WorldWideScience

Sample records for nesting bald eagles

  1. Constructing bald eagle nests with natural materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    T. G. Grubb

    1995-01-01

    A technique for using natural materials to build artificial nests for bald eagles (Haliaeetus leucocephalus) and other raptors is detailed. Properly constructed nests are as permanently secured to the nest tree or cliff substrate as any eagle-built nest or human-made platform. Construction normally requires about three hours and at least two people. This technique is...

  2. Ospreys Use Bald Eagle Nests in Chesapeake Bay Area

    OpenAIRE

    Therres, Glenn D.; Chandler, Sheri K.

    1993-01-01

    Ospreys (Pandion haliaetus) and Bald Eagles (Haliaeetus leucocephalus) share similar breeding habitat in the Chesapeake Bay area and elsewhere. The nests of these species are similar in size and appearance. Ospreys typically build large stick nests in dead trees or on man-made structures (C.J. Henny et al. 1974, Chesapeake Sci. 15:125-133; A.F. Poole 1989, Ospreys: a natural and unnatural history, Cambridge Univ. Press, NY), while Bald Eagles usually build larger nests in live trees (P.B. Woo...

  3. Results of bald eagle, osprey and great blue heron nest site surveys near Fort MacKay, Alberta

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strom, K.; Balagus, P.

    1996-01-01

    As part of the environmental impact assessment process, a study was conducted to assess the occurrence of bald eagle, osprey and great blue heron on Syncrude's proposed oil sand leases near Fort MacKay. The objective of the study was to determine the relative abundance, habitat preferences and nesting occurrences of these different birds. Aerial count surveys were conducted to include coverage of the shorelines of four rivers and 22 lakes. Breeding activities of the osprey, bald eagle and great blue heron were observed in the regional study area, but not in the local study area. 14 refs., 1 tab., 4 figs

  4. Bald eagle predation on common loon egg

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeStefano, Stephen; McCarthy, Kyle P.; Laskowski, Tom

    2010-01-01

    The Common Loon (Gavia immer) must defend against many potential egg predators during incubation, including corvids, Herring Gulls (Larus argentatus), raccoons (Procyon lotor), striped skunk (Mephitis mephitis), fisher (Martes pennanti), and mink (Neovison vison) (McIntyre 1988, Evers 2004, McCann et al. 2005). Bald Eagles (Haliaeetus leucocephalus) have been documented as predators of both adult Common Loons and their chicks (Vliestra and Paruk 1997, Paruk et al. 1999, Erlandson et al. 2007, Piper et al. 2008). In Wisconsin, where nesting Bald Eagles are abundant (>1200 nesting pairs, >1 young/pair/year), field biologists observed four instances of eagle predation of eggs in loon nests during the period 2002–2004 (M. Meyer pers. comm.). In addition, four cases of eagle predation of incubating adult loons were inferred from evidence found at the loon nest (dozens of plucked adult loon feathers, no carcass remains) and/or loon leg, neck, and skull bones beneath two active eagle nests, including leg bones containing the bands of the nearby (nest surveillance video camera on Lake Umbagog, a large lake (32 km2) at Umbagog National Wildlife Refuge (UNWR) in Maine.

  5. Bald Eagle nestling mortality associated with Argas radiatus and Argas ricei tick infestation and successful management with nest removal in Arizona, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Justice-Allen, Anne; Orr, Kathy; Schuler, Krysten L.; McCarty, Kyle; Jacobson, Kenneth; Meteyer, Carol U.

    2016-01-01

    Eight Bald Eagle (Haliaeetus leucocephalus) nestlings heavily infested with larval ticks were found in or under a nest near the confluence of the Verde and Salt rivers in Arizona in 2009-11. The 8-12-wk-old nestlings were slow to respond to stimuli and exhibited generalized muscle weakness or paresis of the pelvic limbs. Numerous cutaneous and subcutaneous hemorrhages were associated with sites of tick attachment. Ticks were identified as Argas radiatus and Argas ricei. Treatment with acaricides and infection with West Nile virus (WNV) may have confounded the clinical presentation in 2009 and 2010. However, WNV-negative birds exhibited similar signs in 2011. One nestling recovered from paresis within 36 h after the removal of all adult and larval ticks (>350) and was released within 3 wk. The signs present in the heavily infested Bald Eagle nestlings resembled signs associated with tick paralysis, a neurotoxin-mediated paralytic syndrome described in mammals, reptiles, and wild birds (though not eagles). Removal of the infested nest and construction of a nest platform in a different tree was necessary to break the cycle of infection. The original nesting pair constructed a new nest on the man-made platform and successfully fledged two Bald Eagles in 2012.

  6. Bald Eagle Nesting Disturbance Information 1974 Mason Neck National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of the Interior — This report is a series of excerpts from various researchers discussing the impact that human disturbances have on the eagle’s ability to successfully nest, incubate...

  7. Food habits of Bald Eagles breeding in the Arizona desert

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teryl G. Grubb

    1995-01-01

    Of 1814 foraging attempts, prey captures, or nest deliveries by Bald Eagles (Haliaeetus leucocephalus) in 14 Arizona breeding areas during 1983-1985, 1471 observations were identifiable to at least class: fish (76%), mammal (18%), bird (4%), and reptile/amphibian (2%). Forty-five species were recorded: catfish (Ictalurus punctatus, Pylodictis olivaris), suckers (...

  8. Physical characteristics of bald eagle eggs from Maine, 2000 to 2012

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of the Interior — Between 2000 and 2012, 91 abandoned or non‐viable bald eagle (Haliaeetus leucocephalus) eggs were collected from55 nest territories in inland and coastal habitats in...

  9. Bald eagle (Haliaeetus leucocephalus population increases in Placentia Bay, Newfoundland: evidence for habitat saturation?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karla R. Letto

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Across North America, Bald Eagle (Haliaeetus leucocephalus populations appear to be recovering following bans of DDT. A limited number of studies from across North America have recorded a surplus of nonbreeding adult Bald Eagles in dense populations when optimal habitat and food become limited. Placentia Bay, Newfoundland is one of these. The area has one of the highest densities of Bald Eagles in eastern North America, and has recently experienced an increase in the proportion of nonbreeding adults within the population. We tested whether the observed Bald Eagle population trends in Placentia Bay, Newfoundland during the breeding seasons 1990-2009 are due to habitat saturation. We found no significant differences in habitat or food resource characteristics between occupied territories and pseudo-absence data or between nest sites with high vs. low nest activity/occupancy rates. Therefore there is no evidence for habitat saturation for Bald Eagles in Placentia Bay and alternative hypotheses for the high proportion of nonbreeding adults should be considered. The Newfoundland population provides an interesting case for examination because it did not historically appear to be affected by pollution. An understanding of Bald Eagle population dynamics in a relatively pristine area with a high density can be informative for restoration and conservation of Bald Eagle populations elsewhere.

  10. Suspected lead toxicosis in a bald eagle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobson, E.; Carpenter, J.W.; Novilla, M.

    1977-01-01

    An immature bald eagle (Haliaeetus leucocephalus) was submitted to the University of Maryland, College Park, for clinical examination. The bird was thin, had green watery feces, and was unable to maintain itself in upright posture. Following radiography, the bird went into respiratory distress and died. Numerous lead shot were recovered from the gizzard, and chemical analysis of liver and kidney tissue revealed 22.9 and 11.3 ppm lead, respectively. The clinical signs, necropsy findings, and chemical analysis of the eagle were compatible with lead toxicosis.

  11. 75 FR 31811 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Post-Delisting Monitoring Plan for Bald Eagle...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-04

    ... Species Act (ESA) requires that we implement a system, in cooperation with the States, to monitor... cooperation with the States, to effectively monitor for not less than 5 years the status of all species that... stratified sampling based on density of identified bald eagle nest sites. Our Bald Eagle Monitoring Team will...

  12. Bald eagle site management plan for the Hanford Site, south-central Washington

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fitzner, R.F.; Weiss, S.G.

    1994-12-01

    The CERCLA remedial investigations of waste sites on the Hanford Site will involve lands containing or adjacent to a bald eagle nest, winter concentration areas, or communal night roost. Because these CERCLA investigations may affect bald eagles, the DOE has prepared this Bald Eagle Site Management Plan (BESMP). However, it is intended that this BESMP be used or updated so as to be also applicable to future activities that affect bald eagles on the Hanford Site. Bald eagles regularly use the US Department of Energy's (DOE) Hanford Site in south-central Washington State during winter months for roosting, perching, and foraging. Each of these activities requires buffer zones to protect eagles from human disturbances. Buffer zones developed in this plan follow recommended guidelines and are intended to be used in planning. If Hanford Site activities in the vicinity of identified bald eagle use areas are carried out in accordance with this plan, such actions are not likely to adversely affect the eagles or their habitat. Activities that may be exceptions will involve informal or formal (whichever is appropriate) consultation with the US Fish and Wildlife Service as required by the Endangered Species Act

  13. Reproduction and distribution of bald eagles in Voyageurs National Park, Minnesota, 1973-1993

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grim, Leland H.; Kallemeyn, Larry W.

    1995-01-01

    The bald eagle (Haliaeetus leucocephalus) is classified as a threatened species in Minnesota. In 1973, the National Park Service began monitoring the distribution and reproduction of bald eagles in and immediately adjacent to Voyageurs National Park to obtain data that park management could use to protect bald eagles from the effects of use of the park by visitors and from the expansion of park facilities. Thirty-seven breeding areas were identified during 1973-93. Annual productivity ranged from 0.00 to 1.42 fledglings/occupied nest and averaged 0.68 during the 21 breeding seasons. The annual number of breeding pairs tripled, the mean number of fledged eaglets increased 5 times, and reproductive success doubled during the study. However, in more than 15 of the breeding seasons, the mean productivity and the annual reproductive success in Voyageurs National Park were below the 1 fledgling/occupied nest and the 70% reproductive success that are representative of healthy bald eagle populations. We suspect that toxic substances, human disturbance, severe weather, and lack of food in early spring may have kept bald eagles in Voyageurs National Park from achieving a breeding success that was similar to that of conspecifics in the nearby Chippewa National Forest. The cumulative effect of these variables on reproduction and on habitat of bald eagles in Voyageurs National Park is unknown and should be determined.

  14. Agonistic asymmetries and the foraging ecology of Bald Eagles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knight, Richard L.; Skagen, Susan Knight

    1988-01-01

    We investigated the effects of both asymmetries and differing food levels on contest outcomes of wintering Bald Eagles (Haliaeetus leucocephalus) feeding on chum salmon (Oncorhynchus keta) carcasses. Large eagles, regardless of age, were more successful in pirating than smaller eagles. Small pirating eagles were usually unsuccessful unless they were adults attempting to supplant other small eagles. Feeding eagles were more successful in defeating pirating eagles according to (1) whether their heads were up to prior to a pirating attempt, (2) how long their heads had been up, and (3) whether they displayed. During periods of food scarcity pirating eagles were less successful, a fact attributed in a proximate sense to the increase incidence of retaliation by feeding birds. When food was scarce and eagles had a choice between scavenging the pirating, they chose to scavenge more often. Body size appears to be an important factor in determining social dominance and influencing differences in foraging modes of wintering Bald Eagles.

  15. Kleptoparasitism by bald eagles wintering in south-central Nebraska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jorde, Dennis G.; Lingle, G.R.

    1988-01-01

    Kleptoparasitism on other raptors was one means by which Bald Eagles (Haliaeetus leucocephalus) secured food along the North Platte and Platte rivers during the winters of 1978-1980. Species kelptoparasitized were Ferruginous Hawk (Buteo regalis), Red-tailed Hawk (B. jamaicensis), Rough-legged Hawk (B. lagopus), Golden Eagle (Aquila chrysaetos), and Bald Eagle. Stealing of prey occurred more often during the severe winter of 1978-1979 when ice cover restricted eagles from feeding on fish than during the milder winter of 1979-1980. Kleptoparasitism occurred principally in agricultural habitats where large numbers of Mallards (Anas platyrhynchos) were foraging. Subadults watched adults steal food and participated in food-stealing with adults, which indicated interspecific kleptoparasitism may be a learned behavior. We suggest factors that may favor interspecific kleptoparasitism as a foraging strategy of Bald Eagles in obtaining waterfowl during severe winters.

  16. Wintering bald eagle trends in northern Arizona, 1975-2000

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teryl G. Grubb

    2003-01-01

    Between 1975 and 2000, 4,525 sightings of wintering bald eagles (Haliaeetus leucocephalus) were recorded at Mormon Lake in northern Arizona. Numbers of wintering eagles fluctuated little in the 20 years from 1975 through 1994 (5.5 ± 3.0 mean sightings per day). However, during the winters of 1995 through 1997 local record highs of 59 to 118 eagles...

  17. Bald eagles of the Hanford National Environmental Research Park

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fitzner, R.E.; Watson, D.G.; Rickard, W.H.

    1980-06-01

    Since 1961, near-yearly aerial surveys of bald eagles along the Hanford reach of the Columbia River have been conducted. Prey resources available to the eagles have also been monitored and we have thus been able to examine predator-prey relationships in a statistical fashion. We report on a unique set of data which provides insight into one of the factors (prey availability) controlling bald eagle wintering populations. The winter distribution of the bald eagle (Haliaeetus leucocephalus) has been reported to closely follow the availability of prey (Servheen 1975, Southern 1963, Shea 1973, Spencer 1976). Fitzner and Hanson (1979) compared twelve years of eagle winter survey data on the Hanford DOE Site with waterfowl numbers and salmon redd densities over the same period and provided some statistical evidence that eagle wintering numbers varied somewhat dependently with changing salmon redd numbers but not with changing waterfowl numbers. This report re-examines Fitzner and Hanson's (1979) twelve year data set and supplies two additional years of data for the Hanford DOE Site in order to gain additional insight into predator-prey interactions.

  18. Why Did the Bald Eagle Almost Become Extinct?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glassman, Sarah J.; Sterling, Donna R.

    2012-01-01

    The activity described in this article poses a question, provides evidence needed to answer the question, and uses a cooperative learning structure within which students analyze the evidence and create their own questions. Students see how a single cause can interact with two natural systems--the water cycle and the bald eagle food chain--to…

  19. Food habits of bald eagles wintering in northern Arizona

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teryl G. Grubb; Roy G. Lopez

    2000-01-01

    We used pellets collected from roosts to supplement incidental foraging observations to identify prey species of Bald Eagles (Haliaeetus leucoughalus) and to evaluate spatial and temporal trends in their food habits while wintering in northern Arizona between 1994-96. We analyzed 1057 pellets collected from 14 roosts, and identified five mammal and...

  20. To migrate, stay put, or wander? Varied movement strategies in bald eagles (Haliaeetus leucocephalus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheat, Rachel E; Lewis, Stephen B; Wang, Yiwei; Levi, Taal; Wilmers, Christopher C

    2017-01-01

    Quantifying individual variability in movement behavior is critical to understanding population-level patterns in animals. Here, we explore intraspecific variation in movement strategies of bald eagles ( Haliaeetus leucocephalus ) in the north Pacific, where there is high spatiotemporal resource variability. We tracked 28 bald eagles (five immature, 23 adult) using GPS transmitters between May 2010 and January 2016. We found evidence of four movement strategies among bald eagles in southeastern Alaska and western Canada: breeding individuals that were largely sedentary and remained near nest sites year-round, non-breeding migratory individuals that made regular seasonal travel between northern summer and southern winter ranges, non-breeding localized individuals that displayed fidelity to foraging sites, and non-breeding nomadic individuals with irregular movement. On average, males traveled farther per day than females. Most nomadic individuals were immature, and all residential individuals (i.e. breeders and localized birds) were adults. Alternative movement strategies among north Pacific eagles are likely associated with the age and sex class, as well as breeding status, of an individual. Intraspecific variation in movement strategies within the population results in different space use patterns among contingents, which has important implications for conservation and management.

  1. Long-term monitoring studies of pollutants on public lands: Bald Eagles in the Midwest

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bowerman, W.W. [Eagle Environmental Inc., Haslett, MI (United States)

    1995-12-31

    The role of public agencies to monitor the populations of wildlife species with protected status is paramount to the recovery of these species. Since the early 1960s, the bald eagle (Haliaeetus leucocephalus) populations within the Midwest have been monitored to determine number of breeding pairs, nest occupancy, and success rates. In addition to the reproductive outcome studies, abandoned eggs, blood samples, and feather samples have been collected to determine concentrations of organochlorine pesticides, PCBs, and heavy metals. These surveys give an actual measure of population dynamics of a top-predator species in aquatic systems that integrates the effects of many different environmental pollutants. As concentrations of the organochlorine compounds have declined, bald eagle populations have increased in numbers and their reproductive success has improved. The recovery of this species has not been uniform however. In regions where DDT and PCB concentrations are still above thresholds associated with reproductive impairment, eagles still have impaired reproduction. These areas include the shorelines of the Great Lakes and Voyageurs National Park. Some areas such as the Chippewa National Forest have begun to show declines in reproduction due to density dependent factors. Recent proposals for ecosystem management and reclassification of the bald eagle have led to reduced emphasis for maintaining these long-term data sets. The utility and importance of maintaining surveys of top-predators that can give a measure of population-level effects of pollutants rather than an index will be discussed using examples from the Midwest.

  2. The Bald and Golden Eagle Protection Act, species-based legal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Bald and Golden Eagle Protection Act of 1940 bestows legal protection on two North American eagle species in the United States of America. The Act was originally aimed at the legal protection of only one species: the Bald Eagle Haliaeetus leucocephalus, the national symbol of the USA. Later the Act was amended to ...

  3. Density and productivity of bald eagles in Prince William Sound, Alaska, after the Exxon Valdez oil spill

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    White, C.M.; Ritchie, R.J.; Cooper, B.A.

    1995-01-01

    Helicopter surveys were conducted in Prince William Sound (PWS) to assess the effects of the 1989 Exxon Valdez oil spill on the reproductive success and densities of bald eagles (Haliaeetus leucocephalus) one and two years after the spill (1990 and 1991). Densities of bald eagles were compared between an oiled area in southwestern PWS and an unoiled area in northern PWS. In all surveys (four in 1990, one in 1991) densities of eagles in the oiled areas generally were similar to or higher than those in the unoiled area. Reproductive success was compared between nesting territories that were oiled within 1 km of nests and nesting territories that were unoiled. In 1990, all measures of nest productivity, nest occupancy, and nesting success were similar between oiled and unoiled territories. In 1991, however, the number of young per successful nest was lower in oiled territories. The number of successful nests was slightly lower in 1991 than in 1990 in oiled territories but was significantly lower in 1991 in unoiled territories. Comparisons of nest occupancy and nesting success could not be made in 1991 because early surveys were not conducted. Differences between areas, territories, and years could not be attributed to oil, but rather appeared to be related to natural annual variability. Overall, no demonstrable effects of the oil spill on eagle density or reproduction could be detected in PWS one and two years after the spill. 70 refs., 1 fig., 3 tabs

  4. Golden eagle records from the Midwinter Bald Eagle Survey: information for wind energy management and planning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eakle, Wade; Haggerty, Patti; Fuller, Mark; Phillips, Susan L.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this Data Series report is to provide the occasions, locations, and counts when golden eagles were recorded during the annual Midwinter Bald Eagle Surveys. Golden eagles (Aquila chrysaetos) are protected by Federal statutes including the Bald and Golden Eagle Protection Act (BGEPA) (16 USC 668-668c) and the Migratory Bird Treaty Act (MBTA) (16 USC 703-12). The U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (Service) manages golden eagles with the goal of maintaining stable or increasing breeding populations (U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, 2009). Development for the generation of electricity from wind turbines is occurring in much of the range of the golden eagle in the western United States. Development could threaten population stability because golden eagles might be disturbed by construction and operation of facilities and they are vulnerable to mortality from collisions with wind turbines (Smallwood and Thelander, 2008). Therefore, the Service has proposed a process by which wind energy developers can collect information that could lead to Eagle Conservation Plans (ECP), mitigation, and permitting that allow for golden eagle management in areas of wind energy development (U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, 2011). The Service recommends that ECP be developed in stages, and the first stage is to learn if golden eagles occur at the landscape level where potential wind facilities might be located. Information about where eagles occur can be obtained from technical literature, agency files, and other sources of information including on-line biological databases. The broad North American distribution of golden eagles is known, but there is a paucity of readily available information about intermediate geographic scales and site-specific scales, especially during the winter season (Kochert and others, 2002).

  5. Final Report Bald and Golden Eagle Territory Surveys for the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fratanduono, M. L. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2014-11-25

    Garcia and Associates (GANDA) was contracted by the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) to conduct surveys for bald eagles (Haliaeetus leucocephalus) and golden eagles (Aquila chrysaetos) at Site 300 and in the surrounding area out to 10-miles. The survey effort was intended to document the boundaries of eagle territories by careful observation of eagle behavior from selected viewing locations throughout the study area.

  6. Using nestling feathers to assess spatial and temporal concentrations of mercury in bald eagles at Voyageurs National Park, Minnesota, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    H. T. Pittman; W. W. Bowerman; L. H. Grim; Teryl Grubb; W. C. Bridges

    2011-01-01

    Bald eagles (Haliaeetus leucocephalus) have been utilized as a biosentinel of aquatic ecosystem health in the Great Lakes Region since the early 1960s. Bald eagle populations have been monitored at Voyageurs National Park (VNP), Minnesota, since 1973. For the past 20 years, researchers have collected feathers from nestling bald eagles to assess their dietary exposure...

  7. JC Knobel THE BALD AND GOLDEN EAGLE PROTECTION ACT

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USC 1531) (USA); and the Environment Protection and Biodiversity ... Province); Bophuthatswana Nature Conservation Act 3 of 1973 (Northwest Province, Free State) ... scientist may find it difficult to correctly identify members of the two species ..... usually sites its nest in trees close to water, the Golden Eagle usually breeds ...

  8. Absolute polycythemia in a bald eagle (Haliaeetus leucocephalus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandes, Andreia F; Fenton, Heather; Martinson, Shannon; Desmarchelier, Marion; Ferrell, Shannon T

    2014-12-01

    An approximately 6-mo-old female bald eagle (Haliaeetus leucocephalus) was presented for an inability to fly and bilateral drooped wings. Pectoral muscle atrophy with a moderate polycythemia was present. Over the course of 3 wk, there were no improvements in flight capacity, although the bird gained substantial weight. Further investigation revealed a prominent cyanosis that was responsive to oxygen therapy, a chronic respiratory acidosis with hypoxia, a cardiac murmur, and a persistent polycythemia. No obvious antemortem etiology for the clinical findings was discovered on computerized tomography, angiography, or echocardiography. The bird was euthanatized as a result of the poor prognosis. Necropsy and histopathology revealed no significant cardiovascular or pulmonary pathology. No myopathy was evident on electron microscopy of formalin-fixed tissues. Based on these diagnostics, a neuromuscular disorder is suspected as the cause for the blood gas abnormalities, with a resulting polycythemia from the hypoxia.

  9. Food web model output - Trophic impacts of bald eagles in the Puget Sound food web

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This project is developing models to examine the ecological roles of bald eagles in the Puget Sound region. It is primarily being done by NMFS FTEs, in collaboration...

  10. Bioenergetics model output - Trophic impacts of bald eagles in the Puget Sound food web

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This project is developing models to examine the ecological roles of bald eagles in the Puget Sound region. It is primarily being done by NMFS FTEs, in collaboration...

  11. Recovery distances of nestling Bald Eagles banded in Florida and implications for natal dispersal and philopatry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Petra Bohall

    2009-01-01

    I used band recovery data to examine distances between banding and recovery locations for 154 nestling Florida Bald Eagles and discuss the implications for understanding natal dispersal and philopatry in this species. Band recoveries occurred in 23 U.S. states and five Canadian provinces between 1931–2005. Recovery distance from the natal nest averaged longer for the youngest age classes (ANOVA: F  =  3.59; df  =  5, 153; P  =  0.005), for individuals banded in earlier decades (F  =  1.94; df  =  5, 153; P  =  0.093), and for the months of May through October (F  =  3.10; df  =  12, 153;P < 0.001). Of 35 individuals classed as mature (≥3.9 yr old when recovered; range 3.9–36.5 yr), 31 were located within Florida, which suggested a strong degree of philopatry to the natal state. Among 21 mature eagles of known sex with known banding and recovery locations in Florida, females, particularly younger birds, had longer recovery distances (N  =  9, mean  =  93 km, SE  =  22.4) than did males (N  =  12, mean  =  31 km, SE  =  5.3; t  =  2.67, df  =  19, P  =  0.026). The records examined here suggest a high degree of philopatry and relatively short natal dispersal distances, particularly in male Bald Eagles.

  12. Conservation significance of alternative nests of golden eagles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brian A. Millsap; Teryl G. Grubb; Robert K. Murphy; Ted Swem; James W. Watson

    2015-01-01

    Golden eagles (Aquila chrysaetos) are long-lived raptors that maintain nesting territories that may be occupied for a century or longer. Within occupied nesting territories there is one nest in which eagles lay their eggs in a given year (i.e., the used nest), but there are usually other nests (i.e., alternative nests). Conservation plans often protect used nests, but...

  13. 50 CFR 22.28 - Permits for bald eagle take exempted under the Endangered Species Act.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... the Endangered Species Act. 22.28 Section 22.28 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE... for bald eagle take exempted under the Endangered Species Act. (a) Purpose and scope. This permit... section 7 incidental take statement under the Endangered Species Act of 1973, as amended (ESA) (16 U.S.C...

  14. If Animals Could Talk: Bald Eagle, Bear, Florida Panther, Gopher Tortoise, Indigo Snake, Manatee, Otter, Raccoon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinellas County District School Board, Clearwater, FL.

    In this series of booklets, eight Florida animals describe their appearance, habitats, food, behavior, and relationships with humans. Each entry is written for elementary students from the animal's point of view and includes a bibliography. Contained are the life stories of the bald eagle, black bear, Florida panther, gopher tortoise, Eastern…

  15. Conservation significance of alternative nests of golden eagles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian A. Millsap

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Golden eagles (Aquila chrysaetos are long-lived raptors that maintain nesting territories that may be occupied for a century or longer. Within occupied nesting territories there is one nest in which eagles lay their eggs in a given year (i.e., the used nest, but there are usually other nests (i.e., alternative nests. Conservation plans often protect used nests, but not alternative nests or nesting territories that appear vacant. Our objective is to review literature on golden eagle use of alternative nests and occupancy of nesting territories to determine if alternative nests are biologically significant and warrant greater conservation consideration. Our review shows that: (1 alternative nests or their associated habitat are most often in core areas of golden eagle nesting territories; (2 alternative nests likely will become used in the future; (3 probability of an alternative nest becoming used is greatest where prey availability is high and alternative nest sites are limited; (4 likelihood of annual occupancy or reoccupancy of golden eagle nesting territories is high; and (5 prey availability is the most important determinant of nesting territory occupancy and breeding activity. We recommend alternative nests be treated with the same deference as used nests in land use planning.

  16. Hemograms for and nutritional condition of migrant bald eagles tested for exposure to lead.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, M J; Wayland, M E; Bortolotti, G R

    2001-07-01

    Plasma proteins, hematocrit, differential blood counts were examined and nutritional condition was estimated for bald eagles (Haliaeetus leucocephalus) trapped (n = 66) during antumn migration, 1994-95 at Galloway Bay (Saskatchewan, Canada), for the purposes of estimating prevalence of exposure to lead. Sex and age differences in hematocrit and plasma proteins were not observed; however, female eagles exhibited larger median absolute heterophil counts than males. Hematologic values were similar to those previously reported from eagles in captivity. Departures from expected hematological values from a healthy population of eagles were not observed in birds with elevated levels of blood lead (> or =0.200 microg/ml). Similarly, nutritional condition was not related to blood-lead concentrations. Therefore, it appears that lead exposure in this population was below a threshold required to indicate toxicological alteration in the hematological values and index of nutritional condition that we measured.

  17. The Bald And Golden Eagle Protection Act, Species-Based Legal Protection And The Danger Of Misidentification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johann C Knobel

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The Bald and Golden Eagle Protection Act of 1940 bestows legal protection on two North American eagle species in the United States of America. The Act was originally aimed at the legal protection of only one species: the Bald Eagle Haliaeetus leucocephalus, the national symbol of the USA. Later the Act was amended to extend protection also to the Golden Eagle Aquila chrysaetos. The Bald Eagle was an Endangered Species, but the Golden Eagle was not formally listed as Endangered nationwide in the USA. One of the reasons for extending legal protection to the Golden Eagle under the Act was to strengthen the legal protection of the Bald Eagle, because immature Bald Eagles were being misidentified as Golden Eagles and shot. Additional factors relating to Golden Eagle mortality also made legal protection of the Golden Eagle desirable. The danger that a rare and legally protected species can be misidentified and mistaken for a more common and unprotected species can therefore serve as a reason for bestowing legal protection on the more common species as well. Other factors may also indicate that legal protection of the more common species is desirable, making the case more compelling. If this line of reasoning is applied in respect of South African birds of prey, a strong case can be made in favour of extending legal protection under the national biodiversity legislation to more species than the small number of species currently enjoying such protection. Species that are listed as Vulnerable under South African national biodiversity legislation may be misidentified as species that are not subject to such protection. Additional factors are also present that make such an extension of legal protection desirable.

  18. 76 FR 13446 - Nittany Bald and Eagle Railroad Company-Operation Exemption-SEDA-COG Joint Rail Authority

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-11

    ... Eagle Railroad Company-Operation Exemption-SEDA- COG Joint Rail Authority Nittany Bald and Eagle... 0.0 and milepost 1.8 in Castanea, Clinton County, Pa. The line is owned or leased by SEDA-COG Joint Rail Authority (SEDA-COG). N&BE states that the line it proposes to operate is an extension of its...

  19. PCBs and DDE, but not PBDEs, increase with trophic level and marine input in nestling bald eagles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamish Elliott, Kyle; Cesh, Lillian S.; Dooley, Jessica A.; Letcher, Robert J.; Elliott, John E.

    2009-01-01

    Concentrations of persistent contaminants often vary widely among individuals within a population. We hypothesized that such variation was caused mainly by differences in diet (biomagnification) and in coastal systems by the tendency of marine systems to act as contaminant sinks. We examined the relationship between contaminant concentrations and stable isotope ratios in nestling plasma from an apex predator with a particularly broad diet. Our study included freshwater, estuarine, inshore and pelagic breeding sites. Bald eagles (Haliaeetus leucocephalus) at the pelagic marine sites showed high trophic level and marine input, eagles at the freshwater sites showed low trophic level and marine input, and eagles at the estuarine and inshore marine sites had intermediate values. The relationship between trophic level and marine input may reflect longer food chains in pelagic compared to terrestrial ecosystems. ΣPCBs and DDE concentrations generally increased with trophic level and marine input, with the exception of the freshwater sites, while ΣPBDEs, hydroxylated-PBDEs and hydroxylated-PCBs increased with marine input, but were independent of trophic level. The relationships for ΣPCBs and DDE were often slightly stronger with marine input than trophic level, suggesting that oceanographic processes may be more important than trophic level. At freshwater locations, spatial variation may be more important than trophic level due to the heterogeneity of contaminant profiles between feeding locations (lakes, rivers, agricultural fields). Adults had similar isotopic composition to their chicks but higher contamination. Based on nests where prey composition was determined independently, isotopic enrichment values for nestling plasma were 1.6 ± 0.1 (δ 15 N) and - 0.4 ±0.2 (δ 13 C). We conclude that trophic level and marine influence are significant factors influencing PCB and DDE concentrations in eagles. However, trophic level in particular did not influence PBDEs

  20. Productivity, embryo and eggshell characteristics, and contaminants in bald eagles from the Great Lakes, USA, 1986 to 2000

    Science.gov (United States)

    Best, David A.; Elliott, Kyle; Bowerman, William; Shieldcastle, Mark C.; Postupalsky, Sergej; Kubiak, Timothy J.; Tillitt, Donald E.; Elliott, John E.

    2010-01-01

    Chlorinated hydrocarbon concentrations in eggs of fish-eating birds from contaminated environments such as the Great Lakes of North America tend to be highly intercorrelated, making it difficult to elucidate mechanisms causing reproductive impairment, and to ascribe cause to specific chemicals. An information- theoretic approach was used on data from 197 salvaged bald eagle (Haliaeetus leucocephalus) eggs (159 clutches) that failed to hatch in Michigan and Ohio, USA (1986–2000). Contaminant levels declined over time while eggshell thickness increased, and by 2000 was at pre-1946 levels. The number of occupied territories and productivity increased during 1981 to 2004. For both the entire dataset and a subset of nests along the Great Lakes shoreline, polychlorinated biphenyls (ΣPCBs, fresh wet wt) were generally included in the most parsimonious models (lowest-Akaike's information criterion [AICs]) describing productivity, with significant declines in productivity observed above 26 µg/g ΣPCBs (fresh wet wt). Of 73 eggs with a visible embryo, eight (11%) were abnormal, including three with skewed bills, but they were not associated with known teratogens, including ΣPCBs. Eggs with visible embryos had greater concentrations of all measured contaminants than eggs without visible embryos; the most parsimonious models describing the presence of visible embryos incorporated dieldrin equivalents and dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (DDE). There were significant negative correlations between eggshell thickness and all contaminants, with ΣPCBs included in the most parsimonious models. There were, however, no relationships between productivity and eggshell thickness or Ratcliffe's index. The ΣPCBs and DDE were negatively associated with nest success of bald eagles in the Great Lakes watersheds, but the mechanism does not appear to be via shell quality effects, at least at current contaminant levels, while it is not clear what other mechanisms were involved.

  1. Pharmacokinetics of intravenous and oral tramadol in the bald eagle (Haliaeetus leucocephalus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souza, Marcy J; Martin-Jimenez, Tomas; Jones, Michael P; Cox, Sherry K

    2009-12-01

    Analgesia is becoming increasingly important in veterinary medicine, and little research has been performed that examined pain control in avian species. Tramadol is a relatively new drug that provides analgesia by opioid (mu), serotonin, and norepinephrine pathways, with minimal adverse effects. To determine the pharmacokinetics of tramadol and its major metabolite O-desmethyltramadol (M1) in eagles, 6 bald eagles (Haliaeetus leucocephalus) were each dosed with tramadol administered intravenously (4 mg/kg) and orally (11 mg/kg) in a crossover study. Blood was collected at various time points between 0 and 600 minutes and then analyzed with high-performance liquid chromatography to determine levels of tramadol and M1, the predominate active metabolite. The terminal half-life of tramadol after intravenous dosing was 2.46 hours. The maximum plasma concentration, time of maximum plasma concentration, and terminal half life for tramadol after oral dosing were 2156.7 ng/ml, 3.75 hours, and 3.14 hours, respec vely. In addition, the oral bioavailability was 97.9%. Although plasma concentrations of ramadol and M1 associated with analgesia in any avian species is unknown, based on the obtained data and known therapeutic levels in humans, a dosage of 5 mg/kg PO q12h is recommended for bald eagles. Pharmacodynamic studies are needed to better determine plasma levels of tramadol and M1 associated with analgesia in birds.

  2. Using nestling plasma to assess long-term spatial and temporal concentrations of organochlorine compounds in bald eagles within Voyageurs National Park, Minnesota, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    H. Tyler Pittman; William W. Bowerman; Leland H. Grim; Teryl G. Grubb; William C. Bridges; Michael R. Wierda

    2015-01-01

    The bald eagle (Haliaeetus leucocephalus) population at Voyageurs National Park (VNP) provides an opportunity to assess long-term temporal and spatial trends of persistent environmental contaminants. Nestling bald eagle plasma samples collected from 1997 to 2010 were analyzed for polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and organochlorine pesticides. Trends of total PCBs,...

  3. A spatially-dynamic preliminary risk assessment of the bald eagle at the Los Alamos National Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonzales, G.J.; Gallegos, A.F.; Foxx, T.S.; Fresquez, P.R.; Mullen, M.A.; Pratt, L.E.; Gomez, P.E.

    1998-04-01

    The Endangered Species Act of 1973 and the Record of Decision on the Dual Axis Radiographic Hydrodynamic Test Facility at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) require that the Department of Energy protect the bald eagle (Haliaeetus leucocephalus), a state and federally listed species, from stressors such as contaminants. A preliminary risk assessment of the bald eagle was performed using a custom FORTRAN code, ECORSK5, and the geographical information system. Estimated exposure doses to the eagle for radionuclide, inorganic metal, and organic contaminants were derived for varying ratios of aquatic vs. terrestrial simulated diet and compared against toxicity reference values to generate hazard indices (His). HI results indicate that no appreciable impact to the bald eagle is expected from contaminants at LANL from soil ingestion and food consumption pathways. This includes a measure of cumulative effects from multiple contaminants that assumes linear additive toxicity. Improving model realism by weighting simulated eagle foraging based on distance from potential roost sites increased the HI by 76%, but still to inconsequential levels. Information on risk by specific geographical location was generated, which can be used to manage contaminated areas, eagle habitat, facility siting, and/or facility operations in order to maintain risk from contaminants at low levels.

  4. Comparison of arsenic, cadmium, chromium, lead, manganese, mercury and selenium in feathers in bald eagle (Haliaeetus leucocephalus), and comparison with common eider (Somateria mollissima), glaucous-winged gull (Larus glaucescens), pigeon guillemot (Cepphus columba), and tufted puffin (Fratercula cirrhata) from the Aleutian Chain of Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burger, Joanna; Gochfeld, Michael

    2014-01-01

    There is an abundance of field data for levels of metals from a range of places, but relatively few from the North Pacific Ocean and Bering Sea. In this paper we examine the levels of arsenic, cadmium, chromium, lead, manganese, mercury and selenium in feathers from common eiders (Somateria mollissima), glaucous-winged gulls (Larus glaucescens), pigeon guillemots (Cepphus columba), tufted puffins (Fratercula cirrhata) and bald eagles (Haliaeetus leucocephalus) from the Aleutian Chain of Alaska. Our primary objective was to test the hypothesis that there are no trophic levels relationships for arsenic, cadmium, chromium, lead, manganese, mercury and selenium among these five species of birds breeding in the marine environment of the Aleutians. There were significant interspecific differences in all metal levels. As predicted bald eagles had the highest levels of arsenic, chromium, lead, and manganese, but puffins had the highest levels of selenium, and pigeon guillemot had higher levels of mercury than eagles (although the differences were not significant). Common eiders, at the lowest trophic level had the lowest levels of some metals (chromium, mercury and selenium). However, eiders had higher levels than all other species (except eagles) for arsenic, cadmium, lead, and manganese. Levels of lead were higher in breast than in wing feathers of bald eagles. Except for lead, there were no significant differences in metal levels in feathers of bald eagles nesting on Adak and Amchitka Island; lead was higher on Adak than Amchitka. Eagle chicks tended to have lower levels of manganese than older eagles. PMID:18521716

  5. The effect of kleptoparasitic bald eagles and gyrfalcons on the kill rate of peregrine falcons hunting dunlins wintering in British Columbia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dekker, T.J.; Out, M.; Tabak, M.; Ydenberg, R.C.

    2012-01-01

    Kleptoparasitism in birds has been the subject of much research, and the Bald Eagle (Haliaeetus leucocephalus) is a known kleptoparasite. It has been reported to pirate ducks captured by Peregrine Falcons (Falco peregrinus), but ours is the first study to examine the effect of kleptoparasitic Bald

  6. Harpy eagle (Harpia harpyja) nesting in manipulated forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez, E.; Ellis, D.H.

    1994-01-01

    Continental records point to shooting, removal of young and destruction of nests as the primary conservation problems for harpy eagles (Harpia harpyja); bird-observer visits are a new source of concern. Nesting events are roughly 3 yr apart. Nests are used during and after intensive manipulation of the surrounding habitat, and minimum distance between active sites was 3-5 km. In nine nesting sites along a 100-km stretch of the Imalaca Mountains in Venezuela, we fitted five fledglings with satellite-tracked tags from NASA. One of these birds was hacked with the help of the loggers who destroyed its nest. All these nests were active while logging ensued. Out of three renesting attempts, one failed when the nest collapsed. We salvaged two additional fledglings found in captivity. We are monitoring five nests in the buffer area of the Darien National Park in Panama, all within 3 km of human settlements where trees are regularly felled for firewood, lumber, and to clear more cropland. Eagles have been killed at two sites, a third site remains inactive since 1991, and the other two nests currently have fledglings.

  7. 78 FR 72926 - Bald and Golden Eagles; Migratory Birds; Phase I Development of the Chokecherry-Sierra Madre Wind...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-04

    ... or religious interests. Interested persons may view information about our environmental review of... and other species as sacred species and as cultural resources. Some tribes and tribal members may consider eagle nests [[Page 72928

  8. Utilization Probability Map for Migrating Bald Eagles in Northeastern North America: A Tool for Siting Wind Energy Facilities and Other Flight Hazards.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth K Mojica

    Full Text Available Collisions with anthropogenic structures are a significant and well documented source of mortality for avian species worldwide. The bald eagle (Haliaeetus leucocephalus is known to be vulnerable to collision with wind turbines and federal wind energy guidelines include an eagle risk assessment for new projects. To address the need for risk assessment, in this study, we 1 identified areas of northeastern North America utilized by migrating bald eagles, and 2 compared these with high wind-potential areas to identify potential risk of bald eagle collision with wind turbines. We captured and marked 17 resident and migrant bald eagles in the northern Chesapeake Bay between August 2007 and May 2009. We produced utilization distribution (UD surfaces for 132 individual migration tracks using a dynamic Brownian bridge movement model and combined these to create a population wide UD surface with a 1 km cell size. We found eagle migration movements were concentrated within two main corridors along the Appalachian Mountains and the Atlantic Coast. Of the 3,123 wind turbines ≥100 m in height in the study area, 38% were located in UD 20, and 31% in UD 40. In the United States portion of the study area, commercially viable wind power classes overlapped with only 2% of the UD category 20 (i.e., the areas of highest use by migrating eagles and 4% of UD category 40. This is encouraging because it suggests that wind energy development can still occur in the study area at sites that are most viable from a wind power perspective and are unlikely to cause significant mortality of migrating eagles. In siting new turbines, wind energy developers should avoid the high-use migration corridors (UD categories 20 & 40 and focus new wind energy projects on lower-risk areas (UD categories 60-100.

  9. Utilization Probability Map for Migrating Bald Eagles in Northeastern North America: A Tool for Siting Wind Energy Facilities and Other Flight Hazards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mojica, Elizabeth K; Watts, Bryan D; Turrin, Courtney L

    2016-01-01

    Collisions with anthropogenic structures are a significant and well documented source of mortality for avian species worldwide. The bald eagle (Haliaeetus leucocephalus) is known to be vulnerable to collision with wind turbines and federal wind energy guidelines include an eagle risk assessment for new projects. To address the need for risk assessment, in this study, we 1) identified areas of northeastern North America utilized by migrating bald eagles, and 2) compared these with high wind-potential areas to identify potential risk of bald eagle collision with wind turbines. We captured and marked 17 resident and migrant bald eagles in the northern Chesapeake Bay between August 2007 and May 2009. We produced utilization distribution (UD) surfaces for 132 individual migration tracks using a dynamic Brownian bridge movement model and combined these to create a population wide UD surface with a 1 km cell size. We found eagle migration movements were concentrated within two main corridors along the Appalachian Mountains and the Atlantic Coast. Of the 3,123 wind turbines ≥100 m in height in the study area, 38% were located in UD 20, and 31% in UD 40. In the United States portion of the study area, commercially viable wind power classes overlapped with only 2% of the UD category 20 (i.e., the areas of highest use by migrating eagles) and 4% of UD category 40. This is encouraging because it suggests that wind energy development can still occur in the study area at sites that are most viable from a wind power perspective and are unlikely to cause significant mortality of migrating eagles. In siting new turbines, wind energy developers should avoid the high-use migration corridors (UD categories 20 & 40) and focus new wind energy projects on lower-risk areas (UD categories 60-100).

  10. Two upward lightning at the Eagle Nest tower

    OpenAIRE

    Montañá Puig, Juan; Van der Velde, Oscar Arnoud; Romero Durán, David; March Nomen, Víctor; Solà de Las Fuentes, Gloria; Pineda Ruegg, Nicolau; Soula, Serge; Hermoso Alameda, Blas

    2012-01-01

    A new instrument composed by a high speed camera, two high energy detectors, a E-field antenna and a VHF antenna were installed at the Eagle Nest tower (northeast of Spain) during summer 2011. With this equipment several lightning flashes to the tower and its vicinity have been observed. This paper presents two examples: the first was an upward negative leader triggered by a close c1oud-to-ground flash and the second was an upward negative flash not associated with previous lightning activity...

  11. Epizootic vacuolar myelinopathy of the central nervous system of bald eagles (Haliaeetus leucocephalus) and American coots (Fulica americana)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, N.J.; Meteyer, C.U.; Sileo, L.

    1998-01-01

    Unprecedented mortality occurred in bald eagles (Haliaeetus leucocephalus) at DeGray Lake, Arkansas, during the winters of 1994-1995 and 1996-1997. The first eagles were found dead during November, soon after arrival from fall migration, and deaths continued into January during both episodes. In total, 29 eagles died at or near DeGray Lake in the winter of 1994-1995 and 26 died in the winter of 1996-1997; no eagle mortality was noted during the same months of the intervening winter or in the earlier history of the lake. During the mortality events, sick eagles were observed overflying perches or colliding with rock walls. Signs of incoordination and limb paresis were also observed in American coots (Fulica americana) during the episodes of eagle mortality, but mortality in coots was minimal. No consistent abnormalities were seen on gross necropsy of either species. No microscopic findings in organs other than the central nervous system (CNS) could explain the cause of death. By light microscopy, all 26 eagles examined and 62/77 (81%) coots had striking, diffuse, spongy degeneration of the white matter of the CNS. Vacuolation occurred in all myelinated CNS tissue, including the cerebellar folia and medulla oblongata, but was most prominent in the optic tectum. In the spinal cord, vacuoles were concentrated near the gray matter, and occasional swollen axons were seen. Vacuoles were uniformly present in optic nerves but were not evident in the retina or peripheral or autonomic nerves. Cellular inflammatory response to the lesion was distinctly lacking. Vacuoles were 8-50 microns in diameter and occurred individually, in clusters, or in rows. In sections stained by luxol fast blue/periodic acid-Schiff stain, the vacuoles were delimited and transected by myelin strands. Transmission electron microscopy revealed intramyelinic vacuoles formed in the myelin sheaths by splitting of one or more myelin lamellae at the intraperiodic line. This lesion is characteristic of

  12. INFLUENCE OF SNOWFALL ON BLOOD LEAD LEVELS OF FREE-FLYING BALD EAGLES (HALIAEETUS LEUCOCEPHALUS) IN THE UPPER MISSISSIPPI RIVER VALLEY.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindblom, Ronald A; Reichart, Letitia M; Mandernack, Brett A; Solensky, Matthew; Schoenebeck, Casey W; Redig, Patrick T

    2017-10-01

    Lead poisoning of scavenging raptors occurs primarily via consumption of game animal carcasses containing lead, which peaks during fall firearm hunting seasons. We hypothesized that snowfall would mitigate exposure by concealing carcasses. We categorized blood lead level (BLL) for a subsample of Bald Eagles (Haliaeetus leucocephalus) from the Upper Mississippi River Valley and described BLL with respect to age, sex, and snowfall. We captured Bald Eagles overwintering in the Upper Mississippi River Valley (n=55) between December 1999 and January 2002. Individual BLL ranged from nondetectable to 335 μg/dL, with 73% of the samples testing positive for acute exposure to lead. Eagle BLL did not significantly differ between age or sex, but levels were higher immediately following the hunting season, and they were lower when the previous month's snowfall was greater than 11 cm. This study suggests a window of time between the white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) hunting season and the onset of snow when the population experienced peak exposure to lead. Combining these findings with existing research, we offer a narrative of the annual lead exposure cycle of Upper Mississippi River Valley Bald Eagles. These temporal associations are necessary considerations for accurate collection and interpretation of BLL.

  13. 50 CFR 22.25 - What are the requirements concerning permits to take golden eagle nests?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... nests are inactive, if the taking is compatible with the preservation of the area nesting population of... Director—Attention: Migratory Bird Permit Office. You can find addresses for the appropriate Regional... applicant must calculate the area nesting population of golden eagles and identify on an appropriately...

  14. The use of lead isotope analysis to identify potential sources of lead toxicosis in a juvenile bald eagle (Haliaeetus leucocephalus) with ventricular foreign bodies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franzen-Klein, Dana; McRuer, David; Slabe, Vincent; Katzner, Todd

    2018-01-01

    A male juvenile bald eagle (Haliaeetus leucocephalus) was admitted to the Wildlife Center of Virginia with a left humeral fracture a large quantity of anthropogenic debris in the ventriculus, a blood lead level of 0.616 ppm, and clinical signs consistent with chronic lead toxicosis. Because of the poor prognosis for recovery and release, the eagle was euthanatized. Lead isotope analysis was performed to identify potential anthropogenic sources of lead in this bird. The lead isotope ratios in the eagle's femur (0.8773), liver (0.8761), and kidneys (0.8686) were most closely related to lead paint (0.8925), leaded gasoline (0.8450), and zinc smelting (0.8240). The lead isotope ratios were dissimilar to lead ammunition (0.8179) and the anthropogenic debris in the ventriculus. This case report documents foreign body ingestion in a free-ranging bald eagle and demonstrates the clinical utility of lead isotope analysis to potentially identify or exclude anthropogenic sources of lead poisoning in wildlife patients.

  15. Use of noninvasive genetics to assess nest and space use by white-tailed eagles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bulut, Zafer; Bragin, Evgeny A.; DeWoody, J. Andrew; Braham, Melissa A.; Katzner, Todd E.; Doyle, Jacqueline M.

    2016-01-01

    Movement and space use are important components of animal interactions with the environment. However, for hard-to-monitor raptor species, there are substantial gaps in our understanding of these key determinants. We used noninvasive genetic tools to evaluate the details of space use over a 3-yr period by White-tailed Eagles (Haliaeetus albicilla) at the Naurzum Zapovednik in northern Kazakhstan. We genotyped, at 10 microsatellite markers and one mitochondrial marker, 859 eagle feathers and assigned naturally shed feathers to individuals. We identified 124 White-tailed Eagles, including both members of 5–10 pairs per year, and were able to monitor birds across years. Distances between eagle nests and hunting perches were always greater than nearest neighbor distances, eagles never used the closest available hunting perch, and hunting perches were always shared with other eagles. When eagles switched nests between years, the nests they chose were almost always well outside the space that theory predicted they defended the prior year. Our data are inconsistent with classical territorial and colonial models of resource use; they more closely resemble semi-colonial behavior. It is unlikely that standard methods of animal tracking (e.g., marking and telemetry), would have provided a similarly cost-effective mechanism to gain these insights into spatial and temporal aspects of eagle behavior. When combined with existing information on space use of other local species, these data suggest that partitioning of spatial resources among White-tailed Eagles and other eagles at the Zapovednik may be facilitated by the alternative strategies of space use they employ.

  16. Sensitivity of Coastal Environments and Wildlife to Spilled Oil: Puget Sound and Strait of Juan de Fuca, Washington: NESTS (Nest Points)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for bald eagle, great blue heron, and seabird nesting sites in Puget Sound and Strait of Juan de Fuca,...

  17. Nesting by Golden Eagles on the North Slope of the Brooks Range in Northeastern Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Donald D.; McIntyre, Carol L.; Bente, Peter J.; McCabe, Thomas R.; Ambrose, Robert E.

    1995-01-01

    Twenty-two Golden Eagle (Aquila chrysaetos) nesting territories and 31 occupied eagle nests were documented on the north slope of the Brooks Range in northeastern Alaska, 1988-1990, in an area previously thought to be marginal breeding habitat for eagles. The mean number of young/successful nest was 1.25 in 1988, 1.27 in 1989, and 1.13 in 1990; means did not differ significantly among years. Eighty percent (20/25) of the nestlings for which age was estimated were assumed to have successfully fledged. Nesting success was 79% (11/14) in 1989, the only year nesting success could be determined. Laying dates ranged from 23 March (1990) to 11 May (1989) with mean estimated laying dates differing significantly among years. Annual variation in nesting phenology coincided with annual differences in snow accumulations during spring. These results indicate that Golden Eagles consistently and successfully breed at the northern extent of their range in Alaska, although, productivity may be lower than that for eagles at more southern latitudes.

  18. Nesting of the Blakiston's Fish-Owl in the Nest of the Steller’s Sea Eagle, Magadan Region, Russia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irina G. Utekhina

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available In 2015 one Steller’s Sea Eagle nest was occupied by a Blakiston’s Fish Owl, the first record of which came from the Nature Reserve Inspector, E.A. Stepanov, who, on May 17, noted the pair of fish owls near a Steller’s Sea Eagle nest on the western bank of the Chelomdja River, 3 km downstream from the Moldot ranger’s station. On that date one of the owls was sitting in the nest, and another was sitting in a tree nearby the nest. On May 26, E. Stepanov observed the owls in the same position. We observed the nest on 20 and 21 June 2015, and saw one large Blakiston’s Fish Owl chick in the nest; no adults were noted. Inspector A. Stepanov saw the chick in the nest on June 23, and an adult in a nearby.  Magadan State Reserve Inspector A. Akhanov reported that the nest was empty and no adults were seen on June 25.

  19. Evidence for a Nest Defense Pheromone in Bald-Faced Hornets, Dolichovespula Maculata, and Identification of Components.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jimenez, Sebastian Ibarra; Gries, Regine; Zhai, Huimin; Derstine, Nathan; McCann, Sean; Gries, Gerhard

    2016-05-01

    In eusocial insects like Bald-faced hornets, Dolichovespula maculata, nest defense is essential because nests contain a large number of protein-rich larvae and pupae, and thus are attractive to nest predators. Our objectives were to investigate whether D. maculata exhibit pheromone-mediated nest defense, and to identify and field test any pheromone components. We tested for pheromone-mediated nest defense behavior of D. maculata by placing a paired box-apparatus near the entrance of D. maculata nests, and treating both boxes with a solvent control, or one of the two boxes with a solvent control and the other with either venom sac extract, the putative source of nest defense pheromone, or synthetic pheromone. The sound impulses caused by nest mates attempting to sting or strike the boxes were recorded for 3 min. Compared to the double-control treatment, the number of strikes increased 27-fold when one of the two boxes was treated with venom sac extract, providing evidence for an alarm response. The box treated with venom sac extract also induced a significantly greater proportion of strikes than the corresponding control box, providing evidence for a target-oriented response. Analyzing venom sac extract by gas chromatographic-electroantennographic detection (GC-EAD) and GC-mass spectrometry resulted in the identification of seven candidate pheromone components: (a) dimethylaminoethanol, (b) dimethylamino ethyl acetate, (c) 2,5-dimethylpyrazine, (d) N-3-methylbutylacetamide, (e) 2-heptadecanone, (f) (Z)-8-heptadecen-2-one, and (g) (Z)-10-nonadecen-2-one. Testing in paired-box bioassays blends of the nitrogen-containing volatile components a-d, the less volatile ketones e-g, or both (a-g), indicated that a-d primarily have an alarm function. The ketones e-g, in contrast, induced target-oriented responses, possibly marking the box, or potential nest predators, for guided and concerted attacks, or enhancing the alarm-inducing effect of the volatile pheromone components

  20. Where eagles nest, the wind also blows: consolidating habitat and energy needs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tack, J.; Wilson, Jim

    2012-01-01

    Energy development is rapidly escalating in resource-rich Wyoming, and with it the risks posed to raptor populations. These risks are of increasing concern to the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, which is responsible for protecting the persistence of protected species, including raptors. In support of a Federal mandate to protect trust species and the wind energy industry’s need to find suitable sites on which to build wind farms, scientists at the USGS Fort Collins Science Center (FORT) and their partners are conducting research to help reduce impacts to raptor species from wind energy operations. Potential impacts include collision with the turbine blades and habitat disruption and disturbance from construction and operations. This feature describes a science-based tool—a quantitative predictive model—being developed and tested by FORT scientists to potentially avoid or reduce such impacts. This tool will provide industry and resource managers with the biological basis for decisions related to sustainably siting wind turbines in a way that also conserves important habitats for nesting golden eagles. Because of the availability of comprehensive data on nesting sites, golden eagles in Wyoming are the prototype species (and location) for the first phase of this investigation.

  1. Managing individual nests promotes population recovery of a top predator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruz, Jennyffer; Windels, Steve K.; Thogmartin, Wayne E.; Crimmins, Shawn M.; Grim, Leland; Zuckerberg, Benjamin

    2018-01-01

    Threatened species are managed using diverse conservation tactics implemented at multiple scales ranging from protecting individuals, to populations, to entire species. Individual protection strives to promote recovery at the population‐ or species‐level, although this is seldom evaluated.After decades of widespread declines, bald eagles, Haliaeetus leucocephalus, are recovering throughout their range due to legal protection and pesticide bans. However, like other raptors, their recovery remains threatened by human activities. Bald eagle nests are commonly managed using buffer zones to minimize human disturbance, but the benefits of this practice remain unquantified.Within Voyageurs National Park (VNP), Minnesota, USA, managers have monitored bald eagle populations for over 40 years, and since 1991, have protected at‐risk nests from human disturbance using buffer zones (200 and 400 m radius). We aimed to (1) quantify the recovery of bald eagles in VNP (1973–2016), and (2) provide a first‐ever evaluation of the individual‐ and population‐level effects of managing individual nests. To do so, we developed Bayesian Integrated Population Models combining observations of nest occupancy and reproductive output (metrics commonly collected for raptors) to estimate nest‐level probabilities of occupancy, nest success, and high productivity (producing ≥2 nestlings), as well as population‐level estimates of abundance and growth.The breeding population of bald eagles at VNP increased steadily from management significantly improved occupancy and success. At the population‐level, management led to 8% and 13% increases in nest success and productivity rates, respectively, resulting in a 37% increase in breeding pair abundance.Synthesis and applications. There is a clear need to evaluate how management approaches at multiple scales assist in species recovery. Our study uses an Integrated Population Model to reveal the population‐level benefits of a widely

  2. Spatial variation of mercury levels in nesting Bonelli's eagles from Southwest Portugal: effects of diet composition and prey contamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palma, Luis; Beja, Pedro; Tavares, Paula C.; Monteiro, Luis R.

    2005-01-01

    Mercury (Hg) was determined in adult Bonelli's eagles (Hieraaetus fasciatus) and their avian prey, from samples of feathers collected between 1992 and 2001 at the nesting sites of 21 pairs in Southwest Portugal. Eagle Hg levels showed great variation, reflecting primarily differences in diet composition and food chain biomagnification. Concentrations were positively correlated with the dietary proportion of insectivorous and omnivorous birds (e.g. egrets, corvids and thrushes), with very low levels for pairs feeding mainly on herbivores (e.g. rabbits, pigeons and partridges). Differences in prey contamination among breeding territories added to dietary effects in determining variation of Hg levels in eagles, shaping a spatial pattern that was largely consistent with a source of contamination in a coal-burning power-plant lying upwind of the study area. Despite this presumed contamination, Hg levels seemed to be of little concern to this eagle population, though there might be subtle deleterious effects on the reproductive output of a few pairs. This study emphasizes the need to account for dietary effects when biomonitoring Hg contamination using birds of prey. - The effects of diet composition and prey contamination added up to determine the spatial variation of Hg levels in breeding Bonelli's eagles

  3. Adaptive Capabilities of the Eastern Imperial Eagle in Power Lines Exploration for Nesting Purposes in the Republic of Tatarstan, Russia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rinur H. Bekmansurov

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available This report presents information on the eastern imperial eagle nesting on electricity pylons in the Republic of Tatarstan (area of 67836.2 km2 on the eastern part of East-European (Russian Plain, where the habitat of this species, marked in GIS (ArcView 3.2a, is 49 thousand km2. During the research in 2011–2015 5 nests were found on steel electricity pylons, which sustains 3.25% from the whole amount of nesting areas (n=154. Rather local disposition of all found cases of nests on electricity pylons in Eastern Zakamye (High Zavolzhye limited by one landscape subzone – typical and southern forest-steppe, and in only two landscape regions with adjacent borders – indicates some general conditions which caused the adaptation.  Distance between nests on power lines in the Republic of Tatarstan ranged from 21.5 to 49.9 km, averaging 29.5±13.64 km (n=5. As this territory lacks interspecific competition, the main reason of nesting on electricity pylons is probably the reduction of distance to forage resources in conditions of intraspecific competition in the densest nesting group. Adaptive capabilities of the Eastern Imperial Eagle are connected with their ability to occupy nests of other birds, high tolerance to human influence, and with the high density of the power lines and low density of long-boled forests. It’s reported that the imperial eagles’ adaptation to living in environment with dense power line network continues, which expresses in increase of the nesting on electricity pylons.

  4. Bird nesting on an Athabasca power line structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stedwill, R.J.

    1989-01-01

    SaskPower has recently completed its 400 km Athabasca power line, and is evaluating the predicted environmental impact of the line on the resident population of bald eagles and other raptors. During construction of the line, five major types of impact associated with the line were addressed. Minor route adjustments were made to by-pass nests of bald eagles and osprey to minimize impact of construction on breeding. The proximity of the power line to cliff faces and the north shore of lake Athabasca was maximized, and frequency of stream crossings and proximity to rapids were minimized. Route adjustments were made to ensure that the line was at least 1.6 km from bald eagle nest sites. As structures of the main 115 kV power line allow a minimum separation between conductors and grounded spars of 1.6 m, and between conductors of 4.6 m, electrocution was not considered to be a significant risk. However, on the 25 kV power line in regions of known bald eagle activity and in close proximity to bodies of water, provision was made for special structures to allow birds to perch without danger of electrocution. It was concluded that the resident population of raptors will probably be enhanced, particularly in areas not previously utilized. 8 refs., 5 figs

  5. 76 FR 54711 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Bald Eagles Nesting in Sonoran Desert Area of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-02

    ... Royal Palm Road, Suite 103, Phoenix, AZ 85021; telephone, 602-242-0210; facsimile, 602- 242-2513...)). ``Take'' includes ``pursue, shoot, shoot at, poison, wound, kill, capture, trap, collect, destroy, molest... or in any manner, pursue, hunt, take, capture, kill, attempt to take, capture, or kill, possess...

  6. 50 CFR 22.23 - What are the requirements for permits to take depredating eagles and eagles that pose a risk to...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... the following conditions: (1) Bald or golden eagles may be taken under permit by firearms, traps, or other suitable means except by poison or from aircraft; (2) The taking of eagles under permit may be... take bald or golden eagles unless the Director has determined that such taking is compatible with the...

  7. Efficient use of information in adaptive management with an application to managing recreation near golden eagle nesting sites.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul L Fackler

    Full Text Available It is generally the case that a significant degree of uncertainty exists concerning the behavior of ecological systems. Adaptive management has been developed to address such structural uncertainty, while recognizing that decisions must be made without full knowledge of how a system behaves. This paradigm attempts to use new information that develops during the course of management to learn how the system works. To date, however, adaptive management has used a very limited information set to characterize the learning that is possible. This paper uses an extension of the Partial Observable Markov Decision Process (POMDP framework to expand the information set used to update belief in competing models. This feature can potentially increase the speed of learning through adaptive management, and lead to better management in the future. We apply this framework to a case study wherein interest lies in managing recreational restrictions around golden eagle (Aquila chrysaetos nesting sites. The ultimate management objective is to maintain an abundant eagle population in Denali National Park while minimizing the regulatory burden on park visitors. In order to capture this objective, we developed a utility function that trades off expected breeding success with hiker access. Our work is relevant to the management of human activities in protected areas, but more generally demonstrates some of the benefits of POMDP in the context of adaptive management.

  8. Male baldness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, Philip

    2016-04-01

    Male baldness is very common. Its effect on individuals is extremely variable, and in some people it will have a significant adverse effect on their quality of life. The objectives of this article are to help general practitioners (GPs) be aware of potential health problems related to male baldness, to have an approach to assessing hair loss and to be aware of treatment options. Male baldness is, most often, a normal occurrence, but it may have significant effects on a man's health. It may also be a pointer to other potential health issues. The GP is in the ideal position to conduct an initial evaluation, consider other health issues and advise on treatment options.

  9. Distribution, nesting activities, and age-class of territorial pairs of golden eagles at the Altamont Pass Wind Resource Area, California, 2014–16

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolar, Patrick S.; Wiens, J. David

    2017-03-22

    The substantial numbers of golden eagles (Aquila chrysaetos) killed by collisions with oldgeneration wind turbines each year at the Altamont Pass Wind Resource Area (APWRA) in California has been well documented from previous studies. Few eagle nests have been documented in the APWRA, however, and adults and subadults 3+ years of age killed by turbines were generally not associated with nearby territories. We searched a subset of randomly selected survey plots for territorial pairs of golden eagles and associated nesting attempts within the APWRA as part of a broader investigation of population dynamics in the surrounding northern Diablo Range. In contrast to limited historical observations from 1988 to 2013, our surveys documented up to 15 territorial pairs within 3.2 kilometers (km) of wind turbines at the APWRA annually, 9 of which were not previously documented or only observed intermittently during historical surveys. We found evidence of nesting activity by adult pairs at least once during our study at six of these territories. We also determined that 23–36 percent of territories identified within 3.2 km of the APWRA had a subadult pair member, but that no pairs with a subadult member attempted to nest. These data will be useful to developers, wildlife managers, and future raptor studies in the area to evaluate and minimize the potential effects of wind energy or other development activities on previously unknown territorial pairs in the area.

  10. Spatial variation of mercury levels in nesting Bonelli's eagles from Southwest Portugal: effects of diet composition and prey contamination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palma, Luis [CCMAR, Universidade do Algarve, FCMA, Campus de Gambelas, 8005-139 Faro (Portugal)]. E-mail: lpalma@ualg.pt; Beja, Pedro [CCMAR, Universidade do Algarve, FCMA, Campus de Gambelas, 8005-139 Faro (Portugal); ERENA, Av. Visconde Valmor, 11-3, 1000-289 Lisbon (Portugal); Tavares, Paula C. [IMAR, Universidade dos Acores, Departamento de Pescas e Oceanografia, Cais Sta. Cruz, 9901-862 Horta (Portugal); Monteiro, Luis R. [IMAR, Universidade dos Acores, Departamento de Pescas e Oceanografia, Cais Sta. Cruz, 9901-862 Horta (Portugal)

    2005-04-01

    Mercury (Hg) was determined in adult Bonelli's eagles (Hieraaetus fasciatus) and their avian prey, from samples of feathers collected between 1992 and 2001 at the nesting sites of 21 pairs in Southwest Portugal. Eagle Hg levels showed great variation, reflecting primarily differences in diet composition and food chain biomagnification. Concentrations were positively correlated with the dietary proportion of insectivorous and omnivorous birds (e.g. egrets, corvids and thrushes), with very low levels for pairs feeding mainly on herbivores (e.g. rabbits, pigeons and partridges). Differences in prey contamination among breeding territories added to dietary effects in determining variation of Hg levels in eagles, shaping a spatial pattern that was largely consistent with a source of contamination in a coal-burning power-plant lying upwind of the study area. Despite this presumed contamination, Hg levels seemed to be of little concern to this eagle population, though there might be subtle deleterious effects on the reproductive output of a few pairs. This study emphasizes the need to account for dietary effects when biomonitoring Hg contamination using birds of prey. - The effects of diet composition and prey contamination added up to determine the spatial variation of Hg levels in breeding Bonelli's eagles.

  11. Evaluation, Assessment, and Determination of Risk to High Trophic Level Piscivores in the Mid-Atlantic: A Spatial, Biological, and Comparative Case Study of Mercury in Virginia Bald Eagle Populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kramar, David E.

    This research is focused on explaining the concentrations of mercury found in juvenile bald eagles (Halieattus leucocephallus) as a function of the physical and anthropogenic landscape. Due to it's location in the food chain this species is susceptible to a wide range of contaminants (xenobiotics), particularly those that bioaccumulate and biomagnify as they move through the food chain. Previous research has indicated that areas in coastal environments are less susceptible to methylation than those in freshwater environments. Sampling efforts for this research were conducted in such a manner as to obtain an equivalent number of samples from the coastal plain (expected to be low mercury) and the inland regions (expected to be statistically significantly higher). In all cases, results indicated that both feather and blood mercury concentrations were higher in the inland population (Blood: Prob > t = 0.0003, Feather: Prob > t = 0.0002). Utilizing classification and regression tree models (CART), we were able to relate metrics such as the percent of deciduous forest, percent of mixed forest, percent of pasture, and percent of wetland to measured blood mercury concentrations. We also found that the best models were produced using the USGS HUC 12 watersheds (the smallest watershed produced by the USGS). Moreover, we found that metrics describing the amount and type of fragmentation within the watersheds exhibited a significant influence on measured blood mercury concentrations. Contrary to previous research, we found wetlands to be negatively associated with higher blood mercury, whereas the abundance of core forest and a larger patch density (PD) in the deciduous and mixed land cover classes was positively associated with higher blood mercury concentrations. We also found that a higher percentage of pasture was associated with higher blood mercury.

  12. Female pattern baldness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alopecia in women; Baldness - female; Hair loss in women; Androgenetic alopecia in women; Hereditary balding or thinning in women ... in the skin called a follicle. In general, baldness occurs when the hair follicle shrinks over time, ...

  13. 76 FR 9529 - Migratory Birds; Draft Eagle Conservation Plan Guidance

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-18

    ...-1231-9BPP] RIN 1018-AX53 Migratory Birds; Draft Eagle Conservation Plan Guidance AGENCY: Fish and... mail to: Attention: Eagle Conservation Plan Guidance; Division of Migratory Bird Management; U.S. Fish... implementing statutes including the Bald and Golden Eagle Protection Act (BGEPA), the Migratory Bird Treaty Act...

  14. Bald Eagle Range - CWHR [ds600

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Natural Resource Agency — Vector datasets of CWHR range maps are one component of California Wildlife Habitat Relationships (CWHR), a comprehensive information system and predictive model for...

  15. Male pattern baldness (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Male pattern baldness is a sex-linked characteristic that is passed from mother to child. A man can more accurately predict his chances of developing male pattern baldness by observing his mother's father than by looking ...

  16. Male pattern baldness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alopecia in men; Baldness - male; Hair loss in men; Androgenetic alopecia ... Male pattern baldness is related to your genes and male sex hormones. It usually follows a pattern of receding hairline and ...

  17. Lead and eagles: demographic and pathological characteristics of poisoning, and exposure levels associated with other causes of mortality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franson, J. Christian; Russell, Robin E.

    2014-01-01

    We conducted a retrospective analysis to evaluate demographic and pathologic characteristics in 484 bald eagles (Haliaeetus leucocephalus) and 68 golden eagles (Aquila chrysaetos) diagnosed with lead poisoning at the U.S. Geological Survey National Wildlife Health Center. As part of our analysis, we compared characteristics of lead poisoned eagles with those that died of other causes. Odds of lead poisoning were greater for bald eagles versus golden eagles, females versus males, adults versus juveniles, and eagles from the Mississippi and Central flyways versus the Atlantic and Pacific flyways. In addition to spatial, species, and demographic associations, we detected a distinct temporal trend in the collection date of lead poisoned bald eagle carcasses. These carcasses were found at greater frequency in late autumn and winter than spring and summer. Lesions in lead poisoned birds included emaciation, evidence of bile stasis, myocardial degeneration and necrosis, and renal tubular nephrosis and necrosis. Ingested lead ammunition or fragments were found in 14.2 % of bald eagles and 11.8 % of golden eagles. The overall mean liver lead concentration (wet weight basis) for eagles diagnosed with lead poisoning was 28.9 ± 0.69 SE mg/kg in bald eagles and 19.4 ± 1.84 SE mg/kg in golden eagles. In eagles diagnosed with collision trauma, electrocution, poisoning (other than lead), emaciation, infectious disease, trapping death, other, and undetermined causes, average liver lead concentrations were low (<1 mg/kg) and did not differ among causes of mortality. Thus, based on our data, we found no evidence that lead exposure of eagles predisposed them to other causes of mortality.

  18. The Problem of a Low Nest Occupancy of the White-Bellied Sea Eagle – a Special Case for This Species Conservation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abolghasem Khaleghizadeh

    2016-04-01

    (12 %, with medium potentiality (20 %, reserved (4 %, and active nest (1 %. Successful breeding was observed only in one nest that raised the problem of nest occupancy and this problem is discussed in this article.

  19. Juvenile Dispersal of Harpy Eagles (Harpia harpyja) in Ecuador

    OpenAIRE

    Urios, Vicente; Muñiz López, Ruth; Vidal-Mateo, Javier

    2017-01-01

    The movement ecology of Harpy Eagles (Harpia harpyja) is poorly known due to the difficulty observing this species. We studied the movements of two juvenile Harpy Eagles before and during dispersal using GPS satellite telemetry in the Reserva de Producción Faunística Cuyabeno, Ecuador. Both eagles were tagged at their respective nest tree. For each eagle, we calculated the daily distance moved and the distance from each recorded position to the nest. One eagle started dispersal during its 28t...

  20. Steppe Eagle in the Karaganda Region, Kazakhstan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igor V. Karyakin

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Between June 22 and July 18, 2017, fieldworks were carried out to study the population structure and demographic characteristics of the Steppe Eagle breeding groups (Aquila nipalensis in the central part of the Karaganda region of Kazakhstan. In the course of the work 808 birds we found, 280 Steppe Eagle breeding territories were localized. Within 10 registration areas 277 Steppe Eagle breeding territories (96.18 % were examined, including 70 successful nests with 102 nestlings. The occupation of breeding territories was 87.73 %, while the percentage of active nests in the occupied breeding territories was 69.14 %. Successful were 42.26 % of nests from the number of active nests and 25.63 % from the number of identified breeding territories. The number of nestlings in broods ranged from 1 to 3, averaging (n=71 1.45±0.56 nestlings per successful nest and (n=168 0.61±0.80 nestlings per occupied nest. With a very high percentage of nests with unsuccessful breeding (54.46 % of the number of active ones, high percentage of nests with dead clutch was recorded – 34.55 % of the number of nests with unsuccessful breeding. Distribution density of Steppe Eagle active nests averaged 7.67/100 km2, varying in different areas from 4.11 to 12.90/100 km2. The distribution density of Steppe Eagle successful nests on the areas varied from 0 to 4.81/100 km2 averaged 3.24/100 km2. For the area of habitats suitable for breeding across the Karaganda region (142,549.9 km2, the abundance of the Steppe Eagle in nesting was 4,794–5,814, at average 5,275 pairs and 2,183–2,647, at average 2,402 successful pairs.

  1. Eagle's Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinheiro, Thaís Gonçalves; Soares, Vítor Yamashiro Rocha; Ferreira, Denise Bastos Lage; Raymundo, Igor Teixeira; Nascimento, Luiz Augusto; Oliveira, Carlos Augusto Costa Pires de

    2013-01-01

    Summary Introduction: Eagle's syndrome is characterized by cervicopharyngeal signs and symptoms associated with elongation of the styloid apophysis. This elongation may occur through ossification of the stylohyoid ligament, or through growth of the apophysis due to osteogenesis triggered by a factor such as trauma. Elongation of the styloid apophysis may give rise to intense facial pain, headache, dysphagia, otalgia, buzzing sensations, and trismus. Precise diagnosis of the syndrome is difficult, and it is generally confounded by other manifestations of cervicopharyngeal pain. Objective: To describe a case of Eagle's syndrome. Case Report: A 53-year-old man reported lateral pain in his neck that had been present for 30 years. Computed tomography (CT) of the neck showed elongation and ossification of the styloid processes of the temporal bone, which was compatible with Eagle's syndrome. Surgery was performed for bilateral resection of the stylohyoid ligament by using a transoral and endoscopic access route. The patient continued to present pain laterally in the neck, predominantly on his left side. CT was performed again, which showed elongation of the styloid processes. The patient then underwent lateral cervicotomy with resection of the stylohyoid process, which partially resolved his painful condition. Final Comments: Patients with Eagle's syndrome generally have a history of chronic pain. Appropriate knowledge of this disease is necessary for adequate treatment to be provided. The importance of diagnosing this uncommon and often unsuspected disease should be emphasized, given that correct clinical-surgical treatment is frequently delayed. The diagnosis of Eagle's syndrome is clinical and radiographic, and the definitive treatment in cases of difficult-to-control pain is surgical. PMID:25992033

  2. Eagle's Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pinheiro, Thaís Gonçalves

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Eagle's syndrome is characterized by cervicopharyngeal signs and symptoms associated with elongation of the styloid apophysis. This elongation may occur through ossification of the stylohyoid ligament, or through growth of the apophysis due to osteogenesis triggered by a factor such as trauma. Elongation of the styloid apophysis may give rise to intense facial pain, headache, dysphagia, otalgia, buzzing sensations, and trismus. Precise diagnosis of the syndrome is difficult, and it is generally confounded by other manifestations of cervicopharyngeal pain. Objective: To describe a case of Eagle's syndrome. Case Report: A 53-year-old man reported lateral pain in his neck that had been present for 30 years. Computed tomography (CT of the neck showed elongation and ossification of the styloid processes of the temporal bone, which was compatible with Eagle's syndrome. Surgery was performed for bilateral resection of the stylohyoid ligament by using a transoral and endoscopic access route. The patient continued to present pain laterally in the neck, predominantly on his left side. CT was performed again, which showed elongation of the styloid processes. The patient then underwent lateral cervicotomy with resection of the stylohyoid process, which partially resolved his painful condition. Final Comments: Patients with Eagle's syndrome generally have a history of chronic pain. Appropriate knowledge of this disease is necessary for adequate treatment to be provided. The importance of diagnosing this uncommon and often unsuspected disease should be emphasized, given that correct clinical-surgical treatment is frequently delayed. The diagnosis of Eagle's syndrome is clinical and radiographic, and the definitive treatment in cases of difficult-to-control pain is surgical.

  3. Eagle's Syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    Pinheiro,Thaís Gonçalves; Soares,Vítor Yamashiro Rocha; Ferreira,Denise Bastos Lage; Raymundo,Igor Teixeira; Nascimento,Luiz Augusto; Oliveira,Carlos Augusto Costa Pires de

    2013-01-01

    Summary Introduction:?Eagle's syndrome is characterized by cervicopharyngeal signs and symptoms associated with elongation of the styloid apophysis. This elongation may occur through ossification of the stylohyoid ligament, or through growth of the apophysis due to osteogenesis triggered by a factor such as trauma. Elongation of the styloid apophysis may give rise to intense facial pain, headache, dysphagia, otalgia, buzzing sensations, and trismus. Precise diagnosis of the syndrome is diffic...

  4. The time budget and behavioural traits of young and adult Indian Eagle Owl Bubo bengalensis (Franklin, 1831 (Aves: Strigiformes: Strigidae in and around a nesting site: a preliminary report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Eric Ramanujam

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available A family of the Indian Eagle Owl Bubo bengalensis was monitored at their nest site at Nanmangalam Reserve Forest on the outskirts of Chennai City from 5 January to 8 March 2011.  Various behavioural patterns were identified and the time spent on each activity was noted.  All three types of subjects (viz.: breeding male, brooding/incubating female and young showed different behavioural characteristics. In the breeding female, high intensity activities were incubation, brooding, vigilance and out of sight (construed to be out hunting and low intensity activities comprised comfort movements, feeding, pellet regurgitation, feeding young, prey delivery and disturbed at the nest.  In the young, high intensity activities were resting and moving, while low intensity activities were feeding, pellet regurgitation and wing flapping.  In the male, the bulk of time was spent in vigilance and the other high intensity activity was out of sight (construed to be hunting.  Low intensity activities included comfort movements and prey delivery. The male hunted more than the female.  Forty-five prey items were delivered by the two parents and these items were identified to the species or generic level. 

  5. Ice fishing by wintering Bald Eagles in Arizona

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teryl G. Grubb; Roy G. Lopez

    1997-01-01

    Northern Arizona winters vary within and between years with occasional heavy snows (up to 0.6 m) and extreme cold (overnight lows -18 to -29°C) interspersed with dry periods, mild temperatures (daytime highs reaching 10°C), and general loss of snow cover at all but highest elevations. Lakes in the area may freeze and thaw partially or totally several times during a...

  6. Riparian Raptors on USACE Projects: Bald Eagle (Haliaeetus leucocephalus)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Mitchell, Wilma

    2000-01-01

    ...) reservoir operations. For management purposes, these raptors are considered riparian generalists because they inhabit the riparian zones surrounding streams and lakes of Corps projects but may seasonally use adjacent...

  7. Eagle syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raina, Deepika; Gothi, Rajesh; Rajan, Sriram

    2009-01-01

    Eagle syndrome occurs due to elongation of the styloid process or calcification of the stylohyoid ligament, which then may produce a pain sensation due the pressure exerted on various structures in the head and neck. When suspected, imaging helps in identifying the abnormally elongated styloid process or the calcified ligament. In recent years, three-dimensional CT (3DCT) has proved to be valuable in these cases. We report the case of a 62-year-old man with this syndrome in whom imaging with 3DCT conclusively established the diagnosis

  8. Slowly balding black holes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lyutikov, Maxim; McKinney, Jonathan C.

    2011-01-01

    The 'no-hair' theorem, a key result in general relativity, states that an isolated black hole is defined by only three parameters: mass, angular momentum, and electric charge; this asymptotic state is reached on a light-crossing time scale. We find that the no-hair theorem is not formally applicable for black holes formed from the collapse of a rotating neutron star. Rotating neutron stars can self-produce particles via vacuum breakdown forming a highly conducting plasma magnetosphere such that magnetic field lines are effectively ''frozen in'' the star both before and during collapse. In the limit of no resistivity, this introduces a topological constraint which prohibits the magnetic field from sliding off the newly-formed event horizon. As a result, during collapse of a neutron star into a black hole, the latter conserves the number of magnetic flux tubes N B =eΦ ∞ /(πc(ℎ/2π)), where Φ ∞ ≅2π 2 B NS R NS 3 /(P NS c) is the initial magnetic flux through the hemispheres of the progenitor and out to infinity. We test this theoretical result via 3-dimensional general relativistic plasma simulations of rotating black holes that start with a neutron star dipole magnetic field with no currents initially present outside the event horizon. The black hole's magnetosphere subsequently relaxes to the split-monopole magnetic field geometry with self-generated currents outside the event horizon. The dissipation of the resulting equatorial current sheet leads to a slow loss of the anchored flux tubes, a process that balds the black hole on long resistive time scales rather than the short light-crossing time scales expected from the vacuum no-hair theorem.

  9. Status of the White-Bellied Sea Eagle on Langkawi Islands, Northwestern Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abolghasem Khaleghizadeh

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available A survey was conducted to find nests of the White-Bellied Sea Eagle on Langkawi Islandand its sister islands in January2013. Inthis survey, a total of 34 nests of the White-Bellied Sea Eagle was counted.

  10. Restoration of sea eagle population: A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josef RAJCHARD

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available The population density of the white-tailed sea eagle Haliaeetus albicilla is very low in many countries. In last twenty years, the sea eagle population in South Bohemia was restored by strict protection subsidized by reintroduction. The active help consisted of feeding during winter and building of artificial nests. A new sea eagle breeding population arose in the Třeboň basin area in the early 1980’s. Until this time sea eagles had used former breeding places only for wintering, probably coming from the Baltic. The South Bohemian sea eagle population is very unique: it exists in a densely man-occupied landscape, mainly in areas with very intensive carp breeding in artificial fishponds and was partly artficially (help to wintering birds and reintroduction of some individuals restored. The experience from South Bohemia may have importance for populations of the sea eagle in other areas of its occurence, primarily in the continental conditions [Current Zoology 55 (5:–2009].

  11. White phosphorus at Eagle River Flats, Alaska: A case history of waterfowl mortality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sparling, Donald W.; Hoffman, David J.; Rattner, Barnett A.; Burton, G. Allen; Cairns, John

    2003-01-01

    White phosphorus has a limited distribution in the environment because it only occurs where it has been directly used by humans. It is not transported aerially for any distance and, due to its density, has a limited ability to disperse through water. Therefore, it is not a contaminant of broad-scale concern. However, where it does occur, it can cause substantial mortality or critically injure populations of waterfowl. This chronic harm includes impaired liver and kidney functioning, decreased respiratory efficiency, increased susceptibility to predation, loss of body mass, general weakening and malaise, and curtailment of reproductive functioning. Lethal effects occur around 3---4 mg/kg or approximately 3-6 ingested particles; sublethal effects can occur with ingestion of as little as a single particle. The impact of P4 on waterfowl populations nesting around ERF has never been estimated. Even if direct mortality on ERF could be estimated accurately in ducks, the delayed toxicity of P4 in swans (and presumably other species that use small grit size) and the potential for swans to fly away after ingesting a lethal dose of P4 could greatly underestimate the overall mortality. Inhibition of laying, reduced fertility and hatchability, and teratogenesis in hens ingesting even a small amount of P4 could potentially have, an effect on populations greater than that exhibited by direct mortality. Predators such as bald eagles and gulls are also at risk due to the toxicity of pelletized, dissolved, and assimilated P4 in prey organisms. Although the U.S. Army stopped using P4 in wetlands in 1993 and remediation efforts have been underway since 1995, waterfowl mortality is expected to continue for several more years. Because Eagle River Flats is only one of several sites where P4 has been found in wetland conditions, further biological investigation is warranted at these other sites.

  12. Wind Energy Industry Eagle Detection and Deterrents: Research Gaps and Solutions Workshop Summary Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sinclair, Karin [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); DeGeorge, Elise [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2016-04-13

    The Bald and Golden Eagle Protection Act (BGEPA) prohibits the 'take' of these birds. The act defines take as to 'pursue, shoot, shoot at, poison, wound, kill, capture, trap, collect, destroy, molest or disturb.' The 2009 Eagle Permit Rule (74 FR 46836) authorizes the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS) to issue nonpurposeful (i.e., incidental) take permits, and the USFWS 2013 Eagle Conservation Plan Guidance provides a voluntary framework for issuing programmatic take permits to wind facilities that incorporate scientifically supportable advanced conservation practices (ACPs). Under these rules, the Service can issue permits that authorize individual instances of take of bald and golden eagles when the take is associated with, but not the purpose of, an otherwise lawful activity, and cannot practicably be avoided. To date, the USFWS has not approved any ACPs, citing the lack of evidence for 'scientifically supportable measures.' The Eagle Detection and Deterrents Research Gaps and Solutions Workshop was convened at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory in December 2015 with a goal to comprehensively assess the current state of technologies to detect and deter eagles from wind energy sites and the key gaps concerning reducing eagle fatalities and facilitating permitting under the BGEPA. During the workshop, presentations and discussions focused primarily on existing knowledge (and limitations) about the biology of eagles as well as technologies and emerging or novel ideas, including innovative applications of tools developed for use in other sectors, such as the U.S. Department of Defense and aviation. The main activity of the workshop was the breakout sessions, which focused on the current state of detection and deterrent technologies and novel concepts/applications for detecting and minimizing eagle collisions with wind turbines. Following the breakout sessions, participants were asked about their individual impressions of the

  13. Visitors to nests of Hooded Vultures Necrosyrtes monachus in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    We recommend expanding the Hooded Vulture nest monitoring programme to include more pairs. Keywords: Alopochen aegyptiaca, Chacma Baboon, Egyptian Goose, Hooded Vulture, Kruger-to-Canyons Biosphere Region, Martial Eagle, Necrosyrtes monachus, nest visitors, Papio ursinus, Polemaetus bellicosus ...

  14. Lead and mercury in fall migrant golden eagles from western North America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langner, Heiko W; Domenech, Robert; Slabe, Vincent A; Sullivan, Sean P

    2015-07-01

    Lead exposure from ingestion of bullet fragments is a serious environmental hazard to eagles. We determined blood lead levels (BLL) in 178 golden eagles (Aquila chrysaetos) captured during fall migration along a major North American flyway. These eagles spent the breeding season distributed over a large range and are the best currently available representation of free flying golden eagles on the continent. We found 58 % of these eagles containing increased BLL > 0.1 mg/L; 10 % were clinically lead poisoned with BLL > 0.6 mg/L; and 4 % were lethally exposed with BLL > 1.2 mg/L. No statistical difference in BLL existed between golden and bald eagles (Haliaeetus leucocephalus). Golden eagles captured on carrion had higher BLL than those captured using live bait suggesting differences in feeding habits among individuals. Median BLL increased with age class. We propose a conceptual model for the long-term increase in BLL after ingestion of lead particles. The mean blood mercury level in golden eagles was 0.023 mg/L. We evaluate a field test for BLL that is based on anodic stripping voltammetry. This cost-effective and immediate method correlated well with results from inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry, although results needed to be corrected for each calibration of the test kit.

  15. Unusual raptor nests around the world

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis, D.H.; Craig, T.; Craig, E.; Postupalsky, S.; LaRue, C.T.; Nelson, R.W.; Anderson, D.W.; Henny, C.J.; Watson, J.; Millsap, B.A.; Dawson, J.W.; Cole, K.L.; Martin, E.M.; Margalida, A.; Kung, P.

    2009-01-01

    From surveys in many countries, we report raptors using unusual nesting materials (e.g., paper money, rags, metal, antlers, and large bones) and unusual nesting situations. For example, we documented nests of Steppe Eagles Aquila nipalensis and Upland Buzzards Buteo hemilasius on the ground beside well-traveled roads, Saker Falcon Falco cherrug eyries in attics and a cistern, and Osprey Pandion haliaetus nests on the masts of boats and on a suspended automobile. Other records include a Golden Eagle A. chrysaetos nest 7.0 m in height, believed to be the tallest nest ever described, and, for the same species, we report nesting in rudimentary nests. Some nest sites are within a few meters of known predators or competitors. These unusual observations may be important in revealing the plasticity of a species' behavioral repertoire. ?? 2009 The Raptor Research Foundation, Inc.

  16. Landscapes for Energy and Wildlife: Conservation Prioritization for Golden Eagles across Large Spatial Scales.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jason D Tack

    Full Text Available Proactive conservation planning for species requires the identification of important spatial attributes across ecologically relevant scales in a model-based framework. However, it is often difficult to develop predictive models, as the explanatory data required for model development across regional management scales is rarely available. Golden eagles are a large-ranging predator of conservation concern in the United States that may be negatively affected by wind energy development. Thus, identifying landscapes least likely to pose conflict between eagles and wind development via shared space prior to development will be critical for conserving populations in the face of imposing development. We used publically available data on golden eagle nests to generate predictive models of golden eagle nesting sites in Wyoming, USA, using a suite of environmental and anthropogenic variables. By overlaying predictive models of golden eagle nesting habitat with wind energy resource maps, we highlight areas of potential conflict among eagle nesting habitat and wind development. However, our results suggest that wind potential and the relative probability of golden eagle nesting are not necessarily spatially correlated. Indeed, the majority of our sample frame includes areas with disparate predictions between suitable nesting habitat and potential for developing wind energy resources. Map predictions cannot replace on-the-ground monitoring for potential risk of wind turbines on wildlife populations, though they provide industry and managers a useful framework to first assess potential development.

  17. Interactive effects of prey and weather on golden eagle reproduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steenhof, Karen; Kochert, Michael N.; McDonald, T.L.

    1997-01-01

    1. The reproduction of the golden eagle Aquila chrysaetos was studied in southwestern Idaho for 23 years, and the relationship between eagle reproduction and jackrabbit Lepus californicus abundance, weather factors, and their interactions, was modelled using general linear models. Backward elimination procedures were used to arrive at parsimonious models.2. The number of golden eagle pairs occupying nesting territories each year showed a significant decline through time that was unrelated to either annual rabbit abundance or winter severity. However, eagle hatching dates were significantly related to both winter severity and jackrabbit abundance. Eagles hatched earlier when jackrabbits were abundant, and they hatched later after severe winters.3. Jackrabbit abundance influenced the proportion of pairs that laid eggs, the proportion of pairs that were successful, mean brood size at fledging, and the number of young fledged per pair. Weather interacted with prey to influence eagle reproductive rates.4. Both jackrabbit abundance and winter severity were important in predicting the percentage of eagle pairs that laid eggs. Percentage laying was related positively to jackrabbit abundance and inversely related to winter severity.5. The variables most useful in predicting percentage of laying pairs successful were rabbit abundance and the number of extremely hot days during brood-rearing. The number of hot days and rabbit abundance were also significant in a model predicting eagle brood size at fledging. Both success and brood size were positively related to jackrabbit abundance and inversely related to the frequency of hot days in spring.6. Eagle reproduction was limited by rabbit abundance during approximately twothirds of the years studied. Weather influenced how severely eagle reproduction declined in those years.7. This study demonstrates that prey and weather can interact to limit a large raptor population's productivity. Smaller raptors could be affected more

  18. Biotelemetery data for golden eagles (Aquila chrysaetos) captured in coastal southern California, February 2016–February 2017

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tracey, Jeff A.; Madden, Melanie C.; Sebes, Jeremy B.; Bloom, Peter H.; Katzner, Todd E.; Fisher, Robert N.

    2017-05-12

    Because of a lack of clarity about the status of golden eagles (Aquila chrysaetos) in coastal southern California, the USGS, in collaboration with local, State, and other Federal agencies, began a multi-year survey and tracking program of golden eagles to address questions regarding habitat use, movement behavior, nest occupancy, genetic population structure, and human impacts on eagles. Golden eagle trapping and tracking efforts began in September 2014. During trapping efforts from September 29, 2014, to February 23, 2016, 27 golden eagles were captured. During trapping efforts from February 24, 2016, to February 23, 2017, an additional 10 golden eagles (7 females and 3 males) were captured in San Diego, Orange, and western Riverside Counties. Biotelemetry data for 26 of the 37 golden eagles that were transmitting data from February 24, 2016, to February 23, 2017 are presented. These eagles ranged as far north as northern Nevada and southern Wyoming, and as far south as La Paz, Baja California, Mexico.

  19. "BSR Eagle" lendas Tartusse

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2005-01-01

    8. veebr. Tartus Loodusuurijate Seltsi majas toimunud seminarist "Mida Juku õues ei õpi, seda Juhan vallaametnikuna ei tea", mis toimus Läänemere-piirkonna loodusharidusprojekti "BSR Eagle" raames

  20. Davis Pond freshwater prediversion biomonitoring study: freshwater fisheries and eagles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenkins, Jill A.; Bourgeois, E. Beth; Jeske, Clint W.

    2008-01-01

    In January 2001, the construction of the Davis Pond freshwater diversion structure was completed by the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers. The diversion of freshwater from the Mississippi River is intended to mitigate saltwater intrusion from the Gulf of Mexico and to lessen the concomitant loss of wetland areas. In addition to the freshwater inflow, Barataria Bay basin would receive nutrients, increased flows of sediments, and water-borne and sediment-bound compounds. The purpose of this biomonitoring study was, therefore, to serve as a baseline for prediversion concentrations of selected contaminants in bald eagle (Haliaeetus leucocephalus) nestlings (hereafter referred to as eaglets), representative freshwater fish, and bivalves. Samples were collected from January through June 2001. Two similarly designed postdiversion studies, as described in the biological monitoring program, are planned. Active bald eagle nests targeted for sampling eaglet blood (n = 6) were generally located southwest and south of the diversion structure. The designated sites for aquatic animal sampling were at Lake Salvador, at Lake Cataouatche, at Bayou Couba, and along the Mississippi River. Aquatic animals representative of eagle prey were collected. Fish were from three different trophic levels and have varying feeding strategies and life histories. These included herbivorous striped mullet (Mugil cephalus), omnivorous blue catfish (Ictalurus furcatus), and carnivorous largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides). Three individuals per species were collected at each of the four sampling sites. Freshwater Atlantic rangia clams (Rangia cuneata) were collected at the downstream marsh sites, and zebra mussels (Dreissena spp.) were collected on the Mississippi River. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Biomonitoring of Environmental Status and Trends (BEST) protocols served as guides for fish sampling and health assessments. Fish are useful for monitoring aquatic ecosystems because they accumulate

  1. A pilot golden eagle population study in the Altamont Pass Wind Resource Area, California

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hunt, G. [California Univ., Santa Cruz, CA (United States). Predatory Bird Research Group

    1995-05-01

    Orloff and Flannery (1992) estimated that several hundred reports are annually killed by turbine collisions, wire strikes, and electrocutions at the Altamont Pass Wind Resource Area (WRA). The most common fatalities were those of red-tailed hawks (Buteo jamaicensis), American kestrels (Falco sparvatius), and golden eagles (Aquila chrysaetos), with lesser numbers of turkey vultures (Cathartes aura), common ravens (Corvus corax), bam owls (Tyto alba), and others. Among the species of raptors killed at Altamont Pass, the one whose local population is most likely to be impacted is the golden eagle. Besides its being less abundant than the others, the breeding and recruitment rates of golden eagles are naturally slow, increasing their susceptibility to decline as a result of mortality influences. The golden eagle is a species afforded special federal protection because of its inclusion within the Bald Eagle Protection Act as amended in 1963. There are no provisions within the Act which would allow the killing ``taking`` of golden eagles by WRA structures. This report details the results of field studies conducted during 19941. The primary purpose of the investigation is to lay the groundwork for determining whether or not turbine strikes and other hazards related to energy at Altamont Pass may be expected to affect golden eagles on a population basis. We also seek an understanding of the physical and biotic circumstances which attract golden eagles to the WRA within the context of the surrounding landscape and the conditions under which they are killed by wind turbines. Such knowledge may suggest turbine-related or habitat modifications that would result in a lower incidence of eagle mortality.

  2. Subordinate Males Sire Offspring in Madagascar Fish-eagle (Haliaeetus Vociferoides) Polyandrous Breeding Groups

    OpenAIRE

    Tingay, Ruth E.; Culver, Melanie; Hallerman, Eric M.; Fraser, James D.; Watson, Richard T.

    2002-01-01

    The island endemic Madagascar Fish-Eagle (Haliaeetus vociferoides) is one of the most endangered birds of prey. Certain populations in west-central Madagascar sometimes exhibit a third, and sometimes a fourth, adult involved in breeding activities at a nest. We applied DNA fingerprinting to assess relatedness among 17 individuals at four nests. In all nests with young, a subordinate rather than the dominant male sired the offspring. Within-nest relatedness comparisons showed that some dominan...

  3. Long-term survival despite low genetic diversity in the critically endangered Madagascar fish-eagle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, J.A.; Tingay, R.E.; Culver, M.; Hailer, F.; Clarke, M.L.; Mindell, D.P.

    2009-01-01

    The critically endangered Madagascar fish-eagle (Haliaeetus vociferoides) is considered to be one of the rarest birds of prey globally and at significant risk of extinction. In the most recent census, only 222 adult individuals were recorded with an estimated total breeding population of no more than 100-120 pairs. Here, levels of Madagascar fish-eagle population genetic diversity based on 47 microsatellite loci were compared with its sister species, the African fish-eagle (Haliaeetus vocifer), and 16 of these loci were also characterized in the white-tailed eagle (Haliaeetus albicilla) and the bald eagle (Haliaeetus leucocephalus). Overall, extremely low genetic diversity was observed in the Madagascar fish-eagle compared to other surveyed Haliaeetus species. Determining whether this low diversity is the result of a recent bottleneck or a more historic event has important implications for their conservation. Using a Bayesian coalescent-based method, we show that Madagascar fish-eagles have maintained a small effective population size for hundreds to thousands of years and that its low level of neutral genetic diversity is not the result of a recent bottleneck. Therefore, efforts made to prevent Madagascar fish-eagle extinction should place high priority on maintenance of habitat requirements and reducing direct and indirect human persecution. Given the current rate of deforestation in Madagascar, we further recommend that the population be expanded to occupy a larger geographical distribution. This will help the population persist when exposed to stochastic factors (e.g. climate and disease) that may threaten a species consisting of only 200 adult individuals while inhabiting a rapidly changing landscape. ?? 2008 The Authors.

  4. Male pattern baldness and risk of colorectal neoplasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keum, N; Cao, Y; Lee, D H; Park, S M; Rosner, B; Fuchs, C S; Wu, K; Giovannucci, E L

    2016-01-12

    Male pattern baldness is positively associated with androgens as well as insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) and insulin, all of which are implicated in pathogenesis of colorectal neoplasia. From 1992 through 2010, we prospectively followed participants in the Health Professionals Follow-Up Study. Hair pattern at age 45 years was assessed at baseline with five image categories (no baldness, frontal-only baldness, frontal-plus-mild-vertex baldness, frontal-plus-moderate-vertex baldness, and frontal-plus-severe-vertex baldness). Cancer analysis included 32 782 men and used Cox proportional hazards models to estimate hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Restricted to men who underwent at least one endoscopy over the study period, adenoma analysis included 29 770 men and used logistic regressions for clustered data to estimate odds ratios (ORs) and 95% CIs. Over the mean follow-up of 15.6 years, 710 cases of colorectal cancer (478 for colon, 152 for rectum, and 80 unknown site) developed. Significantly increased risks associated with frontal-only baldness and frontal-plus-mild-vertex baldness relative to no baldness were observed for colon cancer with respective HR being 1.29 (95% CI, 1.03-1.62) and 1.31 (95% CI, 1.01-1.70). Over the 19-year study period, 3526 cases of colorectal adenoma were detected. Evidence for an increased risk of colorectal adenoma relative to no baldness was significant with frontal-only baldness (OR, 1.16; 95% CI, 1.06-1.26) and borderline insignificant with frontal-plus-severe-vertex baldness (OR, 1.14; 95% CI, 0.98-1.33). Subtypes of male pattern baldness at age 45 years were positively associated with colorectal neoplasia. Future studies are warranted to confirm our results and to determine the predictive value of male pattern baldness to identify those at high risk for colorectal neoplasia.

  5. Reproductive characteristics of migratory golden eagles in Denali National Park, Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    McIntyre, Carol L.; Adams, Layne G.

    1999-01-01

    We describe reproductive characteristics of Golden Eagles (Aquila chrysaetos) breeding in Denali National Park, Alaska during an entire snowshoe hare (Lepus americanus) cycle, 1988-1997. Data on nesting eagles were collected at 58 to 72 nesting areas annually using two aerial surveys. Surveys were conducted during the incubation period to determine occupancy and nesting activities and late in the nestling period to count nestlings and determine nesting success. Annual occupancy rates of nesting areas did not vary significantly, whereas laying rates, success rates, and mean brood size varied significantly over the study period. Fledgling production for the study population varied sevenfold during the ten-year period. Laying rates, mean brood size, and overall population productivity were significantly correlated with abundance of cyclic snowshoe hare and Willow Ptarmigan (Lugopus lagopus) populations. Reproductive rates of Golden Eagles in Denali were similar to those of Golden Eagles from other high latitude study areas in North America, but lower than for Golden Eagles from temperate zone study areas in North America.

  6. Validity of self reported male balding patterns in epidemiological studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leavy Justine E

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Several studies have investigated the association between male pattern baldness and disease such as prostate cancer and cardiovascular disease. Limitations in the lack of standardized instruments to measure male pattern baldness have resulted in researchers measuring balding patterns in a variety of ways. This paper examines the accuracy and reliability of assessment of balding patterns by both trained observers and men themselves, using the Hamilton-Norwood classification system. Methods An observational study was carried out in Western Australia with 105 male volunteers aged between 30 and 70 years. Participants completed a short questionnaire and selected a picture that best represented their balding pattern. Two trained data collectors also independently assessed the participant's balding pattern using the same system and the men's self assessment was compared with the trained observer's assessment. In a substudy, observers assessed the balding pattern in a photo of the man aged 35 years while the man independently rated his balding at that age. Results Observers were very reliable in their assessment of balding pattern (85% exact agreement, κ = 0.83. Compared to trained observers, men were moderately accurate in their self-assessment of their balding status (48–55% exact agreement, κ = 0.39–0.46. For the substudy the exact agreement between the men and the observers was 67% and the agreement within balding groups was 87%. Conclusions We recommend that male balding patterns be assessed by trained personnel using the Hamilton-Norwood classification system. Where the use of trained personnel is not feasible, men's self assessment both currently and retrospectively has been shown to be adequate.

  7. Golden Eagle Monitoring Plan for the Desert Renewable Energy Conservation Plan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiens, David; Kolar, Patrick; Katzner, Todd

    2018-01-01

    This report describes options for monitoring the status and population trends of the golden eagle (Aquila chrysaetos) within the Desert Renewable Energy Conservation Plan (DRECP) area of Southern California in maintaining stable or increasing population in the planning area. The report profiles the ecology of golden eagles in the region and provides a range of potential sampling options to address monitoring needs and objectives. This approach also focused on links between changes in human land-use, golden eagle nesting and foraging habitat conditions, and population dynamics. The report outlines how monitoring data from demographic, prey, and habitat studies were used to develop a predictive demographic model for golden eagles in the DRECP area. Results from the model simulations suggest increases in renewable energy development could have negative consequences for population trajectories. Results also suggest site-specific conservation actions could reduce the magnitude of negative impacts to the local population of eagles. A monitoring framework is proposed including: (1) annual assessments of site-occupancy and reproduction by territorial pairs of golden eagles (including rates at which sites become colonized or vacated over time); (2) estimates of survival, movements, and intensity of use of landscapes by breeding and non-breeding golden eagles; (3) periodic (conducted every two to four years) assessments of nesting and foraging habitats, prey populations, and associations with land-use and management activities; and (4) updating the predictive demographic model with new information obtained on eagles and associated population stressors. The results of this research were published in the Journal of Rapture Research, Wiens, David,Inman, Rich D., Esque, Todd C., Longshore, Kathleen M. and Nussear, Kenneth (2017). Spatial Demographic Models to Inform Conservation Planning of Golden Eagles in Renewable Energy Landscapes. 51(3):234-257.

  8. Eagle syndrome – An overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kavitaa Nedunchezhian

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Eagle syndrome represents symptoms brought about by compression of vital neurovascular and muscular elements adjoining the styloid process because of the elongation of styloid process or ossification of the stylohyoid or stylomandibular ligament. It is crucial for dentists, otolaryngologists and neurologists to be aware of the elongation of the styloid process and associated signs and symptoms. This article reviews the aetiopathogenesis, classification, investigative procedures and treatment modalities associated with Eagle syndrome.

  9. Eagle syndrome. A narrative review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heber Arbildo

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Painful disorders in the maxillofacial region are common in dental practice. Most of these conditions are not properly diagnosed because of inadequate knowledge of craniofacial and cervico-pharyngeal syndromes such as Eagle Syndrome. The aim of this review is to describe the general aspects, diagnosis and treatment of Eagle syndrome. Eagle syndrome or stylohyoid syndrome was first described by Watt W. Eagle in 1937. It was defined as orofacial pain related to the elongation of the styloid process and ligament stylohyoid calcification. The condition is accompanied by symptoms such as dysphonia, dysphagia, sore throat, glossitis, earache, tonsillitis, facial pain, headache, pain in the temporomandibular joint and inability to perform lateral movements of the neck. Diagnosis and treatment of Eagle syndrome based on symptoms and radiographic examination of the patient will determine the need for surgical or nonsurgical treatment. Eagle syndrome is a complex disorder demanding a thorough knowledge of its signs and symptoms to make a correct diagnosis and provide an appropriate subsequent treatment. Disseminating information about this syndrome among medical-dental professionals is essential to provide adequate dental care to patients.

  10. Does the order of invasive species removal matter? The case of the eagle and the pig.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul W Collins

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Invasive species are recognized as a primary driver of native species endangerment and their removal is often a key component of a conservation strategy. Removing invasive species is not always a straightforward task, however, especially when they interact with other species in complex ways to negatively influence native species. Because unintended consequences may arise if all invasive species cannot be removed simultaneously, the order of their removal is of paramount importance to ecological restoration. In the mid-1990s, three subspecies of the island fox Urocyon littoralis were driven to near extinction on the northern California Channel Islands owing to heightened predation by golden eagles Aquila chrysaetos. Eagles were lured to the islands by an abundant supply of feral pigs Sus scrofa and through the process of apparent competition pigs indirectly facilitated the decline in foxes. As a consequence, both pigs and eagles had to be removed to recover the critically endangered fox. Complete removal of pigs was problematic: removing pigs first could force eagles to concentrate on the remaining foxes, increasing their probability of extinction. Removing eagles first was difficult: eagles are not easily captured and lethal removal was politically distasteful.Using prey remains collected from eagle nests both before and after the eradication of pigs, we show that one pair of eagles that eluded capture did indeed focus more on foxes. These results support the premise that if the threat of eagle predation had not been mitigated prior to pig removal, fox extinction would have been a more likely outcome.If complete eradication of all interacting invasive species is not possible, the order in which they are removed requires careful consideration. If overlooked, unexpected consequences may result that could impede restoration.

  11. Does the order of invasive species removal matter? The case of the eagle and the pig.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, Paul W; Latta, Brian C; Roemer, Gary W

    2009-09-14

    Invasive species are recognized as a primary driver of native species endangerment and their removal is often a key component of a conservation strategy. Removing invasive species is not always a straightforward task, however, especially when they interact with other species in complex ways to negatively influence native species. Because unintended consequences may arise if all invasive species cannot be removed simultaneously, the order of their removal is of paramount importance to ecological restoration. In the mid-1990s, three subspecies of the island fox Urocyon littoralis were driven to near extinction on the northern California Channel Islands owing to heightened predation by golden eagles Aquila chrysaetos. Eagles were lured to the islands by an abundant supply of feral pigs Sus scrofa and through the process of apparent competition pigs indirectly facilitated the decline in foxes. As a consequence, both pigs and eagles had to be removed to recover the critically endangered fox. Complete removal of pigs was problematic: removing pigs first could force eagles to concentrate on the remaining foxes, increasing their probability of extinction. Removing eagles first was difficult: eagles are not easily captured and lethal removal was politically distasteful. Using prey remains collected from eagle nests both before and after the eradication of pigs, we show that one pair of eagles that eluded capture did indeed focus more on foxes. These results support the premise that if the threat of eagle predation had not been mitigated prior to pig removal, fox extinction would have been a more likely outcome. If complete eradication of all interacting invasive species is not possible, the order in which they are removed requires careful consideration. If overlooked, unexpected consequences may result that could impede restoration.

  12. Genetic prediction of male pattern baldness.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saskia P Hagenaars

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Male pattern baldness can have substantial psychosocial effects, and it has been phenotypically linked to adverse health outcomes such as prostate cancer and cardiovascular disease. We explored the genetic architecture of the trait using data from over 52,000 male participants of UK Biobank, aged 40-69 years. We identified over 250 independent genetic loci associated with severe hair loss (P<5x10-8. By splitting the cohort into a discovery sample of 40,000 and target sample of 12,000, we developed a prediction algorithm based entirely on common genetic variants that discriminated (AUC = 0.78, sensitivity = 0.74, specificity = 0.69, PPV = 59%, NPV = 82% those with no hair loss from those with severe hair loss. The results of this study might help identify those at greatest risk of hair loss, and also potential genetic targets for intervention.

  13. Genetic prediction of male pattern baldness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagenaars, Saskia P; Hill, W David; Harris, Sarah E; Ritchie, Stuart J; Davies, Gail; Liewald, David C; Gale, Catharine R; Porteous, David J; Deary, Ian J; Marioni, Riccardo E

    2017-02-01

    Male pattern baldness can have substantial psychosocial effects, and it has been phenotypically linked to adverse health outcomes such as prostate cancer and cardiovascular disease. We explored the genetic architecture of the trait using data from over 52,000 male participants of UK Biobank, aged 40-69 years. We identified over 250 independent genetic loci associated with severe hair loss (P<5x10-8). By splitting the cohort into a discovery sample of 40,000 and target sample of 12,000, we developed a prediction algorithm based entirely on common genetic variants that discriminated (AUC = 0.78, sensitivity = 0.74, specificity = 0.69, PPV = 59%, NPV = 82%) those with no hair loss from those with severe hair loss. The results of this study might help identify those at greatest risk of hair loss, and also potential genetic targets for intervention.

  14. Atypical fibroxanthoma on a bald scalp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakai, Noriaki; Takenaka, Hideya; Kishimoto, Saburo

    2005-10-01

    We present the clinical, histopathological and immunohistochemical findings of an atypical fibroxanthoma (AFX) on the bald scalp of an 81-year-old French man who had worked at a private high school in Japan as a janitor for over 40 years. The patient had a history of basal cell carcinoma on the nape, and chronic solar radiation seemed to be a predisposing factor in the pathogenesis of this association. This case showed the typical clinical and histopathological characteristics of AFX, and the immunohistochemical results suggested differentiation of histiocytes and myofibroblasts. The AFX was completely resected, and the patient has not had tumor recurrence or metastasis for over four postoperative years. This case therefore provides further support to the theory that AFX displays a clinically benign course, even though it is essentially a malignant tumor histologically located in the dermis. Therefore, we must excise AFX completely with great care and perform regular physical examinations for several years after operation.

  15. The Eagle's EGGs

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-12-01

    VLT ISAAC Looks for Young Stars in the Famous "Pillars of Creation" Summary Through imaging at infrared wavelengths, evidence has been found for recent star formation in the so-called "Pillars of Creation" in the Eagle Nebula (also known as Messier 16 ), made famous when the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope (HST) obtained spectacular visible-wavelength images of this object in 1995. Those huge pillars of gas and dust are being sculpted and illuminated by bright and powerful high-mass stars in the nearby NGC 6611 young stellar cluster . The Hubble astronomers suggested that perhaps even younger stars were forming inside. Using the ISAAC instrument on the VLT 8.2-m ANTU telescope at the ESO Paranal Observatory , European astronomers have now made a wide-field infrared image of the Messier 16 region with excellent spatial resolution, enabling them to penetrate the obscuring dust and search for light from newly born stars . Two of the three pillars are seen to have very young, relatively massive stars in their tips. Another dozen or so lower-mass stars seem to be associated with the small "evaporating gaseous globules (EGGs)" that the Hubble astronomers had discovered scattered over the surface of the pillars. These findings bring new evidence to several key questions about how stars are born . Was the formation of these new stars triggered as the intense ultraviolet radiation from the NGC 6611 stars swept over the pillars, or were they already there? Will the new stars be prematurely cut off from surrounding gas cloud, thus stunting their growth? If the new stars have disks of gas and dust around them, will they be destroyed before they have time to form planetary systems? PR Photo 37a/01 : Full wide-field ISAAC image of the Eagle Nebula. PR Photo 37b/01 : Close-up view of the ISAAC image , showing the famous "Pillars of Creation". PR Photo 37c/01 : Enlargement of the head of Column 1 . PR Photo 37d/01 : Enlargement of the head of Column 2 . PR Photo 37e/01

  16. Does degree of baldness influence vitamin D status?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolland, Mark J; Ames, Ruth W; Grey, Andrew B; Horne, Anne M; Mason, Barbara H; Gamble, Greg D; Reid, Ian R

    To determine the association, if any, between male-pattern hair loss (baldness) and serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25-OHD) levels. A cross-sectional study of 296 healthy middle-aged and older men. Degree of baldness was independently assessed by two researchers using the Hamilton-Norwood scale and serum 25-OHD was measured in all men. Classification of the degree of baldness by the two researchers showed a high level of agreement (kappa = 0.93). Forty-eight per cent of men had no hair loss or mild frontotemporal recession, 15% had predominant vertex loss, and 37% had significant scalp and vertex loss. After data were adjusted for potential confounding factors - including age, month of 25-OHD measurement, exercise levels, use of sunscreen, skin type and frequency of outdoor hat wearing - no significant differences in 25-OHD levels between these groups was detected (P = 0.60). The degree of baldness does not appear to influence serum 25-OHD levels. The high prevalence of baldness in older men does not explain sex differences in 25-OHD levels. Other novel hypotheses are required to help determine whether baldness serves any physiological purpose.

  17. Baldness, benign prostate hyperplasia, prostate cancer and androgen levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faydaci, Gökhan; Bilal, Eryildirim; Necmettin, Penpegül; Fatih, Tarhan; Asuman, Orçun; Uğur, Kuyumcuoğlu

    2008-12-01

    We evaluated the pattern of baldness and serum androgen levels in patients with benign prostate hyperplasia (BPH) and prostate cancer. BPH, prostate cancer and androgenic alopecia (AA) were somehow androgen dependent and affect large population of elderly men. A total of 152 patients, 108 patients with BPH and 44 patients with prostate cancer were included in the study. We measured serum total, free and bioavailable testosterone, FSH, LH, prolactin, estradiol, albumin and SHBG levels. Baldness classification was based on Norwood's classification and we categorised baldness as vertex and frontal baldness. The frequency of AA in BPH and prostate cancer groups were not different. We looked for some correlation between the two groups with respect to AA and hormone levels. We did not find any correlation between AA and total testosterone, free testosterone, bioavailable testosterone or SHBG levels in both groups. This prospective study with selected small group of patients showed that there is no difference of male pattern baldness in BPH and prostate cancer patients and also there is no correlation between pattern of baldness and serum androgen levels.

  18. Eagles of the RAF. The World War II Eagle Squadrons

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-01-01

    S Eagles. a majo0r concern. [here was probably no tmo7re halarod(us b1 )(1v Of water in the world during 1940 and 194 1 than the North Atlantic...cross between rugby , so~ccer and American football. 11 George Sperry continues the narrative: ’S~urveying the wreckage he I Bain] slightly lost his

  19. Ubush Darzhinov, The Crow and the Eagle

    OpenAIRE

    Churyumova, Elvira; Churyumov, Anton

    2017-01-01

    The Kalmyk fairy tale about the crow and the eagle is mentioned in Pushkin’s famous novel called The Captain’s Daughter. In the novel the rebel Emelyan Pugachev recounts this fairy tale that he heard from an old Kalmyk woman.One day the crow and the eagle meet each other. The eagle asks the crow why it lived for 300 years whereas the eagle itself lived for only 30 years. The crow replies, “I drink the blood of the dead, that is why I live 300 years”. The eagle proposes to the crow that they s...

  20. 50 CFR 22.27 - Removal of eagle nests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... additional factors that may be relevant to our decision whether to issue the permit, including, but not... (CONTINUED) TAKING, POSSESSION, TRANSPORTATION, SALE, PURCHASE, BARTER, EXPORTATION, AND IMPORTATION OF... mitigation, together with the cumulative effects of other permitted take and additional factors affecting...

  1. NIF Discovery Science Eagle Nebula

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kane, Jave; Martinez, David; Pound, Marc; Heeter, Robert; Casner, Alexis; Villette, Bruno; Mancini, Roberto

    2017-10-01

    The University of Maryland and and LLNL are investigating the origin and dynamics of the famous Pillars of the Eagle Nebula and similar parsec-scale structures at the boundaries of HII regions in molecular hydrogen clouds. The National Ignition Facility (NIF) Discovery Science program Eagle Nebula has performed NIF shots to study models of pillar formation. The shots feature a new long-duration x-ray source, in which multiple hohlraums mimicking a cluster of stars are driven with UV light in series for 10 to 15 ns each to create a 30 to 60 ns output x-ray pulse. The source generates deeply nonlinear hydrodynamics in the Eagle science package, a structure of dense plastic and foam mocking up a molecular cloud containing a dense core. Omega EP and NIF shots have validated the source concept, showing that earlier hohlraums do not compromise later ones by preheat or by ejecting ablated plumes that deflect later beams. The NIF shots generated radiographs of shadowing-model pillars, and also showed evidence that cometary structures can be generated. The velocity and column density profiles of the NIF shadowing and cometary pillars have been compared with observations of the Eagle Pillars made at the millimeter-wave BIMA and CARMA observatories. Prepared by LLNL under Contract DE-AC52-07NA27344.

  2. Abundance of Harpy and Crested Eagles from a reservoir-impact area in the Low- and Mid-Xingu River

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    TM. Sanaiotti

    Full Text Available Abstract In the Brazilian Amazon, two monospecific genera, the Harpy Eagle and Crested Eagle have low densities and are classified by IUCN as Near Threatened due to habitat loss, deforestation, habitat degradation and hunting. In this study, we evaluate occurrence of these large raptors using the environmental surveys database from Belo Monte Hydroelectric Power Plant. Integrating the dataset from two methods, we plotted a distribution map along the Xingu River, including records over a 276-km stretch of river. Terrestrial surveys (RAPELD method were more efficient for detecting large raptors than standardized aquatic surveys, although the latter were complementary in areas without modules. About 53% of the records were obtained during activities of wildlife rescue/flushing, vegetation suppression or in transit. Between 2012 and 2014, four Harpy Eagles were removed from the wild; two shooting victims, one injured by collision with power lines and one hit by a vehicle. Also, seven nests were mapped. The mean distance between Harpy Eagle records was 15 km along the river channel, with a mean of 20 km between nests near the channel, which allowed us to estimate 20 possible pairs using the alluvial forest, riverine forest and forest fragments. Territories of another ten pairs will probably be affected by inundation of the Volta Grande channel, which is far from the main river. The average distance between Crested Eagle records was 16 km along the river channel. The only nest found was 1.3 km away from a Harpy Eagle nest. The remnant forests are under threat of being replaced by cattle pastures, so we recommend that permanently protected riparian vegetation borders (APP be guaranteed, and that forest fragments within 5 km of the river be conserved to maintain eagle populations.

  3. Post-fledging movements of white-tailed eagles: Conservation implications for wind-energy development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balotari-Chiebao, Fabio; Villers, Alexandre; Ijäs, Asko; Ovaskainen, Otso; Repka, Sari; Laaksonen, Toni

    2016-11-01

    The presence of poorly sited wind farms raises concerns for wildlife, including birds of prey. Therefore, there is a need to extend the knowledge of the potential human-wildlife conflicts associated with wind energy. Here, we report on the movements and habitat use of post-fledging satellite-tagged white-tailed eagles in Finland, where wind-energy development is expected to increase in the near future. In particular, we examine the probability of a fledgling approaching a hypothetical turbine that is placed at different distances from the nest. We found that this probability is high at short distances but considerably decreases with increasing distances to the nest. A utilisation-availability analysis showed that the coast was the preferred habitat. We argue that avoiding construction between active nests and the shoreline, as well as adopting the currently 2-km buffer zone for turbine deployment, can avoid or minimise potential impacts on post-fledging white-tailed eagles.

  4. Baldness, acne and testicular germ cell tumors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trabert, Britton; Sigurdson, Alice J.; Sweeney, Anne M.; Amato, Robert J.; Strom, Sara S.; McGlynn, Katherine A.

    2013-01-01

    Androgen levels during critical periods of testicular development may be involved in the etiology of testicular germ cell tumors (TGCT). We evaluated the roles of adolescent and early adult life correlates of androgen exposure and TGCT in a hospital-based case control study. TGCT cases (n=187) and controls (n=148), matched on age, race and state of residence, participated in the study. Unconditional logistic regression was used to estimate associations between TGCT and male pattern baldness, severe acne, markers of puberty onset and body size. Cases were significantly less likely to report hair loss than controls (OR, 0.6; 95% CI, 0.4, 1.0). Amount of hair loss, increasing age at onset and increasing rate of loss were all inversely associated with TGCT (rate of hair loss: p-trend=0.03; age at onset: p-trend=0.03; amount of hair loss: p-trend=0.01). History of severe acne was inversely associated with TGCT (OR, 0.5; 95% CI, 0.3, 0.9) and height was positively associated with TGCT (p-trend=0.02). Increased endogenous androgen levels during puberty and early adulthood may be associated with decreased risk of TGCT. Additional studies of endogenous hormone levels during puberty and early adult life are warranted, especially studies evaluating the role of androgen synthesis, metabolism and uptake. PMID:21128977

  5. Quantitative evaluations of male pattern baldness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsuji, Y; Ishino, A; Hanzawa, N; Uzuka, M; Okazaki, K; Adachi, K; Imamura, S

    1994-07-01

    Several methods for the evaluation of hair growth have been reported; however, none of the hitherto reported methods are satisfactory as unbiased double blind studies to evaluate the efficacy of hair growth agents. In the present paper, we describe quantitative evaluation methods for hair growth by measuring the anagen ratio and hair diameters in 56 Japanese subjects aged 23-56 for 3 years. The average anagen ratio decreased by 3.8% in 3 years. The average hair diameters showed a statistically significant decrease each year totalling 3.4 microns. Subjects were sorted according to their anagen ratio into 4 groups. Each group showed different distribution patterns of hair diameters. The higher anagen ratio group has a high frequency peak at thicker hair diameters and the lower anagen ratio group has a high frequency peak at thinner hair diameters. The number of thicker hairs decreased and the high frequency peak shifted to thinner hair diameters in 3 years. These methods are useful to evaluate both the progression of male pattern baldness and the effects of hair growth agents with double blind studies in an unbiased quantitative fashion.

  6. Baldness and testicular cancer: the EPSAM case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moirano, G; Zugna, D; Grasso, C; Lista, P; Ciuffreda, L; Segnan, N; Merletti, F; Richiardi, L

    2016-03-01

    The etiology of testicular cancer is largely unexplained. Research has mainly focused on prenatal exposures, especially to sex hormones, while less attention has been paid to exposures that may act also postnatally. As baldness has been previously associated with testicular cancer risk we focused on baldness and body hairiness, which are both associated with androgen activity. We used data of the Postnatal Exposures and Male Health (EPSAM) study, a case-control study on testicular cancer conducted in the Province of Turin, Italy, involving cases diagnosed between 1997 and 2008. Information was collected using mailed questionnaires. Analyses included 255 cases and 459 controls. We calculated ORs and 95% CIs to estimate testicular cancer risk among those who developed baldness and among those with body hairiness. We found an inverse association between testicular cancer and baldness (OR: 0.67, 95% CI: 0.46-0.98) and body hairiness (OR: 0.78, 95% CI: 0.53-1.16), although the latter had wider CIs. The inverse association between baldness and testicular cancer is consistent with the results from previous studies. These results suggest that androgens activity may influence testicular cancer risk. © 2016 American Society of Andrology and European Academy of Andrology.

  7. Biotelemetry data for golden eagles (Aquila chrysaetos) captured in coastal southern California, November 2014–February 2016

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tracey, Jeff A.; Madden, Melanie C.; Sebes, Jeremy B.; Bloom, Peter H.; Katzner, Todd E.; Fisher, Robert N.

    2016-04-21

    The status of golden eagles (Aquila chrysaetos) in coastal southern California is unclear. To address this knowledge gap, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) in collaboration with local, State, and other Federal agencies began a multi-year survey and tracking program of golden eagles to address questions regarding habitat use, movement behavior, nest occupancy, genetic population structure, and human impacts on eagles. Golden eagle trapping and tracking efforts began in October 2014 and continued until early March 2015. During the first trapping season that focused on San Diego County, we captured 13 golden eagles (8 females and 5 males). During the second trapping season that began in November 2015, we focused on trapping sites in San Diego, Orange, and western Riverside Counties. By February 23, 2016, we captured an additional 14 golden eagles (7 females and 7 males). In this report, biotelemetry data were collected between November 22, 2014, and February 23, 2016. The location data for eagles ranged as far north as San Luis Obispo, California, and as far south as La Paz, Baja California, Mexico.

  8. Male pattern baldness is not associated with established cardiovascular risk factors in the general population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis, J A; Stebbing, M; Harrap, S B

    2001-04-01

    A number of studies have shown an association between male pattern baldness (MPB) and cardiovascular disease. Few of these studies, however, have examined whether MPB is a novel risk factor, or is associated with abnormalities of established coronary risk factors. We have therefore performed an analysis of MPB and cardiovascular risk factors in the general population. A total of 1219 male participants aged 18-70 years from the Victorian Family Heart Study were surveyed using a validated questionnaire for degree and pattern of baldness. Carefully standardized measures of height, weight, blood pressure, pulse rate, total and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and plasma fibrinogen were made. Subjects were grouped according to the degree and pattern of baldness as: no baldness, frontal baldness and vertex baldness. Bald men were older than non-bald men (P < 0.0001). Age was also associated with increased levels of coronary risk factors (P < 0.0001). When multiple regression was used to adjust for age differences, the levels of coronary risk factors were not significantly different between the bald and non-bald groups. The lack of association between baldness and established coronary risk factors implies that baldness may predispose to coronary heart disease through novel mechanisms yet to be defined.

  9. Subcutaneous blood flow in early male pattern baldness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klemp, P.; Peters, K.; Hansted, B.

    1989-01-01

    The subcutaneous blood flow (SBF) was measured by the 133 Xe washout method in the scalp of 14 patients with early male pattern baldness. Control experiments were performed in 14 normal haired men matched for age. The SBF in the scalp of the normal individuals was about 10 times higher than previously reported SBF values in other anatomical regions. In patients with early male pattern baldness, SBF was 2.6 times lower than the values found in the normal individuals (13.7 +/- 9.6 vs 35.7 +/- 10.5 ml/100 g/min-1). This difference was statistically significant (p much less than 0.001). A reduced nutritive blood flow to the hair follicles might be a significant event in the pathogenesis of early male pattern baldness

  10. [CADASIL with clinical manifestations of baldness, lumbago and Parkinson's symptoms].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Zhixia; Chen, Shuai; Shi, Yingying; Zhang, Yuanxing; Wang, Wan; Chen, Zuzhi; Xia, Mingrong; Shi, Xiaohong; Zhang, Jiewen

    2017-12-10

    To investigate a cerebral autosomal dominant arteriopathy with the subcortical infarcts and leukoencephalopathy (CADASIL) case with clinical manifestations of baldness, lumbago and Parkinson's symptoms. Clinical and imaging data of the patient were analyzed. The patient and his family members were also subjected to genetic testing. The symptoms of the patient included recurrent stroke, dementia, and mood disturbance, in addition with lumbago, baldness and Parkinson's symptoms but no migraine. Cranial MRI of the patient showed bilateral symmetric leukoencephalopathy and multiple small subcortical lacunar infarcts. A point mutation in exon 11 of the NOTCH3 gene (R558C) was discovered in the proband and four asymptomatic relatives. CADASIL is characterized by recurrent subcortical ischemic stroke, dementia, pseudobulbar palsy, and mood disturbance. Baldness, lumbago and Parkinson's symptoms may also be seen in such patients.

  11. Eagle syndrome – An overview

    OpenAIRE

    Kavitaa Nedunchezhian

    2017-01-01

    Eagle syndrome represents symptoms brought about by compression of vital neurovascular and muscular elements adjoining the styloid process because of the elongation of styloid process or ossification of the stylohyoid or stylomandibular ligament. It is crucial for dentists, otolaryngologists and neurologists to be aware of the elongation of the styloid process and associated signs and symptoms. This article reviews the aetiopathogenesis, classification, investigative procedures and treatment ...

  12. Through the Eyes of the Eagle

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    The Eagle Books are a series of four books that are brought to life by wise animal characters - Mr. Eagle, Miss Rabbit, and Coyote - who engage Rain That Dances and his young friends in the joy of physical activity, eating healthy foods, and learning from their elders about health and diabetes prevention. Through the Eyes of the Eagle tells children about looking to the healthy ways and wisdom of their elders.

  13. Spatial demographic models to inform conservation planning of golden eagles in renewable energy landscapes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiens, J. David; Schumaker, Nathan H.; Inman, Richard D.; Esque, Todd C.; Longshore, Kathleen M.; Nussear, Kenneth E

    2017-01-01

    Spatial demographic models can help guide monitoring and management activities targeting at-risk species, even in cases where baseline data are lacking. Here, we provide an example of how site-specific changes in land use and anthropogenic stressors can be incorporated into a spatial demographic model to investigate effects on population dynamics of Golden Eagles (Aquila chrysaetos). Our study focused on a population of Golden Eagles exposed to risks associated with rapid increases in renewable energy development in southern California, U.S.A. We developed a spatially explicit, individual-based simulation model that integrated empirical data on demography of Golden Eagles with spatial data on the arrangement of nesting habitats, prey resources, and planned renewable energy development sites. Our model permitted simulated eagles of different stage-classes to disperse, establish home ranges, acquire prey resources, prospect for breeding sites, and reproduce. The distribution of nesting habitats, prey resources, and threats within each individual's home range influenced movement, reproduction, and survival. We used our model to explore potential effects of alternative disturbance scenarios, and proposed conservation strategies, on the future distribution and abundance of Golden Eagles in the study region. Results from our simulations suggest that probable increases in mortality associated with renewable energy infrastructure (e.g., collisions with wind turbines and vehicles, electrocution on power poles) could have negative consequences for population trajectories, but that site-specific conservation actions could reduce the magnitude of negative effects. Our study demonstrates the use of a flexible and expandable modeling framework to incorporate spatially dependent processes when determining relative effects of proposed management options to Golden Eagles and their habitats.

  14. 77 FR 47628 - Eagle Mountain Pumped Storage Hydroelectric Project; Eagle Crest Energy; Notice of Meeting...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-09

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [P-13123-002-CA] Eagle Mountain Pumped Storage Hydroelectric Project; Eagle Crest Energy; Notice of Meeting Postponement On July 17, 2012, the...), on the Eagle Mountain Pumped Storage Hydroelectric Project. However, the meeting has been postponed...

  15. 78 FR 26358 - Eagle Mountain Pumped Storage Hydroelectric Project, Eagle Crest Energy; Notice of Meeting With...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-06

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [P-13123-002-CA] Eagle Mountain Pumped Storage Hydroelectric Project, Eagle Crest Energy; Notice of Meeting With the Bureau of Land Management a... Policy and Management Act and the Federal Power Act), on the Eagle Mountain Pumped Storage Hydroelectric...

  16. Triangular Nests!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell, R. I.

    2002-01-01

    Shows how integer-sided triangles can be nested, each nest having a single enclosing isosceles triangle. Brings to light what can be seen as a relatively simple generalization of Pythagoras' theorem, a result that should be readily accessible to many secondary school pupils. (Author/KHR)

  17. Resource availability and diet in Harpy Eagle breeding territories on the Xingu River, Brazilian Amazon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FH. Aguiar-Silva

    Full Text Available Abstract In the Tapajos-Xingu interfluve, one of the largest birds of prey, the Harpy Eagle, is under intense anthropogenic pressure due to historical and recent reductions in forest cover. We studied prey availability and use by Harpy Eagle on six breeding territories on the low- and mid-Xingu River, between 2013 and 2015. We evaluated food resource availability using the environmental-surveys database from two methods: terrestrial surveys (RAPELD method and fauna rescue/flushing before vegetation suppression for the Belo Monte Hydroelectric Complex construction. Harpy Eagle diet was identified by prey remains sampled around six nest trees. Eighteen species of mammals, birds and reptiles comprised the prey items. Most prey species were sloths, primates and porcupines, which have arboreal habits and are found in forested areas, but two species, hoatzin and iguana, are usually associated with riverine habitats. The proportion of prey from each species predated on the nest best studied was different from estimated availability (χ2 = 54.23; df = 16; p < 0.001, however there was a positive correlation (rs = 0.7; p < 0.01 between prey species consumed and abundance available, where the predation was more on species more abundant. Continuous monitoring of the Harpy Eagle diet at these nests could evidence changes in the assemblage of prey species available for Harpy Eagles, due to changes in the seasonal flood pulse of the Xingu River to be caused by the operation of the hydroelectric dam, and changes in habitat features by forest reduction around breeding territories. We believe that it is important to consider the protection of remnants of forested areas in the landscape matrix surrounding the breeding territories to maintain the food resource availability and allow all pairs to successfully reproduce.

  18. Endoscopic forehead lift in patients with male pattern baldness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shipchandler, Taha Z; Sultan, Babar; Byrne, Patrick J

    2012-01-01

    The presence of male pattern baldness poses a significant challenge when attempting to optimize treatment of the upper third of the face. The purpose of this study is to demonstrate and discuss results of the endoscopic forehead lift in patients with male pattern baldness. This was a retrospective case series done in an academic medical center. Eleven patients with male pattern baldness (Norwood class IV-VII) underwent endoscopic forehead lift for forehead creases and brow ptosis. All patients achieved smoothing of the forehead and elevation of the brow with no scalp anesthesia at 1 month postoperatively. All patients were pleased with the healing of their incisions in midline, paramedian, and temporal regions. Alloplastic fixation devices used were visible postoperatively in 2 patients initially. The endoscopic forehead lift is a suitable approach for treating the upper third of the face in the presence of male pattern baldness. The use of alloplastic fixation devices may be used in this patient population, but other fixation methods should be considered. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Tissue expansion for correction of baldness in aplasia cutis congenita

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beekmans, S.J.A.; Don Griot, J.P.W.; Niessen, F.B.; Mulder, J.W.

    2009-01-01

    Aplasia cutis is a congenital absence of the skin, usually presenting on the scalp. In 20% of all cases, part of the skull is also absent. A residual area of baldness may still be present some years after surgical or conservative treatment. It is possible to excise the scarred hairless region and

  20. Prediction of male-pattern baldness from genotypes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    F. Liu (Fan); M.A. Hamer (Merel); S. Heilmann (S.); C. Herold (Christine); S. Moebus (Susanne); A. Hofman (Albert); A.G. Uitterlinden (André); M.M. Nöthen (Markus); C.M. van Duijn (Cornelia); T.E.C. Nijsten (Tamar); M.H. Kayser (Manfred)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractThe global demand for products that effectively prevent the development of male-pattern baldness (MPB) has drastically increased. However, there is currently no established genetic model for the estimation of MPB risk. We conducted a prediction analysis using single-nucleotide

  1. Ring Recoveries from Steppe Eagles and Eastern Imperial Eagles from the Russian and Kazakhstan Breeding Populations and a Review of Major Threats to Eagles in Iraq

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omar F. Al-Sheikhly

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The article summarizes ring recoveries from 2 Steppe Eagles (Aquila nipalensis and 2 Eastern Imperial Eagles (Aquila heliaca from Iraq that were ringed in Russia and Kazakhstan, as well as ring recoveries from 2 Steppe Eagles and 3 Eastern Imperial Eagles from the border regions of Iraq (Iran, Kuwait and Saudi Arabia that were ringed in Russia. Threats for eagles in Iraq are discussed in this article.

  2. ASBO Eagle Institute: A Leadership Opportunity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scharff, James

    2012-01-01

    Each summer, ASBO International conducts an Eagle Institute leadership session in the Washington, D.C., area that provides a group of about 25 participants, including Eagle Award recipients, an opportunity to network with and learn from exemplary leaders inside and outside the field of school business management. Each year, the focus of the…

  3. Breeding of the White-Tailed Eagle in the Omsk Region, Russia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boris Yu. Kassal

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The White-Tailed Eagle (Haliaeetus albicilla in the Omsk region prefers to breed within the Irtysh River floodplain and its tributaries, as well as along Rahtovo lake and large lake systems (Bolshie Krutinskie, Tyukalinskie, Ilyinskie. Its nests are built mainly on silver birch, aspen, Scots and Siberian pines, white willow and poplars, at a height of 6–15 m with zonal.

  4. Hawaii ESI: NESTS (Nest Points)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for seabird nesting colonies in coastal Hawaii. Vector points in this data set represent locations of...

  5. Maryland ESI: NESTS (Nest Points)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for raptors in Maryland. Vector points in this data set represent bird nesting sites. Species-specific...

  6. Louisiana ESI: NESTS (Nest Points)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for seabird and wading bird nesting colonies in coastal Louisiana. Vector points in this data set represent...

  7. Baldness and myocardial infarction in men: the atherosclerosis risk in communities study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahar, Eyal; Heiss, Gerardo; Rosamond, Wayne D; Szklo, Moyses

    2008-03-15

    Because hair loss may be a surrogate measure of androgenic activity-possibly a determinant of coronary atherosclerosis-several studies have explored the presence and magnitude of an association between male pattern baldness and myocardial infarction (MI). In particular, vertex baldness, but not frontal baldness alone, was strongly associated with incident MI in a large, hospital-based, case-control study. The authors examined these associations in a cross-sectional sample of 5,056 men aged 52-75 years, of whom 767 had a history of MI. The sample was derived from the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) Study (1987-1998). As compared with a baldness-free reference group, the estimated odds ratios for prevalent MI from a multivariable model were 1.28 (frontal baldness), 1.02 (mild vertex baldness), 1.40 (moderate vertex baldness), and 1.18 (severe vertex baldness). Other regression models have yielded similar results, including the absence of a monotonic "dose-response relation" between the extent of vertex baldness and prevalent MI. The authors also examined the relation of baldness pattern to carotid intimal-medial thickness, a measure of atherosclerosis, among those who were free of clinical cardiovascular disease. The estimated mean differences in carotid intimal-medial thickness between groups of men with various types of baldness and their baldness-free counterparts were all close to zero. The results of this study suggest that male pattern baldness is not a surrogate measure of an important risk factor for myocardial infarction or asymptomatic atherosclerosis.

  8. Male pattern baldness and its association with coronary heart disease: a meta-analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamada, Tomohide; Hara, Kazuo; Umematsu, Hitomi; Kadowaki, Takashi

    2013-01-01

    Objective To confirm the association between male pattern baldness and coronary heart disease (CHD). Design Meta-analysis of observational studies. Data sources Medline and the Cochrane Library were searched for articles published up to November 2012 using keywords that included both ‘baldness’ and ‘coronary heart disease’ and the reference lists of those studies identified were also searched. Study selection Observational studies were identified that reported risk estimates for CHD related to baldness. Two observers independently assessed eligibility, extracted data and assessed the possibility of bias. Data synthesis The adjusted relative risk (RR) and 95% CI were estimated using the DerSimonian-Laird random-effect model. Results 850 possible studies, 3 cohort studies and 3 case–control studies were selected (36 990 participants). In the cohort studies, the adjusted RR of men with severe baldness for CHD was 1.32 (95% CI 1.08 to 1.63, p=0.008, I2=25%) compared to those without baldness. Analysis of younger men (baldness (RR 1.44, 95% CI 1.11 to 1.86, p=0.006, I2=0%). In three studies employing the modified Hamilton scale, vertex baldness was associated with CHD and the relation depended on the severity of baldness (severe vertex: RR 1.48 (1.04 to 2.11, p=0.03); moderate vertex: RR 1.36 (1.16 to 1.58, pbaldness was not associated with CHD (RR 1.11 (0.92 to 1.32, p=0.28)). Conclusions Vertex baldness, but not frontal baldness, is associated with an increased risk of CHD. The association with CHD depends on the severity of vertex baldness and also exists among younger men. Thus, vertex baldness might be more closely related to atherosclerosis than frontal baldness, but the association between male pattern baldness and CHD deserves further investigation. PMID:23554099

  9. Survey for hemoparasites in imperial eagles (Aquila heliaca), steppe eagles (Aquila nipalensis), and white-tailed sea eagles (Haliaeetus albicilla) from Kazakhstan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leppert, Lynda L; Layman, Seth; Bragin, Evgeny A; Katzner, Todd

    2004-04-01

    Prevalence of hemoparasites has been investigated in many avian species throughout Europe and North America. Basic hematologic surveys are the first step toward evaluating whether host-parasite prevalences observed in North America and Europe occur elsewhere in the world. We collected blood smears from 94 nestling imperial eagles (Aquila heliaca), five nestling steppe eagles (Aquila nipalensis), and 14 nestling white-tailed sea eagles (Haliaeetus albicilla) at Naurzum Zapovednik (Naurzum National Nature Reserve) in Kazakhstan during the summers of 1999 and 2000. In 1999, six of 29 imperial eagles were infected with Lencocytozoon toddi. Five of 65 imperial eagles and one of 14 white-tailed sea eagle were infected with L. toddi in 2000. Furthermore, in 2000, one of 65 imperial eagles was infected with Haemoproteus sp. We found no parasites in steppe eagles in either year, and no bird had multiple-species infections. These data are important because few hematologic studies of these eagle species have been conducted.

  10. 75 FR 53266 - United States Army Restricted Area, Designated Portions of Eagle Bay and Eagle River, Fort...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-31

    ... Richardson, Alaska as well as an adjacent portion of Eagle Bay in the Knik Arm. More specifically, the... affected waters of Eagle Bay and Eagle River in order to enhance safety and security. This portion of Eagle... B. Olson), 441 G Street, NW., Washington, DC 20314-1000. Hand Delivery/Courier: Due to security...

  11. Through the Eyes of the Eagle

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2008-08-04

    The Eagle Books are a series of four books that are brought to life by wise animal characters - Mr. Eagle, Miss Rabbit, and Coyote - who engage Rain That Dances and his young friends in the joy of physical activity, eating healthy foods, and learning from their elders about health and diabetes prevention. Through the Eyes of the Eagle tells children about looking to the healthy ways and wisdom of their elders.  Created: 8/4/2008 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP).   Date Released: 8/5/2008.

  12. MQ-1C Gray Eagle Unmanned Aircraft System (MQ-1C Gray Eagle)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-12-01

    Range Finder /Laser Designator, Synthetic Aperture Radar/Ground Moving Target Indicator, communications relay, and Hellfire Missiles. Ground equipment...equipment strength . Each Gray Eagle company will consist of 125 soldiers within the Divisional CAB and the NTC. Each unit will have three identical...will bring these companies to full Gray Eagle System equipment strength . Each Gray Eagle company will consist of 125 soldiers within the divisional

  13. Ahmad's NPRT System: A Practical Innovation for Documenting Male Pattern Baldness

    OpenAIRE

    Ahmad, Muhammad

    2016-01-01

    Various classifications for male pattern baldness are mentioned in the literature. The 'Norwood's classification is the most commonly used but it has certain limitations. The new system has included 'three' extra features which were not mentioned in any other classification. It provides an opportunity to document the full and correct picture while documenting male pattern baldness. It also aids in assessing the treatment for various degrees of baldness.

  14. Ahmad's NPRT system: A practical innovation for documenting male pattern baldness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Ahmad

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Various classifications for male pattern baldness are mentioned in the literature. The 'Norwood's classification is the most commonly used but it has certain limitations. The new system has included 'three' extra features which were not mentioned in any other classification. It provides an opportunity to document the full and correct picture while documenting male pattern baldness. It also aids in assessing the treatment for various degrees of baldness.

  15. Organochlorine compounds in bald eagle and common loon eggs from Androscoggin Lake and the Androscoggin River watershed

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of the Interior — Reduced productivity has been documented in fish‐eating birds inhabiting Androscoggin Lake in west‐central Maine. The cause of reduced productivity of fish‐eating...

  16. Estimating raptor nesting success: old and new approaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Jessi L.; Steenhof, Karen; Kochert, Michael N.; Bond, Laura

    2013-01-01

    Studies of nesting success can be valuable in assessing the status of raptor populations, but differing monitoring protocols can present unique challenges when comparing populations of different species across time or geographic areas. We used large datasets from long-term studies of 3 raptor species to compare estimates of apparent nest success (ANS, the ratio of successful to total number of nesting attempts), Mayfield nesting success, and the logistic-exposure model of nest survival. Golden eagles (Aquila chrysaetos), prairie falcons (Falco mexicanus), and American kestrels (F. sparverius) differ in their breeding biology and the methods often used to monitor their reproduction. Mayfield and logistic-exposure models generated similar estimates of nesting success with similar levels of precision. Apparent nest success overestimated nesting success and was particularly sensitive to inclusion of nesting attempts discovered late in the nesting season. Thus, the ANS estimator is inappropriate when exact point estimates are required, especially when most raptor pairs cannot be located before or soon after laying eggs. However, ANS may be sufficient to assess long-term trends of species in which nesting attempts are highly detectable.

  17. Nonmotorized recreation and motorized recreation in shrub-steppe habitats affects behavior and reproduction of golden eagles (Aquila chrysaetos).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spaul, Robert J; Heath, Julie A

    2016-11-01

    Different forms of outdoor recreation have different spatiotemporal activity patterns that may have interactive or cumulative effects on wildlife through human disturbance, physical habitat change, or both. In western North America, shrub-steppe habitats near urban areas are popular sites for motorized recreation and nonmotorized recreation and can provide important habitat for protected species, including golden eagles. Our objective was to determine whether recreation use (i.e., number of recreationists) or recreation features (e.g., trails or campsites) predicted golden eagle territory occupancy, egg-laying, or the probability a breeding attempt resulted in ≥1 offspring (nest survival). We monitored egg-laying, hatching and fledging success, eagle behavior, and recreation activity within 23 eagle territories near Boise, Idaho, USA. Territories with more off-road vehicle (ORV) use were less likely to be occupied than territories with less ORV use (β = -1.6, 85% CI: -2.8 to -0.8). At occupied territories, early season pedestrian use (β = -1.6, 85% CI: -3.8 to -0.2) and other nonmotorized use (β = -3.6, 85% CI: -10.7 to -0.3) reduced the probability of egg-laying. At territories where eagles laid eggs, short, interval-specific peaks in ORV use were associated with decreased nest survival (β = -0.5, 85% CI: -0.8 to -0.2). Pedestrians, who often arrived near eagle nests via motorized vehicles, were associated with reduced nest attendance (β = -11.9, 85% CI: -19.2 to -4.5), an important predictor of nest survival. Multiple forms of recreation may have cumulative effects on local populations by reducing occupancy at otherwise suitable territories, decreasing breeding attempts, and causing nesting failure. Seasonal no-stopping zones for motorized vehicles may be an alternative to trail closures for managing disturbance. This study demonstrates the importance of considering human disturbance across different parts of the annual cycle, particularly where

  18. Breeding Status and Population Trends of Golden Eagles in Northeastern Québec, Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    François Morneau

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available In North America, it is hypothesized that the Golden Eagle's (Aquila chrysaetos eastern population declined during the period 1946-1973 because of organochlorine pesticides and other anthropogenic causes of mortality. Since 1970, upward trends for the species have been observed at most eastern hawkwatches. To determine whether such positive trends can be observed on breeding grounds, Golden Eagle counts were performed to monitor nesting territory occupancy between 1994 and 2007 in the Moisie and Sainte-Marguerite River valleys, northeastern Québec. Aerial surveys were conducted during seven of the 14 years. During this period, the number of known nesting territories in the study area increased from 10 to 20, while the number of pairs rose from six to 14. The increase is attributed mostly to investigators' improved experience in finding nests and to their greater familiarity with the study area, and possibly to the growth of the regional population. Occupancy of nesting territories by pairs was very stable over the years. Annual mean % of laying pairs (or laying rate was 48.0 (SD = 19.9, and productivity (mean number of fledglings per pair was 0.49 (SD = 0.35.

  19. 76 FR 15971 - Eagle Mountain Pumped Storage Hydroelectric Project; Eagle Crest Energy; Notice of Teleconference

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-22

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [P-13123-002-CA] Eagle Mountain Pumped Storage Hydroelectric Project; Eagle Crest Energy; Notice of Teleconference a. Date and Time of Meeting: Friday, April 15, 2011 at 9 a.m. (Pacific Time). b. Place: By copy of this notice we are inviting all...

  20. 76 FR 22699 - Eagle Mountain Pumped Storage Hydroelectric Project, Eagle Crest Energy; Notice of Teleconference

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-22

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [P-13123-002--CA] Eagle Mountain Pumped Storage Hydroelectric Project, Eagle Crest Energy; Notice of Teleconference a. Date and Time of Meeting: Friday, May 6, 2011 at 1 p.m. (Pacific Time). b. Place: By copy of this notice we are inviting all...

  1. 76 FR 22393 - Eagle Mountain Pumped Storage Hydroelectric Project, Eagle Crest Energy; Notice of Cancellation...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-21

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [P-13123-002-CA] Eagle Mountain Pumped Storage Hydroelectric Project, Eagle Crest Energy; Notice of Cancellation of Teleconference On March 15... Mountain Pumped Storage Hydroelectric Project. This meeting has been cancelled. We will reschedule this...

  2. 78 FR 25263 - Eagle Mountain Pumped Storage Hydroelectric Project; Eagle Crest Energy; Notice of Meeting With...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-30

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [P-13123-002--CA] Eagle Mountain Pumped Storage Hydroelectric Project; Eagle Crest Energy; Notice of Meeting With the Bureau of Land Management a... Hydroelectric Project. e. All local, state, and federal agencies, tribes, and interested parties, are hereby...

  3. 77 FR 43280 - Eagle Mountain Pumped Storage Hydroelectric Project, Eagle Crest Energy; Notice of Meeting With...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-24

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [P-13123-002-CA] Eagle Mountain Pumped Storage Hydroelectric Project, Eagle Crest Energy; Notice of Meeting With the Bureau of Land Management a... Mountain Pumped Storage Hydroelectric Project. e. All local, state, and federal agencies, tribes, and...

  4. 77 FR 22267 - Eagle Permits; Changes in the Regulations Governing Eagle Permitting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-13

    ... with rotating wind turbines. Permit Duration and Transferability In February 2011, we published draft... permit applicants, because of the known risk to eagles from collisions with wind turbines and electric... change does not affect the tenure of any other migratory bird or eagle permit type. DATES: Electronic...

  5. Eagle's syndrome with facial palsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed Al-Hashim

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Eagle's syndrome (ES is a rare disease in which the styloid process is elongated and compressing adjacent structures. We describe a rare presentation of ES in which the patient presented with facial palsy. Facial palsy as a presentation of ES is very rare. A review of the English literature revealed only one previously reported case. Our case is a 39-year-old male who presented with left facial palsy. He also reported a 9-year history of the classical symptoms of ES. A computed tomography scan with three-dimensional reconstruction confirmed the diagnoses. He was started on conservative management but without significant improvement. Surgical intervention was offered, but the patient refused. It is important for otolaryngologists, dentists, and other specialists who deal with head and neck problems to be able to recognize ES despite its rarity. Although the patient responded to a treatment similar to that of Bell's palsy because of the clinical features and imaging, ES was most likely the cause of his facial palsy.

  6. Diet of the Golden Eagle (Aquila chrysaetos (Aves: Accipitridae in Sarnena Sredna Gora Mountains (Bulgaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dilian G. Georgiev

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available The material of pellets and food remains (as bone and shell fragments, hair, and feathers was collected after the breeding season from below and within one nest of Golden Eagles on rocks at Sarnena Sredna Gora Mts., north-east of Stara Zagora town. Our study was carried out during a three year period (1999, 2000 and 2002. Total 65 specimens from minimum 10 species of preys were identified among the food remains from which the reptiles dominated. Mostly preyed by the Golden Eagles couple were the tortoises (Testudo sp. with 55.4% from all registered individual preys. The most common prey from mammals was the hedgehog (Erinaceus roumanicus with 13.8%. Interesting fact was and the relatively high percentage of the cats with 7.7% (possibly most of them domestic ones.

  7. 77 FR 22608 - Notice of Intent To Prepare an Environmental Impact Statement for the Proposed Bald Mountain Mine...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-16

    ... normal business hours. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Bald Mountain Mine (BMM), owned by Barrick Gold US Inc... Statement for the Proposed Bald Mountain Mine North and South Operations Area Projects, White Pine County.... ADDRESSES: You may submit comments related to the Bald Mountain Mine North and South Operations Area...

  8. An example of an interspecific chick rearing in Birds of Prey: the Marsh Harrier grown by the Greater Spotted Eagle in Russia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igor V. Karyakin

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available We visited a breeding territory of the Greater Spotted Eagle (Aquila clanga in Zavyalivskiy Wildlife Preserve of Altai Region on the 1st August, 2014. In the nest, located in a pine tree, we found a fledgling of the Marsh Harrier (Circus aeruginosus and a nestling of the Greater Spotted Eagle in the first juvenile plumage. When we approached the nest, the female GSE flew off, followed by the fledgling of the Harrier, who uttered food-begging calls, but soon returned to the nest. The present situation possibly emerged after the adult eagle caught a nestling of the harrier but failed to kill it. Judging by prey remains near the nest, another nestling of the Marsh Harrier was eaten at the age of 25 days. But the second one survived and begun to call for food. The maternal instinct of the female Greater Spotted Eagle would have prevented her from killing the harrier, instead prompting her to feed it.

  9. Time Budget and Diet of the Booted Eagles in the Breeding Season in Xinjiang, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daoning Wu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available During the breeding seasons of 2010-2016, we have found seven nests of the Booted Eagle (Hieraaetus pennatus in Xinjiang, the west of China. We used a method of focal sampling and infrared cameras to continually observe behaviors and nestlings’ growth. Nestling behaviors were different between nestling period and post-nestling period. Attendance at the nests by both adults decreased as the nestling aged. The female brooded significantly more than the male did during daylight hours (P=0.016, F= 8.38, df =1. The daily mean number of food items delivered to the nests by adults was 3.2 times/day in nestling period, and 0.96/day in post-nestling period. Seven orders of wild birds, three orders of mammals and domestic poultry were documented as prey.

  10. Relationship of early-onset baldness to prostate cancer in African-American men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeigler-Johnson, Charnita; Morales, Knashawn H; Spangler, Elaine; Chang, Bao-Li; Rebbeck, Timothy R

    2013-04-01

    Early-onset baldness has been linked to prostate cancer; however, little is known about this relationship in African-Americans who are at elevated prostate cancer risk. We recruited 219 African-American controls and 318 African-American prostate cancer cases. We determined age-stratified associations of baldness with prostate cancer occurrence and severity defined by high stage (T3/T4) or high grade (Gleason 7+.) Associations of androgen metabolism genotypes (CYP3A4, CYP3A5, CYP3A43, AR-CAG, SRD5A2 A49T, and SRD5A2 V89L), family history, alcohol intake, and smoking were examined by baldness status and age group by using multivariable logistic regression models. Baldness was associated with odds of prostate cancer [OR = 1.69; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.05-2.74]. Frontal baldness was associated with high-stage (OR = 2.61; 95% CI, 1.10-6.18) and high-grade (OR = 2.20; 95% CI, 1.05-4.61) tumors. For men diagnosed less than the age of 60 years, frontal baldness was associated with high stage (OR = 6.51; 95% CI, 2.11-20.06) and high grade (OR = 4.23; 95% CI, 1.47-12.14). We also observed a suggestion of an interaction among smoking, median age, and any baldness (P = 0.02). We observed significant associations between early-onset baldness and prostate cancer in African-American men. Interactions with age and smoking were suggested in these associations. Studies are needed to investigate the mechanisms influencing the relationship between baldness and prostate cancer in African-American men. African-American men present with unique risk factors including baldness patterns that may contribute to prostate cancer disparities.

  11. Relationship of Early Onset Baldness to Prostate Cancer in African-American Men

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeigler-Johnson, Charnita; Morales, Knashawn H.; Spangler, Elaine; Chang, Bao-Li; Rebbeck, Timothy R.

    2013-01-01

    Background Early onset baldness has been linked to prostate cancer (CaP), however, little is known about this relationship in African Americans (AA) who are at elevated CaP risk. Methods We recruited 219 AA controls and 318 AA CaP cases. We determined age-stratified associations of baldness with CaP occurrence and severity defined by high stage (T3/T4) or high grade (Gleason 7+.) Associations of androgen metabolism genotypes (CYP3A4, CYP3A5, CYP3A43, AR-CAG, SRD5A2 A49T, and SRD5A2 V89L), family history, alcohol intake, and smoking were examined by baldness status and age group by using multivariable logistic regression models. Results Baldness was associated with odds of CaP (OR=1.69, 95% CI=1.05–2.74). Frontal baldness was associated with high stage (OR=2.61, 95% CI=1.10–6.18) and high grade (OR=2.20, 95% CI=1.05–4.61) tumors. For men diagnosed less than age 60, frontal baldness was associated with high stage (OR=6.51, 95% CI=2.11–20.06) and high grade (OR=4.23, 95% CI=1.47–12.14). We also observed a suggestion of an interaction among smoking, median age and any baldness (p=0.02). Conclusions We observed significant associations between early onset baldness and CaP in AA men. Interactions with age and smoking were suggested in these associations. Studies are needed to investigate the mechanisms influencing the relationship between baldness and CaP in AA. Impact AA men present with unique risk factors including baldness patterns that may contribute to CaP disparities. PMID:23532004

  12. 36 CFR 71.5 - Golden Eagle Passport.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... by any means other than private, noncommercial vehicle, to Designated Entrance Fee Areas. Golden... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Golden Eagle Passport. 71.5... RECREATION FEES § 71.5 Golden Eagle Passport. (a) The Golden Eagle Passport is an annual permit, valid on a...

  13. Male pattern baldness and the risk of prostate cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yassa, M; Saliou, M; De Rycke, Y; Hemery, C; Henni, M; Bachaud, J M; Thiounn, N; Cosset, J M; Giraud, P

    2011-08-01

    Androgens play a role in the development of both androgenic alopecia, commonly known as male pattern baldness, and prostate cancer. We set out to study if early-onset androgenic alopecia was associated with an increased risk of prostate cancer later in life. A total of 669 subjects (388 with a history of prostate cancer and 281 without) were enrolled in this study. All subjects were asked to score their balding pattern at ages 20, 30 and 40. Statistical comparison was subsequently done between both groups of patients. Our study revealed that patients with prostate cancer were twice as likely to have androgenic alopecia at age 20 [odds ratio (OR) 2.01, P = 0.0285]. The pattern of hair loss was not a predictive factor for the development of cancer. There was no association between early-onset alopecia and an earlier diagnosis of prostate cancer or with the development of more aggressive tumors. This study shows an association between early-onset androgenic alopecia and the development of prostate cancer. Whether this population can benefit from routine prostate cancer screening or systematic use of 5-alpha reductase inhibitors as primary prevention remains to be determined.

  14. Whooping crane preyed upon by golden eagle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Windingstad, Ronald M.; Stiles, Harry E.; Drewien, Roderick C.

    1981-01-01

    The Golden Eagle (Aquila chrysaetos) is the largest predatory bird in North America and is well known for its predatory abilities. Attacks have been reported on mammals such as whitetail jackrabbits (Lepus townsendi) (McGahan 1967, J. Wildl. Mgmt. 31: 496), pronghorn antelope (Antilocapra americana) (Bruhns 1970, Can. Field-Natur. 84: 301), Mallards (Anas platyrhynchos) (Kelleher and O'Malia 1971, Auk 88: 186), and Great Blue Herons (Ardea herodias) (Carnie 1954, Condor 56: 3). This communication describes an attack on an immature Whooping Crane (Grus americana) by a Golden Eagle and the subsequent necropsy findings.

  15. EAGLE: 'EAGLE'Is an' Algorithmic Graph Library for Exploration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2015-01-16

    The Resource Description Framework (RDF) and SPARQL Protocol and RDF Query Language (SPARQL) were introduced about a decade ago to enable flexible schema-free data interchange on the Semantic Web. Today data scientists use the framework as a scalable graph representation for integrating, querying, exploring and analyzing data sets hosted at different sources. With increasing adoption, the need for graph mining capabilities for the Semantic Web has emerged. Today there is no tools to conduct "graph mining" on RDF standard data sets. We address that need through implementation of popular iterative Graph Mining algorithms (Triangle count, Connected component analysis, degree distribution, diversity degree, PageRank, etc.). We implement these algorithms as SPARQL queries, wrapped within Python scripts and call our software tool as EAGLE. In RDF style, EAGLE stands for "EAGLE 'Is an' algorithmic graph library for exploration. EAGLE is like 'MATLAB' for 'Linked Data.'

  16. Differential expression analysis of balding and nonbalding dermal papilla microRNAs in male pattern baldness with a microRNA amplification profiling method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodarzi, H R; Abbasi, A; Saffari, M; Fazelzadeh Haghighi, M; Tabei, M B; Noori Daloii, M R

    2012-05-01

      Male pattern baldness or androgenetic alopecia is a common disorder affecting almost 50% of men throughout their lifetime, with androgens and genetics having significant contributing aetiologies. In contrast to the positive regulatory effect of androgens on body hair growth, they are thought to alter scalp hair follicle behaviour pathophysiologically, leading to male pattern baldness. However, the exact mechanisms of this paradoxical action have not yet been elucidated. The role of microRNAs, a novel group of noncoding RNAs impacting almost every aspect of biology, health and human diseases, has been documented in hair follicle formation. In addition, their deregulation in cancer of the prostate, a target organ of androgens, has also been well established. To investigate the possible contribution of microRNAs in the pathophysiology of male pattern baldness. We initially screened microRNA expression profiles of balding and nonbalding hair follicle papillae with a sensitive microRNA cloning method, microRNA amplification profiling, and statistically analysed significant differentially expressed microRNAs in balding relative to nonbalding dermal papillae, with real-time polymerase chain reaction as a confirmatory method to quantify expression in eight individuals affected with the disorder.   We detected the significant upregulation of miR-221, miR-125b, miR-106a and miR-410 in balding papilla cells.   We found four microRNAs that could participate in the pathogenesis of male pattern baldness. Regarding the strong therapeutic potential of microRNAs and the easy accessibility of hair follicles for gene therapy, microRNAs are possible candidates for a new generation of revolutionary treatments. © 2011 The Authors. BJD © 2011 British Association of Dermatologists.

  17. The First Find of the Imperial Eagle’s Nest at the Pole of High-Voltage Power Transmission Line in the Republic of Altai, Russia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elvira G. Nikolenko

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Inhabited nest of the Imperial Eagle was found on July 27, 2017 on the high-voltage power lines pole in the valley of the river Ursul near the fall of the river Karakol into it (Onguday district of the Altai Republic. Two adult nestlings ready to flyout and also a female bird were in the nest.

  18. Scaled Eagle Nebula Experiments on NIF

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pound, Marc W. [Univ. of Maryland, College Park, MD (United States)

    2017-03-28

    We performed scaled laboratory experiments at the National Ignition Facility laser to assess models for the creation of pillar structures in star-forming clouds of molecular hydrogen, in particular the famous Pillars of the Eagle Nebula. Because pillars typically point towards nearby bright ultraviolet stars, sustained directional illumination appears to be critical to pillar formation. The experiments mock up illumination from a cluster of ultraviolet-emitting stars, using a novel long duration (30--60 ns), directional, laser-driven x-ray source consisting of multiple radiation cavities illuminated in series. Our pillar models are assessed using the morphology of the Eagle Pillars observed with the Hubble Space Telescope, and measurements of column density and velocity in Eagle Pillar II obtained at the BIMA and CARMA millimeter wave facilities. In the first experiments we assess a shielding model for pillar formation. The experimental data suggest that a shielding pillar can match the observed morphology of Eagle Pillar II, and the observed Pillar II column density and velocity, if augmented by late time cometary growth.

  19. Summer and winter space use and home range characteristics of Golden Eagles (Aquila chrysaetos) in eastern North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Tricia A.; Brooks, Robert P.; Lanzone, Michael J.; Cooper, Jeff; O'Malley, Kieran; Brandes, David; Duerr, Adam E.; Katzner, Todd

    2017-01-01

    Movement behavior and its relationship to habitat provide critical information toward understanding the effects of changing environments on birds. The eastern North American population of Golden Eagles (Aquila chrysaetos) is a genetically distinct and small population of conservation concern. To evaluate the potential responses of this population to changing landscapes, we calculated the home range and core area sizes of 52 eagles of 6 age–sex classes during the summer and winter seasons. Variability in range size was related to variation in topography and open cover, and to age and sex. In summer, eagle ranges that were smaller had higher proportions of ridge tops and open cover and had greater topographic roughness than did larger ranges. In winter, smaller ranges had higher proportions of ridge tops, hillsides and cliffs, and open cover than did larger ranges. All age and sex classes responded similarly to topography and open cover in both seasons. Not surprisingly, adult eagles occupied the smallest ranges in both seasons. Young birds used larger ranges than adults, and subadults in summer used the largest ranges (>9,000 km2). Eastern adult home ranges in summer were 2–10 times larger than those reported for other populations in any season. Golden Eagles in eastern North America may need to compensate for generally lower-quality habitat in the region by using larger ranges that support access to adequate quantities of resources (prey, updrafts, and nesting, perching, and roosting sites) associated with open cover and diverse topography. Our results suggest that climate change–induced afforestation on the breeding grounds and ongoing land cover change from timber harvest and energy development on the wintering grounds may affect the amount of suitable habitat for Golden Eagles in eastern North America.

  20. The White-Bellied Sea Eagle at Kepulauan Seribu National Park, Java, Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gunawan Gunawan

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available One of the remaining habitats of The White-Bellied Sea Eagle (Haliaeetus leucogaster in Java is The National Marine Park of Kepulauan Seribu (TNKpS. Administratively, the park includes Regency of Seribu Islands (Kepulauan Seribu, Jakarta Province. The area is 107,489 hectares, and geographically lies on 05º23’ – 05º40’ S and 106º25’ – 106º37’ E. The area is among 78 islands of 110 islands spreading from the north to the south which forms a group of island with similar morphology and oceanography. For field survey we use direct observation method, semi structured interview with local people. Finding of nests on 7 islands and data compilation of entering eagle to the rehabilitation center in Kepulauan Seribu in Kotok Besar island. Based on our survey result, the population of White-Bellied Sea Eagle in Kepulauan Seribu National park was estimated on 28–32 individual. Study on home range was conducted intensively by using polygon method on breeding pair of this species at Yu Island. Based on current results, the home range of this species was estimated on 13.9 km2.

  1. The expanded "BAT" flap for treatment of male pattern baldness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, R D

    1993-11-01

    A new combination of expanded simultaneous transposition and advancement flaps is reported for the treatment of extensive male pattern baldness. Although vertical transposition and parieto-occipital advancement flaps in themselves are not new, their combination and simultaneous bilateral use combined with the use of expansion is new. The advantages of the expanded bilateral advancement transposition flap procedure are presented, along with the technique and results. The results are predictable, providing a more pleasing result, with a natural immediate temporal recession, avoidance of temporal dog-ears, and desirable anterior-superior direction of hair growth. Although flaps do require surgical skill and training, and there are risks and possible complications involved, the results are achieved in a relatively short time compared with grafting techniques. Flaps also provide the advantages of a full and natural hairline contrasted with the sparse look afforded by multiple grafts. The described procedures are very effective and reliable when properly planned and properly executed.

  2. Application of threshold concepts to ecological management problems: occupancy of Golden Eagles in Denali National Park, Alaska: Chapter 5

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eaton, Mitchell J.; Martin, Julien; Nichols, James D.; McIntyre, Carol; McCluskie, Maggie C.; Schmutz, Joel A.; Lubow, Bruce L.; Runge, Michael C.; Edited by Guntenspergen, Glenn R.

    2014-01-01

    In this chapter, we demonstrate the application of the various classes of thresholds, detailed in earlier chapters and elsewhere, via an actual but simplified natural resource management case study. We intend our example to provide the reader with the ability to recognize and apply the theoretical concepts of utility, ecological and decision thresholds to management problems through a formalized decision-analytic process. Our case study concerns the management of human recreational activities in Alaska’s Denali National Park, USA, and the possible impacts of such activities on nesting Golden Eagles, Aquila chrysaetos. Managers desire to allow visitors the greatest amount of access to park lands, provided that eagle nesting-site occupancy is maintained at a level determined to be acceptable by the managers themselves. As these two management objectives are potentially at odds, we treat minimum desired occupancy level as a utility threshold which, then, serves to guide the selection of annual management alternatives in the decision process. As human disturbance is not the only factor influencing eagle occupancy, we model nesting-site dynamics as a function of both disturbance and prey availability. We incorporate uncertainty in these dynamics by considering several hypotheses, including a hypothesis that site occupancy is affected only at a threshold level of prey abundance (i.e., an ecological threshold effect). By considering competing management objectives and accounting for two forms of thresholds in the decision process, we are able to determine the optimal number of annual nesting-site restrictions that will produce the greatest long-term benefits for both eagles and humans. Setting a utility threshold of 75 occupied sites, out of a total of 90 potential nesting sites, the optimization specified a decision threshold at approximately 80 occupied sites. At the point that current occupancy falls below 80 sites, the recommended decision is to begin restricting

  3. Evaluation of DNA Variants Associated with Androgenetic Alopecia and Their Potential to Predict Male Pattern Baldness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marcińska, Magdalena; Pośpiech, Ewelina; Abidi, Sarah

    2015-01-01

    Androgenetic alopecia, known in men as male pattern baldness (MPB), is a very conspicuous condition that is particularly frequent among European men and thus contributes markedly to variation in physical appearance traits amongst Europeans. Recent studies have revealed multiple genes and polymorp......Androgenetic alopecia, known in men as male pattern baldness (MPB), is a very conspicuous condition that is particularly frequent among European men and thus contributes markedly to variation in physical appearance traits amongst Europeans. Recent studies have revealed multiple genes...... and an extended 20-SNP model were developed based on a discovery panel of 305 males from various European populations fitting one of two distinct phenotype categories. The first category consisted of men below 50 years of age with significant baldness and the second; men aged 50 years or older lacking baldness...

  4. Lifespan analyses of forest raptor nests: patterns of creation, persistence and reuse.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María V Jiménez-Franco

    Full Text Available Structural elements for breeding such as nests are key resources for the conservation of bird populations. This is especially true when structural elements require a specific and restricted habitat, or if the construction of nests is costly in time and energy. The availability of nesting-platforms is influenced by nest creation and persistence. In a Mediterranean forest in southeastern Spain, nesting-platforms are the only structural element for three forest-dwelling raptor species: booted eagle Aquila pennata, common buzzard Buteo buteo and northern goshawk Accipiter gentilis. From 1998 to 2013, we tracked the fate of 157 nesting-platforms built and reused by these species with the aim of determining the rates of creation and destruction of nesting-platforms, estimating nest persistence by applying two survival analyses, describing the pattern of nest reuse and testing the effects of nest use on breeding success. Nest creation and destruction rates were low (0.14 and 0.05, respectively. Using Kaplan Meier survival estimates and Cox proportional-hazards regression models we found that median nest longevity was 12 years and that this was not significantly affected by nest characteristics, nest-tree dimensions, nest-builder species, or frequency of use of the platform. We also estimated a transition matrix, considering the different stages of nest occupation (vacant or occupied by one of the focal species, to obtain the fundamental matrix and the average life expectancies of nests, which varied from 17.9 to 19.7 years. Eighty six percent of nests were used in at least one breeding attempt, 67.5% were reused and 17.8% were successively occupied by at least two of the study species. The frequency of nest use had no significant effects on the breeding success of any species. We conclude that nesting-platforms constitute an important resource for forest raptors and that their longevity is sufficiently high to allow their reuse in multiple breeding

  5. Lifespan Analyses of Forest Raptor Nests: Patterns of Creation, Persistence and Reuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiménez-Franco, María V.; Martínez, José E.; Calvo, José F.

    2014-01-01

    Structural elements for breeding such as nests are key resources for the conservation of bird populations. This is especially true when structural elements require a specific and restricted habitat, or if the construction of nests is costly in time and energy. The availability of nesting-platforms is influenced by nest creation and persistence. In a Mediterranean forest in southeastern Spain, nesting-platforms are the only structural element for three forest-dwelling raptor species: booted eagle Aquila pennata, common buzzard Buteo buteo and northern goshawk Accipiter gentilis. From 1998 to 2013, we tracked the fate of 157 nesting-platforms built and reused by these species with the aim of determining the rates of creation and destruction of nesting-platforms, estimating nest persistence by applying two survival analyses, describing the pattern of nest reuse and testing the effects of nest use on breeding success. Nest creation and destruction rates were low (0.14 and 0.05, respectively). Using Kaplan Meier survival estimates and Cox proportional-hazards regression models we found that median nest longevity was 12 years and that this was not significantly affected by nest characteristics, nest-tree dimensions, nest-builder species, or frequency of use of the platform. We also estimated a transition matrix, considering the different stages of nest occupation (vacant or occupied by one of the focal species), to obtain the fundamental matrix and the average life expectancies of nests, which varied from 17.9 to 19.7 years. Eighty six percent of nests were used in at least one breeding attempt, 67.5% were reused and 17.8% were successively occupied by at least two of the study species. The frequency of nest use had no significant effects on the breeding success of any species. We conclude that nesting-platforms constitute an important resource for forest raptors and that their longevity is sufficiently high to allow their reuse in multiple breeding attempts. PMID

  6. Male pattern baldness and risk of incident skin cancer in a cohort of men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wen-Qing; Cho, Eunyoung; Han, Jiali; Weinstock, Martin A; Qureshi, Abrar A

    2016-12-15

    We examined the association between male-pattern baldness and risk of incident skin cancer, including invasive melanoma, invasive squamous cell carcinoma (SCC), and basal cell carcinoma (BCC) in a prospective analysis, based on 36,032 participants from the Health Professionals' Follow-up Study. In 1992, participants reported their status of male-pattern baldness at age 45 years by choosing from five crown-view pictograms based on Norwood's classification. Diagnosis of skin cancers was reported biennially and information on melanoma and SCC was pathologically confirmed. We identified 327 melanoma cases, 1324 SCC cases, and 8438 BCC cases during the follow-up. Male-pattern baldness was not significantly associated with risk of incident melanoma, but was significantly associated with increased risk of SCC and BCC. The multivariate-adjusted hazard ratio (HR) (95% confidence interval, CI) for the highest category of baldness (frontal plus severe vertex baldness) was 1.33 (1.06-1.68) for SCC (p trend  = 0.001) and 1.23 (1.12-1.35) for BCC (p trend  baldness. Analyses by body sites found significant associations between frontal plus moderate to severe vertex baldness and risk of melanoma (HR = 1.83, 95% CI: 1.01-3.34) and SCC (HR = 1.30, 95% CI: 1.02-1.66) at head and neck. The associations were particularly stronger for scalp melanoma (HR = 7.15, 95% CI: 1.29-39.42) and scalp SCC (HR = 7.09, 95% CI: 3.84-13.08), but not for non-scalp head and neck sites. Information on body sites was not available for BCC. In conclusion, male pattern baldness may be associated with increased risk of skin cancer, but the associations may only exist for those occurring at head and neck, particularly at scalp. © 2016 UICC.

  7. Balding goes trolling? Cross-media amplification of controversy at the 2012 Olympics

    OpenAIRE

    Aslan, Billur; Dennis, James William; O'Loughlin, Ben

    2015-01-01

    Victory by Chinese swimmer Ye Shiwen in the 400 metre individual medley at the London Olympic Games provoked instant and controversial reactions. BBC presenter Clare Balding immediately linked Shiwen to doping. If ‘trolling’ online is the deliberate upsetting of audiences to trigger debate and reflection, was Balding trolling? Her comments triggered trajectories of affective engagement across social and mainstream media, in Britain and internationally, which fed back into BBC coverage. We tra...

  8. Diet of the White-Tailed Eagle During the Breeding Season in the Polesski State Radiation-Ecological Reserve, Belarus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valeri V. Yurko

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available This article presents data on the diet of the White-Tailed Eagle (Haliaeetus albicilla collected during breeding seasons of 2006–2015 in the Polesski State Radiation-Ecological Reserve. The data included 127 records of prey remains belonging to 27 species of vertebrates collected in and under the nests. We discovered that the diet of the White-Tailed Eagle mainly consists of vertebrates of three classes: fishes (Pisces 48.1 %, birds (Aves 41.7 % and mammals (Mammalia 10.2 %. At the present, the main prey species in the diet of the White-Tailed Eagle in the breeding season are: Bream (Abramis brama – 22.0 %, Black Stork (Ciconia nigra – 12.6 %, Northern Pike (Esox lucius – 10.2 %, Wild Boar (Sus scrofa – 7.1 %, White Stork (Ciconia ciconia – 6.3 %, Mallard (Anas platyrhynchos – 5.5 % and Eurasian Coot (Fulica atra – 5.5 %. Together these species makes up 69.2 % or 2/3 of the diet of this raptor. We also established that cannibalism is a character feature of the local population of White-Tailed Eagle, and its proportion is 2.4 %.

  9. Serum androgens and prostate-specific antigen levels in androgenetic alopecia: is there a difference between frontal and vertex baldness?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lis-Święty, A; Arasiewicz, H; Ranosz-Janicka, I; Brzezińska-Wcisło, L

    2017-12-13

    Androgenetic alopecia (AGA) seems to be a marker of increased risk of prostate cancer (PCa). We sought to investigate potential pathophysiological differences between frontal and vertex balding that might have the impact on the incidence of PCa. Serum concentrations of testosterone (T), dihydrotestosterone (DHT) and prostate-specific antigen (PSA) were measured in 88 subjects with AGA. We have examined sixty patients with frontal baldness and 28 patients with vertex baldness. The subgroups did not differ significantly in age, BMI and as regards age of AGA onset, duration of AGA and comorbidities. The mean value of DHT in serum of the men with vertex baldness was higher than those in the men with frontal baldness with statistical significance (P baldness may signal higher exposures to circulating DHT. Serum PSA level cannot serve as surrogate diagnostic marker of increased androgenic activity in men with AGA. © 2017 European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology.

  10. Eagle-i: Making Invisible Resources, Visible

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haendel, M.; Wilson, M.; Torniai, C.; Segerdell, E.; Shaffer, C.; Frost, R.; Bourges, D.; Brownstein, J.; McInnerney, K.

    2010-01-01

    RP-134 The eagle-i Consortium – Dartmouth College, Harvard Medical School, Jackson State University, Morehouse School of Medicine, Montana State University, Oregon Health and Science University (OHSU), the University of Alaska, the University of Hawaii, and the University of Puerto Rico – aims to make invisible resources for scientific research visible by developing a searchable network of resource repositories at research institutions nationwide. Now in early development, it is hoped that the system will scale beyond the consortium at the end of the two-year pilot. Data Model & Ontology: The eagle-i ontology development team at the OHSU Library is generating the data model and ontologies necessary for resource indexing and querying. Our indexing system will enable cores and research labs to represent resources within a defined vocabulary, leading to more effective searches and better linkage between data types. This effort is being guided by active discussions within the ontology community (http://RRontology.tk) bringing together relevant preexisting ontologies in a logical framework. The goal of these discussions is to provide context for interoperability and domain-wide standards for resource types used throughout biomedical research. Research community feedback is welcomed. Architecture Development, led by a team at Harvard, includes four main components: tools for data collection, management and curation; an institutional resource repository; a federated network; and a central search application. Each participating institution will populate and manage their repository locally, using data collection and curation tools. To help improve search performance, data tools will support the semi-automatic annotation of resources. A central search application will use a federated protocol to broadcast queries to all repositories and display aggregated results. The search application will leverage the eagle-i ontologies to help guide users to valid queries via auto

  11. Golden Eagle Territories and Ecology at Site 300

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fratanduono, M. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2015-09-29

    Garcia and Associates (GANDA) was contracted by the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) to collect information on golden eagle (Aquila chrysaetos) use of Site 300. During 2014, we conducted surveys at Site 300 and for an area including a 10-mile radius of Site 300. Those surveys documented 42 golden eagle territories including two territories that overlapped with Site 300. These were named ‘Tesla’ and ‘Linac Road’. In 2015, we conducted surveys to refine the territory boundaries of golden eagle territories that overlapped with Site 300 and to document eagle activity at Site 300.

  12. Doctors and baldness: a five thousand year old challenge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campo, Daniele; D'Acunzo, Valeria

    2016-02-01

    The history of trichology follows a thread that continually intersects with that of the history of medicine in general. Even Hippocrates believed that the approach to baldness should be of a medical nature. This confrontation between doctors and hair loss, which has lasted for five thousand years, begins with the invocations of the head physicians in the Egyptian era and ends with the recent institution of postgraduate Master's degrees at Faculties of Medicine and Surgery. The biggest names in medicine concerned themselves with trichology beginning with Hippocrates, who dealt with the topic in his most famous work: the Aphorisms. Even the most celebrated doctors of the Roman era, such as Galen and Pliny the Elder, did not disdain considering hair loss, leaving important scientific contributions before passing on the baton to their distinguished colleagues of the Byzantine Empire. The narrative then flows through the most prestigious institutions of the Middle Ages, such as the Salerno School of Medicine and the Siena Accademia del Fisiocritici where, at the end of the 1600s, the distinguished anatomical describer Marcello Malpighi also taught trichology, and left his contribution to "Hair Science" with a fine description of the hair follicle in the pages of his Opera Posthuma. At the turn of the late Middle Ages and the early modern era, barbers formed the primordial nucleus of surgery and at the same time became the ones to concern themselves with hair loss. In the 1800s, several doctors published the first texts dealing with the anatomy and physiology of the hair and taking into account the principal forms of alopecia, but at the therapeutic level did not yet propose anything scientifically valid. Until a few decades ago trichology still lent itself to various commercial speculations. It was not until the twentieth century that the pathogenetic mechanisms of baldness were clarified in a scientific manner. With this knowledge, the pharmaceutical industry has been

  13. Daedalus Project's Light Eagle - Human powered aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-01-01

    The Michelob Light Eagle is seen here in flight over Rogers Dry Lake at the NASA Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California. The Light Eagle and Daedalus human powered aircraft were testbeds for flight research conducted at Dryden between January 1987 and March 1988. These unique aircraft were designed and constructed by a group of students, professors, and alumni of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology within the context of the Daedalus project. The construction of the Light Eagle and Daedalus aircraft was funded primarily by the Anheuser Busch and United Technologies Corporations, respectively, with additional support from the Smithsonian Air and Space Museum, MIT, and a number of other sponsors. To celebrate the Greek myth of Daedalus, the man who constructed wings of wax and feathers to escape King Minos, the Daedalus project began with the goal of designing, building and testing a human-powered aircraft that could fly the mythical distance, 115 km. To achieve this goal, three aircraft were constructed. The Light Eagle was the prototype aircraft, weighing 92 pounds. On January 22, 1987, it set a closed course distance record of 59 km, which still stands. Also in January of 1987, the Light Eagle was powered by Lois McCallin to set the straight distance, the distance around a closed circuit, and the duration world records for the female division in human powered vehicles. Following this success, two more aircraft were built, the Daedalus 87 and Daedalus 88. Each aircraft weighed approximately 69 pounds. The Daedalus 88 aircraft was the ship that flew the 199 km from the Iraklion Air Force Base on Crete in the Mediterranean Sea, to the island of Santorini in 3 hours, 54 minutes. In the process, the aircraft set new records in distance and endurance for a human powered aircraft. The specific areas of flight research conducted at Dryden included characterizing the rigid body and flexible dynamics of the Light Eagle, investigating sensors for an

  14. Spatial patterns in occupancy and reproduction of Golden Eagles during drought: Prospects for conservation in changing environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiens, David; Kolar, Patrick; Hunt, W. Grainger; Hunt, Teresa; Fuller, Mark R.; Bell, Douglas A.

    2018-01-01

    We used a broad-scale sampling design to investigate spatial patterns in occupancy and breeding success of territorial pairs of Golden Eagles (Aquila chrysaetos) in the Diablo Range, California, USA, during a period of exceptional drought (2014–2016). We surveyed 138 randomly selected sample sites over 4 occasions each year and identified 199 pairs of eagles, 100 of which were detected in focal sample sites. We then used dynamic multistate modeling to identify relationships between site occupancy and reproduction of Golden Eagles relative to spatial variability in landscape composition and drought conditions. We observed little variability among years in site occupancy (3-yr mean = 0.74), but the estimated annual probability of successful reproduction was relatively low during the study period and declined from 0.39 (± 0.08 SE) to 0.18 (± 0.07 SE). Probabilities of site occupancy and reproduction were substantially greater at sample sites that were occupied by successful breeders in the previous year, indicating the presence of sites that were consistently used by successfully reproducing eagles. We found strong evidence for nonrandom spatial distribution in both occupancy and reproduction: Sites with the greatest potential for occupancy were characterized by rugged terrain conditions with intermediate amounts of grassland interspersed with patches of oak woodland and coniferous forest, whereas successful reproduction was most strongly associated with the amount of precipitation that a site received during the nesting period. Our findings highlight the contribution of consistently occupied and productive breeding sites to overall productivity of the local breeding population, and show that both occupancy and reproduction at these sites were maintained even during a period of exceptional drought. Our approach to quantifying and mapping site quality should be especially useful for the spatial prioritization of compensation measures intended to help offset the

  15. Eagle Hill, Kenya: changes over 60 years | Thomsett | Scopus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Eagle Hill, the study site of the late Leslie Brown, was first surveyed over 60 years ago in 1948. The demise of its eagle population was near-complete less than 50 years later, but significantly, the majority of these losses occurred in the space of a few years in the late 1970s. Unfortunately, human densities and land use ...

  16. The EAGLE simulations: atomic hydrogen associated with galaxies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Crain, Robert A.; Bahé, Yannick M.; Lagos, Claudia del P.; Rahmati, Alireza; Schaye, Joop; McCarthy, Ian G.; Marasco, Antonino; Bower, Richard G.; Schaller, Matthieu; Theuns, Tom; van der Hulst, Thijs

    2017-01-01

    We examine the properties of atomic hydrogen (H I) associated with galaxies in the Evolution and Assembly of GaLaxies and their Environments (EAGLE) simulations of galaxy formation. EAGLE's feedback parameters were calibrated to reproduce the stellar mass function and galaxy sizes at z = 0.1, and we

  17. Cavity Nesting Birds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Virgil E. Scott; Keith E. Evans; David R. Patton; Charles P. Stone

    1977-01-01

    Many species of cavity-nesting birds have declined because of habitat reduction. In the eastern United States, where primeval forests are gone, purple martins depend almost entirely on man-made nesting structures (Allen and Nice 1952). The hole-nesting population of peregrine falcons disappeared with the felling of the giant trees upon which they depended (Hickey and...

  18. Prediction of male-pattern baldness from genotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Fan; Hamer, Merel A; Heilmann, Stefanie; Herold, Christine; Moebus, Susanne; Hofman, Albert; Uitterlinden, André G; Nöthen, Markus M; van Duijn, Cornelia M; Nijsten, Tamar Ec; Kayser, Manfred

    2016-06-01

    The global demand for products that effectively prevent the development of male-pattern baldness (MPB) has drastically increased. However, there is currently no established genetic model for the estimation of MPB risk. We conducted a prediction analysis using single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) identified from previous GWASs of MPB in a total of 2725 German and Dutch males. A logistic regression model considering the genotypes of 25 SNPs from 12 genomic loci demonstrates that early-onset MPB risk is predictable at an accuracy level of 0.74 when 14 SNPs were included in the model, and measured using the area under the receiver-operating characteristic curves (AUC). Considering age as an additional predictor, the model can predict normal MPB status in middle-aged and elderly individuals at a slightly lower accuracy (AUC 0.69-0.71) when 6-11 SNPs were used. A variance partitioning analysis suggests that 55.8% of early-onset MPB genetic liability can be explained by common autosomal SNPs and 23.3% by X-chromosome SNPs. For normal MPB status in elderly individuals, the proportion of explainable variance is lower (42.4% for autosomal and 9.8% for X-chromosome SNPs). The gap between GWAS findings and the variance partitioning results could be explained by a large body of common DNA variants with small effects that will likely be identified in GWAS of increased sample sizes. Although the accuracy obtained here has not reached a clinically desired level, our model was highly informative for up to 19% of Europeans, thus may assist decision making on early MPB intervention actions and in forensic investigations.

  19. Breeding biology and conservation of hawk-eagles (Spizaetus spp. (Aves, Accipitridae in southern Atlantic Forest, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felipe Zilio

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Neotropical hawk-eagles (Spizaetus spp. are large forest raptors, having low population densities and high sensitivity to human disturbance. The three species of Brazil’s Atlantic forest (S. ornatus, S. melanoleucus, S. tyrannus are threatened and little is known of many aspects of their biology, such habitat requirements, nesting behavior, and food habitats. Here I present data about the breeding biology, diet and behavior of the Ornate Hawk-Eagle (S. ornatus; OHE and the Black-and-white Hawk-Eagle (S. melanoleucus; BWHW, and estimations of distribution - extent of occurrence (EOO - and population sizes for the three hawk-eagles of the southern Atlantic Forest. I compiled data from nine years of field studies done in Rio Grande do Sul and Santa Catarina combined with data from the literature (n = 191 records. I calculated the total amount of forest available for each species by GIS analyses and estimated population sizes based on species density data from the literature. The EOO was 123,551 km² for BWHE, 92,512 km² for OHE, and 67,824 km² for Black Hawk-Eagle (S. tyrannus; BHE. All species experienced more than 30% shrinkage in their historical distribution (before the year 2000. Forest remnants comprise 32% of BHE’s EOO and around 20% for other hawk-eagle species. Population sizes estimated for the southern region were 869 pairs for BHE (1,684 individuals, 1,532 pairs for BWHE (2,849 individuals, and 2,020 pairs for OHE (1,192 individuals. Population size estimates based only on forest patches larger than 10 km² were 542 pairs for BHE (RS = 48 pairs; SC = 494 pairs, 818 pairs for BWHE (RS = 67 pairs; SC = 751 pairs, and 1,178 pairs for OHE (RS = 67 pairs; SC = 1,111 pairs. I recorded displays and copulation of BWHE in July; the nest was built in an inaccessible, emergent tree in the hillside of a valley. Two nests of OHE were found in emergent trees (20 m and 30 m height measured 138 x 115 x 45 cm and 132 x 100 x 100 cm; one

  20. 78 FR 900 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Alaska: Eagle River PM10

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-07

    ... nonattainment area (Eagle River NAA) and the State's request to redesignate the area to attainment for the... NAAQS B. Eagle River NAA and Planning Background III. Requirements for Redesignation A. CAA Requirements... and LMPs A. Has the Eagle River NAA attained the applicable NAAQS? B. Does the Eagle River NAA have a...

  1. 76 FR 65507 - Notice of Petition for Rate Approval; Eagle Ford Midstream, LP

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-21

    ... Petition for Rate Approval; Eagle Ford Midstream, LP Take notice that on October 11, 2011, (Eagle Ford..., and its initial baseline Statement of Operating Conditions. Eagle Ford states that it is an existing..., currently providing intrastate services to its customers. Eagle Ford proposed rates for Section 311...

  2. Columbia River ESI: NESTS (Nest Points)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for bird nesting sites in the Columbia River area. Vector points in this data set represent locations of...

  3. Brief communication: Plio-Pleistocene eagle predation on fossil cercopithecids from the Humpata Plateau, southern Angola.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbert, Christopher C; McGraw, W Scott; Delson, Eric

    2009-07-01

    Recent studies suggest a large raptor such as the crowned eagle (Stephanaoetus coronatus) was responsible for collecting at least a portion of the primate fauna from the South African fossil site of Taung, including its lone hominin specimen. This taphonomic signature at Taung is currently regarded as a unique and, most likely, isolated case in primate and human evolution. However, the activities of large, carnivorous birds should also be detectable at other primate fossil localities in Africa if raptors have been a strong selective force throughout primate evolution. Over the last 60 years, a collection of extinct cercopithecids has been assembled from several cave breccias on the Humpata Plateau in southern Angola. The material, dated near the Plio-Pleistocene boundary, includes an assortment of craniodental and postcranial remains variably assigned to Papio (Dinopithecus) cf. quadratirostris, Parapapio, Cercopithecoides, and Theropithecus. We compare the Angolan and Taung material to remains of extant primates killed by crowned eagles in the Ivory Coast's Tai National Park. Our analysis indicates that the size distribution and composition of fauna from the localities is quite similar and that there are striking consistencies in damage to the crania from each site. The absence of large bodied (>20 kg) primates and other mammalian taxa at the Taung hominin locality and Tai, and their rarity in Angola, combined with the strong likelihood that raptor nests were positioned near fissure openings at both fossil localities, provides additional support for eagle involvement. On the basis of this evidence, we conclude that at least some of the Angolan cercopithecids were most likely raptor prey and hypothesize that raptor predation has been a strong and perhaps underappreciated selective force during the course of primate evolution.

  4. Living on the edge: assessing the extinction risk of critically endangered Bonelli's eagle in Italy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pascual López-López

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The population of Bonelli's eagle (Aquila fasciata has declined drastically throughout its European range due to habitat degradation and unnatural elevated mortality. There are less than 1500 breeding pairs accounted for in Europe, and the species is currently catalogued as Critically Endangered in Italy, where the 22 territories of Sicily, represent nearly 95% of the entire Italian population. However, despite national and European conservation concerns, the species currently lacks a specific conservation plan, and no previous attempts to estimate the risk of extinction have been made. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We incorporated the most updated demographic information available to assess the extinction risk of endangered Bonelli's eagle in Italy through a Population Viability Analysis. Using perturbation analyses (sensitivity and elasticity, and a combination of demographic data obtained from an assortment of independent methods, we evaluated which demographic parameters have more influence on the population's fate. We also simulated different scenarios to explore the effects of possible management actions. Our results showed that under the current conditions, Bonelli's eagle is expected to become extinct in Italy in less than 50 years. Stand-alone juvenile mortality was the most critical demographic parameter with the strongest influence on population persistence with respect to other demographic parameters. Measures aimed at either decreasing juvenile mortality, adult mortality or decreasing both juvenile and adult mortality resulted in equivalent net positive effects on population persistence (population growth rate λ>1. In contrast, changes aimed at increasing breeding success had limited positive effects on demographic trends. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our PVA provides essential information to direct the decision-making process and exposes gaps in our previous knowledge. To ensure the long-term persistence of the species

  5. Comparison of nest-site selection patterns of different sympatric raptor species as a tool for their conservation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Poirazidis, K.

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available In this study the nest-site selection patterns of four tree-nesting sympatric raptor species in Dadia National Park (Greece were compared in order to provide a sound conservation tool for their long-term management in the area. The species studied were the Black vulture (Aegypius monachus, the Lesser-spotted eagle (Aquila pomarina, the Booted eagle (Hieraaetus pennatus and the Goshawk (Accipiter gentilis. Twenty-six variables illustrating the landscape context and vegetation structure of nesting sites were analysed. Multivariate-ANOVA and Discriminant Function Analysis were used to test for significant differentiations in nest-site characteristics among the species. The species studied were initially differentiated by geomorphology and distance to foraging areas. Once these were determined their nesting areas were established according to forest structure. Our results indicate that forest management should integrate the preservation of mature forest stands with sparse canopy and forest heterogeneity in order to conserve suitable nesting habitats for the raptors. Specific conservation measures such as restriction of road construction should be implemented in order to protect the active nests and provisions should be made for adequate nesting sites for the Black vulture, which is sensitive to human disturbance.

  6. Ancient DNA Tells Story of Giant Eagle Evolution

    OpenAIRE

    Bunce, Michael; Szulkin, Marta; Lerner, Heather R. L; Barnes, Ian; Shapiro, Beth; Cooper, Alan; Holdaway, Richard N

    2005-01-01

    Prior to human settlement 700 years ago New Zealand had no terrestrial mammals--apart from three species of bats--instead, approximately 250 avian species dominated the ecosystem. At the top of the food chain was the extinct Haast's eagle, Harpagornis moorei. H. moorei (10-15 kg; 2-3 m wingspan) was 30%-40% heavier than the largest extant eagle (the harpy eagle, Harpia harpyja), and hunted moa up to 15 times its weight. In a dramatic example of morphological plasticity and rapid size increase...

  7. The Conservation Status of Eagles in South African Law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JC Knobel

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This contribution is an introductory survey and preliminary evaluation of the conservation status of eagles in South African law. The methodology is primarily an interdisciplinary literature study of legal texts and texts from the natural sciences. Eagles are some of the largest and most powerful avian predators, and the human response to their presence is dualistic and polarised. At the one extreme, many people admire eagles, while at the other extreme they are perceived as a threat to economic and other interests, and may even be actively persecuted in a conviction that they are vermin. This duality in the human perception of eagles is also prevalent in South Africa and complicates their conservation. The mobility of eagles and other birds of prey means that they cannot be restrained by fencing national parks and other protected areas, and this heightens the likelihood of their entering into conflict with human interests. The conservation problems faced by eagles in South Africa can broadly be divided into direct and indirect threats. Direct threats include the intentional killing of eagles, and trade in eagles and their eggs. Indirect threats include non-targeted poisoning (where poisoned bait is used to control other predators, but eagles find the bait, feed on it, and succumb; habitat loss; mortality induced by dangerous structures; and disturbance. The legal status of eagles is influenced by a large body of legislative provisions, ranging from international and regional legal instruments, through national legislation, to provincial legislative measures. An overview of these provisions is given, with concise explanations of how they apply to the legal status of eagles and other birds of prey in South Africa. The conservation status of eagles in South African law is subsequently evaluated by considering the contribution of the applicable laws to three main types of conservation interventions. In respect of the first, habitat preservation

  8. GWAS for male-pattern baldness identifies 71 susceptibility loci explaining 38% of the risk

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pirastu, Nicola; Joshi, Peter K.; de Vries, Paul S.; Cornelis, Marilyn C.; McKeigue, Paul M.; Keum, NaNa; Franceschini, Nora; Colombo, Marco; Giovannucci, Edward L.; Spiliopoulou, Athina; Franke, Lude; North, Kari E.; Kraft, Peter; Morrison, Alanna C.; Esko, Tonu; Wilson, James F.

    2017-01-01

    Male pattern baldness (MPB) or androgenetic alopecia is one of the most common conditions affecting men, reaching a prevalence of similar to 50% by the age of 50; however, the known genes explain little of the heritability. Here, we present the results of a genome-wide association study including

  9. The cultivable autochthonous microbiota of the critically endangered Northern bald ibis (Geronticus eremita)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loncaric, Igor; Tichy, Alexander; Fritz, Johannes; Scope, Alexandra

    2018-01-01

    The critically endangered Northern bald ibis (Geronticus eremita) is a migratory bird that became extinct in Europe centuries ago. Since 2014, the Northern bald ibis is subject to an intensive rehabilitation and conservation regime aiming to reintroduce the bird in its original distribution range in Central Europe and concurrently to maintain bird health and increase population size. Hitherto, virtually nothing is known about the microbial communities associated with the ibis species; an information pivotal for the veterinary management of these birds. Hence, the present study was conducted to provide a baseline description of the cultivable microbiota residing in the Northern bald ibis. Samples derived from the choana, trachea, crop and cloaca were examined employing a culturomic approach in order to identify microbes at each sampling site and to compare their frequency among age classes, seasonal appearances and rearing types. In total, 94 microbial species including 14 potentially new bacterial taxa were cultivated from the Northern bald ibis with 36, 58 and 59 bacterial species isolated from the choana, crop and cloaca, respectively. The microbiota of the Northern bald ibis was dominated by members of the phylum Firmicutes, followed by Proteobacteria, Actinobacteria, Bacteroidetes and Fusobacteria, altogether phylotypes commonly observed within avian gut environments. Differences in relative abundances of various microbial taxa were evident among sample types indicating mucosa-specific colonisation properties and tissue tropism. Besides, results of the present study indicate that the composition of microbiota was also affected by age, season (environment) and rearing type. While the prevalence of traditional pathogenic microbial species was extremely low, several opportunists including Clostridium perfringens toxotype A were frequently present in samples indicating that the Northern bald ibis may represent an important animal reservoir for these pathogens. In

  10. Eagle syndrome surgical treatment with piezosurgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertossi, Dario; Albanese, Massimo; Chiarini, Luigi; Corega, Claudia; Mortellaro, Carmen; Nocini, Pierfrancesco

    2014-05-01

    Eagle syndrome (ES) is an uncommon complication of styloid process elongation with stylohyoideal complex symptomatic calcification. It is an uncommon condition (4% of the population) that is symptomatic in only 4% of the cases. Eagle syndrome is usually an acquired condition that can be related to tonsillectomy or to a neck trauma. A type of ES is the styloid-carotid syndrome, a consequence of the irritation of pericarotid sympathetic fibers and compression on the carotid artery. Clinical manifestations are found most frequently after head turning and neck compression. Although conservative treatment (analgesics, anticonvulsants, antidepressants, local infiltration with steroids, or anesthetic agents) have been used, surgical treatment is often the only effective treatment in symptomatic cases. We present the case of a 55-year-old patient, successfully treated under endotracheal anesthesia. The cranial portion of the calcified styloid process was shortened through an external approach, using a piezoelectric cutting device (Piezosurgery Medical II; Mectron Medical Technology, Carasco, Italy) with MT1-10 insert, pump level 4, vibration level 7. No major postoperative complications such as nerve damage, hematoma, or wound dehiscence occurred. After 6 months, the patient was completely recovered. Two years after the surgery, the patient did not refer any symptoms related to ES. The transcervical surgical approach in patients with ES seems to be safe and effective, despite the remarkable risk for transient marginal mandibular nerve palsy. This risk can be decreased by the use of the piezoelectric device for its distinctive characteristics--such as precision, selective cut action, and bloodless cut.

  11. the conservation status of eagles in south african law

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    10332324

    The conservation threats to eagles in South Africa may be classified into two broad ..... 3.1.6 The Convention on Persistent Organic Pollutants (2001) (the ...... South Africa has highly advanced biodiversity legislation in place, but merely having.

  12. Evaluation Of The Coincidence Of Male Pattern Baldness And Pityrosporum Group Of Fungus In Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javanbakht Arash

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The aetilogy of male pattern baldness (MPB is not clearly found yet. The present study has been designed to determine if three is a significant statistical coincidence between MPB and pityrosporm group of fungal infection. This cross-sectional study covers 50 men with the diagnosis of MPB who visited the dermatology clinic of Qaem hospital of Mashhad Medical University as the case group and 43 men with no evidence of MPB as the control group. A questionnaire was filled out for each person of the two groups and mycological sampling was done from three parts of the case group scalp (bald, balding, intact areas and two parts of the control group scalp (vertex and parietal. All the data were analysed using the software SPSS 10.00 and Chi-square, Pearson Chi-square and Friedman tests. Results showed that there was no difference between different degrees of infection in the intact area (p>0.05. Among the three parts of the case group scalp, bald area had the highest degree of infection (p<0.001. The degree of infection in the bald area of the case group scalp was higher than that of the vertex area of the control group scalp (p<0.001, while there was no difference between the degrees of infection in the intact area of the case group scalp and the parietal area of the control group scalp (p>0.05. This study supports some previous studies that claimed that there might be coincidence between MPB and pityrosporum fungal infection.

  13. Golden Eagle predation on experimental Sandhill and Whooping Cranes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis, D.H.; Clegg, K.R.; Lewis, J.C.; Spaulding, E.

    1999-01-01

    There are very few published records of Golden Eagles preying upon cranes, especially in North America. During our experiments to lead cranes on migration behind motorized craft in the western United States, we experienced 15 attacks (four fatal) and believe many more attacks would have occurred (and more would have been fatal) without human intervention. We recognize eagle predation as an important risk to cranes especially during migration.

  14. Spizaetus hawk-eagles as predators of arboreal colobines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fam, S D; Nijman, V

    2011-04-01

    The predation pressure put on primates by diurnal birds of prey differs greatly between continents. Africa and South America have specialist raptors (e.g. crowned hawk-eagle Stephanoaetus coronatus and harpy eagle Harpia harpyja) whereas in Asia the only such specialist's (Philippine eagle Pithecophaga jefferyi) distribution is largely allopatric with primates. The almost universal absence of polyspecific groups in Asia (common in Africa and South America) may indicate reduced predation pressure. As such there is almost no information on predation pressures on primates in Asia by raptors. Here we report successful predation of a juvenile banded langur Presbytis femoralis (~2 kg) by a changeable hawk-eagle Spizaetus cirrhatus. The troop that was attacked displayed no signs of being alarmed, and no calls were made before the event. We argue that in insular Southeast Asia, especially, large Spizaetus hawk-eagles (~2 kg) are significant predators of arboreal colobines. Using data on the relative size of sympatric Spizaetus hawk-eagles and colobines we make predictions on where geographically we can expect the highest predation pressure (Thai-Malay Peninsula) and which colobines are least (Nasalis larvatus, Trachypithecus auratus, P. thomasi) and most (P. femoralis, T. cristatus) affected.

  15. Nested Potential Games

    OpenAIRE

    Hiroshi Uno

    2007-01-01

    This paper proposes a new class of potential games, the nested potential games, which generalize the potential games defined in Monderer and Shapley (1996), as well as the pseudo-potential games defined in Dubey et al. (2006). We show that each maximizer of a nested potential is a Nash equilibrium.

  16. Male pattern baldness in relation to prostate cancer risk: an analysis in the VITamins And Lifestyle (VITAL) cohort study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Cindy Ke; Littman, Alyson J.; Levine, Paul H.; Hoffman, Heather J.; Cleary, Sean D.; White, Emily; Cook, Michael B.

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND Male pattern baldness and prostate cancer may share common pathophysiological mechanisms in terms of advancing age, heritability, and endogenous hormones. Results from previous epidemiologic studies are inconsistent. Therefore, we investigated the association of prostate cancer risk with male pattern baldness at age 30 years, age 45 years, and baseline (median age=60.5 years) in the VITamins And Lifestyle (VITAL) cohort study. METHODS We included 32,583 men who were 50–76 years and without prior cancer diagnosis (excluding non-melanoma skin cancer) at the start of follow-up. First primary incident prostate cancers were ascertained via linkage to the western Washington Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) program. Hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (95%CIs) were estimated using Cox proportional-hazards regressions with adjustment for potential confounders. RESULTS During follow-up (median=9 years), 2,306 incident prostate cancers were diagnosed. Male pattern baldness at age 30 years, age 45 years, and baseline were not significantly associated with overall or subtypes of prostate cancer. CONCLUSION This study did not provide support for the hypothesis that male pattern baldness may be a marker for subsequent prostate cancer. Previous evidence indicates that a distinct class of frontal with vertex balding may be associated with increased prostate cancer risk, but all such balding classes were captured as a single exposure category by the VITAL cohort questionnaire. PMID:25492530

  17. Male pattern baldness in relation to prostate cancer risks: an analysis in the VITamins and lifestyle (VITAL) cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Cindy Ke; Littman, Alyson J; Levine, Paul H; Hoffman, Heather J; Cleary, Sean D; White, Emily; Cook, Michael B

    2015-03-01

    Male pattern baldness and prostate cancer may share common pathophysiological mechanisms in terms of advancing age, heritability, and endogenous hormones. Results from previous epidemiologic studies are inconsistent. Therefore, we investigated the association of prostate cancer risks with male pattern baldness at age 30 years, age 45 years, and baseline (median age = 60.5 years) in the VITamins And Lifestyle (VITAL) cohort study. We included 32,583 men who were aged 50-76 years and without prior cancer diagnosis (excluding non-melanoma skin cancer) at the start of follow-up. First primary incident prostate cancers were ascertained via linkage to the western Washington Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) program. Hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs) were estimated using Cox proportional hazards regressions with adjustment for potential confounders. During follow-up (median = 9 years), 2,306 incident prostate cancers were diagnosed. Male pattern baldness at age 30 years, age 45 years, and baseline were not statistically significantly associated with overall or subtypes of prostate cancer. This study did not provide support for the hypothesis that male pattern baldness may be a marker for subsequent prostate cancer. Previous evidence indicates that a distinct class of frontal with vertex balding may be associated with increased risk of aggressive prostate cancer, but all such balding classes were captured as a single exposure category by the VITAL cohort questionnaire. Prostate 75:415-423, 2015. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Improved reproductive success in otters (Lutra lutra), grey seals (Halichoerus grypus) and sea eagles (Haliaeetus albicilla) from Sweden in relation to concentrations of organochlorine contaminants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roos, Anna M.; Bäcklin, Britt-Marie V.M.; Helander, Björn O.; Rigét, Frank F.; Eriksson, Ulla C.

    2012-01-01

    We studied indices of reproductive outcome in three aquatic species in relation to organochlorine concentrations during four decades. In female otters, the frequency of signs of reproduction increased after 1990. In grey seals, pregnancy rate increased 1990–2010 and uterine obstructions ceased after 1993. The frequency of uterine tumours was highest 1980–2000. The number of sea eagle nestlings per checked nest increased 1985–2000, while the frequency of desiccated eggs decreased. Organochlorine concentrations decreased at annual rates between 3.5 and 10.2%. The estimated mean concentration (mg/kg lw) for total-PCB decreased from 70 to 8 (otters), from 110 to 15 (seals) and from 955 to 275 (eagles). The corresponding concentrations for ΣDDT decreased from 3.4 to 0.2 (otters), from 192 to 2.8 (seals) and from 865 to 65 (eagles). This study adds evidence to support the hypothesis that PCBs and DDTs have had strong negative effects on the reproduction and population levels of these species. - Highlights: ► We compared trends of reproductive success in three aquatic top predators in Sweden. ► The study period covers four decades. ► Similar, increasing trends are seen from the end of the 1980s for otters, grey seals and sea eagles. ► Concentrations of total-PCB and DDTs have decreased in these species at similar rates. ► PCBs and DDTs have severely affected reproductive success in these species. - The reproductive success in otters, grey seals and white-tailed sea eagles has increased as the concentrations of PCBs and ΣDDT have decreased supporting a causative relationship.

  19. Flown The Nest

    OpenAIRE

    Sebbane, Nathalie

    2012-01-01

    Lorsque le quotidien régional, The Champion, commence à publier Flown The Nest en 1972 sous forme d’épisodes, Bird’s Nest Soup est déjà en vente, et la troisième partie de l’autobiographie d’Hanna, Housekeeper At Large, est sous presse. L’édition de 2009 contient Flown The Nest et Housekeeper at Large. Dans Bird’s Nest Soup, Hanna Greally racontait les dix-huit années de sa vie passées au sein d’un hôpital psychiatrique. Les raisons pour lesquelles elle y avait été enfermée, à la demande de s...

  20. MicroRNAs take part in pathophysiology and pathogenesis of Male Pattern Baldness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodarzi, Hamed R; Abbasi, Ali; Saffari, Mojtaba; Tabei, Mohammad B; Noori Daloii, Mohammad R

    2010-07-01

    Male Pattern Baldness (MPB) or androgenetic alopecia is a common form of hair loss with androgens and genetics having etiological significance. Androgens are thought to pathophysiologically power on cascades of chronically dramatic alterations in genetically susceptible scalp dermal papillas, specialized cells in hair follicles in which androgens react, and finally resulting in a patterned alopecia. However, the exact mechanisms through which androgens, positive regulators of growth and anabolism in most body sites, paradoxically exert their effects on balding hair follicles, are not yet known. The role of microRNAs, a recently discovered class of non-coding RNAs, with a wide range of regulatory functions, has been documented in hair follicle formation and their deregulation in cancer of prostate, a target organ of androgens has also been delineated. Yet, there is a lack of knowledge in agreement with microRNAs' contribution in pathophysiology of MPB. To investigate the role of microRNAs in pathogenesis of MPB, we selected seven microRNAs, predicted bioinformatically on a reverse engineering basis, from previously published microarray gene expression data and analyzed their expression in balding relative to non-balding dermal papillas. We found for the first time upregulation of four microRNAs (miR-221, miR-125b, miR-106b and miR-410) that could participate in pathogenesis of MPB. Regarding microRNAs' therapeutic potential and accessibility of hair follicles for gene therapy, these microRNAs can be considered as good candidates for a new revolutionized generation of treatments.

  1. Preventing Philippine Eagle hunting: what are we missing?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jayson Ibanez

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Two pieces of information are minimally required to conserve endangered raptor species — (i an estimate of its remaining global population, and (ii the main factors responsible for its decline. Data suggest that no more than 400 adult pairs of the Critically Endangered Philippine Eagle could remain in the wild. As to what is causing population decline, shooting and hunting continue to be the primary factor while forest habitat loss is another. This paper reflects on the growing incident of human-caused deaths in Philippine Eagles, prominently on Mindanao Island where estimates suggest more than half of the eagle’s wild population exists. By analyzing data from eagle rescues, surveys, and field monitoring through radio and satellite tracking techniques, this paper shows that shooting and trapping is a “clear and present” danger which may potentially drive the population to extinction even when suitable forest habitats still exist. Cases of death within the last decade show that the nature and/or extent of law enforcement, conservation education, and population and habitat monitoring fall short of being effective deterrents to eagle persecution in the wild. We review emerging theories on wildlife crime and cases of community-based species conservation to justify a holistic and grounded approach to preventing eagle poaching as an alternative to the conservation status quo. 

  2. Evaluation of landscape level habitat characteristics of golden eagle habitat in Northwestern Mexico

    OpenAIRE

    Bravo Vinaja, Maria Guadalupe

    2012-01-01

    Golden eagles (Aquila chrysaetos canadensis Linnaeus 1758) are declining in some areas throughout their Nearctic range (Sauer et al. 2011). This reduction is linked to changes in their habitat caused by human activities. Golden eagles inhabit an extensive range of environments (Watson 1997, Kochert et al. 2002). In the American Continent, the golden eagleâ s range encompasses Alaska, Canada, the United States and the Northern and Central portions of Mexico. Northern golden eagle populations...

  3. eagle-i: An Ontology-Driven Framework For Biomedical Resource Curation And Discovery

    OpenAIRE

    Erik Segerdell; Melanie L. Wilson; Ted Bashor; Daniela Bourges-Waldegg; Karen Corday; H. Robert Frost; Tenille Johnson; Christopher J. Shaffer; Larry Stone; Carlo Torniai; Melissa A. Haendel

    2010-01-01

    The eagle-i Consortium ("http://www.eagle-i.org/home":www.eagle-i.org/home) comprises nine geographically and ethnically diverse universities across America working to build a federated network of research resources. Biomedical research generates many resources that are rarely shared or published, including: reagents, protocols, instruments, expertise, organisms, training opportunities, software, human studies, and biological specimens. The goal of eagle-i is to improve biomedical r...

  4. Nest Site Characteristics of Cavity Nesting Birds in Central Missouri

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeffery D. Brawn; Bernice Tannenbaum; Keith E. Evans

    1984-01-01

    Two study sites in central Missouri oak-hickory forests were searched for nest sites of cavity nesting birds. Researchers located and measured 133 nests of 11 species. Cavity nesting bird habitat selection is affected by both snag characteristics and vegetation structure.

  5. Vacant Nests and Other Factors Influencing Nest Site Selection of Birds of Prey Based on Case Studies in Forest Habitats in the Forest-Steppe and Steppe Zones of Eastern Ukraine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanislav G. Viter

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Our study was conducted in 2003–2012 in Eastern Ukraine, in the basin of the Seversky Donets river. The total surveyed area was ca. 900 km2 of nesting habitats suitable for raptors. A total of 69 vacant nests were found, i.e. 33.2 % of the total number of nests (208. Nests occupied by recipient species, i.e. the so-called ‘effective nest pool’, were 23–24, i.e. 33.3–34.7 % of the pool of available nests. Up to 25 % of all pairs of raptors depend on the availability of vacant nests of heterospecifics. Ravens (Corvus corax are the most significant donors of nests: 42.5 % of the pool of available nests is built by this species, and more than 60 % of them are occupied by recipient species. Common Buzzard (Buteo buteo comes second with 26.09 and 58.3 %, respectively. The most common recipients of nests are Hobbies (Falco subbuteo, Common Kestrel (Falco tinnunculus and Booted Eagles (Hieraaetus pennatus. The most significant factors that govern occupation of vacant nests by recipient species are: availability of nests in the marginal zone of forest plots, i.e. within 500 m from the forest edge, large distance from human settlements (>1500 m, presence of nests located on trees in the canopy storey, and mature and submature age of forest stands. For seven species considered in our research (n=227, the most important factors were position of nests, in the forest canopy layer, no logging activity within300 m of the nest, no regular human disturbance, and presence of “windows” in the canopy made by fallen trees.

  6. Habitat segregation in two congeric hawk-eagles (Spizaetus bartelsi abd S. cirrhatus) in Java, Indonesia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijman, V.

    2004-01-01

    On the island of Java, Indonesia, two congeneric hawk-eagles occur, i.e. the endemic Javan hawk-eagle Spizaetus bartelsi and the wide-ranging changeable hawk-eagle S. cirrhatus. Comparisons with similar species-pairs in South East Asia suggest that these species may be competitors both in habitat

  7. Alternative Fuels Data Center: Golden Eagle Delivers Beer With Natural Gas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trucks Golden Eagle Delivers Beer With Natural Gas Trucks to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Golden Eagle Delivers Beer With Natural Gas Trucks on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Golden Eagle Delivers Beer With Natural Gas Trucks on Twitter Bookmark

  8. Persistent pollutants in the white-tailed eagle (Haliaeetus albicilla) in the Federal Republic of Germany

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koeman, J.H.; Hadderingh, R.H.; Bijleveld, M.F.I.J.

    1972-01-01

    A study was made of the possible relationship between persistent pollutants and the decline in reproductive success of the White-tailed Eagle (Haliaeetus albicilla) in Schleswig Holstein, Federal Republic of Germany. Chemical analyses were made of Eagle's eggs, of one adult Eagle which was found

  9. Eagle Syndrome: diagnostic imaging and therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nickel, J.; Andresen, R.; Sonnenburg, M.; Scheufler, O.

    2004-01-01

    In the case of clinical symptoms such as dysphagia, foreign-body sensation and chronic neck or facial pain close to the ear, an Eagle syndrome should be considered in the differential diagnosis. Rational diagnostics and therapy are elucidated on the basis of four case reports. Four patients presented in the out-patients clinic with chronic complaints on chewing and a foreign-body sensation in the tonsil region. Upon specific palpation below the mandibular angle, pain radiating into the ear region intensified. In all patients, local anaesthesia with lidocaine only led to a temporary remission of symptoms. Imaging diagnostics then performed initially included cranial survey radiograms according to Clementschitsch as well as in the lateral ray path and an OPTG. An axial spiral-CT was then performed using the thin-layer technique with subsequent 3-D reconstruction. Therapy consisted of elective resection with a lateral external incision from the retromandibular. From a symptomatic point of view, the cranial survey radiograms and the OPTG revealed hypertrophic styloid processes. The geometrically corrected addition of the axial CT images produced an absolute length of 51-58 mm. The 3-D reconstruction made it possible to visualise the exact spatial orientation of the styloid processes. An ossification of the stylohyoid ligament could definitely be ruled out on the basis of the imaging procedures. After resection of the megastyloid, the patients were completely free of symptoms. Spiral-CT with subsequent 3-D reconstruction is the method of choice for exact determination of the localisation and size of a megastyloid, while cranial survey radiograms according to Clementschitsch and in the lateral ray path or an OPTG can provide initial information. The therapy of choice is considered to be resection of the megastyloid, whereby an external lateral incision has proved effective. (orig.) [de

  10. Nested and Hierarchical Archimax copulas

    KAUST Repository

    Hofert, Marius; Huser, Raphaë l; Prasad, Avinash

    2017-01-01

    The class of Archimax copulas is generalized to nested and hierarchical Archimax copulas in several ways. First, nested extreme-value copulas or nested stable tail dependence functions are introduced to construct nested Archimax copulas based on a single frailty variable. Second, a hierarchical construction of d-norm generators is presented to construct hierarchical stable tail dependence functions and thus hierarchical extreme-value copulas. Moreover, one can, by itself or additionally, introduce nested frailties to extend Archimax copulas to nested Archimax copulas in a similar way as nested Archimedean copulas extend Archimedean copulas. Further results include a general formula for the density of Archimax copulas.

  11. Nested and Hierarchical Archimax copulas

    KAUST Repository

    Hofert, Marius

    2017-07-03

    The class of Archimax copulas is generalized to nested and hierarchical Archimax copulas in several ways. First, nested extreme-value copulas or nested stable tail dependence functions are introduced to construct nested Archimax copulas based on a single frailty variable. Second, a hierarchical construction of d-norm generators is presented to construct hierarchical stable tail dependence functions and thus hierarchical extreme-value copulas. Moreover, one can, by itself or additionally, introduce nested frailties to extend Archimax copulas to nested Archimax copulas in a similar way as nested Archimedean copulas extend Archimedean copulas. Further results include a general formula for the density of Archimax copulas.

  12. Superposition Enhanced Nested Sampling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefano Martiniani

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The theoretical analysis of many problems in physics, astronomy, and applied mathematics requires an efficient numerical exploration of multimodal parameter spaces that exhibit broken ergodicity. Monte Carlo methods are widely used to deal with these classes of problems, but such simulations suffer from a ubiquitous sampling problem: The probability of sampling a particular state is proportional to its entropic weight. Devising an algorithm capable of sampling efficiently the full phase space is a long-standing problem. Here, we report a new hybrid method for the exploration of multimodal parameter spaces exhibiting broken ergodicity. Superposition enhanced nested sampling combines the strengths of global optimization with the unbiased or athermal sampling of nested sampling, greatly enhancing its efficiency with no additional parameters. We report extensive tests of this new approach for atomic clusters that are known to have energy landscapes for which conventional sampling schemes suffer from broken ergodicity. We also introduce a novel parallelization algorithm for nested sampling.

  13. Serenbe Nest Cottages

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Butler, T.; Curtis, O.; Kim, E.; Roberts, S.; Stephenson, R.

    2012-12-01

    As part of the NAHB Research Center Industry Partnership, Southface partnered with Martin Dodson Builders and the Serenbe community on the construction of a new test home in the suburbs of Atlanta, GA in the mixed humid climate zone. The most recent subdivision within the Serenbe community, the Nest, will contain 15 small footprint cottage style homes, and Southface has selected Lot Nine, as the test home for this study. This Nest subdivision serves as a project showcase for both the builder partner and the Serenbe community as a whole. The planning and design incorporated into the Nest cottages will be implemented in each home within the subdivision. These homes addresses Building America Savings targets and serve as a basis of design for other homes Martin Dodson plans to build within the Serenbe community.

  14. Serenbe Nest Cottages

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Butler, T. [NAHB Research Center Industry Partnership, Upper Marlboro, MD (United States); Curtis, O. [NAHB Research Center Industry Partnership, Upper Marlboro, MD (United States); Kim, E. [NAHB Research Center Industry Partnership, Upper Marlboro, MD (United States); Roberts, S. [NAHB Research Center Industry Partnership, Upper Marlboro, MD (United States); Stephenson, R. [NAHB Research Center Industry Partnership, Upper Marlboro, MD (United States)

    2012-12-01

    As part of the NAHB Research Center Industry Partnership, Southface partnered with Martin Dodson Builders and the Serenbe community on the construction of a new test home in the suburbs of Atlanta, GA, in the mixed humid climate zone. The most recent subdivision within the Serenbe community, the Nest, will contain 15 small footprint cottage-style homes, and Southface has selected Lot Nine, as the test home for this study. This Nest subdivision serves as a project showcase for both the builder partner and the Serenbe community as a whole. The planning and design incorporated into the Nest cottages will be implemented in each home within the subdivision. These homes addresses Building America savings targets and serve as a basis of design for other homes Martin Dodson plans to build within the Serenbe community.

  15. Assessment of surface-water quantity and quality, Eagle River watershed, Colorado, 1947-2007

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Cory A.; Moore, Jennifer L.; Richards, Rodney J.

    2011-01-01

    From the early mining days to the current tourism-based economy, the Eagle River watershed (ERW) in central Colorado has undergone a sequence of land-use changes that has affected the hydrology, habitat, and water quality of the area. In 2000, the USGS, in cooperation with the Colorado River Water Conservation District, Eagle County, Eagle River Water and Sanitation District, Upper Eagle Regional Water Authority, Colorado Department of Transportation, City of Aurora, Town of Eagle, Town of Gypsum, Town of Minturn, Town of Vail, Vail Resorts, City of Colorado Springs, Colorado Springs Utilities, and Denver Water, initiated a retrospective analysis of surface-water quantity and quality in the ERW.

  16. 75 FR 56093 - Eagle Rock Desoto Pipeline, LP; Notice of Motion for Extension of Rate Case Filing Deadline

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-15

    ... pipelines to extend the cycle for such reviews from three to five years.\\1\\ Therefore, Eagle Rock requests... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Docket No. PR09-1-002] Eagle Rock... notice that on September 8, 2010, Eagle Rock Desoto Pipeline, L.P. (Eagle Rock) filed a request to extend...

  17. Enclosed nests may provide greater thermal than nest predation benefits compared with open nests across latitudes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Thomas E.; Boyce, Andy J.; Fierro-Calderon, Karolina; Mitchell, Adam E.; Armstad, Connor E.; Mouton, James C.; Bin Soudi, Evertius E.

    2017-01-01

    Nest structure is thought to provide benefits that have fitness consequences for several taxa. Traditionally, reduced nest predation has been considered the primary benefit underlying evolution of nest structure, whereas thermal benefits have been considered a secondary or even non-existent factor. Yet, the relative roles of these factors on nest structures remain largely unexplored.Enclosed nests have a constructed or natural roof connected to sides that allow a restricted opening or tube entrance that provides cover in all directions except the entrance, whereas open nests are cups or platforms that are open above. We show that construction of enclosed nests is more common among songbirds (Passeriformes) in tropical and southern hemisphere regions than in north temperate regions. This geographic pattern may reflect selection from predation risk, under long-standing assumptions that nest predation rates are higher in southern regions and that enclosed nests reduce predation risk compared with open cup nests. We therefore compared nest predation rates between enclosed vs. open nests in 114 songbird species that do not nest in tree holes among five communities of coexisting birds, and for 205 non-hole-nesting species from the literature, across northern temperate, tropical, and southern hemisphere regions.Among coexisting species, enclosed nests had lower nest predation rates than open nests in two south temperate sites, but not in either of two tropical sites or a north temperate site. Nest predation did not differ between nest types at any latitude based on literature data. Among 319 species from both our field studies and the literature, enclosed nests did not show consistent benefits of reduced predation and, in fact, predation was not consistently higher in the tropics, contrary to long-standing perspectives.Thermal benefits of enclosed nests were indicated based on three indirect results. First, species that built enclosed nests were smaller than species using

  18. Baldness and the androgen receptor: the AR polyglycine repeat polymorphism does not confer susceptibility to androgenetic alopecia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis, Justine A; Scurrah, Katrina J; Cobb, Joanna E; Zaloumis, Sophie G; Duncan, Anna E; Harrap, Stephen B

    2007-05-01

    Androgenetic alopecia, or male pattern baldness, is a complex condition with a strong heritable component. In 2001, we published the first significant evidence of a genetic association between baldness and a synonymous coding SNP (rs6152) in the androgen receptor gene, AR. Recently, this finding was replicated in three independent studies, confirming an important role for AR in the baldness phenotype. In one such replication study, it was claimed that the causative variant underlying the association was likely to be the polyglycine (GGN) repeat polymorphism, one of two apparently functional triplet repeat polymorphisms located in the exon 1 transactivating domain of the gene. Here, we extend our original association finding and present comprehensive evidence from approximately 1,200 fathers and sons drawn from 703 families of the Victorian Family Heart Study, a general population Caucasian cohort, that neither exon 1 triplet repeat polymorphism is causative in this condition. Seventy-eight percent of fathers (531/683) and 30% of sons (157/520) were affected to some degree with AGA. We utilised statistical methods appropriate for the categorical nature of the phenotype and familial structure of the cohort, and determined that whilst SNP rs6152 was strongly associated with baldness (P baldness, but also for the many other complex conditions that have thus far been linked to AR.

  19. The importance of illumination in nest site choice and nest characteristics of cavity nesting birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Podkowa, Paweł; Surmacki, Adrian

    2017-05-02

    Light has a significant impact on many aspects of avian biology, physiology and behaviour. An increasing number of studies show that illumination may positively influences birds' offspring fitness by e.g. acceleration of embryo development, stimulation of skeleton growth or regulation of circadian rhythm. Because nest cavities have especially low illumination, suitable light levels may be especially important for species which nest there. We may therefore expect that birds breeding in relatively dim conditions should prefer brighter nest sites and/or evolve behavioral mechanisms to secure sufficient light levels in the nest. Using nest boxes with modified internal illumination, we experimentally tested whether light regime is a cue for nest site selection of secondary cavity-nesting species. Additionally, we investigated whether nest building strategies are tuned to internal illumination. Our results demonstrate that, nest boxes with elevated illumination were chosen twice as often as dark nest boxes. Moreover, birds built higher nests in dark nest boxes than birds in boxes with elevated illumination, which suggests a mechanism of compensating for low light conditions. Our results provide the first experimental support for the idea that nest site choice and nest building behaviour in cavity-nesting birds are influenced by ambient illumination.

  20. Research resources: curating the new eagle-i discovery system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasilevsky, Nicole; Johnson, Tenille; Corday, Karen; Torniai, Carlo; Brush, Matthew; Segerdell, Erik; Wilson, Melanie; Shaffer, Chris; Robinson, David; Haendel, Melissa

    2012-01-01

    Development of biocuration processes and guidelines for new data types or projects is a challenging task. Each project finds its way toward defining annotation standards and ensuring data consistency with varying degrees of planning and different tools to support and/or report on consistency. Further, this process may be data type specific even within the context of a single project. This article describes our experiences with eagle-i, a 2-year pilot project to develop a federated network of data repositories in which unpublished, unshared or otherwise ‘invisible’ scientific resources could be inventoried and made accessible to the scientific community. During the course of eagle-i development, the main challenges we experienced related to the difficulty of collecting and curating data while the system and the data model were simultaneously built, and a deficiency and diversity of data management strategies in the laboratories from which the source data was obtained. We discuss our approach to biocuration and the importance of improving information management strategies to the research process, specifically with regard to the inventorying and usage of research resources. Finally, we highlight the commonalities and differences between eagle-i and similar efforts with the hope that our lessons learned will assist other biocuration endeavors. Database URL: www.eagle-i.net PMID:22434835

  1. Knemidocoptic Mange in Wild Golden Eagles, California, USA

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2014-09-21

    Dr. Mike Miller reads an abridged version of the article, Knemidocoptic Mange in Wild Golden Eagles, California, USA .  Created: 9/21/2014 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).   Date Released: 10/15/2014.

  2. The Eagle of Womanhood: Dramatising the Strength of Nigerian ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Man is endowed with talent, he acquires knowledge, and skills that enable him thrive in the hostile world. ... It is Adaugo's unflinching effort in securing the survival of her family despite all odds that is considered the eagle of her womanhood, a womanist strength that also underscores an urgent need for change in the Igbo's ...

  3. Eagles, Otters, and Unicorns: An Anatomy of Innovation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grossman, Stephen R.; King, Margaret J.

    1990-01-01

    This article describes three archetypal workers: eagles who innovate by improvements, otters who innovate by extension, and unicorns who innovate by paradigm. Each of these innovators is discussed in terms of domain-relevant skills, manipulative skills, and motivation. Needs of each type in terms of business culture are discussed. (PB)

  4. Haematological values for captive harpy eagle (Harpia harpyja

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos J. Oliveira

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Decreasing of harpy eagle (Harpia harpyja populations in natural environments, mainly in non-preserved areas, makes captive population management an important contribution to genetic diversity conservation. The aim of this study is to evaluate hematological parameters for captive harpy eagles maintained at the wild animals breeding center of Itaipu Binacional, Paraná State, Brazil. Fourteen blood samples from nine harpy eagles were collected from animals of both sexes, of different ages and with no clinical signs of disease. Significant variations were found in haematological values of hematocrit, hemoglobin, mean corpuscular hemoglobin (MCH, mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration (MCHC, leukocyte, a relative number of heterophils, absolute and relative number of lymphocytes, monocytes, eosinophils, basophils and plasma protein between groups of young (less than six months old and adult birds. Comparing males and females there was variation in the values of erythrocytes, hemoglobin, mean corpuscular volume (MCV, mean corpuscular hemoglobin (MCH on heterophils, absolute and relative number of lymphocytes, eosinophils and basophils. There was also variation in the values of red blood cells, hematocrit, hemoglobin, mean corpuscular volume (MCV, mean corpuscular hemoglobin (MCH, mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration (MCHC, leukocyte count, absolute number of lymphocytes, eosinophils and basophils among birds that study compared to another reference birds. Due to the limited information available on harpy eagle hematology, this study will be useful to the clinical assessment of birds maintained in captivity.

  5. Doppler ultrasonography of the pectinis oculi artery in harpy eagles ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Low RI and PI values found in the harpy eagle´s pectinis oculi artery compared with the American pekin ducks one and other tissue suggest indeed a high metabolic activity in pecten oculi and corroborates the hypothesis of a nutritional function and/or intraocular pressure regulation. Keywords: Avian posterior segment, ...

  6. Eagle Syndrome Causing Vascular Compression with Cervical Rotation: Case Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Demirtaş, Hakan; Kayan, Mustafa; Koyuncuoğlu, Hasan Rıfat; Çelik, Ahmet Orhan; Kara, Mustafa; Şengeze, Nihat

    2016-01-01

    Eagle syndrome is a condition caused by an elongated styloid process. Unilateral face, neck and ear pain, stinging pain, foreign body sensation and dysphagia can be observed with this syndrome. Rarely, the elongated styloid process may cause pain by compressing the cervical segment of the internal carotid and the surrounding sympathetic plexus, and that pain spreading along the artery can cause neurological symptoms such as vertigo and syncope. In this case report we presented a very rare eagle syndrome with neurological symptoms that occurred suddenly with cervical rotation. The symptoms disappeared as suddenly as they occurred, with the release of pressure in neutral position. We also discussed CT angiographic findings of this case. Radiological diagnosis of the Eagle syndrome that is manifested with a wide variety of symptoms and causes diagnostic difficulties when it is not considered in the differential diagnosis is easy in patients with specific findings. CT angiography is a fast and effective examination in terms of showing compression in patients with the Eagle syndrome that is considered to be atypical and causes vascular compression

  7. Variability in nest survival rates and implications to nesting studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klett, A.T.; Johnson, D.H.

    1982-01-01

    We used four reasonably large samples (83-213) of Mallard (Anas platyrhynchos) and Blue-winged Teal (A. discors) nests on an interstate highway right-of-way in southcentral North Dakota to evaluate potential biases in hatch-rate estimates. Twelve consecutive, weekly searches for nests were conducted with a cable-chain drag in 1976 and 1977. Nests were revisited at weekly intervals. Four methods were used to estimate hatch rates for the four data sets: the Traditional Method, the Mayfield Method, and two modifications of the Mayfield Method that are sometimes appropriate when daily mortality rates of nests are not constant. Hatch rates and the average age of nests at discovery declined as the interval between searches decreased, suggesting that mortality rates were not constant in our samples. An analysis of variance indicated that daily mortality rates varied with the age of nests in all four samples. Mortality was generally highest during the early laying period, moderately high during the late laying period, and lowest during incubation. We speculate that this relationship of mortality to nest age might be due to the presence of hens at nests or to differences in the vulnerability of nest sites to predation. A modification of the Mayfield Method that accounts for age-related variation in nest mortality was most appropriate for our samples. We suggest methods for conducting nesting studies and estimating nest success for species possessing similar nesting habits.

  8. The cavity-nest ant Temnothorax crassispinus prefers larger nests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitrus, S

    Colonies of the ant Temnothorax crassispinus inhabit mostly cavities in wood and hollow acorns. Typically in the field, nest sites that can be used by the ant are a limited resource. In a field experiment, it was investigated whether the ants prefer a specific size of nest, when different ones are available. In July 2011, a total of 160 artificial nests were placed in a beech-pine forest. Four artificial nests (pieces of wood with volume cavities, ca 415, 605, 730, and 980 mm 3 , respectively) were located on each square meter of the experimental plot. One year later, shortly before the emergence of new sexuals, the nests were collected. In July 2012, colonies inhabited more frequently bigger nests. Among queenright colonies, the ones which inhabited bigger nests had more workers. However, there was no relationship between volume of nest and number of workers for queenless colonies. Queenright colonies from bigger nests produced more sexual individuals, but there was no correlation between number of workers and sex allocation ratio, or between volume of nest and sex allocation ratio. In a laboratory experiment where ant colonies were kept in 470 and 860 mm 3 nests, larger colonies allocated more energy to produce sexual individuals. The results of this study show the selectivity of T. crassispinus ants regarding the size of nest cavity, and that the nest volume has an impact on life history parameters.

  9. Feathering Your Nest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nabors, Martha L.; Edwards, Linda Carol; Decker, Suzanne

    2010-01-01

    The first-grade classroom was like a natural history museum. Bird nests of every shape and size lay on top of bookshelves that lined two walls. Methods students, who were visiting the classroom in preparation for the science lessons they would teach there, were immediately inspired by the collection. They used the collection as a springboard for…

  10. Fiber Tracking Cylinder Nesting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stredde, H.

    1999-01-01

    The fiber tracker consists of 8 concentric carbon fiber cylinders of varying diameters, from 399mm to 1032.2mm and two different lengths. 1.66 and 2.52 meters. Each completed cylinder is covered over the entire o.d. with scintillating fiber ribbons with a connector on each ribbon. These ribbons are axial (parallel to the beam line) at one end and stereo (at 3 deg. to the beam line) at the other. The ribbon connectors have dowel pins which are used to match with the connectors on the wave guide ribbons. These dowel pins are also used during the nesting operation, locating and positioning measurements. The nesting operation is the insertion of one cylinder into another, aligning them with one another and fastening them together into a homogeneous assembly. For ease of assembly. the nesting operation is accomplished working from largest diameter to smallest. Although the completed assembly of all 8 cylinders glued and bolted together is very stiff. individual cylinders are relatively flexible. Therefore. during this operation, No.8 must be supported in a manner which maintains its integrity and yet allows the insertion of No.7. This is accomplished by essentially building a set of dummy end plates which replicate a No.9 cylinder. These end plates are mounted on a wheeled cart that becomes the nesting cart. Provisions for a protective cover fastened to these rings has been made and will be incorporated in finished product. These covers can be easily removed for access to No.8 and/or the connection of No.8 to No.9. Another wheeled cart, transfer cart, is used to push a completed cylinder into the cylinder(s) already mounted in the nesting cart.

  11. Golden Eagle Migratory Behaviors in Response to Arctic Warming

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaPoint, S.; Bohrer, G.; Davidson, S. C.; Gurarie, E.; Mahoney, P.; Boelman, N.

    2017-12-01

    Understanding how animals adapt to climate change is a conservation priority, particularly in arctic landscapes where these changes are accelerated. Doing so however, remains challenging because animal behavior datasets are typically conducted at site- or population-specific scales and are often short term (e.g., 2-3 years). We have overcome this challenge by compiling a long-term (25 years), large-scale (northwestern North America) dataset of > 0.5 million locations collected via 86 adult-aged golden eagles (Aquila chrysaetos) fitted with satellite and GPS data loggers. We used mechanistic range shift analyses to identify the locations and dates when each eagle performed a behavioral switch from a stationary phase (e.g., over-wintering or breeding) to migration and vice-versa. We annotated these spatio-temporal data with a suite of environmental data, including: %snow cover, time-to snow cover, time-to greening, air temperature, and wind direction and magnitude. Preliminary generalized additive mixed-models suggest these eagles have performed significant shifts in their departure dates, yet their arrival dates have remained relatively consistent. We will use a survival analysis (e.g., Cox proportional-hazard regression model) to quantify the influence of the environmental variables on these dates. It appears golden eagles migrating across northwestern North America are adapting to changes in the timing and duration of artic winters, by arriving to their northern breeding grounds earlier every spring, presumably to extend their breeding and chick rearing phases. Golden eagles exhibit some resiliency to changes in the arctic climate, but further work is warranted across other taxa and populations.

  12. Evaluation of DNA variants associated with androgenetic alopecia and their potential to predict male pattern baldness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcińska, Magdalena; Pośpiech, Ewelina; Abidi, Sarah; Andersen, Jeppe Dyrberg; van den Berge, Margreet; Carracedo, Ángel; Eduardoff, Mayra; Marczakiewicz-Lustig, Anna; Morling, Niels; Sijen, Titia; Skowron, Małgorzata; Söchtig, Jens; Syndercombe-Court, Denise; Weiler, Natalie; Schneider, Peter M; Ballard, David; Børsting, Claus; Parson, Walther; Phillips, Chris; Branicki, Wojciech

    2015-01-01

    Androgenetic alopecia, known in men as male pattern baldness (MPB), is a very conspicuous condition that is particularly frequent among European men and thus contributes markedly to variation in physical appearance traits amongst Europeans. Recent studies have revealed multiple genes and polymorphisms to be associated with susceptibility to MPB. In this study, 50 candidate SNPs for androgenetic alopecia were analyzed in order to verify their potential to predict MPB. Significant associations were confirmed for 29 SNPs from chromosomes X, 1, 5, 7, 18 and 20. A simple 5-SNP prediction model and an extended 20-SNP model were developed based on a discovery panel of 305 males from various European populations fitting one of two distinct phenotype categories. The first category consisted of men below 50 years of age with significant baldness and the second; men aged 50 years or older lacking baldness. The simple model comprised the five best predictors: rs5919324 near AR, rs1998076 in the 20p11 region, rs929626 in EBF1, rs12565727 in TARDBP and rs756853 in HDAC9. The extended prediction model added 15 SNPs from five genomic regions that improved overall prevalence-adjusted predictive accuracy measured by area under the receiver characteristic operating curve (AUC). Both models were evaluated for predictive accuracy using a test set of 300 males reflecting the general European population. Applying a 65% probability threshold, high prediction sensitivity of 87.1% but low specificity of 42.4% was obtained in men aged <50 years. In men aged ≥50, prediction sensitivity was slightly lower at 67.7% while specificity reached 90%. Overall, the AUC=0.761 calculated for men at or above 50 years of age indicates these SNPs offer considerable potential for the application of genetic tests to predict MPB patterns, adding a highly informative predictive system to the emerging field of forensic analysis of externally visible characteristics.

  13. Evaluation of DNA variants associated with androgenetic alopecia and their potential to predict male pattern baldness.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magdalena Marcińska

    Full Text Available Androgenetic alopecia, known in men as male pattern baldness (MPB, is a very conspicuous condition that is particularly frequent among European men and thus contributes markedly to variation in physical appearance traits amongst Europeans. Recent studies have revealed multiple genes and polymorphisms to be associated with susceptibility to MPB. In this study, 50 candidate SNPs for androgenetic alopecia were analyzed in order to verify their potential to predict MPB. Significant associations were confirmed for 29 SNPs from chromosomes X, 1, 5, 7, 18 and 20. A simple 5-SNP prediction model and an extended 20-SNP model were developed based on a discovery panel of 305 males from various European populations fitting one of two distinct phenotype categories. The first category consisted of men below 50 years of age with significant baldness and the second; men aged 50 years or older lacking baldness. The simple model comprised the five best predictors: rs5919324 near AR, rs1998076 in the 20p11 region, rs929626 in EBF1, rs12565727 in TARDBP and rs756853 in HDAC9. The extended prediction model added 15 SNPs from five genomic regions that improved overall prevalence-adjusted predictive accuracy measured by area under the receiver characteristic operating curve (AUC. Both models were evaluated for predictive accuracy using a test set of 300 males reflecting the general European population. Applying a 65% probability threshold, high prediction sensitivity of 87.1% but low specificity of 42.4% was obtained in men aged <50 years. In men aged ≥50, prediction sensitivity was slightly lower at 67.7% while specificity reached 90%. Overall, the AUC=0.761 calculated for men at or above 50 years of age indicates these SNPs offer considerable potential for the application of genetic tests to predict MPB patterns, adding a highly informative predictive system to the emerging field of forensic analysis of externally visible characteristics.

  14. Methane emissions from bald cypress tree trunks in a bottomland forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schile, L. M.; Pitz, S.; Megonigal, P.

    2013-12-01

    Studies on natural methane emissions predominantly have occurred on wetland soils with herbaceous plant species. Less attention, however, has been placed on the role of woody wetland plant species in the methane cycle. Recent studies on methane emissions from tree trunks document that they are a significant source of emissions that previously has been not accounted for. In this study, we examine methane emissions from trunks of mature bald cypress (Taxodium distichum), which is a dominant tree species in bottomland hardwood forests of the Southeastern United States. To date, little is known about soil methane emissions in these systems, and published tree emissions have been limited to a single study conducted on bald cypress knees. In May 2013, we established a plot in a monospecific bald cypress stand planted approximately 70 years ago on the Chesapeake Bay in Maryland and are monitoring methane emissions on 12 tree trunks, soil chambers, and pore-water over the course of a year. Custom-made 30 cm tall open face rectangular tree chambers were constructed out of white acrylic sheets and secured on each tree at a midpoint of 45 cm above the soil surface. Chambers were lined with neoprene along the tree surface and sealed with an epoxy. On three trees that varied in trunk diameter, chambers were placed at average heights of 95, 145, 195, and 345 cm from the soil surface in order to calculate a decay curve of methane emissions. Once a month, chambers were sealed with lids and head-space samples were collected over the course of an hour. Methane flux was calculated and compared to emissions from soil chambers. Average cypress trunk methane fluxes ranged from 17.7 μmole m-2 hr-1 in May to 49.5 and 116.5 μmole m-2 hr-1 in June and July, respectively. Soil fluxes averaged 28.5 μmole m-2 hr-1 in May and June, and decreased to 13.7 μmole m-2 hr-1 in July. Methane emissions decreased exponentially up the tree trunk, with fluxes of 2 μmole m-2 hr-1 and less calculated

  15. Early-onset baldness and the risk of aggressive prostate cancer: findings from a case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papa, Nathan P; MacInnis, Robert J; English, Dallas R; Bolton, Damien; Davis, Ian D; Lawrentschuk, Nathan; Millar, Jeremy L; Severi, Gianluca; Hopper, John L; Giles, Graham G

    2018-01-01

    We aimed to evaluate the associations between androgenetic alopecia at a young age and subsequent development of aggressive prostate cancer (PC). Using a case-control design with self-administered questionnaire, we evaluated the association between aggressive PC and very early-onset balding at age 20, and early-onset balding at age 40 years in 1,941 men. Cases were men with high-grade and/or advanced stage cancer and controls were clinic based men who had undergone biopsy and were found to be histologically cancer negative. Additionally, for cases we assessed whether early-onset balding was associated with earlier onset of disease. Men with very early-onset balding at age 20 years were at increased risk for subsequent aggressive PC [odds ratio (OR) 1.51, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.07-2.12] after adjustment for age at baseline, family history of PC, smoking status, alcohol intake, body shape, timing of growth spurt and ejaculatory frequency. Additionally, these men were diagnosed with PC approximately 16 months earlier than cases without the exposure. The effect was present particularly for men with advanced stage pT3+ disease (OR 1.68, 95% CI 1.14-2.47) while men with organ-confined high-grade (8-10) PC did not exhibit the same relationship. No significant associations were observed for men who were balding at age 40 years, given no balding at age 20. Men with androgenetic alopecia at age 20 years are at increased risk of advanced stage PC. This small subset of men are potentially candidates for earlier screening and urological follow-up.

  16. Hair biology and its comprehensive sequence in female pattern baldness: diagnosis and treatment modalities--Part I.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sehgal, Virendra N; Srivastava, Govind; Aggarwal, Ashok K; Midha, Rashmi

    2013-01-01

    Hair may be a source of concern for patients when there is a change in its texture, amount, or thickness. It can present in women as androgenic alopecia also called female pattern baldness, and in men as adrogenic alopecia, also called male pattern baldness. Thinning/rarefaction affecting the vertex is a progressive condition, and hair loss in women has been interpreted and classified differently from that in men. The Ludwig classification for women's hair loss seems to be the most accepted assessment, which will be outlined in this review, along with the hair growth cycle that encompasses anagen, catagen, telogen, exogen, and kenogen.

  17. Nested cellular automata

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quasthoff, U.

    1985-07-01

    Cellular automata by definition consist of a finite or infinite number of cells, say of unit length, with each cell having the same transition function. These cells are usually considered as the smallest elements and so the space filled with these cells becomes discrete. Nevertheless, large pictures created by such cellular automata look very fractal. So we try to replace each cell by a couple of smaller cells, which have the same transition functions as the large ones. There are automata where this replacement does not destroy the macroscopic structure. In these cases this nesting process can be iterated. The paper contains large classes of automata with the above properties. In the case of one dimensional automata with two states and next neighbour interaction and a nesting function of the same type a complete classification is given. (author)

  18. Why wasp foundresses change nests: relatedness, dominance, and nest quality.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Perttu Seppä

    Full Text Available The costs and benefits of different social options are best understood when individuals can be followed as they make different choices, something that can be difficult in social insects. In this detailed study, we follow overwintered females of the social wasp Polistes carolina through different nesting strategies in a stratified habitat where nest site quality varies with proximity to a foraging area, and genetic relatedness among females is known. Females may initiate nests, join nests temporarily or permanently, or abandon nests. Females can become helpers or egglayers, effectively workers or queens. What they actually do can be predicted by a combination of ecological and relatedness factors. Advantages through increased lifetime success of individuals and nests drives foundresses of the social wasp Polistes from solitary to social nest founding. We studied reproductive options of spring foundresses of P. carolina by monitoring individually-marked wasps and assessing reproductive success of each foundress by using DNA microsatellites. We examined what behavioral decisions foundresses make after relaxing a strong ecological constraint, shortage of nesting sites. We also look at the reproductive consequences of different behaviors. As in other Polistes, the most successful strategy for a foundress was to initiate a nest as early as possible and then accept others as subordinates. A common feature for many P. carolina foundresses was, however, that they reassessed their reproductive options by actively monitoring other nests at the field site and sometimes moving permanently to new nests should that offer better (inclusive fitness prospects compared to their original nests. A clear motivation for moving to new nests was high genetic relatedness; by the end of the foundress period all females were on nests with full sisters.

  19. Why Wasp Foundresses Change Nests: Relatedness, Dominance, and Nest Quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seppä, Perttu; Queller, David C.; Strassmann, Joan E.

    2012-01-01

    The costs and benefits of different social options are best understood when individuals can be followed as they make different choices, something that can be difficult in social insects. In this detailed study, we follow overwintered females of the social wasp Polistes carolina through different nesting strategies in a stratified habitat where nest site quality varies with proximity to a foraging area, and genetic relatedness among females is known. Females may initiate nests, join nests temporarily or permanently, or abandon nests. Females can become helpers or egglayers, effectively workers or queens. What they actually do can be predicted by a combination of ecological and relatedness factors. Advantages through increased lifetime success of individuals and nests drives foundresses of the social wasp Polistes from solitary to social nest founding. We studied reproductive options of spring foundresses of P. carolina by monitoring individually-marked wasps and assessing reproductive success of each foundress by using DNA microsatellites. We examined what behavioral decisions foundresses make after relaxing a strong ecological constraint, shortage of nesting sites. We also look at the reproductive consequences of different behaviors. As in other Polistes, the most successful strategy for a foundress was to initiate a nest as early as possible and then accept others as subordinates. A common feature for many P. carolina foundresses was, however, that they reassessed their reproductive options by actively monitoring other nests at the field site and sometimes moving permanently to new nests should that offer better (inclusive) fitness prospects compared to their original nests. A clear motivation for moving to new nests was high genetic relatedness; by the end of the foundress period all females were on nests with full sisters. PMID:23049791

  20. Association between male pattern baldness and prostate disease: A meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Tao; Wu, Tao; Luo, Zhumei; Duan, Xi; Deng, Shi; Tang, Yin

    2018-02-01

    Male pattern baldness (MPB) has been associated with an increased risk of prostate cancer (PC) as well as benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH). We performed a meta-analysis to quantitatively determine the level of risk of PC and BPH in individuals with baldness. A systematic literature search was conducted using several databases. We calculated pooled odds ratios (OR) and 95% CIs. In total, 17 studies comprising 68,448 participants were eligible for the meta-analysis and showed that MPB is associated with an increased risk of aggressive PC (OR = 1.59; 95% CI: 1.36-1.86; Pbaldness and PC (OR = 1.18; 95% CI: 1.05-1.32; P = 0.006). No statistically significant association between vertex, frontal plus vertex hair loss pattern, and BPH were identified. MPB is associated with an increased risk of PC and BPH. Despite our findings, further studies, preferably prospective cohort studies, are required to better elucidate these relationships and to advance knowledge in this field. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Eagle's syndrome: report of two cases using computed tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Sul Mi; Kwon, Hyuk Rok; Choi, Hang Moon; Park, In Woo

    2002-01-01

    Two cases of Eagle's syndrome are reported. The first case involved a 31-year-old man who complained of pain in his throat and pain at preauricular area on turning his head. Panoramic and computed tomography (CT) views showed bilateral stylohyoid ligament ossification. The symptoms were relieved after surgical removal. The second case involved a 56-year-old female whose chief complaints were a continuous dull pain and occasional 'shooting' pain on lower left molar area. During the physical examination, an ossified stylohyoid ligament was palpated at the left submandibular area. Panoramic and CT images showed prominent bilateral stylohyoid ligament ossification. CT scans also showed hypertrophy of left medial and lateral pterygoid muscles. The symptoms were relieved after medication. CT is a useful tool for the examination of ossified stylohyoid ligaments and studying the relationship between Eagle's syndrome and adjacent soft tissue.

  2. Time and Space Partitioning the EagleEye Reference Misson

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bos, Victor; Mendham, Peter; Kauppinen, Panu; Holsti, Niklas; Crespo, Alfons; Masmano, Miguel; de la Puente, Juan A.; Zamorano, Juan

    2013-08-01

    We discuss experiences gained by porting a Software Validation Facility (SVF) and a satellite Central Software (CSW) to a platform with support for Time and Space Partitioning (TSP). The SVF and CSW are part of the EagleEye Reference mission of the European Space Agency (ESA). As a reference mission, EagleEye is a perfect candidate to evaluate practical aspects of developing satellite CSW for and on TSP platforms. The specific TSP platform we used consists of a simulated LEON3 CPU controlled by the XtratuM separation micro-kernel. On top of this, we run five separate partitions. Each partition runs its own real-time operating system or Ada run-time kernel, which in turn are running the application software of the CSW. We describe issues related to partitioning; inter-partition communication; scheduling; I/O; and fault-detection, isolation, and recovery (FDIR).

  3. Eagle's syndrome associated with lingual nerve paresthesia: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Zhiwei; Bao, Haihong; Zhang, Li; Hua, Zequan

    2014-05-01

    Eagle's syndrome is characterized by a variety of symptoms, including throat pain, sensation of a foreign body in the pharynx, dysphagia, referred otalgia, and neck and throat pain exacerbated by head rotation. Any styloid process longer than 25 mm should be considered elongated and will usually be responsible for Eagle's syndrome. Surgical resection of the elongated styloid is a routine treatment and can be accomplished using a transoral or an extraoral approach. We report a patient with a rare giant styloid process that was approximately 81.7 mm. He complained of a rare symptom: hemitongue paresthesia. After removal of the elongated styloid process using the extraoral approach, his symptoms, including the hemitongue paresthesia, were alleviated. We concluded that if the styloid process displays medium to severe elongation, the extraoral approach will be appropriate. Copyright © 2014 American Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. On Themes of the Eagle by Alfred Tennyson

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈晓庆

    2009-01-01

    Theme is significant to poetry.Not only music but also theme is related to poetry since its birth.Usually great poems have more than one theme.Nowadays different approaches of literary analysis are on stage.The different approaches are employed to expound the rich themes of The Eagle-in memorial of Hallam,in praise of Britain's colonial expansion and in eulogy of nature.

  5. ON WINGS OF EAGLES; SOUTH AFRICA'S MILITARY AVIATION HISTORY

    OpenAIRE

    Ian Van der Waag

    2012-01-01

    With this book, Major Dave Becker has addressed an important hiatus in the military aviation history of South Africa. On Wings of Eagles is the first all-inclusive history of the South African Air Force to be published since 1970, when the SAAF (mistakenly!) celebrated their golden jubilee. The 1970 publication, Per Aspera ad Astra, was nonetheless a useful brochure and embodied the first attempt to present the entire history of the SAAF within one cover. It was, however, too superficial and ...

  6. Meta-analysis identifies novel risk loci and yields systematic insights into the biology of male-pattern baldness

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heilmann-Heimbach, S.; Herold, C.; Hochfeld, L.M.; Hillmer, A.M.; Nyholt, D.R.; Hecker, J.; Javed, A.; Chew, E.G.; Pechlivanis, S.; Drichel, D.; Heng, X.T.; Rosario, R.C. Del; Fier, H.L.; Paus, R.; Rueedi, R.; Galesloot, T.E.; Moebus, S.; Anhalt, T.; Prabhakar, S.; Li, R.; Kanoni, S.; Papanikolaou, G.; Kutalik, Z.; Deloukas, P.; Philpott, M.P.; Waeber, G.; Spector, T.D.; Vollenweider, P.; Kiemeney, L.A.L.M.; Dedoussis, G.; Richards, J.B.; Nothnagel, M.; Martin, N.G.; Becker, T.; Hinds, D.A.; Nothen, M.M.

    2017-01-01

    Male-pattern baldness (MPB) is a common and highly heritable trait characterized by androgen-dependent, progressive hair loss from the scalp. Here, we carry out the largest GWAS meta-analysis of MPB to date, comprising 10,846 early-onset cases and 11,672 controls from eight independent cohorts. We

  7. Through the Eyes of the Eagle (American Indian translation in Chickasaw)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    The Eagle Books are a series of four books that are brought to life by wise animal characters - Mr. Eagle, Miss Rabbit, and Coyote - who engage Rain That Dances and his young friends in the joy of physical activity, eating healthy foods, and learning from their elders about health and diabetes prevention. Through the Eyes of the Eagle tells children about looking to the healthy ways and wisdom of their elders (American Indian translation in Chickasaw).

  8. Through the Eyes of the Eagle (American Indian translation in Paiute)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    The Eagle Books are a series of four books that are brought to life by wise animal characters - Mr. Eagle, Miss Rabbit, and Coyote - who engage Rain That Dances and his young friends in the joy of physical activity, eating healthy foods, and learning from their elders about health and diabetes prevention. Through the Eyes of the Eagle tells children about looking to the healthy ways and wisdom of their elders (Listen to the American Indian translation in Paiute).

  9. Through the Eyes of the Eagle (American Indian translation in Shoshone)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    The Eagle Books are a series of four books that are brought to life by wise animal characters - Mr. Eagle, Miss Rabbit, and Coyote - who engage Rain That Dances and his young friends in the joy of physical activity, eating healthy foods, and learning from their elders about health and diabetes prevention. Through the Eyes of the Eagle tells children about looking to the healthy ways and wisdom of their elders (Listen to the American Indian translation in Shoshone).

  10. Habitat Requirements and Foraging Ecology of the Madagascar Fish-Eagle

    OpenAIRE

    Berkelman, James

    1997-01-01

    With a population estimate of 99 pairs, the Madagascar fish-eagle (Haliaeetus vociferoides) is one of the rarest birds of prey in the world. I investigated the ecological requirements of the Madagascar fish-eagle in 1994 and 1995 to help determine management action to prevent its extinction. I investigated fish-eagle foraging ecology in 1996 to determine its prey preference and whether fish abundance and availabi...

  11. Eagle Syndrome: diagnostic imaging and therapy; Eagle Syndrom - Bildgebende Diagnostik und Therapie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nickel, J.; Andresen, R. [Abt. fuer Bildgebende Diagnostik und Interventionelle Radiologie, Guestrower Krankenhaus, Akademisches Lehrkrankenhaus der Univ. Rostock (Germany); Sonnenburg, M. [Fachbelegarztpraxis fuer Mund, Kiefer, Gesichtschirurgie und Plastische Operationen, Guestrower Krankenhaus, Akademisches Lehrkrankenhaus der Univ. Rostock (Germany); Scheufler, O. [Klinik fuer Plastische, Wiederherstellungs- und Handchirurgie, Markus Krankenhaus, Akademisches Lehrkrankenhaus der Goethe Univ. Frankfurt am Main (Germany)

    2004-07-01

    In the case of clinical symptoms such as dysphagia, foreign-body sensation and chronic neck or facial pain close to the ear, an Eagle syndrome should be considered in the differential diagnosis. Rational diagnostics and therapy are elucidated on the basis of four case reports. Four patients presented in the out-patients clinic with chronic complaints on chewing and a foreign-body sensation in the tonsil region. Upon specific palpation below the mandibular angle, pain radiating into the ear region intensified. In all patients, local anaesthesia with lidocaine only led to a temporary remission of symptoms. Imaging diagnostics then performed initially included cranial survey radiograms according to Clementschitsch as well as in the lateral ray path and an OPTG. An axial spiral-CT was then performed using the thin-layer technique with subsequent 3-D reconstruction. Therapy consisted of elective resection with a lateral external incision from the retromandibular. From a symptomatic point of view, the cranial survey radiograms and the OPTG revealed hypertrophic styloid processes. The geometrically corrected addition of the axial CT images produced an absolute length of 51-58 mm. The 3-D reconstruction made it possible to visualise the exact spatial orientation of the styloid processes. An ossification of the stylohyoid ligament could definitely be ruled out on the basis of the imaging procedures. After resection of the megastyloid, the patients were completely free of symptoms. Spiral-CT with subsequent 3-D reconstruction is the method of choice for exact determination of the localisation and size of a megastyloid, while cranial survey radiograms according to Clementschitsch and in the lateral ray path or an OPTG can provide initial information. The therapy of choice is considered to be resection of the megastyloid, whereby an external lateral incision has proved effective. (orig.) [German] Bei klinischen Beschwerden wie Dysphagie, Fremdkoerpergefuehl und chronischen

  12. Movements and landscape use of Eastern Imperial Eagles Aquila heliaca in Central Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poessel, Sharon; Bragin, Evgeny A.; Sharpe, Peter B.; Garcelon, David K.; Bartoszuk, Kordian; Katzner, Todd E.

    2018-01-01

    Capsule: We describe ecological factors associated with movements of a globally declining raptor species, the Eastern Imperial Eagle Aquila heliaca.Aims: To describe the movements, habitat associations and resource selection of Eastern Imperial Eagles marked in Central Asia.Methods: We used global positioning system (GPS) data sent via satellite telemetry devices deployed on Eastern Imperial Eagles captured in Kazakhstan to calculate distances travelled and to associate habitat and weather variables with eagle locations collected throughout the annual cycle. We also used resource selection models to evaluate habitat use of tracked birds during autumn migration. Separately, we used wing-tagging recovery data to broaden our understanding of wintering locations of eagles.Results: Eagles tagged in Kazakhstan wintered in most countries on the Arabian Peninsula, as well as Iran and India. The adult eagle we tracked travelled more efficiently than did the four pre-adults. During autumn migration, telemetered eagles used a mixture of vegetation types, but during winter and summer, they primarily used bare and sparsely vegetated areas. Finally, telemetered birds used orographic updrafts to subsidize their autumn migration flight, but they relied on thermal updrafts during spring migration.Conclusion: Our study is the first to use GPS telemetry to describe year-round movements and habitat associations of Eastern Imperial Eagles in Central Asia. Our findings provide insight into the ecology of this vulnerable raptor species that can contribute to conservation efforts on its behalf.

  13. The influence of weather on Golden Eagle migration in northwestern Montana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yates, R.E.; McClelland, B.R.; Mcclelland, P.T.; Key, C.H.; Bennetts, R.E.

    2001-01-01

    We analyzed the influence of 17 weather factors on migrating Golden Eagles (Aquila chrysaetos) near the Continental Divide in Glacier National Park, Montana, U.S.A. Local weather measurements were recorded at automated stations on the flanks of two peaks within the migration path. During a total of 506 hr of observation, the yearly number of Golden Eagles in autumn counts (1994-96) averaged 1973; spring counts (1995 and 1996) averaged 605 eagles. Mean passage rates (eagles/hr) were 16.5 in autumn and 8.2 in spring. Maximum rates were 137 in autumn and 67 in spring. Using generalized linear modeling, we tested for the effects of weather factors on the number of eagles counted. In the autumn model, the number of eagles increased with increasing air temperature, rising barometric pressure, decreasing relative humidity, and interactions among those factors. In the spring model, the number of eagles increased with increasing wind speed, barometric pressure, and the interaction between these factors. Our data suggest that a complex interaction among weather factors influenced the number of eagles passing on a given day. We hypothesize that in complex landscapes with high topographic relief, such as Glacier National Park, numerous weather factors produce different daily combinations to which migrating eagles respond opportunistically. ?? 2001 The Raptor Research Foundation, Inc.

  14. Intelligent nesting system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Đuričić Zoran

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The economy of the process for the manufacture of parts from sheet metal plates depends on successful solution of the process of cutting various parts from sheet metal plates. Essentially, the problem is to arrange contours within a defined space so that they take up minimal surface. When taken in this way, the considered problem assumes a more general nature; it refers to the utilization of a flat surface, and it can represent a general principle of arranging 2D contours on a certain surface. The paper presents a conceptual solution and a prototypal intelligent nesting system for optimal cutting. The problem of nesting can generally be divided into two intellectual phases: recognition and classification of shapes, and arrangement of recognized shapes on a given surface. In solving these problems, methods of artificial intelligence are applied. In the paper, trained neural network is used for recognition of shapes; on the basis of raster record of a part's drawing, it recognizes the part's shape and which class it belongs to. By means of the expert system, based on rules defined on the basis of acquisition of knowledge from manufacturing sections, as well as on the basis of certain mathematical algorithms, parts are arranged on the arrangement surface. Both systems can also work independently, having been built on the modular principle. The system uses various product models as elements of integration for the entire system. .

  15. Neste plans three projects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1993-01-01

    Neste Chemicals (Helsinki) is discussing three joint ventures with local authorities in China, says Mikko Haapavaara, v.p./Asia. The projects should help the Finnish producer to increase sales in Asia by a considerable amount by 2000, he says. The plan involves production of polyethylene (PE), unsaturated polyester resins and PE compounding-all core operations. Sites have not been selected, but Shanghai is the favored location for the PE operations. The company is also looking at a site in the south, near Hong Kong, and at locations near Beijing. The PE plant would need to be near an ethylene unit, says Haapavaara. The PE resin plant would be designed to produce about 150,000 m.t./year and would cost about No. 150 million. A part of the output would need to be exported to take care of the financing, the company says. A feasibility study now under way with the potential Chinese partners should be completed by the end of March. The plant would use Neste's linear low-density PE process, proved in a world-scale plant at Beringen, Belgium. The compounding units would produce specialty PE material for the wire and cable and pipe industry. The company is a joint venture partner in a propane dehydrogenation/polypropylene (PP) plant and a minority partner in a Qualipoly, the 20,000 m.t./year unsaturated polyester resin producer

  16. PyNEST: a convenient interface to the NEST simulator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jochen M Eppler

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The neural simulation tool NEST (http://www.nest-initiative.org is a simulator for heterogeneous networks of point neurons or neurons with a small number of compartments. It aims at simulations of large neural systems with more than 10^4 neurons and 10^7 to 10^9 synapses. NEST is implemented in C++ and can be used on a large range of architectures from single-core laptops over multi-core desktop computers to super-computers with thousands of processor cores. Python (http://www.python.org is a modern programming language that has recently received considerable attention in Computational Neuroscience. Python is easy to learn and has many extension modules for scientific computing (e.g. http://www.scipy.org. In this contribution we describe PyNEST, the new user interface to NEST. PyNEST combines NEST’s efficient simulation kernel with the simplicity and flexibility of Python. Compared to NEST’s native simulation language SLI, PyNEST makes it easier to set up simulations, generate stimuli, and analyze simulation results. We describe how PyNEST connects NEST and Python and how it is implemented. With a number of examples, we illustrate how it is used.

  17. Cosmic baldness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boucher, W.; Gibbons, G.W.

    1983-01-01

    Some years ago it was suggested that solutions of Einstein's equations with a positive cosmological term should eventually settle down to a state which is stationary inside the cosmological event horizon of any future inextendible timelike curve. This stationary state, it was suggested, would, if no black holes were present, be de Sitter space. The recent work on the inflationary scenario in the early universe has reawakened interest in this topic and the purpose of this article is to review the mechanism whereby a universe dominated by vacuum energy. (author)

  18. The effects of wind turbines on white-tailed eagles (Haliaeetus Albicilla) in Hokkaido, Japan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shiraki, Saiko; Kitano, Masato

    2011-07-01

    Full text: The recent growth of wind facilities in Japan has raised concerns about bird collisions, especially for white-tailed eagles in Hokkaido, northern part of Japan. Approx. 150 pairs of white-tailed eagles breed in Hokkaido in the latest survey (Shiraki unpub. data) and these pairs are considered as residents. On the other hand, ca.500-700 white-tailed eagles including migrants from the breeding areas in Russia winter in Hokkaido. The major objectives of this study are to (1) examine the impacts of wind turbines on white-tailed eagles by information analysis in the previous accident reports of the collisions and by field investigations at the wind facilities, and (2) explore the possible factors which relate to the collisions of the eagles with wind turbines A total of 24 collisions of sea eagles (Haliaeetus spp.) have been reported by both incidental discoveries and fatality searching since 2004 in Hokkaido. 22 of the 24 fatalities were white-tailed eagles and 23 of the 24 were immature birds. Field surveys to estimate of fatality rate of white-tailed eagles and observations of the flight behaviours were carried out at the wind facilities including a total of 42 turbines for one and half years. Annual mortality for white-tailed eagles was estimated at 0.08 fatalities / yr / MW and the Risk Index (Smallwood et Thelander 2004) was calculated at 0.058, the second highest value after common buzzards (Buteo buteo) in this survey. In addition, white-tailed eagles and common buzzards flew at the altitudes of rotor zones of the wind turbines more frequently than the other raptors. The effects of the collisions at wind turbines on white-tailed eagles in Hokkaido based on the results of this study, and on the ecological and the genetically information of the population will be considered in the presentation. (Author)

  19. Does prostaglandin D2 hold the cure to male pattern baldness?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nieves, Ashley; Garza, Luis A

    2014-04-01

    Lipids in the skin are the most diverse in the entire human body. Their bioactivity in health and disease is underexplored. Prostaglandin D2 has recently been identified as a factor which is elevated in the bald scalp of men with androgenetic alopecia (AGA) and has the capacity to decrease hair lengthening. An enzyme which synthesizes it, prostaglandin D2 synthase (PTGDS or lipocalin-PGDS), is hormone responsive in multiple other organs. PGD2 has two known receptors, GPR44 and PTGDR. GPR44 was found to be necessary for the decrease in hair growth by PGD2 . This creates an exciting opportunity to perhaps create novel treatments for AGA, which inhibit the activity of PTGDS, PGD2 or GPR44. This review discusses the current knowledge surrounding PGD2 , and future steps needed to translate these findings into novel therapies for patients with AGA. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Acne tarda and male-pattern baldness unmasking primary ovarian insufficiency: a case and review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zouboulis, Christos C; Achenbach, Alexander; Makrantonaki, Eugenia

    2014-01-01

    A 30-year-old woman presented with recurrent acne lesions and progressing male-pattern baldness. Furthermore, she reported amenorrhea, weight loss, mucosal xerosis and dyspareunia since discontinuation of hormonal contraception 6 months earlier in order to conceive. Acne tarda and androgenetic alopecia of female pattern were diagnosed. Hormonal and immunologic serological and ultrasound examinations revealed an autoimmune hypergonadotropic primary ovarian insufficiency (POI) with no ovarian cysts but ovarian fibrosis with marked reduced follicle pool. Immediate ovarian stimulation and in vitro fertilization led to pregnancy and the patient gave birth to a healthy child. Though presenting with clinical findings similar to menopause, 50% of patients with POI exhibit varying and unpredictable ovarian function, and only 5-10% are able to accomplish pregnancy. Genetic disorders affect the X chromosome. In 14-30% of cases POI has been associated with autoimmunity. POI may occur after discontinuation of hormonal contraception, like in our case.

  1. The influence of nest-site characteristics on the nesting success of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Choice of nest site has important consequences for nest survival. We examined nest-site characteristics relative to nest success in Karoo Prinias breeding in coastal dwarf shrubland, where high nest predation is the main cause of nest failure. Initially, we compared nests that failed during the building, laying, incubation and ...

  2. First observation of bald patches in a filament channel and at a barb endpoint

    Science.gov (United States)

    López Ariste, A.; Aulanier, G.; Schmieder, B.; Sainz Dalda, A.

    2006-09-01

    The 3D magnetic field topology of solar filaments/prominences is strongly debated, because it is not directly measureable in the corona. Among various prominence models, several are consistent with many observations, but their related topologies are very different. We conduct observations to address this paradigm. We measure the photospheric vector magnetic field in several small flux concentrations surrounding a filament observed far from disc center. Our objective is to test for the presence/absence of magnetic dips around/below the filament body/barb, which is a strong constraint on prominence models, and that is still untested by observations. Our observations are performed with the THEMIS/MTR instrument. The four Stokes parameters are extracted, from which the vector magnetic fields are calculated using a PCA inversion. The resulting vector fields are then deprojected onto the photospheric plane. The 180° ambiguity is then solved by selecting the only solution that matches filament chirality rules. Considering the weakness of the resulting magnetic fields, a careful analysis of the inversion procedure and its error bars was performed, to avoid over-interpretation of noisy or ambiguous Stokes profiles. Thanks to the simultaneous multi-wavelength THEMIS observations, the vector field maps are coaligned with the Hα image of the filament. By definition, photospheric dips are identifiable where the horizontal component of the magnetic field points from a negative toward a positive polarity. Among six bipolar regions analyzed in the filament channel, four at least display photospheric magnetic dips, i.e. bald patches. For barbs, the topology of the endpoint is that of a bald patch located next to a parasitic polarity, not of an arcade pointing within the polarity. The observed magnetic field topology in the photosphere tends to support models of prominence based on magnetic dips located within weakly twisted flux tubes. Their underlying and lateral extensions form

  3. Hair follicle growth by stromal vascular fraction-enhanced adipose transplantation in baldness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Perez-Meza D

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available David Perez-Meza,1 Craig Ziering,2 Marcos Sforza,3 Ganesh Krishnan,4 Edward Ball,5 Eric Daniels6 1Ziering Medical, Marbella, Spain; 2Ziering Medical, Los Angeles, CA, USA; 3The Hospital Group, Bromsgrove, Worcestershire, 4Ziering Medical, Birmingham, 5Ziering Medical, London, UK; 6Kerastem Technologies, San Diego, CA, USA Abstract: Great interest remains in finding new and emerging therapies for the treatment of male and female pattern hair loss. The autologous fat grafting technique is >100 years old, with a recent and dramatic increase in clinical experience over the past 10–15 years. Recently, in 2001, Zuk et al published the presence of adipose-derived stem cells, and abundant research has shown that adipose is a complex, biological active, and important tissue. Festa et al, in 2011, reported that adipocyte lineage cells support the stem cell niche and help drive the complex hair growth cycle. Adipose-derived regenerative cells (also known as stromal vascular fraction [SVF] is a heterogeneous group of noncultured cells that can be reliably extracted from adipose by using automated systems, and these cells work largely by paracrine mechanisms to support adipocyte viability. While, today, autologous fat is transplanted primarily for esthetic and reconstructive volume, surgeons have previously reported positive skin and hair changes posttransplantation. This follicular regenerative approach is intriguing and raises the possibility that one can drive or restore the hair cycle in male and female pattern baldness by stimulating the niche with autologous fat enriched with SVF. In this first of a kind patient series, the authors report on the safety, tolerability, and quantitative, as well as photographic changes, in a group of patients with early genetic alopecia treated with subcutaneous scalp injection of enriched adipose tissue. The findings suggest that scalp stem cell-enriched fat grafting may represent a promising alternative approach to

  4. The Eurasian eagle-owl (Bubo bubo diet in the Trøndelag region (Central Norway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Obuch Ján

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Between 2008 and 2015 we collected pellets of the Eurasian eagle-owl (Bubo bubo in the Trøndelag region of central Norway and identified the food remains in these samples. We collected material at 45 sites with samples from a total of 76 nests. Some of the samples were from older and already abandoned nests, but at several sites we also found and collected fresh B. bubo pellets. In total 40,766 items of prey were identified from the osteological material. The most dominant food components were mammals (Mammalia, 25 species, 63.5%. The species representation of birds was very diverse (Aves, more than 150 species, 19.4%. Of amphibians (Amphibia, 1 6.8%, the well-represented species were Rana temporaria. Fish (Pisces, 0.3% were represented rarely, while invertebrates were represented only sporadically (Invertebrata, 0.05%. A special composition was found in the diet spectra of the mammals and birds in the mountainous areas at altitudes between 220-780 m above sea level. The highest proportion of frogs was found in areas in the proximity of the mainland shore. On the northern islands located near the coast a significant proportion of the B. bubo diet consisted of rodents (Rodentia. On the more isolated southern islands of Frøya, Hitra and Storfosna the main prey was sea birds, and of the mammals there were also hedgehogs and rats.

  5. Using Artificial Nests to Study Nest Predation in Birds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belthoff, James R.

    2005-01-01

    A simple and effective field exercise that demonstrates factors affecting predation on bird nests is described. With instructor guidance, students in high school biology or college-level biology, ecology, animal behavior, wildlife management or ornithology laboratory courses can collaborate to design field experiments related to nest depredation.

  6. 78 FR 57629 - Eagle Valley Clean Energy, LLC; Notice of Filing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-19

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Docket Nos. EL13-87-000; QF13-658-000] Eagle Valley Clean Energy, LLC; Notice of Filing Take notice that on September 9, 2013, Eagle Valley Clean Energy, LLC filed Form 556 and a petition for certification as a qualifying small power production...

  7. 76 FR 27753 - American Eagle Savings Bank, Boothwyn, PA; Approval of Conversion Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-12

    ... DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY Office of Thrift Supervision [AC-61: OTS Nos. 07212] American Eagle Savings Bank, Boothwyn, PA; Approval of Conversion Application Notice is hereby given that on May 3, 2011, the Office of Thrift Supervision approved the application of American Eagle Savings Bank, Boothwyn...

  8. The environmental dependence of H I in galaxies in the EAGLE simulations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marasco, Antonino; Crain, Robert A.; Schaye, Joop; Bahé, Yannick M.; van der Hulst, Thijs; Theuns, Tom; Bower, Richard G.

    2016-01-01

    We use the EAGLE suite of cosmological hydrodynamical simulations to study how the H I content of present-day galaxies depends on their environment. We show that EAGLE reproduces observed H I mass-environment trends very well, while semi-analytic models typically overpredict the average H I masses

  9. 77 FR 43662 - Price for the 2012 American Eagle Silver Proof Coin

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-25

    ... DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY United States Mint Price for the 2012 American Eagle Silver Proof Coin... is lowering the price of the 2012 American Eagle Silver Proof Coin. The product will now be offered for sale at a price of $54.95. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: B. B. Craig, Associate Director for...

  10. 77 FR 40704 - Price for the 2012 American Eagle Silver Uncirculated Coin

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-10

    ... DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY United States Mint Price for the 2012 American Eagle Silver... States Mint is announcing the price of the 2012 American Eagle Silver Uncirculated Coin. The coin will be offered for sale at a price of $45.95. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: B. B. Craig, Associate Director...

  11. 77 FR 28375 - Eagle Rock Desoto Pipeline, L.P.; Notice of Petition for Rate Approval

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-14

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Docket No. PR12-25-000] Eagle Rock Desoto Pipeline, L.P.; Notice of Petition for Rate Approval Take notice that on May 1, 2012, Eagle Rock Desoto Pipeline, L.P. (Desoto) filed a Rate Election pursuant to 284.123(b)(1) of the Commissions...

  12. 76 FR 387 - Atomic Safety and Licensing Board; AREVA Enrichment Services, LLC (Eagle Rock Enrichment Facility)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-04

    ... and Licensing Board; AREVA Enrichment Services, LLC (Eagle Rock Enrichment Facility) December 17, 2010... construction and operation of a gas centrifuge uranium enrichment facility--denoted as the Eagle Rock... site at http://www.nrc.gov/materials/fuel-cycle-fac/arevanc.html . These and other documents relating...

  13. 77 FR 15457 - Pricing for the 2012 American Eagle Silver Proof Coin

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-15

    ... DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY United States Mint Pricing for the 2012 American Eagle Silver Proof Coin AGENCY: United States Mint, Department of the Treasury. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The United States Mint is announcing the price of the 2012 American Eagle Silver Proof Coin. The coins will be offered...

  14. 76 FR 65563 - Pricing for 2011 American Eagle Silver Proof and Uncirculated Coins

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-21

    ... DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY United States Mint Pricing for 2011 American Eagle Silver Proof and Uncirculated Coins AGENCY: United States Mint, Department of the Treasury. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The United States Mint is announcing the re-pricing of the 2011 American Eagle Silver Proof and Uncirculated Coins...

  15. 77 FR 839 - Pricing for 2011 American Eagle Silver Uncirculated Coins

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-06

    ... DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY United States Mint Pricing for 2011 American Eagle Silver Uncirculated Coins Agency: United States Mint, Department of the Treasury. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The United States Mint is announcing the re-pricing of the 2011 American Eagle Silver Uncirculated Coins. The price of...

  16. 76 FR 27182 - Pricing for American Eagle and American Buffalo Bullion Presentation Cases

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-10

    ... DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY United States Mint Pricing for American Eagle and American Buffalo Bullion Presentation Cases AGENCY: United States Mint, Department of the Treasury. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The United States Mint is announcing the price increase of the American Eagle/Buffalo Bullion...

  17. 76 FR 67799 - Pricing for the American Eagle 25th Anniversary Silver Coin Set

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-02

    ... DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY United States Mint Pricing for the American Eagle 25th Anniversary Silver Coin Set AGENCY: United States Mint, Department of the Treasury. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The United States Mint is announcing the price of the American Eagle 25th Anniversary Silver Coin Set. The...

  18. 78 FR 24816 - Pricing for the 2013 American Eagle West Point Two-Coin Silver Set

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-26

    ... DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY United States Mint Pricing for the 2013 American Eagle West Point Two-Coin Silver Set AGENCY: United States Mint, Department of the Treasury. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The United States Mint is announcing the price of the 2013 American Eagle West Point Two-Coin Silver Set. The...

  19. 76 FR 53717 - Pricing for the 2011 American Eagle Silver Uncirculated Coin

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-29

    ... DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY United States Mint Pricing for the 2011 American Eagle Silver Uncirculated Coin AGENCY: United States Mint, Department of the Treasury. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The United States Mint is announcing the pricing of the 2011 American Eagle Silver Uncirculated Coin. The price of...

  20. 76 FR 53717 - Pricing for the 2011 American Eagle Silver Proof Coin

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-29

    ... DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY United States Mint Pricing for the 2011 American Eagle Silver Proof Coin AGENCY: United States Mint, Department of the Treasury. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The United States Mint is announcing the re-pricing of the 2011 American Eagle Silver Proof Coin. The price of the coins...

  1. 76 FR 33026 - Pricing for the 2011 American Eagle Silver Proof Coin

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-07

    ... DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY United States Mint Pricing for the 2011 American Eagle Silver Proof Coin AGENCY: United States Mint, Department of the Treasury. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The United States Mint is announcing the price of the 2011 American Eagle Silver Proof Coin. The coin will be offered for...

  2. 75 FR 11937 - Eagle Sportswear, Inc.; New York, NY; Notice of Termination of Investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-12

    ... DEPARTMENT OF LABOR Employment and Training Administration [TA-W-73,023] Eagle Sportswear, Inc.; New York, NY; Notice of Termination of Investigation Pursuant to Section 223 of the Trade Act of 1974... company official on behalf of workers of Eagle Sportswear, Inc., New York, New York. The petitioner has...

  3. The genome sequence of a widespread apex Predator, the golden eagle (Aquila chrysaetos)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacqueline M. Doyle; Todd E. Katzner; Peter H. Bloom; Yanzhu Ji; Bhagya K. Wijayawardena; J. Andrew DeWoody; Ludovic. Orlando

    2014-01-01

    Biologists routinely use molecular markers to identify conservation units, to quantify genetic connectivity, to estimate population sizes, and to identify targets of selection. Many imperiled eagle populations require such efforts and would benefit from enhanced genomic resources. We sequenced, assembled, and annotated the first eagle genome using DNA from a male...

  4. The EAGLE simulations: atomic hydrogen associated with galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crain, Robert A.; Bahé, Yannick M.; Lagos, Claudia del P.; Rahmati, Alireza; Schaye, Joop; McCarthy, Ian G.; Marasco, Antonino; Bower, Richard G.; Schaller, Matthieu; Theuns, Tom; van der Hulst, Thijs

    2017-02-01

    We examine the properties of atomic hydrogen (H I) associated with galaxies in the Evolution and Assembly of GaLaxies and their Environments (EAGLE) simulations of galaxy formation. EAGLE's feedback parameters were calibrated to reproduce the stellar mass function and galaxy sizes at z = 0.1, and we assess whether this calibration also yields realistic H I properties. We estimate the self-shielding density with a fitting function calibrated using radiation transport simulations, and correct for molecular hydrogen with empirical or theoretical relations. The `standard-resolution' simulations systematically underestimate H I column densities, leading to an H I deficiency in low-mass (M⋆ < 1010 M⊙) galaxies and poor reproduction of the observed H I mass function. These shortcomings are largely absent from EAGLE simulations featuring a factor of 8 (2) better mass (spatial) resolution, within which the H I mass of galaxies evolves more mildly from z = 1 to 0 than in the standard-resolution simulations. The largest volume simulation reproduces the observed clustering of H I systems, and its dependence on H I richness. At fixed M⋆, galaxies acquire more H I in simulations with stronger feedback, as they become associated with more massive haloes and higher infall rates. They acquire less H I in simulations with a greater star formation efficiency, since the star formation and feedback necessary to balance the infall rate is produced by smaller gas reservoirs. The simulations indicate that the H I of present-day galaxies was acquired primarily by the smooth accretion of ionized, intergalactic gas at z ≃ 1, which later self-shields, and that only a small fraction is contributed by the reincorporation of gas previously heated strongly by feedback. H I reservoirs are highly dynamic: over 40 per cent of H I associated with z = 0.1 galaxies is converted to stars or ejected by z = 0.

  5. Jordan Isomorphisms on Nest Subalgebras

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aili Yang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper is devoted to the study of Jordan isomorphisms on nest subalgebras of factor von Neumann algebras. It is shown that every Jordan isomorphism ϕ between the two nest subalgebras algMβ and algMγ is either an isomorphism or an anti-isomorphism.

  6. Neste Corporation - a successful year

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ihamuotila, J.

    1991-01-01

    The past year proved a successful one for Neste Corporation. Profitability was good and operations were consistently developed. Neste is committed to giving high priority to productivity and know- how to ensure that this success continues into the future. Important developments affecting the structure of Neste Corporation during 1990 included the amalgamation of Neste's oil-related activities into a single division, the increasing concentration of Neste Chemicals, activities in Central and Southern Europe and a major strengthening of oil exploration and production operations. Neste Oil turned in a good result during 1990. Neste imported a total of 8.9 million tonnes of crude oil during 1990. Imports from the Soviet Union at 5.2 million tonnes, were over 2 million tonnes less than planned. Some 2.5 million tonnes were imported from the North Sea, and 1.2 million tonnes from the Middle East. The year was one of expansion, diversification, and solid profit for Neste Chemicals. Net sales grew by 18 % compared to 1989 and the division recorded a satisfactory performance. Petrochemicals and polyolefins production increased suhstantially as a result of plants completed, acquired, or leased during 1989. The gas division's net sales during 1990 were 46 % higher than during 1989. This growth largely resulted from an increase in the consumption of natural gas and an expansion in the volume of international IPG business. The division's profitability remained satisfactory

  7. A case of unilateral atypical orofacial pain with Eagle's syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G V Sowmya

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Eagle's syndrome is not an uncommon condition, but less known to physicians, where an elongated styloid process or calcified stylohyoid ligament compresses the adjacent anatomical structures leading to orofacial pain. Diagnosis is made with appropriate radiological examination. Nonsurgical treatment options include reassurance, analgesia, and anti.inflammatory medications; and the surgical option includes a transoral or external approach. Here, we present a case report of a male patient, of age38 years, with a chief complaint of unilateral atypical orofacial pain on the right side of his face radiating to the neck region, for the last two months.

  8. Free radical scavenging activity of Eagle tea and their flavonoids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiong Meng

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available In this study, an online HPLC-DAD-MS coupled with 2,2′-azinobis (3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulfonic acid diammonium salt (ABTS assay was employed for evaluating free radical scavenging activity of Eagle tea and their active components. Twenty-three chromatographic peaks were detected, and nineteen components had free radical scavenging activity. Among them, eight compounds were identified as flavonoids (hyperin, isoquercitrin, quercitrin, quercetin, kaempferol, catechins, chlorogenic acid and epicatechin based on MS data and standard chromatographic characters.

  9. A rare fatality due to calcified stylohyoid ligament (Eagle syndrome).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Avneesh; Aggrawal, Anil; Setia, Puneet

    2017-06-01

    The elongation or calcification of the stylohyoid ligament that leads to pressure symptoms, or entrapment of nearby glossopharyngeal nerve or carotid artery, is known as Eagle syndrome. A PubMed search leads to finding of rare fatality among the 49 reported cases. In the present case, the deceased was a 40-year-old male who choked on his food. We hypothesise that the impaction of food in the upper respiratory tract, as well as the inability to intubate the person, were both the result of the calcified stylohyoid ligament.

  10. Ossification of the stylohyoid chain on computed tomograms - Eagle syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lugmayr, H.; Krennmair, G.; Lenglinger, F.

    1997-01-01

    The computed tomographic morphology of a typical Eagle syndrome is presented on the basis of a case history. In a 40-year-old female patient presenting with bilateral tinnitus, globus hystericus, and increasing hoarseness computed tomography revealed bilateral ossification of the stylohyoid ligament. The incidence of stylalgia is very low in comparison to the occurrence of a elongated styloid process or an ossified stylohyoid ligament. However, in cases of unexplained complaints in the head and neck region it should be considered in the differential diagnosis as it has therapeutic consequences. (orig.) [de

  11. Mourning Dove nesting habitat and nest success in Central Missouri

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drobney, R.D.; Schulz, J.H.; Sheriff, S.L.; Fuemmeler, W.J.

    1998-01-01

    Previous Mourning Dove (Zenaida macroura) nesting studies conducted in areas containing a mixture of edge and continuous habitats have focused on edge habitats. Consequently, little is known about the potential contribution of continuous habitats to dove production. In this study we evaluated the relative importance of these two extensive habitat types by monitoring the habitat use and nest success of 59 radio-marked doves during 1990-1991 in central Missouri. Of 83 nests initiated by our marked sample, most (81.9%) were located in edge habitats. Although continuous habitats were selected less as nest sites, the proportion of successful nests did not differ significantly from that in edge habitats. Our data indicate that continuous habitats should not be considered marginal nesting habitat. If the intensity of use and nest success that we observed are representative regionally or nationally, continuous habitats could contribute substantially to annual Mourning Dove production because of the high availability of these habitats throughout much of the Mourning Dove breeding range.

  12. Dynamic multistate site occupancy models to evaluate hypotheses relevant to conservation of Golden Eagles in Denali National Park, Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Julien; McIntyre, Carol L.; Hines, James E.; Nichols, James D.; Schmutz, Joel A.; MacCluskie, Margaret C.

    2009-01-01

    The recent development of multistate site occupancy models offers great opportunities to frame and solve decision problems for conservation that can be viewed in terms of site occupancy. These models have several characteristics (e.g., they account for detectability) that make them particularly well suited for addressing management and conservation problems. We applied multistate site occupancy models to evaluate hypotheses related to the conservation and management of Golden Eagles (Aquila chrysaetos) in Denali National Park, Alaska, and provided estimates of transition probabilities among three occupancy states for nesting areas (occupied with successful reproduction, occupied with unsuccessful reproduction, and unoccupied). Our estimation models included the effect of potential recreational activities (hikers) and environmental covariates such as a snowshoe hare (Lepus americanus) index on transition probabilities among the three occupancy states. Based on the most parsimonious model, support for the hypothesis of an effect of potential human disturbance on site occupancy dynamics was equivocal. There was some evidence that potential human disturbance negatively affected local colonization of territories, but there was no evidence of an effect on reproductive performance parameters. In addition, models that assume a positive relationship between the hare index and successful reproduction were well supported by the data. The statistical approach that we used is particularly useful to parameterize management models that can then be used to make optimal decisions related to the management of Golden Eagles in Denali. Although in our case we were particularly interested in managing recreational activities, we believe that such models should be useful to for a broad class of management and conservation problems.

  13. Probability of Elevated Volatile Organic Compound (VOC) Concentrations in Groundwater in the Eagle River Watershed Valley-Fill Aquifer, Eagle County, North-Central Colorado, 2006-2007

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rupert, Michael G.; Plummer, Niel

    2009-01-01

    This raster data set delineates the predicted probability of elevated volatile organic compound (VOC) concentrations in groundwater in the Eagle River watershed valley-fill aquifer, Eagle County, North-Central Colorado, 2006-2007. This data set was developed by a cooperative project between the U.S. Geological Survey, Eagle County, the Eagle River Water and Sanitation District, the Town of Eagle, the Town of Gypsum, and the Upper Eagle Regional Water Authority. This project was designed to evaluate potential land-development effects on groundwater and surface-water resources so that informed land-use and water management decisions can be made. This groundwater probability map and its associated probability maps was developed as follows: (1) A point data set of wells with groundwater quality and groundwater age data was overlaid with thematic layers of anthropogenic (related to human activities) and hydrogeologic data by using a geographic information system to assign each well values for depth to groundwater, distance to major streams and canals, distance to gypsum beds, precipitation, soils, and well depth. These data then were downloaded to a statistical software package for analysis by logistic regression. (2) Statistical models predicting the probability of elevated nitrate concentrations, the probability of unmixed young water (using chlorofluorocarbon-11 concentrations and tritium activities), and the probability of elevated volatile organic compound concentrations were developed using logistic regression techniques. (3) The statistical models were entered into a GIS and the probability map was constructed.

  14. Probability of Elevated Nitrate Concentrations in Groundwater in the Eagle River Watershed Valley-Fill Aquifer, Eagle County, North-Central Colorado, 2006-2007

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rupert, Michael G.; Plummer, Niel

    2009-01-01

    This raster data set delineates the predicted probability of elevated nitrate concentrations in groundwater in the Eagle River watershed valley-fill aquifer, Eagle County, North-Central Colorado, 2006-2007. This data set was developed by a cooperative project between the U.S. Geological Survey, Eagle County, the Eagle River Water and Sanitation District, the Town of Eagle, the Town of Gypsum, and the Upper Eagle Regional Water Authority. This project was designed to evaluate potential land-development effects on groundwater and surface-water resources so that informed land-use and water management decisions can be made. This groundwater probability map and its associated probability maps was developed as follows: (1) A point data set of wells with groundwater quality and groundwater age data was overlaid with thematic layers of anthropogenic (related to human activities) and hydrogeologic data by using a geographic information system to assign each well values for depth to groundwater, distance to major streams and canals, distance to gypsum beds, precipitation, soils, and well depth. These data then were downloaded to a statistical software package for analysis by logistic regression. (2) Statistical models predicting the probability of elevated nitrate concentrations, the probability of unmixed young water (using chlorofluorocarbon-11 concentrations and tritium activities), and the probability of elevated volatile organic compound concentrations were developed using logistic regression techniques. (3) The statistical models were entered into a GIS and the probability map was constructed.

  15. The Nest Home

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pickerill, Heath [Missouri Univ. of Science and Technology, Rolla, MO (United States)

    2016-07-11

    The purpose of the project was to build a competitive solar-powered house for the U.S. Department of Energy Solar Decathlon 2015 held in Irvine, California. The house, named the Nest Home, was an innovative design that works with the environment to meet the needs of the occupants, identified as a growing family. Reused materials were instrumental in the design. Three refurbished shipping containers composed the primary structure of the house, creating an open floor plan that defies common architecture for container homes. The exterior siding was made of deconstructed shipping pallets collected locally. Other recycled products included carpet composed of discarded fishing nets, denim batting made of recycled blue jeans that outperform traditional fiberglass insulation in sound proofing and thermal resistance, and kitchen cabinets that were purchased used and refinished. Collectively these elements formed a well-balanced blend of modern design, comfort, and sustainability. The house was Missouri University of Science and Technology’s sixth entry in the DOE Solar Decathlon. Missouri S&T has been invited to compete in six of the seven decathlons held, more than any other university worldwide. The house was brought back to Rolla after the Decathlon in California where it has been placed in its permanent location on the S&T campus.

  16. Hair biology and its comprehensive sequence in female pattern baldness: clinical connotation diagnosis and differential diagnosis--Part II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sehgal, Virendra N; Srivastava, Govind; Aggarwal, Ashok K; Midha, Rashmi

    2013-01-01

    Hair can become a source of concern when there is a change in its texture, number, and thinning. Although female pattern baldness is common, it has received little attention compared with male pattern baldness. Thinning that affects the vertex is insidious and progressive. Hair loss in women has accordingly been interpreted and classified differently than that in men. The Ludwig scale is the most accepted classification. The gross anatomy and the general microanatomy of the hair follicle, including that of the anagen, catagen, and telogen phase, are presented. The hair growth cycle, encompassing anagen, catagen, telogen, exogen, and kenogen, is also discussed to address pattern hair loss in women and provide therapeutic options that are currently available.

  17. Eagle i-Bot: An Eye-controlled System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Onindita Afrin

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Hundreds of millions of people in the world are hand impaired in some way, and for many, there is no absolute solution. Operation of computers by physically disabled people; especially with hand impairment was quite impossible till now because use of hands plays a vital role in the use of mouse, touch pad and keyboard. We proposed a new system named as “Eagle i-Bot - An eye-controlled system” which has come with a feasible solution for this scenario. With this system, computers and robots can be controlled by the pair of eyes’ movement or iris movement and voice commands control all the mouse events. This system works with image processing system based on Voila-Jones algorithm and modified Ada-boost algorithms along with java robot class and sphinx-4 frameworks. In this paper, this system is described including software and hardware aspects, algorithms that are used and scopes where Eagle i-Bot can be used.

  18. Nesting ecology of Arctic loons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petersen, Margaret R.

    1979-01-01

    Arctic Loons were studied on the Yukon-Kuskokwim Delta, Alaska, from the time of their arrival in May to their departure in September, in 1974 and 1975. Pairs arrived on breeding ponds as soon as sufficient meltwater was available to allow their take-off and landing. Loons apparently do not initiate nests immediately after their arrival, even when nest-sites are available. Delayed egg-laying may be dependent on a period of yolk formation. Delaying yolk formation until after arrival on nest ponds is an adaptation by loons to the variable time suitable habitat becomes available for nesting. Predation of eggs by Glaucous Gulls, Long-tailed and Parasitic jaegers and foxes varied in relation to the location of the nest-site, and the availability of alternate prey. Hatching success was the lowest recorded for Arctic Loons (5%) in 1974, when eggs of both loons and Cackling Geese were taken in large numbers by predators. Hatching success increased to 32% in 1975 when an abundance of tundra voles was observed. No loon eggs hatched after the hatching of the Cackling Goose eggs when this alternate prey was no longer available. Nests destroyed by foxes were predominantly along shorelines, and those by gulls and jaegers were predominantly on islands. Nest-site selection by Arctic Loons may reflect an adaptive response to varying selective pressures by their predators.

  19. Prostaglandin D2 Inhibits Hair Growth and Is Elevated in Bald Scalp of Men with Androgenetic Alopecia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garza, Luis A.; Liu, Yaping; Yang, Zaixin; Alagesan, Brinda; Lawson, John A.; Norberg, Scott M.; Loy, Dorothy E.; Zhao, Tailun; Blatt, Hanz B.; Stanton, David C.; Carrasco, Lee; Ahluwalia, Gurpreet; Fischer, Susan M.; FitzGerald, Garret A.; Cotsarelis, George

    2012-01-01

    Testosterone is necessary for the development of male pattern baldness, known as androgenetic alopecia (AGA); yet, the mechanisms for decreased hair growth in this disorder are unclear. We show that prostaglandin D2 synthase (PTGDS) is elevated at the mRNA and protein levels in bald scalp compared to haired scalp of men with AGA. The product of PTGDS enzyme activity, prostaglandin D2 (PGD2), is similarly elevated in bald scalp. During normal follicle cycling in mice, Ptgds and PGD2 levels increase immediately preceding the regression phase, suggesting an inhibitory effect on hair growth. We show that PGD2 inhibits hair growth in explanted human hair follicles and when applied topically to mice. Hair growth inhibition requires the PGD2 receptor G protein (heterotrimeric guanine nucleotide)–coupled receptor 44 (GPR44), but not the PGD2 receptor 1 (PTGDR). Furthermore, we find that a transgenic mouse, K14-Ptgs2, which targets prostaglandin-endoperoxide synthase 2 expression to the skin, demonstrates elevated levels of PGD2 in the skin and develops alopecia, follicular miniaturization, and sebaceous gland hyperplasia, which are all hallmarks of human AGA. These results define PGD2 as an inhibitor of hair growth in AGA and suggest the PGD2-GPR44 pathway as a potential target for treatment. PMID:22440736

  20. Bristol Bay, Alaska Subarea ESI: NESTS (Nest Points)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for nesting seabirds (alcids, pelagic birds), gulls, terns, diving birds, and raptors in the Bristol Bay...

  1. Do Predation Rates on Artificial Nests Accurately Reflect Predation Rates on Natural Bird Nests?

    Science.gov (United States)

    David I. King; Richard M. DeGraaf; Curtice R. Griffin; Thomas J. Maier

    1999-01-01

    Artificial nests are widely used in avian field studies. However, it is unclear how well predation rates on artificial nests reflect predation rates on natural nests. Therefore, we compared survival rates of artificial nests (unused natural nests baited with House Sparrow eggs) with survival rates of active bird nests in the same habitat at the same sites. Survival...

  2. Ossification of the stylohyoid chain on computed tomograms - Eagle syndrome; Die Ossifikation der stylohyoidalen Kette im Computertomogramm - Eagle-Syndrom

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lugmayr, H; Krennmair, G [Krankenhaus St. Franziskus, Grieskirchen (Austria). Inst. fuer Radiologie; Lenglinger, F [Allgemeines Krankenhaus, Wels (Austria). Inst. fuer Radiologie

    1997-11-01

    The computed tomographic morphology of a typical Eagle syndrome is presented on the basis of a case history. In a 40-year-old female patient presenting with bilateral tinnitus, globus hystericus, and increasing hoarseness computed tomography revealed bilateral ossification of the stylohyoid ligament. The incidence of stylalgia is very low in comparison to the occurrence of a elongated styloid process or an ossified stylohyoid ligament. However, in cases of unexplained complaints in the head and neck region it should be considered in the differential diagnosis as it has therapeutic consequences. (orig.) [Deutsch] Anhand einer Kasuistik wird die computertomographische Morphologie eines typischen Eagle-Syndroms vorgestellt: Bei einem 40jaehrigen Patienten, der an beidseitigem Tinnitus, Globusgefuehl und zunehmender Heiserkeit litt, wurde computertomographisch eine beidseitige Ossifikation des Ligamentum stylohoideum nachgewiesen. Die Inzidenz einer Stylalgie ist verglichen mit der Praevalenz eines elongierten Processus styloideus oder einem verknoecherten Ligamentum stylochyoideum sehr selten. Sie sollte jedoch bei ungeklaerten Beschwerden im Kopf-Halsbereich differentialdiagnostisch in Erwaegung gezogen werden, da sie therapeutische Konsequenzen nach sich zieht. (orig.)

  3. Nested Cohort - R software package

    Science.gov (United States)

    NestedCohort is an R software package for fitting Kaplan-Meier and Cox Models to estimate standardized survival and attributable risks for studies where covariates of interest are observed on only a sample of the cohort.

  4. Pre-nesting and nesting behavior of the Swainson's warbler

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meanley, B.

    1969-01-01

    The Swainson?s Warbler is one of the least known of southern birds. Although fairly common in some parts of its summer range, observations of its breeding biology have been made by very few persons. The present study was conducted mostly at Macon, Georgia; Pendleton Ferry, Arkansas; and Dismal Swamp, Virginia....In central Georgia and east-central Arkansas, Swainson?s Warblers usually arrive on their territories during the first two weeks in April. Territories in several localities ranged in size from 0.3 to 4.8 acres. A color-marked Arkansas male occupied the same territory for at least four months. Hostile encounters between territorial male Swainson?s Warblers usually take place along the boundary of adjacent territories. Paired males were more aggressive than unpaired males. Toward the end of an encounter one of the two males would usually perform a display in which the wing and tail feathers were spread and the tail vibrated. Following boundary encounters males drifted back onto their territories and usually sang unbroken courses of songs for several minutes.....During pre-nesting at Macon, a mated pair spent the day mostly on the ground within 20 feet of each other, often foragin g 3 to 4 feet apart. What may have been a form of courtship display, in which the male flew from a perch down to the female and either pecked her rump or pounced on her, occurred about three times each hour throughout the day. During this period the male sang less than at other times during the breeding season.....First nests are usually built by the first week in May. Although other investigators reported finding nests of this species outside of the defended territory, all nests that I have found were within the territory. The large, bulky nest of this species usually is placed 2-6 feet above the ground. It is built by the female from materials gathered close to the nest site; and takes two or three days to complete.....Three and occasionally four white eggs are laid. The female

  5. Factors influencing the movements during the breeding season of a female booted eagle (Aquila pennata tagged by satellite in central Catalonia (Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bosch Josep

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Foraging movements during the breeding season are a poorly studied aspect of booted eagle behaviour. We have investigated the relationship between weather and other abiotic factors and foraging behaviour, and also resource use by a female booted eagle, tagged by satellite-GPS transmitter in central Catalonia, during summer 2012 and spring 2013. Generalized Linear Models (GLMs revealed that the distance travelled from the nest was significantly related to temperature, but also to the time of day and the age of chicks. Temperature also had a significant positive influence on flight altitude and the latter on flight speed. The Resource Utilization Function (RUF showed significant resource use in locations close to water (rivers and water bodies and also in agricultural areas, preferably close to urban areas and rivers. On the other hand, unlike in other areas of Spain, the use of the edges between forest and agricultural areas and forest areas themselves showed negative coefficients with values not significant, perhaps related to changes in prey availability in the traditional hunting grounds.

  6. Hierarchically nested river landform sequences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasternack, G. B.; Weber, M. D.; Brown, R. A.; Baig, D.

    2017-12-01

    River corridors exhibit landforms nested within landforms repeatedly down spatial scales. In this study we developed, tested, and implemented a new way to create river classifications by mapping domains of fluvial processes with respect to the hierarchical organization of topographic complexity that drives fluvial dynamism. We tested this approach on flow convergence routing, a morphodynamic mechanism with different states depending on the structure of nondimensional topographic variability. Five nondimensional landform types with unique functionality (nozzle, wide bar, normal channel, constricted pool, and oversized) represent this process at any flow. When this typology is nested at base flow, bankfull, and floodprone scales it creates a system with up to 125 functional types. This shows how a single mechanism produces complex dynamism via nesting. Given the classification, we answered nine specific scientific questions to investigate the abundance, sequencing, and hierarchical nesting of these new landform types using a 35-km gravel/cobble river segment of the Yuba River in California. The nested structure of flow convergence routing landforms found in this study revealed that bankfull landforms are nested within specific floodprone valley landform types, and these types control bankfull morphodynamics during moderate to large floods. As a result, this study calls into question the prevailing theory that the bankfull channel of a gravel/cobble river is controlled by in-channel, bankfull, and/or small flood flows. Such flows are too small to initiate widespread sediment transport in a gravel/cobble river with topographic complexity.

  7. Through the Eyes of the Eagle (American Indian translation in Shoshone)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2009-04-09

    The Eagle Books are a series of four books that are brought to life by wise animal characters - Mr. Eagle, Miss Rabbit, and Coyote - who engage Rain That Dances and his young friends in the joy of physical activity, eating healthy foods, and learning from their elders about health and diabetes prevention. Through the Eyes of the Eagle tells children about looking to the healthy ways and wisdom of their elders (Listen to the American Indian translation in Shoshone).  Created: 4/9/2009 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP).   Date Released: 4/9/2009.

  8. Through the Eyes of the Eagle (American Indian translation in Chickasaw)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2009-04-09

    The Eagle Books are a series of four books that are brought to life by wise animal characters - Mr. Eagle, Miss Rabbit, and Coyote - who engage Rain That Dances and his young friends in the joy of physical activity, eating healthy foods, and learning from their elders about health and diabetes prevention. Through the Eyes of the Eagle tells children about looking to the healthy ways and wisdom of their elders (American Indian translation in Chickasaw).  Created: 4/9/2009 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP).   Date Released: 4/9/2009.

  9. Through the Eyes of the Eagle (American Indian translation in Paiute)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2009-04-09

    The Eagle Books are a series of four books that are brought to life by wise animal characters - Mr. Eagle, Miss Rabbit, and Coyote - who engage Rain That Dances and his young friends in the joy of physical activity, eating healthy foods, and learning from their elders about health and diabetes prevention. Through the Eyes of the Eagle tells children about looking to the healthy ways and wisdom of their elders (Listen to the American Indian translation in Paiute).  Created: 4/9/2009 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP).   Date Released: 4/9/2009.

  10. Geologic map of the Vail West quadrangle, Eagle County, Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Robert B.; Lidke, David J.; Grunwald, Daniel J.

    2002-01-01

    This new 1:24,000-scale geologic map of the Vail West 7.5' quadrangle, as part of the USGS Western Colorado I-70 Corridor Cooperative Geologic Mapping Project, provides new interpretations of the stratigraphy, structure, and geologic hazards in the area on the southwest flank of the Gore Range. Bedrock strata include Miocene tuffaceous sedimentary rocks, Mesozoic and upper Paleozoic sedimentary rocks, and undivided Early(?) Proterozoic metasedimentary and igneous rocks. Tuffaceous rocks are found in fault-tilted blocks. Only small outliers of the Dakota Sandstone, Morrison Formation, Entrada Sandstone, and Chinle Formation exist above the redbeds of the Permian-Pennsylvanian Maroon Formation and Pennsylvanian Minturn Formation, which were derived during erosion of the Ancestral Front Range east of the Gore fault zone. In the southwestern area of the map, the proximal Minturn facies change to distal Eagle Valley Formation and the Eagle Valley Evaporite basin facies. The Jacque Mountain Limestone Member, previously defined as the top of the Minturn Formation, cannot be traced to the facies change to the southwest. Abundant surficial deposits include Pinedale and Bull Lake Tills, periglacial deposits, earth-flow deposits, common diamicton deposits, common Quaternary landslide deposits, and an extensive, possibly late Pliocene landslide deposit. Landscaping has so extensively modified the land surface in the town of Vail that a modified land-surface unit was created to represent the surface unit. Laramide movement renewed activity along the Gore fault zone, producing a series of northwest-trending open anticlines and synclines in Paleozoic and Mesozoic strata, parallel to the trend of the fault zone. Tertiary down-to-the-northeast normal faults are evident and are parallel to similar faults in both the Gore Range and the Blue River valley to the northeast; presumably these are related to extensional deformation that occurred during formation of the northern end of the

  11. A magnetic bald-patch flare in solar active region 11117

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Chao-Wei; Feng, Xue-Shang; Wu, Shi-Tsan; Hu, Qiang

    2017-09-01

    With SDO observations and a data-constrained magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) model, we identify a confined multi-ribbon flare that occurred on 2010 October 25 in solar active region 11117 as a magnetic bald patch (BP) flare with strong evidence. From the photospheric magnetic field observed by SDO/HMI, we find there are indeed magnetic BPs on the polarity inversion lines (PILs) which match parts of the flare ribbons. From the 3D coronal magnetic field derived from an MHD relaxation model constrained by the vector magnetograms, we find strikingly good agreement of the BP separatrix surface (BPSS) footpoints with the flare ribbons, and the BPSS itself with the hot flaring loop system. Moreover, the triggering of the BP flare can be attributed to a small flux emergence under the lobe of the BPSS, and the relevant change of coronal magnetic field through the flare is reproduced well by the pre-flare and post-flare MHD solutions, which match the corresponding pre- and post-flare AIA observations, respectively. Our work contributes to the study of non-typical flares that constitute the majority of solar flares but which cannot be explained by the standard flare model.

  12. Nesting pair density and abundance of ferruginous hawks (Buteo regalis) and golden eagles (Aquila chrysaetos) from aerial surveys in Wyoming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucretia E. Olson; Robert J. Oakleaf; John R. Squires; Zachary P. Wallace; Patricia L. Kennedy

    2015-01-01

    Raptors that inhabit sagebrush steppe and grassland ecosystems in the western United States may be threatened by continued loss and modification of their habitat due to energy development, conversion to agriculture, and human encroachment. Actions to protect these species are hampered by a lack of reliable data on such basic information as population size and...

  13. The Eagle’s Nest in the Horn of Africa: US Military Strategic Deployment in Djibouti

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Degang Sun

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Djibouti is the only country in the world in which US, French, German, Italian, Spanish, and Japanese military forces are stationed simultaneously; China will soon have a presence there as well. The US military deployment in Djibouti has shifted from a soft military presence to an arrangement of significant strategic import, and from a small outpost to a large garrison in the past two decades. The internal dynamics of the US deployment are geopolitical, as the US presence facilitates the carrying out of its strategies regarding antiterrorism, anti-proliferation, the protection of energy investments, and anti-piracy. The external dynamics of the US deployment are geo-economic: the government of Djibouti, as the host nation, reaps economic windfalls from the US presence in this strategically located country. Given that the United States has failed since 2008 to persuade any country on the continent to host AFRICOM, the base in Djibouti is likely to remain the only one in East Africa. Djibouti may be part of a pattern whereby some small African nations, such as São Tomé and Príncipe, collect revenue through the provision of military bases to big powers.

  14. Automating data citation: the eagle-i experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alawini, Abdussalam; Chen, Leshang; Davidson, Susan B; Da Silva, Natan Portilho; Silvello, Gianmaria

    2017-06-01

    Data citation is of growing concern for owners of curated databases, who wish to give credit to the contributors and curators responsible for portions of the dataset and enable the data retrieved by a query to be later examined. While several databases specify how data should be cited, they leave it to users to manually construct the citations and do not generate them automatically. We report our experiences in automating data citation for an RDF dataset called eagle-i, and discuss how to generalize this to a citation framework that can work across a variety of different types of databases (e.g. relational, XML, and RDF). We also describe how a database administrator would use this framework to automate citation for a particular dataset.

  15. Perancangan Sistem Reservasi Tiket Pada PT Golden Eagle Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lius Steven Sanjaya

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to identify the organization needs of PT Golden Eagle Indonesia to control and manage the data and information of operational transaction. The result of analysis is used as a base for developing a new integrated system that can be the solution for company needs and to face the competition. The activity inanalysis and design is focused in ticket reservation activities, as the main business of the company. These needs will be documented using unified modeling language. There is an expectation that this system will ease the company in doing their activity in ticket reservation. This system will also minimize the data lost and humanerror usually caused by manual process of transactional data storage.

  16. CERN's eagle-eyed movement hunters in action

    CERN Multimedia

    2007-01-01

    Vibrations, movements, strains - nothing escapes the eagle eyes of CERN's Mechanical Measurements Laboratory, which helps groups needing mechanical testing and delicate transport operations. Graphical representation of the natural mode shape of one of the end-caps of the ATLAS inner detector, determined through experimentation.After installation of sensors on one of the end-caps of the ATLAS inner detector, CERN's Mechanical Measurements team performs remote checks to ensure the sensors are working properly before transport. They are on the look-out for anything that moves, shakes or changes shape. The slightest movement, however minute, will attract their attention. The Mechanical Measurements team, which is part of the Installation Coordination Group (TS-IC), specialises in all kinds of vibration studies, for design projects as well as for the transport of fragile objects. The Mechanical Measurements Laboratory was created in 1973 and, after a lull at the end of the century, was given a new lease of life ...

  17. Petrophysical characterization of the Eagle Ford Shale in south Texas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mullen, J [Halliburton, Houston, TX (United States)

    2010-07-01

    The Eagle Ford shale play extends from the Mexican border in south Texas to the East Texas Basin. There are many challenges in developing the play into an economically viable venture. The shale production characteristics vary across the play, and the shale is producing dry gas in some areas and wet gas or oil in others. Some regions are naturally fractured, while others are not, and the play must be hydraulically fractured to be economically productive. It is therefore important to understand the local-area reservoir characteristics when trying to complete each well, particularly since successful completion techniques in one well may not necessarily work in another, even in the same field. This paper discussed the integration of different data-acquisition and reservoir-characterization techniques, such as mudlogs, basic openhole logs, and advanced logs, including dipole sonic; geochemical; magnetic resonance-imaging log; and core analysis. These techniques provide a better understanding of the reservoir and help to determine the shale's petrophysical characteristics and build a locally validated petrophysical model that can be applied to future wells with reduced data-acquisition programs to grade the reservoir. A model was developed to determine the surrounding lithology and clay typing in addition to the hydrocarbon resource potential of the well. The tool was also used to determine the location of organic-rich zones and to determine where to perforate based on geomechanical issues. The model provided information on the Eagle Ford shale play such as location of brittle zones; location of permeable zones; frac-design parameters; clay typing; organic content; volumetric assessment; porosity, permeability, and free fluid; and plasticity. 9 refs., 1 tab., 17 figs.

  18. Source apportionment of hydrocarbons measured in the Eagle Ford shale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roest, G. S.; Schade, G. W.

    2016-12-01

    The rapid development of unconventional oil and gas in the US has led to hydrocarbon emissions that are yet to be accurately quantified. Emissions from the Eagle Ford Shale in southern Texas, one of the most productive shale plays in the U.S., have received little attention due to a sparse air quality monitoring network, thereby limiting studies of air quality within the region. We use hourly atmospheric hydrocarbon and meteorological data from three locations in the Eagle Ford Shale to assess their sources. Data are available from the Texas commission of environmental quality (TCEQ) air quality monitors in Floresville, a small town southeast of San Antonio and just north of the shale area; and Karnes city, a midsize rural city in the center of the shale. Our own measurements were carried out at a private ranch in rural Dimmit County in southern Texas from April to November of 2015. Air quality monitor data from the TCEQ were selected for the same time period. Non-negative matrix factorization in R (package NMF) was used to determine likely sources and their contributions above background. While the TCEQ monitor data consisted mostly of hydrocarbons, our own data include both CO, CO2, O3, and NOx. We find that rural Dimmit County hydrocarbons are dominated by oil and gas development sources, while central shale hydrocarbons at the TCEQ monitoring sites have a mix of sources including car traffic. However, oil and gas sources also dominate hydrocarbons at Floresville and Karnes City. Toxic benzene is nearly exclusively due to oil and gas development sources, including flaring, which NMF identifies as a major hydrocarbon source in Karnes City. Other major sources include emissions of light weight alkanes (C2-C5) from raw natural gas emissions and a larger set of alkanes (C2-C10) from oil sources, including liquid storage tanks.

  19. Influence of olfactory and visual cover on nest site selection and nest success for grassland-nesting birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fogarty, Dillon T; Elmore, R Dwayne; Fuhlendorf, Samuel D; Loss, Scott R

    2017-08-01

    Habitat selection by animals is influenced by and mitigates the effects of predation and environmental extremes. For birds, nest site selection is crucial to offspring production because nests are exposed to extreme weather and predation pressure. Predators that forage using olfaction often dominate nest predator communities; therefore, factors that influence olfactory detection (e.g., airflow and weather variables, including turbulence and moisture) should influence nest site selection and survival. However, few studies have assessed the importance of olfactory cover for habitat selection and survival. We assessed whether ground-nesting birds select nest sites based on visual and/or olfactory cover. Additionally, we assessed the importance of visual cover and airflow and weather variables associated with olfactory cover in influencing nest survival. In managed grasslands in Oklahoma, USA, we monitored nests of Northern Bobwhite ( Colinus virginianus ), Eastern Meadowlark ( Sturnella magna ), and Grasshopper Sparrow ( Ammodramus savannarum ) during 2015 and 2016. To assess nest site selection, we compared cover variables between nests and random points. To assess factors influencing nest survival, we used visual cover and olfactory-related measurements (i.e., airflow and weather variables) to model daily nest survival. For nest site selection, nest sites had greater overhead visual cover than random points, but no other significant differences were found. Weather variables hypothesized to influence olfactory detection, specifically precipitation and relative humidity, were the best predictors of and were positively related to daily nest survival. Selection for overhead cover likely contributed to mitigation of thermal extremes and possibly reduced detectability of nests. For daily nest survival, we hypothesize that major nest predators focused on prey other than the monitored species' nests during high moisture conditions, thus increasing nest survival on these

  20. Interspecific nest use by aridland birds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deborah M. Finch

    1982-01-01

    Nest holes drilled by woodpeckers (Picidae) are frequently used by secondary cavity-nesting species, but interspecific use of open and domed nests is less well known. Nests constructed by many southwestern desert birds last longer than one year (pers. obs.) and are consequently reused by the same pair (e.g., Abert's Towhees [Pipilo aberti], pers. obs.) or by other...

  1. Remediating and Monitoring White Phosphorus Contamination at Eagle River Flats (Operable Unit C), Fort Richardson, Alaska

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Walsh, M. E; Racine, C. H; Collins, C. M; Walsh, M. R; Bailey, R. N

    2001-01-01

    .... Army Engineer District, Alaska, and U.S. Army Alaska, Public Works, describing the results of research, monitoring, and remediation efforts addressing the white phosphorus contamination in Eagle River Flats, an 865-ha estuarine salt marsh...

  2. Ancient DNA provides new insights into the evolutionary history of New Zealand's extinct giant eagle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bunce, Michael; Szulkin, Marta; Lerner, Heather R L; Barnes, Ian; Shapiro, Beth; Cooper, Alan; Holdaway, Richard N

    2005-01-01

    Prior to human settlement 700 years ago New Zealand had no terrestrial mammals--apart from three species of bats--instead, approximately 250 avian species dominated the ecosystem. At the top of the food chain was the extinct Haast's eagle, Harpagornis moorei. H. moorei (10-15 kg; 2-3 m wingspan) was 30%-40% heavier than the largest extant eagle (the harpy eagle, Harpia harpyja), and hunted moa up to 15 times its weight. In a dramatic example of morphological plasticity and rapid size increase, we show that the H. moorei was very closely related to one of the world's smallest extant eagles, which is one-tenth its mass. This spectacular evolutionary change illustrates the potential speed of size alteration within lineages of vertebrates, especially in island ecosystems.

  3. Predatory threat of harpy eagles for yellow-breasted capuchin monkeys in the Atlantic Forest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suscke, Priscila; Verderane, Michele; de Oliveira, Robson Santos; Delval, Irene; Fernández-Bolaños, Marcelo; Izar, Patrícia

    2017-01-01

    We describe seven encounters between different harpy eagle individuals (Harpia harpyja) and a group of yellow-breasted capuchin monkeys (Sapajus xanthosternos) in Una Biological Reserve. These interactions lasted 58 min on average. In each of those encounters, the capuchin monkeys used particular behavioral strategies against the harpy eagle that were not employed in reaction to other aerial predators. We did not observe any successful predation events, but after one of those encounters an infant disappeared from the capuchin group. As a whole, these observations indicate that the presence of harpy eagles in the group's home range increases predation risk for capuchin monkeys. The present report also suggests a reoccupation by H. harpyja of this area, as no previous recent records identify harpy eagle occurrence in Una Biological Reserve.

  4. Ancient DNA provides new insights into the evolutionary history of New Zealand's extinct giant eagle.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Bunce

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Prior to human settlement 700 years ago New Zealand had no terrestrial mammals--apart from three species of bats--instead, approximately 250 avian species dominated the ecosystem. At the top of the food chain was the extinct Haast's eagle, Harpagornis moorei. H. moorei (10-15 kg; 2-3 m wingspan was 30%-40% heavier than the largest extant eagle (the harpy eagle, Harpia harpyja, and hunted moa up to 15 times its weight. In a dramatic example of morphological plasticity and rapid size increase, we show that the H. moorei was very closely related to one of the world's smallest extant eagles, which is one-tenth its mass. This spectacular evolutionary change illustrates the potential speed of size alteration within lineages of vertebrates, especially in island ecosystems.

  5. Nest use is influenced by the positions of nests and drinkers in aviaries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lentfer, T L; Gebhardt-Henrich, S G; Fröhlich, E K F; von Borell, E

    2013-06-01

    The influence of the nest location and the placement of nipple drinkers on nest use by laying hens in a commercial aviary was assessed. Twenty pens in a laying hen house were equipped with the same commercial aviary system, but the pens differed in the nest location and the placement of nipple drinkers. Nests were placed along the walls in 10 pens, and nipple drinkers were installed in front of the nests in 5 of these pens. The other 10 pens were equipped with nests placed on a tier within the aviary (integrated nests). Nipple drinkers were installed in front of the nests in 5 of these pens. A total of 225 Lohmann Selected Leghorns were housed per pen. The hens were offered 4 nests per pen: 2 facing the service corridor of the laying hen house and 2 facing the outdoor area. The numbers of nest eggs and mislaid eggs were counted daily per pen. At 25, 36, and 43 wk of age, the nest platforms were videotaped and the behavior of laying hens in front of the nests was analyzed. The nest location affected the stationary and locomotive behaviors in front of the nests. Hens in front of the integrated nests and the nests with drinkers displayed more stationary behaviors than hens in front of wall-placed nests or nests without drinkers. No difference in the number of nest eggs could be detected, but the integration of the nests inside the aviary led to a more even distribution of hens while nest searching. In the pens with wall-placed nests, significantly more hens laid eggs in the nests at the wall near the service corridor than at the wall near the outdoor area. Due to this imbalance, crowding in front of the preferred nests occurred and pushing and agonistic interactions on the nest platforms were significantly more frequent. Placement of nipple drinkers in front of nests had no effect on the number of eggs laid in those nests.

  6. Modeling Late-Summer Distribution of Golden Eagles (Aquila chrysaetos) in the Western United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielson, Ryan M; Murphy, Robert K; Millsap, Brian A; Howe, William H; Gardner, Grant

    2016-01-01

    Increasing development across the western United States (USA) elevates concerns about effects on wildlife resources; the golden eagle (Aquila chrysaetos) is of special concern in this regard. Knowledge of golden eagle abundance and distribution across the western USA must be improved to help identify and conserve areas of major importance to the species. We used distance sampling and visual mark-recapture procedures to estimate golden eagle abundance from aerial line-transect surveys conducted across four Bird Conservation Regions in the western USA between 15 August and 15 September in 2006-2010, 2012, and 2013. To assess golden eagle-habitat relationships at this scale, we modeled counts of golden eagles seen during surveys in 2006-2010, adjusted for probability of detection, and used land cover and other environmental factors as predictor variables within 20-km2 sampling units randomly selected from survey transects. We found evidence of positive relationships between intensity of use by golden eagles and elevation, solar radiation, and mean wind speed, and of negative relationships with the proportion of landscape classified as forest or as developed. The model accurately predicted habitat use observed during surveys conducted in 2012 and 2013. We used the model to construct a map predicting intensity of use by golden eagles during late summer across our ~2 million-km2 study area. The map can be used to help prioritize landscapes for conservation efforts, identify areas where mitigation efforts may be most effective, and identify regions for additional research and monitoring. In addition, our map can be used to develop region-specific (e.g., state-level) density estimates based on the latest information on golden eagle abundance from a late-summer survey and aid designation of geographic management units for the species.

  7. Quest for safer skies: Modeling golden eagles and wind energy to reduce turbine risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Todd Katzner; Tricia Miller; Scott. Stoleson

    2014-01-01

    In a patch of sky above Pennsylvania, a golden eagle moves languidly, never flapping but passing quickly as it cruises southward on a cushion of air. It is migrating to its wintering grounds after a season of breeding in Quebec. As part of a team studying eagles on a daily basis—a project supported by the U.S. Forest Service (USFS), West Virginia University,...

  8. Detection probability of gyrfalcons and other cliff-nesting raptors during aerial surveys in Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Booms, Travis L.; Fuller, Mark R.; Schempf, Philip F.; McCaffery, Brian J.; Lindberg, Mark S.; Watson, Richard T.; Cade, Tom J.; Fuller, Mark; Hunt, Grainger; Potapov, Eugene

    2011-01-01

    Assessing the status of Gyrfalcons (Falco rusticolus) and other cliffnesting raptors as the Arctic climate changes often requires aerial surveys of their breeding habitats. Because traditional, count-based surveys that do not adjust for differing detection probabilities can provide faulty inference about population status (Link and Sauer 1998, Thompson 2002), it will be important to incorporate measures of detection probability into survey methods whenever possible. To evaluate the feasibility of this, we conducted repeated aerial surveys for breeding cliff-nesting raptors on the Yukon Delta National Wildlife Refuge (YDNWR) in western Alaska to estimate detection probabilities of Gyrfalcons, Golden Eagles (Aquila chrysaetos), Rough-legged Hawks (Buteo lagopus), and also Common Ravens (Corvus corax). Using the program PRESENCE, we modeled detection histories of each species based on single species occupancy modeling following MacKenzie et al. (2002, 2006). We used different observers during four helicopter replicate surveys in the Kilbuck Mountains and five fixed-wing replicate surveys in the Ingakslugwat Hills (hereafter called Volcanoes) near Bethel, Alaska. We used the following terms and definitions throughout: Survey Site: site of a nest used previously by a raptor and marked with a GPS-obtained latitude and longitude accurate to within 20 m. All GPS locations were obtained in prior years from a helicopter hovering approximately 10?20 m from a nest. The site was considered occupied if a bird or an egg was detected within approximately 500 m of the nest and this area served as our sampling unit. When multiple historical nests were located on a single cliff, we used only one GPS location to locate the survey site. Detection probability (p): the probability of a species being detected at a site given the site is occupied. Occupancy (?): the probability that the species of interest is present at a site during the survey period. A site was considered occupied if the

  9. Assessment of frequency and duration of point counts when surveying for golden eagle presence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skipper, Ben R.; Boal, Clint W.; Tsai, Jo-Szu; Fuller, Mark R.

    2017-01-01

    We assessed the utility of the recommended golden eagle (Aquila chrysaetos) survey methodology in the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service 2013 Eagle Conservation Plan Guidance. We conducted 800-m radius, 1-hr point-count surveys broken into 20-min segments, during 2 sampling periods in 3 areas within the Intermountain West of the United States over 2 consecutive breeding seasons during 2012 and 2013. Our goal was to measure the influence of different survey time intervals and sampling periods on detectability and use estimates of golden eagles among different locations. Our results suggest that a less intensive effort (i.e., survey duration shorter than 1 hr and point-count survey radii smaller than 800 m) would likely be inadequate for rigorous documentation of golden eagle occurrence pre- or postconstruction of wind energy facilities. Results from a simulation analysis of detection probabilities and survey effort suggest that greater temporal and spatial effort could make point-count surveys more applicable for evaluating golden eagle occurrence in survey areas; however, increased effort would increase financial costs associated with additional person-hours and logistics (e.g., fuel, lodging). Future surveys can benefit from a pilot study and careful consideration of prior information about counts or densities of golden eagles in the survey area before developing a survey design. If information is lacking, survey planning may be best served by assuming low detection rates and increasing the temporal and spatial effort.

  10. Characterizing Golden Eagle risk to lead and anticoagulant rodenticide exposure: A review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herring, Garth; Eagles-Smith, Collin A.; Buck, Jeremy A.

    2017-01-01

    Contaminant exposure is among the many threats to Golden Eagle (Aquila chrysaetos) populations throughout North America, particularly lead poisoning and anticoagulant rodenticides (AR). These threats may act in concert with others (e.g., lead poisoning and trauma associated with striking objects) to exacerbate risk. Golden Eagles are skilled hunters but also exploit scavenging opportunities, making them particularly susceptible to contaminant exposure from ingesting tissues of poisoned or shot animals. Lead poisoning has long been recognized as an important source of mortality for Golden Eagles throughout North America. More recently, ARs have been associated with both sublethal and lethal effects in raptor species worldwide. In this review, we examine the current state of knowledge for lead and AR exposure in Golden Eagles, drawing from the broader raptor contaminant ecology literature. We examine lead and AR sources within Golden Eagle habitats, exposure routes and toxicity, effects on individuals and populations, synergistic effects, and data and information needs. Continued research addressing data needs and information gaps will help with Golden Eagle conservation planning.

  11. Determining the Influence of Dust on Post-Glacial Lacustrine Sedimentation in Bald Lake, Uinta Mountains, Utah

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Keefe, S. S.; McElroy, R.; Munroe, J. S.

    2016-12-01

    Dust is increasingly recognized as an important component of biogeochemical cycling and ecosystem function in mountain environments. Previous work has shown that delivery of dust to the Uinta Mountains of northeastern Utah has influenced pedogenesis, soil nutrient status, and surface water chemistry. An array of passive and active samplers in the alpine zone of the Uintas provides detailed information about contemporary dust fluxes, along with physical and geochemical properties of modern dust. Reconstruction of changes in the dust system over time, however, requires continuous sedimentary archives sensitive to dust inputs. A radiocarbon-dated 3.5-m core (spanning 12.7 kyr) collected from subalpine Bald Lake may provide such a record. Passive dust collectors in the vicinity of the lake constrain the geochemical properties of modern dust, whereas samples of regolith constrain properties of the local surficial material within the watershed. Together, these represent two end member sources of clastic sediment to Bald Lake basin: allochthonous dust and autochthonous regolith. Ba and Eu are found in higher abundances in the dust than in the watershed regolith. Zr and Th are found to be lower in the dust than in the watershed. Geochemical analysis of the sediment core allows the relative contribution of exotic and local material to the lake to be considered as a time series covering the post-glacial interval when indicator elements are plotted. Findings suggest Bald Lake's dust record tracks regional aridity and corresponds to low-stands of large lakes in the southwestern United States. Spatial variability of elemental abundances in the watershed suggests there are more than two input sources contributing to the lake over time.

  12. New Evidence of an Ancient Bald Cypress Forest on the Inner Shelf of Northern Gulf of Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryu, J.; DeLong, K. L.; Bentley, S. J.; Xu, K.; Harley, G. L.; Reese, C. A.; Obelcz, J.; Guilderson, T. P.; Gonzalez Rodriguez, S. M.

    2016-02-01

    Climate models suggest cold-adapted trees grew in the southeastern United States (SE US) during glacial intervals yet there is a scarcity of paleoclimate records for marine isotope stages 3 to 5 in this region, limiting our understanding of early glacial oceanic-climatic conditions. Here we describe an offshore site with well-preserved in situ bald cypress stumps (Taxodium distichum) and woody remnants exposed in an eroding swale located 13.5 km from Orange Beach, Alabama in 18 m of seawater. T. distichum grows in warm and humid climates with low elevations (>0-50 m) preferring freshwater riparian environments with frequent flooding. Wood samples from exposed stumps and sediments have good preservation with cellular structure intact and smell like freshly cut cypress indicating preservation in anoxic conditions that suppressed biodegradation. Radiocarbon dating of eight wood subsamples, including an in situ stump, was inconclusive due to detection limits indicating the wood is older than 50,000 years. We conducted high-resolution geophysical surveys and coring operations in August 2015 recovering a total of 17.075 m of sediment cores. The base of these cores contain wood-bearing muddy peat sediments of the Pleistocene terrestrial wetlands. The geophysical surveys reveal the stumps are located around the eroding swale with possible river landforms visible in the side-scan sonar suggesting a paleochannel surrounded by bald cypress trees similar to modern swamps and bayous. Preliminary pollen analysis reveals an abundance of bald cypress (T. distichum), tupelo (Nyssa aquatic), and pine (Pinus spp.) similar to modern SE US wetlands. Ongoing sediment core analysis includes microfossil, palynology, and sedimentology analysis. Our preliminary results from this submerged glacial landscape suggest that coastal T. distichum wetlands were present in the early glacial interval along the northern Gulf Coast.

  13. Detection probability of cliff-nesting raptors during helicopter and fixed-wing aircraft surveys in western Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Booms, T.L.; Schempf, P.F.; McCaffery, B.J.; Lindberg, M.S.; Fuller, M.R.

    2010-01-01

    We conducted repeated aerial surveys for breeding cliff-nesting raptors on the Yukon Delta National Wildlife Refuge (YDNWR) in western Alaska to estimate detection probabilities of Gyrfalcons (Falco rusticolus), Golden Eagles (Aquila chrysaetos), Rough-legged Hawks (Buteo lagopus), and also Common Ravens (Corvus corax). Using the program PRESENCE, we modeled detection histories of each species based on single species occupancy modeling. We used different observers during four helicopter replicate surveys in the Kilbuck Mountains and five fixed-wing replicate surveys in the Ingakslugwat Hills near Bethel, AK. During helicopter surveys, Gyrfalcons had the highest detection probability estimate (p^;p^ 0.79; SE 0.05), followed by Golden Eagles (p^=0.68; SE 0.05), Common Ravens (p^=0.45; SE 0.17), and Rough-legged Hawks (p^=0.10; SE 0.11). Detection probabilities from fixed-wing aircraft in the Ingakslugwat Hills were similar to those from the helicopter in the Kilbuck Mountains for Gyrfalcons and Golden Eagles, but were higher for Common Ravens (p^=0.85; SE 0.06) and Rough-legged Hawks (p^=0.42; SE 0.07). Fixed-wing aircraft provided detection probability estimates and SEs in the Ingakslugwat Hills similar to or better than those from helicopter surveys in the Kilbucks and should be considered for future cliff-nesting raptor surveys where safe, low-altitude flight is possible. Overall, detection probability varied by observer experience and in some cases, by study area/aircraft type.

  14. Menopon gaillinae lice in the golden eagle (Aquila chrysaetos and Marsh harear (Circus aeruginosus in Najaf province, Iraq

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Al-Fatlawi M. A. A

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Our study considered as the first work on ectoparasites of the Golden eagle (Aquila chrysaetos and Marsh harear (Circus aeruginosus in Iraq. Overall, we examined 17 eagles for the period from 01\\Nov\\2016 until 25\\Feb\\2017, out of which 4were found infected (23.5%. All infected birds were female. Aquila was hunted from Najaf sea area. Under the wing and between feathers of Aquila grossly examined for detect any parasites. Lice of genus Menopon gaillinae isolated from 4 eagles, from under the wing area. Infected eagles suffering from skin redness. 38 parasites isolated from infected eagle, we prepared a slide from these louse for spp. classification. This study was on the first hand record of shaft louse (M. gallinae in Golden eagle and Marsh harear in Iraq

  15. Meta-analysis identifies novel risk loci and yields systematic insights into the biology of male-pattern baldness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heilmann-Heimbach, Stefanie; Herold, Christine; Hochfeld, Lara M; Hillmer, Axel M; Nyholt, Dale R; Hecker, Julian; Javed, Asif; Chew, Elaine G Y; Pechlivanis, Sonali; Drichel, Dmitriy; Heng, Xiu Ting; Del Rosario, Ricardo C-H; Fier, Heide L; Paus, Ralf; Rueedi, Rico; Galesloot, Tessel E; Moebus, Susanne; Anhalt, Thomas; Prabhakar, Shyam; Li, Rui; Kanoni, Stavroula; Papanikolaou, George; Kutalik, Zoltán; Deloukas, Panos; Philpott, Michael P; Waeber, Gérard; Spector, Tim D; Vollenweider, Peter; Kiemeney, Lambertus A L M; Dedoussis, George; Richards, J Brent; Nothnagel, Michael; Martin, Nicholas G; Becker, Tim; Hinds, David A; Nöthen, Markus M

    2017-03-08

    Male-pattern baldness (MPB) is a common and highly heritable trait characterized by androgen-dependent, progressive hair loss from the scalp. Here, we carry out the largest GWAS meta-analysis of MPB to date, comprising 10,846 early-onset cases and 11,672 controls from eight independent cohorts. We identify 63 MPB-associated loci (Pbiological basis with numerous other human phenotypes and may deserve evaluation as an early prognostic marker, for example, for prostate cancer, sudden cardiac arrest and neurodegenerative disorders.

  16. Circulating and intraprostatic sex steroid hormonal profiles in relation to male pattern baldness and chest hair density among men diagnosed with localized prostate cancers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Cindy Ke; Stanczyk, Frank Z; Hafi, Muhannad; Veneroso, Carmela C; Lynch, Barlow; Falk, Roni T; Niwa, Shelley; Emanuel, Eric; Gao, Yu-Tang; Hemstreet, George P; Zolfghari, Ladan; Carroll, Peter R; Manyak, Michael J; Sesterhenn, Isabell A; Levine, Paul H; Hsing, Ann W; Cook, Michael B

    2017-12-01

    Prospective cohort studies of circulating sex steroid hormones and prostate cancer risk have not provided a consistent association, despite evidence from animal and clinical studies. However, studies using male pattern baldness as a proxy of early-life or cumulative androgen exposure have reported significant associations with aggressive and fatal prostate cancer risk. Given that androgens underlie the development of patterned hair loss and chest hair, we assessed whether these two dermatological characteristics were associated with circulating and intraprostatic concentrations of sex steroid hormones among men diagnosed with localized prostate cancer. We included 248 prostate cancer patients from the NCI Prostate Tissue Study, who answered surveys and provided a pre-treatment blood sample as well as fresh frozen adjacent normal prostate tissue. Male pattern baldness and chest hair density were assessed by trained nurses before surgery. General linear models estimated geometric means and 95% confidence intervals (95%CIs) of each hormone variable by dermatological phenotype with adjustment for potential confounding variables. Subgroup analyses were performed by Gleason score (balding status with serum testosterone, dihydrotestosterone (DHT), estradiol, and sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG), and a weak association with elevated intraprostatic testosterone. Conversely, neither circulating nor intraprostatic sex hormones were statistically significantly associated with chest hair density. Age-adjusted correlation between binary balding status and three-level chest hair density was weak (r = 0.05). There was little evidence to suggest that Gleason score or race modified these associations. This study provides evidence that balding status assessed at a mean age of 60 years may serve as a clinical marker for circulating sex hormone concentrations. The weak-to-null associations between balding status and intraprostatic sex hormones reaffirm differences in organ

  17. Relationship between male pattern baldness and the risk of aggressive prostate cancer: an analysis of the Prostate, Lung, Colorectal, and Ovarian Cancer Screening Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Cindy Ke; Pfeiffer, Ruth M; Cleary, Sean D; Hoffman, Heather J; Levine, Paul H; Chu, Lisa W; Hsing, Ann W; Cook, Michael B

    2015-02-10

    Male pattern baldness and prostate cancer appear to share common pathophysiologic mechanisms. However, results from previous studies that assess their relationship have been inconsistent. Therefore, we investigated the association of male pattern baldness at age 45 years with risks of overall and subtypes of prostate cancer in a large, prospective cohort—the Prostate, Lung, Colorectal and Ovarian (PLCO) Cancer Screening Trial. We included 39,070 men from the usual care and screening arms of the trial cohort who had no cancer diagnosis (excluding nonmelanoma skin cancer) at the start of follow-up and recalled their hair-loss patterns at age 45 years. Hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% CIs were estimated by using Cox proportional hazards regression models with age as the time metric. During follow-up (median, 2.78 years), 1,138 incident prostate cancer cases were diagnosed, 571 of which were aggressive (biopsy Gleason score ≥ 7, and/or clinical stage III or greater, and/or fatal). Compared with no baldness, frontal plus moderate vertex baldness at age 45 years was not significantly associated with overall (HR, 1.19; 95% CI, 0.98 to 1.45) or nonaggressive (HR, 0.97; 95% CI, 0.72 to 1.30) prostate cancer risk but was significantly associated with increased risk of aggressive prostate cancer (HR, 1.39; 95% CI, 1.07 to 1.80). Adjustment for covariates did not substantially alter these estimates. Other classes of baldness were not significantly associated with overall or subtypes of prostate cancer. Our analysis indicates that frontal plus moderate vertex baldness at age 45 years is associated with an increased risk of aggressive prostate cancer and supports the possibility of common pathophysiologic mechanisms. © 2014 by American Society of Clinical Oncology.

  18. Nested Dynamic Condition Response Graphs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hildebrandt, Thomas; Mukkamala, Raghava Rao; Slaats, Tijs

    2012-01-01

    We present an extension of the recently introduced declarative process model Dynamic Condition Response Graphs ( DCR Graphs) to allow nested subgraphs and a new milestone relation between events. The extension was developed during a case study carried out jointly with our industrial partner...

  19. Nest-mediated seed dispersal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert J. Warren; Jason P. Love; Mark A. Bradford

    2017-01-01

    Many plant seeds travel on the wind and through animal ingestion or adhesion; however, an overlooked dispersal mode may lurk within those dispersal modes. Viable seeds may remain attached or embedded within materials birds gather for nest building. Our objective was to determine if birds inadvertently transport seeds when they forage for plant materials to...

  20. Millipedes (Diplopoda) in birds' nests

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Tajovský, Karel; Mock, A.; Krumpál, M.

    2001-01-01

    Roč. 37, - (2001), s. 321-323 ISSN 1164-5563 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z6066911 Keywords : bird s nest s * microsites * millipedes Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 0.317, year: 2001

  1. Effect of heterogeneity of nest boxes on occurrence of gregarious nesting in laying hens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, Tina; Riber, Anja Brinch

    2012-01-01

    Gregarious nesting, where hens select already occupied nest boxes even when other nest boxes are unoccupied, is an unwanted behaviour in laying hens that may reduce animal welfare and pose a financial cost to the producer. It has been suggested that gregarious nesting is caused by the difficulties...... nesting was higher in experimental groups compared to control groups (P right were higher compared to nest boxes positioned...

  2. Do artificial nests simulate nest success of greater sage-grouse?

    OpenAIRE

    Dinkins, Jonathan B.; Conover, Michael R.; Mabray, Scott T.

    2013-01-01

    Artificial nests have been used to study factors affecting nest success because researchers can manipulate them more than natural bird nests. Many researchers have questioned the validity of generalizing the results from artificial nests onto naturally occurring nests. Other studies have assessed the validity of artificial nest studies by simultaneously comparing overall depredation or daily survival rates, depredation timing, predator species, or habitat characteristics of artificial and nat...

  3. Nest marking behavior and chemical composition of olfactory cues involved in nest recognition in Megachile rotundata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guédot, Christelle; Buckner, James S; Hagen, Marcia M; Bosch, Jordi; Kemp, William P; Pitts-Singer, Theresa L

    2013-08-01

    In-nest observations of the solitary bee, Megachile rotundata (F.), revealed that nesting females apply olfactory cues to nests for nest recognition. On their way in and out of the nest, females drag the abdomen along the entire length of the nest, and sometimes deposit fluid droplets from the tip of the abdomen. The removal of bee-marked sections of the nest resulted in hesitation and searching behavior by females, indicating the loss of olfactory cues used for nest recognition. Chemical analysis of female cuticles and the deposits inside marked nesting tubes revealed the presence of hydrocarbons, wax esters, fatty aldehydes, and fatty alcohol acetate esters. Chemical compositions were similar across tube samples, but proportionally different from cuticular extracts. These findings reveal the importance of lipids as chemical signals for nest recognition and suggest that the nest-marking cues are derived from a source in addition to, or other than, the female cuticle.

  4. The Influence of Water Circulation on Dissolved Organic Matter Dynamics in Bald Head Creek

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lebrasse, M. C.; Osburn, C. L.; Bohnenstiehl, D. R.; He, R.

    2016-12-01

    Dissolved organic matter (DOM) plays an important role in biogeochemical cycles in estuaries such as tidal creeks draining coastal wetlands such as salt marshes. However, significant knowledge gaps remain regarding the quantity and quality of the DOM that tidally exchanges between salt marshes and their adjacent estuaries. Tidal movements play a central role in lateral exchanges of materials and bidirectional flow results in the mixing of DOM from marsh plants and estuarine DOM. The aim of this study was to better understand the role of water circulation on the distribution and quality of DOM in Bald Head Creek, a tributary to the Cape Fear River estuary in eastern North Carolina. Dissolved organic carbon (DOC) concentration, stable carbon isotopes, and chromophoric DOM (CDOM) absorbance at 254 nm (a254) were used to distinguish between DOM quantity and quality at three locations along the creek: Site 3 (upstream), Site 2 (middle stream), and Site 1 (near the creek mouth). Samples were collected over four tidal cycles between March-August 2016 and compared to time series data collected approximately weekly from 2014-2016. DOM characteristics differed substantially over the tidal cycle. Higher CDOM and DOC concentration were observed at low tide than at high tide at all three sites, suggesting greater export of carbon from the marsh into the creek as the tides recede. Analysis of CDOM quality based on specific UV absorbance at 254 nm (SUVA254) and spectral slope ratio (SR) showed that the marsh end-member (Site 3) source of DOM had greater aromaticity and higher molecular weight. Site 1 showed greater variability over the tidal cycle most likely due to a greater tidal influence, being closer to the mouth. Additionally, an unmanned surface vehicle (USV) and a hydrodynamic model were used to map water circulation and DOC concentration along the creek to compute exchanges with the adjacent estuary. Results suggest that estuarine OM dynamics are strongly controlled by

  5. Blowout jets and impulsive eruptive flares in a bald-patch topology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandra, R.; Mandrini, C. H.; Schmieder, B.; Joshi, B.; Cristiani, G. D.; Cremades, H.; Pariat, E.; Nuevo, F. A.; Srivastava, A. K.; Uddin, W.

    2017-02-01

    Context. A subclass of broad extreme ultraviolet (EUV) and X-ray jets, called blowout jets, have become a topic of research since they could be the link between standard collimated jets and coronal mass ejections (CMEs). Aims: Our aim is to understand the origin of a series of broad jets, some of which are accompanied by flares and associated with narrow and jet-like CMEs. Methods: We analyze observations of a series of recurrent broad jets observed in AR 10484 on 21-24 October 2003. In particular, one of them occurred simultaneously with an M2.4 flare on 23 October at 02:41 UT (SOLA2003-10-23). Both events were observed by the ARIES Hα Solar Tower-Telescope, TRACE, SOHO, and RHESSI instruments. The flare was very impulsive and followed by a narrow CME. A local force-free model of AR 10484 is the basis to compute its topology. We find bald patches (BPs) at the flare site. This BP topology is present for at least two days before to events. Large-scale field lines, associated with the BPs, represent open loops. This is confirmed by a global potential free source surface (PFSS) model. Following the brightest leading edge of the Hα and EUV jet emission, we can temporarily associate these emissions with a narrow CME. Results: Considering their characteristics, the observed broad jets appear to be of the blowout class. As the most plausible scenario, we propose that magnetic reconnection could occur at the BP separatrices forced by the destabilization of a continuously reformed flux rope underlying them. The reconnection process could bring the cool flux-rope material into the reconnected open field lines driving the series of recurrent blowout jets and accompanying CMEs. Conclusions: Based on a model of the coronal field, we compute the AR 10484 topology at the location where flaring and blowout jets occurred from 21 to 24 October 2003. This topology can consistently explain the origin of these events. The movie associated to Fig. 1 is available at http://www.aanda.org

  6. Bald Mountain gold mining district, Nevada: A Jurassic reduced intrusion-related gold system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nutt, C.J.; Hofstra, A.H.

    2007-01-01

    The Bald Mountain mining district has produced about 2 million ounces (Moz) of An. Geologic mapping, field relationships, geochemical data, petrographic observations, fluid inclusion characteristics, and Pb, S, O, and H isotope data indicate that An mineralization was associated with a reduced Jurassic intrusion. Gold deposits are localized within and surrounding a Jurassic (159 Ma) quartz monzonite porphyry pluton and dike complex that intrudes Cambrian to Mississippian carbonate and clastic rocks. The pluton, associated dikes, and An mineralization were controlled by a crustal-scale northwest-trending structure named the Bida trend. Gold deposits are localized by fracture networks in the pluton and the contact metamorphic aureole, dike margins, high-angle faults, and certain strata or shale-limestone contacts in sedimentary rocks. Gold mineralization was accompanied by silicification and phyllic alteration, ??argillic alteration at shallow levels. Although An is typically present throughout, the system exhibits a classic concentric geochemical zonation pattern with Mo, W, Bi, and Cu near the center, Ag, Pb, and Zn at intermediate distances, and As and Sb peripheral to the intrusion. Near the center of the system, micron-sized native An occurs with base metal sulfides and sulfosalts. In peripheral deposits and in later stages of mineralization, Au is typically submicron in size and resides in pyrite or arsenopyrite. Electron microprobe and laser ablation ICP-MS analyses show that arsenopyrite, pyrite, and Bi sulfide minerals contain 10s to 1,000s of ppm Au. Ore-forming fluids were aqueous and carbonic at deep levels and episodically hypersaline at shallow levels due to boiling. The isotopic compositions of H and O in quartz and sericite and S and Pb in sulfides are indicative of magmatic ore fluids with sedimentary sulfur. Together, the evidence suggests that Au was introduced by reduced S-bearing magmatic fluids derived from a reduced intrusion. The reduced

  7. Sorting it out: bedding particle size and nesting material processing method affect nest complexity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson-Junker, Amy; Morin, Amelia; Pritchett-Corning, Kathleen; Gaskill, Brianna N

    2017-04-01

    As part of routine husbandry, an increasing number of laboratory mice receive nesting material in addition to standard bedding material in their cages. Nesting material improves health outcomes and physiological performance in mice that receive it. Providing usable nesting material uniformly and efficiently to various strains of mice remains a challenge. The aim of this study was to determine how bedding particle size, method of nesting material delivery, and processing of the nesting material before delivery affected nest building in mice of strong (BALB/cAnNCrl) and weak (C3H/HeNCrl) gathering abilities. Our data suggest that processing nesting material through a grinder in conjunction with bedding material, although convenient for provision of bedding with nesting material 'built-in', negatively affects the integrity of the nesting material and subsequent nest-building outcomes. We also found that C3H mice, previously thought to be poor nest builders, built similarly scored nests to those of BALB/c mice when provided with unprocessed nesting material. This was true even when nesting material was mixed into the bedding substrate. We also observed that when nesting material was mixed into the bedding substrate, mice of both strains would sort their bedding by particle size more often than if it were not mixed in. Our findings support the utility of the practice of distributing nesting material mixed in with bedding substrate, but not that of processing the nesting material with the bedding in order to mix them.

  8. Spatial and temporal patterns in golden eagle diets in the western United States, with implications for conservation planning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bedrosian, Geoffrey; Watson, James W.; Steenhof, Karen; Kochert, Michael N.; Preston, Charles R.; Woodbridge, Brian; Williams, Gary E.; Keller, Kent R.; Crandall, Ross H.

    2017-01-01

    Detailed information on diets and predatory ecology of Golden Eagles (Aquila chrysaetos) is essential to prioritize prey species management and to develop landscape-specific conservation strategies, including mitigation of the effects of energy development across the western United States. We compiled published and unpublished data on Golden Eagle diets to (1) summarize available information on Golden Eagle diets in the western U.S., (2) compare diets among biogeographic provinces, and (3) discuss implications for conservation planning and future research. We analyzed 35 studies conducted during the breeding season at 45 locations from 1940–2015. Golden Eagle diet differed among western ecosystems. Lower dietary breadth was associated with desert and shrub-steppe ecosystems and higher breadth with mountain ranges and the Columbia Plateau. Correlations suggest that percentage of leporids in the diet is the factor driving overall diversity of prey and percentage of other prey groups in the diet of Golden Eagles. Leporids were the primary prey of breeding Golden Eagles in 78% of study areas, with sciurids reported as primary prey in 18% of study areas. During the nonbreeding season, Golden Eagles were most frequently recorded feeding on leporids and carrion. Golden Eagles can be described as both generalist and opportunistic predators; they can feed on a wide range of prey species but most frequently feed on abundant medium-sized prey species in a given habitat. Spatial variations in Golden Eagle diet likely reflect regional differences in prey community, whereas temporal trends likely reflect responses to long-term change in prey populations. Evidence suggests dietary shifts from traditional (leporid) prey can have adverse effects on Golden Eagle reproductive rates. Land management practices that support or restore shrub-steppe ecosystem diversity should benefit Golden Eagles. More information is needed on nonbreeding-season diet to determine what food resources

  9. Decoration Increases the Conspicuousness of Raptor Nests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canal, David; Mulero-Pázmány, Margarita; Negro, Juan José; Sergio, Fabrizio

    2016-01-01

    Avian nests are frequently concealed or camouflaged, but a number of species builds noticeable nests or use conspicuous materials for nest decoration. In most cases, nest decoration has a role in mate choice or provides thermoregulatory or antiparasitic benefits. In territorial species however, decorations may serve additional or complementary functions, such as extended phenotypic signaling of nest-site occupancy and social status to potential intruders. The latter may benefit both signaler and receiver by minimizing the risk of aggressive interactions, especially in organisms with dangerous weaponry. Support for this hypothesis was recently found in a population of black kites (Milvus migrans), a territorial raptor that decorates its nest with white artificial materials. However, the crucial assumption that nest decorations increased nest-site visibility to conspecifics was not assessed, a key aspect given that black kite nests may be well concealed within the canopy. Here, we used an unmanned aircraft system to take pictures of black kite nests, with and without an experimentally placed decoration, from different altitudes and distances simulating the perspective of a flying and approaching, prospecting intruder. The pictures were shown to human volunteers through a standardized routine to determine whether detection rates varied according the nest decoration status and distance. Decorated nests consistently showed a higher detection frequency and a lower detection-latency, compared to undecorated versions of the same nests. Our results confirm that nest decoration in this species may act as a signaling medium that enhances nest visibility for aerial receivers, even at large distances. This finding complements previous work on this communication system, which showed that nest decoration was a threat informing trespassing conspecifics on the social dominance, territory quality and fighting capabilities of the signaler.

  10. Wildlife studies on the Hanford Site: 1993 Highlights report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cadwell, L.L. [ed.

    1994-04-01

    The Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) Wildlife Resources Monitoring Project was initiated by DOE to track the status of wildlife populations to determine whether Hanford operations affected them. The project continues to conduct a census of wildlife populations that are highly visible, economically or aesthetically important, and rare or otherwise considered sensitive. Examples of long-term data collected and maintained through the Wildlife Resources Monitoring Project include annual goose nesting surveys conducted on islands in the Hanford Reach, wintering bald eagle surveys, and fall Chinook salmon redd (nest) surveys. The report highlights activities related to salmon and mollusks on the Hanford Reach of the Columbia River; describes efforts to map vegetation on the Site and efforts to survey species of concern; provides descriptions of shrub-steppe bird surveys, including bald eagles, Canada geese, and hawks; outlines efforts to monitor mule deer and elk populations on the Site; and describes development of a biological database management system.

  11. Raptor nest management on power lines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harness, R.E. [EDM International Inc., Fort Collins, CO (United States)

    2005-07-01

    Many utilities in South Africa are now implementing labor-intensive methods to combat raptor nesting on power transmission lines. Methods have typically included direct nest removal and trimming of nest materials. However, the process is often unsuccessful, and utilities are now learning to accommodate the raptor nests. This paper argued that managing nests on utility structures has solved many operational problems and has resulted in positive publicity for many line operators. Nest management options included the use of stick deflectors to prevent nest material from accumulating during initial nest construction, as well as encouraging raptors to shift their efforts to a more suitable location. Raptors will often accept alternative nesting platforms, and taller, surrogate nesting poles can be placed next to distribution line structures. Elevated platforms can also be placed on problematic distribution structures, but may result in birds coming into contact with unprotected equipment. It was concluded that a successful nest management program includes plans to make nearby lines safe for raptors and to prevent their electrocution. Providing nests with bird-friendly utility configurations can result in electric facilities enhancing wild raptor populations without impacting power reliability. 14 refs., 9 figs.

  12. Male Pattern Baldness in Relation to Prostate Cancer–Specific Mortality: A Prospective Analysis in the NHANES I Epidemiologic Follow-up Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Cindy Ke; Levine, Paul H.; Cleary, Sean D.; Hoffman, Heather J.; Graubard, Barry I.; Cook, Michael B.

    2016-01-01

    We used male pattern baldness as a proxy for long-term androgen exposure and investigated the association of dermatologist-assessed hair loss with prostate cancer–specific mortality in the first National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey Epidemiologic Follow-up Study. From the baseline survey (1971–1974), we included 4,316 men who were 25–74 years of age and had no prior cancer diagnosis. We estimated hazard ratios and used Cox proportional hazards regressions with age as the time metric and baseline hazard stratified by baseline age. A hybrid framework was used to account for stratification and clustering of the sample design, with adjustment for the variables used to calculate sample weights. During follow-up (median, 21 years), 3,284 deaths occurred; prostate cancer was the underlying cause of 107. In multivariable models, compared with no balding, any baldness was associated with a 56% higher risk of fatal prostate cancer (hazard ratio = 1.56; 95% confidence interval: 1.02, 2.37), and moderate balding specifically was associated with an 83% higher risk (hazard ratio = 1.83; 95% confidence interval: 1.15, 2.92). Conversely, patterned hair loss was not statistically significantly associated with all-cause mortality. Our analysis suggests that patterned hair loss is associated with a higher risk of fatal prostate cancer and supports the hypothesis of overlapping pathophysiological mechanisms. PMID:26764224

  13. Differences in predators of artificial and real songbirds nests: Evidence of bias in artificial nest studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frank R. Thompson; Dirk E. Burhans

    2004-01-01

    In the past two decades, many researchers have used artificial nest to measure relative rates of nest predation. Recent comparisons show that real and artificial nests may not be depredated at the same rate, but no one has examined the mechanisms underlying these patterns. We determined differences in predator-specific predation rates of real and artificial nests. we...

  14. Cavity-nesting bird use of nest boxes in vineyards of central-coast California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniel P. Mummert; Laura Baines; William D. Tietje

    2002-01-01

    Oak woodland habitat is being degraded or replaced by vineyards in many areas of central-coastal California. Oak woodlands are home to many insectivorous, cavity-nesting birds that would be beneficial in and around vineyards. During March to June 2001, we used bluebird nest boxes to study nest box use and productivity of cavity-nesting birds in vineyards versus...

  15. Nest-site habitat of cavity-nesting birds at the San Joaquin Experimental Range

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kathryn L. Purcell; Jared. Verner

    2008-01-01

    Detailed information about the nesting habitats of birds, including those needed for successful nesting, can provide a better understanding of the ecological factors that permit coexistence of different species and may aid in conservation efforts. From 1989 through 1994, we studied the nesting habitat of secondary cavity-nesting birds in oak woodlands at the San...

  16. Modeling nest survival of cavity-nesting birds in relation to postfire salvage logging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vicki Saab; Robin E. Russell; Jay Rotella; Jonathan G. Dudley

    2011-01-01

    Salvage logging practices in recently burned forests often have direct effects on species associated with dead trees, particularly cavity-nesting birds. As such, evaluation of postfire management practices on nest survival rates of cavity nesters is necessary for determining conservation strategies. We monitored 1,797 nests of 6 cavity-nesting bird species: Lewis'...

  17. Avoiding the nest : responses of field sparrows to the threat of nest predation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dirk E. Burhans

    2000-01-01

    Nest predation is a major source of reproductive failure in birds (Ricklefs 1969, Martin 1992). Birds confronted with an enemy near the nest may use behaviors to deter the prospect of nest predation. The benefits of nest defense have been shown for many agressive species (Martin 1992), but smaller birds that cannot deter predators may need to resort to other behaviors...

  18. Nest Material Shapes Eggs Bacterial Environment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Ruiz-Castellano

    Full Text Available Selective pressures imposed by pathogenic microorganisms to embryos have selected in hosts for a battery of antimicrobial lines of defenses that includes physical and chemical barriers. Due to the antimicrobial properties of volatile compounds of green plants and of chemicals of feather degrading bacteria, the use of aromatic plants and feathers for nest building has been suggested as one of these barriers. However, experimental evidence suggesting such effects is scarce in the literature. During two consecutive years, we explored experimentally the effects of these nest materials on loads of different groups of bacteria (mesophilic bacteria, Enterobacteriaceae, Staphylococcus and Enterococcus of eggshells in nests of spotless starlings (Sturnus unicolor at the beginning and at the end of the incubation period. This was also explored in artificial nests without incubation activity. We also experimentally increased bacterial density of eggs in natural and artificial nests and explored the effects of nest lining treatments on eggshell bacterial load. Support for the hypothetical antimicrobial function of nest materials was mainly detected for the year and location with larger average values of eggshell bacterial density. The beneficial effects of feathers and plants were more easily detected in artificial nests with no incubation activity, suggesting an active role of incubation against bacterial colonization of eggshells. Pigmented and unpigmented feathers reduced eggshell bacterial load in starling nests and artificial nest boxes. Results from artificial nests allowed us to discuss and discard alternative scenarios explaining the detected association, particularly those related to the possible sexual role of feathers and aromatic plants in starling nests. All these results considered together confirm the antimicrobial functionality mainly of feathers but also of plants used as nest materials, and highlight the importance of temporally and

  19. Nest Material Shapes Eggs Bacterial Environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz-Castellano, Cristina; Tomás, Gustavo; Ruiz-Rodríguez, Magdalena; Martín-Gálvez, David; Soler, Juan José

    2016-01-01

    Selective pressures imposed by pathogenic microorganisms to embryos have selected in hosts for a battery of antimicrobial lines of defenses that includes physical and chemical barriers. Due to the antimicrobial properties of volatile compounds of green plants and of chemicals of feather degrading bacteria, the use of aromatic plants and feathers for nest building has been suggested as one of these barriers. However, experimental evidence suggesting such effects is scarce in the literature. During two consecutive years, we explored experimentally the effects of these nest materials on loads of different groups of bacteria (mesophilic bacteria, Enterobacteriaceae, Staphylococcus and Enterococcus) of eggshells in nests of spotless starlings (Sturnus unicolor) at the beginning and at the end of the incubation period. This was also explored in artificial nests without incubation activity. We also experimentally increased bacterial density of eggs in natural and artificial nests and explored the effects of nest lining treatments on eggshell bacterial load. Support for the hypothetical antimicrobial function of nest materials was mainly detected for the year and location with larger average values of eggshell bacterial density. The beneficial effects of feathers and plants were more easily detected in artificial nests with no incubation activity, suggesting an active role of incubation against bacterial colonization of eggshells. Pigmented and unpigmented feathers reduced eggshell bacterial load in starling nests and artificial nest boxes. Results from artificial nests allowed us to discuss and discard alternative scenarios explaining the detected association, particularly those related to the possible sexual role of feathers and aromatic plants in starling nests. All these results considered together confirm the antimicrobial functionality mainly of feathers but also of plants used as nest materials, and highlight the importance of temporally and geographically

  20. 75 FR 20879 - Notice of Intent To Rule on Request To Release Airport Property at the Eagle County Regional...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-21

    ... To Release Airport Property at the Eagle County Regional Airport, Eagle, CO AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Notice of Request to Release Airport Property. SUMMARY: The FAA proposes to... provisions of section 125 of the Wendell H. Ford Aviation Investment Reform Act for the 21st Century (AIR 21...

  1. 76 FR 34103 - In the Matter of Areva Enrichment Services, LLC (Eagle Rock Enrichment Facility); Notice of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-10

    .... 10-899-02-ML-BD01] In the Matter of Areva Enrichment Services, LLC (Eagle Rock Enrichment Facility...'' portion of this proceeding regarding the December 2008 application by AREVA Enrichment Services, LLC (AES... gas centrifuge uranium enrichment facility--denoted as the Eagle Rock Enrichment Facility (EREF)--in...

  2. 77 FR 32716 - Price for the 2012 American Eagle San Francisco Two-Coin Silver Proof Set

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-01

    ... DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY United States Mint Price for the 2012 American Eagle San Francisco Two...: The United States Mint is announcing the price of the 2012 American Eagle San Francisco Two-Coin Silver Proof Set. The coin set will be offered for sale at a price of $149.95. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION...

  3. 78 FR 57444 - Eagle Fund III, L.P.; Notice Seeking Exemption Under the Small Business Investment Act, Conflicts...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-18

    ... Small Business Investment Act of 1958, as amended (the ``Act''), in connection with the financing of a... SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION [License No. 07/07-0116] Eagle Fund III, L.P.; Notice Seeking Exemption Under the Small Business Investment Act, Conflicts of Interest Notice is hereby given that Eagle...

  4. 50 CFR 22.26 - Permits for eagle take that is associated with, but not the purpose of, an activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ...) Other interests. (5) Any additional factors that may be relevant to our decision whether to issue the..., SALE, PURCHASE, BARTER, EXPORTATION, AND IMPORTATION OF WILDLIFE AND PLANTS (CONTINUED) EAGLE PERMITS... cumulative effects of other permitted take and other additional factors affecting eagle populations; (ii...

  5. 76 FR 5580 - Eagle Crest Energy Company; Notice of Applicant-Proposed Water Pipeline Route for the Proposed...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-01

    ... Energy Company; Notice of Applicant-Proposed Water Pipeline Route for the Proposed Eagle Mountain Pumped... Hydroelectric Project (Eagle Mountain Project). This notice describes the water supply pipeline route proposed... property that would be crossed by the proposed water supply pipeline. We are currently soliciting comments...

  6. From neurons to nests: nest-building behaviour as a model in behavioural and comparative neuroscience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Zachary J; Meddle, Simone L; Healy, Susan D

    Despite centuries of observing the nest building of most extant bird species, we know surprisingly little about how birds build nests and, specifically, how the avian brain controls nest building. Here, we argue that nest building in birds may be a useful model behaviour in which to study how the brain controls behaviour. Specifically, we argue that nest building as a behavioural model provides a unique opportunity to study not only the mechanisms through which the brain controls behaviour within individuals of a single species but also how evolution may have shaped the brain to produce interspecific variation in nest-building behaviour. In this review, we outline the questions in both behavioural and comparative neuroscience that nest building could be used to address, summarize recent findings regarding the neurobiology of nest building in lab-reared zebra finches and across species building different nest structures, and suggest some future directions for the neurobiology of nest building.

  7. Final Environmental Assessment for the Integration and Developmental Testing of High Power Microwave Systems at Edwards Air Force Base

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-10-16

    the 21 primary food source, bald eagles will also opportunistically hunt sick or wounded ducks across water and 22 feed on carrion . Nesting or...primarily on insects and other arthropods, but also prey on small mammals, reptiles, birds, and 17 carrion (Zeiner et al., 1990). Breeding takes place from...Conservation Center, in Nevada, many of the tortoises brought in have Upper Respiratory Tract disease ; these tortoises are euthanized. In making the

  8. Environmental Assessment Addressing the Expansion of Sortie-Operations at Moody Air Force Base, Georgia

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-01

    regulations, the Migratory Bird Treaty Act makes it unlawful to (or attempt to) pursue, hunt, take, capture, or kill any migratory bird, nest, or egg...of bald or golden eagles in the United States. The Act defines “take” as “pursue, shoot, shoot at, poison, wound, kill , capture, trap, collect... mockingbird (Mimus polyglottus), eastern bluebird (Sialia sialis), pine warbler (Dendroica pinus), and summer tanager (Piranga rubra). There are

  9. Completion evaluation of the Eagle Ford formation with heterogeneous proppant placement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Viswanathan, A.; Altman, R.; Oussoltsev, D.; Kanneganti, K.; Xu, J.; Grant, D.; Indriati, S.; Pena, A.; Loayza, M.; Kirkham, B.; Rhein, T. [Society of Petroleum Engineers (Canada)

    2011-07-01

    With the major developments of the Eagle Ford shale in Texas, there has been an increasing focus on the optimization of stimulation techniques. Many techniques have already been implemented in order to improve productivity across Eagle Ford. This paper analyzes completion techniques currently in place through the Hawkville field with the goal of determining key parameters and their impact on the well. The paper focuses mainly on channel fracturing based on a heterogeneous proppant placement technique and evaluates it against current slickwater and hybrid stimulation treatments. The evaluation described in the paper was conducted by first collecting data from 51 horizontal wells in the Eagle Ford formation. It then follows through the evaluation completing a normalized production comparison, a productivity index analysis, neural network trained self-organizing maps, and numerical simulations. Through evaluations and comparisons the paper shows that channel fracturing can allow for a significant improvement in production of dry gas wells.

  10. Golden eagle (Aquila chrysaetos) habitat selection as a function of land use and terrain, San Diego County, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tracey, Jeff A.; Madden, Melanie C.; Bloom, Peter H.; Katzner, Todd E.; Fisher, Robert N.

    2018-04-16

    Beginning in 2014, the U.S. Geological Survey, in collaboration with Bloom Biological, Inc., began telemetry research on golden eagles (Aquila chrysaetos) captured in the San Diego, Orange, and western Riverside Counties of southern California. This work was supported by the San Diego Association of Governments, California Department of Fish and Wildlife, the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, the Bureau of Land Management, and the U.S. Geological Survey. Since 2014, we have tracked more than 40 eagles, although this report focuses only on San Diego County eagles.An important objective of this research is to develop habitat selection models for golden eagles. Here we provide predictions of population-level habitat selection for golden eagles in San Diego County based on environmental covariates related to land use and terrain.

  11. Nest Predation Deviates from Nest Predator Abundance in an Ecologically Trapped Bird.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hollander, Franck A; Van Dyck, Hans; San Martin, Gilles; Titeux, Nicolas

    2015-01-01

    In human-modified environments, ecological traps may result from a preference for low-quality habitat where survival or reproductive success is lower than in high-quality habitat. It has often been shown that low reproductive success for birds in preferred habitat types was due to higher nest predator abundance. However, between-habitat differences in nest predation may only weakly correlate with differences in nest predator abundance. An ecological trap is at work in a farmland bird (Lanius collurio) that recently expanded its breeding habitat into open areas in plantation forests. This passerine bird shows a strong preference for forest habitat, but it has a higher nest success in farmland. We tested whether higher abundance of nest predators in the preferred habitat or, alternatively, a decoupling of nest predator abundance and nest predation explained this observed pattern of maladaptive habitat selection. More than 90% of brood failures were attributed to nest predation. Nest predator abundance was more than 50% higher in farmland, but nest predation was 17% higher in forest. Differences between nest predation on actual shrike nests and on artificial nests suggested that parent shrikes may facilitate nest disclosure for predators in forest more than they do in farmland. The level of caution by parent shrikes when visiting their nest during a simulated nest predator intrusion was the same in the two habitats, but nest concealment was considerably lower in forest, which contributes to explaining the higher nest predation in this habitat. We conclude that a decoupling of nest predator abundance and nest predation may create ecological traps in human-modified environments.

  12. Nest predation increases with parental activity: separating nest site and parental activity effects.

    OpenAIRE

    Martin, T E; Scott, J; Menge, C

    2000-01-01

    Alexander Skutch hypothesized that increased parental activity can increase the risk of nest predation. We tested this hypothesis using ten open-nesting bird species in Arizona, USA. Parental activity was greater during the nestling than incubation stage because parents visited the nest frequently to feed their young during the nestling stage. However, nest predation did not generally increase with parental activity between nesting stages across the ten study species. Previous investigators h...

  13. Nest Predation Deviates from Nest Predator Abundance in an Ecologically Trapped Bird.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franck A Hollander

    Full Text Available In human-modified environments, ecological traps may result from a preference for low-quality habitat where survival or reproductive success is lower than in high-quality habitat. It has often been shown that low reproductive success for birds in preferred habitat types was due to higher nest predator abundance. However, between-habitat differences in nest predation may only weakly correlate with differences in nest predator abundance. An ecological trap is at work in a farmland bird (Lanius collurio that recently expanded its breeding habitat into open areas in plantation forests. This passerine bird shows a strong preference for forest habitat, but it has a higher nest success in farmland. We tested whether higher abundance of nest predators in the preferred habitat or, alternatively, a decoupling of nest predator abundance and nest predation explained this observed pattern of maladaptive habitat selection. More than 90% of brood failures were attributed to nest predation. Nest predator abundance was more than 50% higher in farmland, but nest predation was 17% higher in forest. Differences between nest predation on actual shrike nests and on artificial nests suggested that parent shrikes may facilitate nest disclosure for predators in forest more than they do in farmland. The level of caution by parent shrikes when visiting their nest during a simulated nest predator intrusion was the same in the two habitats, but nest concealment was considerably lower in forest, which contributes to explaining the higher nest predation in this habitat. We conclude that a decoupling of nest predator abundance and nest predation may create ecological traps in human-modified environments.

  14. Interaction in Balanced Cross Nested Designs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos, Paulo; Mexia, João T.; Carvalho, Francisco; Covas, Ricardo

    2011-09-01

    Commutative Jordan Algebras, CJA, are used in the study of mixed models obtained, through crossing and nesting, from simpler ones. In the study of cross nested models the interaction between nested factors have been systematically discarded. However this can constitutes an artificial simplification of the models. We point out that, when two crossed factors interact, such interaction is symmetric, both factors playing in it equivalent roles, while when two nested factors interact, the interaction is determined by the nesting factor. These interactions will be called interactions with nesting. In this work we present a coherent formulation of the algebraic structure of models enabling the choice of families of interactions between cross and nested factors using binary operations on CJA.

  15. Effects of UV radiation on the UV-VIS absorption spectra of the EAGLE's medium components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bollmann, G.; Redmann, K.

    1990-01-01

    The impact of ultraviolet light on uv/vis absorption spectra of selected individual components of the cell breeding medium according to Eagle (MEM) was investigated. The strongest alterations of light absorption were detected in L-phenylalanin, L-tyrosin and L-tryptophane. Thus, the absorption behaviour of the Eagle (MEM) medium changed post radiationem may be attributed to spectrophotometric alterations of absorption in aromatic amino acids. The results are discussed with regard to the effect on the surface charge of erythrocytes. (author)

  16. Interactive effects between nest microclimate and nest vegetation structure confirm microclimate thresholds for Lesser Prairie-Chicken nest survival

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grisham, Blake A.; Godar, Alixandra J.; Boal, Clint W.; Haukos, David A.

    2016-01-01

    The range of Lesser Prairie-Chickens (Tympanuchus pallidicinctus) spans 4 unique ecoregions along 2 distinct environmental gradients. The Sand Shinnery Oak Prairie ecoregion of the Southern High Plains of New Mexico and Texas is environmentally isolated, warmer, and more arid than the Short-Grass, Sand Sagebrush, and Mixed-Grass Prairie ecoregions in Colorado, Kansas, Oklahoma, and the northeast panhandle of Texas. Weather is known to influence Lesser Prairie-Chicken nest survival in the Sand Shinnery Oak Prairie ecoregion; regional variation may also influence nest microclimate and, ultimately, survival during incubation. To address this question, we placed data loggers adjacent to nests during incubation to quantify temperature and humidity distribution functions in 3 ecoregions. We developed a suite of a priori nest survival models that incorporated derived microclimate parameters and visual obstruction as covariates in Program MARK. We monitored 49 nests in Mixed-Grass, 22 nests in Sand Shinnery Oak, and 30 nests in Short-Grass ecoregions from 2010 to 2014. Our findings indicated that (1) the Sand Shinnery Oak Prairie ecoregion was hotter and drier during incubation than the Mixed- and Short-Grass ecoregions; (2) nest microclimate varied among years within ecoregions; (3) visual obstruction was positively associated with nest survival; but (4) daily nest survival probability decreased by 10% every half-hour when temperature was greater than 34°C and vapor pressure deficit was less than −23 mmHg during the day (about 0600–2100 hours). Our major finding confirmed microclimate thresholds for nest survival under natural conditions across the species' distribution, although Lesser Prairie-Chickens are more likely to experience microclimate conditions that result in nest failures in the Sand Shinnery Oak Prairie ecoregion. The species would benefit from identification of thermal landscapes and management actions that promote cooler, more humid nest microclimates.

  17. Golden eagle population trends in the western United States: 1968-2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millsap, Brian A.; Zimmerman, Guthrie S.; Sauer, John R.; Nielson, Ryan M.; Otto, Mark; Bjerre, Emily; Murphy, Robert K.

    2013-01-01

    In 2009, the United States Fish and Wildlife Service promulgated permit regulations for the unintentional lethal take (anthropogenic mortality) and disturbance of golden eagles (Aquila chrysaetos). Accurate population trend and size information for golden eagles are needed so agency biologists can make informed decisions when eagle take permits are requested. To address this need with available data, we used a log-linear hierarchical model to average data from a late-summer aerial-line-transect distance-sampling survey (WGES) of golden eagles in the United States portions of Bird Conservation Region (BCR) 9 (Great Basin), BCR 10 (Northern Rockies), BCR 16 (Southern Rockies/Colorado Plateau), and BCR 17 (Badlands and Prairies) from 2006 to 2010 with late-spring, early summer Breeding Bird Survey (BBS) data for the same BCRs and years to estimate summer golden eagle population size and trends in these BCRs. We used the ratio of the density estimates from the WGES to the BBS index to calculate a BCR-specific adjustment factor that scaled the BBS index (i.e., birds per route) to a density estimate. Our results indicated golden eagle populations were generally stable from 2006 to 2010 in the 4 BCRs, with an estimated average rate of population change of −0.41% (95% credible interval [CI]: −4.17% to 3.40%) per year. For the 4 BCRs and years, we estimated annual golden eagle population size to range from 28,220 (95% CI: 23,250–35,110) in 2007 to 26,490 (95% CI: 21,760–32,680) in 2008. We found a general correspondence in trends between WGES and BBS data for these 4 BCRs, which suggested BBS data were providing useful trend information. We used the overall adjustment factor calculated from the 4 BCRs and years to scale BBS golden eagle counts from 1968 to 2005 for the 4 BCRs and for 1968 to 2010 for the 8 other BCRs (without WGES data) to estimate golden eagle population size and trends across the western United States for the period 1968 to 2010. In general, we

  18. Chromosome reshuffling in birds of prey: the karyotype of the world's largest eagle (Harpy eagle, Harpia harpyja) compared to that of the chicken (Gallus gallus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Oliveira, Edivaldo H C; Habermann, Felix A; Lacerda, Oneida; Sbalqueiro, Ives J; Wienberg, Johannes; Müller, Stefan

    2005-11-01

    Like various other diurnal birds of prey, the world's largest eagle, the Harpy (Harpia harpyja), presents an atypical bird karyotype with 2n=58 chromosomes. There is little knowledge about the dramatic changes in the genomic reorganization of these species compared to other birds. Since recently, the chicken provides a "default map" for various birds including the first genomic DNA sequence of a bird species. Obviously, the gross division of the chicken genome into relatively gene-poor macrochromosomes and predominantly gene-rich microchromosomes has been conserved for more than 150 million years in most bird species. Here, we present classical features of the Harpy eagle karyotype but also chromosomal homologies between H. harpyja and the chicken by chromosome painting and comparison to the chicken genome map. We used two different sets of painting probes: (1) chicken chromosomes were divided into three size categories: (a) macrochromosomes 1-5 and Z, (b) medium-sized chromosomes 6-10, and (c) 19 microchromosomes; (2) combinatorially labeled chicken chromosome paints 1-6 and Z. Both probe sets were visualized on H. harpyja chromosomes by multicolor fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH). Our data show how the organization into micro- and macrochromosomes has been lost in the Harpy eagle, seemingly without any preference or constraints.

  19. Polytypic Functions Over Nested Datatypes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ralf Hinze

    1999-12-01

    Full Text Available The theory and practice of polytypic programming is intimately connected with the initial algebra semantics of datatypes. This is both a blessing and a curse. It is a blessing because the underlying theory is beautiful and well developed. It is a curse because the initial algebra semantics is restricted to so-called regular datatypes. Recent work by R. Bird and L. Meertens [3] on the semantics of non-regular or nested datatypes suggests that an extension to general datatypes is not entirely straightforward. Here we propose an alternative that extends polytypism to arbitrary datatypes, including nested datatypes and mutually recursive datatypes. The central idea is to use rational trees over a suitable set of functor symbols as type arguments for polytypic functions. Besides covering a wider range of types the approach is also simpler and technically less involving than previous ones. We present several examples of polytypic functions, among others polytypic reduction and polytypic equality. The presentation assumes some background in functional and in polytypic programming. A basic knowledge of monads is required for some of the examples.

  20. Nest site attributes and temporal patterns of northern flicker nest loss: effects of predation and competition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, Ryan J; Wiebe, Karen L

    2006-04-01

    To date, most studies of nest site selection have failed to take into account more than one source of nest loss (or have combined all sources in one analysis) when examining nest site characteristics, leaving us with an incomplete understanding of the potential trade-offs that individuals may face when selecting a nest site. Our objectives were to determine whether northern flickers (Colaptes auratus) may experience a trade-off in nest site selection in response to mammalian nest predation and nest loss to a cavity nest competitor (European starling, Sturnus vulgaris). We also document within-season temporal patterns of these two sources of nest loss with the hypothesis that flickers may also be constrained in the timing of reproduction under both predatory and competitive influence. Mammalian predators frequently depredated flicker nests that were: lower to the ground, less concealed by vegetation around the cavity entrance and at the base of the nest tree, closer to coniferous forest edges and in forest clumps with a high percentage of conifer content. Proximity to coniferous edges or coniferous trees increased the probability of nest predation, but nests near conifers were less likely to be lost to starlings. Flickers may thus face a trade-off in nest site selection with respect to safety from predators or competitors. Models suggested that peaks of nest predation and nest loss to eviction occurred at the same time, although a competing model suggested that the peak of nest loss to starlings occurred 5 days earlier than the peak of mammalian predation. Differences in peaks of mammalian predation and loss to starlings may constrain any adjustment in clutch initiation date by flickers to avoid one source of nest loss.

  1. The Results of the Project on Creation of Special Protection Zones in Pine Forests of the Altai Kray Based on Data from the Long-term Monitoring of Raptors’ Nesting Sites, Russia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igor V. Karyakin

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available This article provides the review of the condition of rare raptors’ species, nesting in strip-shaped pine forests of the Altai Kray. It also reflects negative trends for some species including the Golden Eagle (Aquila chrysaetos and the Eurasian Eagle Owl (Bubo Bubo due to constant felling. Criteria of selection of special protection zones of forests and zones of special protection in nature reserves in the pine forests of the Altai Kray were designed according to the results of the long-term monitoring of raptors. According to researches of 2015 zones of special protection were designed for Kamsalinsky, Mamontovsky and Kornilovsky nature reserves. Inspections conducted in all mentioned nature reserves and in Zavyalovsky nature reserve showed numerous violations of environmental legislation. Thereafter checks on compliance with the legislation in forest exploitation were initiated.

  2. 78 FR 38618 - Proposed Establishment of the Eagle Peak Mendocino County Viticultural Area and Realignments of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-27

    ..., among other things, prohibit consumer deception and the use of misleading statements on labels, and... Western Bison Association's internet directory that shows a listing for Eagle Peak Bison Ranch, which is... creates a high erosion hazard that must be considered when planting vineyards. The southerly solar aspect...

  3. Behavioural ecology, distribution and conservation of the Javan Hawk-eagle Spizaetus bartelsi Stresemann, 1924

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sözer, Resit; Nijman, Vincent

    1995-01-01

    In the period December 1993 – January 1995 research on the behavioural ecology, distribution and conservation of the Javan Hawk-eagle Spizaetus bartelsi was carried out by R. Sözer and V. Nijman, under supervision of BirdLife International / PHPA – Indonesia Programme. This research was part of the

  4. Cassin\\'s hawk-eagle Spizaetus africanus in Ndundulu Forest: a first ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A single adult Cassin's hawk-eagle Spizaetus africanus was sighted on five occasions over three years in a highland forest in the Udzungwa Mountains, the first ever record of this species in Tanzania. This discovery has potentially significant biogeographical implications, strengthening ancient links between the forests of ...

  5. Data Release of UV to Submillimeter Broadband Fluxes for Simulated Galaxies from the EAGLE Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camps, Peter; Trčka, Ana; Trayford, James; Baes, Maarten; Theuns, Tom; Crain, Robert A.; McAlpine, Stuart; Schaller, Matthieu; Schaye, Joop

    2018-02-01

    We present dust-attenuated and dust emission fluxes for sufficiently resolved galaxies in the EAGLE suite of cosmological hydrodynamical simulations, calculated with the SKIRT radiative transfer code. The post-processing procedure includes specific components for star formation regions, stellar sources, and diffuse dust and takes into account stochastic heating of dust grains to obtain realistic broadband fluxes in the wavelength range from ultraviolet to submillimeter. The mock survey includes nearly half a million simulated galaxies with stellar masses above {10}8.5 {M}ȯ across six EAGLE models. About two-thirds of these galaxies, residing in 23 redshift bins up to z = 6, have a sufficiently resolved metallic gas distribution to derive meaningful dust attenuation and emission, with the important caveat that the same dust properties were used at all redshifts. These newly released data complement the already publicly available information about the EAGLE galaxies, which includes intrinsic properties derived by aggregating the properties of the smoothed particles representing matter in the simulation. We further provide an open-source framework of Python procedures for post-processing simulated galaxies with the radiative transfer code SKIRT. The framework allows any third party to calculate synthetic images, spectral energy distributions, and broadband fluxes for EAGLE galaxies, taking into account the effects of dust attenuation and emission.

  6. 76 FR 11523 - Atomic Safety and Licensing Board; AREVA Enrichment Services, LLC (Eagle Rock Enrichment Facility...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-02

    ... and Licensing Board; AREVA Enrichment Services, LLC (Eagle Rock Enrichment Facility); Notice of... Governmental Entities Regarding Environmental Portion of Enrichment Facility Licensing Proceeding February 24.... White. In this 10 CFR part 70 proceeding regarding the request of applicant AREVA Enrichment Services...

  7. Influences of Eagle Ford Shale Development on Superintendent Leadership Experiences: A Phenomenological Narrative

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moczygemba, Jeanette Winn

    2017-01-01

    This phenomenological narrative study examined the effects of the Eagle Ford Shale development upon public school superintendent leadership experiences during the boom phase of the energy industry expansion. The four research questions investigated the shale development's influence on experiences in the areas of instruction, finance and…

  8. The legal status of the Spanish imperial eagle in Spain and thoughts ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This contribution reflects on the contributory role of environmental law and policy in the successful conservation interventions on behalf of the rare Spanish Imperial Eagle (Aquila adalberti), with the aim of gaining insights that may be more universally applicable, including in jurisdictions such as South Africa. An overview of ...

  9. The genome sequence of a widespread apex predator, the golden eagle (Aquila chrysaetos.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacqueline M Doyle

    Full Text Available Biologists routinely use molecular markers to identify conservation units, to quantify genetic connectivity, to estimate population sizes, and to identify targets of selection. Many imperiled eagle populations require such efforts and would benefit from enhanced genomic resources. We sequenced, assembled, and annotated the first eagle genome using DNA from a male golden eagle (Aquila chrysaetos captured in western North America. We constructed genomic libraries that were sequenced using Illumina technology and assembled the high-quality data to a depth of ∼40x coverage. The genome assembly includes 2,552 scaffolds >10 Kb and 415 scaffolds >1.2 Mb. We annotated 16,571 genes that are involved in myriad biological processes, including such disparate traits as beak formation and color vision. We also identified repetitive regions spanning 92 Mb (∼6% of the assembly, including LINES, SINES, LTR-RTs and DNA transposons. The mitochondrial genome encompasses 17,332 bp and is ∼91% identical to the Mountain Hawk-Eagle (Nisaetus nipalensis. Finally, the data reveal that several anonymous microsatellites commonly used for population studies are embedded within protein-coding genes and thus may not have evolved in a neutral fashion. Because the genome sequence includes ∼800,000 novel polymorphisms, markers can now be chosen based on their proximity to functional genes involved in migration, carnivory, and other biological processes.

  10. 75 FR 62895 - Notice of Availability of Safety Evaluation Report; AREVA Enrichment Services LLC, Eagle Rock...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-13

    ... Evaluation Report; AREVA Enrichment Services LLC, Eagle Rock Enrichment Facility, Bonneville County, ID... report. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Breeda Reilly, Senior Project Manager, Advanced Fuel Cycle, Enrichment, and Uranium Conversion, Division of Fuel Cycle Safety and Safeguards, Office of Nuclear Material...

  11. 76 FR 6114 - Lincoln National Forest, New Mexico, North Fork Eagle Creek Wells Special Use Authorization

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-03

    ... National Forest, New Mexico, North Fork Eagle Creek Wells Special Use Authorization AGENCY: Forest Service, USDA. ACTION: Notice of Intent to prepare an Environmental Impact Statement. SUMMARY: The Lincoln National Forest will prepare an Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) to document and publicly disclose...

  12. Golden Eagle fatalities and the continental-scale consequences of local wind-energy generation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katzner, Todd E; Nelson, David M; Braham, Melissa A; Doyle, Jacqueline M; Fernandez, Nadia B; Duerr, Adam E; Bloom, Peter H; Fitzpatrick, Matthew C; Miller, Tricia A; Culver, Renee C E; Braswell, Loan; DeWoody, J Andrew

    2017-04-01

    Renewable energy production is expanding rapidly despite mostly unknown environmental effects on wildlife and habitats. We used genetic and stable isotope data collected from Golden Eagles (Aquila chrysaetos) killed at the Altamont Pass Wind Resource Area (APWRA) in California in demographic models to test hypotheses about the geographic extent and demographic consequences of fatalities caused by renewable energy facilities. Geospatial analyses of δ 2 H values obtained from feathers showed that ≥25% of these APWRA-killed eagles were recent immigrants to the population, most from long distances away (>100 km). Data from nuclear genes indicated this subset of immigrant eagles was genetically similar to birds identified as locals from the δ 2 H data. Demographic models implied that in the face of this mortality, the apparent stability of the local Golden Eagle population was maintained by continental-scale immigration. These analyses demonstrate that ecosystem management decisions concerning the effects of local-scale renewable energy can have continental-scale consequences. © 2016 Society for Conservation Biology.

  13. Human values and codes of behavior: Changes in Oregon's Eagle Cap Wilderness visitors and their attitudes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alan E. Watson; John C. Hendee; Hans P. Zaglauer

    1996-01-01

    A study of visitors to Oregon's Eagle Cap Wilderness in 1965 offered a baseline against which to evaluate how those who recreate in wilderness have changed their views of wilderness. A study of visitors to that same wilderness area in 1993 provided comparative data. Some characteristics of the visitors changed in ways that would suggest that the values visitors...

  14. Satellite tracking of a young Steppe Eagle from the United Arab ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Following recovery and successful rehabilitation, a young Steppe Eagle Aquila nipalensis was tagged with a 45 g GPS satellite transmitter to track its migration and identify potential wintering and summering areas of the species passing through the United Arab Emirates (UAE). The study is part of a larger study on ...

  15. 78 FR 143 - Desert Mining, Inc., Eagle Broadband, Inc., Endovasc, Inc., Environmental Oil Processing...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-02

    ... SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION [File No. 500-1] Desert Mining, Inc., Eagle Broadband, Inc., Endovasc, Inc., Environmental Oil Processing Technology Corp., Falcon Ridge Development, Inc., Fellows... that there is a lack of current and accurate information concerning the securities of Desert Mining...

  16. Raptors of the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Craig, T.H.

    1979-04-01

    From 1974 through 1976 base line data were gathered on the raptors which occur on the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) Site. Thirteen species were observed on the INEL Site during the non-breeding seasons. American Rough-legged Hawks, American Kestrels, Golden Eagles, and Prairie Falcons were the most numerous. Marsh Hawks, Ferruginous Hawks, Redtailed Hawks, Swainson's Hawks, Great Horned Owls, Short-eared Owls, Merlins, Cooper's Hawks, the endangered Bald Eagle, and the endangered Peregrine Falcon were all observed on the INEL Site during the nonbreeding seasons although less frequently. American Rough-legged Hawks and American Kestrels were commonly observed in agricultural lands while Prairie Falcons and Golden Eagles were usually seen in areas of native vegetation. Nesting species of raptors on the INEL Site include American Kestrels, and Long-eared Owls. Ferruginous Hawks, Merlins, Prairie Falcons, Red-tailed Hawks, Swainson's Hawks, Golden Eagles, Great Horned Owls, and Burrowing Owls also nest on or near the INEL Site. The nesting ecology of American Kestrels, Long-eared Owls, Prairie Falcons, Red-tailed Hawks, Swainson's Hawks, Golden Eagles, and Great Horned Owls on the INEL Site are summarized in this report. The decline of nesting Ferruginous Hawks, Golden Eagles, and Red-tailed Hawks on and near the INEL Site is discussed

  17. An economical wireless cavity-nest viewer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniel P. Huebner; Sarah R. Hurteau

    2007-01-01

    Inspection of cavity nests and nest boxes is often required during studies of cavity-nesting birds, and fiberscopes and pole-mounted video cameras are sometimes used for such inspection. However, the cost of these systems may be prohibitive for some potential users. We describe a user-built, wireless cavity viewer that can be used to access cavities as high as 15 m and...

  18. Copper accumulation by stickleback nests containing spiggin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinho, G L L; Martins, C M G; Barber, I

    2016-07-01

    The three-spined stickleback is a ubiquitous fish of marine, brackish and freshwater ecosystems across the Northern hemisphere that presents intermediate sensitivity to copper. Male sticklebacks display a range of elaborate reproductive behaviours that include nest construction. To build the nests, each male binds nesting material together using an endogenous glycoprotein nesting glue, known as 'spiggin'. Spiggin is a cysteine-rich protein and, therefore, potentially binds heavy metals present in the environment. The aim of this study was to investigate the capacity of stickleback nests to accumulate copper from environmental sources. Newly built nests, constructed by male fish from polyester threads in laboratory aquaria, were immersed in copper solutions ranging in concentration from 21.1-626.6 μg Cu L(-1). Bundles of polyester threads from aquaria without male fish were also immersed in the same copper solutions. After immersion, nests presented higher amounts of copper than the thread bundles, indicating a higher capacity of nests to bind this metal. A significant, positive correlation between the concentration of copper in the exposure solution and in the exposed nests was identified, but there was no such relationship for thread bundles. Since both spiggin synthesis and male courtship behaviour are under the control of circulating androgens, we predicted that males with high courtship scores would produce and secrete high levels of the spiggin protein. In the present study, nests built by high courtship score males accumulated more copper than those built by low courtship score males. Considering the potential of spiggin to bind metals, the positive relationship between fish courtship and spiggin secretion seems to explain the higher amount of copper on the nests from the fish showing high behaviour scores. Further work is now needed to determine the consequences of the copper binding potential of spiggin in stickleback nests for the health and survival of

  19. The utility of point count surveys to predict wildlife interactions with wind energy facilities: An example focused on golden eagles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sur, Maitreyi; Belthoff, James R.; Bjerre, Emily R.; Millsap, Brian A.; Katzner, Todd

    2018-01-01

    Wind energy development is rapidly expanding in North America, often accompanied by requirements to survey potential facility locations for existing wildlife. Within the USA, golden eagles (Aquila chrysaetos) are among the most high-profile species of birds that are at risk from wind turbines. To minimize golden eagle fatalities in areas proposed for wind development, modified point count surveys are usually conducted to estimate use by these birds. However, it is not always clear what drives variation in the relationship between on-site point count data and actual use by eagles of a wind energy project footprint. We used existing GPS-GSM telemetry data, collected at 15 min intervals from 13 golden eagles in 2012 and 2013, to explore the relationship between point count data and eagle use of an entire project footprint. To do this, we overlaid the telemetry data on hypothetical project footprints and simulated a variety of point count sampling strategies for those footprints. We compared the time an eagle was found in the sample plots with the time it was found in the project footprint using a metric we called “error due to sampling”. Error due to sampling for individual eagles appeared to be influenced by interactions between the size of the project footprint (20, 40, 90 or 180 km2) and the sampling type (random, systematic or stratified) and was greatest on 90 km2 plots. However, use of random sampling resulted in lowest error due to sampling within intermediate sized plots. In addition sampling intensity and sampling frequency both influenced the effectiveness of point count sampling. Although our work focuses on individual eagles (not the eagle populations typically surveyed in the field), our analysis shows both the utility of simulations to identify specific influences on error and also potential improvements to sampling that consider the context-specific manner that point counts are laid out on the landscape.

  20. A population study of golden eagles in the Altamont Pass Wind Resource area. Second-year progress report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-07-01

    Since January 1994, the Predatory Bird Research Group, University of California, Santa Cruz, has been conducting a field investigation of the ecology of golden eagles (Aquila chrysaetos) in the vicinity of the Altamont Pass Wind Resource Area (WRA). The 190 km{sup 2} facility lies just east of San Francisco Bay in California and contains about 6,500 wind turbines. Grassland and oak savanna habitats surrounding the WRA support a substantial resident population of golden eagles. Each year, the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service receivers reports from the wind industry of about 30 golden eagle casualties occurring at the WRA, and it is probable that many more carcasses go unnoticed. Over 90 percent of the casualties are attributed to collisions with wind turbines. The main purpose of this study is to estimate the effect of turbine-related mortality on the golden eagle population of the area. Assessing the impact of the WRA kills on the population requires quantification of both survival and reproduction. To estimate survival rates of both territorial and non-territorial golden eagles, we tagged 179 individuals with radio-telemetry transmitters expected to function for about four years and equipped with mortality sensors. Population segments represented in the tagged sample include 79 juveniles, 45 subadults, 17n floaters (non-territorial adults), and 38 breeders. Effective sample sizes in the older segments increase as younger eagles mature or become territorial. Since the beginning of the study, we have conducted weekly roll-call surveys by airplane to locate the tagged eagles in relation to the WRA and to monitor their survival. The surveyed area extends from the Oakland Hills southeast through the Diablo Mountain Range to San Luis Reservoir about 75 km southeast of the WRA. The surveys show that breeding eagles rarely enter the WRA while the non-territorial eagles tend to move about freely throughout the study area and often visit the WRA.

  1. The design and function of birds' nests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mainwaring, Mark C; Hartley, Ian R; Lambrechts, Marcel M; Deeming, D Charles

    2014-10-01

    All birds construct nests in which to lay eggs and/or raise offspring. Traditionally, it was thought that natural selection and the requirement to minimize the risk of predation determined the design of completed nests. However, it is becoming increasingly apparent that sexual selection also influences nest design. This is an important development as while species such as bowerbirds build structures that are extended phenotypic signals whose sole purpose is to attract a mate, nests contain eggs and/or offspring, thereby suggesting a direct trade-off between the conflicting requirements of natural and sexual selection. Nest design also varies adaptively in order to both minimize the detrimental effects of parasites and to create a suitable microclimate for parents and developing offspring in relation to predictable variation in environmental conditions. Our understanding of the design and function of birds' nests has increased considerably in recent years, and the evidence suggests that nests have four nonmutually exclusive functions. Consequently, we conclude that the design of birds' nests is far more sophisticated than previously realized and that nests are multifunctional structures that have important fitness consequences for the builder/s.

  2. The design and function of birds' nests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mainwaring, Mark C; Hartley, Ian R; Lambrechts, Marcel M; Deeming, D Charles

    2014-01-01

    All birds construct nests in which to lay eggs and/or raise offspring. Traditionally, it was thought that natural selection and the requirement to minimize the risk of predation determined the design of completed nests. However, it is becoming increasingly apparent that sexual selection also influences nest design. This is an important development as while species such as bowerbirds build structures that are extended phenotypic signals whose sole purpose is to attract a mate, nests contain eggs and/or offspring, thereby suggesting a direct trade-off between the conflicting requirements of natural and sexual selection. Nest design also varies adaptively in order to both minimize the detrimental effects of parasites and to create a suitable microclimate for parents and developing offspring in relation to predictable variation in environmental conditions. Our understanding of the design and function of birds' nests has increased considerably in recent years, and the evidence suggests that nests have four nonmutually exclusive functions. Consequently, we conclude that the design of birds' nests is far more sophisticated than previously realized and that nests are multifunctional structures that have important fitness consequences for the builder/s. PMID:25505520

  3. Energy Intensity and Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Oil Production in the Eagle Ford Shale

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yeh, Sonia; Ghandi, Abbas; Scanlon, Bridget R.; Brandt, Adam R.; Cai, Hao; Wang, Michael Q.; Vafi, Kourosh; Reedy, Robert C.

    2017-01-30

    A rapid increase in horizontal drilling and hydraulic fracturing in shale and “tight” formations that began around 2000 has resulted in record increases in oil and natural gas production in the U.S. This study examines energy consumption and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from crude oil and natural gas produced from ~8,200 wells in the Eagle Ford Shale in southern Texas from 2009 to 2013. Our system boundary includes processes from primary exploration wells to the refinery entrance gate (henceforth well-to-refinery or WTR). The Eagle Ford includes four distinct production zones—black oil (BO), volatile oil (VO), condensate (C), and dry gas (G) zones—with average monthly gas-to-liquids ratios (thousand cubic feet per barrel—Mcf/bbl) varying from 0.91 in the BO zone to 13.9 in the G zone. Total energy consumed in drilling, extracting, processing, and operating an Eagle Ford well is ~1.5% of the energy content of the produced crude and gas in the BO and VO zones, compared with 2.2% in the C and G zones. On average, the WTR GHG emissions of gasoline, diesel, and jet fuel derived from crude oil produced in the BO and VO zones in the Eagle Ford play are 4.3, 5.0, and 5.1 gCO2e/MJ, respectively. Comparing with other known conventional and unconventional crude production where upstream GHG emissions are in the range 5.9–30 gCO2e/MJ, oil production in the Eagle Ford has lower WTR GHG emissions.

  4. Solving Man-Induced Large-Scale Conservation Problems: The Spanish Imperial Eagle and Power Lines

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-López, Pascual; Ferrer, Miguel; Madero, Agustín; Casado, Eva; McGrady, Michael

    2011-01-01

    Background Man-induced mortality of birds caused by electrocution with poorly-designed pylons and power lines has been reported to be an important mortality factor that could become a major cause of population decline of one of the world rarest raptors, the Spanish imperial eagle (Aquila adalberti). Consequently it has resulted in an increasing awareness of this problem amongst land managers and the public at large, as well as increased research into the distribution of electrocution events and likely mitigation measures. Methodology/Principal Findings We provide information of how mitigation measures implemented on a regional level under the conservation program of the Spanish imperial eagle have resulted in a positive shift of demographic trends in Spain. A 35 years temporal data set (1974–2009) on mortality of Spanish imperial eagle was recorded, including population censuses, and data on electrocution and non-electrocution of birds. Additional information was obtained from 32 radio-tracked young eagles and specific field surveys. Data were divided into two periods, before and after the approval of a regional regulation of power line design in 1990 which established mandatory rules aimed at minimizing or eliminating the negative impacts of power lines facilities on avian populations. Our results show how population size and the average annual percentage of population change have increased between the two periods, whereas the number of electrocuted birds has been reduced in spite of the continuous growing of the wiring network. Conclusions Our results demonstrate that solving bird electrocution is an affordable problem if political interest is shown and financial investment is made. The combination of an adequate spatial planning with a sustainable development of human infrastructures will contribute positively to the conservation of the Spanish imperial eagle and may underpin population growth and range expansion, with positive side effects on other endangered

  5. Modelling the impact of toxic and disturbance stress on white-tailed eagle (Haliaeetus albicilla) populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korsman, John C; Schipper, Aafke M; Lenders, H J Rob; Foppen, Ruud P B; Hendriks, A Jan

    2012-01-01

    Several studies have related breeding success and survival of sea eagles to toxic or non-toxic stress separately. In the present investigation, we analysed single and combined impacts of both toxic and disturbance stress on populations of white-tailed eagle (Haliaeetus albicilla), using an analytical single-species model. Chemical and eco(toxico)logical data reported from laboratory and field studies were used to parameterise and validate the model. The model was applied to assess the impact of ∑PCB, DDE and disturbance stress on the white-tailed eagle population in The Netherlands. Disturbance stress was incorporated through a 1.6% reduction in survival and a 10-50% reduction in reproduction. ∑PCB contamination from 1950 up to 1987 was found to be too high to allow the return of white-tailed eagle as a breeding species in that period. ∑PCB and population trends simulated for 2006-2050 suggest that future population growth is still reduced. Disturbance stress resulted in a reduced population development. The combination of both toxic and disturbance stress varied from a slower population development to a catastrophical reduction in population size, where the main cause was attributed to the reduction in reproduction of 50%. Application of the model was restricted by the current lack of quantitative dose-response relationships between non-toxic stress and survival and reproduction. Nevertheless, the model provides a first step towards integrating and quantifying the impacts of multiple stressors on white-tailed eagle populations.

  6. Nested trampoline resonators for optomechanics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weaver, M. J., E-mail: mweaver@physics.ucsb.edu; Pepper, B.; Luna, F.; Perock, B. [Department of Physics, University of California, Santa Barbara, California 93106 (United States); Buters, F. M.; Eerkens, H. J.; Welker, G.; Heeck, K.; Man, S. de [Huygens-Kamerlingh Onnes Laboratorium, Universiteit Leiden, 2333 CA Leiden (Netherlands); Bouwmeester, D. [Department of Physics, University of California, Santa Barbara, California 93106 (United States); Huygens-Kamerlingh Onnes Laboratorium, Universiteit Leiden, 2333 CA Leiden (Netherlands)

    2016-01-18

    Two major challenges in the development of optomechanical devices are achieving a low mechanical and optical loss rate and vibration isolation from the environment. We address both issues by fabricating trampoline resonators made from low pressure chemical vapor deposition Si{sub 3}N{sub 4} with a distributed Bragg reflector mirror. We design a nested double resonator structure with 80 dB of mechanical isolation from the mounting surface at the inner resonator frequency, and we demonstrate up to 45 dB of isolation at lower frequencies in agreement with the design. We reliably fabricate devices with mechanical quality factors of around 400 000 at room temperature. In addition, these devices were used to form optical cavities with finesse up to 181 000 ± 1000. These promising parameters will enable experiments in the quantum regime with macroscopic mechanical resonators.

  7. Nested trampoline resonators for optomechanics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weaver, M. J.; Pepper, B.; Luna, F.; Perock, B.; Buters, F. M.; Eerkens, H. J.; Welker, G.; Heeck, K.; Man, S. de; Bouwmeester, D.

    2016-01-01

    Two major challenges in the development of optomechanical devices are achieving a low mechanical and optical loss rate and vibration isolation from the environment. We address both issues by fabricating trampoline resonators made from low pressure chemical vapor deposition Si 3 N 4 with a distributed Bragg reflector mirror. We design a nested double resonator structure with 80 dB of mechanical isolation from the mounting surface at the inner resonator frequency, and we demonstrate up to 45 dB of isolation at lower frequencies in agreement with the design. We reliably fabricate devices with mechanical quality factors of around 400 000 at room temperature. In addition, these devices were used to form optical cavities with finesse up to 181 000 ± 1000. These promising parameters will enable experiments in the quantum regime with macroscopic mechanical resonators

  8. Nested trampoline resonators for optomechanics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weaver, M. J.; Pepper, B.; Luna, F.; Buters, F. M.; Eerkens, H. J.; Welker, G.; Perock, B.; Heeck, K.; de Man, S.; Bouwmeester, D.

    2016-01-01

    Two major challenges in the development of optomechanical devices are achieving a low mechanical and optical loss rate and vibration isolation from the environment. We address both issues by fabricating trampoline resonators made from low pressure chemical vapor deposition Si3N4 with a distributed Bragg reflector mirror. We design a nested double resonator structure with 80 dB of mechanical isolation from the mounting surface at the inner resonator frequency, and we demonstrate up to 45 dB of isolation at lower frequencies in agreement with the design. We reliably fabricate devices with mechanical quality factors of around 400 000 at room temperature. In addition, these devices were used to form optical cavities with finesse up to 181 000 ± 1000. These promising parameters will enable experiments in the quantum regime with macroscopic mechanical resonators.

  9. Sensitivity of Coastal Environments and Wildlife to Spilled Oil: New Hampshire: NESTS (Nest Points)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for nesting birds in New Hampshire. Vector points in this data set represent locations of nesting osprey...

  10. Livestock grazing and trampling of birds' nests: An experiment using artificial nests

    OpenAIRE

    Mandema, Freek S.; Tinbergen, Joost M.; Ens, Bruno J.; Bakker, Jan P.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to experimentally determine the differences between four grazing treatments on the trampling of nests. Additionally, we examine to what extent the trampling probability of nests is higher close to a source of fresh water. We compare the trampling of artificial nests in five different grazing treatments in an experimental design. We use buried clay pigeon targets as artificial mimics of bird nests to obtain reliable estimates of trampling risk and compare these wit...

  11. Biomechanical testing of materials in avian nests provides insight into nest construction behaviour

    OpenAIRE

    Biddle, Lucia E.; Deeming, D. Charles; Goodman, Adrian M.

    2015-01-01

    Animals that use materials to build nest structures have long since fascinated biologists and engineers alike. Avian nests are generally composed of collected materials brought together into a cup-like structure in which the bird sits to incubate eggs and, in many cases, it is where chicks are reared. Hence, the materials in a nest can be presumed to be loaded in compression, but relatively few studies have investigated the mechanical role of the nest elements and their position w...

  12. Spawning chronology, nest site selection and nest success of smallmouth bass during benign streamflow conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dauwalter, D.C.; Fisher, W.L.

    2007-01-01

    We documented the nesting chronology, nest site selection and nest success of smallmouth bass Micropterus dolomieu in an upstream (4th order) and downstream (5th order) reach of Baron Fork Creek, Oklahoma. Males started nesting in mid-Apr. when water temperatures increased to 16.9 C upstream, and in late-Apr. when temperatures increased to 16.2 C downstream. Streamflows were low (77% upstream to 82% downstream of mean Apr. streamflow, and 12 and 18% of meanjun. streamflow; 47 and 55 y of record), and decreased throughout the spawning period. Larger males nested first upstream, as has been observed in other populations, but not downstream. Upstream, progeny in 62 of 153 nests developed to swim-up stage. Downstream, progeny in 31 of 73 nests developed to swim-up. Nesting densities upstream (147/km) and downstream (100/km) were both higher than any densities previously reported. Males selected nest sites with intermediate water depths, low water velocity and near cover, behavior that is typical of smallmouth bass. Documented nest failures resulted from human disturbance, angling, and longear sunfish predation. Logistic exposure models showed that water velocity at the nest was negatively related and length of the guarding male was positively related to nest success upstream. Male length and number of degree days were both positively related to nest success downstream. Our results, and those of other studies, suggest that biological factors account for most nest failures during benign (stable, low flow) streamflow conditions, whereas nest failures attributed to substrate mobility or nest abandonment dominate when harsh streamflow conditions (spring floods) coincide with the spawning season.

  13. Landscape forest cover and edge effects on songbird nest predation vary by nest predator

    Science.gov (United States)

    W. Andrew Cox; Frank R. III Thompson; John. Faaborg

    2012-01-01

    Rates of nest predation for birds vary between and within species across multiple spatial scales, but we have a poor understanding of which predators drive such patterns. We video-monitored nests and identified predators at 120 nests of the Acadian Flycatcher (Empidonax virescens) and the Indigo Bunting (Passerina cyanea) at eight...

  14. Development with age of nest box use and gregarious nesting in laying hens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Riber, Anja Brinch

    2010-01-01

    in position (left + corner, middle, and right). Nesting behaviour was video recorded for 5 days in each of five distinct periods: age 20, 26, 32, 38, and 44 weeks. The total number of visits and the number of gregarious visits were higher in the left nest box than in the other two nest boxes at all ages...

  15. Livestock grazing and trampling of birds' nests : An experiment using artificial nests

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mandema, Freek S.; Tinbergen, Joost M.; Ens, Bruno J.; Bakker, Jan P.

    The purpose of this study is to experimentally determine the differences between four grazing treatments on the trampling of nests. Additionally, we examine to what extent the trampling probability of nests is higher close to a source of fresh water. We compare the trampling of artificial nests in

  16. Nest predators of open and cavity nesting birds in oak woodlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kathryn L. Purcell; Jared Verner

    1999-01-01

    Camera setups revealed at least three species of rodents and seven species of birds as potential predators at artificial open nests. Surprisingly, among avian predators identified at open nests, one third were Bullock's Orioles (Icterus bullockii). Two rodent species and three bird species were potential predators at artificial cavity nests. This high predator...

  17. Male Pattern Baldness in Relation to Prostate Cancer-Specific Mortality: A Prospective Analysis in the NHANES I Epidemiologic Follow-up Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Cindy Ke; Levine, Paul H; Cleary, Sean D; Hoffman, Heather J; Graubard, Barry I; Cook, Michael B

    2016-02-01

    We used male pattern baldness as a proxy for long-term androgen exposure and investigated the association of dermatologist-assessed hair loss with prostate cancer-specific mortality in the first National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey Epidemiologic Follow-up Study. From the baseline survey (1971-1974), we included 4,316 men who were 25-74 years of age and had no prior cancer diagnosis. We estimated hazard ratios and used Cox proportional hazards regressions with age as the time metric and baseline hazard stratified by baseline age. A hybrid framework was used to account for stratification and clustering of the sample design, with adjustment for the variables used to calculate sample weights. During follow-up (median, 21 years), 3,284 deaths occurred; prostate cancer was the underlying cause of 107. In multivariable models, compared with no balding, any baldness was associated with a 56% higher risk of fatal prostate cancer (hazard ratio = 1.56; 95% confidence interval: 1.02, 2.37), and moderate balding specifically was associated with an 83% higher risk (hazard ratio = 1.83; 95% confidence interval: 1.15, 2.92). Conversely, patterned hair loss was not statistically significantly associated with all-cause mortality. Our analysis suggests that patterned hair loss is associated with a higher risk of fatal prostate cancer and supports the hypothesis of overlapping pathophysiological mechanisms. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health 2016. This work is written by (a) US Government employee(s) and is in the public domain in the US.

  18. The First Record of Case of the Imperial Eagle and the Steppe Eagle Successful Breeding in the Mixed Pair in Western Kazakhstan and Records of Probable Hybrids of These Species in Russia and Kazakhstan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igor V. Karyakin

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Facts mentioned in paper give evidence of the possibility of forming the mixed pairs between Steppe and Imperial Eagles, breeding success and fertility of hybrids. All the observed mixed pairs were found in the contact zone of the two species on the periphery of the Steppe Eagle breeding range under conditions of either decrease in numbers of one species (Steppe Eagle and the growth of another (in Western Kazakhstan, or decline in numbers of both species and the lack of birds of their own species (in Dauria. Considering the fact that the number of Steppe Eagles continues to decline, the hybridization process may amplify and this phenomenon requires a more thorough examination.

  19. Nested Sampling with Constrained Hamiltonian Monte Carlo

    OpenAIRE

    Betancourt, M. J.

    2010-01-01

    Nested sampling is a powerful approach to Bayesian inference ultimately limited by the computationally demanding task of sampling from a heavily constrained probability distribution. An effective algorithm in its own right, Hamiltonian Monte Carlo is readily adapted to efficiently sample from any smooth, constrained distribution. Utilizing this constrained Hamiltonian Monte Carlo, I introduce a general implementation of the nested sampling algorithm.

  20. Low heritability of nest construction in a wild bird.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Järvinen, Pauliina; Kluen, Edward; Brommer, Jon E

    2017-10-01

    In birds and other taxa, nest construction varies considerably between and within populations. Such variation is hypothesized to have an adaptive (i.e. genetic) basis, but estimates of heritability in nest construction are largely lacking. Here, we demonstrate with data collected over 10 years from 1010 nests built by blue tits in nest-boxes that nest size (height of nest material) and nest composition (proportion of feathers in the nest) are repeatable but only weakly (12-13%) heritable female traits. These findings imply that nest construction may evolve but only if subjected to strong and consistent selection pressures. © 2017 The Author(s).

  1. Strength and Deformability of Light-toned Layered Deposits Observed by MER Opportunity: Eagle to Erebus Craters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okubo, C. H.; Schultz, R. A.; Nahm, A. L.

    2007-07-01

    The strength and deformability of light-toned layered deposits are estimated based on measurements of porosity from Microscopic Imager data acquired by MER Opportunity during its traverse from Eagle Crater to Erebus Crater.

  2. Methane and benzene in drinking-water wells overlying the Eagle Ford, Fayetteville, and Haynesville Shale hydrocarbon production areas

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of the Interior — Groundwater samples were collected from domestic and public-supply wells in the Eagle Ford study area in 2015–16, in the Fayetteville study area in 2015, and in the...

  3. Probability of Unmixed Young Groundwater (defined using chlorofluorocarbon-11 concentrations and tritium activities) in the Eagle River Watershed Valley-Fill Aquifer, Eagle County, North-Central Colorado, 2006-2007

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rupert, Michael G.; Plummer, Niel

    2009-01-01

    This raster data set delineates the predicted probability of unmixed young groundwater (defined using chlorofluorocarbon-11 concentrations and tritium activities) in groundwater in the Eagle River watershed valley-fill aquifer, Eagle County, North-Central Colorado, 2006-2007. This data set was developed by a cooperative project between the U.S. Geological Survey, Eagle County, the Eagle River Water and Sanitation District, the Town of Eagle, the Town of Gypsum, and the Upper Eagle Regional Water Authority. This project was designed to evaluate potential land-development effects on groundwater and surface-water resources so that informed land-use and water management decisions can be made. This groundwater probability map and its associated probability maps were developed as follows: (1) A point data set of wells with groundwater quality and groundwater age data was overlaid with thematic layers of anthropogenic (related to human activities) and hydrogeologic data by using a geographic information system to assign each well values for depth to groundwater, distance to major streams and canals, distance to gypsum beds, precipitation, soils, and well depth. These data then were downloaded to a statistical software package for analysis by logistic regression. (2) Statistical models predicting the probability of elevated nitrate concentrations, the probability of unmixed young water (using chlorofluorocarbon-11 concentrations and tritium activities), and the probability of elevated volatile organic compound concentrations were developed using logistic regression techniques. (3) The statistical models were entered into a GIS and the probability map was constructed.

  4. Observations of sea turtles nesting on Misali islan, Pemba | Pharoah ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A nest-recording programme has collected data over five years from turtles nesting on Misali Island, off the West coast of Pemba, Tanzania. Five species of sea turtle are known to occur in Zanzibar waters, two of these species nested regularly on the island, with green turtle nests outnumbering hawksbill turtle nests by a ...

  5. Nesting success and within-season breeding dispersal in the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nest predation is a primary cause of nesting mortality for many bird species, particularly passerines. Nest location can affect predation, and it has also been demonstrated that predation risk can alter nest site selection. Birds can limit predation risk by selecting specific habitat characteristics; by changing nest site ...

  6. Turkey habitat use and nesting characteristics in ponderosa pine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mark A. Rumble; Stanley H. Anderson

    1987-01-01

    Turkeys (Meleagris gallapovo) selected nest sites that provided good horizontal concealment. Rock or rock outcrops were selected most frequently for nest concealment on first-nest attempts. Renest attempts showed a selection preference for shrubs as nest cover; most of these were located in meadows. Nesting success doubled for renests versus first...

  7. 78 FR 25758 - Migratory Birds; Eagle Conservation Plan Guidance: Module 1-Land-Based Wind Energy, Version 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-02

    ...-FXMB123209EAGL0L2] RIN 1018-AX53 Migratory Birds; Eagle Conservation Plan Guidance: Module 1-- Land-Based Wind... Migratory Bird Management, U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, 4401 North Fairfax Drive, Arlington, Virginia... Act (BGEPA) (16 U.S.C. 668-668c), the Migratory Bird Treaty Act (MBTA) (16 U.S.C. 703-12), and the...

  8. Geochemical and mineralogical characterization of the Eagle Ford Shale: Results from the USGS Gulf Coast #1 West Woodway core

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birdwell, Justin E.; Boehlke, Adam; Paxton, Stanley T.; Whidden, Katherine J.; Pearson, Ofori N.

    2017-01-01

    The Eagle Ford shale is a major continuous oil and gas resource play in southcentral Texas and a source for other oil accumulations in the East Texas Basin. As part of the U.S. Geological Survey’s (USGS) petroleum system assessment and research efforts, a coring program to obtain several immature, shallow cores from near the outcrop belt in central Texas has been undertaken. The first of these cores, USGS Gulf Coast #1 West Woodway, was collected near Waco, Texas, in September 2015 and has undergone extensive geochemical and mineralogical characterization using routine methods to ascertain variations in the lithologies and chemofacies present in the Eagle Ford at this locale. Approximately 270 ft of core was examined for this study, focusing on the Eagle Ford Group interval between the overlying Austin Chalk and underlying Buda Limestone (~20 ft of each). Based on previous work to identify the stratigraphy of the Eagle Ford Group in the Waco area and elsewhere (Liro et al., 1994; Robison, 1997; Ratcliffe et al., 2012; Boling and Dworkin, 2015; Fairbanks et al., 2016, and references therein), several lithological units were expected to be present, including the Pepper Shale (or Woodbine), the Lake Waco Formation (or Lower Eagle Ford, including the Bluebonnet, Cloice, and Bouldin or Flaggy Cloice members), and the South Bosque Member (Upper Eagle Ford). The results presented here indicate that there are three major chemofacies present in the cored interval, which are generally consistent with previous descriptions of the Eagle Ford Group in this area. The relatively high-resolution sampling (every two ft above the Buda, 432.8 ft depth, and below the Austin Chalk, 163.5 ft depth) provides great detail in terms of geochemical and mineralogical properties supplementing previous work on immature Eagle Ford Shale near the outcrop belt.

  9. Nest structure and communal nesting in Euglossa (Glossura annectans Dressler (Hymenoptera, Apidae, Euglossini

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Alberto Garófalo

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available Three nests of Euglossa (Glossura annectans Dressier, 1982 were obtained from trap nests at Serra do Japi, Jundiai, São Paulo State, Brazil. The bees nested in bamboo cane (one nest and in wooden-boxes (two nests. Solitary (two cases and pleometrotic (one case foundations were observed. Two nests were re-used once by two females working in each of them. Re-using females that shared the nests were of the same generation and each built, provisioned and oviposited in her own cells, characterizing a communal association. The brood development period was related to climatic conditions. Natural enemies included Anthrax oedipus oedipus Fabricius, 1805 (Bombyliidae, Coelioxys sp. (Megachilidae and Melittobia sp. (Eulophidae.

  10. Flight Paths of Migrating Golden Eagles and the Risk Associated with Wind Energy Development in the Rocky Mountains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naira N. Johnston

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, the eastern foothills of the Rocky Mountains in northeastern British Columbia have received interest as a site of industrial wind energy development but, simultaneously, have been the subject of concern about wind development coinciding with a known migratory corridor of Golden Eagles (Aquila chrysaetos. We tracked and quantified eagle flights that crossed or followed ridgelines slated for one such wind development. We found that hourly passage rates during fall migration peaked at midday and increased by 17% with each 1 km/h increase in wind speed and by 11% with each 1°C increase in temperature. The propensity to cross the ridge tops where turbines would be situated differed between age classes, with juvenile eagles almost twice as likely to traverse the ridge-top area as adults or subadults. During fall migration, Golden Eagles were more likely to cross ridges at turbine heights (risk zone, < 150 m above ground under headwinds or tailwinds, but this likelihood decreased with increasing temperature. Conversely, during spring migration, eagles were more likely to move within the ridge-top area under eastern crosswinds. Identifying Golden Eagle flight routes and altitudes with respect to major weather systems and local topography in the Rockies may help identify scenarios in which the potential for collisions is greatest at this and other installations.

  11. Estimation of occupancy, breeding success, and predicted abundance of golden eagles (Aquila chrysaetos) in the Diablo Range, California, 2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiens, J. David; Kolar, Patrick S.; Fuller, Mark R.; Hunt, W. Grainger; Hunt, Teresa

    2015-01-01

    We used a multistate occupancy sampling design to estimate occupancy, breeding success, and abundance of territorial pairs of golden eagles (Aquila chrysaetos) in the Diablo Range, California, in 2014. This method uses the spatial pattern of detections and non-detections over repeated visits to survey sites to estimate probabilities of occupancy and successful reproduction while accounting for imperfect detection of golden eagles and their young during surveys. The estimated probability of detecting territorial pairs of golden eagles and their young was less than 1 and varied with time of the breeding season, as did the probability of correctly classifying a pair’s breeding status. Imperfect detection and breeding classification led to a sizeable difference between the uncorrected, naïve estimate of the proportion of occupied sites where successful reproduction was observed (0.20) and the model-based estimate (0.30). The analysis further indicated a relatively high overall probability of landscape occupancy by pairs of golden eagles (0.67, standard error = 0.06), but that areas with the greatest occupancy and reproductive potential were patchily distributed. We documented a total of 138 territorial pairs of golden eagles during surveys completed in the 2014 breeding season, which represented about one-half of the 280 pairs we estimated to occur in the broader 5,169-square kilometer region sampled. The study results emphasize the importance of accounting for imperfect detection and spatial heterogeneity in studies of site occupancy, breeding success, and abundance of golden eagles.

  12. Demand for Neste's City products grows strongly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1994-01-01

    Finland's oil, chemicals, and gas company, Neste Corporation, is well on the road to better financial performance after a very difficult year in 1992. Among the factors contributing to this optimism are Neste's pioneering low environmental impact traffic fuels. Neste Corporation's net sales in 1993 rose 9.9 % on 1992 figures to USD 11,011 million. Investments totalled USD 681 million. Profitability also improved during 1993, and the operating margin rose by 57 %, despite the recession affecting the Finnish economy and the instability of the international market. The operational loss for the year before extraordinary items, reserves, and taxes was USD 265 million, one-third less than in 1992. Neste's strategy has been to achieve a strong position in the Baltic Rim region by becoming the quality and cost leader in oil refining, and by expanding Neste's position in its key markets. A total of 3.3 million tonnes of petroleum products were exported from Finland in 1993. Neste's most important export markets were Sweden, Germany, Poland, the Baltic countries, and the St. Petersburg region. Some 20 % of exports went to customers outside Europe. In addition to Finland, Neste has concertedly developed its service station network in Poland and the Baltic countries

  13. Study of hydrodynamic characteristics of a Sharp Eagle wave energy converter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ya-qun; Sheng, Song-wei; You, Ya-ge; Huang, Zhen-xin; Wang, Wen-sheng

    2017-06-01

    According to Newton's Second Law and the microwave theory, mechanical analysis of multiple buoys which form Sharp Eagle wave energy converter (WEC) is carried out. The movements of every buoy in three modes couple each other when they are affected with incident waves. Based on the above, mechanical models of the WEC are established, which are concerned with fluid forces, damping forces, hinge forces, and so on. Hydrodynamic parameters of one buoy are obtained by taking the other moving buoy as boundary conditions. Then, by taking those hydrodynamic parameters into the mechanical models, the optimum external damping and optimal capture width ratio are calculated out. Under the condition of the optimum external damping, a plenty of data are obtained, such as the displacements amplitude of each buoy in three modes (sway, heave, pitch), damping forces, hinge forces, and speed of the hydraulic cylinder. Research results provide theoretical references and basis for Sharp Eagle WECs in the design and manufacture.

  14. Golden Eagle mortality at a utility-scale wind energy facility near Palm Springs, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lovich, Jeffrey E.

    2015-01-01

    Golden Eagle (Aquila chrysaetos) mortality associated with wind energy turbines and infrastructure is under-reported and weakly substantiated in the published literature. I report two cases of mortality at a utility-scale renewable energy facility near Palm Springs, California. The facility has been in operation since 1984 and included 460 65KW turbines mounted on 24.4 m or 42.7 m lattice-style towers with 8 m rotor diameters. One mortality event involved a juvenile eagle that was struck and killed by a spinning turbine blade on 31 August, 1995. The tower was 24.4 m high. The other involved an immature female that was struck by a spinning blade on another 24.4 m tower on 17 April, 1997 and was later euthanized due to the extent of internal injuries. Other raptor mortalities incidentally observed at the site, and likely attributable to turbines, included three Red-tailed Hawks (Buteo jamaicensis) found near turbines.

  15. Possibility of Morphometrical Determining of Sex of Steppe Eagle Nestlings from Western and Eastern Populations?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igor V. Karyakin

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Sexual dimorphism among nestlings of the Steppe Eagle (Aquila nipalensis is poorly manifested. Thus, determining of sex by morphometric methods encountered many difficulties and could be completed only by the most experienced ornithologists who knows the species very well. This article presents a morphometric method for determining sex of nestlings of the Steppe Eagles from different breeding populations that belongs to different size classes. The method is based on classification formula obtained via linear discriminant analysis conducted for the data set of measurements of Steppe Eagle’s nestlings from Central Kazakhstan and Altai Republic in 2017. To control the sex determination of nestlings a molecular-genetics method was used.

  16. Doppler ultrasonography of the pectinis oculi artery in harpy eagles (Harpia harpyja

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wanderlei de Moraes

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Twenty harpy eagles (Harpia harpyja without systemic or ocular diseases were examined to measure blood velocity parameters of the pectinis oculi artery using Doppler ultrasonography. Pectinate artery resistive index (RI and pulsatility index (PI were investigated using ocular Doppler ultrasonography. The mean RI and PI values across all eyes were 0.44±0.10 and 0.62±0.20 respectively. Low RI and PI values found in the harpy eagle´s pectinis oculi artery compared with the American pekin ducks one and other tissue suggest indeed a high metabolic activity in pecten oculi and corroborates the hypothesis of a nutritional function and/or intraocular pressure regulation.

  17. Methods for excluding cliff swallows from nesting on highway structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-08-01

    Cliff swallows (Petrochelidon pyrrhonota) are colonially breeding migratory birds that frequently nest on highway : structures. Protected by the Migratory Bird Treaty Act of 1918, nesting control methods cannot harm swallows or active : nests. This c...

  18. Emperor penguins nesting on Inaccessible Island

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jonkel, G.M.; Llano, G.A.

    1975-01-01

    Emperor penguins were observed nesting on Inaccessible I. during the 1973 winter. This is the southernmost nesting of emperor penguins thus far recorded; it also could be the first record of emperors attempting to start a new rookery. This site, however, may have been used by emperors in the past. The closest reported nesting of these penguins to Inaccessible I. is on the Ross Ice Shelf east of Cape Crozier. With the exception of the Inaccessible I. record, there is little evidence that emperor penguins breed in McMurdo Sound proper.

  19. Biología reproductiva del águila Geranoaetus melanoleucus (Aves: Accipitridae en Chile central Breeding biology of the black-chested eagle Geranoaetus melanoleucus (Aves: Accipitridae in central Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    EDUARDO F. PAVEZ

    2001-09-01

    during a 2-year period (July 1987­January 1989 in San Carlos de Apoquindo, central Chile. The beginning of the reproductive period was evident by the increased number of couple-flights. Courting behavior included synchronized flights, cooperative capture of prey and transport of nest material, as well as copulation. Prey exchanges between adults occurred throughout the year, although outside the breeding season they were uncommon and forced by the female. There were 4.7 nests/couple, a value that is in the upper limit of what has been reported for large eagles. During the non-breeding season, nests were only occasionally visited by the eagles. Before laying, males visited the nest more frequently than females, but for shorter periods of time. Visits to alternative nests carrying prey and nest material were observed in all three couples. The average clutch size was 2.3 eggs (SD = 0.5, n = 6, with both males and females incubating, and hatching success was 100 %. Twenty five days after hatching, flight feathers started to appear in the wings and tail of chicks; after 35 days, chicks started eating by themselves prey items brought to the nest, and after 59 days they left the nest. While tending, females spent more time in the nest than males, although with a tendency of adults to diminish the time spent in the nest over time. Seventy nine percent of the chicks survived, which can be considered a high reproductive success, explained by the high availability of prey in the study site, mainly European rabbits. The chicks remained in the adult's territory for 10 months and gradually started to reduce their presence in the area. This was coincident with the occurrence of the next laying period and an increased adult intolerance. These data concur with the pattern described in the literature for other eagles

  20. Population genetics of the endangered Crowned Solitary Eagle (Buteogallus coronatus) in South America

    OpenAIRE

    Canal, David; Roques, Séverine; Negro, Juan J.; Sarasola, José Hernán

    2017-01-01

    The Crowned Solitary Eagle (Buteogallus coronatus) is one of the rarest and most severely threatened birds of prey in the Neotropical region. We studied levels of neutral genetic diversity, population structure, and the demographic history of the species using 55 contemporary samples covering a large fraction of the species range, which were genotyped at 17 microsatellite loci. Our results indicated genetic homogeneity across the sampled regions, which may be explained by a high dispersal cap...

  1. Sex− and species−biased gene flow in a spotted eagle hybrid zone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Väli Ülo

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Recent theoretical and empirical work points toward a significant role for sex-chromosome linked genes in the evolution of traits that induce reproductive isolation and for traits that evolve under influence of sexual selection. Empirical studies including recently diverged (Pleistocene, short-lived avian species pairs with short generation times have found that introgression occurs on the autosomes but not on the Z-chromosome. Here we study genetic differentiation and gene flow in the long-lived greater spotted eagle (Aquila clanga and lesser spotted eagle (A. pomarina, two species with comparatively long generation times. Results Our data suggest that there is a directional bias in migration rates between hybridizing spotted eagles in eastern Europe. We find that a model including post divergence gene flow fits our data best for both autosomal and Z-chromosome linked loci but, for the Z-chromosome, the rate is reduced in the direction from A. pomarina to A. clanga. Conclusions The fact that some introgression still occurs on the Z-chromosome between these species suggests that the differentiation process is in a more premature phase in our study system than in previously studied avian species pairs and that could be explained by a shorter divergence time and/or a longer average generation time in the spotted eagles. The results are in agreement with field observations and provide further insight into the role of sex-linked loci for the build-up of barriers to gene flow among diverging populations and species.

  2. Genomic resources for the conservation and management of the harpy eagle (Harpia harpyja, Falconiformes, Accipitridae)

    OpenAIRE

    Banhos, Aureo; Hrbek, Tomas; Gravena, Waleska; Sanaiotti, Tânia; Farias, Izeni P.

    2008-01-01

    We report the characterization and optimization of 45 heterologous microsatellite loci, and the development of a new set of molecular sex markers for the conservation and management of the Neotropical harpy eagle (Harpia harpyja L. 1758). Of the 45 microsatellites tested, 24 were polymorphic, six monomorphic, 10 uncharacterizable due to multiple bands and five did not amplify. The observed gene diversity of the analyzed sample of H. harpyja was low and similar to that of other threatened Falc...

  3. The nest as fortress: Defensive behavior of Polybia emaciata, a mud-nesting eusocial wasp

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sean O'Donnell

    2002-02-01

    Full Text Available The swarm-founding wasp Polybia emaciata is unusual among eusocial Vespidae because it uses mud, rather than wood pulp, as its primary nest construction material. Polybia emaciata nests are more durable than similarly sized paper nests. We tested the hypothesis that the defensive behavior of this wasp may have been modified to take advantage of their strong nests in defense against vertebrate attacks. We simulated vertebrate disturbances by tapping on, and breathing in, P. emaciata. nests and similarly sized P. occidentalis paper nests in the same location at the same time. Polybia emaciata. responses to disturbance were qualitatively different from those of P. occidentalis. The latter exit the nest and attack, while P. emaciata. workers typically fled or entered the nest, attacking only after repeated and extended disturbances. We conclude that durable nest material may permit predator avoidance behavior in P. emaciata.. We compare the defensive responses of P. emaciata. workers with those of other swarm-founding Vespidae, and discuss several selective forces that could cause the evolution of species variation in nest defense behavior.

  4. Construction patterns of birds’ nests provide insight into nest-building behaviours

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucia Biddle

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Previous studies have suggested that birds and mammals select materials needed for nest building based on their thermal or structural properties, although the amounts or properties of the materials used have been recorded for only a very small number of species. Some of the behaviours underlying the construction of nests can be indirectly determined by careful deconstruction of the structure and measurement of the biomechanical properties of the materials used. Here we examined this idea in an investigation of Bullfinch (Pyrrhula pyrrhula nests as a model for open-nesting songbird species that construct a “twig” nest, and tested the hypothesis that materials in different parts of nests serve different functions. The quantities of materials present in the nest base, sides and cup were recorded before structural analysis. Structural analysis showed that the base of the outer nests were composed of significantly thicker, stronger and more rigid materials compared to the side walls, which in turn were significantly thicker, stronger and more rigid than materials used in the cup. These results suggest that the placement of particular materials in nests may not be random, but further work is required to determine if the final structure of a nest accurately reflects the construction process.

  5. Construction patterns of birds’ nests provide insight into nest-building behaviours

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodman, Adrian M.

    2017-01-01

    Previous studies have suggested that birds and mammals select materials needed for nest building based on their thermal or structural properties, although the amounts or properties of the materials used have been recorded for only a very small number of species. Some of the behaviours underlying the construction of nests can be indirectly determined by careful deconstruction of the structure and measurement of the biomechanical properties of the materials used. Here we examined this idea in an investigation of Bullfinch (Pyrrhula pyrrhula) nests as a model for open-nesting songbird species that construct a “twig” nest, and tested the hypothesis that materials in different parts of nests serve different functions. The quantities of materials present in the nest base, sides and cup were recorded before structural analysis. Structural analysis showed that the base of the outer nests were composed of significantly thicker, stronger and more rigid materials compared to the side walls, which in turn were significantly thicker, stronger and more rigid than materials used in the cup. These results suggest that the placement of particular materials in nests may not be random, but further work is required to determine if the final structure of a nest accurately reflects the construction process. PMID:28265501

  6. Construction patterns of birds' nests provide insight into nest-building behaviours.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biddle, Lucia; Goodman, Adrian M; Deeming, D Charles

    2017-01-01

    Previous studies have suggested that birds and mammals select materials needed for nest building based on their thermal or structural properties, although the amounts or properties of the materials used have been recorded for only a very small number of species. Some of the behaviours underlying the construction of nests can be indirectly determined by careful deconstruction of the structure and measurement of the biomechanical properties of the materials used. Here we examined this idea in an investigation of Bullfinch ( Pyrrhula pyrrhula ) nests as a model for open-nesting songbird species that construct a "twig" nest, and tested the hypothesis that materials in different parts of nests serve different functions. The quantities of materials present in the nest base, sides and cup were recorded before structural analysis. Structural analysis showed that the base of the outer nests were composed of significantly thicker, stronger and more rigid materials compared to the side walls, which in turn were significantly thicker, stronger and more rigid than materials used in the cup. These results suggest that the placement of particular materials in nests may not be random, but further work is required to determine if the final structure of a nest accurately reflects the construction process.

  7. Eagle's syndrome-A non-perceived differential diagnosis of temporomandibular disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thoenissen, P; Bittermann, G; Schmelzeisen, R; Oshima, T; Fretwurst, T

    2015-01-01

    This article unveils a case of the classic styloid syndrome and states that panoramic imaging and ultrasound can be an alternative to computed tomography. In addition, the endoscope-assisted extraoral approach using CT-based navigation is useful. Eagle's Syndrome is an aggregate of symptoms described by Eagle in 1937. He described different forms: the classic styloid syndrome consisting of elongation of the styloid process which causes pain. Second, the stylo-carotid-artery syndrome which is responsible for transient ischemic attack or stroke. Using the example of a 66 years old male patient suffering from long term pain, we explain our diagnostic and surgical approach. After dissecting the styloid process of the right side using an extraoral approach, the pain ceased and the patient could be discharged without any recurrence of the pain up to this point. Eagle's syndrome, with its similar symptoms, is rather difficult to differentiate from temporomandibular joint disorders (TMD), but can be easily excluded from possible differential diagnoses of TMD using panoramic radiographs and ultrasound. Making use of low cost and easily accessible diagnostic workup techniques can reveal this particular cause for chronic pain restricting quality of life. Thereby differentiation from the TMD symptomatic complex is possible. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  8. Revamping EAGLE-I and experiences during Hurricanes Harvey and Irma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanyal, J.; Chinthavali, S.; Myers, A.; Newby, S.; Redmon, D.

    2017-12-01

    EAGLE-I, the Environment for Analysis of Geo-Located Energy Information) is an operational system for the U.S. Department of Energy's Office of Electricity Delivery and Energy Reliability (OE), Infrastructure Security and Energy Restoration (ISER) division to provide near real-time situational awareness of the nation's energy sector. The system geospatially maps energy assets and systems in electricity, oil and natural gas, petroleum, and coal, and tie together a variety of data sources into one visualization platform. The system serves the needs of the ESF#12 (Emergency Support Function - Energy) community and has users from FEMA, USDA, DHS, and other federal and state emergency response agencies. During the hurricane season, the EAGLE-I team improved the coverage of electric customers in areas where the hurricanes were expected to make landfall, provided custom reports for Puerto Rico using whatever data was available, and supported various requests for data during the events. Various attempts were also made to establish a direct contact with utilities. Acute shortage of information was felt as utility systems went down, particularly in the territories, which led to considerations of using indirect mechanisms such as processing night lights imagery. As the EAGLE-I system undergoes a significant modernization, these experiences have helped understand and guide priorities in the modernization.

  9. Ileo-ceco-rectal Intussusception Requiring Intestinal Resection and Anastomosis in a Tawny Eagle (Aquila rapax).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabater, Mikel; Huynh, Minh; Forbes, Neil

    2015-03-01

    A 23-year-old male tawny eagle (Aquila rapax) was examined because of sudden onset of lethargy, regurgitation, and hematochezia. An intestinal obstruction was suspected based on radiographic findings, and an ileo-ceco-rectal intussusception was confirmed by coelioscopy. A 14.3-cm section of intestine was resected before an intestinal anastomosis was done. Coelomic endoscopic examination confirmed a postsurgical complication of adhesions between the intestinal anastomosis and the dorsal coelomic wall, resulting in a partial luminal stricture and requiring surgical removal of the adhesions. Rectoscopy was useful in diagnosing a mild luminal stricture related to the second surgery. Complete recovery was observed 2 months after surgery. Lack of further complications in the 2 years after surgery demonstrates good tolerance of intestinal resection and anastomosis of a large segment of bowel in an eagle. This report is the first reported case of intussusception in an eagle and emphasizes the potential use of endoscopic examination in the diagnosis as well as in the management of complications.

  10. Evidence for Neandertal jewelry: modified white-tailed eagle claws at Krapina.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davorka Radovčić

    Full Text Available We describe eight, mostly complete white-tailed eagle (Haliaëtus [Haliaeetus] albicilla talons from the Krapina Neandertal site in present-day Croatia, dating to approximately 130 kyrs ago. Four talons bear multiple, edge-smoothed cut marks; eight show polishing facets and/or abrasion. Three of the largest talons have small notches at roughly the same place along the plantar surface, interrupting the proximal margin of the talon blade. These features suggest they were part of a jewelry assemblage, --- the manipulations a consequence of mounting the talons in a necklace or bracelet. An associated phalanx articulates with one of the talons and has numerous cut marks, some of which are smoothed. These white-tailed eagle bones, discovered more than 100 years ago, all derive from a single level at Krapina and represent more talons than found in the entire European Mousterian period. Presence of eight talons indicates that the Krapina Neandertals acquired and curated eagle talons for some kind of symbolic purpose. Some have argued that Neandertals lacked symbolic ability or copied this behavior from modern humans. These remains clearly show that the Krapina Neandertals made jewelry well before the appearance of modern humans in Europe, extending ornament production and symbolic activity early into the European Mousterian.

  11. Geochemistry of Eagle Ford group source rocks and oils from the first shot field area, Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edman, Janell D.; Pitman, Janet K.; Hammes, Ursula

    2010-01-01

    Total organic carbon, Rock-Eval pyrolysis, and vitrinite reflectance analyses performed on Eagle Ford Group core and cuttings samples from the First Shot field area, Texas demonstrate these samples have sufficient quantity, quality, and maturity of organic matter to have generated oil. Furthermore, gas chromatography and biomarker analyses performed on Eagle Ford Group oils and source rock extracts as well as weight percent sulfur analyses on the oils indicate the source rock facies for most of the oils are fairly similar. Specifically, these source rock facies vary in lithology from shales to marls, contain elevated levels of sulfur, and were deposited in a marine environment under anoxic conditions. It is these First Shot Eagle Ford source facies that have generated the oils in the First Shot Field. However, in contrast to the generally similar source rock facies and organic matter, maturity varies from early oil window to late oil window in the study area, and these maturity variations have a pronounced effect on both the source rock and oil characteristics. Finally, most of the oils appear to have been generated locally and have not experienced long distance migration. 

  12. Nest Construction by a Ground-nesting Bird Represents a Potential Trade-off Between Egg Crypticity and Thermoregulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Predation selects against conspicuous colors in bird eggs and nests, while thermoregulatory constraints select for nest building behavior that regulates incubation temperatures. We present results that reveal a trade-off between nest crypticity and thermoregulation of eggs base...

  13. Annual survival of Florida nesting loggerheads

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — 30 PAT tags were deployed on nesting loggerhead turtles at Juno Beach, FL in June 2012. There have been three premature pop-offs, one of which appeared to be a...

  14. Adult Health: Worried About Empty Nest Syndrome?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... clinical diagnosis. Instead, empty nest syndrome is a phenomenon in which parents experience feelings of sadness and loss when the last child leaves home. Although you might actively encourage your ...

  15. Nesting biology of Trypoxylon (Trypargilum) lactitarse Saussure (Hymenoptera, Crabronidae) in trap-nests in Southern Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Buschini,M. L. T.; Niesing,F.; Wolff,L. L.

    2006-01-01

    This study was carried in the Parque Municipal das Araucárias in the municipality of Guarapuava, state of Paraná, Southern Brazil. Three hundred and sixty five nests of T. lactitarse were obtained using trap-nests of 0.7, 1.0, and 1.3 cm in diameter. All of them had similar architecture, regardless of the diameter of the trap-nest. Completed nests consisted of a linear series of brood cells whose average number per nest was of 3.3, 4.0 and 3.6 for the nests with 0.7 cm, 1.0 cm and 1.3 cm in d...

  16. Discovery of a new Kittlitz's murrelet nest: Clues to habitat selection and nest-site fidelity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piatt, John F.; Naslund, Nancy L.; van Pelt, Thomas I.

    1999-01-01

    On 13 June 1993, a new Kittlitz's murrelet (Brachyramphus brevirostris) nest was discovered near Red Mountain on the Kenai Peninsula, Alaska. The nest was on a 22° slope at about 900 m elevation with a northeast aspect, and contained a 60.2 × 40.6 mm egg that weighed 49.0 g. Downy feathers and weathered fecal material found at the nest indicated re-use from a previous year, suggesting possible nest site fidelity. The nest was located in an area scoured by winds and free of snow during early spring, suggesting that this may be an important mesoscale factor influencing selection of nesting habitat. Proximity to suitable foraging habitat, particularly sheltered bays and glacial river outflows, may affect breeding habitat choice over larger spatial scales.

  17. The Eagle Ford Shale, Texas: an initial insight into Late Cretaceous organic-rich mudrock palaeoenvironments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forshaw, Joline; Jarvis, Ian; Trabucho-Alexandre, João; Tocher, Bruce; Pearce, Martin

    2014-05-01

    The hypothesised reduction of oxygen within the oceans during the Cretaceous is believed to have led to extended intervals of regional anoxia in bottom waters, resulting in increased preservation of organic matter and the deposition of black shales. Episodes of more widespread anoxia, and even euxinia, in both bottom and surface waters are associated with widespread black shale deposition during Ocean Anoxic Events (OAEs). The most extensive Late Cretaceous OAE, which occurred ~ 94 Ma during Cenomanian-Turonian boundary times, and was particularly well developed in the proto-North Atlantic and Tethyan regions, lasted for around 500 kyr (OAE2). Although the causes of this and other events are still hotly debated, research is taking place internationally to produce a global picture of the causes and consequences of Cretaceous OAEs. Understanding OAEs will enable a better interpretation of the climate fluctuations that ensued, and their association with the widespread deposition of black shales, rising temperatures, increased pCO2, enhanced weathering, and increased nutrient fluxes. The Eagle Ford Formation, of Cenomanian - Turonian age, is a major shale gas play in SW and NE Texas, extending over an area of more than 45,000 km2. The formation, which consists predominantly of black shales (organic-rich calcareous mudstones), was deposited during an extended period of relative tectonic quiescence in the northern Gulf Coast of the Mexico Basin, bordered by reefs along the continental shelf. The area offers an opportunity to study the effects of OAE2 in an organic-rich shelf setting. The high degree of organic matter preservation in the formation has produced excellent oil and gas source rocks. Vast areas of petroleum-rich shales are now being exploited in the Southern States of the US for shale gas, and the Eagle Ford Shale is fast becoming one of the countries largest producers of gas, oil and condensate. The Eagle Ford Shale stratigraphy is complex and heterogeneous

  18. Predation on simulated duck nests in relation to nest density and landscape structure

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Padyšáková, E.; Šálek, Martin; Poledník, L.; Sedláček, František; Albrecht, Tomáš

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 37, č. 7 (2010), s. 597-603 ISSN 1035-3712 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LC06073 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60870520; CEZ:AV0Z60930519 Keywords : density-dependent predation * littoral patch * landscape type * nest predators * nest success * simulated nests Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 1.205, year: 2010

  19. Nest Predation Deviates from Nest Predator Abundance in an Ecologically Trapped Bird

    OpenAIRE

    Hollander, Franck A.; Van Dyck, Hans; San Martin, Gilles; Titeux, Nicolas

    2015-01-01

    In human-modified environments, ecological traps may result from a preference for low-quality habitat where survival or reproductive success is lower than in high-quality habitat. It has often been shown that low reproductive success for birds in preferred habitat types was due to higher nest predator abundance. However, between-habitat differences in nest predation may only weakly correlate with differences in nest predator abundance. An ecological trap is at work in a farmland bird (Lanius ...

  20. Nest-site selection by cavity-nesting birds in relation to postfire salvage logging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Victoria A. Saab; Robin E. Russell; Jonathan G. Dudley

    2009-01-01

    Large wildfire events in coniferous forests of the western United States are often followed by postfire timber harvest. The long-term impacts of postfire timber harvest on fire-associated cavity-nesting bird species are not well documented. We studied nest-site selection by cavity-nesting birds over a 10-year period (1994-2003), representing 1-11 years after fire, on...

  1. Artificial covering on trap nests improves the colonization of trap-nesting wasps

    OpenAIRE

    Taki, Hisatomo; Kevan, Peter G.; Viana, Blandina Felipe; Silva, Fabiana O.; Buck, Matthias

    2008-01-01

    Acesso restrito: Texto completo. p. 225-229 To evaluate the role that a trap-nest cover might have on sampling methodologies, the abundance of each species of trap-nesting Hymenoptera and the parasitism rate in a Canadian forest were compared between artificially covered and uncovered traps. Of trap tubes exposed at eight forest sites in six trap-nest boxes, 531 trap tubes were occupied and 1216 individuals of 12 wasp species of four predatory families, Vespidae (Eumeninae), Crabronidae...

  2. Laying the foundations for a human-predator conflict solution: assessing the impact of Bonelli's eagle on rabbits and partridges.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos Moleón

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Predation may potentially lead to negative effects on both prey (directly via predators and predators (indirectly via human persecution. Predation pressure studies are, therefore, of major interest in the fields of theoretical knowledge and conservation of prey or predator species, with wide ramifications and profound implications in human-wildlife conflicts. However, detailed works on this issue in highly valuable--in conservation terms--Mediterranean ecosystems are virtually absent. This paper explores the predator-hunting conflict by examining a paradigmatic, Mediterranean-wide (endangered predator-two prey (small game system. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We estimated the predation impact ('kill rate' and 'predation rate', i.e., number of prey and proportion of the prey population eaten, respectively of Bonelli's eagle Aquila fasciata on rabbit Oryctolagus cuniculus and red-legged partridge Alectoris rufa populations in two seasons (the eagle's breeding and non-breeding periods, 100 days each in SE Spain. The mean estimated kill rate by the seven eagle reproductive units in the study area was c. 304 rabbits and c. 262 partridges in the breeding season, and c. 237 rabbits and c. 121 partridges in the non-breeding period. This resulted in very low predation rates (range: 0.3-2.5% for both prey and seasons. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The potential role of Bonelli's eagles as a limiting factor for rabbits and partridges at the population scale was very poor. The conflict between game profitability and conservation interest of either prey or predators is apparently very localised, and eagles, quarry species and game interests seem compatible in most of the study area. Currently, both the persecution and negative perception of Bonelli's eagle (the 'partridge-eating eagle' in Spanish have a null theoretical basis in most of this area.

  3. Laying the foundations for a human-predator conflict solution: assessing the impact of Bonelli's eagle on rabbits and partridges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moleón, Marcos; Sánchez-Zapata, José A; Gil-Sánchez, José M; Barea-Azcón, José M; Ballesteros-Duperón, Elena; Virgós, Emilio

    2011-01-01

    Predation may potentially lead to negative effects on both prey (directly via predators) and predators (indirectly via human persecution). Predation pressure studies are, therefore, of major interest in the fields of theoretical knowledge and conservation of prey or predator species, with wide ramifications and profound implications in human-wildlife conflicts. However, detailed works on this issue in highly valuable--in conservation terms--Mediterranean ecosystems are virtually absent. This paper explores the predator-hunting conflict by examining a paradigmatic, Mediterranean-wide (endangered) predator-two prey (small game) system. We estimated the predation impact ('kill rate' and 'predation rate', i.e., number of prey and proportion of the prey population eaten, respectively) of Bonelli's eagle Aquila fasciata on rabbit Oryctolagus cuniculus and red-legged partridge Alectoris rufa populations in two seasons (the eagle's breeding and non-breeding periods, 100 days each) in SE Spain. The mean estimated kill rate by the seven eagle reproductive units in the study area was c. 304 rabbits and c. 262 partridges in the breeding season, and c. 237 rabbits and c. 121 partridges in the non-breeding period. This resulted in very low predation rates (range: 0.3-2.5%) for both prey and seasons. The potential role of Bonelli's eagles as a limiting factor for rabbits and partridges at the population scale was very poor. The conflict between game profitability and conservation interest of either prey or predators is apparently very localised, and eagles, quarry species and game interests seem compatible in most of the study area. Currently, both the persecution and negative perception of Bonelli's eagle (the 'partridge-eating eagle' in Spanish) have a null theoretical basis in most of this area.

  4. Importance of structural stability to success of mourning dove nests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coon, R.A.; Nichols, J.D.; Percival, H.F.

    1981-01-01

    Studies of nest-site selection and nesting habitats often involve a "characterization" of nests and of habitats in which nests are found. Our objective in the present work is to identify nest-site characteristics that are associated with variation in components of Mourning Dove (Zenaida macroura) fitness (e.g. the probability of a nest succeeding), as opposed to simply "characterizing" dove nest sites. If certain nest- site characteristics affect the probability that a nest will succeed, then we suspect that these characteristics will be associated with either concealment (the probability of detection by certain predators) or structural stability (the probability of eggs or entire nests falling to the ground as a result of wind, rain storms, parental activity, etc.). Although other workers agree that structural stability is an important determinant of Mourning Dove nesting success (e.g. McClure 1944: 384; Woolfenden and Rohwer 1969: 59), we are aware of no actual tests of this hypothesis.

  5. Ant colonies prefer infected over uninfected nest sites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pontieri, Luigi; Vojvodic, Svjetlana; Graham, Riley

    2014-01-01

    with sporulating mycelium of the entomopathogenic fungus Metarhizium brunneum (infected nests), nests containing nestmates killed by freezing (uninfected nests), and empty nests. In contrast to the expectation pharaoh ant colonies preferentially (84%) moved into the infected nest when presented with the choice...... the high risk of epidemics in group-living animals. Choosing nest sites free of pathogens is hypothesized to be highly efficient in invasive ants as each of their introduced populations is often an open network of nests exchanging individuals (unicolonial) with frequent relocation into new nest sites...... and low genetic diversity, likely making these species particularly vulnerable to parasites and diseases. We investigated the nest site preference of the invasive pharaoh ant, Monomorium pharaonis, through binary choice tests between three nest types: nests containing dead nestmates overgrown...

  6. Nest Mosquito Trap quantifies contact rates between nesting birds and mosquitoes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caillouët, Kevin A; Riggan, Anna E; Rider, Mark; Bulluck, Lesley P

    2012-06-01

    Accurate estimates of host-vector contact rates are required for precise determination of arbovirus transmission intensity. We designed and tested a novel mosquito collection device, the Nest Mosquito Trap (NMT), to collect mosquitoes as they attempt to feed on unrestrained nesting birds in artificial nest boxes. In the laboratory, the NMT collected nearly one-third of the mosquitoes introduced to the nest boxes. We then used these laboratory data to estimate our capture efficiency of field-collected bird-seeking mosquitoes collected over 66 trap nights. We estimated that 7.5 mosquitoes per trap night attempted to feed on nesting birds in artificial nest boxes. Presence of the NMT did not have a negative effect on avian nest success when compared to occupied nest boxes that were not sampled with the trap. Future studies using the NMT may elucidate the role of nestlings in arbovirus transmission and further refine estimates of nesting bird and vector contact rates. © 2012 The Society for Vector Ecology.

  7. Geologic Setting and Preservation of a Late Pleistocene Bald Cypress Forest Discovered on the Northern Gulf of Mexico Continental Shelf

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez Rodriguez, S. M.; Bentley, S. J.; DeLong, K. L.; Xu, K.; Harley, G. L.; Reese, C. A.; Obelcz, J.

    2016-02-01

    Following landfall of Hurricane Ivan in 2004, a previously buried bald cypress forest (Taxodium distichum) was discovered on the continental shelf seafloor, offshore of Orange Beach, Alabama, USA, in 20 m of water. The forest is preserved as stumps in life position with little evidence of decay and large pieces of trunks, roots, and branches. Analysis shows the forest is older than can be dated with conventional C-14 methods. Comparison of Pleistocene sea level curves with the study area depth suggests that the forest developed and was likely buried during marine isotope stage 3 or 4, or perhaps older stages. Condition of sampled wood suggests that the forest was buried and preserved in anoxic sediments for millennia, prior to recent exhumation. To better understand the puzzling geological conditions that could allow forest preservation during sea level fall and shelf exposure spanning >30,000 years, submersible vibracores (to 6 m length) and geophysical data (swath bathymetry, sidescan, and chirp subbottom) were collected in August 2015. Cores are being analyzed using a Geotek Multi Sensor Core Logger, granulometric and sediment composition analyses, and a wide range of paleoenvironmental observations. This presentation focuses on the geological setting and mode of forest preservation. Preliminary analysis of sediment types and stratigraphy in cores shows that the local stratigraphy is broadly consistent with previous regional shelf-stratigraphic studies, consisting of (top to bottom) a surface layer of Holocene transgressive sands (to 3 m thick) unconformably overlying Pleistocene terrestrial and coastal deposits. However, the Pleistocene lithofacies (fluvial, backswamp, or possibly delta plain muds) differ considerably in both depositional environment and degree of environmental preservation compared to previous studies. Ongoing analysis will focus on elucidating the succession of events that allows preservation of this unique Pleistocene sedimentary archive.

  8. Highly polymorphic colour vision in a New World monkey with red facial skin, the bald uakari (Cacajao calvus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corso, Josmael; Bowler, Mark; Heymann, Eckhard W; Roos, Christian; Mundy, Nicholas I

    2016-04-13

    Colour vision is highly variable in New World monkeys (NWMs). Evidence for the adaptive basis of colour vision in this group has largely centred on environmental features such as foraging benefits for differently coloured foods or predator detection, whereas selection on colour vision for sociosexual communication is an alternative hypothesis that has received little attention. The colour vision of uakaris (Cacajao) is of particular interest because these monkeys have the most dramatic red facial skin of any primate, as well as a unique fission/fusion social system and a specialist diet of seeds. Here, we investigate colour vision in a wild population of the bald uakari,C. calvus, by genotyping the X-linked opsin locus. We document the presence of a polymorphic colour vision system with an unprecedented number of functional alleles (six), including a novel allele with a predicted maximum spectral sensitivity of 555 nm. This supports the presence of strong balancing selection on different alleles at this locus. We consider different hypotheses to explain this selection. One possibility is that trichromacy functions in sexual selection, enabling females to choose high-quality males on the basis of red facial coloration. In support of this, there is some evidence that health affects facial coloration in uakaris, as well as a high prevalence of blood-borne parasitism in wild uakari populations. Alternatively, the low proportion of heterozygous female trichromats in the population may indicate selection on different dichromatic phenotypes, which might be related to cryptic food coloration. We have uncovered unexpected diversity in the last major lineage of NWMs to be assayed for colour vision, which will provide an interesting system to dissect adaptation of polymorphic trichromacy. © 2016 The Author(s).

  9. Nesting Activity of Loggerhead Turtles (Caretta caretta at Göksu Delta, Turkey during 2004 and 2008 nesting seasons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salih H. Durmus

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Göksu Delta is one of the most important nesting beaches in Turkey for the endangered loggerhead turtle (Caretta caretta. This paper provides information on the nesting activities of loggerhead turtles, the spatial and temporal distribution of nesting, nesting success, nesting density, hatching success, incubation duration and clutch size over two nesting seasons. A total of 902 emergences occurred over two seasons, of which 239 (26.5% nests were deposited (137 nests in 2004 and 102 nests in 2008 and the overall mean nesting density was 3.4 nests/km. The peak of nesting emergences takes place mainly in June. Of the overall nests, 226 (94.6% were excavated and 16044 eggs were counted. Of these eggs, 3680 (22.9% hatchlings emerged and 2695 (73.2% of hatchlings of them were able to reach the sea. The mean number of eggs per clutch was 71 (range: 15 – 143. The shortest and longest incubation duration in these 2 seasons ranged from 46 to 62 days with a mean of 53 days. The main problems are negatively affecting loggerhead turtle population at Göksu Delta are dense jackal predation both adult and eggs and inundation in nests. The average nesting effort here (mean: 119.5 nests/season confirms that Göksu Delta is one of the most important nesting sites for loggerhead turtles in Turkey.

  10. 76 FR 18239 - Endangered Species; Marine Mammals; Receipt of Applications for Permit

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-01

    ... Argentina for the purpose of scientific research. Applicant: Museum of Zoology and Herbarium, University of... museum/herbarium specimens of endangered and threatened species (excluding bald eagles) previously...

  11. Despojo, baldíos y conflicto armado en Puerto Gaitán y Mapiripán (Meta, Colombia entre 1980 y 2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivonne Rodríguez González

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo busca mostrar cómo ocurrió el despojo y la concentración de tierras baldías, y el desarrollo del conflicto en Puerto Gaitán y Mapiripán entre 1980 y 2010. A partir del análisis de registros públicos, mapas y entrevistas realizadas en terreno, este trabajo concluyó que los mecanismos desarrollados por el gobierno para desarrollar una reforma agraria no garantizaron seguridad en los derechos de propiedad, desatando constantes ciclos de despojo.

  12. A Population Study of Golden Eagles in the Altamont Pass Wind Resource Area: Population Trend Analysis, 1994-1997

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Predatory Bird Research Group Long Marine Laboratory

    1999-01-01

    The wind industry has annually reported 28-43 turbine blade strike casualties of golden eagles in the Altamont Pass Wind Resource Area, and many more carcasses have doubtless gone unnoticed. Because this species is especially sensitive to adult survival rate changes, we focused upon estimating the demographic trend of the population. In aerial surveys, we monitored survival within a sample of 179 radio-tagged eagles over a four-year period. We also obtained data on territory occupancy and reproduction of about 65 eagle pairs residing in the area. Of 61 recorded deaths of radio-tagged eagles during the four-year investigation, 23 (38%) were caused by wind turbine blade strikes. Additional fatalities were unrecorded because blade strikes sometimes destroy radio transmitters. Annual survival was estimated at 0.7867 (SE=0.0263) for non-territorial eagles and 0.8964 (SE=0.0371) for territorial ones. Annual reproduction was 0.64 (SE=0.08) young per territorial pair (0.25 per female). These parameters were used to estimate population growth rates under different modeling frameworks. At present, there are indications that a reserve of non-breeding adults still exists, i.e., there is an annual territorial re-occupancy rate of 100% and a low incidence (3%) of sub-adults as members of breeding pairs

  13. A Population Study of Golden Eagles in the Altamont Pass Wind Resource Area: Population Trend Analysis, 1994-1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hunt, W. G.; Jackman, R. E.; Hunt, T. L.; Driscoll, D. E.; Culp, L.

    1999-07-20

    The wind industry has annually reported 28-43 turbine blade strike casualties of golden eagles in the Altamont Pass Wind Resource Area, and many more carcasses have doubtless gone unnoticed. Because this species is especially sensitive to adult survival rate changes, we focused upon estimating the demographic trend of the population. In aerial surveys, we monitored survival within a sample of 179 radio-tagged eagles over a four-year period. We also obtained data on territory occupancy and reproduction of about 65 eagle pairs residing in the area. Of 61 recorded deaths of radio-tagged eagles during the four-year investigation, 23 (38%) were caused by wind turbine blade strikes. Additional fatalities were unrecorded because blade strikes sometimes destroy radio transmitters. Annual survival was estimated at 0.7867 (SE=0.0263) for non-territorial eagles and 0.8964 (SE=0.0371) for territorial ones. Annual reproduction was 0.64 (SE=0.08) young per territorial pair (0.25 per female). These parameters were used to estimate population growth rates under different modeling frameworks. At present, there are indications that a reserve of non-breeding adults still exists, i.e., there is an annual territorial reoccupancy rate of 100% and a low incidence (3%) of subadults as members of breeding pairs.

  14. Home in the heat: Dramatic seasonal variation in home range of desert golden eagles informs management for renewable energy development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braham, Melissa A.; Miller, Tricia A.; Duerr, Adam E.; Lanzone, Michael J.; Fesnock, Amy; LaPre, Larry; Driscoll, Daniel; Katzner, Todd E.

    2015-01-01

    Renewable energy is expanding quickly with sometimes dramatic impacts to species and ecosystems. To understand the degree to which sensitive species may be impacted by renewable energy projects, it is informative to know how much space individuals use and how that space may overlap with planned development. We used global positioning system–global system for mobile communications (GPS-GSM) telemetry to measure year-round movements of golden eagles (Aquila chrysaetos) from the Mojave Desert of California, USA. We estimated monthly space use with adaptive local convex hulls to identify the temporal and spatial scales at which eagles may encounter renewable energy projects in the Desert Renewable Energy Conservation Plan area. Mean size of home ranges was lowest and least variable from November through January and greatest in February–March and May–August. These monthly home range patterns coincided with seasonal variation in breeding ecology, habitat associations, and temperature. The expanded home ranges in hot summer months included movements to cooler, prey-dense, mountainous areas characterized by forest, grasslands, and scrublands. Breeding-season home ranges (October–May) included more lowland semi-desert and rock vegetation. Overlap of eagle home ranges and focus areas for renewable energy development was greatest when eagle home ranges were smallest, during the breeding season. Golden eagles in the Mojave Desert used more space and a wider range of habitat types than expected and renewable energy projects could affect a larger section of the regional population than was previously thought.

  15. Genetic structure and viability selection in the golden eagle (Aquila chrysaetos), a vagile raptor with a Holarctic distribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doyle, Jacqueline M.; Katzner, Todd E.; Roemer, Gary; Cain, James W.; Millsap, Brian; McIntyre, Carol; Sonsthagen, Sarah A.; Fernandez, Nadia B.; Wheeler, Maria; Bulut, Zafer; Bloom, Peter; DeWoody, J. Andrew

    2016-01-01

    Molecular markers can reveal interesting aspects of organismal ecology and evolution, especially when surveyed in rare or elusive species. Herein, we provide a preliminary assessment of golden eagle (Aquila chrysaetos) population structure in North America using novel single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). These SNPs included one molecular sexing marker, two mitochondrial markers, 85 putatively neutral markers that were derived from noncoding regions within large intergenic intervals, and 74 putatively nonneutral markers found in or very near protein-coding genes. We genotyped 523 eagle samples at these 162 SNPs and quantified genotyping error rates and variability at each marker. Our samples corresponded to 344 individual golden eagles as assessed by unique multilocus genotypes. Observed heterozygosity of known adults was significantly higher than of chicks, as was the number of heterozygous loci, indicating that mean zygosity measured across all 159 autosomal markers was an indicator of fitness as it is associated with eagle survival to adulthood. Finally, we used chick samples of known provenance to test for population differentiation across portions of North America and found pronounced structure among geographic sampling sites. These data indicate that cryptic genetic population structure is likely widespread in the golden eagle gene pool, and that extensive field sampling and genotyping will be required to more clearly delineate management units within North America and elsewhere.

  16. Management of western coniferous forest habitat for nesting accipiter hawks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richard T. Reynolds

    1983-01-01

    Availability of nesting sites can limit accipiter populations. Because accipiters nest in dense forest stands, any alteration that opens these stands is likely to lessen their desirability as nest sites. Tree growth and the associated changes in the vegetative structure of aging nest sites limit the number of years sites will be suitable. Therefore, prospective...

  17. Converting nested algebra expressions into flat algebra expressions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Paredaens, J.; Van Gucht, D.

    1992-01-01

    Nested relations generalize ordinary flat relations by allowing tuple values to be either atomic or set valued. The nested algebra is a generalization of the flat relational algebra to manipulate nested relations. In this paper we study the expressive power of the nested algebra relative to its

  18. The effects of large beach debris on nesting sea turtles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujisaki, Ikuko; Lamont, Margaret M.

    2016-01-01

    A field experiment was conducted to understand the effects of large beach debris on sea turtle nesting behavior as well as the effectiveness of large debris removal for habitat restoration. Large natural and anthropogenic debris were removed from one of three sections of a sea turtle nesting beach and distributions of nests and false crawls (non-nesting crawls) in pre- (2011–2012) and post- (2013–2014) removal years in the three sections were compared. The number of nests increased 200% and the number of false crawls increased 55% in the experimental section, whereas a corresponding increase in number of nests and false crawls was not observed in the other two sections where debris removal was not conducted. The proportion of nest and false crawl abundance in all three beach sections was significantly different between pre- and post-removal years. The nesting success, the percent of successful nests in total nesting attempts (number of nests + false crawls), also increased from 24% to 38%; however the magnitude of the increase was comparably small because both the number of nests and false crawls increased, and thus the proportion of the nesting success in the experimental beach in pre- and post-removal years was not significantly different. The substantial increase in sea turtle nesting activities after the removal of large debris indicates that large debris may have an adverse impact on sea turtle nesting behavior. Removal of large debris could be an effective restoration strategy to improve sea turtle nesting.

  19. Nest success of the Indian House Crow Corvus splendens : An ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nest success of the Indian House Crow Corvus splendens was studied in the urban area of Dar es Salaam, Tanzania, in late March to early May 2011. The study investigated nest success of the Indian House Crow in different tree species with varying canopy covers and heights. Fifty-five active nests and 38 inactive nests ...

  20. Nesting ecology of Pied Avocet Recurvirostra avosetta in Sfax salina ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this paper we use the results of a one-year monitoring of nests in Sfax salina to provide information on its nesting parameters, in particular nesting phenology, colony size and hatching success. Our results show that Pied Avocets formed dense colonies at the beginning of the nesting season, but colony size decreased as ...