WorldWideScience

Sample records for nervous system abnormality

  1. Central nervous system and cervical spine abnormalities in Apert syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breik, Omar; Mahindu, Antony; Moore, Mark H; Molloy, Cindy J; Santoreneos, Stephen; David, David J

    2016-05-01

    Apert syndrome characterized by acrocephalosyndactyly is a rare autosomal dominant congenital malformation with a prevalence of 1/65,000 births. With an extensive range of phenotypic and developmental manifestations, its management requires a multidisciplinary approach. A variety of craniofacial, central nervous system (CNS), and cervical spine abnormalities have been reported in these patients. This study aimed to determine the incidence of these CNS abnormalities in our case series. Retrospective review of Australian Craniofacial Unit (ACFU) database for Apert patients was performed. Data collected that included demographics, place of origin, age at presentation, imaging performed, and images were reviewed and recorded. Where available, developmental data was also recorded. Ninety-four patients seen and managed at the ACFU had their CNS and cervical spine abnormalities documented. The main CNS abnormalities were prominent convolutional markings (67 %), ventriculomegaly (48 %), crowded foramen magnum (36 %), deficient septum pellucidum (13 %), and corpus callosum agenesis in 11 %. Major C-spine findings were present in 50.8 % of patients and included fusion of posterior elements of C5/C6 (50 %) and C3/4 (27 %). Multilevel fusion was seen in 20 %. Other abnormalities were C1 spina bifida occulta (7 %) and atlanto-axial subluxation (7 %). Multiple CNS and cervical spine (c-spine) abnormalities are common in Apert syndrome. The significance of these abnormalities remains largely unknown. Further research is needed to better understand the impact of these findings on growth, development, and treatment outcomes.

  2. Abnormal glycosphingolipid metabolism in the nervous system of galactosialidosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshino, H; Miyashita, K; Miyatani, N; Ariga, T; Hashimoto, Y; Tsuji, S; Oyanagi, K; Ohama, E; Ikuta, F; Suzuki, A

    1990-06-01

    In an autopsy case of galactosialidosis, GM3, GM2, GM1, and GD1a were accumulated in sympathetic and spinal ganglia and grey matter of the spinal cord. Especially, the accumulations of GM3 and GM2 amounted to 41- and 86-fold increases in sympathetic ganglia, respectively, as compared to normal controls. In addition LacCer, GA2 and GA1 were accumulated in sympathetic and spinal ganglia. The accumulations of GM3 and GD1a are considered to be the result of defective lysosomal sialidase activity and the accumulation of GM1, LacCer and GA1 is also considered to be due to decreased beta-galactosidase activity in this disorder. To better understand the possible mechanism of GM2 accumulation, we determined the activity of GM2 synthesizing enzyme (GM3:UDP-GalNAc transferase), as well as hexosaminidase activity, in sympathetic ganglia, but they did not change. Abnormal ganglioside and neutral glycosphingolipid metabolism, as well as sialyloligosaccharide and sialylglycoprotein metabolism, may be involved in the pathogenesis of this disorder.

  3. Positive correlation between pesticide sales and central nervous system and cardiovascular congenital abnormalities in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Froes Asmus, Carmen I R; Camara, Volney M; Raggio, Ronir; Landrigan, Philip J; Claudio, Luz

    2017-10-01

    This study investigated the association between pesticide exposure in Brazil (2005-2013) with rates of central nervous system (CNS) and cardiovascular system (CVS) congenital abnormalities in 2014. An exposure variable was established from data on production and sales of pesticides (kg) per crop area (ha) for 2012 and 2013 years. The Brazilian states were divided into three categories: high, medium, and low pesticide use and rate ratios were estimated for each group of states (CI: 95 %). In 2013 and 2014, the high use group presented a 100 and a 75 % increase, and the medium group a 65 and 23 % increase, respectively, in the risk of CNS and CVS congenital abnormalities at birth, compared to the low use group. These findings suggest that pesticide exposure could be associated with increased risk of congenital malformations at birth in Brazil.

  4. [Central nervous system abnormalities related to congenital fibrosis of extraocular muscles].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moguel-Ancheita, Silvia; Rodríguez-Garcidueñas, Wendolyn

    2009-01-01

    We undertook this study to describe central nervous system (CNS) abnormalities associated with congenital cranial dysinnervation disorders (CCDD). This was a retrospective, observational, transversal and descriptive study including patients with congenital fibrotic strabismus. We analyzed clinical files of patients from 2001 to 2006. Neurological lesions were reported. Restrictive strabismus was demonstrated in all cases. Sixteen patients were included: nine males and seven females. Different neurological lesions were reported: corpus callosum anomalies, severe cortipathy, epilepsy, cavum vergae, nystagmus, occipital subarachnoid cyst, and hydrocephalus. Mental retardation was reported in 56% of patients. Different malformations were reported: genital malformations, trigonocephalus, camptodactyly, mild facial hypoplasia, low set ears, and agenesis of left ear. Blepharoptosis was present in 81% of patients. The most frequent form of strabismus was exotropia (56%), hypotropia in 37.5%, hypertropia 18.7%, "A" pattern 18.7%, and esotropia in 6.25%. Affection was cranial nerve III, 93.75%; cranial nerve VI, 6.25%; cranial nerve VII, 6.25%; and lesion to cranial nerve II in eight cases (50%). We have suggested that failure in early stages of embryology of the CNS can lead to the development of paralytic strabismus and generate secondary fibrotic changes, not only in muscle structures but also in other orbital tissues. That is the reason why we have used the term "congenital fibrotic strabismus" to report cases included in CCDD. We have demonstrated the strong association of mental retardation and neurological alterations. Multidisciplinary rehabilitation is relevant for these patients.

  5. Significance of cardiac sympathetic nervous system abnormality for predicting vascular events in patients with idiopathic paroxysmal atrial fibrillation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akutsu, Yasushi; Kaneko, Kyouichi; Kodama, Yusuke; Li, Hui-Ling; Kawamura, Mitsuharu; Asano, Taku; Hamazaki, Yuji; Tanno, Kaoru; Kobayashi, Youichi [Showa University School of Medicine, Division of Cardiology, Department of Medicine, Tokyo (Japan); Suyama, Jumpei; Shinozuka, Akira; Gokan, Takehiko [Showa University School of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Tokyo (Japan)

    2010-04-15

    Neuronal system activity plays an important role for the prognosis of patients with atrial fibrillation (AF). Using {sup 123}I metaiodobenzylguanidine ({sup 123}I-MIBG) scintigraphy, we investigated whether a cardiac sympathetic nervous system (SNS) abnormality would be associated with an increased risk of vascular events in patients with paroxysmal AF. {sup 123}I-MIBG scintigraphy was performed in 69 consecutive patients (67 {+-} 13 years, 62% men) with paroxysmal AF who did not have structural heart disease. SNS integrity was assessed from the heart to mediastinum (H/M) ratio on delayed imaging. Serum concentration of C-reactive protein (CRP) was measured before {sup 123}I-MIBG study. During a mean of 4.5 {+-} 3.6 years follow-up, 19 patients had myocardial infarction, stroke or heart failure (range: 0.2-11.5 years). SNS abnormality (H/M ratio <2.7) and high CRP ({>=}0.3 mg/dl) were associated with the vascular events (58.3% in 14 of 24 patients with SNS abnormality vs 11.1% in 5 of 45 patients without SNS abnormality, p < 0.0001, 52.4% in 11 of 21 patients with high CRP vs 16.7% in 8 of 48 patients without high CRP, p < 0.0001). After adjustment for potential confounding variables such as age, left atrial dimension and left ventricular function, SNS abnormality was an independent predictor of vascular events with a hazard ratio of 4.1 [95% confidence interval (CI): 1.3-12.6, p = 0.014]. Further, SNS abnormality had an incremental and additive prognostic power in combination with high CRP with an adjusted hazard ratio of 4.1 (95% CI: 1.5-10.9, p = 0.006). SNS abnormality is predictive of vascular events in patients with idiopathic paroxysmal AF. (orig.)

  6. Autonomic Nervous System Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Your autonomic nervous system is the part of your nervous system that controls involuntary actions, such as the beating of your heart ... breathing and swallowing Erectile dysfunction in men Autonomic nervous system disorders can occur alone or as the result ...

  7. Brain and Nervous System

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Your 1- to 2-Year-Old Brain and Nervous System KidsHealth > For Parents > Brain and Nervous System Print ... brain is quite the juggler. Anatomy of the Nervous System If you think of the brain as a ...

  8. Central Nervous System Vasculitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Nervous System (CNS) Vasculitis Central Nervous System (CNS) Vasculitis Central nervous system (CNS) vasculitis is inflammation of ... CNS (PACNS). What is the cause of CNS Vasculitis? How the vessels in the brain become inflamed ...

  9. The role of respiratory failure caused by congenital central nervous system abnormalities and the effect of β-casomorphins in sudden infant death syndrome pathogenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara Sumińska-Ziemann

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the paper is to discuss the role of respiratory failure caused by endogenous (both structural and functional abnormalities in the central nervous system and exogenous food-derived opioid-like peptides in the pathogenesis of sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS. By stimulating μ-opioid receptors, opioid-like peptides may suppress the tonic activity of the respiratory centre in the brain stem.

  10. Rapid, low-cost MR imaging protocol to document central nervous system and sinus abnormalities prior to pediatric hematopoietic stem cell transplantation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leite, Eliane D.; Barbosa, Felipe G. de; Szarf, Gilberto; Lederman, Henrique M. [Universidade Federal de Sao Paulo, Department of Diagnostic Imaging, Sao Paulo (Brazil); Seber, Adriana; Ginani, Valeria C.; Carlesse, Fabianne C.; Gouvea, Roseane V.; Zecchin, Victor G.; Carvalho, Cinthya R. [Universidade Federal de Sao Paulo, Division of Pediatric Oncology, Department of Pediatrics, Sao Paulo (Brazil)

    2011-06-15

    Patients undergoing bone marrow transplant (BMT) are at risk for infectious complications, including those of the sinus. Central nervous system (CNS) abnormalities related to the chemotherapy or radiation that the patient received for the treatment of underlying malignancy or to transplant-related effects are also commonly seen. The only effective way to differentiate pre- and post-transplant causes is to have a baseline evaluation prior to the admission for transplant. The current method used to evaluate these patients is head CT. However, CT is not accurate to demonstrate CNS abnormalities and exposes the patient to radiation. MRI, despite better sensitivity for white matter abnormalities, has not been routinely used because of the higher cost and longer duration of the exam. Therefore, we designed a fast, low-cost and radiation-free MRI-based protocol to simultaneously evaluate sinus and brain abnormalities. (orig.)

  11. Central nervous system

    Science.gov (United States)

    The central nervous system is composed of the brain and spinal cord. Your brain and spinal cord serve as the main "processing center" for your entire nervous system. They control all the workings of your body.

  12. NF1 frameshift mutation (c.6520_6523delGAGA) association with nervous system tumors and bone abnormalities in a Chinese patient with neurofibromatosis type 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, S Y; Zhou, X; Pang, X M; Chen, C Y; Li, S H; Liu, J L

    2016-04-07

    Neurofibromatosis type 1, also known as NF1 or von Recklinghausen's disease, is a common neurocutaneous syndrome that presents with multiple café-au-lait patches, skinfold freckling, dermatofibromas, neurofibromas, and Lisch nodules. The mutations of the gene NF1, encoding the protein neurofibromin, have been identified as the cause of this disease. Here, we report a clinical and molecular study of a Chinese patient with multiple café-au-lait skin freckles, dermatofibroma, central and peripheral nervous system tumors, and bone abnormalities attributed to NF1. The patient showed >6 café-au-lait spots on the body and multiple dermatofibromas. A brain glioma and multiple nerve sheath tumors inside and outside the vertebral canal were identified by magnetic resonance imaging, which also showed multiple intercostal nerve schwannomas and hydrocephalies above the cerebellar tentorium. Talipes equinus was also apparent. A mutation analysis of the NF1 gene revealed a novel frameshift mutation in exon 43, consisting of a heterozygous deletion of four nucleotides (GAGA) between positions 6520 and 6523. No NF1 mutations were detected in the patient's parents or younger brother. These results extend the list of known mutations in this gene. The absence of the NF1 mutation in the healthy family members suggests that it is responsible for the NF1 phenotype. To our knowledge, this frameshift mutation represents a novel NF1 case, and may be associated with nervous system tumors and bone abnormalities.

  13. Abnormal hyperintensity within the subarachnoid space evaluated by fluid-attenuated inversion-recovery MR imaging: a spectrum of central nervous system diseases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maeda, M.; Sakuma, H.; Takeda, K. [Dept. of Radiology, Mie Univ. School of Medicine, Mie (Japan); Yagishita, A. [Dept. of Neuroradiology, Tokyo Metropolitan Neurological Hospital, Tokyo (Japan); Yamamoto, T. [Dept. of Radiology, Obama Municipal Hospital, Fukui (Japan)

    2003-12-01

    A variety of central nervous system (CNS) diseases are associated with abnormal hyperintensity within the subarachnoid space (SAS) by fluid-attenuated inversion-recovery (FLAIR) MR imaging. Careful attention to the SAS can provide additional useful information that may not be available with conventional MR sequences. The purpose of this article is to provide a pictorial essay about CNS diseases and FLAIR images with abnormal hyperintensity within the SAS. We present several CNS diseases including subarachnoid hemorrhage, meningitis, leptomeningeal metastases, acute infarction, and severe arterial occlusive diseases such as moya-moya disease. We also review miscellaneous diseases or normal conditions that may exhibit cerebrospinal fluid hyperintensity on FLAIR images. Although the detection of abnormal hyperintensity suggests the underlying CNS diseases and narrows differential diagnoses, FLAIR imaging sometimes presents artifactual hyperintensity within the SAS that can cause the misinterpretation of normal SAS as pathologic conditions; therefore, radiologists should be familiar with such artifactual conditions as well as pathologic conditions shown as hyperintensity by FLAIR images. This knowledge is helpful in establishing the correct diagnosis. (orig.)

  14. The enteric nervous system

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sasselli, Valentina; Pachnis, Vassilis; Burns, Alan J

    2012-01-01

    The enteric nervous system (ENS), the intrinsic innervation of the gastrointestinal tract, consists of numerous types of neurons, and glial cells, that are distributed in two intramuscular plexuses that extend along the entire...

  15. Central nervous system resuscitation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McIntosh, T K; Garde, E; Saatman, K E

    1997-01-01

    Traumatic injury to the central nervous system induces delayed neuronal death, which may be mediated by acute and chronic neurochemical changes. Experimental identification of these injury mechanisms and elucidation of the neurochemical cascade following trauma may provide enhanced opportunities...

  16. Central nervous system resuscitation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McIntosh, T K; Garde, E; Saatman, K E;

    1997-01-01

    Traumatic injury to the central nervous system induces delayed neuronal death, which may be mediated by acute and chronic neurochemical changes. Experimental identification of these injury mechanisms and elucidation of the neurochemical cascade following trauma may provide enhanced opportunities ...

  17. Implementation of X-ray fluorescence microscopy for investigation of elemental abnormalities in central nervous system tissue

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chwiej, J. [Faculty of Physics and Applied Computer Science, AGH, University of Science and Technology, Al. Mickiewicza 30, 30-059 Cracow (Poland)]. E-mail: jchwiej@novell.ftj.agh.edu.pl; Szczerbowska-Boruchowska, M. [Faculty of Physics and Applied Computer Science, AGH, University of Science and Technology, Al. Mickiewicza 30, 30-059 Cracow (Poland); Wojcik, S. [Faculty of Physics and Applied Computer Science, AGH, University of Science and Technology, Al. Mickiewicza 30, 30-059 Cracow (Poland); Lankosz, M. [Faculty of Physics and Applied Computer Science, AGH, University of Science and Technology, Al. Mickiewicza 30, 30-059 Cracow (Poland); Chlebda, M. [Faculty of Physics and Applied Computer Science, AGH, University of Science and Technology, Al. Mickiewicza 30, 30-059 Cracow (Poland); Adamek, D. [Institute of Neurology, Collegium Medicum, Jagiellonian University, ul. Botaniczna-3, 31-503 Cracow (Poland); Tomik, B. [Institute of Neurology, Collegium Medicum, Jagiellonian University, ul. Botaniczna-3, 31-503 Cracow (Poland); Setkowicz, Z. [Department of Neuroanatomy, Institute of Zoology, Jagiellonian University, ul. Ingardena 6, 30-060 Cracow (Poland); Falkenberg, G. [Hamburger Synchrotronstrahlungslabor at Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron DESY, Notkestr. 85, Hamburg (Germany); Stegowski, Z. [Faculty of Physics and Applied Computer Science, AGH, University of Science and Technology, Al. Mickiewicza 30, 30-059 Cracow (Poland); Szczudlik, A. [Institute of Neurology, Collegium Medicum, Jagiellonian University, ul. Botaniczna-3, 31-503 Cracow (Poland)

    2005-09-29

    The microbeam synchrotron radiation X-ray fluorescence technique (micro-SRXRF) was applied to topographic and quantitative elemental analysis of human spinal cord tissue sections. The feasibility of this technique for the determination of elemental abnormalities caused by neurodegenerative disorder, i.e. amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), was verified. The applied measurement conditions allowed detecting: P, S, Cl, K, Ca, Fe, Cu, Zn and Br in thin tissue slices. Two-dimensional maps of the elemental distribution were recorded. Quantitative differences in elemental concentration between gray matter, nerve cells and white matter were observed for all analyzed cases. For the motor neuron bodies higher accumulation of S, Cl, K, Fe, Zn and Br was noticed. The results showed significant differences of elemental accumulation between the analyzed ALS cases. Moreover, the feasibility of using tissue sections fixed and embedded in paraffin for micro-SRXRF analysis was tested. These studies were performed on the samples of rat brain.

  18. The Nervous System Game

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corbitt, Cynthia; Carpenter, Molly

    2006-01-01

    For many children, especially those with reading difficulties, a motor-kinesthetic learning activity may be an effective tool to teach complex concepts. With this in mind, the authors developed and tested a game designed to teach fourth- to sixth-grade children some basic principles of nervous system function by allowing the children themselves to…

  19. Central nervous system tuberculosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres, Carlos; Riascos, Roy; Figueroa, Ramon; Gupta, Rakesh K

    2014-06-01

    Tuberculosis (TB) has shown a resurgence in nonendemic populations in recent years and accounts for 8 million deaths annually in the world. Central nervous system involvement is one of the most serious forms of this infection, acting as a prominent cause of morbidity and mortality in developing countries. The rising number of cases in developed countries is mostly attributed to factors such as the pandemic of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome and increased migration in a globalized world. Mycobacterium TB is responsible for almost all cases of tubercular infection in the central nervous system. It can manifest in a variety of forms as tuberculous meningitis, tuberculoma, and tubercular abscess. Spinal infection may result in spondylitis, arachnoiditis, and/or focal intramedullary tuberculomas. Timely diagnosis of central nervous system TB is paramount for the early institution of appropriate therapy, because delayed treatment is associated with severe morbidity and mortality. It is therefore important that physicians and radiologists understand the characteristic patterns, distribution, and imaging manifestations of TB in the central nervous system. Magnetic resonance imaging is considered the imaging modality of choice for the study of patients with suspected TB. Advanced imaging techniques including magnetic resonance perfusion and diffusion tensor imaging may be of value in the objective assessment of therapy and to guide the physician in the modulation of therapy in these patients.

  20. Central Nervous System Tuberculosis

    OpenAIRE

    Bano, Shahina; Chaudhary, Vikas; Yadav, Sachchidanand

    2012-01-01

    Central nervous system tuberculosis is a rare presentation of active tuberculosis and accounts for about 1% of cases (1). The three clinical categories include meningitis, intracranial tuberculomas, and spinal tuberculous arachnoiditis. We report a case of a young man who presented with active pulmonary tuberculosis in addition to tuberculous meningitis and the presence of numerous intracranial tuberculomas.

  1. The Nervous System Game

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corbitt, Cynthia; Carpenter, Molly

    2006-01-01

    For many children, especially those with reading difficulties, a motor-kinesthetic learning activity may be an effective tool to teach complex concepts. With this in mind, the authors developed and tested a game designed to teach fourth- to sixth-grade children some basic principles of nervous system function by allowing the children themselves to…

  2. Cystic Fibrosis and the Nervous System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reznikov, Leah R

    2017-05-01

    Cystic fibrosis (CF) is a life-shortening autosomal recessive disorder caused by mutations in the gene encoding the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR). CFTR is an anion channel that conducts bicarbonate and chloride across cell membranes. Although defective anion transport across epithelial cells is accepted as the basic defect in CF, many of the features observed in people with CF and organs affected by CF are modulated by the nervous system. This is of interest because CFTR expression has been reported in both the peripheral and central nervous systems, and it is well known that the transport of anions, such as chloride, greatly modulates neuronal excitability. Thus it is predicted that in CF, lack of CFTR in the nervous system affects neuronal function. Consistent with this prediction, several nervous system abnormalities and nervous system disorders have been described in people with CF and in animal models of CF. The goal of this special feature article is to highlight the expression and function of CFTR in the nervous system. Special emphasis is placed on nervous system abnormalities described in people with CF and in animal models of CF. Finally, features of CF that may be modulated by or attributed to faulty nervous system function are discussed. Copyright © 2016 American College of Chest Physicians. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Your Brain and Nervous System

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... dientes Video: Getting an X-ray Your Brain & Nervous System KidsHealth > For Kids > Your Brain & Nervous System Print A A A What's in this article? ... the spinal cord and nerves — known as the nervous system — that let messages flow back and forth between ...

  4. Two-dimensional fast imaging employing steady-state acquisition (FIESTA) cine acquisition of fetal non-central nervous system abnormalities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Shu-Huei; Guo, Wan-Yuo; Hung, Jeng-Hsiu

    2007-09-01

    To evaluate the value of two-dimensional fast imaging employing steady-state acquisition (2D FIESTA) cine MR with parallel imaging techniques in the diagnosis of fetal non-central nervous system (CNS) anomalies. A total of 28 pregnant women were referred for further MR evaluation on fetuses after abnormal sonographic results. A total of 33 fetal MR examinations were performed by a 1.5 T MR scanner with eight-channel phase-arrayed body coils. Single-shot fast spin-echo (SSFSE(R), GE) of three orthogonal planes and 2D FIESTA for cine fetal MR of three sagittal planes (midsagittal and 10 mm off midline on left and right) were routinely acquired. Additional planes on target organs with variable imaging frames were added if indicated. Nine of the 33 examinations (9/33; 27.3%) had motion artifacts obscuring the detail in SSFSE imaging; 2D FIESTA imaging provided motion-artifact-free imaging in all of them. Cine 2D FIESTA imaging provided additional information on the visceral peristalsis. The information helped in differentiating dilated gastrointestinal (GI) tract from other intraabdominal cystic lesions and in confirming the nature and level of GI tract obstruction. With sub-half-second temporal resolution of the 2D FIESTA sequences, fetal movement is no longer problematic. In addition to the anatomical information also provided by conventional SSFSE sequences, 2D FIESTA demonstrates information on motility and peristalsis of hollow organs and helps the diagnosis of fetal visceral anomalies. (c) 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  5. Central nervous system manifestations of neonatal lupus: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, C C; Lin, K-L; Chen, C-L; Wong, A May-Kuen; Huang, J-L

    2013-12-01

    Neonatal lupus is a rare and acquired autoimmune disease. Central nervous system abnormalities are potential manifestations in neonatal lupus. Through a systematic literature review, we analyzed the clinical features of previously reported neonatal lupus cases where central nervous system abnormalities had been identified. Most reported neonatal lupus patients with central nervous system involvement were neuroimaging-determined and asymptomatic. Only seven neonatal lupus cases were identified as having a symptomatic central nervous system abnormality which caused physical disability or required neurosurgery. A high percentage of these neurosymptomatic neonatal lupus patients had experienced a transient cutaneous skin rash and had no maternal history of autoimmune disease before pregnancy.

  6. Overview of the Autonomic Nervous System

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... be reversible or progressive. Anatomy of the autonomic nervous system The autonomic nervous system is the part of ... organs they connect with. Function of the autonomic nervous system The autonomic nervous system controls internal body processes ...

  7. The nervous systems of cnidarians

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grimmelikhuijzen, C J; Westfall, J A

    1995-01-01

    Cnidarians have simple nervous systems and it was probably within this group or a closely-related ancestor that nervous systems first evolved. The basic plan of the cnidarian nervous system is that of a nerve net which, at some locations, has condensed to form nerve plexuses, or circular...... specialized neurons that we find in higher animals today. The primitive nervous system of cnidarians is strongly peptidergic: from a single sea anemone species Anthopleura elegantissima, we have now isolated 16 different novel neuropeptides. These peptides are biologically active and cause inhibitions...... that the peptides are located in neuronal dense-cored vesicles associated with both synaptic and non-synaptic release sites. All these data indicate that evolutionarily "old" nervous systems use peptides as transmitters. We have also investigated the biosynthesis of the cnidarian neuropeptides. These neuropeptides...

  8. Nervous system (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... body to the brain and spinal cord) or motor nerves (the nerves that transmit impulses from the brain ... sensation may be diminished, lacking or abnormal. Damaged motor nerves impair movement or function. Peripheral neuropathy may be ...

  9. Autonomic Nervous System Dysfunction in Parkinson's Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zesiewicz, Theresa A.; Baker, Matthew J.; Wahba, Mervat; Hauser, Robert A.

    2003-03-01

    Autonomic nervous system (ANS) dysfunction is common in Parkinson's disease (PD), affects 70% to 80% of patients, and causes significant morbidity and discomfort. Autonomic nervous system dysfunction symptoms in PD include sexual dysfunction, swallowing and gastrointestinal disorders, bowel and bladder abnormalities, sleep disturbances, and derangements of cardiovascular regulation, particularly, orthostatic hypotension. Autonomic nervous system dysfunction in PD may be caused by an underlying degenerative process that affects the autonomic ganglia, brainstem nuclei, and hypothalamic nuclei. Anti-parkinsonian medications can cause or worsen symptoms of ANS dysfunction. The care of a PD patient with ANS dysfunction relies on its recognition and directed treatment, including coordinated care between the neurologist and appropriate subspecialist. Pharmacotherapy may be useful to treat orthostasis, gastrointestinal, urinary, and sexual dysfunction.

  10. Central nervous system lupus erythematosus in childhood

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yokota, Shumpei; Kimura, Kazue; Yoshida, Naotaka; Mitsuda, Toshihiro; Ibe, Masa-aki; Shimizu, Hiroko (Yokohama City Univ. (Japan). Faculty of Medicine)

    1989-12-01

    Clinical features of central nervous system (CNS) invlvement in childhood systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) was investigated. Neuropsychiatric manifestations including seizures, chorea, headache, overt psychosis, tremor, increase of muscle spastisity, and disturbed memory were found in 47% of 15 patients with SLE. There was a well correlatin between CNS abnormalities and SLE disease activity judged by serum complement levels and anti-nuclear antibody and anti-DNA antibody titers. The administration of Prednisolon was effective for the treatment of these CNS abnormalities and steroid psychosis was rare in the present study. EEG abnormalities involving diffuse slowing and slowing bursts were found in 73% of the patients. Cranial CT scan revealed basel ganglia calcifications in 2 patients, and marked brain atrophy in 3 patients. This study indicated that in the long term following of SLE children CNS abnormalities need to be serially checked by EEG and cranial CT scans as well as serological investigations. (author).

  11. Diseases of the nervous system associated with calcium channelopathies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Todorov, Boyan Bogdanov

    2010-01-01

    The aim of the studies described in this thesis was to investigate how abnormal CaV2.1 channel function can cause disease, in particular motor coordination dysfunction. The chapters illustrate how various neuronal cell types in the periphery (peripheral nervous system) and the central nervous system

  12. Diseases of the nervous system associated with calcium channelopathies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Todorov, Boyan Bogdanov

    2010-01-01

    The aim of the studies described in this thesis was to investigate how abnormal CaV2.1 channel function can cause disease, in particular motor coordination dysfunction. The chapters illustrate how various neuronal cell types in the periphery (peripheral nervous system) and the central nervous system

  13. The evolution of the serotonergic nervous system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hay-Schmidt, Anders

    2000-01-01

    Anatomy, serotonergic nervous system, neurons, invertebrates, phylogeny, development, apical ganglion......Anatomy, serotonergic nervous system, neurons, invertebrates, phylogeny, development, apical ganglion...

  14. Lacrimal system abnormalities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, B D

    1994-03-01

    This report outlines several of the more important abnormalities of the lacrimal system in infants and young children. Although rare, alacrima can be a very difficult clinical problem to treat. The most common cause of alacrima is the Riley-Day syndrome. Nasolacrimal duct obstruction is a very common anomaly in children. The clinical appearance and treatment of this disorder are discussed.

  15. [Central nervous system malformations: neurosurgery correlates].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiménez-León, Juan C; Betancourt-Fursow, Yaline M; Jiménez-Betancourt, Cristina S

    2013-09-06

    Congenital malformations of the central nervous system are related to alterations in neural tube formation, including most of the neurosurgical management entities, dysraphism and craniosynostosis; alterations of neuronal proliferation; megalencefaly and microcephaly; abnormal neuronal migration, lissencephaly, pachygyria, schizencephaly, agenesis of the corpus callosum, heterotopia and cortical dysplasia, spinal malformations and spinal dysraphism. We expose the classification of different central nervous system malformations that can be corrected by surgery in the shortest possible time and involving genesis mechanisms of these injuries getting better studied from neurogenic and neuroembryological fields, this involves connecting innovative knowledge areas where alteration mechanisms in dorsal induction (neural tube) and ventral induction (telencephalization) with the current way of correction, as well as the anomalies of cell proliferation and differentiation of neuronal migration and finally the complex malformations affecting the posterior fossa and current possibilities of correcting them.

  16. [Vesalius and the nervous system].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Laere, J

    1993-01-01

    Before we comment the subject of this lecture, we attract the reader's attention towards two remarks. We first want to point out that, although Vesalius is rightly considered as "the father of anatomy", in physiological matters--such as e.g. the physiology of the nervous system--he remained a faithful follower of Galen. A second preliminary remark explains why the books Vesalius devoted to the nervous system, namely the fourth and seventh books, as well as a part of the third book, don't belong to the best parts of the Fabrica, when we compare them with his Osteology and his Myology. We should not forget that some technical discoveries such as keeping brain-tissue in alcohol in order to harden it and colouring methods of Weigert, Marchi and Nissl, that made a refined macro- and microscopic examination of the nervous system possible, were only invented in the 19th century. The fourth book considers the peripheral nervous system. According to Vesalius, there are seven pairs of brain-nerves. His first pair corresponds to our Nervous opticus; his second pair concerns our Nervi oculomotorius, trochlearis and abducens; this third pair embraces a great part of our Nervus trigeminus; his fourth pair corresponds to our Nervus maxillaris; his fifth pair includes our Nervi facialis and acusticus; his sixth pair includes our Nervi vagus and accessorius; his seventh pair our Nervi hypoglossus and pharyngeus. Vesalius counts thirty pairs of spinal nerves. His description of the Plexus brachialis and the Plexus ischiadicus is closely related to the modern views in these matters. However, his teleologic views about them are remarkable, e.g. about the course of the Nervi recurrentes. The seventh book covers the brain. He successively and truly describes the cerebral membranes, the Ventriculi, the Cerebrum; his description relies on a series of horizontal slices. He also describes the brain-stem and the Cerebellum. Vesalius, who had doubts about the existence of the Plexus

  17. Novel central nervous system drug delivery systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stockwell, Jocelyn; Abdi, Nabiha; Lu, Xiaofan; Maheshwari, Oshin; Taghibiglou, Changiz

    2014-05-01

    For decades, biomedical and pharmaceutical researchers have worked to devise new and more effective therapeutics to treat diseases affecting the central nervous system. The blood-brain barrier effectively protects the brain, but poses a profound challenge to drug delivery across this barrier. Many traditional drugs cannot cross the blood-brain barrier in appreciable concentrations, with less than 1% of most drugs reaching the central nervous system, leading to a lack of available treatments for many central nervous system diseases, such as stroke, neurodegenerative disorders, and brain tumors. Due to the ineffective nature of most treatments for central nervous system disorders, the development of novel drug delivery systems is an area of great interest and active research. Multiple novel strategies show promise for effective central nervous system drug delivery, giving potential for more effective and safer therapies in the future. This review outlines several novel drug delivery techniques, including intranasal drug delivery, nanoparticles, drug modifications, convection-enhanced infusion, and ultrasound-mediated drug delivery. It also assesses possible clinical applications, limitations, and examples of current clinical and preclinical research for each of these drug delivery approaches. Improved central nervous system drug delivery is extremely important and will allow for improved treatment of central nervous system diseases, causing improved therapies for those who are affected by central nervous system diseases.

  18. Human nervous system function emulator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frenger, P

    2000-01-01

    This paper describes a modular, extensible, open-systems design for a multiprocessor network which emulates the major functions of the human nervous system. Interchangeable hardware/software components, a socketed software bus with plug-and-play capability and self diagnostics are included. The computer hardware is based on IEEE P996.1 bus cards. Its operating system utilizes IEEE 1275 standard software. Object oriented design techniques and programming are featured. A machine-independent high level script-based command language was created for this project. Neural anatomical structures which were emulated include the cortex, brainstem, cerebellum, spinal cord, autonomic and peripheral nervous systems. Motor, sensory, autoregulatory, and higher cognitive artificial intelligence, behavioral and emotional functions are provided. The author discusses how he has interfaced this emulator to machine vision, speech recognition/speech synthesis, an artificial neural network and a dexterous hand to form an android robotic platform.

  19. Clinical value of prenatal ultrasound diagnosis of fetal central nervous system abnormalities%产前超声诊断胎儿神经系统畸形的临床价值

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩磊; 沈亚梅; 彭建美; 管湘平; 王珍芳; 邹荣莉

    2016-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the clinical value of prenatal routine ultrasound examination in screening of fetal central nervous system abnormalities.Methods Ultrasound imaging features of 27 cases of abnormalities in central nervous system confirmed by autopsy or follow-up were analyzed retrospectively.Results Among these cases, there were 11 cases of spine bifida and meningomyelocele, 3 cases of Dandy-Walker syndrome ( DWS) , 3 cases of cephalocele, 3 cases of hydrocephalus, 1 case of anencephaly, 2 cases of holoprosencephaly, 2 cases of agenesis of corpus callosum, 1 cases of choroid plexus cysts, and 1 case of arachnoid cyst.The accuracy, misdiagnosis rate and missed diagnosis rate of prenatal ultrasound examination was 88.90%, 7.40%and 7.40%, respectively.Conclusion Prenatal ultrasound examination has high diagnostic accuracy for fetal central nervous system malformations, and it has very important clinical value.%目的 探讨产前常规超声检查在胎儿神经系统畸形筛查方面的临床应用价值.方法 对27例经随访及引产证实的中枢神经系统畸形胎儿进行回顾性分析.结果 27例畸形儿中,其中脊柱裂和脊髓脊膜膨出11例,Dandy-Walker畸形3例,脑脊膜膨出3例,脑积水3例,无脑儿1例,全前脑2例,胼胝体发育不全2例,脉络丛囊肿1例,蛛网膜囊肿1例,产前超声诊断准确率为88.90%,误诊率7.40%,漏诊率7.40%.结论 产前超声检查对胎儿中枢神经系统畸形诊断准确率高,具有十分重要的临床应用价值.

  20. Nanomedicine and the nervous system

    CERN Document Server

    Martin, Colin R; Hunter, Ross J

    2012-01-01

    The nanosciences encompass a variety of technologies ranging from particles to networks and nanostructures. Nanoparticles can be suitable carriers of therapeutic agents, and nanostructures provide suitable platforms and scaffolds for sub-micro bioengineering. This book focuses on nanomedicine and nanotechnology as applied to the nervous system and the brain. It covers nanoparticle-based immunoassays, nanofiber microbrush arrays, nanoelectrodes, protein nanoassemblies, nanoparticles-assisted imaging, nanomaterials, and ion channels. Additional topics include stem cell imaging, neuronal performa

  1. Aging changes in the nervous system

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... ency/article/004023.htm Aging changes in the nervous system To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. The brain and nervous system are your body's central control center. They control ...

  2. The Nervous System and Gastrointestinal Function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altaf, Muhammad A.; Sood, Manu R.

    2008-01-01

    The enteric nervous system is an integrative brain with collection of neurons in the gastrointestinal tract which is capable of functioning independently of the central nervous system (CNS). The enteric nervous system modulates motility, secretions, microcirculation, immune and inflammatory responses of the gastrointestinal tract. Dysphagia,…

  3. The Nervous System and Gastrointestinal Function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altaf, Muhammad A.; Sood, Manu R.

    2008-01-01

    The enteric nervous system is an integrative brain with collection of neurons in the gastrointestinal tract which is capable of functioning independently of the central nervous system (CNS). The enteric nervous system modulates motility, secretions, microcirculation, immune and inflammatory responses of the gastrointestinal tract. Dysphagia,…

  4. Smart electromechanical systems the central nervous system

    CERN Document Server

    Kurbanov, Vugar

    2017-01-01

    This book describes approaches to solving the problems of developing the central nervous system of robots (CNSR) based on smart electromechanical systems (SEMS) modules, principles of construction of the various modules of the central nervous system and variants of mathematical software CNSR in control systems for intelligent robots. It presents the latest advances in theory and practice at the Russian Academy of Sciences. Developers of intelligent robots to solve modern problems in robotics are increasingly addressing the use of the bionic approach to create robots that mimic the complexity and adaptability of biological systems. These have smart electromechanical system (SEMS), which are used in various cyber-physical systems (CPhS), and allow the functions of calculation, control, communications, information storage, monitoring, measurement and control of parameters and environmental parameters to be integrated. The behavior of such systems is based on the information received from the central nervous syst...

  5. Glucocorticoids and nervous system plasticity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kathryn M Madalena; Jessica K Lerch

    2016-01-01

    Glucocorticoid and glucocorticoid receptor (GC/GR) interactions alter numerous aspects of neuronal function. These consequences (e.g., anti-inlfammatoryvs. pro-inlfammatory) can vary depending on the duration of GC exposure or central nervous system (CNS) injury model. In this review we discuss how GC/GR interactions impact neuronal recovery after a central or peripheral nerve injury and discuss how GC exposure duration can produce divergent CNS neuronal growth responses. Finally we consider how new ifndings on gender speciifc immune cell responses after a nerve injury could intersect with GC/GR interactions to impact pain processing.

  6. Cocaine and the nervous system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prakash, A; Das, G

    1993-12-01

    Cocaine abuse today has reached greater heights than it did during the first cocaine epidemic in the late nineteenth century. It is estimated that one out of every four Americans has used cocaine and some six million people in the US use it regularly. Although cocaine affects all systems in the body, the central nervous system (CNS) is the primary target. Cocaine blocks the reuptake of neurotransmitters in the neuronal synapses. Almost all CNS effects of cocaine can be attributed to this mechanism. Euphoria, pharmacological pleasure and intense cocaine craving share basis in this system. The effects of cocaine on other organ systems, in addition to its effects on the CNS, account for the majority of the complications associated with cocaine abuse. In this paper, the CNS effects following cocaine administration and their treatment are discussed.

  7. Central nervous system abnormalities in patients with oculo-auriculo-vertebral spectrum (Goldenhar syndrome Anormalidades do sistema nervoso central em pacientes com espectro óculo-aurículo-vertebral (síndrome de Goldenhar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Fabiano Machado Rosa

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To describe the central nervous system (CNS alterations present in a sample of oculo-auriculo-vertebral spectrum (OAVS patients, trying to correlate them with other clinical features. METHOD: Seventeen patients with diagnosis of OAVS were evaluated. All presented radiological evaluation of the CNS, normal GTG-Banding karyotype and clinical features involving at least two from the four following areas: oro-cranio-facial, ocular, auricular and vertebral. RESULTS: CNS alterations were verified in eight from seventeen patients (47%. Diffuse cerebral hypoplasia, dilated lateral cerebral ventricles (asymptomatic hydrocephalus, corpus callosum dysgenesis and frontal hypodensities were the most frequent abnormalities. Presence of ophthalmologic abnormalities was the only clinical association observed, being significantly more frequent among patients with cerebral alterations (63% versus 11%. CONCLUSION: CNS abnormalities are frequent in patients with OAVS, especially in carriers of ophthalmologic alterations. However, the absence of detectable cerebral abnormalities did not exclude the possibility that these subjects will subsequently present neurological symptoms.OBJETIVO: Descrever as alterações do sistema nervoso central (SNC presentes em uma amostra de pacientes com espectro óculo-aurículo-vertebral (EOAV, tentando correlacioná-las com os demais achados clínicos. MÉTODO: Foram avaliados dezessete pacientes com diagnóstico de EOAV. Todos apresentavam avaliação radiológica do SNC, cariótipo por bandas GTG normal e achados clínicos em pelo menos duas das quatro das seguintes áreas: oro-crânio-facial, ocular, auricular e vertebral. RESULTADOS: Alterações do SNC foram verificadas em oito dos dezessete pacientes (47%. Hipoplasia cerebral difusa, dilatação dos ventrículos cerebrais laterais (hidrocefalia assintomática, disgenesia do corpo caloso e hipondesidades frontais foram as anormalidades mais frequentes. A presença de

  8. Dopaminergic system abnormalities Etiopathogenesis of dystonia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shuhui Wu; Huifang Shang; Xiaoyi Zou

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Much research has focused on the close relationship between etiopathogenesis of dystonia and abnormalities of the dopaminergic system. Nevertheless, details of the mechanism are still not clear.OBJECTIVE: To review studies from the past few years about pathogenesis and molecular interactions involved in the relationship between dystonia and abnormalities of the dopaminergic system.RETRIEVAL STRATEGY: Using the key words "dystonia" and "dopamine", PubMed database and SCI databases were searched from January 1990 to December 2005 for relevant English publications. A total of 73 articles were searched and, initially, all articles were selected. Inclusive criteria: studies based on pathogenesis and molecular interactions involved in the relationship between dystonia and abnormalities of the dopaminergic system. Exclusive criteria: duplicated studies. A total of 19 articles were extracted after preliminary screening.LITERATURE EVALUATION: The data sources were the PubMed and SCI databases. The types of articles chosen were reviews and original articles.DATA SYNTHESIS: Metabolism and function of dopamine in the central nervous system: the chemical constitution of dopamine is a single benzene ring. The encephalic regions of dopamine synthesis and their fiber projections comprise four nervous system pathways. One of these pathways is the substantia nigra-striatum dopamine pathway, which is a side-loop of the basal ganglia circuitry that participates in movement control and plays a main role in the adjustment of extracorticospinal tract movement. Dopamine can lead to the facilitation of movement. Dystonia and abnormalities of the dopaminergic system: different modes of dopamine abnormality exist in various forms of dystonia. Abnormalities of the dopaminergic system in several primary dystonias: at present, fifteen gene loci of primary dystonia have been reported (DYT1-DYT15). The relationship between abnormalities of the dopaminergic system and the

  9. Autonomic nervous system and immune system interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenney, M J; Ganta, C K

    2014-07-01

    The present review assesses the current state of literature defining integrative autonomic-immune physiological processing, focusing on studies that have employed electrophysiological, pharmacological, molecular biological, and central nervous system experimental approaches. Central autonomic neural networks are informed of peripheral immune status via numerous communicating pathways, including neural and non-neural. Cytokines and other immune factors affect the level of activity and responsivity of discharges in sympathetic and parasympathetic nerves innervating diverse targets. Multiple levels of the neuraxis contribute to cytokine-induced changes in efferent parasympathetic and sympathetic nerve outflows, leading to modulation of peripheral immune responses. The functionality of local sympathoimmune interactions depends on the microenvironment created by diverse signaling mechanisms involving integration between sympathetic nervous system neurotransmitters and neuromodulators; specific adrenergic receptors; and the presence or absence of immune cells, cytokines, and bacteria. Functional mechanisms contributing to the cholinergic anti-inflammatory pathway likely involve novel cholinergic-adrenergic interactions at peripheral sites, including autonomic ganglion and lymphoid targets. Immune cells express adrenergic and nicotinic receptors. Neurotransmitters released by sympathetic and parasympathetic nerve endings bind to their respective receptors located on the surface of immune cells and initiate immune-modulatory responses. Both sympathetic and parasympathetic arms of the autonomic nervous system are instrumental in orchestrating neuroimmune processes, although additional studies are required to understand dynamic and complex adrenergic-cholinergic interactions. Further understanding of regulatory mechanisms linking the sympathetic nervous, parasympathetic nervous, and immune systems is critical for understanding relationships between chronic disease

  10. Central nervous system involvement in diabetic neuropathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selvarajah, Dinesh; Wilkinson, Iain D; Davies, Jennifer; Gandhi, Rajiv; Tesfaye, Solomon

    2011-08-01

    Diabetic neuropathy is a chronic and often disabling condition that affects a significant number of individuals with diabetes. Long considered a disease of the peripheral nervous system, there is now increasing evidence of central nervous system involvement. Recent advances in neuroimaging methods detailed in this review have led to a better understanding and refinement of how diabetic neuropathy affects the central nervous system. Recognition that diabetic neuropathy is, in part, a disease that affects the whole nervous system is resulting in a critical rethinking of this disorder, opening a new direction for further research.

  11. Systemic abnormalities in liver disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Masami Minemura; Kazuto Tajiri; Yukihiro Shimizu

    2009-01-01

    Systemic abnormalities often occur in patients with liver disease. In particular, cardiopulmonary or renal diseases accompanied by advanced liver disease can be serious and may determine the quality of life and prognosis of patients. Therefore, both hepatologists and non-hepatologists should pay attention to such abnormalities in the management of patients with liver diseases.

  12. Central nervous system tuberculosis: MRI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kioumehr, F.; Dadsetan, M.R.; Rooholamini, S.A.; Au, A.

    1994-02-01

    The MRI findings of 18 proven cases of central nervous system (CNS) tuberculosis were reviewed; 10 patients were seropositive for HIV. All had medical, laboratory, or surgical proof of CNS tuberculosis. Eleven patients had meningitis, of whom two also had arachnoiditis. Five patients had focal intra-axial tuberculomas: four brain masses and one an intramedullary spinal lesion. Two patients had focal extra-axial tuberculomas: one in the pontine cistern, and one in the spine. In all 11 patients with meningitis MRI showed diffuse, thick, meningeal enhancement. All intraparenchymal tuberculomas showed low signal intensity on T2-weighted images and ring or nodular enhancement. The extra-axial tuberculomas had areas isointense or hypointense relative to normal brain and spinal cord on T2-weighted images. Although tuberculous meningitis cannot be differentiated from other meningitides on the basis of MR findings, intraparenchymal tuberculomas show characteristic T2 shortening, not found in most other space-occupying lesions. In the appropriate clinical setting, tuberculoma should be considered. (orig.)

  13. Neurogenesis in the adult peripheral nervous system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Krzysztof Czaja; Michele Fornaro; Stefano Geuna

    2012-01-01

    Most researchers believe that neurogenesis in mature mammals is restricted only to the subgranular zone of the dentate gyrus and the subventricular zone of the lateral ventricle in the central nervous system. In the peripheral nervous system, neurogenesis is thought to be active only during prenatal development, with the exception of the olfactory neuroepithelium. However, sensory ganglia in the adult peripheral nervous system have been reported to contain precursor cells that can proliferate in vitro and be induced to differentiate into neurons. The occurrence of insult-induced neurogenesis, which has been reported by several investigators in the brain, is limited to a few recent reports for the peripheral nervous system. These reports suggest that damage to the adult nervous system induces mechanisms similar to those that control the generation of new neurons during prenatal development. Understanding conditions under which neurogenesis can be induced in physiologically non-neurogenic regions in adults is one of the major challenges for developing therapeutic strategies to repair neurological damage. However, the induced neurogenesis in the peripheral nervous system is still largely unexplored. This review presents the history of research on adult neurogenesis in the peripheral nervous system, which dates back more than 100 years and reveals the evidence on the under estimated potential for generation of new neurons in the adult peripheral nervous system.

  14. The Central Nervous System of Box Jellyfish

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Garm, Anders Lydik; Ekström, Peter

    2008-01-01

    of behaviors in the box jellyfish such as obstacle avoidance and navigation. The need to process the visual information and turn it into the appropriate behavior puts strong demands on the nervous system of box jellyfish, which appears more elaborate than in other cnidarians. Here, the central part...... of this nervous system is described. Each rhopalium holds a separate part of the CNS with 1,000 nerve cells and a large amount of neuropil. The rhopalial nervous system has several subsystems defined by the anatomy, location, and immunocytochemistry of the cells. Most of the subsystems connect to one or more...... of the eye types, and it is likely that the rhopalial nervous system accounts for most of the visual processing. The major part of the CNS is made up of a ring nerve encircling the bell shaped body. The ring nerve holds around 10,000 cells and is directly connected to all four rhopalial nervous systems...

  15. Haemangiopericytoma of central nervous system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borg, M.F.; Benjamin, C.S. [Auckland Hospital, Auckland (New Zealand). Dept. of Clinical Oncology

    1995-02-01

    The records of four patients presenting with a histological diagnosis of haemangiopericytoma of the central nervous system, in Auckland, New Zealand, between 1970 and 1990 were reviewed retrospectively, with the aim of determining the natural history of the disease and response to various treatment modalities. Three out of the four patients reviewed presented with primary cerebral disease and the fourth with a primary spinal cord tumour. All three cerebral primary patients were initially treated with local surgical excision. All three patients received radical radiotherapy following local recurrence. The first two patients remained disease-free locally although one patient developed a solitary liver metastasis 5 years after radiotherapy. The third patient was referred with multiple cerebral metastases and failed to respond to radiotherapy. The patient with the primary lesion in the spinal cord was treated with local excision followed by postoperative radiotherapy and remains disease-free 17 years after treatment. One patient failed to respond to chemotherapy, prescribed to treat a local recurrence adjacent to the previous radiotherapy field. This was successfully excised subsequently. The patient presenting with multiple cerebral metastases was the only patient to die of this disease. Results suggest that local recurrence is avoidable with adequate wide excision of the primary tumour followed by local radical radiotherapy. The role of chemotherapy remains controversial and no conclusion could be drawn regarding the role of palliative radiotherapy from this study. Active treatment and long-term follow-up are necessary because of the relative aggressiveness of this disease and the propensity for late relapses. 22 refs., 2 tabs., 6 figs.

  16. Nervous system examination on YouTube

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Web 2.0 sites such as YouTube have become a useful resource for knowledge and are used by medical students as a learning resource. This study aimed at assessing videos covering the nervous system examination on YouTube. Methods A research of YouTube was conducted from 2 November to 2 December 2011 using the following key words “nervous system examination”, “nervous system clinical examination”, “cranial nerves examination”, “CNS examination”, “examination of cerebellum”, “...

  17. MRI of central nervous system anomalies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Izawa, M.; Oikawa, A.; Matoba, A.

    1987-05-01

    MRI was very useful in the evaluation of congenital anomalies of central nervous system as well as other nervous system disease with three-dimensional spatial resolution. We had experienced MRI of central nervous system anomalies, demonstrated characterisitic findings in each anomaly. MRI is useful to observe the coronal, horizontal and sagittal images of the brain and spinal cord in order to discuss the etiological mechanisms of spinal dysraphysm and its associated anomalies. In case of spina bifida cystica MRI was available to decide operative indication for radical operation and tetherd cord developed from postoperative scar or accompanied intraspinal lesions.

  18. [Functional anatomy of the central nervous system].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krainik, A; Feydy, A; Colombani, J M; Hélias, A; Menu, Y

    2003-03-01

    The central nervous system (CNS) has a particular regional functional anatomy. The morphological support of cognitive functions can now be depicted using functional imaging. Lesions of the central nervous system may be responsible of specific symptoms based on their location. Current neuroimaging techniques are able to show and locate precisely macroscopic lesions. Therefore, the knowledge of functional anatomy of the central nervous system is useful to link clinical disorders to symptomatic lesions. Using radio-clinical cases, we present the functional neuro-anatomy related to common cognitive impairments.

  19. Effects of ethanol exposure on nervous system development in zebrafish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, Gregory J; Zhang, Chengjin; Ojiaku, Princess; Bell, Vanessa; Devkota, Shailendra; Mukhopadhyay, Somnath

    2012-01-01

    Alcohol (ethanol) is a teratogen that adversely affects nervous system development in a wide range of animal species. In humans numerous congenital abnormalities arise as a result of fetal alcohol exposure, leading to a spectrum of disorders referred to as fetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD). These abnormalities include craniofacial defects as well as neurological defects that affect a variety of behaviors. These human FASD phenotypes are reproduced in the rodent central nervous system (CNS) following prenatal ethanol exposure. While the study of ethanol effects on zebrafish development has been more limited, several studies have shown that different strains of zebrafish exhibit differential susceptibility to ethanol-induced cyclopia, as well as behavioral deficits. Molecular mechanisms underlying the effects of ethanol on CNS development also appear to be shared between rodent and zebrafish. Thus, zebrafish appear to recapitulate the observed effects of ethanol on human and mouse CNS development, indicating that zebrafish can serve as a complimentary developmental model system to study the molecular basis of FASD. Recent studies examining the effect of ethanol exposure on zebrafish nervous system development are reviewed, with an emphasis on attempts to elucidate possible molecular pathways that may be impacted by developmental ethanol exposure. Recent work from our laboratories supports a role for perturbed extracellular matrix function in the pathology of ethanol exposure during zebrafish CNS development. The use of the zebrafish model to assess the effects of ethanol exposure on adult nervous system function as manifested by changes in zebrafish behavior is also discussed.

  20. viral infections of the central nervous system

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Viral infections of the central nervous system (CNS) include both acute and chronic conditions ... ADEM is a rare, immune-mediated disorder that is triggered by an environmental stimulus in ... difficulties and apathy. Typically there is cognitive ...

  1. Sonic hedgehog signaling during nervous system development

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qin Yang; Peng Xie

    2008-01-01

    The Hedgehog signaling pathway plays a key role in embryonic development and organ formation.Sonic hedgehog signaling participates in nervous system development,regulates proliferation and differentiation of neural stem cells,controls growth and targeting of axons,and contributes to specialization of oligodendrocytes.For further studies of the Sonic hedgehog signaling pathway and for the development of new drugs in the treatment of nervous system diseases,it is beneficial to understand these mechanisms.

  2. Doppler colour flow mapping of fetal intracerebral arteries in the presence of central nervous system anomalies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.W. Wladimiroff (Juriy); R. Heydanus (Rogier); P.A. Stewart (Patricia)

    1993-01-01

    textabstractThe adjunctive role of Doppler colour flow mapping in the evaluation of intracerebral morphology and arterial blood flow in the presence of normal and abnormal central nervous system morphology was determined. A total of 59 fetuses with suspected central nervous system pathology between

  3. [Parasitic diseases of the central nervous system].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmutzhard, E

    2010-02-01

    Central nervous system infections and infestations by protozoa and helminths constitute a problem of increasing importance throughout all of central European and northern/western countries. This is partially due to the globalisation of our society, tourists and business people being more frequently exposed to parasitic infection/infestation in tropical countries than in moderate climate countries. On top of that, migrants may import chronic infestations and infections with parasitic pathogens, eventually also--sometimes exclusively--involving the nervous system. Knowledge of epidemiology, initial clinical signs and symptoms, diagnostic procedures as well as specific chemotherapeutic therapies and adjunctive therapeutic strategies is of utmost important in all of these infections and infestations of the nervous systems, be it by protozoa or helminths. This review lists, mainly in the form of tables, all possible infections and infestations of the nervous systems by protozoa and by helminths. Besides differentiating parasitic diseases of the nervous system seen in migrants, tourists etc., it is very important to have in mind that disease-related (e.g. HIV) or iatrogenic immunosuppression has led to the increased occurrence of a wide variety of parasitic infections and infestations of the nervous system (e. g. babesiosis, Chagas disease, Strongyloides stercoralis infestation, toxoplasmosis, etc.).

  4. Central nervous system complications after liver transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jeong-Min; Jung, Keun-Hwa; Lee, Soon-Tae; Chu, Kon; Roh, Jae-Kyu

    2015-08-01

    We investigated the diversity of central nervous system complications after liver transplantation in terms of clinical manifestations and temporal course. Liver transplantation is a lifesaving option for end stage liver disease patients but post-transplantation neurologic complications can hamper recovery. Between 1 January 2001 and 31 December 2010, patients who had undergone liver transplantation at a single tertiary university hospital were included. We reviewed their medical records and brain imaging data and classified central nervous system complications into four categories including vascular, metabolic, infectious and neoplastic. The onset of central nervous system complications was grouped into five post-transplantation intervals including acute (within 1 month), early subacute (1-3 months), late subacute (3-12 months), chronic (1-3 years), and long-term (after 3 years). During follow-up, 65 of 791 patients (8.2%) experienced central nervous system complications, with 30 occurring within 1 month after transplantation. Vascular etiology was the most common (27 patients; 41.5%), followed by metabolic (23; 35.4%), infectious (nine patients; 13.8%), and neoplastic (six patients). Metabolic encephalopathy with altered consciousness was the most common etiology during the acute period, followed by vascular disorders. An initial focal neurologic deficit was detected in vascular and neoplastic complications, whereas metabolic and infectious etiologies presented with non-focal symptoms. Our study shows that the etiology of central nervous system complications after liver transplantation changes over time, and initial symptoms can help to predict etiology.

  5. Comparative anatomy of the autonomic nervous system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nilsson, Stefan

    2011-11-16

    This short review aims to point out the general anatomical features of the autonomic nervous systems of non-mammalian vertebrates. In addition it attempts to outline the similarities and also the increased complexity of the autonomic nervous patterns from fish to tetrapods. With the possible exception of the cyclostomes, perhaps the most striking feature of the vertebrate autonomic nervous system is the similarity between the vertebrate classes. An evolution of the complexity of the system can be seen, with the segmental ganglia of elasmobranchs incompletely connected longitudinally, while well developed paired sympathetic chains are present in teleosts and the tetrapods. In some groups the sympathetic chains may be reduced (dipnoans and caecilians), and have yet to be properly described in snakes. Cranial autonomic pathways are present in the oculomotor (III) and vagus (X) nerves of gnathostome fish and the tetrapods, and with the evolution of salivary and lachrymal glands in the tetrapods, also in the facial (VII) and glossopharyngeal (IX) nerves.

  6. Laser puncture therapy of nervous system disorders

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anishchenko, G.; Kochetkov, V.

    1984-08-29

    The authors discuss experience with treatment of nervous system disorders by means of laser-puncture therapy. Commenting on the background of the selection of this type of treatment, they explain that once researchers determined the biological action of laser light on specific nerve receptors of the skin, development of laser apparatus capable of concentrating the beam in the millimeter band was undertaken. The devices that are being used for laser-puncture are said to operate in the red helium-neon band of light. The authors identify beam parameters that have been selected for different groups of acupuncture points of the skin, and the courses of treatment (in seconds of radiation) and their time intervals. They go on to discuss the results of treatment of over 800 patients categorized in a group with disorders of the peripheral nervous system and a second group with disorders of the central nervous system.

  7. Hydrogels for central nervous system therapeutic strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russo, Teresa; Tunesi, Marta; Giordano, Carmen; Gloria, Antonio; Ambrosio, Luigi

    2015-12-01

    The central nervous system shows a limited regenerative capacity, and injuries or diseases, such as those in the spinal, brain and retina, are a great problem since current therapies seem to be unable to achieve good results in terms of significant functional recovery. Different promising therapies have been suggested, the aim being to restore at least some of the lost functions. The current review deals with the use of hydrogels in developing advanced devices for central nervous system therapeutic strategies. Several approaches, involving cell-based therapy, delivery of bioactive molecules and nanoparticle-based drug delivery, will be first reviewed. Finally, some examples of injectable hydrogels for the delivery of bioactive molecules in central nervous system will be reported, and the key features as well as the basic principles in designing multifunctional devices will be described.

  8. Novel markers identify nervous system components of the holothurian nervous system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díaz-Balzac, Carlos A; Vázquez-Figueroa, Lionel D; García-Arrarás, José E

    2014-09-01

    Echinoderms occupy a key position in the evolution of deuterostomes. As such, the study of their nervous system can shed important information on the evolution of the vertebrate nervous system. However, the study of the echinoderm nervous system has lagged behind when compared to that of other invertebrates due to the lack of tools available. In this study, we tested three commercially available antibodies as markers of neural components in holothurians. Immunohistological experiments with antibodies made against the mammalian transcription factors Pax6 and Nurr1, and against phosphorylated histone H3 showed that these markers identified cells and fibers within the nervous system of Holothuria glaberrima. Most of the fibers recognized by these antibodies were co-labeled with the well-known neural marker, RN1. Additional experiments showed that similar immunoreactivity was found in the nervous tissue of three other holothurian species (Holothuria mexicana, Leptosynapta clarki and Sclerodactyla briareus), thus extending our findings to the three orders of Holothuroidea. Furthermore, these markers identified different subdivisions of the holothurian nervous system. Our study presents three additional markers of the holothurian nervous system, expanding the available toolkit to study the anatomy, physiology, development and evolution of the echinoderm nervous system.

  9. Therapeutic Application of Electric Fields in the Injured Nervous System

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    Significance: Nervous system injuries, both in the peripheral nervous system (PNS) and central nervous system are a major cause for pain, loss-of-function, and impairment of daily life. As nervous system injuries commonly heal slowly or incompletely, new therapeutic approaches may be required.

  10. Interferons in the central nervous system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Owens, Trevor; Khorooshi, Reza M. H.; Wlodarczyk, Agnieszka

    2014-01-01

    Interferons (IFNs) are implicated as an important component of the innate immune system influencing viral infections, inflammation, and immune surveillance. We review here the complex biological activity of IFNs in the central nervous system (CNS) and associated glial–immune interactions...

  11. Ephrin signalling in the developing nervous system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, Rüdiger; Kania, Artur

    2014-08-01

    Ephrin ligands and their Eph receptors hold our attention since their link to axon guidance almost twenty years ago. Since then, they have been shown to be critical for short distance cell-cell interactions in the nervous system. The interest in their function has not abated, leading to ever-more sophisticated studies generating as many surprising answers about their function as new questions. We discuss recent insights into their functions in the developing nervous system, including neuronal progenitor sorting, stochastic cell migration, guidance of neuronal growth cones, topographic map formation, as well as synaptic plasticity.

  12. Perturbed autonomic nervous system function in metabolic syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tentolouris, Nicholas; Argyrakopoulou, Georgia; Katsilambros, Nicholas

    2008-01-01

    The metabolic syndrome is characterized by the clustering of various common metabolic abnormalities in an individual and it is associated with increased risk for the development of type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular diseases. Its prevalence in the general population is approximately 25%. Central fat accumulation and insulin resistance are considered as the common denominators of the abnormalities of the metabolic syndrome. Subjects with metabolic syndrome have autonomic nervous system dysfunction characterized by predominance of the sympathetic nervous system in many organs, i.e. heart, kidneys, vasculature, adipose tissue, and muscles. Sympathetic nervous system activation in metabolic syndrome is detected as increased heart rate and blood pressure, diminished heart rate variability, baroreceptor dysfunction, enhanced lipolysis in visceral fat, increased muscle sympathetic nerve activity, and high urine or plasma catecholamine concentrations as well as turnover rates. The augmented sympathetic activity in individuals with metabolic syndrome worsens prognosis of this high-risk population. The mechanisms linking metabolic syndrome with sympathetic activation are complex and not clearly understood. Whether sympathetic overactivity is involved in the development of the metabolic syndrome or is a consequence of it remains to be elucidated since data from prospective studies are missing. Intervention studies have demonstrated that the autonomic disturbances of the metabolic syndrome may be reversible.

  13. Vitamin D and the central nervous system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wrzosek, Małgorzata; Łukaszkiewicz, Jacek; Wrzosek, Michał; Jakubczyk, Andrzej; Matsumoto, Halina; Piątkiewicz, Paweł; Radziwoń-Zaleska, Maria; Wojnar, Marcin; Nowicka, Grażyna

    2013-01-01

    Vitamin D is formed in human epithelial cells via photochemical synthesis and is also acquired from dietary sources. The so-called classical effect of this vitamin involves the regulation of calcium homeostasis and bone metabolism. Apart from this, non-classical effects of vitamin D have recently gained renewed attention. One important yet little known of the numerous functions of vitamin D is the regulation of nervous system development and function. The neuroprotective effect of vitamin D is associated with its influence on neurotrophin production and release, neuromediator synthesis, intracellular calcium homeostasis, and prevention of oxidative damage to nervous tissue. Clinical studies suggest that vitamin D deficiency may lead to an increased risk of disease of the central nervous system (CNS), particularly schizophrenia and multiple sclerosis. Adequate intake of vitamin D during pregnancy and the neonatal period seems to be crucial in terms of prevention of these diseases.

  14. Central nervous system and computation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guidolin, Diego; Albertin, Giovanna; Guescini, Michele; Fuxe, Kjell; Agnati, Luigi F

    2011-12-01

    Computational systems are useful in neuroscience in many ways. For instance, they may be used to construct maps of brain structure and activation, or to describe brain processes mathematically. Furthermore, they inspired a powerful theory of brain function, in which the brain is viewed as a system characterized by intrinsic computational activities or as a "computational information processor. "Although many neuroscientists believe that neural systems really perform computations, some are more cautious about computationalism or reject it. Thus, does the brain really compute? Answering this question requires getting clear on a definition of computation that is able to draw a line between physical systems that compute and systems that do not, so that we can discern on which side of the line the brain (or parts of it) could fall. In order to shed some light on the role of computational processes in brain function, available neurobiological data will be summarized from the standpoint of a recently proposed taxonomy of notions of computation, with the aim of identifying which brain processes can be considered computational. The emerging picture shows the brain as a very peculiar system, in which genuine computational features act in concert with noncomputational dynamical processes, leading to continuous self-organization and remodeling under the action of external stimuli from the environment and from the rest of the organism.

  15. Nervous system examination on YouTube

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azer Samy A

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Web 2.0 sites such as YouTube have become a useful resource for knowledge and are used by medical students as a learning resource. This study aimed at assessing videos covering the nervous system examination on YouTube. Methods A research of YouTube was conducted from 2 November to 2 December 2011 using the following key words “nervous system examination”, “nervous system clinical examination”, “cranial nerves examination”, “CNS examination”, “examination of cerebellum”, “balance and coordination examination”. Only relevant videos in the English language were identified and related URL recorded. For each video, the following information was collected: title, author/s, duration, number of viewers, number of posted comments, and total number of days on YouTube. Using criteria comprising content, technical authority and pedagogy parameters, videos were rated independently by three assessors and grouped into educationally useful and non-educationally useful. Results A total of 2240 videos were screened; 129 were found to have relevant information to nervous system examination. Analysis revealed that 61 (47% of the videos provided useful information on the nervous system examination. These videos scored (mean ± SD, 14.9 ± 0.2 and mainly covered examination of the whole nervous system (8 videos, 13%, cranial nerves (42 videos, 69%, upper limbs (6 videos, 10%, lower limbs (3 videos, 5%, balance and co-ordination (2 videos, 3%. The other 68 (53% videos were not useful educationally; scoring (mean ± SD, 11.1 ± 3.0. The total viewers of all videos was 2,189,434. Useful videos were viewed by 1,050,445 viewers (48% of total viewers. The total viewership per day for useful videos was 1,794.5 and for non-useful videos 1,132.0. The differences between the three assessors were insignificant (less than 0.5 for the mean and 0.3 for the SD. Conclusions Currently, YouTube provides an adequate resource

  16. [Autonomic nervous system in diabetes].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emdin, M

    2001-08-01

    Hyperglycemia and hyperinsulinemia have a primary role in determining the early functional and later anatomic changes at the level of the autonomic pathways controlling the circulation, and besides in directly influencing cardiac and vascular cellular targets and feed-back baroreceptor system sensitivity to neurohumoral modulation in patients with diabetes mellitus. The basic mechanisms of dysfunction and damage, and the clinical and prognostic value of diabetic cardiovascular dysautonomia are discussed together with the diagnostic apparatus and the possible therapeutic approaches.

  17. [Eales' disease involving central nervous system white matter].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antigüedad, A; Zarranz, J J

    1994-01-01

    Eales' disease (ED) is a rare condition characterized by repeated retinal and vitreous hemorrhages. The only extraocular involvement described occasionally in the literature is neurological. Histologically, vasculitis in ED is usually restricted to the eye, but occasionally involves the central nervous system, where demyelinizing lesions may also occur. We present a 34-year-old male with ED and subclinical central nervous system involvement. Craneal magnetic resonance images (MR) suggested demyelinization; brainstem auditory and somatosensory evoked potentials were abnormal. There was moderate pleocytosis in CSF and intratecal production of immunoglobulins with oligoclonal bands. Follow-up over a period of 2.5 years showed no clinical, MR or CSF changes in spite of continued opthamological impairment. Little is known about factors that affect the development or not of demyelinizing lesions in ED patients with neurological involvement demonstrated by intratecal production of immunoglobulins. Identification of such factors may contribute to our understanding of other diseases, such as multiple sclerosis.

  18. Superficial siderosis in the central nervous system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pythinen, J. [Oulu Univ. (Finland). Dept. of Diagnostic Radiology; Paeaekkoe, E. [Oulu Univ. (Finland). Dept. of Diagnostic Radiology; Ilkko, E. [Oulu Univ. (Finland). Dept. of Diagnostic Radiology

    1995-02-01

    We describe a rare entity, superficial siderosis of the central nervous system, due to multiple small episodes of subarachnoid haemorrhage from any source. Non-specific neurological findings are associated with deposition of iron-containing pigments in the leptomeninges and superficial layers of the cortex. T2-weighted magnetic resonance imaging demonstrates characteristic low signal in the meninges. (orig.)

  19. Hypersensitivity Responses in the Central Nervous System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Khorooshi, Reza; Asgari, Nasrin; Mørch, Marlene Thorsen

    2015-01-01

    of pathology in neuromyelitis optica (NMO), a central nervous system (CNS) demyelinating disease where activated neutrophils infiltrate, unlike in MS. The most widely used model for MS, experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis, is an autoantigen-immunized disease that can be transferred to naive animals...

  20. Imaging of the fetal central nervous system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pistorius, L.R.

    2008-01-01

    Introduction : Ultrasound and MR imaging of the fetal central nervous system (CNS) develop at an ever-increasing rate. Theoretically, the two modalities should be synergistic, but a literature review revealed the difficulties of determining the merit of either technique and revealed gaps in our know

  1. LGI proteins in the nervous system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L. Kegel (Linde); E. Aunin (Eerik); D.N. Meijer (Dies); J.R. Bermingham Jr (John)

    2013-01-01

    textabstractThe development and function of the vertebrate nervous system depend on specific interactions between different cell types. Two examples of such interactions are synaptic transmission and myelination. LGI1-4 (leucine-rich glioma inactivated proteins) play important roles in these process

  2. Primary Angiitis Of The Central Nervous System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sundaram Meenakshi

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available An unusual case of primary angiitis of central nervous system (PACNS presenting with headache, seizures and focal deficits is presented. Despite multiple lesions noted on brain MRI, definitive diagnosis required a brain biopsy. A high index of clinical suspicious and the utility of brain biopsy for diagnosis are emphasized.

  3. Phenylketonuria: central nervous system and microbiome interaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Demian Arturo Herrera Morban

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Phenylketonuria (PKU is an autosomal recessive inborn error of metabolism characterized by increased phenylalanine (Phe levels causing an inadequate neurodevelopment; the treatment of PKU is a Phe-restricting diet, and as such it can modulate the intestinal microbiome of the individual, generating central nervous system secondary disturbances that, added to the baseline disturbance, can influence the outcome of the disease.

  4. Central nervous system abnormalities on midline facial defects with hypertelorism detected by magnetic resonance image and computed tomography; Anomalias de sistema nervoso central em defeitos de linha media facial com hipertelorismo detectados por ressonancia magnetica e tomografia computadorizada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopes, Vera Lucia Gil da Silva; Giffoni, Silvio David Araujo [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP), SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Ciencias Medicas. Dep. de Genetica Medica]. E-mail: vlopes@fcm.unicamp.br

    2006-10-15

    The aim of this study were to describe and to compare structural central nervous system (CNS) anomalies detected by magnetic resonance image (MRI) and computed tomography (CT) in individuals affected by midline facial defects with hypertelorism (MFDH) isolated or associated with multiple congenital anomalies (MCA). The investigation protocol included dysmorphological examination, skull and facial X-rays, brain CT and/or MRI. We studied 24 individuals, 12 of them had an isolated form (Group I) and the others, MCA with unknown etiology (Group II). There was no significant difference between Group I and II and the results are presented in set. In addition to the several CNS anomalies previously described, MRI (n=18) was useful for detection of neuronal migration errors. These data suggested that structural CNS anomalies and MFDH seem to have an intrinsic embryological relationship, which should be taken in account during the clinical follow-up. (author)

  5. Influence of thyroid in nervous system growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mussa, G C; Mussa, F; Bretto, R; Zambelli, M C; Silvestro, L

    2001-08-01

    Nervous system growth and differentiation are closely correlated with the presence of iodine and thyroid hormones in initial development stages. In the human species, encephalon maturation during the first quarter of pregnancy is affected according to recent studies by the transplacenta passage of maternal thyroid hormones while it depends on initial iodiothyronin secretion by the foetal gland after the 12th week of pregnancy. Thyroid hormone deficiency during nervous system development causes altered noble nervous cells, such as the pyramidal cortical and Purkinje cells, during glial cell proliferation and differentiation alike. Neurons present cell hypoplasia with reduced axon count, dendritic branching, synaptic spikes and interneuron connections. Oligodendrocytes decrease in number and average myelin content consequently drops. Biochemical studies on hypothyroid rats have demonstrated alterations to neuron intraplasmatic microtubule content and organisation, changed mitochondria number and arrangement and anomalies in T3 nuclear and citoplasmatic receptor maturation. Alterations to microtubules are probably responsible for involvement of the axon-dendrite system, and are the consequence of deficient thyroid hormone action on the mitochondria, the mitochondria enzymes and proteins associated with microtubules. Nuclear and citoplasmatic receptors have been identified and gene clonation studies have shown two families of nuclear receptors that include several sub-groups in their turn. A complex scheme of temporal and spatial expression of these receptors exists, so they probably contribute with one complementary function, although their physiological role differs. The action of thyroid hormones occurs by changing cell protein levels because of their regulation at the transcriptional or post-transcriptional level. Genes submitted to thyroid hormone control are either expressed by oligodendrytes, which are myelin protein coders or glial differentiation mediators, or

  6. Isolated Central Nervous System Vasculitis Associated with Antiribonuclear Protein Antibody

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amer M. Awad

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available We describe the case of a young woman who was referred to a tertiary care center with unexplained subacute progressive encephalopathy preceded by long-standing severe headaches. Her extensive workup was remarkable for abnormal intracranial angiography suggestive of small- and medium-vessel vasculitis, persistently elevated protein in the cerebrospinal fluid and persistently high titers of antiribonuclear protein antibody. The patient showed a modest response to intravenous high-dose steroids. We propose that the patient's neurologic disease is secondary to immune-mediated central nervous system vasculitis, possibly as an initial manifestation of mixed connective tissue disease.

  7. Autonomic nervous system dysregulation in pediatric hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feber, Janusz; Ruzicka, Marcel; Geier, Pavel; Litwin, Mieczyslaw

    2014-05-01

    Historically, primary hypertension (HTN) has been prevalent typically in adults. Recent data however, suggests an increasing number of children diagnosed with primary HTN, mainly in the setting of obesity. One of the factors considered in the etiology of HTN is the autonomous nervous system, namely its dysregulation. In the past, the sympathetic nervous system (SNS) was regarded as a system engaged mostly in buffering major acute changes in blood pressure (BP), in response to physical and emotional stressors. Recent evidence suggests that the SNS plays a much broader role in the regulation of BP, including the development and maintenance of sustained HTN by a chronically elevated central sympathetic tone in adults and children with central/visceral obesity. Consequently, attempts have been made to reduce the SNS hyperactivity, in order to intervene early in the course of the disease and prevent HTN-related complications later in life.

  8. Vasculitis Syndromes of the Central and Peripheral Nervous Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Sheets Vasculitis Syndromes of the Central and Peripheral Nervous Systems Fact Sheet Table of Contents (click to jump ... flow of blood. How does vasculitis affect the nervous system? Vasculitis can cause problems in any organ system, ...

  9. [Emotion, amygdala, and autonomic nervous system].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ueyama, Takashi

    2012-10-01

    Emotion refers to the dynamic changes of feeling accompanied by the alteration of physical and visceral activities. Autonomic nervous system (sympathetic and parasympathetic) regulates the visceral activities. Therefore, monitoring and analyzing autonomic nervous activity help understand the emotional changes. To this end, the survey of the expression of immediate early genes (IEGs), such as c-Fos in the brain and target organs, and the viral transneuronal labeling method using the pseudorabies virus (PRV) have enabled the visualization of the neurocircuitry of emotion. By comparing c-Fos expression and data from PRV or other neuroanatomical labeling techniques, the central sites that regulate emotional stress-induced autonomic activation can be deduced. Such regions have been identified in the limbic system (e. g., the extended amygdaloid complex; lateral septum; and infralimbic, insular, and ventromedial temporal cortical regions), as well as in several hypothalamic and brainstem nuclei. The amygdala is structurally diverse and comprises several subnuclei, which play a role in emotional process via projections from the cortex and a variety of subcortical structures. All amygdaloid subnuclei receive psychological information from other limbic systems, while the lateral and central subnuclei receive peripheral and sensory information. Output to the hypothalamus and peripheral sympathetic system mainly originates from the medial amygdala. As estrogen receptor α, estrogen receptor β, and androgen receptor are expressed in the medial amygdala, sex steroids may modulate the autonomic nervous activities.

  10. Maintaining genome stability in the nervous system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKinnon, Peter J

    2013-11-01

    Active maintenance of genome stability is a prerequisite for the development and function of the nervous system. The high replication index during neurogenesis and the long life of mature neurons highlight the need for efficient cellular programs to safeguard genetic fidelity. Multiple DNA damage response pathways ensure that replication stress and other types of DNA lesions, such as oxidative damage, do not affect neural homeostasis. Numerous human neurologic syndromes result from defective DNA damage signaling and compromised genome integrity. These syndromes can involve different neuropathology, which highlights the diverse maintenance roles that are required for genome stability in the nervous system. Understanding how DNA damage signaling pathways promote neural development and preserve homeostasis is essential for understanding fundamental brain function.

  11. Regeneration in the nervous system with erythropoietin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maiese, Kenneth

    2016-01-01

    Globally, greater than 30 million individuals are afflicted with disorders of the nervous system accompanied by tens of thousands of new cases annually with limited, if any, treatment options. Erythropoietin (EPO) offers an exciting and novel therapeutic strategy to address both acute and chronic neurodegenerative disorders. EPO governs a number of critical protective and regenerative mechanisms that can impact apoptotic and autophagic programmed cell death pathways through protein kinase B (Akt), sirtuins, mammalian forkhead transcription factors, and wingless signaling. Translation of the cytoprotective pathways of EPO into clinically effective treatments for some neurodegenerative disorders has been promising, but additional work is necessary. In particular, development of new treatments with erythropoiesis-stimulating agents such as EPO brings several important challenges that involve detrimental vascular outcomes and tumorigenesis. Future work that can effectively and safely harness the complexity of the signaling pathways of EPO will be vital for the fruitful treatment of disorders of the nervous system.

  12. Primary Angiitis of the Central Nervous System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mojdeh Ghabaee

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Primary angiitis of the central nervous system (PACNS is an idiopathic disorder (vasculitis restricted to the central nervous system (CNS. It often presents with focal neurological deficits suggesting stroke or a combination of confusion and headache. We herein report three cases with various combinations of fever, partial seizure, encephalopathy, paresis, headache and ataxia. One of them was initially treated as herpes simplex meningoencephalitis, but further investigations revealed primary angiitis. Primary angiitis of the CNS has protean manifestations and should always be considered in patients suspicious to have CNS infection or stroke, particularly who does not respond to the routine treatments. Clinical data, exclusion of differential diagnoses and typical angiography seem to be enough to justify the diagnosis in the majority of cases.

  13. Suprasegmental control of vegetative nervous system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albanese, A; Macchi, G

    1987-01-01

    It is now well established that a rich mutual exchange of information occurs between some brain regions and vegetative centres located in the brain stem and medulla. Anatomico-clinical data on suprasegmental control of the vegetative nervous system are dealt with here, by briefly reviewing information relevant to the following territories: the frontal lobe and limbic centres, which are located in the forebrain, the hypothalamus, the respiratory, cardiovascular, and micturition centres of the brain stem.

  14. Central Nervous System Involvement in Whipple Disease

    OpenAIRE

    Compain, Caroline; Sacre, Karim; Puéchal, Xavier; Klein, Isabelle; Vital-Durand, Denis; Houeto, Jean-Luc; De Broucker, Thomas; Raoult, Didier; Papo, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Whipple disease (WD) is a rare multisystemic infection with a protean clinical presentation. The central nervous system (CNS) is involved in 3 situations: CNS involvement in classic WD, CNS relapse in previously treated WD, and isolated CNS infection. We retrospectively analyzed clinical features, diagnostic workup, brain imaging, cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) study, treatment, and follow-up data in 18 patients with WD and CNS infection. Ten men and 8 women were included with a median ag...

  15. Tuberculoma of the central nervous system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeLance, Arthur R; Safaee, Michael; Oh, Michael C; Clark, Aaron J; Kaur, Gurvinder; Sun, Matthew Z; Bollen, Andrew W; Phillips, Joanna J; Parsa, Andrew T

    2013-10-01

    Tuberculosis is among the oldest and most devastating infectious diseases worldwide. Nearly one third of the world's population has active or latent disease, resulting in 1.5 million deaths annually. Central nervous system involvement, while rare, is the most severe form of tuberculosis. Manifestations include tuberculoma and tuberculous meningitis, with the majority of cases occurring in children and immunocompromised patients. Despite advancements in imaging and laboratory diagnostics, tuberculomas of the central nervous system remain a diagnostic challenge due to their insidious nature and nonspecific findings. On imaging studies tuberculous meningitis is characterized by diffuse basal enhancement, but tuberculomas may be indistinguishable from neoplasms. Early diagnosis is imperative, since clinical outcomes are largely dependent on timely treatment. Stereotactic biopsy with histopathological analysis can provide a definitive diagnosis, but is only recommended when non-invasive methods are inconclusive. Standard medical treatment includes rifampicin, isoniazid, pyrazinamide, and streptomycin or ethambutol. In cases of drug resistance, revision of the treatment regimen with second-line agents is recommended over the addition of a single drug to the first-line regimen. Advances in genomics have identified virulent strains of tuberculosis and are improving our understanding of host susceptibility. Neurosurgical referral is advised for patients with elevated intracranial pressure, seizures, or brain or spinal cord compression. This review synthesizes pertinent findings in the literature surrounding central nervous system tuberculoma in an effort to highlight recent advances in pathophysiology, diagnosis, and treatment.

  16. LGI Proteins in the Nervous System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linde Kegel

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The development and function of the vertebrate nervous system depend on specific interactions between different cell types. Two examples of such interactions are synaptic transmission and myelination. LGI1-4 (leucine-rich glioma inactivated proteins play important roles in these processes. They are secreted proteins consisting of an LRR (leucine-rich repeat domain and a so-called epilepsy-associated or EPTP (epitempin domain. Both domains are thought to function in protein–protein interactions. The first LGI gene to be identified, LGI1, was found at a chromosomal translocation breakpoint in a glioma cell line. It was subsequently found mutated in ADLTE (autosomal dominant lateral temporal (lobe epilepsy also referred to as ADPEAF (autosomal dominant partial epilepsy with auditory features. LGI1 protein appears to act at synapses and antibodies against LGI1 may cause the autoimmune disorder limbic encephalitis. A similar function in synaptic remodelling has been suggested for LGI2, which is mutated in canine Benign Familial Juvenile Epilepsy. LGI4 is required for proliferation of glia in the peripheral nervous system and binds to a neuronal receptor, ADAM22, to foster ensheathment and myelination of axons by Schwann cells. Thus, LGI proteins play crucial roles in nervous system development and function and their study is highly important, both to understand their biological functions and for their therapeutic potential. Here, we review our current knowledge about this important family of proteins, and the progress made towards understanding their functions.

  17. LGI proteins in the nervous system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kegel, Linde; Aunin, Eerik; Meijer, Dies; Bermingham, John R

    2013-06-25

    The development and function of the vertebrate nervous system depend on specific interactions between different cell types. Two examples of such interactions are synaptic transmission and myelination. LGI1-4 (leucine-rich glioma inactivated proteins) play important roles in these processes. They are secreted proteins consisting of an LRR (leucine-rich repeat) domain and a so-called epilepsy-associated or EPTP (epitempin) domain. Both domains are thought to function in protein-protein interactions. The first LGI gene to be identified, LGI1, was found at a chromosomal translocation breakpoint in a glioma cell line. It was subsequently found mutated in ADLTE (autosomal dominant lateral temporal (lobe) epilepsy) also referred to as ADPEAF (autosomal dominant partial epilepsy with auditory features). LGI1 protein appears to act at synapses and antibodies against LGI1 may cause the autoimmune disorder limbic encephalitis. A similar function in synaptic remodelling has been suggested for LGI2, which is mutated in canine Benign Familial Juvenile Epilepsy. LGI4 is required for proliferation of glia in the peripheral nervous system and binds to a neuronal receptor, ADAM22, to foster ensheathment and myelination of axons by Schwann cells. Thus, LGI proteins play crucial roles in nervous system development and function and their study is highly important, both to understand their biological functions and for their therapeutic potential. Here, we review our current knowledge about this important family of proteins, and the progress made towards understanding their functions.

  18. Rhabdoid tumors of the central nervous system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinhardt, D; Behnke-Mursch, J; Weiss, E; Christen, H J; Kühl, J; Lakomek, M; Pekrun, A

    2000-04-01

    Rhabdoid tumors of the central nervous system are rare malignancies with a still almost uniformly fatal outcome. There is still no proven curative therapy available. We report our experience with nine patients with central nervous system rhabdoid tumors. Gross complete surgical removal of the tumor was achieved in six patients. Seven patients received intensive chemotherapy. Four of these were treated in addition with both neuroaxis radiotherapy and a local boost directed to the tumor region, while two patients received local radiotherapy only. The therapy was reasonably well tolerated in most cases. Despite the aggressive therapy, eight of the nine patients died from progressive tumor disease, and one patient died from hemorrhagic brain stem lesions of unknown etiology. The mean survival time was 10 months after diagnosis. Conventional treatment, although aggressive, cannot change the fatal prognosis of central nervous system rhabdoid tumors. As these neoplasms are so rare, a coordinated register would probably be a good idea, offering a means of learning more about the tumor's biology and possible strategies of treatment.

  19. Glia ECM interactions are required to shape the Drosophila nervous system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Silke; Schmidt, Imke; Klämbt, Christian

    2014-08-01

    Organs are characterized by a specific shape that is often remodeled during development. The dynamics of organ shape is in particular evident during the formation of the Drosophila nervous system. During embryonic stages the central nervous system compacts, whereas selective growth occurs during larval stages. The nervous system is covered by a layer of surface glial cells that form the blood brain barrier and a thick extracellular matrix called neural lamella. The size of the neural lamella is dynamically adjusted to the growing nervous system and we show here that perineurial glial cells secrete proteases to remodel this matrix. Moreover, an imbalance in proteolytic activity results in an abnormal shape of the nervous system. To identify further components controlling nervous system shape we performed an RNAi based screen and identified the gene nolo, which encodes an ADAMTS-like protein. We generated loss of function alleles and demonstrate a requirement in glial cells. Mutant nolo larvae, however, do not show an abnormal nervous system shape. The only predicted off-target of the nolo(dsRNA) is Oatp30B, which encodes an organic anion transporting protein characterized by an extracellular protease inhibitor domain. Loss of function mutants were generated and double mutant analyses demonstrate a genetic interaction between nolo and Oatp30B which prevented the generation of maternal zygotic mutant larvae.

  20. Atopic dermatitis and the nervous system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misery, Laurent

    2011-12-01

    Due to the narrow associations between the skin, immune system, and nervous system, nerve endings are very important in the pathophysiology of inflammatory dermatoses and especially in atopic dermatitis. Many neurotransmitters and nerve growth factors that are released in blood or skin are involved in neurogenic inflammation, which dramatically enhance the inflammation induced by immune cells. During times of stress, their release is highly enhanced. In atopic dermatitis lesions, there are many specific changes in skin neurobiology and neurophysiology. These interesting data suggest that novel therapeutic possibilities can be imagined.

  1. HCV-Related Nervous System Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salvatore Monaco

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Chronic infection with hepatitis C virus (HCV is associated with a wide spectrum of extrahepatic manifestations, affecting different organ systems. Neurological complications occur in a large number of patients and range from peripheral neuropathy to cognitive impairment. Pathogenetic mechanisms responsible for nervous system dysfunction are mainly related to the upregulation of the host immune response with production of autoantibodies, immune complexes, and cryoglobulins. Alternative mechanisms include possible extrahepatic replication of HCV in neural tissues and the effects of circulating inflammatory cytokines and chemokines.

  2. Microglia: Architects of the Developing Nervous System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frost, Jeffrey L; Schafer, Dorothy P

    2016-08-01

    Microglia are resident macrophages of the central nervous system (CNS), representing 5-10% of total CNS cells. Recent findings reveal that microglia enter the embryonic brain, take up residence before the differentiation of other CNS cell types, and become critical regulators of CNS development. Here, we discuss exciting new work implicating microglia in a range of developmental processes, including regulation of cell number and spatial patterning of CNS cells, myelination, and formation and refinement of neural circuits. Furthermore, we review studies suggesting that these cellular functions result in the modulation of behavior, which has important implications for a variety of neurological disorders.

  3. The Olig family affects central nervous system development and disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Botao Tan; Jing Yu; Ying Yin; Gongwei Jia; Wei Jiang; Lehua Yu

    2014-01-01

    Neural cell differentiation and maturation is a critical step during central nervous system devel-opment. The oligodendrocyte transcription family (Olig family) is known to be an important factor in regulating neural cell differentiation. Because of this, the Olig family also affects acute and chronic central nervous system diseases, including brain injury, multiple sclerosis, and even gliomas. Improved understanding about the functions of the Olig family in central nervous system development and disease will greatly aid novel breakthroughs in central nervous system diseases. This review investigates the role of the Olig family in central nervous system develop-ment and related diseases.

  4. Nutritional stimulation of the autonomic nervous system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Misha DP Luyer; Quirine Habes; Richard van Hak; Wim Buurman

    2011-01-01

    Disturbance of the inflammatory response in the gut is important in several clinical diseases ranging from inflammatory bowel disease to postoperative ileus. Several feedback mechanisms exist that control the inflammatory cascade and avoid collateral damage. In the gastrointestinal tract, it is of particular importance to control the immune response to maintain the balance that allows dietary uptake and utilization of nutrients on one hand, while preventing invasion of bacteria and toxins on the other hand. The process of digestion and absorption of nutrients requires a relative hyporesponsiveness of the immune cells in the gut to luminal contents which is not yet fully understood. Recently, the autonomic nervous system has been identified as an important pathway to control local and systemic inflammation and gut barrier integrity. Activation of the pathway is possible via electrical or via pharmacological interventions, but is also achieved in a physiological manner by ingestion of dietary lipids. Administration of dietary lipids has been shown to be very effective in reducing the inflammatory cascade and maintaining intestinal barrier integrity in several experimental studies. This beneficial effect of nutrition on the inflammatory inflammatory response and intestinal barrier integrity opens new therapeutic opportunities for treatment of certain gastrointestinal disorders. Furthermore, this neural feedback mechanism provides more insight in the relative hyporesponsiveness of the immune cells in the gut. Here, we will discuss the regulatory function of the autonomic nervous system on the inflammatory response and gut barrier function and the potential benefit in a clinical setting.

  5. Systematic approaches to central nervous system myelin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Monasterio-Schrader, Patricia; Jahn, Olaf; Tenzer, Stefan; Wichert, Sven P; Patzig, Julia; Werner, Hauke B

    2012-09-01

    Rapid signal propagation along vertebrate axons is facilitated by their insulation with myelin, a plasma membrane specialization of glial cells. The recent application of 'omics' approaches to the myelinating cells of the central nervous system, oligodendrocytes, revealed their mRNA signatures, enhanced our understanding of how myelination is regulated, and established that the protein composition of myelin is much more complex than previously thought. This review provides a meta-analysis of the > 1,200 proteins thus far identified by mass spectrometry in biochemically purified central nervous system myelin. Contaminating proteins are surprisingly infrequent according to bioinformatic prediction of subcellular localization and comparison with the transcriptional profile of oligodendrocytes. The integration of datasets also allowed the subcategorization of the myelin proteome into functional groups comprising genes that are coregulated during oligodendroglial differentiation. An unexpectedly large number of myelin-related genes cause-when mutated in humans-hereditary diseases affecting the physiology of the white matter. Systematic approaches to oligodendrocytes and myelin thus provide valuable resources for the molecular dissection of developmental myelination, glia-axonal interactions, leukodystrophies, and demyelinating diseases.

  6. [Chemokine CC receptors in the nervous system].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radzik, Tomasz Łukasz; Głabiński, Andrzej; Żylińska, Ludmiła

    2015-01-01

    Chemoattractant cytokines (chemokines) are traditionally known as the important mediators of inflammatory processes, however, recently, is also given to their other functions in the body. Acting through specific receptors belonging to the G proteins they regulate immune processes in the body. About 20 chemokine receptors have been identified so far, and 10 of them bind chemokines CC, i.e. having in amino-terminal domain 2 adjacent molecules of cysteins. An increasing number of data indicates that chemokines and their receptors play an important role in the nervous system by acting as trophic factors, increasing the neurons survival, neural migration and synaptic transmission. Special role chemokine receptors play primarily in the diseases of the nervous system, because due to damage of the blood-brain barrier and the blood cerebrospinal fluid barrier, infiltration of leukocytes results in development of inflammation. Chemokine CC receptors has been shown to participate in Alzheimer's disease, multiple sclerosis, dementia associated with HIV infection, stroke or some type of cancers.

  7. Parasympathetic nervous system activity and children's sleep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Sheikh, Mona; Erath, Stephen A; Bagley, Erika J

    2013-06-01

    We examined indices of children's parasympathetic nervous system activity (PNS), including respiratory sinus arrhythmia during baseline (RSAB) and RSA reactivity (RSAR), to a laboratory challenge, and importantly the interaction between RSAB and RSAR as predictors of multiple parameters of children's sleep. Lower RSAR denotes increased vagal withdrawal (reductions in RSA between baseline and task) and higher RSAR represents decreased vagal withdrawal or augmentation (increases in RSA between baseline and task). A community sample of school-attending children (121 boys and 103 girls) participated [mean age = 10.41 years; standard deviation (SD) = 0.67]. Children's sleep parameters were examined through actigraphy for 7 consecutive nights. Findings demonstrate that RSAB and RSAR interact to predict multiple sleep quality parameters (activity, minutes awake after sleep onset and long wake episodes). The overall pattern of effects illustrates that children who exhibit more disrupted sleep (increased activity, more minutes awake after sleep onset and more frequent long wake episodes) are those with lower RSAB in conjunction with lower RSAR. This combination of low RSAB and low RSAR probably reflects increased autonomic nervous system arousal, which interferes with sleep. Results illustrate the importance of individual differences in physiological regulation indexed by interactions between PNS baseline activity and PNS reactivity for a better understanding of children's sleep quality.

  8. The Enteric Nervous System in Intestinal Inflammation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keith A Sharkey

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available Since about the 1950s nerves in the wall of the intestine have been postulated to play a role in the pathogenesis of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD. Human and animal studies examining the role of nerves in intestinal inflammation are the focus of this review. Consideration is given to two possible ways that nerves are involved in IBD. First, nerves may play a role in the development or maintenance of inflammation through local release of transmitters. Second, once initiated (by whatever means, the processes of inflammation may disrupt the normal pattern of innervation and the interactions of nerves and their target tissues. Many of the functional disturbances observed in IBD are likely due to an alteration in the enteric nervous system either structurally through disruptions of nerve-target relationships or by modifications of neurotransmitters or their receptors. Finally, it appears that the enteric nervous system may be a potential therapeutic target in IBD and that neuroactive drugs acting locally can represent useful agents in the management of this disease.

  9. Cardiac autonomic nervous system activity in obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liatis, Stavros; Tentolouris, Nikolaos; Katsilambros, Nikolaos

    2004-08-01

    The development of obesity is caused by a disturbance of energy balance, with energy intake exceeding energy expenditure. As the autonomic nervous system (ANS) has a role in the regulation of both these variables, it has become a major focus of investigation in the fields of obesity pathogenesis. The enhanced cardiac sympathetic drive shown in most of the studies in obese persons might be due to an increase in their levels of circulating insulin. The role of leptin needs further investigation with studies in humans. There is a blunted response of the cardiac sympathetic nervous system (SNS) activity in obese subjects after consumption of a carbohydrate-rich meal as well as after insulin administration. This might be due to insulin resistance. It is speculated that increased SNS activity in obesity may contribute to the development of hypertension in genetically susceptible individuals. It is also speculated that the increase in cardiac SNS activity under fasting conditions in obesity may be associated with high cardiovascular morbidity and mortality.

  10. Central nervous system involvement by multiple myeloma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jurczyszyn, Artur; Grzasko, Norbert; Gozzetti, Alessandro

    2016-01-01

    The multicenter retrospective study conducted in 38 centers from 20 countries including 172 adult patients with CNS MM aimed to describe the clinical and pathological characteristics and outcomes of patients with multiple myeloma (MM) involving the central nervous system (CNS). Univariate......, 97% patients received initial therapy for CNS disease, of which 76% received systemic therapy, 36% radiotherapy and 32% intrathecal therapy. After a median follow-up of 3.5 years, the median overall survival (OS) from the onset of CNS involvement for the entire group was 7 months. Untreated...... untreated patients and patients with favorable cytogenetic profile might be prolonged due to systemic treatment and/or radiotherapy. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved....

  11. Central Nervous System Involvement by Multiple Myeloma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jurczyszyn, A.; Gozzetti, A.; Cerase, A.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Central nervous system (CNS) involvement by multiple myeloma (MM) is a rare occurrence and is found in approximately 1% of MM patients at some time during the course of their disease. At the time of diagnosis, extramedullary MM is found in 7% of patients, and another 6% may develop....... Results: The median time from MM diagnosis to CNS MM diagnosis was 3 years. Upon diagnosis, 97% patients with CNS MM received frontline therapy, of which 76% received systemic therapy, 36% radiotherapy and 32% intrathecal therapy. The most common symptoms at presentation were visual changes (36...... history of chemotherapy and unfavorable cytogenetic profile, survival of individuals free from these negative prognostic factors can be prolonged due to administration of systemic treatment and/or radiotherapy. Prospective multi-institutional studies are warranted to improve the outcome of patients...

  12. The Central Nervous System of Box Jellyfish

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Garm, Anders Lydik; Ekström, Peter

    2008-01-01

    Cubomedusae, or box jellyfish, are renowned for their immense stinging power, but another truly remarkable feature is their visual system. They have four sensory structures called rhopalia, and each of the rhopalia contains six eyes of four morphological types. These eyes support a range of behav......Cubomedusae, or box jellyfish, are renowned for their immense stinging power, but another truly remarkable feature is their visual system. They have four sensory structures called rhopalia, and each of the rhopalia contains six eyes of four morphological types. These eyes support a range...... of behaviors in the box jellyfish such as obstacle avoidance and navigation. The need to process the visual information and turn it into the appropriate behavior puts strong demands on the nervous system of box jellyfish, which appears more elaborate than in other cnidarians. Here, the central part...

  13. Diagnosis and classification of central nervous system vasculitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hajj-Ali, Rula A; Calabrese, Leonard H

    2014-01-01

    Central nervous system vasculitis is one of the foremost diagnostic challenges in rheumatology. It results in inflammation and destruction of the vasculature within the CNS. When vasculitis is confined to brain, meninges or spinal cord, it is referred to as primary angiitis of the CNS. Secondary CNS vasculitis occurs in the setting of a systemic vasculitis, auto-inflammatory or infectious disease. Prompt and accurate diagnosis of CNS vasculitis is essential to prevent irreversible brain damage, and to secure precise treatment decisions. Progressive debilitating and unexplained neurological deficits, associated with abnormal cerebrospinal fluid is the typical picture of the disease. Biopsy of the brain remains the gold standard diagnostic test. The differential diagnosis of CNS vasculitis is highly diverse with a broad array of mimics at the clinical, radiographic and angiographic levels.

  14. Sympathetic nervous system and chronic renal failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boero, R; Pignataro, A; Ferro, M; Quarello, F

    2001-01-01

    The aim of this work was to review evidence on the role of the sympathetic nervous system (SNS) in chronic renal failure (CRF). Three main points are discussed: 1) SNS and pathogenesis of arterial hypertension; 2) SNS and cardiovascular risk; 3) implication of SNS in arterial hypotension during hemodialysis. Several lines of evidence indicate the presence of a sympathetic hyperactivity in CRF, and its relationship with arterial hypertension. It is suggested that diseased kidneys send afferent nervous signals to central integrative sympathetic nuclei, thus contributing to the development and maintenance of arterial hypertension. The elimination of these impulses with nephrectomy could explain the concomitant reduction of blood pressure. Several experiments confirmed this hypothesis. Regarding SNS and cardiovascular risk, some data suggest that reduced heart rate variability identifies an increased risk for both all causes and sudden death, independently from other recognized risk factors. Symptomatic hypotension is a common problem during hemodialysis treatment, occurring in approximately 20-30% of all hemodialysis sessions and is accompanied by acute withdrawal of sympathetic activity, vasodilation and relative bradicardia. This reflex is thought to be evoked by vigorous contraction of a progressively empty left ventricle, activating cardiac mechanoceptors. This inhibits cardiovascular centers through vagal afferents, and overrides the stimulation by baroreceptor deactivation. Alternative explanations include cerebral ischemia and increased production of nitric oxide, which inhibit central sympathetic activity. It is hoped that therapies aimed at modulating sympathetic nerve activity in patients with CRF will ameliorate their prognosis and quality of life.

  15. Novel nervous system mechanisms in visceral pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Winter, B Y; Deiteren, A; De Man, J G

    2016-03-01

    Visceral hypersensitivity is an important factor underlying abdominal pain in functional gastrointestinal disorders such as irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) and can result from aberrant signaling from the gut to the brain or vice versa. Over the last two decades, research has identified several selective, intertwining pathways that underlie IBS-related visceral nociception, including specific receptors on afferent and efferent nerve fibers such as transient receptor potential channels (TRP) channels, opioid, and cannabinoid receptors. In this issue of Neurogastroenterology and Motility Gil et al. demonstrate that in an animal model with reduced descending inhibitory control, the sympathetic nervous system outflow is enhanced, contributing to visceral and somatic hypersensitivity. They also provide evidence that interfering with the activation of adrenergic receptors on sensory nerves can be an interesting new strategy to treat visceral pain in IBS. This mini-review places these findings in a broader perspective by providing an overview of promising novel mechanisms to alter the nervous control of visceral pain interfering with afferent or efferent neuronal signaling. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. [Tumors of the central nervous system].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alegría-Loyola, Marco Antonio; Galnares-Olalde, Javier Andrés; Mercado, Moisés

    2017-01-01

    Central nervous system (CNS) tumors constitute a heterogeneous group of neoplasms that share a considerable morbidity and mortality rate. Recent advances in the underlying oncogenic mechanisms of these tumors have led to new classification systems, which, in turn, allow for a better diagnostic approach and therapeutic planning. Most of these neoplasms occur sporadically and several risk factors have been found to be associated with their development, such as exposure to ionizing radiation or electromagnetic fields and the concomitant presence of conditions like diabetes, hypertension and Parkinson's disease. A relatively minor proportion of primary CNS tumors occur in the context of hereditary syndromes. The purpose of this review is to analyze the etiopathogenesis, clinical presentation, diagnosis and therapy of CNS tumors with particular emphasis in the putative risk factors mentioned above.

  17. Pharyngeal pumping in Caenorhabditis elegans depends on tonic and phasic signaling from the nervous system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trojanowski, Nicholas F.; Raizen, David M.; Fang-Yen, Christopher

    2016-01-01

    Rhythmic movements are ubiquitous in animal locomotion, feeding, and circulatory systems. In some systems, the muscle itself generates rhythmic contractions. In others, rhythms are generated by the nervous system or by interactions between the nervous system and muscles. In the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans, feeding occurs via rhythmic contractions (pumping) of the pharynx, a neuromuscular feeding organ. Here, we use pharmacology, optogenetics, genetics, and electrophysiology to investigate the roles of the nervous system and muscle in generating pharyngeal pumping. Hyperpolarization of the nervous system using a histamine-gated chloride channel abolishes pumping, and optogenetic stimulation of pharyngeal muscle in these animals causes abnormal contractions, demonstrating that normal pumping requires nervous system function. In mutants that pump slowly due to defective nervous system function, tonic muscle stimulation causes rapid pumping, suggesting tonic neurotransmitter release may regulate pumping. However, tonic cholinergic motor neuron stimulation, but not tonic muscle stimulation, triggers pumps that electrophysiologically resemble typical rapid pumps. This suggests that pharyngeal cholinergic motor neurons are normally rhythmically, and not tonically active. These results demonstrate that the pharynx generates a myogenic rhythm in the presence of tonically released acetylcholine, and suggest that the pharyngeal nervous system entrains contraction rate and timing through phasic neurotransmitter release. PMID:26976078

  18. Clinical features of multiple myeloma invasion of the central nervous system in Chinese patients

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    QU Xiao-yan; FU Wei-jun; XI Hao; ZHOU Fan; WEI Wei; HOU Jian

    2010-01-01

    Background Although neurologic manifestations often complicate the course of patients with multiple myeloma, direct central nervous system invasion is rare. This study explored the neurologic symptoms, signs, clinical features, therapy and prognosis of Chinese patients with central nervous system myeloma invasion.Methods The diagnosis, therapy and prognosis were analyzed retrospectively in 11 Chinese multiple myeloma patients with central nervous system infiltration from a total of 625 patients who have been treated at Changzheng Hospital (Shanghai, China) between January 1993 and May 2009. Survival curve was constructed with the use of Kaplan-Meier estimates.Results There were 11 patients with central nervous system involvement from 625 multiple myeloma patients. The occurrence rate was 1.8%. Ten of the 11 patients had other extramedullary diseases. Symptoms included cerebral symptoms, cranial nerve palsies, and spinal cord or spinal nerve roots symptoms.Cerebrospinal fluid was abnormal in 7 patients, usually exhibiting pleocytosis and elevated protein content, plus positive cytologic findings. Specific magnetic resonance imaging findings suggestive of central nervous system invasion were found in 9 patients. After a median follow-up of 19 months, 3 patients were alive. The median overall survival for all patients was 23 months, while the median overall survival for patients after central nervous system invasion was merely 6 months.Conclusions It is exceedingly rare for there to be central nervous system infiltration in multiple myeloma patients. When it occurs, the prognosis is extremely poor despite the use of aggressive local and systemic treatment including stem cell transplantation.

  19. Clinical features of multiple myeloma invasion of the central nervous system in Chinese patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qu, Xiao-yan; Fu, Wei-jun; Xi, Hao; Zhou, Fan; Wei, Wei; Hou, Jian

    2010-06-01

    Although neurologic manifestations often complicate the course of patients with multiple myeloma, direct central nervous system invasion is rare. This study explored the neurologic symptoms, signs, clinical features, therapy and prognosis of Chinese patients with central nervous system myeloma invasion. The diagnosis, therapy and prognosis were analyzed retrospectively in 11 Chinese multiple myeloma patients with central nervous system infiltration from a total of 625 patients who have been treated at Changzheng Hospital (Shanghai, China) between January 1993 and May 2009. Survival curve was constructed with the use of Kaplan-Meier estimates. There were 11 patients with central nervous system involvement from 625 multiple myeloma patients. The occurrence rate was 1.8%. Ten of the 11 patients had other extramedullary diseases. Symptoms included cerebral symptoms, cranial nerve palsies, and spinal cord or spinal nerve roots symptoms. Cerebrospinal fluid was abnormal in 7 patients, usually exhibiting pleocytosis and elevated protein content, plus positive cytologic findings. Specific magnetic resonance imaging findings suggestive of central nervous system invasion were found in 9 patients. After a median follow-up of 19 months, 3 patients were alive. The median overall survival for all patients was 23 months, while the median overall survival for patients after central nervous system invasion was merely 6 months. It is exceedingly rare for there to be central nervous system infiltration in multiple myeloma patients. When it occurs, the prognosis is extremely poor despite the use of aggressive local and systemic treatment including stem cell transplantation.

  20. VIIP: Central Nervous System (CNS) Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vera, Jerry; Mulugeta, Lealem; Nelson, Emily; Raykin, Julia; Feola, Andrew; Gleason, Rudy; Samuels, Brian; Ethier, C. Ross; Myers, Jerry

    2015-01-01

    Current long-duration missions to the International Space Station and future exploration-class missions beyond low-Earth orbit expose astronauts to increased risk of Visual Impairment and Intracranial Pressure (VIIP) syndrome. It has been hypothesized that the headward shift of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and blood in microgravity may cause significant elevation of intracranial pressure (ICP), which in turn may then induce VIIP syndrome through interaction with various biomechanical pathways. However, there is insufficient evidence to confirm this hypothesis. In this light, we are developing lumped-parameter models of fluid transport in the central nervous system (CNS) as a means to simulate the influence of microgravity on ICP. The CNS models will also be used in concert with the lumped parameter and finite element models of the eye described in the related IWS works submitted by Nelson et al., Feola et al. and Ethier et al.

  1. Parasitic diseases of the central nervous system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chacko, Geeta

    2010-08-01

    Parasitic infections, though endemic to certain regions, have over time appeared in places far removed from their original sites of occurrence facilitated probably by the increase in world travel and the increasing migration of people from their native lands to other, often distant, countries. The frequency of occurrence of some of these diseases has also changed based on a variety of factors, including the presence of intermediate hosts, geographic locations, and climate. One factor that has significantly altered the epidemiology of parasitic diseases within the central nervous system (CNS) is the HIV pandemic. In this review of the pathology of parasitic infections that affect the CNS, each parasite is discussed in the sequence of epidemiology, life cycle, pathogenesis, and pathology.

  2. Pediatric central nervous system vascular malformations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burch, Ezra A. [Brigham and Women' s Hospital, Department of Radiology, Boston, MA (United States); Orbach, Darren B. [Boston Children' s Hospital, Neurointerventional Radiology, Boston, MA (United States)

    2015-09-15

    Pediatric central nervous system (CNS) vascular anomalies include lesions found only in the pediatric population and also the full gamut of vascular lesions found in adults. Pediatric-specific lesions discussed here include infantile hemangioma, vein of Galen malformation and dural sinus malformation. Some CNS vascular lesions that occur in adults, such as arteriovenous malformation, have somewhat distinct manifestations in children, and those are also discussed. Additionally, children with CNS vascular malformations often have associated broader vascular conditions, e.g., PHACES (posterior fossa anomalies, hemangioma, arterial anomalies, cardiac anomalies, eye anomalies and sternal anomalies), hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia, and capillary malformation-arteriovenous malformation syndrome (related to the RASA1 mutation). The treatment of pediatric CNS vascular malformations has greatly benefited from advances in endovascular therapy, including technical advances in adult interventional neuroradiology. Dramatic advances in therapy are expected to stem from increased understanding of the genetics and vascular biology that underlie pediatric CNS vascular malformations. (orig.)

  3. Subcortical cytoskeleton periodicity throughout the nervous system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Este, Elisa; Kamin, Dirk; Velte, Caroline; Göttfert, Fabian; Simons, Mikael; Hell, Stefan W

    2016-03-07

    Superresolution fluorescence microscopy recently revealed a ~190 nm periodic cytoskeleton lattice consisting of actin, spectrin, and other proteins underneath the membrane of cultured hippocampal neurons. Whether the periodic cytoskeleton lattice is a structural feature of all neurons and how it is modified when axons are ensheathed by myelin forming glial cells is not known. Here, STED nanoscopy is used to demonstrate that this structure is a commonplace of virtually all neuron types in vitro. To check how the subcortical meshwork is modified during myelination, we studied sciatic nerve fibers from adult mice. Periodicity of both actin and spectrin was uncovered at the internodes, indicating no substantial differences between unmyelinated and myelinated axons. Remarkably, the actin/spectrin pattern was also detected in glial cells such as cultured oligodendrocyte precursor cells. Altogether our work shows that the periodic subcortical cytoskeletal meshwork is a fundamental characteristic of cells in the nervous system and is not a distinctive feature of neurons, as previously thought.

  4. Glucocorticoids and central nervous system inflammation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dinkel, Klaus; Ogle, William O; Sapolsky, Robert M

    2002-12-01

    Glucocorticoids (GCs) are well known for their anti-inflammatory and immunosuppressive properties in the periphery and are therefore widely and successfully used in the treatment of autoimmune diseases, chronic inflammation, or transplant rejection. This led to the assumption that GCs are uniformly anti-inflammatory in the periphery and the central nervous system (CNS). As a consequence, GCs are also used in the treatment of CNS inflammation. There is abundant evidence that an inflammatory reaction is mounted within the CNS following trauma, stroke, infection, and seizure, which can augment the brain damage. However an increasing number of studies indicate that the concept of GCs being universally immunosuppressive might be oversimplified. This article provides a review of the current literature, showing that under certain circumstances GCs might fail to have anti-inflammatory effects and sometimes even enhance inflammation.

  5. Corticosteroids In Infections Of Central Nervous System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meena AK

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Infections of central nervous system are still a major problem. Despite the introduction of newer antimicrobial agents, mortality and long-term sequelace associated with these infections is unacceptably high. Based on the evidence that proinflammtory cytokines have a role in pathophysiology of bacterial and tuberculous meningitis, corticosteroids with a potent anti-inflammatory and immunomodulating effect have been tested and found to be of use in experimental and clinical studies, Review of the available literature suggests steroid administration just prior to antimicrobial therapy is effective in decreasing audiologic and neurologic sequelae in childern with H. influenzae nenigitis. Steroid use for bacterial meningitis in adults is found to be beneficial in case of S. pneumoniae. The value of adjunctive steroid therapy for other bacterial causes of meningitis remains unproven. Corticocorticoids are found to be of no benefit in viral meningitis, Role of steroids in HIV positive patients needs to be studied.

  6. Advances in Primary Central Nervous System Lymphoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patrick, Lauren B; Mohile, Nimish A

    2015-12-01

    Primary central nervous system lymphoma (PCNSL) is a rare form of non-Hodgkin lymphoma that is limited to the CNS. Although novel imaging techniques aid in discriminating lymphoma from other brain tumors, definitive diagnosis requires brain biopsy, vitreoretinal biopsy, or cerebrospinal fluid analysis. Survival rates in clinical studies have improved over the past 20 years due to the addition of high-dose methotrexate-based chemotherapy regimens to whole-brain radiotherapy. Long-term survival, however, is complicated by clinically devastating delayed neurotoxicity. Newer regimens are attempting to reduce or eliminate radiotherapy from first-line treatment with chemotherapy dose intensification. Significant advances have also been made in the fields of pathobiology and treatment, with more targeted treatments on the horizon. The rarity of the disease makes conducting of prospective clinical trials challenging, requiring collaborative efforts between institutions. This review highlights recent advances in the biology, detection, and treatment of PCNSL in immunocompetent patients.

  7. The sympathetic nervous system in obesity hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lohmeier, Thomas E; Iliescu, Radu

    2013-08-01

    Abundant evidence supports a role of the sympathetic nervous system in the pathogenesis of obesity-related hypertension. However, the nature and temporal progression of mechanisms underlying this sympathetically mediated hypertension are incompletely understood. Recent technological advances allowing direct recordings of renal sympathetic nerve activity (RSNA) in conscious animals, together with direct suppression of RSNA by renal denervation and reflex-mediated global sympathetic inhibition in experimental animals and human subjects have been especially valuable in elucidating these mechanisms. These studies strongly support the concept that increased RSNA is the critical mechanism by which increased central sympathetic outflow initiates and maintains reductions in renal excretory function, causing obesity hypertension. Potential determinants of renal sympathoexcitation and the differential mechanisms mediating the effects of renal-specific versus reflex-mediated, global sympathetic inhibition on renal hemodynamics and cardiac autonomic function are discussed. These differential mechanisms may impact the efficacy of current device-based approaches for hypertension therapy.

  8. Gender differences in sympathetic nervous system regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinojosa-Laborde, C; Chapa, I; Lange, D; Haywood, J R

    1999-02-01

    1. Females are protected against the development of hypertension. The purpose of the current review is to present the evidence for gender differences in the regulation of the sympatho-adrenal nervous system and to determine if these differences support the hypothesis that, in females, the regulation of the sympathetic nervous system (SNS) is altered such that sympatho-adrenal activation is attenuated or sympatho-adrenal inhibition is augmented. 2. The central control of sympatho-adrenal function is different in females and responses vary during the oestral and menstrual cycles. Pathways regulating the SNS appear to be less sensitive to excitatory stimuli and more sensitive to inhibitory stimuli in females compared with males. 3. Gender differences in arterial baroreflex sensitivity suggest that females may have a greater baroreflex sensitivity, such that alterations in blood pressure are more efficiently controlled than in males. Cardiopulmonary reflex inhibition of sympathetic nerve activity is greater in females, possibly resulting in a greater renal excretory function. 4. An attenuated sensitivity to adrenergic nerve stimulation, but not to noradrenaline (NA), suggests that gender differences in noradrenergic neurotransmission may protect females against sympathetic hyperactivity. Gender differences in the regulation of NA release via presynaptic alpha 2-adrenoceptors, the vasoconstrictor response to the cotransmitter neuropeptide Y and the clearance of catecholamines are consistent with this hypothesis. 5. Similarly, attenuated stress-induced increases in plasma catecholamines in women suggest that females are less sensitive and/or less responsive to adrenal medullary activation. This is supported by findings of gender differences in adrenal medullary catecholamine content, release and degradation. 6. We conclude that there is strong evidence that supports the hypothesis that, in females, the regulation of the SNS is altered such that sympatho

  9. Central nervous system lymphoma: magnetic resonance imaging features at presentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwingel, Ricardo; Reis, Fabiano; Zanardi, Veronica A; Queiroz, Luciano S; França, Marcondes C

    2012-02-01

    This paper aimed at studying presentations of the central nervous system (CNS) lymphoma using structural images obtained by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). The MRI features at presentation of 15 patients diagnosed with CNS lymphoma in a university hospital, between January 1999 and March 2011, were analyzed by frequency and cross tabulation. All patients had supratentorial lesions; and four had infra- and supratentorial lesions. The signal intensity on T1 and T2 weighted images was predominantly hypo- or isointense. In the T2 weighted images, single lesions were associated with a hypointense signal component. Six patients presented necrosis, all of them showed perilesional abnormal white matter, nine had meningeal involvement, and five had subependymal spread. Subependymal spread and meningeal involvement tended to occur in younger patients. Presentations of lymphoma are very pleomorphic, but some of them should point to this diagnostic possibility.

  10. Central nervous system syndromes in solid organ transplant recipients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Alissa J; Fishman, Jay A

    2014-10-01

    Solid organ transplant recipients have a high incidence of central nervous system (CNS) complications, including both focal and diffuse neurologic deficits. In the immunocompromised host, the initial clinical evaluation must focus on both life-threatening CNS infections and vascular or anatomic lesions. The clinical signs and symptoms of CNS processes are modified by the immunosuppression required to prevent graft rejection. In this population, these etiologies often coexist with drug toxicities and metabolic abnormalities that complicate the development of a specific approach to clinical management. This review assesses the multiple risk factors for CNS processes in solid organ transplant recipients and establishes a timeline to assist in the evaluation and management of these complex patients.

  11. Autonomic nervous system function in patients with functional abdominal pain. An experimental study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, L S; Christiansen, P; Raundahl, U

    1993-01-01

    Functional abdominal pain--that is, pain without demonstrable organic abnormalities--has often been associated with psychologic stress. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether sympathetic nervous system response to laboratory stress and basal parasympathetic neural activity were...

  12. An adult case of chronic myelogenous leukemia with myeloblastic involvement of the central nervous system.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Watanabe,Akiharu

    1984-06-01

    Full Text Available A 31-year-old female with chronic myelogenous leukemia, who developed myeloblastic involvement of the central nervous system during acute myeloblastic transformation of the disease, was treated with methotrexate intrathecally. The therapy produced prompt clinical response and complete reversal of abnormal cerebrospinal fluid findings. However, the patient expired 10 months following the acute blastic crisis.

  13. Changing trends in nervous system diseases among hospitalized children in the Chongqing region

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xin Zou; Nong Xiao; Bei Xu

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate the changing trends of nervous system diseases among hospitalized children and the risk factors of death. METHOD: The disease was statistically classified according to the International Statistical Classification of Disease and Health Problem (ICD10). The retrospective investigation includes demographic characteristics, as well as categories and fatality rates for nervous system diseases. All data was statistically analyzed. RESULTS: The percentage of nervous system diseases among inpatients in all wards was 2.4% (2 537/ 107 250) between January 1993 and December 1999, and 3.6% (6 082/170 619) between January 2000 and December 2006. The first ten patterns of various etiologic forms of nervous system diseases were identical-epilepsies and seizures, infections of the central nervous system, autoimmune and demyelination disorders, cerebral palsy, motor unit disorders, hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy, hydrocephalus, extra-pyramidal disorders, congenital abnormalities of nervous system, and headache. Epilepsies and seizures took first place in both year groups, with 29.4% and 35%, respectively. Bacterial infections were responsible for the majority of cranial infections in both year groups, with 78.9% and 63.6% respectively. The death rate in the year group January 2000 to December 2006 was significantly less than in the year group January 1993 to December 1999 (X2= 27.832, P<0.01). CONCLUSION: Among all nervous system diseases, epilepsies and seizures were among the most common, with the lowest fatality rate.

  14. Central nervous system toxicity of metallic nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feng XL

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Xiaoli Feng,1 Aijie Chen,1 Yanli Zhang,1 Jianfeng Wang,2 Longquan Shao,1 Limin Wei2 1Nanfang Hospital, Southern Medical University, Guangzhou, People’s Republic of China; 2School and Hospital of Stomatology, Wenzhou Medical University, Wenzhou, People’s Republic of China Abstract: Nanomaterials (NMs are increasingly used for the therapy, diagnosis, and monitoring of disease- or drug-induced mechanisms in the human biological system. In view of their small size, after certain modifications, NMs have the capacity to bypass or cross the blood–brain barrier. Nanotechnology is particularly advantageous in the field of neurology. Examples may include the utilization of nanoparticle (NP-based drug carriers to readily cross the blood–brain barrier to treat central nervous system (CNS diseases, nanoscaffolds for axonal regeneration, nanoelectromechanical systems in neurological operations, and NPs in molecular imaging and CNS imaging. However, NPs can also be potentially hazardous to the CNS in terms of nano­neurotoxicity via several possible mechanisms, such as oxidative stress, autophagy, and lysosome dysfunction, and the activation of certain signaling pathways. In this review, we discuss the dual effect of NMs on the CNS and the mechanisms involved. The limitations of the current research are also discussed. Keywords: nanomaterials, neurotoxicity, blood–brain barrier, autophagy, ROS

  15. Central Nervous System Vasculitis: Still More Questions than Answers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alba, Marco A; Espígol-Frigolé, Georgina; Prieto-González, Sergio; Tavera-Bahillo, Itziar; García-Martínez, Ana; Butjosa, Montserrat; Hernández-Rodríguez, José; Cid, Maria C

    2011-01-01

    The central nervous system (CNS) may be involved by a variety of inflammatory diseases of blood vessels. These include primary angiitis of the central nervous system (PACNS), a rare disorder specifically targeting the CNS vasculature, and the systemic vasculitides which may affect the CNS among other organs and systems. Both situations are severe and convey a guarded prognosis. PACNS usually presents with headache and cognitive impairment. Focal symptoms are infrequent at disease onset but are common in more advanced stages. The diagnosis of PACNS is difficult because, although magnetic resonance imaging is almost invariably abnormal, findings are non specific. Angiography has limited sensitivity and specificity. Brain and leptomeningeal biopsy may provide a definitive diagnosis when disclosing blood vessel inflammation and are also useful to exclude other conditions presenting with similar findings. However, since lesions are segmental, a normal biopsy does not completely exclude PACNS. Secondary CNS involvement by systemic vasculitis occurs in less than one fifth of patients but may be devastating. A prompt recognition and aggressive treatment is crucial to avoid permanent damage and dysfunction. Glucocorticoids and cyclophosphamide are recommended for patients with PACNS and for patients with secondary CNS involvement by small-medium-sized systemic vasculitis. CNS involvement in large-vessel vasculitis is usually managed with high-dose glucocorticoids (giant-cell arteritis) or glucocorticoids and immunosuppressive agents (Takayasu’s disease). However, in large vessel vasculitis, where CNS symptoms are usually due to involvement of extracranial arteries (Takayasu’s disease) or proximal portions of intracranial arteries (giant-cell arteritis), revascularization procedures may also have an important role. PMID:22379458

  16. Time Perception Mechanisms at Central Nervous System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fontes, Rhailana; Ribeiro, Jéssica; Gupta, Daya S.; Machado, Dionis; Lopes-Júnior, Fernando; Magalhães, Francisco; Bastos, Victor Hugo; Rocha, Kaline; Marinho, Victor; Lima, Gildário; Velasques, Bruna; Ribeiro, Pedro; Orsini, Marco; Pessoa, Bruno; Leite, Marco Antonio Araujo; Teixeira, Silmar

    2016-01-01

    The five senses have specific ways to receive environmental information and lead to central nervous system. The perception of time is the sum of stimuli associated with cognitive processes and environmental changes. Thus, the perception of time requires a complex neural mechanism and may be changed by emotional state, level of attention, memory and diseases. Despite this knowledge, the neural mechanisms of time perception are not yet fully understood. The objective is to relate the mechanisms involved the neurofunctional aspects, theories, executive functions and pathologies that contribute the understanding of temporal perception. Articles form 1980 to 2015 were searched by using the key themes: neuroanatomy, neurophysiology, theories, time cells, memory, schizophrenia, depression, attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder and Parkinson’s disease combined with the term perception of time. We evaluated 158 articles within the inclusion criteria for the purpose of the study. We conclude that research about the holdings of the frontal cortex, parietal, basal ganglia, cerebellum and hippocampus have provided advances in the understanding of the regions related to the perception of time. In neurological and psychiatric disorders, the understanding of time depends on the severity of the diseases and the type of tasks. PMID:27127597

  17. Controlling Underwater Robots with Electronic Nervous Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph Ayers

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available We are developing robot controllers based on biomimetic design principles. The goal is to realise the adaptive capabilities of the animal models in natural environments. We report feasibility studies of a hybrid architecture that instantiates a command and coordinating level with computed discrete-time map-based (DTM neuronal networks and the central pattern generators with analogue VLSI (Very Large Scale Integration electronic neuron (aVLSI networks. DTM networks are realised using neurons based on a 1-D or 2-D Map with two additional parameters that define silent, spiking and bursting regimes. Electronic neurons (ENs based on Hindmarsh–Rose (HR dynamics can be instantiated in analogue VLSI and exhibit similar behaviour to those based on discrete components. We have constructed locomotor central pattern generators (CPGs with aVLSI networks that can be modulated to select different behaviours on the basis of selective command input. The two technologies can be fused by interfacing the signals from the DTM circuits directly to the aVLSI CPGs. Using DTMs, we have been able to simulate complex sensory fusion for rheotaxic behaviour based on both hydrodynamic and optical flow senses. We will illustrate aspects of controllers for ambulatory biomimetic robots. These studies indicate that it is feasible to fabricate an electronic nervous system controller integrating both aVLSI CPGs and layered DTM exteroceptive reflexes.

  18. Gap junctions in the nervous system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rozental, R; Giaume, C; Spray, D C

    2000-04-01

    Synapses are classically defined as close connections between two nerve cells or between a neuronal cell and a muscle or gland cell across which a chemical signal (i.e., a neurotransmitter) and/or an electrical signal (i.e., current-carrying ions) can pass. The definition of synapse was developed by Charles Sherrington and by Ramon y Cajal at the beginning of this century and refined by John Eccles and Bernard Katz 50 years later; in this collection of papers, the definition of synapses is discussed further in the chapter by Mike Bennett. who provided the first functional demonstration of electrical transmission via gap junction channels between vertebrate neurons. As is evidenced by the range of topics covered in this issue, research dealing with gap junctions in the nervous system has expanded enormously in the past decade, major findings being that specific cell types in the brain expresses specific types of connexins and that expression patterns coincide with tissue compartmentalization and function and that these compartments change during development.

  19. Bilastine and the central nervous system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montoro, J; Mullol, J; Dávila, I; Ferrer, M; Sastre, J; Bartra, J; Jáuregui, I; del Cuvillo, A; Valero, A

    2011-01-01

    Antihistamines have been classifed as first or second generation drugs, according to their pharmacokinetic properties, chemical structure and adverse effects. The adverse effects of antihistamines upon the central nervous system (CNS) depend upon their capacity to cross the blood-brain barrier (BBB) and bind to the central H1 receptors (RH1). This in turn depends on the lipophilicity of the drug molecule, its molecular weight (MW), and affinity for P-glycoprotein (P-gp) (CNS xenobiotic substances extractor protein). First generation antihistamines show scant affinity for P-gp, unlike the second generation molecules which are regarded as P-gp substrates. Histamine in the brain is implicated in many functions (waking-sleep cycle, attention, memory and learning, and the regulation of appetite), with numerous and complex interactions with different types of receptors in different brain areas. Bilastine is a new H1 antihistamine that proves to be effective in treating allergic rhinoconjunctivitis (seasonal and perennial) and urticaria. The imaging studies made, as well as the objective psychomotor tests and subjective assessment of drowsiness, indicate the absence of bilastine action upon the CNS. This fact, and the lack of interaction with benzodiazepines and alcohol, define bilastine as a clinically promising drug with a good safety profile as regards adverse effects upon the CNS.

  20. Epidemiology of central nervous system mycoses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chakrabarti Arunaloke

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Fungal infections of the central nervous system (CNS were considered rare until the 1970s. This is no longer true in recent years due to widespread use of corticosteroids, cytotoxic drugs and antibiotics. Immunocompromised patients with underlying malignancy, organ transplantations and acquired immune deficiency syndrome are all candidates for acquiring fungal infections either in meninges or brain. A considerable number of cases of CNS fungal infections even in immunocompetent hosts have been reported. A vast array of fungi may cause infection in the CNS, but barring a few, most of them are anecdotal case reports. Cryptococcus neoformans , Candida albicans, Coccidioides immitis. Histoplasma capsulatum are common causes of fungal meningitis; Aspergillus spp., Candida spp., Zygomycetes and some of the melanized fungi are known to cause mass lesions in brain. Few fungi like C. neoformans, Cladophialophora bantiana, Exophiala dermatitidis, Ramichloridium mackenzie, Ochroconis gallopava are considered as true neurotropic fungi. Most of the fungi causing CNS infection are saprobes with worldwide distribution; a few are geographically restricted like Coccidioides immitis . The infections reach the CNS either by the hematogenous route or by direct extension from colonized sinuses or ear canal or by direct inoculation during neurosurgical procedures.

  1. Sympathetic nervous system behavior in human obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davy, Kevin P; Orr, Jeb S

    2009-02-01

    The sympathetic nervous system (SNS) plays an essential role in the regulation of metabolic and cardiovascular homeostasis. Low SNS activity has been suggested to be a risk factor for weight gain and obesity development. In contrast, SNS activation is characteristic of a number of metabolic and cardiovascular diseases that occur more frequently in obese individuals. Until recently, the relation between obesity and SNS behavior has been controversial because previous approaches for assessing SNS activity in humans have produced inconsistent findings. Beginning in the early 1990s, many studies using state of the art neurochemical and neurophysiological techniques have provided important insight. The purpose of the present review is to provide an overview of our current understanding of the region specific alterations in SNS behavior in human obesity. We will discuss findings from our own laboratory which implicate visceral fat as an important depot linking obesity with skeletal muscle SNS activation. The influence of weight change on SNS behavior and the potential mechanisms and consequences of region specific SNS activation in obesity will also be considered.

  2. Time perception mechanisms at central nervous system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rhailana Fontes

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The five senses have specific ways to receive environmental information and lead to central nervous system. The perception of time is the sum of stimuli associated with cognitive processes and environmental changes. Thus, the perception of time requires a complex neural mechanism and may be changed by emotional state, level of attention, memory and diseases. Despite this knowledge, the neural mechanisms of time perception are not yet fully understood. The objective is to relate the mechanisms involved the neurofunctional aspects, theories, executive functions and pathologies that contribute the understanding of temporal perception. Articles form 1980 to 2015 were searched by using the key themes: neuroanatomy, neurophysiology, theories, time cells, memory, schizophrenia, depression, attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder and Parkinson’s disease combined with the term perception of time. We evaluated 158 articles within the inclusion criteria for the purpose of the study. We conclude that research about the holdings of the frontal cortex, parietal, basal ganglia, cerebellum and hippocampus have provided advances in the understanding of the regions related to the perception of time. In neurological and psychiatric disorders, the understanding of time depends on the severity of the diseases and the type of tasks.

  3. Inflammation in central nervous system injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allan, Stuart M; Rothwell, Nancy J

    2003-10-29

    Inflammation is a key component of host defence responses to peripheral inflammation and injury, but it is now also recognized as a major contributor to diverse, acute and chronic central nervous system (CNS) disorders. Expression of inflammatory mediators including complement, adhesion molecules, cyclooxygenase enzymes and their products and cytokines is increased in experimental and clinical neurodegenerative disease, and intervention studies in experimental animals suggest that several of these factors contribute directly to neuronal injury. Most notably, specific cytokines, such as interleukin-1 (IL-1), have been implicated heavily in acute neurodegeneration, such as stroke and head injury. In spite of their diverse presentation, common inflammatory mechanisms may contribute to many neurodegenerative disorders and in some (e.g. multiple sclerosis) inflammatory modulators are in clinical use. Inflammation may have beneficial as well as detrimental actions in the CNS, particularly in repair and recovery. Nevertheless, several anti-inflammatory targets have been identified as putative treatments for CNS disorders, initially in acute conditions, but which may also be appropriate to chronic neurodegenerative conditions.

  4. Extraversion, Neuroticism and Strength of the Nervous System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frigon, Jean-Yves

    1976-01-01

    The hypothesized identity of the dimensions of extraversion-introversion and strength of the nervous system was tested on four groups of nine subjects (neurotic extraverts, stable extraverts, neurotic introverts, stable introverts). Strength of the subjects' nervous system was estimated using the electroencephalographic (EEG) variant of extinction…

  5. Chemokines and chemokine receptors in inflammation of the nervous system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huang, D; Han, Yong-Chang; Rani, M R

    2000-01-01

    This article focuses on the production of chemokines by resident glial cells of the nervous system. We describe studies in two distinct categories of inflammation within the nervous system: immune-mediated inflammation as seen in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) or multiple sclerosis...

  6. Plasticity and Neural Stem Cells in the Enteric Nervous System

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schaefer, Karl-Herbert; Van Ginneken, Chris; Copray, Sjef

    2009-01-01

    The enteric nervous system (ENS) is a highly organized part of the autonomic nervous system, which innervates the whole gastrointestinal tract by several interconnected neuronal networks. The ENS changes during development and keeps throughout its lifespan a significant capacity to adapt to microenv

  7. Plasticity and Neural Stem Cells in the Enteric Nervous System

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schaefer, Karl-Herbert; Van Ginneken, Chris; Copray, Sjef

    2009-01-01

    The enteric nervous system (ENS) is a highly organized part of the autonomic nervous system, which innervates the whole gastrointestinal tract by several interconnected neuronal networks. The ENS changes during development and keeps throughout its lifespan a significant capacity to adapt to

  8. Functional State of Puberty Aged Hockey Players’ Nervous System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I.V. Shichavin

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The article estimates age-specific indexes of nervous system, responsible for juveniles’ speed qualities, training in Children and Youth Ice Hockey School. The received data justifies the necessity for individual approach to each hockey player, considering his age peculiarities and, respectively the functioning of the nervous system in the course of training organization.

  9. Biological effects of lysophosphatidic acid in the nervous system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frisca, Frisca; Sabbadini, Roger A; Goldshmit, Yona; Pébay, Alice

    2012-01-01

    Lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) is a bioactive lipid that regulates a broad range of cellular effects in various cell types, leading to a variety of responses in tissues, including in the nervous system. LPA and its receptors are found in the nervous system, with different cellular and temporal profiles. Through its ability to target most cells of the nervous system and its induction of pleiotropic effects, LPA mediates events during neural development and adulthood. In this review, we summarize the current knowledge on the effects of LPA in the nervous system, during development and adulthood, and in various pathologies of the nervous system. We also explore potential LPA intervention strategies for anti-LPA therapeutics.

  10. Mechanosensitivity in the enteric nervous system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gemma eMazzuoli-Weber

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The enteric nervous system (ENS autonomously controls gut muscle activity. Mechanosensitive enteric neurons (MEN initiate reflex activity by responding to mechanical deformation of the gastrointestinal wall. MEN throughout the gut primarily respond to compression or stretch rather than to shear force. Some MEN are multimodal as they respond to compression and stretch. Depending on the region up to 60% of the entire ENS population responds to mechanical stress. MEN fire action potentials after mechanical stimulation of processes or soma although they are more sensitive to process deformation. There are at least two populations of MEN based on their sensitivity to different modalities of mechanical stress and on their firing pattern. 1 Rapidly, slowly and ultra-slowly adapting neurons which encode compressive forces. 2 Ultra-slowly adapting stretch-sensitive neurons encoding tensile forces. Rapid adaptation of firing is typically observed after compressive force while slow adaptation or ongoing spike discharge occurs often during tensile stress (stretch. All MEN have some common properties: they receive synaptic input, are low fidelity mechanoreceptors and are multifunctional in that some serve interneuronal others even motor functions. Consequently, MEN possess processes with mechanosensitive as well as efferent functions. This raises the intriguing hypothesis that MEN sense and control muscle activity at the same time as servo-feedback loop. The mechanosensitive channel(s or receptor(s expressed by the different MEN populations are unknown. Future concepts have to incorporate compressive and tensile-sensitive MEN into neural circuits that controls muscle activity. They may interact to control various forms of a particular motor pattern or regulate different motor patterns independently from each other.

  11. Congenital tumors of the central nervous system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Severino, Mariasavina [G. Gaslini Children' s Hospital, Department of Neuroradiology, Genoa (Italy); Schwartz, Erin S. [The Children' s Hospital of Philadelphia, Department of Radiology, Philadelphia, PA (United States); Thurnher, Majda M. [Medical University of Vienna, Department of Radiology, Vienna (Austria); Rydland, Jana [MR Center, St. Olav' s Hospital HF, Trondheim (Norway); Nikas, Ioannis [Agia Sophia Children' s Hospital, Imaging Department, Athens (Greece); Rossi, Andrea [G. Gaslini Children' s Hospital, Department of Neuroradiology, Genoa (Italy); G. Gaslini Children' s Hospital, Department of Pediatric Neuroradiology, Genoa (Italy)

    2010-06-15

    Congenital tumors of the central nervous system (CNS) are often arbitrarily divided into ''definitely congenital'' (present or producing symptoms at birth), ''probably congenital'' (present or producing symptoms within the first week of life), and ''possibly congenital'' (present or producing symptoms within the first 6 months of life). They represent less than 2% of all childhood brain tumors. The clinical features of newborns include an enlarged head circumference, associated hydrocephalus, and asymmetric skull growth. At birth, a large head or a tense fontanel is the presenting sign in up to 85% of patients. Neurological symptoms as initial symptoms are comparatively rare. The prenatal diagnosis of congenital CNS tumors, while based on ultrasonography, has significantly benefited from the introduction of prenatal magnetic resonance imaging studies. Teratomas constitute about one third to one half of these tumors and are the most common neonatal brain tumor. They are often immature because of primitive neural elements and, rarely, a component of mixed malignant germ cell tumors. Other tumors include astrocytomas, choroid plexus papilloma, primitive neuroectodermal tumors, atypical teratoid/rhabdoid tumors, and medulloblastomas. Less common histologies include craniopharyngiomas and ependymomas. There is a strong predilection for supratentorial locations, different from tumors of infants and children. Differential diagnoses include spontaneous intracranial hemorrhage that can occur in the presence of coagulation factor deficiency or underlying vascular malformations, and congenital brain malformations, especially giant heterotopia. The prognosis for patients with congenital tumors is generally poor, usually because of the massive size of the tumor. However, tumors can be resected successfully if they are small and favorably located. The most favorable outcomes are achieved with choroid plexus tumors

  12. An Electerophisioligic Study Of Autonomic Nervous System In Diabetic Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noorolahi Moghaddam H

    2003-11-01

    Full Text Available Autonomic nervous system dysfunction in diabetics can occur apart from peripheral sensorimotor polyneuropathy and sometimes leads to complaints which may be diagnosed by electrodiagnostic methods. Moreover glycemic control of these patients may prevent such a complications."nMaterials and Methods: 30 diabetic patients were compared to the same number of age and sex-matched controls regarding to electrophysiologic findings of autonomic nervous system. Symptoms referable to autonomic disorder including nightly diarrhea, dizziness, urinary incontinence, constipation, nausea, and mouth dryness were recorded in all diabetic patients. Palmar and plantar SSR and expiration to inspiration ratio (E: I and Valsalva ratio were recorded in all diabetics and control individuals by electromyography device. In addition NCS was performed on two sensory and two motor nerves in diabetic patients."nResults: There was no relation between age of diabetics and abnormal D: I ratio, Valsalva ratio and degree of electrophysiologic autonomic impairment. Also no relation between peripheral sensorimotor polyneuropathy and electrophysiologic autonomic impairment was found. Plantar SSR was absent in 80% of diabetics with orthostatic hypotension (p~ 0.019. Palmar and plantar SSR were absent in many diabetics in comparison to control group (for palmar SSR p~ 0.00 and for plantar SSR p< 0.015. There was no relation between diabetes duration since diagnosis and electrophysiologic autonomic impairment."nConclusion: According to the above mentioned findings diabetic autonomic neuropathy develops apart from peripheral sensorimotor polyneuropathy and probably with different mechanisms. Remarkable absence of palmar SSR in diabetics with orthostatic hypotension can be due to its sympathetic origin. Absence of any relation between diabetes duration and electrophysiologic autonomic impairment can be due to late diagnosis of type 2 diabetes or no pathophysiologic relation between chronic

  13. Is There Anything "Autonomous" in the Nervous System?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasia-Filho, Alberto A.

    2006-01-01

    The terms "autonomous" or "vegetative" are currently used to identify one part of the nervous system composed of sympathetic, parasympathetic, and gastrointestinal divisions. However, the concepts that are under the literal meaning of these words can lead to misconceptions about the actual nervous organization. Some clear-cut examples indicate…

  14. Statin therapy inhibits remyelination in the central nervous system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Miron, Veronique E; Zehntner, Simone P; Kuhlmann, Tanja

    2009-01-01

    Remyelination of lesions in the central nervous system contributes to neural repair following clinical relapses in multiple sclerosis. Remyelination is initiated by recruitment and differentiation of oligodendrocyte progenitor cells (OPCs) into myelinating oligodendrocytes. Simvastatin, a blood...... that OPCs were maintained in an immature state (Olig2(strong)/Nkx2.2(weak)). NogoA+ oligodendrocyte numbers were decreased during all simvastatin treatment regimens. Our findings suggest that simvastatin inhibits central nervous system remyelination by blocking progenitor differentiation, indicating...... the need to monitor effects of systemic immunotherapies that can access the central nervous system on brain tissue-repair processes....

  15. The Human Sympathetic Nervous System Response to Spaceflight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ertl, Andrew C.; Diedrich, Andre; Paranjape, Sachin Y.; Biaggioni, Italo; Robertson, Rose Marie; Lane, Lynda D.; Shiavi, Richard; Robertson, David

    2003-01-01

    The sympathetic nervous system is an important part of the autonomic (or automatic) nervous system. When an individual stands up, the sympathetic nervous system speeds the heart and constricts blood vessels to prevent a drop in blood pressure. A significant number of astronauts experience a drop in blood pressure when standing for prolonged periods after they return from spaceflight. Difficulty maintaining blood pressure with standing is also a daily problem for many patients. Indirect evidence available before the Neurolab mission suggested the problem in astronauts while in space might be due partially to reduced sympathetic nervous system activity. The purpose of this experiment was to identify whether sympathetic activity was reduced during spaceflight. Sympathetic nervous system activity can be determined in part by measuring heart rate, nerve activity going to blood vessels, and the release of the hormone norepinephrine into the blood. Norepinephrine is a neurotransmitter discharged from active sympathetic nerve terminals, so its rate of release can serve as a marker of sympathetic nervous system action. In addition to standard cardiovascular measurements (heart rate, blood pressure), we determined sympathetic nerve activity as well as norepinephrine release and clearance on four crewmembers on the Neurolab mission. Contrary to our expectation, the results demonstrated that the astronauts had mildly elevated resting sympathetic nervous system activity in space. Sympathetic nervous system responses to stresses that simulated the cardiovascular effects of standing (lower body negative pressure) were brisk both during and after spaceflight. We concluded that, in the astronauts tested, the activity and response of the sympathetic nervous system to cardiovascular stresses appeared intact and mildly elevated both during and after spaceflight. These changes returned to normal within a few days.

  16. Evaluation of malnutrition in patients with nervous system disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Feng; Liu, Yao-wen; Wang, Xue-feng; Liu, Guang-wei

    2014-10-01

    Nutritional deficiencies are independent risk factors for adverse outcomes in patients with nervous system disease. Patients with nervous system disease can often become malnourished due to swallowing difficulties or unconsciousness. This malnourishment increases hospitalization duration; average total hospital cost; occurrence of infection, pressure ulcers, and other complications. These problems need to be addressed in the clinic. In this paper, we review the relevant literature, including studies on influencing factors, evaluations, indexes, and methods: Our aim is to understand the current status of malnutrition in patients with nervous system disease and reasons associated with nutritional deficiencies by using malnutrition evaluation methods to assess the risk of nutritional deficiencies in the early stages.

  17. Disseminated encephalomyelitis-like central nervous system neoplasm in childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Jianhui; Bao, Xinhua; Fu, Na; Ye, Jintang; Li, Ting; Yuan, Yun; Zhang, Chunyu; Zhang, Yao; Zhang, Yuehua; Qin, Jiong; Wu, Xiru

    2014-08-01

    A malignant neoplasm in the central nervous system with diffuse white matter changes on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is rare in children. It could be misdiagnosed as acute disseminated encephalomyelitis. This report presents our experience based on 4 patients (3 male, 1 female; aged 7-13 years) whose MRI showed diffuse lesions in white matter and who were initially diagnosed with acute disseminated encephalomyelitis. All of the patients received corticosteroid therapy. After brain biopsy, the patients were diagnosed with gliomatosis cerebri, primitive neuroectodermal tumor and central nervous system lymphoma. We also provide literature reviews and discuss the differentiation of central nervous system neoplasm from acute disseminated encephalomyelitis.

  18. The Relationship between Vascular Function and the Autonomic Nervous System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amiya, Eisuke; Watanabe, Masafumi; Komuro, Issei

    2014-01-01

    Endothelial dysfunction and autonomic nervous system dysfunction are both risk factors for atherosclerosis. There is evidence demonstrating that there is a close interrelationship between these two systems. In hypertension, endothelial dysfunction affects the pathologic process through autonomic nervous pathways, and the pathophysiological process of autonomic neuropathy in diabetes mellitus is closely related with vascular function. However, detailed mechanisms of this interrelationship have not been clearly explained. In this review, we summarize findings concerning the interrelationship between vascular function and the autonomic nervous system from both experimental and clinical studies. The clarification of this interrelationship may provide more comprehensive risk stratification and a new effective therapeutic strategy against atherosclerosis.

  19. Central nervous system stimulants and drugs that suppress appetite

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aagaard, Lise

    2014-01-01

    of the January 2012 to June 2013 publications on central nervous system stimulants and drugs that suppress appetite covers amphetamines (including metamfetamine, paramethoxyamfetamine and paramethoxymetamfetamine), fenfluramine and benfluorex, atomoxetine, methylphenidate, modafinil and armodafinil...

  20. Evolution of the Human Nervous System Function, Structure, and Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sousa, André M M; Meyer, Kyle A; Santpere, Gabriel; Gulden, Forrest O; Sestan, Nenad

    2017-07-13

    The nervous system-in particular, the brain and its cognitive abilities-is among humans' most distinctive and impressive attributes. How the nervous system has changed in the human lineage and how it differs from that of closely related primates is not well understood. Here, we consider recent comparative analyses of extant species that are uncovering new evidence for evolutionary changes in the size and the number of neurons in the human nervous system, as well as the cellular and molecular reorganization of its neural circuits. We also discuss the developmental mechanisms and underlying genetic and molecular changes that generate these structural and functional differences. As relevant new information and tools materialize at an unprecedented pace, the field is now ripe for systematic and functionally relevant studies of the development and evolution of human nervous system specializations. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. "Suicide" Gen Therapy for Malignant Central Nervous System Tumors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.J.P.E. Vincent (Arnoud)

    1998-01-01

    textabstractDespite development in surgical techniques, chemotherapy and radiotherapy, most malignancies of the central nervous system are still devastating tumors with a poor prognosis. For example, median survival of patients with malignant gliomas (astrocytoma, oligodendroglioma or mixed rype) is

  2. [Microglial cells and development of the embryonic central nervous system].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Legendre, Pascal; Le Corronc, Hervé

    2014-02-01

    Microglia cells are the macrophages of the central nervous system with a crucial function in the homeostasis of the adult brain. However, recent studies showed that microglial cells may also have important functions during early embryonic central nervous system development. In this review we summarize recent works on the extra embryonic origin of microglia, their progenitor niche, the pattern of their invasion of the embryonic central nervous system and on interactions between embryonic microglia and their local environment during invasion. We describe microglial functions during development of embryonic neuronal networks, including their roles in neurogenesis, in angiogenesis and developmental cell death. These recent discoveries open a new field of research on the functions of neural-microglial interactions during the development of the embryonic central nervous system.

  3. Central Nervous System Infections in Patients with Severe Burns

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    both patients had bacteremia with identical microorganisms as isolated from CSF ( Acinetobacter baumannii and methicillin resistant Staphylococcus...multiresistant Acinetobacter baumannii central nervous system infections with intraventricular or intrathecal colistin: case series and literature review. J

  4. The sympathetic nervous system alterations in human hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grassi, Guido; Mark, Allyn; Esler, Murray

    2015-03-13

    Several articles have dealt with the importance and mechanisms of the sympathetic nervous system alterations in experimental animal models of hypertension. This review addresses the role of the sympathetic nervous system in the pathophysiology and therapy of human hypertension. We first discuss the strengths and limitations of various techniques for assessing the sympathetic nervous system in humans, with a focus on heart rate, plasma norepinephrine, microneurographic recording of sympathetic nerve traffic, and measurements of radiolabeled norepinephrine spillover. We then examine the evidence supporting the importance of neuroadrenergic factors as promoters and amplifiers of human hypertension. We expand on the role of the sympathetic nervous system in 2 increasingly common forms of secondary hypertension, namely hypertension associated with obesity and with renal disease. With this background, we examine interventions of sympathetic deactivation as a mode of antihypertensive treatment. Particular emphasis is given to the background and results of recent therapeutic approaches based on carotid baroreceptor stimulation and radiofrequency ablation of the renal nerves.

  5. Central nervous system adaptation to exercise training

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaminski, Lois Anne

    Exercise training causes physiological changes in skeletal muscle that results in enhanced performance in humans and animals. Despite numerous studies on exercise effects on skeletal muscle, relatively little is known about adaptive changes in the central nervous system. This study investigated whether spinal pathways that mediate locomotor activity undergo functional adaptation after 28 days of exercise training. Ventral horn spinal cord expression of calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP), a trophic factor at the neuromuscular junction, choline acetyltransferase (Chat), the synthetic enzyme for acetylcholine, vesicular acetylcholine transporter (Vacht), a transporter of ACh into synaptic vesicles and calcineurin (CaN), a protein phosphatase that phosphorylates ion channels and exocytosis machinery were measured to determine if changes in expression occurred in response to physical activity. Expression of these proteins was determined by western blot and immunohistochemistry (IHC). Comparisons between sedentary controls and animals that underwent either endurance training or resistance training were made. Control rats received no exercise other than normal cage activity. Endurance-trained rats were exercised 6 days/wk at 31m/min on a treadmill (8% incline) for 100 minutes. Resistance-trained rats supported their weight plus an additional load (70--80% body weight) on a 60° incline (3 x 3 min, 5 days/wk). CGRP expression was measured by radioimmunoassay (RIA). CGRP expression in the spinal dorsal and ventral horn of exercise-trained animals was not significantly different than controls. Chat expression measured by Western blot and IHC was not significantly different between runners and controls but expression in resistance-trained animals assayed by IHC was significantly less than controls and runners. Vacht and CaN immunoreactivity in motor neurons of endurance-trained rats was significantly elevated relative to control and resistance-trained animals. Ventral

  6. Introduction to 'Origin and evolution of the nervous system'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strausfeld, Nicholas J; Hirth, Frank

    2015-12-19

    In 1665, Robert Hooke demonstrated in Micrographia the power of the microscope and comparative observations, one of which revealed similarities between the arthropod and vertebrate eyes. Utilizing comparative observations, Saint-Hilaire in 1822 was the first to propose that the ventral nervous system of arthropods corresponds to the dorsal nervous system of vertebrates. Since then, studies on the origin and evolution of the nervous system have become inseparable from studies about Metazoan origins and the origins of organ systems. The advent of genome sequence data and, in turn, phylogenomics and phylogenetics have refined cladistics and expanded our understanding of Metazoan phylogeny. However, the origin and evolution of the nervous system is still obscure and many questions and problems remain. A recurrent problem is whether and to what extent sequence data provide reliable guidance for comparisons across phyla. Are genetic data congruent with the geological fossil records? How can we reconcile evolved character loss with phylogenomic records? And how informative are genetic data in relation to the specification of nervous system morphologies? These provide some of the background and context for a Royal Society meeting to discuss new data and concepts that might achieve insights into the origin and evolution of brains and nervous systems. © 2015 The Author(s).

  7. Role of metallothionein-III following central nervous system damage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carrasco, Javier; Penkowa, Milena; Giralt, Mercedes

    2003-01-01

    We evaluated the physiological relevance of metallothionein-III (MT-III) in the central nervous system following damage caused by a focal cryolesion onto the cortex by studying Mt3-null mice. In normal mice, dramatic astrogliosis and microgliosis and T-cell infiltration were observed in the area...... the inflammatory response elicited in the central nervous system by a cryoinjury, nor does it serve an important antioxidant role, but it may influence neuronal regeneration during the recovery process....

  8. Nosocomial infections in patients with acute central nervous system infections

    OpenAIRE

    2007-01-01

    Due to current increase in the rate of nosocomial infections, our objective was to examine the frequency, risk factors, clinical presentation and etiology of nosocomial infections in patients with central nervous system infections. 2246 patients with central nervous system infections, treated in the intensive care units of the Institute of Infectious and Tropical Diseases, Clinical Center of Serbia in Belgrade and at the Department of Infectious Diseases of the Clinical Hospital Center Kraguj...

  9. Sympathetic Nervous System, Hypertension, Obesity and Metabolic Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seravalle, Gino; Grassi, Guido

    2016-09-01

    Experimental and clinical studies have clearly shown the role of the sympathetic nervous system in the pathophysiology of several cardiovascular and non-cardiovascular diseases. This short review will be aimed at focusing and discussing the new information collected on two specific clinical conditions such as obesity and metabolic syndrome. The paper will briefly describe the four main mechanisms that represent the common link between these two pathophysiological conditions and that through the sympathetic nervous system contribute to increase the cardiovascular risk.

  10. Source characterization of nervous system active pharmaceutical ingredients in healthcare wastewaters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nervous system active pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs), including anti-depressants and opioids, are important clinically administered pharmaceuticals within healthcare facilities. Concentrations and mass loadings of ten nervous system APIs and three nervous system API metaboli...

  11. Microglioma, a histiocytic neoplasm of the central nervous system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hulette, C M

    1996-03-01

    Neuropathologists have long suspected the existence of a tumor derived from the microglia, which are the resident immunocompetent cells of the central nervous system. Previously, definitive characterization of this rare putative tumor was hampered by the lack of precise immunohistochemical reagents. We herein report on a patient with microglioma, and we define the immunohistochemical characteristics of the tumor. The patient was a 50-year-old white woman who presented with a 1-year history of progressive paresthesia, visual difficulties, and cranial nerve abnormalities. The patient died in June 1972. At autopsy, the brain weighed 1540 grams and was remarkable for a diffusely infiltrating periventricular tumor, which extended from the rostral tip of the lateral ventricles through the spinal cord. Microscopically, the tumor cells had extremely long, slender, twisted nuclei, and the cells diffusely infiltrated the brain parenchyma so that the extent of the tumor was difficult to determine. Formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissue blocks from the neuropathology archives were studied. The neoplastic cells stained intensely with CD68 (KP1) and Ricinus communis agglutinin-120 markers for microglia and also with HAM-56, a marker for macrophages. The tumor cells stained negative for glial fibrillary acidic protein. The recent availability of precise immunohistochemical reagents has clearly defined this rare neoplasm and has facilitated reliable distinction from lymphoma and gliomatosis cerebri.

  12. Cytokines and Myelination in the Central Nervous System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Schmitz

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Myelin abnormalities that reflect damage to developing and mature brains are often found in neurological diseases with evidence of inflammatory infiltration and microglial activation. Many cytokines are virtually undetectable in the uninflamed central nervous system (CNS, so that their rapid induction and sustained elevation in immune and glial cells contributes to dysregulation of the inflammatory response and neural cell homeostasis. This results in aberrant neural cell development, cytotoxicity, and loss of the primary myelin-producing cells of the CNS, the oligodendrocytes. This article provides an overview of cytokine and chemokine activity in the CNS with relevance to clinical conditions of neonatal and adult demyelinating disease, brain trauma, and mental disorders with observed white matter defects. Experimental models that mimic human disease have been developed in order to study pathogenic and therapeutic mechanisms, but have shown mixed success in clinical application. However, genetically altered animals, and models of CNS inflammation and demyelination, have offered great insight into the complexities of neuroimmune interactions that impact oligodendrocyte function. The intracellular signaling pathways of selected cytokines have also been highlighted to illustrate current knowledge of receptor-mediated events. By learning to interpret the actions of cytokines and by improving methods to target appropriate predictors of disease risk selectively, a more comprehensive understanding of altered immunoregulation will aid in the development of advanced treatment options for patients with inflammatory white matter disorders.

  13. Peripheral nervous system insulin resistance in ob/ob mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background A reduction in peripheral nervous system (PNS) insulin signaling is a proposed mechanism that may contribute to sensory neuron dysfunction and diabetic neuropathy. Neuronal insulin resistance is associated with several neurological disorders and recent evidence has indicated that dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons in primary culture display altered insulin signaling, yet in vivo results are lacking. Here, experiments were performed to test the hypothesis that the PNS of insulin-resistant mice displays altered insulin signal transduction in vivo. For these studies, nondiabetic control and type 2 diabetic ob/ob mice were challenged with an intrathecal injection of insulin or insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) and downstream signaling was evaluated in the DRG and sciatic nerve using Western blot analysis. Results The results indicate that insulin signaling abnormalities documented in other “insulin sensitive” tissues (i.e. muscle, fat, liver) of ob/ob mice are also present in the PNS. A robust increase in Akt activation was observed with insulin and IGF-1 stimulation in nondiabetic mice in both the sciatic nerve and DRG; however this response was blunted in both tissues from ob/ob mice. The results also suggest that upregulated JNK activation and reduced insulin receptor expression could be contributory mechanisms of PNS insulin resistance within sensory neurons. Conclusions These findings contribute to the growing body of evidence that alterations in insulin signaling occur in the PNS and may be a key factor in the pathogenesis of diabetic neuropathy. PMID:24252636

  14. Corticosteroid-related central nervous system side effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miriam Ciriaco

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Corticosteroids have been used since the 50s as anti-inflammatory and immunosuppressive drugs for the treatment of several pathologies such as asthma, allergy, rheumatoid arthritis, and dermatological disorders. Corticosteroids have three principal mechanisms of action: 1 inhibit the synthesis of inflammatory proteins blocking NF-kB, 2 induce the expression of anti-inflammatory proteins by IkB and MAPK phosphatase I, and 3 inhibit 5-lipoxygenase and cyclooxygenase-2. The efficacy of glucocorticoids in alleviating inflammatory disorders results from the pleiotropic effects of the glucocorticoid receptors on multiple signaling pathways. However, they have adverse effects: Growth retardation in children, immunosuppression, hypertension, hyperglycemia, inhibition of wound repair, osteoporosis, metabolic disturbances, glaucoma, and cataracts. Less is known about psychiatric or side effects on central nervous system, as catatonia, decreased concentration, agitation, insomnia, and abnormal behaviors, which are also often underestimated in clinical practice. The aim of this review is to highlight the correlation between the administration of corticosteroids and CNS adverse effects, giving a useful guide for prescribers including a more careful assessment of risk factors and encourage the use of safer doses of this class of drugs.

  15. Central nervous system involvement in incontinentia pigmenti: cranial MRI of two siblings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aydingoez, Ue.; Midia, M. [Department of Radiology, Hacettepe University School of Medicine, Ankara (Turkey)

    1998-06-01

    Incontinentia pigmenti is an uncommon neurocutaneous syndrome characterised by skin lesions, dental and ocular abnormalities and central nervous system involvement. We report the cranial MRI findings in two sisters with this condition. These include hypoplasia of the corpus callosum, enlargement of the lateral ventricles and periventricular white-matter lesions. One girl also had unilateral microphthalmia and rostral agenesis of the corpus callosum, a feature not previously described. (orig.) With 2 figs., 9 refs.

  16. Global research priorities for infections that affect the nervous system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    John, Chandy C; Carabin, Hélène; Montano, Silvia M; Bangirana, Paul; Zunt, Joseph R; Peterson, Phillip K

    2015-11-19

    Infections that cause significant nervous system morbidity globally include viral (for example, HIV, rabies, Japanese encephalitis virus, herpes simplex virus, varicella zoster virus, cytomegalovirus, dengue virus and chikungunya virus), bacterial (for example, tuberculosis, syphilis, bacterial meningitis and sepsis), fungal (for example, cryptococcal meningitis) and parasitic (for example, malaria, neurocysticercosis, neuroschistosomiasis and soil-transmitted helminths) infections. The neurological, cognitive, behavioural or mental health problems caused by the infections probably affect millions of children and adults in low- and middle-income countries. However, precise estimates of morbidity are lacking for most infections, and there is limited information on the pathogenesis of nervous system injury in these infections. Key research priorities for infection-related nervous system morbidity include accurate estimates of disease burden; point-of-care assays for infection diagnosis; improved tools for the assessment of neurological, cognitive and mental health impairment; vaccines and other interventions for preventing infections; improved understanding of the pathogenesis of nervous system disease in these infections; more effective methods to treat and prevent nervous system sequelae; operations research to implement known effective interventions; and improved methods of rehabilitation. Research in these areas, accompanied by efforts to implement promising technologies and therapies, could substantially decrease the morbidity and mortality of infections affecting the nervous system in low- and middle-income countries.

  17. Global research priorities for infections that affect the nervous system

    Science.gov (United States)

    John, Chandy C.; Carabin, Hélène; Montano, Silvia M.; Bangirana, Paul; Zunt, Joseph R.; Peterson, Phillip K.

    2015-01-01

    Infections that cause significant nervous system morbidity globally include viral (for example, HIV, rabies, Japanese encephalitis virus, herpes simplex virus, varicella zoster virus, cytomegalovirus, dengue virus and chikungunya virus), bacterial (for example, tuberculosis, syphilis, bacterial meningitis and sepsis), fungal (for example, cryptococcal meningitis) and parasitic (for example, malaria, neurocysticercosis, neuroschistosomiasis and soil-transmitted helminths) infections. The neurological, cognitive, behavioural or mental health problems caused by the infections probably affect millions of children and adults in low- and middle-income countries. However, precise estimates of morbidity are lacking for most infections, and there is limited information on the pathogenesis of nervous system injury in these infections. Key research priorities for infection-related nervous system morbidity include accurate estimates of disease burden; point-of-care assays for infection diagnosis; improved tools for the assessment of neurological, cognitive and mental health impairment; vaccines and other interventions for preventing infections; improved understanding of the pathogenesis of nervous system disease in these infections; more effective methods to treat and prevent nervous system sequelae; operations research to implement known effective interventions; and improved methods of rehabilitation. Research in these areas, accompanied by efforts to implement promising technologies and therapies, could substantially decrease the morbidity and mortality of infections affecting the nervous system in low- and middle-income countries. PMID:26580325

  18. Holothurian Nervous System Diversity Revealed by Neuroanatomical Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díaz-Balzac, Carlos A; Lázaro-Peña, María I; Vázquez-Figueroa, Lionel D; Díaz-Balzac, Roberto J; García-Arrarás, José E

    2016-01-01

    The Echinodermata comprise an interesting branch in the phylogenetic tree of deuterostomes. Their radial symmetry which is reflected in their nervous system anatomy makes them a target of interest in the study of nervous system evolution. Until recently, the study of the echinoderm nervous system has been hindered by a shortage of neuronal markers. However, in recent years several markers of neuronal and fiber subpopulations have been described. These have been used to identify subpopulations of neurons and fibers, but an integrative study of the anatomical relationship of these subpopulations is wanting. We have now used eight commercial antibodies, together with three antibodies produced by our group to provide a comprehensive and integrated description and new details of the echinoderm neuroanatomy using the holothurian Holothuria glaberrima (Selenka, 1867) as our model system. Immunoreactivity of the markers used showed: (1) specific labeling patterns by markers in the radial nerve cords, which suggest the presence of specific nerve tracts in holothurians. (2) Nerves directly innervate most muscle fibers in the longitudinal muscles. (3) Similar to other deuterostomes (mainly vertebrates), their enteric nervous system is composed of a large and diverse repertoire of neurons and fiber phenotypes. Our results provide a first blueprint of the anatomical organization of cells and fibers that form the holothurian neural circuitry, and highlight the fact that the echinoderm nervous system shows unexpected diversity in cell and fiber types and their distribution in both central and peripheral nervous components.

  19. Histologic examination of the rat central nervous system after intrathecal administration of human beta-endorphin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hée, P.; Klinken, Leif; Ballegaard, Martin

    1992-01-01

    Neuropathology, analgesics - intrathecal, central nervous system, histology, human beta-endorphin, toxicity......Neuropathology, analgesics - intrathecal, central nervous system, histology, human beta-endorphin, toxicity...

  20. Structural and functional features of central nervous system lymphatic vessels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Louveau, Antoine; Smirnov, Igor; Keyes, Timothy J; Eccles, Jacob D; Rouhani, Sherin J; Peske, J David; Derecki, Noel C; Castle, David; Mandell, James W; Lee, Kevin S; Harris, Tajie H; Kipnis, Jonathan

    2015-07-16

    One of the characteristics of the central nervous system is the lack of a classical lymphatic drainage system. Although it is now accepted that the central nervous system undergoes constant immune surveillance that takes place within the meningeal compartment, the mechanisms governing the entrance and exit of immune cells from the central nervous system remain poorly understood. In searching for T-cell gateways into and out of the meninges, we discovered functional lymphatic vessels lining the dural sinuses. These structures express all of the molecular hallmarks of lymphatic endothelial cells, are able to carry both fluid and immune cells from the cerebrospinal fluid, and are connected to the deep cervical lymph nodes. The unique location of these vessels may have impeded their discovery to date, thereby contributing to the long-held concept of the absence of lymphatic vasculature in the central nervous system. The discovery of the central nervous system lymphatic system may call for a reassessment of basic assumptions in neuroimmunology and sheds new light on the aetiology of neuroinflammatory and neurodegenerative diseases associated with immune system dysfunction.

  1. Designing and implementing nervous system simulations on LEGO robots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blustein, Daniel; Rosenthal, Nikolai; Ayers, Joseph

    2013-05-25

    We present a method to use the commercially available LEGO Mindstorms NXT robotics platform to test systems level neuroscience hypotheses. The first step of the method is to develop a nervous system simulation of specific reflexive behaviors of an appropriate model organism; here we use the American Lobster. Exteroceptive reflexes mediated by decussating (crossing) neural connections can explain an animal's taxis towards or away from a stimulus as described by Braitenberg and are particularly well suited for investigation using the NXT platform.(1) The nervous system simulation is programmed using LabVIEW software on the LEGO Mindstorms platform. Once the nervous system is tuned properly, behavioral experiments are run on the robot and on the animal under identical environmental conditions. By controlling the sensory milieu experienced by the specimens, differences in behavioral outputs can be observed. These differences may point to specific deficiencies in the nervous system model and serve to inform the iteration of the model for the particular behavior under study. This method allows for the experimental manipulation of electronic nervous systems and serves as a way to explore neuroscience hypotheses specifically regarding the neurophysiological basis of simple innate reflexive behaviors. The LEGO Mindstorms NXT kit provides an affordable and efficient platform on which to test preliminary biomimetic robot control schemes. The approach is also well suited for the high school classroom to serve as the foundation for a hands-on inquiry-based biorobotics curriculum.

  2. Directional spread of alphaherpesviruses in the nervous system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kramer, Tal; Enquist, Lynn W

    2013-02-11

    Alphaherpesviruses are pathogens that invade the nervous systems of their mammalian hosts. Directional spread of infection in the nervous system is a key component of the viral lifecycle and is critical for the onset of alphaherpesvirus-related diseases. Many alphaherpesvirus infections originate at peripheral sites, such as epithelial tissues, and then enter neurons of the peripheral nervous system (PNS), where lifelong latency is established. Following reactivation from latency and assembly of new viral particles, the infection typically spreads back out towards the periphery. These spread events result in the characteristic lesions (cold sores) commonly associated with herpes simplex virus (HSV) and herpes zoster (shingles) associated with varicella zoster virus (VZV). Occasionally, the infection spreads transsynaptically from the PNS into higher order neurons of the central nervous system (CNS). Spread of infection into the CNS, while rarer in natural hosts, often results in severe consequences, including death. In this review, we discuss the viral and cellular mechanisms that govern directional spread of infection in the nervous system. We focus on the molecular events that mediate long distance directional transport of viral particles in neurons during entry and egress.

  3. Evolution of flatworm central nervous systems: Insights from polyclads

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sigmer Y. Quiroga

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The nervous systems of flatworms have diversified extensively as a consequence of the broad range of adaptations in the group. Here we examined the central nervous system (CNS of 12 species of polyclad flatworms belonging to 11 different families by morphological and histological studies. These comparisons revealed that the overall organization and architecture of polyclad central nervous systems can be classified into three categories (I, II, and III based on the presence of globuli cell masses -ganglion cells of granular appearance-, the cross-sectional shape of the main nerve cords, and the tissue type surrounding the nerve cords. In addition, four different cell types were identified in polyclad brains based on location and size. We also characterize the serotonergic and FMRFamidergic nervous systems in the cotylean Boninia divae by immunocytochemistry. Although both neurotransmitters were broadly expressed, expression of serotonin was particularly strong in the sucker, whereas FMRFamide was particularly strong in the pharynx. Finally, we test some of the major hypothesized trends during the evolution of the CNS in the phylum by a character state reconstruction based on current understanding of the nervous system across different species of Platyhelminthes and on up-to-date molecular phylogenies.

  4. Evolution of flatworm central nervous systems: Insights from polyclads

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quiroga, Sigmer Y.; Carolina Bonilla, E.; Marcela Bolaños, D.; Carbayo, Fernando; Litvaitis, Marian K.; Brown, Federico D.

    2015-01-01

    The nervous systems of flatworms have diversified extensively as a consequence of the broad range of adaptations in the group. Here we examined the central nervous system (CNS) of 12 species of polyclad flatworms belonging to 11 different families by morphological and histological studies. These comparisons revealed that the overall organization and architecture of polyclad central nervous systems can be classified into three categories (I, II, and III) based on the presence of globuli cell masses -ganglion cells of granular appearance-, the cross-sectional shape of the main nerve cords, and the tissue type surrounding the nerve cords. In addition, four different cell types were identified in polyclad brains based on location and size. We also characterize the serotonergic and FMRFamidergic nervous systems in the cotylean Boninia divae by immunocytochemistry. Although both neurotransmitters were broadly expressed, expression of serotonin was particularly strong in the sucker, whereas FMRFamide was particularly strong in the pharynx. Finally, we test some of the major hypothesized trends during the evolution of the CNS in the phylum by a character state reconstruction based on current understanding of the nervous system across different species of Platyhelminthes and on up-to-date molecular phylogenies. PMID:26500427

  5. 3D printed nervous system on a chip.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Blake N; Lancaster, Karen Z; Hogue, Ian B; Meng, Fanben; Kong, Yong Lin; Enquist, Lynn W; McAlpine, Michael C

    2016-04-21

    Bioinspired organ-level in vitro platforms are emerging as effective technologies for fundamental research, drug discovery, and personalized healthcare. In particular, models for nervous system research are especially important, due to the complexity of neurological phenomena and challenges associated with developing targeted treatment of neurological disorders. Here we introduce an additive manufacturing-based approach in the form of a bioinspired, customizable 3D printed nervous system on a chip (3DNSC) for the study of viral infection in the nervous system. Micro-extrusion 3D printing strategies enabled the assembly of biomimetic scaffold components (microchannels and compartmented chambers) for the alignment of axonal networks and spatial organization of cellular components. Physiologically relevant studies of nervous system infection using the multiscale biomimetic device demonstrated the functionality of the in vitro platform. We found that Schwann cells participate in axon-to-cell viral spread but appear refractory to infection, exhibiting a multiplicity of infection (MOI) of 1.4 genomes per cell. These results suggest that 3D printing is a valuable approach for the prototyping of a customized model nervous system on a chip technology.

  6. Monophyletic Origin of the Metazoan Nervous System: Characterizing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watkins, Russell; Beckenbach, Andrew

    In the absence of additional cases to be studied, our understanding of the likelihood of intelligent life evolving elsewhere in the universe must be framed within the context of the evolution of intelligence on this planet. Towards this end a valid model of the evolution of animal life, and in particular of the nervous system, is key. Models which describe the development of complexity within the nervous system can be positively misleading if they are not grounded in an accurate model of the true relationships of the animal phyla. If fact the evolution of animal life at its earliest stages, from protists to the sponges, Cnidaria, and Ctenophora and onward to the bilateral animal phyla is poorly characterized. Recently numerous phylogenies of the early animal radiation have been published based upon DNA sequence data, with conflicting and poorly supported results. A polyphyletic origin for the animal nervous system has been implied by the results of several studies, which would lead to the conclusion that some characteristics of the nervous systems of higher and lower animals could be convergent. We show that an equally parsimonious interpretation of the molecular sequence data published thus far is that it reflects rapid speciation events early in animal evolution among the classical ``diploblast'' phyla, as well as accelerated DNA sequence divergence among the higher animals. This could be interpreted as support for a classical phylogeny of the animal kingdom, and thus of a strictly monophyletic origin for the nervous system.

  7. Types of neurons in the enteric nervous system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furness, J B

    2000-07-01

    This paper, written for the symposium in honour of more than 40 years' contribution to autonomic research by Professor Geoffrey Burnstock, highlights the progress made in understanding the organisation of the enteric nervous system over this time. Forty years ago, the prevailing view was that the neurons within the gut wall were post-ganglionic neurons of parasympathetic pathways. This view was replaced as evidence accrued that the neurons are part of the enteric nervous system and are involved in reflex and integrative activities that can occur even in the absence of neuronal influence from extrinsic sources. Work in Burnstock's laboratory led to the discovery of intrinsic inhibitory neurons with then novel pharmacology of transmission, and precipitated investigation of neuron types in the enteric nervous system. All the types of neurons in the enteric nervous system of the small intestine of the guinea-pig have now been identified in terms of their morphologies, projections, primary neurotransmitters and physiological identification. In this region there are 14 functionally defined neuron types, each with a characteristic combination of morphological, neurochemical and biophysical properties. The nerve circuits underlying effects on motility, blood flow and secretion that are mediated through the enteric nervous system are constructed from these neurons. The circuits for simple motility reflexes are now known, and progress has been made in analysing those involved in local control of blood flow and transmucosal fluid movement in the small intestine.

  8. Directional Spread of Alphaherpesviruses in the Nervous System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lynn W. Enquist

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Alphaherpesviruses are pathogens that invade the nervous systems of their mammalian hosts. Directional spread of infection in the nervous system is a key component of the viral lifecycle and is critical for the onset of alphaherpesvirus-related diseases. Many alphaherpesvirus infections originate at peripheral sites, such as epithelial tissues, and then enter neurons of the peripheral nervous system (PNS, where lifelong latency is established. Following reactivation from latency and assembly of new viral particles, the infection typically spreads back out towards the periphery. These spread events result in the characteristic lesions (cold sores commonly associated with herpes simplex virus (HSV and herpes zoster (shingles associated with varicella zoster virus (VZV. Occasionally, the infection spreads transsynaptically from the PNS into higher order neurons of the central nervous system (CNS. Spread of infection into the CNS, while rarer in natural hosts, often results in severe consequences, including death. In this review, we discuss the viral and cellular mechanisms that govern directional spread of infection in the nervous system. We focus on the molecular events that mediate long distance directional transport of viral particles in neurons during entry and egress.

  9. Nervous system manifestations and neuroradiologic findings in acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodesch, G.; Parizel, P.M.; Lalmand, B.; Vanderhofstadt, A.; Baleriaux, D.; Farber, C.M.; Calck, M. van; Przedborski, S.; Haens, J. d' ; Taelman, H.

    1989-03-01

    We report a series of thirteen patients with nervous system complications out of a total of thirty AIDS patients admitted to our hospital over the last two years for which CT and/or MRI have been performed. Five were homosexual men and eight patients (5 men, 3 women) were of African origin (Zaire and Rwanda) (n=5) or had had sexual intercourse with the local African population (n=3). The nervous system complications encountered included: Toxoplasma gondii brain abscess (2 patients); cryptococcus neoformans meningitis+toxoplasmosis (1 patient); toxoplasmosis+lymphoma (2 patients); progressive multifocal leucoencephalopathy (1 patient); lymphocytic meningitis or encephalitis (3 patients); lymphoma (1 patient); polyradiculoneuritis (3 patients). Three of thirteen patients had multiple intracranial abnormalities: One had concomitant intraparenchymal toxoplasma abscess and cryptococcal meningitis; in one patient a lymphoma developed after the successful medical treatment of a toxoplasma abscess; conversely, one patient developed a toxoplasma abscess two years after mediastinal radiotherapy for a systemic non-Hodgkin lymphoma. In conclusion, in our experience, nervous system toxoplasmosis is the most frequent AIDS related CNS complication. Our series demonstrates the high frequency of a second neurological disease occurring either concomitantly or separately. In these cases, while CT may readily identify the intracranial abnormalities, it contributes little towards an etiological diagnosis. Finally, our series illustrates the importance of a central African endemic focus for AIDS.

  10. Psychoneuroimmunology--cross-talk between the immune and nervous systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziemssen, Tjalf; Kern, Simone

    2007-05-01

    Psychoneuroimmunology is a relatively new field of study that investigates interactions between behaviour and the immune system, mediated by the endocrine and nervous systems. The immune and central nervous system (CNS) maintain extensive communication. On the one hand, the brain modulates the immune system by hardwiring sympathetic and parasympathetic nerves (autonomic nervous system) to lymphoid organs. On the other hand, neuroendocrine hormones such as corticotrophin-releasing hormone or substance P regulate cytokine balance. Vice versa, the immune system modulates brain activity including sleep and body temperature. Based on a close functional and anatomical link, the immune and nervous systems act in a highly reciprocal manner. From fever to stress, the influence of one system on the other has evolved in an intricate manner to help sense danger and to mount an appropriate adaptive response. Over recent decades, reasonable evidence has emerged that these brain-to-immune interactions are highly modulated by psychological factors which influence immunity and immune system-mediated disease.

  11. Sjogrens Syndrome Presenting with Central Nervous System Involvement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tülay Terzi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Sjogren’s syndrome is a slowly progressive autoimmune disease. Neurological involvement occurs in approximately 20-25% cases in Sjogren’s syndrome. 87% of the neurological involvement is peripheral nervous system, almost 13% in the form of central nervous system involvement. Affected central nervous system may show similar clinical and radiological findings as in multiple sclerosis (MS. In this paper, a 43-year-old patient is discussed who was referred with the complaint of dizziness, there was MS- like lesions in brain imaging studies and was diagnosed with Sjogren’s syndrome. MS- like clinical and radiologic tables can be seen, albeit rarely in Sjogren’s syndrome. In these cases, early diagnosis and early treatment for the sjögren has a great importance for the prognosis of the disease.

  12. Guidance Receptors in the Nervous and Cardiovascular Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubina, K A; Tkachuk, V A

    2015-10-01

    Blood vessels and nervous fibers grow in parallel, for they express similar receptors for chemokine substances. Recently, much attention is being given to studying guidance receptors and their ligands besides the growth factors, cytokines, and chemokines necessary to form structures in the nervous and vascular systems. Such guidance molecules determine trajectory for growing axons and vessels. Guidance molecules include Ephrins and their receptors, Neuropilins and Plexins as receptors for Semaphorins, Robos as receptors for Slit-proteins, and UNC5B receptors binding Netrins. Apart from these receptors and their ligands, urokinase and its receptor (uPAR) and T-cadherin are also classified as guidance molecules. The urokinase system mediates local proteolysis at the leading edge of cells, thereby providing directed migration. T-cadherin is a repellent molecule that regulates the direction of growing axons and blood vessels. Guidance receptors also play an important role in the diseases of the nervous and cardiovascular systems.

  13. Moderate pressure massage elicits a parasympathetic nervous system response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diego, Miguel A; Field, Tiffany

    2009-01-01

    Twenty healthy adults were randomly assigned to a moderate pressure or a light pressure massage therapy group, and EKGs were recorded during a 3-min baseline, during the 15-min massage period and during a 3-min postmassage period. EKG data were then used to derive the high frequency (HF), low frequency (LF) components of heart rate variability and the low to high frequency ratio (LF/HF) as noninvasive markers of autonomic nervous system activity. The participants who received the moderate pressure massage exhibited a parasympathetic nervous system response characterized by an increase in HF, suggesting increased vagal efferent activity and a decrease in the LF/HF ratio, suggesting a shift from sympathetic to parasympathetic activity that peaked during the first half of the massage period. On the other hand, those who received the light pressure massage exhibited a sympathetic nervous system response characterized by decreased HF and increased LF/HF.

  14. Spatiotemporal development of the embryonic nervous system of Saccoglossus kowalevskii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunningham, Doreen; Casey, Elena Silva

    2014-02-01

    Defining the organization and temporal onset of key steps in neurogenesis in invertebrate deuterostomes is critical to understand the evolution of the bilaterian and deuterostome nervous systems. Although recent studies have revealed the organization of the nervous system in adult hemichordates, little attention has been paid to neurogenesis during embryonic development in this third major phylum of deuterostomes. We examine the early events of neural development in the enteropneust hemichordate Saccoglossus kowalevskii by analyzing the expression of 11 orthologs of key genes associated with neurogenesis in an expansive range of bilaterians. Using in situ hybridization (ISH) and RT-PCR, we follow the course of neural development to track the transition of the early embryonic diffuse nervous system to the more regionalized midline nervous system of the adult. We show that in Saccoglossus, neural progenitor markers are expressed maternally and broadly encircle the developing embryo. An increase in their expression and the onset of pan neural markers, indicate that neural specification occurs in late blastulae - early gastrulae. By mid-gastrulation, punctate expression of markers of differentiating neurons encircling the embryo indicate the presence of immature neurons, and at the end of gastrulation when the embryo begins to elongate, markers of mature neurons are expressed. At this stage, expression of a subset of neuronal markers is concentrated along the trunk ventral and dorsal midlines. These data indicate that the diffuse embryonic nervous system of Saccoglossus is transient and quickly reorganizes before hatching to resemble the adult regionalized, centralized nervous system. This regionalization occurs at a much earlier developmental stage than anticipated indicating that centralization is not linked in S. kowalevskii to a lifestyle change of a swimming larva metamorphosing to a crawling worm-like adult.

  15. 21 CFR 882.5550 - Central nervous system fluid shunt and components.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Central nervous system fluid shunt and components... Central nervous system fluid shunt and components. (a) Identification. A central nervous system fluid... central nervous system to an internal delivery site or an external receptacle for the purpose of relieving...

  16. Gyrosonics a Novel Stimulant for Autonomic Nervous System

    CERN Document Server

    Ghatak, S K; Choudhuri, R; Banerjee, S

    2009-01-01

    Gyrosonics refers to novel audio binaural stimulus that produces rotational perceptions of sound movement in head at a particular predetermined frequency. Therapeutic effect observed with this is considered to be associated with modification of arousal of autonomic nervous system. The heart rate variability (HRV), non-invasive measure of autonomic nervous system, has been measured for group of 30 subjects for pre- and post- gyrosonic installation. The time- and frequency- domain analysis of HRV results show overall decrease in sympathetic response and increase in para- sympathetic response due to listening of gyro sonics.

  17. Brain-computer interface after nervous system injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns, Alexis; Adeli, Hojjat; Buford, John A

    2014-12-01

    Brain-computer interface (BCI) has proven to be a useful tool for providing alternative communication and mobility to patients suffering from nervous system injury. BCI has been and will continue to be implemented into rehabilitation practices for more interactive and speedy neurological recovery. The most exciting BCI technology is evolving to provide therapeutic benefits by inducing cortical reorganization via neuronal plasticity. This article presents a state-of-the-art review of BCI technology used after nervous system injuries, specifically: amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, Parkinson's disease, spinal cord injury, stroke, and disorders of consciousness. Also presented is transcending, innovative research involving new treatment of neurological disorders.

  18. Role of neuroactive steroids in the peripheral nervous system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Cosimo eMelcangi

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Several reviews have so far pointed out on the relevant physiological and pharmacological role exerted by neuroactive steroids in the central nervous system. In the present review we summarize observations indicating that synthesis and metabolism of neuroactive steroids also occur in the peripheral nerves. Interestingly, peripheral nervous system is also a target of their action. Indeed, as here reported neuroactive steroids are physiological regulators of peripheral nerve functions and they may also represent interesting therapeutic tools for different types of peripheral neuropathy.

  19. Diagnosis of Fetal Central Nervous System Anomalies by Ultrasonography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Tuncay Ozgunen

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available During the last 30 years, one of the most important instruments in diagnosis is ultrasonograph. It has an indispensible place in obstetrics. Its it possible to evaluate normal fetal anatomy, to follow-up fetal growth and to diagnose fetal congenital anomalies by ultrasonography. Central nervous system anomalies is the one of the most commonly seen and the best time for screening is between 18- and 22-week of pregnancy. In this paper, it is presented the sonographic features of some outstanding Central Nervous System anomalies. [Archives Medical Review Journal 2003; 12(2.000: 77-89

  20. CD146 deletion in the nervous system impairs appetite, locomotor activity and spatial learning in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tu, Tao; Gao, Qian; Luo, Yongting; Chen, Jianan; Lu, Di; Feng, Jing; Yang, Dongling; Song, Lina; Yan, Xiyun

    2013-01-01

    Cell adhesion molecules (CAMs) are crucial effectors for the development and maintenance of the nervous system. Mutations in human CAM genes are linked to brain disorders and psychological diseases, and CAM knockout mice always exhibit similar behavioral abnormalities. CD146 is a CAM of the immunoglobulin superfamily that interacts with Neurite Outgrowth Factor and involved in neurite extension in vitro. However, little is known about its in vivo function in the nervous system. In this study, we used a murine CD146 nervous system knockout (CD146(ns-ko)) model. We found that the brains of some CD146(ns-ko) mice were malformed with small olfactory bulbs. CD146(ns-ko) mice exhibited lower body weights and smaller food intake when compared with wild type littermates. Importantly, behavior tests revealed that CD146(ns-ko) mice exhibited significant decreased locomotor activity and impaired capacity for spatial learning and memory. Our results demonstrate that CD146 is important for mammalian nervous system development and proper behavior patterns.

  1. KCC3 axonopathy: neuropathological features in the central and peripheral nervous system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Auer, Roland N; Laganière, Janet L; Robitaille, Yves O; Richardson, John; Dion, Patrick A; Rouleau, Guy A; Shekarabi, Masoud

    2016-09-01

    Hereditary motor and sensory neuropathy associated with agenesis of the corpus callosum (HMSN/ACC) is an autosomal recessive disease of the central and peripheral nervous system that presents as early-onset polyneuropathy. Patients are hypotonic and areflexic from birth, with abnormal facial features and atrophic muscles. Progressive peripheral neuropathy eventually confines them to a wheelchair in the second decade of life, and death occurs by the fourth decade. We here define the neuropathologic features of the disease in autopsy tissues from eight cases. Both developmental and neurodegenerative features were found. Hypoplasia or absence of the major telencephalic commissures and a hypoplasia of corticospinal tracts to half the normal size, were the major neurodevelopmental defects we observed. Despite being a neurodegenerative disease, preservation of brain weight and a conspicuous absence of neuronal or glial cell death were signal features of this disease. Small tumor-like overgrowths of axons, termed axonomas, were found in the central and peripheral nervous system, indicating attempted axonal regeneration. We conclude that the neurodegenerative deficits in HMSN/ACC are primarily caused by an axonopathy superimposed upon abnormal development, affecting peripheral but also central nervous system axons, all ultimately because of a genetic defect in the axonal cotransporter KCC3.

  2. Modelling of pathologies of the nervous system by the example of computational and electronic models of elementary nervous systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shumilov, V. N., E-mail: vnshumilov@rambler.ru; Syryamkin, V. I., E-mail: maximus70sir@gmail.com; Syryamkin, M. V., E-mail: maximus70sir@gmail.com [National Research Tomsk State University, 634050, Tomsk, Lenin Avenue, 36 (Russian Federation)

    2015-11-17

    The paper puts forward principles of action of devices operating similarly to the nervous system and the brain of biological systems. We propose an alternative method of studying diseases of the nervous system, which may significantly influence prevention, medical treatment, or at least retardation of development of these diseases. This alternative is to use computational and electronic models of the nervous system. Within this approach, we represent the brain in the form of a huge electrical circuit composed of active units, namely, neuron-like units and connections between them. As a result, we created computational and electronic models of elementary nervous systems, which are based on the principles of functioning of biological nervous systems that we have put forward. Our models demonstrate reactions to external stimuli and their change similarly to the behavior of simplest biological organisms. The models possess the ability of self-training and retraining in real time without human intervention and switching operation/training modes. In our models, training and memorization take place constantly under the influence of stimuli on the organism. Training is without any interruption and switching operation modes. Training and formation of new reflexes occur by means of formation of new connections between excited neurons, between which formation of connections is physically possible. Connections are formed without external influence. They are formed under the influence of local causes. Connections are formed between outputs and inputs of two neurons, when the difference between output and input potentials of excited neurons exceeds a value sufficient to form a new connection. On these grounds, we suggest that the proposed principles truly reflect mechanisms of functioning of biological nervous systems and the brain. In order to confirm the correspondence of the proposed principles to biological nature, we carry out experiments for the study of processes of

  3. Modelling of pathologies of the nervous system by the example of computational and electronic models of elementary nervous systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shumilov, V. N.; Syryamkin, V. I.; Syryamkin, M. V.

    2015-11-01

    The paper puts forward principles of action of devices operating similarly to the nervous system and the brain of biological systems. We propose an alternative method of studying diseases of the nervous system, which may significantly influence prevention, medical treatment, or at least retardation of development of these diseases. This alternative is to use computational and electronic models of the nervous system. Within this approach, we represent the brain in the form of a huge electrical circuit composed of active units, namely, neuron-like units and connections between them. As a result, we created computational and electronic models of elementary nervous systems, which are based on the principles of functioning of biological nervous systems that we have put forward. Our models demonstrate reactions to external stimuli and their change similarly to the behavior of simplest biological organisms. The models possess the ability of self-training and retraining in real time without human intervention and switching operation/training modes. In our models, training and memorization take place constantly under the influence of stimuli on the organism. Training is without any interruption and switching operation modes. Training and formation of new reflexes occur by means of formation of new connections between excited neurons, between which formation of connections is physically possible. Connections are formed without external influence. They are formed under the influence of local causes. Connections are formed between outputs and inputs of two neurons, when the difference between output and input potentials of excited neurons exceeds a value sufficient to form a new connection. On these grounds, we suggest that the proposed principles truly reflect mechanisms of functioning of biological nervous systems and the brain. In order to confirm the correspondence of the proposed principles to biological nature, we carry out experiments for the study of processes of

  4. The renin-angiotensin system and the central nervous system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganong, W F

    1977-04-01

    One of several factors affecting the secretion of renin by the kidneys is the sympathetic nervous system. The sympathetic input is excitatory and is mediated by beta-adrenergic receptors, which are probably located on the membranes of the juxtaglomerular cells. Stimulation of sympathetic areas in the medulla, midbrain and hypothalamus raises blood pressure and increases renin secretion, whereas stimulation of other parts of the hypothalamus decreases blood pressure and renin output. The centrally active alpha-adrenergic agonist clonidine decreases renin secretion, lowers blood pressure, inhibits ACTH and vasopressin secretion, and increases growth hormone secretion in dogs. The effects on ACTH and growth hormone are abolished by administration of phenoxybenzamine into the third ventricle, whereas the effect on blood pressure is abolished by administration of phenoxybenzamine in the fourth ventricle without any effect on the ACTH and growth hormone responses. Fourth ventricular phenoxybenzamine decreases but does not abolish the inhibitory effect of clonidine on renin secretion. Circulating angiotensin II acts on the brain via the area postrema to raise blood pressure and via the subfornical organ to increase water intake. Its effect on vasopressin secretion is debated. The brain contains a renin-like enzyme, converting enzyme, renin substrate, and angiotensin. There is debate about the nature and physiological significance of the angiotensin II-generating enzyme in the brain, and about the nature of the angiotensin I and angiotensin II that have been reported to be present in the central nervous system. However, injection of angiotensin II into the cerebral ventricles produces drinking, increased secretion of vasopressin and ACTH, and increased blood pressure. The same responses are produced by intraventricular renin. Angiotensin II also facilitates sympathetic discharge in the periphery, and the possibility that it exerts a similar action on the adrenergic neurons

  5. Autonomic Nervous System in Viral Myocarditis: Pathophysiology and Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Zheng; Li-Sha, Ge; Yue-Chun, Li

    2016-01-01

    Myocarditis, which is caused by viral infection, can lead to heart failure, malignant arrhythmias, and even sudden cardiac death in young patients. It is also one of the most important causes of dilated cardiomyopathy worldwide. Although remarkable advances in diagnosis and understanding of pathophysiological mechanisms of viral myocarditis have been gained during recent years, no standard treatment strategies have been defined as yet. Fortunately, recent studies present some evidence that immunomodulating therapy is effective for myocarditis. The immunomodulatory effect of the autonomic nervous system has raised considerable interest over recent decades. Studying the influence on the inflammation and immune system of the sympathetic and parasympathetic nervous systems will not only increase our understanding of the mechanism of disease but could also lead to the identification of potential new therapies for viral myocarditis. Studies have shown that the immunomodulating effect of the sympathetic and parasympathetic nervous system is realized by the release of neurotransmitters to their corresponding receptors (catecholamine for α or β adrenergic receptor, acetylcholine for α7 nicotinic acetylcholinergic receptor). This review will discuss the current knowledge of the roles of both the sympathetic and parasympathetic nervous system in inflammation, with a special focus on their roles in viral myocarditis.

  6. A Role of the Parasympathetic Nervous System in Cognitive Training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Feng; Heffner, Kathi L; Ren, Ping; Tadin, Duje

    2017-01-01

    Vision-based speed of processing (VSOP) training can result in broad cognitive improvements in older adults with amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI). What remains unknown, however, is what neurophysiological mechanisms account for the observed training effect. Much of the work in this area has focused on the central nervous system, neglecting the fact that the peripheral system can contributes to changes of the central nervous system and vice versa. We examined the prospective relationship between an adaptive parasympathetic nervous system response to cognitive stimuli and VSOP training-induced plasticity. Twenty-one participants with aMCI (10 for VSOP training, and 11 for mental leisure activities (MLA) control) were enrolled. We assessed high-frequency heart rate variability (HF-HRV) during training sessions, and striatum-related neural networks and cognition at baseline and post-training. Compared to MLA, the VSOP group showed a significant U-shaped pattern of HF-HRV response during training, as well as decreases in connectivity strength between bilateral striatal and prefrontal regions. These two effects were associated with training-induced improvements in both the trained (attention and processing speed) and transferred (working memory) cognitive domains. This work provides novel support for interactions between the central and the peripheral nervous systems in relation to cognitive training, and motivates further studies to elucidate the causality of the observed link. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  7. CRITICAL ANALYSIS OF REFERRALS TO ELECTRODIAGNOSTIC EXAMINATION OF THE PERIPHERAL NERVOUS SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon Podnar

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available Background. Clinical neurophysiologists observe a large number of examinees referred to a electromyographic (EMG laboratory without clinical symptoms or signs of the peripheral nervous system lesion. Such referrals do not improve management of patients, but only unnecessarily burden examinees and laboratory personnel. The aim of the present study was to check appropriateness of referrals to electrodiagnostic examination, look for reasons for problems and suggest possible improvements.Methods. From the database of the Institute of Clinical Neurophysiology in Ljubljana all examinees evaluated by the author in a »general« EMG laboratory in the first 4 months of 2002 were included. From data about examinees, referral doctors, referral diagnoses, clinical symptoms and signs and electrophysiological findings, predictive values for neurological referral diagnoses and electrodiagnostic abnormalities were calculated using descriptive and multivariate statistical analyses.Results. Three hundred examinees (42% men were included. Neurological diagnosis was provided in 55% of referrals. Electrodiagnostic abnormalities were found in 45% of examinees (carpal tunnel syndrome 50%, radiculopathy 25%, other mononeuropathies 15%, polineuropathy 9%. In 9% of examinees only clinical, and in 47% neither clinical nor electrodiagnostic abnormalities were demonstrated. Using a multivariate analysis positive effect of referral with neurological diagnosis, of paraesthesiae and findings of weakness and sensory loss, and negative effect of pain and referral diagnosis cervicobrachialgia or lumboischialgia on pathological electrodiagnostic findings were found. Isolated pain and paraesthesiae (with carpal tunnel syndrome excluded were particularly poor predictors of abnormal electrodiagnostic findings (9% and 16%, respectively. With exception of 20 patients with carpal tunnel syndrome, none with normal clinical neurological examination had abnormal electrodiagnostic findings

  8. Early and late endocrine effects in pediatric central nervous system diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aslan, Ivy R; Cheung, Clement C

    2014-01-01

    Endocrinopathies are frequently linked to central nervous system disease, both as early effects prior to the disease diagnosis and/or late effects after the disease has been treated. In particular, tumors and infiltrative diseases of the brain and pituitary, such as craniopharyngioma, optic pathway and hypothalamic gliomas, intracranial germ cell tumor, and Langerhans cell histiocytosis, can present with abnormal endocrine manifestations that precede the development of neurological symptoms. Early endocrine effects include diabetes insipidus, growth failure, obesity, and precocious or delayed puberty. With improving prognosis and treatment of childhood brain tumors, many survivors experience late endocrine effects related to medical and surgical interventions. Chemotherapeutic agents and radiation therapy can affect the hypothalamic-pituitary axes governing growth, thyroid, gonadal, and adrenal function. In addition, obesity and metabolic alterations are frequent late manifestations. Diagnosing and treating both early and late endocrine manifestations can dramatically improve the growth, well-being, and quality of life of patients with childhood central nervous system diseases.

  9. The Role of Central Nervous System Plasticity in Tinnitus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saunders, James C.

    2007-01-01

    Tinnitus is a vexing disorder of hearing characterized by sound sensations originating in the head without any external stimulation. The specific etiology of these sensations is uncertain but frequently associated with hearing loss. The "neurophysiogical" model of tinnitus has enhanced appreciation of central nervous system (CNS) contributions.…

  10. FMRFamide-like immunoreactivity in the nervous system of Hydra

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grimmelikhuijzen, C J; Dockray, G J; Schot, L P

    1982-01-01

    FMRFamide-like immunoreactivity has been localized in different parts of the hydra nervous system. Immunoreactivity occurs in nerve perikarya and processes in the ectoderm of the lower peduncle region near the basal disk, in the ectoderm of the hypostome and in the ectoderm of the tentacles...

  11. Innate immune responses in central nervous system inflammation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Finsen, Bente; Owens, Trevor

    2011-01-01

    In autoimmune diseases of the central nervous system (CNS), innate glial cell responses play a key role in determining the outcome of leukocyte infiltration. Access of leukocytes is controlled via complex interactions with glial components of the blood-brain barrier that include angiotensin II...

  12. School Reentry for Children with Acquired Central Nervous Systems Injuries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carney, Joan; Porter, Patricia

    2009-01-01

    Onset of acquired central nervous system (CNS) injury during the normal developmental process of childhood can have impact on cognitive, behavioral, and motor function. This alteration of function often necessitates special education programming, modifications, and accommodations in the education setting for successful school reentry. Special…

  13. Peripheral nervous system involvement in chronic spinal cord injury

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tankisi, Hatice; Pugdahl, Kirsten; Rasmussen, Mikkel Mylius

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Upper motor neuron disorders are believed to leave the peripheral nervous system (PNS) intact. In this study we examined whether there is evidence of PNS involvement in spinal cord injury (SCI). Methods: Twelve subjects with chronic low cervical or thoracic SCI were included...

  14. The nervous and the immune systems: conspicuous physiological analogies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sotelo, Julio

    2015-02-01

    From all biological constituents of complex organisms, two are highly sophisticated: the nervous and the immune systems. Interestingly, their goals and processes appear to be distant from each other; however, their physiological mechanisms keep notorious similarities. Both construct intelligence, learn from experience, and keep memory. Their precise responses to innumerable stimuli are delicately modulated, and the exposure of the individual to thousands of potential challenges integrates their functionality; they use a large part of their constituents not in excitatory activities but in the maintenance of inhibitory mechanisms to keep silent vast intrinsic potentialities. The nervous and immune systems are integrated by a basic cell lineage (neurons and lymphocytes, respectively) but each embodies countless cell subgroups with different and specialized deeds which, in contrast with cells from other organs, labyrinthine molecular arrangements conduct to "one cell, one function". Also, nervous and immune actions confer identity that differentiates every individual from countless others in the same species. Both systems regulate and potentiate their responses aided by countless biological resources of variable intensity: hormones, peptides, cytokines, pro-inflammatory molecules, etc. How the immune and the nervous systems buildup memory, learning capability, and exquisite control of excitatory/inhibitory mechanisms constitute major intellectual challenges for contemporary research.

  15. School Reentry for Children with Acquired Central Nervous Systems Injuries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carney, Joan; Porter, Patricia

    2009-01-01

    Onset of acquired central nervous system (CNS) injury during the normal developmental process of childhood can have impact on cognitive, behavioral, and motor function. This alteration of function often necessitates special education programming, modifications, and accommodations in the education setting for successful school reentry. Special…

  16. THE SYMPATHETIC NERVOUS SYSTEM ALTERATIONS IN HUMAN HYPERTENSION

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grassi, Guido; Mark, Allyn; Esler, Murray

    2015-01-01

    A number of articles have dealt with the importance and mechanisms of the sympathetic nervous system alterations in experimental animal models of hypertension. This review addresses the role of the sympathetic nervous system in the pathophysiology and therapy of human hypertension. We first discuss the strengths and limitations of various techniques for assessing the sympathetic nervous system in humans, with a focus on heart rate, plasma norepinephrine, microneurographic recording of sympathetic nerve traffic, and measurements of radiolabeled norepinephrine spillover. We then examine the evidence supporting the importance of neuroadrenergic factors as “promoters” and “amplifiers” of human hypertension. We expand on the role of the sympathetic nervous system in two increasingly common forms of secondary hypertension, namely hypertension associated with obesity and with renal disease. With this background, we examine interventions of sympathetic deactivation as a mode of antihypertensive treatment. Particular emphasis is given to the background and results of recent therapeutic approaches based on carotid baroreceptor stimulation and radiofrequency ablation of the renal nerves. PMID:25767284

  17. Tuberculosis of the central nervous system : overview of neuroradiological findings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bernaerts, A; Vanhoenacker, FM; Parizel, PM; van Altena, R; Laridon, A; De Roeck, J; Coeman, [No Value; De Schepper, AM; Goethem, J.W.M.

    2003-01-01

    This article presents the range of manifestations of tuberculosis (TB) of the craniospinal axis. Central nervous system (CNS) infection with Mycobacterium tuberculosis occurs either in a diffuse form as basal exudative leptomeningitis or in a localized form as tuberculoma, abscess, or cerebritis. In

  18. Tuberculosis of the central nervous system : overview of neuroradiological findings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bernaerts, A; Vanhoenacker, FM; Parizel, PM; van Altena, R; Laridon, A; De Roeck, J; Coeman, [No Value; De Schepper, AM; Goethem, J.W.M.

    2003-01-01

    This article presents the range of manifestations of tuberculosis (TB) of the craniospinal axis. Central nervous system (CNS) infection with Mycobacterium tuberculosis occurs either in a diffuse form as basal exudative leptomeningitis or in a localized form as tuberculoma, abscess, or cerebritis. In

  19. Neuronal chemokines : Versatile messengers in central nervous system cell interaction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Haas, A. H.; van Weering, H. R. J.; de Jong, E. K.; Boddeke, H. W. G. M.; Biber, K. P. H.

    2007-01-01

    Whereas chemokines are well known for their ability to induce cell migration, only recently it became evident that chemokines also control a variety of other cell functions and are versatile messengers in the interaction between a diversity of cell types. In the central nervous system (CNS), chemoki

  20. Central Auditory Nervous System Dysfunction in Echolalic Autistic Individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wetherby, Amy Miller; And Others

    1981-01-01

    The results showed that all the Ss had normal hearing on the monaural speech tests; however, there was indication of central auditory nervous system dysfunction in the language dominant hemisphere, inferred from the dichotic tests, for those Ss displaying echolalia. (Author)

  1. Nodal signalling and asymmetry of the nervous system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Signore, Iskra A; Palma, Karina; Concha, Miguel L

    2016-12-19

    The role of Nodal signalling in nervous system asymmetry is still poorly understood. Here, we review and discuss how asymmetric Nodal signalling controls the ontogeny of nervous system asymmetry using a comparative developmental perspective. A detailed analysis of asymmetry in ascidians and fishes reveals a critical context-dependency of Nodal function and emphasizes that bilaterally paired and midline-unpaired structures/organs behave as different entities. We propose a conceptual framework to dissect the developmental function of Nodal as asymmetry inducer and laterality modulator in the nervous system, which can be used to study other types of body and visceral organ asymmetries. Using insights from developmental biology, we also present novel evolutionary hypotheses on how Nodal led the evolution of directional asymmetry in the brain, with a particular focus on the epithalamus. We intend this paper to provide a synthesis on how Nodal signalling controls left-right asymmetry of the nervous system.This article is part of the themed issue 'Provocative questions in left-right asymmetry'.

  2. Aberrant nerve fibres within the central nervous system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moffie, D

    1992-01-01

    Three cases of aberrant nerve fibres in the spinal cord and medulla oblongata are described. The literature on these fibres is discussed and their possible role in regeneration. Different views on the possibility of regeneration or functional recovery of the central nervous system are mentioned in the light of recent publications, which are more optimistic than before.

  3. What Are the Parts of the Nervous System?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the nervous system is a cell called a neuron . The human brain contains about 100 billion neurons. A neuron consists ... signal when it gets to neighboring neurons. Motor neurons transmit messages from the brain to control voluntary movement. Sensory neurons detect incoming ...

  4. Responses of the Autonomic Nervous System to Flavors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wijk, de René A.; Boesveldt, Sanne

    2016-01-01

    Multisensory flavor perception plays an important role in decision-making, for instance for food products. Autonomic nervous system (ANS) responses, such as heart rate and skin conductance responses, towards such flavor stimuli may provide insights into processes related to consumer acceptance th

  5. Tuberculosis of the central nervous system : overview of neuroradiological findings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bernaerts, A; Vanhoenacker, FM; Parizel, PM; van Altena, R; Laridon, A; De Roeck, J; Coeman, [No Value; De Schepper, AM; Goethem, J.W.M.

    This article presents the range of manifestations of tuberculosis (TB) of the craniospinal axis. Central nervous system (CNS) infection with Mycobacterium tuberculosis occurs either in a diffuse form as basal exudative leptomeningitis or in a localized form as tuberculoma, abscess, or cerebritis. In

  6. Effects of erythropoietin and its receptor on nervous system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ping Wang; Wei Zhou

    2006-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effects of erythropoietin (EPO) and its receptor (EPOR) on nervous system, and its possible mechanism.DATA SOURCES: By inputting the key words "erythropoietin ,nervous system", we performed a search of Medline for English articles, which were published during September 1996 to August 2006, about EPO and EPOR in nervous system.STUDY SELECTION: The materials were selected firstly, literatures were chosen for treatment group and control group and those obviously non-randomized studies were excluded. The full texts of the left literatures were searched. Inclusive criteria: ① Randomized controlled study. ②Experimental or clinical studies (parallel control group included). ③Treatment group was recombinant human erythropoietin(rHuEPO)-treated group. Exclusive criteria: repetitive study.DATA EXTRACTION: A number of 380 randomized or non-randomized articles about the effect of EPO on nervous system were collected, and 49 experiments or clinical trials met the inclusive criteria. Among 331 exclusive articles, 237 were non-randomized or repetitive studies and 94 were review articles. DATA SYNTHESIS: Forty-nine experiments or clinical trials confirmed that EPO and EPOR were expressed in the central nervous system (CNS) and peripheral nervous system(PNS) of gnawer, primate and human being; rHuEPO had obvious neuroprotective effects on brain hypoxia, brain ischemia, experimental intracranial hemorrhage, brain trauma, experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis, human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-related sensory neuropathy, distal axonopathy, experimental diabetic neuropathy and acute spinal injury models. Its mechanism maybe involve anti-excitatory toxicity, preventing the production of nitric oxide (NO), lessening inflammatory reaction, resisting apoptosis, maintaining vascular integrity, promoting angiogenesis, promoting the proliferation and differentiation of neural stem cells and progenitor cells and so on. Exogenous EPO could be

  7. Comparative morphology of the nervous system in three phylactolaemate bryozoans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shunkina, Ksenia V; Zaytseva, Olga V; Starunov, Viktor V; Ostrovsky, Andrew N

    2015-01-01

    Though some elements of the bryozoan nervous system were discovered 180 years ago, few studies of their neuromorphology have been undertaken since that time. As a result the general picture of the bryozoan nervous system structure is incomplete in respect of details and fragmentary in respect of taxonomic coverage. The nervous system of three common European freshwater bryozoans - Cristatella mucedo, Plumatella repens (both with a horseshoe-shaped lophophore) and Fredericella sultana (with a circular lophophore) had numerous differences in the details of the structure but the general neuroarchitecture is similar. The nervous system of the zooid consists of the cerebral ganglion, a circumpharyngeal ring and lophophoral nerve tracts (horns), both sending numerous nerves to the tentacles, and the nerve plexuses of the body wall and of the gut. A number of the important details (distal branching of the additional radial nerve, pattern of distribution of nerve cells and neurites in the ganglion, etc.) were described for the first time. The number and position of the tentacle nerves in Cristatella mucedo was ascertained and suggestions about their function were made. The revealed distribution of various neuromediators in the nervous system allowed us to suggest functional affinities of some major nerves. Despite the basic similarity, both the ganglion and the lophophore nervous system in Phylactolaemata have a more complex structure than in marine bryozoans (classes Gymnolaemata and Stenolaemata). First of all, their neuronal network has a denser and more complex branching pattern: most phylactolaemates have two large nerve tracts associated with lophophore arms, they have more nerves in the tentacles, additional and basal branches emitting from the main radial nerves, etc. This, in part, can be explained by the horseshoe shape of the lophophore and a larger size of the polypide in freshwater species. The structure of the nervous system in Fredericella sultana suggests

  8. The nervous systems of basally branching nemertea (palaeonemertea).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beckers, Patrick; Loesel, Rudi; Bartolomaeus, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    In recent years, a lot of studies have been published dealing with the anatomy of the nervous system in different spiralian species. The only nemertean species investigated in this context probably shows derived characters and thus the conditions found there are not useful in inferring the relationship between nemerteans and other spiralian taxa. Ingroup relationships within Nemertea are still unclear, but there is some agreement that the palaeonemerteans form a basal, paraphyletic grade. Thus, palaeonemertean species are likely the most informative when comparing with other invertebrate groups. We therefore analyzed the nervous system of several palaeonemertean species by combining histology and immunostaining. 3D reconstructions based on the aligned slices were performed to get an overall impression of the central nervous system, and immunohistochemistry was chosen to reveal fine structures and to be able to compare the data with recently published results. The insights presented here permit a first attempt to reconstruct the primary organization of the nemertean nervous system. This comparative analysis allows substantiating homology hypotheses for nerves of the peripheral nervous system. This study also provides evidence that the nemertean brain primarily consists of two lobes connected by a strong ventral commissure and one to several dorsal commissures. During nemertean evolution, the brain underwent continuous compartmentalization into a pair of dorsal and ventral lobes interconnected by commissures and lateral tracts. Given that this conclusion can be corroborated by cladistic analyses, nemerteans should share a common ancestor with spiralians that primarily have a simple brain consisting of paired medullary, frontally commissurized and reinforced cords. Such an organization resembles the situation found in presumably basally branching annelids or mollusks.

  9. The nervous systems of basally branching nemertea (palaeonemertea.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick Beckers

    Full Text Available In recent years, a lot of studies have been published dealing with the anatomy of the nervous system in different spiralian species. The only nemertean species investigated in this context probably shows derived characters and thus the conditions found there are not useful in inferring the relationship between nemerteans and other spiralian taxa. Ingroup relationships within Nemertea are still unclear, but there is some agreement that the palaeonemerteans form a basal, paraphyletic grade. Thus, palaeonemertean species are likely the most informative when comparing with other invertebrate groups. We therefore analyzed the nervous system of several palaeonemertean species by combining histology and immunostaining. 3D reconstructions based on the aligned slices were performed to get an overall impression of the central nervous system, and immunohistochemistry was chosen to reveal fine structures and to be able to compare the data with recently published results. The insights presented here permit a first attempt to reconstruct the primary organization of the nemertean nervous system. This comparative analysis allows substantiating homology hypotheses for nerves of the peripheral nervous system. This study also provides evidence that the nemertean brain primarily consists of two lobes connected by a strong ventral commissure and one to several dorsal commissures. During nemertean evolution, the brain underwent continuous compartmentalization into a pair of dorsal and ventral lobes interconnected by commissures and lateral tracts. Given that this conclusion can be corroborated by cladistic analyses, nemerteans should share a common ancestor with spiralians that primarily have a simple brain consisting of paired medullary, frontally commissurized and reinforced cords. Such an organization resembles the situation found in presumably basally branching annelids or mollusks.

  10. Temporal encoding in a nervous system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aldworth, Zane N; Dimitrov, Alexander G; Cummins, Graham I; Gedeon, Tomáš; Miller, John P

    2011-05-01

    We examined the extent to which temporal encoding may be implemented by single neurons in the cercal sensory system of the house cricket Acheta domesticus. We found that these neurons exhibit a greater-than-expected coding capacity, due in part to an increased precision in brief patterns of action potentials. We developed linear and non-linear models for decoding the activity of these neurons. We found that the stimuli associated with short-interval patterns of spikes (ISIs of 8 ms or less) could be predicted better by second-order models as compared to linear models. Finally, we characterized the difference between these linear and second-order models in a low-dimensional subspace, and showed that modification of the linear models along only a few dimensions improved their predictive power to parity with the second order models. Together these results show that single neurons are capable of using temporal patterns of spikes as fundamental symbols in their neural code, and that they communicate specific stimulus distributions to subsequent neural structures.

  11. Temporal encoding in a nervous system.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zane N Aldworth

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available We examined the extent to which temporal encoding may be implemented by single neurons in the cercal sensory system of the house cricket Acheta domesticus. We found that these neurons exhibit a greater-than-expected coding capacity, due in part to an increased precision in brief patterns of action potentials. We developed linear and non-linear models for decoding the activity of these neurons. We found that the stimuli associated with short-interval patterns of spikes (ISIs of 8 ms or less could be predicted better by second-order models as compared to linear models. Finally, we characterized the difference between these linear and second-order models in a low-dimensional subspace, and showed that modification of the linear models along only a few dimensions improved their predictive power to parity with the second order models. Together these results show that single neurons are capable of using temporal patterns of spikes as fundamental symbols in their neural code, and that they communicate specific stimulus distributions to subsequent neural structures.

  12. Primary anaplastic large T cell lymphoma of central nervous system

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    ZHANG Yan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background Primary anaplastic large T cell lymphoma (ALCL of central nervous system (CNS can occur in people of all ages, and is usually unrelated with immunodeficiency. It is often misdiagnosed as meningitis, especially tuberculous meningitis, on clinical practice and imaging examination. In pathological diagnosis, the morphological changes of primary ALCL of CNS are similar to the systemic ALCL and the anaplastic lymphoma kinase-1 (ALK-1 can be positive or negative. Being misdiagnosed as meningitis, hormone therapy with glucocorticoid before biopsy is always used, and massive necrosis and a lot of histocyte proliferation and phagocytosis can be found under histological findings. Therefore, when the material is not enough, primary ALCL of CNS is often misdiagnosed as cerebral infarction or malignant histocytosis and so on. This paper reports a case of primary ALCL of CNS and makes a review of relevant literature, so as to summarize the clinical manifestations and elevate the recognition of clinicians and pathologists on this disease. Methods and Results A 12-year-old boy was admitted because of fever, worsening headache, numbness and weakness of right limbs. MRI showed local gyri swelling and abnormal enhancement of pia mater in the right parietal lobe, expanding to the right temporal lobe, and pia mater enhancement in the left parietal lobe. The right temporo-parietal lobe lesion biopsy revealed irregularly shaped tumor cells of large size, rich and eosinophilic cytoplasm and horseshoe-shaped or kidney-shaped nuclei. Immunohistochemical examination showed tumor cells positive for CD3, CD45RO, CD30, ALK-1 and epithelial membrane antigen (EMA, and negative for CD20 and CD79a. Conclusion Primary ALCL of CNS is an extremely rare tumor which is usually misdiagnosed as meningitis according to clinical and imaging examinations. Therefore, for those patients who are considered as meningitis but with poor treatment effect and replase of illness, brain

  13. Multiple myeloma invasion of the central nervous system

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    Marjanović Slobodan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Multiple myeloma (MM is characterized by the presence of neoplastic proliferating plasma cells. The tumor is generally restricted to the bone marrow. The most common complications include renal insufficiency, hypercalcemia, anemia and reccurent infections. The spectrum of MM neurological complications is diverse, however, involvement of MM in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF and leptomeningeal infiltration are rare considered. In about 1% of the cases, the disease affects the central nervous system (CNS and presents itself in the form of localized intraparenchymal lesions, solitary cerebral plasmocytoma or CNS myelomatosis (LMM. Case report. We presented the clinical course of a 55-year-old man with MM and LMM proven by malignant plasma cells in the CSF, hospitalized with the pain in the thoracic spine. His medical history was uneventful. There had been no evidence of mental or neurological impairment prior to the seizures. Physical examination showed no abnormalities. After a complete staging, the diagnosis of MM type biclonal gammopathia IgG lambda and free lambda light chains in the stage III was confirmed. The treatment started with systemic chemotherapy (with vincristine, doxorubicin plus high-dose dexamethasone - VAD protocol, radiotherapy and bisphosphonate. The patient developed weakness, nausea, febrility, dispnea, bilateral bronchopneumonia, acute renal insufficiency, confusions, headaches and soon thereafter sensomotor aphasias and right hemiparesis. The patient was treated with the adequate therapy including one hemodyalisis. His neurological status was deteriorated, so Multislice Computed Tomography (MSCT of the head was performed and the findings were normal. Analysis of CSF showed pleocytosis, 26 elements/ mL and increased concentrations of proteins. Cytological analysis revealed an increased number of plasma cells (29%. Electrophoretic analysis of proteins disclosed the existance of monoclonal components in the serum

  14. Isochromosome 12p and polysomy 12 in primary central nervous system germ cell tumors: frequency and association with clinicopathologic features.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sukov, William R; Cheville, John C; Giannini, Caterina; Carlson, Austin W; Shearer, Brandon M; Sinnwell, Jason P; Ketterling, Rhett P

    2010-02-01

    Germ cell tumors arising within the central nervous system are rare neoplasms that typically occur along midline structures in children and young adults. Although isochromosome 12p is established as a frequent chromosomal abnormality in testicular germ cell tumors, studies examining isochromosome 12p in primary central nervous system germ cell tumors are limited. Herein, we studied 24 primary central nervous system germ cell tumors from 23 patients using fluorescence in situ hybridization to determine the frequency of isochromosome 12p in these neoplasms. Of the 24 primary central nervous system germ cell tumors, fluorescence in situ hybridization detected isochromosome 12p in 6 (25%) tumors, whereas 11 (46%) tumors showed polysomy (multiple copies) of chromosome 12. One case with isochromosome 12p also showed increased 12p independent of isochromosome 12p formation. The remaining 7 tumors yielded a normal result by fluorescence in situ hybridization. Clinical follow-up of this patient cohort indicated 8 patients (32%) developed a recurrence, although no association was demonstrated between the presence or absence of chromosomal 12 abnormalities and tumor relapse. We confirm that isochromosome 12p is less frequent in primary central nervous system germ cell tumors relative to testicular germ cell tumors, and although our numbers are limited, the presence or absence of isochromosome 12p does not appear to impact tumor recurrence. Similarly, although polysomy 12 was identified in nearly half of our central nervous system germ cell tumors, no prognostic significance was attributed to this abnormality. These results suggest that fluorescence in situ hybridization studies for isochromosome 12p or polysomy 12 may have limited use in the evaluation of these rare neoplasms. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Diverse roles of neurotensin agonists in the central nervous system

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    Mona eBoules

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available NT is a tridecapeptide that is found in the central nervous system and the gastrointestinal tract. NT behaves as a neurotransmitter in the brain and as a hormone in the gut. Additionally, NT acts as a neuromodulator to several neurotransmitter systems including dopaminergic, sertonergic, GABAergic, glutamatergic and cholinergic systems. Due to its association with such a wide variety of neurotransmitters, NT has been implicated in the pathophysiology of several central nervous system (CNS disorders such as schizophrenia, drug abuse, Parkinson’s disease, pain, central control of blood pressure, eating disorders, as well as, cancer and inflammation. The present review will focus on the role that NT and its analogs play in schizophrenia, endocrine function, pain, psychostimulant abuse, and Parkinson’s disease.

  16. Molecular clocks and the early evolution of metazoan nervous systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wray, Gregory A

    2015-12-19

    The timing of early animal evolution remains poorly resolved, yet remains critical for understanding nervous system evolution. Methods for estimating divergence times from sequence data have improved considerably, providing a more refined understanding of key divergences. The best molecular estimates point to the origin of metazoans and bilaterians tens to hundreds of millions of years earlier than their first appearances in the fossil record. Both the molecular and fossil records are compatible, however, with the possibility of tiny, unskeletonized, low energy budget animals during the Proterozoic that had planktonic, benthic, or meiofaunal lifestyles. Such animals would likely have had relatively simple nervous systems equipped primarily to detect food, avoid inhospitable environments and locate mates. The appearance of the first macropredators during the Cambrian would have changed the selective landscape dramatically, likely driving the evolution of complex sense organs, sophisticated sensory processing systems, and diverse effector systems involved in capturing prey and avoiding predation. © 2015 The Author(s).

  17. [VARICELLA ZOSTER VIRUS AND DISEASES OF CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM VESSELS].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazanova, A S; Lavrov, V F; Zverev, V V

    2015-01-01

    Systemized data on epidemiology, pathogenesis, clinical manifestation, diagnostics and therapy of VZV-vasculopathy--a disease, occurring due to damage of arteries of the central nervous system by Varicella Zoster virus, are presented in the review. A special attention in the paper is given to the effect of vaccine prophylaxis of chicken pox and herpes zoster on the frequency of development and course of VZV-vasculopathy.

  18. The Adverse Effects of Air Pollution on the Nervous System

    OpenAIRE

    Sermin Genc; Zeynep Zadeoglulari; Fuss, Stefan H.; Kursad Genc

    2012-01-01

    Exposure to ambient air pollution is a serious and common public health concern associated with growing morbidity and mortality worldwide. In the last decades, the adverse effects of air pollution on the pulmonary and cardiovascular systems have been well established in a series of major epidemiological and observational studies. In the recent past, air pollution has also been associated with diseases of the central nervous system (CNS), including stroke, Alzheimer’s disease, Parkinson’s dise...

  19. Fetal magnetic resonance imaging of the central nervous system: a pictorial essay

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huisman, Thierry A.G.M.; Kubik-Huch, Rahel; Marincek, Borut [Institute of Diagnostic Radiology, University Hospital, Zurich (Switzerland); Wisser, Josef [Clinic for Obstetrics, University Hospital, Zurich (Switzerland); Martin, Ernst [Department of Neuroradiology and Magnetic Resonance, University Children' s Hospital, Zurich (Switzerland)

    2002-08-01

    Prenatal ultrasonography is the primary screening modality for the evaluation of fetal pathology. Ultrafast fetal MRI is a recent development that examines the fetus in utero. The short acquisition times (as short as 400 ms/slice) allow to picture freeze the fetus without the need for fetal sedation. The high spatial resolution, good contrast-to-noise ratio, and the multiplanar capabilities are especially advantageous in pathologies of the fetal central nervous system (CNS). Fetal MRI currently serves as a second-line imaging tool for complex fetal cerebral malformations and pathologies. Fetal ventriculomegaly, lesions within the posterior fossa, and abnormalities in cerebral myelination, migration, and sulcation are particularly well identified. (orig.)

  20. Xenopus laevis neuronal cell adhesion molecule (nrcam): plasticity of a CAM in the developing nervous system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lokapally, Ashwin; Metikala, Sanjeeva; Hollemann, Thomas

    2017-01-01

    Neuron-glial-related cell adhesion molecule (NRCAM) is a neuronal cell adhesion molecule of the L1 immunoglobulin superfamily, which plays diverse roles during nervous system development including axon growth and guidance, synapse formation, and formation of the myelinated nerve. Perturbations in NRCAM function cause a wide variety of disorders, which can affect wiring and targeting of neurons, or cause psychiatric disorders as well as cancers through abnormal modulation of signaling events. In the present study, we characterize the Xenopus laevis homolog of nrcam. Expression of Xenopus nrcam is most abundant along the dorsal midline throughout the developing brain and in the outer nuclear layer of the retina.

  1. Introduction to 'Homology and convergence in nervous system evolution'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strausfeld, Nicholas J; Hirth, Frank

    2016-01-05

    The origin of brains and central nervous systems (CNSs) is thought to have occurred before the Palaeozoic era 540 Ma. Yet in the absence of tangible evidence, there has been continued debate whether today's brains and nervous systems derive from one ancestral origin or whether similarities among them are due to convergent evolution. With the advent of molecular developmental genetics and genomics, it has become clear that homology is a concept that applies not only to morphologies, but also to genes, developmental processes, as well as to behaviours. Comparative studies in phyla ranging from annelids and arthropods to mammals are providing evidence that corresponding developmental genetic mechanisms act not only in dorso-ventral and anterior-posterior axis specification but also in segmentation, neurogenesis, axogenesis and eye/photoreceptor cell formation that appear to be conserved throughout the animal kingdom. These data are supported by recent studies which identified Mid-Cambrian fossils with preserved soft body parts that present segmental arrangements in brains typical of modern arthropods, and similarly organized brain centres and circuits across phyla that may reflect genealogical correspondence and control similar behavioural manifestations. Moreover, congruence between genetic and geological fossil records support the notion that by the 'Cambrian explosion' arthropods and chordates shared similarities in brain and nervous system organization. However, these similarities are strikingly absent in several sister- and outgroups of arthropods and chordates which raises several questions, foremost among them: what kind of natural laws and mechanisms underlie the convergent evolution of such similarities? And, vice versa: what are the selection pressures and genetic mechanisms underlying the possible loss or reduction of brains and CNSs in multiple lineages during the course of evolution? These questions were addressed at a Royal Society meeting to discuss

  2. Imaging of the autonomic nervous system: focus on cardiac sympathetic innervation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldstein, David S

    2003-12-01

    Symptoms or signs of abnormal autonomic nervous system function occur commonly in several neurological disorders. Clinical evaluations have depended on physiological, pharmacological, and neurochemical approaches. Recently, imaging of sympathetic noradrenergic innervation has been introduced and applied especially in the heart. Most studies have used the radiolabeled sympathomimetic amine, (123)I-metaiodobenzylguanidine. Decreased uptake or increased "washout" of (123)I-metaiodobenzylguanidine-derived radioactivity is associated with worse prognosis or more severe disease in hypertension, congestive heart failure, arrhythmias, and diabetes mellitus. This pattern may reflect a high rate of postganglionic sympathetic nerve traffic to the heart. Many recent studies have agreed on the remarkable finding that all patients with Parkinson's disease and orthostatic hypotension have a loss of cardiac sympathetic innervation, whereas all patients with multiple system atrophy, often difficult to distinguish clinically from Parkinson's disease, have intact cardiac sympathetic innervation. Because Parkinson's disease entails a postganglionic sympathetic noradrenergic lesion, the disease appears to be not only a movement disorder, with dopamine loss in the nigrostriatal system of the brain, but also a dysautonomia, with noradrenaline loss in the sympathetic nervous system of the heart. As new ligands are developed, one may predict further discoveries of involvement of components of the autonomic nervous system in neurological diseases.

  3. [Neurogenesis as a therapeutic strategy to regenerate central nervous system].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arias-Carrión, O; Drucker-Colín, R

    In the past few years, it has been demonstrated that the adult mammalian brain maintains the capacity to generate new neurons from neural stem/progenitor cells. These new neurons integrate into pre-existing systems through a process referred to as 'neurogenesis in the adult brain'. This discovery has modified our understanding of how the central nervous system functions in health and disease. Until today, a great effort has been made attempting to decipher the mechanisms regulating adult neurogenesis, which might help to induce neuronal endogenous cell replacement in various neurological diseases. In this revision, we will attempt to shed some light on the neurogenesis process with respect to diseases of the central nervous system and we will describe some therapeutic potentials in relation to neurodegenerative diseases.

  4. The Multifactorial Role of Peripheral Nervous System in Bone Growth

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    Ioannis Gkiatas

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Bone alters its metabolic and anabolic activities in response to the variety of systemic and local factors such as hormones and growth factors. Classical observations describing abundance of the nerve fibers in bone also predict a paradigm that the nervous system influences bone metabolism and anabolism. Since 1916 several investigators tried to analyze the effect of peripheral nervous system in bone growth and most of them advocated for the positive effect of innervation in the bones of growing organisms. Moreover, neuronal tissue controls bone formation and remodeling. The purpose of this mini-review is to present the most recent data concerning the influence of innervation on bone growth, the current understanding of the skeletal innervation and their proposed physiological effects on bone metabolism as well as the implication of denervation in human skeletal biology in the developing organism since the peripheral neural trauma as well as peripheral neuropathies are common and they have impact on the growing skeleton.

  5. D-Amino Acids in the Nervous and Endocrine Systems

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    Yoshimitsu Kiriyama

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Amino acids are important components for peptides and proteins and act as signal transmitters. Only L-amino acids have been considered necessary in mammals, including humans. However, diverse D-amino acids, such as D-serine, D-aspartate, D-alanine, and D-cysteine, are found in mammals. Physiological roles of these D-amino acids not only in the nervous system but also in the endocrine system are being gradually revealed. N-Methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA receptors are associated with learning and memory. D-Serine, D-aspartate, and D-alanine can all bind to NMDA receptors. H2S generated from D-cysteine reduces disulfide bonds in receptors and potentiates their activity. Aberrant receptor activity is related to diseases of the central nervous system (CNS, such as Alzheimer’s disease, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, and schizophrenia. Furthermore, D-amino acids are detected in parts of the endocrine system, such as the pineal gland, hypothalamus, pituitary gland, pancreas, adrenal gland, and testis. D-Aspartate is being investigated for the regulation of hormone release from various endocrine organs. Here we focused on recent findings regarding the synthesis and physiological functions of D-amino acids in the nervous and endocrine systems.

  6. Mesoscopic organization reveals the constraints governing Caenorhabditis elegans nervous system.

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    Raj Kumar Pan

    Full Text Available One of the biggest challenges in biology is to understand how activity at the cellular level of neurons, as a result of their mutual interactions, leads to the observed behavior of an organism responding to a variety of environmental stimuli. Investigating the intermediate or mesoscopic level of organization in the nervous system is a vital step towards understanding how the integration of micro-level dynamics results in macro-level functioning. The coordination of many different co-occurring processes at this level underlies the command and control of overall network activity. In this paper, we have considered the somatic nervous system of the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans, for which the entire neuronal connectivity diagram is known. We focus on the organization of the system into modules, i.e., neuronal groups having relatively higher connection density compared to that of the overall network. We show that this mesoscopic feature cannot be explained exclusively in terms of considerations such as, optimizing for resource constraints (viz., total wiring cost and communication efficiency (i.e., network path length. Even including information about the genetic relatedness of the cells cannot account for the observed modular structure. Comparison with other complex networks designed for efficient transport (of signals or resources implies that neuronal networks form a distinct class. This suggests that the principal function of the network, viz., processing of sensory information resulting in appropriate motor response, may be playing a vital role in determining the connection topology. Using modular spectral analysis we make explicit the intimate relation between function and structure in the nervous system. This is further brought out by identifying functionally critical neurons purely on the basis of patterns of intra- and inter-modular connections. Our study reveals how the design of the nervous system reflects several constraints, including

  7. Refining the Ciona intestinalis model of central nervous system regeneration.

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    Carl Dahlberg

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: New, practical models of central nervous system regeneration are required and should provide molecular tools and resources. We focus here on the tunicate Ciona intestinalis, which has the capacity to regenerate nerves and a complete adult central nervous system, a capacity unusual in the chordate phylum. We investigated the timing and sequence of events during nervous system regeneration in this organism. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We developed techniques for reproducible ablations and for imaging live cellular events in tissue explants. Based on live observations of more than 100 regenerating animals, we subdivided the regeneration process into four stages. Regeneration was functional, as shown by the sequential recovery of reflexes that established new criteria for defining regeneration rates. We used transgenic animals and labeled nucleotide analogs to describe in detail the early cellular events at the tip of the regenerating nerves and the first appearance of the new adult ganglion anlage. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The rate of regeneration was found to be negatively correlated with adult size. New neural structures were derived from the anterior and posterior nerve endings. A blastemal structure was implicated in the formation of new neural cells. This work demonstrates that Ciona intestinalis is as a useful system for studies on regeneration of the brain, brain-associated organs and nerves.

  8. Regulation of cadherin expression in nervous system development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paulson, Alicia F; Prasad, Maneeshi S; Thuringer, Amanda Henke; Manzerra, Pasquale

    2014-01-01

    This review addresses our current understanding of the regulatory mechanisms for classical cadherin expression during development of the vertebrate nervous system. The complexity of the spatial and temporal expression patterns is linked to morphogenic and functional roles in the developing nervous system. While the regulatory networks controlling cadherin expression are not well understood, it is likely that the multiple signaling pathways active in the development of particular domains also regulate the specific cadherins expressed at that time and location. With the growing understanding of the broader roles of cadherins in cell-cell adhesion and non-adhesion processes, it is important to understand both the upstream regulation of cadherin expression and the downstream effects of specific cadherins within their cellular context.

  9. The role of T cell apoptosis in nervous system autoimmunity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comi, C; Fleetwood, T; Dianzani, U

    2012-12-01

    Fas is a transmembrane receptor involved in the death program of several cell lines, including T lymphocytes. Deleterious mutations hitting genes involved in the Fas pathway cause the autoimmune lymphoprolipherative syndrome (ALPS). Moreover, defective Fas function is involved in the development of common autoimmune diseases, including autoimmune syndromes hitting the nervous system, such as multiple sclerosis (MS) and chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy (CIDP). In this review, we first explore some peculiar aspects of Fas mediated apoptosis in the central versus peripheral nervous system (CNS, PNS); thereafter, we analyze what is currently known on the role of T cell apoptosis in both MS and CIDP, which, in this regard, may be seen as two faces of the same coin. In fact, we show that, in both diseases, defective Fas mediated apoptosis plays a crucial role favoring disease development and its chronic evolution.

  10. Neurotropic Enterovirus Infections in the Central Nervous System

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    Hsing-I Huang

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Enteroviruses are a group of positive-sense single stranded viruses that belong to the Picornaviridae family. Most enteroviruses infect humans from the gastrointestinal tract and cause mild symptoms. However, several enteroviruses can invade the central nervous system (CNS and result in various neurological symptoms that are correlated to mortality associated with enteroviral infections. In recent years, large outbreaks of enteroviruses occurred worldwide. Therefore, these neurotropic enteroviruses have been deemed as re-emerging pathogens. Although these viruses are becoming large threats to public health, our understanding of these viruses, especially for non-polio enteroviruses, is limited. In this article, we review recent advances in the trafficking of these pathogens from the peripheral to the central nervous system, compare their cell tropism, and discuss the effects of viral infections in their host neuronal cells.

  11. Central nervous system infection in the pediatric population

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    Rabi Narayan Sahu

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Infection of the central nervous system is a life-threatening condition in the pediatric population. Almost all agents can cause infection within the central nervous system and the extent of infection ranges from diffuse involvement of the meninges, brain, or the spinal cord to localized involvement presenting as a space-occupying lesion. Modern imaging techniques define the anatomic region infected, the evolution of the disease, and help in better management of these patients. Acute bacterial meningitis remains a major cause of mortality and long-term neurological disability. Fortunately, the incidence of infection after clean craniotomy is < 5%, but it leads to significant morbidity as well as fiscal loss. The most significant causative factor in postcraniotomy infections is postoperative CSF leak. Cerebral abscess related to organic congenital heart disease is one of the leading causes of morbidity and mortality in the pediatric population. The administration of prophylactic antibiotics is indicated for contaminated and clean-contaminated wounds.

  12. Expression and function of aquaporins in peripheral nervous system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tong-hui MA; Hong-wen GAO; Xue-dong FANG; Hong YANG

    2011-01-01

    The expression and role of the aquaporin (AQP) family water channels in the peripheral nervous system was less investigated. Since 2004, however, significant progress has been made in the immunolocalization, regulation and function of AQPs in the peripheral nervous system. These studies showed selective localization of three AQPs (AQP1, AQP2, and AQP4) in dorsal root ganglion neurons,enteric neurons and glial cells, periodontal Ruffini endings, trigeminal ganglion neurons and vomeronasal sensory neurons. Functional characterization in transgenic knockout mouse model revealed important role of AQP1 in pain perception. This review will summarize the progress in this field and discuss possible involvement of AQPs in peripheral neuropathies and their potential as novel drug targets.

  13. [Functions and mechanisms of dehydroepiandrosterone in nervous system].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Li; Sun, Hui-Ying; Gao, Jing; Liao, Hong

    2006-10-01

    Dehydroepiandrosterone is the precursor of sex hormone, and can be synthesized in the brain de novo, which means it is a kind of neurosteroid. Animal experiments and clinical researches have proved that DHEA exhibits a variety of functional activities in the nervous system, including neurotrophic, neuroprotective effects and enhancement' of learning and memory, which suggests that it may be useful in preventing and treating some neural diseases such as neurodegenerative diseases, cerebral ischemia, trauma, psychosis and so on. The mechanisms of the effect of DHEA on protection against oxidative stress, excitotoxicity, apoptosis etc. were found to be through both genomic and nongenomic way. These effects and mechanisms in nervous system were summarized in the present paper.

  14. Central nervous system histoplasmosis in an immunocompetent pediatric patient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esteban, Ignacio; Minces, Pablo; De Cristofano, Analía M; Negroni, Ricardo

    2016-06-01

    Neurohistoplasmosis is a rare disease, most prevalent in immunosuppressed patients, secondary to disseminated disease with a high mortality rate when diagnosis and treatment are delayed. We report a previously healthy 12 year old girl, from a bat infested region of Tucuman Province, Argentine Republic, who developed meningoencephalitis due to Histoplasma capsulatum. Eighteen months prior to admission the patient started with headaches and intermittent fever. The images of the central nervous system showed meningoencephalitis suggestive of tuberculosis. She received antibiotics and tuberculostatic medications without improvement. Liposomal amphotericin B was administered for six weeks. The patient's clinical status improved remarkably. Finally the culture of cerebral spinal fluid was positive for micelial form of Histoplasma capsulatum. The difficulties surrounding the diagnosis and treatment of neurohistoplasmosis in immunocompetent patients are discussed in this manuscript, as it also intends to alert to the presence of a strain of Histoplasma capsulatum with affinity for the central nervous system.

  15. Genome integrity and disease prevention in the nervous system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKinnon, Peter J

    2017-06-15

    Multiple DNA repair pathways maintain genome stability and ensure that DNA remains essentially unchanged over the life of a cell. Various human diseases occur if DNA repair is compromised, and most of these impact the nervous system, in some cases exclusively. However, it is often unclear what specific endogenous damage underpins disease pathology. Generally, the types of causative DNA damage are associated with replication, transcription, or oxidative metabolism; other direct sources of endogenous lesions may arise from aberrant topoisomerase activity or ribonucleotide incorporation into DNA. This review focuses on the etiology of DNA damage in the nervous system and the genome stability pathways that prevent human neurologic disease. © 2017 McKinnon; Published by Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press.

  16. Is Ghrelin Synthesized in the Central Nervous System?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabral, Agustina; López Soto, Eduardo J.; Epelbaum, Jacques; Perelló, Mario

    2017-01-01

    Ghrelin is an octanoylated peptide that acts via its specific receptor, the growth hormone secretagogue receptor type 1a (GHSR-1a), and regulates a vast variety of physiological functions. It is well established that ghrelin is predominantly synthesized by a distinct population of endocrine cells located within the gastric oxyntic mucosa. In addition, some studies have reported that ghrelin could also be synthesized in some brain regions, such as the hypothalamus. However, evidences of neuronal production of ghrelin have been inconsistent and, as a consequence, it is still as a matter of debate if ghrelin can be centrally produced. Here, we provide a comprehensive review and discussion of the data supporting, or not, the notion that the mammalian central nervous system can synthetize ghrelin. We conclude that no irrefutable and reproducible evidence exists supporting the notion that ghrelin is synthetized, at physiologically relevant levels, in the central nervous system of adult mammals. PMID:28294994

  17. High-throughput screening in the C. elegans nervous system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinser, Holly E; Pincus, Zachary

    2016-06-03

    The nematode Caenorhabditis elegans is widely used as a model organism in the field of neurobiology. The wiring of the C. elegans nervous system has been entirely mapped, and the animal's optical transparency allows for in vivo observation of neuronal activity. The nematode is also small in size, self-fertilizing, and inexpensive to cultivate and maintain, greatly lending to its utility as a whole-animal model for high-throughput screening (HTS) in the nervous system. However, the use of this organism in large-scale screens presents unique technical challenges, including reversible immobilization of the animal, parallel single-animal culture and containment, automation of laser surgery, and high-throughput image acquisition and phenotyping. These obstacles require significant modification of existing techniques and the creation of new C. elegans-based HTS platforms. In this review, we outline these challenges in detail and survey the novel technologies and methods that have been developed to address them.

  18. Pathophysiology of Resistant Hypertension: The Role of Sympathetic Nervous System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Costas Tsioufis

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Resistant hypertension (RH is a powerful risk factor for cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Among the characteristics of patients with RH, obesity, obstructive sleep apnea, and aldosterone excess are covering a great area of the mosaic of RH phenotype. Increased sympathetic nervous system (SNS activity is present in all these underlying conditions, supporting its crucial role in the pathophysiology of antihypertensive treatment resistance. Current clinical and experimental knowledge points towards an impact of several factors on SNS activation, namely, insulin resistance, adipokines, endothelial dysfunction, cyclic intermittent hypoxaemia, aldosterone effects on central nervous system, chemoreceptors, and baroreceptors dysregulation. The further investigation and understanding of the mechanisms leading to SNS activation could reveal novel therapeutic targets and expand our treatment options in the challenging management of RH.

  19. Interspecies study of the enteric nervous system and related pathologies

    OpenAIRE

    Giancola, Fiorella

    2016-01-01

    The enteric nervous system (ENS) modulates a number of digestive functions including well known ones, i.e. motility, secretion, absorption and blood flow, along with other critically relevant processes, i.e. immune responses of the gastrointestinal (GI) tract, gut microbiota and epithelial barrier . The characterization of the anatomical aspects of the ENS in large mammals and the identification of differences and similarities existing between species may represent a fundamental basis to deci...

  20. Primary central nervous system lymphoma in an immunocompetent patient

    OpenAIRE

    Málaga-Zenteno, José; Médico Asistente, Servicio de Hematología, Hospital Nacional Carlos Alberto Seguín Escobedo, EsSalud, Arequipa, Perú.; Mamani-Quispe, Jersson Alonso; Estudiante de Medicina Humana, Centro de Investigación y Estudios Médicos (CIEM), Universidad Católica Santa María, Arequipa, Perú. Sociedad Científica Médico Estudiantil Peruana (SOCIMEP).; Fuentes Fuentes, Mariela; Médico Asistente, Servicio de Hematología, Hospital Nacional Carlos Alberto Seguín Escobedo, EsSalud, Arequipa, Perú.; Suclla-Velásquez, José Alonso; Estudiante de Medicina Humana, Centro de Investigación y Estudios Médicos (CIEM), Universidad Católica Santa María, Arequipa, Perú. Sociedad Científica Médico Estudiantil Peruana (SOCIMEP).; Meza Aragón, Julio; Médico Asistente, Servicio de Neurocirugía, Hospital Nacional Carlos Alberto Seguín Escobedo, EsSalud, Arequipa, Perú.

    2012-01-01

    Primary central nervous system lymphoma (PCNSL) constitutes 2% of extranodal lymphomas and 0,3%-1,5% of all intracranial neoplasms in immunocompetent patients, being more frequent after the sixth decade of life. We report a case of a 76 year-old man with no antecedents who started his disease with march instability, difficulty to move left side of his body with brachial predominance, holocraneal headache and dizziness. He arrived at emergency with Glasgow 14 and right eyelid ptosis. He had le...

  1. Simultaneous central nervous system complications of C. neoformans infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Duarte, Alejandra; Higera Calleja, Jesus; Mitre, Vicente Gijón; Ramos, Guillermo Garcia

    2009-01-01

    The most common neurological manifestation of Cryptococcus neoformans infection is meningitis. Other less common manifestations include parenchymal central nervous system (CNS) granulomatous disease, hydrocephalus and stroke. C. neoformans is often suspected in immunodepressed patients, but it can be easily overlooked in otherwise healthy patients. This paper provides a detailed clinical description of a patient without immunosupression who developed multiple simultaneous neurological manifestations after the infection with C. neoformans. PMID:21577360

  2. Targeting of the central nervous system by Listeria monocytogenes.

    OpenAIRE

    Disson, Olivier; Lecuit, Marc

    2012-01-01

    Among bacteria that reach the central nervous system (CNS), Listeria monocytogenes (Lm) is one of deadliest, in human and ruminant. This facultative intracellular bacterium has the particularity to induce meningitis, meningoencephalitis and rhombencephalitis. Mechanisms by which Lm accesses the CNS remain poorly understood, but two major routes of infection have been proposed, based on clinical, in vitro and in vivo observations. A retrograde neural route is likely to occur in ruminants upon ...

  3. Diagnosis of Fetal Central Nervous System Anomalies by Ultrasonography

    OpenAIRE

    F. Tuncay Ozgunen

    2003-01-01

    During the last 30 years, one of the most important instruments in diagnosis is ultrasonograph. It has an indispensible place in obstetrics. Its it possible to evaluate normal fetal anatomy, to follow-up fetal growth and to diagnose fetal congenital anomalies by ultrasonography. Central nervous system anomalies is the one of the most commonly seen and the best time for screening is between 18- and 22-week of pregnancy. In this paper, it is presented the sonographic features of some outstandin...

  4. Central nervous system manifestations of HIV infection in children

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    George, Reena; Andronikou, Savvas; Plessis, Jaco du; Plessis, Anne-Marie du; Maydell, Arthur [University of Stellenbosch, Department of Radiology, Tygerberg Academic Hospital, Cape Town (South Africa); Toorn, Ronald van [University of Stellenbosch, Department of Paediatrics and Child Health, Tygerberg Academic Hospital, Cape Town (South Africa)

    2009-06-15

    Vertically transmitted HIV infection is a major problem in the developing world due to the poor availability of antiretroviral agents to pregnant women. HIV is a neurotrophic virus and causes devastating neurological insults to the immature brain. The effects of the virus are further compounded by the opportunistic infections and neoplasms that occur as a result of the associated immune suppression. This review focuses on the imaging features of HIV infection and its complications in the central nervous system. (orig.)

  5. Congenital and acquired mitochondrial disorders of the central nervous system

    OpenAIRE

    V. V. Nikitina; A. N. Pravdina

    2014-01-01

    Clinical presentations of disorders of the nervous system manifest in young and middle-aged patients with congenital and acquired mitochondrial dysfunctions and cognitive disorders manifest in patients with mitochondrial diseases more often. Nowadays the effective methods of initial diagnosing of these conditions are neurological and neuropsychological examination of patients, using of biochemical markers of mitochondrial diseases: the indices of lactate, total homocysteine in plasma and liqu...

  6. Central nervous system inflammatory demyelinating disorders of childhood

    OpenAIRE

    Kamate Mahesh; Chetal Vivek; Tonape Venkatesh; Mahantshetti Niranjana; Hattiholi Virupaxi

    2010-01-01

    Background and Objectives: Childhood Central Nervous System (CNS) inflammatory demyelinating disorders (CIDD) are being diagnosed more commonly now. There is ambiguity in the use of different terms in relation to CIDD. Recently, consensus definitions have been proposed so that there is uniformity in studies across the world. The prevalence of these disorders and the spectrum varies from place to place. This study was undertaken to study the clinico-radiological profile and outcome of children...

  7. Acute Central Nervous System Complications in Pediatric Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baytan, Birol; Evim, Melike Sezgin; Güler, Salih; Güneş, Adalet Meral; Okan, Mehmet

    2015-10-01

    The outcome of childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia has improved because of intensive chemotherapy and supportive care. The frequency of adverse events has also increased, but the data related to acute central nervous system complications during acute lymphoblastic leukemia treatment are sparse. The purpose of this study is to evaluate these complications and to determine their long term outcome. We retrospectively analyzed the hospital reports of 323 children with de novo acute lymphoblastic leukemia from a 13-year period for acute neurological complications. The central nervous system complications of leukemic involvement, peripheral neuropathy, and post-treatment late-onset encephalopathy, and neurocognitive defects were excluded. Twenty-three of 323 children (7.1%) suffered from central nervous system complications during acute lymphoblastic leukemia treatment. The majority of these complications (n = 13/23; 56.5%) developed during the induction period. The complications included posterior reversible encephalopathy (n = 6), fungal abscess (n = 5), cerebrovascular lesions (n = 5), syndrome of inappropriate secretion of antidiuretic hormone (n = 4), and methotrexate encephalopathy (n = 3). Three of these 23 children (13%) died of central nervous system complications, one from an intracranial fungal abscess and the others from intracranial thrombosis. Seven of the survivors (n = 7/20; 35%) became epileptic and three of them had also developed mental and motor retardation. Acute central neurological complications are varied and require an urgent approach for proper diagnosis and treatment. Collaboration among the hematologist, radiologist, neurologist, microbiologist, and neurosurgeon is essential to prevent fatal outcome and serious morbidity. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Central nervous system infection caused by Morganella morganii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdalla, Jehad; Saad, Mustafa; Samnani, Imran; Lee, Prescott; Moorman, Jonathan

    2006-01-01

    Central nervous system (CNS) infection with Morganella morganii is very rare. We describe a 38-year-old female patient with frontal brain abscess caused by M morganii who was unsuccessfully treated. We also review all reported cases of Morganella CNS infections with an emphasis on treatment modalities and outcomes. Aggressive surgical management and appropriate antimicrobial therapy can lead to cure, but the mortality rate for these infections remains high.

  9. SoxE function in vertebrate nervous system development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stolt, C Claus; Wegner, Michael

    2010-03-01

    Sox8, Sox9, and Sox10 as transcription factors of subgroup E of the Sox protein family are essential for many aspects of nervous system development. These SoxE proteins are already required for the initial neural crest induction, but also guarantee survival and maintenance of pluripotency in migrating neural crest stem cells. SoxE proteins are furthermore key regulators of glial specification in both the peripheral and the central nervous systems. At later stages of development, Sox10 plays crucial roles in Schwann cells and oligodendrocytes for terminal differentiation and myelin formation. In both glial cell types, Sox10 controls directly the expression of genes encoding the major myelin proteins. SoxE proteins are well-integrated components of regulatory networks and as such modulated in their activity by cooperating or antagonistic transcription factors such as SoxD or various bHLH proteins. The multiple functions in peripheral and central nervous system development also link SoxE proteins to various human diseases and identify these proteins as promising targets of future therapeutic approaches.

  10. The role of oxidative stress in nervous system aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sims-Robinson, Catrina; Hur, Junguk; Hayes, John M; Dauch, Jacqueline R; Keller, Peter J; Brooks, Susan V; Feldman, Eva L

    2013-01-01

    While oxidative stress is implicated in aging, the impact of oxidative stress on aging in the peripheral nervous system is not well understood. To determine a potential mechanism for age-related deficits in the peripheral nervous system, we examined both functional and morphological changes and utilized microarray technology to compare normal aging in wild-type mice to effects in copper/zinc superoxide dismutase-deficient (Sod1(-/-)) mice, a mouse model of increased oxidative stress. Sod1(-/-) mice exhibit a peripheral neuropathy phenotype with normal sensory nerve function and deficits in motor nerve function. Our data indicate that a decrease in the synthesis of cholesterol, which is vital to myelin formation, correlates with the structural deficits in axons, myelin, and the cell body of motor neurons in the Sod1(+/+) mice at 30 months and the Sod1(-/-) mice at 20 months compared with mice at 2 months. Collectively, we have demonstrated that the functional and morphological changes within the peripheral nervous system in our model of increased oxidative stress are manifested earlier and resemble the deficits observed during normal aging.

  11. FoxO proteins in the nervous system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maiese, Kenneth

    2015-01-01

    Acute as well as chronic disorders of the nervous system lead to significant morbidity and mortality for millions of individuals globally. Given the ability to govern stem cell proliferation and differentiated cell survival, mammalian forkhead transcription factors of the forkhead box class O (FoxO) are increasingly being identified as potential targets for disorders of the nervous system, such as Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, Huntington's disease, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, and auditory neuronal disease. FoxO proteins are present throughout the body, but they are selectively expressed in the nervous system and have diverse biological functions. The forkhead O class transcription factors interface with an array of signal transduction pathways that include protein kinase B (Akt), serum- and glucocorticoid-inducible protein kinase (SgK), IκB kinase (IKK), silent mating type information regulation 2 homolog 1 (S. cerevisiae) (SIRT1), growth factors, and Wnt signaling that can determine the activity and integrity of FoxO proteins. Ultimately, there exists a complex interplay between FoxO proteins and their signal transduction pathways that can significantly impact programmed cell death pathways of apoptosis and autophagy as well as the development of clinical strategies for the treatment of neurodegenerative disorders.

  12. Epigenetics, Nervous System Tumors, and Cancer Stem Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark F. Mehler

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Recent advances have begun to elucidate how epigenetic regulatory mechanisms are responsible for establishing and maintaining cell identity during development and adult life and how the disruption of these processes is, not surprisingly, one of the hallmarks of cancer. In this review, we describe the major epigenetic mechanisms (i.e., DNA methylation, histone and chromatin modification, non-coding RNA deployment, RNA editing, and nuclear reorganization and discuss the broad spectrum of epigenetic alterations that have been uncovered in pediatric and adult nervous system tumors. We also highlight emerging evidence that suggests epigenetic deregulation is a characteristic feature of so-called cancer stem cells (CSCs, which are thought to be present in a range of nervous system tumors and responsible for tumor maintenance, progression, treatment resistance, and recurrence. We believe that better understanding how epigenetic mechanisms operate in neural cells and identifying the etiologies and consequences of epigenetic deregulation in tumor cells and CSCs, in particular, are likely to promote the development of enhanced molecular diagnostics and more targeted and effective therapeutic agents for treating recalcitrant nervous system tumors.

  13. Functional roles of neuropeptides in the insect central nervous system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nässel, D. R.

    With the completion of the Drosophila genome sequencing project we can begin to appreciate the extent of the complexity in the components involved in signal transfer and modulation in the nervous system of an animal with reasonably complex behavior. Of all the different classes of signaling substances utilized by the nervous system, the neuropeptides are the most diverse structurally and functionally. Thus peptidergic mechanisms of action in the central nervous system need to be analyzed in the context of the neuronal circuits in which they act and generalized traits cannot be established. By taking advantage of Drosophila molecular genetics and the presence of identifiable neurons, it has been possible to interfere with peptidergic signaling in small populations of central neurons and monitor the consequences on behavior. These studies and experiments on other insects with large identifiable neurons, permitting cellular analysis of signaling mechanisms, have outlined important principles for temporal and spatial action of neuropeptides in outputs of the circadian clock and in orchestrating molting behavior. Considering the large number of neuropeptides available in each insect species and their diverse distribution patterns, it is to be expected that different neuropeptides play roles in most aspects of insect physiology and behavior.

  14. Radon exposure and tumors of the central nervous system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruano-Ravina, Alberto; Dacosta-Urbieta, Ana; Barros-Dios, Juan Miguel; Kelsey, Karl T

    2017-03-15

    To review the published evidence of links between radon exposure and central nervous system tumors through a systematic review of the scientific literature. We performed a thorough bibliographic search in Medline (PubMed) and EMBASE. We combined MeSH (Medical Subject Heading) terms and free text. We developed a purpose-designed scale to assess the quality of the included manuscripts. We have included 18 studies, 8 performed on miners, 3 on the general population and 7 on children, and the results have been structured using this classification. The results are inconclusive. An association between radon exposure and central nervous system tumors has been observed in some studies on miners, but not in others. The results observed in the general adult population and in children are also mixed, with some research evincing a statistically significant association and others showing no effect. We cannot conclude that there is a relationship between radon exposure and central nervous system tumors. The available studies are extremely heterogeneous in terms of design and populations studied. Further research is needed in this topic, particularly in the general population residing in areas with high levels of radon. Copyright © 2017 SESPAS. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  15. Learning priors for Bayesian computations in the nervous system.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Max Berniker

    Full Text Available Our nervous system continuously combines new information from our senses with information it has acquired throughout life. Numerous studies have found that human subjects manage this by integrating their observations with their previous experience (priors in a way that is close to the statistical optimum. However, little is known about the way the nervous system acquires or learns priors. Here we present results from experiments where the underlying distribution of target locations in an estimation task was switched, manipulating the prior subjects should use. Our experimental design allowed us to measure a subject's evolving prior while they learned. We confirm that through extensive practice subjects learn the correct prior for the task. We found that subjects can rapidly learn the mean of a new prior while the variance is learned more slowly and with a variable learning rate. In addition, we found that a Bayesian inference model could predict the time course of the observed learning while offering an intuitive explanation for the findings. The evidence suggests the nervous system continuously updates its priors to enable efficient behavior.

  16. Epigenetics, Nervous System Tumors, and Cancer Stem Cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qureshi, Irfan A. [Rosyln and Leslie Goldstein Laboratory for Stem Cell Biology and Regenerative Medicine, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, New York, NY 10461 (United States); Institute for Brain Disorders and Neural Regeneration, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, New York, NY 10461 (United States); Department of Neurology, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, New York, NY 10461 (United States); Rose F. Kennedy Center for Research on Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, New York, NY 10461 (United States); Mehler, Mark F., E-mail: mark.mehler@einstein.yu.edu [Rosyln and Leslie Goldstein Laboratory for Stem Cell Biology and Regenerative Medicine, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, New York, NY 10461 (United States); Institute for Brain Disorders and Neural Regeneration, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, New York, NY 10461 (United States); Department of Neurology, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, New York, NY 10461 (United States); Department of Neuroscience, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, New York, NY 10461 (United States); Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, New York, NY 10461 (United States); Rose F. Kennedy Center for Research on Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, New York, NY 10461 (United States)

    2011-09-13

    Recent advances have begun to elucidate how epigenetic regulatory mechanisms are responsible for establishing and maintaining cell identity during development and adult life and how the disruption of these processes is, not surprisingly, one of the hallmarks of cancer. In this review, we describe the major epigenetic mechanisms (i.e., DNA methylation, histone and chromatin modification, non-coding RNA deployment, RNA editing, and nuclear reorganization) and discuss the broad spectrum of epigenetic alterations that have been uncovered in pediatric and adult nervous system tumors. We also highlight emerging evidence that suggests epigenetic deregulation is a characteristic feature of so-called cancer stem cells (CSCs), which are thought to be present in a range of nervous system tumors and responsible for tumor maintenance, progression, treatment resistance, and recurrence. We believe that better understanding how epigenetic mechanisms operate in neural cells and identifying the etiologies and consequences of epigenetic deregulation in tumor cells and CSCs, in particular, are likely to promote the development of enhanced molecular diagnostics and more targeted and effective therapeutic agents for treating recalcitrant nervous system tumors.

  17. Gangliosides in the Nervous System: Biosynthesis and Degradation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Robert K.; Ariga, Toshio; Yanagisawa, Makoto; Zeng, Guichao

    Gangliosides, abundant in the nervous system, are known to play crucial modulatory roles in cellular recognition, interaction, adhesion, and signal transduction, particularly during early developmental stages. The expression of gangliosides in the nervous system is developmentally regulated and is closely related to the differentiation state of the cell. Ganglioside biosynthesis occurs in intracellular organelles, from which gangliosides are transported to the plasma membrane. During brain development, the ganglioside composition of the nervous system undergoes remarkable changes and is strictly regulated by the activities of glycosyltransferases, which can occur at different levels of control, including glycosyltransferase gene transcription and posttranslational modification. Genes for glycosyltransferase involved in ganglioside biosynthesis have been cloned and classified into families of glycosyltransferases based on their amino acid sequence similarities. The donor and acceptor substrate specificities are determined by enzymatic analysis of the glycosyltransferase gene products. Cell-type specific regulation of these genes has also been studied. Gangliosides are degraded by lysosomal exoglycosidases. The action of these enzymes occurs frequently in cooperation with activator proteins. Several human diseases are caused by defects of degradative enzymes, resulting in massive accumulation of certain glycolipids, including gangliosides in the lysosomal compartment and other organelles in the brain and visceral organs. Some of the representative lysosomal storage diseases (LSDs) caused by the accumulation of lipids in late endosomes and lysosomes will be discussed.

  18. Gross anatomy and development of the peripheral nervous system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catala, Martin; Kubis, Nathalie

    2013-01-01

    The nervous system is divided into the central nervous system (CNS) composed of the brain, the brainstem, the cerebellum, and the spinal cord and the peripheral nervous system (PNS) made up of the different nerves arising from the CNS. The PNS is divided into the cranial nerves III to XII supplying the head and the spinal nerves that supply the upper and lower limbs. The general anatomy of the PNS is organized according to the arrangement of the fibers along the rostro-caudal axis. The control of the development of the PNS has been unravelled during the last 30 years. Motor nerves arise from the ventral neural tube. This ventralization is induced by morphogenetic molecules such as sonic hedgehog. In contrast, the sensory elements of the PNS arise from a specific population of cells originating from the roof of the neural tube, namely the neural crest. These cells give rise to the neurons of the dorsal root ganglia, the autonomic ganglia and the paraganglia including the adrenergic neurons of the adrenals. Furthermore, the supportive glial Schwann cells of the PNS originate from the neural crest cells. Growth factors as well as myelinating proteins are involved in the development of the PNS.

  19. Effective components of Chinese herbs reduce central nervous system function decline induced by iron overload

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xian-hui Dong

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Abnormally increased levels of iron in the brain trigger cascade amplification in Alzheimer′s disease patients, resulting in neuronal death. This study investigated whether components extracted from the Chinese herbs epimedium herb, milkvetch root and kudzuvine root could relieve the abnormal expression of iron metabolism-related protein in Alzheimer′s disease patients. An APP swe/PS1ΔE9 double transgenic mouse model of Alzheimer′s disease was used. The intragastric administration of compounds from epimedium herb, milkvetch root and kudzuvine root improved pathological alterations such as neuronal edema, increased the number of neurons, downregulated divalent metal transporter 1 expression, upregulated ferroportin 1 expression, and inhibited iron overload in the cerebral cortex of mice with Alzheimer′s disease. These compounds reduced iron overload-induced impairment of the central nervous system, indicating a new strategy for developing novel drugs for the treatment of Alzheimer′s disease.

  20. Effective components of Chinese herbs reduce central nervous system function decline induced by iron overload

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xian-hui Dong; Cong Liu; Jiang-tao Bai; Wei-na Kong; Xiao-ping He; Peng Yan; Tie-mei Shao; Wen-guo Yu; Xi-qing Chai; Yan-hua Wu

    2015-01-01

    Abnormally increased levels of iron in the brain trigger cascade ampliifcation in Alzheimer’s dis-ease patients, resulting in neuronal death. This study investigated whether components extracted from the Chinese herbs epimedium herb, milkvetch root and kudzuvine root could relieve the abnormal expression of iron metabolism-related protein in Alzheimer’s disease patients. An APPswe/PS1ΔE9 double transgenic mouse model of Alzheimer’s disease was used. The intragas-tric administration of compounds from epimedium herb, milkvetch root and kudzuvine root improved pathological alterations such as neuronal edema, increased the number of neurons, downregulated divalent metal transporter 1 expression, upregulated ferroportin 1 expression, and inhibited iron overload in the cerebral cortex of mice with Alzheimer’s disease. These com-pounds reduced iron overload-induced impairment of the central nervous system, indicating a new strategy for developing novel drugs for the treatment of Alzheimer’s disease.

  1. BMP-Smad 1/5/8 signalling in the development of the nervous system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hegarty, Shane V; O'Keeffe, Gerard W; Sullivan, Aideen M

    2013-10-01

    The transcription factors, Smad1, Smad5 and Smad8, are the pivotal intracellular effectors of the bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) family of proteins. BMPs and their receptors are expressed in the nervous system (NS) throughout its development. This review focuses on the actions of Smad 1/5/8 in the developing NS. The mechanisms by which these Smad proteins regulate the induction of the neuroectoderm, the central nervous system (CNS) primordium, and finally the neural crest, which gives rise to the peripheral nervous system (PNS), are reviewed herein. We describe how, following neural tube closure, the most dorsal aspect of the tube becomes a signalling centre for BMPs, which directs the pattern of the development of the dorsal spinal cord (SC), through the action of Smad1, Smad5 and Smad8. The direct effects of Smad 1/5/8 signalling on the development of neuronal and non-neuronal cells from various neural progenitor cell populations are then described. Finally, this review discusses the neurodevelopmental abnormalities associated with the knockdown of Smad 1/5/8.

  2. Transgenic studies on homeobox genes in nervous system development: spina bifida in Isl1 transgenic mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kappen, Claudia; Yaworsky, Paul J; Muller, Yunhua L; Salbaum, J Michael

    2013-04-01

    To develop in vivo assays for homeobox gene function in neural development, we generated transgenic mice in which the expression of a homeobox gene is altered only within the nervous system, in neurons or neuronal precursor cells. Transgenic expression of Hoxc8 did not result in gross abnormalities, while a Hoxd4 transgene caused death shortly after birth. In neural progenitor cells, the motorneuron-specific homeodomain transcription factor Isl1 induced early developmental defects, including absence of anterior neural structures, profound defects in the neuroepithelium and defective neural tube closure. A fraction of Isl1 transgenic mice exhibited spina bifida. Isl1 transgene expression was also associated with decreased proliferation and increased Pbx1 expression in the ventral neural tube. Our results suggest a function for some homeobox genes in development of the nervous system, and that cell-type- and region-specific transgenic models will be useful to identify the cellular and molecular targets of homeobox transcription factors in nervous system development.

  3. A Case Of Primary Central Nervous System Vasculitis Who Presented With Status Epilepticus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sırma Geyik

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Primary central nervous system vasculitis (PCNV is limited with central nervous system and rare vasculitis that mostly seen in middle-aged men. PCNV vasculitis is usually presented that headache, dementia, stroke and multifocal common neurological symptoms. PCNV especially involves small medium-sized leptomeningeal and cortical arteries. 43 years old male patient who have been progressive forgetfulness and headache for 3 years. He applied with recurrent that before starting right focal and than sprawling whole body which generalized tonic-clonic seizures to us. During management that he was transfered to the intensive care unit due to status epilepticus (SE. Later than we found right hemiparesis, motor aphasia and right babinski positivity in neurologic examination. Diffusion restriction was revealed in left MCA territory in diffusion magnetic resonance imaging(MRI. EEG showed two types abnormality that a slow background ritm and epileptiform activity. Biochemistry of blood, complete blood count, blood sedimentation rate, CRP and markers of vasculitis were found in the normal range. Cerebral anjiography revealed that irregularities in the distal vascular areas and fusiform aneurysm at the top of basilar artery. He was consulted with rheumatology and diagnosed central nervous system vasculitis with the existing findings. Biopsy couldn't be taken from the brain to verify the diagnosis. Finally, we applied treatment that pulse steroid and cyclophosphamide to patient. This case has been presented due to emphasize that PCNV rarely may play a role in the etiology of recurrent stroke and status epilepticus.

  4. Immune response induction in the central nervous system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Owens, Trevor; Babcock, Alicia

    2002-01-01

    The primary function of the immune response is protection of the host against infection with pathogens, including viruses. Since viruses can infect any tissue of the body, including the central nervous system (CNS), it is logical that cells of the immune system should equally have access to all...... tissues. Nevertheless, the brain and spinal cord are noted for their lack of immune presence. Relative to other organ systems, the CNS appears immunologically privileged. Furthermore, when immune responses do occur in the CNS, they are frequently associated with deleterious effects such as inflammatory...

  5. Patterning the nervous system through development and evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghysen, Alain; Dambly-Chaudière, Christine; Raible, David W

    2010-01-01

    We report presentations and discussions at a meeting held in May 2010 in the small village of Minerve, in the south of France. The meeting was devoted mostly but not exclusively to patterning in the nervous system, with an emphasis on two model organisms, Drosophila Melanogaster and Danio rerio. Among the major issues presented were fear and its neuroanatomy, life in darkness, patterning of sensory systems, as well as fundamental issues of neural connectivity, including the role of lineage in neural development. Talks on large-scale patterning and re-patterning, and on the mouse as a third model system, concluded the meeting.

  6. Fourier domain OCT imaging of American cockroach nervous system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wyszkowska, Joanna; Gorczynska, Iwona; Ruminski, Daniel; Karnowski, Karol; Kowalczyk, Andrzej; Stankiewicz, Maria; Wojtkowski, Maciej

    2012-01-01

    In this pilot study we demonstrate results of structural Fourier domain OCT imaging of the nervous system of Periplaneta americana L. (American cockroach). The purpose of this research is to develop an OCT apparatus enabling structural imaging of insect neural system. Secondary purpose of the presented research is to develop methods of the sample preparation and handling during the OCT imaging experiments. We have performed imaging in the abdominal nerve cord excised from the American cockroach. For this purpose we have developed a Fourier domain / spectral OCT system operating at 820 nm wavelength range.

  7. Central nervous system dysfunction in obesity-induced hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Head, Geoffrey A; Lim, Kyungjoon; Barzel, Benjamin; Burke, Sandra L; Davern, Pamela J

    2014-09-01

    The activation of the sympathetic nervous system is a major mechanism underlying both human and experimental models of obesity-related hypertension. While insulin and the adipokine leptin have long been thought to contribute to obesity-related neurogenic mechanisms, the evidence is now very strong that they play a major role, shown particularly in animal studies using selective receptor antagonists. There is not just maintenance of leptin's sympatho-excitatory actions as previously suggested but considerable amplification particularly in renal sympathetic nervous activity. Importantly, these changes are not dependent on short-term elevation or reduction in plasma leptin or insulin, but require some weeks to develop indicating a slow "neural adaptivity" within hypothalamic signalling. These effects can be carried across generations even when offspring are raised on a normal diet. A better understanding of the underlying mechanism should be a high research priority given the prevalence of obesity not just in the current population but also for future generations.

  8. Longitudinal analysis of hearing loss in a case of hemosiderosis of the central nervous system.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weekamp, H.; Huygen, P.L.M.; Merx, J.L.; Kremer, H.P.H.; Cremers, C.W.R.J.; Longridge, N.S.

    2003-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To describe cochleovestibular aspects of superficial hemosiderosis of the central nervous system. BACKGROUND: Superficial hemosiderosis of the central nervous system is a rare disease in which cochleovestibular impairment, cerebellar ataxia, and myelopathy are the most frequent signs. Chr

  9. Comprehensive allelotype and genetic anaysis of 466 human nervous system tumors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    von Deimling, A; Fimmers, R; Schmidt, M C

    2000-01-01

    Brain tumors pose a particular challenge to molecular oncology. Many different tumor entities develop in the nervous system and some of them appear to follow distinct pathogenic routes. Molecular genetic alterations have increasingly been reported in nervous system neoplasms. However...

  10. [Electroencephalography and the general physiology of the nervous system].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wyss, O A

    1974-01-01

    The contributions of electro-encephalography to the general physiology of the nervous system - studies based on 50 years of experimental and clinical research on the EEG of animals and man - have established irrefutable facts underlying present-day concepts in neurophysiology. This conclusion holds true, even if allowance must be made with regard to the alpha-rhythm, reasons having been given to suppose that this phenomenon is in reality, partially or entirely, an ocular tremor phenomenon (Lippold). The fundamental principles of neuronal activity such as (1) the electrogenesis of gray matter, i.e., the electric current and membrane potential aspects of the existence and the functioning of nerve cells and neuronal aggregates, (2) the rhythmicity and periodicity of nervous activity in single cells or networks of neurones, (3) the synchronization of such nervous activity due, at the site of its source, to electric interaction between neurones belonging together and 'beating in unison', and (4) the autonomous automaticity of nerve cells and nerve centres as being the basic feature of neuronal activity, are among the prominent topics dealt with in this report. Particular attention is paid to the autonomy-concept of nervous activity, a concept ofter forgotten, neglected or discarded from physiological thinking, although life of any kind, in any type of living system, can only be understood if spontaneous existence and activity are accepted for living matter. In this respect the EEG has contributed in a large measure to save the physiology of our period from the materialism which prevailed at the beginning of the century and which threatens once more to emerge towards its end.

  11. Clinical analysis of neuropsychiatric systemic lupus erythematosus involving the central nervous system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    YANG Huan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background Neuropsychiatric systemic lupus erythematosus (NP-SLE presents with a wide variety of clinical manifestations, which is often difficult to diagnose with a high mortality. This study aims to investigate the clinical features of NP-SLE involving the central nervous system (CNS and the differential diagnoses between CNS NP-SLE and intracranial infections. Methods The clinical manifestations, serum immunological features, cerebrospinal fluid (CSF examinations (including intracranial pressure, leukocyte count, protein, glucose and chloride, CT and (or MRI and electroencephalogram (EEG data of 23 NP-SLE patients with CNS involved were retrospectively reviewed. Results Nine patients presented with diffuse manifestations, while 14 patients presented with focal manifestations. Serum analysis showed the positive rates of immunoglobulins anti-nuclear antibody (ANA, anti-double stranded DNA antibody (dsDNA, anti-Sm, anti-ribosmal P protein, anti-SSA and anti-SSB antibodies were 21/22, 7/22, 1/14, 2/14, 9/14 and 3/14 respectively. Patients with decreased serum C3 accounted for 14/20 while patients with decreased serum C4 accounted for 5/20. Besides, patients with increased CSF leukocyte count and microalbumin took up 5/12 and 7/12, while patients with decreased glucose and chloride levels took up 5/12 and 6/12. All 23 patients presented abnormal CT and (or MRI and 6 patients presented abnormal EEG. Conclusion Serum immunological levels, CT and (or MRI and EEG examinations contributed to the diagnosis of NP-SLE involving CNS. Although CSF analyses were slightly abnormal, the increase of leukocyte count and average microalbumin was not obvious, and the mean values of glucose and chloride were in the normal range, suggesting that the CSF examinations were helpful for the differential diagnoses from intracranial infections. Glucocorticoids and immunosuppressive drugs were remarkably effective for CNS NP-SLE patients.

  12. Towards a 'systems'-level understanding of the nervous system and its disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qureshi, Irfan A; Mehler, Mark F

    2013-11-01

    It is becoming clear that nervous system development and adult functioning are highly coupled with other physiological systems. Accordingly, neurological and psychiatric disorders are increasingly being associated with a range of systemic comorbidities including, most prominently, impairments in immunological and bioenergetic parameters as well as in the gut microbiome. Here, we discuss various aspects of the dynamic crosstalk between these systems that underlies nervous system development, homeostasis, and plasticity. We believe a better definition of this underappreciated systems physiology will yield important insights into how nervous system diseases with systemic comorbidities arise and potentially identify novel diagnostic and therapeutic strategies.

  13. [Central nervous system leukemia mimicking rapidly progressive HTLV-1 associated myelopathy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haruki, Hiroyo; Tanaka, Shinichiro; Koga, Michiaki; Kawai, Motoharu; Negoro, Kiyoshi; Kanda, Takashi

    2009-03-01

    A 79-year-old woman was suffered from rapidly progressive paresthesia of lower limbs and gait disturbance. After one month, she showed flaccid paraplegia and hyperreflexia in the lower limbs with positive Babinski signs. Anti-HTLV-1 antibody titer was elevated in the serum, but negative in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). CSF examination showed mild pleocytosis, elevated protein, and normal glucose content. Adult T cell lymphoma (ATL)-like cells were seen in the CSF. MRI showed no abnormal intensity in the spinal cord and brain. Two months later, she showed rapid worsening of the paraplegia and she became unable to stand. A tentative diagnosis of rapidly progressive HTLV-1 associated myelopathy (HAM) was given, but intravenous methylprednisolone was ineffective. Six months later, she developed pneumonia, and abundant ATL cells were seen in the peripheral blood, suggesting a diagnosis of ATL. Direct infiltration of ATL cells to central nervous system was therefore suggested to have caused neurological abnormalities in this case. One may consider central nervous system leukemia when rapidly progressive HAM-like symptoms and signs are recognized, especially without positive anti-HTLV-1 antibody in the CSF.

  14. Cytokine expression in the rat central nervous system following perinatal Borna disease virus infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sauder, C; de la Torre, J C

    1999-04-01

    Borna disease virus (BDV) causes central nervous system (CNS) disease in several vertebrate species, which is frequently accompanied by behavioral abnormalities. In the adult rat, intracerebral (i.c.) BDV infection leads to immunomediated meningoencephalitis. In contrast, i.c. infection of neonates causes a persistent infection in the absence of overt signs of brain inflammation. These rats (designated PTI-NB) display distinct behavioral and neurodevelopmental abnormalities. However, the molecular mechanisms for these virally induced CNS disturbances are unknown. Cytokines play an important role in CNS function, both under normal physiological and pathological conditions. Astrocytes and microglia are the primary resident cells of the central nervous system with the capacity to produce cytokines. Strong reactive astrocytosis is observed in the PTI-NB rat brain. We have used a ribonuclease protection assay to investigate the mRNA expression levels of proinflammatory cytokines in different brain regions of PTI-NB and control rats. We show here evidence of a chronic upregulation of proinflammatory cytokines interleukin-6, tumor necrosis factor alpha, interleukins-1alpha, and -1beta in the hippocampus and cerebellum of the PTI-NB rat brain. These brain regions exhibited only a very mild and transient immune infiltration. In contrast, in addition to reactive astrocytes, a strong and sustained microgliosis was observed in the PTI-NB rat brains. Our data suggest that CNS resident cells, namely astrocytes and microglia, are the major source of cytokine expression in the PTI-NB rat brain. The possible implications of these findings are discussed.

  15. Cytoplasmic dynein and its regulatory proteins in Golgi pathology in nervous system disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dick eJaarsma

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The Golgi apparatus is a dynamic organelle involved in processing and sorting of lipids and proteins. In neurons, the Golgi apparatus is important for the development of axons and dendrites and maintenance of their highly polarized morphology. The motor protein complex cytoplasmic dynein has an important role in Golgi apparatus positioning and function. Together with dynactin and other regulatory factors it drives microtubule minus-end directed motility of Golgi membranes. Inhibition of dynein results in fragmentation and dispersion of the Golgi ribbon in the neuronal cell body, resembling the Golgi abnormalities observed in some neurodegenerative disorders, in particular motor neuron diseases. Mutations in dynein and its regulatory factors, including the dynactin subunit p150Glued, BICD2 and Lis-1, are associated with several human nervous system disorders, including cortical malformation and motor neuropathy. Here we review the role of dynein and its regulatory factors in Golgi function and positioning, and the potential role of dynein malfunction in causing Golgi apparatus abnormalities in nervous system disorders.

  16. Relevance of Sympathetic Nervous System Activation in Obesity and Metabolic Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorp, Alicia A; Schlaich, Markus P

    2015-01-01

    Sympathetic tone is well recognised as being implicit in cardiovascular control. It is less readily acknowledged that activation of the sympathetic nervous system is integral in energy homeostasis and can exert profound metabolic effects. Accumulating data from animal and human studies suggest that central sympathetic overactivity plays a pivotal role in the aetiology and complications of several metabolic conditions that can cluster to form the Metabolic Syndrome (MetS). Given the known augmented risk for type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular disease, and premature mortality associated with the MetS understanding the complex pathways underlying the metabolic derangements involved has become a priority. Many factors have been proposed to contribute to increased sympathetic nerve activity in metabolic abnormalities including obesity, impaired baroreflex sensitivity, hyperinsulinemia, and elevated adipokine levels. Furthermore there is mounting evidence to suggest that chronic sympathetic overactivity can potentiate two of the key metabolic alterations of the MetS, central obesity and insulin resistance. This review will discuss the regulatory role of the sympathetic nervous system in metabolic control and the proposed pathophysiology linking sympathetic overactivity to metabolic abnormalities. Pharmacological and device-based approaches that target central sympathetic drive will also be discussed as possible therapeutic options to improve metabolic control in at-risk patient cohorts.

  17. Effects of rat cytomegalovirus on the nervous system of the early rat embryo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Xiuning; Guan, YingJun; Li, Fengjie; Li, Xutong; Wang, Xiaowen; Guan, Zhiyu; Sheng, Kai; Yu, Li; Liu, Zhijun

    2012-08-01

    The purpose of the study was to investigate the impact of rat cytomegalovirus (RCMV) infection on the development of the nervous system in rat embryos, and to evaluate the involvement of Wnt signaling pathway key molecules and the downstream gene neurogenin 1 (Ngn1) in RCMV infected neural stem cells (NSCs). Infection and control groups were established, each containing 20 pregnant Wistar rats. Rats in the infection group were inoculated with RCMV by intraperitoneal injection on the first day of pregnancy. Rat E20 embryos were taken to evaluate the teratogenic rate. NSCs were isolated from E13 embryos, and maintained in vitro. We found: 1) Poor fetal development was found in the infection group with low survival and high malformation rates. 2) The proliferation and differentiation of NSCs were affected. In the infection group, NSCs proliferated more slowly and had a lower neurosphere formation rate than the control. The differentiation ratio from NSCs to neurons and glial cells was significantly different from that of the control, showed by immunofluorescence staining. 3) Ngn1 mRNA expression and the nuclear β-catenin protein level were significantly lower than the control on day 2 when NSCs differentiated. 4) The Morris water maze test was performed on 4-week pups, and the infected rats were found worse in learning and memory ability. In a summary, RCMV infection caused abnormalities in the rat embryonic nervous system, significantly inhibited NSC proliferation and differentiation, and inhibited the expression of key molecules in the Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway so as to affect NSCs differentiation. This may be an important mechanism by which RCMV causes embryonic nervous system abnormalities.

  18. Effects of Rat Cytomegalovirus on the Nervous System of the Early Rat Embryo

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiuning Sun; YingJun Guan; Fengjie Li; Xutong Li; Xiaowen Wang; Zhiyu Guan; Kai Sheng; Li Yu; Zhijun Liu

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to investigate the impact of rat cytomegalovirus(RCMV) infection on the development of the nervous system in rat embryos,and to evaluate the involvement of Wnt signaling pathway key molecules and the downstream gene neurogenin 1(Ngn1) In RCMV infected neural stem cells(NSCs).Infection and control groups were established,each containing 20 pregnant Wistar rats.Rats in the infection group were inoculated with RCMV by intraperitoneal injection on the first day of pregnancy.Rat E20 embryos were taken to evaluate the teratogenic rate.NSCs were isolated from E13 embryos,and maintained in vitro.We found:1) Poor fetal development was found in the infection group with low survival and high malformation rates.2) The proliferation and differentiation of NSCs were affected.In the infection group,NSCs proliferated more slowly and had a lower neurosphere formation rate than the control.The differentiation ratio from NSCs to neurons and glial cells was significantly different from that of the control,showed by immunofluorescence staining.3) Ngn1 mRNA expression and the nuclear β-catenin protein level were significantly lower than the control on day 2 when NSCs differentiated.4) The Morris water maze test was performed on 4-week pups,and the infected rats were found worse in learning and memory ability.In a summary,RCMV infection caused abnormalities in the rat embryonic nervous system,significantly inhibited NSC proliferation and differentiation,and inhibited the expression of key molecules in the Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway so as to affect NSCs differentiation.This may be an important mechanism by which RCMV causes embryonic nervous system abnormalities.

  19. Involvement of central nervous system in the schistosomiasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teresa Cristina de Abreu Ferrari

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available The involvement of the central nervous system (CNS by schistosomes may or may not determine clinical manifestations. When symptomatic, neuroschistosomiasis (NS is one of the most severe presentations of schistosomal infection. Considering the symptomatic form, cerebral involvement is almost always due to Schistosoma japonicum and the spinal cord disease, caused by S. mansoni or S. haematobium. Available evidence suggests that NS depends basically on the presence of parasite eggs in the nervous tissue and on the host immune response. The patients with cerebral NS usually have the clinical manifestations of increased intracranial pressure associated with focal neurological signs; and those with schistosomal myeloradiculopathy (SMR present rapidly progressing symptoms of myelitis involving the lower cord, usually in association with the involvement of the cauda esquina roots. The diagnosis of cerebral NS is established by biopsy of the nervous tissue and SMR is usually diagnosed according to a clinical criterion. Antischistosomal drugs, corticosteroids and surgery are the resourses available for treating NS. The outcome is variable and is better in cerebral disease.

  20. 75 FR 75681 - Peripheral and Central Nervous System Drugs Advisory Committee; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-06

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Peripheral and Central Nervous System Drugs Advisory...). The meeting will be open to the public. Name of Committee: Peripheral and Central Nervous System Drugs... and circulation) of the central nervous system. The BBB is an area consisting of specialized cells...

  1. A history of the autonomic nervous system: part II: from Reil to the modern era.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oakes, Peter C; Fisahn, Christian; Iwanaga, Joe; DiLorenzo, Daniel; Oskouian, Rod J; Tubbs, R Shane

    2016-12-01

    The history of the study of the autonomic nervous system is rich. At the beginning of the nineteenth century, scientists were beginning to more firmly grasp the reality of this part of the human nervous system. The evolution of our understanding of the autonomic nervous system has a rich history. Our current understanding is based on centuries of research and trial and error.

  2. Central nervous system frontiers for the use of erythropoietin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Niels Vidiendal

    2003-01-01

    Recombinant human erythropoietin (r-HuEPO; epoetin alfa) is well established as safe and effective for the treatment of anemia. In addition to the erythropoietic effects of endogenous erythropoietin (EPO), recent evidence suggests that it may elicit a neuroprotective effect in the central nervous...... system (CNS). Preclinical studies have demonstrated the presence of EPO receptors in the brain that are up-regulated under hypoxic or ischemic conditions. Intracerebral and systemic administration of epoetin alfa have been demonstrated to elicit marked neuroprotective effects in multiple preclinical...

  3. Regulation of autonomic nervous system in space and magnetic storms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baevsky, R. M.; Petrov, V. M.; Chernikova, A. G.

    Variations in the earth's magnetic field and magnetic storms are known to be a risk factor for the development of cardiovascular disorders. The main ``targets'' for geomagnetic perturbations are the central nervous system and the neural regulation of vascular tone and heart rate variability. This paper presents the data about effect of geomagnetic fluctuations on human body in space. As a method for research the analysis of heart rate variability was used, which allows evaluating the state of the sympathetic and parasympathetic parts of the autonomic nervous system, vasomotor center and subcortical neural centers activity. Heart rate variability data were analyzed for 30 cosmonauts at the 2-nd day of space flight on transport spaceship Soyuz (32nd orbit). There were formed three groups of cosmonauts: without magnetic storm (n=9), on a day with magnetic storm (n=12) and 1-2 days after magnetic storm (n=9). The present study was the first to demonstrate a specific impact of geomagnetic perturbations on the system of autonomic circulatory control in cosmonauts during space flight. The increasing of highest nervous centers activity was shown for group with magnetic storms, which was more significant on 1-2 days after magnetic storm. The use of discriminate analysis allowed to classify indicated three groups with 88 % precision. Canonical variables are suggested to be used as criterions for evaluation of specific and non-specific components of cardiovascular reactions to geomagnetic perturbations. The applied aspect of the findings from the present study should be emphasized. They show, in particular, the need to supplement the medical monitoring of cosmonauts with predictions of probable geomagnetic perturbations in view of the prevention of unfavorable states appearances if the adverse reactions to geomagnetic perturbations are added to the tension experienced by regulatory systems during various stresses situations (such as work in the open space).

  4. The adverse effects of air pollution on the nervous system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genc, Sermin; Zadeoglulari, Zeynep; Fuss, Stefan H; Genc, Kursad

    2012-01-01

    Exposure to ambient air pollution is a serious and common public health concern associated with growing morbidity and mortality worldwide. In the last decades, the adverse effects of air pollution on the pulmonary and cardiovascular systems have been well established in a series of major epidemiological and observational studies. In the recent past, air pollution has also been associated with diseases of the central nervous system (CNS), including stroke, Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, and neurodevelopmental disorders. It has been demonstrated that various components of air pollution, such as nanosized particles, can easily translocate to the CNS where they can activate innate immune responses. Furthermore, systemic inflammation arising from the pulmonary or cardiovascular system can affect CNS health. Despite intense studies on the health effects of ambient air pollution, the underlying molecular mechanisms of susceptibility and disease remain largely elusive. However, emerging evidence suggests that air pollution-induced neuroinflammation, oxidative stress, microglial activation, cerebrovascular dysfunction, and alterations in the blood-brain barrier contribute to CNS pathology. A better understanding of the mediators and mechanisms will enable the development of new strategies to protect individuals at risk and to reduce detrimental effects of air pollution on the nervous system and mental health.

  5. The Adverse Effects of Air Pollution on the Nervous System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sermin Genc

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Exposure to ambient air pollution is a serious and common public health concern associated with growing morbidity and mortality worldwide. In the last decades, the adverse effects of air pollution on the pulmonary and cardiovascular systems have been well established in a series of major epidemiological and observational studies. In the recent past, air pollution has also been associated with diseases of the central nervous system (CNS, including stroke, Alzheimer’s disease, Parkinson’s disease, and neurodevelopmental disorders. It has been demonstrated that various components of air pollution, such as nanosized particles, can easily translocate to the CNS where they can activate innate immune responses. Furthermore, systemic inflammation arising from the pulmonary or cardiovascular system can affect CNS health. Despite intense studies on the health effects of ambient air pollution, the underlying molecular mechanisms of susceptibility and disease remain largely elusive. However, emerging evidence suggests that air pollution-induced neuroinflammation, oxidative stress, microglial activation, cerebrovascular dysfunction, and alterations in the blood-brain barrier contribute to CNS pathology. A better understanding of the mediators and mechanisms will enable the development of new strategies to protect individuals at risk and to reduce detrimental effects of air pollution on the nervous system and mental health.

  6. Autonomic Nervous System Responses to Concussion: Arterial Pulse Contour Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael F La Fountaine

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The arterial pulse wave (APW has a distinct morphology whose contours reflect dynamics in cardiac function and peripheral vascular tone as a result of sympathetic nervous system (SNS control. With a transition from rest to increased metabolic demand, the expected augmentation of SNS outflow will not only affect arterial blood pressure and heart rate, it will also induce changes to the contours of the APW. Following a sports concussion, a transient state cardiovascular autonomic dysfunction is present. How this state affects the APW, has yet to be described. A prospective, parallel-group study on cardiovascular autonomic control (i.e., digital electrocardiogram and continuous beat-to-beat blood pressure was performed in the seated upright position in ten athletes with concussion and 7 non-injured control athletes. Changes in APW were compared at rest and during the first 60 seconds (F60 of an isometric handgrip test (IHGT in concussed athletes and non-injured controls within 48 hours (48hr and 1 week (1wk of injury. The concussion group was further separated by the length of time until they were permitted to return to play (RTP>1wk; RTP≤1wk. SysSlope, an indirect measurement of stroke volume, was significantly lower in the concussion group at rest and during F60 at 48hr and 1wk; a paradoxical decline in SysSlope occurred at each visit during the transition from rest to IHGT F60. The RTP>1wk group had lower SysSlope (405±200; 420±88; 454±236 mmHg/s, respectively at rest 48hr compared to the RTP≤1wk and controls. Similarly at 48hr rest, several measurements of arterial stiffness were abnormal in RTP>1wk compared to RTP≤1wk and controls: Peak-to-Notch Latency (0.12±0.04; 0.16±0.02; 0.17±0.05, respectively, Notch Relative Amplitude (0.70±0.03; 0.71±0.04; 0.66±0.14, respectively and Stiffness Index (6.4±0.2; 5.7±0.4; 5.8±0.5, respectively. Use of APW revealed that concussed athletes have a transient increase in peripheral artery

  7. Zeb2: A multifunctional regulator of nervous system development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hegarty, Shane V; Sullivan, Aideen M; O'Keeffe, Gerard W

    2015-09-01

    Zinc finger E-box binding homeobox (Zeb) 2 is a transcription factor, identified due its ability to bind Smad proteins, and consists of multiple functional domains which interact with a variety of transcriptional co-effectors. The complex nature of the Zeb2, both at its genetic and protein levels, underlie its multifunctional properties, with Zeb2 capable of acting individually or as part of a transcriptional complex to repress, and occasionally activate, target gene expression. This review introduces Zeb2 as an essential regulator of nervous system development. Zeb2 is expressed in the nervous system throughout its development, indicating its importance in neurogenic and gliogenic processes. Indeed, mutation of Zeb2 has dramatic neurological consequences both in animal models, and in humans with Mowat-Wilson syndrome, which results from heterozygous ZEB2 mutations. The mechanisms by which Zeb2 regulates the induction of the neuroectoderm (CNS primordium) and the neural crest (PNS primordium) are reviewed herein. We then describe how Zeb2 acts to direct the formation, delamination, migration and specification of neural crest cells. Zeb2 regulation of the development of a number of cerebral regions, including the neocortex and hippocampus, are then described. The diverse molecular mechanisms mediating Zeb2-directed development of various neuronal and glial populations are reviewed. The role of Zeb2 in spinal cord and enteric nervous system development is outlined, while its essential function in CNS myelination is also described. Finally, this review discusses how the neurodevelopmental defects of Zeb2 mutant mice delineate the developmental dysfunctions underpinning the multiple neurological defects observed in Mowat-Wilson syndrome patients.

  8. Applications of Nanotechnology to the Central Nervous System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blumling, James P., II

    Nanotechnology and nanomaterials, in general, have become prominent areas of academic research. The ability to engineer at the nano scale is critical to the advancement of the physical and medical sciences. In the realm of physical sciences, the applications are clear: smaller circuitry, more powerful computers, higher resolution intruments. However, the potential impact in the fields of biology and medicine are perhaps even grander. The implementation of novel nanodevices is of paramount importance to the advancement of drug delivery, molecular detection, and cellular manipulation. The work presented in this thesis focuses on the development of nanotechnology for applications in neuroscience. The nervous system provides unique challenges and opportunities for nanoscale research. This thesis discusses some background in nanotechnological applications to the central nervous system and details: (1) The development of a novel calcium nanosenser for use in neurons and astrocytes. We implemented the calcium responsive component of Dr. Roger Tsien's Cameleon sensor, a calmodulin-M13 fusion, in the first quantum dot-based calcium sensor. (2) The exploration of cell-penetrating peptides as a delivery mechanism for nanoparticles to cells of the nervous system. We investigated the application of polyarginine sequences to rat primary cortical astrocytes in order to assess their efficacy in a terminally differentiated neural cell line. (3) The development of a cheap, biocompatible alternative to quantum dots for nanosensor and imaging applications. We utilized a positively charged co-matrix to promote the encapsulation of free sulforhodamine B in silica nanoparticles, a departure from conventional reactive dye coupling to silica matrices. While other methods have been invoked to trap dye not directly coupled to silica, they rely on positively charged dyes that typically have a low quantum yield and are not extensively tested biologically, or they implement reactive dyes bound

  9. Hypopituitarism as unusual sequelae to central nervous system tuberculosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Mageshkumar

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Neurological tuberculosis can very rarely involve the hypophysis cerebri. We report a case of an eighteen year old female who presented with five months duration of generalised apathy, secondary amenorrhea and weight gain. She was on irregular treatment for tuberculosis of the central nervous system for the last five months. Neuroimaging revealed sellar and suprasellar tuberculomas and communicating hydrocephalus requiring emergency decompression. Endocrinological investigation showed hypopituitarism manifesting as pituitary hypothyroidism, hypocortisolism, hypogonadotropic hypogonadism, and hyperprolactinemia. Restarting anti-tuberculosis treatment, hormone replacement therapy, and a ventriculo-peritoneal shunt surgery led to remarkable improvement in the general condition of the patient.

  10. Neuroactive steroids and the peripheral nervous system: An update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giatti, Silvia; Romano, Simone; Pesaresi, Marzia; Cermenati, Gaia; Mitro, Nico; Caruso, Donatella; Tetel, Marc J; Garcia-Segura, Luis Miguel; Melcangi, Roberto C

    2015-11-01

    In the present review we summarize observations to date supporting the concept that neuroactive steroids are synthesized in the peripheral nervous system, regulate the physiology of peripheral nerves and exert notable neuroprotective actions. Indeed, neuroactive steroids have been recently proposed as therapies for different types of peripheral neuropathy, like for instance those occurring during aging, chemotherapy, physical injury and diabetes. Moreover, pharmacological tools able to increase the synthesis of neuroactive steroids might represent new interesting therapeutic strategy to be applied in case of peripheral neuropathy.

  11. Masquerade Syndrome of Multicentre Primary Central Nervous System Lymphoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvana Guerriero

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. In Italy we say that the most unlucky things can happen to physicians when they get sick, despite the attention of colleagues. To confirm this rumor, we report the sad story of a surgeon with bilateral vitreitis and glaucoma unresponsive to traditional therapies. Methods/Design. Case report. Results. After one year of steroidal and immunosuppressive therapy, a vitrectomy, and a trabeculectomy for unresponsive bilateral vitreitis and glaucoma, MRI showed a multicentre primary central nervous system lymphoma, which was the underlying cause of the masquerade syndrome. Conclusions. All ophthalmologists and clinicians must be aware of masquerade syndromes, in order to avoid delays in diagnosis.

  12. Peripheral nervous system involvement in patients with diabetes mellitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. R. Kamchatnov

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Diabetes mellitus is a widespread disease often affecting peripheral nervous system. This include diabetic autonomous neuropathy that can endanger the patient's life. Timely detection of complications of diabetes mellitus as well as its adequate therapy can improve prognosis of the disease. The possibilities of Milgamma and Tiogamma for pathogenic therapy in patients with diabetic polyneuropathy are considered in this paper. Gabagamma can be effectively relieve neuropathic pain and used together with other drugs that normalize nerve tissue metabolism.

  13. [Congenital anomalies of the central nervous system in autopsy specimens].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobaniec-Lotowska, M; Ostapiuk, H; Sulkowski, S; Sobaniec, W; Sulik, M; Famulski, W

    1989-02-01

    On the basis of an analysis of 2398 autopsies of infants aged up to 1 year in 194 cases congenital anomalies of the central nervous system were found (8.1%). Most cases of these anomalies were noted in the group of newborns (85%) and the most frequent anomalies were: myelomeningocele (35.6%), multiple anomalies (20.1%), congenital hydrocephalus (17%), anencephaly (14.4%) and corpus callosum malformations (3.6%). Myelomeningocele, congenital hydrocephalus, anencephaly and true microcephaly were more frequent in girls, while multiple anomalies and corpus callosum malformations were more frequent in boys.

  14. Area 51: How do Acanthamoeba invade the central nervous system?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siddiqui, Ruqaiyyah; Emes, Richard; Elsheikha, Hany; Khan, Naveed Ahmed

    2011-05-01

    Acanthamoeba granulomatous encephalitis generally develops as a result of haematogenous spread, but it is unclear how circulating amoebae enter the central nervous system (CNS) and cause inflammation. At present, the mechanisms which Acanthamoeba use to invade this incredibly well-protected area of the CNS and produce infection are not well understood. In this paper, we propose two key virulence factors: mannose-binding protein and extracellular serine proteases as key players in Acanthamoeba traversal of the blood-brain barrier leading to neuronal injury. Both molecules should provide excellent opportunities as potential targets in the rational development of therapeutic interventions against Acanthamoeba encephalitis.

  15. Cerebrospinal fluid scintigraphy in traumas to the nervous system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nikolov, P. (Meditsinska Akademiya, Sofia (Bulgaria). Nauchen Inst. po Rentgenologiya i Radiobiologiya)

    1983-01-01

    The results of cerebrospinal fluid scintigraphy in 48 patients who had undergone trauma to the nervous system were studied. This method has gained rather insufficient acceptance in the diagnosis of this disease, in fact, it was helpful in detecting a high percentage of pathologic changes (80 per cent). Their type and localization structure was as follows: Narrowing of the spinal CSF space in 25 patients and 1 suspective; encephalonasal fistula - 3 patients; blockade of the lateral pathway of the CSF to the brain convexity - 4 patients; pathologic CSF circulation; dilatation of the convex brain cysterns with disturbances at the resorption site - 3 patients; combined spino-encephalic lesion - 1 patient.

  16. FMRFamide-like immunoreactivity in the nervous system of Hydra

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grimmelikhuijzen, C J; Dockray, G J; Schot, L P

    1982-01-01

    FMRFamide-like immunoreactivity has been localized in different parts of the hydra nervous system. Immunoreactivity occurs in nerve perikarya and processes in the ectoderm of the lower peduncle region near the basal disk, in the ectoderm of the hypostome and in the ectoderm of the tentacles....... The immunoreactive nerve perikarya in the lower peduncle region form ganglion-like structures. Radioimmunoassays of extracts of hydra gave displacement curves parallel to standard FMRFamide and values of at least 8 pmol/gram wet weight of FMRFamide-like immunoreactivity. The immunoreactive material eluted from...

  17. Nonviral Gene Therapy of the Nervous System: Electroporation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Xue-Feng; Fan, Ming

    2016-01-01

    Electroporation has been widely used to efficiently transfer foreign genes into the mammalian central nervous system (CNS), and thus plays an important role in gene therapeutic studies on some brain disorders. A lot of work concerning electroporation is focused on gene transfer into rodent brains. This technique involves an injection of nucleic acids into the brain ventricle or specific area and then applying appropriate electrical field to the injected area. Here, we briefly introduced the advantages and the basic procedures of gene transfer into the rodent brain using electroporation. Better understanding of electroporation in rodent brain may further facilitate gene therapeutic studies on brain disorders.

  18. Interactions between taurine and ethanol in the central nervous system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olive, M F

    2002-01-01

    This purpose of this review will be to summarize the interactions between the endogenous amino acid taurine and ethyl alcohol (ethanol) in the central nervous system (CNS). Taurine is one of the most abundant amino acids in the CNS and plays an integral role in physiological processes such as osmoregulation, neuroprotection and neuromodulation. Both taurine and ethanol exert positive allosteric modulatory effects on neuronal ligand-gated chloride channels (i.e., GABA(A) and glycine receptors) as well as inhibitory effects on other ligand- and voltage-gated cation channels (i.e., NMDA and Ca(2+) channels). Behavioral evidence suggests that taurine can alter the locomotor stimulatory, sedating, and motivational effects of ethanol in a strongly dose-dependent manner. Microdialysis studies have revealed that ethanol elevates extracellular levels of taurine in numerous brain regions, although the functional consequences of this phenomenon are currently unknown. Finally, taurine and several related molecules including the homotaurine derivative acamprosate (calcium acetylhomotaurinate) can reduce ethanol self-administration and relapse to drinking in both animals and humans. Taken together, these data suggest that the endogenous taurine system may be an important modulator of effects of ethanol on the nervous system, and may represent a novel therapeutic avenue for the development of medications to treat alcohol abuse and alcoholism.

  19. Ion channels as drug targets in central nervous system disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waszkielewicz, A M; Gunia, A; Szkaradek, N; Słoczyńska, K; Krupińska, S; Marona, H

    2013-01-01

    Ion channel targeted drugs have always been related with either the central nervous system (CNS), the peripheral nervous system, or the cardiovascular system. Within the CNS, basic indications of drugs are: sleep disorders, anxiety, epilepsy, pain, etc. However, traditional channel blockers have multiple adverse events, mainly due to low specificity of mechanism of action. Lately, novel ion channel subtypes have been discovered, which gives premises to drug discovery process led towards specific channel subtypes. An example is Na(+) channels, whose subtypes 1.3 and 1.7-1.9 are responsible for pain, and 1.1 and 1.2 - for epilepsy. Moreover, new drug candidates have been recognized. This review is focusing on ion channels subtypes, which play a significant role in current drug discovery and development process. The knowledge on channel subtypes has developed rapidly, giving new nomenclatures of ion channels. For example, Ca(2+)s channels are not any more divided to T, L, N, P/Q, and R, but they are described as Ca(v)1.1-Ca(v)3.3, with even newer nomenclature α1A-α1I and α1S. Moreover, new channels such as P2X1-P2X7, as well as TRPA1-TRPV1 have been discovered, giving premises for new types of analgesic drugs.

  20. Is Empiricism Empirically False? Lessons from Early Nervous Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miłkowski, Marcin

    2017-01-01

    Recent work on skin-brain thesis (de Wiljes et al. 2015; Keijzer 2015; Keijzer et al. 2013) suggests the possibility of empirical evidence that empiricism is false. It implies that early animals need no traditional sensory receptors to be engaged in cognitive activity. The neural structure required to coordinate extensive sheets of contractile tissue for motility provides the starting point for a new multicellular organized form of sensing. Moving a body by muscle contraction provides the basis for a multicellular organization that is sensitive to external surface structure at the scale of the animal body. In other words, the nervous system first evolved for action, not for receiving sensory input. Thus, sensory input is not required for minimal cognition; only action is. The whole body of an organism, in particular its highly specific animal sensorimotor organization, reflects the bodily and environmental spatiotemporal structure. The skin-brain thesis suggests that, in contrast to empiricist claims that cognition is constituted by sensory systems, cognition may be also constituted by action-oriented feedback mechanisms. Instead of positing the reflex arc as the elementary building block of nervous systems, it proposes that endogenous motor activity is crucial for cognitive processes. In the paper, I discuss the issue whether the skin-brain thesis and its supporting evidence can be really used to overthrow the main tenet of empiricism empirically, by pointing out to cognizing agents that fail to have any sensory apparatus.

  1. The effect of octopamine on the locust stomatogastric nervous system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David eRand

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Octopamine (OA is a prominent neuromodulator of invertebrate nervous systems, 33 influencing multiple physiological processes. Among its many roles in insects are the 34 initiation and maintenance of various rhythmic behaviors. Here, the neuromodulatory 35 effects of OA on the components of the locust stomatogastric nervous system (STNS 36 were studied, and one putative source of OA modulation of the system was identified. 37 Bath application of OA was found to abolish the endogenous rhythmic output of the 38 fully isolated frontal ganglion (FG, while stimulating motor activity of the fully 39 isolated hypocerebral ganglion (HG. OA also induced rhythmic movements in a 40 foregut preparation with intact HG innervation. Complex dose-dependent effects of 41 OA on interconnected FG-HG preparations were seen: 10-5M OA accelerated the 42 rhythmic activity of both the HG and FG in a synchronized manner, while 10-4M OA 43 decreased both rhythms. Intracellular stimulation of an identified octopaminergic 44 dorsal unpaired median (DUM neuron in the subesophageal ganglion (SEG was 45 found to exert a similar effect on the FG motor output as that of OA application. Our 46 findings suggest a mechanism of regulation of insect gut patterns and feeding-related 47 behavior during stress and times of high energy demand.

  2. Central- and autonomic nervous system coupling in schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulz, Steffen; Bolz, Mathias; Bär, Karl-Jürgen; Voss, Andreas

    2016-05-13

    The autonomic nervous system (ANS) dysfunction has been well described in schizophrenia (SZ), a severe mental disorder. Nevertheless, the coupling between the ANS and central brain activity has been not addressed until now in SZ. The interactions between the central nervous system (CNS) and ANS need to be considered as a feedback-feed-forward system that supports flexible and adaptive responses to specific demands. For the first time, to the best of our knowledge, this study investigates central-autonomic couplings (CAC) studying heart rate, blood pressure and electroencephalogram in paranoid schizophrenic patients, comparing them with age-gender-matched healthy subjects (CO). The emphasis is to determine how these couplings are composed by the different regulatory aspects of the CNS-ANS. We found that CAC were bidirectional, and that the causal influence of central activity towards systolic blood pressure was more strongly pronounced than such causal influence towards heart rate in paranoid schizophrenic patients when compared with CO. In paranoid schizophrenic patients, the central activity was a much stronger variable, being more random and having fewer rhythmic oscillatory components. This study provides a more in-depth understanding of the interplay of neuronal and autonomic regulatory processes in SZ and most likely greater insights into the complex relationship between psychotic stages and autonomic activity.

  3. Chemokines and their receptors in central nervous system disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biber, Knut; de Jong, Eiko K; van Weering, Hilmar R J; Boddeke, Hendrikus W G M

    2006-01-01

    Almost a decade ago, it was discovered that the human deficiency virus (HIV) makes use of chemokine receptors to infect blood cells. This appreciation of the clinical relevance of specific chemokine receptors has initiated a considerable boost in the field of chemokine research. It is clear today that chemokine signaling orchestrates the immune system and is widely involved in both physiological and pathophysiological processes. Since the chemokine system offers various targets through which pathology could be influenced, most pharmaceutical companies have chosen this system as a therapeutic target for a variety of diseases. Here recent developments concerning the role of chemokines in diseases of the central nervous system (CNS) as well as their possible therapeutic relevance are discussed.

  4. Nerve Regeneration in the Peripheral Nervous System versus the Central Nervous System and the Relevance to Speech and Hearing after Nerve Injuries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, Tessa; Gordon, Karen

    2010-01-01

    Schwann cells normally form myelin sheaths around axons in the peripheral nervous system (PNS) and support nerve regeneration after nerve injury. In contrast, nerve regeneration in the central nervous system (CNS) is not supported by the myelinating cells known as oligodendrocytes. We have found that: 1) low frequency electrical stimulation can be…

  5. Nerve Regeneration in the Peripheral Nervous System versus the Central Nervous System and the Relevance to Speech and Hearing after Nerve Injuries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, Tessa; Gordon, Karen

    2010-01-01

    Schwann cells normally form myelin sheaths around axons in the peripheral nervous system (PNS) and support nerve regeneration after nerve injury. In contrast, nerve regeneration in the central nervous system (CNS) is not supported by the myelinating cells known as oligodendrocytes. We have found that: 1) low frequency electrical stimulation can be…

  6. Signaling mechanisms regulating myelination in the central nervous system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jared T.Ahrendsen; Wendy Macklin

    2013-01-01

    The precise and coordinated production of myelin is essential for proper development and function of the nervous system.Diseases that disrupt myelin,including multiple sclerosis,cause significant functional disability.Current treatment aims to reduce the inflammatory component of the disease,thereby preventing damage resulting from demyelination.However,therapies are not yet available to improve natural repair processes after damage has already occurred.A thorough understanding of the signaling mechanisms that regulate myelin generation will improve our ability to enhance repair.In this review,we summarize the positive and negative regulators of myelination,focusing primarily on central nervous system myelination.Axon-derived signals,extracellular signals from both diffusible factors and the extracellular matrix,and intracellular signaling pathways within myelinating oligodendrocytes are discussed.Much is known about the positive regulators that drive myelination,while less is known about the negative regulators that shift active myelination to myelin maintenance at the appropriate time.Therefore,we also provide new data on potential negative regulators of CNS myelination.

  7. [Components of plastic disrupt the function of the nervous system].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szychowski, Konrad Andrzej; Wójtowicz, Anna Katarzyna

    2013-05-27

    Development of the chemical industry leads to the development of new chemical compounds, which naturally do not exist in the environment. These chemicals are used to reduce flammability, increase plasticity, or improve solubility of other substances. Many of these compounds, which are components of plastic, the new generation of cosmetics, medical devices, food packaging and other everyday products, are easily released into the environment. Many studies have shown that a major lipophilicity characterizes substances such as phthalates, BPA, TBBPA and PCBs. This feature allows them to easily penetrate into living cells, accumulate in the tissues and the organs, and affect human and animal health. Due to the chemical structures, these compounds are able to mimic some endogenous hormones such as estradiol and to disrupt the hormone homeostasis. They can also easily pass the placental barrier and the blood-brain barrier. As numerous studies have shown, these chemicals disturb the proper functions of the nervous system from the earliest moments of life. It has been proven that these compounds affect neurogenesis as well as the synaptic transmission process. As a consequence, they interfere with the formation of the sex of the brain, as well as with the learning processes, memory and behavior. Additionally, the cytotoxic and pro-apoptotic effect may cause neurodegenerative diseases. This article presents the current state of knowledge about the effects of phthalates, BPA, TBBPA, and PCBs on the nervous system.

  8. Histone methylation in the nervous system: functions and dysfunctions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pattaroni, Céline; Jacob, Claire

    2013-04-01

    Chromatin remodeling is a key epigenetic process controlling the regulation of gene transcription. Local changes of chromatin architecture can be achieved by post-translational modifications of histones such as methylation, acetylation, phosphorylation, ubiquitination, sumoylation, and ADP-ribosylation. These changes are dynamic and allow for rapid repression or de-repression of specific target genes. Chromatin remodeling enzymes are largely involved in the control of cellular differentiation, and loss or gain of function is often correlated with pathological events. For these reasons, research on chromatin remodeling enzymes is currently very active and rapidly expanding, these enzymes representing very promising targets for the design of novel therapeutics in different areas of medicine including oncology and neurology. In this review, we focus on histone methylation in the nervous system. We provide an overview on mammalian histone methyltransferases and demethylases and their mechanisms of action, and we discuss their roles in the development of the nervous system and their involvement in neurodevelopmental, neurodegenerative, and behavioral disorders.

  9. Involvement of the autonomic nervous system in Chagas heart disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edison Reis Lopes

    1983-12-01

    Full Text Available The autonomic nervous system and especially the intracardiac autonomic nervous system is involved in Chagas' disease. Ganglionitis and periganglionitis were noted in three groups ofpatients dying with Chagas'disease: 1 Those in heart failure; 2 Those dying a sudden, non violent death and; 3 Those dying as a consequence ofaccidents or homicide. Hearts in the threegroups also revealed myocarditis and scattered involvement of intramyocardial ganglion cells as well as lesions of myelinic and unmyelinic fibers ascribable to Chagas'disease. In mice with experimentally induced Chagas' disease weobserved more intensive neuronal lesions of the cardiac ganglia in the acute phase of infection. Perhaps neuronal loss has a role in the pathogenesis of Chagas cardiomyopathy. However based on our own experience and on other data from the literature we conclude that the loss of neurones is not the main factor responsible for the manifestations exhibited by chronic chagasic patients. On the other hand the neuronal lesions may have played a role in the sudden death ofone group of patients with Chagas'disease but is difficult to explain the group of patients who did not die sudderly but instead progressed to cardiac failure.

  10. Evaluating the autonomic nervous system in patients with laryngopharyngeal reflux.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Wan-Ju; Shu, Chih-Hung; Chou, Kun-Ta; Wang, Yi-Fen; Hsu, Yen-Bin; Ho, Ching-Yin; Lan, Ming-Ying

    2013-06-01

    The pathogenesis of laryngopharyngeal reflux (LPR) remains unclear. It is linked to but distinct from gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD), which has been shown to be related to disturbed autonomic regulation. The aim of this study is to investigate whether autonomic dysfunction also plays a role in the pathogenesis of LPR. Case-control study. Tertiary care center. Seventeen patients with LPR and 19 healthy controls, aged between 19 and 50 years, were enrolled in the study. The patients were diagnosed with LPR if they had a reflux symptom index (RSI) ≥ 13 and a reflux finding score (RFS) ≥ 7. Spectral analysis of heart rate variability (HRV) analysis was used to assess autonomic function. Anxiety and depression levels measured by the Beck Anxiety Inventory (BAI) and Beck Depression Inventory II (BDI-II) were also conducted. In HRV analysis, high frequency (HF) represents the parasympathetic activity of the autonomic nervous system, whereas low frequency (LF) represents the total autonomic activity. There were no significant differences in the LF power and HF power between the 2 groups. However, significantly lower HF% (P = .003) and a higher LF/HF ratio (P = .012) were found in patients with LPR, who demonstrated poor autonomic modulation and higher sympathetic activity. Anxiety was also frequently observed in the patient group. The study suggests that autonomic dysfunction seems to be involved in the pathogenesis of LPR. The potential beneficial effect of autonomic nervous system modulation as a therapeutic modality for LPR merits further investigation.

  11. Engineering Biomaterial Properties for Central Nervous System Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivet, Christopher John

    Biomaterials offer unique properties that are intrinsic to the chemistry of the material itself or occur as a result of the fabrication process; iron oxide nanoparticles are superparamagnetic, which enables controlled heating in the presence of an alternating magnetic field, and a hydrogel and electrospun fiber hybrid material provides minimally invasive placement of a fibrous, artificial extracellular matrix for tissue regeneration. Utilization of these unique properties towards central nervous system disease and dysfunction requires a thorough definition of the properties in concert with full biological assessment. This enables development of material-specific features to elicit unique cellular responses. Iron oxide nanoparticles are first investigated for material-dependent, cortical neuron cytotoxicity in vitro and subsequently evaluated for alternating magnetic field stimulation induced hyperthermia, emulating the clinical application for enhanced chemotherapy efficacy in glioblastoma treatment. A hydrogel and electrospun fiber hybrid material is first applied to a rat brain to evaluate biomaterial interface astrocyte accumulation as a function of hybrid material composition. The hybrid material is then utilized towards increasing functional engraftment of dopaminergic progenitor neural stem cells in a mouse model of Parkinson's disease. Taken together, these two scenarios display the role of material property characterization in development of biomaterial strategies for central nervous system repair and regeneration.

  12. A Rare Case of Central Nervous System Tuberculosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ravish Parekh

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Intracranial abscess is an extremely rare form of central nervous system (CNS tuberculosis (TB. We describe a case of central nervous system tuberculous abscess in absence of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV infection. A 82-year-old Middle Eastern male from Yemen was initially brought to the emergency room due to altered mental status and acute renal failure. Cross-sectional imaging revealed multiple ring enhancing lesions located in the left cerebellum and in bilateral frontal lobe as well as in the inferior parietal lobe on the left. The patient was placed on an empiric antibiotic regimen. Preliminary testing for infectious causes was negative. Chest radiography and CT of chest showed no positive findings. He was not on any immunosuppressive medications and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV enzyme immunoassay (EIA test was negative. A subsequent MRI one month later showed profound worsening of the lesions with increasing vasogenic edema and newly found mass effect impinging on the fourth ventricle. Brain biopsy showed focal exudative cerebellitis and inflamed granulation tissue consistent with formation of abscesses. The diagnosis of CNS TB was finally confirmed by positive acid-fast bacilli (AFB cultures. The patient was started on standard tuberculosis therapy but expired due to renal failure and cardiac arrest.

  13. Role of the autonomic nervous system in modulating cardiac arrhythmias.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Mark J; Zipes, Douglas P

    2014-03-14

    The autonomic nervous system plays an important role in the modulation of cardiac electrophysiology and arrhythmogenesis. Decades of research has contributed to a better understanding of the anatomy and physiology of cardiac autonomic nervous system and provided evidence supporting the relationship of autonomic tone to clinically significant arrhythmias. The mechanisms by which autonomic activation is arrhythmogenic or antiarrhythmic are complex and different for specific arrhythmias. In atrial fibrillation, simultaneous sympathetic and parasympathetic activations are the most common trigger. In contrast, in ventricular fibrillation in the setting of cardiac ischemia, sympathetic activation is proarrhythmic, whereas parasympathetic activation is antiarrhythmic. In inherited arrhythmia syndromes, sympathetic stimulation precipitates ventricular tachyarrhythmias and sudden cardiac death except in Brugada and J-wave syndromes where it can prevent them. The identification of specific autonomic triggers in different arrhythmias has brought the idea of modulating autonomic activities for both preventing and treating these arrhythmias. This has been achieved by either neural ablation or stimulation. Neural modulation as a treatment for arrhythmias has been well established in certain diseases, such as long QT syndrome. However, in most other arrhythmia diseases, it is still an emerging modality and under investigation. Recent preliminary trials have yielded encouraging results. Further larger-scale clinical studies are necessary before widespread application can be recommended.

  14. Genetic perspectives on the ascidian central nervous system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Locascio

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available In 2002, date of publication of the Ciona intestinalis genome, ascidians entered the post-genomic era. This tool had a fundamental role and has become the starting point for a series of new functional and genomic studies. Recently, great efforts have been done to characterize the genetic cascades of genes having a key role in early embryonic development and to draw the regulatory networks in which they are involved. In this review, we focused our attention on the last advances obtained in the attempt to clarify the complex molecular events governing ascidian central nervous system development with a special interest for anterior neural and sensory structures. We discussed the more recent theories on its early induction and late regionalization. In particular, we used some conserved genes fully or partially characterized as examples to compare ascidian and vertebrate central nervous system (CNS.By integrating the various results obtained with microarray, morpholino loss of function and promoter analyses, we showed that many progresses have been done to unravel the gene networks controlling early CNS induction and formation. Unfortunately, fewer advances have been done in the identification of the regulatory cascades controlling late CNS regionalization and sensory organs differentiation. Some results are discussed to point out the importance of fully characterizing also these specific regulatory cascades.

  15. Radiobiology of Radiosurgery for the Central Nervous System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Santacroce

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available According to Leksell radiosurgery is defined as “the delivery of a single, high dose of irradiation to a small and critically located intracranial volume through the intact skull.” Before its birth in the early 60s and its introduction in clinical therapeutic protocols in late the 80s dose application in radiation therapy of the brain for benign and malignant lesions was based on the administration of cumulative dose into a variable number of fractions. The rationale of dose fractionation is to lessen the risk of injury of normal tissue surrounding the target volume. Radiobiological studies of cell culture lines of malignant tumors and clinical experience with patients treated with conventional fractionated radiotherapy helped establishing this radiobiological principle. Radiosurgery provides a single high dose of radiation which translates into a specific toxic radiobiological response. Radiobiological investigations to study the effect of high dose focused radiation on the central nervous system began in late the 50s. It is well known currently that radiobiological principles applied for dose fractionation are not reproducible when single high dose of ionizing radiation is delivered. A review of the literature about radiobiology of radiosurgery for the central nervous system is presented.

  16. Methanol intoxication: pathological changes of central nervous system (17 cases).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karayel, Ferah; Turan, Arzu A; Sav, Aydin; Pakis, Isil; Akyildiz, Elif U; Ersoy, Gokhan

    2010-03-01

    The nervous system has increased susceptibility for methanol intoxication. The aim of this study is to investigate various central nervous system lesions of methanol intoxication in 17 cases autopsied in the mortuary department of the Council of Forensic Medicine in Istanbul, Turkey. The reasons of methanol intoxication in the cases was likely the unwitting ingestion of methanol while drinking illegal alcohol. Survival times ranged from several hours to days. In 8 cases (47%), cerebral edema and in 9 cases (53%) at occipital, temporal and parietal cortex, basal ganglia and pons, petechial bleeding was observed. In addition to these findings, hemorrhagic necrosis were observed in thalamus, putamen, and globus pallidus in 5 cases (29.4%) and, in cerebral cortex in another 3 cases (17.6%). In 3 of the cases (17.6%) in which cerebral edema was found, herniation findings accompanied to the situation and in 2 cases (11.7%), pons bleeding was observed. Around the basal ganglia, in 2 of the cases with hemorrhagic necrosis, the situation ended with a ventricular compression. In 7 cases (41%), the associated findings of chronic ischemic changes in cortical neurons, lacunae formation, degeneration of granular cell layer of the cerebellum, and reactive gliosis were considered as the results of chronic alcoholism.

  17. [Histoplasmosis of the central nervous system in an immunocompetent patient].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osorio, Natalia; López, Yúrika; Jaramillo, Juan Camilo

    2014-01-01

    Histoplasmosis is a multifaceted condition caused by the dimorphic fungi Histoplasma capsulatum whose infective spores are inhaled and reach the lungs, the primary organ of infection. The meningeal form, considered one of the most serious manifestations of this mycosis, is usually seen in individuals with impaired cellular immunity such as patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome, systemic lupus erythematous or solid organ transplantation, and infants given their immunological immaturity. The most common presentation is self-limited and occurs in immunocompetent individuals who have been exposed to high concentrations of conidia and mycelia fragments of the fungi. In those people, the condition is manifested by pulmonary disorders and late dissemination to other organs and systems. We report a case of central nervous system histoplasmosis in an immunocompetent child.

  18. Haematological abnormalities in systemic lupus erythematosus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aleem, Aamer; Al Arfaj, Abdurahman Saud; khalil, Najma; Alarfaj, Husain

    2014-01-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the frequency and pattern of haematological abnormalities (HA) in SLE patients at the time of diagnosis and last follow-up, and their relationship with organ involvement. This retrospective study included patients who were diagnosed and treated for SLE from 1982 to 2008 at King Khalid University hospital, Riyadh. Demographic and haematological parameters at diagnosis and the last follow-up, disease manifestations, organ involvement and clinical hematological complications were recorded. Association of HA with organ involvement was explored by multivariate analysis. A total of 624 patients (90.7% females, mean age 34.3±11.9 years) were studied. HA were present in 516 (82.7 %) patients at the time of diagnosis. Anemia was the most frequent HA in 63.0% patients followed by lymphopenia in 40.3%, leukopenia in 30.0%, thrombocytopenia in 10.9% and autoimmune hemolytic anemia (AIHA) in 4.6% patients. Deep vein thrombosis and pulmonary embolism were diagnosed in 7.4% and 2.6% patients respectively. After a mean follow-up of 9.3±5.3 years, 329/491 (67%) patients still had some HA present. Anemia remained the most common abnormality (51.7% patients) followed by lymphopenia in 33.1%, and thrombocytopenia in 4.8% patients. Leucopenia was associated with oral ulcers (p=0.021) and alopecia (p=0.031), anemia with renal disease (p=0.017), AIHA with neurological involvement (p=0.003), elevated IgG with malar rash (p=0.027), and low C3 with serositis (p=0.026). HA are very common at the time of diagnosis and during follow-up in SLE, and some of these abnormalities are associated with organ damage. This information may help in better management planning of SLE patients.

  19. Materials directed to implants for repairing Central Nervous System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Canillas, M.; Moreno-Burriel, B.; Chinarro, E.

    2014-07-01

    Central Nervous System (CNS) can be damaged by a wide range of injuries and disorders which entail permanent disability in some cases. Moreover, CNS repairing process presents some complications. The natural repair mechanism, which consists on the glial scar formation, is triggered by the inflammatory process. Molecules delivered during these processes, inflammation and glial scar formation as well as oxygen and glucose deficiencies due to the injury, create an inhibitory environment for axon regeneration and remyelination which is known as secondary injury. Biomaterials are taking up an even more important role in repairing CNS. Physicochemical properties of some ceramic materials have inspired different applications to repair CNS as substrates, electrodes or molecule vehicles. Based on their biocompatibility, capability to neutralize reactive species involved in the inflammatory processes and their versatile processing to obtain scaffolds with different shapes and sizes, ceramics are a succulent offer in nervous tissue engineering. Furthermore, their possibilities have been increased with polymeric-ceramics composites development, which have given rise to new interesting horizon. (Author)

  20. Programming and reprogramming neuronal subtypes in the central nervous system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rouaux, Caroline; Bhai, Salman; Arlotta, Paola

    2012-07-01

    Recent discoveries in nuclear reprogramming have challenged the dogma that the identity of terminally differentiated cells cannot be changed. The identification of molecular mechanisms that reprogram differentiated cells to a new identity carries profound implications for regenerative medicine across organ systems. The central nervous system (CNS) has historically been considered to be largely immutable. However, recent studies indicate that even the adult CNS is imparted with the potential to change under the appropriate stimuli. Here, we review current knowledge regarding the capability of distinct cells within the CNS to reprogram their identity and consider the role of developmental signals in directing these cell fate decisions. Finally, we discuss the progress and current challenges of using developmental signals to precisely direct the generation of individual neuronal subtypes in the postnatal CNS and in the dish.

  1. Control of Prosthetic Hands via the Peripheral Nervous System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciancio, Anna Lisa; Cordella, Francesca; Barone, Roberto; Romeo, Rocco Antonio; Bellingegni, Alberto Dellacasa; Sacchetti, Rinaldo; Davalli, Angelo; Di Pino, Giovanni; Ranieri, Federico; Di Lazzaro, Vincenzo; Guglielmelli, Eugenio; Zollo, Loredana

    2016-01-01

    This paper intends to provide a critical review of the literature on the technological issues on control and sensorization of hand prostheses interfacing with the Peripheral Nervous System (i.e., PNS), and their experimental validation on amputees. The study opens with an in-depth analysis of control solutions and sensorization features of research and commercially available prosthetic hands. Pros and cons of adopted technologies, signal processing techniques and motion control solutions are investigated. Special emphasis is then dedicated to the recent studies on the restoration of tactile perception in amputees through neural interfaces. The paper finally proposes a number of suggestions for designing the prosthetic system able to re-establish a bidirectional communication with the PNS and foster the prosthesis natural control. PMID:27092041

  2. Development-inspired reprogramming of the mammalian central nervous system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amamoto, Ryoji; Arlotta, Paola

    2014-01-31

    In 2012, John Gurdon and Shinya Yamanaka shared the Nobel Prize for the demonstration that the identity of differentiated cells is not irreversibly determined but can be changed back to a pluripotent state under appropriate instructive signals. The principle that differentiated cells can revert to an embryonic state and even be converted directly from one cell type into another not only turns fundamental principles of development on their heads but also has profound implications for regenerative medicine. Replacement of diseased tissue with newly reprogrammed cells and modeling of human disease are concrete opportunities. Here, we focus on the central nervous system to consider whether and how reprogramming of cell identity may affect regeneration and modeling of a system historically considered immutable and hardwired.

  3. Protective and Pathological Immunity during Central Nervous System Infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, Robyn S; Hunter, Christopher A

    2017-06-20

    The concept of immune privilege of the central nervous system (CNS) has dominated the study of inflammatory processes in the brain. However, clinically relevant models have highlighted that innate pathways limit pathogen invasion of the CNS and adaptive immunity mediates control of many neural infections. As protective responses can result in bystander damage, there are regulatory mechanisms that balance protective and pathological inflammation, but these mechanisms might also allow microbial persistence. The focus of this review is to consider the host-pathogen interactions that influence neurotropic infections and to highlight advances in our understanding of innate and adaptive mechanisms of resistance as key determinants of the outcome of CNS infection. Advances in these areas have broadened our comprehension of how the immune system functions in the brain and can readily overcome immune privilege. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  4. Control of prosthetic hands via the peripheral nervous system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Lisa eCiancio

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper intends to provide a critical review of the literature on the technological issues on control and sensorization of hand prostheses interfacing with the Peripheral Nervous System (i.e. PNS, and their experimental validation on amputees. The study opens with an in-depth analysis of control solutions and sensorization features of research and commercially available prosthetic hands. Pros and cons of adopted technologies, signal processing techniques and motion control solutions are investigated. Special emphasis is then dedicated to the recent studies on the restoration of tactile perception in amputees through neural interfaces. The paper finally proposes a number of suggestions for designing the prosthetic system able to re-establish a bidirectional communication with the PNS and foster the prosthesis natural control.

  5. The effect of space radiation of the nervous system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gauger, Grant E.; Tobias, Cornelius A.; Yang, Tracy; Whitney, Monroe

    The long-term effects of irradiation by accelerated heavy ions on the structure and function of the nervous system have not been studied extensively. Although the adult brain is relatively resistant to low LET radiation, cellular studies indicate that individual heavy ions can produce serious membrane lesions and multiple chromatin breaks. Capillary hemorrhages may follow high LET particle irradiation of the developing brain as high RBE effects. Evidence has been accumulating that the glial system and blood-brain barrier (BBB) are relatively sensitive to injury by ionizing radiation. While DNA repair is active in neural systems, it may be assumed that a significant portion of this molecular process is misrepair. Since the expression of cell lethality usually requires cell division, and nerve cells have an extremely low rate of division, it is possible that some of the characteristic changes of premature aging may represent a delayed effect of chromatin misrepair in brain. Altered microcirculation, decreased local metabolism, entanglement and reduction in synaptic density, premature loss of neurons, myelin degeneration, and glial proliferation are late signs of such injuries. HZE particles are very efficient in producing carcinogenic cell transformation, reaching a peak for iron particles. The promotion of viral transformation is also efficient up to an energy transfer of approximately 300 keV/micron. The RBE for carcinogenesis in nerve tissues remains unknown. On the basis of available information concerning HZE particle flux in interplanetary space, only general estimates of the magnitude of the effects of long-term spaceflight on some nervous system parameters may be constructed.

  6. Central nervous system lesions in adult T-cell leukaemia: MRI and pathology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kitajima, M.; Korogi, Y.; Shigematsu, Y.; Liang, L.; Takahashi, M. [Department of Radiology, Kumamoto University School of Medicine, Honjo, Kumamoto (Japan); Matsuoka, M. [Second Division of Internal Medicine, Kumamoto University School of Medicine, Honjo, Kumamoto (Japan); Yamamoto, T. [Department of Pathology, Kumamoto University School of Medicine, Honjo, Kumamoto (Japan); Jhono, M. [Department of Dermatology, Kumamoto University School of Medicine, Honjo, Kumamoto (Japan); Eto, K. [The National Institute for Minamata Disease, Minamata (Japan)

    2002-07-01

    Adult T-cell leukaemia (ATL) is a T-cell lymphoid neoplasm caused by human T-cell leukaemia virus type I (HTLV-I). Radiological findings in central nervous system (CNS) involvement have not been well characterised. We reviewed the MRI of 18 patients with ATL who developed new neurological symptoms or signs, and pathology specimens from a 53-year-old woman who died of ATL. MRI findings were divided into three categories: definite, probable, and other abnormal. Definite and probable findings were defined as ATL-related. The characteristic findings were multiple parenchymal masses with or without contrast enhancement adjacent to cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) spaced and the deep grey matter of both cerebral hemispheres, plus leptomeningeal lesion. One patient had both cerebral and spinal cord lesions. Other abnormal findings in eight patients included one case of leukoencephalopathy caused by methotrexate. The histology findings consisted of clusters of tumour cells along perivascular spaces, and scattered infiltration of the parenchyma, with nests of tumour cells. Leptomeningeal infiltration by tumour spread into the parenchyma and secondary degeneration of the neuronal tracts was observed. MRI was useful for detecting CNS invasion by ATL and differentiating it from other abnormalities. The MRI findings seemed to correlate well with the histological changes. (orig.)

  7. Autonomic nervous system correlates in movement observation and motor imagery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian eCollet

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the current article is to provide a comprehensive overview of the literature offering a better understanding on the autonomic nervous system (ANS correlates in motor imagery (MI and movement observation. These are two high brain functions involving sensori-motor coupling, mediated by memory systems. How observing or mentally rehearsing a movement affect ANS activity has not been extensively investigated. The links between cognitive functions and ANS responses are not so obvious. We first describe the organization of the ANS whose main purposes are controlling vital functions by maintaining the homeostasis of the organism and providing adaptive responses when changes occur either in the external or internal milieu. We will then review how scientific knowledge evolved, thus integrating recent findings related to ANS functioning, and show how these are linked to mental functions. In turn, we will describe how movement observation or MI may elicit physiological responses at the peripheral level of the autonomic effectors, thus eliciting autonomic correlates to cognitive activity. Key features of this paper are to draw a step-by step progression from the understanding of ANS physiology to its relationships with high mental processes such as movement observation or MI. We will further provide evidence that mental processes are co-programmed both at the somatic and autonomic levels of the central nervous system. We will thus detail how peripheral physiological responses may be analyzed to provide objective evidence that MI is actually performed. The main perspective is thus to consider that, during movement observation and MI, ANS activity is an objective witness of mental processes.

  8. The mechanisms of neurotoxicity and the selective vulnerability of nervous system sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maurer, Laura L; Philbert, Martin A

    2015-01-01

    The spatial heterogeneity of the structure, function, and cellular composition of the nervous system confers extraordinary complexity and a multiplicity of mechanisms of chemical neurotoxicity. Because of its relatively high metabolic demands and functional dependence on postmitotic neurons, the nervous system is vulnerable to a variety of xenobiotics that affect essential homeostatic mechanisms that support function. Despite protection from the neuroglia and blood-brain barrier, the central nervous system is prone to attack from lipophilic toxicants and those that hijack endogenous transport, receptor, metabolic, and other biochemical systems. The inherent predilection of chemicals for highly conserved biochemical systems confers selective vulnerability of the nervous system to neurotoxicants. This chapter discusses selective vulnerability of the nervous system in the context of neuron-specific decrements (axonopathy, myelinopathy, disruption of neurotransmission), and the degree to which neuronal damage is facilitated or ameliorated by surrounding nonneural cells in both the central and peripheral nervous systems.

  9. Optimized optical clearing method for imaging central nervous system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Tingting; Qi, Yisong; Gong, Hui; Luo, Qingming; Zhu, Dan

    2015-03-01

    The development of various optical clearing methods provides a great potential for imaging entire central nervous system by combining with multiple-labelling and microscopic imaging techniques. These methods had made certain clearing contributions with respective weaknesses, including tissue deformation, fluorescence quenching, execution complexity and antibody penetration limitation that makes immunostaining of tissue blocks difficult. The passive clarity technique (PACT) bypasses those problems and clears the samples with simple implementation, excellent transparency with fine fluorescence retention, but the passive tissue clearing method needs too long time. In this study, we not only accelerate the clearing speed of brain blocks but also preserve GFP fluorescence well by screening an optimal clearing temperature. The selection of proper temperature will make PACT more applicable, which evidently broaden the application range of this method.

  10. Fractals in the nervous system: conceptual implications for theoretical neuroscience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerhard Werner

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available This essay is presented with two principal objectives in mind: first, to document the prevalence of fractals at all levels of the nervous system, giving credence to the notion of their functional relevance; and second, to draw attention to the as yet still unresolved issues of the detailed relationships among power-law scaling, self-similarity, and self-organized criticality. As regards criticality, I will document that it has become a pivotal reference point in Neurodynamics. Furthermore, I will emphasize the not yet fully appreciated significance of allometric control processes. For dynamic fractals, I will assemble reasons for attributing to them the capacity to adapt task execution to contextual changes across a range of scales. The final Section consists of general reflections on the implications of the reviewed data, and identifies what appear to be issues of fundamental importance for future research in the rapidly evolving topic of this review.

  11. Congenital and acquired mitochondrial disorders of the central nervous system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. V. Nikitina

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Clinical presentations of disorders of the nervous system manifest in young and middle-aged patients with congenital and acquired mitochondrial dysfunctions and cognitive disorders manifest in patients with mitochondrial diseases more often. Nowadays the effective methods of initial diagnosing of these conditions are neurological and neuropsychological examination of patients, using of biochemical markers of mitochondrial diseases: the indices of lactate, total homocysteine in plasma and liquor. Neuro-visual study (Magnetic resonance imaging of the brain, MR spectroscopy, tractography, diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging of the brain, mitochondrial DNA typing is actually used for the differential diagnosing of mitochondrial diseases with other disorders that are accompanied by demyelinating disorders.

  12. Modulation of Tumor Tolerance in Primary Central Nervous System Malignancies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Theodore S. Johnson

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Central nervous system tumors take advantage of the unique immunology of the CNS and develop exquisitely complex stromal networks that promote growth despite the presence of antigen-presenting cells and tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes. It is precisely this immunological paradox that is essential to the survival of the tumor. We review the evidence for functional CNS immune privilege and the impact it has on tumor tolerance. In this paper, we place an emphasis on the role of tumor-infiltrating myeloid cells in maintaining stromal and vascular quiescence, and we underscore the importance of indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase activity as a myeloid-driven tumor tolerance mechanism. Much remains to be discovered regarding the tolerogenic mechanisms by which CNS tumors avoid immune clearance. Thus, it is an open question whether tumor tolerance in the brain is fundamentally different from that of peripheral sites of tumorigenesis or whether it simply stands as a particularly strong example of such tolerance.

  13. Fungal Infections of the Central Nervous System: A Pictorial Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jose Gavito-Higuera

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Fungal infections of the central nervous system (CNS pose a threat to especially immunocompromised patients and their development is primarily determined by the immune status of the host. With an increasing number of organ transplants, chemotherapy, and human immunodeficiency virus infections, the number of immunocompromised patients as susceptible hosts is growing and fungal infections of the CNS are more frequently encountered. They may result in meningitis, cerebritis, abscess formation, cryptococcoma, and meningeal vasculitis with rapid disease progression and often overlapping symptoms. Although radiological characteristics are often nonspecific, unique imaging patterns can be identified through computer tomography as a first imaging modality and further refined by magnetic resonance imaging. A rapid diagnosis and the institution of the appropriate therapy are crucial in helping prevent an often fatal outcome.

  14. The expression of SEIPIN in the mouse central nervous system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiaoyun; Xie, Beibei; Qi, Yanfei; Du, Ximing; Wang, Shaoshi; Zhang, Yumei; Paxinos, George; Yang, Hongyuan; Liang, Huazheng

    2016-11-01

    Immunohistochemical staining was used to investigate the expression pattern of SEIPIN in the mouse central nervous system. SEIPIN was found to be present in a large number of areas, including the motor and somatosensory cortex, the thalamic nuclei, the hypothalamic nuclei, the mesencephalic nuclei, some cranial motor nuclei, the reticular formation of the brainstem, and the vestibular complex. Double labeling with NeuN antibody confirmed that SEIPIN-positive cells in some nuclei were neurons. Retrograde tracer injections into the spinal cord revealed that SEIPIN-positive neurons in the motor and somatosensory cortex and other movement related nuclei project to the mouse spinal cord. The present study found more nuclei positive for SEIPIN than shown using in situ hybridization and confirmed the presence of SEIPIN in neurons projecting to the spinal cord. The results of this study help to explain the clinical manifestations of patients with Berardinelli-Seip congenital lipodystrophy (Bscl2) gene mutations.

  15. Methyl-CpG binding proteins in the nervous system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Guoping FAN; Leah HUTNICK

    2005-01-01

    Classical methyl-CpG binding proteins contain the conserved DNA binding motif methyl-cytosine binding domain (MBD), which preferentially binds to methylated CpG dinucleotides. These proteins serve as transcriptional repressors,mediating gene silencing via DNA cytosine methylation. Mutations in methyl-CpG binding protein 2 (MeCP2) have been linked to the human mental retardation disorder Rett syndrome, suggesting an important role for methyl-CpG binding proteins in brain development and function. This mini-review summarizes the recent advances in studying the diverse functions of MeCP2 as a prototype for other methyl-CpG binding proteins in the development and function of the vertebrate nervous system.

  16. Cell fate control in the developing central nervous system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guérout, Nicolas; Li, Xiaofei; Barnabé-Heider, Fanie, E-mail: Fanie.Barnabe-Heider@ki.se

    2014-02-01

    The principal neural cell types forming the mature central nervous system (CNS) are now understood to be diverse. This cellular subtype diversity originates to a large extent from the specification of the earlier proliferating progenitor populations during development. Here, we review the processes governing the differentiation of a common neuroepithelial cell progenitor pool into mature neurons, astrocytes, oligodendrocytes, ependymal cells and adult stem cells. We focus on studies performed in mice and involving two distinct CNS structures: the spinal cord and the cerebral cortex. Understanding the origin, specification and developmental regulators of neural cells will ultimately impact comprehension and treatments of neurological disorders and diseases. - Highlights: • Similar mechanisms regulate cell fate in different CNS cell types and structures. • Cell fate regulators operate in a spatial–temporal manner. • Different neural cell types rely on the generation of a diversity of progenitor cells. • Cell fate decision is dictated by the integration of intrinsic and extrinsic signals.

  17. Are astrocytes executive cells within the central nervous system?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sica, Roberto E; Caccuri, Roberto; Quarracino, Cecilia; Capani, Francisco

    2016-08-01

    Experimental evidence suggests that astrocytes play a crucial role in the physiology of the central nervous system (CNS) by modulating synaptic activity and plasticity. Based on what is currently known we postulate that astrocytes are fundamental, along with neurons, for the information processing that takes place within the CNS. On the other hand, experimental findings and human observations signal that some of the primary degenerative diseases of the CNS, like frontotemporal dementia, Parkinson's disease, Alzheimer's dementia, Huntington's dementia, primary cerebellar ataxias and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, all of which affect the human species exclusively, may be due to astroglial dysfunction. This hypothesis is supported by observations that demonstrated that the killing of neurons by non-neural cells plays a major role in the pathogenesis of those diseases, at both their onset and their progression. Furthermore, recent findings suggest that astrocytes might be involved in the pathogenesis of some psychiatric disorders as well.

  18. Altered balance in the autonomic nervous system in schizophrenic patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, B M; Mehlsen, J; Behnke, K

    1988-01-01

    healthy subjects (32 +/- 7 years) served as controls. Immediate heart-rate responses to a single deep inspiration was used as a measure of parasympathetic function. Heart-rate response to standing was used as a measure of sympathetic function. Supine blood pressure, heart-rate and orthostatic changes...... in blood pressure did not differ between groups. Heart-rate response to standing was greater in both medicated and non-medicated schizophrenics compared to normal subjects (P less than 0.01). Heart-rate response to standing was greater in non-medicated compared to medicated schizophrenics (P less than 0.......05). Heart-rate response to inspiration was greater in non-medicated schizophrenics compared to normal subjects (P less than 0.05), whereas no difference was found between medicated and non-medicated schizophrenics. The results show that the balance in the autonomic nervous system is altered in schizophrenic...

  19. HIV and aging: effects on the central nervous system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cañizares, Silvia; Cherner, Mariana; Ellis, Ronald J

    2014-02-01

    With the introduction of combination antiretroviral therapy, many human immunodeficiency virus-positive (HIV+) individuals are reaching advanced age. The proportion of people living with HIV older than 50 years already exceeds 50% in many communities, and is expected to reach this level nationally by 2015. HIV and aging are independently associated with neuropathological changes, but their concurrence may have a more deleterious effect on the central nervous system (CNS). Published data about neurocognitive and neuroimaging markers of HIV and aging are reviewed. Putative factors contributing to neurocognitive impairment and neuroimaging changes in the aging HIV+ brain, such as metabolic disturbances, cardiovascular risk factors, immune senescence, and neuroinflammation, are described. The possible relationship between HIV and some markers of Alzheimer's disease is presented. Current research findings emphasize multiple mechanisms related to HIV and combination antiretroviral therapy that compromise CNS structure and function with advancing age.

  20. Fungal infections of the central nervous system: The clinical syndromes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murthy J.M.K

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Fungal infections of the central nervous system (CNS are being increasingly diagnosed both in immunocompromised and immunocompetent individuals. Sinocranial aspergillosis is more frequently described from countries with temperate climates, more often in otherwise immunocompetent individuals. The clinical syndromes with which fungal infections of the CNS can present are protean and can involve most part of the neuroaxis. Certain clinical syndromes are specific for certain fungal infections. The rhinocerebral form is the most common presenting syndrome with zygomycosis and skull-base syndromes are often the presenting clinical syndromes in patients with sinocranial aspergillosis. Subacute and chronic meningitis in patients with HIV infection is more likely to be due to cryptococcal infection. Early recognition of the clinical syndromes in an appropriate clinical setting is the first step towards achieving total cure in some of these infections.

  1. The parasympathetic nervous system in the quest for stroke therapeutics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheyuo, Cletus; Jacob, Asha; Wu, Rongqian; Zhou, Mian; Coppa, Gene F; Wang, Ping

    2011-05-01

    Stroke is a devastating neurovascular disease with limited therapeutic options. The pathogenesis of stroke involves complex interrelated molecular mechanisms including excitotoxicity, oxidative and nitrosative stress, cortical spreading depolarizations, inflammation, necrosis, and apoptosis. Successful development of stroke therapeutics depends on understanding these molecular mechanisms and how to counteract them to limit tissue damage during stroke. Activation of the parasympathetic nervous system (PNS) has been shown to antagonize a multiplicity of pathologic mechanisms. Elements of parasympathetic activation such as vagus nerve stimulation have already been used successfully in treating brain disorders such as epilepsy and depression. This review discusses the anatomical basis and molecular mechanisms involved in activation of the PNS, and assesses the strength of available evidence for the further development of this modality into a stroke therapy.

  2. Adult neural stem cells in the mammalian central nervous system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dengke K Ma; Michael A Bonaguidi; Guo-li Ming; Hongjun Song

    2009-01-01

    Neural stem cells (NSCs) are present not only during the embryonic development but also in the adult brain of all mammalian species, including humans. Stem cell niche architecture in vivo enables adult NSCs to continuously generate functional neurons in specific brain regions throughout life. The adult neurogenesis process is subject to dynamic regulation by various physiological, pathological and pharmacological stimuli. Multipotent adult NSCs also appear to be intrinsically plastic, amenable to genetic programing during normal differentiation, and to epigenetic reprograming during de-differentiation into pluripotency. Increasing evidence suggests that adult NSCs significantly contribute to specialized neural functions under physiological and pathological conditions. Fully understanding the biology of adult NSCs will provide crucial insights into both the etiology and potential therapeutic interventions of major brain disorders. Here, we review recent progress on adult NSCs of the mammalian central nervous system, in-cluding topics on their identity, niche, function, plasticity, and emerging roles in cancer and regenerative medicine.

  3. Primary Histiocytic Sarcoma of the Central Nervous System

    Science.gov (United States)

    So, Hoonsub; Kim, Sun A; Yoon, Dok Hyun; Khang, Shin Kwang; Hwang, Jihye; Suh, Chong Hyun; Suh, Cheolwon

    2015-01-01

    Histiocytic sarcoma is a type of lymphoma that rarely involves the central nervous system (CNS). Its rarity can easily lead to a misdiagnosis. We describe a patient with primary CNS histocytic sarcoma involving the cerebral hemisphere and spinal cord, who had been initially misdiagnosed as demyelinating disease. Two biopsies were necessary before a correct diagnosis was made. A histologic examination showed bizarre shaped histiocytes with larger nuclei and nuclear atypia. The cells were positive for CD68, CD163, and S-100 protein. As a resection was not feasible due to multifocality, he was treated with highdose methotrexate, but showed no response. As a result, he was switched to high dose cytarabine; but again, showed no response. The patient died 2 months from the start of chemotherapy and 8 months from the onset of symptoms. Since few patients with this condition have been described and histopathology is difficult to diagnose, suspicion of the disease is essential. PMID:25345462

  4. MRT of the central nervous system; MRT des Zentralnervensystems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Forsting, M.; Jansen, O. (eds.)

    2006-07-01

    The book presents the state of the art of MRT imaging of the central nervous system. Detailed information is presented in order to provide sufficient knowledge for the medical diagnostician to discuss any case encountered at eye level with the clinical physician. The book is an indispensable reference manual and a quick orientation already during examination in difficult cases. It contains images made with the most recent technology and with excellent representation of details. Even rare findings are described in detail. The imaging principle is illustrated by more than 1000 pictures and graphical representations as well as more than 100 complementary tables. Findings are classified by regions, i.e. 'brain' and 'spinal cord', including anatomical descriptions. (orig.)

  5. Fungal central nervous system infections: prevalence and diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kourbeti, Irene S; Mylonakis, Eleftherios

    2014-02-01

    Fungal infections of the central nervous system (CNS) are rare but they pose a significant challenge. Their prevalence spans a wide array of hosts including immunosuppressed and immunocompetent individuals, patients undergoing neurosurgical procedures and those carrying implantable CNS devices. Cryptococcus neoformans and Aspergillus spp. remain the most common pathogens. Magnetic resonance imaging can help localize the lesions, but diagnosis is challenging since invasive procedures may be needed for the retrieval of tissue, especially in cases of fungal abscesses. Antigen and antibody tests are available and approved for use in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). PCR-based techniques are promising but they are not validated for use in the CSF. This review provides an overview on the differential diagnosis of the fungal CNS disease based on the host and the clinical syndrome and suggests the optimal use of diagnostic techniques. It also summarizes the emergence of Cryptococcus gatti and an unanticipated outbreak caused by Exserohilum rostratum.

  6. Therapeutic approaches of magnetic nanoparticles for the central nervous system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dilnawaz, Fahima; Sahoo, Sanjeeb Kumar

    2015-10-01

    The diseases of the central nervous system (CNS) represent one of the fastest growing areas of concern requiring urgent medical attention. Treatment of CNS ailments is hindered owing to different physiological barriers including the blood-brain barrier (BBB), which limits the accessibility of potential drugs. With the assistance of a nanotechnology-based drug delivery strategy, the problems could be overcome. Recently, magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) have proven immensely useful as drug carriers for site-specific delivery and as contrast agents owing to their magnetic susceptibility and biocompatibility. By utilizing MNPs, diagnosis and treatment of CNS diseases have progressed by overcoming the hurdles of the BBB. In this review, the therapeutic aspect and the future prospects related to the theranostic approach of MNPs are discussed.

  7. Clinical Features and Magnetic Resonance Imaging Findings in 7 Dogs with Central Nervous System Aspergillosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, A R; Young, B D; Levine, G J; Eden, K; Corapi, W; Rossmeisl, J H; Levine, J M

    2015-01-01

    Systemic aspergillosis is a manifestation of Aspergillus sp. infection that can result in central nervous system (CNS) involvement with marked alterations in CNS function. Information regarding the clinical presentation and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings in cases of aspergillosis with CNS involvement is lacking, resulting in a need for better understanding of this disease. The primary objectives were to describe the clinical features and MRI findings in dogs with CNS aspergillosis. The secondary objectives were to describe clinicopathologic findings and case outcome. Seven dogs with CNS aspergillosis. Archived records from 6 institutions were reviewed to identify cases with MRI of CNS aspergillosis confirmed with serum galactomannan enzyme immunoassay (EIA) testing, culture, or supported by histopathology. Signalment, clinical, MRI, clinicopathologic, histopathologic, and microbiologic findings were recorded and evaluated. Aspergillosis of the CNS was identified in 7 dogs from 3 institutions. The median age was 3 years and six were German Shepherd dogs. Five dogs had signs of vestibular dysfunction as a component of multifocal neurological abnormalities. The MRI findings ranged from normal to abnormal, including hemorrhagic infarction and mass lesions. Until now, all reported MRI findings in dogs with CNS aspergillosis have been abnormal. We document that CNS aspergillosis in dogs, particularly German Shepherd dogs, can be suspected based on neurologic signs, whether MRI findings are normal or abnormal. Confirmatory testing with galactomannan EIA, urine, cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) or tissue culture should be performed in cases where aspergillosis is a differential diagnosis. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of the American College of Veterinary Internal Medicine.

  8. Angiotensin receptors and actions in guinea pig enteric nervous system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Guo-Du; Wang, Xi-Yu; Hu, Hong-Zhen; Fang, Xiu-Cai; Liu, Sumei; Gao, Na; Xia, Yun; Wood, Jackie D

    2005-09-01

    Actions of ANG II on electrical and synaptic behavior of enteric neurons in the guinea pig small intestine were studied. Exposure to ANG II depolarized the membrane potential and elevated neuronal excitability. The number of responding neurons was small, with responses to ANG II in 32% of submucosal neurons and 25% of myenteric neurons. Hyperpolarizing responses were evoked by ANG II in 45% of the neurons. The hyperpolarizing responses were suppressed by alpha2-noradrenergic receptor antagonists, which suggested that the hyperpolarizing responses reflected stimulation of norepinephrine release from sympathetic neurons. Exposure to ANG II enhanced the amplitude and prolonged the duration of noradrenergic inhibitory postsynaptic potentials and suppressed the amplitude of both fast and slow excitatory postsynaptic potentials. The selective ANG II(1) receptor (AT1R) antagonists, ZD-7115 and losartan, but not a selective AT2R antagonist (PD-123319), suppressed the actions of ANG II. Western blot analysis and RT-PCR confirmed expression of AT1R protein and the mRNA transcript for the AT1R in the enteric nervous system. No expression of AT2R protein or mRNA was found. Immunoreactivity for AT1R was expressed by the majority of neurons in the gastric antrum and small and large intestine. AT1R immunoreactivity was coexpressed with calbindin, choline acetyltransferase, calretinin, neuropeptide Y, and nitric oxide synthase in subpopulations of neurons. The results suggest that formation of ANG II might have paracrine-like actions in the enteric nervous system, which include alterations in neuronal excitability and facilitated release of norepinephrine from sympathetic postganglionic axons. The enhanced presence of norepinephrine is expected to suppress fast and slow excitatory neurotransmission in the enteric microcircuits and to suppress neurogenic mucosal secretion.

  9. Connexin32 expression in central and peripheral nervous systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deschenes, S.M.; Scherer, S.S.; Fischbeck, K.H. [Univ. of Pennslylvania, PA (United States)

    1994-09-01

    Mutations have been identified in the gap junction gene, connexin32 (Cx32), in patients affected with the X-linked form of the demyelinating neuropathy, Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease (CMTX). Gap junctions composed of Cx32 are present and developmentally regulated in a wide variety of tissues. In peripheral nerve, our immunohistochemical analysis localized Cx32 to the noncompacted myelin of the paranodal regions and the Schmidt-Lantermann incisures, where previous studies describe gap junctions. In contrast to the location of Cx32 in peripheral nerve and the usual restriction of clinical manifestations to the peripheral nervous system (PNS) (abstract by Paulson describes an exception), preliminary studies show that Cx32 is present in the compacted myelin of the central nervous system (CNS), as demonstrated by radial staining through the myelin sheath of oligodendrocytes in rat spinal cord. Analysis of Cx32 expression in various regions of rat CNS during development shows that the amount of Cx32 mRNA and protein increases as myelination increases, a pattern observed for other myelin genes. Studies in the PNS provide additional evidence that Cx32 and myelin genes are coordinately regulated at the transcriptional level; Cx32 and peripheral myelin gene PMP-22 mRNAs are expressed in parallel following transient or permanent nerve injury. Differences in post-translational regulation of Cx32 in the CNS and PNS may be indicated by the presence of a faster migrating form of Cs32 in cerebrum versus peripheral nerve. Studies are currently underway to determine the unique role of Cx32 in peripheral nerve.

  10. Isolation and distribution of endomorphins in the central nervous system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zadina, James E

    2002-07-01

    Endomorphin-1 (Tyr-Pro-Trp-Phe-NH2, EM-1) and endomorphin-2 (Tyr-Pro-Phe-Phe-NH2, EM-2) have the highest affinity and selectivity for the mu-opioid receptor (MOP-R) of all known mammalian opioids. They were isolated from bovine and human brain, and are structurally distinct from the other endogenous opioids. Both EM-1 and EM-2 have potent antinociceptive activity in a variety of animal models of acute, neuropathic and allodynic pain. They regulate cellular signaling processes in a manner consistent with MOP-R-mediated effects. The EMs are implicated in the natural modulation of pain by extensive data localizing EM-like immunoreactivity (EM-LI) near MOP-Rs in several regions of the nervous system known to regulate pain. These include the primary afferents and their terminals in the spinal cord dorsal horn, where EM-2 is well-positioned to modulate pain in its earliest stages of perception. In a nerve-injury model of chronic pain, a loss of spinal EM2-LI occurs concomitant with the onset of chronic pain. The distribution of the EMs in other areas of the nervous system is consistent with a role in the modulation of diverse functions, including autonomic, neuroendocrine and reward functions as well as modulation of responses to pain and stress. Unlike several other mu opioids, the threshold dose of EM-1 for analgesia is well below that for respiratory depression. In addition, rewarding effects of EM-1 can be separated from analgesic effects. These results indicate a favorable therapeutic profile of EM-1 relative to other mu opioids. Thus, the pharmacology and distribution of EMs provide new avenues both for therapeutic development and for understanding the neurobiology of opioids.

  11. Conditioned nausea after cancer chemotherapy and autonomic nervous system conditionability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fredrikson, M; Hursti, T; Salmi, P; Börjeson, S; Fürst, C J; Peterson, C; Steineck, G

    1993-12-01

    There are marked individual differences in conditioned nausea after cancer chemotherapy. To examine if part of this variation is associated with individual differences in autonomic nervous system conditionability, the present study addressed whether patients with conditioned nausea acquired conditioned heart rate and electrodermal responses at a different rate than patients without conditioned nausea. Of 28 relapse-free patients who had completed cisplatinum treatment for testicular cancer between 1981 and 1986, 10 reported persistent conditioned nausea, 8 extinguished conditioned nausea and 10 no conditioned nausea. These three groups were subjected to a differential conditioning paradigm with 8 sec pictorial stimuli (circles and triangles) serving as conditioned stimuli for an unconditioned electric shock while heart rate and electrodermal activity was monitored. There were 4 habituation, 8 acquisition and 8 extinction trials with each of the two cues. Analyses of variance using nausea status as the independent variable and physiological responses as the dependent lended some support to the notion that conditioned heart rate deceleration developed in response to the reinforced compared to the nonreinforced cue during acquisition in the two groups with persistent or extinguished conditioned nausea but not in the group with no conditioned nausea. In addition, patients that displayed good, as compared to poor heart rate conditionability during acquisition, were more likely to have persistent conditioned nausea, whereas those who showed poor heart rate conditioning mostly were those without conditioned nausea. Electrodermal variables revealed no systematic differences between groups. This tentatively supports that individual differences in parasympathetic but not sympathetic nervous system conditionability may be associated with individual differences in conditioned nausea resulting from cancer chemotherapy.

  12. PET and SPET tracers for mapping the cardiac nervous system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Langer, Oliver; Halldin, Christer [Department of Clinical Neuroscience, Psychiatry Section, Karolinska Institute, Karolinska Hospital, 17176 Stockholm (Sweden)

    2002-03-01

    The human cardiac nervous system consists of a sympathetic and a parasympathetic branch with (-)-norepinephrine and acetylcholine as the respective endogenous neurotransmitters. Dysfunction of the cardiac nervous system is implicated in various types of cardiac disease, such as heart failure, myocardial infarction and diabetic autonomic neuropathy. In vivo assessment of the distribution and function of cardiac sympathetic and parasympathetic neurones with positron emission tomography (PET) and single-photon emission tomography (SPET) can be achieved by means of a number of carbon-11-, fluorine-18-, bromine-76- and iodine-123-labelled tracer molecules. Available tracers for mapping sympathetic neurones can be divided into radiolabelled catecholamines, such as 6-[{sup 18}F]fluorodopamine, (-)-6-[{sup 18}F]fluoronorepinephrine and (-)-[{sup 11}C]epinephrine, and radiolabelled catecholamine analogues, such as [{sup 123}I]meta-iodobenzylguanidine, [{sup 11}C]meta-hydroxyephedrine, [{sup 18}F]fluorometaraminol, [{sup 11}C]phenylephrine and meta-[{sup 76}Br]bromobenzylguanidine. Resistance to metabolism by monoamine oxidase and catechol-O-methyl transferase simplifies the myocardial kinetics of the second group. Both groups of compounds are excellent agents for an overall assessment of sympathetic innervation. Biomathematical modelling of tracer kinetics is complicated by the complexity of the steps governing neuronal uptake, retention and release of these agents as well as by their high neuronal affinity, which leads to partial flow dependence of uptake. Mapping of cardiac parasympathetic neurones is limited by a low density and focal distribution pattern of these neurones in myocardium. Available tracers are derivatives of vesamicol, a molecule that binds to a receptor associated with the vesicular acetylcholine transporter. Compounds like (-)-[{sup 18}F]fluoroethoxybenzovesamicol display a high degree of non-specific binding in myocardium which restricts their utility

  13. Temozolomide and radiation for aggressive pediatric central nervous system malignancies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loh, Kenneth C; Willert, Jennifer; Meltzer, Hal; Roberts, William; Kerlin, Bryce; Kadota, Richard; Levy, Michael; White, Greg; Geddis, Amy; Schiff, Deborah; Martin, Laura; Yu, Alice; Kung, Faith; Spear, Matthew A

    2005-05-01

    This study describes the outcomes of children treated with combinations of temozolomide and radiation therapy for various aggressive central nervous system malignancies. Their age at diagnosis ranged from 1 to 15 years. Patients with focal disease were treated with concomitant temozolomide (daily 75 mg/m) and three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy in a dose that ranged from 50 to 54 Gy, followed by temozolomide (200 mg/m/d x 5 days/month in three patients, 150 mg/m x 5 days/ month in one patient). Patients with disseminated disease were treated with craniospinal radiation (39.6 Gy) before conformal boost. One patient received temozolomide (200 mg/m x 5 days/month) before craniospinal radiation, and one patient received temozolomide (daily 95 mg/m) concomitant with craniospinal radiation and a radiosurgical boost, followed by temozolomide (200 mg/m x 5 days/month). Three patients achieved a partial response during treatment, with two of these patients dying of progressive disease after treatment. One patient has no evidence of disease. Three patients achieved stable disease, with one of these patients dying of progressive disease after treatment. Toxicities observed included low-grade neutropenia, thrombocytopenia, and lymphopenia. The combination of temozolomide and radiotherapy appears to be well tolerated in a variety of treatment schemas for aggressive pediatric central nervous system malignancies. This information is of particular use in designing future studies, given the recent positive results in a randomized study examining the use of temozolomide concomitant with radiation in the treatment of adult glioblastoma.

  14. New insight on the molecular aspects of glucocorticoid effects in nervous system development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maggi, R; Dondi, D; Piccolella, M; Casulari, L A; Martini, L

    2013-10-01

    Adrenal glucocorticoids (Gc) are among the most significant hormones in the mammalian organisms; these steroids may reach and penetrate all tissues where they interact with cytoplasmic/nuclear receptors, through which they exert multiple and very multifaceted actions. The effects of physiological concentrations of Gc on brain functions have not been completely clarified, even though Gc are recognized to influence behavioral responses, emotions, cognitive processes and to take part in the neuroendocrine control of body homeostasis. Developmental programming effects of Gc in animal models and humans have been proposed. Actually, pre-natal stress, or exposure to high Gc levels, would somehow affect neuronal developmental events in some structure and this can lead to central nervous system altered functions, as the impairment of neuroendocrine activities, cognitive processes, sleep and mood disorders. Interestingly, it has been observed that these abnormalities may not be limited to the first directly exposed individuals but transmissible across generations. The establishment of animal models with localized pre-natal glucocorticoid receptors deficiency led to the accumulation of data on the possible roles of these hormones on development of the central and peripheral nervous system. The most recent findings on the effects of Gc on neuroblast development, with particular attention to neuronal migration, will be presented.

  15. Peripheral nervous system assessment in acromegaly patients under somatostatin analogue therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alibas, H; Gogas Yavuz, D; Kahraman Koytak, P; Uygur, M; Tanridag, T; Uluc, K

    2017-01-01

    Acromegaly is known to affect peripheral nervous system (PNS) causing carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS) and polyneuropathy. The frequency of these disorders and the evaluation methods vary among studies. In the present study, we aimed to examine PNS of acromegaly patients under somatostatin analogue (SSA) therapy. Forty-eight acromegaly patients (26 F/22 M, 45.58 ± 11.6 years) under SSA treatment and 44 healthy controls (25 F/19 M, 47.46 ± 8.7 years) were assessed by symptom questionnaires, neurologic examination and electrophysiological studies. 87.5 % of the acromegaly patients had at least one abnormal finding regarding PNS. With the incorporation of palm-wrist median nerve conduction velocity method, we detected CTS in 50 % of patients. Polyneuropathy was less frequent (29.2 %). Both conditions were independent from the coexisting diabetes mellitus (p = 0.22 for CTS, p = 0.71 for polyneuropathy). Polyneuropathy but not CTS was more common among biochemically uncontrolled acromegaly patients rather than those under control (p = 0.03; p = 0.68, respectively). Our findings emphasize the high prevalence of peripheral nervous system involvement in acromegaly patients under SSA therapy and importance of neurological evaluation of these patients. Early diagnosis and treatment of the disease may reduce the PNS involvement.

  16. Magnetic resonance imaging of the central nervous system in diabetic neuropathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkinson, Iain D; Selvarajah, Dinesh; Greig, Marni; Shillo, Pallai; Boland, Elaine; Gandhi, Rajiv; Tesfaye, Solomon

    2013-08-01

    Diabetic 'peripheral' neuropathy (DPN) is one of the common sequelae to the development of both type-1 and type-2 diabetes mellitus. Neuropathy has a major negative impact on quality of life. Abnormalities in both peripheral vasculature and nerve function are well documented and, in addition, evidence is emerging regarding changes within the central nervous system (CNS) that are concomitant with the presence of DPN. The often-resistant nature of DPN to medical treatment highlights the need to understand the role of the CNS in neuropathic symptomatology and progression, as this may modulate therapeutic approaches. Advanced neuroimaging techniques, especially those that can provide quantitative measures of structure and function, can provide objective markers of CNS status. With that comes great potential for not only furthering our understanding of involvement of the CNS in neuropathic etiology but also most importantly aiding the development of new and more effective, targeted, analgesic interventions.

  17. Sonographic detection of central nervous system defects in the first trimester of pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engels, A C; Joyeux, L; Brantner, C; De Keersmaecker, B; De Catte, L; Baud, D; Deprest, J; Van Mieghem, T

    2016-03-01

    The fetal central nervous system can already be examined in the first trimester of pregnancy. Acrania, alobar holoprosencephaly, cephaloceles, and spina bifida can confidently be diagnosed at that stage and should actively be looked for in every fetus undergoing first-trimester ultrasound. For some other conditions, such as vermian anomalies and agenesis of the corpus callosum, markers have been identified, but the diagnosis can only be confirmed in the second trimester of gestation. For these conditions, data on sensitivity and more importantly specificity and false positives are lacking, and one should therefore be aware not to falsely reassure or scare expecting parents based on first-trimester findings. This review summarizes the current knowledge of first-trimester neurosonography in the normal and abnormal fetus and gives an overview of which diseases can be diagnosed.

  18. The role of diffusion-weighted echo planar MRI in central nervous system infections regarding etiopathogeneses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kıroğlu, Yılmaz; Karabulut, Nevzat; Alkan, Alpay

    2010-12-01

    Neuroimaging constitutes an important component in the diagnosis of the underlying infectious agents in central nervous system (CNS) infections. Despite the recent advances in neuroimaging evaluation, the diagnosis of unclear infectious CNS diseases remains a challenge. Conventional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is used in routine practice to identify abnormal areas involved in CNS infections. More recent MRI techniques, such as diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI), provide additional helpful information in the assessment of CNS infectious lesions compared with conventional MRI. This pictorial essay summarizes the clinical role of DWI in the demonstration of CNS infections including meningitis, encephalitis and pyogenic infections, and determination of the lesions compared with conventional MRI on the basis of physiopathologic phases of the infections.

  19. Disturbed development of the enteric nervous system after in utero exposure of selective serotonin re-uptake inhibitors and tricyclic antidepressants. Part 1 : Literature review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijenhuis, C.M.; Ter Horst, P.G.; de Jong-van den Berg, L.T.; Wilffert, B.

    2012-01-01

    The increase in selective serotonin re-uptake inhibitor (SSRI) use during pregnancy, questions concerning abnormal development of the enteric nervous system (ENS), increase in laxative use in children and the association of fluoxetine with infantile hypertrophic pyloric stenosis (IHPS) gave rise to

  20. The role of the autonomic nervous system in Tourette Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jack eHawksley

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Tourette Syndrome (TS is a neurodevelopmental disorder, consisting of multiple involuntary movements (motor tics and one or more vocal (phonic tics. It affects up to one percent of children worldwide, of whom about one third continue to experience symptoms into adulthood. The central neural mechanisms of tic generation are not clearly understood, however recent neuroimaging investigations suggest impaired cortico-striato-thalamo-cortical activity during motor control. In the current manuscript, we will tackle the relatively under-investigated role of the peripheral autonomic nervous system, and its central influences, on tic activity. There is emerging evidence that both sympathetic and parasympathetic nervous activity influences tic expression. Pharmacological treatments which act on sympathetic tone are often helpful: for example, Clonidine (an alpha-2 adrenoreceptor agonist is often used as first choice medication for treating TS in children due to its good tolerability profile and potential usefulness for co-morbid attention-deficit and hyperactivity disorder. Clonidine suppresses sympathetic activity, reducing the triggering of motor tics. A general elevation of sympathetic tone is reported in patients with TS compared to healthy people, however this observation may reflect transient responses coupled to tic activity. Thus the presence of autonomic impairments in patients with TS remains unclear. Effect of autonomic afferent input to cortico-striato-thalamo-cortical circuit will be discussed schematically. We additionally review how TS is affected by modulation of central autonomic control through biofeedback and Vagus Nerve Stimulation (VNS. Biofeedback training can enable a patient to gain voluntary control over covert physiological responses by making these responses explicit. Electrodermal biofeedback training to elicit a reduction in sympathetic tone has a demonstrated association with reduced tic frequency. VNS, achieved through an

  1. miRNAs in development and pathogenesis of the nervous system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nowak, Jakub S; Michlewski, Gracjan

    2013-08-01

    The human nervous system expresses approximately 70% of all miRNAs (microRNAs). Changing levels of certain ubiquitous and brain-specific miRNAs shape the development and function of the nervous system. It is becoming clear that misexpression of some miRNAs can contribute towards neurodevelopmental disorders. In the present article, we review the current knowledge of the role of miRNAs in development and pathogenesis of the nervous system.

  2. Bioengineered Hydrogel to Inhibit Post-Traumatic Central Nervous System Scarring

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-10-01

    AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-14-1-0586 TITLE: Bioengineered Hydrogel to Inhibit Post-Traumatic Central Nervous System Scarring PRINCIPAL...Hydrogel to Inhibit Post-Traumatic Central Nervous System Scarring 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER W81XWH-14-1-0586 5b. GRANT NUMBER W81XWH- 14-1-0586 5c...barriers that prevent the optimal delivery of biologics and cells to the injured nervous system . A significant problem is the formation of scar tissue

  3. NF1 Is an Effector and Regulator of the GPCR Signaling in the Nervous System

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-04-01

    1 AD______________ AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-14-1-0074 TITLE: “NF1 Is an Effector and Regulator of the GPCR Signaling in the Nervous System ...NF1 Is an Effector and Regulator of the GPCR Signaling in the Nervous System 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) Kirill Martemyanov, Ph.D...strategies. 15. SUBJECT TERMS neurofibromatosis, nervous system disorders, receptor signaling mechanisms, NF1 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: 17

  4. Voluntary activation of the sympathetic nervous system and attenuation of the innate immune response in humans

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kox, M.; Eijk, L.T.G.J. van; Zwaag, J.; Wildenberg, J. van den; Sweep, F.C.; Hoeven, J.G. van der; Pickkers, P.

    2014-01-01

    Excessive or persistent proinflammatory cytokine production plays a central role in autoimmune diseases. Acute activation of the sympathetic nervous system attenuates the innate immune response. However, both the autonomic nervous system and innate immune system are regarded as systems that cannot b

  5. Pathology and possible mechanisms of nervous system response to disc degeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brisby, Helena

    2006-04-01

    Degeneration of the intervertebral disc is clinically considered to be an important source of pain in patients with low-back pain. Disc deterioration and/or degeneration may influence the nervous system by stimulation of nociceptors in the anulus fibrosus, causing nociceptive pain that is often referred to as discogenic pain. The stimulation of the nociceptors may be of mechanical or inflammatory origin. Deterioration of a disc with loss of normal structure and weight-bearing properties may lead to abnormal motions that cause mechanical stimulation. This theory is supported by the fact that patients commonly experience an increase in pain with weight-bearing and certain movements. In addition, an ingrowth of vessels and nerve fibers into deeper layers of the anulus fibrosus has been observed in degenerated discs. A large number of inflammatory and signaling substances, such as tumor necrosis factor and interleukins (interleukin-1beta, interleukin-6, and interleukin-8), may also play a role in the development of back pain. Independent of stimulus of the nociceptors, the pain impulses are conducted through myelinated A delta fibers and unmyelinated C fibers to the dorsal root ganglion and continue by way of the spinothalamic tract to the thalamus and the somatosensory cortex. In response to stimulation of the nociceptors in the disc, the somatosensory system may increase its sensitivity, resulting in a nonfunctional response; that is, normally innocuous stimuli may generate an amplified response (peripheral sensitization). When disc degeneration leads to a disc herniation, the adjacent nervous system structures, such as the nerve roots or the dorsal root ganglion, can be affected, causing neuropathic pain of mechanical or biochemical origin. Disc deterioration also influences other spinal structures, such as facet joints, ligaments, and muscles, which can also become pain generators. Thus, disc degeneration may be responsible for the development of chronic low

  6. Spatio-Temporal Mapping and the Enteric Nervous System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hennig, Grant W

    Study of the enteric nervous system (ENS) is somewhat less glamorous than other body systems but offers a unique opportunity to study the sensory, interneuronal and motor outputs of a highly developed neural network in the same tissue. This has not been a trivial task, and even after a century, we still struggle to understand both the simple (e.g. reflexes) and complex (e.g. MMCs) behaviors the gut produces. On top of that, other control networks (such as ICC) that are integrated with ENS at varying levels, can modify ENS activity directly or indirectly. While many of the methods used to study the ENS were originally developed in other systems (e.g. brain/heart), a few were spawned "in the offal" so to speak, due to the unique characteristics of the gut. The brief perspective below outlines how spatio-temporal maps (ST Maps) originated and continue to flourish in GI research as a tool to describe and analyze the complexity of GI movements.I apologize that I am not able to specifically mention all the people involved in the development and use of ST Maps in enteric/motility research due to space constraints (GWH, July 2014).

  7. Somite polarity and segmental patterning of the peripheral nervous system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuan, C-Y Kelly; Tannahill, David; Cook, Geoffrey M W; Keynes, Roger J

    2004-09-01

    The analysis of the outgrowth pattern of spinal axons in the chick embryo has shown that somites are polarized into anterior and posterior halves. This polarity dictates the segmental development of the peripheral nervous system: migrating neural crest cells and outgrowing spinal axons traverse exclusively the anterior halves of the somite-derived sclerotomes, ensuring a proper register between spinal axons, their ganglia and the segmented vertebral column. Much progress has been made recently in understanding the molecular basis for somite polarization, and its linkage with Notch/Delta, Wnt and Fgf signalling. Contact-repulsive molecules expressed by posterior half-sclerotome cells provide critical guidance cues for axons and neural crest cells along the anterior-posterior axis. Diffusible repellents from surrounding tissues, particularly the dermomyotome and notochord, orient outgrowing spinal axons in the dorso-ventral axis ('surround repulsion'). Repulsive forces therefore guide axons in three dimensions. Although several molecular systems have been identified that may guide neural crest cells and axons in the sclerotome, it remains unclear whether these operate together with considerable overall redundancy, or whether any one system predominates in vivo.

  8. A distributed architecture for activating the peripheral nervous system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andreu, David; Guiraud, David; Souquet, Guillaume

    2009-04-01

    We present a new system for functional electrical stimulation (FES) applications based on networked stimulation units. They embed an advanced analog circuit, which provides multipolar and multiphasic stimulation profiles, and digital circuits, which ensure safety, locally executed programmed profiles, and communication with the master controller. This architecture is thus based on distributed stimulation units (DSU) that need only a two-wire bus to communicate, regardless of the number of poles of each DSU-driven electrode. This structure minimizes the required bandwidth between master and distributed units, increases the safety and stimulation features and decreases the complexity of the surgical approach. We have successfully tested this network-based stimulation architecture on benchtop stimulators. This original approach allows broad exploration of all possible methods to stimulate peripheral nerves, particularly in the goal of restoring the motor function. It provides a powerful research device to determine the optimal, least aggressive and the most efficient way to activate the peripheral nervous system using an implanted FES system that is less invasive than other existing devices.

  9. Promoting central nervous system regeneration: lessons from cranial nerve I.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruitenberg, Marc J; Vukovic, Jana

    2008-01-01

    The olfactory nerve differs from cranial nerves III-XII in that it contains a specialised type of glial cell, called 'olfactory ensheathing cell' (OEC), rather than Schwann cells. In addition, functional neurogenesis persists postnatally in the olfactory system, i.e. the primary olfactory pathway continuously rebuilds itself throughout adult life. The presence of OECs in the olfactory nerve is thought to be critical to this continuous growth process. Because of this intrinsic capacity for self-repair, the mammalian olfactory system has proved as a useful model in neuroregeneration studies. In addition, OECs have been used in transplantation studies to promote pathway regeneration elsewhere in the nervous system. Here, we have reviewed the parameters that allow for repair within the primary olfactory pathway and the role that OECs are thought to play in this process. We conclude that, in addition to intrinsic growth potential, the presence of an aligned substrate to the target structure is a fundamental prerequisite for appropriate restoration of connectivity with the olfactory bulb. Hence, strategies to promote regrowth of injured nerve pathways should incorporate usage of aligned, oriented substrates of OECs or other cellular conduits with additional intervention to boost neuronal cell body responses to injury and/or neutralisation of putative inhibitors.

  10. A distributed architecture for activating the peripheral nervous system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andreu, David; Guiraud, David; Souquet, Guillaume

    2009-04-01

    We present a new system for functional electrical stimulation (FES) applications based on networked stimulation units. They embed an advanced analog circuit, which provides multipolar and multiphasic stimulation profiles, and digital circuits, which ensure safety, locally executed programmed profiles, and communication with the master controller. This architecture is thus based on distributed stimulation units (DSU) that need only a two-wire bus to communicate, regardless of the number of poles of each DSU-driven electrode. This structure minimizes the required bandwidth between master and distributed units, increases the safety and stimulation features and decreases the complexity of the surgical approach. We have successfully tested this network-based stimulation architecture on benchtop stimulators. This original approach allows broad exploration of all possible methods to stimulate peripheral nerves, particularly in the goal of restoring the motor function. It provides a powerful research device to determine the optimal, least aggressive and the most efficient way to activate the peripheral nervous system using an implanted FES system that is less invasive than other existing devices.

  11. Central nervous system recurrence of systemic lymphoma in the era of stem cell transplantation--an International Primary Central Nervous System Lymphoma Study Group project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bromberg, Jacoline E; Doorduijn, Jeanette K; Illerhaus, Gerald; Jahnke, Kristoph; Korfel, Agniezka; Fischer, Lars; Fritsch, Kristina; Kuittinen, Outti; Issa, Samar; van Montfort, Cees; van den Bent, Martin J

    2013-05-01

    Autologous stem cell transplantation has greatly improved the prognosis of systemic recurrent non-Hodgkin's lymphoma. However, no prospective data are available concerning the feasibility and efficacy of this strategy for systemic lymphoma relapsing in the central nervous system. We, therefore, we performed an international multicenter retrospective study of patients with a central nervous system recurrence of systemic lymphoma to assess the outcome of these patients in the era of stem cell transplantation. We collected clinical and treatment data on patients with a first central nervous system recurrence of systemic lymphoma treated between 2000 and 2010 in one of five centers in four countries. Patient- and treatment-related factors were analyzed and compared descriptively. Primary outcome measures were overall survival and percentage of patients transplanted. We identified 92 patients, with a median age of 59 years and a median Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group/World Health Organization performance status of 2, of whom 76% had diffuse large B-cell histology. The majority (79%) of these patients were treated with systemic chemotherapy with or without intravenous rituximab. Twenty-seven patients (29%) were transplanted; age and insufficient response to induction chemotherapy were the main reasons for not being transplanted in the remaining 65 patients. The median overall survival was 7 months (95% confidence interval 2.6-11.4), being 8 months (95% confidence interval 3.8-5.2) for patients ≤ 65 years old. The 1-year survival rate was 34.8%; of the 27 transplanted patients 62% survived more than 1 year. The Memorial Sloan Kettering Prognostic Index for primary central nervous system lymphoma was prognostic for both undergoing transplantation and survival. In conclusion, despite the availability of autologous stem cell transplantation for patients with central nervous system progression or relapse of systemic lymphoma, prognosis is still poor. Long-term survival

  12. Acid-beta-glycerophosphatase reaction products in the central nervous system mitochondria following x-ray irradiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roizin, L; Orlovskaja, D; Liu, J C; Carsten, A L

    1975-06-01

    A survey of the literature to date on the enzyme histochemistry of intracellular organelles has not yielded any reference to the presence of acid phosphatase reaction products in the mammalian mitochondria of the central nervous system. A combination of Gomori's acid phosphatase mehtod, however, with standard electron microscopy has disclosed the presence of enzyme reaction products in the mitochondria of the central nervous system of rats from 2 hr to 22 weeks after x-ray irradiation, as well as in a cerebral biopsy performed on a patient affected by Huntington's chorea. No enzyme reaction products, on the other hand, were observed in serial sections that had been incubated in substrates either containing sodium fluoride or lacking in beta-glycerophosphate. The abnormal mitochondrial enzyme reaction (chemical lesion) is considered to be the consequenco of the pathologic process affecting the ultrastructural-chemical organization of the organelle.

  13. A planetary nervous system for social mining and collective awareness

    CERN Document Server

    Giannotti, Fosca; Alex,; Pentland,; Lukowicz, Paul; Kossmann, Donald; Crowley, James; Helbing, Dirk; 10.1140/epjst/e2012-01688-9

    2013-01-01

    We present a research roadmap of a Planetary Nervous System (PNS), capable of sensing and mining the digital breadcrumbs of human activities and unveiling the knowledge hidden in the big data for addressing the big questions about social complexity. We envision the PNS as a globally distributed, self-organizing, techno-social system for answering analytical questions about the status of world-wide society, based on three pillars: social sensing, social mining, and the idea of trust networks and privacy-aware social mining. We discuss the ingredients of a science and a technology necessary to build the PNS upon the three mentioned pillars, beyond the limitations of their respective state-of-art. Social sensing is aimed at developing better methods for harvesting the big data from the techno-social ecosystem and make them available for mining, learning and analysis at a properly high abstraction level.Social mining is the problem of discovering patterns and models of human behaviour from the sensed data across ...

  14. Paracoccidioidomycosis of the central nervous system: CT findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodacki, M.A. [Section of Neuroradiology, Service of Radiology, Sta Isabel Hospital, Sta Catarina (Brazil); Toni, G. de [University Hospital, Medical School of Curitiba, Parana (Brazil); Borba, L.A. [Division of Neurosurgery, Sta Isabel Hospital, Blumenau, Sta Catarina (Brazil); Oliveira, G.G. [Division of Pathology, Sta Isabel Hospital, Blumenau, Sta Catarina (Brazil)

    1995-11-01

    A retrospective analisis of six cases of central nervous system paracoccidioidomycosis, all but one proven by biopsy and surgery, was carried out to study the CT and clinical data and pathological correlation. Most of the patients were from the country. Headache, vomiting, seizures and hemiparesis were the most frequent symptoms. Papilloedema was present in four patients with raised intracranial pressure. Five patients had chronic lung disease and two with advanced systemic disease, skin and mucous membrane lesions were also observed. The neurological disturbance was sometimes the presenting features and the diagnosis was discovered incidentally after surgery. Both solitary and multiple parenchymal lesions were observed and the cerebral hemispheres were more commonly involved in four patients. Local meningeal involvement was observed in one with a single cortical granuloma. We enphasise the usefulness of CT, showing a rounded or lobulated mass with an isodense or radiolucent centre after contrast enhancement, surrounded by an irregular wall of varying thickness. There was always moderate oedema, extending peripherally. Other infections or neoplastic diseases may present similar findings. Preoperative diagnosis should rest on integration of clinical data, chest films, laboratory and neuroimaging studies. (orig.). With 4 figs., 2 tabs.

  15. Lost among the trees? The autonomic nervous system and paediatrics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rees, Corinne A

    2014-06-01

    The autonomic nervous system (ANS) has been strikingly neglected in Western medicine. Despite its profound importance for regulation, adjustment and coordination of body systems, it lacks priority in training and practice and receives scant attention in numerous major textbooks. The ANS is integral to manifestations of illness, underlying familiar physical and psychological symptoms. When ANS activity is itself dysfunctional, usual indicators of acute illness may prove deceptive. Recognising the relevance of the ANS can involve seeing the familiar through fresh eyes, challenging assumptions in clinical assessment and in approaches to practice. Its importance extends from physical and psychological well-being to parenting and safeguarding, public services and the functioning of society. Exploration of its role in conditions ranging from neurological, gastrointestinal and connective tissue disorders, diabetes and chronic fatigue syndrome, to autism, behavioural and mental health difficulties may open therapeutic avenues. The ANS offers a mechanism for so-called functional illnesses and illustrates the importance of recognising that 'stress' takes many forms, physical, psychological and environmental, desirable and otherwise. Evidence of intrauterine and post-natal programming of ANS reactivity suggests that neonatal care and safeguarding practice may offer preventive opportunity, as may greater understanding of epigenetic change of ANS activity through, for example, accidental or psychological trauma or infection. The aim of this article is to accelerate recognition of the importance of the ANS throughout paediatrics, and of the potential physical and psychological cost of neglecting it.

  16. PRIMARY CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM LYMPHOMA: CLINICOPATHOLOGICAL AND IMMUNOHISTOCHEMICAL PROFILE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kanwardeep Singh

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Primary central nervous system lymphoma (PCNSL is a rare form of extranodal non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL confined to the brain, spinal cord and/or eye, occurring in immunocompetent individuals. Histologically, they are diffuse large B-cell lymphomas. Over the last few decades there has been a gradual increase in their incidence. AIM To study the clinical, histopathological and immunohistochemical profile of primary central nervous system lymphoma. SETTING AND DESIGN Retrospective audit of seven cases of PCNSL diagnosed over a period of five years in a tertiary referral hospital of North India. MATERIAL AND METHODS The clinical, radiological and laboratory findings were retrieved from the hospital records. Histopathology slides were reviewed, studied in detail and a panel of immunohistochemical markers comprising of CD3, CD5, CD20, CD10, BCL6, BCL2, MUM1, CD30, EBV (LMP1, Ki-67 and p53 was done on all cases. RESULTS The male to female ratio was 3:4 with a median age of 60 years. The most common form of presentation was neurological deficits and altered sensorium. Imaging showed contrast enhancing, single or multiple, deep seated lesions within the cerebral hemispheres. Histologically, all were high-grade diffuse large B-cell lymphomas showing typical angiocentricity and a median Ki-67 proliferative index of 80%. Based on immunohistochemistry (Hans classifier three cases had germinal centre B-cell (GCB and four had non-germinal centre B-cell (non-GCB phenotype. p53 was expressed in all cases with strong expression in four of them. Four patients died before treatment could be initiated, one received palliative chemo-radiotherapy and two did not follow up after diagnosis. CONCLUSIONS Primary CNS lymphomas are high-grade diffuse large B-cell lymphomas which show high Ki-67 proliferative indices and frequent overexpression of p53. Irrespective of histological subtype, GCB or non-GCB, outcome is uniformly poor. Early and prompt diagnosis is

  17. Evolution of bilaterian central nervous systems: a single origin?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holland, Linda Z; Carvalho, João E; Escriva, Hector; Laudet, Vincent; Schubert, Michael; Shimeld, Sebastian M; Yu, Jr-Kai

    2013-10-07

    The question of whether the ancestral bilaterian had a central nervous system (CNS) or a diffuse ectodermal nervous system has been hotly debated. Considerable evidence supports the theory that a CNS evolved just once. However, an alternative view proposes that the chordate CNS evolved from the ectodermal nerve net of a hemichordate-like ancestral deuterostome, implying independent evolution of the CNS in chordates and protostomes. To specify morphological divisions along the anterior/posterior axis, this ancestor used gene networks homologous to those patterning three organizing centers in the vertebrate brain: the anterior neural ridge, the zona limitans intrathalamica and the isthmic organizer, and subsequent evolution of the vertebrate brain involved elaboration of these ancestral signaling centers; however, all or part of these signaling centers were lost from the CNS of invertebrate chordates. The present review analyzes the evidence for and against these theories. The bulk of the evidence indicates that a CNS evolved just once - in the ancestral bilaterian. Importantly, in both protostomes and deuterostomes, the CNS represents a portion of a generally neurogenic ectoderm that is internalized and receives and integrates inputs from sensory cells in the remainder of the ectoderm. The expression patterns of genes involved in medio/lateral (dorso/ventral) patterning of the CNS are similar in protostomes and chordates; however, these genes are not similarly expressed in the ectoderm outside the CNS. Thus, their expression is a better criterion for CNS homologs than the expression of anterior/posterior patterning genes, many of which (for example, Hox genes) are similarly expressed both in the CNS and in the remainder of the ectoderm in many bilaterians. The evidence leaves hemichordates in an ambiguous position - either CNS centralization was lost to some extent at the base of the hemichordates, or even earlier, at the base of the hemichordates

  18. Systemic abnormalities associated with retinal vein occlusion in young patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinawat, Suthasinee; Bunyavee, Chavisa; Ratanapakorn, Tanapat; Sinawat, Supat; Laovirojjanakul, Wipada; Yospaiboon, Yosanan

    2017-01-01

    Objectives To study the systemic abnormalities associated with retinal vein occlusion in patients aged ≤50 years with a particular emphasis on atherosclerotic diseases and thrombophilic disorders. Methods Medical charts of patients, aged ≤50 years whose diagnoses were retinal vein occlusions during the period 1995–2015 were retrospectively reviewed. The primary outcome was the number of systemic abnormalities associated with these patients. Secondary outcomes included types of retinal vein occlusion and sites of occlusion. Results Atherosclerotic diseases were the most common systemic abnormalities associated with retinal vein occlusion and accounted for 55.1% of the patients in the study. Hypertension in 27.55%, diabetes mellitus in 16.33%, and 5.1% with dyslipidemia were noted. The number of thrombophilic disorders seemed to be less than expected and were noted in only 5.1%. Other systemic abnormalities included viral hepatitis infection, systemic lupus erythematosus, and acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. Oral contraceptives were used by some patients. Conclusion Atherosclerotic diseases remained the most commonly associated systemic diseases in the majority of these patients. Approach to these patients should include a screening for hypertension, diabetes mellitus, and lipid abnormalities. Thrombophilia should also be considered where no obvious atherosclerotic diseases are found or if the patient is <40 years old, a history of thrombosis or a family history of thrombosis is possible. PMID:28260858

  19. Central nervous system involvement in systemic lupus erythematosus.

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1994-01-01

    This paper deals with the clinical, immunological and pathological data of 5 eases of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). Each of the five cases has typical SLE damages on the skin and multiple organs. Among

  20. Malicious Hubs: Detecting Abnormally Malicious Autonomous Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kalafut, Andrew J. [Indiana University; Shue, Craig A [ORNL; Gupta, Prof. Minaxi [Indiana University

    2010-01-01

    While many attacks are distributed across botnets, investigators and network operators have recently targeted malicious networks through high profile autonomous system (AS) de-peerings and network shut-downs. In this paper, we explore whether some ASes indeed are safe havens for malicious activity. We look for ISPs and ASes that exhibit disproportionately high malicious behavior using 12 popular blacklists. We find that some ASes have over 80% of their routable IP address space blacklisted and others account for large fractions of blacklisted IPs. Overall, we conclude that examining malicious activity at the AS granularity can unearth networks with lax security or those that harbor cybercrime.

  1. [Pathomechanisms of autoantibody production against the nervous system].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arimura, Kimiyoshi

    2013-04-01

    In immune-mediated neurological disorders, the production of autoantibodies against the nervous system occurs mainly because of impaired immune tolerance. In myasthenia gravis (MG), the thymus shows pathologic alterations, particularly in anti-AChR antibody-positive patients. Further, resection of the thymus induces a clinical recovery. The MG thymus contains all the elements, including AChR antigens, AChR-specific T cells, and antigen-secreting B cells, that are required to initiate and sustain autoantibody production. Central tolerance, established by the repertoire selection of immature T lymphocytes in the thymus, is impaired in MG patients who are positive for anti-AChR antibodies. Recent evidence suggests that chronic inflammation elicited by viral infection is important for the production of AChR antibodies. Antibodies against ganglioside are crucial for the diagnosis of Guillain-Barre syndrome (GBS). Molecular mimicry between the lipooligosaccharides of Camplylobacter jejuni and gangliosides of the peripheral nerve causes the production of antibodies. However, less than 1 in 1000 patients infected with C. jejuni develop GBS. This fact suggests that some host factors might influence the production of antibodies. A recent hypothesis suggests that transient impairment of peripheral tolerance due to infection may play a crucial role in GBS pathogenesis. In summary, autoantibody production might correlate with the impairment of immune tolerance as well as with innate immunity.

  2. Non-linear HRV indices under autonomic nervous system blockade.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolea, Juan; Pueyo, Esther; Laguna, Pablo; Bailón, Raquel

    2014-01-01

    Heart rate variability (HRV) has been studied as a non-invasive technique to characterize the autonomic nervous system (ANS) regulation of the heart. Non-linear methods based on chaos theory have been used during the last decades as markers for risk stratification. However, interpretation of these nonlinear methods in terms of sympathetic and parasympathetic activity is not fully established. In this work we study linear and non-linear HRV indices during ANS blockades in order to assess their relation with sympathetic and parasympathetic activities. Power spectral content in low frequency (0.04-0.15 Hz) and high frequency (0.15-0.4 Hz) bands of HRV, as well as correlation dimension, sample and approximate entropies were computed in a database of subjects during single and dual ANS blockade with atropine and/or propranolol. Parasympathetic blockade caused a significant decrease in the low and high frequency power of HRV, as well as in correlation dimension and sample and approximate entropies. Sympathetic blockade caused a significant increase in approximate entropy. Sympathetic activation due to postural change from supine to standing caused a significant decrease in all the investigated non-linear indices and a significant increase in the normalized power in the low frequency band. The other investigated linear indices did not show significant changes. Results suggest that parasympathetic activity has a direct relation with sample and approximate entropies.

  3. [Dementia in Patients with Central Nervous System Mycosis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morita, Akihiko; Ishihara, Masaki; Konno, Michiko

    2016-04-01

    Central nervous system (CNS) mycosis is a potentially life-threatening but treatable neurological emergency. CNS mycoses progress slowly and are sometimes difficult to distinguish from dementia. Though most patients with CNS mycosis have an underlying disease, such as human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection, cancer, diabetes mellitus, and/or use of immunosuppressants, cryptococcosis can occur in non-immunosuppressed persons. One of the major difficulties in accurate diagnosis is to detect the pathogen in patients' cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) cultures. Thus, the clinical diagnosis is often made by combining circumstantial evidence, including mononuclear cell-dominant pleocytosis with low glucose and protein elevation in the CSF, as well as positive results from an antigen-based assay and a (1-3)-beta-D-glucan assay using plasma and/or CSF. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based diagnostics, which are not performed as routine examinations and are mostly performed as part of academic research in Japan, are sensitive tools for the early diagnosis of CNS mycosis. Mognetic resonance imaging (MRI) is useful to assess the complications of fungal meningitis, such as abscess, infarction, and hydrocephalus. Clinicians should realize the advantages and disadvantages of these diagnostic tools. Early and accurate diagnosis, including identification of the particular fungal species, enables optimal antifungal treatment that produces good outcomes in patients with CNS mycosis.

  4. The role of the nervous system in fish evolution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael H Hofmann

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The nervous system plays an important role in the evolution and adaptation of animals. All sensory and motor functions as well as cognitive abilities are organized in the brain and spinal cord. Volumetric measurements of different brain regions were made in more than 150 species of ray finned fishes as well as in several outgroups. In Actanthopterygii, the hypothalamus shows greatest enlargement most likely due to an enormous visual input via the nucleus glomerulosos. The telencephalon is highly differentiated in many acanthopterygii, mostly coral reef species, but its relative size is not much effected. There is, however, a clear shift from olfactory to visual functions in ray finned fishes. In species with a highly differentiated telencephalon, the area where place memory may be located is very prominent. In basal ray finned fishes, lungfish, amphibia and elasmobranchs, the olfactory bulb is relatively large and the ratio of the olfactory bulb and telencephalon large as well. This holds also for elopomorpha and spiny eels, but in most other groups vision dominates. Apart from differences between larger clades, variation in brain architecture are also seen in closely related species and even between sexes of the same species. Profound differences are present in the cerebellum between male and female swordtails and in the telencephalon of sticklebacks. Morphometric analysis of brain architecture turned out to be an important tool to study the evolution and adaptations of the brain in fishes.

  5. Microparticles: A New Perspective in Central Nervous System Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephanie M. Schindler

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Microparticles (MPs are a heterogeneous population of small cell-derived vesicles, ranging in size from 0.1 to 1 μm. They contain a variety of bioactive molecules, including proteins, biolipids, and nucleic acids, which can be transferred between cells without direct cell-to-cell contact. Consequently, MPs represent a novel form of intercellular communication, which could play a role in both physiological and pathological processes. Growing evidence indicates that circulating MPs contribute to the development of cancer, inflammation, and autoimmune and cardiovascular diseases. Most cell types of the central nervous system (CNS have also been shown to release MPs, which could be important for neurodevelopment, CNS maintenance, and pathologies. In disease, levels of certain MPs appear elevated; therefore, they may serve as biomarkers allowing for the development of new diagnostic tools for detecting the early stages of CNS pathologies. Quantification and characterization of MPs could also provide useful information for making decisions on treatment options and for monitoring success of therapies, particularly for such difficult-to-treat diseases as cerebral malaria, multiple sclerosis, and Alzheimer’s disease. Overall, studies on MPs in the CNS represent a novel area of research, which promises to expand the knowledge on the mechanisms governing some of the physiological and pathophysiological processes of the CNS.

  6. Ion channel expression in the developing enteric nervous system.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caroline S Hirst

    Full Text Available The enteric nervous system arises from neural crest-derived cells (ENCCs that migrate caudally along the embryonic gut. The expression of ion channels by ENCCs in embryonic mice was investigated using a PCR-based array, RT-PCR and immunohistochemistry. Many ion channels, including chloride, calcium, potassium and sodium channels were already expressed by ENCCs at E11.5. There was an increase in the expression of numerous ion channel genes between E11.5 and E14.5, which coincides with ENCC migration and the first extension of neurites by enteric neurons. Previous studies have shown that a variety of ion channels regulates neurite extension and migration of many cell types. Pharmacological inhibition of a range of chloride or calcium channels had no effect on ENCC migration in cultured explants or neuritogenesis in vitro. The non-selective potassium channel inhibitors, TEA and 4-AP, retarded ENCC migration and neuritogenesis, but only at concentrations that also resulted in cell death. In summary, a large range of ion channels is expressed while ENCCs are colonizing the gut, but we found no evidence that ENCC migration or neuritogenesis requires chloride, calcium or potassium channel activity. Many of the ion channels are likely to be involved in the development of electrical excitability of enteric neurons.

  7. Ion Channel Expression in the Developing Enteric Nervous System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stamp, Lincon A.; Fegan, Emily; Dent, Stephan; Cooper, Edward C.; Lomax, Alan E.; Anderson, Colin R.; Bornstein, Joel C.; Young, Heather M.; McKeown, Sonja J.

    2015-01-01

    The enteric nervous system arises from neural crest-derived cells (ENCCs) that migrate caudally along the embryonic gut. The expression of ion channels by ENCCs in embryonic mice was investigated using a PCR-based array, RT-PCR and immunohistochemistry. Many ion channels, including chloride, calcium, potassium and sodium channels were already expressed by ENCCs at E11.5. There was an increase in the expression of numerous ion channel genes between E11.5 and E14.5, which coincides with ENCC migration and the first extension of neurites by enteric neurons. Previous studies have shown that a variety of ion channels regulates neurite extension and migration of many cell types. Pharmacological inhibition of a range of chloride or calcium channels had no effect on ENCC migration in cultured explants or neuritogenesis in vitro. The non-selective potassium channel inhibitors, TEA and 4-AP, retarded ENCC migration and neuritogenesis, but only at concentrations that also resulted in cell death. In summary, a large range of ion channels is expressed while ENCCs are colonizing the gut, but we found no evidence that ENCC migration or neuritogenesis requires chloride, calcium or potassium channel activity. Many of the ion channels are likely to be involved in the development of electrical excitability of enteric neurons. PMID:25798587

  8. Central Nervous System Multiparameter Optimization Desirability: Application in Drug Discovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wager, Travis T; Hou, Xinjun; Verhoest, Patrick R; Villalobos, Anabella

    2016-06-15

    Significant progress has been made in prospectively designing molecules using the central nervous system multiparameter optimization (CNS MPO) desirability tool, as evidenced by the analysis reported herein of a second wave of drug candidates that originated after the development and implementation of this tool. This simple-to-use design algorithm has expanded design space for CNS candidates and has further demonstrated the advantages of utilizing a flexible, multiparameter approach in drug discovery rather than individual parameters and hard cutoffs of physicochemical properties. The CNS MPO tool has helped to increase the percentage of compounds nominated for clinical development that exhibit alignment of ADME attributes, cross the blood-brain barrier, and reside in lower-risk safety space (low ClogP and high TPSA). The use of this tool has played a role in reducing the number of compounds submitted to exploratory toxicity studies and increasing the survival of our drug candidates through regulatory toxicology into First in Human studies. Overall, the CNS MPO algorithm has helped to improve the prioritization of design ideas and the quality of the compounds nominated for clinical development.

  9. HCV-related central and peripheral nervous system demyelinating disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mariotto, Sara; Ferrari, Sergio; Monaco, Salvatore

    2014-01-01

    Chronic infection with hepatitis C virus (HCV) is associated with a large spectrum of extrahepatic manifestations (EHMs), mostly immunologic/rheumatologic in nature owing to B-cell proliferation and clonal expansion. Neurological complications are thought to be immune-mediated or secondary to invasion of neural tissues by HCV, as postulated in transverse myelitis and encephalopathic forms. Primarily axonal neuropathies, including sensorimotor polyneuropathy, large or small fiber sensory neuropathy, motor polyneuropathy, mononeuritis, mononeuritis multiplex, or overlapping syndrome, represent the most common neurological complications of chronic HCV infection. In addition, a number of peripheral demyelinating disorders are encountered, such as chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy, the Lewis-Sumner syndrome, and cryoglobulin-associated polyneuropathy with demyelinating features. The spectrum of demyelinating forms also includes rare cases of iatrogenic central and peripheral nervous system disorders, occurring during treatment with pegylated interferon. Herein, we review HCV-related demyelinating conditions, and disclose the novel observation on the significantly increased frequency of chronic demyelinating neuropathy with anti-myelin-associated glycoprotein antibodies in a cohort of 59 consecutive patients recruited at our institution. We also report a second case of neuromyelitis optica with serum IgG autoantibody against the water channel aquaporin-4. The prompt recognition of these atypical and underestimated complications of HCV infection is of crucial importance in deciding which treatment option a patient should be offered.

  10. Fractal Structure and Entropy Production within the Central Nervous System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew J. E. Seely

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Our goal is to explore the relationship between two traditionally unrelated concepts, fractal structure and entropy production, evaluating both within the central nervous system (CNS. Fractals are temporal or spatial structures with self-similarity across scales of measurement; whereas entropy production represents the necessary exportation of entropy to our environment that comes with metabolism and life. Fractals may be measured by their fractal dimension; and human entropy production may be estimated by oxygen and glucose metabolism. In this paper, we observe fractal structures ubiquitously present in the CNS, and explore a hypothetical and unexplored link between fractal structure and entropy production, as measured by oxygen and glucose metabolism. Rapid increase in both fractal structures and metabolism occur with childhood and adolescent growth, followed by slow decrease during aging. Concomitant increases and decreases in fractal structure and metabolism occur with cancer vs. Alzheimer’s and multiple sclerosis, respectively. In addition to fractals being related to entropy production, we hypothesize that the emergence of fractal structures spontaneously occurs because a fractal is more efficient at dissipating energy gradients, thus maximizing entropy production. Experimental evaluation and further understanding of limitations and necessary conditions are indicated to address broad scientific and clinical implications of this work.

  11. Eosinophilic vasculitis in an isolated central nervous system distribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sommerville, R Brian; Noble, James M; Vonsattel, Jean Paul; Delapaz, Robert; Wright, Clinton B

    2009-01-01

    Eosinophilic vasculitis has been described as part of the Churg–Strauss syndrome, but affects the central nervous system (CNS) in <10% of cases. A 39-year-old woman with a history of migraine without aura presented to an institution in an acute confusional state with concurrent headache and left-sided weakness. Laboratory evaluation showed an increased cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) protein level, but otherwise unremarkable serologies. Magnetic resonance imaging showed bifrontal polar gyral-enhancing brain lesions. Her symptoms resolved over two weeks without residual deficits. Eighteen months later the patient presented with similar symptoms and neuroradiological findings showed involvement of territories different from those in her first episode. Brain biopsy showed transmural, predominantly eosinophilic, inflammatory infiltrates and fibrinoid necrosis without granulomas. She improved when treated with corticosteroids. To our knowledge, this is the first case of non-granulomatous eosinophilic vasculitis isolated to the CNS. No aetiology for this patient’s primary CNS eosinophilic vasculitis has yet been identified. PMID:21686608

  12. Modulation of Autonomous Nervous System activity by gyrosonic stimulation

    CERN Document Server

    Ghatak, S K; Choudhuri, R; Bandopadhaya, S

    2010-01-01

    A novel audio binaural stimulus that generates rotational perceptions of sound movement in brain at a particular predetermined frequency is referred as gyrosonics. The influence of gyrosonics on autonomic nervous system of healthy subjects has been examined by analyzing heart rate variability (HRV) in time- and frequency- domain. The M-lagged Poincare plot shows that the parameters SD1, SD2 and ratio SD12 (SD1/SD2) increases with lagged number M, and M-dependence is well described by Pade' approximant $\\chi \\frac{1+\\beta M}{1+\\gamma M}$ where values of $\\chi$, $\\beta$ and $ \\gamma$ depend on parameters SD1,SD2 and SD12. The values of these parameters for different M are augmented after gyrosonic stimulation. The slope and magnitude of curvature of SD1 and SD12 vs M plot increase considerably due to stimulation. The DFA analysis exhibits decrease in value of exponent $\\alpha$ due to stimulation. This stimulation results slower Heart rate, higher values of the standard deviation SD and the root-mean squared suc...

  13. Preferential lentiviral targeting of astrocytes in the central nervous system.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Fassler

    Full Text Available The ability to visualize and genetically manipulate specific cell populations of the central nervous system (CNS is fundamental to a better understanding of brain functions at the cellular and molecular levels. Tools to selectively target cells of the CNS include molecular genetics, imaging, and use of transgenic animals. However, these approaches are technically challenging, time consuming, and difficult to control. Viral-mediated targeting of cells in the CNS can be highly beneficial for studying and treating neurodegenerative diseases. Yet, despite specific marking of numerous cell types in the CNS, in vivo selective targeting of astrocytes has not been optimized. In this study, preferential targeting of astrocytes in the CNS was demonstrated using engineered lentiviruses that were pseudotyped with a modified Sindbis envelope and displayed anti-GLAST IgG on their surfaces as an attachment moiety. Viral tropism for astrocytes was initially verified in vitro in primary mixed glia cultures. When injected into the brains of mice, lentiviruses that displayed GLAST IgG on their surface, exhibited preferential astrocyte targeting, compared to pseudotyped lentiviruses that did not incorporate any IgG or that expressed a control isotype IgG. Overall, this approach is highly flexible and can be exploited to selectively target astrocytes or other cell types of the CNS. As such, it can open a window to visualize and genetically manipulate astrocytes or other cells of the CNS as means of research and treatment.

  14. Comprehensive Craniospinal Radiation for Controlling Central Nervous System Leukemia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walker, Gary V.; Shihadeh, Ferial [Department of Radiation Oncology, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Kantarjian, Hagop [Department of Leukemia, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Allen, Pamela [Department of Radiation Oncology, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Rondon, Gabriela; Kebriaei, Partow [Department of Stem Cell Transplantation, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); O' Brien, Susan [Department of Leukemia, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Kedir, Aziza; Said, Mustefa; Grant, Jonathan D. [Department of Radiation Oncology, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Thomas, Deborah A. [Department of Leukemia, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Gidley, Paul W. [Department of Head and Neck Surgery, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Arzu, Isidora; Pinnix, Chelsea; Reed, Valerie [Department of Radiation Oncology, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Dabaja, Bouthaina S., E-mail: bdabaja@mdanderson.org [Department of Radiation Oncology, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States)

    2014-12-01

    Purpose: To determine the benefit of radiation therapy (RT) in resolution of neurologic symptoms and deficits and whether the type of RT fields influences central nervous system (CNS) control in adults with CNS leukemia. Methods and Materials: A total of 163 adults from 1996 to 2012 were retrospectively analyzed. Potential associations between use of radiation and outcome were investigated by univariate and multivariate analysis. Results: The median survival time was 3.8 months after RT. Common presenting symptoms were headache in 79 patients (49%), cranial nerve VII deficit in 46 (28%), and cranial nerve II deficit in 44 (27%). RT was delivered to the base of skull in 48 patients (29%), to the whole brain (WB) in 67 (41%), and to the craniospinal axis (CS) in 48 (29%). Among 149 patients with a total of 233 deficits, resolution was observed in 34 deficits (15%), improvement in 126 deficits (54%), stability in 34 deficits (15%), and progression in 39 deficits (17%). The 12-month CNS progression-free survival was 77% among those receiving CS/WB and 51% among those receiving base of skull RT (P=.02). On multivariate analysis, patients who did not undergo stem cell transplantation after RT and base of skull RT were associated with worse CNS progression-free survival. Conclusions: Improvement or resolution of symptoms occurred in two thirds of deficits after RT. Comprehensive radiation to the WB or CS seems to offer a better outcome, especially in isolated CNS involvement.

  15. Pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of antiretrovirals in the central nervous system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calcagno, Andrea; Di Perri, Giovanni; Bonora, Stefano

    2014-10-01

    HIV-positive patients may be effectively treated with highly active antiretroviral therapy and such a strategy is associated with striking immune recovery and viral load reduction to very low levels. Despite undeniable results, the central nervous system (CNS) is commonly affected during the course of HIV infection, with neurocognitive disorders being as prevalent as 20-50 % of treated subjects. This review discusses the pathophysiology of CNS infection by HIV and the barriers to efficacious control of such a mechanism, including the available data on compartmental drug penetration and on pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic relationships. In the reviewed articles, a high variability in drug transfer to the CNS is highlighted with several mechanisms as well as methodological issues potentially influencing the observed results. Nevirapine and zidovudine showed the highest cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) to plasma ratios, although target concentrations are currently unknown for the CNS. The use of the composite CSF concentration effectiveness score has been associated with better virological outcomes (lower HIV RNA) but has been inconsistently associated with neurocognitive outcomes. These findings support the CNS effectiveness of commonly used highly antiretroviral therapies. The use of antiretroviral drugs with increased CSF penetration and/or effectiveness in treating or preventing neurocognitive disorders however needs to be assessed in well-designed prospective studies.

  16. MRI in central nervous system infections: A simplified patterned approach

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Krithika; Rangarajan; Chandan; J; Das; Atin; Kumar; Arun; Kumar; Gupta

    2014-01-01

    Recognition and characterization of central nervous system infections poses a formidable challenge to the neuro-radiologist.Imaging plays a vital role,the lesions typically being relatively inaccessible to tisue sampling.The results of an accurate diagnosis are endlessly re-warding,given the availability of excellent pharmaco-logical regimen.The availability of numerous magnetic resonance(MR)sequences which provide functional and molecular information is a powerful tool in the hands of the radiologist.However,the plethora of se-quences and the possibilities on each sequence is also intimidating,and often confusing as well as time con-suming.While a large number of reviews have already described in detail the possible imaging findings in each infection,we intend to classify infections based on their imaging characteristics.In this review we describe an algorithm for first classifying the imaging findings into patterns based on basic MR sequences(T1,T2 and enhancement pattern with Gadolinium),and then sub-classify them based on more advanced molecular and functional sequences(Diffusion,Perfusion,Susceptibili-ty imaging,MR Spectroscopy).This patterned approachis intended as a guide to radiologists in-training and in-practice for quickly narrowing their list of differentials when faced with a clinical challenge.The entire content of the article has also been summarised in the form of flow-charts for the purpose of quick reference.

  17. Systematic review of central nervous system anomalies in incontinentia pigmenti

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minić Snežana

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The objective of this study was to present a systematic review of the central nervous system (CNS types of anomalies and to consider the possibility to include CNS anomalies in Incontinentia pigmenti (IP criteria. The analyzed literature data from 1,393 IP cases were from the period 1993–2012. CNS anomalies were diagnosed for 30.44% of the investigated IP patients. The total number of CNS types of anomalies per patient was 1.62. In the present study there was no significantly higher number of anomalies per patient in females than males. The most frequent CNS types of anomalies were seizures, motor impairment, mental retardation, and microcephaly. The most frequently registered CNS lesions found using brain imaging methods were brain infarcts or necrosis, brain atrophies, and corpus callosum lesions. IKBKG exon 4–10 deletion was present in 86.00% of genetically confirmed IP patients. The frequency of CNS anomalies, similar to the frequency of retinal anomalies in IP patients, concurrent with their severity, supports their recognition in the list of IP minor criteria.

  18. Central nervous system infections in the intensive care unit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Vengamma

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Neurological infections constitute an uncommon, but important aetiological cause requiring admission to an intensive care unit (ICU. In addition, health-care associated neurological infections may develop in critically ill patients admitted to an ICU for other indications. Central nervous system infections can develop as complications in ICU patients including post-operative neurosurgical patients. While bacterial infections are the most common cause, mycobacterial and fungal infections are also frequently encountered. Delay in institution of specific treatment is considered to be the single most important poor prognostic factor. Empirical antibiotic therapy must be initiated while awaiting specific culture and sensitivity results. Choice of empirical antimicrobial therapy should take into consideration the most likely pathogens involved, locally prevalent drug-resistance patterns, underlying predisposing, co-morbid conditions, and other factors, such as age, immune status. Further, the antibiotic should adequately penetrate the blood-brain and blood- cerebrospinal fluid barriers. The presence of a focal collection of pus warrants immediate surgical drainage. Following strict aseptic precautions during surgery, hand-hygiene and care of catheters, devices constitute important preventive measures. A high index of clinical suspicion and aggressive efforts at identification of aetiological cause and early institution of specific treatment in patients with neurological infections can be life saving.

  19. Cardiovascular parasympathetic nervous system dysfunction in female rheumatoid arthritis patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saraswathi, P V; Neelambikai, N; Mahesh, Arjun; Govindarajan, K

    2013-01-01

    The autonomic dysfunction has been reported in patients with (rheumatoid arthritis) RA and systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) like connective tissue disorders and it may be due to the vasculitis of vasa nervorum and secondary amyloidosis. The pathogenesis may also have an immune component that affects autonomic functions. In the present study, three standard cardiovascular parasympathetic function tests were performed in 207 RA patients and in 106 healthy controls. 14.45% patients were presented with symptoms related to cardiovascular autonomic dysfunction. Heart rate variation to deep breathing (DBD), standing (30:15 ratio), Valsalva ratio (VR) were found to be significantly reduced in RA patients and was weakly associated with female RA patients (r = 0.165, p = 0.018) and was not correlated to disease duration, RF positivity & severity of the disease. In conclusion, this study has confirmed the presence of significant subclinical cardiovascular parasympathetic nervous dysfunction in RA patients and its positive association with female gender. Hence, inclusion of cardiovascular autonomic function tests in the routine clinical examination may be helpful in the early detection of autonomic dysfunction in RA.

  20. Clinical Proton MR Spectroscopy in Central Nervous System Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alger, Jeffry R.; Barker, Peter B.; Bartha, Robert; Bizzi, Alberto; Boesch, Chris; Bolan, Patrick J.; Brindle, Kevin M.; Cudalbu, Cristina; Dinçer, Alp; Dydak, Ulrike; Emir, Uzay E.; Frahm, Jens; González, Ramón Gilberto; Gruber, Stephan; Gruetter, Rolf; Gupta, Rakesh K.; Heerschap, Arend; Henning, Anke; Hetherington, Hoby P.; Howe, Franklyn A.; Hüppi, Petra S.; Hurd, Ralph E.; Kantarci, Kejal; Klomp, Dennis W. J.; Kreis, Roland; Kruiskamp, Marijn J.; Leach, Martin O.; Lin, Alexander P.; Luijten, Peter R.; Marjańska, Małgorzata; Maudsley, Andrew A.; Meyerhoff, Dieter J.; Mountford, Carolyn E.; Nelson, Sarah J.; Pamir, M. Necmettin; Pan, Jullie W.; Peet, Andrew C.; Poptani, Harish; Posse, Stefan; Pouwels, Petra J. W.; Ratai, Eva-Maria; Ross, Brian D.; Scheenen, Tom W. J.; Schuster, Christian; Smith, Ian C. P.; Soher, Brian J.; Tkáč, Ivan; Vigneron, Daniel B.; Kauppinen, Risto A.

    2014-01-01

    A large body of published work shows that proton (hydrogen 1 [1H]) magnetic resonance (MR) spectroscopy has evolved from a research tool into a clinical neuroimaging modality. Herein, the authors present a summary of brain disorders in which MR spectroscopy has an impact on patient management, together with a critical consideration of common data acquisition and processing procedures. The article documents the impact of 1H MR spectroscopy in the clinical evaluation of disorders of the central nervous system. The clinical usefulness of 1H MR spectroscopy has been established for brain neoplasms, neonatal and pediatric disorders (hypoxia-ischemia, inherited metabolic diseases, and traumatic brain injury), demyelinating disorders, and infectious brain lesions. The growing list of disorders for which 1H MR spectroscopy may contribute to patient management extends to neurodegenerative diseases, epilepsy, and stroke. To facilitate expanded clinical acceptance and standardization of MR spectroscopy methodology, guidelines are provided for data acquisition and analysis, quality assessment, and interpretation. Finally, the authors offer recommendations to expedite the use of robust MR spectroscopy methodology in the clinical setting, including incorporation of technical advances on clinical units. © RSNA, 2014 Online supplemental material is available for this article. PMID:24568703

  1. Mutational analysis of primary central nervous system lymphoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruno, Aurélie; Boisselier, Blandine; Labreche, Karim; Marie, Yannick; Polivka, Marc; Jouvet, Anne; Adam, Clovis; Figarella-Branger, Dominique; Miquel, Catherine; Eimer, Sandrine; Houillier, Caroline; Soussain, Carole; Mokhtari, Karima; Daveau, Romain; Hoang-Xuan, Khê

    2014-07-15

    Little is known about the genomic basis of primary central nervous system lymphoma (PCNSL) tumorigenesis. To investigate the mutational profile of PCNSL, we analyzed nine paired tumor and germline DNA samples from PCNSL patients by high throughput exome sequencing. Eight genes of interest have been further investigated by focused resequencing in 28 additional PCNSL tumors to better estimate their incidence. Our study identified recurrent somatic mutations in 37 genes, some involved in key signaling pathways such as NFKB, B cell differentiation and cell cycle control. Focused resequencing in the larger cohort revealed high mutation rates for genes already described as mutated in PCNSL such as MYD88 (38%), CD79B (30%), PIM1 (22%) and TBL1XR1 (19%) and for genes not previously reported to be involved in PCNSL tumorigenesis such as ETV6 (16%), IRF4 (14%), IRF2BP2 (11%) and EBF1 (11%). Of note, only 3 somatically acquired SNVs were annotated in the COSMIC database. Our results demonstrate a high genetic heterogeneity of PCNSL and mutational pattern similarities with extracerebral diffuse large B cell lymphomas, particularly of the activated B-cell (ABC) subtype, suggesting shared underlying biological mechanisms. The present study provides new insights into the mutational profile of PCNSL and potential targets for therapeutic strategies.

  2. The role of microbiome in central nervous system disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yan; Kasper, Lloyd H

    2014-05-01

    Mammals live in a co-evolutionary association with the plethora of microorganisms that reside at a variety of tissue microenvironments. The microbiome represents the collective genomes of these co-existing microorganisms, which is shaped by host factors such as genetics and nutrients but in turn is able to influence host biology in health and disease. Niche-specific microbiome, prominently the gut microbiome, has the capacity to effect both local and distal sites within the host. The gut microbiome has played a crucial role in the bidirectional gut-brain axis that integrates the gut and central nervous system (CNS) activities, and thus the concept of microbiome-gut-brain axis is emerging. Studies are revealing how diverse forms of neuro-immune and neuro-psychiatric disorders are correlated with or modulated by variations of microbiome, microbiota-derived products and exogenous antibiotics and probiotics. The microbiome poises the peripheral immune homeostasis and predisposes host susceptibility to CNS autoimmune diseases such as multiple sclerosis. Neural, endocrine and metabolic mechanisms are also critical mediators of the microbiome-CNS signaling, which are more involved in neuro-psychiatric disorders such as autism, depression, anxiety, stress. Research on the role of microbiome in CNS disorders deepens our academic knowledge about host-microbiome commensalism in central regulation and in practicality, holds conceivable promise for developing novel prognostic and therapeutic avenues for CNS disorders. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Central nervous system regulation of intestinal lipid and lipoprotein metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farr, Sarah; Taher, Jennifer; Adeli, Khosrow

    2016-02-01

    In response to nutrient availability, the small intestine and brain closely communicate to modulate energy homeostasis and metabolism. The gut-brain axis involves complex nutrient sensing mechanisms and an integration of neuronal and hormonal signaling. This review summarizes recent evidence implicating the gut-brain axis in regulating lipoprotein metabolism, with potential implications for the dyslipidemia of insulin resistant states. The intestine and brain possess distinct mechanisms for sensing lipid availability, which triggers subsequent regulation of feeding, glucose homeostasis, and adipose tissue metabolism. More recently, central receptors, neuropeptides, and gut hormones that communicate with the brain have been shown to modulate hepatic and intestinal lipoprotein metabolism via parasympathetic and sympathetic signaling. Gut-derived glucagon-like peptides appear to be particularly important in modulating the intestinal secretion of chylomicron particles via a novel brain-gut axis. Dysregulation of these pathways may contribute to postprandial diabetic dyslipidemia. Emerging evidence implicates the central and enteric nervous systems in controlling many aspects of lipid and lipoprotein metabolism. Bidirectional communication between the gut and brain involving neuronal pathways and gut peptides is critical for regulating feeding and metabolism, and forms a neuroendocrine circuit to modulate dietary fat absorption and intestinal production of atherogenic chylomicron particles.

  4. Tumor interactions with soluble factors and the nervous system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Voss Melanie J

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In the genomic era of cancer research, the development of metastases has been attributed to mutations in the tumor that enable the cells to migrate. However, gene analyses revealed that primary tumors and metastases were in some cases genetically identical and the question was raised whether metastasis formation might be an inherent feature of certain tumor cells. In contradiction to this view, the last decade of cancer research has brought to light, that tumor cell migration, similar to leukocyte and fibroblast migration, is a highly regulated process. The nervous system plays an important role in this regulation, at least in two respects: firstly, neurotransmitters are known to regulate the migratory activity of tumor cells, and secondly, nerve fibers are used as routes for perineural invasion. We also summarize here the current knowledge on the innervation of tumors. Such a process might establish a neuro-neoplastic synapse, with the close interaction of tumor cells and nerve cells supporting metastasis formation.

  5. Central Nervous System Agents for Ischemic Stroke: Neuroprotection Mechanisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandya, Rachna S.; Mao, Lijuan; Zhou, Hua; Zhou, Shuanhu; Zeng, Jiang; Popp, A. John; Wang, Xin

    2011-01-01

    Stroke is the third leading cause of mortality and disability in the United States. Ischemic stroke constitutes 85% of all stroke cases. However, no effective treatment has been found to prevent damage to the brain in such cases except tissue plasminogen activator with narrow therapeutic window, and there is an unmet need to develop therapeutics for neuroprotection from ischemic stroke. Studies have shown that mechanisms including apoptosis, necrosis, inflammation, immune modulation, and oxidative stress and mediators such as excitatory amino acids, nitric oxide, inflammatory mediators, neurotransmitters, reactive oxygen species, and withdrawal of trophic factors may lead to the development of the ischemic cascade. Hence, it is essential to develop neuroprotective agents targeting either the mechanisms or the mediators leading to development of ischemic stroke. This review focuses on central nervous system agents targeting these biochemical pathways and mediators of ischemic stroke, mainly those that counteract apoptosis, inflammation, and oxidation, and well as glutamate inhibitors which have been shown to provide neuroprotection in experimental animals. All these agents have been shown to improve neurological outcome after ischemic insult in experimental animals in vivo, organotypic brain slice/acute slice ex vivo, and cell cultures in vitro and may therefore aid in preventing long-term morbidity and mortality associated with ischemic stroke. PMID:21521165

  6. Ventriculoperitoneal shunt for hydrocephalus caused by central nervous system metastasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Seung Hoon; Kong, Doo Sik; Seol, Ho Joon; Nam, Do-Hyun; Lee, Jung-Il

    2011-09-01

    The development of better diagnostic tools and therapeutic modalities has increased the incidence of central nervous system (CNS) metastasis in malignant tumor patients. Hydrocephalus can result from CNS metastasis and frustrate cancer treatment. The authors sought to investigate the outcomes and the roles of ventriculoperitoneal shunts (VPS) in patients with CNS metastasis. The medical records of 50 consecutive patients who underwent VPS for hydrocephalus related to CNS metastasis were analyzed retrospectively. Data included features of primary malignancies, CNS involvement, clinical course and surgical outcome. Median patient age was 55.0 years (range 25-77), and 30 female and 20 male patients were included in the study. At the time of VPS, 10 patients had parenchymal metastases only and 40 patients had leptomeningeal seeding (LMS). Symptom improvement was observed postoperatively in 40 patients (80%), mean Karnofsky performance status (KPS) scale change was from 37.8 to 46.0, and median survival from VPS was 3.0 months (2 days to 54 months). A ventricular opening pressure of >30 cmH(2)O (HR 6.44, 95% CI 1.26-32.9, P = 0.02) and further cancer treatment after VPS (HR 0.17, 95% CI 0.07-0.42, P Hydrocephalus in CNS metastasis requiring VPS is commonly associated with LMS. VPS is an effective palliative measure and an adequate cancer treatment after VPS may provide the best means of improving survival.

  7. Cell replacement therapy for central nervous system diseases

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Danju Tso; Randall D. McKinnon

    2015-01-01

    The brain and spinal cord can not replace neurons or supporting glia that are lost through trau-matic injury or disease. In pre-clinical studies, however, neural stem and progenitor cell transplants can promote functional recovery. Thus the central nervous system is repair competent but lacks endogenous stem cell resources. To make transplants clinically feasible, this ifeld needs a source of histocompatible, ethically acceptable and non-tumorgenic cells. One strategy to generate pa-tient-speciifc replacement cells is to reprogram autologous cells such as ifbroblasts into pluripotent stem cells which can then be differentiated into the required cell grafts. However, the utility of pluripotent cell derived grafts is limited since they can retain founder cells with intrinsic neoplastic potential. A recent extension of this technology directly reprograms ifbroblasts into the ifnal graft-able cells without an induced pluripotent stem cell intermediate, avoiding the pluripotent caveat. For both types of reprogramming the conversion efficiency is very low resulting in the need to amplify the cells in culture which can lead to chromosomal instability and neoplasia. Thus to make reprogramming biology clinically feasible, we must improve the efifciency. The ultimate source of replacement cells may reside in directly reprogramming accessible cells within the brain.

  8. Intrinsic regenerative mechanisms of central nervous system neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muramatsu, Rieko; Ueno, Masaki; Yamashita, Toshihide

    2009-10-01

    Injuries to the adult central nervous system (CNS), such as spinal cord injury and brain contusion, can cause permanent functional deficits if axonal connections are broken. Spontaneous functional recovery rarely occurs. It has been widely accepted that the extracellular environment of the CNS inhibits neuronal regeneration. However, it should be noted that another reason for injured neurons failing to regenerate is their weak intrinsic ability to do so. The regeneration of injured neurons is a process involving many intracellular phenomena, including cytoskeletal changes, gene and protein expression, and changes in the responsiveness to extracellular cues. The capacity of injured neurons to regenerate is modulated to some extent by changes in the expression of intracellular signaling molecules such as glycogen synthase kinase-3beta and cyclic adenosine 3',5'-monophosphate. Knowledge of these effects has guided the development of animal models for regenerative therapies of CNS injury. Enhancing the intrinsic regenerative machinery of injured axons in the adult CNS is a potentially powerful strategy for treating patients with a CNS injury.

  9. Scar-modulating treatments for central nervous system injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Dingding; Wang, Xiaodong; Gu, Xiaosong

    2014-12-01

    Traumatic injury to the adult mammalian central nervous system (CNS) leads to complex cellular responses. Among them, the scar tissue formed is generally recognized as a major obstacle to CNS repair, both by the production of inhibitory molecules and by the physical impedance of axon regrowth. Therefore, scar-modulating treatments have become a leading therapeutic intervention for CNS injury. To date, a variety of biological and pharmaceutical treatments, targeting scar modulation, have been tested in animal models of CNS injury, and a few are likely to enter clinical trials. In this review, we summarize current knowledge of the scar-modulating treatments according to their specific aims: (1) inhibition of glial and fibrotic scar formation, and (2) blockade of the production of scar-associated inhibitory molecules. The removal of existing scar tissue is also discussed as a treatment of choice. It is believed that only a combinatorial strategy is likely to help eliminate the detrimental effects of scar tissue on CNS repair.

  10. Tertiary Lymphoid Organs in Central Nervous System Autoimmunity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meike Mitsdoerffer

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Multiple sclerosis (MS is an autoimmune disease characterized by chronic inflammation in the central nervous system (CNS, which results in permanent neuronal damage and substantial disability in patients. Autoreactive T cells are important drivers of the disease, however, the efficacy of B cell depleting therapies uncovered an essential role for B cells in disease pathogenesis. They can contribute to inflammatory processes via presentation of autoantigen, secretion of pro-inflammatory cytokines and production of pathogenic antibodies. Recently, B cell aggregates reminiscent of tertiary lymphoid organs (TLOs were discovered in the meninges of MS patients, leading to the hypothesis that differentiation and maturation of autopathogenic B and T cells may partly occur inside the CNS. Since these structures were associated with a more severe disease course, it is extremely important to gain insight into the mechanism of induction, their precise function and clinical significance. Mechanistic studies in patiens are limited. However, a few studies in the MS animal model experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE recapitulate TLO formation in the CNS and provide new insight into CNS TLO features, formation and function. This review summarizes what we know so far about CNS TLOs in MS and what we have learned about them from EAE models. It also highlights the areas that are in need of further experimental work, as we are just beginning to understand and evaluate the phenomenon of CNS TLOs.

  11. Central nervous system inflammatory demyelinating disorders of childhood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamate Mahesh

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: Childhood Central Nervous System (CNS inflammatory demyelinating disorders (CIDD are being diagnosed more commonly now. There is ambiguity in the use of different terms in relation to CIDD. Recently, consensus definitions have been proposed so that there is uniformity in studies across the world. The prevalence of these disorders and the spectrum varies from place to place. This study was undertaken to study the clinico-radiological profile and outcome of children with CIDD using the recent consensus definition. Study design: Prospective descriptive study. Materials and Methods: All patients admitted in pediatric ward and pediatric intensive care with neurological symptoms and signs suggestive of CNS inflammatory demyelinating disorders from July 2007−August 2008 were enrolled. The details of clinical presentation, neuroimaging findings, laboratory results, treatment, and outcome were noted and analyzed. Results: Fifteen patients (11 with acute disseminated encephalomyelitis and 4 with clinically isolated syndrome were diagnosed with CIDD. Clinical presentation was quite varied. Eight patients recovered completely; 4 cases were left with sequelae and 3 patients expired. There were no cases of multiple sclerosis or neuromyelitis optica. Conclusions: CNS inflammatory demyelinating disorders are common illnesses in developing countries because of recurrent infections. Even the spectrum of CIDD is different. Neuroimaging in the form of magnetic resonance imaging is essential for diagnosis.

  12. Imaging features of central nervous system fungal infections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jain Krishan

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Fungal infections of the central nervous system (CNS are rare in the general population and are invariably secondary to primary focus elsewhere, usually in the lung or intestine. Except for people with longstanding diabetes, they are most frequently encountered in immunocompromised patients such as those with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome or after organ transplantation. Due to the lack of inflammatory response, neuroradiological findings are often nonspecific and are frequently mistaken for tuberculous meningitis, pyogenic abscess or brain tumor. Intracranial fungal infections are being identified more frequently due to the increased incidence of AIDS patients, better radiological investigations, more sensitive microbiological techniques and better critical care of moribund patients. Although almost any fungus may cause encephalitis, cryptococcal meningoencephalitis is most frequently seen, followed by aspergillosis and candidiasis. The biology, epidemiology and imaging features of the common fungal infections of the CNS will be reviewed. The radiographic appearance alone is often not specific, but the combination of the appropriate clinical setting along with computed tomography or magnetic resonance may help to suggest the correct diagnosis.

  13. Central nervous system mycosis: Analysis of 10 cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anju Shukla

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To describe the clinicopathological features in patients with fungal infections of the central nervous system (CNS presenting as mass lesions. Materials and Methods: A retrospective analysis of records obtained from 10 patients was done with histopathologically confirmed fungal infections presenting as ICSOL, diagnosed in the department of pathology. Clinical features at presentation, findings of radiological investigations performed and histopathology were noted for each patient and subjected for analysis. Results: Infection was higher in males, and paranasal sinusitis was the most common predisposing factor. Location was intraparenchymal followed by sphenoid wing. Four dural-based lesions mimicked meningioma clinically. The most common fungus identified was zygomycosis (seven cases, followed by phaeohyphomycosis (two cases and aspergillosis (one case. Conclusion: There is a rising trend of CNS mycosis, both in immunocompromised and immunocompetent patients. Intracranial fungal granuloma may mimic radiologically as glioma or meningioma, therefore a high index of suspicion is needed to detect early CNS fungal infections, especially in immunocompetent young patients with no predisposing illness. Fungi should always be excluded in patients with inflammatory or granulomatous pathology of CNS.

  14. Medulloblastomas and central nervous system primitive neuroectodermal tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLean, Thomas W

    2003-12-01

    Significant advances in the treatment of medulloblastoma and primitive neuroectodermal tumors have been made in the past three decades. Maximal surgical resection is a mainstay of therapy. However, unlike many other central nervous system neoplasms, medulloblastoma and primitive neuroectodermal tumors are radiation and chemotherapy responsive. Despite this response, the prognosis for patients with these tumors remains variable and is relatively poor in infants and patients with metastatic disease. These tumors most commonly arise in children, thus most clinical trials emphasize the reduction of long-term sequelae, in addition to improving survival. All newly diagnosed patients who are eligible should be offered participation in a clinical trial. If a patient is ineligible or declines consent/assent for a clinical trial, the best current treatment approach is surgical resection, followed by radiation therapy (except for children younger than 3 years) with weekly vincristine. For high-risk patients, 36 Gy of craniospinal irradiation should be delivered plus a boost of 19.8 Gy to the posterior fossa/primary tumor bed and sites of bulk metastatic disease. For average-risk patients, the craniospinal irradiation dose may be lowered to 23.4 Gy plus 32.4 Gy to the posterior fossa/tumor bed. After radiation therapy, intensive multimodal chemotherapy should be used for all patients.

  15. Prevalence of peripheral nervous system complications after major heart surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gavazzi, Armando; de Rino, Francesca; Boveri, Maria Claudia; Picozzi, Anna; Franceschi, Massimo

    2016-02-01

    We evaluated 374 consecutive patients from May 2013 to April 2014 who underwent major cardiac surgery. Each patient had an interview and a neurological clinical examination during the rehabilitation period. Patients with possible peripheral nervous system (PNS) complications underwent further electrodiagnostic tests. Among 374 patients undergoing major heart surgery (coronary artery bypass grafting, valvular heart surgery, ascending aortic aneurysm repair) 23 (6.1 %) developed 34 new PNS complications. We found four brachial plexopathies; four carpal tunnel syndromes; five critical illness neuropathies; three worsening of pre-existing neuropathies; two involvement of X, one of IX and one of XII cranial nerves; three peroneal (at knee), one saphenous, two median (at Struthers ligament), six ulnar (at elbow) mononeuropathies; two meralgia parestheticas. Diabetes is a strong risk factor for PNS complications (p = 0.002); we could not find any other relationship of PNS complications with clinical conditions, demographic data (gender, age) or type of surgical intervention. The mononeuropathies of right arms can be related to ipsilateral vein cannulation; position of body and stretching from chest wall retraction may be the cause of mononeuropathies of left arms (more frequent); the use of saphenous vein and position of the limbs may be the cause of mononeuropathies of the legs; surgical and anesthetical procedures can injure cranial nerves; respiratory failure and infection during the first days after surgery can cause critical illness neuropathies. Careful preoperative assessment and intraoperative management may reduce the risk of long-term PNS complications after cardiac surgery.

  16. Nanotechnologies for the study of the central nervous system.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Ajetunmobi, A

    2014-12-01

    The impact of central nervous system (CNS) disorders on the human population is significant, contributing almost €800 billion in annual European healthcare costs. These disorders not only have a disabling social impact but also a crippling economic drain on resources. Developing novel therapeutic strategies for these disorders requires a better understanding of events that underlie mechanisms of neural circuit physiology. Studying the relationship between genetic expression, synapse development and circuit physiology in CNS function is a challenging task, involving simultaneous analysis of multiple parameters and the convergence of several disciplines and technological approaches. However, current gold-standard techniques used to study the CNS have limitations that pose unique challenges to furthering our understanding of functional CNS development. The recent advancement in nanotechnologies for biomedical applications has seen the emergence of nanoscience as a key enabling technology for delivering a translational bridge between basic and clinical research. In particular, the development of neuroimaging and electrophysiology tools to identify the aetiology and progression of CNS disorders have led to new insights in our understanding of CNS physiology and the development of novel diagnostic modalities for therapeutic intervention. This review focuses on the latest applications of these nanotechnologies for investigating CNS function and the improved diagnosis of CNS disorders.

  17. Diffusion imaging in pediatric central nervous system infections

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Teixeira, J. [Dept. de Imagiologia, Hospital Geral De Santo Antonio, Porto (Portugal); Zimmerman, R.A.; Haselgrove, J.C.; Bilaniuk, L.T.; Hunter, J.V. [Dept. of Radiology, Children' s Hospital of Philadelphia, PA (United States)

    2001-12-01

    Our purpose was to investigate the role of diffusion imaging (DI) in central nervous system (CNS) infections in pediatric patients. It was anticipated that DI would be more sensitive than conventional MRI in the detection of the infarctive complications of infection, and possibly, in the detection of the infectious process as well. Seventeen pediatric patients, eight having meningitis'' five with herpes encephalitis, three with brain abscess or cerebritis and one with sepsis, were evaluated at 1.5-T with DI. All herpes patients had positive DI at the site of herpetic involvement, and two had the addition of watershed infarctions. DI demonstrated more lesions in three of the four cases of herpetic encephalitis. Half the meningitis cases had watershed infarction where DI was better and half had vasculitic infarctions in which DI was equal to or better than conventional MRI. Diffusion imaging was more sensitive than conventional MRI alone in detection of changes due to infections and ischemic lesions, but did not differentiate between them by DI or apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC), although anatomic distribution of lesions proved useful. (orig.)

  18. Fast food, central nervous system insulin resistance, and obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isganaitis, Elvira; Lustig, Robert H

    2005-12-01

    Rates of obesity and insulin resistance have climbed sharply over the past 30 years. These epidemics are temporally related to a dramatic rise in consumption of fast food; until recently, it was not known whether the fast food was driving the obesity, or vice versa. We review the unique properties of fast food that make it the ideal obesigenic foodstuff, and elucidate the mechanisms by which fast food intake contributes to obesity, emphasizing its effects on energy metabolism and on the central regulation of appetite. After examining the epidemiology of fast food consumption, obesity, and insulin resistance, we review insulin's role in the central nervous system's (CNS) regulation of energy balance, and demonstrate the role of CNS insulin resistance as a cause of leptin resistance and in the promotion of the pleasurable or "hedonic" responses to food. Finally, we analyze the characteristics of fast food, including high-energy density, high fat, high fructose, low fiber, and low dairy intake, which favor the development of CNS insulin resistance and obesity.

  19. Central nervous system involvement in systemic lupus erythematosus: Overview on classification criteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sciascia, Savino; Bertolaccini, Maria Laura; Baldovino, Simone; Roccatello, Dario; Khamashta, Munther A; Sanna, Giovanni

    2013-01-01

    Central nervous system (CNS) involvement is one of the major causes of morbidity and mortality in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) patients. Clinical manifestations can involve both the central and peripheral nervous systems, and they must be differentiated from infections, metabolic complications, and drug-induced toxicity. Recognition and treatment of CNS involvement continues to represent a major diagnostic challenge. In this Review, we sought to summarise the current insights on the various aspects of neuropsychiatric SLE with special emphasis on the terminology and classification criteria needed to correctly attribute the particular event to SLE.

  20. Of Scaredy Cats and Cold Fish: The autonomic nervous system and behaviour in young children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    B. Dierckx (Bram)

    2014-01-01

    markdownabstract__Abstract__ The autonomic nervous system regulates the body’s internal functions. The goal of this regulation is to maintain bodily homeostasis in a changing external environment. The autonomic nervous system acts largely independent of volition and controls heart rate, respiratory

  1. 75 FR 12768 - Peripheral and Central Nervous System Drugs Advisory Committee; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-17

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Peripheral and Central Nervous System Drugs Advisory...). The meeting will be open to the public. Name of Committee: Peripheral and Central Nervous System Drugs...

  2. 78 FR 63478 - Peripheral and Central Nervous System Drugs Advisory Committee; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-24

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Peripheral and Central Nervous System Drugs Advisory...). The meeting will be open to the public. Name of Committee: Peripheral and Central Nervous System Drugs...

  3. 78 FR 20328 - Peripheral and Central Nervous System Drugs Advisory Committee; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-04

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Peripheral and Central Nervous System Drugs Advisory...). The meeting will be open to the public. Name of Committee: Peripheral and Central Nervous System Drugs...

  4. 78 FR 63481 - Peripheral and Central Nervous System Drugs Advisory Committee; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-24

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Peripheral and Central Nervous System Drugs Advisory...). The meeting will be open to the public. Name of Committee: Peripheral and Central Nervous System Drugs...

  5. MicroRNA expression in the adult mouse central nervous system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bak, Mads; Silahtaroglu, Asli; Møller, Morten

    2008-01-01

    distinct areas of the adult mouse central nervous system (CNS). Microarray profiling in combination with real-time RT-PCR and LNA (locked nucleic acid)-based in situ hybridization uncovered 44 miRNAs displaying more than threefold enrichment in the spinal cord, cerebellum, medulla oblongata, pons......RNA-related gene regulatory networks in the mammalian central nervous system. Udgivelsesdato: 2008-Mar...

  6. Marital Conflict and Growth in Children's Internalizing Symptoms: The Role of Autonomic Nervous System Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Sheikh, Mona; Keiley, Margaret; Erath, Stephen; Dyer, W. Justin

    2013-01-01

    We assessed trajectories of children's internalizing symptoms, indexed through anxiety and depression, with a focus on the role of interactions between interparental marital conflict, children's sympathetic nervous system activity indexed by skin conductance level (SCL), and parasympathetic nervous system activity indexed by respiratory sinus…

  7. 75 FR 17417 - Peripheral and Central Nervous System Drugs Advisory Committee; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-06

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Peripheral and Central Nervous System Drugs Advisory...). The meeting will be open to the public. Name of Committee: Peripheral and Central Nervous System Drugs...

  8. 75 FR 36428 - Peripheral and Central Nervous System Drugs Advisory Committee; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-25

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Peripheral and Central Nervous System Drugs Advisory...). The meeting will be open to the public. Name of Committee: Peripheral and Central Nervous System Drugs...

  9. 77 FR 20037 - Peripheral and Central Nervous System Drugs Advisory Committee; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-03

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Peripheral and Central Nervous System Drugs Advisory...). The meeting will be open to the public. Name of Committee: Peripheral and Central Nervous System Drugs...

  10. 76 FR 44595 - Peripheral and Central Nervous System Drugs Advisory Committee; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-26

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Peripheral and Central Nervous System Drugs Advisory...). The meeting will be open to the public. Name of Committee: Peripheral and Central Nervous System Drugs...

  11. Of Scaredy Cats and Cold Fish: The autonomic nervous system and behaviour in young children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    B. Dierckx (Bram)

    2014-01-01

    markdownabstract__Abstract__ The autonomic nervous system regulates the body’s internal functions. The goal of this regulation is to maintain bodily homeostasis in a changing external environment. The autonomic nervous system acts largely independent of volition and controls heart rate, respiratory

  12. Effects of petroleum ether extract of Amorphophallus paeoniifolius tuber on central nervous system in mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Das S

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The central nervous system activity of the petroleum ether extract of Amorphophallus paeoniifolius tuber was examined in mice, fed normal as well as healthy conditions. The petroleum ether extract of Amorphophallus paeoniifolius tuber at the doses of 100, 300 and 1000 mg/kg showed significant central nervous system activity in mice.

  13. 76 FR 3912 - Peripheral and Central Nervous System Drugs Advisory Committee; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-21

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Peripheral and Central Nervous System Drugs Advisory...). The meeting will be open to the public. Name of Committee: Peripheral and Central Nervous System...

  14. Marital Conflict and Growth in Children's Internalizing Symptoms: The Role of Autonomic Nervous System Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Sheikh, Mona; Keiley, Margaret; Erath, Stephen; Dyer, W. Justin

    2013-01-01

    We assessed trajectories of children's internalizing symptoms, indexed through anxiety and depression, with a focus on the role of interactions between interparental marital conflict, children's sympathetic nervous system activity indexed by skin conductance level (SCL), and parasympathetic nervous system activity indexed by respiratory sinus…

  15. Of Scaredy Cats and Cold Fish: The autonomic nervous system and behaviour in young children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    B. Dierckx (Bram)

    2014-01-01

    markdownabstract__Abstract__ The autonomic nervous system regulates the body’s internal functions. The goal of this regulation is to maintain bodily homeostasis in a changing external environment. The autonomic nervous system acts largely independent of volition and controls heart rate,

  16. International society of neuropathology-haarlem consensus guidelines for nervous system tumor classification and grading

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Louis, D.N.; Perry, A.; Burger, P.; Ellison, D.W.; Reifenberger, G.; Deimling, A. Von; Aldape, K.; Brat, D.; Collins, V.P.; Eberhart, C.; Figarella-Branger, D.; Fuller, G.N.; Giangaspero, F.; Giannini, C.; Hawkins, C.; Kleihues, P.; Korshunov, A.; Kros, J.M.; Lopes, M. Beatriz; Ng, H.K.; Ohgaki, H.; Paulus, W.; Pietsch, T.; Rosenblum, M.; Rushing, E.; Soylemezoglu, F.; Wiestler, O.; Wesseling, P.

    2014-01-01

    Major discoveries in the biology of nervous system tumors have raised the question of how non-histological data such as molecular information can be incorporated into the next World Health Organization (WHO) classification of central nervous system tumors. To address this question, a meeting of neur

  17. Central nervous system abnormalities on midline facial defects with hypertelorism detected by magnetic resonance image and computed tomography Anomalias de sistema nervoso central em defeitos de linha média facial com hipertelorismo detectados por ressonância magnética e tomografia computadorizada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vera Lúcia Gil-da-Silva-Lopes

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study were to describe and to compare structural central nervous system (CNS anomalies detected by magnetic resonance image (MRI and computed tomography (CT in individuals affected by midline facial defects with hypertelorism (MFDH isolated or associated with multiple congenital anomalies (MCA. The investigation protocol included dysmorphological examination, skull and facial X-rays, brain CT and/or MRI. We studied 24 individuals, 12 of them had an isolated form (Group I and the others, MCA with unknown etiology (Group II. There was no significative difference between Group I and II and the results are presented in set. In addition to the several CNS anomalies previously described, MRI (n=18 was useful for detection of neuronal migration errors. These data suggested that structural CNS anomalies and MFDH seem to have an intrinsic embryological relationship, which should be taken in account during the clinical follow-up.Este estudo objetivou descrever e comparar as anomalias estruturais do sistema nervoso central (SNC detectadas por meio de ressonância magnética (RM e tomografia computadorizada (TC de crânio em indivíduos com defeitos de linha média facial com hipertelorismo (DLMFH isolados ou associados a anomalias congênitas múltiplas (ACM. O protocolo de investigação incluiu exame dismorfológico, RX de crânio e face, CT e RM de crânio. Foram estudados 24 indivíduos, sendo que 12 apresentavam a forma isolada (Grupo I e os demais, DLMFH com ACM de etiologia não esclarecida (Grupo II. Não houve diferença entre os dois grupos e os resultados foram agrupados. Além de várias anomalias de SNC já descritas, a RM foi útil para detecção de erros de migração neuronal. Os dados sugerem que as alterações estruturais de SNC e os DLMFH têm relação embriológica, o que deve ser levado em conta durante o seguimento clínico.

  18. Central nervous system tumors: Radiologic pathologic correlation and diagnostic approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ishita Pant

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: This study was conducted to formulate location-wise radiologic diagnostic algorithms and assess their concordance with the final histopathological diagnosis so as to evaluate their utility in a rural setting where only basic facilities are available. Materials and Methods: A retrospective analysis to assess the concordance of radiology (primarily MRI with final histopathology report was done. Based on the most common incidence of tumor location and basic radiology findings, diagnostic algorithms were prepared. Results: For supratentorial intraaxial parenchymal location concordance was seen in all high-grade astrocytomas, low- and high-grade oligodendrogliomas, metastatic tumors, primitive neuroectodermal tumors, high-grade ependymomas, neuronal and mixed neuro-glial tumors and tumors of hematopoietic system. Lowest concordance was seen in low-grade astrocytomas. In the supratentorial intraaxial ventricular location, agreement was observed in choroid plexus tumors, ependymomas, low-grade astrocytomas and meningiomas; in the supratentorial extraaxial location, except for the lack of concordance in the only case of metastatic tumor, concordance was observed in meningeal tumors, tumors of the sellar region, tumors of cranial and paraspinal nerves; the infratentorial intraaxial parenchymal location showed agreement in low- as well as high-grade astrocytomas, metastatic tumors, high-grade ependymoma, embryonal tumors and hematopoietic tumors; in the infratentorial intraaxial ventricular location, except for the lack of concordance in one case of low-grade astrocytoma and two cases of medulloblastomas, agreement was observed in low- and high-grade ependymoma; infratentorial extraaxial tumors showed complete agreement in all tumors of cranial and paraspinal nerves, meningiomas, and hematopoietic tumors. Conclusion: A location-based approach to central nervous system (CNS tumors is helpful in establishing an appropriate differential diagnosis.

  19. [Opiate receptors and endorphins at the central nervous system level].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, E J

    1978-01-01

    Four years ago, sterospecific sites for the bending of opiates were discovered within the brain of animals and the human being. All of the properties of these sites are in conformity with the proposition that they are pharmacological receptors which have long been postulated for these drugs. The binding of morphine or of one of its derivatives to these sites should result in chemical or physical reactions leading to well known pharmacological responses. These reactions following the binding of drugs to the receptors are not yet known, but there is some evidence that cyclical nucleotides play a role. The affinity of a whole series of morphine derivatives, agonists and atagonists, is well correlated with their pharmacological effectiveness. In the presence of sodium salts, antagonists become more strongly bound and agonists less strongly than in the absence of sodium. The evidence is presented. This is explained by an equilibrium between two formations of the receptor: one characteristic of the absence of sodium and one of its presence. Receptors are found in the nervous system of all vertebrates and their distribution has been studied in the human brain. The regions with the highest concentration of receptors are those of the limbic system. A high level exists also in the "substantia gelatinosa" of the spinal cord, which is involved in the passage of painful messages. Study of the function of morphine receptors has led to the isolation, in animal brain, of a number of peptides with morphine properties named endorphines. The first two endorphines isolated were pentapeptides named encephalins. The properties of endorphines from the subject of several lecture in this course.

  20. Pharyngeal pumping continues after laser killing of the pharyngeal nervous system of C. elegans

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Avery, L.; Horvitz, H.R. (Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge (USA))

    1989-10-01

    Using a laser microbeam to kill specific subsets of the pharyngeal nervous system of C. elegans, we found that feeding was accomplished by two separately controlled muscle motions, isthmus peristalsis and pumping. The single neuron M4 was necessary and sufficient for isthmus peristalsis. The MC neurons were necessary for normal stimulation of pumping in response to food, but pumping continued and was functional in MC- worms. The remaining 12 neuron types were also unnecessary for functional pumping. No operation we did, including destruction of the entire pharyngeal nervous system, abolished pumping altogether. When we killed all pharyngeal neurons except M4, the worms were viable and fertile, although retarded and starved. Since feeding is one of the few known essential actions controlled by the nervous system, we suggest that most of the C. elegans nervous system is dispensable in hermaphrodites under laboratory conditions. This may explain the ease with which nervous system mutants are isolated and handled in C. elegans.

  1. Practice and considerations of teaching reform of integrated nervous system course for the clinical medicine program

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Juan LI; Liang ZHU; Feng LI; Wen-long DING

    2015-01-01

    Basic Medicine Faculty of Shanghai Jiao Tong University organically integrates basic medicine courses relevant to the central nervous system(including anatomy,physiology,pathology,and pharmacology)and clinical medicine courses(including imaging and diagnostics)into the nervous system module according to course arrangement of domestic and abroad medical schools and has offered to students of eight-year clinical medicine program since 2009.This paper summarizes experiences of the teaching team of nervous system course in nearly six years,explores the development and optimization of the integrated nervous system course from perspectives of arrangement of teaching contents,development of the teaching team,reform of teaching models,and optimization of teaching resources,and considers existing problems and countermeasures during the course development,so as to provide strategic guidance for further optimization and perfection of the integrated nervous system course.

  2. Central nervous system imaging in childhood Langerhans cell histiocytosis – a reference center analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porto, Luciana; Schöning, Stefan; Hattingen, Elke; Sörensen, Jan; Jurcoane, Alina; Lehrnbecher, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Background The aim of our study was (1) to describe central nervous system (CNS) manifestations in children with Langerhans cell histiocytosis (LCH) based on images sent to a reference center and meeting minimum requirements and (2) to assess the inter-rater agreement of CNS-MRI results, which represents the overall reproducibility of this investigation. Methods We retrospectively reviewed brain MRI examinations in children with LCH, for which MRI minimum requirements were met. Abnormalities were rated by two experienced neuroradiologists, and the inter-rater agreement was assessed. Results Out of a total of 94 imaging studies, only 31 MRIs met the minimum criteria, which included T2w, FLAIR, T1w images before/after contrast in at least two different section planes, and thin post contrast sagittal slices T1w through the sella. The most common changes were osseous abnormalities, followed by solid enlargement of the pineal gland, thickened enhancing stalk and signal changes of the dentate nucleus. Whereas inter-rater agreement in assessing most of the CNS lesions was relatively high (κ > 0.61), the application of minimum criteria often did not allow to evaluate the posterior pituitary. Conclusions The diversity of radiological protocols from different institutions leads to difficulties in the diagnosis of CNS abnormalities in children with LCH. Although the inter-rater agreement between neuroradiologists was high, not all the LCH manifestations could be completely ruled out when using the minimum criteria. Brain MRIs should therefore follow LCH guideline protocols and include T1 pre-gadolinium sagittal images, and be centrally reviewed in order to improve the comparison of clinical trials. PMID:26401129

  3. Peripheral nervous system lesion syndromes and the mechanisms of their formation in connective tissue diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spirin, N N; Bulanova, V A; Pizova, N V; Shilkina, N P

    2007-01-01

    Systemic rheumatological diseases are often accompanied by the development of central and peripheral nervous system pathology. Data providing evidence of the high incidence of peripheral nervous system lesions in systemic lupus erythematosus and systemic scleroderma are presented. These diseases in particular are characterized by polyneuropathies and tunnel syndromes. Our own observations, along with published data, revealed the following major pathogenetic mechanisms of peripheral nervous system lesions in diffuse connective tissue diseases - ischemic, immunological, and metabolic. Consideration of these mechanisms will lead to pathogenetically based treatment and improved therapeutic outcomes.

  4. Complex rearrangement of chromosomes 6 and 11 as the sole anomaly in atypical teratoid/rhabdoid tumors of the central nervous system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez-Gines, C; Cerda-Nicolas, M; Kepes, J; Donat, J; Gil-Benso, R; Llombart-Bosch, A

    2000-10-15

    Atypical teratoid/rhabdoid tumor of the central nervous system is a rare childhood tumor with a distinct histologic appearance and an aggressive clinical course. Few tumors have been analyzed cytogenetically. The only consistent chromosomal abnormality identified in some of these tumors has been monosomy or deletions of chromosome 22; in others, a normal chromosome 22 was present. The authors report an atypical teratoid/rhabdoid neoplasm of the central nervous system with a novel complex rearrangement affecting chromosomes 6 and 11 as the sole anomaly. The involvement of region 11p15 could be important in the pathogenesis of this entity.

  5. Primitive neuroectodermal tumor of the central nervous system with glial differentiation: a FISH study of an adult case.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alameda, F; Lloreta, J; Ariza, A; Salido, M; Espinet, B; Baro, T; Garcia-Fructoso, G; Galito, E; Munne, A; Cruz Sanchez, F F; Sole, F; Serrano, S

    2007-01-01

    Primitive neuroectodermal tumors (PNETs) of the central nervous system (CNS), a rare occurrence in adults, may show glial differentiation and can be misinterpreted as pure astrocytic neoplasms. Few fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) studies have been carried out on these tumors; isochromosome 17q was found to be the major chromosomal abnormality. We present the case of an adult in which we performed a FISH study of both the glial and neuronal components. A complex array of FISH changes, not including an isochromosome 17q were identified.

  6. Development of Abnormality Detection System for Bathers using Ultrasonic Sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohnishi, Yosuke; Abe, Takehiko; Nambo, Hidetaka; Kimura, Haruhiko; Ogoshi, Yasuhiro

    This paper proposes an abnormality detection system for bather sitting in bathtub. Increasing number of in-bathtub drowning accidents in Japan draws attention. Behind this large number of bathing accidents, Japan's unique social and cultural background come surface. For majority of people in Japan, bathing serves purpose in deep warming up of body, relax and enjoyable time. Therefore it is the custom for the Japanese to soak in bathtub. However overexposure to hot water may cause dizziness or fainting, which is possible to cause in-bathtub drowning. For drowning prevention, the system detects bather's abnormal state using an ultrasonic sensor array. The array, which has many ultrasonic sensors, is installed on the ceiling of bathroom above bathtub. The abnormality detection system uses the following two methods: posture detection and behavior detection. The function of posture detection is to estimate the risk of drowning by monitoring bather's posture. Meanwhile, the function of behavior detection is to estimate the risk of drowning by monitoring bather's behavior. By using these methods, the system detects bathers' different state from normal. As a result of experiment with a subject in the bathtub, the system was possible to detect abnormal state using subject's posture and behavior. Therefore the system is useful for monitoring bather to prevent drowning in bathtub.

  7. Space radiation risks to the central nervous system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cucinotta, Francis A.; Alp, Murat; Sulzman, Frank M.; Wang, Minli

    2014-07-01

    Central nervous system (CNS) risks which include during space missions and lifetime risks due to space radiation exposure are of concern for long-term exploration missions to Mars or other destinations. Possible CNS risks during a mission are altered cognitive function, including detriments in short-term memory, reduced motor function, and behavioral changes, which may affect performance and human health. The late CNS risks are possible neurological disorders such as premature aging, and Alzheimer's disease (AD) or other dementia. Radiation safety requirements are intended to prevent all clinically significant acute risks. However the definition of clinically significant CNS risks and their dependences on dose, dose-rate and radiation quality is poorly understood at this time. For late CNS effects such as increased risk of AD, the occurrence of the disease is fatal with mean time from diagnosis of early stage AD to death about 8 years. Therefore if AD risk or other late CNS risks from space radiation occur at mission relevant doses, they would naturally be included in the overall acceptable risk of exposure induced death (REID) probability for space missions. Important progress has been made in understanding CNS risks due to space radiation exposure, however in general the doses used in experimental studies have been much higher than the annual galactic cosmic ray (GCR) dose (∼0.1 Gy/y at solar maximum and ∼0.2 Gy/y at solar minimum with less than 50% from HZE particles). In this report we summarize recent space radiobiology studies of CNS effects from particle accelerators simulating space radiation using experimental models, and make a critical assessment of their relevance relative to doses and dose-rates to be incurred on a Mars mission. Prospects for understanding dose, dose-rate and radiation quality dependencies of CNS effects and extrapolation to human risk assessments are described.

  8. Central nervous system activity of Illicium verum fruit extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chouksey, Divya; Upmanyu, Neeraj; Pawar, R S

    2013-11-01

    To research the acute toxicity of Illicium verum (I. verum) fruit extracts and its action on central nervous system. The TLC and HPTLC techniques were used as fingerprints to determine the chemical components present in I. verum. Male albino rats and mice were utilized for study. The powdered material was successively extracted with n-hexane, ethyl acetate and methanol using a Soxhlet extractor. Acute toxicity studies were performed as per OECD guidelines. The CNS activity was evaluated on parameters of general behavior, sleeping pattern, locomotor activity, anxiety and myocoordination activity. The animals were trained for seven days prior to experiments and the divided into five groups with six animals in each. The drug was administered by intraperitoneal route according to body weight. The dosing was done as prescribed in each protocol. Toxicity studies reported 2 000 mg/kg as toxicological dose and 1/10 of the same dose was taken as therapeutic dose Intraperitoneal injection of all extracts at dose of 200 mg prolonged phenobarbitone induced sleeping time, produced alteration in general behavior pattern, reduced locomotor activity and produced anxiolytic effects but the extracts do not significantly alter muscles coordination activity. The three extracts of I. verum at the dose of 200 mg, methanol extract was found to produce more prominent effects, then hexane and ethylacetate extracts. The observation suggested that the extracts of I. verum possess potent CNS depressant action and anxiolytic effect without interfering with motor coordination. Copyright © 2013 Hainan Medical College. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Anxiety, depression and autonomic nervous system dysfunction in hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bajkó, Zoltán; Szekeres, Csilla-Cecília; Kovács, Katalin Réka; Csapó, Krisztina; Molnár, Sándor; Soltész, Pál; Nyitrai, Erika; Magyar, Mária Tünde; Oláh, László; Bereczki, Dániel; Csiba, László

    2012-06-15

    This study examined the relationship between autonomic nervous system dysfunction, anxiety and depression in untreated hypertension. 86 newly diagnosed hypertensive patients and 98 healthy volunteers were included in the study. The psychological parameters were assessed with Spielberger State-Trait Anxiety Inventory and Beck Depression Inventory by a skilled psychologist. Autonomic parameters were examined during tilt table examination (10min lying position, 10min passive tilt). Heart rate variability (HRV) was calculated by autoregressive methods. Baroreflex sensitivity (BRS) was calculated by non-invasive sequence method from the recorded beat to beat blood pressure values and RR intervals. Significantly higher state (42.6±9.3 vs. 39.6±10.7 p=0.05) and trait (40.1±8.9 vs. 35.1±8.6, p<0.0001) anxiety scores were found in the hypertension group. There was no statistically significant difference in the depression level. LF-RRI (Low Frequency-RR interval) of HRV in passive tilt (377.3±430.6 vs. 494.1±547, p=0.049) and mean BRS slope (11.4±5.5 vs. 13.2±6.4, p=0.07) in lying position were lower in hypertensives. Trait anxiety score correlates significantly with sympatho/vagal balance (LF/HF-RRI) in passive tilt position (Spearman R=-0.286, p=0.01). Anxiety could play a more important role than depression in the development of hypertension. Altered autonomic control of the heart could be one of the pathophysiological links between hypertension and psychological factors. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Relationship between autonomic nervous system function and acute mountain sickness

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Long Min; Huang Lan; Tian Kaixin; Yu Shiyong; Yu Yang; Qin Jun

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To elucidate the role of the autonomic nervous system (ANS) in acute mountain sickness (AMS) during the initial phase at acute high-altitude exposure. Methods: Ninety-nine healthy sea-level residents rapidly ascended to Tibet plateau (3 675 m altitude) by airplane from Chengdu plain (560 m altitude). ANS function was tested in plain and day 2-4 in Tibet by heart rate variability (HRV), cold pressor test (CPT). AMS was evaluated by clinic symptomatic scores. All subjects were divided into non-AMS group (57, scores(4). Results: Compared with non-AMS group, AMS group had higher standard deviation of normal to normal intervals (SDNN), root mean square of delta RR (rMSSD), low-frequency (LF) power, and normalized low-frequency (Lfnu) power in plain (P50 ms(PNN50), rMSSD (P<0.01) and SDNN, LF, total power (TP) (P<0.05). Although no significant differences in the increase of SP and DP during CPT were found between 2 groups in plain, the SP increase during CPT of AMS group was less than non-AMS group (P<0.05) at 3 675 m altitude. AMS symptomatic scores was not only positively correlated with SDNN,rMSSD, LF/HF in plain (P<0.05), but also negatively correlated with Hfnu in plain (P<0.05). Conclusion: During the initial high altitude exposure, ANS modulation is generally blunted, but the relatively predominant sympathetic control is enhanced, and this characteristic change of ANS function is positively correlated with the development of AMS.

  11. Sympathetic nervous system influence on the innate immune response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maestroni, Georges J M

    2006-06-01

    Our studies focused on the sympathetic nervous system (SNS) influence on dendritic cells (DCs), which play a crucial role in the innate immune response. We found that DCs express a variety of adrenergic receptors (ARs) with alpha1-ARs playing a stimulatory and beta2-ARs an inhibitory effect on DCs migration. beta2-ARs in skin and bone marrow-derived DCs when stimulated by bacterial toll-like receptors (TLRs) agonists respond to norepinephrine (NE) by decreased interleukin-12 (IL-12) and increased IL-10 production which in turn downregulates inflammatory cytokine production and CCR7 expression and thus their migration ability leading to reduced T helper-1 (Th1) priming. We also found that contact sensitizers that may induce a predominant Th1 response, do so by inhibiting the local NE turnover in the skin. The SNS seems therefore to contribute in shaping the information conveyed by DCs to T cells and thus in inducing the appropriate adaptive immune response. In this sense, the SNS physiological influence may allow Th2 priming to fight infections sustained by extracellular pathogens and limit the risk for organ-specific autoimmune reactions associated with excessive Th1 priming and inhibition of T regulatory cell functions. More recently, we found that preconditioning of the skin by beta-adrenergic antagonist and the TLR2 agonist S. Aureus peptidoglycan (PGN) may instruct a Th1 adaptive response to a soluble protein antigen. On the contrary, when the TLR4 agonist E. Coli lipopolysaccharide was used, the presence of the beta-adrenergic antagonist was not effective. These effects were consonant with the pattern of TLRs expression shown by epidermal keratinocytes (EKs) but not by skin DCs. As beta-ARs signaling defects together with S. Aureus infections are thought to serve as initiation and/or persistence factors for numerous Th1-sustained autoimmune inflammatory skin diseases, we might have disclosed at least part of the relevant pathogenetic mechanism.

  12. Canine Central Nervous System Neoplasm Phenotyping Using Tissue Microarray Technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spitzbarth, I; Heinrich, F; Herder, V; Recker, T; Wohlsein, P; Baumgärtner, W

    2017-05-01

    Tissue microarrays (TMAs) represent a useful technique for the simultaneous phenotyping of large sample numbers and are particularly suitable for histopathologic tumor research. In this study, TMAs were used to evaluate semiquantitatively the expression of multiple antigens in various canine central nervous system (CNS) neoplasms and to identify markers with potential discriminative diagnostic relevance. Ninety-seven canine CNS neoplasms, previously diagnosed on hematoxylin and eosin sections according to the World Health Organization classification, were investigated on TMAs, with each tumor consisting of 2 cylindrical samples from the center and the periphery of the neoplasm. Tumor cells were phenotyped using a panel of 28 monoclonal and polyclonal antibodies, and hierarchical clustering analysis was applied to group neoplasms according to similarities in their expression profiles. Hierarchical clustering generally grouped cases with similar histologic diagnoses; however, gliomas especially exhibited a considerable heterogeneity in their positivity scores. Multiple tumor groups, such as astrocytomas and oligodendrogliomas, significantly differed in the proportion of positive immunoreaction for certain markers such as p75(NTR), AQP4, GFAP, and S100 protein. The study highlights AQP4 and p75(NTR) as novel markers, helping to discriminate between canine astrocytoma and oligodendroglioma. Furthermore, the results suggest that p75(NTR) and proteolipid protein may represent useful markers, whose expression inversely correlates with malignant transformation in canine astrocytomas and oligodendrogliomas, respectively. Tissue microarray was demonstrated to be a useful and time-saving tool for the simultaneous immunohistochemical characterization of multiple canine CNS neoplasms. The present study provides a detailed overview of the expression patterns of different types of canine CNS neoplasms.

  13. Sperm protein 17 is expressed in human nervous system tumours

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frezza Eldo E

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Human sperm protein 17 (Sp17 is a highly conserved protein that was originally isolated from a rabbit epididymal sperm membrane and testis membrane pellet. It has recently been included in the cancer/testis (CT antigen family, and shown to be expressed in multiple myeloma and ovarian cancer. We investigated its immunolocalisation in specimens of nervous system (NS malignancies, in order to establish its usefulness as a target for tumour-vaccine strategies. Methods The expression of Sp17 was assessed by means of a standardised immunohistochemical procedure [(mAb/antigen MF1/Sp17] in formalin-fixed and paraffin embedded surgical specimens of NS malignancies, including 28 neuroectodermal primary tumours (6 astrocytomas, 16 glioblastoma multiforme, 5 oligodendrogliomas, and 1 ependymoma, 25 meningeal tumours, and five peripheral nerve sheath tumours (4 schwannomas, and 1 neurofibroma,. Results A number of neuroectodermal (21% and meningeal tumours (4% were found heterogeneously immunopositive for Sp17. None of the peripheral nerve sheath tumours was immunopositive for Sp17. The expression pattern was heterogeneous in all of the positive samples, and did not correlate with the degree of malignancy. Conclusion The frequency of expression and non-uniform cell distribution of Sp17 suggest that it cannot be used as a unique immunotherapeutic target in NS cancer. However, our results do show the immunolocalisation of Sp17 in a proportion of NS tumour cells, but not in their non-pathological counterparts. The emerging complex function of Sp17 makes further studies necessary to clarify the link between it and immunopositive cells.

  14. Interaction of Plant Extracts with Central Nervous System Receptors

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    Kenneth Lundstrom

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Plant extracts have been used in traditional medicine for the treatment of various maladies including neurological diseases. Several central nervous system receptors have been demonstrated to interact with plant extracts and components affecting the pharmacology and thereby potentially playing a role in human disease and treatment. For instance, extracts from Hypericum perforatum (St. John’s wort targeted several CNS receptors. Similarly, extracts from Piper nigrum, Stephania cambodica, and Styphnolobium japonicum exerted inhibition of agonist-induced activity of the human neurokinin-1 receptor. Methods: Different methods have been established for receptor binding and functional assays based on radioactive and fluorescence-labeled ligands in cell lines and primary cell cultures. Behavioral studies of the effect of plant extracts have been conducted in rodents. Plant extracts have further been subjected to mood and cognition studies in humans. Results: Mechanisms of action at molecular and cellular levels have been elucidated for medicinal plants in support of standardization of herbal products and identification of active extract compounds. In several studies, plant extracts demonstrated affinity to a number of CNS receptors in parallel indicating the complexity of this interaction. In vivo studies showed modifications of CNS receptor affinity and behavioral responses in animal models after treatment with medicinal herbs. Certain plant extracts demonstrated neuroprotection and enhanced cognitive performance, respectively, when evaluated in humans. Noteworthy, the penetration of plant extracts and their protective effect on the blood-brain-barrier are discussed. Conclusion: The affinity of plant extracts and their isolated compounds for CNS receptors indicates an important role for medicinal plants in the treatment of neurological disorders. Moreover, studies in animal and human models have confirmed a scientific basis for the

  15. Relationship between Vitamin D Status and Autonomic Nervous System Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morton G. Burt

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Vitamin D deficiency is associated with increased arterial stiffness. However, the mechanisms underlying this association have not been clarified. The aim was to investigate whether changes in autonomic nervous system activity could underlie an association between 25 hydroxy vitamin D and arterial stiffness. A total of 49 subjects (age = 60 ± 8 years, body mass index = 26.7 ± 4.6 kg/m2, 25 hydroxy vitamin D = 69 ± 22 nmol/L underwent measurements of pulse wave velocity (PWV and augmentation index (AIx, spontaneous baroreflex sensitivity, plasma metanephrines and 25 hydroxy vitamin D. Subjects with 25 hydroxy vitamin D ≤ 50 nmol/L were restudied after 200,000 International Units 25 hydroxy vitamin D. Plasma metanephrine was positively associated with AIx (p = 0.02 independent of age, sex, smoking and cholesterol and negatively associated with 25 hydroxy vitamin D (p = 0.002 independent of age, sex and season. In contrast, there was no association between baroreflex sensitivity and 25 hydroxy vitamin D (p = 0.54. Treatment with vitamin D increased 25 hydroxy vitamin D from 43 ± 5 to 96 ± 24 nmol/L (p < 0.0001 but there was no significant change in plasma metanephrine (115 ± 25 vs. 99 ± 39 pmol/L, p = 0.12. We conclude that as plasma metanephrine was negatively associated with 25 hydroxy vitamin D and positively with AIx, it could mediate an association between these two variables. This hypothesis should be tested in larger interventional studies.

  16. Transcriptome analysis of the Octopus vulgaris central nervous system.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiang Zhang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Cephalopoda are a class of Mollusca species found in all the world's oceans. They are an important model organism in neurobiology. Unfortunately, the lack of neuronal molecular sequences, such as ESTs, transcriptomic or genomic information, has limited the development of molecular neurobiology research in this unique model organism. RESULTS: With high-throughput Illumina Solexa sequencing technology, we have generated 59,859 high quality sequences from 12,918,391 paired-end reads. Using BLASTx/BLASTn, 12,227 contigs have blast hits in the Swissprot, NR protein database and NT nucleotide database with E-value cutoff 1e(-5. The comparison between the Octopus vulgaris central nervous system (CNS library and the Aplysia californica/Lymnaea stagnalis CNS ESTs library yielded 5.93%/13.45% of O. vulgaris sequences with significant matches (1e(-5 using BLASTn/tBLASTx. Meanwhile the hit percentage of the recently published Schistocerca gregaria, Tilapia or Hirudo medicinalis CNS library to the O. vulgaris CNS library is 21.03%-46.19%. We constructed the Phylogenetic tree using two genes related to CNS function, Synaptotagmin-7 and Synaptophysin. Lastly, we demonstrated that O. vulgaris may have a vertebrate-like Blood-Brain Barrier based on bioinformatic analysis. CONCLUSION: This study provides a mass of molecular information that will contribute to further molecular biology research on O. vulgaris. In our presentation of the first CNS transcriptome analysis of O. vulgaris, we hope to accelerate the study of functional molecular neurobiology and comparative evolutionary biology.

  17. Central nervous system activity ofIllicium verum fruit extracts

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Divya Chouksey; Neeraj Upmanyu; RS Pawar

    2013-01-01

    Objective:To research the acute toxicity of Illicium verum(I. verum) fruit extracts and its action on central nervous system.Methods:TheTLC andHPTLC techniques were used as fingerprints to determine the chemical components present in I. verum.Male albino rats and mice were utilized for study.The powdered material was successively extracted withn-hexane, ethyl acetate and methanol using aSoxhlet extractor.Acute toxicity studies were performed as per OECD guidelines.TheCNS activity was evaluated on parameters of general behavior, sleeping pattern, locomotor activity, anxiety and myocoordination activity.The animals were trained for seven days prior to experiments and the divided into five groups with six animals in each.The drug was administered by intraperitoneal route according to body weight.The dosing was done as prescribed in each protocol.Results:Toxicity studies reported2000 mg/kg as toxicological dose and1/10 of the same dose was taken as therapeutic doseIntraperitoneal injection of all extracts at dose of200 mg prolonged phenobarbitone induced sleeping time, produced alteration in general behavior pattern, reduced locomotor activity and produced anxiolytic effects but the extracts do not significantlyalter muscles coordination activity.The three extracts of I. verum at the dose of200 mg, methanol extract was found to produce more prominent effects, then hexane and ethylacetate extracts.Conclusions:The observation suggested that the extracts ofI. verum possess potentCNS depressant action and anxiolytic effect without interfering with motor coordination.

  18. Relationship between Vitamin D Status and Autonomic Nervous System Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burt, Morton G.; Mangelsdorf, Brenda L.; Stranks, Stephen N.; Mangoni, Arduino A.

    2016-01-01

    Vitamin D deficiency is associated with increased arterial stiffness. However, the mechanisms underlying this association have not been clarified. The aim was to investigate whether changes in autonomic nervous system activity could underlie an association between 25 hydroxy vitamin D and arterial stiffness. A total of 49 subjects (age = 60 ± 8 years, body mass index = 26.7 ± 4.6 kg/m2, 25 hydroxy vitamin D = 69 ± 22 nmol/L) underwent measurements of pulse wave velocity (PWV) and augmentation index (AIx), spontaneous baroreflex sensitivity, plasma metanephrines and 25 hydroxy vitamin D. Subjects with 25 hydroxy vitamin D ≤ 50 nmol/L were restudied after 200,000 International Units 25 hydroxy vitamin D. Plasma metanephrine was positively associated with AIx (p = 0.02) independent of age, sex, smoking and cholesterol and negatively associated with 25 hydroxy vitamin D (p = 0.002) independent of age, sex and season. In contrast, there was no association between baroreflex sensitivity and 25 hydroxy vitamin D (p = 0.54). Treatment with vitamin D increased 25 hydroxy vitamin D from 43 ± 5 to 96 ± 24 nmol/L (p < 0.0001) but there was no significant change in plasma metanephrine (115 ± 25 vs. 99 ± 39 pmol/L, p = 0.12). We conclude that as plasma metanephrine was negatively associated with 25 hydroxy vitamin D and positively with AIx, it could mediate an association between these two variables. This hypothesis should be tested in larger interventional studies. PMID:27649235

  19. Extrarenal rhabdoid tumours outside the central nervous system in infancy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garces-Inigo, Enrique F. [Great Ormond Street Hospital for Children, Department of Radiology, London (United Kingdom); Complejo Hospitalario Universitario de Albacete, Radiology Department, Hermanos Falco, Albacete (Spain); Leung, Rebecca; McHugh, Kieran [Great Ormond Street Hospital for Children, Department of Radiology, London (United Kingdom); Sebire, Neil J. [Great Ormond Street Hospital for Children, Department of Histopathology, London (United Kingdom)

    2009-08-15

    Malignant rhabdoid tumours (RT) are increasingly recognized in young children, probably as a consequence of advances in accurate histological diagnosis rather than a true increase in frequency. Although typically presenting as renal tumours in infancy, extrarenal tumours outside the central nervous system (CNS) in children less than 12 months of age are now well recognized, but previous literature on their imaging features is very limited. To demonstrate the imaging features of extrarenal RTs outside the CNS. A retrospective database review was made from 1989 to 2007 of patients diagnosed with extrarenal RT in infancy, i.e. below 12 months of age. There were nine patients (six boys and three girls). The age at presentation varied from 1 to 11 months (average 6 months). Tumours were located in the thorax/mediastinum (n=3), liver (n=3), neck (n=1), shoulder (n=1) and axilla (n=1). The imaging modalities used included US (n=8), CT (n=7) and MRI (n=6). Bone scan was positive in one patient, while metastases at the time of diagnosis occurred in four patients. On MRI the tumours tended to show nonspecific hypointensity on T1-W images and heterogeneous hyperintensity on T2-W images, with heterogeneous enhancement. This is the largest radiological series of extrarenal RTs outside the CNS in infancy. In our series no imaging features were found specific to the diagnosis. A tendency towards large size and mediastinal/paravertebral location were noted. A hypodense solid component on CT and a heterogeneous hyperintensity on T2-W MR images suggest that this tumour should be considered in the routine differential diagnosis of soft-tissue tumours in infancy, in addition to rhabdomyosarcoma. (orig.)

  20. Central Nervous System Effects of Ginkgo Biloba, a Plant Extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Itil, Turan M.; Eralp, Emin; Tsambis, Elias; Itil, Kurt Z.; Stein, Ulrich

    1996-01-01

    Extracts of Ginkgo biloba (EGb) are among the most prescribed drugs in France and Germany. EGb is claimed to be effective in peripheral arterial disorders and in "cerebral insufficiency." The mechanism of action is not yet well understood. Three of the ingredients of the extract have been isolated and found to be pharmacologically active, but which one alone or in combination is responsible for clinical effects is unknown. The recommended daily dose (3 x 40 mg extract) is based more on empirical data than on clinical dose-findings studies. However, despite these, according to double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trials, EGb has therapeutic effects, at least, on the diagnostic entity of "cerebral insufficiency," which is used in Europe as synonymous with early dementia. To determine whether EGb has significant pharmacological effects on the human brain, a pharmacodynamic study was conducted using the Quantitative Pharmacoelectroencephalogram (QPEEG(R)) method. It was established that the pharmacological effects (based on a predetermined 7.5--13.0-Hz alpha frequency band in a computer-analyzed electroencephalogram = CEEG(R)) of EGb on the central nervous system (CNS) are significantly different than placebo, and the high and low doses could be discriminated from each other. The 120-mg, but particularly the 240-mg, single doses showed the most consistent CNS effects with an earlier onset (1 h) and longer duration (7 h). Furthermore, it was established that the electrophysiological effects of EGb in CNS are similar to those of well-known cognitive activators such as "nootropics" as well as tacrine, the only marketed "antidementia" drug currently available in the United States.

  1. Cerebrospinal fluid interleukin-6 in central nervous system inflammatory diseases.

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    Alexandre Wullschleger

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Interleukin (IL-6 is recognised as an important cytokine involved in inflammatory diseases of the central nervous system (CNS. OBJECTIVE: To perform a large retrospective study designed to test cerebrospinal fluid (CSF IL-6 levels in the context of neurological diseases, and evaluate its usefulness as a biomarker to help discriminate multiple sclerosis (MS from other inflammatory neurological diseases (OIND. PATIENTS AND METHODS: We analyzed 374 CSF samples for IL-6 using a quantitative enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Groups tested were composed of demyelinating diseases of the CNS (DD, n = 117, including relapsing-remitting MS (RRMS, n = 65, primary progressive MS (PPMS, n = 11, clinically isolated syndrome (CIS, n = 11, optic neuritis (ON, n = 30; idiopathic transverse myelitis (ITM, n = 10; other inflammatory neurological diseases (OIND, n = 35; and non-inflammatory neurological diseases (NIND, n = 212. Differences between groups were analysed using Kruskal-Wallis test and Mann-Whitney U-test. RESULTS: CSF IL-6 levels exceeded the positivity cut-off of 10 pg/ml in 18 (51.4% of the 35 OIND samples, but in only three (3.9% of the 76 MS samples collected. CSF IL-6 was negative for all NIND samples tested (0/212. IL-6 cut-off of 10 pg/ml offers 96% sensitivity to exclude MS. CONCLUSION: CSF IL-6 may help to differentiate MS from its major differential diagnosis group, OIND.

  2. Activating Transcription Factor 3 (ATF3 and the Nervous System

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    Patrick Norval Anderson

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available It has been recognised for over a century that the ability of axons to regenerate in peripheral nerves is fundamentally greater than that of axons in the brain, spinal cord or optic nerves [early literature was reviewed in (Ramon y Cajal, 1928]. One factor that contributes to the successful regeneration of the axons in peripheral nerves is the complex cell body response the neurons show to axotomy. That transcription factors must play an important role in enabling neurons to regrow their axons is implicit to the observation that several hundred genes are regulated in neurons during axonal regeneration (Costigan et al., 2002; Boeshore et al., 2004. In addition, similarly large numbers of genes are regulated in the non-neuronal cells present in injured peripheral nerves [especially Schwann cells (Barrette et al., 2010] and CNS tissue. Of the transcription factors that regulate these changes in gene expression, the function of c-jun is best understood but ATF-3 (also known as LRF-1, LRG-21, CRG-5 and TI-241 is also upregulated in most of the neurons (Fig. 1 and Schwann cells that express c-jun. Indeed, ATF-3 has become a standard marker for neurons axotomised by peripheral nerve injury (Tsuzuki et al., 2001; Yamanaka et al., 2005; Yano et al., 2008; Linda et al., 2011 and its expression by injured neurons is closely correlated with a regenerative response. None the less, surprisingly little is known about the functions of ATF3 in neurons or glia within the injured nervous system, especially when compared with those of its potential binding partner, c-Jun.

  3. Idiopathic inflammatory-demyelinating diseases of the central nervous system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rovira Canellas, A. [Vall d' Hebron University Hospital, Magnetic Resonance Unit (I.D.I.), Department of Radiology, Barcelona (Spain); Rovira Gols, A. [Parc Tauli University Institute - UAB, UDIAT, Diagnostic Centre, Sabadell (Spain); Rio Izquierdo, J.; Tintore Subirana, M.; Montalban Gairin, X. [Vall d' Hebron University Hospital, Neuroimmunology Unit, Department of Neurology, Barcelona (Spain)

    2007-05-15

    Idiopathic inflammatory-demyelinating diseases (IIDDs) include a broad spectrum of central nervous system disorders that can usually be differentiated on the basis of clinical, imaging, laboratory and pathological findings. However, there can be a considerable overlap between at least some of these disorders, leading to misdiagnoses or diagnostic uncertainty. The relapsing-remitting and secondary progressive forms of multiple sclerosis (MS) are the most common IIDDs. Other MS phenotypes include those with a progressive course from onset (primary progressive and progressive relapsing) or with a benign course continuing for years after onset (benign MS). Uncommon forms of IIDDs can be classified clinically into: (1) fulminant or acute IIDDs, such as the Marburg variant of MS, Balo's concentric sclerosis, Schilder's disease, and acute disseminated encephalomyelitis; (2) monosymptomatic IIDDs, such as those involving the spinal cord (transverse myelitis), optic nerve (optic neuritis) or brainstem and cerebellum; and (3) IIDDs with a restricted topographical distribution, including Devic's neuromyelitis optica, recurrent optic neuritis and relapsing transverse myelitis. Other forms of IIDD, which are classified clinically and radiologically as pseudotumoral, can have different forms of presentation and clinical courses. Although some of these uncommon IIDDs are variants of MS, others probably correspond to different entities. MR imaging of the brain and spine is the imaging technique of choice for diagnosing these disorders, and together with the clinical and laboratory findings can accurately classify them. Precise classification of these disorders may have relevant prognostic and treatment implications, and might be helpful in distinguishing them from tumoral or infectious lesions, avoiding unnecessary aggressive diagnostic or therapeutic procedures. (orig.)

  4. Progress in study on central nervous system injuries caused by obstructive sleep apnea syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ZHAO Xiang-xiang

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Chronic and repetitive intermittent hypoxia and dysfunction of sleep architecture mainly contribute to obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS. More and more evidences demonstrate it is a systemic disease, which is common encountered in clinic and strongly related to the systemic lesion of central nervous system. The central nervous system complications comprise cognitive impairment, brain atrophy and the growing risk of stroke and so on. Early treatment for OSAS has a positive significance on complications of central nervous system, and even the damage can be completely reversed.

  5. Effect of a botanical composition, UP446, on respiratory, cardiovascular and central nervous systems in beagle dogs and rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yimam, Mesfin; Lee, Young Chul; Jia, Qi

    2016-06-01

    Extensive safety evaluation of UP446, a botanical composition comprised of standardized extracts from roots of Scutellaria baicalensis and heartwoods of Acacia catechu, has been reported previously. Here we carried out additional studies to assess the effect of UP446 on respiratory, cardiovascular and central nervous (CNS) systems. A Functional observational battery (FOB) and whole body plethysmography system in rats and implanted telemetry in dogs were utilized to evaluate the potential CNS, respiratory and cardiovascular toxicity, respectively. UP446 was administered orally at dose levels of 800, 2000 and 5000 mg/kg to SpragueDawley rats and at 4 ascending dose levels (0, 250, 500 and 1000 mg/kg) to beagle dogs. No abnormal effects were observed on the cage side, open field, hand held, and sensori-motor observations suggestive of toxicity in respiratory, cardiovascular and central nervous (CNS) systems. Rectal temperatures were comparable for each treatment groups. Similarly, respiratory rate, tidal volume and minute volume were unaffected by any of the treatment groups. No UP446 related changes were observed on blood pressure, heart rate and electrocardiogram in beagle dogs at dose levels of 250, 500 and 1000 mg/kg. Some minor incidental, non-dose correlated changes were observed in the FOB assessment. These data suggest that UP446 has minimal or no pharmaco-toxicological effect on the respiratory, cardiovascular and central nervous systems.

  6. The insulin receptor is required for the development of the Drosophila peripheral nervous system.

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    Annie Dutriaux

    Full Text Available The Insulin Receptor (InR in Drosophila presents features conserved in its mammalian counterparts. InR is required for growth; it is expressed in the central and embryonic nervous system and modulates the time of differentiation of the eye photoreceptor without altering cell fate. We show that the InR is required for the formation of the peripheral nervous system during larval development and more particularly for the formation of sensory organ precursors (SOPs on the fly notum and scutellum. SOPs arise in the proneural cluster that expresses high levels of the proneural proteins Achaete (Ac and Scute (Sc. The other cells will become epidermis due to lateral inhibition induced by the Notch (N receptor signal that prevents its neighbors from adopting a neural fate. In addition, misexpression of the InR or of other components of the pathway (PTEN, Akt, FOXO induces the development of an abnormal number of macrochaetes that are Drosophila mechanoreceptors. Our data suggest that InR regulates the neural genes ac, sc and sens. The FOXO transcription factor which is localized in the cytoplasm upon insulin uptake, displays strong genetic interaction with the InR and is involved in Ac regulation. The genetic interactions between the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR, Ras and InR/FOXO suggest that these proteins cooperate to induce neural gene expression. Moreover, InR/FOXO is probably involved in the lateral inhibition process, since genetic interactions with N are highly significant. These results show that the InR can alter cell fate, independently of its function in cell growth and proliferation.

  7. S-nitrosothiol (SNO signals in the enteric nervous system: lessons learnt from big brother.

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    Tor eSavidge

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Nitric oxide (NO is a functionally important neurotransmitter signaling molecule generated by mammalian and bacterial nitric oxide synthases (NOS, and by chemical conversion of dietary nitrite in the gastrointestinal (GI tract. Neuronal nNOS is the most abundant isoenzyme in the enteric nervous system, and targeted deletion in transgenic mice has clearly demonstrated its importance in normal gut function. Enteric neuropathy is also often associated with abnormal NO production, for example in achalasia and diabetic gastroparesis. Not surprisingly therefore, aberrant nNOS activity is widely implicated in enteric disease, and represents a potential molecular target for therapeutic intervention. One physiological signalling mechanism of NO bioactivity is through chemical reaction with the heme centre of guanylyl cyclase, resulting in the conversion of cGMP from GTP. This second messenger nucleotide signal activates cGMP-dependent protein kinases, phosphodiesterases and ion channels, and is implicated in the neuronal control of GI function. However, few studies in the GI tract have fully related NO bioactivity with specific molecular targets of NO-derived signals. In the central nervous system (CNS, it is now increasingly appreciated that NO bioactivity is often actively transduced via S-nitrosothiol (SNO signals rather than via activation of guanylyl cyclase. Moreover, aberrant S-nitrosylation of specific molecular targets is implicated in CNS pathology. S-nitrosylation refers to the posttranslational modification of a protein cysteine thiol by NO, forming an endogenous SNO. Because cysteine residues are often key regulators of protein function, S-nitrosylation represents a physiologically important signaling mechanism analogous to other posttranslational modifications, such as O-phosphorylation. This article provides an overview of how neurotransmitter NO is produced by nNOS as this represents the most prominent and well defined source of SNO

  8. Materials directed to implants for repairing Central Nervous System

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    Canillas, M.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Central Nervous System (CNS can be damaged by a wide range of injuries and disorders which entail permanent disability in some cases. Moreover, CNS repairing process presents some complications. The natural repair mechanism, which consists on the glial scar formation, is triggered by the inflammatory process. Molecules delivered during these processes, inflammation and glial scar formation as well as oxygen and glucose deficiencies due to the injury, create an inhibitory environment for axon regeneration and remyelination which is known as “secondary injury”. Biomaterials are taking up an even more important role in repairing CNS. Physicochemical properties of some ceramic materials have inspired different applications to repair CNS as substrates, electrodes or molecule vehicles. Based on their biocompatibility, capability to neutralize reactive species involved in the inflammatory processes and their versatile processing to obtain scaffolds with different shapes and sizes, ceramics are a succulent offer in nervous tissue engineering. Furthermore, their possibilities have been increased with polymeric-ceramics composites development, which have given rise to new interesting horizon.Existen diferentes tipos de lesiones o desordenes del Sistema Nervioso Central (SNC que pueden provocar graves secuelas e incluso en algunos casos una discapacidad permanente. Además, el proceso de reparación del SNC tiene algunas complicaciones. El mecanismo natural de reacción a una lesión, el cual consiste en la formación de una cicatriz glial, es desencadenado por un proceso inflamatorio. Las moléculas liberadas durante estos procesos, la inflamación y formación de la cicatriz glial, así como la deficiencia en oxígeno y glucosa debidos a la lesión, crean un ambiente que inhibe la regeneración axonal creando la llamada “lesión secundaria”. Los biomateriales están adquiriendo un papel cada vez más importante en la reparación de SNC. Las

  9. Influence of G-forces on venous and nervous systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dyskin, Y. A.; Prives-Bardina, R. A.; Tikhonova, L. P.

    1975-01-01

    Cats and rabbits were subjected to rotation in the centrifuge. Controls were maintained to determine the individual tolerance to g-forces. Thickening of the vascular wall was found to occur due to the g-forces' effect, as well as other vascular changes. Nervous changes included edema and chromatolysis of the nerve cells.

  10. FMRFamide immunoreactivity is generally occurring in the nervous systems of coelenterates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grimmelikhuijzen, C J

    1983-01-01

    Abundant FMRFamide immunoreactivity has been found in the nervous systems of all hydrozoan, anthozoan, scyphozoan and ctenophoran species that were looked upon. This general and abundant occurrence shows that FMRFamide-like material must play a crucial role in the functioning of primitive nervous...

  11. Microdevice Platform for In Vitro Nervous System and Its Disease Model

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    Jin-Ha Choi

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The development of precise microdevices can be applied to the reconstruction of in vitro human microenvironmental systems with biomimetic physiological conditions that have highly tunable spatial and temporal features. Organ-on-a-chip can emulate human physiological functions, particularly at the organ level, as well as its specific roles in the body. Due to the complexity of the structure of the central nervous system and its intercellular interaction, there remains an urgent need for the development of human brain or nervous system models. Thus, various microdevice models have been proposed to mimic actual human brain physiology, which can be categorized as nervous system-on-a-chip. Nervous system-on-a-chip platforms can prove to be promising technologies, through the application of their biomimetic features to the etiology of neurodegenerative diseases. This article reviews the microdevices for nervous system-on-a-chip platform incorporated with neurobiology and microtechnology, including microfluidic designs that are biomimetic to the entire nervous system. The emulation of both neurodegenerative disorders and neural stem cell behavior patterns in micro-platforms is also provided, which can be used as a basis to construct nervous system-on-a-chip.

  12. Methods and systems for detecting abnormal digital traffic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goranson, Craig A [Kennewick, WA; Burnette, John R [Kennewick, WA

    2011-03-22

    Aspects of the present invention encompass methods and systems for detecting abnormal digital traffic by assigning characterizations of network behaviors according to knowledge nodes and calculating a confidence value based on the characterizations from at least one knowledge node and on weighting factors associated with the knowledge nodes. The knowledge nodes include a characterization model based on prior network information. At least one of the knowledge nodes should not be based on fixed thresholds or signatures. The confidence value includes a quantification of the degree of confidence that the network behaviors constitute abnormal network traffic.

  13. A planetary nervous system for social mining and collective awareness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giannotti, F.; Pedreschi, D.; Pentland, A.; Lukowicz, P.; Kossmann, D.; Crowley, J.; Helbing, D.

    2012-11-01

    We present a research roadmap of a Planetary Nervous System (PNS), capable of sensing and mining the digital breadcrumbs of human activities and unveiling the knowledge hidden in the big data for addressing the big questions about social complexity. We envision the PNS as a globally distributed, self-organizing, techno-social system for answering analytical questions about the status of world-wide society, based on three pillars: social sensing, social mining and the idea of trust networks and privacy-aware social mining. We discuss the ingredients of a science and a technology necessary to build the PNS upon the three mentioned pillars, beyond the limitations of their respective state-of-art. Social sensing is aimed at developing better methods for harvesting the big data from the techno-social ecosystem and make them available for mining, learning and analysis at a properly high abstraction level. Social mining is the problem of discovering patterns and models of human behaviour from the sensed data across the various social dimensions by data mining, machine learning and social network analysis. Trusted networks and privacy-aware social mining is aimed at creating a new deal around the questions of privacy and data ownership empowering individual persons with full awareness and control on own personal data, so that users may allow access and use of their data for their own good and the common good. The PNS will provide a goal-oriented knowledge discovery framework, made of technology and people, able to configure itself to the aim of answering questions about the pulse of global society. Given an analytical request, the PNS activates a process composed by a variety of interconnected tasks exploiting the social sensing and mining methods within the transparent ecosystem provided by the trusted network. The PNS we foresee is the key tool for individual and collective awareness for the knowledge society. We need such a tool for everyone to become fully aware of how

  14. Microglia - insights into immune system structure, function, and reactivity in the central nervous system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wirenfeldt, Martin; Babcock, Alicia A; Vinters, Harry V

    2011-01-01

    Microglia are essential cellular components of a well-functioning central nervous system (CNS). The development and establishment of the microglial population differs from the other major cell populations in the CNS i.e. neurons and macroglia (astrocytes and oligodendrocytes). This different...

  15. Role of Mycobacterium tuberculosis pknD in the Pathogenesis of central nervous system tuberculosis

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    Be Nicholas A

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Central nervous system disease is the most serious form of tuberculosis, and is associated with high mortality and severe neurological sequelae. Though recent clinical reports suggest an association of distinct Mycobacterium tuberculosis strains with central nervous system disease, the microbial virulence factors required have not been described previously. Results We screened 398 unique M. tuberculosis mutants in guinea pigs to identify genes required for central nervous system tuberculosis. We found M. tuberculosis pknD (Rv0931c to be required for central nervous system disease. These findings were central nervous system tissue-specific and were not observed in lung tissues. We demonstrated that pknD is required for invasion of brain endothelia (primary components of the blood-brain barrier protecting the central nervous system, but not macrophages, lung epithelia, or other endothelia. M. tuberculosis pknD encodes a "eukaryotic-like" serine-threonine protein kinase, with a predicted intracellular kinase and an extracellular (sensor domain. Using confocal microscopy and flow cytometry we demonstrated that the M. tuberculosis PknD sensor is sufficient to trigger invasion of brain endothelia, a process which was neutralized by specific antiserum. Conclusions Our findings demonstrate a novel in vivo role for M. tuberculosis pknD and represent an important mechanism for bacterial invasion and virulence in central nervous system tuberculosis, a devastating and understudied disease primarily affecting young children.

  16. Peptide-gated ion channels and the simple nervous system of Hydra.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gründer, Stefan; Assmann, Marc

    2015-02-15

    Neurons either use electrical or chemical synapses to communicate with each other. Transmitters at chemical synapses are either small molecules or neuropeptides. After binding to their receptors, transmitters elicit postsynaptic potentials, which can either be fast and transient or slow and longer lasting, depending on the type of receptor. Fast transient potentials are mediated by ionotropic receptors and slow long-lasting potentials by metabotropic receptors. Transmitters and receptors are well studied for animals with a complex nervous system such as vertebrates and insects, but much less is known for animals with a simple nervous system like Cnidaria. As cnidarians arose early in animal evolution, nervous systems might have first evolved within this group and the study of neurotransmission in cnidarians might reveal an ancient mechanism of neuronal communication. The simple nervous system of the cnidarian Hydra extensively uses neuropeptides and, recently, we cloned and functionally characterized an ion channel that is directly activated by neuropeptides of the Hydra nervous system. These results demonstrate the existence of peptide-gated ion channels in Hydra, suggesting they mediate fast transmission in its nervous system. As related channels are also present in the genomes of the cnidarian Nematostella, of placozoans and of ctenophores, it should be considered that the early nervous systems of cnidarians and ctenophores have co-opted neuropeptides for fast transmission at chemical synapses.

  17. Central nervous system involvement in systemic lupus erythematosus. The application of cranial computed tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nagaoka, S.; Ishigatsubo, Y.; Katou, K.; Sakamoto, H.; Chiba, J. (Yokohama City Univ. (Japan). Faculty of Medicine)

    1982-06-01

    Cranial computed tomography scans were performed on 47 patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). Abnormal findings in the computed tomograms (CT) were observed in 17 patients (36.2%). Cerebral atrophy was the most common feature (eight cases), followed by abnormal high density areas (five cases), abnormal low density areas (three cases), sulcal enlargement (two cases), intracranial hemorrhage (one case) and others (two cases). The abnormal cranial CT group of SLE was associated with a significantly higher incidence of urinary casts and of thrombocytopenia. In particular, the frequency of urinary casts was greater in the group with cerebral atrophy than in the group with normal CT findings, and there was a higher incidence of alopecia, leukopenia and thrombocytopenia in the group with intracranial calcifications. Neuropsychiatric involvements were noted in 70.6% of patients with CT abnormalities, but neuropsychiatric features (20.7%) and electroencephalographic abnormalities (44.8%) were also observed in patients with normal CT findings. The age at onset of SLE, the mean duration of the disease and the survival rate were not significantly different between the groups with and without CT abnormalities, but the mortality rate was significantly greater in the group with CT abnormalities, especially among those with brain atrophy. Concerning the relationship between the findings of cranial CT and corticosteroid treatment, there was no significant difference in either the total dose or the mean duration of prednisolone therapy. Although SLE patients with cerebral atrophy were taking a larger maintenance dose of corticosteroids, the differences were not statistically significant.

  18. Effects of ischaemia and hypoxia on the development of the nervous system in acardiac foetus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laure-Kamionowska, Milena; Maślińska, Danuta; Deregowski, Krzysztof; Piekarski, Paweł; Raczkowska, Barbara

    2004-01-01

    The twin-reversed arterial perfusion (TRAP) sequence and development of an acardius are rare and severe complications in monozygotic twin pregnancy. Haemodynamic disturbances in placental perfusion via abnormal vascular anastomoses allow inter-twin transfusion to occur. Because of blood perfusion, one of the twins is poorly oxygenated and contains metabolic waste products. Retrograde placental perfusion leads to the formation of a non-viable malformed acardiac foetus. We studied the effects of haemodynamic disturbances in acardiac foetus on the development of the nervous system. The acardius was a product of a 32-weeks pregnancy. Caesarean section yielded a skin covered ovoid mass (size, 10 x 8 cm; weight, 220 g). The dissection of the acardiac twin showed a skin with hair and appendages, rudimentary lower limbs, vertebral column and brain mass. The rudimentary brain tissue was considerably disorganised structurally. We distinguished two main morphological forms of various appearances. In the centre, we observed a scarcely vascularised mass of tissue containing mature and immature neurones, glial cells and randomly distributed fibres. The mass of tissue appeared poorly differentiated, although there were some arrangements reminiscent of cerebral structures. Clusters of neurones provided a slight suggestion of nuclear or fibre structure. The cerebellar cortex was the only well recognisable structure. In the other fragment of the tissue, we found a slit cavity with ependymal outline and well-developed choroid plexus, which seemed to represent the 3rd ventricle. The scarcely vascularised disorganised tissue was surrounded by the highly vascularised one. It included many thin-walled sinusoid vessels. In some places, they were so concentrated that they resembled cavernous haemangioma. The spinal cord appeared comparatively well organised with a slightly dilated central canal. The morphological picture of the rudimentary brain tissue was similar to the picture of the

  19. Central nervous system tumors and related intracranial pathologies in radium dial workers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stebbings, J.H.; Semkiw, W.

    1988-01-01

    Among the female radiation workers in the radium dial industry there is no overall excess of brain or central nervous system tumors. A significant excess did appear, however, in one of three major cohorts; the excess was not due to an excess of gliomas and cannot be ascribed with certainty to radium or external radiation. A significant proportional excess of tumors outside the brain was observed, and is consistent with irradiation of nervous system tissue from adjacent bone. Early deaths from brain abscess or mastoiditis, which are coded as diseases of the nervous system and sense organs, were observed. 12 refs., 11 tabs.

  20. Autonomic Modulation by Electrical Stimulation of the Parasympathetic Nervous System: An Emerging Intervention for Cardiovascular Diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Bo; Lu, Zhibing; He, Wenbo; Huang, Bing; Jiang, Hong

    2016-06-01

    The cardiac autonomic nervous system has been known to play an important role in the development and progression of cardiovascular diseases. Autonomic modulation by electrical stimulation of the parasympathetic nervous system, which increases the parasympathetic activity and suppresses the sympathetic activity, is emerging as a therapeutic strategy for the treatment of cardiovascular diseases. Here, we review the recent literature on autonomic modulation by electrical stimulation of the parasympathetic nervous system, including vagus nerve stimulation, transcutaneous auricular vagal stimulation, spinal cord stimulation, and ganglionated plexi stimulation, in the treatment of heart failure, atrial fibrillation, and ventricular arrhythmias.