofit installation. This report provides an overview of the project and summarizes the findings which will be presented in detail in separate reports. Major findings from the field test include: (1) The audit-directed retrofit procedure produced an average savings of 207 therms/year/house. The procedure also more than doubled the overall cost-effectiveness of the low-income weatherization assistance program as compared with the priority system formerly used in Wisconsin. Wall insulation and condensing furnaces were the major retrofits (predicted annual energy savings greater than 100 therms/year) most often selected under the procedure. The respective average energy savings of the houses receiving wall insulation and condensing furnace. s was 14.6 and 14.3 therms/year for each $100 spent on them under the program. (2) The blower-door-guided infiltration reduction procedure reduced expenditures for infiltration reduction to about one-fourth of previous program costs (from $570/house to $106/house). The procedure also reduced the average air leakage rate in the treated houses by 16%, whereas, in a previous study, no significant reduction was found following the installation of typical infiltration reduction measures. (3) Twenty to 60% of the deviation between predicted and measured savings can be attributed to incorrect

  5. Microfinance safety net: back to basics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viola, Deborah; Shi, Qiuhu; Murthy, Padmini

    2013-01-01

    Malnutrition among families living in poorer communities has increased in the past two decades. Initiatives advocated by the World Bank include microfinance programs. Research attributing the success of these programs however, has mixed results. In this article we investigate how additional income provided by microfinance is associated with increased consumption of nondurables for households in rural villages in Bangladesh. For our purposes we compare consumption or money expensed on food, medicine, doctor fees, and smoking. Fisher's least significant difference (LSD) procedure was used to address multiple comparison issues among households. Our findings reinforce the importance of microfinance credit as a safety net. Access to additional income for poor villagers improves the consumption of basic needs as expected, regardless of how many loans are taken; consumption of "bads" remains virtually the same.

  6. Mediating effect of Adult Day Health Care (ADHC) and family network on Quality of Life among low-income older Korean immigrants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Bum Jung

    2014-05-01

    The purpose of this study is to examine the direct and indirect effects of Adult Day Health Care (ADHC) and family network on Quality of Life (QOL) for low-income older Korean immigrants in Los Angeles County, CA. A cross-sectional survey of low-income older Korean immigrants who use ADHC programs was conducted. Self-reported measures included sociocultural characteristics, acculturation, cognitive function, family network, utilization of ADHC, and QOL. The study found that for QOL, two variables had only direct effects: years in ADHC and acculturation. Family network was directly associated with QOL and indirectly associated with it through the variable "years in ADHC." Our findings indicate that a strong family network is positively associated with more years of attendance in ADHC, and with higher QOL scores. Thus, policy makers and practitioners should be aware of the positive association among social networks, attendance in ADHC, and higher QOL among low-income older Korean immigrants. © The Author(s) 2013.

  7. Ethnic differences in the home food environment and parental food practices among families of low-income Hispanic and African-American preschoolers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skala, Katherine; Chuang, Ru-Jye; Evans, Alexandra; Hedberg, Ann-Marie; Dave, Jayna; Sharma, Shreela

    2012-12-01

    The family and home environment are important in shaping the dietary patterns of children, yet research among low-income, minority groups is limited. We examined ethnic differences in the home food environment and parental practices among 706 low-income, African-American and Hispanic families of preschoolers. Questionnaires measured the access and availability of various foods in the home, parental practices, and meal consumption behaviors. Mixed model logistic regression and ANCOVA were used to assess ethnic differences. Unhealthy foods were available for both groups. Hispanic families were more likely to have fresh vegetables (AOR = 2.9, P ≤ 0.001), fruit (AOR = 2.0, P = 0.004), and soda available (AOR = 1.40, P = 0.001) compared to African-Americans. African-Americans families were more likely to restrict (AOR = 0.63, P ≤ 0.001) and reward with dessert (AOR = 0.69, P ≤ 0.001). Hispanic families consumed more family meals together (P = 0.003) and less meals in front of the television (P ≤ 0.006). Health promotion interventions should consider the behavioral differences between ethnicities.

  8. Are Education and Entrepreneurial Income Endogenous and do Family Background Variables make Sense as Instruments? A Bayesian Analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.H. Block (Jörn); L.F. Hoogerheide (Lennart); A.R. Thurik (Roy)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractEducation is a well-known driver of (entrepreneurial) income. The measurement of its influence, however, suffers from endogeneity suspicion. For instance, ability and occupational choice are mentioned as driving both the level of (entrepreneurial) income and of education. Using

  9. Educational Challenges and Diminishing Family Safety Net Faced by High-School Girls in a Slum Residence, Nairobi, Kenya

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abuya, Benta A.; Onsomu, Elijah O.; Moore, Dakysha

    2012-01-01

    In 2010, there was a slight decrease in the number of out-of school adolescents from 75 million in 2009 (UNESCO, 2009) to 71 million in 2010, of which 55% are girls (UNESCO, 2010). In Kenya, only 17% of girls have secondary education (CBS, 2004). This paper analyzes the role of families in girls' secondary education in two schools within Nairobi…

  10. Family income and education were related with 30-year time trends in dietary and meal behaviors of American children and adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kant, Ashima K; Graubard, Barry I

    2013-05-01

    Recent survey data reveal the persistence of long-acknowledged socioeconomic status (SES) differentials in the prevalence of obesity in U.S. children and adolescents. We examined 30-y changes in the association of dietary and meal behaviors with family income and education to understand the possible contribution of these trends to SES trends in obesity rates in 2- to 19-y-old Americans. We used dietary and SES data for 2- to 19-y olds from the NHANES 1971-1974 to 2003-2008 (n = 39,822). The secular changes in the independent association of family income and education with 24-h dietary behaviors [energy intake (kcal), amount of foods and beverages (g), percent energy from all beverages and from nutritive beverages, and energy density of foods] and 24-h meal behaviors [number of eating occasions, energy from snack episodes (%), and mention of breakfast] were examined using multivariable regression methods. The secular increase in energy intake and food and beverage amount was significant in the lowest family SES categories. The positive association of family income and education with intakes of energy, food amounts, and beverage energy, noted in 1971-1974 or 1976-1980, was not observed in later surveys. There was an age gradient in changes in most diet and SES associations over time, with largest adverse changes in 12- to 19-y olds. Higher education was associated with lower energy from snack episodes, breakfast skipping, and energy density of foods and these associations did not change over time. Overall, these results suggest both income and education differentials in secular increases in food amounts and energy intakes.

  11. Epidemics of overweight and obesity among growing childhood in China between 1997 and 2009: Impact of Family Income, Dietary Intake, and Physical Activity Dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Chang; Zhang, Bing; Wang, You-Fa; Jia, Xiao-Fang; Xue, Hong; Wang, Hui-Jun

    2015-01-01

    Background: Obesity has become a major health problem among children and adolescents worldwide. This study aimed to examine the trends of overweight and obesity among childhood in China and assess their associations with family income, dietary intake, and physical activity (PA) between 1997 and 2009. Methods: Two waves of cross-sectional data of Chinese children and adolescents aged 7–17 years from the China Health and Nutrition Survey were used. Weight and height were measured following standardized procedures. Dietary intake was assessed by 3 consecutive 24-h recalls. Childhood overweight and obesity were defined using the International Obesity Task Force-recommended body mass index cut-offs. Multivariate linear regression analysis was used to examine the associations of family income with diet intakes and PA. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was conducted to assess the associations of overweight and obesity with family income, dietary intake, and PA. Results: The prevalence of childhood overweight and obesity increased from 12.6% in 1997 to 22.1% in 2009, particularly in the medium- and high-family income groups, which increased by 102.7% and 90.3%, respectively. Higher fat intake (% energy), and moderate and vigorous PA were significantly associated with overweight and obesity in final model (odds ratio [OR] = 1.01, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.00–1.02, P = 0.004; and OR = 0.99, 95% CI: 0.98–1.00, P = 0.036, respectively). Conclusions: The prevalence of overweight and obesity among Chinese children and adolescents has increased between 1997 and 2009. Reducing fat intake and increasing PA may help obesity prevention. PMID:26168826

  12. The complex relationship between household income of family caregivers, access to palliative care services and place of death: A national household population survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Miriam J; Allgar, Victoria; Chen, Hong; Dunn, Laurie; Macleod, Una; Currow, David C

    2018-02-01

    Previous work shows that more affluent patients with cancer are more likely to die at home, whereas those dying from non-cancer conditions are more likely to die in hospital. Family caregivers are an important factor in determining place of death. To investigate associations between family caregivers' household income, patients' access to specialist palliative care and place of patients' death, by level of personal end-of-life care. A cross-sectional community household population survey. Respondents to the Household Survey for England. One-third of 1265 bereaved respondents had provided personal end-of-life care (caregivers) (30%). Just over half (55%) of decedents accessed palliative care services and 15% died in a hospice. Place of death and access to palliative care were strongly related ( p place of death when adjusted for palliative care access. When only caregivers were considered, decedents with caregivers from higher income quartiles were the least likely to die at home. Family caregivers from higher income brackets are likely to be powerful patient advocates. Caregiver information needs must be addressed especially with regard to stage of disease, aim of care and appropriate interventions at the end of life.

  13. Race, income, and education: associations with patient and family ratings of end-of-life care and communication provided by physicians-in-training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Ann C; Engelberg, Ruth A; Downey, Lois; Kross, Erin K; Reinke, Lynn F; Cecere Feemster, Laura; Dotolo, Danae; Ford, Dee W; Back, Anthony L; Curtis, J Randall

    2014-04-01

    Minority race and lower socioeconomic status are associated with poorer patient ratings of health care quality and provider communication. To examine the association of race/ethnicity or socioeconomic status with patients' and families' ratings of end-of-life care and communication about end-of-life care provided by physicians-in-training. As a component of a randomized trial evaluating a program designed to improve clinician communication about end-of-life care, patients and patients' families completed preintervention survey data regarding care and communication provided by internal medicine residents and medical subspecialty fellows. We examined associations between patient and family race or socioeconomic status and ratings they gave trainees on two questionnaires: the Quality of End-of-Life Care (QEOLC) and Quality of Communication (QOC). Patients from racial/ethnic minority groups, patients with lower income, and patients with lower educational attainment gave trainees higher ratings on the end-of-life care subscale of the QOC (QOCeol). In path models, patient educational attainment and income had a direct effect on outcomes, while race/ethnicity did not. Lower family educational attainment was also associated with higher trainee ratings on the QOCeol, while family non-white race was associated with lower trainee ratings on the QEOLC and general subscale of the QOC. Patient race is associated with perceptions of the quality of communication about end-of-life care provided by physicians-in-training, but the association was opposite to our hypothesis and appears to be mediated by socioeconomic status. Family member predictors of these perceptions differ from those observed for patients. Further investigation of these associations may guide interventions to improve care delivered to patients and families.

  14. Net Locality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Souza e Silva, Adriana Araujo; Gordon, Eric

    Provides an introduction to the new theory of Net Locality and the profound effect on individuals and societies when everything is located or locatable. Describes net locality as an emerging form of location awareness central to all aspects of digital media, from mobile phones, to Google Maps...... of emerging technologies, from GeoCities to GPS, Wi-Fi, Wiki Me, and Google Android....

  15. Net Neutrality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Savin, Andrej

    2017-01-01

    Repealing “net neutrality” in the US will have no bearing on Internet freedom or security there or anywhere else.......Repealing “net neutrality” in the US will have no bearing on Internet freedom or security there or anywhere else....

  16. 26 CFR 1.662(a)-2 - Currently distributable income.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Currently distributable income. 1.662(a)-2... distributable net income (as defined in section 643(a) but computed without taking into account the payment... amount which bears the same ratio to distributable net income (as so computed) as the amount of income...

  17. Parental coping, depressive symptoms, and children's asthma control and school attendance in low-income, racially, and ethnically diverse urban families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez, Erin M; Kumar, Harsha; Alba-Suarez, Juliana; Sánchez-Johnsen, Lisa

    2017-10-01

    Low-income urban children of color are at elevated risk for poor asthma control. This cross-sectional study examined associations among parents' coping (primary control, secondary control, and disengagement), parental depressive symptoms, and children's asthma outcomes (asthma control and school attendance) in a predominantly low-income, racially/ethnically diverse sample of families. Parents (N = 78; 90% female) of children (33% female; 46% Black; 38% Latino) aged 5-17 years (M = 9.5 years) reported on their own coping and depressive symptoms, their child's asthma control, and full and partial days of school missed due to asthma. Parents' secondary control coping (i.e., coping efforts to accommodate/adapt to asthma-related stressors) was negatively correlated, and disengagement coping (i.e. coping efforts to avoid/detach from stressors) was positively correlated, with their depressive symptoms. Secondary control coping was also correlated with fewer partial days of school missed. Primary control coping (i.e., coping efforts to change stressors) was not associated with depressive symptoms or asthma outcomes. Parents' depressive symptoms were also positively correlated with poorer asthma control and partial days of school missed. Regression models showed direct and indirect effects of secondary control and disengagement coping on asthma outcomes via depressive symptoms, after controlling for demographic factors. Parents' secondary control and disengagement coping are related to children's asthma outcomes. Secondary control coping may support parents' mental health and children's asthma control in low-income urban families.

  18. Growing gaps: The importance of income and family for educational inequalities in mortality among Swedish men and women 1990-2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Östergren, Olof

    2015-08-01

    Although absolute levels of mortality have decreased among Swedish men and women in recent decades, educational inequalities in mortality have increased, especially among women. The aim of this study is to disentangle the role of income and family type in educational inequalities in mortality in Sweden during 1990-2009, focusing on gender differences. Data on individuals born in Sweden between the ages of 30 and 74 years were collected from total population registries, covering a total of 529,275 deaths and 729 million person-months. Temporary life expectancies (age 30-74 years) by education were calculated using life tables, and rate ratios were estimated with Poisson regression with robust standard errors. Temporary life expectancy improved among all groups except low educated women. Relative educational inequalities in mortality (RRs) increased from 1.79 to 1.98 among men and from 1.78 to 2.10 among women. Variation in family type explained some of the inequalities among men, but not among women, and did not contribute to the trend. Variation in income explained a larger part of the educational inequalities among men compared to women and also explained the increase in educational inequalities in mortality among men and women. Increasing educational inequalities in mortality in Sweden may be attributed to the increase in income inequalities in mortality. © 2015 the Nordic Societies of Public Health.

  19. Boosting Low-Income Children's Opportunities to Succeed Through Direct Income Support.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherman, Arloc; DeBot, Brandon; Huang, Chye-Ching

    2016-04-01

    Direct income supports have long been known to substantially reduce the extent and depth of poverty. Evidence suggests that they can also bolster children's opportunities to succeed and enhance long-term mobility. A growing body of research, for example, links income from 2 related tax credits for working families-the Earned Income Tax Credit and the Child Tax Credit-to benefits for children in those families, such as improved birth weight, better school outcomes, and increased rates of employment in adulthood. Similarly, the introduction of food stamps has been found to improve not only the birth weight of infants given access to the program but also their educational achievement, as well as indicators of health, well-being, and self-sufficiency decades later. These are striking research results for income support that is not typically thought of as improving children's health or education. The mechanisms through which these income supports lead to such benefits are likely varied and complex, but emerging research suggests that helping families with children afford basic necessities can reduce the added stress of financial difficulties, preventing downstream neuroendocrine and biochemical changes that affect children's longer-term outcomes. These findings have important implications for policy makers. Research suggests that potential weakening of the safety net would not only substantially increase poverty, but also have damaging long-term effects on children. Policy makers should reject funding cuts and instead strengthen the safety net, which this analysis suggests could reduce poverty further and also enhance children's opportunities to succeed. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  20. College Affordability for Low-Income Adults: Improving Returns on Investment for Families and Society. Report #C412

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gault, Barbara; Reichlin, Lindsey; Román, Stephanie

    2014-01-01

    This report examines how efforts to understand and improve college affordability can be informed by the experiences and circumstances of low-income adults, students of color, and students with dependent children. The report discusses how the time and financial demands associated with financial independence, parenthood, and work affect a student's…

  1. Does Maternal Supervision Mediate the Impact of Income Source on Behavioral Adjustment in Children from Persistently Poor Families?

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Civita, Mirella; Pagani, Linda S.; Vitaro, Frank; Tremblay, Richard E.

    2007-01-01

    We examined the influence of income source within the context of persistent poverty on children's disruptive classroom behavior at age 12 and whether these associations were mediated by maternal supervision at ages 10 and 11. Using a subsample (N = 1,112) from the Quebec Longitudinal Study, we coded four economic circumstances indicating…

  2. Doing away with Debt: Using Existing Resources to Ensure College Affordability for Low and Middle-Income Families

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dannenberg, Michael; Voight, Mamie

    2013-01-01

    America's college financial-aid system has helped millions of students obtain a postsecondary education, but the system's flaws are increasingly apparent. Growth in tuition and fees outpace available resources, particularly for students striving to rise out of poverty. Low- and middle-income students confront frightening levels of education debt.…

  3. Enhancing the Vocational Prospects of Low-Income Hispanic Mothers: Results of a Family Support Program. Draft Copy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Dale L.; And Others

    This document reports successes of San Antonio's private, nonprofit Avance program in promoting enrollment in classes by low-income Hispanic mothers of infants or young children. Also reported are outcomes of attempts to identify predictors of course-taking. The Avance Parent-Child Education Program is a 9-month, comprehensive, center-based…

  4. Nighttime Sleep Duration and Sleep Behaviors among Toddlers from Low-Income Families: Associations with Obesogenic Behaviors and Obesity and the Role of Parenting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hager, Erin R; Calamaro, Christina J; Bentley, Lauren M; Hurley, Kristen M; Wang, Yan; Black, Maureen M

    2016-10-01

    Shortened sleep duration is associated with poor health and obesity among young children. Little is known about relationships among nighttime sleep duration, sleep behaviors, and obesogenic behaviors/obesity among toddlers. This study characterizes sleep behaviors/duration and examines relationships with obesogenic behaviors/obesity among toddlers from low-income families. Mothers of toddlers (age 12-32 months) were recruited from urban/suburban sites serving low-income families. Mothers provided demographic information and completed the Brief Infant Sleep Questionnaire (BISQ); a 6-item Toddler Sleep Behavior Scale was derived (TSBS-BISQ, higher score reflects more recommended behaviors). Toddler weight/length were measured; obesity defined as ≥95th percentile weight-for-length. Measures of obesogenic behaviors: physical activity [accelerometry, minutes/day in Moderate-to-Vigorous Physical Activity (MVPA)] and diet quality [24-hour recall, Healthy Eating Index 2005 (HEI-2005)]. Bivariate and adjusted multivariable models examined associations between nighttime sleep behaviors/duration and obesogenic behaviors/obesity. Sample included 240 toddlers (mean age = 20.2 months), 55% male, 69% black, 59% urban. Toddlers spent 55.4 minutes/day in MVPA, mean HEI-2005 score was 55.4, 13% were obese. Mean sleep duration was 9.1 hours, with 35% endorsing 5-6 recommended sleep behaviors (TSBS-BISQ). In multivariable models, MVPA was positively related to sleep duration; obese toddlers had a shorter nighttime sleep duration than healthy weight toddlers [odds ratio = 0.69, p = 0.014]. Nighttime sleep duration was associated with high TSBS-BISQ scores, F = 6.1, p = 0.003. Toddlers with a shorter nighttime sleep duration are at higher risk for obesity and inactivity. Interventions to promote healthy sleep behaviors among toddlers from low-income families may improve nighttime sleep duration and reduce obesogenic behaviors/obesity.

  5. Yield and net income of unripe corn in function of the hilling dates / Produção e renda líquida de milho verde em função da época de amontoa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diovany Doffinger Ramos

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available The Agromen 2029 unripe corn was studied without and with hilling on 14; 28; 42; 14-28; 14-42; 28-42 and 14-28-42 days after sowing (DAS. Those eight treatments were arranged in a randomized experimental block design, with four replications. The highest heights of plant (176.9 cm and of first ear (83.9 cm were from those with no hilling (SA and the smallest ones (162.4 and 72.9 cm, respectively were from those with hilling on 28 DAS. The greatest yield of ears (56,000 ears ha-1 was obtained from 14-28-42 DAS treatments and the smallest one was from SA (47,000 ears ha-1. The greatest yield of non commercial ears (15,000 ears ha-1 was obtained from 14-42 and 14-28-42 DAS treatments and the smallest one was from SA (7,000 ears ha-1. Yield of commercial ears varied from 38,000 ears ha-1, on 28 DAS treatment to 41,000 ears ha-1, on 14, 42, 28-42 and 14-28-42 DAS treatments. Costs of yield varied from R$ 1,315.90 ha-1, in SA treatment, to R$ 1,774.17 ha-1, with hilling on 14-28-42 DAS. The greatest net income was R$ 2,684.10 ha-1 with no hilling and the smallest was R$ 2,166.81 ha-1 with hilling on 14-42 DAS. In the conditions that the experiment was carried out it was concluded that the cultivation with no hilling is recommended because it showed the smallest yield cost and the greatest net income.Foi estudado o milho-verde Agromen 2029, sem amontoa e com amontoa aos 14; 28; 42; 14-28; 14-42; 28-42 e 14-28-42 dias após a semeadura-DAS. Os oito tratamentos foram arranjados no delineamento experimental blocos casualizados, com quatro repetições. As maiores alturas da planta (176,9 cm e da primeira espiga (83,9 cm foram encontradas no tratamento sem amontoa e as menores (162,4 e 72,9 cm, respectivamente no tratamento com amontoa aos 28 DAS. A maior produção total de espigas (56.000 espigas ha-1 foi obtida no tratamento 14-28-42 DAS e a menor foi no sem amontoa (47.000 espigas ha-1. A maior produção de espigas não comerciais (15.000 espigas ha-1

  6. Welfare family policies and gender earnings inequality: A cross-national comparative analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Mandel, Hadas; Semyonov, Moshe

    2003-01-01

    The present study examines whether and to what extent welfare-family policies are likely to affect earnings inequality between economically active men and women. Using hierarchical linear models, we combine individual-level variables (obtained from the Luxembourg Income Study) with country level data (obtained from secondary sources) to evaluate the net effects of welfare family policies on gender earnings inequality across 20 industrialized countries. The analysis reveals that net of individ...

  7. Child Maltreatment and Allostatic Load: Consequences for Physical and Mental Health in Children from Low-Income Families

    OpenAIRE

    Rogosch, Fred A.; Dackis, Melissa N.; Cicchetti, Dante

    2011-01-01

    Child maltreatment and biomarkers of allostatic load were investigated in relation to child health problems and psychological symptomatology. Participants attended a summer research day camp and included 137 maltreated and 110 nonmaltreated low-income children, who were aged 8 to 10 years (M = 9.42) and racially and ethnically diverse; 52% were male. Measurements obtained included salivary cortisol and DHEA, body-mass index, waist-hip ratio, and blood pressure; these indicators provided a com...

  8. Links Between Home and School Among Low-Income Mexican-American and European-American Families

    OpenAIRE

    Azmitia, Margarita; Cooper, Catherine R.; Garcia, Eugene E.; Ittel, Angela; Johanson, Bonnie; Lopez, Edward M.; Martinez-Chavez, Rebeca; Rivera, Lourdes

    1994-01-01

    The goal of this report is to show how low-income Mexican-American and European-American children's and adolescents' everyday learning activities in the home and parents' aspirations for their children's future are key elements in home-school linkages. After reviewing two models of home-school linkages, we apply the ecocultural approach to analyzing third-,fifth-, and seventh-grade students' participation in chore and homework activities and their parents' aspirations for their personal/moral...

  9. And Still WE Rise: Parent-Child Relationships, Resilience, and School Readiness in Low-Income Urban Black Families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Riana Elyse

    2017-09-14

    The Family Stress Model acknowledges forms of resilience in the face of hardship; however, few studies have emerged on the potentially positive role of familial relationships in the academic, psychological, and prosocial success of impoverished Black children. The current study evaluates how parent-child relationship conflict and financial stress are associated with children's school readiness (i.e., academic, psychosocial, and socioemotional indicators). Latent profile analyses, incorporating financial stress, general stress, and parent-child relationship variables were used to test whether varying family stress profiles differentially predicted children's school readiness in Black families with children entering kindergarten (N = 292). Findings revealed 4 latent classifications with profiles of low, moderate, moderate/high, and high/moderate stress and conflict variables, respectively. Whereas the low-profile was associated with the most desirable school readiness indicators overall, children in the high/moderate-profile were rated as significantly more psychosocially and socioemotionally prepared for school than their moderate/high-profile counterparts. Families with less conflictual parent-child relationships had more optimal school readiness relative to families with higher conflict and less financial strain. The findings of the current study have the potential to contribute to theories of poverty and parent-child relationships, as well as guide therapeutic services focused on family relationships through school- and community-related programs for impoverished urban Black youth and their families. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  10. A Supermarket Double-Dollar Incentive Program Increases Purchases of Fresh Fruits and Vegetables Among Low-Income Families With Children: The Healthy Double Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polacsek, Michele; Moran, Alyssa; Thorndike, Anne N; Boulos, Rebecca; Franckle, Rebecca L; Greene, Julie C; Blue, Dan J; Block, Jason P; Rimm, Eric B

    2017-11-07

    To carry out a pilot study to determine whether a supermarket double-dollar fruit and vegetable (F&V) incentive increases F&V purchases among low-income families. Randomized controlled design. Purchases were tracked using a loyalty card that provided participants with a 5% discount on all purchases during a 3-month baseline period followed by the 4-month intervention. A supermarket in a low-income rural Maine community. A total of 401 low-income and Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP) supermarket customers. Same-day coupon at checkout for half-off eligible fresh, frozen, or canned F&V over 4 months. Weekly spending in dollars on eligible F&V. A linear model with random intercepts accounted for repeated transactions by individuals to estimate change in F&V spending per week from baseline to intervention. Secondary analyses examined changes among SNAP-eligible participants. Coupons were redeemed among 53% of eligible baskets. Total weekly F&V spending increased in the intervention arm compared with control ($1.83; 95% confidence interval [CI], $0.29 to $3.88). The largest increase was for fresh F&V ($1.97; 95% CI, $0.49 to $3.44). Secondary analyses revealed greater increases in F&V spending among SNAP-eligible participants who redeemed coupons ($5.14; 95% CI, $1.93 to $8.34) than among non-SNAP eligible participants who redeemed coupons ($3.88; 95% CI, $1.67 to $6.08). A double-dollar pricing incentive increased F&V spending in a low-income community despite the moderate uptake of the coupon redemption. Customers who were eligible for SNAP saw the greatest F&V spending increases. Financial incentives for F&V are an effective strategy for food assistance programs to increase healthy purchases and improve dietary intake in low-income families. Copyright © 2017 Society for Nutrition Education and Behavior. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Family Life

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Family and Friends > Family Life Request Permissions Family Life Approved by the Cancer.Net Editorial Board , 11/ ... treatment become as overwhelming for others in your life as they are for you. Understanding the potential ...

  12. 26 CFR 1.1402(a)-7 - Net operating loss deduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 12 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Net operating loss deduction. 1.1402(a)-7...) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES Tax on Self-Employment Income § 1.1402(a)-7 Net operating loss deduction. The deduction provided by section 172, relating to net operating losses sustained in years other...

  13. Impact of the Bolsa Família program on food availability of low-income Brazilian families: a quasi experimental study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Paula Bortoletto Martins

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Bolsa Família Program was created in Brazil in 2003, by the joint of different social programs aimed at poor or very poor families with focus on income transfer to promote immediate poverty relief, conditionalities and complementary programs. Given the contributions of conditional cash transfer programs to poverty alleviation and their potential effects on nutrition and health, the objective of this study was to assess the impact of the Bolsa Família Program on food purchases of low-income households in Brazil. Methods Representative data from the Household Budget Survey conducted in 2008–2009 were studied, with probabilistic sample of 55,970 households. 11,282 households were eligible for this study and 48.5 % were beneficiaries of the BFP. Food availability indicators were compared among paired blocks of households (n = 100, beneficiaries or non-beneficiaries of the Bolsa Família Program, with monthly per capita income up to R$ 210.00. Blocks of households were created based on the propensity score of each household to have beneficiaries and were homogeneous regarding potential confounding variables. The food availability indicators were weekly per capita expenditure and daily energy consumption, both calculated considering all food items and four food groups based on the extent and purpose of the industrial food processing. The comparisons between the beneficiaries and non-beneficiaries blocks of households were conducted through paired ‘t’ tests. Results Compared to non-beneficiaries, the beneficiaries households had 6 % higher food expenditure (p = 0.015 and 9.4 % higher total energy availability (p = 0.010. It was found a 7.3 % higher expenditure on in natura or minimally processed foods and 10.4 % higher expenditure on culinary ingredients among the Bolsa Família Program families. No statistically significant differences were found regarding the expenditure and the availability of

  14. Poweo positive net income of 7.4 million euro in 2006. First time in the black since the company's creation; Poweo benefice net de 7,4 millions euro en 2006. 1. exercice beneficiaire depuis la creation de Poweo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2007-03-15

    POWEO, leading independent operator of electricity and gas, presents in this document the principal elements of its consolidated results and its highlights for 2006: - Sales turnover reaches 244.4 M euro, multiplied by 2.2 compared to 2005; - Operational result amounts to 9.3 M euro, against a loss of 8.4 M euro in 2005; - Consolidated net income group share reaches 7.4 M euro, against a loss of 4.9 M euro in 2005. The 2006 consolidated revenue amounted to 244.4 million euro against 243.7 million euro announced on January 31, taking into account a revaluation of 0.7 million euro of the Energy Management's performance. The number of transferred customer sites amounted to 80,300 as at December 31, 2006, in progression of 23% compared to the end of 2005. Gross margin reached 33.6 euro million, in strong progression compared to 2005, reflecting the effectiveness of the Energy Management activity which has allowed to very appreciably reduce the cost price for POWEO of the energy delivered to its customers, within the framework of its global sourcing strategy. Operating costs increased in line with the development plan, under the effect in particular of the strengthening of operational teams, the Group head-count having reached 90 people as at December 31, 2006. EBITDA reached 8.1 million euro in 2006, against a negative amount of 5.3 million euro in 2005, allowing POWEO to meet its objective of a positive EBITDA as announced in September 2006. The EBIT amounted to 9.3 million euro, taking into account a profit of dilution of 7.6 million euro related to the issuance premium recognized on POWEO Production by Verbund, the Austrian national electricity operator and reference shareholder of POWEO, within the framework of the partnership announced in January 2006. With a consolidated net income group share of 7.4 million euro, 2006 thus constitutes the first fiscal year in the black since the Company's creation in 2002. The consolidated net equity amounted to 103

  15. Ecological Factors Influencing Emotional/Behavioral Problems and Self-Concept in Adolescents from Low-Income Families in South Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baek, Suyon; Yoo, Haewon

    2017-09-01

    In this study, we examined emotional/behavioral problems and self-concept in adolescents from low-income families in Korea; additionally, we identified ecological factors associated with these traits. This descriptive study employed an ecological model to analyze data from the Korean Children and Youth Panel Survey. A nationwide stratified multistage cluster sampling methodology was used. Overall, 2534 first-year middle school students were included in the survey, and the survey was conducted from 2010 to 2016. Hierarchical multiple regression models were generated. The mean score of emotional/behavioral problem has been changed from 2.20 (2011), 2.15 (2013), to 2.11 (2015) out of 4, and the mean score of self-concept has been changed from 2.73 (2012), 2.73 (2014), to 2.77 (2015) out of 4. Factors that influenced emotional/behavioral problems and self-concept among adolescents were health perception and academic achievement (only associated with self-concept) at the intrapersonal level and parenting style, peer attachment (only associated with self-concept), and relationships with teachers at the interpersonal level. These results may be used to inform the development of interventions designed to decrease emotional/behavioral problems and improve positive self-concept in adolescents from low-income families.

  16. The association of fast food, fruit and vegetable prices with dietary intakes among US adults: is there modification by family income?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beydoun, May A; Powell, Lisa M; Wang, Youfa

    2008-06-01

    We examined the effects of prices of fast foods and fruits and vegetables on dietary intake, body mass index (BMI) and obesity risks and whether the associations varied across groups according to their family income. Data from the US Department of Agriculture Continuing Survey of Food Intakes by Individuals (CSFII 1994-96) for 7331 individuals aged 20-65 years with complete data on two 24-h recalls were used. We computed two food price indices (FFPI and FVPI) which were linked to individuals through geocoded identifiers. Main outcomes included dietary intakes of energy, selected nutrients and food groups, fast food consumption, and diet quality measured using two indices (HEI and aMED), BMI and obesity. Interaction terms between key variables were tested in regression analyses and in further stratified analysis by family income. Higher fast food price indices (FFPIs) were associated with higher fiber intake, lower saturated fat, and better overall diet quality as measured by aMED. FVPI was positively associated with improved dietary quality as well as in terms of lower cholesterol and sodium intakes, improved HEI and lower BMI. Most of these associations showed homogeneous strengths across income groups as evidenced by a non-significant FFPIxPIR or FVPIxPIR interaction term (p>0.10). While increasing FFPI by 1 standard deviation was only borderline protective against fast food consumption, its association with other binary outcomes that were considered was non-significant. In contrast, FVPI was protective against obesity, particularly among the near poor. It was also associated with improved aMED score. Analyses of these national data suggest that changing fast food and fruit and vegetable prices may affect people's dietary quality and to some extent their adiposity, although the present study is limited by the available food price data.

  17. Family income is associated with quality of life in patients with chronic kidney disease in the pre-dialysis phase: a cross sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemos, Camila Foresti; Rodrigues, Marcelo Palmeira; Veiga, Joel Russomano Paulo

    2015-12-21

    Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is a condition of high prevalence in the general population mainly due to hypertension and diabetes mellitus. It is often associated with a high prevalence of complications and worse quality of life. The main objective of this study is to evaluate quality of life (QOL) using the generic instrument SF-36 in patients with CKD in pre-dialysis and identify the possible influence of the degree of renal function, hemoglobin level, age, gender, family income and level of education on QOL. A cross-sectional study was conducted and included 170 individuals (83 men) with a mean age of 57 ± 15 years who met the inclusion criteria and answered the SF-36. Laboratory tests and clinical and demographic data were obtained, and the glomerular filtration rate was estimated using the CKD-EPI formula. The degree of renal function did not influence QOL. Women had lower scores in functional capacity, physical aspects, pain, and mental health. Patients younger than 47 years old showed better QOL in the functional capacity; however, their QOL was worse in terms of social aspects. Subjects with an income higher than 5.1 times the minimum wage had better QOL in the functional capacity, pain, social, physical and emotional roles, and mental health. Hemoglobin levels and education did not globally influence QOL. Gender and age influenced QOL, but family income was the most important factor affecting QOL (6 out of 8 domains investigated by SF-36) in this sample of 170 individuals with CKD in pre-dialysis. These findings suggest that many efforts should be made to reduce the effect of these factors on quality of life in patients with CKD and reinforce the need for longitudinal studies and intervention.

  18. RESTful NET

    CERN Document Server

    Flanders, Jon

    2008-01-01

    RESTful .NET is the first book that teaches Windows developers to build RESTful web services using the latest Microsoft tools. Written by Windows Communication Foundation (WFC) expert Jon Flanders, this hands-on tutorial demonstrates how you can use WCF and other components of the .NET 3.5 Framework to build, deploy and use REST-based web services in a variety of application scenarios. RESTful architecture offers a simpler approach to building web services than SOAP, SOA, and the cumbersome WS- stack. And WCF has proven to be a flexible technology for building distributed systems not necessa

  19. Rural eHealth nutrition education for limited-income families: an iterative and user-centered design approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atkinson, Nancy L; Saperstein, Sandra L; Desmond, Sharon M; Gold, Robert S; Billing, Amy S; Tian, Jing

    2009-06-22

    Adult women living in rural areas have high rates of obesity. Although rural populations have been deemed hard to reach, Internet-based programming is becoming a viable strategy as rural Internet access increases. However, when people are able to get online, they may not find information designed for them and their needs, especially harder to reach populations. This results in a "content gap" for many users. User-centered design is a methodology that can be used to create appropriate online materials. This research was conducted to apply a user-centered approach to the design and development of a health promotion website for low-income mothers living in rural Maryland. Three iterative rounds of concept testing were conducted to (1) identify the name and content needs of the site and assess concerns about registering on a health-related website; (2) determine the tone and look of the website and confirm content and functionality; and (3) determine usability and acceptability. The first two rounds involved focus group and small group discussions, and the third round involved usability testing with individual women as they used the prototype system. The formative research revealed that women with limited incomes were enthusiastic about a website providing nutrition and physical activity information targeted to their incomes and tailored to their personal goals and needs. Other priority content areas identified were budgeting, local resources and information, and content that could be used with their children. Women were able to use the prototype system effectively. This research demonstrated that user-centered design strategies can help close the "content gap" for at-risk audiences.

  20. Petri Nets

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Associate Professor of. Computer Science and. Automation at the Indian. Institute of Science,. Bangalore. His research interests are broadly in the areas of stochastic modeling and scheduling methodologies for future factories; and object oriented modeling. GENERAL I ARTICLE. Petri Nets. 1. Overview and Foundations.

  1. Petri Nets

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 4; Issue 8. Petri Nets - Overview and Foundations. Y Narahari. General Article Volume 4 Issue 8 August 1999 pp ... Author Affiliations. Y Narahari1. Department ot Computer Science and Automation, Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore 560 012, India.

  2. INCOME Family Income in 1999 NMSD 2000

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The 2006 Second Edition TIGER/Line files are an extract of selected geographic and cartographic information from the Census TIGER database. The geographic coverage...

  3. INCOME Family Income in 1999 BGs 2000

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — TIGER, TIGER/Line, and Census TIGER are registered trademarks of the Bureau of the Census. The Redistricting Census 2000 TIGER/Line files are an extract of selected...

  4. INCOME Family Income in 1999 COS 2000

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — TIGER, TIGER/Line, and Census TIGER are registered trademarks of the Bureau of the Census. The Redistricting Census 2000 TIGER/Line files are an extract of selected...

  5. INCOME Family Income in 1999 NMHD 2000

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The 2006 Second Edition TIGER/Line files are an extract of selected geographic and cartographic information from the Census TIGER database. The geographic coverage...

  6. INCOME Family Income in 1999 CTS 2000

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — TIGER, TIGER/Line, and Census TIGER are registered trademarks of the Bureau of the Census. The Redistricting Census 2000 TIGER/Line files are an extract of selected...

  7. INCOME Family Income in 1999 SDs 2000

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The New Mexico 2000 Unified School Districts layer was derived from the TIGER Line files from the US Census Bureau. The districts are clipped to the state...

  8. A qualitative study for understanding family and peer influences on obesity-related health behaviors in low-income African-American adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    St George, Sara M; Wilson, Dawn K

    2012-10-01

    Given the cultural and developmental relevance of family members and peers in the lives of African-American adolescents, the present study used a bioecological framework to qualitatively explore the parenting context as well as specific family factors (support, rules, monitoring) and peer factors (support) related to weight status, physical activity (PA), and healthy eating in low-income African-American boys versus girls. Qualitative data were obtained from African-American adolescents through focus groups. Adolescents (n = 45, 100% African American, 51% girls, 12.6 ± 1.2 years, 51% overweight/obese) were from two underserved communities in South Carolina (median income ≈$17,000-$22,000, high crime levels). Sessions were audiotaped, transcribed, and coded by independent pairs of raters (r = 0.75). QSR NVivo 8 was used to analyze data, and themes were categorized separately for boys and girls. Adolescents reported themes of family warmth and control practices consistent with an authoritative style of parenting. Although adolescents wanted increased autonomy, they viewed parental monitoring as a favorable part of their relationship. Boys reported receiving more constructive feedback from parents about weight status and greater overall support for PA and diet than did girls. Girls reported more honest feedback from peers about weight status than did boys. Overall, adolescents acknowledged the unique opportunities of parents and peers in improving their health behaviors. Findings suggest parents and peers interact in different ways with African-American boys and girls regarding their weight status and health behaviors. Future obesity prevention efforts in minority youth may need to target parenting skills that provide greater support to African-American girls. In addition, given peers influence PA and diet differently in boys and girls, interventions should strategically include parenting strategies that involve monitoring peer-adolescent interactions.

  9. Academic success across the transition from primary to secondary schooling among lower-income adolescents: understanding the effects of family resources and gender.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serbin, Lisa A; Stack, Dale M; Kingdon, Danielle

    2013-09-01

    Successful academic performance during adolescence is a key predictor of lifetime achievement, including occupational and social success. The present study investigated the important transition from primary to secondary schooling during early adolescence, when academic performance among youth often declines. The goal of the study was to understand how risk factors, specifically lower family resources and male gender, threaten academic success following this "critical transition" in schooling. The study involved a longitudinal examination of the predictors of academic performance in grades 7-8 among 127 (56 % girls) French-speaking Quebec (Canada) adolescents from lower-income backgrounds. As hypothesized based on transition theory, hierarchical regression analyses showed that supportive parenting and specific academic, social and behavioral competencies (including spelling ability, social skills, and lower levels of attention problems) predicted success across this transition among at-risk youth. Multiple-mediation procedures demonstrated that the set of compensatory factors fully mediated the negative impact of lower family resources on academic success in grades 7-8. Unique mediators (social skills, spelling ability, supportive parenting) also were identified. In addition, the "gender gap" in performance across the transition could be attributed statistically to differences between boys and girls in specific competencies observed prior to the transition, as well as differential parenting (i.e., support from mother) towards girls and boys. The present results contribute to our understanding of the processes by which established risk factors, such as low family income and gender impact development and academic performance during early adolescence. These "transitional" processes and subsequent academic performance may have consequences across adolescence and beyond, with an impact on lifetime patterns of achievement and occupational success.

  10. Better breathing or better living? A qualitative analysis of the impact of asthma medication acquisition on standard of living and quality of life in low-income families of children with asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ungar, Wendy J; Macdonald, Tony; Cousins, Martha

    2005-01-01

    Purchasing children's asthma medications places a burden on low-income families. The objective of this study was to explore how purchasing children's asthma medications influenced household purchasing behavior and quality of life in low-income families with no drug insurance. Seventeen parents residing in the Greater Toronto Area with no drug plan and with household incomes below 45,000 US dollars (twice the U.S. poverty level) participated. Semi-structured interviews were conducted, emphasizing the topics of prescription drugs used and cost versus effectiveness; purchasing behavior and drug administration; effects of medication purchasing on the family; and payment assistance. Transcribed narratives were coded and analyzed thematically. Annual expenditures for asthma drugs were 300 US dollars to 3000 US dollars. Because asthma management was a high priority, foregone expenditures included paying for other family members' health needs, essentials (clothing, food, better housing), and nonessentials (recreation, vacations) and long-term investments, such as their child's future education and their retirement. Respondents believed quality of life was negatively affected. Not addressing the health concerns of family members, making sacrifices, and modifying investment decisions created sustained anxiety in families of children with asthma. Access to medication benefits would have a positive impact on quality of life. Health care providers can help to ensure that low-income families receive available assistance.

  11. Child, family, and school characteristics related to English proficiency development among low-income, dual language learners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Yoon Kyong; Curby, Timothy W; Winsler, Adam

    2014-12-01

    Little is known about 2nd language development among young, low-income, language-minority children. This article examined the longitudinal English development of low-income, dual language learners (DLLs) in Miami (n = 18,532) from kindergarten through 5th grade. Growth curve modeling indicated that social skills, good behavior, Spanish (L1) competence in preschool, having a mother born in the United States, and attending larger schools with fewer DLLs were associated with higher initial levels of English proficiency in kindergarten and/or steeper growth over time. Survival analyses indicated that it took about 2 years for half of the sample to become proficient in English according to the school district's criterion. Higher initial proficiency in kindergarten, not receiving free/reduced lunch, not being Hispanic or Black, strong cognitive, language, and socioemotional skills at age 4, and maternal education were associated with faster attainment of English proficiency. It is important for teachers, parents, researchers, and policy makers to understand that DLL students come from diverse backgrounds and that poverty and other factors influence the speed of English language development for DLLs. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved.

  12. Measuring the income process in Italy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bucciol, A.

    2012-01-01

    We use a panel dataset from the SHIW survey to study the features of household income in Italy. Income is described as a combination of deterministic and random components. In aggregate deterministic income grows at an average annual rate of 1.8% net of inflation, shocks feature stationarity, and

  13. Can income redistribution help changing rising inequality?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Salverda, W.

    2014-01-01

    In this article compares the rise in inequality concerning net household incomes in a number of European countries and Canada, the USA and Australia. Two important factors are used to explain this worrying trend: a growing of unequal market incomes and/or a declining redistribution of income through

  14. The RD parent empowerment program creates measurable change in the behaviors of low-income families and children: an intervention description and evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hand, Rosa K; Birnbaum, Amanda S; Carter, Betty Jean; Medrow, Lisa; Stern, Emily; Brown, Katie

    2014-12-01

    Dietary and physical activity habits are developed early in life and are influenced by family environments. We describe and evaluate an intervention for low-income families to encourage healthy habits. The RD Parent Empowerment Program (http://www.eatright.org/programs/kidseatright/activities/content.aspx?id=6442477891) consists of four workshops centered on the 8 Habits of Healthy Children and Families (Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics Foundation). Registered dietitian nutritionists conduct the workshops in school and community settings using a structured leader guide and tailor the communication and interactive activities to the audience. Participants are parents of young children. Our goals were to use a phenomenologic approach to elicit participant feedback, determine whether participants in the RD Parent Empowerment Program made healthier choices for their families after attending the workshops, and identify which elements of the program participants believed contributed most to its success. The evaluation design used a pragmatic, mixed-methods approach utilizing postintervention focus groups and pre-post intervention scores on the Family Nutrition and Physical Activity (FNPA) survey. All workshop attendees aged 18 years or older were eligible to participate in the evaluation. One hundred twenty-three parents participated in the intervention across seven sites. Focus group results were analyzed using thematic analysis methods to match themes to the main intervention goals. t Tests were used to compare pre- and postintervention FNPA scores and demographic characteristics pooled across sites. FNPA scores significantly improved from pre- to postintervention by a mean of 4.3 FNPA points (6.5%; PParent Empowerment Program generates meaningful self-reported behavior change in parents. Long-term sustainability of the changes must be investigated. Copyright © 2014 Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. "Doing our best to keep a routine:" How low-income mothers manage child feeding with unpredictable work and family schedules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agrawal, Tara; Farrell, Tracy Jean; Wethington, Elaine; Devine, Carol M

    2018-01-01

    Significant changes in work and family conditions over the last three decades have important implications for understanding how young children are fed. The new conditions of work and family have placed pressures on families. The aim of this study was to explore the work and family pressures shaping the ways parents feed their young children on a day-to-day basis. Twenty-two purposively recruited low-income employed mothers of 3-4 year old children from a rural county Head Start program in Upstate New York reported details about the context of their children's eating episodes in a 24-h qualitative dietary recall. Participating mothers were employed and/or in school at least 20 h a week and varied in partner and household characteristics. Interview transcripts were open coded using the constant comparative method for usual ways of feeding children. A typology of three emergent child feeding routines was identified based on mothers' accounts of the recurring ways they fed their child. Mothers' feeding routines were distinguished by a combination of four recurring key strategies - planning ahead, delegating, making trade-offs, and coordinating. Work schedule predictability and other adults helped mothers maintain feeding routines. Unexpected daily events, such as working overtime or waking up late, disrupted child feeding routines and required modifications. These findings suggest that understanding how young children are fed requires recognizing the socio-ecological environments that involve working mothers' daily schedules and household conditions and the multiple ways that mothers manage food and feeding to fit environmental constraints. There is a need to look at more than just family meals to understand parents' daily strategies for feeding young children and their implications for child nutrition. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Influence of maternal and socioeconomic factors on breast milk fatty acid composition in urban, low‐income families

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nayak, Uma; Kanungo, Suman; Zhang, Dadong; Ross Colgate, E.; Carmolli, Marya P.; Dey, Ayan; Alam, Masud; Manna, Byomkesh; Nandy, Ranjan Kumar; Kim, Deok Ryun; Paul, Dilip Kumar; Choudhury, Saugato; Sahoo, Sushama; Harris, William S.; Wierzba, Thomas F.; Ahmed, Tahmeed; Kirkpatrick, Beth D.; Haque, Rashidul; Petri, William A.

    2017-01-01

    Abstract The lipid composition of breast milk may have a significant impact on early infant growth and cognitive development. Comprehensive breast milk data is lacking from low‐income populations in the Indian subcontinent impeding assessment of deficiencies and limiting development of maternal nutritional interventions. A single breast milk specimen was collected within 6 weeks postpartum from two low‐income maternal cohorts of exclusively breastfed infants, from Dhaka, Bangladesh (n = 683) and Kolkata, India (n = 372) and assayed for percentage composition of 26 fatty acids. Mature milk (>15 days) in Dhaka (n = 99) compared to Kolkata (n = 372) was higher in total saturated fatty acid (SFA; mean 48% vs. 44%) and disproportionately lower in ω3‐polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA), hence the ω6‐ and ω3‐PUFA ratio in Dhaka were almost double the value in Kolkata. In both sites, after adjusting for days of lactation, increased maternal education was associated with decreased SFA and PUFA, and increasing birth order or total pregnancies was associated with decreasing ω6‐PUFA or ω3‐PUFA by a factor of 0.95 for each birth and pregnancy. In Dhaka, household prosperity was associated with decreased SFA and PUFA and increased ω6‐ and ω3‐PUFA. Maternal height was associated with increased SFA and PUFA in Kolkata (1% increase per 1 cm), but body mass index showed no independent association with either ratio in either cohort. In summary, the socioeconomic factors of maternal education and household prosperity were associated with breast milk composition, although prosperity may only be important in higher cost of living communities. Associated maternal biological factors were height and infant birth order, but not adiposity. Further study is needed to elucidate the underlying mechanisms of these effects. PMID:28198164

  17. Preferred Parenting Responsibilities and Community Supports in Moderate Income, Ethnically Diverse Dual-Earner and Traditional Families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbert, Lucia Albino; Gram, Anita

    Recent societal changes suggest that images of motherhood and fatherhood are changing and that a model of contemporary parenting is emerging which reflects men's significant involvement in parenting and women's significant involvement in providing for the family economically. This study collected data pertinent to this emerging model by…

  18. The Contributions of Parenting and Postnatal Depression on Emergent Language of Children in Low-Income Families

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zajicek-Farber, Michaela L.

    2010-01-01

    Children's emergent language develops in a rich context of varied influences afforded by their familial and social environments. Using data collected during a longitudinal prospective service project, this study examined the direct and indirect contributions of parenting knowledge and practices and maternal postnatal depression on emergent…

  19. Low-Skill Workers' Access to Quality Green Jobs. Perspectives on Low-Income Working Families. Brief 13

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinson, Karin; Stanczyk, Alexandra; Eyster; Lauren

    2010-01-01

    This brief discusses strategies for improving access to green jobs among those with low skill levels, particularly jobs that can help improve workers' economic standing and better support their families. In order to understand where green jobs for low-skill individuals can be found, the first section provides an overview of green industries and…

  20. Low-Income Rural Mothers' Perceptions of Parent Confidence: The Role of Family Health Problems and Partner Status

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ontai, Lenna; Sano, Yoshie; Hatton, Holly; Conger, Katherine J.

    2008-01-01

    Parenting confidence can be undermined by the presence of frequent or persistent health problems, particularly for people living in rural communities that have limited access to adequate health care. However, little is known about how minor health problems in the family impact parenting. The current study examined single and coresident mothers'…

  1. Socioeconomic hierarchy and health gradient in Europe: the role of income inequality and of social origins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chauvel, Louis; Leist, Anja K

    2015-11-14

    Health inequalities reflect multidimensional inequality (income, education, and other indicators of socioeconomic position) and vary across countries and welfare regimes. To which extent there is intergenerational transmission of health via parental socioeconomic status has rarely been investigated in comparative perspective. The study sought to explore if different measures of stratification produce the same health gradient and to which extent health gradients of income and of social origins vary with level of living and income inequality. A total of 299,770 observations were available from 18 countries assessed in EU-SILC 2005 and 2011 data, which contain information on social origins. Income inequality (Gini) and level of living were calculated from EU-SILC. Logit rank transformation provided normalized inequalities and distributions of income and social origins up to the extremes of the distribution and was used to investigate net comparable health gradients in detail. Multilevel random-slope models were run to post-estimate best linear unbiased predictors (BLUPs) and related standard deviations of residual intercepts (median health) and slopes (income-health gradients) per country and survey year. Health gradients varied across different measures of stratification, with origins and income producing significant slopes after controls. Income inequality was associated with worse average health, but income inequality and steepness of the health gradient were only marginally associated. Linear health gradients suggest gains in health per rank of income and of origins even at the very extremes of the distribution. Intergenerational transmission of status gains in importance in countries with higher income inequality. Countries differ in the association of income inequality and income-related health gradient, and low income inequality may mask health problems of vulnerable individuals with low status. Not only income inequality, but other country characteristics such

  2. Family Income and Material Deprivation: Do They Matter for Sleep Quality and Quantity in Early Life? Evidence From a Longitudinal Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barazzetta, Marta; Ghislandi, Simone

    2017-03-01

    The aim of this article is to investigate the determinants of sleeping patterns in children up to age 9 on a large and geographically homogeneous sample of British children and parents, focusing in particular on the role of economic and social factors, specifically on income. The data of this study come from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children, a long-term health research project that recruited over 14000 pregnant women who were due to give birth between April 1991 and December 1992 in Bristol and its surrounding areas, including some of Somerset and Gloucestershire. Logistic regression models for the sleep problem dummies and log-linear models for the sleep quantity. One additional item in the material deprivation index is associated to an increase of around 10-20% in the odds of having at least 1 sleep problem. Similarly, children from the richest families are less likely to have any sleep problem up to 115 months (around 20% reduction in the odds). Mother's characteristics (i.e., education and mental health in the pregnancy period) are also significant predictors. Sleep quantity does not vary much and is not sensitive to socioeconomic factors. Exposure to income-related inequalities affects child sleep. Further research is needed to understand if sleep in early life influences future health and economic trajectories.

  3. Childhood income volatility and adult outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardy, Bradley L

    2014-10-01

    Using data linked across generations in the Panel Study of Income Dynamics, I estimate the relationship between exposure to volatile income during childhood and a set of socioeconomic outcomes in adulthood. The empirical framework is an augmented intergenerational income mobility model that includes controls for income volatility. I measure income volatility at the family level in two ways: (1) instability as measured by squared deviations around a family-specific mean; and (2) instability as percentage changes of 25 % or more. Volatility enters the model both separately and interacted with income level. I find that family income volatility during childhood has a modest negative association with educational attainment. Volatility has a smaller descriptive role in explaining intergenerational outcomes relative to permanent income. Across the income distribution, the negative association between volatility exposure and educational attainment is largest for young adults from moderate-income families.

  4. Receitas bruta e líquida parcial e custo de dietas contendo polpa cítrica para suínos abatidos com 130kg de peso Gross and partial net incomes and feeding cost of diets containing citrus pulp for pigs slaughtered with 130kg of weight

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. H. Watanabe

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Avaliou-se o custo de inclusão da polpa cítrica em programa de restrição alimentar qualitativa, utilizando dados de desempenho de 36 suínos da linhagem Topigs, dos 83,7±5,1kg aos 129,8±1,9kg de peso, alimentados com dietas contendo porcentagens crescentes (0, 10, 20 e 30% de polpa cítrica. Os animais foram abatidos aos 130kg e dos valores (R$ da carcaça foram descontados o valor de compra dos animais e o custo com alimentação, de acordo com cada tratamento. Não houve efeito (P>0,05 da inclusão da polpa cítrica sobre o custo com ração e receita bruta, porém houve efeito linear negativo (PThe cost of inclusion of citrus pulp was evaluated in a qualitative feed restriction program using performance data of 36 pigs of Topigs lineage (from 83.7±5.1kg to 129.8±1.9kg fed with crescent levels of citrus pulp (0, 10, 20, and 30%. The animals were slaughtered when they reached 130kg. The value paid for animal and its feeding cost were discounted from the carcass value (R$, according to each treatment. No effect (P>0.05 of the inclusion of citrus pulp on ration cost and gross income was observed. A negative linear effect (<0.05 on partial net income with the increasing participation of the citrus pulp in diets was found. The decreasing trend in the partial net income was caused by the reduction on carcass weight of animals fed on crescent levels of citrus pulp. Considering the increase on corn, soybean, and swine prices from June 2005 to May 2006, 12 different sceneries were determined for partial net income analysis. In all situations, linear reductions on partial net income were observed as a function of citrus pulp inclusion, evidencing that the ingredient was not efficient in promoting profits for producers.

  5. Resemblance of dietary intakes of snacks, sweets, fruit, and vegetables among mother-child dyads from low income families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wroten, Kathryn C; O'Neil, Carol E; Stuff, Janice E; Liu, Yan; Nicklas, Theresa A

    2012-10-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the correlation between intake of snacks, sweets, fruit, vegetables, and energy in low-income mother-child dyads. This was a secondary analysis of data collected from Head Start centers in Houston, Texas and Birmingham, Alabama. Twenty four hour dietary recalls for one weekend day were collected from mother (mean 31.8 yrs [range: 20.1-72.4 yrs])-child (mean 4.4 yrs [range 2.8-5.8 yrs]) dyads (N=650). Means±SD were calculated for intake of food categories and energy. Pearson's partial correlation coefficients were used to detect associations between the intakes of the dyads. Main outcome measures were the correlations between the intake of snacks, sweets, fruit, vegetables, and energy in the mother-child dyads. Partial correlations showed that children's intake of snacks, sweets, fruit, vegetables, and energy were all correlated with the mother's intake of these foods/energy (all psweets, fruit, and vegetables (all p<0.001). It is important that food and nutrition professionals provide the guidance needed that encourages intake of nutrient-dense snacks and fruit and vegetables in mothers so they can model healthier food consumption behaviors for their children. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Aggregate Measures of Income and Output in Canada and the United States: Implications for Productivity and Living Standards

    OpenAIRE

    Chris Ross; Alexander Murray

    2010-01-01

    The objectives of this article are to clarify definitions and to produce estimates of the eight aggregate measures of income and product (gross domestic product, gross domestic income, gross national product, gross national income, net domestic product, net domestic income, net national product and net national income) for Canada and the United States over the 1980-2008 period. The article also discusses the implications of the eight measures for productivity and living standards analysis. It...

  7. Promoting Toddlers’ Positive Social-Emotional Outcomes in Low-Income Families: A Play-Based Experimental Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kochanska, Grazyna; Kim, Sanghag; Boldt, Lea J.; Nordling, Jamie Koenig

    2013-01-01

    Objectives This multi-method study of mothers and toddlers (a) examined the effectiveness of a play-based intervention (child-oriented play versus play-as-usual) on children’s cooperation with their mothers and socioemotional competence, (b) introduced a robust new measure of maternal engagement in the intervention, reflected in the dose of child-oriented play the mother delivered to the child, (c) examined ecological factors that predicted maternal engagement, and the effect of engagement on the outcomes. Methods Low-income mothers (N=186, 11% Latino, 27% minority) were randomized into Child-Oriented Play group or Play-as-Usual group, and participated in 8 play sessions and played daily with their children for 10 weeks. Microscopic coding of mothers’ behavior in play sessions assessed the dose of child-oriented play delivered to children; mothers’ diaries assessed time in daily play. Children’s cooperation with maternal control, observed in the laboratory, and mother-rated competence were measured before randomization (Pretest), after play sessions (Posttest 1), and 6 months later (Posttest 2). Results Children in both groups made significant gains in both outcomes. The gains in cooperation appeared longer lasting in Child-Oriented Play group. Both groups made significantly greater gains than a “historical community control” group, an unrelated longitudinal study without any intervention. Structural Equation Analyses revealed that married mothers, and those with fewer children delivered higher doses of child-oriented play, and those doses predicted children’s higher cooperation and competence, with the effects of earlier scores covaried. The dose of time spent in daily play had no effect. Conclusion Child-oriented play may be a promising, effective, and inexpensive means of promoting toddlers’ positive development. PMID:23557253

  8. Promoting toddlers' positive social-emotional outcomes in low-income families: a play-based experimental study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kochanska, Grazyna; Kim, Sanghag; Boldt, Lea J; Nordling, Jamie Koenig

    2013-01-01

    This multimethod study of mothers and toddlers (a) examined the effectiveness of a play-based intervention (child-oriented play vs. play-as-usual) on children's cooperation with their mothers and socioemotional competence; (b) introduced a robust new measure of maternal engagement in the intervention, reflected in the dose of child-oriented play the mother delivered to the child; and (c) examined ecological factors that predicted maternal engagement, and the effect of engagement on the outcomes. Low-income mothers (N = 186, 11% Latino, 27% minority) were randomized into child-oriented play group or play-as-usual group, participated in 8 play sessions, and played daily with their children for 10 weeks. Microscopic coding of mothers' behavior in play sessions assessed the dose of child-oriented play delivered to children; mothers' diaries assessed time in daily play. Children's cooperation with maternal control, observed in the laboratory, and mother-rated competence were measured before randomization (Pretest), after play sessions (Posttest 1), and 6 months later (Posttest 2). Children in both groups made significant gains in both outcomes. The gains in cooperation appeared longer lasting in child-oriented play group. Both groups made significantly greater gains than a "historical community control" group, an unrelated longitudinal study without any intervention. Structural equation analyses revealed that married mothers and those with fewer children delivered higher doses of child-oriented play, and those doses predicted children's higher cooperation and competence, with the effects of earlier scores covaried. The dose of time spent in daily play had no effect. Child-oriented play may be a promising, effective, and inexpensive means of promoting toddlers' positive development.

  9. Parent-child conflict and early childhood adjustment in two-parent low-income families: parallel developmental processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weaver, Chelsea M; Shaw, Daniel S; Crossan, Jennifer L; Dishion, Thomas J; Wilson, Melvin N

    2015-02-01

    Parent-child conflict is central to most intervention models focused on reducing child problem behavior, yet few longitudinal studies have examined these processes during early childhood. The current study investigates (1) growth in mother-child and father figure (FF)-child conflict, (2) associations between trajectories of mother-child and FF-child conflict and children's adjustment; and (3) intervention effects in attenuating conflict. Participants are 195 ethnically diverse mother-FF-child triads drawn from a larger parenting intervention study for families with children at risk for developing conduct problems. Mother-child conflict decreased from ages 2 to 4, but decreases were unrelated to changes in children's adjustment problems. In contrast, the slope of FF-child conflict was positively related to the slope of child externalizing behaviors. Random assignment to a family-centered parenting intervention predicted rate of decline in mother-child conflict. Findings are discussed with respect to developmental patterns of parent-child conflict in early childhood and implications for prevention.

  10. Prevalence and Incidence of Traumatic Experiences Among Orphans in Institutional and Family-Based Settings in 5 Low- and Middle-Income Countries: A Longitudinal Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, Christine L; Pence, Brian W; Ostermann, Jan; Whetten, Rachel A; O'Donnell, Karen; Thielman, Nathan M; Whetten, Kathryn

    2015-08-25

    Policy makers struggling to protect the 153 million orphaned and separated children (OSC) worldwide need evidence-based research on the burden of potentially traumatic events (PTEs) and the relative risk of PTEs across different types of care settings. The Positive Outcomes for Orphans study used a 2-stage, cluster-randomized sampling design to identify 1,357 institution-dwelling and 1,480 family-dwelling orphaned and separated children in 5 low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) in sub-Saharan Africa and Asia. We used the Life Events Checklist developed by the National Center for Posttraumatic Stress Disorder to examine self-reported PTEs among 2,235 OSC ages 10-13 at baseline. We estimated prevalence and incidence during 36-months of follow-up and compared the risk of PTEs across care settings. Data collection began between May 2006 and February 2008, depending on the site. Lifetime prevalence by age 13 of any PTE, excluding loss of a parent, was 91.0% (95% confidence interval (CI) = 85.6, 94.5) in institution-dwelling OSC and 92.4% (95% CI = 90.3, 94.0) in family-dwelling OSC; annual incidence of any PTE was lower in institution-dwelling (23.6% [95% CI = 19.4, 28.7]) than family-dwelling OSC (30.0% [95% CI = 28.1, 32.2]). More than half of children in institutions (50.3% [95% CI = 42.5, 58.0]) and in family-based care (54.0% [95% CI = 50.2, 57.7]) had experienced physical or sexual abuse by age 13. Annual incidence of physical or sexual abuse was lower in institution-dwelling (12.9% [95% CI = 9.6, 17.3]) than family-dwelling OSC (19.4% [95% CI = 17.7, 21.3]), indicating statistically lower risk in institution-dwelling OSC (risk difference = 6.5% [95% CI = 1.4, 11.7]). Prevalence and incidence of PTEs were high among OSC, but contrary to common assumptions, OSC living in institutions did not report more PTEs or more abuse than OSC living with families. Current efforts to reduce the number of institution-dwelling OSC may

  11. Trust, Welfare States and Income Equality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bergh, Andreas; Bjørnskov, Christian

    2014-01-01

    The cross-country correlation between social trust and income equality is well documented, but few studies examine the direction of causality. We show theoretically that by facilitating cooperation, trust may lead to more equal outcomes, while the feedback from inequality to trust is ambiguous....... Using a structural equation model estimated on a large country sample, we find that trust has a positive effect on both market and net income equality. Larger welfare states lead to higher net equality but neither net income equality nor welfare state size seems to have a causal effect on trust. We...

  12. Generation of Domestic Solid Waste in Tikrit City and The Effects of Family Size and Incomes Level on the Rate of Generation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Waleed M. Al Abed Raba

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available     This research included collection and analysis of (2800 samples from four different neighborhoods in Tikrit over the seasons of the year to cover seasonal changes in the generation rate of domestic solid waste. The generation rate of domestic solid waste is (0.460 kg / person / day. The results also showed that summer season is the most season that produced solid waste (0.487 kg / person / day. While winter is the lowest season (0.422 kg / person / day. The results indicated that Friday and Saturday are the most producing days (0.629 , 0.557 kg / person / days, respectively. The results showed the impact of rural character of Aalam region in reducing the rate of generation of domestic solid waste as the rate of generation of the neighborhoods of the four studied areas was (0.460 kg / person / day. SPSS program using has been adopted as a method of statistical analysis to study the effect of family size and income level have on the generation rate in the city, where the results showed that family size adversely affects the generation rate of solid waste, also the lowest generation rate was recorded for families with high income level.                                                                                                                                  

  13. Perfil de consulta en niños alérgicos provenientes de familias de bajos ingresos Profile of consultation of allergic children from low income families

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alain Raimundo Rodríguez-Orozco

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Las enfermedades alérgicas son una de las principales causas de atención médica en la infancia y su impacto se acentúa más en las familias de bajos ingresos. En un estudio descriptivo analítico se caracterizó el perfil de consulta del niño alérgico proveniente de familias mexicanas de bajos recursos económicos. Las enfermedades alérgicas predominaron en el sexo masculino y la edad escolar; el 71 % de los enfermos provenía de localidades urbanas. El asma fue el diagnóstico más frecuente (64 %, seguido de la rinitis alérgica (30 %, dermatitis atópica (6 % y urticaria (3 %. Las reactividades encontradas con más frecuencia en la prueba cutánea fueron Dermatofagoides farinae (77 %, Dermatofagoides pteronyssinus (60 %, Phleum pratense (20 %, gato (17 %, perro (14 % y Cynodon dactylon (11 %. El alto grado de disfunción familiar y la poca adhesión a tratamientos prolongados posibilitan la perpetuidad de los síntomas y el pronóstico incierto en este grupo de niños.Allergic diseases are one of the main causes for seeing the doctor in childhood and their impact is more acute in low income families. An analytical descriptive study characterized the profile of medical consultation of the allergic child from Mexican low income families. Allergic diseases prevailed in males and at school age, and 71 % of the sick children lived in urban settings. Asthma was the most frequent diagnosis (64 % followed by allergic rhinitis (30%, atopic dermatitis (6 % and urticaria (3 %. The most commom reactivity rates in the cutaneous test were Dermatofagoides farinae (77 %, Dermatofagoides pteronyssinus (60 %, Phleum pratense (20 %, cat (17 %, dog (14 % and Cynodon dactylon (11 %. The high level of family dysfunction and low adhesion to long therapies make it possible the persistence of symptoms and the uncertain prognosis in this group of children.

  14. 47 CFR 32.4341 - Net deferred tax liability adjustments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... income tax charges and credits pertaining to Account 32.4361, Deferred tax regulatory adjustments—net. (b... carryforward net operating losses and carryforward investment tax credits expected to reduce future taxes... carryforward net operating losses and carryforward investment tax credits previously recorded in this account...

  15. 47 CFR 32.1500 - Other jurisdictional assets-net.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... account shall be recorded net of any applicable income tax effects and shall be supported by subsidiary... 47 Telecommunication 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Other jurisdictional assets-net. 32.1500....1500 Other jurisdictional assets—net. This account shall include the cumulative impact on assets of...

  16. Three-year change in the wellbeing of orphaned and separated children in institutional and family-based care settings in five low- and middle-income countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whetten, Kathryn; Ostermann, Jan; Pence, Brian W; Whetten, Rachel A; Messer, Lynne C; Ariely, Sumedha; O'Donnell, Karen; Wasonga, Augustine I; Vann, Vanroth; Itemba, Dafrosa; Eticha, Misganaw; Madan, Ira; Thielman, Nathan M

    2014-01-01

    With more than 2 million children living in group homes, or "institutions", worldwide, the extent to which institution-based caregiving negatively affects development and wellbeing is a central question for international policymakers. A two-stage random sampling methodology identified community representative samples of 1,357 institution-dwelling orphaned and separated children (OSC) and 1,480 family-dwelling OSC aged 6-12 from 5 low and middle income countries. Data were collected from children and their primary caregivers. Survey-analytic techniques and linear mixed effects models describe child wellbeing collected at baseline and at 36 months, including physical and emotional health, growth, cognitive development and memory, and the variation in outcomes between children, care settings, and study sites. At 36-month follow-up, institution-dwelling OSC had statistically significantly higher height-for-age Z-scores and better caregiver-reported physical health; family-dwelling OSC had fewer caregiver-reported emotional difficulties. There were no statistically significant differences between the two groups on other measures. At both baseline and follow-up, the magnitude of the differences between the institution- and family-dwelling groups was small. Relatively little variation in outcomes was attributable to differences between sites (11-27% of total variation) or care settings within sites (8-14%), with most variation attributable to differences between children within settings (60-75%). The percent of variation in outcomes attributable to the care setting type, institution- versus family-based care, ranged from 0-4% at baseline, 0-3% at 36-month follow-up, and 0-4% for changes between baseline and 36 months. These findings contradict the hypothesis that group home placement universally adversely affects child wellbeing. Without substantial improvements in and support for family settings, the removal of institutions, broadly defined, would not significantly

  17. Three-year change in the wellbeing of orphaned and separated children in institutional and family-based care settings in five low- and middle-income countries.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathryn Whetten

    Full Text Available With more than 2 million children living in group homes, or "institutions", worldwide, the extent to which institution-based caregiving negatively affects development and wellbeing is a central question for international policymakers.A two-stage random sampling methodology identified community representative samples of 1,357 institution-dwelling orphaned and separated children (OSC and 1,480 family-dwelling OSC aged 6-12 from 5 low and middle income countries. Data were collected from children and their primary caregivers. Survey-analytic techniques and linear mixed effects models describe child wellbeing collected at baseline and at 36 months, including physical and emotional health, growth, cognitive development and memory, and the variation in outcomes between children, care settings, and study sites.At 36-month follow-up, institution-dwelling OSC had statistically significantly higher height-for-age Z-scores and better caregiver-reported physical health; family-dwelling OSC had fewer caregiver-reported emotional difficulties. There were no statistically significant differences between the two groups on other measures. At both baseline and follow-up, the magnitude of the differences between the institution- and family-dwelling groups was small. Relatively little variation in outcomes was attributable to differences between sites (11-27% of total variation or care settings within sites (8-14%, with most variation attributable to differences between children within settings (60-75%. The percent of variation in outcomes attributable to the care setting type, institution- versus family-based care, ranged from 0-4% at baseline, 0-3% at 36-month follow-up, and 0-4% for changes between baseline and 36 months.These findings contradict the hypothesis that group home placement universally adversely affects child wellbeing. Without substantial improvements in and support for family settings, the removal of institutions, broadly defined, would not

  18. Field Test Evaluation of Conservation Retrofits of Low-Income, Single-Family Buildings: Combined Building Shell and Heating System Retrofit Audit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McCold, L.N.

    1987-01-01

    Revised DOE regulations allow greater flexibility in conducting DOE-funded low-income weatherization programs. Certain retrofits to heating and cooling systems for these houses are now permitted, as well as the traditional insulation and infiltration control measures. Also, different amounts of money may be spent on different houses, as long as the average expenditure per house does not exceed $1600. The expanded list of retrofit options provides an opportunity for increased energy savings, but it also complicates the process of selecting the combination of retrofits, house-by-house, that will yield maximum savings for the weatherization program. DOE asked ORNL to devise a procedure for selecting an optimum combination of building shell and heating system retrofits for single-family dwellings. To determine the best retrofits for each house that would maximize program savings, ORNL staff members developed an approach that used information from a preretrofit energy audit of candidate houses. Audit results are used to estimate annual energy savings for various retrofits for each house. Life-cycle benefits (B) are calculated, as are the estimated installation costs (C) for given retrofits in given houses. The benefit-to-cost ratios (B/Cs) are then ranked for all possible retrofits to all candidate houses, and the top-ranking B/C retrofits are selected for installation. This process maximizes program savings, and it is adaptable to varied housing types in different climates. The Audit-Directed Retrofit Program (ADRP) was field tested in a low-income housing retrofit program in Wisconsin during the winter of 1985-86. Results of the field test are reported in a companion document. This report describes the ADRP for the benefit of potential users.

  19. Examining maternal beliefs and human papillomavirus vaccine uptake among male and female children in low-income families

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erika L. Fuchs

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: This study examines within-family differences in the uptake of the HPV vaccine and HPV-related beliefs by children׳s sex. Methods: From a 2011–2013 survey of mothers of children aged 9–17 years in Texas, mothers with both male and female children (n=350 were selected. Results: Mothers were more likely to report having initiated and completed HPV vaccination for their daughters than sons. Mothers did not express differences by children׳s sex in HPV-related beliefs. Among those who had not completely vaccinated either child, mothers were more likely to report they wanted their daughters compared to sons vaccinated and were more likely to report feeling confident they could get their daughters vaccinated than their sons. Conclusion: In this population, mothers were more likely to report HPV vaccination of and motivation to vaccinate daughters compared to sons, although maternal beliefs about HPV did not differ by children׳s sex. Keywords: HPV vaccine, Vaccine series completion, Human papillomavirus, Vaccination, Mothers, Belief

  20. Income Changes Following Divorce and Remarriage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Day, Randal D.; Bahr, Stephen J.

    1986-01-01

    Determined how gender and divorce affect per-capita family income. Female per-capita income decreased substantially after divorce, while male per-capita income increased substantially. Differences between male and female income levels could not be attributed solely to number of dependents. Even among those with no dependents, females had much…

  1. Infant communication and subsequent language development in children from low-income families: the role of early cognitive stimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cates, Carolyn Brockmeyer; Dreyer, Benard P; Berkule, Samantha B; White, Lisa J; Arevalo, Jenny A; Mendelsohn, Alan L

    2012-09-01

    To explore the relationship between early cognitive stimulation in the home, 6-month infant communication, and 24-month toddler language in a low-socioeconomic status sample. Longitudinal analyses of mother-child dyads participating in larger study of early child development were performed. Dyads enrolled postpartum in an urban public hospital. Cognitive stimulation in the home at 6 months was assessed using StimQ-lnfant, including provision of toys, shared reading, teaching, and verbal responsivity. Early infant communication was assessed at 6 months including the following: (1) Emotion and eye gaze (Communication and Symbolic Behavior Scale DP-CSBS DP), (2) Communicative bids (CSBS DP), and (3) Expression of emotion (Short Temperament Scale for Infants). Toddler language was assessed at 24 months using the Preschool Language Scale-4, including the following: (1) expressive language and (2) auditory comprehension. Three hundred twenty families were assessed. In structural equation models, cognitive stimulation in the home was strongly associated with early infant communication (β = 0.63, p language (β = 0.20, p language was mediated through early impacts on infant communication (Indirect β = 0.28, p =.001). Reading, teaching, availability of learning materials, and other reciprocal verbal interactions were all related directly to infant communication and indirectly to language outcomes. The impact of early cognitive stimulation on toddler language is manifested through early associations with infant communication. Pediatric primary care providers should promote cognitive stimulation beginning in early infancy and support the expansion and dissemination of intervention programs such as Reach Out and Read and the Video Interaction Project.

  2. Consumo infantil de alimentos industrializados e renda familiar na cidade de São Paulo Association of children's consumption of processed foods and family income in the city of São Paulo, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rita de Cássia de Aquino

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Descrever o consumo infantil de alimentos industrializados e a relação com a renda familiar per capita, com base em inquérito domiciliar. MÉTODOS: O consumo alimentar de uma amostra probabilística da população infantil residente na cidade de São Paulo, entre zero e 59 meses de idade (n=718, foi estudado em 1995/1996 por meio de inquérito recordatório de 24h. Analisou-se a relação entre o consumo de 24 alimentos industrializados e a renda familiar per capita, distribuída em quartis. RESULTADOS: O consumo de açúcar foi maior entre as crianças de menor renda, enquanto achocolatados, chocolates, iogurte, leite em pó modificado e refrigerantes foram mais consumidos por crianças de maior renda familiar per capita (pOBJECTIVE: To describe children's consumption of processed foods and its relationship with per capita family income based on a household survey. METHODS: Food consumption was studied in a statistical sample of 718 children living in the city of São Paulo in the period 1995-1996. A 24-hour dietary recall was used. Data regarding the association of children's consumption of 24 processed foods and per capita family income (arranged in quartiles was analyzed. RESULTS: Consumption of sugar was higher among children of low income families whereas the consumption of chocolate powder, chocolate, yogurt, infant formula and soft drinks was higher among children of high income families (p< 0.05. CONCLUSIONS: It seems that per capita family income affects the consumption of some processed foods.

  3. Technology Components as Adjuncts to Family-Based Pediatric Obesity Treatment in Low-Income Minority Youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tripicchio, Gina L; Ammerman, Alice S; Neshteruk, Cody; Faith, Myles S; Dean, Kelsey; Befort, Christie; Ward, Dianne S; Truesdale, Kimberly P; Burger, Kyle S; Davis, Ann

    2017-12-01

    Strategies to treat pediatric obesity are needed, especially among high-need populations. Technology is an innovative approach; however, data on technology as adjuncts to in-person treatment programs are limited. A total of 64 children [body mass index (BMI) ≥85th percentile, mean age = 9.6 ± 3.1 years, 32.8% female, 84.4% Hispanic] were recruited to participate in one of three cohorts of a family-based behavioral group (FBBG) treatment program: FBBG only, TECH1, and TECH2. Rolling, nonrandomized recruitment was used to enroll participants into three cohorts from May 2014 to February 2015. FBBG began in May 2014 and received the standard, in-person 12-week treatment only (n = 21); TECH1 began in September 2014 and received FBBG plus a digital tablet equipped with a fitness app (FITNET) (n = 20); TECH2 began in February 2015 and received FBBG and FITNET, plus five individually tailored TeleMed health-coaching sessions delivered via Skype (n = 23). Child BMI z-score (BMI-z) was assessed at baseline and postintervention. Secondary aims examined weekly FBBG attendance, feasibility/acceptability of FITNET and Skype, and the effect of technology engagement on BMI-z. FBBG and TECH1 participants did not show significant reductions in BMI-z postintervention [FBBG: β = -0.05(0.04), p = 0.25; TECH1: β = -0.006(0.06), p = 0.92], but TECH2 participants did [β = -0.09(0.02), p < 0.001] and TeleMed session participation was significantly associated with BMI-z reduction [β = -0.04(0.01), p = 0.01]. FITNET use and FBBG attendance were not associated with BMI-z in any cohort. Overall, participants rated the technology as highly acceptable. Technology adjuncts are feasible, used by hard-to-reach participants, and show promise for improving child weight status in obesity treatment programs.

  4. RTE results 2002: positive net income (+112 million euros), in keeping with forecasts, at the end of a year placed under the sign of quality; Bilan RTE 2002: un resultat net positif (+112 M d'euros), conforme aux previsions, au terme d'une annee placee sous le signe de la qualite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2003-03-01

    The results of RTE, the French Transmission System Operator, confirm the company's sound financial position at the end of a year placed under the sign of quality. RTE announces a net income after taxes for 2002 that is in keeping with its forecasts: +112 million euros (versus 250 million euros in 2001) for 3,657 million euros in sales revenue. 616 million euros were devoted to investments for the development and replacement of the company's transmission and interconnection networks. RTE also continued the reduction of its debt by 99 million euros. The year 2001 had experienced a cold spell at year-end, bringing with it higher-than-average revenue (+80 million euros). 2002, which was exceptionally mild at the end of the year, saw revenue fall off by 40 million euros compared with a normal year. In all, the climatic impact goes to explain a drop of 120 million euros in 2002. This drop is partially offset by additional revenue since the adoption on 1/11/02 of the network access tariff (about 30 million euros). This tariff is now substituted for the transitional price scale which was unfavourable to RTE. Operating expenses rose from 3,089 million euros to 3,316 million euros. The most significant increases are to be attributed in particular to: - the contribution of 68 million euros to the 'ETSO Fund', ETSO being the Association of European Transmission System Operators which, since 1/03/02, has ensured the compensation for network utilisation costs related to international transfers, - the gaining in momentum, with more than 80 million euros, of the network mechanical security enhancement programme decided in the wake of the storms of 1999, which aims at adapting RTE infrastructures to the new technical requirements for wind resistance. More than 720 km of power lines were erected or replaced while 12 electrical substations were connected to the RTE network in 2002. Among these projects, mention should be made of the following: the commissioning of

  5. Gender and Poverty Fight: the Family Donation Program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvana Aparecida Mariano

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available The Brazilian social assistance policy is guided by the perspective of poverty fight efforts, which prioritize the conditioned income transfer. These programs privilege the income transfer to women and involve them in a net of obligations and conditions, as it is done in the Family Donation Program. The practice within Family Donation Program highlights some contradictions between the State actions and the feminist demands, especially those concerning the motherhood problem. This is thus a core question for the dialogue between the feminism and the social policies sponsored by the State.

  6. Adapting the Trials of Improved Practices (TIPs) approach to explore the acceptability and feasibility of nutrition and parenting recommendations: what works for low-income families?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickin, Katherine L; Seim, Gretchen

    2015-10-01

    Interventions to prevent childhood obesity must consider not only how child feeding behaviours are related to child weight status but also which behaviours parents are willing and able to change. This study adapted Trials of Improved Practices (TIPs) to assess acceptability and feasibility of nutrition and parenting recommendations, using in-depth interviews and household trials to explore families' experiences over time. A diverse sample of 23 low-income parents of 3-11-year-olds was recruited following participation in nutrition and parenting education. Parents chose nutrition and parenting practices to try at home and were interviewed 2 weeks and 4-6 months later about behaviour change efforts. Qualitative analysis identified emergent themes, and acceptability and feasibility were rated based on parents' willingness and ability to try new practices. The nutrition goal parents chose most frequently was increasing children's vegetable intake, followed by replacing sweetened beverages with water or milk, and limiting energy-dense foods. Parents were less inclined to reduce serving sizes. The parenting practices most often selected as applicable to nutrition goals were role-modelling; shaping home environments, often with other adults; involving children in decisions; and providing positive feedback. Most recommendations were viewed as acceptable by meaningful numbers of parents, many of whom tried and sustained new behaviours. Food preferences, habits and time were common barriers; family resistance or food costs also constrained some parents. Despite challenges, TIPs was successfully adapted to evaluate complex nutrition and parenting practices. Information on parents' willingness and ability to try practices provides valuable guidance for childhood obesity prevention programmes. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Differential relationships between language skills and working memory in Turkish-Dutch and native-Dutch first-graders from low-income families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosman, Anna M T; Janssen, Marije

    2017-01-01

    In the Netherlands, Turkish-Dutch children constitute a substantial group of children who learn to speak Dutch at the age of four after they learned to speak Turkish. These children are generally academically less successful. Academic success appears to be affected by both language proficiency and working memory skill. The goal of this study was to investigate the relationship between language skills and working memory in Turkish-Dutch and native-Dutch children from low-income families. The findings revealed reduced Dutch language and Dutch working-memory skills for Turkish-Dutch children compared to native-Dutch children. Working memory in native-Dutch children was unrelated to their language skills, whereas in Turkish-Dutch children strong correlations were found both between Turkish language skills and Turkish working-memory performance and between Dutch language skills and Dutch working-memory performance. Reduced language proficiencies and reduced working-memory skills appear to manifest itself in strong relationships between working memory and language skills in Turkish-Dutch children. The findings seem to indicate that limited verbal working-memory and language deficiencies in bilingual children may have reciprocal effects that strongly warrants adequate language education.

  8. Neighborhood safety and green space as predictors of obesity among preschool children from low-income families in New York City.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lovasi, Gina S; Schwartz-Soicher, Ofira; Quinn, James W; Berger, Diana K; Neckerman, Kathryn M; Jaslow, Risa; Lee, Karen K; Rundle, Andrew

    2013-09-01

    Neighborhood safety, green space, walkability, and sociodemographics may influence physical activity and childhood obesity. Data on measured height and weight, demographic characteristics, and home ZIP code were collected from year 2004 enrollees in a means-tested preschool program in New York City. Each ZIP code was surrounded by a 400-m buffer and characterized using data from the US census, local government departments, New York Times website, and Transportation Alternatives. Linear and Poisson models were constructed using cluster robust standard errors and adjusting for child's sex, race, ethnicity, age, and neighborhood characteristics. Analyses included 11,562 children ages 3-5 years living in 160 residential ZIP codes. A higher homicide rate (at the 75th vs 25th percentile) was associated with a 22% higher prevalence of obesity (95% CI for the prevalence ratio (PR): 1.05 to 1.41). A higher density of street trees (at the 75th vs 25th percentile) was associated with 12% lower prevalence of obesity (95% CI for the PR: 0.79 to 0.99). Other neighborhood characteristics did not have significant associations with childhood obesity. Among preschool children from low-income families, neighborhood homicide rate was associated with more obesity and street tree density was associated with less obesity. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Mothers' power assertion; children's negative, adversarial orientation; and future behavior problems in low-income families: early maternal responsiveness as a moderator of the developmental cascade.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sanghag; Kochanska, Grazyna

    2015-02-01

    Parental power assertion, a key dimension of family environment, generally sets in motion detrimental developmental cascades; however, evidence suggests that other qualities of parenting, such as responsiveness, can significantly moderate those processes. Mechanisms that account for such moderating effects are not fully understood. We propose a conceptual model of processes linking parental power assertion, parental responsiveness, children's negative, adversarial, rejecting orientation toward the parent, and behavior problems. We test that model in a short-term longitudinal design involving 186 low-income, ethnically diverse mothers and their toddlers. When children were 30 months, the dyads were observed in multiple, lengthy, naturalistic laboratory interactions to assess behaviorally mothers' responsiveness and their power-assertive control style. At 33 months, we observed behavioral indicators of children's negative, adversarial, rejecting orientation toward the mothers in several naturalistic and standardized paradigms. At 40 months, mothers rated children's behavior problems. The proposed moderated mediation sequence, tested using a new approach, PROCESS (Hayes, 2013), was supported. The indirect effect from maternal power assertion to children's negative, adversarial orientation to future behavior problems was present when mothers' responsiveness was either low or average but absent when mothers were highly responsive. This study elucidates a potential process that may link parental power assertion with behavior problems and highlights how positive aspects of parenting can moderate this process and defuse maladaptive developmental cascades. It also suggests possible targets for parenting intervention and prevention efforts. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved.

  10. Mothers’ Power Assertion, Children’s Negative, Adversarial Orientation, and Future Behavior Problems in Low-Income Families: Early Maternal Responsiveness as a Moderator of the Developmental Cascade

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sanghag; Kochanska, Grazyna

    2014-01-01

    Parental power assertion, a key dimension of family environment, generally sets in motion detrimental developmental cascades; however, evidence suggests that other qualities of parenting, such as responsiveness, can significantly moderate those processes. Mechanisms that account for such moderating effects are not fully understood. We propose a conceptual model of processes linking parental power assertion, parental responsiveness, children’s negative, adversarial, rejecting orientation toward the parent, and behavior problems. We test that model in a short-term longitudinal design involving 186 low-income, ethnically diverse mothers and their toddlers. When children were 30 months, the dyads were observed in multiple, lengthy, naturalistic laboratory interactions to assess behaviorally mothers’ responsiveness and their power-assertive control style. At 33 months, we observed behavioral indicators of children’s negative, adversarial, rejecting orientation toward the mothers in several naturalistic and standardized paradigms. At 40 months, mothers rated children’s behavior problems. The proposed moderated mediation sequence, tested using a new approach, PROCESS (Hayes, 2013), was supported. The indirect effect from maternal power assertion to children’s negative, adversarial orientation to future behavior problems was present when mothers’ responsiveness was either low or average but absent when mothers were highly responsive. This study elucidates a potential process that may link parental power assertion with behavior problems and highlights how positive aspects of parenting can moderate this process and defuse maladaptive developmental cascades. It also suggests possible targets for parenting intervention and prevention efforts. PMID:25401483

  11. Pobreza e desigualdade de renda entre famílias da zona rural de Mato Grosso de 2004 a 2006 Poverty and income inequality among families in rural areas of Mato Grosso from 2004 to 2006

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benedito Dias Pereira

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Investigou-se a desigualdade da distribuição de renda e a pobreza das famílias residentes nas áreas rurais de Mato Grosso em 2004 e 2006, com base nos microdados da PNAD (IBGE. Em especial, o coeficiente de Gini foi decomposto por fonte de renda, para se identificar a contribuição relativa de determinada fonte de renda na desigualdade da renda total. Dentre os principais resultados encontrados, verificou-se que há elevada desigualdade na distribuição de renda entre as famílias rurais mato-grossenses, que a renda das atividades agrícolas contribui para aumentar essa desigualdade e que essa renda se constitui em variável importante e estratégica para a economia do Estado. Os indicadores também sugerem que houve incremento da pobreza entre as famílias rurais do Estado entre 2004 e 2006.Investigates on income distribution inequality and poverty of families living in rural areas of Mato Grosso in 2004 and 2006, based on the microdata of PNAD (IBGE. In particular, the Gini coefficient was broken by source of income to identify the relative contribution of a particular source of income inequality in total income. Among the key findings, it appears that there is high inequality in the income distribution among households in Mato Grosso, that the agriculture income contributes to increasing inequality and that this income is one important and strategic variable for the economy of the state. The indicators also suggest that there was an increase in poverty among rural families of the state between 2004 and 2006.

  12. 26 CFR 1.668(b)-3A - Computation of the beneficiary's income and tax for a prior taxable year.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... amount of tax that should have been properly paid. (b) Effect of allocation of undistributed net income on items based on amount of income and with respect to a net operating loss, a charitable... income on a net operating loss carryback or carryover, a charitable contributions carryover, or a capital...

  13. Body Dissatisfaction and Self-Esteem in Female Students Aged 9–15: The Effects of Age, Family Income, Body Mass Index Levels and Dance Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monteiro, Lilian A.; Novaes, Jefferson S.; Santos, Mara L.; Fernandes, Helder M.

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed to analyze the effects of age, family income, body mass index and dance practice on levels of body dissatisfaction and self-esteem in female students. The sample consisted of 283 female subjects attending a public school with a mean age of 11.51±1.60 years and a mean body mass index of 18.72 kg/m2 (SD=3.32). The instruments used were the Body Dissatisfaction Scale for Adolescents and the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale, both of which showed good internal consistency (0.77 and 0.81, respectively). The tests were applied (two-factor ANOVA) to compare the students practicing and those not practicing dance; the differences in the levels of body dissatisfaction (p=0.104) and self-esteem (p=0.09) were considered significant. The results demonstrated that age negatively correlated with body dissatisfaction (r=−0.19; pbody mass index levels were associated with greater body dissatisfaction (r=0.15, p=0.016) and lower levels of self-esteem (r=−0.17, pbody dissatisfaction (F=4.79; p=0.030; η2=0.02), but there was no significant difference in self-esteem (F=1.88; p=0.172; η2=0.02). It can be concluded that female children and adolescents practicing dance have higher self-esteem, and are more satisfied with their body weight and their appearance. Moreover, results showed that self-esteem and body dissatisfaction were influenced by the body mass index levels only in the non-practitioners group. PMID:25713641

  14. Body Dissatisfaction and Self-Esteem in Female Students Aged 9-15: the Effects of Age, Family Income, Body Mass Index Levels and Dance Practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monteiro Lilian A.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to analyze the effects of age, family income, body mass index and dance practice on levels of body dissatisfaction and self-esteem in female students. The sample consisted of 283 female subjects attending a public school with a mean age of 11.51±1.60 years and a mean body mass index of 18.72 kg/m2 (SD=3.32. The instruments used were the Body Dissatisfaction Scale for Adolescents and the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale, both of which showed good internal consistency (0.77 and 0.81, respectively. The tests were applied (two-factor ANOVA to compare the students practicing and those not practicing dance; the differences in the levels of body dissatisfaction (p=0.104 and self-esteem (p=0.09 were considered significant. The results demonstrated that age negatively correlated with body dissatisfaction (r=-0.19; p<0.01 and that higher body mass index levels were associated with greater body dissatisfaction (r=0.15, p=0.016 and lower levels of self-esteem (r=-0.17, p<0.01 only in non-practitioners. The practice of dance had a significant effect on levels of body dissatisfaction (F=4.79; p=0.030; η2=0.02, but there was no significant difference in self-esteem (F=1.88; p=0.172; η2=0.02. It can be concluded that female children and adolescents practicing dance have higher self-esteem, and are more satisfied with their body weight and their appearance. Moreover, results showed that self-esteem and body dissatisfaction were influenced by the body mass index levels only in the nonpractitioners group.

  15. Body dissatisfaction and self-esteem in female students aged 9-15: the effects of age, family income, body mass index levels and dance practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monteiro, Lilian A; Novaes, Jefferson S; Santos, Mara L; Fernandes, Helder M

    2014-09-29

    This study aimed to analyze the effects of age, family income, body mass index and dance practice on levels of body dissatisfaction and self-esteem in female students. The sample consisted of 283 female subjects attending a public school with a mean age of 11.51±1.60 years and a mean body mass index of 18.72 kg/m2 (SD=3.32). The instruments used were the Body Dissatisfaction Scale for Adolescents and the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale, both of which showed good internal consistency (0.77 and 0.81, respectively). The tests were applied (two-factor ANOVA) to compare the students practicing and those not practicing dance; the differences in the levels of body dissatisfaction (p=0.104) and self-esteem (p=0.09) were considered significant. The results demonstrated that age negatively correlated with body dissatisfaction (r=-0.19; pbody mass index levels were associated with greater body dissatisfaction (r=0.15, p=0.016) and lower levels of self-esteem (r=-0.17, pbody dissatisfaction (F=4.79; p=0.030; η(2)=0.02), but there was no significant difference in self-esteem (F=1.88; p=0.172; η(2)=0.02). It can be concluded that female children and adolescents practicing dance have higher self-esteem, and are more satisfied with their body weight and their appearance. Moreover, results showed that self-esteem and body dissatisfaction were influenced by the body mass index levels only in the non-practitioners group.

  16. Factors contributing to the psychological well-being for Hong Kong Chinese children from low-income families: a qualitative study

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ho, Ka Yan; Li, William H C; Chung, Joyce Oi Kwan; Lam, Katherine Ka Wai; Chan, Sophia S C; Xia, Wei

    2016-01-01

    ... relatively underexplored. Hong Kong has experienced an upward trend of poverty among its child population [8] and a serious income disparity with a Gini coefficient of 0.475 [9], the highest among the world's developed economies. Results from a recent study by Ho and colleagues [5] examining the effects of poverty and income disparity on the...

  17. Family functioning in neglectful families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaudin, J M; Polansky, N A; Kilpatrick, A C; Shilton, P

    1996-04-01

    Family functioning in 103 neglectful and 102 non-neglectful low-income families is examined using self-report and observational measures. Neglectful mothers reported their families as having more family conflict and less expression of feelings, but not less cohesive. Ratings of observed and videotaped family interactions indicated neglect families were less organized, more chaotic, less verbally expressive, showed less positive and more negative affect than comparison families. However, there were wide differences on measures of functioning among neglect families. Three distinct types of neglectful family functioning are identified and interventions for each type are suggested to improve parental-family functioning.

  18. Immigration and income inequality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Deding, Mette; Hussain, Azhar; Jakobsen, Vibeke

    2010-01-01

    During the last two decades most Western countries have experienced increased net immigration as well as increased income inequality. This article analyzes the effects on income inequality of an increased number of immigrants in Denmark and Germany for the 20- year period 1984-2003 and how...... the impact of the increased number of immigrants differs between the two countries. We find higher inequality for immigrants than natives in Denmark but vice versa for Germany. Over the period 1984-2003, this particular inequality gap has narrowed in both countries. At the same time, the contribution...... of immigrants to overall inequality has increased, primarily caused by increased between-group inequality. The share of immigrants in the population is more important for the change in overall inequality in Denmark than in Germany, while the opposite is the case for inequality among immigrants....

  19. Desigualdade da renda e das despesas per capita no Brasil, em 2002-2003 e 2008-2009, e avaliação do grau de progressividade ou regressividade de parcelas da renda familiar Income and spending inequality in Brazil in 2002-2003 and 2008-2009 and an evaluation of the degree of progressivity or regressivity of components of family income

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodolfo Hoffmann

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Utilizando os dados da Pesquisa de Orçamentos Familiares (POF de 2008-2009, são analisadas as principais características da distribuição da renda familiar per capita (RFPC no Brasil e em seis regiões, comparando com resultados obtidos da POF de 2002-2003. Também é analisada a distribuição da despesa total per capita. Finalmente, verifica-se como várias parcelas da renda familiar contribuem para aumentar ou reduzir a desigualdade no país em 2008-2009. Constata-se que as aposentadorias e pensões de funcionários públicos são uma parcela fortemente regressiva. Por outro lado, as transferências de programas sociais federais são fortemente progressivas, com destaque para o Bolsa Família.Using data from the 2008-2009 Brazilian Family Budgets Survey, this paper analyzes the main characteristics of the per capita family income distribution in Brazil and its regions, compared to results obtained from the 2002-2003 Survey. The distribution of total spending per capita is also analyzed. Finally, the way in which the components of family income contributed to the increase or decrease in the country's income distribution in 2008-2009 is examined. It is shown that pensions of public servants are a strongly regressive component of the per capita family income, and that transfers from federal social programs are progressive, especially the Bolsa Família program.

  20. Growing Income Inequality Threatens American Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duncan, Greg J.; Murnane, Richard J.

    2014-01-01

    The first of two articles in consecutive months describes the origins and nature of growing income inequality, and some of its consequences for American children. It documents the increased family income inequality that's occurred over the past 40 years and shows that the increased income disparity has been more than matched by an expanding…

  1. Income Segregation between Schools and School Districts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owens, Ann; Reardon, Sean F.; Jencks, Christopher

    2016-01-01

    Although trends in the racial segregation of schools are well documented, less is known about trends in income segregation. We use multiple data sources to document trends in income segregation between schools and school districts. Between-district income segregation of families with children enrolled in public school increased by over 15% from…

  2. A scoping review on determinants of unmet need for family planning among women of reproductive age in low and middle income countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wulifan, Joseph K; Brenner, Stephan; Jahn, Albrecht; De Allegri, Manuela

    2016-01-15

    Poor access and low contraceptive prevalence are common to many Low- and Middle-Income Countries (LMICs). Unmet need for family planning (FP), defined as the proportion of women wishing to limit or postpone child birth, but not using contraception, has been central to reproductive health efforts for decades and still remains relevant for most policy makers and FP programs in LMICs. There is still a lag in contraceptive uptake across regions resulting in high unmet need due to various socioeconomic and cultural factors. In this mixed method scoping review we analyzed quantitative, qualitative and mixed method studies to summarize those factors influencing unmet need among women in LMICs. We conducted our scoping review by employing mixed method approach. We included studies applying quantitative and qualitative methods retrieved from online data bases (PubMed, JSTOR, and Google Scholar). We also reviewed the indexes of journals specific to the field of reproductive health by using a set of keywords related to unmet contraception need, and non-contraception use in LMICs. We retrieved 283 articles and retained 34 articles meeting our inclusion criteria. Of these, 26 were quantitative studies and 8 qualitative studies. We found unmet need for FP to range between 20 % and 58% in most studies. Woman's age was negatively associated with total unmet need for FP, meaning as women get older the unmet need for FP decreases. The number of children was found to be a positively associated determinant for a woman's total unmet need. Also, woman's level of education was negatively associated--as a woman's education improves, her total unmet need decreases. Frequently reported reasons for non-contraception use were opposition from husband or husbands fear of infidelity, as well as woman's fear of side effects or other health concerns related to contraceptive methods. Factors associated with unmet need for FP and non-contraception use were common across different LMIC settings. This

  3. NA-NET numerical analysis net

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dongarra, J. [Tennessee Univ., Knoxville, TN (United States). Dept. of Computer Science]|[Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Rosener, B. [Tennessee Univ., Knoxville, TN (United States). Dept. of Computer Science

    1991-12-01

    This report describes a facility called NA-NET created to allow numerical analysts (na) an easy method of communicating with one another. The main advantage of the NA-NET is uniformity of addressing. All mail is addressed to the Internet host ``na-net.ornl.gov`` at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Hence, members of the NA-NET do not need to remember complicated addresses or even where a member is currently located. As long as moving members change their e-mail address in the NA-NET everything works smoothly. The NA-NET system is currently located at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. It is running on the same machine that serves netlib. Netlib is a separate facility that distributes mathematical software via electronic mail. For more information on netlib consult, or send the one-line message ``send index`` to netlib{at}ornl.gov. The following report describes the current NA-NET system from both a user`s perspective and from an implementation perspective. Currently, there are over 2100 members in the NA-NET. An average of 110 mail messages pass through this facility daily.

  4. NA-NET numerical analysis net

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dongarra, J. (Tennessee Univ., Knoxville, TN (United States). Dept. of Computer Science Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)); Rosener, B. (Tennessee Univ., Knoxville, TN (United States). Dept. of Computer Science)

    1991-12-01

    This report describes a facility called NA-NET created to allow numerical analysts (na) an easy method of communicating with one another. The main advantage of the NA-NET is uniformity of addressing. All mail is addressed to the Internet host na-net.ornl.gov'' at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Hence, members of the NA-NET do not need to remember complicated addresses or even where a member is currently located. As long as moving members change their e-mail address in the NA-NET everything works smoothly. The NA-NET system is currently located at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. It is running on the same machine that serves netlib. Netlib is a separate facility that distributes mathematical software via electronic mail. For more information on netlib consult, or send the one-line message send index'' to netlib{at}ornl.gov. The following report describes the current NA-NET system from both a user's perspective and from an implementation perspective. Currently, there are over 2100 members in the NA-NET. An average of 110 mail messages pass through this facility daily.

  5. Impact of cotrimoxazole and insecticide-treated nets for malaria prevention on key outcomes among HIV-infected adults in low- and middle-income countries: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saadani Hassani, Ahmed; Marston, Barbara J

    2015-04-15

    HIV-infected adults are at increased risk of severe malaria and death. Malaria prevention in people living with HIV (PLHIV) consists of several interventions, including cotrimoxazole (CTX) prophylaxis and insecticide-treated nets (ITNs). We conducted a systematic review of the available evidence. MEDLINE, EmBase, Global Health, CINAHL, SOCA, and African Index Medicus were used to identify articles relevant to the CTX prophylaxis and ITNs interventions from 1995 to July 2014. For each individual study, we assessed the quality of evidence and the impact of the 2 interventions on the outcomes of mortality, morbidity, retention in care, quality of life, and/or prevention of ongoing HIV transmission. For each outcome, we summarized the quality of the overall body of evidence, the expected impact, and costing and cost-effectiveness (CE). The overall quality of evidence regarding malaria-related morbidity was rated as "good" for CTX prophylaxis and "fair" for ITN use; the expected "impact" of these interventions on morbidity was rated "high" and "uncertain," respectively. Three studies that addressed the costing and CE of ITN provision for malaria prevention in PLHIV consisted of 2 full "level 1" and 1 partial "level 2" economic evaluations. CTX prophylaxis is effective in reducing malaria-related morbidity among PLHIV. Limited evidence is available with respect to the impact and the CE of ITN use and/or provision in this population.

  6. Rede social durante a expansão da família Rede social durante la expansión de la familia Social net during family expansion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nádia Cristina Jussani

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Estudo de natureza qualitativa que estudou a rede de suporte de famílias durante a gravidez. Os dados foram coletados em maio de 2003, através de entrevista semi-estruturada, junto à 16 mulheres. Os resultados revelaram que apenas uma mulher não recorreu à rede de apoio e que diferentes pessoas são procuradas conforme o tipo de problema vivenciado: dificuldades econômicas ou de aceitação da gravidez, necessidade de apoio emocional ou de esclarecimentos, ajuda para os afazeres domésticos, entre outros. Conclui-se que a rede social favorece o bom desenvolvimento da gestação e que para uma assistência mais eficaz é indicado que os profissionais de saúde atentem para o fato de a mulher ter uma rede de suporte com que possa contar durante a gravidez.Estudio descriptivo, de naturaleza cualitativa desarrollado con el objetivo de estudiar la red de soporte de familias durante el embarazo. Los datos han sido colectados en mayo de 2003, a través de entrevista semiestructurada, junto a 16 mujeres. Los resultados han revelado que apenas una mujer no ha recorrido a la red de apoyo durante el embarazo y que diferentes personas son procuradas de acuerdo con el tipo de problemas vivenciado: dificultades económicas o de aceptación del embarazo, necesidad de apoyo emocional o de esclarecimiento, ayuda para los quehaceres domésticos, entre otros. Se concluí que la red social ayuda el buen desarrollo de la gestación y que los profesionales de salud necesitan saber si hay una red de soporte que pueda contar durante el embarazo.This is a research of qualitative nature developed with the objective of studying the support net of families during pregnancy. Data were collected through semi-structured interview, from 16 women in May 2003. The results showed that just one woman did not appeal to the support net during pregnancy and that different people are sought according to the type of problem experienced at the time: economical difficulties or of

  7. 26 CFR 1.822-11 - Net premiums.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Net premiums. 1.822-11 Section 1.822-11 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME... Fire Or Flood Insurance Companies Which Operate on Basis of Perpetual Policies Or Premium Deposits) § 1...

  8. 26 CFR 1.823-1 - Net premiums.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Net premiums. 1.823-1 Section 1.823-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME... Fire Or Flood Insurance Companies Which Operate on Basis of Perpetual Policies Or Premium Deposits) § 1...

  9. Household Income Composition and Household Goods

    OpenAIRE

    Voynov, Ivan

    2005-01-01

    The paper focuses on the change in household income composition and the factors that determine it. The results bring additional knowledge about household poverty dynamics. Based on the collective approach to the family and the cooperative game theory it is constructed theoretical model of household income composition change. The change in income composition is a result from bargaining between household members in attempt to defend the most suitable for them income source. Decisive influence i...

  10. Farm Income Issues Data Source Book

    OpenAIRE

    Anonymous

    2005-01-01

    This publication is a resource book of statistics on farm income in Canada. Farm income is a complex issue reflecting the complexity of Canadian farms and agricultural production in Canada. There are approximately 247,000 farms in Canada of which some 98% are operated as family farms. To provide a better understanding of the financial conditions of farms in Canada and the families that operate these farms the resource book focuses on both income and the pressures facing Canadian agriculture. ...

  11. Evolutionary model of the personal income distribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaldasch, Joachim

    2012-11-01

    The aim of this work is to develop a qualitative picture of the personal income distribution. Treating an economy as a self-organized system the key idea of the model is that the income distribution contains competitive and non-competitive contributions. The presented model distinguishes between three main income classes. 1. Capital income from private firms is shown to be the result of an evolutionary competition between products. A direct consequence of this competition is Gibrat’s law suggesting a lognormal income distribution for small private firms. Taking into account an additional preferential attachment mechanism for large private firms the income distribution is supplemented by a power law (Pareto) tail. 2. Due to the division of labor a diversified labor market is seen as a non-competitive market. In this case wage income exhibits an exponential distribution. 3. Also included is income from a social insurance system. It can be approximated by a Gaussian peak. A consequence of this theory is that for short time intervals a fixed ratio of total labor (total capital) to net income exists (Cobb-Douglas relation). A comparison with empirical high resolution income data confirms this pattern of the total income distribution. The theory suggests that competition is the ultimate origin of the uneven income distribution.

  12. Net Ecosystem Carbon Flux

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Net Ecosystem Carbon Flux is defined as the year-over-year change in Total Ecosystem Carbon Stock, or the net rate of carbon exchange between an ecosystem and the...

  13. Net Operating Working Capital, Capital Budgeting, and Cash Budgets: A Teaching Example

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuner, James A.

    2016-01-01

    Many introductory finance texts present information on the capital budgeting process, including estimation of project cash flows. Typically, estimation of project cash flows begins with a calculation of net income. Getting from net income to cash flows requires accounting for non-cash items such as depreciation. Also important is the effect of…

  14. 26 CFR 1.642(d)-1 - Net operating loss deduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Net operating loss deduction. 1.642(d)-1 Section 1.642(d)-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES Estates, Trusts, and Beneficiaries § 1.642(d)-1 Net operating loss...

  15. 26 CFR 1.702-2 - Net operating loss deduction of partner.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Net operating loss deduction of partner. 1.702-2 Section 1.702-2 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES Partners and Partnerships § 1.702-2 Net operating loss deduction of...

  16. Parents' School Satisfaction and Academic Socialization Predict Adolescents' Autonomous Motivation: A Mixed-Method Study of Low-Income Ethnic Minority Families

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suizzo, Marie-Anne; Jackson, Karen Moran; Pahlke, Erin; McClain, Shannon; Marroquin, Yesenia; Blondeau, Lauren A.; Hong, KyongJoo

    2016-01-01

    In this mixed-methods study, we used an explanatory sequential design to investigate the processes through which parental involvement influences adolescents' achievement motivation. One hundred twenty low-income urban parents and their sixth-grade adolescents completed questionnaires, and a subsample of 11 mothers and 11 adolescents were…

  17. Securing Fatherhood through Kin Work: A Comparison of Black Low-Income Fathers and Families in South Africa and the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madhavan, Sangeetha; Roy, Kevin

    2012-01-01

    In this article, the authors examine how low-income Black men in South Africa and the United States work with their kin to secure fathering and ensure the well-being of children. They use ethnographic and life history data on men who fathered children from 1992 to 2005 to demonstrate how fathers' roles as kin workers enable them to meet culturally…

  18. Empowering Latino Families: Effects of a Culturally Responsive Intervention for Low-Income Immigrant Latino Parents on Children's Behaviors and Parental Stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ceballos, Peggy L.; Bratton, Sue C.

    2010-01-01

    This randomized, controlled study examined the effectiveness of Child Parent Relationship Therapy (CPRT) in school settings with 48 low-income Latino immigrant parents whose children were identified with behavioral concerns. Results from a 2 (group) x 2 (measures) split plot analysis of variance indicated that parents who participated in 11 weeks…

  19. Maternal feeding styles and food parenting practices as predictors of longitudinal changes in weight status in Hispanic preschoolers from low-income families

    Science.gov (United States)

    The aim was to investigate the influence of feeding styles and food parenting practices on low-income children's weight status over time. Participants were 129 Latina parents and their Head Start children participating in a longitudinal study. Children were assessed at baseline (4 to 5 years old) an...

  20. Professional Enterprise NET

    CERN Document Server

    Arking, Jon

    2010-01-01

    Comprehensive coverage to help experienced .NET developers create flexible, extensible enterprise application code If you're an experienced Microsoft .NET developer, you'll find in this book a road map to the latest enterprise development methodologies. It covers the tools you will use in addition to Visual Studio, including Spring.NET and nUnit, and applies to development with ASP.NET, C#, VB, Office (VBA), and database. You will find comprehensive coverage of the tools and practices that professional .NET developers need to master in order to build enterprise more flexible, testable, and ext

  1. Family firms and earnings management in Brazil: an analysis under the perspective of the take a bath and of the income smoothing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Sérgio Almeida-Santos

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Given the characteristics of family businesses, these are different from not-familiar companies, especially regarding its centralizing power and conservative, long-term strategic plans for the purpose of perpetuation of its business, while safeguarding the capital of the family group. For these and other reasons, family businesses have drawn the attention of researchers, especially in identifying the level of relationship between family ownership and the results of these companies. Opportunely, the purpose of this article theoretical-empirical, quantitative, documentary and descriptive, is to identify whether family-properties companies differ from other companies as not-familiar average production discretionary accruals, and as the coefficient of variation of profits on the change in sales; and identify the level of respect of family ownership with the practice of take a bath (production of negative discretionary accruals and smoothing (smoothing results among public companies Brazilian listed on the BM&FBOVESPA® in the period 2000-2010 . The results initially showed that family businesses tend to produce more negative discretionary accruals, as well as coefficients of variation of the ratio of profits on sales markedly more negative, causing them to differentiate themselves from other non-family businesses. Results obtained through logistic regression (logit and probit models, shows that family ownership is positively related to both the practice of take a bath as with smoothing, with the latter being a more statistically significant relationship.

  2. Taxation, Transfer Income and Stock Market Participation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fischer, Marcel; Astrup Jensen, Bjarne

    We study a redistributive tax system that taxes income and redistributes tax revenues in such a way that relatively rich agents are net contributors to relatively poor agents. The closed-form solution of our model allows two main conclusions: (i) Despite ongoing transfers, wealth levels are not h......We study a redistributive tax system that taxes income and redistributes tax revenues in such a way that relatively rich agents are net contributors to relatively poor agents. The closed-form solution of our model allows two main conclusions: (i) Despite ongoing transfers, wealth levels...... are not harmonized because poorer agents mainly use their transfer income to finance present consumption. (ii) Since the evolution of the economy determines both the level of tax revenues and the evolution of the stock market, transfer income is subject to stock market risk. Hence, poorer agents optimally reduce...

  3. Can a minimal intervention reduce secondhand smoke exposure among children with asthma from low income minority families? Results of a randomized trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Streja, Leanne; Crespi, Catherine M; Bastani, Roshan; Wong, Glenn C; Jones, Craig A; Bernert, John T; Tashkin, Donald; Hammond, S Katharine; Berman, Barbara A

    2014-04-01

    We report on the results of a low-intensity behavioral intervention to reduce second hand smoke (SHS) exposure of children with asthma from low income minority households in Los Angeles, California. In this study, 242 child/adult dyads were randomized to a behavioral intervention (video, workbook, minimal counseling) or control condition (brochure). Main outcome measures included child's urine cotinine and parental reports of child's hours of SHS exposure and number of household cigarettes smoked. Implementation of household bans was also considered. No differences in outcomes were detected between intervention and control groups at follow-up. Limitations included high attrition and low rates of collection of objective measures (few children with urine cotinine samples). There continues to be a need for effective culturally and linguistically appropriate strategies that support reduction of household SHS exposure among children with asthma in low income, minority households.

  4. Maternal Feeding Styles and Food Parenting Practices as Predictors of Longitudinal Changes in Weight Status in Hispanic Preschoolers from Low-Income Families

    OpenAIRE

    Sheryl O. Hughes; Thomas G. Power; Teresia M. O’Connor; Jennifer Orlet Fisher; Tzu-An Chen

    2016-01-01

    Objective. The aim was to investigate the influence of feeding styles and food parenting practices on low-income children's weight status over time. Method. Participants were 129 Latina parents and their Head Start children participating in a longitudinal study. Children were assessed at baseline (4 to 5 years old) and again eighteen months later. At each time point, parents completed questionnaires and height and weight measures were taken on the child. Results. The indulgent feeding style (...

  5. Income and expenditure in private dental clinics in Japan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Midori Tsuneishi

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Although national dental care expenditure has not changed, the number of dental clinics has increased. Mass media has been reporting on the financial difficulties of dental clinics. To address this issue, we reviewed articles that showed the distribution and changes in net income, that is, total expenses subtracted from total income, of private dental clinics in Japan using data from a survey conducted by the Japan Dental Association. We also reviewed articles analyzing the factors relating to the net income. The results of the articles showed that distribution of net income has become positively skewed, with the mean dragged to the right by a few high scores. This means that the median is more appropriate than the mean as a measure of central tendency of net income. Factors relating to net income of private dental clinics have changed: private dental clinics that were opened after 1989 (new and had dental hygienists, who may conduct dental maintenance, had high net income, suggesting that they are well-managed or having a different type of patient mix in recent years. These analyses provide important and useful information for not only better management of private dental clinics but also policy-making in dental health care.

  6. 26 CFR 1.643(a)-6 - Income of foreign trust.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Income of foreign trust. 1.643(a)-6 Section 1... (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES Estates, Trusts, and Beneficiaries § 1.643(a)-6 Income of foreign trust. (a) Distributable net income of a foreign trust. In the case of a foreign trust (see section 7701(a)(31)), the...

  7. 11 CFR 9004.5 - Investment of public funds; other uses resulting in income.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... all net income derived from such a use, less Federal, State and local taxes paid on such income, shall... resulting in income. 9004.5 Section 9004.5 Federal Elections FEDERAL ELECTION COMMISSION PRESIDENTIAL... PAYMENTS § 9004.5 Investment of public funds; other uses resulting in income. Investment of public funds or...

  8. Community-Based After-School Inclusive Programs for Low-Income Minority Youth and Their Families: the Disability Specialist Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donald G. Unger

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Intervention for helping community based after-school programs become more responsive to youth with disabilities and their families is presented in this manuscript. The Disability Specialist intervention utilized a variety of approaches, including: a increasing awareness of disabilities and services by providing learning opportunity sessions for families and staff, and outreach activities to youth through interactive theater; b developing in house “disability specialists” to offer ongoing leadership and technical expertise for after-school programs and their community centers; c developing a network of technical consultants in order to connect families and after-school programs to specialized community resources; d providing financial assistance to enable community center staff to allocate time to outreach activities; and e providing families with support in educational advocacy efforts by partnering with a local parent mentoring program. The success of the project depended upon building partnerships with families, community centers, human service agencies, schools, and local funding sources.

  9. 47 CFR 32.4370 - Other jurisdictional liabilities and deferred credits-net.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... net of any applicable income tax effects and shall be supported by appropriate subsidiary records... credits-net. 32.4370 Section 32.4370 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED... Balance Sheet Accounts § 32.4370 Other jurisdictional liabilities and deferred credits—net. This account...

  10. Universal Basic Income versus Unemployment Insurance

    OpenAIRE

    Fabre, Alice; Pallage, Stéphane; Zimmermann, Christian

    2014-01-01

    In this paper we compare the welfare effects of unemployment insurance (UI) with an universal basic income (UBI) system in an economy with idiosyncratic shocks to employment. Both policies provide a safety net in the face of idiosyncratic shocks. While the unemployment insurance program should do a better job at protecting the unemployed, it suffers from moral hazard and substantial monitoring costs, which may threaten its usefulness. The universal basic income, which is simpler to manage and...

  11. 26 CFR 1.1402(a)-1 - Definition of net earnings from self-employment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 12 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Definition of net earnings from self-employment... TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES Tax on Self-Employment Income § 1.1402(a)-1 Definition of net earnings from self-employment. (a) Subject to the special rules set forth in §§ 1.1402(a)-3...

  12. The Design, Usability, and Feasibility of a Family-Focused Diabetes Self-Care Support mHealth Intervention for Diverse, Low-Income Adults with Type 2 Diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lindsay Satterwhite Mayberry

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Family members’ helpful and harmful actions affect adherence to self-care and glycemic control among adults with type 2 diabetes (T2D and low socioeconomic status. Few family interventions for adults with T2D address harmful actions or use text messages to reach family members. Through user-centered design and iterative usability/feasibility testing, we developed a mHealth intervention for disadvantaged adults with T2D called FAMS. FAMS delivers phone coaching to set self-care goals and improve patient participant’s (PP ability to identify and address family actions that support/impede self-care. PPs receive text message support and can choose to invite a support person (SP to receive text messages. We recruited 19 adults with T2D from three Federally Qualified Health Centers to use FAMS for two weeks and complete a feedback interview. Coach-reported data captured coaching success, technical data captured user engagement, and PP/SP interviews captured the FAMS experience. PPs were predominantly African American, 83% had incomes <$35,000, and 26% were married. Most SPs (n=7 were spouses/partners or adult children. PPs reported FAMS increased self-care and both PPs and SPs reported FAMS improved support for and communication about diabetes. FAMS is usable and feasible and appears to help patients manage self-care support, although some PPs may not have a SP.

  13. WaveNet

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-10-30

    Coastal Inlets Research Program WaveNet WaveNet is a web-based, Graphical-User-Interface ( GUI ) data management tool developed for Corps coastal...generates tabular and graphical information for project planning and design documents. The WaveNet is a web-based GUI designed to provide users with a...data from different sources, and employs a combination of Fortran, Python and Matlab codes to process and analyze data for USACE applications

  14. O Bolsa Família: problematizando questões centrais na política de transferência de renda no Brasil The Family Allowance Program: reflecting on core issues in Brazil's income transfer policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Ozanira da Silva e Silva

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available O Programa Bolsa Família foi criado em 2003 com o objetivo de unificar os Programas de Transferência de Renda iniciados em nível municipal, estadual e federal desde 1995. É concebido como uma expressão do processo de desenvolvimento desses programas no Brasil. Transferência de renda é entendida enquanto uma transferência monetária direta efetuada a indivíduos ou a famílias. O pressuposto central é de que articular uma transferência de renda com políticas e programas estruturantes, principalmente no campo da educação, saúde e trabalho, direcionados a famílias pobres, pode interromper o ciclo vicioso da pobreza do presente e sua reprodução no futuro. Portanto, uma articulação entre uma transferência monetária com políticas e programas estruturantes, direcionados a famílias pobres, pode possibilitar a construção de uma política de enfrentamento à pobreza e à desigualdade social. Nesse artigo, é apresentado o desenvolvimento histórico dos Programas de Transferência de Renda, no Brasil, orientado por um esforço problematizador do significado e do alcance desses programas no âmbito das políticas sociais brasileiras, considerando suas potencialidades e limites enquanto política de inclusão social.Introduced in 2003, Brazil's Family Allowance Program was intended to unite several Income Transfer Programs run at the Municipal, State and Federal levels since 1995. Designed as an expression of the development of direct monetary transfers to families or individuals, its key assumption is that linking income transfers to poor families with structural policies and programs (mainly in the fields of education, healthcare and jobs could break through the vicious cycle of poverty in the present and halt its future replication. Linking cash transfers to structuring policies and programs for poor families might well underpin a policy combating poverty and social inequality. This paper presents a retrospective of these Income

  15. Farm Fresh Foods for Healthy Kids (F3HK): An innovative community supported agriculture intervention to prevent childhood obesity in low-income families and strengthen local agricultural economies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seguin, Rebecca A; Morgan, Emily H; Hanson, Karla L; Ammerman, Alice S; Jilcott Pitts, Stephanie B; Kolodinsky, Jane; Sitaker, Marilyn; Becot, Florence A; Connor, Leah M; Garner, Jennifer A; McGuirt, Jared T

    2017-04-08

    Childhood obesity persists in the United States and is associated with serious health problems. Higher rates of obesity among children from disadvantaged households may be, in part, attributable to disparities in access to healthy foods such as fruits and vegetables. Community supported agriculture can improve access to and consumption of fresh produce, but the upfront payment structure, logistical barriers, and unfamiliarity with produce items may inhibit participation by low-income families. The aim of this project is to assess the impact of subsidized, or "cost-offset," community supported agriculture participation coupled with tailored nutrition education for low-income families with children. The Farm Fresh Foods for Healthy Kids community-based, randomized intervention trial will build on formative and longitudinal research to examine the impact of cost-offset community supported agriculture on diet and other health behaviors as well as the economic impacts on local economies. The intervention will involve reduced-price community supported agriculture shares which can be paid for on a weekly basis, nine skill-based and seasonally-tailored healthy eating classes, and the provision of basic kitchen tools. Low income families with at least one child aged 2-12 years will be recruited to join existing community supported agriculture programs in New York, North Carolina, Vermont, and Washington. In each program, families will be randomized 1:1 to intervention or delayed intervention groups. Data will be collected at baseline, and in the fall and spring for 3 years. The primary outcomes are children's intake of fruits and vegetables and foods high in sugar and/or (solid) fat, as well as diet quality; secondary outcomes include physical, behavioral, psychosocial, and environmental variables. Cost-effectiveness and economic impact at the farm and community levels also will be assessed. This integrated project will provide important information and contribute to the

  16. Farm Fresh Foods for Healthy Kids (F3HK: An innovative community supported agriculture intervention to prevent childhood obesity in low-income families and strengthen local agricultural economies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebecca A. Seguin

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Childhood obesity persists in the United States and is associated with serious health problems. Higher rates of obesity among children from disadvantaged households may be, in part, attributable to disparities in access to healthy foods such as fruits and vegetables. Community supported agriculture can improve access to and consumption of fresh produce, but the upfront payment structure, logistical barriers, and unfamiliarity with produce items may inhibit participation by low-income families. The aim of this project is to assess the impact of subsidized, or “cost-offset,” community supported agriculture participation coupled with tailored nutrition education for low-income families with children. Methods/design The Farm Fresh Foods for Healthy Kids community-based, randomized intervention trial will build on formative and longitudinal research to examine the impact of cost-offset community supported agriculture on diet and other health behaviors as well as the economic impacts on local economies. The intervention will involve reduced-price community supported agriculture shares which can be paid for on a weekly basis, nine skill-based and seasonally-tailored healthy eating classes, and the provision of basic kitchen tools. Low income families with at least one child aged 2–12 years will be recruited to join existing community supported agriculture programs in New York, North Carolina, Vermont, and Washington. In each program, families will be randomized 1:1 to intervention or delayed intervention groups. Data will be collected at baseline, and in the fall and spring for 3 years. The primary outcomes are children’s intake of fruits and vegetables and foods high in sugar and/or (solid fat, as well as diet quality; secondary outcomes include physical, behavioral, psychosocial, and environmental variables. Cost-effectiveness and economic impact at the farm and community levels also will be assessed. Discussion This

  17. Coloured Petri Nets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Kurt

    1991-01-01

    This paper describes how Coloured Petri Nets (CP-nets) have been developed — from being a promising theoretical model to being a full-fledged language for the design, specification, simulation, validation and implementation of large software systems (and other systems in which human beings and...... use of CP-nets — because it means that the function representation and the translations (which are a bit mathematically complex) no longer are parts of the basic definition of CP-nets. Instead they are parts of the invariant method (which anyway demands considerable mathematical skills...

  18. Game Coloured Petri Nets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Westergaard, Michael

    2006-01-01

    This paper introduces the notion of game coloured Petri nets. This allows the modeler to explicitly model what parts of the model comprise the modeled system and what parts are the environment of the modeled system. We give the formal definition of game coloured Petri nets, a means of reachability...... analysis of this net class, and an application of game coloured Petri nets to automatically generate easy-to-understand visualizations of the model by exploiting the knowledge that some parts of the model are not interesting from a visualization perspective (i.e. they are part of the environment...

  19. Programming NET Web Services

    CERN Document Server

    Ferrara, Alex

    2007-01-01

    Web services are poised to become a key technology for a wide range of Internet-enabled applications, spanning everything from straight B2B systems to mobile devices and proprietary in-house software. While there are several tools and platforms that can be used for building web services, developers are finding a powerful tool in Microsoft's .NET Framework and Visual Studio .NET. Designed from scratch to support the development of web services, the .NET Framework simplifies the process--programmers find that tasks that took an hour using the SOAP Toolkit take just minutes. Programming .NET

  20. Annotating Coloured Petri Nets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindstrøm, Bo; Wells, Lisa Marie

    2002-01-01

    -net. An example of such auxiliary information is a counter which is associated with a token to be able to do performance analysis. Modifying colour sets and arc inscriptions in a CP-net to support a specific use may lead to creation of several slightly different CP-nets – only to support the different uses...... a method which makes it possible to associate auxiliary information, called annotations, with tokens without modifying the colour sets of the CP-net. Annotations are pieces of information that are not essential for determining the behaviour of the system being modelled, but are rather added to support...

  1. Educational Resilience Inspired by Familial Cuentos (Narratives) and Consejos (Advice): Exploring How Low-Income Mexican-American Women’s Assets Serve as Resources for College Persistence

    OpenAIRE

    Rocha, Janet

    2015-01-01

    This study examines the first-year college transition of first-generation college women of Mexican heritage and the strategies they use to persist in college. The sample is comprised of seven low-income, first-year female college students of Mexican heritage at a large, highly competitive public university. I conducted one semi-structured interview, four open-ended interviews, and three photo-elicitation interviews with each participant (56 interviews in total). I also visited each woman’s do...

  2. Fine particles in homes of predominantly low-income families with children and smokers: Key physical and behavioral determinants to inform indoor-air-quality interventions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neil E Klepeis

    Full Text Available Children are at risk for adverse health outcomes from occupant-controllable indoor airborne contaminants in their homes. Data are needed to design residential interventions for reducing low-income children's pollutant exposure. Using customized air quality monitors, we continuously measured fine particle counts (0.5 to 2.5 microns over a week in living areas of predominantly low-income households in San Diego, California, with at least one child (under age 14 and at least one cigarette smoker. We performed retrospective interviews on home characteristics, and particle source and ventilation activities occurring during the week of monitoring. We explored the relationship between weekly mean particle counts and interview responses using graphical visualization and multivariable linear regression (base sample n = 262; complete cases n = 193. We found associations of higher weekly mean particle counts with reports of indoor smoking of cigarettes or marijuana, as well as with frying food, using candles or incense, and house cleaning. Lower particle levels were associated with larger homes. We did not observe an association between lower mean particle counts and reports of opening windows, using kitchen exhaust fans, or other ventilation activities. Our findings about sources of fine airborne particles and their mitigation can inform future studies that investigate more effective feedback on residential indoor-air-quality and better strategies for reducing occupant exposures.

  3. Adam Smith on Capital and Income

    OpenAIRE

    Ormazabal Sánchez, Kepa Mirena

    2002-01-01

    In this paper I critically analyze Smith's thesis in book I, chapter 6 of the "Wealth of Nations" that the replacement of the capital goods consumed in production becomes fully income. I argue that Smith’s argument is defective and does not imply this, and that, once it is properly corrected, it implies that the full value of commodities does not become income; in other words: that GNP is not equal to aggregate income. On this basis, I proceed to analyze Smith's definitions of gross and net i...

  4. Community families

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Lotte Groth; Lou, Stina; Aagaard, Jørgen

    2017-01-01

    Background: Social interventions targeted at people with severe mental illness (SMI) often include volunteers. Volunteers' perspectives are important for these interventions to work. The present paper investigates the experiences of volunteer families who befriend a person with SMI. Material......: Qualitative interviews with members of volunteer families. Discussion: The families were motivated by helping a vulnerable person and to engaging in a rewarding relationship. However, the families often doubted their personal judgment and relied on mental health workers to act as safety net. Conclusion......: The volunteer involvement is meaningful but also challenging. The families value professional support....

  5. Net zero water

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Lindeque, M

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Is it possible to develop a building that uses a net zero amount of water? In recent years it has become evident that it is possible to have buildings that use a net zero amount of electricity. This is possible when the building is taken off...

  6. SolNet

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jordan, Ulrike; Vajen, Klaus; Bales, Chris

    2014-01-01

    SolNet, founded in 2006, is the first coordinated International PhD education program on Solar Thermal Engineering. The SolNet network is coordinated by the Institute of Thermal Engineering at Kassel University, Germany. The network offers PhD courses on solar heating and cooling, conference...

  7. Kunstige neurale net

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hørning, Annette

    1994-01-01

    Artiklen beskæftiger sig med muligheden for at anvende kunstige neurale net i forbindelse med datamatisk procession af naturligt sprog, specielt automatisk talegenkendelse.......Artiklen beskæftiger sig med muligheden for at anvende kunstige neurale net i forbindelse med datamatisk procession af naturligt sprog, specielt automatisk talegenkendelse....

  8. Income tax in France

    CERN Multimedia

    HR Department

    2009-01-01

    Memorandum from the HR and FP Departments and the Legal Service concerning the annual internal taxation certificate and the declaration of income for 2008 You are reminded that each year the Organization levies an internal tax on the financial and family benefits it pays to the members of the personnel (see Chapter V, Section 2 of the Staff Rules and Regulations) and that members of the personnel are thus exempt from external taxation on salaries and emoluments paid by CERN. This memorandum is intended to provide members of the personnel residing in France with information on how salaries and emoluments paid by CERN should be indicated in the 2008 income declaration form. For any other income, they are invited to comply with the instructions attached to the form. I - Annual internal taxation certificate for 2008 The annual certificate of internal taxation for 2008, issued by the FP Department, has been available since 1st March 2009 (see Bulletin No. 11-12/2009). It is int...

  9. Income Tax in France

    CERN Multimedia

    HR Department

    2009-01-01

    Memorandum from the HR and FP Departments and the Legal Service concerning the annual internal taxation certificate and the declaration of income for 2008 You are reminded that each year the Organization levies an internal tax on the financial and family benefits it pays to the members of the personnel (see Chapter V, Section 2 of the Staff Rules and Regulations) and that members of the personnel are thus exempt from external taxation on salaries and emoluments paid by CERN. This memorandum is intended to provide members of the personnel residing in France with information on how salaries and emoluments paid by CERN should be indicated in the 2008 income declaration form. For any other income, they are invited to comply with the instructions attached to the form. I - Annual internal taxation certificate for 2008 The annual certificate of internal taxation for 2008, issued by the FP Department, has been available since 1st March 2009 (see Bulletin No. 11-12/2009). It is int...

  10. Income Inequality, Status Seeking, and Consumption

    OpenAIRE

    Jin, Ye; Wu, Binzhen; Li, Hongbin

    2010-01-01

    Using the Chinese urban household survey data between 1997 and 2006, we find that income inequality has a negative (positive) impact on households’ consumption (savings), even after we control for family income. We argue that people save to improve their social status when social status is associated with pecuniary and non-pecuniary benefits. Rising income inequality can strengthen the incentives of status-seeking savings by increasing the benefit of improving status and enlarging the wealth ...

  11. Five Decades of Consumption and Income Poverty

    OpenAIRE

    Bruce D. Meyer; James X. Sullivan

    2009-01-01

    This paper examines poverty in the United States from 1960 through 2005. We investigate how poverty rates and poverty gaps have changed over time, explore how these trends differ across family types, contrast these trends for several different income and consumption measures of poverty, and consider explanations for the differences in trends. We document sharp differences, particularly in recent years, between different income poverty measures, and between income and consumption poverty rates...

  12. Five Decades of Consumption and Income Proverty

    OpenAIRE

    Bruce Meyer; James X. Sullivan

    2010-01-01

    This paper examines poverty in the United States from 1960 through 2005. We investigate how poverty rates and poverty gaps have changed over time, explore how these trends differ across family types, contrast these trends for several different income and consumption measures of poverty, and consider explanations for the differences in trends. We document sharp differences, particularly in recent years, between different income poverty measures, and between income and consumption poverty rates...

  13. Family and Social Risk, and Parental Investments during the Early Childhood Years as Predictors of Low-Income Children's School Readiness Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mistry, Rashmita S.; Benner, Aprile D.; Biesanz, Jeremy C.; Clark, Shaunna L.; Howes, Carollee

    2010-01-01

    Using data from the National Early Head Start (EHS) Research and Evaluation Project (N = 1851), the current study examined relations among cumulative family and social risk, assessed during infancy and the preschool years, and children's prekindergarten achievement, self-regulatory skills, and problematic social behavior, testing if these…

  14. Family income and young adolescents' perceived social position: Associations with self-esteem and life satisfaction in the UK Millennium Cohort Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R. Bannink (Rienke); A. Pearce (Anna); S. Hope (Steven)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractBackground Self-esteem and life satisfaction are important aspects of positive mental health in young people, and both are socially distributed. However, the majority of evidence is based on socioeconomic characteristics of the family. As children enter adolescence and gain independence,

  15. Hispanic Population Growth and Rural Income Inequality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parrado, Emilio A.; Kandel, William A.

    2010-01-01

    We analyze the relationship between Hispanic population growth and changes in U.S. rural income inequality from 1990 through 2000. Applying comparative approaches used for urban areas we disentangle Hispanic population growth's contribution to inequality by comparing and statistically modeling changes in the family income Gini coefficient across…

  16. 17 CFR 210.7-04 - Income statements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ..., PUBLIC UTILITY HOLDING COMPANY ACT OF 1935, INVESTMENT COMPANY ACT OF 1940, INVESTMENT ADVISERS ACT OF... face of the income statements and in the notes thereto filed for persons to whom this article pertains... premiums earned. 2. Net investment income. State in a note to the financial statements, in tabular form...

  17. 47 CFR 32.7100 - Other operating income and expenses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Other operating income and expenses. 32.7100....7100 Other operating income and expenses. This account shall be used to record the results of... net gain or loss. This account shall include the following: (a) Profits realized from custom work...

  18. Dutch social housing sector reforms : Exploring the effects on low income households

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Groen, A.; Pruyt, E.; Boumeester, H.J.F.M.

    2012-01-01

    Social rental housing ought to function as safety net for the lower income groups in the housing system. However, the Dutch housing system has a relatively large social housing stock in relation to other housing systems in Europe – larger than would be required for a safety net for lower income

  19. 24 CFR 5.609 - Annual income.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... for Needy Families (TANF) program are included in annual income only to the extent such payments: (A) Qualify as assistance under the TANF program definition at 45 CFR 260.31; and (B) Are not otherwise...

  20. African American and Latino low income families' food shopping behaviors: promoting fruit and vegetable consumption and use of alternative healthy food options.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fish, Caitlin A; Brown, Jonisha R; Quandt, Sara A

    2015-04-01

    Minority families often reside in neighborhoods with few supermarkets or alternative healthy food options (e.g., farmers markets, community gardens), making fresh produce difficult to obtain. This qualitative study identified factors influencing fruit and vegetable shopping and use of alternative healthy food options. Forty-eight minority women with children completed interviews regarding food shopping habits and use of and attitudes toward alternative healthy food options. Interviews were subjected to thematic analysis. Produce shopping was motivated by costs and family preferences. For African American women, poor cooking skills restricted the variety of fruits and vegetables purchased. Latinas were receptive to alternative healthy food options, but did not use them because these sources were inconvenient. African American women were not receptive to them. Improving cooking skills and perceptions of acceptable foods may be as important as increased access to promote greater consumption of fruits and vegetables.

  1. Pro NET Best Practices

    CERN Document Server

    Ritchie, Stephen D

    2011-01-01

    Pro .NET Best Practices is a practical reference to the best practices that you can apply to your .NET projects today. You will learn standards, techniques, and conventions that are sharply focused, realistic and helpful for achieving results, steering clear of unproven, idealistic, and impractical recommendations. Pro .NET Best Practices covers a broad range of practices and principles that development experts agree are the right ways to develop software, which includes continuous integration, automated testing, automated deployment, and code analysis. Whether the solution is from a free and

  2. Getting to Net Zero

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2016-09-01

    The technology necessary to build net zero energy buildings (NZEBs) is ready and available today, however, building to net zero energy performance levels can be challenging. Energy efficiency measures, onsite energy generation resources, load matching and grid interaction, climatic factors, and local policies vary from location to location and require unique methods of constructing NZEBs. It is recommended that Components start looking into how to construct and operate NZEBs now as there is a learning curve to net zero construction and FY 2020 is just around the corner.

  3. Instant Lucene.NET

    CERN Document Server

    Heydt, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Filled with practical, step-by-step instructions and clear explanations for the most important and useful tasks. A step-by-step guide that helps you to index, search, and retrieve unstructured data with the help of Lucene.NET.Instant Lucene.NET How-to is essential for developers new to Lucene and Lucene.NET who are looking to get an immediate foundational understanding of how to use the library in their application. It's assumed you have programming experience in C# already, but not that you have experience with search techniques such as information retrieval theory (although there will be a l

  4. Parents as Partners: A U.K. Trial of a U.S. Couples-Based Parenting Intervention For At-Risk Low-Income Families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casey, Polly; Cowan, Philip A; Cowan, Carolyn P; Draper, Lucy; Mwamba, Naomi; Hewison, David

    2017-09-01

    Despite the well-established links between couple relationship quality and healthy family functioning, and burgeoning evidence from the international intervention field, there is little or no evidence of the efficacy of couples-based interventions from the United Kingdom (U.K.). This study explored whether the Parents as Partners (PasP) program, a group-based intervention developed in the United States, brought about the same benefits in the U.K. The evaluation is based on 97 couples with children from communities with high levels of need, recruited to PasP because they are at high risk for parent and child psychopathology. Both mothers and fathers completed self-report questionnaires assessing parents' psychological distress, parenting stress, couple relationship quality and conflict, fathers' involvement in child care and, importantly, children's adjustment. Multilevel modeling analysis comparing parents' responses pre- and postintervention not only showed substantial improvements for both parents on multiple measures of couple relationship quality, but also improvements in parent and child psychopathology. Analyses also indicated most substantial benefits for couples displaying poorest functioning at baseline. The findings provide initial evidence for the successful implementation of PasP, an American-origin program, in the U.K., and add support for the concept of the couple relationship as a resource by which to strengthen families. © 2017 Family Process Institute.

  5. Maternal Feeding Styles and Food Parenting Practices as Predictors of Longitudinal Changes in Weight Status in Hispanic Preschoolers from Low-Income Families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Sheryl O; Power, Thomas G; O'Connor, Teresia M; Orlet Fisher, Jennifer; Chen, Tzu-An

    2016-01-01

    Objective. The aim was to investigate the influence of feeding styles and food parenting practices on low-income children's weight status over time. Method. Participants were 129 Latina parents and their Head Start children participating in a longitudinal study. Children were assessed at baseline (4 to 5 years old) and again eighteen months later. At each time point, parents completed questionnaires and height and weight measures were taken on the child. Results. The indulgent feeding style (parent-report at baseline) was associated with increased child BMI z-score eighteen months later compared to other feeding styles. Authoritative, authoritarian, and uninvolved feeding styles were not significantly associated with increased child BMI z-score. Child BMI z-score at Time 1 (strongest) and maternal acculturation were positive predictors of child BMI z-score at Time 2. Maternal use of restriction positively predicted and maternal monitoring negatively predicted Time 2 BMI z-score, but only when accounting for feeding styles. Conclusion. This is the first study to investigate the impact of feeding styles on child weight status over time. Results suggest that indulgent feeding predicts later increases in children's weight status. The interplay between feeding styles and food parenting practices in influencing child weight status needs to be further explored.

  6. Maternal Feeding Styles and Food Parenting Practices as Predictors of Longitudinal Changes in Weight Status in Hispanic Preschoolers from Low-Income Families

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheryl O. Hughes

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. The aim was to investigate the influence of feeding styles and food parenting practices on low-income children’s weight status over time. Method. Participants were 129 Latina parents and their Head Start children participating in a longitudinal study. Children were assessed at baseline (4 to 5 years old and again eighteen months later. At each time point, parents completed questionnaires and height and weight measures were taken on the child. Results. The indulgent feeding style (parent-report at baseline was associated with increased child BMI z-score eighteen months later compared to other feeding styles. Authoritative, authoritarian, and uninvolved feeding styles were not significantly associated with increased child BMI z-score. Child BMI z-score at Time 1 (strongest and maternal acculturation were positive predictors of child BMI z-score at Time 2. Maternal use of restriction positively predicted and maternal monitoring negatively predicted Time 2 BMI z-score, but only when accounting for feeding styles. Conclusion. This is the first study to investigate the impact of feeding styles on child weight status over time. Results suggest that indulgent feeding predicts later increases in children’s weight status. The interplay between feeding styles and food parenting practices in influencing child weight status needs to be further explored.

  7. The effects of the Orff Approach on self-expression, self-efficacy, and social skills of children in low-income families in South Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yun, Young-Bae; Kim, Ji-Eun

    2013-01-01

    This experiment was designed to study the Orff Approach--a child-centered, developmental approach to music education that aims to enrich the imagination through the acceleration of psychological activities. The study was conducted in children who had exhibited problematic behavior possibly due to economical or psychological issues; it aimed to determine whether the Orff Approach satisfies educational and treatment purposes and is an acceptable alternative in improving self-expression, self-efficacy, and social skills. The experiment involved 43 elementary school children in South Korean households with a monthly income of 100% below the average (according to the National Basic Living Security Act, South Korea's Ministry of Health and Welfare), and the results showed an increase of the chil-dren's self-expression, self-efficacy, and social skills after musical activities with the Orff Approach. Also, children interacted with the musical activities--according to the Orff Approach--like a game.They noted that they were able to explain their thoughts and emotions better; their relationships with friends improved, as well. Therefore, this research is significant because it shows that musical activities according to the Orff Approach have possibilities to be utilized as a program for children's psychological and emotional support.

  8. Family planning, antenatal and delivery care: cross-sectional survey evidence on levels of coverage and inequalities by public and private sector in 57 low- and middle-income countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Oona M R; Benova, Lenka; MacLeod, David; Baggaley, Rebecca F; Rodrigues, Laura C; Hanson, Kara; Powell-Jackson, Timothy; Penn-Kekana, Loveday; Polonsky, Reen; Footman, Katharine; Vahanian, Alice; Pereira, Shreya K; Santos, Andreia Costa; Filippi, Veronique G A; Lynch, Caroline A; Goodman, Catherine

    2016-04-01

    The objective of this study was to assess the role of the private sector in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). We used Demographic and Health Surveys for 57 countries (2000-2013) to evaluate the private sector's share in providing three reproductive and maternal/newborn health services (family planning, antenatal and delivery care), in total and by socio-economic position. We used data from 865 547 women aged 15-49, representing a total of 3 billion people. We defined 'met and unmet need for services' and 'use of appropriate service types' clearly and developed explicit classifications of source and sector of provision. Across the four regions (sub-Saharan Africa, Middle East/Europe, Asia and Latin America), unmet need ranged from 28% to 61% for family planning, 8% to 22% for ANC and 21% to 51% for delivery care. The private-sector share among users of family planning services was 37-39% across regions (overall mean: 37%; median across countries: 41%). The private-sector market share among users of ANC was 13-61% across regions (overall mean: 44%; median across countries: 15%). The private-sector share among appropriate deliveries was 9-56% across regions (overall mean: 40%; median across countries: 14%). For all three healthcare services, women in the richest wealth quintile used private services more than the poorest. Wealth gaps in met need for services were smallest for family planning and largest for delivery care. The private sector serves substantial numbers of women in LMICs, particularly the richest. To achieve universal health coverage, including adequate quality care, it is imperative to understand this sector, starting with improved data collection on healthcare provision. © 2016 The Authors. Tropical Medicine & International Health published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Net Zero Energy Buildings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marszal, Anna Joanna; Bourrelle, Julien S.; Musall, Eike

    2010-01-01

    and identify possible renewable energy supply options which may be considered in calculations. Finally, the gap between the methodology proposed by each organisation and their respective national building code is assessed; providing an overview of the possible changes building codes will need to undergo......The international cooperation project IEA SHC Task 40 / ECBCS Annex 52 “Towards Net Zero Energy Solar Buildings”, attempts to develop a common understanding and to set up the basis for an international definition framework of Net Zero Energy Buildings (Net ZEBs). The understanding of such buildings...... parameters used in the calculations are discussed and the various renewable supply options considered in the methodologies are summarised graphically. Thus, the paper helps to understand different existing approaches to calculate energy balance in Net ZEBs, highlights the importance of variables selection...

  10. PhysioNet

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The PhysioNet Resource is intended to stimulate current research and new investigations in the study of complex biomedical and physiologic signals. It offers free...

  11. NetSig

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Horn, Heiko; Lawrence, Michael S; Chouinard, Candace R

    2018-01-01

    Methods that integrate molecular network information and tumor genome data could complement gene-based statistical tests to identify likely new cancer genes; but such approaches are challenging to validate at scale, and their predictive value remains unclear. We developed a robust statistic (Net......Sig) that integrates protein interaction networks with data from 4,742 tumor exomes. NetSig can accurately classify known driver genes in 60% of tested tumor types and predicts 62 new driver candidates. Using a quantitative experimental framework to determine in vivo tumorigenic potential in mice, we found that Net......Sig candidates induce tumors at rates that are comparable to those of known oncogenes and are ten-fold higher than those of random genes. By reanalyzing nine tumor-inducing NetSig candidates in 242 patients with oncogene-negative lung adenocarcinomas, we find that two (AKT2 and TFDP2) are significantly amplified...

  12. TideNet

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-10-30

    query tide data sources in a desired geographic region of USA and its territories (Figure 1). Users can select a tide data source through the Google Map ...select data sources according to the desired geographic region. It uses the Google Map interface to display data from different sources. Recent...Coastal Inlets Research Program TideNet The TideNet is a web-based Graphical User Interface (GUI) that provides users with GIS mapping tools to

  13. Building Neural Net Software

    OpenAIRE

    Neto, João Pedro; Costa, José Félix

    1999-01-01

    In a recent paper [Neto et al. 97] we showed that programming languages can be translated on recurrent (analog, rational weighted) neural nets. The goal was not efficiency but simplicity. Indeed we used a number-theoretic approach to machine programming, where (integer) numbers were coded in a unary fashion, introducing a exponential slow down in the computations, with respect to a two-symbol tape Turing machine. Implementation of programming languages in neural nets turns to be not only theo...

  14. Interaction Nets in Russian

    OpenAIRE

    Salikhmetov, Anton

    2013-01-01

    Draft translation to Russian of Chapter 7, Interaction-Based Models of Computation, from Models of Computation: An Introduction to Computability Theory by Maribel Fernandez. "In this chapter, we study interaction nets, a model of computation that can be seen as a representative of a class of models based on the notion of 'computation as interaction'. Interaction nets are a graphical model of computation devised by Yves Lafont in 1990 as a generalisation of the proof structures of linear logic...

  15. Programming NET 35

    CERN Document Server

    Liberty, Jesse

    2009-01-01

    Bestselling author Jesse Liberty and industry expert Alex Horovitz uncover the common threads that unite the .NET 3.5 technologies, so you can benefit from the best practices and architectural patterns baked into the new Microsoft frameworks. The book offers a Grand Tour" of .NET 3.5 that describes how the principal technologies can be used together, with Ajax, to build modern n-tier and service-oriented applications. "

  16. Reaching Low-Income Mothers to Improve Family Fruit and Vegetable Intake: Food Hero Social Marketing Campaign—Research Steps, Development and Testing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lauren N. Tobey

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to create/test a social marketing campaign to increase fruit/vegetable (FV intake within Oregon Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP eligible families. Focus groups (n = 2 and pre/post campaign phone surveys (n = 2082 were conducted in intervention counties (IC and one control county. Participants were female (86%–100% with 1–2 children at home. Mean FV intake/without juice was 3.1 servings/day; >50% preferred the Internet for delivery of healthy eating information. Participants reported time/financial burdens, low household FV variety and desirability of frozen/canned FV, and acceptance of positive messages. A Food Hero (FH campaign was created/delivered daily August–October 2009 to mothers through multiple channels (e.g., grocery stores, online, educators. Results showed that the IC had better FH name recall (12% and interpretation of intended messages (60% vs. control (3%, 23%, respectively. Compared to controls, the IC were less likely to report healthy food preparation as time consuming or a FV rich diet expensive, and it was easier to get their family to eat fruit. Results did not vary based on county/household characteristics. The FH campaign increased FH awareness and positive FV beliefs. A longer campaign with FV assessments will increase understanding of the target audience, and allow for campaign refinement.

  17. Reaching Low-Income Mothers to Improve Family Fruit and Vegetable Intake: Food Hero Social Marketing Campaign-Research Steps, Development and Testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tobey, Lauren N; Koenig, Harold F; Brown, Nicole A; Manore, Melinda M

    2016-09-13

    The objective of this study was to create/test a social marketing campaign to increase fruit/vegetable (FV) intake within Oregon Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP) eligible families. Focus groups (n = 2) and pre/post campaign phone surveys (n = 2082) were conducted in intervention counties (IC) and one control county. Participants were female (86%-100%) with 1-2 children at home. Mean FV intake/without juice was 3.1 servings/day; >50% preferred the Internet for delivery of healthy eating information. Participants reported time/financial burdens, low household FV variety and desirability of frozen/canned FV, and acceptance of positive messages. A Food Hero (FH) campaign was created/delivered daily August-October 2009 to mothers through multiple channels (e.g., grocery stores, online, educators). Results showed that the IC had better FH name recall (12%) and interpretation of intended messages (60%) vs. control (3%, 23%, respectively). Compared to controls, the IC were less likely to report healthy food preparation as time consuming or a FV rich diet expensive, and it was easier to get their family to eat fruit. Results did not vary based on county/household characteristics. The FH campaign increased FH awareness and positive FV beliefs. A longer campaign with FV assessments will increase understanding of the target audience, and allow for campaign refinement.

  18. Reaching Low-Income Mothers to Improve Family Fruit and Vegetable Intake: Food Hero Social Marketing Campaign—Research Steps, Development and Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tobey, Lauren N.; Koenig, Harold F.; Brown, Nicole A.; Manore, Melinda M.

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to create/test a social marketing campaign to increase fruit/vegetable (FV) intake within Oregon Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP) eligible families. Focus groups (n = 2) and pre/post campaign phone surveys (n = 2082) were conducted in intervention counties (IC) and one control county. Participants were female (86%–100%) with 1–2 children at home. Mean FV intake/without juice was 3.1 servings/day; >50% preferred the Internet for delivery of healthy eating information. Participants reported time/financial burdens, low household FV variety and desirability of frozen/canned FV, and acceptance of positive messages. A Food Hero (FH) campaign was created/delivered daily August–October 2009 to mothers through multiple channels (e.g., grocery stores, online, educators). Results showed that the IC had better FH name recall (12%) and interpretation of intended messages (60%) vs. control (3%, 23%, respectively). Compared to controls, the IC were less likely to report healthy food preparation as time consuming or a FV rich diet expensive, and it was easier to get their family to eat fruit. Results did not vary based on county/household characteristics. The FH campaign increased FH awareness and positive FV beliefs. A longer campaign with FV assessments will increase understanding of the target audience, and allow for campaign refinement. PMID:27649233

  19. Income Dynamics and the Affordable Care Act

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shore-Sheppard, Lara D

    2014-01-01

    Objective To examine the sources of family income dynamics leading to movement into and out of Medicaid expansion and subsidy eligibility under the Affordable Care Act. Data Source Survey of Income and Program Participation (SIPP): 1996, 2001, 2004, 2008 panels. Study Design Considering four broad subsidy eligibility categories for monthly Modified Adjusted Gross Income (MAGI) (400 percent FPL), I use duration analysis to examine determinants of movements between categories over the course of a year. Data Collection/Extraction Using detailed monthly data, I determine the members of tax-filing units and calculate an approximation of MAGI at the monthly level. The analysis sample is adults ages 22–64 years. Principal Findings Incomes are highly variable within a year, particularly at the lower end of the income distribution. Employment transitions, including transitions not involving a period of nonemployment, and family structure changes strongly predict sufficient income volatility to trigger a change in subsidy category. Conclusions Income volatility arising from employment and family structure changes is likely to trigger changes in subsidy eligibility within the year, but the sources and effects of the volatility differ substantially depending on the individual's position in the income distribution. PMID:25327987

  20. Income dynamics and the Affordable Care Act.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shore-Sheppard, Lara D

    2014-12-01

    To examine the sources of family income dynamics leading to movement into and out of Medicaid expansion and subsidy eligibility under the Affordable Care Act. Survey of Income and Program Participation (SIPP): 1996, 2001, 2004, 2008 panels. Considering four broad subsidy eligibility categories for monthly Modified Adjusted Gross Income (MAGI) (400 percent FPL), I use duration analysis to examine determinants of movements between categories over the course of a year. Using detailed monthly data, I determine the members of tax-filing units and calculate an approximation of MAGI at the monthly level. The analysis sample is adults ages 22-64 years. Incomes are highly variable within a year, particularly at the lower end of the income distribution. Employment transitions, including transitions not involving a period of nonemployment, and family structure changes strongly predict sufficient income volatility to trigger a change in subsidy category. Income volatility arising from employment and family structure changes is likely to trigger changes in subsidy eligibility within the year, but the sources and effects of the volatility differ substantially depending on the individual's position in the income distribution. © Health Research and Educational Trust.