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Sample records for nervous system abnormality

  1. Central nervous system abnormalities in vaginismus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frasson, Emma; Graziottin, Alessandra; Priori, Alberto; Dall'ora, Elisa; Didonè, Giuseppe; Garbin, Emilio Luigi; Vicentini, Silvana; Bertolasi, Laura

    2009-01-01

    To investigate possible altered CNS excitability in vaginismus. In 10 patients with primary idiopathic lifelong vaginismus, 10 with vulvar vestibulitis syndrome accompanied by vaginismus and healthy controls we recorded EMG activity from the levator ani (LA) and external anal sphincter (EAS) muscles and tested bulbocavernosus reflex (BCR). Pudendal-nerve somatosensory evoked potentials (SEPs) were tested after a single stimulus. Pudendal-nerve SEP recovery functions were assessed using a paired conditioning-test paradigm at interstimulus intervals (ISIs) of 5, 20 and 40ms. EMG in patients showed muscular hyperactivity at rest and reduced inhibition during straining. The BCR polysynaptic R2 had larger amplitude (pvaginismus. The neurophysiological abnormalities in patients with vaginismus indicate concomitant CNS changes in this disorder.

  2. White-matter abnormalities in unirradiated patients cured of primary central nervous system lymphoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, L.; Hochberg, F.H.; Shaeffer, P.

    2000-01-01

    On MRI, primary brain tumors are commonly seen as contrast-enhancing masses surrounded by areas of abnormal signal on T2-weighted images. Following successful treatment tumors may no longer show contrast enhancement. The residual abnormalities are assumed to be represent ''edema'' and infiltrating tumor cells. We report nine patients with primary lymphoma of the central nervous system who had complete responses to intravenous methotrexate, but did not receive intrathecal chemotherapy or cranial irradiation. After complete resolution of contrast-enhancing lesions, persistent abnormalities on T2-weighted images in the region of prior tumor were initially assumed to reflect residual viable tumor. As they remained unchanged for years, however, this may not hold true in the cases in which primary central nervous system lymphoma responds to chemotherapy alone. (orig.)

  3. Pupillary abnormalities in three dogs with post-retinal nervous system lesions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bagley, R.S.; Moore, M.P.; Baszler, T.V.; Harrington, M.L.; Tucker, R.L.; Gavin, P.R.

    1995-01-01

    Three dogs had atypical pupillary abnormalities in association with post-retinal nervous system lesions. Two dogs were admitted with unilateral visual deficits and anisocoria. In both dogs, the larger pupil was found in the blind eye. Pupils responded adequately to both light stimulation and dark adaptation; however, anisocoria remained regardless of the light intensity entering the eyes. Intracranial central nervous system lesions were found in both dogs. A third dog was admitted for unilateral visual deficit and epistaxis. Mild resting anisocoria was noted, with the larger pupil found in the avisual eye. With light directed toward the medial retina, no direct or consensual pupillary light reflex was elicited. When light was directed toward the lateral retina, however, a normal pupillary light reflex was elicited. The lesion in this dog extended from the nasal cavity caudally to the optic foramen involving the ipsilateral prechiasmic optic nerve. Possible neuroanatomical explanations for these pupillary and visual abnormalities are discussed

  4. Nervous system disruption and concomitant behavioral abnormality in early hatched pufferfish larvae exposed to heavy oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawaguchi, Masahumi; Sugahara, Yuki; Watanabe, Tomoe; Irie, Kouta; Ishida, Minoru; Kurokawa, Daisuke; Kitamura, Shin-Ichi; Takata, Hiromi; Handoh, Itsuki C; Nakayama, Kei; Murakami, Yasunori

    2011-08-01

    Spills of heavy oil (HO) over the oceans have been proven to have an adverse effect on marine life. It has been hypothesized that exposure of early larvae of sinking eggs to HO leads largely to normal morphology, whereas abnormal organization of the developing neural scaffold is likely to be found. HO-induced disruption of the nervous system, which controls animal behavior, may in turn cause abnormalities in the swimming behavior of hatched larvae. To clarify the toxicological effects of HO, we performed exposure experiments and morphological and behavioral analyses in pufferfish (Takifugu rubripes) larvae. Fertilized eggs of pufferfish were exposed to 50 mg/L of HO for 8 days and transferred to fresh seawater before hatching. The hatched larvae were observed for their swimming behavior, morphological appearance, and construction of muscles and nervous system. In HO-exposed larvae, we did not detect any anomaly of body morphology. However, they showed an abnormal swimming pattern and disorganized midbrain, a higher center controlling movement. Our results suggest that HO-exposed fishes suffer developmental disorder of the brain that triggers an abnormal swimming behavior and that HO may be selectively toxic to the brain and cause physical disability throughout the life span of these fishes.

  5. Positive correlation between pesticide sales and central nervous system and cardiovascular congenital abnormalities in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Froes Asmus, Carmen I R; Camara, Volney M; Raggio, Ronir; Landrigan, Philip J; Claudio, Luz

    2017-10-01

    This study investigated the association between pesticide exposure in Brazil (2005-2013) with rates of central nervous system (CNS) and cardiovascular system (CVS) congenital abnormalities in 2014. An exposure variable was established from data on production and sales of pesticides (kg) per crop area (ha) for 2012 and 2013 years. The Brazilian states were divided into three categories: high, medium, and low pesticide use and rate ratios were estimated for each group of states (CI: 95 %). In 2013 and 2014, the high use group presented a 100 and a 75 % increase, and the medium group a 65 and 23 % increase, respectively, in the risk of CNS and CVS congenital abnormalities at birth, compared to the low use group. These findings suggest that pesticide exposure could be associated with increased risk of congenital malformations at birth in Brazil.

  6. Fast MR imaging and ultrafast MR imaging of fetal central nervous system abnormalities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shakudo, Miyuki; Manabe, Takao; Murata, Katsuko; Matsuo, Ryoichi; Oda, Junro [Osaka City General Hospital (Japan); Inoue, Yuichi; Mochizuki, Kunizo; Yamada, Ryusaku

    2001-12-01

    The aims of this study were two: to compare the efficacy of fast MRI (breath-hold fast spin-echo T2-weighted and fast gradient-echo T1-weighted sequence) and ultrafast MRI (half-Fourier acquisition single-shot turbo spin-echo sequence) in evaluation of fetal central nervous system (CNS) abnormalities at late gestational age, and to compare the capability of fast MRI and ultrafast MRI to assess fetal CNS abnormalities with that of prenatal ultrasonography (US). Forty-nine women with fetuses at gestational ages of 26-39 weeks underwent fast MRI (29 patients) or ultrafast MRI (20 patients). In detection of motion artifact, visualization of the lateral and 4th ventricles, and differentiation between gray and white matter in cerebral hemispheres, ultrafast MRI was significantly superior to fast MRI (p<0.0001, Mann-Whitney U test). In 25 of 43 cases, US and MR diagnoses were the same and consistent with postnatal diagnosis. In 10 of 43 cases, MRI demonstrated findings additional to or different from those of US, and MR findings were confirmed postnatally. MRI, particularly ultrafast MRI, is useful for demonstrating CNS abnormalities in situations in which US is suggestive but not definitive. (author)

  7. Fetal magnetic resonance imaging in prenatal diagnosis of central nervous system abnormalities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morioka, Takato; Hashiguchi, Kimiaki; Kawamura, Tadao; Mihara, Futoshi; Hikino, Shunji; Nagata, Hideaki; Iwaki, Toru; Sasaki, Tomio

    2005-01-01

    The diagnostic value of fetal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), performed in 42 pregnant women whose fetuses had structural abnormalities of the central nervous system identified with transabdominal ultrasonography from 1995 through 2002, was analyzed retrospectively. Half-Fourier acquisition single-shot turbo spin-echo (HASTE) T 2 -weighted imaging clearly delineated the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) space and the malformed brain and spinal cord and provided valuable information for the diagnosis of structural abnormalities related to the CSF space, such as spina bifida with Chiari type II malformation (7 cases), colpocephaly with agenesis of the corpus callosum (7 cases), holoprosencephaly (6 cases), porencephaly (2 cases), lissencephaly with hydrocephalus (2 cases), and middle fossa arachnoid cyst (1 case). However, some difficulty was encountered in the diagnosis of rare pathologic conditions that were not related to the CSF space, such as epignathus, multiple arteriovenous fistulae, trapped suboccipital meningocele, and Turner syndrome. We conclude that HASTE T 2 -weighted imaging, which provides useful diagnostic images in a reasonable time, is a useful adjunct to ultrasonography to confirm or exclude certain abnormalities related to the CSF space. (author)

  8. Diagnosis abnormalities of limb movement in disorders of the nervous system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tymchik, Gregory S.; Skytsiouk, Volodymyr I.; Klotchko, Tatiana R.; Bezsmertna, Halyna; Wójcik, Waldemar; Luganskaya, Saule; Orazbekov, Zhassulan; Iskakova, Aigul

    2017-08-01

    The paper deals with important issues of diagnosis early signs of diseases of the nervous system, including Parkinson's disease and other specific diseases. Small quantities of violation trajectory of spatial movement of the extremities of human disease at the primary level as the most appropriate features are studied. In modern medical practice is very actual the control the emergence of diseases of the nervous system, including Parkinson's disease. In work a model limbs with six rotational kinematic pairs for diagnosis of early signs of diseases of the nervous system is considered. subject.

  9. Significance of cardiac sympathetic nervous system abnormality for predicting vascular events in patients with idiopathic paroxysmal atrial fibrillation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akutsu, Yasushi; Kaneko, Kyouichi; Kodama, Yusuke; Li, Hui-Ling; Kawamura, Mitsuharu; Asano, Taku; Hamazaki, Yuji; Tanno, Kaoru; Kobayashi, Youichi; Suyama, Jumpei; Shinozuka, Akira; Gokan, Takehiko

    2010-01-01

    Neuronal system activity plays an important role for the prognosis of patients with atrial fibrillation (AF). Using 123 I metaiodobenzylguanidine ( 123 I-MIBG) scintigraphy, we investigated whether a cardiac sympathetic nervous system (SNS) abnormality would be associated with an increased risk of vascular events in patients with paroxysmal AF. 123 I-MIBG scintigraphy was performed in 69 consecutive patients (67 ± 13 years, 62% men) with paroxysmal AF who did not have structural heart disease. SNS integrity was assessed from the heart to mediastinum (H/M) ratio on delayed imaging. Serum concentration of C-reactive protein (CRP) was measured before 123 I-MIBG study. During a mean of 4.5 ± 3.6 years follow-up, 19 patients had myocardial infarction, stroke or heart failure (range: 0.2-11.5 years). SNS abnormality (H/M ratio <2.7) and high CRP (≥0.3 mg/dl) were associated with the vascular events (58.3% in 14 of 24 patients with SNS abnormality vs 11.1% in 5 of 45 patients without SNS abnormality, p < 0.0001, 52.4% in 11 of 21 patients with high CRP vs 16.7% in 8 of 48 patients without high CRP, p < 0.0001). After adjustment for potential confounding variables such as age, left atrial dimension and left ventricular function, SNS abnormality was an independent predictor of vascular events with a hazard ratio of 4.1 [95% confidence interval (CI): 1.3-12.6, p = 0.014]. Further, SNS abnormality had an incremental and additive prognostic power in combination with high CRP with an adjusted hazard ratio of 4.1 (95% CI: 1.5-10.9, p = 0.006). SNS abnormality is predictive of vascular events in patients with idiopathic paroxysmal AF. (orig.)

  10. Significance of cardiac sympathetic nervous system abnormality for predicting vascular events in patients with idiopathic paroxysmal atrial fibrillation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akutsu, Yasushi; Kaneko, Kyouichi; Kodama, Yusuke; Li, Hui-Ling; Kawamura, Mitsuharu; Asano, Taku; Hamazaki, Yuji; Tanno, Kaoru; Kobayashi, Youichi [Showa University School of Medicine, Division of Cardiology, Department of Medicine, Tokyo (Japan); Suyama, Jumpei; Shinozuka, Akira; Gokan, Takehiko [Showa University School of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Tokyo (Japan)

    2010-04-15

    Neuronal system activity plays an important role for the prognosis of patients with atrial fibrillation (AF). Using {sup 123}I metaiodobenzylguanidine ({sup 123}I-MIBG) scintigraphy, we investigated whether a cardiac sympathetic nervous system (SNS) abnormality would be associated with an increased risk of vascular events in patients with paroxysmal AF. {sup 123}I-MIBG scintigraphy was performed in 69 consecutive patients (67 {+-} 13 years, 62% men) with paroxysmal AF who did not have structural heart disease. SNS integrity was assessed from the heart to mediastinum (H/M) ratio on delayed imaging. Serum concentration of C-reactive protein (CRP) was measured before {sup 123}I-MIBG study. During a mean of 4.5 {+-} 3.6 years follow-up, 19 patients had myocardial infarction, stroke or heart failure (range: 0.2-11.5 years). SNS abnormality (H/M ratio <2.7) and high CRP ({>=}0.3 mg/dl) were associated with the vascular events (58.3% in 14 of 24 patients with SNS abnormality vs 11.1% in 5 of 45 patients without SNS abnormality, p < 0.0001, 52.4% in 11 of 21 patients with high CRP vs 16.7% in 8 of 48 patients without high CRP, p < 0.0001). After adjustment for potential confounding variables such as age, left atrial dimension and left ventricular function, SNS abnormality was an independent predictor of vascular events with a hazard ratio of 4.1 [95% confidence interval (CI): 1.3-12.6, p = 0.014]. Further, SNS abnormality had an incremental and additive prognostic power in combination with high CRP with an adjusted hazard ratio of 4.1 (95% CI: 1.5-10.9, p = 0.006). SNS abnormality is predictive of vascular events in patients with idiopathic paroxysmal AF. (orig.)

  11. [Characteristics of pregnancy and delivery of fetuses affected by either central nervous system malformations or chromosomal abnormalities].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedler, Jordana Mashiach; Mazor, Moshe; Shoham-Vardi, Ilana; Bashiri, Asher

    2011-11-01

    To determine whether fetuses affected by either chromosomal abnormalities or central nervous system (CNS) malformations are prone to complications during pregnancy and delivery. In this study, 320 singleton pregnancies with CNS malformations and 133 singleton pregnancies with chromosomal abnormaLities were compared with 149,112 singleton births without any known congenital anomalies. Exclusion criteria were: births with other congenital anomalies or malformations, pregnancies Lacking prenatal care and multiple pregnancies. Data was obtained using the computerized birth discharge records. The statistical analysis was performed with the SPSS package. There were no statistically significant differences in maternal age, ethnicity, uterine anomalies or parity. The ratio of general anesthesia was almost double in the study groups compared to the control group: 25% in the CNS malformation group (RR 2.617, CI 2.031-3.372) and 25.6% in the chromosomal abnormality group (RR 2.696, CI 1.825-3.982) and 11.3% in the control group (p malformation group, 20.3% in the chromosomal abnormaLity group and 12% in the control group. A logistic regression model that included previous CS, maLpresentation, non-reassuring fetal heart monitor (NRFHR) and presence of a malformation, concluded that the presence of a malformation was not an independent risk factor for CS. However, indirect causes, such as malpresentation (4.34 OR), were independently associated with the malformations. Fetuses affected by either CNS malformations or chromosomal abnormalities have a higher rate of pregnancy and delivery complications, including those which increase the risk of maternal morbidity and mortality.

  12. Autonomic Nervous System Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Your autonomic nervous system is the part of your nervous system that controls involuntary actions, such as the beating of your heart ... breathing and swallowing Erectile dysfunction in men Autonomic nervous system disorders can occur alone or as the result ...

  13. Central Nervous System Vasculitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of Vasculitis / Central Nervous System (CNS) Vasculitis Central Nervous System (CNS) Vasculitis Swap out your current Facebook Profile ... Facebook personal page. Replace with this image. Central nervous system (CNS) vasculitis is inflammation of blood vessel walls ...

  14. Deficiency of a membrane skeletal protein, 4.1G, results in myelin abnormalities in the peripheral nervous system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saitoh, Yurika; Ohno, Nobuhiko; Yamauchi, Junji; Sakamoto, Takeharu; Terada, Nobuo

    2017-12-01

    We previously demonstrated that a membrane skeletal molecular complex, 4.1G-membrane palmitoylated protein 6 (MPP6)-cell adhesion molecule 4, is incorporated in Schwann cells in the peripheral nervous system (PNS). In this study, we evaluated motor activity and myelin ultrastructures in 4.1G-deficient (-/-) mice. When suspended by the tail, aged 4.1G -/- mice displayed spastic leg extension, especially after overwork. Motor-conduction velocity in 4.1G -/- mice was slower than that in wild-type mice. Using electron microscopy, 4.1G -/- mice exhibited myelin abnormalities: myelin was thicker in internodes, and attachment of myelin tips was distorted in some paranodes. In addition, we found a novel function of 4.1G for sorting a scaffold protein, Lin7, due to disappearance of the immunolocalization and reduction of the production of Lin7c and Lin7a in 4.1G -/- sciatic nerves, as well as the interaction of MPP6 and Lin7 with immunoprecipitation. Thus, we herein propose 4.1G functions as a signal for proper formation of myelin in PNS.

  15. Rapid, low-cost MR imaging protocol to document central nervous system and sinus abnormalities prior to pediatric hematopoietic stem cell transplantation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leite, Eliane D.; Barbosa, Felipe G. de; Szarf, Gilberto; Lederman, Henrique M. [Universidade Federal de Sao Paulo, Department of Diagnostic Imaging, Sao Paulo (Brazil); Seber, Adriana; Ginani, Valeria C.; Carlesse, Fabianne C.; Gouvea, Roseane V.; Zecchin, Victor G.; Carvalho, Cinthya R. [Universidade Federal de Sao Paulo, Division of Pediatric Oncology, Department of Pediatrics, Sao Paulo (Brazil)

    2011-06-15

    Patients undergoing bone marrow transplant (BMT) are at risk for infectious complications, including those of the sinus. Central nervous system (CNS) abnormalities related to the chemotherapy or radiation that the patient received for the treatment of underlying malignancy or to transplant-related effects are also commonly seen. The only effective way to differentiate pre- and post-transplant causes is to have a baseline evaluation prior to the admission for transplant. The current method used to evaluate these patients is head CT. However, CT is not accurate to demonstrate CNS abnormalities and exposes the patient to radiation. MRI, despite better sensitivity for white matter abnormalities, has not been routinely used because of the higher cost and longer duration of the exam. Therefore, we designed a fast, low-cost and radiation-free MRI-based protocol to simultaneously evaluate sinus and brain abnormalities. (orig.)

  16. Central nervous system

    Science.gov (United States)

    The central nervous system is composed of the brain and spinal cord. Your brain and spinal cord serve as the main "processing center" for your entire nervous system. They control all the workings of your body.

  17. A case of acute lymphoblastic leukemia with abnormal brain CT scan after cranial irradiation for central nervous system leukemia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sato, Junko; Abe, Takanori; Watanabe, Tsutomu

    1988-01-01

    A 21-year-old woman with acute lymphoblastic leukemia presented with central neurologic symptoms immediately after the second irradiation (20 Gy to the brain and 10 Gy to the spinal cord) for central nervous system (CNS)-leukemia 3 years and 2 months after the first cranial irradiation with 20 Gy. White matter was depicted as diffusely high density area on CT; histology revealed necrosis of leukemic cells. In the present patient with repeated recurrent CNS-leukemia, leukemic cells seemed to have been damaged simultaneously after irradiation because of parenchymal widespread involvement of leukemic cells, resulting in brain edema, an increased intracranial pressure and parenchymal disturbance. This finding may have an important implication for the risk of cranial irradiation in the case of widespread involvement of leukemic cells. Re-evaluation of cranial irradiation in such cases is suggested. (Namekawa, K.)

  18. Central nervous system abnormalities on midline facial defects with hypertelorism detected by magnetic resonance image and computed tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lopes, Vera Lucia Gil da Silva; Giffoni, Silvio David Araujo

    2006-01-01

    The aim of this study were to describe and to compare structural central nervous system (CNS) anomalies detected by magnetic resonance image (MRI) and computed tomography (CT) in individuals affected by midline facial defects with hypertelorism (MFDH) isolated or associated with multiple congenital anomalies (MCA). The investigation protocol included dysmorphological examination, skull and facial X-rays, brain CT and/or MRI. We studied 24 individuals, 12 of them had an isolated form (Group I) and the others, MCA with unknown etiology (Group II). There was no significant difference between Group I and II and the results are presented in set. In addition to the several CNS anomalies previously described, MRI (n=18) was useful for detection of neuronal migration errors. These data suggested that structural CNS anomalies and MFDH seem to have an intrinsic embryological relationship, which should be taken in account during the clinical follow-up. (author)

  19. Brain and Nervous System

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Brain and Nervous System KidsHealth / For Parents / Brain and ... healthy, and remove waste products. All About the Brain The brain is made up of three main ...

  20. Central nervous system resuscitation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McIntosh, T K; Garde, E; Saatman, K E

    1997-01-01

    Traumatic injury to the central nervous system induces delayed neuronal death, which may be mediated by acute and chronic neurochemical changes. Experimental identification of these injury mechanisms and elucidation of the neurochemical cascade following trauma may provide enhanced opportunities...

  1. Abnormal hyperintensity within the subarachnoid space evaluated by fluid-attenuated inversion-recovery MR imaging: a spectrum of central nervous system diseases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maeda, M.; Sakuma, H.; Takeda, K.; Yagishita, A.; Yamamoto, T.

    2003-01-01

    A variety of central nervous system (CNS) diseases are associated with abnormal hyperintensity within the subarachnoid space (SAS) by fluid-attenuated inversion-recovery (FLAIR) MR imaging. Careful attention to the SAS can provide additional useful information that may not be available with conventional MR sequences. The purpose of this article is to provide a pictorial essay about CNS diseases and FLAIR images with abnormal hyperintensity within the SAS. We present several CNS diseases including subarachnoid hemorrhage, meningitis, leptomeningeal metastases, acute infarction, and severe arterial occlusive diseases such as moya-moya disease. We also review miscellaneous diseases or normal conditions that may exhibit cerebrospinal fluid hyperintensity on FLAIR images. Although the detection of abnormal hyperintensity suggests the underlying CNS diseases and narrows differential diagnoses, FLAIR imaging sometimes presents artifactual hyperintensity within the SAS that can cause the misinterpretation of normal SAS as pathologic conditions; therefore, radiologists should be familiar with such artifactual conditions as well as pathologic conditions shown as hyperintensity by FLAIR images. This knowledge is helpful in establishing the correct diagnosis. (orig.)

  2. The central nervous system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holmes, R.A.

    1984-01-01

    The first section presents a comprehensive evaluation of radionuclide imaging of the central nervous system and provides a comparison of the detection accuracies of radionuclide imaging (RNI) and XCT in certain lesions, realizing that the XCT results may vary when radiocontrast or newer generation XCT scanners are used. Although conventional radionuclide imaging of the central nervous system has experienced no significant changes over the last 7 years except for mild refinements, a new section has been added on positron emission tomography (PET). Most positron radiopharmaceuticals passively cross the intact blood-brain barrier, and their localization has catalyzed renewed interest in our ability to metabolically study and obtain images of the central nervous system. The section on radionuclide cisternography has been rewritten to reflect present day practice and the wider application of XCT in describing conditions affecting the ventricular system

  3. Central nervous system tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Curran, W.J. Jr.

    1991-01-01

    Intrinsic tumors of the central nervous system (CNS) pose a particularly challenging problem to practicing oncologists. These tumors rarely metastasize outside the CNS, yet even histologically benign tumors can be life-threatening due to their local invasiveness and strategic location. The surrounding normal tissues of the nervous system is often incapable of full functional regeneration, therefore prohibiting aggressive attempts to use either complete surgical resection or high doses of irradiation. Despite these limitations, notable achievements have recently been recorded in the management of these tumors

  4. Larval nervous systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Claus

    2015-01-01

    as the adult central nervous system (CNS). Two structures can be recognized, viz. a pair of cerebral ganglia, which form the major part of the adult brain, and a blastoporal (circumblastoporal) nerve cord, which becomes differentiated into a perioral loop, paired or secondarily fused ventral nerve cords......, and the nervous systems of echinoderms and enteropneusts appear completely enigmatic. The ontogeny of the chordate CNS can perhaps be interpreted as a variation of the ontogeny of the blastoporal nerve cord of the protostomes, and this is strongly supported by patterns of gene expression. The presence...

  5. Implementation of X-ray fluorescence microscopy for investigation of elemental abnormalities in central nervous system tissue

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chwiej, J. [Faculty of Physics and Applied Computer Science, AGH, University of Science and Technology, Al. Mickiewicza 30, 30-059 Cracow (Poland)]. E-mail: jchwiej@novell.ftj.agh.edu.pl; Szczerbowska-Boruchowska, M. [Faculty of Physics and Applied Computer Science, AGH, University of Science and Technology, Al. Mickiewicza 30, 30-059 Cracow (Poland); Wojcik, S. [Faculty of Physics and Applied Computer Science, AGH, University of Science and Technology, Al. Mickiewicza 30, 30-059 Cracow (Poland); Lankosz, M. [Faculty of Physics and Applied Computer Science, AGH, University of Science and Technology, Al. Mickiewicza 30, 30-059 Cracow (Poland); Chlebda, M. [Faculty of Physics and Applied Computer Science, AGH, University of Science and Technology, Al. Mickiewicza 30, 30-059 Cracow (Poland); Adamek, D. [Institute of Neurology, Collegium Medicum, Jagiellonian University, ul. Botaniczna-3, 31-503 Cracow (Poland); Tomik, B. [Institute of Neurology, Collegium Medicum, Jagiellonian University, ul. Botaniczna-3, 31-503 Cracow (Poland); Setkowicz, Z. [Department of Neuroanatomy, Institute of Zoology, Jagiellonian University, ul. Ingardena 6, 30-060 Cracow (Poland); Falkenberg, G. [Hamburger Synchrotronstrahlungslabor at Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron DESY, Notkestr. 85, Hamburg (Germany); Stegowski, Z. [Faculty of Physics and Applied Computer Science, AGH, University of Science and Technology, Al. Mickiewicza 30, 30-059 Cracow (Poland); Szczudlik, A. [Institute of Neurology, Collegium Medicum, Jagiellonian University, ul. Botaniczna-3, 31-503 Cracow (Poland)

    2005-09-29

    The microbeam synchrotron radiation X-ray fluorescence technique (micro-SRXRF) was applied to topographic and quantitative elemental analysis of human spinal cord tissue sections. The feasibility of this technique for the determination of elemental abnormalities caused by neurodegenerative disorder, i.e. amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), was verified. The applied measurement conditions allowed detecting: P, S, Cl, K, Ca, Fe, Cu, Zn and Br in thin tissue slices. Two-dimensional maps of the elemental distribution were recorded. Quantitative differences in elemental concentration between gray matter, nerve cells and white matter were observed for all analyzed cases. For the motor neuron bodies higher accumulation of S, Cl, K, Fe, Zn and Br was noticed. The results showed significant differences of elemental accumulation between the analyzed ALS cases. Moreover, the feasibility of using tissue sections fixed and embedded in paraffin for micro-SRXRF analysis was tested. These studies were performed on the samples of rat brain.

  6. Implementation of X-ray fluorescence microscopy for investigation of elemental abnormalities in central nervous system tissue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chwiej, J.; Szczerbowska-Boruchowska, M.; Wojcik, S.; Lankosz, M.; Chlebda, M.; Adamek, D.; Tomik, B.; Setkowicz, Z.; Falkenberg, G.; Stegowski, Z.; Szczudlik, A.

    2005-01-01

    The microbeam synchrotron radiation X-ray fluorescence technique (micro-SRXRF) was applied to topographic and quantitative elemental analysis of human spinal cord tissue sections. The feasibility of this technique for the determination of elemental abnormalities caused by neurodegenerative disorder, i.e. amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), was verified. The applied measurement conditions allowed detecting: P, S, Cl, K, Ca, Fe, Cu, Zn and Br in thin tissue slices. Two-dimensional maps of the elemental distribution were recorded. Quantitative differences in elemental concentration between gray matter, nerve cells and white matter were observed for all analyzed cases. For the motor neuron bodies higher accumulation of S, Cl, K, Fe, Zn and Br was noticed. The results showed significant differences of elemental accumulation between the analyzed ALS cases. Moreover, the feasibility of using tissue sections fixed and embedded in paraffin for micro-SRXRF analysis was tested. These studies were performed on the samples of rat brain

  7. The Nervous System Game

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corbitt, Cynthia; Carpenter, Molly

    2006-01-01

    For many children, especially those with reading difficulties, a motor-kinesthetic learning activity may be an effective tool to teach complex concepts. With this in mind, the authors developed and tested a game designed to teach fourth- to sixth-grade children some basic principles of nervous system function by allowing the children themselves to…

  8. Overview of the Autonomic Nervous System

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... be reversible or progressive. Anatomy of the autonomic nervous system The autonomic nervous system is the part of ... organs they connect with. Function of the autonomic nervous system The autonomic nervous system controls internal body processes ...

  9. Adult central nervous system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sutton, M.L.

    1985-01-01

    Historically, the adult central nervous system (CNS) was regarded as relatively immune to the effects of ionising radiation, and the recognition of the CNS as a radio-vulnerable structure occurred later than was the case for many other tissues. Increasingly precise knowledge of the time-dose-volume relationships for CNS tolerance has had two important consequences: (1) it has permitted the avoidance of catastrophic and usually lethal late effects in the brain and spinal cord when these tissues are unavoidably irradiated during the treatment of adjacent non-CNS tumours, and (2) it has encouraged referral for irradiation of certain technically benign lesions which, although compatible with prolonged survival, represent a continuing threat to the patient - for example arteriovenous malformations, pituitary adenomas, and some meningiomas. Many of these can now be controlled for very long periods following radiation doses consistent with the long-term functional integrity of the CNS

  10. Effects of the Autonomic Nervous System, Central Nervous System ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The gastrointestinal tract is chiefly involved in the digestion of ingested food, facilitation of absorption process and expulsion of the undigested food material through motility process. Motility is influenced by neurohormonal system which is associated with the enteric nervous system , autonomic nervous system and the ...

  11. Central nervous system: brain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mishkin, F.S.

    1975-01-01

    Present radiopharmaceuticals and detector systems have provided nuclear medicine physicians with tools capable of detecting a variety of brain abnormalities with little radiation exposure to pediatric patients. It is essential that the referring physician as well as the physician performing the procedure recognize both the limitations and virtues of these techniques. Appropriate selection of brain imaging procedures in each specific case must be the rule. Brain scintigraphy reliably solves certain problems, such as detecting or excluding intracranial tumors and identifying early cerebral inflammatory disease, cerebral ischemic disease, and a variety of congenital anomalies. Other situations, such as seizures without a focal neurologic deficit, acute meningitis, and hydrocephalus, are less often benefited by these studies. The role of these procedures in acute trauma and its sequelae is at the present time limited in pediatric practice. (auth)

  12. The nervous systems of cnidarians

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grimmelikhuijzen, C J; Westfall, J A

    1995-01-01

    specialized neurons that we find in higher animals today. The primitive nervous system of cnidarians is strongly peptidergic: from a single sea anemone species Anthopleura elegantissima, we have now isolated 16 different novel neuropeptides. These peptides are biologically active and cause inhibitions......Cnidarians have simple nervous systems and it was probably within this group or a closely-related ancestor that nervous systems first evolved. The basic plan of the cnidarian nervous system is that of a nerve net which, at some locations, has condensed to form nerve plexuses, or circular...... that the peptides are located in neuronal dense-cored vesicles associated with both synaptic and non-synaptic release sites. All these data indicate that evolutionarily "old" nervous systems use peptides as transmitters. We have also investigated the biosynthesis of the cnidarian neuropeptides. These neuropeptides...

  13. Central nervous system tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gavin, P.R.; Fike, J.R.; Hoopes, P.J.

    1995-01-01

    Central nervous system (CNS) tumors are relatively common in veterinary medicine, with most diagnoses occurring in the canine and feline species. Numerous tumor types from various cells or origins have been identified with the most common tumors being meningiomas and glial cell tumors. Radiation therapy is often used as an aid to control the clinical signs associated with these neoplasms. In general, these tumors have a very low metastatic potential, such that local control offers substantial benefit. Experience in veterinary radiation oncology would indicate that many patients benefit from radiation treatment. Current practice indicates the need for computed tomography or magnetic resonance imaging studies. These highly beneficial studies are used for diagnosis, treatment planning, and to monitor treatment response. Improvements in treatment planning and radiation delivered to the tumor, while sparing the normal tissues, should improve local control and decrease potential radiation related problems to the CNS. When possible, multiple fractions of 3 Gy or less should be used. The tolerance dose to the normal tissue with this fractionation schedule is 50 to 55 Gy. The most common and serious complications of radiation for CNS tumors is delayed radiation myelopathy and necrosis. Medical management of the patient during radiation therapy requires careful attention to anesthetic protocols, and medications to reduce intracranial pressure that is often elevated in these patients. Canine brain tumors have served as an experimental model to test numerous new treatments. Increased availability of advanced imaging modalities has spawned increased detection of these neoplasms. Early detection of these tumors with appropriate aggressive therapy should prove beneficial to many patients

  14. Your Brain and Nervous System

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Your Brain & Nervous System KidsHealth / For Kids / Your Brain & Nervous ... The coolest wetsuit? Nope — he needs his cerebellum! Brain Stem Keeps You Breathing — and More Another brain ...

  15. Central nervous system lupus erythematosus in childhood

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yokota, Shumpei; Kimura, Kazue; Yoshida, Naotaka; Mitsuda, Toshihiro; Ibe, Masa-aki; Shimizu, Hiroko (Yokohama City Univ. (Japan). Faculty of Medicine)

    1989-12-01

    Clinical features of central nervous system (CNS) invlvement in childhood systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) was investigated. Neuropsychiatric manifestations including seizures, chorea, headache, overt psychosis, tremor, increase of muscle spastisity, and disturbed memory were found in 47% of 15 patients with SLE. There was a well correlatin between CNS abnormalities and SLE disease activity judged by serum complement levels and anti-nuclear antibody and anti-DNA antibody titers. The administration of Prednisolon was effective for the treatment of these CNS abnormalities and steroid psychosis was rare in the present study. EEG abnormalities involving diffuse slowing and slowing bursts were found in 73% of the patients. Cranial CT scan revealed basel ganglia calcifications in 2 patients, and marked brain atrophy in 3 patients. This study indicated that in the long term following of SLE children CNS abnormalities need to be serially checked by EEG and cranial CT scans as well as serological investigations. (author).

  16. Central nervous system lupus erythematosus in childhood

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yokota, Shumpei; Kimura, Kazue; Yoshida, Naotaka; Mitsuda, Toshihiro; Ibe, Masa-aki; Shimizu, Hiroko

    1989-01-01

    Clinical features of central nervous system (CNS) invlvement in childhood systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) was investigated. Neuropsychiatric manifestations including seizures, chorea, headache, overt psychosis, tremor, increase of muscle spastisity, and disturbed memory were found in 47% of 15 patients with SLE. There was a well correlatin between CNS abnormalities and SLE disease activity judged by serum complement levels and anti-nuclear antibody and anti-DNA antibody titers. The administration of Prednisolon was effective for the treatment of these CNS abnormalities and steroid psychosis was rare in the present study. EEG abnormalities involving diffuse slowing and slowing bursts were found in 73% of the patients. Cranial CT scan revealed basel ganglia calcifications in 2 patients, and marked brain atrophy in 3 patients. This study indicated that in the long term following of SLE children CNS abnormalities need to be serially checked by EEG and cranial CT scans as well as serological investigations. (author)

  17. Diseases of the nervous system associated with calcium channelopathies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Todorov, Boyan Bogdanov

    2010-01-01

    The aim of the studies described in this thesis was to investigate how abnormal CaV2.1 channel function can cause disease, in particular motor coordination dysfunction. The chapters illustrate how various neuronal cell types in the periphery (peripheral nervous system) and the central nervous system

  18. The evolution of the serotonergic nervous system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hay-Schmidt, Anders

    2000-01-01

    Anatomy, serotonergic nervous system, neurons, invertebrates, phylogeny, development, apical ganglion......Anatomy, serotonergic nervous system, neurons, invertebrates, phylogeny, development, apical ganglion...

  19. 75 FR 75681 - Peripheral and Central Nervous System Drugs Advisory Committee; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-06

    ...] Peripheral and Central Nervous System Drugs Advisory Committee; Notice of Meeting AGENCY: Food and Drug...: Peripheral and Central Nervous System Drugs Advisory Committee. General Function of the Committee: To provide...) and/or abnormal vascularity (abnormal blood supply and circulation) of the central nervous system. The...

  20. Chapter 1. Central nervous system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Planiol, T.; Veyre, A.; Plagne, R.

    1975-01-01

    The present situation with regard to explorations of the central nervous system by radioactive compounds is reviewed. For the sake of clarity the brain and cerebrospinal fluid examinations are described separately, with emphasis nevertheless on their complementarity. The tracers used in each of these examinations are listed, together with the criteria governing their choice. The different techniques employed are described. Scintigraphy is presented apart from gamma-angio-encephalography since it is not possible with rectilinear scintigraphs to observe the circulatory phase. The results are interpreted by an analysis of normal and pathological aspects of the different stages of the central nervous system [fr

  1. What Are the Parts of the Nervous System?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Email Print What are the parts of the nervous system? The nervous system consists of two main parts: the central nervous system and the peripheral nervous system: The central nervous system is made up of the brain and ...

  2. Nanomedicine and the nervous system

    CERN Document Server

    Martin, Colin R; Hunter, Ross J

    2012-01-01

    The nanosciences encompass a variety of technologies ranging from particles to networks and nanostructures. Nanoparticles can be suitable carriers of therapeutic agents, and nanostructures provide suitable platforms and scaffolds for sub-micro bioengineering. This book focuses on nanomedicine and nanotechnology as applied to the nervous system and the brain. It covers nanoparticle-based immunoassays, nanofiber microbrush arrays, nanoelectrodes, protein nanoassemblies, nanoparticles-assisted imaging, nanomaterials, and ion channels. Additional topics include stem cell imaging, neuronal performa

  3. Central nervous system mesenchymal chondrosarcoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salvati, M.; Frati, A.; Piccirilli, M.; Agrillo, A.; Brogna, C.; Occhiogrosso, G.; Giangaspero, F. [INM Neuromed IRCCS, Pozzilli (Italy). Dept. of Neurosurgery; Caroli, E. [Policlinico S. Andrea, Rome (Italy). Dept. of Neurological Sciences, Neurosurgery

    2005-06-15

    Central nervous system mesenchymal chondrosarcomas are rare malignant tumors that constitute a separate entity from the classical chondrosarcoma and myxoid variant. Clinical behaviour of central nervous system chondrosarcomas is still unknown. We describe two rare examples of intracranial mesenchymal chondrosarcoma with a review of the literature, in an attempt to clarify the clinical characteristics, prognosis and treatment of choice of these unusual tumors. Among the 55 reported cases, 23 had postoperative radiotherapy. Although there is no statistical significance according to the Log-Rank test (p=0.7), the patients treated with radiation therapy seem to have a better chance of survival. Patients who had adjuvant chemotherapy (only 5) showed survival times similar to those patients who had none. Although clinical behaviour of central nervous system chondrosarcomas remains to be defined, data from our series as well as literature show that radical removal is the best therapeutic choice. In addition, patients treated with postoperative radiotherapy seem to show a trend toward increased survival.

  4. Central nervous system mesenchymal chondrosarcoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salvati, M.; Frati, A.; Piccirilli, M.; Agrillo, A.; Brogna, C.; Occhiogrosso, G.; Giangaspero, F.; Caroli, E.

    2005-01-01

    Central nervous system mesenchymal chondrosarcomas are rare malignant tumors that constitute a separate entity from the classical chondrosarcoma and myxoid variant. Clinical behaviour of central nervous system chondrosarcomas is still unknown. We describe two rare examples of intracranial mesenchymal chondrosarcoma with a review of the literature, in an attempt to clarify the clinical characteristics, prognosis and treatment of choice of these unusual tumors. Among the 55 reported cases, 23 had postoperative radiotherapy. Although there is no statistical significance according to the Log-Rank test (p=0.7), the patients treated with radiation therapy seem to have a better chance of survival. Patients who had adjuvant chemotherapy (only 5) showed survival times similar to those patients who had none. Although clinical behaviour of central nervous system chondrosarcomas remains to be defined, data from our series as well as literature show that radical removal is the best therapeutic choice. In addition, patients treated with postoperative radiotherapy seem to show a trend toward increased survival

  5. Aging changes in the nervous system

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... ency/article/004023.htm Aging changes in the nervous system To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. The brain and nervous system are your body's central control center. They control ...

  6. Smart electromechanical systems the central nervous system

    CERN Document Server

    Kurbanov, Vugar

    2017-01-01

    This book describes approaches to solving the problems of developing the central nervous system of robots (CNSR) based on smart electromechanical systems (SEMS) modules, principles of construction of the various modules of the central nervous system and variants of mathematical software CNSR in control systems for intelligent robots. It presents the latest advances in theory and practice at the Russian Academy of Sciences. Developers of intelligent robots to solve modern problems in robotics are increasingly addressing the use of the bionic approach to create robots that mimic the complexity and adaptability of biological systems. These have smart electromechanical system (SEMS), which are used in various cyber-physical systems (CPhS), and allow the functions of calculation, control, communications, information storage, monitoring, measurement and control of parameters and environmental parameters to be integrated. The behavior of such systems is based on the information received from the central nervous syst...

  7. Central nervous system abnormalities in patients with oculo-auriculo-vertebral spectrum (Goldenhar syndrome Anormalidades do sistema nervoso central em pacientes com espectro óculo-aurículo-vertebral (síndrome de Goldenhar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Fabiano Machado Rosa

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To describe the central nervous system (CNS alterations present in a sample of oculo-auriculo-vertebral spectrum (OAVS patients, trying to correlate them with other clinical features. METHOD: Seventeen patients with diagnosis of OAVS were evaluated. All presented radiological evaluation of the CNS, normal GTG-Banding karyotype and clinical features involving at least two from the four following areas: oro-cranio-facial, ocular, auricular and vertebral. RESULTS: CNS alterations were verified in eight from seventeen patients (47%. Diffuse cerebral hypoplasia, dilated lateral cerebral ventricles (asymptomatic hydrocephalus, corpus callosum dysgenesis and frontal hypodensities were the most frequent abnormalities. Presence of ophthalmologic abnormalities was the only clinical association observed, being significantly more frequent among patients with cerebral alterations (63% versus 11%. CONCLUSION: CNS abnormalities are frequent in patients with OAVS, especially in carriers of ophthalmologic alterations. However, the absence of detectable cerebral abnormalities did not exclude the possibility that these subjects will subsequently present neurological symptoms.OBJETIVO: Descrever as alterações do sistema nervoso central (SNC presentes em uma amostra de pacientes com espectro óculo-aurículo-vertebral (EOAV, tentando correlacioná-las com os demais achados clínicos. MÉTODO: Foram avaliados dezessete pacientes com diagnóstico de EOAV. Todos apresentavam avaliação radiológica do SNC, cariótipo por bandas GTG normal e achados clínicos em pelo menos duas das quatro das seguintes áreas: oro-crânio-facial, ocular, auricular e vertebral. RESULTADOS: Alterações do SNC foram verificadas em oito dos dezessete pacientes (47%. Hipoplasia cerebral difusa, dilatação dos ventrículos cerebrais laterais (hidrocefalia assintomática, disgenesia do corpo caloso e hipondesidades frontais foram as anormalidades mais frequentes. A presença de

  8. Central nervous system in leukemia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Phair, J P; Anderson, R E; Namiki, Hideo

    1964-03-12

    The present report summarizes the pertinent clinical and pathologic findings in 165 cases of leukemia in atomic bomb exposed victims autopsied during the period 1949 to 1962 at ABCC in Hiroshima and Nagasaki, Japan. Significant parenchymal hemorrhage occurred most often in acute myelogenous leukemia and was markedly increased in patients dying with high terminal white blood cell counts. Possible mechanisms involved in the pathogenesis of cerebral hemorrhage in leukemia are discussed. Subarachnoid hemorrhage and subdural hematoma were not related to leukocytosis but appeared to be influenced by marked thrombocytopenia. Leukemic infiltrates of a diffuse nature involving the meninges were paradoxically increased in patients receiving adequate chemotherapy. Meningeal tumors did not show this peculiar relationship to therapy and were not found in association with lymphatic leukemia. Infections involving the central nervous system were confined to patients receiving chemotherapy including steroids. 39 references, 3 figures, 4 tables.

  9. Investigation of the effects of experimental autolysis on the detection of abnormal prion protein in lymphoid and central nervous system tissues from elk and sheep using the Western blotting method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Hongsheng; Soutyrine, Andrei; Rendulich, Jasmine; O'Rourke, Katherine; Balachandran, Aru

    2011-01-01

    Tissues unsuitable for standard immunohistochemical and histopathological examinations for chronic wasting disease (CWD) in cervids and for scrapie in sheep are frequently submitted for testing. This study investigated the effects of experimental autolysis on the detection of abnormal prion protein (PrPsc) in lymphoid and central nervous system (CNS) tissues from elk and sheep. The PrPsc was detected using a Western blotting (WB) test following PrPsc enrichment using sodium phosphotungstic acid (PTA) precipitation (PTA-WB). A commercial enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was used as a reference test for quantitative measurement. This study showed that the amount of PrPsc in lymphoid and CNS tssues from elk and sheep decreased gradually as a result of autolysis, but PrPsc was still detectable after 5 and 15 d incubation at 37°C by PTA-WB for all lymphoid and CNS samples. The results of the ELISA supported those of PTA-WB, particularly for CNS tissues. In conclusion, autolysis at 37°C for 15 d would not significantly affect the detection of PrPsc in lymphoid and CNS tissues by WB and ELISA and, particularly, PTA-WB is a valuable and alternative confirmatory test to detect PrPsc in autolyzed lymphoid and CNS samples.

  10. Spontaneous nervous system concussion in dogs: A description of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In human medicine, central nervous system (CNS) concussion is defined as a transient neurological dysfunction following a traumatic event, without evidence of structural abnormalities of the affected region on advanced diagnostic imaging. Depending on the anatomical region involved, three forms of concussive ...

  11. Central Nervous System Infections in Denmark

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-02-04

    Central Nervous System Infections; Bacterial Meningitis; Viral Meningitis; Aseptic Meningitis; Encephalitis; Brain Abscess; Neuroborreliosis; Neurosyphilis; Lyme Disease; Tertiary Syphilis; Cerebral Abscess; Meningitis

  12. human immunodeficiency virus and the nervous system

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    drclement

    pathogenicity, drug resistance and predisposition to ... tropical countries, antiretroviral therapy is not available ... induced peripheral nervous system disorders ... ataxia and intractable vomiting. ... eligibility for chemotherapy and survival after.

  13. Central nervous system tuberculosis: MRI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kioumehr, F.; Dadsetan, M.R.; Rooholamini, S.A.; Au, A.

    1994-02-01

    The MRI findings of 18 proven cases of central nervous system (CNS) tuberculosis were reviewed; 10 patients were seropositive for HIV. All had medical, laboratory, or surgical proof of CNS tuberculosis. Eleven patients had meningitis, of whom two also had arachnoiditis. Five patients had focal intra-axial tuberculomas: four brain masses and one an intramedullary spinal lesion. Two patients had focal extra-axial tuberculomas: one in the pontine cistern, and one in the spine. In all 11 patients with meningitis MRI showed diffuse, thick, meningeal enhancement. All intraparenchymal tuberculomas showed low signal intensity on T2-weighted images and ring or nodular enhancement. The extra-axial tuberculomas had areas isointense or hypointense relative to normal brain and spinal cord on T2-weighted images. Although tuberculous meningitis cannot be differentiated from other meningitides on the basis of MR findings, intraparenchymal tuberculomas show characteristic T2 shortening, not found in most other space-occupying lesions. In the appropriate clinical setting, tuberculoma should be considered. (orig.)

  14. Understanding and controlling the enteric nervous system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boeckxstaens, G. E.

    2002-01-01

    The enteric nervous system or the `Little Brain' of the gut controls gastrointestinal motility and secretion, and is involved in visceral sensation. In this chapter, new developments in understanding the function of the enteric nervous system are described. In particular, the interaction of this

  15. Dietary Carotenoids and the Nervous System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Billy R. Hammond

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This issue of Foods is focused on the general topic of carotenoids within the nervous system. The focus is on the effects of the xanthophylls on the central nervous system (CNS, reflecting the majority of work in this area. [...

  16. The Central Nervous System of Box Jellyfish

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Garm, Anders Lydik; Ekström, Peter

    2008-01-01

    of behaviors in the box jellyfish such as obstacle avoidance and navigation. The need to process the visual information and turn it into the appropriate behavior puts strong demands on the nervous system of box jellyfish, which appears more elaborate than in other cnidarians. Here, the central part...... of this nervous system is described. Each rhopalium holds a separate part of the CNS with 1,000 nerve cells and a large amount of neuropil. The rhopalial nervous system has several subsystems defined by the anatomy, location, and immunocytochemistry of the cells. Most of the subsystems connect to one or more...... of the eye types, and it is likely that the rhopalial nervous system accounts for most of the visual processing. The major part of the CNS is made up of a ring nerve encircling the bell shaped body. The ring nerve holds around 10,000 cells and is directly connected to all four rhopalial nervous systems...

  17. Central nervous system depressant activityof Leonurus sibiricus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The methanol extract of aerial parts of Leonurus sibiricus was shown to possess central nervous system depressant action by significantly decreased the time of onset of sleep and potentiated the pentobarbital induced sleeping time in mice. Keywords: Leonurus sibiricus, labiatae, central nervous depressant, sedation

  18. Radiation injury to the nervous system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gutin, P.H.; Leibel, S.A.; Sneline, G.E.

    1991-01-01

    This book is designed to describe to the radiation biologist, radiation oncologist, neurologist, neurosurgeon, medical oncologist, and neuro-oncologist, the current state of knowledge about the tolerance of the nervous system to various kinds of radiation, the mechanisms of radiation injury, and how nervous system tolerance and injury are related to the more general problem of radiation damage to normal tissue of all types. The information collected here should stimulate interest in and facilitate the growing research effort into radiation injury to the nervous system

  19. Nervous system examination on YouTube

    OpenAIRE

    Azer Samy A; AlEshaiwi Sarah M; AlGrain Hala A; AlKhelaif Rana A

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Web 2.0 sites such as YouTube have become a useful resource for knowledge and are used by medical students as a learning resource. This study aimed at assessing videos covering the nervous system examination on YouTube. Methods A research of YouTube was conducted from 2 November to 2 December 2011 using the following key words “nervous system examination”, “nervous system clinical examination”, “cranial nerves examination”, “CNS examination”, “examination of cerebellum”, “...

  20. Peripheral Nervous System Manifestations in Systemic Autoimmune Diseases

    OpenAIRE

    COJOCARU, Inimioara Mihaela; COJOCARU, Manole; SILOSI, Isabela; VRABIE, Camelia Doina

    2014-01-01

    The peripheral nervous system refers to parts of the nervous system outside the brain and spinal cord. Systemic autoimmune diseases can affect both the central and peripheral nervous systems in a myriad of ways and through a heterogeneous number of mechanisms leading to many different clinical manifestations. As a result, neurological complications of these disorders can result in significant morbidity and mortality. The most common complication of peripheral nervous system (PNS) involvement ...

  1. Focal lesions in the central nervous system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fabrikant, J.I.; Budinger, T.F.; Tobias, C.A.; Born, J.L.

    1980-01-01

    This report reviews the animal and human studies currently in progress at LBL with heavy-ion beams to induce focal lesions in the central nervous system, and discusses the potential future prospects of fundamental and applied brain research with heavy-ion beams. Methods are being developed for producing discrete focal lesions in the central nervous system using the Bragg ionization peak to investigate nerve pathways and neuroendocrine responses, and for treating pathological disorders of the brain

  2. [Parasitic diseases of the central nervous system].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmutzhard, E

    2010-02-01

    Central nervous system infections and infestations by protozoa and helminths constitute a problem of increasing importance throughout all of central European and northern/western countries. This is partially due to the globalisation of our society, tourists and business people being more frequently exposed to parasitic infection/infestation in tropical countries than in moderate climate countries. On top of that, migrants may import chronic infestations and infections with parasitic pathogens, eventually also--sometimes exclusively--involving the nervous system. Knowledge of epidemiology, initial clinical signs and symptoms, diagnostic procedures as well as specific chemotherapeutic therapies and adjunctive therapeutic strategies is of utmost important in all of these infections and infestations of the nervous systems, be it by protozoa or helminths. This review lists, mainly in the form of tables, all possible infections and infestations of the nervous systems by protozoa and by helminths. Besides differentiating parasitic diseases of the nervous system seen in migrants, tourists etc., it is very important to have in mind that disease-related (e.g. HIV) or iatrogenic immunosuppression has led to the increased occurrence of a wide variety of parasitic infections and infestations of the nervous system (e. g. babesiosis, Chagas disease, Strongyloides stercoralis infestation, toxoplasmosis, etc.).

  3. Axonal Elongation into Peripheral Nervous System ``Bridges'' after Central Nervous System Injury in Adult Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    David, Samuel; Aguayo, Albert J.

    1981-11-01

    The origin, termination, and length of axonal growth after focal central nervous system injury was examined in adult rats by means of a new experimental model. When peripheral nerve segments were used as ``bridges'' between the medulla and spinal cord, axons from neurons at both these levels grew approximately 30 millimeters. The regenerative potential of these central neurons seems to be expressed when the central nervous system glial environment is changed to that of the peripheral nervous system.

  4. Myocardial ischaemia and the cardiac nervous system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armour, J A

    1999-01-01

    The intrinsic cardiac nervous system has been classically considered to contain only parasympathetic efferent postganglionic neurones which receive inputs from medullary parasympathetic efferent preganglionic neurones. In such a view, intrinsic cardiac ganglia act as simple relay stations of parasympathetic efferent neuronal input to the heart, the major autonomic control of the heart purported to reside solely in the brainstem and spinal cord. Data collected over the past two decades indicate that processing occurs within the mammalian intrinsic cardiac nervous system which involves afferent neurones, local circuit neurones (interconnecting neurones) as well as both sympathetic and parasympathetic efferent postganglionic neurones. As such, intrinsic cardiac ganglionic interactions represent the organ component of the hierarchy of intrathoracic nested feedback control loops which provide rapid and appropriate reflex coordination of efferent autonomic neuronal outflow to the heart. In such a concept, the intrinsic cardiac nervous system acts as a distributive processor, integrating parasympathetic and sympathetic efferent centrifugal information to the heart in addition to centripetal information arising from cardiac sensory neurites. A number of neurochemicals have been shown to influence the interneuronal interactions which occur within the intrathoracic cardiac nervous system. For instance, pharmacological interventions that modify beta-adrenergic or angiotensin II receptors affect cardiomyocyte function not only directly, but indirectly by influencing the capacity of intrathoracic neurones to regulate cardiomyocytes. Thus, current pharmacological management of heart disease may influence cardiomyocyte function directly as well as indirectly secondary to modifying the cardiac nervous system. This review presents a brief summary of developing concepts about the role of the cardiac nervous system in regulating the normal heart. In addition, it provides some

  5. Involvement of the central nervous system in myotonic dystrophy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fukui, Ritsuko; Tobimatsu, Shozo; Kuroiwa, Yoshigoro; Iwashita, Hiroshi; Kato, Motohiro.

    1985-01-01

    In order to evaluate the central nervous system involvement in myotonic dystrophy, intelligence quotient (IQ), brain CT scan, EEG and pattern-reversal visual evoked potential (VEP) were analyzed in 10 patients with myotonic dystrophy. Impaired intelligence was observed in 9 out of 10 patients, abnormal brain CT in 7, and EEG abnormality in 7. The brain CT showed a diffuse cortical atrophy, a dilatation of the ventricles, and a periventricular lucency, mainly around the anterior horn of the lateral ventricle. The EEG findings showed a tendency toward generalized slowing of the background activity. These abnormal findings were well related to the clinical severity of MD, indicating that there is a diffuse cerebral involvement in the majority of the MD patients. VEP showed a prolonged P100 latency in 5 out of 10 patints, or 7 out of 19 eyes examined. These prolonged latency of the P100 component was considered to be due to dysfunctions of the visual pathway in the cerebral hemisphere, rather than due to cataracts and retinal dysfunctions because it was observed only in moderate and severe cases. These severe and moderate cases showed abnormalities in all four examinations. It was concluded that combination of different parameters might be useful to evaluate the central nervous system involvement in patients with MD. (author)

  6. Laser puncture therapy of nervous system disorders

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anishchenko, G.; Kochetkov, V.

    1984-08-29

    The authors discuss experience with treatment of nervous system disorders by means of laser-puncture therapy. Commenting on the background of the selection of this type of treatment, they explain that once researchers determined the biological action of laser light on specific nerve receptors of the skin, development of laser apparatus capable of concentrating the beam in the millimeter band was undertaken. The devices that are being used for laser-puncture are said to operate in the red helium-neon band of light. The authors identify beam parameters that have been selected for different groups of acupuncture points of the skin, and the courses of treatment (in seconds of radiation) and their time intervals. They go on to discuss the results of treatment of over 800 patients categorized in a group with disorders of the peripheral nervous system and a second group with disorders of the central nervous system.

  7. Hydrogels for central nervous system therapeutic strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russo, Teresa; Tunesi, Marta; Giordano, Carmen; Gloria, Antonio; Ambrosio, Luigi

    2015-12-01

    The central nervous system shows a limited regenerative capacity, and injuries or diseases, such as those in the spinal, brain and retina, are a great problem since current therapies seem to be unable to achieve good results in terms of significant functional recovery. Different promising therapies have been suggested, the aim being to restore at least some of the lost functions. The current review deals with the use of hydrogels in developing advanced devices for central nervous system therapeutic strategies. Several approaches, involving cell-based therapy, delivery of bioactive molecules and nanoparticle-based drug delivery, will be first reviewed. Finally, some examples of injectable hydrogels for the delivery of bioactive molecules in central nervous system will be reported, and the key features as well as the basic principles in designing multifunctional devices will be described. © IMechE 2015.

  8. Interferons in the central nervous system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Owens, Trevor; Khorooshi, Reza M. H.; Wlodarczyk, Agnieszka

    2014-01-01

    Interferons (IFNs) are implicated as an important component of the innate immune system influencing viral infections, inflammation, and immune surveillance. We review here the complex biological activity of IFNs in the central nervous system (CNS) and associated glial–immune interactions...

  9. Vitamin D and the central nervous system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wrzosek, Małgorzata; Łukaszkiewicz, Jacek; Wrzosek, Michał; Jakubczyk, Andrzej; Matsumoto, Halina; Piątkiewicz, Paweł; Radziwoń-Zaleska, Maria; Wojnar, Marcin; Nowicka, Grażyna

    2013-01-01

    Vitamin D is formed in human epithelial cells via photochemical synthesis and is also acquired from dietary sources. The so-called classical effect of this vitamin involves the regulation of calcium homeostasis and bone metabolism. Apart from this, non-classical effects of vitamin D have recently gained renewed attention. One important yet little known of the numerous functions of vitamin D is the regulation of nervous system development and function. The neuroprotective effect of vitamin D is associated with its influence on neurotrophin production and release, neuromediator synthesis, intracellular calcium homeostasis, and prevention of oxidative damage to nervous tissue. Clinical studies suggest that vitamin D deficiency may lead to an increased risk of disease of the central nervous system (CNS), particularly schizophrenia and multiple sclerosis. Adequate intake of vitamin D during pregnancy and the neonatal period seems to be crucial in terms of prevention of these diseases.

  10. Structural Nervous System, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — GTL's SNS technology aids in the operation of new or existing structural health monitoring (SHM) systems by integrating data and power pathways into the structure....

  11. Nervous system examination on YouTube.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azer, Samy A; Aleshaiwi, Sarah M; Algrain, Hala A; Alkhelaif, Rana A

    2012-12-22

    Web 2.0 sites such as YouTube have become a useful resource for knowledge and are used by medical students as a learning resource. This study aimed at assessing videos covering the nervous system examination on YouTube. A research of YouTube was conducted from 2 November to 2 December 2011 using the following key words "nervous system examination", "nervous system clinical examination", "cranial nerves examination", "CNS examination", "examination of cerebellum", "balance and coordination examination". Only relevant videos in the English language were identified and related URL recorded. For each video, the following information was collected: title, author/s, duration, number of viewers, number of posted comments, and total number of days on YouTube. Using criteria comprising content, technical authority and pedagogy parameters, videos were rated independently by three assessors and grouped into educationally useful and non-educationally useful. A total of 2240 videos were screened; 129 were found to have relevant information to nervous system examination. Analysis revealed that 61 (47%) of the videos provided useful information on the nervous system examination. These videos scored (mean ± SD, 14.9 ± 0.2) and mainly covered examination of the whole nervous system (8 videos, 13%), cranial nerves (42 videos, 69%), upper limbs (6 videos, 10%), lower limbs (3 videos, 5%), balance and co-ordination (2 videos, 3%). The other 68 (53%) videos were not useful educationally; scoring (mean ± SD, 11.1 ± 3.0). The total viewers of all videos was 2,189,434. Useful videos were viewed by 1,050,445 viewers (48% of total viewers). The total viewership per day for useful videos was 1,794.5 and for non-useful videos 1,132.0. The differences between the three assessors were insignificant (less than 0.5 for the mean and 0.3 for the SD). Currently, YouTube provides an adequate resource for learning nervous system examination, which can be used by medical students

  12. Nervous system examination on YouTube

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azer Samy A

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Web 2.0 sites such as YouTube have become a useful resource for knowledge and are used by medical students as a learning resource. This study aimed at assessing videos covering the nervous system examination on YouTube. Methods A research of YouTube was conducted from 2 November to 2 December 2011 using the following key words “nervous system examination”, “nervous system clinical examination”, “cranial nerves examination”, “CNS examination”, “examination of cerebellum”, “balance and coordination examination”. Only relevant videos in the English language were identified and related URL recorded. For each video, the following information was collected: title, author/s, duration, number of viewers, number of posted comments, and total number of days on YouTube. Using criteria comprising content, technical authority and pedagogy parameters, videos were rated independently by three assessors and grouped into educationally useful and non-educationally useful. Results A total of 2240 videos were screened; 129 were found to have relevant information to nervous system examination. Analysis revealed that 61 (47% of the videos provided useful information on the nervous system examination. These videos scored (mean ± SD, 14.9 ± 0.2 and mainly covered examination of the whole nervous system (8 videos, 13%, cranial nerves (42 videos, 69%, upper limbs (6 videos, 10%, lower limbs (3 videos, 5%, balance and co-ordination (2 videos, 3%. The other 68 (53% videos were not useful educationally; scoring (mean ± SD, 11.1 ± 3.0. The total viewers of all videos was 2,189,434. Useful videos were viewed by 1,050,445 viewers (48% of total viewers. The total viewership per day for useful videos was 1,794.5 and for non-useful videos 1,132.0. The differences between the three assessors were insignificant (less than 0.5 for the mean and 0.3 for the SD. Conclusions Currently, YouTube provides an adequate resource

  13. Nervous system examination on YouTube

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background Web 2.0 sites such as YouTube have become a useful resource for knowledge and are used by medical students as a learning resource. This study aimed at assessing videos covering the nervous system examination on YouTube. Methods A research of YouTube was conducted from 2 November to 2 December 2011 using the following key words “nervous system examination”, “nervous system clinical examination”, “cranial nerves examination”, “CNS examination”, “examination of cerebellum”, “balance and coordination examination”. Only relevant videos in the English language were identified and related URL recorded. For each video, the following information was collected: title, author/s, duration, number of viewers, number of posted comments, and total number of days on YouTube. Using criteria comprising content, technical authority and pedagogy parameters, videos were rated independently by three assessors and grouped into educationally useful and non-educationally useful. Results A total of 2240 videos were screened; 129 were found to have relevant information to nervous system examination. Analysis revealed that 61 (47%) of the videos provided useful information on the nervous system examination. These videos scored (mean ± SD, 14.9 ± 0.2) and mainly covered examination of the whole nervous system (8 videos, 13%), cranial nerves (42 videos, 69%), upper limbs (6 videos, 10%), lower limbs (3 videos, 5%), balance and co-ordination (2 videos, 3%). The other 68 (53%) videos were not useful educationally; scoring (mean ± SD, 11.1 ± 3.0). The total viewers of all videos was 2,189,434. Useful videos were viewed by 1,050,445 viewers (48% of total viewers). The total viewership per day for useful videos was 1,794.5 and for non-useful videos 1,132.0. The differences between the three assessors were insignificant (less than 0.5 for the mean and 0.3 for the SD). Conclusions Currently, YouTube provides an adequate resource for learning

  14. Phenylketonuria: central nervous system and microbiome interaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Demian Arturo Herrera Morban

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Phenylketonuria (PKU is an autosomal recessive inborn error of metabolism characterized by increased phenylalanine (Phe levels causing an inadequate neurodevelopment; the treatment of PKU is a Phe-restricting diet, and as such it can modulate the intestinal microbiome of the individual, generating central nervous system secondary disturbances that, added to the baseline disturbance, can influence the outcome of the disease.

  15. Central nervous system tuberculomata presenting as internuclear ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Central nervous system (CNS) tuberculoma can have variable presentation depending upon the site and number of tuberculomata. We are reporting a rare case of a 15 years old girl who presented to our hospital with binocular diplopia on right gaze. Clinical examination revealed left sided internuclear ophthalmoplegia ...

  16. Central nervous system tuberculosis | Cherian | African Health ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Central nervous system (CNS) involvement, one of the most devastating clinical manifestations of tuberculosis (TB) is noted in 5 to 10% of extrapulmonary TB cases, and accounts for approximately 1% of all TB cases. Definitive diagnosis of tuberculous meningitis (TBM) depends upon the detection of the tubercle bacilli in ...

  17. Imaging of the fetal central nervous system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pistorius, L.R.

    2008-01-01

    Introduction : Ultrasound and MR imaging of the fetal central nervous system (CNS) develop at an ever-increasing rate. Theoretically, the two modalities should be synergistic, but a literature review revealed the difficulties of determining the merit of either technique and revealed gaps in our

  18. Hypersensitivity Responses in the Central Nervous System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Khorooshi, Reza; Asgari, Nasrin; Mørch, Marlene Thorsen

    2015-01-01

    of pathology in neuromyelitis optica (NMO), a central nervous system (CNS) demyelinating disease where activated neutrophils infiltrate, unlike in MS. The most widely used model for MS, experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis, is an autoantigen-immunized disease that can be transferred to naive animals...

  19. Mergeable nervous systems for robots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathews, Nithin; Christensen, Anders Lyhne; O'Grady, Rehan; Mondada, Francesco; Dorigo, Marco

    2017-09-12

    Robots have the potential to display a higher degree of lifetime morphological adaptation than natural organisms. By adopting a modular approach, robots with different capabilities, shapes, and sizes could, in theory, construct and reconfigure themselves as required. However, current modular robots have only been able to display a limited range of hardwired behaviors because they rely solely on distributed control. Here, we present robots whose bodies and control systems can merge to form entirely new robots that retain full sensorimotor control. Our control paradigm enables robots to exhibit properties that go beyond those of any existing machine or of any biological organism: the robots we present can merge to form larger bodies with a single centralized controller, split into separate bodies with independent controllers, and self-heal by removing or replacing malfunctioning body parts. This work takes us closer to robots that can autonomously change their size, form and function.Robots that can self-assemble into different morphologies are desired to perform tasks that require different physical capabilities. Mathews et al. design robots whose bodies and control systems can merge and split to form new robots that retain full sensorimotor control and act as a single entity.

  20. Influence of thyroid in nervous system growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mussa, G C; Mussa, F; Bretto, R; Zambelli, M C; Silvestro, L

    2001-08-01

    Nervous system growth and differentiation are closely correlated with the presence of iodine and thyroid hormones in initial development stages. In the human species, encephalon maturation during the first quarter of pregnancy is affected according to recent studies by the transplacenta passage of maternal thyroid hormones while it depends on initial iodiothyronin secretion by the foetal gland after the 12th week of pregnancy. Thyroid hormone deficiency during nervous system development causes altered noble nervous cells, such as the pyramidal cortical and Purkinje cells, during glial cell proliferation and differentiation alike. Neurons present cell hypoplasia with reduced axon count, dendritic branching, synaptic spikes and interneuron connections. Oligodendrocytes decrease in number and average myelin content consequently drops. Biochemical studies on hypothyroid rats have demonstrated alterations to neuron intraplasmatic microtubule content and organisation, changed mitochondria number and arrangement and anomalies in T3 nuclear and citoplasmatic receptor maturation. Alterations to microtubules are probably responsible for involvement of the axon-dendrite system, and are the consequence of deficient thyroid hormone action on the mitochondria, the mitochondria enzymes and proteins associated with microtubules. Nuclear and citoplasmatic receptors have been identified and gene clonation studies have shown two families of nuclear receptors that include several sub-groups in their turn. A complex scheme of temporal and spatial expression of these receptors exists, so they probably contribute with one complementary function, although their physiological role differs. The action of thyroid hormones occurs by changing cell protein levels because of their regulation at the transcriptional or post-transcriptional level. Genes submitted to thyroid hormone control are either expressed by oligodendrytes, which are myelin protein coders or glial differentiation mediators, or

  1. Central nervous system complications after liver transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jeong-Min; Jung, Keun-Hwa; Lee, Soon-Tae; Chu, Kon; Roh, Jae-Kyu

    2015-08-01

    We investigated the diversity of central nervous system complications after liver transplantation in terms of clinical manifestations and temporal course. Liver transplantation is a lifesaving option for end stage liver disease patients but post-transplantation neurologic complications can hamper recovery. Between 1 January 2001 and 31 December 2010, patients who had undergone liver transplantation at a single tertiary university hospital were included. We reviewed their medical records and brain imaging data and classified central nervous system complications into four categories including vascular, metabolic, infectious and neoplastic. The onset of central nervous system complications was grouped into five post-transplantation intervals including acute (within 1 month), early subacute (1-3 months), late subacute (3-12 months), chronic (1-3 years), and long-term (after 3 years). During follow-up, 65 of 791 patients (8.2%) experienced central nervous system complications, with 30 occurring within 1 month after transplantation. Vascular etiology was the most common (27 patients; 41.5%), followed by metabolic (23; 35.4%), infectious (nine patients; 13.8%), and neoplastic (six patients). Metabolic encephalopathy with altered consciousness was the most common etiology during the acute period, followed by vascular disorders. An initial focal neurologic deficit was detected in vascular and neoplastic complications, whereas metabolic and infectious etiologies presented with non-focal symptoms. Our study shows that the etiology of central nervous system complications after liver transplantation changes over time, and initial symptoms can help to predict etiology. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Evaluation of central nervous system in patients with glycogen storage disease type 1a.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aydemir, Yusuf; Gürakan, Figen; Saltık Temizel, İnci Nur; Demir, Hülya; Oğuz, Kader Karlı; Yalnızoğlu, Dilek; Topçu, Meral; Özen, Hasan; Yüce, Aysel

    2016-01-01

    We aimed to evaluate structure and functions of central nervous system (CNS) in children with glycogen storage disease (GSD) type 1a. Neurological examination, psychometric tests, electroencephalography (EEG), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), visual evoked potentials (VEP) and brainstem auditory evoked potentials (BAEP) were performed. The results were compared between patients with good and poor metabolic control and healthy children. Twenty-three patients with GSD type 1a were studied. Twelve patients were in poor metabolic control group and 11 patients in good metabolic control group. Five patients had intellectual disability, 10 had EEG abnormalities, seven had abnormal VEP and two had abnormal BAEP results. MRI was abnormal in five patients. There was significant correlation between the number of hypoglycemic attacks and MRI abnormalities. Central nervous system may be affected in GSD type 1a even in patients with normal neurologic examination. Accumulation of abnormal results in patients with poor metabolic control supports the importance of metabolic control in GSD type 1a.

  3. Role of nervous system on immunological response of animal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elssayed, A.E.A.

    1980-01-01

    Autoantibodies occur more frequently in old age. Both organ and non organ specific antibodies have been reported to occur in increasing frequency in sera of diseased free men and mice relatively late in life. The prevalence of auto-anti-thyroglobulin antibodies in various thyroid abnormalities are common regardless of age. The investigation reported in the present study was aimed to provide some insights on virtually unexplored area of auto-anti-thyroglobulin as related to central nervous system using various radio immunological and serological techniques for the determination of antibody formation and toter, in artificial case of auto-immunity developed by induced T G immunity in rabbits

  4. Role of nervous system on immunological response of animal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elssayed, A.E.A.

    1980-01-01

    Autoantibodies occur more frequently in old age. Both organ and non organ specific antibodies have been reported to occur in increasing frequency in sera of diseased free men and mice relatively late in life. The prevalence of autoantithyroglobulin antibodies in various thyroid abnormalities are common regardless of age. The investigation reported in the present study was aimed to provide some insights on virtually unexplored area of autoantithyroglobulin as related to central nervous system using various radio immunological and serological techniques for the determination of antibody formation and toter, in artificial case of auto immunity developed by induced T G immunity in rabbits

  5. Radiation risks to the developing nervous system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kriegel, H.; Schmahl, W.; Stieve, F.E.; Gerber, G.B.

    1986-01-01

    A symposium dealing with 'Radiation Risks to the Developing Nervous System' held at Neuherberg, June 18-20, 1985 was organised by the Radiation Protection Programme of the Commission of the European Communities and the Gesellschaft fuer Strahlen- und Umweltforschung mbH. The proceedings of this symposium present up-to-date information on the development of the nervous system and the modifications caused by prenatal radiation there upon. A large part of the proceedings is devoted to the consequences of prenatal irradiation in experimental animals with respect to alterations in morphology, biochemistry and behaviour, to the influence of dose, dose rate and radiation quality and to the question whether damage of the brain can arise from a synergistic action of radiation together with other agents. Since animal models for damage to the human central nervous system have inherent short-comings due to the differences in structure, complexity and development it is discussed how experimental studies could be applied to the human situation. The most recent data on persons exposed in utero at Hiroshima and Nagasaki are reviewed. A round table discussion, published in full, analyses all this information with a view to radiation protection, and defines the areas where future studies are needed. Separate abstracts were prepared for papers in these proceedings. (orig./MG)

  6. [The Role of Imaging in Central Nervous System Infections].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yokota, Hajime; Tazoe, Jun; Yamada, Kei

    2015-07-01

    Many infections invade the central nervous system. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is the main tool that is used to evaluate infectious lesions of the central nervous system. The useful sequences on MRI are dependent on the locations, such as intra-axial, extra-axial, and spinal cord. For intra-axial lesions, besides the fundamental sequences, including T1-weighted images, T2-weighted images, and fluid-attenuated inversion recovery (FLAIR) images, advanced sequences, such as diffusion-weighted imaging, diffusion tensor imaging, susceptibility-weighted imaging, and MR spectroscopy, can be applied. They are occasionally used as determinants for quick and correct diagnosis. For extra-axial lesions, understanding the differences among 2D-conventional T1-weighted images, 2D-fat-saturated T1-weighted images, 3D-Spin echo sequences, and 3D-Gradient echo sequence after the administration of gadolinium is required to avoid wrong interpretations. FLAIR plus gadolinium is a useful tool for revealing abnormal enhancement on the brain surface. For the spinal cord, the sequences are limited. Evaluating the distribution and time course of the spinal cord are essential for correct diagnoses. We summarize the role of imaging in central nervous system infections and show the pitfalls, key points, and latest information in them on clinical practices.

  7. [Central nervous system control of energy homeostasis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machleidt, F; Lehnert, H

    2011-03-01

    The brain is continuously supplied with information about the distribution and amount of energy stores from the body periphery. Endocrine, autonomic and cognitive-hedonic signals are centrally integrated and exert effects on the whole organism via anabolic and catabolic pathways. The adiposity signals insulin and leptin reflect the amount of body fat and are part of a negative feedback mechanism between the periphery and the central nervous system. The hypothalamic arcuate nucleus is the most important central nervous structure, which integrates this information. Furthermore, the CNS is able to directly measure and to respond to changes in the concentration of certain nutrients. In order to develop effective therapies for the treatment of disorders of energy balance the further elucidation of these neuro-biological processes is of crucial importance. This article provides an overview of the CNS regulation of metabolism and its underlying molecular mechanisms. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  8. The BIRN Project: Imaging the Nervous System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ellisman, Mark

    2006-01-01

    The grand goal in neuroscience research is to understand how the interplay of structural, chemical and electrical signals in nervous tissue gives rise to behavior. Experimental advances of the past decades have given the individual neuroscientist an increasingly powerful arsenal for obtaining data, from the level of molecules to nervous systems. Scientists have begun the arduous and challenging process of adapting and assembling neuroscience data at all scales of resolution and across disciplines into computerized databases and other easily accessed sources. These databases will complement the vast structural and sequence databases created to catalogue, organize and analyze gene sequences and protein products. The general premise of the neuroscience goal is simple; namely that with 'complete' knowledge of the genome and protein structures accruing rapidly we next need to assemble an infrastructure that will facilitate acquisition of an understanding for how functional complexes operate in their cell and tissue contexts.

  9. Central nervous system affecting drugs and road traffic accidents ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Central nervous system affecting drugs and road traffic accidents among commercial motorcyclists. ... including driving under the influence of drugs that affect the central nervous system (CNS). ... Keywords: Brain, influence, riders, substances ...

  10. Glial Cells: The Other Cells of the Nervous System

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    nervous system. The present .... In the vertebrate nervous system, special types of cells called radial glia .... As men- tioned earlier, astrocytes extend a 'foot process' (Figure 3) that ... capillaries that for a long time it was thought that these cells.

  11. 50-57 Effects of the Autonomic Nervous System, Centra

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    admin

    facilitation of absorption process and expulsion of the undigested food material through ... which is associated with the enteric nervous system , autonomic nervous system and the higher ..... short-chain neutralized fatty acids and 5-HT or radial ...

  12. HHV-6 symptoms in central nervous system. Encephalitis and encephalopathy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshinari, Satoshi; Hamano, Shinichiro

    2007-01-01

    Described is the present knowledge of central nervous symptoms, mainly encephalitis and encephalopathy, caused by the primary infection of human herpes virus-6 (HHV-6) in the pediatric field. Discovery of HHV-6 is in 1986, the virus, normally latent, has a high nervous affinity, and most infants are infected until the age of 3 years. Encephalitis and encephalopathy caused by the primary infection can be derived from direct viral invasion in nervous system or secondary like that through angitis. Most of early clinical symptoms are febrile convulsion. Imaging of the head by MRI particularly with diffusion weighted imaging and by cerebral blood flow SPECT with 123 I-infetamine (IMP) is important for classification of encephalitis and encephalopathy by HHV-6: Four types of them are defined according to the area of lesion observed in abnormal images, the basal nuclei-diencephalon-brainstem, frontal lobe-dominant one, cerebral hemisphere and diffusive one. Further reviewed are the diagnosis, treatment and prognosis together with other HHV-6 related problems like infection in neonate, temporal lobe epilepsy and drug-induced hypersensitivity syndrome. Current topics are related with activation of latent HHV-6. Despite numerous findings, many remain to be elucidated in acute encephalitis and encephalopathy which are most important in pediatrics. (R.T.)

  13. Nutritional and metabolic diseases involving the nervous system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kopcha, M

    1987-03-01

    This article will discuss eight diseases that alter normal nervous system function: hypovitaminosis A, water deprivation/salt toxicity, ammonia toxicosis, hypomagnesemia, hypocalcemia, nervous ketosis, hepatoencephalopathy, and rumen metabolic acidosis.

  14. Metastatic neoplasms of the central nervous system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fenner, W.R.

    1990-01-01

    Metastatic neoplasms to the central nervous system are often encountered in the practice of surgical neuropathology. It is not uncommon for patients with systemic malignancies to present to medical attention because of symptoms from a brain metastasis and for the tissue samples procured from these lesions to represent the first tissue available to study a malignancy from an unknown primary. In general surgical pathology, the evaluation of a metastatic neoplasm of unknown primary is a very complicated process, requiring knowledge of numerous different tumor types, reagents, and staining patterns. The past few years, however, have seen a remarkable refinement in the immunohistochemical tools at our disposal that now empower neuropathologists to take an active role in defining the relatively limited subset of neoplasms that commonly metastasize to the central nervous system. This information can direct imaging studies to find the primary tumor in a patient with an unknown primary, clarify the likely primary site of origin in patients who have small tumors in multiple sites without an obvious primary lesion, or establish lesions as late metastases of remote malignancies. Furthermore, specific treatments can begin and additional invasive procedures may be prevented if the neuropathologic evaluation of metastatic neoplasms provides information beyond the traditional diagnosis of ''metastatic neoplasm.'' In this review, differential cytokeratins, adjuvant markers, and organ-specific antibodies are described and the immunohistochemical signatures of metastatic neoplasms that are commonly seen by neuropathologists are discussed

  15. PET imaging of the autonomic nervous system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    THACKERAY, James T.; BENGEL, Frank M.

    2016-01-01

    The autonomic nervous system is the primary extrinsic control of heart rate and contractility, and is subject to adaptive and maladaptive changes in cardiovascular disease. Consequently, noninvasive assessment of neuronal activity and function is an attractive target for molecular imaging. A myriad of targeted radiotracers have been developed over the last 25 years for imaging various components of the sympathetic and parasympathetic signal cascades. While routine clinical use remains somewhat limited, a number of larger scale studies in recent years have supplied momentum to molecular imaging of autonomic signaling. Specifically, the findings of the ADMIRE HF trial directly led to United States Food and Drug Administration approval of 123I-metaiodobenzylguanidine (MIBG) for Single Photon Emission Computed Tomography (SPECT) assessment of sympathetic neuronal innervation, and comparable results have been reported using the analogous PET agent 11C-meta-hydroxyephedrine (HED). Due to the inherent capacity for dynamic quantification and higher spatial resolution, regional analysis may be better served by PET. In addition, preliminary clinical and extensive preclinical experience has provided a broad foundation of cardiovascular applications for PET imaging of the autonomic nervous system. Recent years have witnessed the growth of novel quantification techniques, expansion of multiple tracer studies, and improved understanding of the uptake of different radiotracers, such that the transitional biology of dysfunctional subcellular catecholamine handling can be distinguished from complete denervation. As a result, sympathetic neuronal molecular imaging is poised to play a role in individualized patient care, by stratifying cardiovascular risk, visualizing underlying biology, and guiding and monitoring therapy.

  16. Central nervous system involvement by multiple myeloma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jurczyszyn, Artur; Grzasko, Norbert; Gozzetti, Alessandro

    2016-01-01

    The multicenter retrospective study conducted in 38 centers from 20 countries including 172 adult patients with CNS MM aimed to describe the clinical and pathological characteristics and outcomes of patients with multiple myeloma (MM) involving the central nervous system (CNS). Univariate......, 97% patients received initial therapy for CNS disease, of which 76% received systemic therapy, 36% radiotherapy and 32% intrathecal therapy. After a median follow-up of 3.5 years, the median overall survival (OS) from the onset of CNS involvement for the entire group was 7 months. Untreated...... untreated patients and patients with favorable cytogenetic profile might be prolonged due to systemic treatment and/or radiotherapy. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved....

  17. [Tumors of the central nervous system].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alegría-Loyola, Marco Antonio; Galnares-Olalde, Javier Andrés; Mercado, Moisés

    2017-01-01

    Central nervous system (CNS) tumors constitute a heterogeneous group of neoplasms that share a considerable morbidity and mortality rate. Recent advances in the underlying oncogenic mechanisms of these tumors have led to new classification systems, which, in turn, allow for a better diagnostic approach and therapeutic planning. Most of these neoplasms occur sporadically and several risk factors have been found to be associated with their development, such as exposure to ionizing radiation or electromagnetic fields and the concomitant presence of conditions like diabetes, hypertension and Parkinson's disease. A relatively minor proportion of primary CNS tumors occur in the context of hereditary syndromes. The purpose of this review is to analyze the etiopathogenesis, clinical presentation, diagnosis and therapy of CNS tumors with particular emphasis in the putative risk factors mentioned above.

  18. Imaging of primary central nervous system lymphoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tang, Y.Z., E-mail: yenzhitang@doctors.net.uk [Royal Free Hospital, London (United Kingdom); Booth, T.C.; Bhogal, P.; Malhotra, A.; Wilhelm, T. [Royal Free Hospital, London (United Kingdom)

    2011-08-15

    Primary central nervous system lymphoma (PCNSL) comprises 5% of all primary brain tumours. PCNSL demonstrates a variety of well-documented imaging findings, which can vary depending on immune status and histological type. Imaging features of PCNSL may overlap with other tumours and infection making definitive diagnosis challenging. In addition, several rare variants of PCNSL have been described, each with their own imaging characteristics. Advanced imaging techniques including 2-[{sup 18}F]-fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose ({sup 18}FDG) and {sup 11}C positron-emission tomography (PET), {sup 201}Tl single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT), {sup 1}H-magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS), and MR perfusion, have been used to aid differentiation of PCNSL from other tumours. Ultimately, no imaging method can definitively diagnose PCNSL, and histology is required.

  19. Advances in Primary Central Nervous System Lymphoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patrick, Lauren B; Mohile, Nimish A

    2015-12-01

    Primary central nervous system lymphoma (PCNSL) is a rare form of non-Hodgkin lymphoma that is limited to the CNS. Although novel imaging techniques aid in discriminating lymphoma from other brain tumors, definitive diagnosis requires brain biopsy, vitreoretinal biopsy, or cerebrospinal fluid analysis. Survival rates in clinical studies have improved over the past 20 years due to the addition of high-dose methotrexate-based chemotherapy regimens to whole-brain radiotherapy. Long-term survival, however, is complicated by clinically devastating delayed neurotoxicity. Newer regimens are attempting to reduce or eliminate radiotherapy from first-line treatment with chemotherapy dose intensification. Significant advances have also been made in the fields of pathobiology and treatment, with more targeted treatments on the horizon. The rarity of the disease makes conducting of prospective clinical trials challenging, requiring collaborative efforts between institutions. This review highlights recent advances in the biology, detection, and treatment of PCNSL in immunocompetent patients.

  20. Pediatric central nervous system vascular malformations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burch, Ezra A.; Orbach, Darren B.

    2015-01-01

    Pediatric central nervous system (CNS) vascular anomalies include lesions found only in the pediatric population and also the full gamut of vascular lesions found in adults. Pediatric-specific lesions discussed here include infantile hemangioma, vein of Galen malformation and dural sinus malformation. Some CNS vascular lesions that occur in adults, such as arteriovenous malformation, have somewhat distinct manifestations in children, and those are also discussed. Additionally, children with CNS vascular malformations often have associated broader vascular conditions, e.g., PHACES (posterior fossa anomalies, hemangioma, arterial anomalies, cardiac anomalies, eye anomalies and sternal anomalies), hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia, and capillary malformation-arteriovenous malformation syndrome (related to the RASA1 mutation). The treatment of pediatric CNS vascular malformations has greatly benefited from advances in endovascular therapy, including technical advances in adult interventional neuroradiology. Dramatic advances in therapy are expected to stem from increased understanding of the genetics and vascular biology that underlie pediatric CNS vascular malformations. (orig.)

  1. Pediatric central nervous system vascular malformations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burch, Ezra A. [Brigham and Women' s Hospital, Department of Radiology, Boston, MA (United States); Orbach, Darren B. [Boston Children' s Hospital, Neurointerventional Radiology, Boston, MA (United States)

    2015-09-15

    Pediatric central nervous system (CNS) vascular anomalies include lesions found only in the pediatric population and also the full gamut of vascular lesions found in adults. Pediatric-specific lesions discussed here include infantile hemangioma, vein of Galen malformation and dural sinus malformation. Some CNS vascular lesions that occur in adults, such as arteriovenous malformation, have somewhat distinct manifestations in children, and those are also discussed. Additionally, children with CNS vascular malformations often have associated broader vascular conditions, e.g., PHACES (posterior fossa anomalies, hemangioma, arterial anomalies, cardiac anomalies, eye anomalies and sternal anomalies), hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia, and capillary malformation-arteriovenous malformation syndrome (related to the RASA1 mutation). The treatment of pediatric CNS vascular malformations has greatly benefited from advances in endovascular therapy, including technical advances in adult interventional neuroradiology. Dramatic advances in therapy are expected to stem from increased understanding of the genetics and vascular biology that underlie pediatric CNS vascular malformations. (orig.)

  2. [Primary central nervous system lymphoma mimicking ventriculitis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, Shiro; Nagano, Seiji; Shibata, Sumiya; Kunieda, Takeharu; Imai, Yukihiro; Kohara, Nobuo

    2013-01-01

    A 66-year-old man presented with deteriorated bradykinesia, gait disturbance, disorientation, and urinary incontinence for three weeks. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) showed dilatation of the ventricles. Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) examination demonstrated lymphocytic pleocytosis, elevation of protein levels, and decreased of glucose levels. A gadolinium-enhanced MRI revealed lesions in the ventricular wall and choroid plexus, mimicking ventriculitis. No evidence of bacterial, fungal, mycobacterial, or viral infections were observed in the CSF. Flow cytometry of CSF showed predominance of CD20+, λ+ cells. PCR examination of CSF revealed positive IgH gene rearrangement, suggesting B cell lymphoma. Endoscopic brain biopsy showed diffuse large B cell lymphoma. As the patient had no evidence of lymphoma in the other organs, we made a diagnosed of primary central nervous system lymphoma (PCNSL). A limited intraventricular spread of PCNSL is rare but important as one of differential diagnosis of ventriculitis.

  3. VIIP: Central Nervous System (CNS) Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vera, Jerry; Mulugeta, Lealem; Nelson, Emily; Raykin, Julia; Feola, Andrew; Gleason, Rudy; Samuels, Brian; Ethier, C. Ross; Myers, Jerry

    2015-01-01

    Current long-duration missions to the International Space Station and future exploration-class missions beyond low-Earth orbit expose astronauts to increased risk of Visual Impairment and Intracranial Pressure (VIIP) syndrome. It has been hypothesized that the headward shift of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and blood in microgravity may cause significant elevation of intracranial pressure (ICP), which in turn may then induce VIIP syndrome through interaction with various biomechanical pathways. However, there is insufficient evidence to confirm this hypothesis. In this light, we are developing lumped-parameter models of fluid transport in the central nervous system (CNS) as a means to simulate the influence of microgravity on ICP. The CNS models will also be used in concert with the lumped parameter and finite element models of the eye described in the related IWS works submitted by Nelson et al., Feola et al. and Ethier et al.

  4. Corticosteroids In Infections Of Central Nervous System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meena AK

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Infections of central nervous system are still a major problem. Despite the introduction of newer antimicrobial agents, mortality and long-term sequelace associated with these infections is unacceptably high. Based on the evidence that proinflammtory cytokines have a role in pathophysiology of bacterial and tuberculous meningitis, corticosteroids with a potent anti-inflammatory and immunomodulating effect have been tested and found to be of use in experimental and clinical studies, Review of the available literature suggests steroid administration just prior to antimicrobial therapy is effective in decreasing audiologic and neurologic sequelae in childern with H. influenzae nenigitis. Steroid use for bacterial meningitis in adults is found to be beneficial in case of S. pneumoniae. The value of adjunctive steroid therapy for other bacterial causes of meningitis remains unproven. Corticocorticoids are found to be of no benefit in viral meningitis, Role of steroids in HIV positive patients needs to be studied.

  5. Central nervous system lymphoma: magnetic resonance imaging features at presentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Schwingel

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: This paper aimed at studying presentations of the central nervous system (CNS lymphoma using structural images obtained by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI. METHODS: The MRI features at presentation of 15 patients diagnosed with CNS lymphoma in a university hospital, between January 1999 and March 2011, were analyzed by frequency and cross tabulation. RESULTS: All patients had supratentorial lesions; and four had infra- and supratentorial lesions. The signal intensity on T1 and T2 weighted images was predominantly hypo- or isointense. In the T2 weighted images, single lesions were associated with a hypointense signal component. Six patients presented necrosis, all of them showed perilesional abnormal white matter, nine had meningeal involvement, and five had subependymal spread. Subependymal spread and meningeal involvement tended to occur in younger patients. CONCLUSION: Presentations of lymphoma are very pleomorphic, but some of them should point to this diagnostic possibility.

  6. Nervous System Injury and Neuroimaging of Zika Virus Infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Shanshan; Zeng, Yu; Lerner, Alexander; Gao, Bo; Law, Meng

    2018-01-01

    In 2016, World Health Organization announced Zika virus infection and its neurological sequalae are a public health emergency of global scope. Preliminary studies have confirmed a relationship between Zika virus infection and certain neurological disorders, including microcephaly and Guillain–Barre syndrome (GBS). The neuroimaging features of microcephaly secondary to Zika virus infection include calcifications at the junction of gray–white matter and subcortical white matter with associated cortical abnormalities, diminution of white matter, large ventricles with or without hydrocephalus, cortical malformations, hypoplasia of cerebellum and brainstem, and enlargement of cerebellomedullary cistern. Contrast enhancement of the cauda equine nerve roots is the typical neuroimaging finding of GBS associated with Zika virus. This review describes the nervous system disorders and associated imaging findings seen in Zika virus infection, with the aim to improve the understanding of this disease. Imaging plays a key role on accurate diagnosis and prognostic evaluation of this disease. PMID:29740383

  7. Changing trends in nervous system diseases among hospitalized children in the Chongqing region

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xin Zou; Nong Xiao; Bei Xu

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate the changing trends of nervous system diseases among hospitalized children and the risk factors of death. METHOD: The disease was statistically classified according to the International Statistical Classification of Disease and Health Problem (ICD10). The retrospective investigation includes demographic characteristics, as well as categories and fatality rates for nervous system diseases. All data was statistically analyzed. RESULTS: The percentage of nervous system diseases among inpatients in all wards was 2.4% (2 537/ 107 250) between January 1993 and December 1999, and 3.6% (6 082/170 619) between January 2000 and December 2006. The first ten patterns of various etiologic forms of nervous system diseases were identical-epilepsies and seizures, infections of the central nervous system, autoimmune and demyelination disorders, cerebral palsy, motor unit disorders, hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy, hydrocephalus, extra-pyramidal disorders, congenital abnormalities of nervous system, and headache. Epilepsies and seizures took first place in both year groups, with 29.4% and 35%, respectively. Bacterial infections were responsible for the majority of cranial infections in both year groups, with 78.9% and 63.6% respectively. The death rate in the year group January 2000 to December 2006 was significantly less than in the year group January 1993 to December 1999 (X2= 27.832, P<0.01). CONCLUSION: Among all nervous system diseases, epilepsies and seizures were among the most common, with the lowest fatality rate.

  8. Autonomic nervous system function in patients with functional abdominal pain. An experimental study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, L S; Christiansen, P; Raundahl, U

    1993-01-01

    Functional abdominal pain--that is, pain without demonstrable organic abnormalities--has often been associated with psychologic stress. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether sympathetic nervous system response to laboratory stress and basal parasympathetic neural activity were...

  9. Congenital Amegakaryocytic Thrombocytopenia Type II Presenting with Multiple Central Nervous System Anomalies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eshuis-Peters, Ellis; Versluys, Anne Brigitta; Stokman, Marijn Fijke; van der Crabben, Saskia Nanette; Nij Bijvank, Sebastiaan W A; van Wezel-Meijler, Gerda

    Congenital amegakaryocytic thrombocytopenia (CAMT) is a rare autosomal recessive bone marrow failure, caused by MPL gene mutations. The combination of CAMT and central nervous system abnormalities is uncommon. We describe a case with a homozygous missense MPL gene mutation and polymicrogyria,

  10. A case of primary hypothyroidism causing central nervous system atherosclerosis in a dog.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blois, Shauna L; Poma, Roberto; Stalker, Margaret J; Allen, Dana G

    2008-08-01

    A 2-year-old, castrated male, Australian shepherd was presented with a history of chronic mild ataxia, obesity, and lethargy. The dog was treated with levothyroxine, but the ataxia worsened. Cranial nerve abnormalities developed and the dog was euthanized. Postmortem examination revealed marked thyroid gland atrophy and widespread, severe central nervous system atherosclerosis.

  11. Pharmacotherapy for Adults with Tumors of the Central Nervous System

    OpenAIRE

    Schor, Nina F.

    2008-01-01

    Tumors of the adult central nervous system are among the most common and most chemoresistant neoplasms. Malignant tumors of the brain and spinal cord collectively account for approximately 1.3% of all cancers and 2.2% of all cancer-related deaths. Novel pharmacological approaches to nervous system tumors are urgently needed. This review presents the current approaches and challenges to successful pharmacotherapy of adults with malignant tumors of the central nervous system and discusses novel...

  12. Microbiota-gut-brain axis and the central nervous system

    OpenAIRE

    Zhu, Xiqun; Han, Yong; Du, Jing; Liu, Renzhong; Jin, Ketao; Yi, Wei

    2017-01-01

    The gut and brain form the gut-brain axis through bidirectional nervous, endocrine, and immune communications. Changes in one of the organs will affect the other organs. Disorders in the composition and quantity of gut microorganisms can affect both the enteric nervous system and the central nervous system (CNS), thereby indicating the existence of a microbiota-gut-brain axis. Due to the intricate interactions between the gut and the brain, gut symbiotic microorganisms are closely associated ...

  13. Childhood Central Nervous System Atypical Teratoid/Rhabdoid Tumor Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... teratoid/rhabdoid tumor. There is no standard staging system for central nervous system atypical teratoid/rhabdoid tumor. The extent or spread ... different types of treatment for patients with central nervous system atypical teratoid/rhabdoid tumor. Different types of treatment ...

  14. Injectable hydrogels for central nervous system therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pakulska, Malgosia M; Shoichet, Molly S; Ballios, Brian G

    2012-01-01

    Diseases and injuries of the central nervous system (CNS) including those in the brain, spinal cord and retina are devastating because the CNS has limited intrinsic regenerative capacity and currently available therapies are unable to provide significant functional recovery. Several promising therapies have been identified with the goal of restoring at least some of this lost function and include neuroprotective agents to stop or slow cellular degeneration, neurotrophic factors to stimulate cellular growth, neutralizing molecules to overcome the inhibitory environment at the site of injury, and stem cell transplant strategies to replace lost tissue. The delivery of these therapies to the CNS is a challenge because the blood–brain barrier limits the diffusion of molecules into the brain by traditional oral or intravenous routes. Injectable hydrogels have the capacity to overcome the challenges associated with drug delivery to the CNS, by providing a minimally invasive, localized, void-filling platform for therapeutic use. Small molecule or protein drugs can be distributed throughout the hydrogel which then acts as a depot for their sustained release at the injury site. For cell delivery, the hydrogel can reduce cell aggregation and provide an adhesive matrix for improved cell survival and integration. Additionally, by choosing a biodegradable or bioresorbable hydrogel material, the system will eventually be eliminated from the body. This review discusses both natural and synthetic injectable hydrogel materials that have been used for drug or cell delivery to the CNS including hyaluronan, methylcellulose, chitosan, poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) and Matrigel. (paper)

  15. Central Nervous System Vasculitis: Still More Questions than Answers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alba, Marco A; Espígol-Frigolé, Georgina; Prieto-González, Sergio; Tavera-Bahillo, Itziar; García-Martínez, Ana; Butjosa, Montserrat; Hernández-Rodríguez, José; Cid, Maria C

    2011-01-01

    The central nervous system (CNS) may be involved by a variety of inflammatory diseases of blood vessels. These include primary angiitis of the central nervous system (PACNS), a rare disorder specifically targeting the CNS vasculature, and the systemic vasculitides which may affect the CNS among other organs and systems. Both situations are severe and convey a guarded prognosis. PACNS usually presents with headache and cognitive impairment. Focal symptoms are infrequent at disease onset but are common in more advanced stages. The diagnosis of PACNS is difficult because, although magnetic resonance imaging is almost invariably abnormal, findings are non specific. Angiography has limited sensitivity and specificity. Brain and leptomeningeal biopsy may provide a definitive diagnosis when disclosing blood vessel inflammation and are also useful to exclude other conditions presenting with similar findings. However, since lesions are segmental, a normal biopsy does not completely exclude PACNS. Secondary CNS involvement by systemic vasculitis occurs in less than one fifth of patients but may be devastating. A prompt recognition and aggressive treatment is crucial to avoid permanent damage and dysfunction. Glucocorticoids and cyclophosphamide are recommended for patients with PACNS and for patients with secondary CNS involvement by small-medium-sized systemic vasculitis. CNS involvement in large-vessel vasculitis is usually managed with high-dose glucocorticoids (giant-cell arteritis) or glucocorticoids and immunosuppressive agents (Takayasu’s disease). However, in large vessel vasculitis, where CNS symptoms are usually due to involvement of extracranial arteries (Takayasu’s disease) or proximal portions of intracranial arteries (giant-cell arteritis), revascularization procedures may also have an important role. PMID:22379458

  16. Time perception mechanisms at central nervous system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rhailana Fontes

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The five senses have specific ways to receive environmental information and lead to central nervous system. The perception of time is the sum of stimuli associated with cognitive processes and environmental changes. Thus, the perception of time requires a complex neural mechanism and may be changed by emotional state, level of attention, memory and diseases. Despite this knowledge, the neural mechanisms of time perception are not yet fully understood. The objective is to relate the mechanisms involved the neurofunctional aspects, theories, executive functions and pathologies that contribute the understanding of temporal perception. Articles form 1980 to 2015 were searched by using the key themes: neuroanatomy, neurophysiology, theories, time cells, memory, schizophrenia, depression, attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder and Parkinson’s disease combined with the term perception of time. We evaluated 158 articles within the inclusion criteria for the purpose of the study. We conclude that research about the holdings of the frontal cortex, parietal, basal ganglia, cerebellum and hippocampus have provided advances in the understanding of the regions related to the perception of time. In neurological and psychiatric disorders, the understanding of time depends on the severity of the diseases and the type of tasks.

  17. Time Perception Mechanisms at Central Nervous System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fontes, Rhailana; Ribeiro, Jéssica; Gupta, Daya S; Machado, Dionis; Lopes-Júnior, Fernando; Magalhães, Francisco; Bastos, Victor Hugo; Rocha, Kaline; Marinho, Victor; Lima, Gildário; Velasques, Bruna; Ribeiro, Pedro; Orsini, Marco; Pessoa, Bruno; Leite, Marco Antonio Araujo; Teixeira, Silmar

    2016-04-01

    The five senses have specific ways to receive environmental information and lead to central nervous system. The perception of time is the sum of stimuli associated with cognitive processes and environmental changes. Thus, the perception of time requires a complex neural mechanism and may be changed by emotional state, level of attention, memory and diseases. Despite this knowledge, the neural mechanisms of time perception are not yet fully understood. The objective is to relate the mechanisms involved the neurofunctional aspects, theories, executive functions and pathologies that contribute the understanding of temporal perception. Articles form 1980 to 2015 were searched by using the key themes: neuroanatomy, neurophysiology, theories, time cells, memory, schizophrenia, depression, attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder and Parkinson's disease combined with the term perception of time. We evaluated 158 articles within the inclusion criteria for the purpose of the study. We conclude that research about the holdings of the frontal cortex, parietal, basal ganglia, cerebellum and hippocampus have provided advances in the understanding of the regions related to the perception of time. In neurological and psychiatric disorders, the understanding of time depends on the severity of the diseases and the type of tasks.

  18. Bilastine and the central nervous system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montoro, J; Mullol, J; Dávila, I; Ferrer, M; Sastre, J; Bartra, J; Jáuregui, I; del Cuvillo, A; Valero, A

    2011-01-01

    Antihistamines have been classifed as first or second generation drugs, according to their pharmacokinetic properties, chemical structure and adverse effects. The adverse effects of antihistamines upon the central nervous system (CNS) depend upon their capacity to cross the blood-brain barrier (BBB) and bind to the central H1 receptors (RH1). This in turn depends on the lipophilicity of the drug molecule, its molecular weight (MW), and affinity for P-glycoprotein (P-gp) (CNS xenobiotic substances extractor protein). First generation antihistamines show scant affinity for P-gp, unlike the second generation molecules which are regarded as P-gp substrates. Histamine in the brain is implicated in many functions (waking-sleep cycle, attention, memory and learning, and the regulation of appetite), with numerous and complex interactions with different types of receptors in different brain areas. Bilastine is a new H1 antihistamine that proves to be effective in treating allergic rhinoconjunctivitis (seasonal and perennial) and urticaria. The imaging studies made, as well as the objective psychomotor tests and subjective assessment of drowsiness, indicate the absence of bilastine action upon the CNS. This fact, and the lack of interaction with benzodiazepines and alcohol, define bilastine as a clinically promising drug with a good safety profile as regards adverse effects upon the CNS.

  19. Controlling Underwater Robots with Electronic Nervous Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph Ayers

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available We are developing robot controllers based on biomimetic design principles. The goal is to realise the adaptive capabilities of the animal models in natural environments. We report feasibility studies of a hybrid architecture that instantiates a command and coordinating level with computed discrete-time map-based (DTM neuronal networks and the central pattern generators with analogue VLSI (Very Large Scale Integration electronic neuron (aVLSI networks. DTM networks are realised using neurons based on a 1-D or 2-D Map with two additional parameters that define silent, spiking and bursting regimes. Electronic neurons (ENs based on Hindmarsh–Rose (HR dynamics can be instantiated in analogue VLSI and exhibit similar behaviour to those based on discrete components. We have constructed locomotor central pattern generators (CPGs with aVLSI networks that can be modulated to select different behaviours on the basis of selective command input. The two technologies can be fused by interfacing the signals from the DTM circuits directly to the aVLSI CPGs. Using DTMs, we have been able to simulate complex sensory fusion for rheotaxic behaviour based on both hydrodynamic and optical flow senses. We will illustrate aspects of controllers for ambulatory biomimetic robots. These studies indicate that it is feasible to fabricate an electronic nervous system controller integrating both aVLSI CPGs and layered DTM exteroceptive reflexes.

  20. Central nervous system reactions to cervical myelography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vestergaard, A.; Dons, K.; Eskesen, V.; Kruse-Larsen, C.; Blatt Lyon, B.; Arlien Soeborg, P.; Jensen, N.O.; Praestholm, J.

    1991-01-01

    In a double blind prospective study of side effects to cervical myelography 38 patients were evaluated with neurologic examination, electroencephalography (EEG), brainstem evoked response (BER), somatosensory evoked responses (SSER), and continuous reaction times prior to and at 6 h and 24 h after myelography with either metrizamide or iohexol. A difference in the incidence of side effects (for example headache, dizziness, nausea, and neck pain) to the two different contrast media indicated that the inconveniences related to myelography were not only due to the spinal puncture. A contrast medium effect on the central nervous system varying from one agent to another was present. A high frequency of EEG deteriorations among patients with adverse clinical reactions and on only discrete affection upon BER indicated the reaction to be located to the cerebral cortex. Weakened tendon reflexes and reduced strength in the upper extremities were probably caused by blockade in the motor roots as SSER were normal indicating no affection of the sensory pathways. This hypothesis is in agreement with the fact the patients were in the prone position in the first phase of the investigation causing the highest concentration of contrast medium around the motor roots and the anterior part of the spinal cord. Difference in metabolic effect may explain differences in side effects of metrizamide and iohexol. (orig.)

  1. Central nervous system reactions to cervical myelography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vestergaard, A; Dons, K; Eskesen, V; Kruse-Larsen, C; Blatt Lyon, B; Arlien Soeborg, P; Jensen, N O; Praestholm, J [Hvidovre Hospital (Denmark). Depts. of Diagnostic Radiology, Neurosurgery, Neurology, and Clinical Neurophysiology

    1991-09-01

    In a double blind prospective study of side effects to cervical myelography 38 patients were evaluated with neurologic examination, electroencephalography (EEG), brainstem evoked response (BER), somatosensory evoked responses (SSER), and continuous reaction times prior to and at 6 h and 24 h after myelography with either metrizamide or iohexol. A difference in the incidence of side effects (for example headache, dizziness, nausea, and neck pain) to the two different contrast media indicated that the inconveniences related to myelography were not only due to the spinal puncture. A contrast medium effect on the central nervous system varying from one agent to another was present. A high frequency of EEG deteriorations among patients with adverse clinical reactions and on only discrete affection upon BER indicated the reaction to be located to the cerebral cortex. Weakened tendon reflexes and reduced strength in the upper extremities were probably caused by blockade in the motor roots as SSER were normal indicating no affection of the sensory pathways. This hypothesis is in agreement with the fact the patients were in the prone position in the first phase of the investigation causing the highest concentration of contrast medium around the motor roots and the anterior part of the spinal cord. Difference in metabolic effect may explain differences in side effects of metrizamide and iohexol. (orig.).

  2. Tartrazine and the developing nervous system of rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobotka, T J; Brodie, R E; Spaid, S L

    1977-05-01

    Rat dams were exposed to the artificial food color tartrazine (FD&C Yellow no. 5) at dietary levels of 0, 1, and 2% during gestation and lactation. The experimental offspring were continued on the same diets for approximately 3 months after weaning. No adverse physical or behavioral effects were noted in the dams. Fetal development and postnatal viability of the offspring were also normal. The only effect on postnatal development of the central nervous system (CNS) was a small transient change in neuromotor clinging ability of female offspring. The limited effect of tartrazine on the CNS was further evidenced by the facts that (1) the neurobehavioral profiles of the experimental weanlings revealed no significant abnormalities, and (2) morphochemical analysis of brain tissue, as well as brain weights, revealed no abnormalities. Tartrazine did appear to exert more general signs of toxicity in the offspring--namely, depressed body weight, an apparent reduction in thymus weight, and a slight elevation of red blood cells and hemoglobin.

  3. Central and peripheral nervous systems: master controllers in cancer metastasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Ming; Liu, Dan; Yang, Zhengyan; Guo, Ning

    2013-12-01

    Central and sympathetic nervous systems govern functional activities of many organs. Solid tumors like organs are also innervated by sympathetic nerve fibers. Neurotransmitters released from sympathetic nerve fibers can modulate biological behaviors of tumor cells. Multiple physiologic processes of tumor development may be dominated by central and sympathetic nervous systems as well. Recent studies suggest that dysfunction of central and sympathetic nervous systems and disorder of the hormone network induced by psychological stress may influence malignant progression of cancer by inhibiting the functions of immune system, regulating metabolic reprogramming of tumor cells, and inducing interactions between tumor and stromal cells. Over-release of inflammatory cytokines by tumors may aggravate emotional disorder, triggering the vicious cycles in tumor microenvironment and host macroenvironment. It is reasonable to hypothesize that cancer progression may be controlled by central and sympathetic nervous systems. In this review, we will focus on the recent information about the impacts of central and sympathetic nervous systems on tumor invasion and metastasis.

  4. Extraversion, Neuroticism and Strength of the Nervous System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frigon, Jean-Yves

    1976-01-01

    The hypothesized identity of the dimensions of extraversion-introversion and strength of the nervous system was tested on four groups of nine subjects (neurotic extraverts, stable extraverts, neurotic introverts, stable introverts). Strength of the subjects' nervous system was estimated using the electroencephalographic (EEG) variant of extinction…

  5. Plasticity and Neural Stem Cells in the Enteric Nervous System

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schaefer, Karl-Herbert; Van Ginneken, Chris; Copray, Sjef

    2009-01-01

    The enteric nervous system (ENS) is a highly organized part of the autonomic nervous system, which innervates the whole gastrointestinal tract by several interconnected neuronal networks. The ENS changes during development and keeps throughout its lifespan a significant capacity to adapt to

  6. Chemokines and chemokine receptors in inflammation of the nervous system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huang, D; Han, Yong-Chang; Rani, M R

    2000-01-01

    This article focuses on the production of chemokines by resident glial cells of the nervous system. We describe studies in two distinct categories of inflammation within the nervous system: immune-mediated inflammation as seen in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) or multiple sclerosis...

  7. R1 autonomic nervous system in acute kidney injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hering, Dagmara; Winklewski, Pawel J

    2017-02-01

    Acute kidney injury (AKI) is a rapid loss of kidney function resulting in accumulation of end metabolic products and associated abnormalities in fluid, electrolyte and acid-base homeostasis. The pathophysiology of AKI is complex and multifactorial involving numerous vascular, tubular and inflammatory pathways. Neurohumoral activation with heightened activity of the sympathetic nervous system and renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system play a critical role in this scenario. Inflammation and/or local renal ischaemia are underlying mechanisms triggering renal tissue hypoxia and resultant renal microcirculation dysfunction; a common feature of AKI occurring in numerous clinical conditions leading to a high morbidity and mortality rate. The contribution of renal nerves to the pathogenesis of AKI has been extensively demonstrated in a series of experimental models over the past decades. While this has led to better knowledge of the pathogenesis of human AKI, therapeutic approaches to improve patient outcomes are scarce. Restoration of autonomic regulatory function with vagal nerve stimulation resulting in anti-inflammatory effects and modulation of centrally-mediated mechanisms could be of clinical relevance. Evidence from experimental studies suggests that a therapeutic splenic ultrasound approach may prevent AKI via activation of the cholinergic anti-inflammatory pathway. This review briefly summarizes renal nerve anatomy, basic insights into neural control of renal function in the physiological state and the involvement of the autonomic nervous system in the pathophysiology of AKI chiefly due to sepsis, cardiopulmonary bypass and ischaemia/reperfusion experimental model. Finally, potentially preventive experimental pre-clinical approaches for the treatment of AKI aimed at sympathetic inhibition and/or parasympathetic stimulation are presented. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  8. Congenital tumors of the central nervous system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Severino, Mariasavina [G. Gaslini Children' s Hospital, Department of Neuroradiology, Genoa (Italy); Schwartz, Erin S. [The Children' s Hospital of Philadelphia, Department of Radiology, Philadelphia, PA (United States); Thurnher, Majda M. [Medical University of Vienna, Department of Radiology, Vienna (Austria); Rydland, Jana [MR Center, St. Olav' s Hospital HF, Trondheim (Norway); Nikas, Ioannis [Agia Sophia Children' s Hospital, Imaging Department, Athens (Greece); Rossi, Andrea [G. Gaslini Children' s Hospital, Department of Neuroradiology, Genoa (Italy); G. Gaslini Children' s Hospital, Department of Pediatric Neuroradiology, Genoa (Italy)

    2010-06-15

    Congenital tumors of the central nervous system (CNS) are often arbitrarily divided into ''definitely congenital'' (present or producing symptoms at birth), ''probably congenital'' (present or producing symptoms within the first week of life), and ''possibly congenital'' (present or producing symptoms within the first 6 months of life). They represent less than 2% of all childhood brain tumors. The clinical features of newborns include an enlarged head circumference, associated hydrocephalus, and asymmetric skull growth. At birth, a large head or a tense fontanel is the presenting sign in up to 85% of patients. Neurological symptoms as initial symptoms are comparatively rare. The prenatal diagnosis of congenital CNS tumors, while based on ultrasonography, has significantly benefited from the introduction of prenatal magnetic resonance imaging studies. Teratomas constitute about one third to one half of these tumors and are the most common neonatal brain tumor. They are often immature because of primitive neural elements and, rarely, a component of mixed malignant germ cell tumors. Other tumors include astrocytomas, choroid plexus papilloma, primitive neuroectodermal tumors, atypical teratoid/rhabdoid tumors, and medulloblastomas. Less common histologies include craniopharyngiomas and ependymomas. There is a strong predilection for supratentorial locations, different from tumors of infants and children. Differential diagnoses include spontaneous intracranial hemorrhage that can occur in the presence of coagulation factor deficiency or underlying vascular malformations, and congenital brain malformations, especially giant heterotopia. The prognosis for patients with congenital tumors is generally poor, usually because of the massive size of the tumor. However, tumors can be resected successfully if they are small and favorably located. The most favorable outcomes are achieved with choroid plexus tumors

  9. Radiation response of the central nervous system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schultheiss, T.E.; Kun, L.E.; Ang, K.K.; Stephens, L.C.

    1995-01-01

    This report reviews the anatomical, pathophysiological, and clinical aspects of radiation injury to the central nervous system (CNS). Despite the lack of pathognomonic characteristics for CNS radiation lesions, demyelination and malacia are consistently the dominant morphological features of radiation myelopathy. In addition, cerebral atrophy is commonly observed in patients with neurological deficits related to chemotherapy and radiation, and neurocognitive deficits are associated with diffuse white matter changes. Clinical and experimental dose-response information have been evaluated and summarized into specific recommendations for the spinal cord and brain. The common spinal cord dose limit of 45 Gy in 22 to 25 fractions is conservative and can be relaxed if respecting this limit materially reduces the probability of tumor control. It is suggested that the 5% incidence of radiation myelopathy probably lies between 57 and 61 Gy to the spinal cord in the absence of dose modifying chemotherapy. A clinically detectable length effect for the spinal cord has not been observed. The effects of chemotherapy and altered fractionation are also discussed. Brain necrosis in adults is rarely noted below 60 Gy in conventional fractionation, with imaging and clinical changes being observed generally only above 50 Gy. However, neurocognitive effects are observed at lower doses, especially in children. A more pronounced volume effect is believed to exist in the brain than in the spinal cord. Tumor progression may be hard to distinguish from radiation and chemotherapy effects. Diffuse white matter injury can be attributed to radiation and associated with neurological deficits, but leukoencephalopathy is rarely observed in the absence of chemotherapy. Subjective, objective, management, and analytic (SOMA) parameters related to radiation spinal cord and brain injury have been developed and presented on ordinal scales

  10. Radiation response of the central nervous system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schultheiss, T.E.; Kun, L.E.; Stephens, L.C.

    1995-01-01

    This report reviews the anatomical, pathophysiological, and clinical aspects of radiation injury to the central nervous system (CNS). Despite the lack of pathoGyomonic characteristics for CNS radiation lesions, demyelination and malacia are consistently the dominant morphological features of radiation myelopathy. In addition, cerebral atrophy is commonly observed in patients with neurological deficits related to chemotherapy and radiation, and neurocognitive deficits are associated with diffuse white matter changes. Clinical and experimental dose-response information have been evaluated and summarized into specific recommendations for the spinal cord and brain. The common spinal cord dose limit of 45 Gn in 22 to 25 fractions is conservative and can be relaxed if respecting this limit materially reduces the probability of tumor control. It is suggested that the 5% incidence of radiation myelopathy probably lies between 57 and 61 Gy to the spinal cord in the absence of dose modifying chemotherapy. A clinically detectable length effect for the spinal cord has not been observed. The effects of chemotherapy and altered fractionation are also discussed. Brain necrosis in adults is rarely noted below 60 Gy in conventional fractionation, with imaging and clinical changes being observed generally only above 50 Gy. However, neurocognitive effects are observed at lower doses, especially in children. A more pronounced volume effect is believed to exist in the brain than in the spinal cord. Tumor progression may be hard to distinguish from radiation and chemotherapy effects. Diffuse white matter injury can be attributed to radiation and associated with neurological deficits, but leukoencephalopathy is rarely observed in the absence of chemotherapy. Subjective, objective, management, and analytic (SOMA) parameters related to radiation spinal cord and brain injury have been developed and presented on ordinal scales. 140 refs., 3 figs., 6 tabs

  11. Polyphenols, Antioxidants and the Sympathetic Nervous System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruno, Rosa Maria; Ghiadoni, Lorenzo

    2018-01-01

    A high dietary intake of polyphenols has been associated with a reduced cardiovascular mortality, due to their antioxidant properties. However, growing evidence suggests that counteracting oxidative stress in cardiovascular disease might also reduce sympathetic nervous system overactivity. This article reviews the most commonly used techniques to measure sympathetic activity in humans; the role of sympathetic activation in the pathophysiology of cardiovascular diseases; current evidence demonstrating that oxidative stress is involved in the regulation of sympathetic activity and how antioxidants and polyphenols might counteract sympathetic overactivity, particularly focusing on preliminary data from human studies. The main mechanisms by which polyphenols are cardioprotective are related to the improvement of vascular function and their anti-atherogenic effect. Furthermore, a blood pressure-lowering effect was consistently demonstrated in randomized controlled trials in humans, when the effect of flavonoid-rich foods, such as tea and chocolate, was tested. More recent studies suggest that inhibition of sympathetic overactivity might be one of the mechanisms by which these substances exert their cardioprotective effects. Indeed, an increased adrenergic traffic to the vasculature is a major mechanism of disease in a number of cardiovascular and extra-cardiac diseases, including hypertension, obesity, metabolic syndrome and heart failure. A considerable body of evidence, mostly from experimental studies, support the hypothesis that reactive oxygen species might exert sympathoexcitatory effects both at the central and at the peripheral level. Accordingly, supplementation with antioxidants might reduce adrenergic overdrive to the vasculature and blunt cardiovascular reactivity to stress. While supplementation with "classical" antioxidants such as ROS-scavengers has many limitations, increasing the intake of polyphenol-rich foods seems to be a promising novel therapeutic

  12. Congenital tumors of the central nervous system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Severino, Mariasavina; Schwartz, Erin S.; Thurnher, Majda M.; Rydland, Jana; Nikas, Ioannis; Rossi, Andrea

    2010-01-01

    Congenital tumors of the central nervous system (CNS) are often arbitrarily divided into ''definitely congenital'' (present or producing symptoms at birth), ''probably congenital'' (present or producing symptoms within the first week of life), and ''possibly congenital'' (present or producing symptoms within the first 6 months of life). They represent less than 2% of all childhood brain tumors. The clinical features of newborns include an enlarged head circumference, associated hydrocephalus, and asymmetric skull growth. At birth, a large head or a tense fontanel is the presenting sign in up to 85% of patients. Neurological symptoms as initial symptoms are comparatively rare. The prenatal diagnosis of congenital CNS tumors, while based on ultrasonography, has significantly benefited from the introduction of prenatal magnetic resonance imaging studies. Teratomas constitute about one third to one half of these tumors and are the most common neonatal brain tumor. They are often immature because of primitive neural elements and, rarely, a component of mixed malignant germ cell tumors. Other tumors include astrocytomas, choroid plexus papilloma, primitive neuroectodermal tumors, atypical teratoid/rhabdoid tumors, and medulloblastomas. Less common histologies include craniopharyngiomas and ependymomas. There is a strong predilection for supratentorial locations, different from tumors of infants and children. Differential diagnoses include spontaneous intracranial hemorrhage that can occur in the presence of coagulation factor deficiency or underlying vascular malformations, and congenital brain malformations, especially giant heterotopia. The prognosis for patients with congenital tumors is generally poor, usually because of the massive size of the tumor. However, tumors can be resected successfully if they are small and favorably located. The most favorable outcomes are achieved with choroid plexus tumors, where aggressive surgical treatment leads to disease

  13. Statin therapy inhibits remyelination in the central nervous system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Miron, Veronique E; Zehntner, Simone P; Kuhlmann, Tanja

    2009-01-01

    Remyelination of lesions in the central nervous system contributes to neural repair following clinical relapses in multiple sclerosis. Remyelination is initiated by recruitment and differentiation of oligodendrocyte progenitor cells (OPCs) into myelinating oligodendrocytes. Simvastatin, a blood...... that OPCs were maintained in an immature state (Olig2(strong)/Nkx2.2(weak)). NogoA+ oligodendrocyte numbers were decreased during all simvastatin treatment regimens. Our findings suggest that simvastatin inhibits central nervous system remyelination by blocking progenitor differentiation, indicating...... the need to monitor effects of systemic immunotherapies that can access the central nervous system on brain tissue-repair processes....

  14. CT diagnosis of congenital anomalies of the central nervous system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mori, Koreaki

    1980-01-01

    In the diagnosis of central nervous system congenital anomalies, understanding of embryology of the central nervous system and pathophysiology of each anomaly are essential. It is important for clinical approach to central nervous system congenital anomalies to evaluate the size of the head and tention of the anterior fontanelle. Accurate diagnosis of congenital anomalies depends on a correlation of CT findings to clinical pictures. Clinical diagnosis of congenital anomalies should include prediction of treatability and prognosis, in addition to recognition of a disease. (author)

  15. Reorganization of the human central nervous system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schalow, G; Zäch, G A

    2000-10-01

    The key strategies on which the discovery of the functional organization of the central nervous system (CNS) under physiologic and pathophysiologic conditions have been based included (1) our measurements of phase and frequency coordination between the firings of alpha- and gamma-motoneurons and secondary muscle spindle afferents in the human spinal cord, (2) knowledge on CNS reorganization derived upon the improvement of the functions of the lesioned CNS in our patients in the short-term memory and the long-term memory (reorganization), and (3) the dynamic pattern approach for re-learning rhythmic coordinated behavior. The theory of self-organization and pattern formation in nonequilibrium systems is explicitly related to our measurements of the natural firing patterns of sets of identified single neurons in the human spinal premotor network and re-learned coordinated movements following spinal cord and brain lesions. Therapy induced cell proliferation, and maybe, neurogenesis seem to contribute to the host of structural changes during the process of re-learning of the lesioned CNS. So far, coordinated functions like movements could substantially be improved in every of the more than 100 patients with a CNS lesion by applying coordination dynamic therapy. As suggested by the data of our patients on re-learning, the human CNS seems to have a second integrative strategy for learning, re-learning, storing and recalling, which makes an essential contribution of the functional plasticity following a CNS lesion. A method has been developed by us for the simultaneous recording with wire electrodes of extracellular action potentials from single human afferent and efferent nerve fibres of undamaged sacral nerve roots. A classification scheme of the nerve fibres in the human peripheral nervous system (PNS) could be set up in which the individual classes of nerve fibres are characterized by group conduction velocities and group nerve fibre diameters. Natural impulse patterns

  16. Microbiota-gut-brain axis and the central nervous system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Xiqun; Han, Yong; Du, Jing; Liu, Renzhong; Jin, Ketao; Yi, Wei

    2017-08-08

    The gut and brain form the gut-brain axis through bidirectional nervous, endocrine, and immune communications. Changes in one of the organs will affect the other organs. Disorders in the composition and quantity of gut microorganisms can affect both the enteric nervous system and the central nervous system (CNS), thereby indicating the existence of a microbiota-gut-brain axis. Due to the intricate interactions between the gut and the brain, gut symbiotic microorganisms are closely associated with various CNS diseases, such as Parkinson's disease, Alzheimer's disease, schizophrenia, and multiple sclerosis. In this paper, we will review the latest advances of studies on the correlation between gut microorganisms and CNS functions & diseases.

  17. Progress of radionuclide diagnostic methods in central nervous system diseases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Badmaev, K.N.; Zen'kovich, S.G.

    1982-01-01

    A summarry on modern radionuclide diagnosis achivements of central nervous system diseases is presented. Most optimal tumorotropic preparations and compounds in the view of decreasing irradiation does and optimazing image are given

  18. Glial Cells: The Other Cells of the Nervous System

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    nervous system and that glial cells were a mere glue holding neurons in place, Schleich ... fact that these cells did not show any electrical activity like neurons or muscles ... membrane potential higher than that of the surrounding neu- rons.

  19. Central nervous system stimulants and drugs that suppress appetite

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aagaard, Lise

    2014-01-01

    of the January 2012 to June 2013 publications on central nervous system stimulants and drugs that suppress appetite covers amphetamines (including metamfetamine, paramethoxyamfetamine and paramethoxymetamfetamine), fenfluramine and benfluorex, atomoxetine, methylphenidate, modafinil and armodafinil...

  20. Central nervous system infections in heart transplant recipients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van de Beek, Diederik; Patel, Robin; Daly, Richard C.; McGregor, Christopher G. A.; Wijdicks, Eelco F. M.

    2007-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To study central nervous system infections after heart transplantations. DESIGN: Retrospective cohort study. SETTING: Cardiac Transplant Program at Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minnesota. Patients Three hundred fifteen consecutive patients who underwent heart transplantation from January 1988

  1. Central nervous system involvement in systemic lupus erythematosus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagaoka, Shohei; Ishigatsubo, Yoshiaki; Katou, Kiyoshi; Sakamoto, Hiroshi; Chiba, Jun

    1982-01-01

    Cranial computed tomography scans were performed on 47 patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). Abnormal findings in the computed tomograms (CT) were observed in 17 patients (36.2%). Cerebral atrophy was the most common feature (eight cases), followed by abnormal high density areas (five cases), abnormal low density areas (three cases), sulcal enlargement (two cases), intracranial hemorrhage (one case) and others (two cases). The abnormal cranial CT group of SLE was associated with a significantly higher incidence of urinary casts and of thrombocytopenia. In particular, the frequency of urinary casts was greater in the group with cerebral atrophy than in the group with normal CT findings, and there was a higher incidence of alopecia, leukopenia and thrombocytopenia in the group with intracranial calcifications. Neuropsychiatric involvements were noted in 70.6% of patients with CT abnormalities, but neuropsychiatric features (20.7%) and electroencephalographic abnormalities (44.8%) were also observed in patients with normal CT findings. The age at onset of SLE, the mean duration of the disease and the survival rate were not significantly different between the groups with and without CT abnormalities, but the mortality rate was significantly greater in the group with CT abnormalities, especially among those with brain atrophy. Concerning the relationship between the findings of cranial CT and corticosteroid treatment, there was no significant difference in either the total dose or the mean duration of prednisolone therapy. Although SLE patients with cerebral atrophy were taking a larger maintenance dose of corticosteroids, the differences were not statistically significant. (J.P.N.)

  2. Role of metallothionein-III following central nervous system damage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carrasco, Javier; Penkowa, Milena; Giralt, Mercedes

    2003-01-01

    We evaluated the physiological relevance of metallothionein-III (MT-III) in the central nervous system following damage caused by a focal cryolesion onto the cortex by studying Mt3-null mice. In normal mice, dramatic astrogliosis and microgliosis and T-cell infiltration were observed in the area...... the inflammatory response elicited in the central nervous system by a cryoinjury, nor does it serve an important antioxidant role, but it may influence neuronal regeneration during the recovery process....

  3. Radiation therapy of tumours of the central nervous system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skolyszewski, J.

    1980-01-01

    The aim of this work is to present the principles of radiation therapy of tumours of the central nervous system, according to the experience of the Institute of Oncology in Krakow. The text was designed primarily for the radiotherapists involved in the treatment of tumours of the central nervous system, and may be used as an auxiliary textbook for those preparing for the examination in radiotherapy. (author)

  4. What Health-Related Functions Are Regulated by the Nervous System?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... What health-related functions are regulated by the nervous system? The nervous system plays a role in nearly every aspect of ... feeling emotions. Functions that are regulated by the nervous system include (but are not limited to): Brain growth ...

  5. Peripheral nervous system insulin resistance in ob/ob mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background A reduction in peripheral nervous system (PNS) insulin signaling is a proposed mechanism that may contribute to sensory neuron dysfunction and diabetic neuropathy. Neuronal insulin resistance is associated with several neurological disorders and recent evidence has indicated that dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons in primary culture display altered insulin signaling, yet in vivo results are lacking. Here, experiments were performed to test the hypothesis that the PNS of insulin-resistant mice displays altered insulin signal transduction in vivo. For these studies, nondiabetic control and type 2 diabetic ob/ob mice were challenged with an intrathecal injection of insulin or insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) and downstream signaling was evaluated in the DRG and sciatic nerve using Western blot analysis. Results The results indicate that insulin signaling abnormalities documented in other “insulin sensitive” tissues (i.e. muscle, fat, liver) of ob/ob mice are also present in the PNS. A robust increase in Akt activation was observed with insulin and IGF-1 stimulation in nondiabetic mice in both the sciatic nerve and DRG; however this response was blunted in both tissues from ob/ob mice. The results also suggest that upregulated JNK activation and reduced insulin receptor expression could be contributory mechanisms of PNS insulin resistance within sensory neurons. Conclusions These findings contribute to the growing body of evidence that alterations in insulin signaling occur in the PNS and may be a key factor in the pathogenesis of diabetic neuropathy. PMID:24252636

  6. The Central Nervous in system Rhabdoid tumor primitive

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manana, G.; Bernachin, J.; Waskoff, S.; Panuncio, A.

    2004-01-01

    Primitive Rhabdoid tumors of the Central Nervous system are entities of very low frequency and since 1942 is the first event observed in a total of 16,000 cases studied in the Laboratory of Neuropathology, Clinical Hospital. Until 2003 were described 118 case in the literature. The case is about the 3 years old child with no previous medical history consulted for 3 months with headaches, repeated vomiting, irritability and non specific abnormal gait. On examination is found a physical waking depression and great hydrocephalus in V I bilateral pair so is submitted to a emergency surgery. RMI CT and MRI performed reveals large frontal tumor that reaches the oval center with cystic and calcifications areas. Three days after is operates for the intraventricular tumor without post operative complications. Receive chemotherapy and the patient died 2 years later. The neuro pathological and ultrastructural study reveals a Rhabdoid malignancy brain tumor of grade IV as well as were analyzed histopathological and ultrastructural aspects of this entity

  7. A case of disseminated central nervous system sparganosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noiphithak, Raywat; Doungprasert, Gahn

    2016-01-01

    Sparganosis is a very rare parasitic infection in various organs caused by the larvae of tapeworms called spargana. The larva usually lodges in the central nervous system (CNS) and the orbit. However, lumbar spinal canal involvement, as noted in the present case, is extremely rare. We report a rare case of disseminated CNS sparganosis involving the brain and spinal canal and review the literature. A 54-year-old man presented with progressive low back pain and neurological deficit at the lumbosacral level for 2 months. Imaging indicated arachnoiditis and an abnormal lesion at the L4-5 vertebral level. The patient underwent laminectomy of the L4-5 with lesionectomy and lysis of adhesions between the nerve roots. Microscopic examination indicated sparganum infection. Further brain imaging revealed evidence of chronic inflammation in the left parieto-occipital area without evidence of live parasites. In addition, an ophthalmologist reported a nonactive lesion in the right conjunctiva. The patient recovered well after surgery, although he had residual back pain and bladder dysfunction probably due to severe adhesion of the lumbosacral nerve roots. CNS sparganosis can cause various neurological symptoms similar to those of other CNS infections. A preoperative enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay is helpful for diagnosis, especially in endemic areas. Surgical removal of the worm remains the treatment of choice.

  8. Effects of radiation on development, especially of the nervous system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hicks, S.P.; D'Amato, C.J.

    1980-01-01

    Humans and other organisms are exposed to ionizing radiations from a variety of natural and man-made sources. Radiation may cause mutations and chromosome abnormalities, cell-killing, alterations and transformations in cell growth, and carcinogenetic changes. This paper considers principally the cell-killing and nonlethal cell alterations in developing laboratory mammals and humans, especially the nervous system, that follow irradiation and often lead to malformation and disturbed function, but at certain stages to restitution of the injury. Most of what researchers know about the mechanisms of these radiation effects in man is derived from animal experiments, especially with rats. The few observations in humans have corresponded closely to them. Researchers illustrate the cellular effects and malformative results with an example of cell-killing in the developing cortex of a human fetus exposed to therapeutic radiation in utero; a current timetable of the malformative and other effects of radiation on rats during development from which expectations of human effects might be extrapolated; examples of hydrocephalus produced in rats; low-dose alterations of nerve cells in rats; and a microcephalic Japanese boy exposed in utero to the atomic bomb at Hiroshima in 1945

  9. Fanconi anemia: correlating central nervous system malformations and genetic complementation groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson-Tesch, Benjamin A; Gawande, Rakhee S; Zhang, Lei; MacMillan, Margaret L; Nascene, David R

    2017-06-01

    Congenital central nervous system abnormalities in children with Fanconi anemia are poorly characterized, especially with regard to specific genetic complementation groups. To characterize the impact of genetic complementation groups on central nervous system anatomy. Through chart review we identified 36 patients with Fanconi anemia with available brain MRIs at the University of Minnesota (average age, 11.3 years; range, 1-43 years; M:F=19:17), which we reviewed and compared to 19 age- and sex-matched controls (average age, 7.9 years; range, 2-18 years; M:F=9:10). Genotypic information was available for 27 patients (15 FA-A, 2 FA-C, 3 FA-G, and 7 FA-D1 [biallelic mutations in BRCA2 gene]). Of the 36 patients, 61% had at least one congenital central nervous system or skull base abnormality. These included hypoplastic clivus (n=12), hypoplastic adenohypophysis (n=11), platybasia (n=8), pontocerebellar hypoplasia (n=7), isolated pontine hypoplasia (n=4), isolated vermis hypoplasia (n=3), and ectopic neurohypophysis (n=6). Average pituitary volume was significantly less in patients with Fanconi anemia (PFanconi anemia patients (P=0.006), but the basal angle of those with FA-D1 was not significantly different from controls (P=0.239). Clivus length was less in the Fanconi anemia group (P=0.002), but significance was only observed in the FA-D1 subgroup (PFanconi anemia have higher incidences of ectopic neurohypophysis, adenohypophysis hypoplasia, platybasia and other midline central nervous system skull base posterior fossa abnormalities than age- and sex-matched controls. Patients with posterior fossa abnormalities, including pontocerebellar hypoplasia, are more likely to have biallelic BRCA2 mutations.

  10. Fanconi anemia: correlating central nervous system malformations and genetic complementation groups

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson-Tesch, Benjamin A.; Gawande, Rakhee S.; Nascene, David R.; Zhang, Lei; MacMillan, Margaret L.

    2017-01-01

    Congenital central nervous system abnormalities in children with Fanconi anemia are poorly characterized, especially with regard to specific genetic complementation groups. To characterize the impact of genetic complementation groups on central nervous system anatomy. Through chart review we identified 36 patients with Fanconi anemia with available brain MRIs at the University of Minnesota (average age, 11.3 years; range, 1-43 years; M:F=19:17), which we reviewed and compared to 19 age- and sex-matched controls (average age, 7.9 years; range, 2-18 years; M:F=9:10). Genotypic information was available for 27 patients (15 FA-A, 2 FA-C, 3 FA-G, and 7 FA-D1 [biallelic mutations in BRCA2 gene]). Of the 36 patients, 61% had at least one congenital central nervous system or skull base abnormality. These included hypoplastic clivus (n=12), hypoplastic adenohypophysis (n=11), platybasia (n=8), pontocerebellar hypoplasia (n=7), isolated pontine hypoplasia (n=4), isolated vermis hypoplasia (n=3), and ectopic neurohypophysis (n=6). Average pituitary volume was significantly less in patients with Fanconi anemia (P<0.0001) than in controls. Basal angle was significantly greater in Fanconi anemia patients (P=0.006), but the basal angle of those with FA-D1 was not significantly different from controls (P=0.239). Clivus length was less in the Fanconi anemia group (P=0.002), but significance was only observed in the FA-D1 subgroup (P<0.0001). Of the seven patients meeting criteria for pontocerebellar hypoplasia, six belonged to the FA-D1 group. Patients with Fanconi anemia have higher incidences of ectopic neurohypophysis, adenohypophysis hypoplasia, platybasia and other midline central nervous system skull base posterior fossa abnormalities than age- and sex-matched controls. Patients with posterior fossa abnormalities, including pontocerebellar hypoplasia, are more likely to have biallelic BRCA2 mutations. (orig.)

  11. Fanconi anemia: correlating central nervous system malformations and genetic complementation groups

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson-Tesch, Benjamin A. [University of Minnesota, Department of Radiology, Minneapolis, MN (United States); Gawande, Rakhee S.; Nascene, David R. [University of Minnesota, Department of Radiology, Neuroradiology Section, Minneapolis, MN (United States); Zhang, Lei [University of Minnesota, Biostatistical Design and Analysis Centre, Minneapolis, MN (United States); MacMillan, Margaret L. [University of Minnesota, Blood and Marrow Transplant Program, Department of Pediatrics, Minneapolis, MN (United States)

    2017-06-15

    Congenital central nervous system abnormalities in children with Fanconi anemia are poorly characterized, especially with regard to specific genetic complementation groups. To characterize the impact of genetic complementation groups on central nervous system anatomy. Through chart review we identified 36 patients with Fanconi anemia with available brain MRIs at the University of Minnesota (average age, 11.3 years; range, 1-43 years; M:F=19:17), which we reviewed and compared to 19 age- and sex-matched controls (average age, 7.9 years; range, 2-18 years; M:F=9:10). Genotypic information was available for 27 patients (15 FA-A, 2 FA-C, 3 FA-G, and 7 FA-D1 [biallelic mutations in BRCA2 gene]). Of the 36 patients, 61% had at least one congenital central nervous system or skull base abnormality. These included hypoplastic clivus (n=12), hypoplastic adenohypophysis (n=11), platybasia (n=8), pontocerebellar hypoplasia (n=7), isolated pontine hypoplasia (n=4), isolated vermis hypoplasia (n=3), and ectopic neurohypophysis (n=6). Average pituitary volume was significantly less in patients with Fanconi anemia (P<0.0001) than in controls. Basal angle was significantly greater in Fanconi anemia patients (P=0.006), but the basal angle of those with FA-D1 was not significantly different from controls (P=0.239). Clivus length was less in the Fanconi anemia group (P=0.002), but significance was only observed in the FA-D1 subgroup (P<0.0001). Of the seven patients meeting criteria for pontocerebellar hypoplasia, six belonged to the FA-D1 group. Patients with Fanconi anemia have higher incidences of ectopic neurohypophysis, adenohypophysis hypoplasia, platybasia and other midline central nervous system skull base posterior fossa abnormalities than age- and sex-matched controls. Patients with posterior fossa abnormalities, including pontocerebellar hypoplasia, are more likely to have biallelic BRCA2 mutations. (orig.)

  12. Malignant lymphoma in central nervous system (CNS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujiyoshi, Kenji; Fukuyama, Hidenao; Akiguchi, Ichiro; Kameyama, Masakuni; Nishimura, Toshio.

    1984-01-01

    A 71-year-old male was admitted to Kohka Public Hospital on January 4, 1980, because of frequent vomiting and recent memory loss. Two weeks before admission upper G-I series showed no abnormalities. Physical and neurological examinations revealed no abnormalities except for slightly apathetic appearance and recent memory loss. Mild pleocytosis and marked increase of protein in CSF were observed. CT scan on January 17 showed high density areas in both medial sides of temporal lobes with remarkable contrast enhancement. His memory and, consciousness disturbances gradually aggravated, accompanied by abnormal density spreading around the ventricle walls like ventriculitis. He was transfered to Kyoto University Hospital on March 17, and malignant lymphoma was diagnosed on the basis of CSF cytology. Radiation and chemotherapy alleviated the CNS involvement and he regained normal mental function. On June 16, he developed pneumonia followed by status epilepticus. Autopsy findings revealed no lymphoid cell infiltration, but fibrous tissues in both hippocampal gyri and lymphomatous cells in the liver, which could not be suspected on clinical examinations. Apparent malignant lymphoma cells were not found in lymph nodes. This case indicated peculiar evolution of malignant lymphoma from liver to CNS or vice versa. We could not decide which organ was primary. CT findings of this case was very interesting; they resembled ventriculitis, which simulate tumors such as medulloblastoma or ependymoma spreading under ependymal lining. (author)

  13. Histologic examination of the rat central nervous system after intrathecal administration of human beta-endorphin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hée, P.; Klinken, Leif; Ballegaard, Martin

    1992-01-01

    Neuropathology, analgesics - intrathecal, central nervous system, histology, human beta-endorphin, toxicity......Neuropathology, analgesics - intrathecal, central nervous system, histology, human beta-endorphin, toxicity...

  14. Value of computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging in diagnosis of central nervous system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walecka, I.; Sicinska, J.; Szymanska, E.; Rudnicka, L.; Furmanek, M.; Walecki, J.; Olszewska, M.; Rudnicka, L.; Walecki, J.

    2006-01-01

    Systemic sclerosis is an autoimmune connective tissue disease characterized by vascular abnormalities and fibrotic changes in skin and internal organs. The aim of the study was to investigate involvement of the central nervous system in systemic sclerosis and the value of computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in evaluation of central nervous system involvement in systemic sclerosis. 26 patients with neuropsychiatric symptoms in the course of systemic sclerosis were investigated for central nervous system abnormalities by computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Among these 26 symptomatic patients lesions in brain MRI and CT examinations were present in 54% and in 50% patients respectively. Most common findings (in 46% of all patients), were symptoms of cortical and subcortical atrophy, seen in both, MRI and CT. Single and multiple focal lesions, predominantly in the white matter, were detected by MRI significantly more frequently as compared to CT (62% and 15% patients respectively). These data indicate that brain involvement is common in patients with severe systemic sclerosis. MRI shows significantly higher than CT sensitivity in detection focal brain lesions in these patients. (author)

  15. Structural and functional features of central nervous system lymphatic vessels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Louveau, Antoine; Smirnov, Igor; Keyes, Timothy J; Eccles, Jacob D; Rouhani, Sherin J; Peske, J David; Derecki, Noel C; Castle, David; Mandell, James W; Lee, Kevin S; Harris, Tajie H; Kipnis, Jonathan

    2015-07-16

    One of the characteristics of the central nervous system is the lack of a classical lymphatic drainage system. Although it is now accepted that the central nervous system undergoes constant immune surveillance that takes place within the meningeal compartment, the mechanisms governing the entrance and exit of immune cells from the central nervous system remain poorly understood. In searching for T-cell gateways into and out of the meninges, we discovered functional lymphatic vessels lining the dural sinuses. These structures express all of the molecular hallmarks of lymphatic endothelial cells, are able to carry both fluid and immune cells from the cerebrospinal fluid, and are connected to the deep cervical lymph nodes. The unique location of these vessels may have impeded their discovery to date, thereby contributing to the long-held concept of the absence of lymphatic vasculature in the central nervous system. The discovery of the central nervous system lymphatic system may call for a reassessment of basic assumptions in neuroimmunology and sheds new light on the aetiology of neuroinflammatory and neurodegenerative diseases associated with immune system dysfunction.

  16. Central nervous system systemic lupus erythematosus in children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Osborn, A.G.; Boyer, R.S.

    1989-01-01

    Ischemic neurologic events and neuropsychiatric disorders occur in approximately 70% of patients with systematic lupus erythematosus (SLE). The CT and MR findings in adults with central nervous system (CNS) SLE have been described, but to the authors' knowledge no pediatric series has been reported. The MR and CT findings in four children with CNS SLE are compared with those reported in adults. Large infarcts are less frequent in children than in adults with CNS SLE, while multiple small infarctions and white matter lesions are more common. These findings in children who have no obvious source of emboli, intracardiac shunt, or history of trauma should raise the suspicion of SLE

  17. Designing and implementing nervous system simulations on LEGO robots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blustein, Daniel; Rosenthal, Nikolai; Ayers, Joseph

    2013-05-25

    We present a method to use the commercially available LEGO Mindstorms NXT robotics platform to test systems level neuroscience hypotheses. The first step of the method is to develop a nervous system simulation of specific reflexive behaviors of an appropriate model organism; here we use the American Lobster. Exteroceptive reflexes mediated by decussating (crossing) neural connections can explain an animal's taxis towards or away from a stimulus as described by Braitenberg and are particularly well suited for investigation using the NXT platform.(1) The nervous system simulation is programmed using LabVIEW software on the LEGO Mindstorms platform. Once the nervous system is tuned properly, behavioral experiments are run on the robot and on the animal under identical environmental conditions. By controlling the sensory milieu experienced by the specimens, differences in behavioral outputs can be observed. These differences may point to specific deficiencies in the nervous system model and serve to inform the iteration of the model for the particular behavior under study. This method allows for the experimental manipulation of electronic nervous systems and serves as a way to explore neuroscience hypotheses specifically regarding the neurophysiological basis of simple innate reflexive behaviors. The LEGO Mindstorms NXT kit provides an affordable and efficient platform on which to test preliminary biomimetic robot control schemes. The approach is also well suited for the high school classroom to serve as the foundation for a hands-on inquiry-based biorobotics curriculum.

  18. Effects of Brazilian scorpion venoms on the central nervous system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nencioni, Ana Leonor Abrahão; Neto, Emidio Beraldo; de Freitas, Lucas Alves; Dorce, Valquiria Abrão Coronado

    2018-01-01

    In Brazil, the scorpion species responsible for most severe incidents belong to the Tityus genus and, among this group, T. serrulatus , T. bahiensis , T. stigmurus and T. obscurus are the most dangerous ones. Other species such as T. metuendus , T. silvestres, T. brazilae , T. confluens , T. costatus , T. fasciolatus and T. neglectus are also found in the country, but the incidence and severity of accidents caused by them are lower. The main effects caused by scorpion venoms - such as myocardial damage, cardiac arrhythmias, pulmonary edema and shock - are mainly due to the release of mediators from the autonomic nervous system. On the other hand, some evidence show the participation of the central nervous system and inflammatory response in the process. The participation of the central nervous system in envenoming has always been questioned. Some authors claim that the central effects would be a consequence of peripheral stimulation and would be the result, not the cause, of the envenoming process. Because, they say, at least in adult individuals, the venom would be unable to cross the blood-brain barrier. In contrast, there is some evidence showing the direct participation of the central nervous system in the envenoming process. This review summarizes the major findings on the effects of Brazilian scorpion venoms on the central nervous system, both clinically and experimentally. Most of the studies have been performed with T. serrulatus and T. bahiensis . Little information is available regarding the other Brazilian Tityus species.

  19. 3D printed nervous system on a chip.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Blake N; Lancaster, Karen Z; Hogue, Ian B; Meng, Fanben; Kong, Yong Lin; Enquist, Lynn W; McAlpine, Michael C

    2016-04-21

    Bioinspired organ-level in vitro platforms are emerging as effective technologies for fundamental research, drug discovery, and personalized healthcare. In particular, models for nervous system research are especially important, due to the complexity of neurological phenomena and challenges associated with developing targeted treatment of neurological disorders. Here we introduce an additive manufacturing-based approach in the form of a bioinspired, customizable 3D printed nervous system on a chip (3DNSC) for the study of viral infection in the nervous system. Micro-extrusion 3D printing strategies enabled the assembly of biomimetic scaffold components (microchannels and compartmented chambers) for the alignment of axonal networks and spatial organization of cellular components. Physiologically relevant studies of nervous system infection using the multiscale biomimetic device demonstrated the functionality of the in vitro platform. We found that Schwann cells participate in axon-to-cell viral spread but appear refractory to infection, exhibiting a multiplicity of infection (MOI) of 1.4 genomes per cell. These results suggest that 3D printing is a valuable approach for the prototyping of a customized model nervous system on a chip technology.

  20. Central nervous system involvement in childhood HIV: CT findings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muro, D.; Sanguesa, C.; Perez, A.; Otero, C.

    1997-01-01

    To determine the neuroradiological findings disclosed by CT on children infected by the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and to analyze the different radiological changes observed in the presence and absence of HIV encephalopathy. Fifty-one children with vertically transmitted HIV infection were divided into two groups according to the presence or absence of neurological changes (groups I and II, respectively). All the patients underwent cranial CT at different phases during the course of the disease. The presence of cerebral atrophy, calcifications of the basal ganglia, lesions involving white matter, opportunistic infections, vascular lesions and tumors of the central nervous system (CNS) was assessed. Neurological signs were observed in 17 patients (group I) and were absent in 34 (group II). Seventy percent of the patients in group I presented abnormal cranial CT findings, the most common of which were cerebral atrophy (58.8%) and calcifications of the basal ganglia (47%). One patient presented focal white matte lesions, another had hemorrhagic infarction and subdural hematoma and a third presented aneurysmal dilation of the intracerebral arteries. The rate of mortality in children with encephalopathy was 82.3%. Of the 34 patients in group II, Three (8.8%) presented an increase in the size of the ventricular system and of the subarachnoid space. Neuroradiological changes are frequently observed in children with HIV encephalopathy. Diffuse cerebral atrophy and calcification of the basal ganglia and periventricular white matter are the most common findings. Although cerebral atrophy can precede the development of encephalopathy, its presence generally coincides with neurological deterioration. The onset of neurological signs in HIV-infected patients indicates a very poor prognosis for the outcome of the disease. (Author) 32 refs

  1. [Central nervous system involvement in systemic lupus erythematosus - diagnosis and therapy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szmyrka, Magdalena

    Nervous system involvement in lupus belongs to its severe complications and significantly impacts its prognosis. Neuropsychiatric lupus includes 19 disease manifestations concerning both central and peripheral nervous system. This paper presents clinical aspects of central nervous system involvement in lupus. It reviews its epidemiology, risk factors and principles of diagnosis and therapy.

  2. Acute irradiation injury and autonomic nervous system. 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsuu, Mutsumi; Sekine, Ichiro; Shichijo, Kazuko; Ito, Masahiro; Ikeda, Yuzi; Matsuzaki, Sumihiro; Zea-Iriate, W.-L.; Kondo, Takahito

    1996-01-01

    In order to elucidate the mechanism of occurrence of radiation sickness, whole body irradiation of various doses of X-ray was done on male spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) whose sympathetic nervous system is functionally activated and on their original male Wistar Kyoto rats (WKY) and the change of their body weights was examined. Further, changes of blood pressure in rats irradiated at 7.5 Gy, of norepinephrine contents in their gut as a parameter of sympathetic nervous function and of acetylcholine contents as that of parasympathetic nervous function were measured. Histopathological examinations were also performed. SHR died at smaller dose than WKY. The blood pressure as a parameter of systemic sympathetic nervous system varied greatly in SHR. Norepinephrine contents elevated rapidly and greatly in SHR after irradiation and acetylcholine contents rapidly elevated in WKY. Apoptosis was more frequently observed in the intestinal crypt of SHR. Participation of autonomic nervous system was thus shown in the appearance of acute radiation injury and sickness in SHR, which was thought to be a useful model for the investigation. (K.H.)

  3. Sjogrens Syndrome Presenting with Central Nervous System Involvement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tülay Terzi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Sjogren’s syndrome is a slowly progressive autoimmune disease. Neurological involvement occurs in approximately 20-25% cases in Sjogren’s syndrome. 87% of the neurological involvement is peripheral nervous system, almost 13% in the form of central nervous system involvement. Affected central nervous system may show similar clinical and radiological findings as in multiple sclerosis (MS. In this paper, a 43-year-old patient is discussed who was referred with the complaint of dizziness, there was MS- like lesions in brain imaging studies and was diagnosed with Sjogren’s syndrome. MS- like clinical and radiologic tables can be seen, albeit rarely in Sjogren’s syndrome. In these cases, early diagnosis and early treatment for the sjögren has a great importance for the prognosis of the disease.

  4. DNA methylation-based classification of central nervous system tumours

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Capper, David; Jones, David T.W.; Sill, Martin

    2018-01-01

    Accurate pathological diagnosis is crucial for optimal management of patients with cancer. For the approximately 100 known tumour types of the central nervous system, standardization of the diagnostic process has been shown to be particularly challenging - with substantial inter-observer variabil......Accurate pathological diagnosis is crucial for optimal management of patients with cancer. For the approximately 100 known tumour types of the central nervous system, standardization of the diagnostic process has been shown to be particularly challenging - with substantial inter......-observer variability in the histopathological diagnosis of many tumour types. Here we present a comprehensive approach for the DNA methylation-based classification of central nervous system tumours across all entities and age groups, and demonstrate its application in a routine diagnostic setting. We show...

  5. CT findings of central nervous system in congenital syphilis infant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Cheng; Yang Xinghui; Wang Man

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the CT features of the central nervous system in congenital syphilis infant. Methods: CT findings of central nervous system in 11 infants with clinically proved congenital syphilis were analyzed retrospectively. Results: CT findings in 10 syphilis neonates were diffuse hypodense lesions in the white matter, with subarachnoid and intra-encephalic hemorrhage in 3 and 1 cases, respectively. One 2-month-old syphilis infant case and 5 cases of follow-up after 45 days to 6 months of treatment demonstrated bilateral widened sulci and cistern with enlarged ventricles in 3 of them. Conclusion: CT findings of the central nervous system in congenital syphilis infant are similar to those of hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy in neonates, and extra-encephalic hydrocephalus or brain hypogenesis ensues later on. (authors)

  6. Nervous system manifestations and neuroradiologic findings in acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodesch, G.; Parizel, P.M.; Lalmand, B.; Vanderhofstadt, A.; Baleriaux, D.; Farber, C.M.; Calck, M. van; Przedborski, S.; Haens, J. d'; Taelman, H.

    1989-01-01

    We report a series of thirteen patients with nervous system complications out of a total of thirty AIDS patients admitted to our hospital over the last two years for which CT and/or MRI have been performed. Five were homosexual men and eight patients (5 men, 3 women) were of African origin (Zaire and Rwanda) (n=5) or had had sexual intercourse with the local African population (n=3). The nervous system complications encountered included: Toxoplasma gondii brain abscess (2 patients); cryptococcus neoformans meningitis+toxoplasmosis (1 patient); toxoplasmosis+lymphoma (2 patients); progressive multifocal leucoencephalopathy (1 patient); lymphocytic meningitis or encephalitis (3 patients); lymphoma (1 patient); polyradiculoneuritis (3 patients). Three of thirteen patients had multiple intracranial abnormalities: One had concomitant intraparenchymal toxoplasma abscess and cryptococcal meningitis; in one patient a lymphoma developed after the successful medical treatment of a toxoplasma abscess; conversely, one patient developed a toxoplasma abscess two years after mediastinal radiotherapy for a systemic non-Hodgkin lymphoma. In conclusion, in our experience, nervous system toxoplasmosis is the most frequent AIDS related CNS complication. Our series demonstrates the high frequency of a second neurological disease occurring either concomitantly or separately. In these cases, while CT may readily identify the intracranial abnormalities, it contributes little towards an etiological diagnosis. Finally, our series illustrates the importance of a central African endemic focus for AIDS. (orig.)

  7. Nervous system manifestations and neuroradiologic findings in acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodesch, G.; Parizel, P.M.; Lalmand, B.; Vanderhofstadt, A.; Baleriaux, D.; Farber, C.M.; Calck, M. van; Przedborski, S.; Haens, J. d' ; Taelman, H.

    1989-03-01

    We report a series of thirteen patients with nervous system complications out of a total of thirty AIDS patients admitted to our hospital over the last two years for which CT and/or MRI have been performed. Five were homosexual men and eight patients (5 men, 3 women) were of African origin (Zaire and Rwanda) (n=5) or had had sexual intercourse with the local African population (n=3). The nervous system complications encountered included: Toxoplasma gondii brain abscess (2 patients); cryptococcus neoformans meningitis+toxoplasmosis (1 patient); toxoplasmosis+lymphoma (2 patients); progressive multifocal leucoencephalopathy (1 patient); lymphocytic meningitis or encephalitis (3 patients); lymphoma (1 patient); polyradiculoneuritis (3 patients). Three of thirteen patients had multiple intracranial abnormalities: One had concomitant intraparenchymal toxoplasma abscess and cryptococcal meningitis; in one patient a lymphoma developed after the successful medical treatment of a toxoplasma abscess; conversely, one patient developed a toxoplasma abscess two years after mediastinal radiotherapy for a systemic non-Hodgkin lymphoma. In conclusion, in our experience, nervous system toxoplasmosis is the most frequent AIDS related CNS complication. Our series demonstrates the high frequency of a second neurological disease occurring either concomitantly or separately. In these cases, while CT may readily identify the intracranial abnormalities, it contributes little towards an etiological diagnosis. Finally, our series illustrates the importance of a central African endemic focus for AIDS.

  8. The Cardiovascular Autonomic Nervous System and Anaesthesia

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    QuickSilver

    system that continues to sustain and control our vital organ systems. .... vagal tone and increased sympathetic outflow to the sinus node due to the fall in blood pressure) ... intraoperative autonomic balance of a particular patient population.

  9. 21 CFR 882.5550 - Central nervous system fluid shunt and components.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Central nervous system fluid shunt and components... Central nervous system fluid shunt and components. (a) Identification. A central nervous system fluid... central nervous system to an internal delivery site or an external receptacle for the purpose of relieving...

  10. Autonomic Nervous System in Paralympic Athletes with Spinal Cord Injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walter, Matthias; Krassioukov, Andrei V

    2018-05-01

    Individuals sustaining a spinal cord injury (SCI) frequently suffer from sensorimotor and autonomic impairment. Damage to the autonomic nervous system results in cardiovascular, respiratory, bladder, bowel, and sexual dysfunctions, as well as temperature dysregulation. These complications not only impede quality of life, but also affect athletic performance of individuals with SCI. This article summarizes existing evidence on how damage to the spinal cord affects the autonomic nervous system and impacts the performance in athletes with SCI. Also discussed are frequently used performance-enhancing strategies, with a special focus on their legal aspect and implication on the athletes' health. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Dynamic regulation of neurotransmitter specification: Relevance to nervous system homeostasis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borodinsky, Laura N.; Belgacem, Yesser Hadj; Swapna, Immani; Sequerra, Eduardo Bouth

    2013-01-01

    During nervous system development the neurotransmitter identity changes and coexpression of several neurotransmitters is a rather generalized feature of developing neurons. In the mature nervous system, different physiological and pathological circumstances recreate this phenomenon. The rules of neurotransmitter respecification are multiple. Among them, the goal of assuring balanced excitability appears as an important driving force for the modifications in neurotransmitter phenotype expression. The functional consequences of these dynamic revisions in neurotransmitter identity span a varied range, from fine-tuning the developing neural circuit to modifications in addictive and locomotor behaviors. Current challenges include determining the mechanisms underlying neurotransmitter phenotype respecification and how they intersect with genetic programs of neuronal specialization. PMID:23270605

  12. Brain-computer interface after nervous system injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns, Alexis; Adeli, Hojjat; Buford, John A

    2014-12-01

    Brain-computer interface (BCI) has proven to be a useful tool for providing alternative communication and mobility to patients suffering from nervous system injury. BCI has been and will continue to be implemented into rehabilitation practices for more interactive and speedy neurological recovery. The most exciting BCI technology is evolving to provide therapeutic benefits by inducing cortical reorganization via neuronal plasticity. This article presents a state-of-the-art review of BCI technology used after nervous system injuries, specifically: amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, Parkinson's disease, spinal cord injury, stroke, and disorders of consciousness. Also presented is transcending, innovative research involving new treatment of neurological disorders. © The Author(s) 2014.

  13. Altered balance in the autonomic nervous system in schizophrenic patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, B M; Mehlsen, J; Behnke, K

    1988-01-01

    .05). Heart-rate response to inspiration was greater in non-medicated schizophrenics compared to normal subjects (P less than 0.05), whereas no difference was found between medicated and non-medicated schizophrenics. The results show that the balance in the autonomic nervous system is altered in schizophrenic...... patients with a hyperexcitability in both the sympathetic and the parasympathetic division. Our study has thus indicated a dysfunction in the autonomic nervous system per se and the previous interpretations of attentional orienting responses in schizophrenia is questioned. Medication with neuroleptics......The aim of the present study was to evaluate the autonomic nervous function in schizophrenic patients. Twenty-eight patients (29 +/- 6 years) diagnosed as schizophrenics and in stable medication were included, together with ten schizophrenic patients (25 +/- 5 years) who were unmedicated. Eleven...

  14. Substance P immunoreactivity in the enteric nervous system in Rett syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deguchi, K; Reyes, C; Chakraborty, S; Antalffy, B; Glaze, D; Armstrong, D

    2001-12-01

    Rett syndrome is associated with profound mental retardation and motor disability in girls. It has a characteristic clinical phenotype which includes abnormalities of the autonomic nervous system. Feeding impairment and severe constipation are two symptoms of this autonomic dysfunction. Substance P, an important peptide in the autonomic nervous system, is decreased in the cerebrospinal fluid of Rett syndrome. We have demonstrated that substance P immunoreactivity is significantly decreased in Rett syndrome brain-stem and may be related to the autonomic dysfunction. In this study, we have continued the investigation of substance P in the enteric nervous system. We immunohistochemically examined the normal developing bowel in 22 controls (ages, 14 gestational weeks to 31 years) using formalin fixed tissue, with antibodies to substance P, tyrosine hydroxylase and vasoactive intestinal peptide. We compared the immunoreactivity of normal controls with 14 cases of Rett syndrome (ages, 5-41 years) and observed that the expression of substance P, tyrosine hydroxylase and vasoactive intestinal peptide immunoreactivity in the bowel in Rett syndrome was not significantly different from that of controls. This suggests that the feeding impairment and constipation in Rett syndrome relate to dysfunction of the autonomic nervous system originating outside of the bowel, in the brain-stem, as suggested by our previous study.

  15. MR imaging of central nervous system white matter tract degeneration (Wallerian degeneration)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuhn, M.J.; Johnson, K.A.; Davis, K.R.

    1987-01-01

    Wallerian degeneration is readily demonstrated by MR imaging. Twenty-one patients with MR signal abnormalities in various central nervous system (CNS) white matter tracts were evaluated with regard to (1) nature of signal abnormality, (2) MR anatomy of the involved tract, and (3) primary pathology (e.g., infarct, tumor, hemorrhage). Most examples of wallerian degeneration result in a thin, continuous band of long T1, long T2 signal abnormality conforming to the known anatomic pathway of a CNS axonal tract. Old, large cortical infarcts have the greatest propensity to show subsequent white-matter tract degeneration. Corticospinal tract degeneration is the type most readily visualized, often seen extending completely from the cerebral cortex through the medulla

  16. Modelling of pathologies of the nervous system by the example of computational and electronic models of elementary nervous systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shumilov, V. N., E-mail: vnshumilov@rambler.ru; Syryamkin, V. I., E-mail: maximus70sir@gmail.com; Syryamkin, M. V., E-mail: maximus70sir@gmail.com [National Research Tomsk State University, 634050, Tomsk, Lenin Avenue, 36 (Russian Federation)

    2015-11-17

    The paper puts forward principles of action of devices operating similarly to the nervous system and the brain of biological systems. We propose an alternative method of studying diseases of the nervous system, which may significantly influence prevention, medical treatment, or at least retardation of development of these diseases. This alternative is to use computational and electronic models of the nervous system. Within this approach, we represent the brain in the form of a huge electrical circuit composed of active units, namely, neuron-like units and connections between them. As a result, we created computational and electronic models of elementary nervous systems, which are based on the principles of functioning of biological nervous systems that we have put forward. Our models demonstrate reactions to external stimuli and their change similarly to the behavior of simplest biological organisms. The models possess the ability of self-training and retraining in real time without human intervention and switching operation/training modes. In our models, training and memorization take place constantly under the influence of stimuli on the organism. Training is without any interruption and switching operation modes. Training and formation of new reflexes occur by means of formation of new connections between excited neurons, between which formation of connections is physically possible. Connections are formed without external influence. They are formed under the influence of local causes. Connections are formed between outputs and inputs of two neurons, when the difference between output and input potentials of excited neurons exceeds a value sufficient to form a new connection. On these grounds, we suggest that the proposed principles truly reflect mechanisms of functioning of biological nervous systems and the brain. In order to confirm the correspondence of the proposed principles to biological nature, we carry out experiments for the study of processes of

  17. Modelling of pathologies of the nervous system by the example of computational and electronic models of elementary nervous systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shumilov, V. N.; Syryamkin, V. I.; Syryamkin, M. V.

    2015-01-01

    The paper puts forward principles of action of devices operating similarly to the nervous system and the brain of biological systems. We propose an alternative method of studying diseases of the nervous system, which may significantly influence prevention, medical treatment, or at least retardation of development of these diseases. This alternative is to use computational and electronic models of the nervous system. Within this approach, we represent the brain in the form of a huge electrical circuit composed of active units, namely, neuron-like units and connections between them. As a result, we created computational and electronic models of elementary nervous systems, which are based on the principles of functioning of biological nervous systems that we have put forward. Our models demonstrate reactions to external stimuli and their change similarly to the behavior of simplest biological organisms. The models possess the ability of self-training and retraining in real time without human intervention and switching operation/training modes. In our models, training and memorization take place constantly under the influence of stimuli on the organism. Training is without any interruption and switching operation modes. Training and formation of new reflexes occur by means of formation of new connections between excited neurons, between which formation of connections is physically possible. Connections are formed without external influence. They are formed under the influence of local causes. Connections are formed between outputs and inputs of two neurons, when the difference between output and input potentials of excited neurons exceeds a value sufficient to form a new connection. On these grounds, we suggest that the proposed principles truly reflect mechanisms of functioning of biological nervous systems and the brain. In order to confirm the correspondence of the proposed principles to biological nature, we carry out experiments for the study of processes of

  18. A Role of the Parasympathetic Nervous System in Cognitive Training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Feng; Heffner, Kathi L; Ren, Ping; Tadin, Duje

    2017-01-01

    Vision-based speed of processing (VSOP) training can result in broad cognitive improvements in older adults with amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI). What remains unknown, however, is what neurophysiological mechanisms account for the observed training effect. Much of the work in this area has focused on the central nervous system, neglecting the fact that the peripheral system can contributes to changes of the central nervous system and vice versa. We examined the prospective relationship between an adaptive parasympathetic nervous system response to cognitive stimuli and VSOP training-induced plasticity. Twenty-one participants with aMCI (10 for VSOP training, and 11 for mental leisure activities (MLA) control) were enrolled. We assessed high-frequency heart rate variability (HF-HRV) during training sessions, and striatum-related neural networks and cognition at baseline and post-training. Compared to MLA, the VSOP group showed a significant U-shaped pattern of HF-HRV response during training, as well as decreases in connectivity strength between bilateral striatal and prefrontal regions. These two effects were associated with training-induced improvements in both the trained (attention and processing speed) and transferred (working memory) cognitive domains. This work provides novel support for interactions between the central and the peripheral nervous systems in relation to cognitive training, and motivates further studies to elucidate the causality of the observed link. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  19. Primary granulomatous angeitis of the central nervous system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barrena, R.; Sevilla, G.; Olivan, M.; Gutierrez, P.; Guelbenzo, S.; Ayuso, T.

    1995-01-01

    A case of a young man with primary granulomatous angeitis of the central nervous system manifesting as a seizure is presented. The patient did not show previous pathology. Laboratory tests, computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging were performed, but the definitive diagnosis was made only by means of brain biopsy. Administration of steroids showed and improvement in symptoms. 8 refs

  20. Parallel simulation of axon growth in the nervous system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. Wensch; B.P. Sommeijer (Ben)

    2002-01-01

    textabstractIn this paper we discuss a model from neurobiology, which describes theoutgrowth of axons from neurons in the nervous system. The model combines ordinary differential equations, defining the movement of the axons, with parabolic partial differential equations. The parabolic equations

  1. Adverse effects of radiotherapy on the central nervous system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mocquard, Y.; Marion, J.L.; Goas, J.Y.

    1985-01-01

    Adverse effects of radiotherapy on the central nervous system are increasingly met with. Both the brain and spinal cord may be involved. Whereas some forms have a favorable outcome, many run a relentlessly progressive course, failing to respond to treatment. Improvement of radiation protocols should achieve a lower complication rate [fr

  2. Conventional external beam radiotherapy for central nervous system malignancies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Halperin, E.C.; Burger, P.C.

    1985-01-01

    Fractionated external beam photon radiotherapy is an important component of the clinical management of malignant disease of the central nervous system. The practicing neurologist or neurosurgeon frequently relies on the consultative and treatment skills of a radiotherapist. This article provides a review for the nonradiotherapist of the place of conventional external beam radiotherapy in neuro-oncology. 23 references

  3. Some Central Nervous System Activities of Nerium Oleander Linn ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Erah

    Nerium oleander Linn. on the central nervous system (CNS) of mice. Methods: The effect of the 50 % hydroalcohol extract of N. oleander flowers at dosage levels of 100 and 200 mg/kg ..... in the brain and inhibition of neuronal output could be ...

  4. Brain Facts: A Primer on the Brain and Nervous System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carey, Joseph, Ed.

    This booklet describes only a glimpse of what is known about the nervous system, brain disorders, and the exciting avenues of research that promise new therapies for many of the most devastating neurological and psychiatric diseases. The neuron, brain development, sensation and perception, learning and memory, movement, advances and challenges in…

  5. Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy in evaluation of central nervous system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krolicki, L.; Bak, M.; Grieb, P.

    1996-01-01

    The article presents the current results of MR spectroscopy in evaluation of central nervous system. This method is useful in examination of brain ischemia, brain tumors, epilepsy; white matter disorders and degeneration diseases. MR spectroscopy is unique technique for in vivo examination of the brain in physiological and pathophysiological states. (author)

  6. Thiophene Scaffold as Prospective Central Nervous System Agent: A Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deep, Aakash; Narasimhan, Balasubramanian; Aggarwal, Swati; Kaushik, Dhirender; Sharma, Arun K

    2016-01-01

    Heterocyclic compounds are extensively dispersed in nature and are vital for life. Various investigational approaches towards Structural Activity Relationship that focus upon the exploration of optimized candidates have become vastly important. Literature studies tell that for a series of compounds that are imperative in industrial and medicinal chemistry, thiophene acts as parent. Among various classes of heterocyclic compounds that have potential central nervous system activity, thiophene is the most important one. In the largely escalating chemical world of heterocyclic compounds showing potential pharmacological character, thiophene nucleus has been recognized as the budding entity. Seventeen Papers were included in this review article to define the central nervous system potential of thiophene. This review article enlightens the rationalized use and scope of thiophene scaffold as novel central nervous system activity such as anticonvulsant, acetylcholinesterase inhibitor, cyclin-dependent kinase 5 (cdk5/p25) inhibitors, CNS depressant, capability to block norepinephrine, serotonin and dopamine reuptake by their respective transporters etc. The Finding of this review confirm the importance of thiophene scaffold as potential central nervous system agents. From this outcome, ideas for future molecular modifications leading to the novel derivatives with better constructive pharmacological potential may be derived.

  7. Bacterial Signaling to the Nervous System through Toxins and Metabolites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Nicole J; Chiu, Isaac M

    2017-03-10

    Mammalian hosts interface intimately with commensal and pathogenic bacteria. It is increasingly clear that molecular interactions between the nervous system and microbes contribute to health and disease. Both commensal and pathogenic bacteria are capable of producing molecules that act on neurons and affect essential aspects of host physiology. Here we highlight several classes of physiologically important molecular interactions that occur between bacteria and the nervous system. First, clostridial neurotoxins block neurotransmission to or from neurons by targeting the SNARE complex, causing the characteristic paralyses of botulism and tetanus during bacterial infection. Second, peripheral sensory neurons-olfactory chemosensory neurons and nociceptor sensory neurons-detect bacterial toxins, formyl peptides, and lipopolysaccharides through distinct molecular mechanisms to elicit smell and pain. Bacteria also damage the central nervous system through toxins that target the brain during infection. Finally, the gut microbiota produces molecules that act on enteric neurons to influence gastrointestinal motility, and metabolites that stimulate the "gut-brain axis" to alter neural circuits, autonomic function, and higher-order brain function and behavior. Furthering the mechanistic and molecular understanding of how bacteria affect the nervous system may uncover potential strategies for modulating neural function and treating neurological diseases. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Central Auditory Nervous System Dysfunction in Echolalic Autistic Individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wetherby, Amy Miller; And Others

    1981-01-01

    The results showed that all the Ss had normal hearing on the monaural speech tests; however, there was indication of central auditory nervous system dysfunction in the language dominant hemisphere, inferred from the dichotic tests, for those Ss displaying echolalia. (Author)

  9. Neuronal chemokines : Versatile messengers in central nervous system cell interaction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Haas, A. H.; van Weering, H. R. J.; de Jong, E. K.; Boddeke, H. W. G. M.; Biber, K. P. H.

    2007-01-01

    Whereas chemokines are well known for their ability to induce cell migration, only recently it became evident that chemokines also control a variety of other cell functions and are versatile messengers in the interaction between a diversity of cell types. In the central nervous system (CNS),

  10. Characteristic radionuclide appearance of certain pediatric central nervous system neoplasms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Conway, J.J.

    1974-01-01

    The results of 5 years experience in the localization of brain neoplasms in children are summarized. The radiopharmaceutical of choice was /sup 99m/Tc-labeled pertechnetate administered in a dosage of 100μ Ci/lb. The appearance of the most common neoplasms of the central nervous system in childhood is characterized. (U.S.)

  11. Radiotherapy of the central nervous system in acute leukemia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Novak, L.J.

    1989-01-01

    The central nervous system (CNS) is a site of occult and overt involvement with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) in children. Prophylactic treatment of the cranial and spinal meninges can significantly reduce the incidence of CNS relapse. This review addresses the issues associated with the role of radiation therapy in the treatment of the CNS in ALL.20 references

  12. Spontaneous Electrical Activity in the Nervous System and its ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The present study was carried out to examine the effects of biogenic amines on the spontaneous electrical activity of the nervous system in the silkworm Bombyx mori. The activity recorded from different segments of the ventral nerve cord differed in the frequency and number of spike categories firing. The activity was highest ...

  13. Glial Cells: The Other Cells of the Nervous System

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 7; Issue 1. Glial Cells: The Other Cells of the Nervous System - An Introduction to Glial Cells. Medha S Rajadhyaksha Yasmin Khan. Series Article Volume 7 Issue 1 January 2002 pp 4-10 ...

  14. Sino-orbital aspergillosis with central nervous system complication ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A central nervous system (CNS) complication (cerebral abscess) was diagnosed following seizures in the patient. The patient died a few days later. Conclusion: The diagnosis of aspergillosis of the orbit was only made from fungal culture after the patient's death. It requires a high index of suspicion to make a diagnosis of ...

  15. Some central nervous system and blood pressure lowering effects of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The methanol extract of the leaves of Spondias mombin (SP) was evaluated for some central nervous system and blood pressure lowering effect in albino wistar rats and mice. The extract was administered to pre-weighed mice (20-35 g), divided into five groups of five mice each at the doses of 50, 100 and 200 mg/kg for the ...

  16. Some Central Nervous System Activities of Nerium Oleander Linn ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: The purpose of the study was to evaluate the activity of 50 % hydroalcohol flower extract of Nerium oleander Linn. on the central nervous system (CNS) of mice. Methods: The effect of the 50 % hydroalcohol extract of N. oleander flowers at dosage levels of 100 and 200 mg/kg p.o. on the locomotor activity of mice ...

  17. FMRFamide-like immunoreactivity in the nervous system of Hydra

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grimmelikhuijzen, C J; Dockray, G J; Schot, L P

    1982-01-01

    FMRFamide-like immunoreactivity has been localized in different parts of the hydra nervous system. Immunoreactivity occurs in nerve perikarya and processes in the ectoderm of the lower peduncle region near the basal disk, in the ectoderm of the hypostome and in the ectoderm of the tentacles...

  18. Computed tomography of the central nervous system in small animals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tipold, A.; Tipold, E.

    1991-01-01

    With computed tomography in 44 small animals some well defined anatomical structures and pathological processes of the central nervous system are described. Computed tomography is not only necessary for the diagnosis of tumors; malformations, inflammatory, degenerative and vascular diseases and traumas are also visible

  19. Role of semaphorins in the adult nervous system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Wit, Joris; Verhaagen, J.

    2003-01-01

    In the developing nervous system, extending axons are directed towards their appropriate targets by a myriad of attractive and repulsive guidance cues. Work in the past decade has significantly advanced our understanding of these molecules and has made it increasingly clear that their function is

  20. School Reentry for Children with Acquired Central Nervous Systems Injuries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carney, Joan; Porter, Patricia

    2009-01-01

    Onset of acquired central nervous system (CNS) injury during the normal developmental process of childhood can have impact on cognitive, behavioral, and motor function. This alteration of function often necessitates special education programming, modifications, and accommodations in the education setting for successful school reentry. Special…

  1. Innate immune responses in central nervous system inflammation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Finsen, Bente; Owens, Trevor

    2011-01-01

    In autoimmune diseases of the central nervous system (CNS), innate glial cell responses play a key role in determining the outcome of leukocyte infiltration. Access of leukocytes is controlled via complex interactions with glial components of the blood-brain barrier that include angiotensin II...

  2. Nuclear magnetic resonance imaging of the central nervous system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knaap, M.S. van der; Valk, J.

    1989-01-01

    In this article a review is given of the use of magnetic resonance imaging for the central nervous system. An example of the screening of the population for multiple scelerosis is given. A good preliminary examination and the supply of relevant information to the person which performs the imaging is necessary. (R.B.). 9 figs.; 4 tabs

  3. Imaging in the infectious diseases of the central nervous system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brunet, F.; Gandon, Y.; Heautot, J.F.; Montagne, C.; Michelet, C.; Carsin, M.

    1989-01-01

    The basic signs of the major bacterial, viral, parasitic or mycotic infections of the central nervous system with CT and MRI are described. The problems arising from the presence of the HIV virus are emphasized and the attitude required according to the findings of imaging, is defined [fr

  4. Pharmacology of cell adhesion molecules of the nervous system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kiryushko, Darya; Bock, Elisabeth; Berezin, Vladimir

    2007-01-01

    Cell adhesion molecules (CAMs) play a pivotal role in the development and maintenance of the nervous system under normal conditions. They also are involved in numerous pathological processes such as inflammation, degenerative disorders, and cancer, making them attractive targets for drug...

  5. Neurogenesis in Aplysia californica resembles nervous system formation in vertebrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jacob, M.H.

    1984-01-01

    The pattern of neurogenesis of the central nervous system of Aplysia californica was investigated by [ 3 H]thymidine autoradiography. Large numbers of animals at a series of early developmental stages were labeled with [ 3 H]thymidine for 24 or 48 hr and were subsequently sampled at specific intervals throughout the life cycle. I found that proliferative zones, consisting of columnar and placodal ectodermal cells, are established in regions of the body wall adjacent to underlying mesodermal cells. Mitosis in the proliferative zones generates a population of cells which leave the surface and migrate inward to join the nearby forming ganglia. Tracing specific [ 3 H]thymidine-labeled cells from the body wall to a particular ganglion and within the ganglion over time suggests that the final genomic replication of the neuronal precursors occurs before the cells join the ganglion while glial cell precursors and differentiating glial cells continue to divide within the ganglion for some time. Ultrastructural examination of the morphological features of the few mitosing cells observed within the Aplysia central nervous system supports this interpretation. The pattern of neurogenesis in the Aplysia central nervous system resembles the proliferation of cells in the neural tube and the migration of neural crest and ectodermal placode cells in the vertebrate nervous system but differs from the pattern described for other invertebrates

  6. Aberrant nerve fibres within the central nervous system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moffie, D

    1992-01-01

    Three cases of aberrant nerve fibres in the spinal cord and medulla oblongata are described. The literature on these fibres is discussed and their possible role in regeneration. Different views on the possibility of regeneration or functional recovery of the central nervous system are mentioned in the light of recent publications, which are more optimistic than before.

  7. CRITICAL ANALYSIS OF REFERRALS TO ELECTRODIAGNOSTIC EXAMINATION OF THE PERIPHERAL NERVOUS SYSTEM

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    Simon Podnar

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available Background. Clinical neurophysiologists observe a large number of examinees referred to a electromyographic (EMG laboratory without clinical symptoms or signs of the peripheral nervous system lesion. Such referrals do not improve management of patients, but only unnecessarily burden examinees and laboratory personnel. The aim of the present study was to check appropriateness of referrals to electrodiagnostic examination, look for reasons for problems and suggest possible improvements.Methods. From the database of the Institute of Clinical Neurophysiology in Ljubljana all examinees evaluated by the author in a »general« EMG laboratory in the first 4 months of 2002 were included. From data about examinees, referral doctors, referral diagnoses, clinical symptoms and signs and electrophysiological findings, predictive values for neurological referral diagnoses and electrodiagnostic abnormalities were calculated using descriptive and multivariate statistical analyses.Results. Three hundred examinees (42% men were included. Neurological diagnosis was provided in 55% of referrals. Electrodiagnostic abnormalities were found in 45% of examinees (carpal tunnel syndrome 50%, radiculopathy 25%, other mononeuropathies 15%, polineuropathy 9%. In 9% of examinees only clinical, and in 47% neither clinical nor electrodiagnostic abnormalities were demonstrated. Using a multivariate analysis positive effect of referral with neurological diagnosis, of paraesthesiae and findings of weakness and sensory loss, and negative effect of pain and referral diagnosis cervicobrachialgia or lumboischialgia on pathological electrodiagnostic findings were found. Isolated pain and paraesthesiae (with carpal tunnel syndrome excluded were particularly poor predictors of abnormal electrodiagnostic findings (9% and 16%, respectively. With exception of 20 patients with carpal tunnel syndrome, none with normal clinical neurological examination had abnormal electrodiagnostic findings

  8. Gastric emptying abnormalities in progressive systemic sclerosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sridhar, K.; Magyar, L.; Lange, R.; McCallum, R.W.

    1985-01-01

    The authors studied gastric emptying (GE) in patients with peripheral manifestations of progressive systemic sclerosis (PSS) using a radionuclide method. 18 patients underwent esophageal manometry and a GE study using chicken liver labeled in vivo with Tc-99m sulfur colloid as a marker of solid emptying. GE was also measured in 13 normal volunteers. 4 PSS patients with normal esophageal motility also had normal GE. The GE of 14 PSS patients with abnormal esophageal motility was significantly (p < 0.05) delayed; with 67.4% retention of isotope after 2 hours compared to 49.8 in normals. The authors conclude that GE of solids is slow in approximately 2/3 of PSS patients with abnormal esophageal motility but is normal if the esophagus is uninvolved; Delayed GE may contribute to the severity of gastroesophageal reflux in PSS patients and the degree of dysphasgia; and Metoclopramide accelerates GE in PSS patients and should have a valuable therapeutic role

  9. Early and late endocrine effects in pediatric central nervous system diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aslan, Ivy R; Cheung, Clement C

    2014-01-01

    Endocrinopathies are frequently linked to central nervous system disease, both as early effects prior to the disease diagnosis and/or late effects after the disease has been treated. In particular, tumors and infiltrative diseases of the brain and pituitary, such as craniopharyngioma, optic pathway and hypothalamic gliomas, intracranial germ cell tumor, and Langerhans cell histiocytosis, can present with abnormal endocrine manifestations that precede the development of neurological symptoms. Early endocrine effects include diabetes insipidus, growth failure, obesity, and precocious or delayed puberty. With improving prognosis and treatment of childhood brain tumors, many survivors experience late endocrine effects related to medical and surgical interventions. Chemotherapeutic agents and radiation therapy can affect the hypothalamic-pituitary axes governing growth, thyroid, gonadal, and adrenal function. In addition, obesity and metabolic alterations are frequent late manifestations. Diagnosing and treating both early and late endocrine manifestations can dramatically improve the growth, well-being, and quality of life of patients with childhood central nervous system diseases.

  10. The nervous systems of basally branching nemertea (palaeonemertea.

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    Patrick Beckers

    Full Text Available In recent years, a lot of studies have been published dealing with the anatomy of the nervous system in different spiralian species. The only nemertean species investigated in this context probably shows derived characters and thus the conditions found there are not useful in inferring the relationship between nemerteans and other spiralian taxa. Ingroup relationships within Nemertea are still unclear, but there is some agreement that the palaeonemerteans form a basal, paraphyletic grade. Thus, palaeonemertean species are likely the most informative when comparing with other invertebrate groups. We therefore analyzed the nervous system of several palaeonemertean species by combining histology and immunostaining. 3D reconstructions based on the aligned slices were performed to get an overall impression of the central nervous system, and immunohistochemistry was chosen to reveal fine structures and to be able to compare the data with recently published results. The insights presented here permit a first attempt to reconstruct the primary organization of the nemertean nervous system. This comparative analysis allows substantiating homology hypotheses for nerves of the peripheral nervous system. This study also provides evidence that the nemertean brain primarily consists of two lobes connected by a strong ventral commissure and one to several dorsal commissures. During nemertean evolution, the brain underwent continuous compartmentalization into a pair of dorsal and ventral lobes interconnected by commissures and lateral tracts. Given that this conclusion can be corroborated by cladistic analyses, nemerteans should share a common ancestor with spiralians that primarily have a simple brain consisting of paired medullary, frontally commissurized and reinforced cords. Such an organization resembles the situation found in presumably basally branching annelids or mollusks.

  11. Essay on a general theory of nervous system functions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schweizer, H J

    1985-01-01

    The axiomatic theory unites the aspects of neurophysiology, psychology and system-theory. The formulation of the structural-nucleus of the theory relies on basic insights from biology, neurophysiology and system-theory. The structural-nucleus allows the reconstruction of the essential properties of nervous system functions, organisation and development. The theory also contributes to the discussion of stochastic automata and artificial intelligence.

  12. Temporal encoding in a nervous system.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zane N Aldworth

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available We examined the extent to which temporal encoding may be implemented by single neurons in the cercal sensory system of the house cricket Acheta domesticus. We found that these neurons exhibit a greater-than-expected coding capacity, due in part to an increased precision in brief patterns of action potentials. We developed linear and non-linear models for decoding the activity of these neurons. We found that the stimuli associated with short-interval patterns of spikes (ISIs of 8 ms or less could be predicted better by second-order models as compared to linear models. Finally, we characterized the difference between these linear and second-order models in a low-dimensional subspace, and showed that modification of the linear models along only a few dimensions improved their predictive power to parity with the second order models. Together these results show that single neurons are capable of using temporal patterns of spikes as fundamental symbols in their neural code, and that they communicate specific stimulus distributions to subsequent neural structures.

  13. Vitamin A and the nervous system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavlović Dragan M.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Vitamin A is essential for the early development and normal functioning of the brain throughout life. A deficiency of vitamin A is one of the leading causes of morbidity and mortality in developing countries, and subclinical deficiency is probably present worldwide. The main active molecule in vitamin A is retinoic acid, which is involved in vision, the immune system, skin health, olfaction and cognition (learning, memory, spatial functions, olfaction, etc. through processes of neuroplasticity and neurogenesis. Vitamin A is involved in the regulation of about one-sixth of the human genome. It has non-genomic actions in protein translation and paracrine actions. Retinal vitamin A aldehyde is crucial for day and night vision. The best-known manifestation of hypovitaminosis A is night blindness but in more severe cases, it causes blindness. In the hypothalamus, vitamin A, with information from the retina, acts in circadian and seasonal regulation. Increased retinoic acid levels in the blood are associated with increased risk of depression, and lower levels have been connected with Alzheimer’s disease, Parkinson’s disease, cerebral ischemia, autistic spectrum disorders and schizophrenia. Higher doses and longer periods of treatment pose the threat of hypervitaminosis A. Vitamin A and its analogs are a promising new class of therapeutic agents in a wide spectrum of disorders, albeit with a narrow therapeutic window. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 175033 i br. 175022

  14. Diverse roles of neurotensin agonists in the central nervous system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mona eBoules

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available NT is a tridecapeptide that is found in the central nervous system and the gastrointestinal tract. NT behaves as a neurotransmitter in the brain and as a hormone in the gut. Additionally, NT acts as a neuromodulator to several neurotransmitter systems including dopaminergic, sertonergic, GABAergic, glutamatergic and cholinergic systems. Due to its association with such a wide variety of neurotransmitters, NT has been implicated in the pathophysiology of several central nervous system (CNS disorders such as schizophrenia, drug abuse, Parkinson’s disease, pain, central control of blood pressure, eating disorders, as well as, cancer and inflammation. The present review will focus on the role that NT and its analogs play in schizophrenia, endocrine function, pain, psychostimulant abuse, and Parkinson’s disease.

  15. Functional structure and dynamics of the human nervous system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawrence, J. A.

    1981-01-01

    The status of an effort to define the directions needed to take in extending pilot models is reported. These models are needed to perform closed-loop (man-in-the-loop) feedback flight control system designs and to develop cockpit display requirements. The approach taken is to develop a hypothetical working model of the human nervous system by reviewing the current literature in neurology and psychology and to develop a computer model of this hypothetical working model.

  16. The Multifactorial role of Peripheral Nervous System in Bone Growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gkiatas, Ioannis; Papadopoulos, Dimitrios; Pakos, Emilios E.; Kostas-Agnantis, Ioannis; Gelalis, Ioannis; Vekris, Marios; Korompilias, Anastasios

    2017-09-01

    Bone alters its metabolic and anabolic activities in response to the variety of systemic and local factors such as hormones and growth factors. Classical observations describing abundance of the nerve fibers in bone also predict a paradigm that the nervous system influences bone metabolism and anabolism. Since 1916 several investigators tried to analyze the effect of peripheral nervous system in bone growth and most of them advocated for the positive effect of innervation in the bones of growing organisms. Moreover, neuronal tissue controls bone formation and remodeling. The purpose of this mini-review is to present the most recent data concerning the influence of innervation on bone growth, the current understanding of the skeletal innervation and their proposed physiological effects on bone metabolism as well as the implication of denervation in human skeletal biology in the developing organism since the peripheral neural trauma as well as peripheral neuropathies are common and they have impact on the growing skeleton.

  17. The Regulation of GluN2A by Endogenous and Exogenous Regulators in the Central Nervous System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Yongjun; Zhan, Liying; Cheng, Xiaokun; Zhang, Linan; Hu, Jie; Gao, Zibin

    2017-04-01

    The NMDA receptor is the most widely studied ionotropic glutamate receptor, and it is central to many physiological and pathophysiological processes in the central nervous system. GluN2A is one of the two main types of GluN2 NMDA receptor subunits in the forebrain. The proper activity of GluN2A is important to brain function, as the abnormal regulation of GluN2A may induce some neuropsychiatric disorders. This review will examine the regulation of GluN2A by endogenous and exogenous regulators in the central nervous system.

  18. Gadolinium-enhanced MRI in central nervous system Behcet's disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Erdem, E. (Dept. of Radiology (Neuroradiology), Hopital de Bicetre, Paris-Sud Univ. (France)); Carlier, R. (Dept. of Radiology (Neuroradiology), Hopital de Bicetre, Paris-Sud Univ. (France)); Idir, A.B.C. (Dept. of Radiology (Neuroradiology), Hopital de Bicetre, Paris-Sud Univ. (France)); Masnou, P.O. (Dept. of Neurology, Hopital de Bicetre, Paris-Sud Univ. (France)); Moulonguet, A. (Dept. of Neurology, Hopital de Bicetre, Paris-Sud Univ. (France)); Adams, D. (Dept. of Neurology, Hopital de Bicetre, Paris-Sud Univ. (France)); Doyon, D. (Dept. of Radiology (Neuroradiology), Hopital de Bicetre, Paris-Sud Univ. (France))

    1993-02-01

    Two cases of central nervous system Behcet's disease, studied by gadolinium-enhanced MRI, are presented. In one patient, whose clinical picture was dominated by a brain stem syndrome, the gadolinium enhancement resolved with clinical improvement, although the hyperintense areas in the mesencephalon on T2-weighted images persisted. In the second, who had a pseudobulbar palsy and a mild right hemiparesis, there were many abnormal areas, but an enhancing focus in the posterior limb of the left internal capsule was probably the lesion responsible for the hemiparesis. (orig.)

  19. Brain MRI screening showing evidences of early central nervous system involvement in patients with systemic sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammed, Reem Hamdy A; Sabry, Yousriah Y; Nasef, Amr A

    2011-05-01

    Systemic sclerosis is a multisystem autoimmune collagen disease where structural and functional abnormalities of small blood vessels prevail. Transient ischemic attacks, ischemic stroke, and hemorrhage have been reported as primary consequence of vascular central nervous system affection in systemic sclerosis. Magnetic resonance imaging is considered to be the most sensitive diagnostic technique for detecting symptomatic and asymptomatic lesions in the brain in cases of multifocal diseases. The objective of this study is to detect subclinical as well as clinically manifest cerebral vasculopathy in patients with systemic sclerosis using magnetic resonance imaging. As much as 30 female patients with systemic sclerosis aged 27-61 years old, with disease duration of 1-9 years and with no history of other systemic disease or cerebrovascular accidents, were enrolled. Age-matched female control group of 30 clinically normal subjects, underwent brain magnetic resonance examination. Central nervous system (CNS) involvement in the form of white matter hyperintense foci of variable sizes were found in significantly abundant forms in systemic sclerosis patients on magnetic resonance evaluation than in age-related control group, signifying a form of CNS vasculopathy. Such foci showed significant correlation to clinical features of organic CNS lesion including headaches, fainting attacks and organic depression as well as to the severity of peripheral vascular disease with insignificant correlation with disease duration. In conclusion, subclinical as well as clinically manifest CNS ischemic vasculopathy is not uncommon in systemic sclerosis patients and magnetic resonance imaging is considered a sensitive noninvasive screening tool for early detection of CNS involvement in patients with systemic sclerosis.

  20. Pazopanib efficacy in recurrent central nervous system hemangiopericytomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apra, Caroline; Alentorn, Agusti; Mokhtari, Karima; Kalamarides, Michel; Sanson, Marc

    2018-04-26

    There is currently no treatment for solitary fibrous tumors/hemangiopericytomas (SFT/H) of the central nervous system recurring after multiple surgeries and radiotherapies. The NAB2-STAT6 gene fusion is the hallmark of these tumors, and upregulates Early Growth Factor, activating several growth pathways. We treated two patients presenting pluri-recurrent meningeal SFT/H with Pazopanib, a broad-spectrum tyrosine kinase inhibitor. We analyzed the exome and RNA sequencing data of one of them and, in addition to another meningeal SFT/H, compared it to the transcriptomic profiling of 5 systemic SFT/H. A dramatic clinical and radiological response was observed in both cases, respectively 84 and 43% decrease after 3 months. As a comparison, Pazopanib has only a stabilizing effect in systemic SFT/H. Indeed, central nervous system SFT/H show overexpression of different tyrosine kinases targeted by Pazopanib. Two consecutive patients with untreatable central nervous system SFT/H showed a spectacular partial response to Pazopanib, an unprecedented result in SFT/H. This result could be explained by differences in expression profiles and calls for a confirmation in a larger cohort of patients.

  1. Mesoscopic organization reveals the constraints governing Caenorhabditis elegans nervous system.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raj Kumar Pan

    Full Text Available One of the biggest challenges in biology is to understand how activity at the cellular level of neurons, as a result of their mutual interactions, leads to the observed behavior of an organism responding to a variety of environmental stimuli. Investigating the intermediate or mesoscopic level of organization in the nervous system is a vital step towards understanding how the integration of micro-level dynamics results in macro-level functioning. The coordination of many different co-occurring processes at this level underlies the command and control of overall network activity. In this paper, we have considered the somatic nervous system of the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans, for which the entire neuronal connectivity diagram is known. We focus on the organization of the system into modules, i.e., neuronal groups having relatively higher connection density compared to that of the overall network. We show that this mesoscopic feature cannot be explained exclusively in terms of considerations such as, optimizing for resource constraints (viz., total wiring cost and communication efficiency (i.e., network path length. Even including information about the genetic relatedness of the cells cannot account for the observed modular structure. Comparison with other complex networks designed for efficient transport (of signals or resources implies that neuronal networks form a distinct class. This suggests that the principal function of the network, viz., processing of sensory information resulting in appropriate motor response, may be playing a vital role in determining the connection topology. Using modular spectral analysis we make explicit the intimate relation between function and structure in the nervous system. This is further brought out by identifying functionally critical neurons purely on the basis of patterns of intra- and inter-modular connections. Our study reveals how the design of the nervous system reflects several constraints, including

  2. Nervous system and receptors. Chapter 3.5

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beaumariage, M.L.

    1975-01-01

    The literature is reviewed for the effects of sulphur-containing radioprotective agents on the nervous system and receptors. Studies of the neurological changes observed in alert animals and their modification by anaesthetics have indicated that a direct effect is exerted on the cortical and subcortical structures. Some local anaesthetic effects may result from nerve endings being squeezed by the edematous papule formed on the site of the injection. MEA and, to a lesser extent, cystamine, competitively block the neuromuscular junction by inhibiting the action of acetylcholine on the motor end-plate. The effects of radioprotective substances on the autonomic nervous system in different species have also been considered. The sensitivity of the chemo- and pressor-sensitive endings of the aortic branch, the carotids and the lungs is not affected by the administration of radioprotective agents. (U.K.)

  3. Neurotropic Enterovirus Infections in the Central Nervous System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hsing-I Huang

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Enteroviruses are a group of positive-sense single stranded viruses that belong to the Picornaviridae family. Most enteroviruses infect humans from the gastrointestinal tract and cause mild symptoms. However, several enteroviruses can invade the central nervous system (CNS and result in various neurological symptoms that are correlated to mortality associated with enteroviral infections. In recent years, large outbreaks of enteroviruses occurred worldwide. Therefore, these neurotropic enteroviruses have been deemed as re-emerging pathogens. Although these viruses are becoming large threats to public health, our understanding of these viruses, especially for non-polio enteroviruses, is limited. In this article, we review recent advances in the trafficking of these pathogens from the peripheral to the central nervous system, compare their cell tropism, and discuss the effects of viral infections in their host neuronal cells.

  4. Neurotropic Enterovirus Infections in the Central Nervous System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Hsing-I; Shih, Shin-Ru

    2015-11-24

    Enteroviruses are a group of positive-sense single stranded viruses that belong to the Picornaviridae family. Most enteroviruses infect humans from the gastrointestinal tract and cause mild symptoms. However, several enteroviruses can invade the central nervous system (CNS) and result in various neurological symptoms that are correlated to mortality associated with enteroviral infections. In recent years, large outbreaks of enteroviruses occurred worldwide. Therefore, these neurotropic enteroviruses have been deemed as re-emerging pathogens. Although these viruses are becoming large threats to public health, our understanding of these viruses, especially for non-polio enteroviruses, is limited. In this article, we review recent advances in the trafficking of these pathogens from the peripheral to the central nervous system, compare their cell tropism, and discuss the effects of viral infections in their host neuronal cells.

  5. The role of surgery in primary central nervous system lymphomas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Francisco Villalonga

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Background Primary central nervous system lymphomas (PCNSL are infrequent. The traditional treatment of choice is chemotherapy. Complete resections have generally not been recommended, because of the risk of permanent central nervous system deficits with no proven improvement in survival. The aim of the current study was to compare survival among patients with PCNSL who underwent biopsy versus surgical resection. Methods A retrospective study was conducted on 50 patients with a confirmed diagnosis of PCNSL treated at our center from January 1994 to July 2015. Results Patients in the resection group exhibited significantly longer median survival time, relative to the biopsy group, surviving a median 31 months versus 14.5 months; p = 0.016. Conclusions In our series, patients who had surgical resection of their tumor survived a median 16.5 months longer than patients who underwent biopsy alone.

  6. Is Ghrelin Synthesized in the Central Nervous System?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabral, Agustina; López Soto, Eduardo J; Epelbaum, Jacques; Perelló, Mario

    2017-03-15

    Ghrelin is an octanoylated peptide that acts via its specific receptor, the growth hormone secretagogue receptor type 1a (GHSR-1a), and regulates a vast variety of physiological functions. It is well established that ghrelin is predominantly synthesized by a distinct population of endocrine cells located within the gastric oxyntic mucosa. In addition, some studies have reported that ghrelin could also be synthesized in some brain regions, such as the hypothalamus. However, evidences of neuronal production of ghrelin have been inconsistent and, as a consequence, it is still as a matter of debate if ghrelin can be centrally produced. Here, we provide a comprehensive review and discussion of the data supporting, or not, the notion that the mammalian central nervous system can synthetize ghrelin. We conclude that no irrefutable and reproducible evidence exists supporting the notion that ghrelin is synthetized, at physiologically relevant levels, in the central nervous system of adult mammals.

  7. Pathophysiology of Resistant Hypertension: The Role of Sympathetic Nervous System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Costas Tsioufis

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Resistant hypertension (RH is a powerful risk factor for cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Among the characteristics of patients with RH, obesity, obstructive sleep apnea, and aldosterone excess are covering a great area of the mosaic of RH phenotype. Increased sympathetic nervous system (SNS activity is present in all these underlying conditions, supporting its crucial role in the pathophysiology of antihypertensive treatment resistance. Current clinical and experimental knowledge points towards an impact of several factors on SNS activation, namely, insulin resistance, adipokines, endothelial dysfunction, cyclic intermittent hypoxaemia, aldosterone effects on central nervous system, chemoreceptors, and baroreceptors dysregulation. The further investigation and understanding of the mechanisms leading to SNS activation could reveal novel therapeutic targets and expand our treatment options in the challenging management of RH.

  8. Is Ghrelin Synthesized in the Central Nervous System?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agustina Cabral

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Ghrelin is an octanoylated peptide that acts via its specific receptor, the growth hormone secretagogue receptor type 1a (GHSR-1a, and regulates a vast variety of physiological functions. It is well established that ghrelin is predominantly synthesized by a distinct population of endocrine cells located within the gastric oxyntic mucosa. In addition, some studies have reported that ghrelin could also be synthesized in some brain regions, such as the hypothalamus. However, evidences of neuronal production of ghrelin have been inconsistent and, as a consequence, it is still as a matter of debate if ghrelin can be centrally produced. Here, we provide a comprehensive review and discussion of the data supporting, or not, the notion that the mammalian central nervous system can synthetize ghrelin. We conclude that no irrefutable and reproducible evidence exists supporting the notion that ghrelin is synthetized, at physiologically relevant levels, in the central nervous system of adult mammals.

  9. Magnetic resonance imaging of central nervous system haemorrhage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silberstein, M.; Hennessy, O.

    1993-01-01

    The variable magnetic resonance imaging appearances of central nervous system haemorrhage, both intra- and extra-axial, are described. These will vary with the type of image contrast (T1 or T2 weighting), the nature of the imaging sequence (spin-echo or gradient-echo) and the time from onset of haemorrhage. Magnetic resonance imaging is a useful technique for imaging haemorrhage in the central nervous system as it yields temporal information about haematoma development, and it is the only non-invasive means of imaging intraspinal haemorrhage. However, in the imaging of haematomas within 24 h of onset and in subarachnoid haemorrhage computed tomography is the investigation of choice. 13 refs., 6 figs

  10. Central nervous system manifestations in pediatric patients with influenza A H1N1 infection during the 2009 pandemic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilking, Ashley N; Elliott, Elizabeth; Garcia, Melissa N; Murray, Kristy O; Munoz, Flor M

    2014-09-01

    A novel H1N1 influenza A virus (A(H1N1)pdm09) particularly affected individuals central nervous system complications associated with pandemic influenza in the pediatric population. Retrospective review of patients with laboratory-confirmed influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 infection and central nervous system manifestations at Texas Children's Hospital between April 2009 and June 2010. Among 365 patients with influenza A(H1N1)pdm09, 32 (8.8%) had central nervous system manifestations at a median age of 4 years. Eight (25.0%) were previously healthy, and 12 (37.5%) had neurological pre-existing conditions. Of the 32 cases of influenza with neurological complications, seizure (n = 17; 53.1%) was the most common central nervous system manifestation, followed by encephalitis (n = 4; 12.5%), meningitis (n = 4; 12.5%), encephalopathy (n = 3; 9.4%), meningismus (n = 3; 9.4%), focal hemorrhagic brain lesions (n = 2; 6.3%), brain infarction (n = 1; 3.1%), and sensorineural hearing loss (n = 1; 3.1%). Two patients demonstrated two or more types of central nervous system complications. One patient had abnormal cerebrospinal fluid with pleocytosis. Almost two thirds of the children with central nervous system manifestations required intensive care unit admission and nearly half required mechanical ventilation. There were no deaths. Patients with pre-existing neurological conditions were at greater risk for central nervous system manifestations during pandemic influenza infection. Patients with central nervous system manifestations were more likely to experience severe illness, characterized by intensive care unit admission and mechanical ventilation, although overall outcomes were good. Influenza prevention in patients with underlying medical conditions, particularly those with neurological conditions, is important. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Echography of congenital malformations of the central nervous system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toirac Romani, Carlos Andres; Salmon Cruzata, Acelia; Musle Acosta, Mirelvis; Rosales Fargie, Yamile; Dosouto Infante, Vivian

    2010-01-01

    A descriptive and prospective study was conducted in 173 pregnant women attended at the Provincial Department of Clinical Genetics of Santiago de Cuba, from January, 2000 to December, 2004, to identify congenital malformations of the central nervous system detected by means of echography. The most frequent malformation was the hydrocephaly, followed by the fusion defects of the spine, associated with the hydrocephaly and the absence of cranial cavity. There was a prevalence of altered alpha fetoprotein and of elevated amniotic fluid

  12. Acute Central Nervous System Complications in Pediatric Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baytan, Birol; Evim, Melike Sezgin; Güler, Salih; Güneş, Adalet Meral; Okan, Mehmet

    2015-10-01

    The outcome of childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia has improved because of intensive chemotherapy and supportive care. The frequency of adverse events has also increased, but the data related to acute central nervous system complications during acute lymphoblastic leukemia treatment are sparse. The purpose of this study is to evaluate these complications and to determine their long term outcome. We retrospectively analyzed the hospital reports of 323 children with de novo acute lymphoblastic leukemia from a 13-year period for acute neurological complications. The central nervous system complications of leukemic involvement, peripheral neuropathy, and post-treatment late-onset encephalopathy, and neurocognitive defects were excluded. Twenty-three of 323 children (7.1%) suffered from central nervous system complications during acute lymphoblastic leukemia treatment. The majority of these complications (n = 13/23; 56.5%) developed during the induction period. The complications included posterior reversible encephalopathy (n = 6), fungal abscess (n = 5), cerebrovascular lesions (n = 5), syndrome of inappropriate secretion of antidiuretic hormone (n = 4), and methotrexate encephalopathy (n = 3). Three of these 23 children (13%) died of central nervous system complications, one from an intracranial fungal abscess and the others from intracranial thrombosis. Seven of the survivors (n = 7/20; 35%) became epileptic and three of them had also developed mental and motor retardation. Acute central neurological complications are varied and require an urgent approach for proper diagnosis and treatment. Collaboration among the hematologist, radiologist, neurologist, microbiologist, and neurosurgeon is essential to prevent fatal outcome and serious morbidity. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Leptin and the central nervous system control of glucose metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morton, Gregory J; Schwartz, Michael W

    2011-04-01

    The regulation of body fat stores and blood glucose levels is critical for survival. This review highlights growing evidence that leptin action in the central nervous system plays a key role in both processes. Investigation into underlying mechanisms has begun to clarify the physiological role of leptin in the control of glucose metabolism and raises interesting new possibilities for the treatment of diabetes and related disorders.

  14. Regulation of Neurotransmitter Responses in the Central Nervous System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-05-01

    and identify by block number) FIELD GROUP SUB-GROUP J’-aminobutyric acid; yclic AM’P; neuromodulation ; brain 1ABTAT(Continue on reverse if necessary and...crucial enzyme for regulating neuromodulation in brain. Given the ultimate goal of developing novel pharmacological agents for N! manipulating...central nervous system function, the discovery of a biochemical response to a neuromodulator can be considered a major step in that direction. Thus, up to

  15. Rituximab treatment in primary angiitis of the central nervous system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Shreeya; Ross, Laura; Oon, Shereen; Nikpour, Mandana

    2018-06-01

    Primary angiitis of the central nervous system (PACNS) is a rare autoimmune vasculitis affecting the brain and spinal cord. Treatment with biological agents has revolutionised the treatment of many rheumatic conditions but there is scant literature regarding the use of biological agents in PACNS. We present three cases of PACNS treated with rituximab, including two cases of relapsed disease, and a literature review suggesting a role for rituximab in this condition. © 2018 Royal Australasian College of Physicians.

  16. Managing Atypical and Typical herpetic central nervous system infections

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cag, Yasemin; Erdem, Hakan; Leib, Stephen

    2016-01-01

    There have been many studies pertaining to the management of herpetic meningoencephalitis (HME), but the majority of them have focussed on virologically unconfirmed cases or included only small sample sizes. We have conducted a multicentre study aimed at providing management strategies for HME. O...... the subtle nature of HME, CSF HSV PCR, EEG and MRI data should be collected for all patients with a central nervous system infection....

  17. Central nervous system manifestations of HIV infection in children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    George, Reena; Andronikou, Savvas; Plessis, Jaco du; Plessis, Anne-Marie du; Maydell, Arthur; Toorn, Ronald van

    2009-01-01

    Vertically transmitted HIV infection is a major problem in the developing world due to the poor availability of antiretroviral agents to pregnant women. HIV is a neurotrophic virus and causes devastating neurological insults to the immature brain. The effects of the virus are further compounded by the opportunistic infections and neoplasms that occur as a result of the associated immune suppression. This review focuses on the imaging features of HIV infection and its complications in the central nervous system. (orig.)

  18. Central nervous system manifestations of HIV infection in children

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    George, Reena; Andronikou, Savvas; Plessis, Jaco du; Plessis, Anne-Marie du; Maydell, Arthur [University of Stellenbosch, Department of Radiology, Tygerberg Academic Hospital, Cape Town (South Africa); Toorn, Ronald van [University of Stellenbosch, Department of Paediatrics and Child Health, Tygerberg Academic Hospital, Cape Town (South Africa)

    2009-06-15

    Vertically transmitted HIV infection is a major problem in the developing world due to the poor availability of antiretroviral agents to pregnant women. HIV is a neurotrophic virus and causes devastating neurological insults to the immature brain. The effects of the virus are further compounded by the opportunistic infections and neoplasms that occur as a result of the associated immune suppression. This review focuses on the imaging features of HIV infection and its complications in the central nervous system. (orig.)

  19. Epigenetics, Nervous System Tumors, and Cancer Stem Cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qureshi, Irfan A.; Mehler, Mark F.

    2011-01-01

    Recent advances have begun to elucidate how epigenetic regulatory mechanisms are responsible for establishing and maintaining cell identity during development and adult life and how the disruption of these processes is, not surprisingly, one of the hallmarks of cancer. In this review, we describe the major epigenetic mechanisms (i.e., DNA methylation, histone and chromatin modification, non-coding RNA deployment, RNA editing, and nuclear reorganization) and discuss the broad spectrum of epigenetic alterations that have been uncovered in pediatric and adult nervous system tumors. We also highlight emerging evidence that suggests epigenetic deregulation is a characteristic feature of so-called cancer stem cells (CSCs), which are thought to be present in a range of nervous system tumors and responsible for tumor maintenance, progression, treatment resistance, and recurrence. We believe that better understanding how epigenetic mechanisms operate in neural cells and identifying the etiologies and consequences of epigenetic deregulation in tumor cells and CSCs, in particular, are likely to promote the development of enhanced molecular diagnostics and more targeted and effective therapeutic agents for treating recalcitrant nervous system tumors

  20. The role of oxidative stress in nervous system aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sims-Robinson, Catrina; Hur, Junguk; Hayes, John M; Dauch, Jacqueline R; Keller, Peter J; Brooks, Susan V; Feldman, Eva L

    2013-01-01

    While oxidative stress is implicated in aging, the impact of oxidative stress on aging in the peripheral nervous system is not well understood. To determine a potential mechanism for age-related deficits in the peripheral nervous system, we examined both functional and morphological changes and utilized microarray technology to compare normal aging in wild-type mice to effects in copper/zinc superoxide dismutase-deficient (Sod1(-/-)) mice, a mouse model of increased oxidative stress. Sod1(-/-) mice exhibit a peripheral neuropathy phenotype with normal sensory nerve function and deficits in motor nerve function. Our data indicate that a decrease in the synthesis of cholesterol, which is vital to myelin formation, correlates with the structural deficits in axons, myelin, and the cell body of motor neurons in the Sod1(+/+) mice at 30 months and the Sod1(-/-) mice at 20 months compared with mice at 2 months. Collectively, we have demonstrated that the functional and morphological changes within the peripheral nervous system in our model of increased oxidative stress are manifested earlier and resemble the deficits observed during normal aging.

  1. Radon exposure and tumors of the central nervous system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruano-Ravina, Alberto; Dacosta-Urbieta, Ana; Barros-Dios, Juan Miguel; Kelsey, Karl T

    2017-03-15

    To review the published evidence of links between radon exposure and central nervous system tumors through a systematic review of the scientific literature. We performed a thorough bibliographic search in Medline (PubMed) and EMBASE. We combined MeSH (Medical Subject Heading) terms and free text. We developed a purpose-designed scale to assess the quality of the included manuscripts. We have included 18 studies, 8 performed on miners, 3 on the general population and 7 on children, and the results have been structured using this classification. The results are inconclusive. An association between radon exposure and central nervous system tumors has been observed in some studies on miners, but not in others. The results observed in the general adult population and in children are also mixed, with some research evincing a statistically significant association and others showing no effect. We cannot conclude that there is a relationship between radon exposure and central nervous system tumors. The available studies are extremely heterogeneous in terms of design and populations studied. Further research is needed in this topic, particularly in the general population residing in areas with high levels of radon. Copyright © 2017 SESPAS. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  2. Learning priors for Bayesian computations in the nervous system.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Max Berniker

    Full Text Available Our nervous system continuously combines new information from our senses with information it has acquired throughout life. Numerous studies have found that human subjects manage this by integrating their observations with their previous experience (priors in a way that is close to the statistical optimum. However, little is known about the way the nervous system acquires or learns priors. Here we present results from experiments where the underlying distribution of target locations in an estimation task was switched, manipulating the prior subjects should use. Our experimental design allowed us to measure a subject's evolving prior while they learned. We confirm that through extensive practice subjects learn the correct prior for the task. We found that subjects can rapidly learn the mean of a new prior while the variance is learned more slowly and with a variable learning rate. In addition, we found that a Bayesian inference model could predict the time course of the observed learning while offering an intuitive explanation for the findings. The evidence suggests the nervous system continuously updates its priors to enable efficient behavior.

  3. The Role of Oxidative Stress in Nervous System Aging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sims-Robinson, Catrina; Hur, Junguk; Hayes, John M.; Dauch, Jacqueline R.; Keller, Peter J.; Brooks, Susan V.; Feldman, Eva L.

    2013-01-01

    While oxidative stress is implicated in aging, the impact of oxidative stress on aging in the peripheral nervous system is not well understood. To determine a potential mechanism for age-related deficits in the peripheral nervous system, we examined both functional and morphological changes and utilized microarray technology to compare normal aging in wild-type mice to effects in copper/zinc superoxide dismutase-deficient (Sod1−/−) mice, a mouse model of increased oxidative stress. Sod1−/− mice exhibit a peripheral neuropathy phenotype with normal sensory nerve function and deficits in motor nerve function. Our data indicate that a decrease in the synthesis of cholesterol, which is vital to myelin formation, correlates with the structural deficits in axons, myelin, and the cell body of motor neurons in the Sod1+/+ mice at 30 months and the Sod1−/− mice at 20 months compared with mice at 2 months. Collectively, we have demonstrated that the functional and morphological changes within the peripheral nervous system in our model of increased oxidative stress are manifested earlier and resemble the deficits observed during normal aging. PMID:23844146

  4. The role of oxidative stress in nervous system aging.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catrina Sims-Robinson

    Full Text Available While oxidative stress is implicated in aging, the impact of oxidative stress on aging in the peripheral nervous system is not well understood. To determine a potential mechanism for age-related deficits in the peripheral nervous system, we examined both functional and morphological changes and utilized microarray technology to compare normal aging in wild-type mice to effects in copper/zinc superoxide dismutase-deficient (Sod1(-/- mice, a mouse model of increased oxidative stress. Sod1(-/- mice exhibit a peripheral neuropathy phenotype with normal sensory nerve function and deficits in motor nerve function. Our data indicate that a decrease in the synthesis of cholesterol, which is vital to myelin formation, correlates with the structural deficits in axons, myelin, and the cell body of motor neurons in the Sod1(+/+ mice at 30 months and the Sod1(-/- mice at 20 months compared with mice at 2 months. Collectively, we have demonstrated that the functional and morphological changes within the peripheral nervous system in our model of increased oxidative stress are manifested earlier and resemble the deficits observed during normal aging.

  5. Epigenetics, Nervous System Tumors, and Cancer Stem Cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qureshi, Irfan A. [Rosyln and Leslie Goldstein Laboratory for Stem Cell Biology and Regenerative Medicine, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, New York, NY 10461 (United States); Institute for Brain Disorders and Neural Regeneration, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, New York, NY 10461 (United States); Department of Neurology, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, New York, NY 10461 (United States); Rose F. Kennedy Center for Research on Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, New York, NY 10461 (United States); Mehler, Mark F., E-mail: mark.mehler@einstein.yu.edu [Rosyln and Leslie Goldstein Laboratory for Stem Cell Biology and Regenerative Medicine, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, New York, NY 10461 (United States); Institute for Brain Disorders and Neural Regeneration, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, New York, NY 10461 (United States); Department of Neurology, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, New York, NY 10461 (United States); Department of Neuroscience, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, New York, NY 10461 (United States); Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, New York, NY 10461 (United States); Rose F. Kennedy Center for Research on Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, New York, NY 10461 (United States)

    2011-09-13

    Recent advances have begun to elucidate how epigenetic regulatory mechanisms are responsible for establishing and maintaining cell identity during development and adult life and how the disruption of these processes is, not surprisingly, one of the hallmarks of cancer. In this review, we describe the major epigenetic mechanisms (i.e., DNA methylation, histone and chromatin modification, non-coding RNA deployment, RNA editing, and nuclear reorganization) and discuss the broad spectrum of epigenetic alterations that have been uncovered in pediatric and adult nervous system tumors. We also highlight emerging evidence that suggests epigenetic deregulation is a characteristic feature of so-called cancer stem cells (CSCs), which are thought to be present in a range of nervous system tumors and responsible for tumor maintenance, progression, treatment resistance, and recurrence. We believe that better understanding how epigenetic mechanisms operate in neural cells and identifying the etiologies and consequences of epigenetic deregulation in tumor cells and CSCs, in particular, are likely to promote the development of enhanced molecular diagnostics and more targeted and effective therapeutic agents for treating recalcitrant nervous system tumors.

  6. Gross anatomy and development of the peripheral nervous system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catala, Martin; Kubis, Nathalie

    2013-01-01

    The nervous system is divided into the central nervous system (CNS) composed of the brain, the brainstem, the cerebellum, and the spinal cord and the peripheral nervous system (PNS) made up of the different nerves arising from the CNS. The PNS is divided into the cranial nerves III to XII supplying the head and the spinal nerves that supply the upper and lower limbs. The general anatomy of the PNS is organized according to the arrangement of the fibers along the rostro-caudal axis. The control of the development of the PNS has been unravelled during the last 30 years. Motor nerves arise from the ventral neural tube. This ventralization is induced by morphogenetic molecules such as sonic hedgehog. In contrast, the sensory elements of the PNS arise from a specific population of cells originating from the roof of the neural tube, namely the neural crest. These cells give rise to the neurons of the dorsal root ganglia, the autonomic ganglia and the paraganglia including the adrenergic neurons of the adrenals. Furthermore, the supportive glial Schwann cells of the PNS originate from the neural crest cells. Growth factors as well as myelinating proteins are involved in the development of the PNS. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Gangliosides in the Nervous System: Biosynthesis and Degradation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Robert K.; Ariga, Toshio; Yanagisawa, Makoto; Zeng, Guichao

    Gangliosides, abundant in the nervous system, are known to play crucial modulatory roles in cellular recognition, interaction, adhesion, and signal transduction, particularly during early developmental stages. The expression of gangliosides in the nervous system is developmentally regulated and is closely related to the differentiation state of the cell. Ganglioside biosynthesis occurs in intracellular organelles, from which gangliosides are transported to the plasma membrane. During brain development, the ganglioside composition of the nervous system undergoes remarkable changes and is strictly regulated by the activities of glycosyltransferases, which can occur at different levels of control, including glycosyltransferase gene transcription and posttranslational modification. Genes for glycosyltransferase involved in ganglioside biosynthesis have been cloned and classified into families of glycosyltransferases based on their amino acid sequence similarities. The donor and acceptor substrate specificities are determined by enzymatic analysis of the glycosyltransferase gene products. Cell-type specific regulation of these genes has also been studied. Gangliosides are degraded by lysosomal exoglycosidases. The action of these enzymes occurs frequently in cooperation with activator proteins. Several human diseases are caused by defects of degradative enzymes, resulting in massive accumulation of certain glycolipids, including gangliosides in the lysosomal compartment and other organelles in the brain and visceral organs. Some of the representative lysosomal storage diseases (LSDs) caused by the accumulation of lipids in late endosomes and lysosomes will be discussed.

  8. Radiation induced effects in the developing central nervous system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gisone, P.; Dubner, D.; Michelin, S.C.; Perez, M.R. Del

    1997-01-01

    The embryo and the human foetus are particularly sensitive to ionizing radiation and this sensitivity presents various qualitative and quantitative functional changes during intra-uterine development. Apart from radiation induced carcinogenesis, the most serious consequence of prenatal exposure in human beings is severe mental retardation. The principal data on radiation effects on human beings in the development of the central nervous system come form epidemiological studies carried out in individuals exposed in utero during the atomic explosion at Hiroshima and Nagasaki. These observations demonstrate the existence of a time of maximum radiosensitivity between the weeks 8 and 15 of the gestational period, a period in which the proliferation and neuronal migration takes place. Determination of the characteristics of dose-response relationship and the possible existence of a threshold dose of radiation effects on the development of the central nervous system is relevant to radiation protection against low dose radiation and the establishment of dose limits for occupational exposure and the public. Studies were conducted on the generation of nitrous-oxide and its relation with the production of active species of oxygen in brains of exposed rats in utero exposed to doses of up to 1 Gy during their maximum radiosensitivity. The possible role of the mechanism of radiation induced damage in the development of the central nervous system is discussed

  9. Glutamatergic system abnormalities in posttraumatic stress disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishi, Daisuke; Hashimoto, Kenji; Noguchi, Hiroko; Hamazaki, Kei; Hamazaki, Tomohito; Matsuoka, Yutaka

    2015-12-01

    Accumulating evidence suggests involvement of the glutamatergic system in the biological mechanisms of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), but few studies have demonstrated an association between glutamatergic system abnormalities and PTSD diagnosis or severity. We aimed to examine whether abnormalities in serum glutamate and in the glutamine/glutamate ratio were associated with PTSD diagnosis and severity in severely injured patients at risk for PTSD and major depressive disorder (MDD). This is a nested case-control study in TPOP (Tachikawa project for prevention of posttraumatic stress disorder with polyunsaturated fatty acid) trial. Diagnosis and severity of PTSD were assessed 3 months after the accidents using the Clinician-Administered PTSD Scale. The associations of glutamate levels and the glutamine/glutamate ratio with diagnosis and severity of PTSD and MDD were investigated by univariate and multiple linear regression analyses. Ninety-seven of 110 participants (88 %) completed assessments at 3 months. Serum glutamate levels were significantly higher for participants with full or partial PTSD than for participants without PTSD (p = 0.049) and for participants with MDD than for participants without MDD (p = 0.048). Multiple linear regression analyses showed serum glutamate levels were significantly positively associated with PTSD severity (p = 0.02) and MDD severity (p = 0.03). The glutamine/glutamate ratio was also significantly inversely associated with PTSD severity (p = 0.03), but not with MDD severity (p = 0.07). These findings suggest that the glutamatergic system may play a major role in the pathogenesis of PTSD and the need for new treatments targeting the glutamatergic system to be developed for PTSD.

  10. A Case Of Primary Central Nervous System Vasculitis Who Presented With Status Epilepticus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sırma Geyik

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Primary central nervous system vasculitis (PCNV is limited with central nervous system and rare vasculitis that mostly seen in middle-aged men. PCNV vasculitis is usually presented that headache, dementia, stroke and multifocal common neurological symptoms. PCNV especially involves small medium-sized leptomeningeal and cortical arteries. 43 years old male patient who have been progressive forgetfulness and headache for 3 years. He applied with recurrent that before starting right focal and than sprawling whole body which generalized tonic-clonic seizures to us. During management that he was transfered to the intensive care unit due to status epilepticus (SE. Later than we found right hemiparesis, motor aphasia and right babinski positivity in neurologic examination. Diffusion restriction was revealed in left MCA territory in diffusion magnetic resonance imaging(MRI. EEG showed two types abnormality that a slow background ritm and epileptiform activity. Biochemistry of blood, complete blood count, blood sedimentation rate, CRP and markers of vasculitis were found in the normal range. Cerebral anjiography revealed that irregularities in the distal vascular areas and fusiform aneurysm at the top of basilar artery. He was consulted with rheumatology and diagnosed central nervous system vasculitis with the existing findings. Biopsy couldn't be taken from the brain to verify the diagnosis. Finally, we applied treatment that pulse steroid and cyclophosphamide to patient. This case has been presented due to emphasize that PCNV rarely may play a role in the etiology of recurrent stroke and status epilepticus.

  11. MRI findings in central nervous system of neurofibromatosis-II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Maoen; Huang Suiqiao; Shen Jun; Hong Guobin; Wu Zhuo; Lin Xiaofeng

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the diagnostic value of MR imaging in central nervous system involvement of neurofibromatosis II. Methods: 7 patients with surgically and pathologically proved neurofibromatosis II were included. Their MR imaging findings and clinical features were retrospectively analyzed. Results: The main findings of 7 cases of neurofibraomaosis II on MR imaging included bilateral acoustic neurilemoma, multiple neurofibroma, meningioma and schwannoma. Among the 7 patients, Tl-weighted imaging after contrast enhancement displayed additional lesions which had been ignored on un-enhanced scan. Conclusion: MR imaging has advantages in the detection of central nervous sys- tem involvement of neurofibromatosis II with regard to its ability to show the lesions well, meanwhile displaying the size, morphology and signal features clearly. (authors)

  12. Longitudinal analysis of hearing loss in a case of hemosiderosis of the central nervous system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weekamp, H H; Huygen, P L M; Merx, J L; Kremer, H P H; Cremers, Cor W R J; Longridge, Neil S

    OBJECTIVE: To describe cochleovestibular aspects of superficial hemosiderosis of the central nervous system. BACKGROUND: Superficial hemosiderosis of the central nervous system is a rare disease in which cochleovestibular impairment, cerebellar ataxia, and myelopathy are the most frequent signs.

  13. Longitudinal analysis of hearing loss in a case of hemosiderosis of the central nervous system.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weekamp, H.; Huygen, P.L.M.; Merx, J.L.; Kremer, H.P.H.; Cremers, C.W.R.J.; Longridge, N.S.

    2003-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To describe cochleovestibular aspects of superficial hemosiderosis of the central nervous system. BACKGROUND: Superficial hemosiderosis of the central nervous system is a rare disease in which cochleovestibular impairment, cerebellar ataxia, and myelopathy are the most frequent signs.

  14. Cardiac Autonomic Nervous System Activation and Metabolic Profile in Young Children : The ABCD Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vrijkotte, Tanja G M; van den Born, Bert-Jan H; Hoekstra, Christine M C A; Gademan, Maaike G J; van Eijsden, Manon; de Rooij, Susanne R; Twickler, Marcel T B

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: In adults, increased sympathetic and decreased parasympathetic nervous system activity are associated with a less favorable metabolic profile. Whether this is already determined at early age is unknown. Therefore, we aimed to assess the association between autonomic nervous system

  15. Immune response induction in the central nervous system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Owens, Trevor; Babcock, Alicia

    2002-01-01

    The primary function of the immune response is protection of the host against infection with pathogens, including viruses. Since viruses can infect any tissue of the body, including the central nervous system (CNS), it is logical that cells of the immune system should equally have access to all...... tissues. Nevertheless, the brain and spinal cord are noted for their lack of immune presence. Relative to other organ systems, the CNS appears immunologically privileged. Furthermore, when immune responses do occur in the CNS, they are frequently associated with deleterious effects such as inflammatory...

  16. Involvement of central nervous system in the schistosomiasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teresa Cristina de Abreu Ferrari

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available The involvement of the central nervous system (CNS by schistosomes may or may not determine clinical manifestations. When symptomatic, neuroschistosomiasis (NS is one of the most severe presentations of schistosomal infection. Considering the symptomatic form, cerebral involvement is almost always due to Schistosoma japonicum and the spinal cord disease, caused by S. mansoni or S. haematobium. Available evidence suggests that NS depends basically on the presence of parasite eggs in the nervous tissue and on the host immune response. The patients with cerebral NS usually have the clinical manifestations of increased intracranial pressure associated with focal neurological signs; and those with schistosomal myeloradiculopathy (SMR present rapidly progressing symptoms of myelitis involving the lower cord, usually in association with the involvement of the cauda esquina roots. The diagnosis of cerebral NS is established by biopsy of the nervous tissue and SMR is usually diagnosed according to a clinical criterion. Antischistosomal drugs, corticosteroids and surgery are the resourses available for treating NS. The outcome is variable and is better in cerebral disease.

  17. Central nervous system frontiers for the use of erythropoietin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Niels Vidiendal

    2003-01-01

    Recombinant human erythropoietin (r-HuEPO; epoetin alfa) is well established as safe and effective for the treatment of anemia. In addition to the erythropoietic effects of endogenous erythropoietin (EPO), recent evidence suggests that it may elicit a neuroprotective effect in the central nervous...... system (CNS). Preclinical studies have demonstrated the presence of EPO receptors in the brain that are up-regulated under hypoxic or ischemic conditions. Intracerebral and systemic administration of epoetin alfa have been demonstrated to elicit marked neuroprotective effects in multiple preclinical...

  18. Nervous and muscle system development in Phascolion strombus (Sipuncula)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wanninger, Andreas; Koop, Demian; Bromham, Lindell

    2005-01-01

    possible cryptic segmentation patterns. In this paper, we present the first immunocytochemical data on the ontogeny of the nervous system and the musculature in the sipunculan Phascolion strombus. Myogenesis of the first anlagen of the body wall ring muscles occurs synchronously and not subsequently from......Recent interpretations of developmental gene expression patterns propose that the last common metazoan ancestor was segmented, although most animal phyla show no obvious signs of segmentation. Developmental studies of non-model system trochozoan taxa may shed light on this hypothesis by assessing...

  19. Effect of Artificial Gravity: Central Nervous System Neurochemical Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, Robert A.; D'Amelio, Fernando; Eng, Lawrence F.

    1997-01-01

    The major objective of this project was to assess chemical and morphological modifications occurring in muscle receptors and the central nervous system of animals subjected to altered gravity (2 x Earth gravity produced by centrifugation and simulated micro gravity produced by hindlimb suspension). The underlying hypothesis for the studies was that afferent (sensory) information sent to the central nervous system by muscle receptors would be changed in conditions of altered gravity and that these changes, in turn, would instigate a process of adaptation involving altered chemical activity of neurons and glial cells of the projection areas of the cerebral cortex that are related to inputs from those muscle receptors (e.g., cells in the limb projection areas). The central objective of this research was to expand understanding of how chronic exposure to altered gravity, through effects on the vestibular system, influences neuromuscular systems that control posture and gait. The project used an approach in which molecular changes in the neuromuscular system were related to the development of effective motor control by characterizing neurochemical changes in sensory and motor systems and relating those changes to motor behavior as animals adapted to altered gravity. Thus, the objective was to identify changes in central and peripheral neuromuscular mechanisms that are associated with the re-establishment of motor control which is disrupted by chronic exposure to altered gravity.

  20. The Adverse Effects of Air Pollution on the Nervous System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genc, Sermin; Zadeoglulari, Zeynep; Fuss, Stefan H.; Genc, Kursad

    2012-01-01

    Exposure to ambient air pollution is a serious and common public health concern associated with growing morbidity and mortality worldwide. In the last decades, the adverse effects of air pollution on the pulmonary and cardiovascular systems have been well established in a series of major epidemiological and observational studies. In the recent past, air pollution has also been associated with diseases of the central nervous system (CNS), including stroke, Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, and neurodevelopmental disorders. It has been demonstrated that various components of air pollution, such as nanosized particles, can easily translocate to the CNS where they can activate innate immune responses. Furthermore, systemic inflammation arising from the pulmonary or cardiovascular system can affect CNS health. Despite intense studies on the health effects of ambient air pollution, the underlying molecular mechanisms of susceptibility and disease remain largely elusive. However, emerging evidence suggests that air pollution-induced neuroinflammation, oxidative stress, microglial activation, cerebrovascular dysfunction, and alterations in the blood-brain barrier contribute to CNS pathology. A better understanding of the mediators and mechanisms will enable the development of new strategies to protect individuals at risk and to reduce detrimental effects of air pollution on the nervous system and mental health. PMID:22523490

  1. Autonomic Nervous System Responses to Concussion: Arterial Pulse Contour Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael F La Fountaine

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The arterial pulse wave (APW has a distinct morphology whose contours reflect dynamics in cardiac function and peripheral vascular tone as a result of sympathetic nervous system (SNS control. With a transition from rest to increased metabolic demand, the expected augmentation of SNS outflow will not only affect arterial blood pressure and heart rate, it will also induce changes to the contours of the APW. Following a sports concussion, a transient state cardiovascular autonomic dysfunction is present. How this state affects the APW, has yet to be described. A prospective, parallel-group study on cardiovascular autonomic control (i.e., digital electrocardiogram and continuous beat-to-beat blood pressure was performed in the seated upright position in ten athletes with concussion and 7 non-injured control athletes. Changes in APW were compared at rest and during the first 60 seconds (F60 of an isometric handgrip test (IHGT in concussed athletes and non-injured controls within 48 hours (48hr and 1 week (1wk of injury. The concussion group was further separated by the length of time until they were permitted to return to play (RTP>1wk; RTP≤1wk. SysSlope, an indirect measurement of stroke volume, was significantly lower in the concussion group at rest and during F60 at 48hr and 1wk; a paradoxical decline in SysSlope occurred at each visit during the transition from rest to IHGT F60. The RTP>1wk group had lower SysSlope (405±200; 420±88; 454±236 mmHg/s, respectively at rest 48hr compared to the RTP≤1wk and controls. Similarly at 48hr rest, several measurements of arterial stiffness were abnormal in RTP>1wk compared to RTP≤1wk and controls: Peak-to-Notch Latency (0.12±0.04; 0.16±0.02; 0.17±0.05, respectively, Notch Relative Amplitude (0.70±0.03; 0.71±0.04; 0.66±0.14, respectively and Stiffness Index (6.4±0.2; 5.7±0.4; 5.8±0.5, respectively. Use of APW revealed that concussed athletes have a transient increase in peripheral artery

  2. Identification of cholinergic synaptic transmission in the insect nervous system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thany, Steeve Hervé; Tricoire-Leignel, Hélène; Lapied, Bruno

    2010-01-01

    A major criteria initially used to localize cholinergic neuronal elements in nervous systems tissues that involve acetylcholine (ACh) as neurotransmitter is mainly based on immunochemical studies using choline acetyltransferase (ChAT), an enzyme which catalyzes ACh biosynthesis and the ACh degradative enzyme named acetylcholinesterase (AChE). Immunochemical studies using anti-ChAT monoclonal antibody have allowed the identification of neuronal processes and few types of cell somata that contain ChAT protein. In situ hybridization using cRNA probes to ChAT or AChE messenger RNA have brought new approaches to further identify cell bodies transcribing the ChAT or AChE genes. Combined application of all these techniques reveals a widespread expression of ChAT and AChE activities in the insect central nervous system and peripheral sensory neurons which implicates ACh as a key neurotransmitter. The discovery of the snake toxin alpha-bungatoxin has helped to identify nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs). In fact, nicotine when applied to insect neurons, resulted in the generation of an inward current through the activation of nicotinic receptors which were blocked by alpha-bungarotoxin. Thus, insect nAChRs have been divided into two categories, sensitive and insensitive to this snake toxin. Up to now, the recent characterization and distribution pattern of insect nAChR subunits and the biochemical evidence that the insect central nervous system contains different classes of cholinergic receptors indicated that ACh is involved in several sensory pathways.

  3. The Central Nervous System and Bone Metabolism: An Evolving Story.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimitri, Paul; Rosen, Cliff

    2017-05-01

    Our understanding of the control of skeletal metabolism has undergone a dynamic shift in the last two decades, primarily driven by our understanding of energy metabolism. Evidence demonstrating that leptin not only influences bone cells directly, but that it also plays a pivotal role in controlling bone mass centrally, opened up an investigative process that has changed the way in which skeletal metabolism is now perceived. Other central regulators of bone metabolism have since been identified including neuropeptide Y (NPY), serotonin, endocannabinoids, cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript (CART), adiponectin, melatonin and neuromedin U, controlling osteoblast and osteoclast differentiation, proliferation and function. The sympathetic nervous system was originally identified as the predominant efferent pathway mediating central signalling to control skeleton metabolism, in part regulated through circadian genes. More recent evidence points to a role of the parasympathetic nervous system in the control of skeletal metabolism either through muscarinic influence of sympathetic nerves in the brain or directly via nicotinic receptors on osteoclasts, thus providing evidence for broader autonomic skeletal regulation. Sensory innervation of bone has also received focus again widening our understanding of the complex neuronal regulation of bone mass. Whilst scientific advance in this field of bone metabolism has been rapid, progress is still required to understand how these model systems work in relation to the multiple confounders influencing skeletal metabolism, and the relative balance in these neuronal systems required for skeletal growth and development in childhood and maintaining skeletal integrity in adulthood.

  4. Hypopituitarism as unusual sequelae to central nervous system tuberculosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Mageshkumar

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Neurological tuberculosis can very rarely involve the hypophysis cerebri. We report a case of an eighteen year old female who presented with five months duration of generalised apathy, secondary amenorrhea and weight gain. She was on irregular treatment for tuberculosis of the central nervous system for the last five months. Neuroimaging revealed sellar and suprasellar tuberculomas and communicating hydrocephalus requiring emergency decompression. Endocrinological investigation showed hypopituitarism manifesting as pituitary hypothyroidism, hypocortisolism, hypogonadotropic hypogonadism, and hyperprolactinemia. Restarting anti-tuberculosis treatment, hormone replacement therapy, and a ventriculo-peritoneal shunt surgery led to remarkable improvement in the general condition of the patient.

  5. Tolerance of the central nervous system to photon irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wigg, D.R.; Murray, R.M.L.; Koschel, K.

    1982-01-01

    Dose-response isoeffect equations have been determined for hypothalamic pituitary insufficiency following cranial irradiation. Of particular importance is the occurrence of complications at doses substantially less than those commonly used for the treatment of central nervous system tumors. Such complications may be severe and potentially life threatening. These complications occur when a small midline 'target' volume containing the pituitary gland, infundibulum and adjacent inferior hypothalamic structures is irradiated. Direct pituitary irradiation is unlikely to be a factor, at least in some cases. The possible role of incidental hypothalamic irradiation in the control of acromegaly and pituitary dependent Cushing's syndrome is discussed. (Auth.)

  6. Nervous system disease associated with dominant cellular radiosensitivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kidson, C.; Chen, P.; Imray, F.P.; Gipps, E.

    1983-01-01

    Ionizing radiation sensitivity has been demonstrated in the following neurological diseases: sporadic and familial Alzheimer's disease, familial non-specific dementia, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and Parkinsonism dementia of Guam, Huntington's disease, multiple sclerosis. Family studies in many cases give data consistent with dominant genetics, as does cell fusion analysis in the one disease so studied. In no case was there an absolute association between radiosensitivity and a given neurological disease. It is proposed that the underlying mutations are in genes controlling facets of nervous or immune system differentiation and development. 15 references, 2 tables

  7. Prophylactic radiotherapy for central nervous system in acute leukemias

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faria, S.L.; Ferrigno, R.

    1994-01-01

    Prophylaxis of the central nervous system in leukemias is a complex problem and there is no optimal solution that is universal for all patients. Radiation therapy, because of its CNS toxicity and potential carcinogenicity, is reserved for those in the highest risk groups. The cranial radiation dose is 18 Gy, while the spinal cord is treated with intrathecal methotrexate or multidrug therapy. The authors describe the basic aspects of radiation therapy treatment planning, as the main areas that should be included in treatment field, in order to guarantee favourable results. (author)

  8. Masquerade Syndrome of Multicentre Primary Central Nervous System Lymphoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvana Guerriero

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. In Italy we say that the most unlucky things can happen to physicians when they get sick, despite the attention of colleagues. To confirm this rumor, we report the sad story of a surgeon with bilateral vitreitis and glaucoma unresponsive to traditional therapies. Methods/Design. Case report. Results. After one year of steroidal and immunosuppressive therapy, a vitrectomy, and a trabeculectomy for unresponsive bilateral vitreitis and glaucoma, MRI showed a multicentre primary central nervous system lymphoma, which was the underlying cause of the masquerade syndrome. Conclusions. All ophthalmologists and clinicians must be aware of masquerade syndromes, in order to avoid delays in diagnosis.

  9. Area 51: How do Acanthamoeba invade the central nervous system?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siddiqui, Ruqaiyyah; Emes, Richard; Elsheikha, Hany; Khan, Naveed Ahmed

    2011-05-01

    Acanthamoeba granulomatous encephalitis generally develops as a result of haematogenous spread, but it is unclear how circulating amoebae enter the central nervous system (CNS) and cause inflammation. At present, the mechanisms which Acanthamoeba use to invade this incredibly well-protected area of the CNS and produce infection are not well understood. In this paper, we propose two key virulence factors: mannose-binding protein and extracellular serine proteases as key players in Acanthamoeba traversal of the blood-brain barrier leading to neuronal injury. Both molecules should provide excellent opportunities as potential targets in the rational development of therapeutic interventions against Acanthamoeba encephalitis. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Peripheral nervous system involvement in patients with diabetes mellitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. R. Kamchatnov

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Diabetes mellitus is a widespread disease often affecting peripheral nervous system. This include diabetic autonomous neuropathy that can endanger the patient's life. Timely detection of complications of diabetes mellitus as well as its adequate therapy can improve prognosis of the disease. The possibilities of Milgamma and Tiogamma for pathogenic therapy in patients with diabetic polyneuropathy are considered in this paper. Gabagamma can be effectively relieve neuropathic pain and used together with other drugs that normalize nerve tissue metabolism.

  11. Peripheral nervous system involvement in chronic spinal cord injury

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tankisi, Hatice; Pugdahl, Kirsten; Rasmussen, Mikkel Mylius

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Upper motor neuron disorders are believed to leave the peripheral nervous system (PNS) intact. In this study we examined whether there is evidence of PNS involvement in spinal cord injury (SCI). Methods: Twelve subjects with chronic low cervical or thoracic SCI were included......), and the amount of SA correlated inversely with reflex activity and nerve length. Fibular nerve entrapment across the knee was seen in 6 subjects, and sciatic nerve entrapment was seen in 1. Apart from entrapment neuropathies, NCS changes were found predominantly in motor nerves. Conclusion: The presence...

  12. Tuberculosis of the central nervous system: overview of neuroradiological findings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bernaerts, A.; Vanhoenacker, F.M.; Parizel, P.M.; Goethem, J.W.M. van; De Roeck, J.; De Schepper, A.M.; Altena, R. van; Laridon, A.; Coeman, V.

    2003-01-01

    This article presents the range of manifestations of tuberculosis (TB) of the craniospinal axis. Central nervous system (CNS) infection with Mycobacterium tuberculosis occurs either in a diffuse form as basal exudative leptomeningitis or in a localized form as tuberculoma, abscess, or cerebritis. In addition to an extensive review of computed tomography and magnetic resonance features, the pathogenesis and the relevant clinical setting are discussed. Modern imaging is a cornerstone in the early diagnosis of CNS tuberculosis and may prevent unnecessary morbidity and mortality. Contrast-enhanced MR imaging is generally considered as the modality of choice in the detection and assessment of CNS tuberculosis. (orig.)

  13. [3H]-2-Deoxyglucose autoradiography in a molluscan nervous system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reingold, S.C.; Sejnowski, T.J.; Gelperin, A.

    1981-01-01

    The authors have used [ 3 H]2-deoxyglucose autoradiography to correlate the labeling of individual neurons with electrical activity within the central nervous system of a terrestrial mollusc, Limax maximus. In an electrically quiescent control preparation where a single neuron is impaled with a glass microelectrode but not stimulated, several somata are uniformly labeled at 3-5 times background. In preparations where a single cell is impaled and stimulated, one or more somata are heavily labeled with [ 3 H]2-deoxyglucose at 10-50 times tissue background. This technique may be useful for surveying metabolically active neurons during spontaneous and driven electrical activity. (Auth.)

  14. Central- and autonomic nervous system coupling in schizophrenia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulz, Steffen; Bolz, Mathias; Bär, Karl-Jürgen

    2016-01-01

    The autonomic nervous system (ANS) dysfunction has been well described in schizophrenia (SZ), a severe mental disorder. Nevertheless, the coupling between the ANS and central brain activity has been not addressed until now in SZ. The interactions between the central nervous system (CNS) and ANS need to be considered as a feedback–feed-forward system that supports flexible and adaptive responses to specific demands. For the first time, to the best of our knowledge, this study investigates central–autonomic couplings (CAC) studying heart rate, blood pressure and electroencephalogram in paranoid schizophrenic patients, comparing them with age–gender-matched healthy subjects (CO). The emphasis is to determine how these couplings are composed by the different regulatory aspects of the CNS–ANS. We found that CAC were bidirectional, and that the causal influence of central activity towards systolic blood pressure was more strongly pronounced than such causal influence towards heart rate in paranoid schizophrenic patients when compared with CO. In paranoid schizophrenic patients, the central activity was a much stronger variable, being more random and having fewer rhythmic oscillatory components. This study provides a more in-depth understanding of the interplay of neuronal and autonomic regulatory processes in SZ and most likely greater insights into the complex relationship between psychotic stages and autonomic activity. PMID:27044986

  15. GABA-ergic neurons in the leach central nervous system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cline, H.T.

    1985-01-01

    GABA is a candidate for an inhibitory neurotransmitter in the leech central nervous system because of the well-documented inhibitory action of GABA in other invertebrates. To demonstrate that GABA meets the criteria used to identify a substance as a neurotransmitter, the author examined GABA metabolism and synaptic interactions of inhibitory motor neurons in two leech species, Hirudo medicinalis and Haementeria ghilianii. Segmental ganglia of the leech ventral nerve cord and identified inhibitors have the capacity to synthesize GABA when incubated in the presence of the precursor glutamate. Application of GABA to cell bodies of excitatory motor neurons or muscle fibers innervated by the inhibitors hyperpolarizes the membrane potential of the target cell and activates a chloride ion conductance channel, similar to the inhibitory membrane response following intracellular stimulation of the inhibitor. Bicuculline methiodide (5 x 10 -5 M), GABA receptor antagonist, blocks reversibly the response to applied GABA and the inhibitory synaptic inputs onto the postsynaptic neurons or muscle fibers without interfering with their excitatory inputs. Furthermore, the inhibitors are included among approximately 25 neurons per segmental ganglion that take up GABA by a high affinity uptake system, as revealed by 3 H-GABA-autoradiography. The development of the capacities to synthesize and to take up GABA were examined in leech embryos. The embryos are able to synthesize GABA at early stages of the development of the nervous system, before any neurons have extended neutrites

  16. Nerve Regeneration in the Peripheral Nervous System versus the Central Nervous System and the Relevance to Speech and Hearing after Nerve Injuries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, Tessa; Gordon, Karen

    2010-01-01

    Schwann cells normally form myelin sheaths around axons in the peripheral nervous system (PNS) and support nerve regeneration after nerve injury. In contrast, nerve regeneration in the central nervous system (CNS) is not supported by the myelinating cells known as oligodendrocytes. We have found that: 1) low frequency electrical stimulation can be…

  17. Clinical application of MRI to fetal central nervous system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Guangbing; Chen Liguang; Ma Yuxiang; Liu Wen; Lin Xiangtao; Shi Hao; Yang Zhenzhen; Qu Jun

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To explore the value of MRI on fetal central nervous system. Methods: Twenty-four women with complicated pregnancies, aged from 22 to 32 years (average 27 years) and with gestation from 23-39 weeks (average 30 weeks) were studied with a 1.5T superconductive MR unit within 24 hours after ultrasound studies. T 2 -weighted MR imaging was performed using HASTE and T 1 -weighted MR imaging was using FLASH. Comparison of the diagnosis of MRI and ultrasound were done with autopsy or postnatal follow-up MRI. Results: Of the 24 cases, 24 fetus were found. The fetal brain, gyrus, sulcus, corpus callosum, thalamus, cerebellum, brain stem, and spinal cord were shown more clearly on MR T 2 -weighted images. T 1 -weighted images were not as good as T 2 -weighted images. Twenty-seven lesions were visualized by ultrasound and thirty-one by MRI in these twenty-four fetuses. By MRI study, two cases were conformed their ultrasound diagnosis, ten cases were completed their ultrasound diagnosis, and twelve cases were made the same diagnosis as ultrasound. Conclusion: MR has advantages in displaying fetal central nervous system anatomy over ultrasound, the quality of MR images is not affected by maternal somatotype, volume of amniotic fluid, fetal skull and the pelvic skeleton of pregnant women. Based on ultrasound, MR imaging is a valuable complement to sonography in difficult cases, it can conforming, completing, even more correcting the diagnosis made by ultrasound. (authors)

  18. Effects of the fluoride on the central nervous system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valdez-Jiménez, L; Soria Fregozo, C; Miranda Beltrán, M L; Gutiérrez Coronado, O; Pérez Vega, M I

    2011-06-01

    Fluoride (F) is a toxic and reactive element, and exposure to it passes almost unnoticed, with the consumption of tea, fish, meat, fruits, etcetera and articles of common use such as: toothpaste additives; dental gels, non-stick pans and razor blades as Teflon. It has also been used with the intention of reducing the dental cares. Fluoride can accumulate in the body, and it has been shown that continuous exposure to it causes damaging effects on body tissues, particularly the nervous system directly without any previous physical malformations. Several clinical and experimental studies have reported that the F induces changes in cerebral morphology and biochemistry that affect the neurological development of individuals as well as cognitive processes, such as learning and memory. F can be toxic by ingesting one part per million (ppm), and the effects they are not immediate, as they can take 20 years or more to become evident. The prolonged ingestion of F may cause significant damage to health and particularly to the nervous system. Therefore, it is important to be aware of this serious problem and avoid the use of toothpaste and items that contain F, particularly in children as they are more susceptible to the toxic effects of F. Copyright © 2010 Sociedad Española de Neurología. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  19. DNA methylation-based classification of central nervous system tumours.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capper, David; Jones, David T W; Sill, Martin; Hovestadt, Volker; Schrimpf, Daniel; Sturm, Dominik; Koelsche, Christian; Sahm, Felix; Chavez, Lukas; Reuss, David E; Kratz, Annekathrin; Wefers, Annika K; Huang, Kristin; Pajtler, Kristian W; Schweizer, Leonille; Stichel, Damian; Olar, Adriana; Engel, Nils W; Lindenberg, Kerstin; Harter, Patrick N; Braczynski, Anne K; Plate, Karl H; Dohmen, Hildegard; Garvalov, Boyan K; Coras, Roland; Hölsken, Annett; Hewer, Ekkehard; Bewerunge-Hudler, Melanie; Schick, Matthias; Fischer, Roger; Beschorner, Rudi; Schittenhelm, Jens; Staszewski, Ori; Wani, Khalida; Varlet, Pascale; Pages, Melanie; Temming, Petra; Lohmann, Dietmar; Selt, Florian; Witt, Hendrik; Milde, Till; Witt, Olaf; Aronica, Eleonora; Giangaspero, Felice; Rushing, Elisabeth; Scheurlen, Wolfram; Geisenberger, Christoph; Rodriguez, Fausto J; Becker, Albert; Preusser, Matthias; Haberler, Christine; Bjerkvig, Rolf; Cryan, Jane; Farrell, Michael; Deckert, Martina; Hench, Jürgen; Frank, Stephan; Serrano, Jonathan; Kannan, Kasthuri; Tsirigos, Aristotelis; Brück, Wolfgang; Hofer, Silvia; Brehmer, Stefanie; Seiz-Rosenhagen, Marcel; Hänggi, Daniel; Hans, Volkmar; Rozsnoki, Stephanie; Hansford, Jordan R; Kohlhof, Patricia; Kristensen, Bjarne W; Lechner, Matt; Lopes, Beatriz; Mawrin, Christian; Ketter, Ralf; Kulozik, Andreas; Khatib, Ziad; Heppner, Frank; Koch, Arend; Jouvet, Anne; Keohane, Catherine; Mühleisen, Helmut; Mueller, Wolf; Pohl, Ute; Prinz, Marco; Benner, Axel; Zapatka, Marc; Gottardo, Nicholas G; Driever, Pablo Hernáiz; Kramm, Christof M; Müller, Hermann L; Rutkowski, Stefan; von Hoff, Katja; Frühwald, Michael C; Gnekow, Astrid; Fleischhack, Gudrun; Tippelt, Stephan; Calaminus, Gabriele; Monoranu, Camelia-Maria; Perry, Arie; Jones, Chris; Jacques, Thomas S; Radlwimmer, Bernhard; Gessi, Marco; Pietsch, Torsten; Schramm, Johannes; Schackert, Gabriele; Westphal, Manfred; Reifenberger, Guido; Wesseling, Pieter; Weller, Michael; Collins, Vincent Peter; Blümcke, Ingmar; Bendszus, Martin; Debus, Jürgen; Huang, Annie; Jabado, Nada; Northcott, Paul A; Paulus, Werner; Gajjar, Amar; Robinson, Giles W; Taylor, Michael D; Jaunmuktane, Zane; Ryzhova, Marina; Platten, Michael; Unterberg, Andreas; Wick, Wolfgang; Karajannis, Matthias A; Mittelbronn, Michel; Acker, Till; Hartmann, Christian; Aldape, Kenneth; Schüller, Ulrich; Buslei, Rolf; Lichter, Peter; Kool, Marcel; Herold-Mende, Christel; Ellison, David W; Hasselblatt, Martin; Snuderl, Matija; Brandner, Sebastian; Korshunov, Andrey; von Deimling, Andreas; Pfister, Stefan M

    2018-03-22

    Accurate pathological diagnosis is crucial for optimal management of patients with cancer. For the approximately 100 known tumour types of the central nervous system, standardization of the diagnostic process has been shown to be particularly challenging-with substantial inter-observer variability in the histopathological diagnosis of many tumour types. Here we present a comprehensive approach for the DNA methylation-based classification of central nervous system tumours across all entities and age groups, and demonstrate its application in a routine diagnostic setting. We show that the availability of this method may have a substantial impact on diagnostic precision compared to standard methods, resulting in a change of diagnosis in up to 12% of prospective cases. For broader accessibility, we have designed a free online classifier tool, the use of which does not require any additional onsite data processing. Our results provide a blueprint for the generation of machine-learning-based tumour classifiers across other cancer entities, with the potential to fundamentally transform tumour pathology.

  20. Evaluating the autonomic nervous system in patients with laryngopharyngeal reflux.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Wan-Ju; Shu, Chih-Hung; Chou, Kun-Ta; Wang, Yi-Fen; Hsu, Yen-Bin; Ho, Ching-Yin; Lan, Ming-Ying

    2013-06-01

    The pathogenesis of laryngopharyngeal reflux (LPR) remains unclear. It is linked to but distinct from gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD), which has been shown to be related to disturbed autonomic regulation. The aim of this study is to investigate whether autonomic dysfunction also plays a role in the pathogenesis of LPR. Case-control study. Tertiary care center. Seventeen patients with LPR and 19 healthy controls, aged between 19 and 50 years, were enrolled in the study. The patients were diagnosed with LPR if they had a reflux symptom index (RSI) ≥ 13 and a reflux finding score (RFS) ≥ 7. Spectral analysis of heart rate variability (HRV) analysis was used to assess autonomic function. Anxiety and depression levels measured by the Beck Anxiety Inventory (BAI) and Beck Depression Inventory II (BDI-II) were also conducted. In HRV analysis, high frequency (HF) represents the parasympathetic activity of the autonomic nervous system, whereas low frequency (LF) represents the total autonomic activity. There were no significant differences in the LF power and HF power between the 2 groups. However, significantly lower HF% (P = .003) and a higher LF/HF ratio (P = .012) were found in patients with LPR, who demonstrated poor autonomic modulation and higher sympathetic activity. Anxiety was also frequently observed in the patient group. The study suggests that autonomic dysfunction seems to be involved in the pathogenesis of LPR. The potential beneficial effect of autonomic nervous system modulation as a therapeutic modality for LPR merits further investigation.

  1. Focal lesions in the central nervous system: stereotaxic radioneurosurgery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fabrikant, J.I.; Budinger, T.f.; Hosobuchi, Y.; Born, J.L.; Tobias, C.A.

    1981-01-01

    The application of heavy-ion beams for fundamental and applied brain research has unusual potential. Methods are being developed in our laboratory for producing focal lesions in the central nervous system (e.g., the hypothalamus, thalamus, pituitary gland) to investigate nerve pathways and neuroendocrine responses, and for treating certain pathological disorders of the brain with stereotaxic Bragg peak heavy-ion radiosurgery. Studies in animals are demonstrating the value of this neuroscience tool for investigating mammalian brain response to induction of discrete focal lesions in the hypothalamus or in the cerebral cortex. These studies are also elucidating the neuroendocrinological response follwing ablation of various portions of the midbrain, without requiring complex neurosurgical preparations. Clinical studies are demonstrating the feasibility of stereotaxic neurological radiosurgery for treating certain inoperable vascular disorders of the brain [e.g., arteriovenous malformations (AVM), internal carotid artery-cavernous sinus fistulas and other cerebrovascular disorders] in patients who are already demonstrating progressive neurological deficit. Further applications of focal lesion production with the Bragg ionization peak can be extended to include localized radiation to centers of the brain and spinal cord for treatment of such disorders as Parkinson's disease, pituitary microadenomas, acoustic neuromas, and the control of pain. The eventual application of radioactive beams will provide accurate localization of the stopping points of the beam, thereby making it feasible to stop the beam accurately at a defined depth within the central nervous system

  2. The Emerging Roles for Telomerase in the Central Nervous System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meng-Ying Liu

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Telomerase, a specialized ribonucleoprotein enzyme complex, maintains telomere length at the 3′ end of chromosomes, and functions importantly in stem cells, cancer and aging. Telomerase exists in neural stem cells (NSCs and neural progenitor cells (NPCs, at a high level in the developing and adult brains of humans and rodents. Increasing studies have demonstrated that telomerase in NSCs/NPCs plays important roles in cell proliferation, neuronal differentiation, neuronal survival and neuritogenesis. In addition, recent works have shown that telomerase reverse transcriptase (TERT can protect newborn neurons from apoptosis and excitotoxicity. However, to date, the link between telomerase and diseases in the central nervous system (CNS is not well reviewed. Here, we analyze the evidence and summarize the important roles of telomerase in the CNS. Understanding the roles of telomerase in the nervous system is not only important to gain further insight into the process of the neural cell life cycle but would also provide novel therapeutic applications in CNS diseases such as neurodegenerative condition, mood disorders, aging and other ailments.

  3. Neighborhood Stress and Autonomic Nervous System Activity during Sleep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mellman, Thomas Alan; Bell, Kimberly Ann; Abu-Bader, Soleman Hassan; Kobayashi, Ihori

    2018-04-04

    Stressful neighborhood environments are known to adversely impact health and contribute to health disparities but underlying mechanisms are not well understood. Healthy sleep can provide a respite from sustained sympathetic nervous system (SNS) activity. Our objective was to evaluate relationships between neighborhood stress and nocturnal and daytime SNS and parasympathetic nervous system (PNS) activity. Eighty five urban-residing African Americans (56.5% female; mean age of 23.0) participated. Evaluation included surveys of neighborhood stress and sleep-related vigilance; and continuous ECG and actigraphic recording in participants' homes from which heart rate variability (HRV) analysis for low frequency/high frequency (LF/HF) ratio and normalized high frequency (nHF), as indicators of SNS and PNS activity, respectively, and total sleep time (TST), and wake after sleep onset were derived. All significant relationships with HRV measures were from the sleep period. Neighborhood disorder correlated negatively with nHF (r = -.24, p = .035). There were also significant correlations of HRV indices with sleep duration and sleep fears. Among females, LF/HF correlated with exposure to violence, r = .39, p = .008 and nHF with census tract rates for violent crime (r = -.35, p = .035). In a stepwise regression, TST accounted for the variance contributed by violent crime to nHF in the female participants. Further investigation of relationships between neighborhood environments and SNS/PNS balance during sleep and their consequences, and strategies for mitigating such effects would have implications for health disparities.

  4. Radiation-induced tumors of the nervous system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bernstein, M.; Laperriere, N.

    1991-01-01

    Therapeutic and nontherapeutic ionizing radiation has long been recognized as a putative carcinogenic agent, but the evidence that radiation causes tumors is circumstantial at worst and statistically significant at best. There are no distinct histological, biochemical, cytogenetic, or clinical criteria that can be used to determine if an individual tumor was caused directly by previous irradiation of the anatomic area. Additional supportive evidence for radiation-induced tumors includes a position correlation between radiation dose and tumor incidence (usually in the low dose range) and experimental induction of the same neoplasm in appropriate animal models. even if these criteria are fulfilled, coincidental development of a second tumor can never be discounted in an individual patient, particularly if there is an underlying diathesis to develop multiple tumors of different histology, such as in Recklinghausen's disease, or if there is an strong family history for the development of neoplastic disease. In this paper, the authors critically evaluate the available evidence to support the hypothesis that radiation induces tumors in the nervous system. The current concepts of radiation carcinogenesis are discussed and are followed by a discussion of animal data and clinical experience in humans. Finally, a brief discussion on treatment of radiation-induced nervous system tumors is presented

  5. Spectral Mixing in Nervous Systems: Experimental Evidenceand Biologically Plausible Circuits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleinfeld, D.; Mehta, S. B.

    The ability to compute the difference frequency for two periodic signals depends on a nonlinear operation that mixes those signals. Behavioral and psychophysical evidence suggest that such mixing is likely to occur in the vertebrate nervous system as a means to compare rhythmic sensory signals, such as occurs in human audition, and as a means to lock an intrinsic rhythm to a sensory input. Electrophysiological data from electroreceptors in the immobilized electric fish and somatosensory cortex in the anesthetized rat yield direct evidence for such mixing, providing a neurological substrate for the modulation and demodulation of rhythmic neuronal signals. We consider an analytical model of spectral mixing that makes use of the threshold characteristics of neuronal firing and which has features consistent with the experimental observations. This model serves as a guide for constructing circuits that isolate given mixture components. In particular, such circuits can generate nearly pure difference tones from sinusoidal inputs without the use of band-pass filters, in analogy to an image-reject mixer in communications engineering. We speculate that such computations may play a role in coding of sensory input and feedback stabilization of motor output in nervous systems.

  6. Visualization of radiation effects on the central nervous system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Essig, M.; Dinkel, J.; Zamecnik, C.

    2012-01-01

    Therapy-related side effects, which are detectable with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) at high sensitivity, are one of the most frequent causes of morbidity in cancer patients. They can be observed in the treatment of central nervous system (CNS) diseases as well as in systemic therapy, including whole brain irradiation and chemotherapy and are more often seen due to the better overall survival. This review describes the most frequent acute and chronic therapy-related changes in the CNS and the imaging findings. Acute changes are often reversible while chronic changes can be observed up to several years after treatment. The differentiation of treatment-related from tumor-related changes might be very difficult, although modern imaging modalities such as MR spectroscopy or MR perfusion measurements supply helpful differential diagnostic information. (orig.) [de

  7. Cnidarian Neurotoxic Peptides Affecting Central Nervous System Targets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazcano-Pérez, Fernando; Hernández-Guzmán, Ulises; Sánchez-Rodríguez, Judith; Arreguín-Espinosa, Roberto

    2016-01-01

    Natural products from animal venoms have been used widely in the discovery of novel molecules with particular biological activities that enable their use as potential drug candidates. The phylum Cnidaria (jellyfish, sea anemones, corals zoanthids, hydrozoans, etc.) is the most ancient venomous phylum on earth. Its venoms are composed of a complex mixture of peptidic compounds with neurotoxic and cytolitic properties that have shown activity on mammalian systems despite the fact that they are naturally targeted against fish and invertebrate preys, mainly crustaceans. For this reason, cnidarian venoms are an interesting and vast source of molecules with a remarkable activity on central nervous system, targeting mainly voltage-gated ion channels, ASIC channels, and TRPV1 receptors. In this brief review, we list the amino acid sequences of most cnidarian neurotoxic peptides reported to date. Additionally, we propose the inclusion of a new type of voltage-gated sea anemone sodium channel toxins based on the most recent reports.

  8. The effect of space radiation of the nervous system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gauger, Grant E.; Tobias, Cornelius A.; Yang, Tracy; Whitney, Monroe

    The long-term effects of irradiation by accelerated heavy ions on the structure and function of the nervous system have not been studied extensively. Although the adult brain is relatively resistant to low LET radiation, cellular studies indicate that individual heavy ions can produce serious membrane lesions and multiple chromatin breaks. Capillary hemorrhages may follow high LET particle irradiation of the developing brain as high RBE effects. Evidence has been accumulating that the glial system and blood-brain barrier (BBB) are relatively sensitive to injury by ionizing radiation. While DNA repair is active in neural systems, it may be assumed that a significant portion of this molecular process is misrepair. Since the expression of cell lethality usually requires cell division, and nerve cells have an extremely low rate of division, it is possible that some of the characteristic changes of premature aging may represent a delayed effect of chromatin misrepair in brain. Altered microcirculation, decreased local metabolism, entanglement and reduction in synaptic density, premature loss of neurons, myelin degeneration, and glial proliferation are late signs of such injuries. HZE particles are very efficient in producing carcinogenic cell transformation, reaching a peak for iron particles. The promotion of viral transformation is also efficient up to an energy transfer of approximately 300 keV/micron. The RBE for carcinogenesis in nerve tissues remains unknown. On the basis of available information concerning HZE particle flux in interplanetary space, only general estimates of the magnitude of the effects of long-term spaceflight on some nervous system parameters may be constructed.

  9. Analysis of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) involving the central nervous system by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suzuki, Kimihiro; Hara, Masako; Nakajima, Shinji and others

    1989-04-01

    Involvement of the central nervous system (CNS) commonly occurs in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). But definitive diagnosis remains difficult even with computed tomography (CT). In this study, we used the recently developed technique, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) for CNS lupus and compared it with CT scans. CT was performed with a General Electric 8800 CT/T scanner. MRI was performed using a Mitsubishi Electric MMI-150 S. Ten patients with CNS lupus were divided into 3 groups. Group I included 4 cases with neurological manifestations alone. All lesions seen on CT were also detected by MRI, with greater clarity and extent. Furthermore, MRI depicted several microinfarcts in white matter without symptoms. Group II included 5 cases with psychiatric features alone. MRI detected a thalamic microinfarct in only one case while CT showed no abnormality in all cases. Group III included 1 case with both neurological and psychiatric symptoms. MRI demonstrated a small infarct of midbrain corresponding with neurological symptoms, more clearly than CT. Therefore MRI demonstrates the degree of brain involvement in SLE more accurately than CT. (author).

  10. Analysis of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) involving the central nervous system by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suzuki, Kimihiro; Hara, Masako; Nakajima, Shinji

    1989-01-01

    Involvement of the central nervous system (CNS) commonly occurs in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). But definitive diagnosis remains difficult even with computed tomography (CT). In this study, we used the recently developed technique, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) for CNS lupus and compared it with CT scans. CT was performed with a General Electric 8800 CT/T scanner. MRI was performed using a Mitsubishi Electric MMI-150 S. Ten patients with CNS lupus were divided into 3 groups. Group I included 4 cases with neurological manifestations alone. All lesions seen on CT were also detected by MRI, with greater clarity and extent. Furthermore, MRI depicted several microinfarcts in white matter without symptoms. Group II included 5 cases with psychiatric features alone. MRI detected a thalamic microinfarct in only one case while CT showed no abnormality in all cases. Group III included 1 case with both neurological and psychiatric symptoms. MRI demonstrated a small infarct of midbrain corresponding with neurological symptoms, more clearly than CT. Therefore MRI demonstrates the degree of brain involvement in SLE more accurately than CT. (author)

  11. Central nervous system lesions in adult T-cell leukaemia: MRI and pathology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kitajima, M.; Korogi, Y.; Shigematsu, Y.; Liang, L.; Takahashi, M. [Department of Radiology, Kumamoto University School of Medicine, Honjo, Kumamoto (Japan); Matsuoka, M. [Second Division of Internal Medicine, Kumamoto University School of Medicine, Honjo, Kumamoto (Japan); Yamamoto, T. [Department of Pathology, Kumamoto University School of Medicine, Honjo, Kumamoto (Japan); Jhono, M. [Department of Dermatology, Kumamoto University School of Medicine, Honjo, Kumamoto (Japan); Eto, K. [The National Institute for Minamata Disease, Minamata (Japan)

    2002-07-01

    Adult T-cell leukaemia (ATL) is a T-cell lymphoid neoplasm caused by human T-cell leukaemia virus type I (HTLV-I). Radiological findings in central nervous system (CNS) involvement have not been well characterised. We reviewed the MRI of 18 patients with ATL who developed new neurological symptoms or signs, and pathology specimens from a 53-year-old woman who died of ATL. MRI findings were divided into three categories: definite, probable, and other abnormal. Definite and probable findings were defined as ATL-related. The characteristic findings were multiple parenchymal masses with or without contrast enhancement adjacent to cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) spaced and the deep grey matter of both cerebral hemispheres, plus leptomeningeal lesion. One patient had both cerebral and spinal cord lesions. Other abnormal findings in eight patients included one case of leukoencephalopathy caused by methotrexate. The histology findings consisted of clusters of tumour cells along perivascular spaces, and scattered infiltration of the parenchyma, with nests of tumour cells. Leptomeningeal infiltration by tumour spread into the parenchyma and secondary degeneration of the neuronal tracts was observed. MRI was useful for detecting CNS invasion by ATL and differentiating it from other abnormalities. The MRI findings seemed to correlate well with the histological changes. (orig.)

  12. Central nervous system lesions in adult T-cell leukaemia: MRI and pathology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kitajima, M.; Korogi, Y.; Shigematsu, Y.; Liang, L.; Takahashi, M.; Matsuoka, M.; Yamamoto, T.; Jhono, M.; Eto, K.

    2002-01-01

    Adult T-cell leukaemia (ATL) is a T-cell lymphoid neoplasm caused by human T-cell leukaemia virus type I (HTLV-I). Radiological findings in central nervous system (CNS) involvement have not been well characterised. We reviewed the MRI of 18 patients with ATL who developed new neurological symptoms or signs, and pathology specimens from a 53-year-old woman who died of ATL. MRI findings were divided into three categories: definite, probable, and other abnormal. Definite and probable findings were defined as ATL-related. The characteristic findings were multiple parenchymal masses with or without contrast enhancement adjacent to cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) spaced and the deep grey matter of both cerebral hemispheres, plus leptomeningeal lesion. One patient had both cerebral and spinal cord lesions. Other abnormal findings in eight patients included one case of leukoencephalopathy caused by methotrexate. The histology findings consisted of clusters of tumour cells along perivascular spaces, and scattered infiltration of the parenchyma, with nests of tumour cells. Leptomeningeal infiltration by tumour spread into the parenchyma and secondary degeneration of the neuronal tracts was observed. MRI was useful for detecting CNS invasion by ATL and differentiating it from other abnormalities. The MRI findings seemed to correlate well with the histological changes. (orig.)

  13. Cellular changes in the enteric nervous system during ageing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saffrey, M Jill

    2013-10-01

    The intrinsic neurons of the gut, enteric neurons, have an essential role in gastrointestinal functions. The enteric nervous system is plastic and continues to undergo changes throughout life, as the gut grows and responds to dietary and other environmental changes. Detailed analysis of changes in the ENS during ageing suggests that enteric neurons are more vulnerable to age-related degeneration and cell death than neurons in other parts of the nervous system, although there is considerable variation in the extent and time course of age-related enteric neuronal loss reported in different studies. Specific neuronal subpopulations, particularly cholinergic myenteric neurons, may be more vulnerable than others to age-associated loss or damage. Enteric degeneration and other age-related neuronal changes may contribute to gastrointestinal dysfunction that is common in the elderly population. Evidence suggests that caloric restriction protects against age-associated loss of enteric neurons, but recent advances in the understanding of the effects of the microbiota and the complex interactions between enteric ganglion cells, mucosal immune system and intestinal epithelium indicate that other factors may well influence ageing of enteric neurons. Much remains to be understood about the mechanisms of neuronal loss and damage in the gut, although there is evidence that reactive oxygen species, neurotrophic factor dysregulation and/or activation of a senescence associated phenotype may be involved. To date, there is no evidence for ongoing neurogenesis that might replace dying neurons in the ageing gut, although small local sites of neurogenesis would be difficult to detect. Finally, despite the considerable evidence for enteric neurodegeneration during ageing, and evidence for some physiological changes in animal models, the ageing gut appears to maintain its function remarkably well in animals that exhibit major neuronal loss, indicating that the ENS has considerable

  14. The mechanisms of neurotoxicity and the selective vulnerability of nervous system sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maurer, Laura L; Philbert, Martin A

    2015-01-01

    The spatial heterogeneity of the structure, function, and cellular composition of the nervous system confers extraordinary complexity and a multiplicity of mechanisms of chemical neurotoxicity. Because of its relatively high metabolic demands and functional dependence on postmitotic neurons, the nervous system is vulnerable to a variety of xenobiotics that affect essential homeostatic mechanisms that support function. Despite protection from the neuroglia and blood-brain barrier, the central nervous system is prone to attack from lipophilic toxicants and those that hijack endogenous transport, receptor, metabolic, and other biochemical systems. The inherent predilection of chemicals for highly conserved biochemical systems confers selective vulnerability of the nervous system to neurotoxicants. This chapter discusses selective vulnerability of the nervous system in the context of neuron-specific decrements (axonopathy, myelinopathy, disruption of neurotransmission), and the degree to which neuronal damage is facilitated or ameliorated by surrounding nonneural cells in both the central and peripheral nervous systems. © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Central nervous system side effects associated with zolpidem treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toner, L C; Tsambiras, B M; Catalano, G; Catalano, M C; Cooper, D S

    2000-01-01

    Zolpidem is one of the newer medications developed for the treatment of insomnia. It is an imidazopyridine agent that is an alternative to the typical sedative-hypnotic agents. Zolpidem use is gaining favor because of its efficacy and its side effect profile, which is milder and less problematic than that of the benzodiazepines and barbiturates used to treat insomnia. Still, side effects are not uncommon with zolpidem use. We report a series of cases in which the patients developed delirium, nightmares and hallucinations during treatment with zolpidem. We will review its pharmacology, discuss previous reports of central nervous system side effects, examine the impact of drug interactions with concurrent use of antidepressants, examine gender differences in susceptibility to side effects, and explore the significance of protein binding in producing side effects.

  16. Tendencies the treatment of the central nervous system (CNS) tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alert Silva, Jose; Jimenez Medina, Jose

    2004-01-01

    It is known that the treatment of the central nervous system (CNS) tumors is based on the use of surgery and radiotherapy (RT) and that chemotherapy (QMT) is used even more, as well as the other drugs. A bibliographic review was made to update the knowledge on the current trends and perspectives of RT applied to CNS tumors. The following were found among them: a) combinations of RT and CMT; b) radiosensitizers incorporated to the radiant treatment; c) angiogenesis inhibitors associated with RT; d) the scale-up or increase of the RT doses thanks to the development of new technologies, such as 3 D conformal radiotherapy, intensity- modulated radiotherapy, surgery and others. Another field of research is that of the changes in the rhythm or fractioning of the RT: hyperfractionated, accelerated, combinations of both, etc., which will allow mainly to increase the dosage scale-up

  17. Central nervous system hypoxia in children due to near drowning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fitch, S.J.; Gerald, B.; Magill, H.L.; Tonkin, I.L.D.

    1985-01-01

    Fourteen children who experienced acute, profound central nervous system hypoxia secondary to near drowning, aspiration, or respiratory arrest underwent CT examination. During the first week after the episode, the most frequent finding was a loss of gray-white matter differentiation. Other findings included effacement of sulci and cisterns, focal areas of edema in the cerebral cortex or basal ganglia, and hemorrhagic infarctions of the basal ganglia. Subsequent CT scans obtained from two weeks to five months after the hypoxic episode showed progression of cerebral loss from cortical infarction with gyral hemorrhage and enhancement to global parenchymal atrophy. The prognosis is poor in these patients: seven children experienced severe neurologic deficits and seven died

  18. Implication of coumarins towards central nervous system disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skalicka-Woźniak, Krystyna; Orhan, Ilkay Erdogan; Cordell, Geoffrey A; Nabavi, Seyed Mohammad; Budzyńska, Barbara

    2016-01-01

    Coumarins are widely distributed, plant-derived, 2H-1-benzopyran-2-one derivatives which have attracted intense interest in recent years as a result of their diverse and potent pharmacological properties. Particularly, their effects on the central nervous system (CNS) have been established. The present review discusses the most important pharmacological effects of natural and synthetic coumarins on the CNS, including their interactions with benzodiazepine receptors, their dopaminergic and serotonergic affinity, and their ability to inhibit cholinesterases and monoamine oxidases. The structure-activity relationships pertaining to these effects are also discussed. This review posits that natural or synthetic coumarins have the potential for development in the therapy of psychiatric and neurodegenerative disorders, including Alzheimer's and Parkinson's diseases, schizophrenia, anxiety, epilepsy, and depression. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. The role of organizers in patterning the nervous system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiecker, Clemens; Lumsden, Andrew

    2012-01-01

    The foundation for the anatomical and functional complexity of the vertebrate central nervous system is laid during embryogenesis. After Spemann's organizer and its derivatives have endowed the neural plate with a coarse pattern along its anteroposterior and mediolateral axes, this basis is progressively refined by the activity of secondary organizers within the neuroepithelium that function by releasing diffusible signaling factors. Dorsoventral patterning is mediated by two organizer regions that extend along the dorsal and ventral midlines of the entire neuraxis, whereas anteroposterior patterning is controlled by several discrete organizers. Here we review how these secondary organizers are established and how they exert their signaling functions. Organizer signals come from a surprisingly limited set of signaling factor families, indicating that the competence of target cells to respond to those signals plays an important part in neural patterning.

  20. Myelin injury in the central nervous system and Alzheimer's diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Sha-Sha; Zhang, Zhao; Zhu, Tian-Bi; Chu, Shi-Feng; He, Wen-Bin; Chen, Nai-Hong

    2018-05-03

    Myelin is a membrane wrapped around the axon of the nerve cell, which is composed of the mature oligodendrocytes. The role of myelin is to insulate and prevent the nerve electrical impulses from the axon of the neurons to the axons of the other neurons, which is essential for the proper functioning of the nervous system. Minor changes in myelin thickness could lead to substantial changes in conduction speed and may thus alter neural circuit function. Demyelination is the myelin damage, which characterized by the loss of nerve sheath and the relative fatigue of the neuronal sheath and axon. Studies have shown that myelin injury may be closely related to neurodegenerative diseases and may be an early diagnostic criteria and therapeutic target. Thus this review summarizes the recent result of pathologic effect and signal pathways of myelin injury in neurodegenerative diseases, especially the Alzheimer's disease to provide new and effective therapeutic targets. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  1. Pericyte function in the physiological central nervous system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muramatsu, Rieko; Yamashita, Toshihide

    2014-01-01

    Damage to the central nervous system (CNS) leads to disruption of the vascular network, causing vascular dysfunction. Vascular dysfunction is the major event in the pathogenesis of CNS diseases and is closely associated with the severity of neuronal dysfunction. The suppression of vascular dysfunction has been considered a promising avenue to limit damage to the CNS, leading to efforts to clarify the cellular and molecular basis of vascular homeostasis maintenance. A reduction of trophic support and oxygen delivery due to circulatory insufficiency has long been regarded as a major cause of vascular damage. Moreover, recent studies provide a new perspective on the importance of the structural stability of blood vessels in CNS diseases. This updated article discusses emerging information on the key role of vascular integrity in CNS diseases, specially focusing on pericyte function. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd and the Japan Neuroscience Society. All rights reserved.

  2. Magnetic resonance imaging in central nervous system tuberculosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trivedi, Richa; Saksena, Sona; Gupta, Rakesh K

    2009-01-01

    Tuberculosis (TB) in any form is a devastating disease, which in its most severe form involves the central nervous system (CNS), with a high mortality and morbidity. Early diagnosis of CNS TB is necessary for appropriate treatment to reduce this morbidity and mortality. Routine diagnostic techniques involve culture and immunological tests of the tissue and biofluids, which are time-consuming and may delay definitive management. Noninvasive imaging modalities such as computed tomography (CT) scan and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) are routinely used in the diagnosis of neurotuberculosis, with MRI offering greater inherent sensitivity and specificity than CT scan. In addition to conventional MRI imaging, magnetization transfer imaging, diffusion imaging, and proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy techniques are also being evaluated for better tissue characterization in CNS TB. The current article reviews the role of various MRI techniques in the diagnosis and management of CNS TB

  3. Cell fate control in the developing central nervous system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guérout, Nicolas; Li, Xiaofei; Barnabé-Heider, Fanie, E-mail: Fanie.Barnabe-Heider@ki.se

    2014-02-01

    The principal neural cell types forming the mature central nervous system (CNS) are now understood to be diverse. This cellular subtype diversity originates to a large extent from the specification of the earlier proliferating progenitor populations during development. Here, we review the processes governing the differentiation of a common neuroepithelial cell progenitor pool into mature neurons, astrocytes, oligodendrocytes, ependymal cells and adult stem cells. We focus on studies performed in mice and involving two distinct CNS structures: the spinal cord and the cerebral cortex. Understanding the origin, specification and developmental regulators of neural cells will ultimately impact comprehension and treatments of neurological disorders and diseases. - Highlights: • Similar mechanisms regulate cell fate in different CNS cell types and structures. • Cell fate regulators operate in a spatial–temporal manner. • Different neural cell types rely on the generation of a diversity of progenitor cells. • Cell fate decision is dictated by the integration of intrinsic and extrinsic signals.

  4. Effects of heavy particle irradiation on central nervous system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nojima, Kumie; Nakadai, Taeko; Khono, Yukio

    2006-01-01

    Effects of low dose heavy particle radiation to central nervous system were studied using human embryonal carcinoma (Ntera2=NT2) and Human neuroblastoma cell (NB1). They exposed to heavy ions and X ray 80% confluent cells in culture bottles. The cells were different type about growth and differentiation in the neuron. The apoptosis profile was measured by AnnexinV-EGFP, PI stained and fluorescence-activated cell sorter (FACS). Memory and learning function of adult mice were studied using water maze test after carbon- or iron-ion irradiation. Memory functions were rapidly decreased after irradiation both ions. Iron -ion group were recovered 20 weeks after irradiation C-ion group were recovered 25 weeks after irradiation. Tier memory were still keep at over 100 weeks after irradiation. (author)

  5. Congenital and acquired mitochondrial disorders of the central nervous system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. V. Nikitina

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Clinical presentations of disorders of the nervous system manifest in young and middle-aged patients with congenital and acquired mitochondrial dysfunctions and cognitive disorders manifest in patients with mitochondrial diseases more often. Nowadays the effective methods of initial diagnosing of these conditions are neurological and neuropsychological examination of patients, using of biochemical markers of mitochondrial diseases: the indices of lactate, total homocysteine in plasma and liquor. Neuro-visual study (Magnetic resonance imaging of the brain, MR spectroscopy, tractography, diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging of the brain, mitochondrial DNA typing is actually used for the differential diagnosing of mitochondrial diseases with other disorders that are accompanied by demyelinating disorders.

  6. Regulation of Body Temperature by the Nervous System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Chan Lek; Knight, Zachary A

    2018-04-04

    The regulation of body temperature is one of the most critical functions of the nervous system. Here we review our current understanding of thermoregulation in mammals. We outline the molecules and cells that measure body temperature in the periphery, the neural pathways that communicate this information to the brain, and the central circuits that coordinate the homeostatic response. We also discuss some of the key unresolved issues in this field, including the following: the role of temperature sensing in the brain, the molecular identity of the warm sensor, the central representation of the labeled line for cold, and the neural substrates of thermoregulatory behavior. We suggest that approaches for molecularly defined circuit analysis will provide new insight into these topics in the near future. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Parkinson disease: the enteric nervous system spills its guts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derkinderen, P; Rouaud, T; Lebouvier, T; Bruley des Varannes, S; Neunlist, M; De Giorgio, R

    2011-11-08

    Lewy pathology in Parkinson disease (PD) extends well beyond the CNS, also affecting peripheral autonomic neuronal circuits, especially the enteric nervous system (ENS). The ENS is an integrative neuronal network also referred to as "the brain in the gut" because of its similarities to the CNS. We have recently shown that the ENS can be readily analyzed using routine colonic biopsies. This led us to propose that the ENS could represent a unique window to assess the neuropathology in living patients with PD. In this perspective, we discuss current evidence which indicates that the presence of ENS pathology may by exploited to improve our understanding and management of PD and likely other neurodegenerative disorders.

  8. Dendrimer Advances for the Central Nervous System Delivery of Therapeutics

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    The effectiveness of noninvasive treatment for central nervous system (CNS) diseases is generally limited by the poor access of therapeutic agents into the CNS. Most CNS drugs cannot permeate into the brain parenchyma because of the blood-brain barrier (BBB), and overcoming this has become one of the most significant challenges in the development of CNS therapeutics. Rapid advances in nanotechnology have provided promising solutions to this challenge. This review discusses the latest applications of dendrimers in the treatment of CNS diseases with an emphasis on brain tumors. Dendrimer-mediated drug delivery, imaging, and diagnosis are also reviewed. The toxicity, biodistribution, and transport mechanisms in dendrimer-mediated delivery of CNS therapeutic agents bypassing or crossing the BBB are also discussed. Future directions and major challenges of dendrimer-mediated delivery of CNS therapeutic agents are included. PMID:24274162

  9. Dendrimer advances for the central nervous system delivery of therapeutics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Leyuan; Zhang, Hao; Wu, Yue

    2014-01-15

    The effectiveness of noninvasive treatment for central nervous system (CNS) diseases is generally limited by the poor access of therapeutic agents into the CNS. Most CNS drugs cannot permeate into the brain parenchyma because of the blood-brain barrier (BBB), and overcoming this has become one of the most significant challenges in the development of CNS therapeutics. Rapid advances in nanotechnology have provided promising solutions to this challenge. This review discusses the latest applications of dendrimers in the treatment of CNS diseases with an emphasis on brain tumors. Dendrimer-mediated drug delivery, imaging, and diagnosis are also reviewed. The toxicity, biodistribution, and transport mechanisms in dendrimer-mediated delivery of CNS therapeutic agents bypassing or crossing the BBB are also discussed. Future directions and major challenges of dendrimer-mediated delivery of CNS therapeutic agents are included.

  10. Mosaic serine proteases in the mammalian central nervous system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitsui, Shinichi; Watanabe, Yoshihisa; Yamaguchi, Tatsuyuki; Yamaguchi, Nozomi

    2008-01-01

    We review the structure and function of three kinds of mosaic serine proteases expressed in the mammalian central nervous system (CNS). Mosaic serine proteases have several domains in the proenzyme fragment, which modulate proteolytic function, and a protease domain at the C-terminus. Spinesin/TMPRSS5 is a transmembrane serine protease whose presynaptic distribution on motor neurons in the spinal cord suggests that it is significant for neuronal plasticity. Cell type-specific alternative splicing gives this protease diverse functions by modulating its intracellular localization. Motopsin/PRSS12 is a mosaic protease, and loss of its function causes mental retardation. Recent reports indicate the significance of this protease for cognitive function. We mention the fibrinolytic protease, tissue plasminogen activator (tPA), which has physiological and pathological functions in the CNS.

  11. Monitoring In Patients With Infections Of Central Nervous System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arunoday G R

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Mechanisms of brain injury in infections of central nervous system (CNS are complex. While the primary injury may be due to meningeal and/or parenchymal invasion by the pathogen and release of toxins, a variety of secondary insults occur, which may influence the outcome as much as the primary insult. This concept is well recognized in brain trauma(1,2 where early recognition of secondary injuries and their appropriate treatment has been shown to improve outcome. Hypoxia, ischemia and metabolic disturbances are important secondary insults recognized in brain trauma, These are known to cause permanent neurological damage and worsening of outcome if undetected and untreated. In CNS infections, with their complex pathophysiologies, there is ample scope for such secondary insults. Monitoring in patients with CNS infections is to detect these secondary insults, allowing for a more informed approach to treatment.

  12. Optical cuff for optogenetic control of the peripheral nervous system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michoud, Frédéric; Sottas, Loïc; Browne, Liam E.; Asboth, Léonie; Latremoliere, Alban; Sakuma, Miyuki; Courtine, Grégoire; Woolf, Clifford J.; Lacour, Stéphanie P.

    2018-02-01

    Objective. Nerves in the peripheral nervous system (PNS) contain axons with specific motor, somatosensory and autonomic functions. Optogenetics offers an efficient approach to selectively activate axons within the nerve. However, the heterogeneous nature of nerves and their tortuous route through the body create a challenging environment to reliably implant a light delivery interface. Approach. Here, we propose an optical peripheral nerve interface—an optocuff—, so that optogenetic modulation of peripheral nerves become possible in freely behaving mice. Main results. Using this optocuff, we demonstrate orderly recruitment of motor units with epineural optical stimulation of genetically targeted sciatic nerve axons, both in anaesthetized and in awake, freely behaving animals. Behavioural experiments and histology show the optocuff does not damage the nerve thus is suitable for long-term experiments. Significance. These results suggest that the soft optocuff might be a straightforward and efficient tool to support more extensive study of the PNS using optogenetics.

  13. Central Nervous System (CNS Disease Triggering Takotsubo Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josef Finsterer

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Takotsubo syndrome (TTS is usually triggered by psychological or physical stress. One of the many physical sources of stress are central nervous system (CNS disorders. CNS disorders most frequently triggering TTS include subarachnoid bleeding, epilepsy, ischemic stroke, migraine, and intracerebral bleeding. More rare CNS-triggers of TTS include posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome (PRES, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, encephalitis, or traumatic brain or spinal cord injury. TTS triggered by any of the CNS disorders needs to be recognized since adequate treatment of TTS may improve the general outcome from the CNS disorder as well. Neurologists need to be aware of TTS as a complication of specific CNS disorders but TTS may be triggered also by CNS disorders so far not recognised as causes of TTS.

  14. Superficial siderosis of the central nervous system - A case report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mannalini, S.

    1997-01-01

    There is little information on superficial siderosis of the central nervous system (CNS) in the literature, mainly due to the rarity of the disease, the difficulties in diagnosis (autopsy pre magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)) and the long latency of the symptoms. With the advent of MRI, for the first time we are able to make a positive in vivo diagnosis. But this comes at a time of less disease incidence, and little clinical awareness. MRI is able to make the diagnosis because of the strong paramagnetic effect of haemosiderin, the blood by-product that is deposited on the brain surface in superficial siderosis of the CNS. The ability of the brain to biosynthesize ferritin in response to prolonged contact with haemosiderin is thought to be the most important factor in the pathogenesis of superficial siderosis. (author)

  15. Optimized optical clearing method for imaging central nervous system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Tingting; Qi, Yisong; Gong, Hui; Luo, Qingming; Zhu, Dan

    2015-03-01

    The development of various optical clearing methods provides a great potential for imaging entire central nervous system by combining with multiple-labelling and microscopic imaging techniques. These methods had made certain clearing contributions with respective weaknesses, including tissue deformation, fluorescence quenching, execution complexity and antibody penetration limitation that makes immunostaining of tissue blocks difficult. The passive clarity technique (PACT) bypasses those problems and clears the samples with simple implementation, excellent transparency with fine fluorescence retention, but the passive tissue clearing method needs too long time. In this study, we not only accelerate the clearing speed of brain blocks but also preserve GFP fluorescence well by screening an optimal clearing temperature. The selection of proper temperature will make PACT more applicable, which evidently broaden the application range of this method.

  16. Are astrocytes executive cells within the central nervous system?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto E. Sica

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Experimental evidence suggests that astrocytes play a crucial role in the physiology of the central nervous system (CNS by modulating synaptic activity and plasticity. Based on what is currently known we postulate that astrocytes are fundamental, along with neurons, for the information processing that takes place within the CNS. On the other hand, experimental findings and human observations signal that some of the primary degenerative diseases of the CNS, like frontotemporal dementia, Parkinson’s disease, Alzheimer’s dementia, Huntington’s dementia, primary cerebellar ataxias and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, all of which affect the human species exclusively, may be due to astroglial dysfunction. This hypothesis is supported by observations that demonstrated that the killing of neurons by non-neural cells plays a major role in the pathogenesis of those diseases, at both their onset and their progression. Furthermore, recent findings suggest that astrocytes might be involved in the pathogenesis of some psychiatric disorders as well.

  17. MR imaging of the pediatric central nervous system utilization review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barnes, P.D.; Prince, J.R.; Galloway, D.C.; Ross-Duggan, J.; Lester, P.D.; Yamanashi, W.S.

    1986-01-01

    MR has been done in over 500 pediatric and adolescent patients (ages 5 days to 20 years) with central nervous system (CNS) disease (brain, n = 331; spine, n = 218), including high-field and special coil application in 362 cases. T1-weighted, multiplanar MR imaging provides superior anatomic delineation of organogenetic CNS malformations, while multiparameter (T1, T2, p) MR is usually necessary for more complete characterization of histogenetic malformations, as well as acquired conditions. MR imaging is a desirable method for the initial and definitive evaluation of many cranial and spinal conditions of childhood (more-invasive procedures were obviated in 164 patients). CT or other modalities may be added when MR imaging does not satisfy the clinical query

  18. Regenerative Therapies for Central Nervous System Diseases: a Biomaterials Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tam, Roger Y; Fuehrmann, Tobias; Mitrousis, Nikolaos; Shoichet, Molly S

    2014-01-01

    The central nervous system (CNS) has a limited capacity to spontaneously regenerate following traumatic injury or disease, requiring innovative strategies to promote tissue and functional repair. Tissue regeneration strategies, such as cell and/or drug delivery, have demonstrated promising results in experimental animal models, but have been difficult to translate clinically. The efficacy of cell therapy, which involves stem cell transplantation into the CNS to replace damaged tissue, has been limited due to low cell survival and integration upon transplantation, while delivery of therapeutic molecules to the CNS using conventional methods, such as oral and intravenous administration, have been limited by diffusion across the blood–brain/spinal cord-barrier. The use of biomaterials to promote graft survival and integration as well as localized and sustained delivery of biologics to CNS injury sites is actively being pursued. This review will highlight recent advances using biomaterials as cell- and drug-delivery vehicles for CNS repair. PMID:24002187

  19. Cell fate control in the developing central nervous system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guérout, Nicolas; Li, Xiaofei; Barnabé-Heider, Fanie

    2014-01-01

    The principal neural cell types forming the mature central nervous system (CNS) are now understood to be diverse. This cellular subtype diversity originates to a large extent from the specification of the earlier proliferating progenitor populations during development. Here, we review the processes governing the differentiation of a common neuroepithelial cell progenitor pool into mature neurons, astrocytes, oligodendrocytes, ependymal cells and adult stem cells. We focus on studies performed in mice and involving two distinct CNS structures: the spinal cord and the cerebral cortex. Understanding the origin, specification and developmental regulators of neural cells will ultimately impact comprehension and treatments of neurological disorders and diseases. - Highlights: • Similar mechanisms regulate cell fate in different CNS cell types and structures. • Cell fate regulators operate in a spatial–temporal manner. • Different neural cell types rely on the generation of a diversity of progenitor cells. • Cell fate decision is dictated by the integration of intrinsic and extrinsic signals

  20. Radioautographic localization of neuropeptide receptors in central nervous system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rostene, W.; Besson, J.; Broer, Y.

    1985-01-01

    The first step of any physiological effect of a neuropeptide (NP) is its recognition by specific receptor sites. The very organization of the central nervous system (CNS) does not permit a precise localization of these binding sites by conventional binding assays. The aim of the present paper is to describe in detail a recently developed in vitro methodology for the localization, visualization and quantitation of specific binding sites for various NP such as TRH, neurotensin and vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) in the rat CNS. The combination of this autoradiographic technique with radioimmunological measurements of NP, reveals that the endogenous distribution of THR, for example, in various brain regions, is not correlated with the presence of its binding sites. In vitro autoradiography may also be used to study the neurotransmitter/neuromodulatory role of NP in the CNS [fr

  1. Modulation of Tumor Tolerance in Primary Central Nervous System Malignancies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Theodore S. Johnson

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Central nervous system tumors take advantage of the unique immunology of the CNS and develop exquisitely complex stromal networks that promote growth despite the presence of antigen-presenting cells and tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes. It is precisely this immunological paradox that is essential to the survival of the tumor. We review the evidence for functional CNS immune privilege and the impact it has on tumor tolerance. In this paper, we place an emphasis on the role of tumor-infiltrating myeloid cells in maintaining stromal and vascular quiescence, and we underscore the importance of indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase activity as a myeloid-driven tumor tolerance mechanism. Much remains to be discovered regarding the tolerogenic mechanisms by which CNS tumors avoid immune clearance. Thus, it is an open question whether tumor tolerance in the brain is fundamentally different from that of peripheral sites of tumorigenesis or whether it simply stands as a particularly strong example of such tolerance.

  2. Intrinsic cardiac nervous system in tachycardia induced heart failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arora, Rakesh C; Cardinal, Rene; Smith, Frank M; Ardell, Jeffrey L; Dell'Italia, Louis J; Armour, J Andrew

    2003-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to test the hypothesis that early-stage heart failure differentially affects the intrinsic cardiac nervous system's capacity to regulate cardiac function. After 2 wk of rapid ventricular pacing in nine anesthetized canines, cardiac and right atrial neuronal function were evaluated in situ in response to enhanced cardiac sensory inputs, stimulation of extracardiac autonomic efferent neuronal inputs, and close coronary arterial administration of neurochemicals that included nicotine. Right atrial neuronal intracellular electrophysiological properties were then evaluated in vitro in response to synaptic activation and nicotine. Intrinsic cardiac nicotine-sensitive, neuronally induced cardiac responses were also evaluated in eight sham-operated, unpaced animals. Two weeks of rapid ventricular pacing reduced the cardiac index by 54%. Intrinsic cardiac neurons of paced hearts maintained their cardiac mechano- and chemosensory transduction properties in vivo. They also responded normally to sympathetic and parasympathetic preganglionic efferent neuronal inputs, as well as to locally administered alpha-or beta-adrenergic agonists or angiotensin II. The dose of nicotine needed to modify intrinsic cardiac neurons was 50 times greater in failure compared with normal preparations. That dose failed to alter monitored cardiovascular indexes in failing preparations. Phasic and accommodating neurons identified in vitro displayed altered intracellular membrane properties compared with control, including decreased membrane resistance, indicative of reduced excitability. Early-stage heart failure differentially affects the intrinsic cardiac nervous system's capacity to regulate cardiodynamics. While maintaining its capacity to transduce cardiac mechano- and chemosensory inputs, as well as inputs from extracardiac autonomic efferent neurons, intrinsic cardiac nicotine-sensitive, local-circuit neurons differentially remodel such that their capacity to

  3. A neurochemical map of the developing amphioxus nervous system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Candiani Simona

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Amphioxus, representing the most basal group of living chordates, is the best available proxy for the last invertebrate ancestor of the chordates. Although the central nervous system (CNS of amphioxus comprises only about 20,000 neurons (as compared to billions in vertebrates, the developmental genetics and neuroanatomy of amphioxus are strikingly vertebrate-like. In the present study, we mapped the distribution of amphioxus CNS cells producing distinctive neurochemicals. To this end, we cloned genes encoding biosynthetic enzymes and/or transporters of the most common neurotransmitters and assayed their developmental expression in the embryo and early larva. Results By single and double in situ hybridization experiments, we identified glutamatergic, GABAergic/glycinergic, serotonergic and cholinergic neurons in developing amphioxus. In addition to characterizing the distribution of excitatory and inhibitory neurons in the developing amphioxus CNS, we observed that cholinergic and GABAergic/glycinergic neurons are segmentally arranged in the hindbrain, whereas serotonergic, glutamatergic and dopaminergic neurons are restricted to specific regions of the cerebral vesicle and the hindbrain. We were further able to identify discrete groups of GABAergic and glutamatergic interneurons and cholinergic motoneurons at the level of the primary motor center (PMC, the major integrative center of sensory and motor stimuli of the amphioxus nerve cord. Conclusions In this study, we assessed neuronal differentiation in the developing amphioxus nervous system and compiled the first neurochemical map of the amphioxus CNS. This map is a first step towards a full characterization of the neurotransmitter signature of previously described nerve cell types in the amphioxus CNS, such as motoneurons and interneurons.

  4. PET and SPET tracers for mapping the cardiac nervous system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Langer, Oliver; Halldin, Christer

    2002-01-01

    The human cardiac nervous system consists of a sympathetic and a parasympathetic branch with (-)-norepinephrine and acetylcholine as the respective endogenous neurotransmitters. Dysfunction of the cardiac nervous system is implicated in various types of cardiac disease, such as heart failure, myocardial infarction and diabetic autonomic neuropathy. In vivo assessment of the distribution and function of cardiac sympathetic and parasympathetic neurones with positron emission tomography (PET) and single-photon emission tomography (SPET) can be achieved by means of a number of carbon-11-, fluorine-18-, bromine-76- and iodine-123-labelled tracer molecules. Available tracers for mapping sympathetic neurones can be divided into radiolabelled catecholamines, such as 6-[ 18 F]fluorodopamine, (-)-6-[ 18 F]fluoronorepinephrine and (-)-[ 11 C]epinephrine, and radiolabelled catecholamine analogues, such as [ 123 I]meta-iodobenzylguanidine, [ 11 C]meta-hydroxyephedrine, [ 18 F]fluorometaraminol, [ 11 C]phenylephrine and meta-[ 76 Br]bromobenzylguanidine. Resistance to metabolism by monoamine oxidase and catechol-O-methyl transferase simplifies the myocardial kinetics of the second group. Both groups of compounds are excellent agents for an overall assessment of sympathetic innervation. Biomathematical modelling of tracer kinetics is complicated by the complexity of the steps governing neuronal uptake, retention and release of these agents as well as by their high neuronal affinity, which leads to partial flow dependence of uptake. Mapping of cardiac parasympathetic neurones is limited by a low density and focal distribution pattern of these neurones in myocardium. Available tracers are derivatives of vesamicol, a molecule that binds to a receptor associated with the vesicular acetylcholine transporter. Compounds like (-)-[ 18 F]fluoroethoxybenzovesamicol display a high degree of non-specific binding in myocardium which restricts their utility for cardiac neuronal imaging. (orig.)

  5. Peripheral nervous system assessment in acromegaly patients under somatostatin analogue therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alibas, H; Gogas Yavuz, D; Kahraman Koytak, P; Uygur, M; Tanridag, T; Uluc, K

    2017-01-01

    Acromegaly is known to affect peripheral nervous system (PNS) causing carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS) and polyneuropathy. The frequency of these disorders and the evaluation methods vary among studies. In the present study, we aimed to examine PNS of acromegaly patients under somatostatin analogue (SSA) therapy. Forty-eight acromegaly patients (26 F/22 M, 45.58 ± 11.6 years) under SSA treatment and 44 healthy controls (25 F/19 M, 47.46 ± 8.7 years) were assessed by symptom questionnaires, neurologic examination and electrophysiological studies. 87.5 % of the acromegaly patients had at least one abnormal finding regarding PNS. With the incorporation of palm-wrist median nerve conduction velocity method, we detected CTS in 50 % of patients. Polyneuropathy was less frequent (29.2 %). Both conditions were independent from the coexisting diabetes mellitus (p = 0.22 for CTS, p = 0.71 for polyneuropathy). Polyneuropathy but not CTS was more common among biochemically uncontrolled acromegaly patients rather than those under control (p = 0.03; p = 0.68, respectively). Our findings emphasize the high prevalence of peripheral nervous system involvement in acromegaly patients under SSA therapy and importance of neurological evaluation of these patients. Early diagnosis and treatment of the disease may reduce the PNS involvement.

  6. Contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging of tumours of the central nervous systems: a clinical review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graif, M.; Steiner, R.E.

    1986-01-01

    The clinical application of the intravascular paramagnetic contrast agent gadolinium-DTPA for magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) imaging of tumours of the central nervous system (CNS) has been assessed over the past 3 years. Various patterns of contrast enhancement were observed, and situations in MRI where the administration of contrast medium may be useful have been defined. These include lesions which are isointense with normal brain matter, the separation of tumour from surrounding oedema, evaluation of the degree of blood-brain barrier breakdown, delineation of tumours obscured by overlying calcification on computed tomography (CT) and in the investigation of lesions in anatomical areas where CT has known limitations (brain, stem, cervical spine). Changes in relaxation times in normal and abnormal tissues following contrast medium, toxicity and dosage of gadolinium-DTPA, and MRI pulse sequence techniques are reviewed. (author)

  7. Autonomic nervous system function in patients with functional abdominal pain. An experimental study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jorgensen, L.S.; Christiansen, P.; Raundahl, U.

    1993-01-01

    Functional abdominal pain--that is, pain without demonstrable organic abnormalities--has often been associated with psychologic stress. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether sympathetic nervous system response to laboratory stress and basal parasympathetic neural activity were...... and serum cortisol did not increase at all in any of the groups. As a measure of parasympathetic neural activity, independent of sympathetic neural activity, the beat-to-beat variation of the heart rate was calculated. The functional patients had a significantly higher beat-to-beat variation expressed...... as the mean square successive differences of the R-R intervals (MSSD), indicating a higher basal parasympathetic neural activity (mean MSSD +/- SEM = 64 +/- 6 msec in the functional group, 46 +/- 6 msec in the healthy group, and 49 +/- 6 msec in the organic group; P = 0.03). A reduced sympathetic neural...

  8. A psychodynamic model of behavior after acute central nervous system damage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groswasser, Z; Stern, M J

    1998-02-01

    This article describes a conceptual psychodynamic model for understanding the neurobehavioral manifestations of acute central nervous system damage (ACNSD) displayed by patients during the rehabilitation process. According to the proposed model, patientsO behavioral responses are viewed as their only means of emotional expression and therefore may not be considered entirely abnormal when viewed from the perspective of patientsO interpersonal contexts. An improved understanding of the dynamic processes through which recovering patients with ACNSD journey may lead to better interaction between the patient and the therapeutic environment, the interdisciplinary team, and family members. Combining this proposed psychodynamic model with an emerging understanding of the neurobehavioral foundations of aggression and depression may also lead to a more rational approach to intervention with various psychopharmacologic agents. During the rehabilitation process, understanding patients' cognitive deficits, motivational drives, and emotional needs and proper implementation of medical and environmental treatment can ultimately lead to a better psychosocial outcome.

  9. The role of the autonomic nervous system in Tourette Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jack eHawksley

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Tourette Syndrome (TS is a neurodevelopmental disorder, consisting of multiple involuntary movements (motor tics and one or more vocal (phonic tics. It affects up to one percent of children worldwide, of whom about one third continue to experience symptoms into adulthood. The central neural mechanisms of tic generation are not clearly understood, however recent neuroimaging investigations suggest impaired cortico-striato-thalamo-cortical activity during motor control. In the current manuscript, we will tackle the relatively under-investigated role of the peripheral autonomic nervous system, and its central influences, on tic activity. There is emerging evidence that both sympathetic and parasympathetic nervous activity influences tic expression. Pharmacological treatments which act on sympathetic tone are often helpful: for example, Clonidine (an alpha-2 adrenoreceptor agonist is often used as first choice medication for treating TS in children due to its good tolerability profile and potential usefulness for co-morbid attention-deficit and hyperactivity disorder. Clonidine suppresses sympathetic activity, reducing the triggering of motor tics. A general elevation of sympathetic tone is reported in patients with TS compared to healthy people, however this observation may reflect transient responses coupled to tic activity. Thus the presence of autonomic impairments in patients with TS remains unclear. Effect of autonomic afferent input to cortico-striato-thalamo-cortical circuit will be discussed schematically. We additionally review how TS is affected by modulation of central autonomic control through biofeedback and Vagus Nerve Stimulation (VNS. Biofeedback training can enable a patient to gain voluntary control over covert physiological responses by making these responses explicit. Electrodermal biofeedback training to elicit a reduction in sympathetic tone has a demonstrated association with reduced tic frequency. VNS, achieved through an

  10. The role of the autonomic nervous system in Tourette Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawksley, Jack; Cavanna, Andrea E.; Nagai, Yoko

    2015-01-01

    Tourette Syndrome (TS) is a neurodevelopmental disorder, consisting of multiple involuntary movements (motor tics) and one or more vocal (phonic) tics. It affects up to one percent of children worldwide, of whom about one third continue to experience symptoms into adulthood. The central neural mechanisms of tic generation are not clearly understood, however recent neuroimaging investigations suggest impaired cortico-striato-thalamo-cortical activity during motor control. In the current manuscript, we will tackle the relatively under-investigated role of the peripheral autonomic nervous system, and its central influences, on tic activity. There is emerging evidence that both sympathetic and parasympathetic nervous activity influences tic expression. Pharmacological treatments which act on sympathetic tone are often helpful: for example, Clonidine (an alpha-2 adrenoreceptor agonist) is often used as first choice medication for treating TS in children due to its good tolerability profile and potential usefulness for co-morbid attention-deficit and hyperactivity disorder. Clonidine suppresses sympathetic activity, reducing the triggering of motor tics. A general elevation of sympathetic tone is reported in patients with TS compared to healthy people, however this observation may reflect transient responses coupled to tic activity. Thus, the presence of autonomic impairments in patients with TS remains unclear. Effect of autonomic afferent input to cortico-striato-thalamo-cortical circuit will be discussed schematically. We additionally review how TS is affected by modulation of central autonomic control through biofeedback and Vagus Nerve Stimulation (VNS). Biofeedback training can enable a patient to gain voluntary control over covert physiological responses by making these responses explicit. Electrodermal biofeedback training to elicit a reduction in sympathetic tone has a demonstrated association with reduced tic frequency. VNS, achieved through an implanted device

  11. Autonomic nervous system profile in fibromyalgia patients and its modulation by exercise: a mini review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulshreshtha, Poorvi; Deepak, Kishore K

    2013-03-01

    This review imparts an impressionistic tone to our current understanding of autonomic nervous system abnormalities in fibromyalgia. In the wake of symptoms present in patients with fibromyalgia (FM), autonomic dysfunction seems plausible in fibromyalgia. A popular notion is that of a relentless sympathetic hyperactivity and hyporeactivity based on heart rate variability (HRV) analyses and responses to various physiological stimuli. However, some exactly opposite findings suggesting normal/hypersympathetic reactivity in patients with fibromyalgia do exist. This heterogeneous picture along with multiple comorbidities accounts for the quantitative and qualitative differences in the degree of dysautonomia present in patients with FM. We contend that HRV changes in fibromyalgia may not actually represent increased cardiac sympathetic tone. Normal muscle sympathetic nerve activity (MSNA) and normal autonomic reactivity tests in patients with fibromyalgia suggest defective vascular end organ in fibromyalgia. Previously, we proposed a model linking deconditioning with physical inactivity resulting from widespread pain in patients with fibromyalgia. Deconditioning also modulates the autonomic nervous system (high sympathetic tone and a low parasympathetic tone). A high peripheral sympathetic tone causes regional ischaemia, which in turn results in widespread pain. Thus, vascular dysregulation and hypoperfusion in patients with FM give rise to ischaemic pain leading to physical inactivity. Microvascular abnormalities are also found in patients with FM. Therapeutic interventions (e.g. exercise) that result in vasodilatation and favourable autonomic alterations have proven to be effective. In this review, we focus on the vascular end organ in patients with fibromyalgia in particular and its modulation by exercise in general. © 2012 The Authors Clinical Physiology and Functional Imaging © 2012 Scandinavian Society of Clinical Physiology and Nuclear Medicine.

  12. Inflammatory and apoptotic remodeling in autonomic nervous system following myocardial infarction.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Gao

    Full Text Available Chronic myocardial infarction (MI triggers pathological remodeling in the heart and cardiac nervous system. Abnormal function of the autonomic nervous system (ANS, including stellate ganglia (SG and dorsal root ganglia (DRG contribute to increased sympathoexcitation, cardiac dysfunction and arrythmogenesis. ANS modulation is a therapeutic target for arrhythmia associated with cardiac injury. However, the molecular mechanism involved in the pathological remodeling in ANS following cardiac injury remains to be established.In this study, we performed transcriptome analysis by RNA-sequencing in thoracic SG and (T1-T4 DRG obtained from Yorkshire pigs following either acute (3 to 5 hours or chronic (8 weeks myocardial infarction. By differential expression and weighted gene co-expression network analysis (WGCNA, we identified significant transcriptome changes and specific gene modules in the ANS tissues in response to myocardial infarction at either acute or chronic phases. Both differential expressed genes and the member genes of the WGCNA gene module associated with post-infarct condition were significantly enriched for inflammatory signaling and apoptotic cell death. Targeted validation analysis supported a significant induction of inflammatory and apoptotic signal in both SG and DRG following myocardial infarction, along with cellular evidence of apoptosis induction based on TUNEL analysis. Importantly, these molecular changes were observed specifically in the thoracic segments but not in their counterparts obtained from lumbar sections.Myocardial injury leads to time-dependent global changes in gene expression in the innervating ANS. Induction of inflammatory gene expression and loss of neuron cell viability in SG and DRG are potential novel mechanisms contributing to abnormal ANS function which can promote cardiac arrhythmia and pathological remodeling in myocardium.

  13. Next-Generation Sequencing in Neuropathologic Diagnosis of Infections of the Nervous System (Open Access)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-13

    nervous system ABSTRACT Objective: To determine the feasibility of next-generation sequencing (NGS) microbiome ap- proaches in the diagnosis of infectious...V, van Doorn HR, Nghia HD, et al. Identification of a new cyclovirus in cerebrospinal fluid of patients with acute central nervous system infections...Kumar, et al. system Next-generation sequencing in neuropathologic diagnosis of infections of the nervous This information is current as of June 13

  14. Bioengineered Hydrogel to Inhibit Post-Traumatic Central Nervous System Scarring

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-10-01

    AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-14-1-0586 TITLE: Bioengineered Hydrogel to Inhibit Post-Traumatic Central Nervous System Scarring PRINCIPAL...Hydrogel to Inhibit Post-Traumatic Central Nervous System Scarring 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER W81XWH-14-1-0586 5b. GRANT NUMBER W81XWH- 14-1-0586 5c...barriers that prevent the optimal delivery of biologics and cells to the injured nervous system . A significant problem is the formation of scar tissue

  15. Voluntary activation of the sympathetic nervous system and attenuation of the innate immune response in humans

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kox, M.; Eijk, L.T.G.J. van; Zwaag, J.; Wildenberg, J. van den; Sweep, F.C.; Hoeven, J.G. van der; Pickkers, P.

    2014-01-01

    Excessive or persistent proinflammatory cytokine production plays a central role in autoimmune diseases. Acute activation of the sympathetic nervous system attenuates the innate immune response. However, both the autonomic nervous system and innate immune system are regarded as systems that cannot

  16. Marital conflict and children's externalizing behavior: interactions between parasympathetic and sympathetic nervous system activity

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    El-Sheikh, Mona; Beauchaine, Theodore P; Moore, Ginger A

    2009-01-01

    "Toward greater specificity in the prediction of externalizing problems in the context of interparental conflict, interactions between children's parasympathetic and sympathetic nervous system (PNS and SNS...

  17. An expert system for prevention of abnormal event recurrence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishiyama, Takuya

    1990-01-01

    A huge amount of information related to abnormal events occurring in nuclear power plants in Japan and abroad is collected and accumulated in the Nuclear Information Center at CRIEPI. This information contains a variety of knowledge which may be useful for prevention of similar trouble. An expert system named, 'Consultation System for Prevention of Abnormal-Event Recurrence (CSPAR) is being developed with the objective of preventing recurrence of similar abnormal events by offering an effective means of utilizing such knowledge. This paper presents the key points in designing and constructing the system, the system functional outline, and some demonstration examples. (author)

  18. Liposomal Conjugates for Drug Delivery to the Central Nervous System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frieder Helm

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Treatments of central nervous system (CNS diseases often fail due to the blood–brain barrier. Circumvention of this obstacle is crucial for any systemic treatment of such diseases to be effective. One approach to transfer drugs into the brain is the use of colloidal carrier systems—amongst others, liposomes. A prerequisite for successful drug delivery by colloidal carriers to the brain is the modification of their surface, making them invisible to the reticuloendothelial system (RES and to target them to specific surface epitopes at the blood–brain barrier. This study characterizes liposomes conjugated with cationized bovine serum albumin (cBSA as transport vectors in vitro in porcine brain capillary endothelial cells (PBCEC and in vivo in rats using fluorescently labelled liposomes. Experiments with PBCEC showed that sterically stabilized (PEGylated liposomes without protein as well as liposomes conjugated to native bovine serum albumin (BSA were not taken up. In contrast, cBSA-liposomes were taken up and appeared to be concentrated in intracellular vesicles. Uptake occurred in a concentration and time dependent manner. Free BSA and free cBSA inhibited uptake. After intravenous application of cBSA-liposomes, confocal fluorescence microscopy of brain cryosections from male Wistar rats showed fluorescence associated with liposomes in brain capillary surrounding tissue after 3, 6 and 24 h, for liposomes with a diameter between 120 and 150 nm, suggesting successful brain delivery of cationized-albumin coupled liposomes.

  19. [Late sequelae of central nervous system prophylaxis in children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia: high doses of intravenous methotrexate versus radiotherapy of the central nervous system--review of literature].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zając-Spychała, Olga; Wachowiak, Jacek

    2012-01-01

    Acute lymphoblastic leukemia is the most common malignancy in children. All current therapy regimens used in the treatment of childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia include prophylaxis of the central nervous system. Initially it was thought that the best way of central nervous system prophylaxis is radiotherapy. But despite its effectiveness this method, may cause late sequelae and complications. In the programme currently used in Poland to treat acute lymphoblastic leukemia, prophylactic radiotherapy has been reduced by 50% (12 Gy) and is used only in patients stratified into the high risk group and in patients diagnosed as T-cell ALL (T-ALL). Complementary to radiotherapy, intrathecal methotrexate is given alone or in combination with cytarabine and hydrocortisone is given, as well as systemic chemotherapy with intravenous methotrexate is administered in high or medium doses (depending on risk groups and leukemia immunophenotype). Recent studies have shown that high dose irradiation of the central nervous system impairs cognitive development causing memory loss, visuomotor coordination impairment, attention disorders and reduction in the intelligence quotient. It has been proved that the degree of cognitive impairment depends on the radiation dose directed to the medial temporal lobe structures, particularly in the hippocampus and the surrounding cortex. Also, methotrexate used intravenously in high doses, interferes with the metabolism of folic acid which is necessary for normal development and the optimal functioning of neurons in the central nervous system. It has been proved that patients who have been treated with high doses of methotrexate are characterized by reduced memory skills and a lower intelligence quotient. The literature data concerning long term neuroanatomical abnormalities and neuropsychological deficits are ambiguous, and there is still no data concerning current methods of central nervous system prophylaxis with low doses of irradiation in

  20. Paracoccidioidomycosis of the central nervous system: CT findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodacki, M.A. [Section of Neuroradiology, Service of Radiology, Sta Isabel Hospital, Sta Catarina (Brazil); Toni, G. de [University Hospital, Medical School of Curitiba, Parana (Brazil); Borba, L.A. [Division of Neurosurgery, Sta Isabel Hospital, Blumenau, Sta Catarina (Brazil); Oliveira, G.G. [Division of Pathology, Sta Isabel Hospital, Blumenau, Sta Catarina (Brazil)

    1995-11-01

    A retrospective analisis of six cases of central nervous system paracoccidioidomycosis, all but one proven by biopsy and surgery, was carried out to study the CT and clinical data and pathological correlation. Most of the patients were from the country. Headache, vomiting, seizures and hemiparesis were the most frequent symptoms. Papilloedema was present in four patients with raised intracranial pressure. Five patients had chronic lung disease and two with advanced systemic disease, skin and mucous membrane lesions were also observed. The neurological disturbance was sometimes the presenting features and the diagnosis was discovered incidentally after surgery. Both solitary and multiple parenchymal lesions were observed and the cerebral hemispheres were more commonly involved in four patients. Local meningeal involvement was observed in one with a single cortical granuloma. We enphasise the usefulness of CT, showing a rounded or lobulated mass with an isodense or radiolucent centre after contrast enhancement, surrounded by an irregular wall of varying thickness. There was always moderate oedema, extending peripherally. Other infections or neoplastic diseases may present similar findings. Preoperative diagnosis should rest on integration of clinical data, chest films, laboratory and neuroimaging studies. (orig.). With 4 figs., 2 tabs.

  1. Coordination dynamics in a socially situated nervous system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles A. Coey

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Traditional theories of cognitive science have typically accounted for the organization of human behavior by detailing the requisite computational or representational functions and identifying neurological mechanisms that might perform these functions. Put simply, such approaches hold that neural activity causes behavior. This same general framework has been extended to accounts of human social behavior via explanatory concepts such as common-coding and co-representation, and much recent neurological research has been devoted to brain structures that might execute these social-cognitive functions. Although these neural processes are unquestionably involved in the organization of human social interactions, there is good reason to question whether they should be accorded causal primacy. Specifically, research on interpersonal rhythmic motor coordination suggests that the organization of human behavior, including social behavior, can result from self-organizing processes and the lawful dynamics of animal-environment systems. Here we review this research, and in doing so propose that the role of the nervous system in joint action and interpersonal coordination be recast from the sole cause of behavior to one of many interdependent processes.

  2. Iron Homeostasis in Peripheral Nervous System, Still a Black Box?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taveggia, Carla

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Significance: Iron is the most abundant transition metal in biology and an essential cofactor for many cellular enzymes. Iron homeostasis impairment is also a component of peripheral neuropathies. Recent Advances: During the past years, much effort has been paid to understand the molecular mechanism involved in maintaining systemic iron homeostasis in mammals. This has been stimulated by the evidence that iron dyshomeostasis is an initial cause of several disorders, including genetic and sporadic neurodegenerative disorders. Critical Issues: However, very little has been done to investigate the physiological role of iron in peripheral nervous system (PNS), despite the development of suitable cellular and animal models. Future Directions: To stimulate research on iron metabolism and peripheral neuropathy, we provide a summary of the knowledge on iron homeostasis in the PNS, on its transport across the blood–nerve barrier, its involvement in myelination, and we identify unresolved questions. Furthermore, we comment on the role of iron in iron-related disorder with peripheral component, in demyelinating and metabolic peripheral neuropathies. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 21, 634–648. PMID:24409826

  3. Autonomic nervous system response patterns specificity to basic emotions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collet, C; Vernet-Maury, E; Delhomme, G; Dittmar, A

    1997-01-12

    The aim of this study was to test the assumption that the autonomic nervous system responses to emotional stimuli are specific. A series of six slides was randomly presented to the subjects while six autonomic nervous system (ANS) parameters were recorded: skin conductance, skin potential, skin resistance, skin blood flow, skin temperature and instantaneous respiratory frequency. Each slide induced a basic emotion: happiness, surprise, anger, fear, sadness and disgust. Results have been first considered with reference to electrodermal responses (EDR) and secondly through thermo-vascular and respiratory variations. Classical as well as original indices were used to quantify autonomic responses. The six basic emotions were distinguished by Friedman variance analysis. Thus, ANS values corresponding to each emotion were compared two-by-two. EDR distinguished 13 emotion-pairs out of 15. 10 emotion-pairs were separated by skin resistance as well as skin conductance ohmic perturbation duration indices whereas conductance amplitude was only capable of distinguishing 7 emotion-pairs. Skin potential responses distinguished surprise and fear from sadness, and fear from disgust, according to their elementary pattern analysis in form and sign. Two-by-two comparisons of skin temperature, skin blood flow (estimated by the new non-oscillary duration index) and instantaneous respiratory frequency, enabled the distinction of 14 emotion-pairs out of 15. 9 emotion-pairs were distinguished by the non-oscillatory duration index values. Skin temperature was demonstrated to be different i.e. positive versus negative in response to anger and fear. The instantaneous respiratory frequency perturbation duration index was the only one capable of separating sadness from disgust. From the six ANS parameters study, different autonomic patterns were identified, each characterizing one of the six basic emotion used as inducing signals. No index alone, nor group of parameters (EDR and thermovascular

  4. Evolution of bilaterian central nervous systems: a single origin?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    The question of whether the ancestral bilaterian had a central nervous system (CNS) or a diffuse ectodermal nervous system has been hotly debated. Considerable evidence supports the theory that a CNS evolved just once. However, an alternative view proposes that the chordate CNS evolved from the ectodermal nerve net of a hemichordate-like ancestral deuterostome, implying independent evolution of the CNS in chordates and protostomes. To specify morphological divisions along the anterior/posterior axis, this ancestor used gene networks homologous to those patterning three organizing centers in the vertebrate brain: the anterior neural ridge, the zona limitans intrathalamica and the isthmic organizer, and subsequent evolution of the vertebrate brain involved elaboration of these ancestral signaling centers; however, all or part of these signaling centers were lost from the CNS of invertebrate chordates. The present review analyzes the evidence for and against these theories. The bulk of the evidence indicates that a CNS evolved just once – in the ancestral bilaterian. Importantly, in both protostomes and deuterostomes, the CNS represents a portion of a generally neurogenic ectoderm that is internalized and receives and integrates inputs from sensory cells in the remainder of the ectoderm. The expression patterns of genes involved in medio/lateral (dorso/ventral) patterning of the CNS are similar in protostomes and chordates; however, these genes are not similarly expressed in the ectoderm outside the CNS. Thus, their expression is a better criterion for CNS homologs than the expression of anterior/posterior patterning genes, many of which (for example, Hox genes) are similarly expressed both in the CNS and in the remainder of the ectoderm in many bilaterians. The evidence leaves hemichordates in an ambiguous position – either CNS centralization was lost to some extent at the base of the hemichordates, or even earlier, at the base of the hemichordates

  5. Thyroid hormones and the central nervous system of mammals (Review).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Liegro, Italia

    2008-01-01

    The thyroid hormones (THs) L-thyroxine (T4) and L-triiodothyronine (T3) have a profound influence on the development and maturation of the mammalian brain, both before and after birth. Any impairment in the supply of THs to the developing nervous system leads to severe and irreversible changes in both the overall architecture and functions of the brain and causes, in humans, neurological and motor deficits known as cretinism. Pronounced neurological symptoms are also commonly observed in adult patients suffering from both hyperthyroidism and hypothyroidism, and it has recently emerged that certain symptoms might result from the reduced brain uptake, rather than the insufficient production, of THs. Most of the effects of THs are mediated by two classes of nuclear receptors (α and β isoforms), which belong to the c-erbA superfamily of transcriptional regulators and are expressed in a tissue-specific and developmentally regulated manner. Interestingly, the nuclear TH receptors (nTRs) act as both ligand-independent gene repressors and ligand-dependent gene activators. On the other hand, negatively-regulated genes, which can be stimulated in the absence of THs and repressed by THs, have also been observed. Due to this complex pattern of regulation, the effects of receptor dysfunction do not exactly overlap the effects of hormone deficiency or excess. Moreover, non-genomic mechanisms of TH action have been described in many tissues, including the brain, some of which seem to be mediated by integrins and to be calcium-dependent. Intracellular receptors, distinct from nTRs, are present in the mitochondria, where a matrix-associated, T3-dependent transcriptional regulator of approximately 43 kDa has been described. Finally, complex patterns of pituitary and/or peripheral resistance to thyroid hormones (RTH), characterized by elevated plasma levels of THs and non-suppressible thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), have been identified. This review summarizes the major advances

  6. Central nervous system involvement of leukemia and systemic lymphoma in children. CT and MR findings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tomura, Noriaki; Hirano, Hiroko; Kato, Kohki; Sashi, Ryuji; Hashimoto, Manabu; Watarai, Jiro; Watanabe, Arata

    1997-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to retrospectively evaluate CT and MR findings of central nervous system (CNS) involvement of leukemia and systemic lymphoma in children. Over a 12-year period, sixty-five patients with leukemia and fifteen patients with systemic lymphoma underwent cerebral CT and/or MR imaging. Nine patients were diagnosed as CNS involvement of leukemia and lymphoma. The CT and MR abnormalities in these patients were correlated with the findings of histology, cerebrospinal fluid cytology, and/or treatment. The age of the patients ranged from 0 to 15 years old. They consisted of 6 boys and 3 girls. The CT examinations were performed before and after contrast administration. MR examinations were performed on a 1.5-T unit, and T1-weighted, T2-weighted, and proton density-weighted images were obtained using spin-echo or fast spin-echo sequences. Tumor masses were present in seven with leukemia, and in two with malignant lymphoma. On the CT scan, tumor masses were hyperdense with contrast enhancement. On the MR images, their signals were variable. In all of nine patients, tumor masses were contiguous with a meningeal surface. Postcontrast T1-weighted images were valuable in demonstrating meningeal infiltration. Tumoral hemorrhage was found in two patients. In a patient with tumor at the superior sagittal sinus, venous infarct was observed. CNS leukemic and lymphomatous masses are almost hyperdense on the CT and they are characteristically contiguous with a meningeal surface. MR imaging was valuable in demonstrating meningeal infiltration. (K.H.)

  7. Concordance of Time-of-Flight MRA and Digital Subtraction Angiography in Adult Primary Central Nervous System Vasculitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Boysson, H; Boulouis, G; Parienti, J-J; Touzé, E; Zuber, M; Arquizan, C; Dequatre, N; Detante, O; Bienvenu, B; Aouba, A; Guillevin, L; Pagnoux, C; Naggara, O

    2017-10-01

    3D-TOF-MRA and DSA are 2 available tools to demonstrate neurovascular involvement in primary central nervous system vasculitis. We aimed to compare the diagnostic concordance of vessel imaging using 3D-TOF-MRA and DSA in patients with primary central nervous system vasculitis. We retrospectively identified all patients included in the French primary central nervous system vasculitis cohort of 85 patients who underwent, at baseline, both intracranial 3D-TOF-MRA and DSA in an interval of no more than 2 weeks and before treatment initiation. Two neuroradiologists independently reviewed all 3D-TOF-MRA and DSA imaging. Brain vasculature was divided into 25 arterial segments. Concordance between 3D-TOF-MRA and DSA for the identification of arterial stenosis was assessed by the Cohen κ Index. Thirty-one patients met the inclusion criteria, including 20 imaged with a 1.5T MR unit and 11 with a 3T MR unit. Among the 25 patients (81%) with abnormal DSA findings, 24 demonstrated abnormal 3D-TOF-MRA findings, whereas all 6 remaining patients with normal DSA findings had normal 3D-TOF-MRA findings. In the per-segment analysis, concordance between 1.5T 3D-TOF-MRA and DSA was 0.82 (95% CI, 0.75-0.93), and between 3T 3D-TOF-MRA and DSA, it was 0.87 (95% CI, 0.78-0.91). 3D-TOF-MRA shows a high concordance with DSA in diagnostic performance when analyzing brain vasculature in patients with primary central nervous system vasculitis. In patients with negative 3T 3D-TOF-MRA findings, the added diagnostic value of DSA is limited. © 2017 by American Journal of Neuroradiology.

  8. An anatomical and physiological basis for the cardiovascular autonomic nervous system consequences of sport-related brain injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    La Fountaine, Michael F

    2017-11-29

    Concussion is defined as a complex pathophysiological process affecting the brain that is induced by the application or transmission of traumatic biomechanical forces to the head. The result of the impact is the onset of transient symptoms that may be experienced for approximately 2weeks in most individuals. However, in some individuals, symptoms may not resolve and persist for a protracted period and a chronic injury ensues. Concussion symptoms are generally characterized by their emergence through changes in affect, cognition, or multi-sensory processes including the visual and vestibular systems. An emerging consequence of concussion is the presence of cardiovascular autonomic nervous system dysfunction that is most apparent through hemodynamic perturbations and provocations. Further interrogation of data that are derived from continuous digital electrocardiograms and/or beat-to-beat blood pressure monitoring often reveal an imbalance of parasympathetic or sympathetic nervous system activity during a provocation after an injury. The disturbance is often greatest early after injury and a resolution of the dysfunction occurs in parallel with other symptoms. The possibility exists that the disturbance may remain if the concussion does not resolve. Unfortunately, there is little evidence in humans to support the etiology for the emergence of this post-injury dysfunction. As such, evidence from experimental models of traumatic brain injury and casual observations from human studies of concussion implicate a transient abnormality of the anatomical structures and functions of the cardiovascular autonomic nervous system. The purpose of this review article is to provide a mechanistic narrative of multi-disciplinary evidence to support the anatomical and physiological basis of cardiovascular autonomic nervous system dysfunction after concussion. The review article will identify the anatomical structures of the autonomic nervous system and propose a theoretical framework

  9. Central nervous system radiation injury in small animal models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kogel, A.J. van der

    1991-01-01

    Experimental studies on radiation injury in the central nervous system have been carried out in many species ranging from mouse to monkey. This review is restricted to studies in rodents irradiated with low linear energy transfer (LET) radiation. In this paper, the various rodent models of brain and spinal cord injury are described with particular emphasis on the pathology of different types of lesions and theories of their pathogenesis. Many of the initial studies were limited to relatively high single doses, but in later work more clinically relevant fractionated irradiation schemes were employed. This has led to the recognition of various types of early and late delayed injury that are analogous to the syndromes observed in humans. Two main pathways have been suggested for the pathogenesis, one involving predominantly the progressive loss of glial cells and the other involving vascular injury. The relative importance of both mechanisms will be discussed with respect to treatment conditions and to dose level in particular. An hypothesis is presented concerning the possible role of different cell types in the development of specific syndromes

  10. [Dementia in Patients with Central Nervous System Mycosis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morita, Akihiko; Ishihara, Masaki; Konno, Michiko

    2016-04-01

    Central nervous system (CNS) mycosis is a potentially life-threatening but treatable neurological emergency. CNS mycoses progress slowly and are sometimes difficult to distinguish from dementia. Though most patients with CNS mycosis have an underlying disease, such as human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection, cancer, diabetes mellitus, and/or use of immunosuppressants, cryptococcosis can occur in non-immunosuppressed persons. One of the major difficulties in accurate diagnosis is to detect the pathogen in patients' cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) cultures. Thus, the clinical diagnosis is often made by combining circumstantial evidence, including mononuclear cell-dominant pleocytosis with low glucose and protein elevation in the CSF, as well as positive results from an antigen-based assay and a (1-3)-beta-D-glucan assay using plasma and/or CSF. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based diagnostics, which are not performed as routine examinations and are mostly performed as part of academic research in Japan, are sensitive tools for the early diagnosis of CNS mycosis. Mognetic resonance imaging (MRI) is useful to assess the complications of fungal meningitis, such as abscess, infarction, and hydrocephalus. Clinicians should realize the advantages and disadvantages of these diagnostic tools. Early and accurate diagnosis, including identification of the particular fungal species, enables optimal antifungal treatment that produces good outcomes in patients with CNS mycosis.

  11. Herpes Simplex Virus Infections of the Central Nervous System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitley, Richard J

    2015-12-01

    This article summarizes knowledge of herpes simplex virus (HSV) infections of the central nervous system (CNS). Disease pathogenesis, detection of DNA polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for diagnosis and prognosis, and approaches to therapy warrant consideration. HSV infection of the CNS is one of few treatable viral diseases. Clinical trials indicate that outcome following neonatal herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) infections of the CNS is significantly improved when 6 months of suppressive oral acyclovir therapy follows IV antiviral therapy. In contrast, herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) infections of the brain do not benefit from extended oral antiviral therapy. This implies a difference in disease pathogenesis between HSV-2 and HSV-1 infections of the brain. PCR detection of viral DNA in the CSF is the gold standard for diagnosis. Use of PCR is now being adopted as a basis for determining the duration of therapy in the newborn. HSV infections are among the most common encountered by humans; seropositivity occurs in 50% to 90% of adult populations. Herpes simplex encephalitis, however, is an uncommon result of this infection. Since no new antiviral drugs have been introduced in nearly 3 decades, much effort has focused on learning how to better use acyclovir and how to use existing databases to establish earlier diagnosis.

  12. Central nervous system infection following allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanajiri, Ryo; Kobayashi, Takeshi; Yoshioka, Kosuke; Watanabe, Daisuke; Watakabe, Kyoko; Murata, Yutaka; Hagino, Takeshi; Seno, Yasushi; Najima, Yuho; Igarashi, Aiko; Doki, Noriko; Kakihana, Kazuhiko; Sakamaki, Hisashi; Ohashi, Kazuteru

    2017-03-01

    Here, we described the clinical characteristics and outcomes of central nervous system (CNS) infections occurring after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (allo-HSCT) in a single institution over the previous 6 years. Charts of 353 consecutive allogeneic transplant recipients were retrospectively reviewed for CNS infection. A total of 17 cases of CNS infection were identified at a median of 38 days (range, 10-1028 days) after allo-HSCT. Causative pathogens were human herpesvirus-6 (n=6), enterococcus (n=2), staphylococcus (n=2), streptococcus (n=2), varicella zoster virus (n=1), cytomegalovirus (n=1), John Cunningham virus (n=1), adenovirus (n=1), and Toxoplasma gondii (n=1). The cumulative incidence of CNS infection was 4.1% at 1 year and 5.5% at 5 years. Multivariate analysis revealed that high-risk disease status was a risk factor for developing CNS infection (p=.02), and that overall survival at 3 years after allo-HSCT was 33% in patients with CNS infection and 53% in those without CNS infection (p=.04). Copyright © 2016 King Faisal Specialist Hospital & Research Centre. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Microparticles: A New Perspective in Central Nervous System Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephanie M. Schindler

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Microparticles (MPs are a heterogeneous population of small cell-derived vesicles, ranging in size from 0.1 to 1 μm. They contain a variety of bioactive molecules, including proteins, biolipids, and nucleic acids, which can be transferred between cells without direct cell-to-cell contact. Consequently, MPs represent a novel form of intercellular communication, which could play a role in both physiological and pathological processes. Growing evidence indicates that circulating MPs contribute to the development of cancer, inflammation, and autoimmune and cardiovascular diseases. Most cell types of the central nervous system (CNS have also been shown to release MPs, which could be important for neurodevelopment, CNS maintenance, and pathologies. In disease, levels of certain MPs appear elevated; therefore, they may serve as biomarkers allowing for the development of new diagnostic tools for detecting the early stages of CNS pathologies. Quantification and characterization of MPs could also provide useful information for making decisions on treatment options and for monitoring success of therapies, particularly for such difficult-to-treat diseases as cerebral malaria, multiple sclerosis, and Alzheimer’s disease. Overall, studies on MPs in the CNS represent a novel area of research, which promises to expand the knowledge on the mechanisms governing some of the physiological and pathophysiological processes of the CNS.

  14. Preferential lentiviral targeting of astrocytes in the central nervous system.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Fassler

    Full Text Available The ability to visualize and genetically manipulate specific cell populations of the central nervous system (CNS is fundamental to a better understanding of brain functions at the cellular and molecular levels. Tools to selectively target cells of the CNS include molecular genetics, imaging, and use of transgenic animals. However, these approaches are technically challenging, time consuming, and difficult to control. Viral-mediated targeting of cells in the CNS can be highly beneficial for studying and treating neurodegenerative diseases. Yet, despite specific marking of numerous cell types in the CNS, in vivo selective targeting of astrocytes has not been optimized. In this study, preferential targeting of astrocytes in the CNS was demonstrated using engineered lentiviruses that were pseudotyped with a modified Sindbis envelope and displayed anti-GLAST IgG on their surfaces as an attachment moiety. Viral tropism for astrocytes was initially verified in vitro in primary mixed glia cultures. When injected into the brains of mice, lentiviruses that displayed GLAST IgG on their surface, exhibited preferential astrocyte targeting, compared to pseudotyped lentiviruses that did not incorporate any IgG or that expressed a control isotype IgG. Overall, this approach is highly flexible and can be exploited to selectively target astrocytes or other cell types of the CNS. As such, it can open a window to visualize and genetically manipulate astrocytes or other cells of the CNS as means of research and treatment.

  15. Clinical Proton MR Spectroscopy in Central Nervous System Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alger, Jeffry R.; Barker, Peter B.; Bartha, Robert; Bizzi, Alberto; Boesch, Chris; Bolan, Patrick J.; Brindle, Kevin M.; Cudalbu, Cristina; Dinçer, Alp; Dydak, Ulrike; Emir, Uzay E.; Frahm, Jens; González, Ramón Gilberto; Gruber, Stephan; Gruetter, Rolf; Gupta, Rakesh K.; Heerschap, Arend; Henning, Anke; Hetherington, Hoby P.; Howe, Franklyn A.; Hüppi, Petra S.; Hurd, Ralph E.; Kantarci, Kejal; Klomp, Dennis W. J.; Kreis, Roland; Kruiskamp, Marijn J.; Leach, Martin O.; Lin, Alexander P.; Luijten, Peter R.; Marjańska, Małgorzata; Maudsley, Andrew A.; Meyerhoff, Dieter J.; Mountford, Carolyn E.; Nelson, Sarah J.; Pamir, M. Necmettin; Pan, Jullie W.; Peet, Andrew C.; Poptani, Harish; Posse, Stefan; Pouwels, Petra J. W.; Ratai, Eva-Maria; Ross, Brian D.; Scheenen, Tom W. J.; Schuster, Christian; Smith, Ian C. P.; Soher, Brian J.; Tkáč, Ivan; Vigneron, Daniel B.; Kauppinen, Risto A.

    2014-01-01

    A large body of published work shows that proton (hydrogen 1 [1H]) magnetic resonance (MR) spectroscopy has evolved from a research tool into a clinical neuroimaging modality. Herein, the authors present a summary of brain disorders in which MR spectroscopy has an impact on patient management, together with a critical consideration of common data acquisition and processing procedures. The article documents the impact of 1H MR spectroscopy in the clinical evaluation of disorders of the central nervous system. The clinical usefulness of 1H MR spectroscopy has been established for brain neoplasms, neonatal and pediatric disorders (hypoxia-ischemia, inherited metabolic diseases, and traumatic brain injury), demyelinating disorders, and infectious brain lesions. The growing list of disorders for which 1H MR spectroscopy may contribute to patient management extends to neurodegenerative diseases, epilepsy, and stroke. To facilitate expanded clinical acceptance and standardization of MR spectroscopy methodology, guidelines are provided for data acquisition and analysis, quality assessment, and interpretation. Finally, the authors offer recommendations to expedite the use of robust MR spectroscopy methodology in the clinical setting, including incorporation of technical advances on clinical units. © RSNA, 2014 Online supplemental material is available for this article. PMID:24568703

  16. Nanotechnologies for the study of the central nervous system.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Ajetunmobi, A

    2014-12-01

    The impact of central nervous system (CNS) disorders on the human population is significant, contributing almost €800 billion in annual European healthcare costs. These disorders not only have a disabling social impact but also a crippling economic drain on resources. Developing novel therapeutic strategies for these disorders requires a better understanding of events that underlie mechanisms of neural circuit physiology. Studying the relationship between genetic expression, synapse development and circuit physiology in CNS function is a challenging task, involving simultaneous analysis of multiple parameters and the convergence of several disciplines and technological approaches. However, current gold-standard techniques used to study the CNS have limitations that pose unique challenges to furthering our understanding of functional CNS development. The recent advancement in nanotechnologies for biomedical applications has seen the emergence of nanoscience as a key enabling technology for delivering a translational bridge between basic and clinical research. In particular, the development of neuroimaging and electrophysiology tools to identify the aetiology and progression of CNS disorders have led to new insights in our understanding of CNS physiology and the development of novel diagnostic modalities for therapeutic intervention. This review focuses on the latest applications of these nanotechnologies for investigating CNS function and the improved diagnosis of CNS disorders.

  17. Motor execution detection based on autonomic nervous system responses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marchal-Crespo, Laura; Riener, Robert; Zimmermann, Raphael; Lambercy, Olivier; Edelmann, Janis; Fluet, Marie-Christine; Gassert, Roger; Wolf, Martin

    2013-01-01

    Triggered assistance has been shown to be a successful robotic strategy for provoking motor plasticity, probably because it requires neurologic patients’ active participation to initiate a movement involving their impaired limb. Triggered assistance, however, requires sufficient residual motor control to activate the trigger and, thus, is not applicable to individuals with severe neurologic injuries. In these situations, brain and body–computer interfaces have emerged as promising solutions to control robotic devices. In this paper, we investigate the feasibility of a body–machine interface to detect motion execution only monitoring the autonomic nervous system (ANS) response. Four physiological signals were measured (blood pressure, breathing rate, skin conductance response and heart rate) during an isometric pinching task and used to train a classifier based on hidden Markov models. We performed an experiment with six healthy subjects to test the effectiveness of the classifier to detect rest and active pinching periods. The results showed that the movement execution can be accurately classified based only on peripheral autonomic signals, with an accuracy level of 84.5%, sensitivity of 83.8% and specificity of 85.2%. These results are encouraging to perform further research on the use of the ANS response in body–machine interfaces. (paper)

  18. Cholesterol: Its Regulation and Role in Central Nervous System Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthias Orth

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Cholesterol is a major constituent of the human brain, and the brain is the most cholesterol-rich organ. Numerous lipoprotein receptors and apolipoproteins are expressed in the brain. Cholesterol is tightly regulated between the major brain cells and is essential for normal brain development. The metabolism of brain cholesterol differs markedly from that of other tissues. Brain cholesterol is primarily derived by de novo synthesis and the blood brain barrier prevents the uptake of lipoprotein cholesterol from the circulation. Defects in cholesterol metabolism lead to structural and functional central nervous system diseases such as Smith-Lemli-Opitz syndrome, Niemann-Pick type C disease, and Alzheimer’s disease. These diseases affect different metabolic pathways (cholesterol biosynthesis, lipid transport and lipoprotein assembly, apolipoproteins, lipoprotein receptors, and signaling molecules. We review the metabolic pathways of cholesterol in the CNS and its cell-specific and microdomain-specific interaction with other pathways such as the amyloid precursor protein and discuss potential treatment strategies as well as the effects of the widespread use of LDL cholesterol-lowering drugs on brain functions.

  19. Comprehensive Craniospinal Radiation for Controlling Central Nervous System Leukemia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walker, Gary V.; Shihadeh, Ferial; Kantarjian, Hagop; Allen, Pamela; Rondon, Gabriela; Kebriaei, Partow; O'Brien, Susan; Kedir, Aziza; Said, Mustefa; Grant, Jonathan D.; Thomas, Deborah A.; Gidley, Paul W.; Arzu, Isidora; Pinnix, Chelsea; Reed, Valerie; Dabaja, Bouthaina S.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: To determine the benefit of radiation therapy (RT) in resolution of neurologic symptoms and deficits and whether the type of RT fields influences central nervous system (CNS) control in adults with CNS leukemia. Methods and Materials: A total of 163 adults from 1996 to 2012 were retrospectively analyzed. Potential associations between use of radiation and outcome were investigated by univariate and multivariate analysis. Results: The median survival time was 3.8 months after RT. Common presenting symptoms were headache in 79 patients (49%), cranial nerve VII deficit in 46 (28%), and cranial nerve II deficit in 44 (27%). RT was delivered to the base of skull in 48 patients (29%), to the whole brain (WB) in 67 (41%), and to the craniospinal axis (CS) in 48 (29%). Among 149 patients with a total of 233 deficits, resolution was observed in 34 deficits (15%), improvement in 126 deficits (54%), stability in 34 deficits (15%), and progression in 39 deficits (17%). The 12-month CNS progression-free survival was 77% among those receiving CS/WB and 51% among those receiving base of skull RT (P=.02). On multivariate analysis, patients who did not undergo stem cell transplantation after RT and base of skull RT were associated with worse CNS progression-free survival. Conclusions: Improvement or resolution of symptoms occurred in two thirds of deficits after RT. Comprehensive radiation to the WB or CS seems to offer a better outcome, especially in isolated CNS involvement

  20. Frequency of central nervous system tumors in delta region, Egypt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khaled R Zalata

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction and Aim of Work: Central nervous system (CNS tumors represent a major public health problem, and their epidemiological data in Egypt have been rather incomplete except for some regional reports. There are no available frequency-based data on CNS tumors in our locality. The objective of this study was to estimate the frequency of CNS tumors in east delta region, Egypt. Materials and Methods: The data were collected during the 8-year period from January 1999 to December 2007 from Pathology Department, Mansoura University, and other referred pathology labs. Examination of HandE stained sections from retrieved paraffin blocks were done in all cases for histopathologic categorization of C.N.S. tumors. Immunohistochemical studies were applied to confirm final histopathologic diagnosis in problematic cases. Results: Intracranial tumors represented 86.7% of cases in comparison to only 13.3% for spinal tumors. Gliomas were the CNS tumors of the highest frequency (35.2%, followed by meningioma (25.6%, pituitary adenoma (11.6% and nerve sheath tumors (6.6%. 10.25% of tumors were of children <15 years. Conclusion: This study provides the largest series of the relative frequency of CNS tumors in Delta region in Egypt till now and may help to give insight into the epidemiology of CNS tumors in our locality.

  1. The role of the nervous system in fish evolution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael H Hofmann

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The nervous system plays an important role in the evolution and adaptation of animals. All sensory and motor functions as well as cognitive abilities are organized in the brain and spinal cord. Volumetric measurements of different brain regions were made in more than 150 species of ray finned fishes as well as in several outgroups. In Actanthopterygii, the hypothalamus shows greatest enlargement most likely due to an enormous visual input via the nucleus glomerulosos. The telencephalon is highly differentiated in many acanthopterygii, mostly coral reef species, but its relative size is not much effected. There is, however, a clear shift from olfactory to visual functions in ray finned fishes. In species with a highly differentiated telencephalon, the area where place memory may be located is very prominent. In basal ray finned fishes, lungfish, amphibia and elasmobranchs, the olfactory bulb is relatively large and the ratio of the olfactory bulb and telencephalon large as well. This holds also for elopomorpha and spiny eels, but in most other groups vision dominates. Apart from differences between larger clades, variation in brain architecture are also seen in closely related species and even between sexes of the same species. Profound differences are present in the cerebellum between male and female swordtails and in the telencephalon of sticklebacks. Morphometric analysis of brain architecture turned out to be an important tool to study the evolution and adaptations of the brain in fishes.

  2. Comprehensive Craniospinal Radiation for Controlling Central Nervous System Leukemia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walker, Gary V.; Shihadeh, Ferial [Department of Radiation Oncology, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Kantarjian, Hagop [Department of Leukemia, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Allen, Pamela [Department of Radiation Oncology, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Rondon, Gabriela; Kebriaei, Partow [Department of Stem Cell Transplantation, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); O' Brien, Susan [Department of Leukemia, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Kedir, Aziza; Said, Mustefa; Grant, Jonathan D. [Department of Radiation Oncology, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Thomas, Deborah A. [Department of Leukemia, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Gidley, Paul W. [Department of Head and Neck Surgery, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Arzu, Isidora; Pinnix, Chelsea; Reed, Valerie [Department of Radiation Oncology, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Dabaja, Bouthaina S., E-mail: bdabaja@mdanderson.org [Department of Radiation Oncology, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States)

    2014-12-01

    Purpose: To determine the benefit of radiation therapy (RT) in resolution of neurologic symptoms and deficits and whether the type of RT fields influences central nervous system (CNS) control in adults with CNS leukemia. Methods and Materials: A total of 163 adults from 1996 to 2012 were retrospectively analyzed. Potential associations between use of radiation and outcome were investigated by univariate and multivariate analysis. Results: The median survival time was 3.8 months after RT. Common presenting symptoms were headache in 79 patients (49%), cranial nerve VII deficit in 46 (28%), and cranial nerve II deficit in 44 (27%). RT was delivered to the base of skull in 48 patients (29%), to the whole brain (WB) in 67 (41%), and to the craniospinal axis (CS) in 48 (29%). Among 149 patients with a total of 233 deficits, resolution was observed in 34 deficits (15%), improvement in 126 deficits (54%), stability in 34 deficits (15%), and progression in 39 deficits (17%). The 12-month CNS progression-free survival was 77% among those receiving CS/WB and 51% among those receiving base of skull RT (P=.02). On multivariate analysis, patients who did not undergo stem cell transplantation after RT and base of skull RT were associated with worse CNS progression-free survival. Conclusions: Improvement or resolution of symptoms occurred in two thirds of deficits after RT. Comprehensive radiation to the WB or CS seems to offer a better outcome, especially in isolated CNS involvement.

  3. Glucose, epithelium, and enteric nervous system: dialogue in the dark.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfannkuche, H; Gäbel, G

    2009-06-01

    The gastrointestinal epithelium is in close contact with the various components of the chymus, including nutrients, bacteria and toxins. The epithelial barrier has to decide which components are effectively absorbed and which components are extruded. In the small intestine, a nutrient like glucose is mainly absorbed by the sodium linked glucose cotransporter 1 (SGLT1) and the glucose transporter 2 (GLUT2). The expression and activity of both transport proteins is directly linked to the amount of intraluminal glucose. Besides the direct interaction between glucose and the enterocytes, glucose also stimulates different sensory mechanisms within the intestinal wall. The most important types of cells involved in the sensing of intraluminal contents are enteroendocrine cells and neurones of the enteric nervous system. Regarding glucosensing, a distinct type of enteroendocrine cells, the enterochromaffine (EC) cells are involved. Excitation of EC cells by intraluminal glucose results in the release of serotonin (5-HT), which modulates epithelial functions and activates enteric secretomotorneurones. Enteric neurones are not only activated by 5-HT, but also directly by glucose. The activation of different cell types and the subsequent crosstalk between these cells may trigger appropriate absorptive and secretory processes within the intestine.

  4. Central nervous system regulation of intestinal lipid and lipoprotein metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farr, Sarah; Taher, Jennifer; Adeli, Khosrow

    2016-02-01

    In response to nutrient availability, the small intestine and brain closely communicate to modulate energy homeostasis and metabolism. The gut-brain axis involves complex nutrient sensing mechanisms and an integration of neuronal and hormonal signaling. This review summarizes recent evidence implicating the gut-brain axis in regulating lipoprotein metabolism, with potential implications for the dyslipidemia of insulin resistant states. The intestine and brain possess distinct mechanisms for sensing lipid availability, which triggers subsequent regulation of feeding, glucose homeostasis, and adipose tissue metabolism. More recently, central receptors, neuropeptides, and gut hormones that communicate with the brain have been shown to modulate hepatic and intestinal lipoprotein metabolism via parasympathetic and sympathetic signaling. Gut-derived glucagon-like peptides appear to be particularly important in modulating the intestinal secretion of chylomicron particles via a novel brain-gut axis. Dysregulation of these pathways may contribute to postprandial diabetic dyslipidemia. Emerging evidence implicates the central and enteric nervous systems in controlling many aspects of lipid and lipoprotein metabolism. Bidirectional communication between the gut and brain involving neuronal pathways and gut peptides is critical for regulating feeding and metabolism, and forms a neuroendocrine circuit to modulate dietary fat absorption and intestinal production of atherogenic chylomicron particles.

  5. A Review on Central Nervous System Effects of Gastrodin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuan Liu

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Rhizoma Gastrodiae (also known as Tian ma, the dried rhizome of Gastrodia elata Blume, is a famous Chinese herb that has been traditionally used for the treatment of headache, dizziness, spasm, epilepsy, stoke, amnesia and other disorders for centuries. Gastrodin, a phenolic glycoside, is the main bioactive constituent of Rhizoma Gastrodiae. Since identified in 1978, gastrodin has been extensively investigated on its pharmacological properties. In this article, we reviewed the central nervous system (CNS effects of gastrodin in preclinical models of CNS disorders including epilepsy, Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, affective disorders, cerebral ischemia/reperfusion, cognitive impairment as well as the underlying mechanisms involved and, where possible, clinical data that support the pharmacological activities. The sources and pharmacokinetics of gastrodin were also reviewed here. As a result, gastrodin possesses a broad range of beneficial effects on the above-mentioned CNS diseases, and the mechanisms of actions include modulating neurotransmitters, antioxidative, anti-inflammatory, suppressing microglial activation, regulating mitochondrial cascades, up-regulating neurotrophins, etc. However, more detailed clinical trials are still in need for positioning it in the treatment of neurological disorders.

  6. The role of microbiome in central nervous system disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yan; Kasper, Lloyd H.

    2014-01-01

    Mammals live in a co-evolutionary association with the plethora of microorganisms that reside at a variety of tissue microenvironments. The microbiome represents the collective genomes of these co-existing microorganisms, which is shaped by host factors such as genetics and nutrients but in turn is able to influence host biology in health and disease. Niche-specific microbiome, prominently the gut microbiome, has the capacity to effect both local and distal sites within the host. The gut microbiome has played a crucial role in the bidirectional gut-brain axis that integrates the gut and central nervous system (CNS) activities, and thus the concept of microbiome-gut-brain axis is emerging. Studies are revealing how diverse forms of neuro-immune and neuro-psychiatric disorders are correlated with or modulated by variations of microbiome, microbiota-derived products and exogenous antibiotics and probiotics. The microbiome poises the peripheral immune homeostasis and predisposes host susceptibility to CNS autoimmune diseases such as multiple sclerosis. Neural, endocrine and metabolic mechanisms are also critical mediators of the microbiome-CNS signaling, which are more involved in neuro-psychiatric disorders such as autism, depression, anxiety, stress. Research on the role of microbiome in CNS disorders deepens our academic knowledge about host-microbiome commensalism in central regulation and in practicality, holds conceivable promise for developing novel prognostic and therapeutic avenues for CNS disorders. PMID:24370461

  7. Calcium signal communication in the central nervous system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braet, Katleen; Cabooter, Liesbet; Paemeleire, Koen; Leybaert, Luc

    2004-02-01

    The communication of calcium signals between cells is known to be operative between neurons where these signals integrate intimately with electrical and chemical signal communication at synapses. Recently, it has become clear that glial cells also exchange calcium signals between each other in cultures and in brain slices. This communication pathway has received utmost attention since it is known that astrocytic calcium signals can be induced by neuronal stimulation and can be communicated back to the neurons to modulate synaptic transmission. In addition to this, cells that are generally not considered as brain cells become progressively incorporated in the picture, as astrocytic calcium signals are reported to be communicated to endothelial cells of the vessel wall and can affect smooth muscle cell tone to influence the vessel diameter and thus blood flow. We review the available evidence for calcium signal communication in the central nervous system, taking into account a basic functional unit -the brain cell tripartite- consisting of neurons, glial cells and vascular cells and with emphasis on glial-vascular calcium signaling aspects.

  8. Effects of heavy particle irradiation on central nervous system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nojima, Kumie; Nakadai, Taeko; Khono, Yukio; Nagaoka, Shunji

    2004-01-01

    Effects of low dose heavy particle radiation to central nervous system were studied using mouse neonatal brain cells in culture exposed to heavy ions and X ray at fifth days of the culture. The subsequent biological effects were evaluated by an induction of apoptosis and the survivability of neurons focusing on the dependencies of the animal strains with different genetic types, and linear energy transfer (LET) of the different nucleons. Of the three mouse strains tested, SCID, B6, B6C3F1 and C3H, used for brain cell culture, SCID was the most sensitive. Radiation sensitivity of these cells ware SCID>B6>B6C3F1>C3H to both X-ray and carbon ion (290 MeV/n) when compared by 10% apoptotic induction. The LET dependency was compared with using SCID cells exposing to different ions, (X, C, Si, Ar, and Fe). Although no detectable LET dependency was observed at higher dose than 1 Gy, an enhancement was observed in the high LET region and at lower dose than 0.5 Gy. The survivability profiles of the neurons were different in the mouse strains and ions. Memory and learning function of adult mice were studied using water maze test after localized carbon- or iron-ion irradiation to hippocampus area. Memory function were rapidly decrease after irradiation both ions. C-ion group were recovered 20 weeks after irradiation, but Iron group were different. (author)

  9. Effects of heavy particle irradiation on central nervous system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nojima, Kumie; Liu Cuihua; Nagaoka, Shunji

    2003-01-01

    Effects of low dose heavy particle radiation to central nervous system were studied using mouse neonatal brain cells in culture exposed to heavy ions and X ray at fifth days of the culture. The subsequent biological effects were evaluated by an induction of apoptosis and the survivability of neurons focusing on the dependencies of the animal strains with different genetic types, and linear energy transfer (LET) of the different nucleons. Of the three mouse strains tested, severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID), B6 and C3H, used for brain cell culture, SCID was the most sensitive and C3H the least sensitive to both X-ray and carbon ion (290 MeV/n) when compared by 10% apoptotic induction. The LET dependency was compared with using SCID cells exposing to different ions, (X, C, Si, Ar, and Fe). Although no detectable LET dependency was observed at higher dose than 1 Gy, an enhancement was observed in the high LET region and at lower dose than 0.5 Gy. The survivability profiles of the neurons were different in the mouse strains and ions. Memory and learning function of adult mice were studied using water maze test after localized carbon- or iron-ion irradiation to hippocampus area. (author)

  10. Fetal central nervous system anomalies: fast MRI vs ultrasonography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Wenzhong; Xia Liming; Yang Minjie; Feng Dingyi; Hu Junwu; Zou Mingli; Wang Chengyuan; Chen Xinlin; Yang Xiaohong

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the ability of fast MRI to detect fetal central nervous system (CNS) anomalies and to compare its performance with that of prenatal ultrasonography (US). Methods Forty-eight pregnant women were detected by conventional prenatal US and MRI. Twenty-two fetuses with CNS anomalies were conformed by autopsy and follow-up. The MR and US appearances of fetal CNS structure were compared to each other and to that of autopsy. Results: A total of 26 CNS anomalies were identified by autopsy (n=17) and follow-up (n=9) including anencephaly (n=6), rachischisis (n=2), encephalocele (n=3), congenital hydrocephalus (n=7), alobar holoprosencephaly (n=1), porencephalia (n=3), arachnoid cyst (n=2) and choroids plexus cyst (n=2). US diagnosed 24 CNS anomalies, the correct diagnostic rate was 92.3%, the false-positive rate was 3.8%, the missed-diagnostic rate was 3.8%. MRI diagnosed 23 CNS anomalies, the correct-diagnostic rate was 88.5%, the false-positive rate was 3.8% ,the missed-diagnostic rate was 7.7%. There was no difference between US and MRI (P>0.05), but MRI have larger FOV, higher tissues resolution, and can demonstrate gray-white matter in detail. Conclusions: MR imaging has a similar sensitivity to that of US in the detection of fetal CNS anomalies. (authors)

  11. MRI findings of central nervous system granulocytic sarcoma (chloroma)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Chang Man; Kim, Myung Soon; Kim, Ik Soo; Cho, Kwan Soo

    1997-01-01

    To characterize MRI findings of central nervous system (CNS) granulocytic sarcoma (chloroma) and to analyse the points which differentiate it from other CNS tumors. We evaluated MRI in six patients with CNS granulocytic sarcoma proven by surgery or bone marrow biopsy (intracranical, one case and spine five cases). A 0.5T superconductive MR machine was used for diagnosis and, axial, coronal and sagittal T1- and T2-weighted spin echo images and Gd-DTPA enhanced T1-weighted images were obtained. We retrospectively analized the location, signal intensity, margin, contrast enhancement and homogeneity, and bony change around the tumor. MRI findings of CNS granulocytic sarcomas were as follows : one tumor was seen to be an extra-axial mass in the posterior fossa of the brain, four were epidural, and one was an epidural and presacral masses in the spine;tumor magins were lobulated and three were smooth. On T1-weighted images, all tumors were of isoignal intensity;on T2-weighted images, four were of isosignal intersity and two were of high signal intensity. Contrast enhancement was inhomogeneous in five of six cases. Bony change around the tumor was seen in two cases. On T1-weighted images, CNS granulocytic sarcomas (chloromas) were of isosignal intensity, relative to brain parenchyma or spinal cord;on T2-weighted images, they were of iso or high signal intensity, with relative contrast enhancement. These points could be useful in differentiating them from other CNS tumors

  12. Fractal Structure and Entropy Production within the Central Nervous System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew J. E. Seely

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Our goal is to explore the relationship between two traditionally unrelated concepts, fractal structure and entropy production, evaluating both within the central nervous system (CNS. Fractals are temporal or spatial structures with self-similarity across scales of measurement; whereas entropy production represents the necessary exportation of entropy to our environment that comes with metabolism and life. Fractals may be measured by their fractal dimension; and human entropy production may be estimated by oxygen and glucose metabolism. In this paper, we observe fractal structures ubiquitously present in the CNS, and explore a hypothetical and unexplored link between fractal structure and entropy production, as measured by oxygen and glucose metabolism. Rapid increase in both fractal structures and metabolism occur with childhood and adolescent growth, followed by slow decrease during aging. Concomitant increases and decreases in fractal structure and metabolism occur with cancer vs. Alzheimer’s and multiple sclerosis, respectively. In addition to fractals being related to entropy production, we hypothesize that the emergence of fractal structures spontaneously occurs because a fractal is more efficient at dissipating energy gradients, thus maximizing entropy production. Experimental evaluation and further understanding of limitations and necessary conditions are indicated to address broad scientific and clinical implications of this work.

  13. Microparticles: A New Perspective in Central Nervous System Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schindler, Stephanie M.; Little, Jonathan P.

    2014-01-01

    Microparticles (MPs) are a heterogeneous population of small cell-derived vesicles, ranging in size from 0.1 to 1 μm. They contain a variety of bioactive molecules, including proteins, biolipids, and nucleic acids, which can be transferred between cells without direct cell-to-cell contact. Consequently, MPs represent a novel form of intercellular communication, which could play a role in both physiological and pathological processes. Growing evidence indicates that circulating MPs contribute to the development of cancer, inflammation, and autoimmune and cardiovascular diseases. Most cell types of the central nervous system (CNS) have also been shown to release MPs, which could be important for neurodevelopment, CNS maintenance, and pathologies. In disease, levels of certain MPs appear elevated; therefore, they may serve as biomarkers allowing for the development of new diagnostic tools for detecting the early stages of CNS pathologies. Quantification and characterization of MPs could also provide useful information for making decisions on treatment options and for monitoring success of therapies, particularly for such difficult-to-treat diseases as cerebral malaria, multiple sclerosis, and Alzheimer's disease. Overall, studies on MPs in the CNS represent a novel area of research, which promises to expand the knowledge on the mechanisms governing some of the physiological and pathophysiological processes of the CNS. PMID:24860829

  14. Tertiary Lymphoid Organs in Central Nervous System Autoimmunity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meike Mitsdoerffer

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Multiple sclerosis (MS is an autoimmune disease characterized by chronic inflammation in the central nervous system (CNS, which results in permanent neuronal damage and substantial disability in patients. Autoreactive T cells are important drivers of the disease, however, the efficacy of B cell depleting therapies uncovered an essential role for B cells in disease pathogenesis. They can contribute to inflammatory processes via presentation of autoantigen, secretion of pro-inflammatory cytokines and production of pathogenic antibodies. Recently, B cell aggregates reminiscent of tertiary lymphoid organs (TLOs were discovered in the meninges of MS patients, leading to the hypothesis that differentiation and maturation of autopathogenic B and T cells may partly occur inside the CNS. Since these structures were associated with a more severe disease course, it is extremely important to gain insight into the mechanism of induction, their precise function and clinical significance. Mechanistic studies in patiens are limited. However, a few studies in the MS animal model experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE recapitulate TLO formation in the CNS and provide new insight into CNS TLO features, formation and function. This review summarizes what we know so far about CNS TLOs in MS and what we have learned about them from EAE models. It also highlights the areas that are in need of further experimental work, as we are just beginning to understand and evaluate the phenomenon of CNS TLOs.

  15. Drug/radiation interactions and central nervous system injury

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DeAngelis, L.M.; Shapiro, W.R.

    1991-01-01

    Central nervous system (CNS) injury caused by combined treatment with cranial radiation therapy (CRT) and chemotherapy is a complicated and difficult problem. Interactions between the two modalities at the cellular level, the effect of treatment sequencing, and chemotherapy and RT dosages are all poorly understood. While this is generally true and applicable to toxicities expressed in multiple organs and tissue types, it is particularly true for the brain. There are many clinical descriptions and situations that strongly implicate an enhanced neurotoxic potential for combined treatment compared to either therapy alone; there is a paucity of definitive experimental evidence, however, and few animal models that can be used to elucidate the nature and pathophysiology of this clinical association. This paper addresses the neurotoxic potential of a specific chemotherapeutic drug when combined with CRT; outlines whose drugs known to cause CNS injury when combined with CRT. Although many of the clinical situations are complicated because multiple cytotoxic agents have been used, usually only one is thought to contribute to the CNS injury. The authors discuss each drug separately

  16. Prenatal irradiation: radioinduced apoptosis in developing central nervous system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gisone, P.; Dubner, D.; Michelin, S.; Perez, M.R.; Barboza, M.

    1998-01-01

    Severe mental retardation (SMR) is the most significant effect of prenatal irradiation. The high radiosensitivity of developing brain is related with the chronology of morpho genetic phenomena regarding neuroblast proliferation, neuronal differentiation and migration, synaptogenesis and dendritic arborization. Programmed cell death (apoptosis) normally occurs during development in central nervous system (CNS). Apoptosis is a direct result of the expression of specific genes with a final common pathway leading to a characteristic DNA fragmentation pattern. A wide variety of situations and toxic agents have been reported to result in apoptotic death in developing CNS. The aim of this work was the characterization and quantification of apoptosis using an in vitro model of prenatal irradiation. Primary cell cultures from rat brain cortex of 17 days g.a. were irradiated with a gamma source, with doses between 0.2 Gy to 2 Gy. Apoptosis was evaluated 4 hours and 20 hours after irradiation by hematoxylin/eosin, fluorescent microscopy, flow cytometry and DNA electrophoresis. It was also evaluated the neuro protective effect of L-NAME, SOD and glutathion. A dose-dependent increase in apoptotic cell fraction was observed. A protector effect related with the presence of glutathion was observed. (author) [es

  17. The central nervous system manifestation and CT findings of Fabry's disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toyonaga, Kazutaka; Nishihira, Takeo

    1983-01-01

    A case of Fabry's disease with central nervous system dysfunction is reported. This 27-year-old man had recurrent episodes of pains in the extremities when he was a child. Spontaneous clinical remission occured around puberty. He had been well until age 22 when he experienced transient weakness of the left arm. The following year he developed transient blindness of the right eye. Then, he developed weakness in the extremities, dysphagia, dysarthria, and was brought to the hospital in unconscious state. Several members of his family are affected with the same disease presenting leg pains, kidney disease and angiokeratoma. Physical examination disclosed an optic atrophy, pseudobulbar palsy with spastic weakness in the all extremities and multiple angiokeratoma in the flank, buttocks and thighs. Abnormal laboratory findings included leukocytosis, increased ESR and strongly positive CRP. Biopsy of the skin disclosed dilated capilaries with numerous vacuoles in the cytoplasm of the epithelial cells. Thin-layer chromatography of the urine sediment showed a marked increase in ceramide trihexoside. Leukocyte alphagalactosidase level was abnormally low. CT scan showed diffuse cerebral atrophy and multiple low density areas in the thalamus, ventral pons and centrum semiovale. The CT findings and possible mechanism of the response to predonisolone were also discussed. (author)

  18. Neuronal degeneration in autonomic nervous system of Dystonia musculorum mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu Kang-Jen

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Dystonia musculorum (dt is an autosomal recessive hereditary neuropathy with a characteristic uncoordinated movement and is caused by a defect in the bullous pemphigoid antigen 1 (BPAG1 gene. The neural isoform of BPAG1 is expressed in various neurons, including those in the central and peripheral nerve systems of mice. However, most previous studies on neuronal degeneration in BPAG1-deficient mice focused on peripheral sensory neurons and only limited investigation of the autonomic system has been conducted. Methods In this study, patterns of nerve innervation in cutaneous and iridial tissues were examined using general neuronal marker protein gene product 9.5 via immunohistochemistry. To perform quantitative analysis of the autonomic neuronal number, neurons within the lumbar sympathetic and parasympathetic ciliary ganglia were calculated. In addition, autonomic neurons were cultured from embryonic dt/dt mutants to elucidate degenerative patterns in vitro. Distribution patterns of neuronal intermediate filaments in cultured autonomic neurons were thoroughly studied under immunocytochemistry and conventional electron microscopy. Results Our immunohistochemistry results indicate that peripheral sensory nerves and autonomic innervation of sweat glands and irises dominated degeneration in dt/dt mice. Quantitative results confirmed that the number of neurons was significantly decreased in the lumbar sympathetic ganglia as well as in the parasympathetic ciliary ganglia of dt/dt mice compared with those of wild-type mice. We also observed that the neuronal intermediate filaments were aggregated abnormally in cultured autonomic neurons from dt/dt embryos. Conclusions These results suggest that a deficiency in the cytoskeletal linker BPAG1 is responsible for dominant sensory nerve degeneration and severe autonomic degeneration in dt/dt mice. Additionally, abnormally aggregated neuronal intermediate filaments may participate in

  19. Primary Angiitis of the Central Nervous System: Magnetic Resonance Imaging Spectrum of Parenchymal, Meningeal, and Vascular Lesions at Baseline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boulouis, Grégoire; de Boysson, Hubert; Zuber, Mathieu; Guillevin, Loïc; Meary, Eric; Costalat, Vincent; Pagnoux, Christian; Naggara, Olivier

    2017-05-01

    Primary angiitis of the central nervous system remains challenging. To report an overview and pictorial review of brain magnetic resonance imaging findings in adult primary angiitis of the central nervous system and to determine the distribution of parenchymal, meningeal, and vascular lesions in a large multicentric cohort. Adult patients from the French COVAC cohort (Cohort of Patients With Primary Vasculitis of the Central Nervous System), with biopsy or angiographically proven primary angiitis of the central nervous system and brain magnetic resonance imaging available at the time of diagnosis were included. A systematic imaging review was performed blinded to clinical data. Sixty patients met inclusion criteria. Mean age was 45 years (±12.9). Patients initially presented focal deficit(s) (83%), headaches (53%), cognitive disorder (40%), and seizures (38.3%). The most common magnetic resonance imaging finding observed in 42% of patients was multiterritorial, bilateral, distal acute stroke lesions after small to medium artery distribution, with a predominant carotid circulation distribution. Hemorrhagic infarctions and parenchymal hemorrhages were also frequently found in the cohort (55%). Acute convexity subarachnoid hemorrhage was found in 26% of patients and 42% demonstrated pre-eminent leptomeningeal enhancement, which is found to be significantly more prevalent in biopsy-proven patients (60% versus 28%; P =0.04). Seven patients had tumor-like presentations. Seventy-seven percent of magnetic resonance angiographic studies were abnormal, revealing proximal/distal stenoses in 57% and 61% of patients, respectively. Adult primary angiitis of the central nervous system is a heterogenous disease, with multiterritorial, distal, and bilateral acute stroke being the most common pattern of parenchymal lesions found on magnetic resonance imaging. Our findings suggest a higher than previously thought prevalence of hemorrhagic transformation and other hemorrhagic

  20. Primary central nervous system lymphoma: is absence of intratumoral hemorrhage a characteristic finding on MRI?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakata, Akihiko; Okada, Tomohisa; Yamamoto, Akira; Kanagaki, Mitsunori; Fushimi, Yasutaka; Dodo, Toshiki; Arakawa, Yoshiki; Takahashi, Jun C; Miyamoto, Susumu; Togashi, Kaori

    2015-06-01

    Previous studies have shown that intratumoral hemorrhage is a common finding in glioblastoma multi-forme, but is rarely observed in primary central nervous system lymphoma. Our aim was to reevaluate whether intratumoral hemorrhage observed on T2-weighted imaging (T2WI) as gross intratumoral hemorrhage and on susceptibility-weighted imaging as intratumoral susceptibility signal can differentiate primary central nervous system lymphoma from glioblastoma multiforme. A retrospective cohort of brain tumors from August 2008 to March 2013 was searched, and 58 patients (19 with primary central nervous system lymphoma, 39 with glioblastoma multiforme) satisfied the inclusion criteria. Absence of gross intratumoral hemorrhage was examined on T2WI, and an intratumoral susceptibility signal was graded using a 3-point scale on susceptibility-weighted imaging. Results were compared between primary central nervous system lymphoma and glioblastoma multiforme, and values of P central nervous system lymphoma and 23 patients (59%) with glioblastoma multiforme. Absence of gross intratumoral hemorrhage could not differentiate between the two disorders (P = 0.20). However, intratumoral susceptibility signal grade 1 or 2 was diagnostic of primary central nervous system lymphoma with 78.9% sensitivity and 66.7% specificity (P central nervous system lymphoma from glioblastoma multiforme. However, specificity in this study was relatively low, and primary central nervous system lymphoma cannot be excluded based solely on the presence of an intratumoral susceptibility signal.

  1. Cardiac sympathetic nervous system imaging with (123)I-meta-iodobenzylguanidine: Perspectives from Japan and Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nakajima, K.; Scholte, A.; Nakata, T.; Dimitriu-Leen, A.C.; Chikamori, T.; Vitola, J.V.; Yoshinaga, K.

    2017-01-01

    Cardiac sympathetic nervous system dysfunction is closely associated with risk of serious cardiac events in patients with heart failure (HF), including HF progression, pump-failure death, and sudden cardiac death by lethal ventricular arrhythmia. For cardiac sympathetic nervous system imaging,

  2. International society of neuropathology-haarlem consensus guidelines for nervous system tumor classification and grading

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Louis, D.N.; Perry, A.; Burger, P.; Ellison, D.W.; Reifenberger, G.; Deimling, A. Von; Aldape, K.; Brat, D.; Collins, V.P.; Eberhart, C.; Figarella-Branger, D.; Fuller, G.N.; Giangaspero, F.; Giannini, C.; Hawkins, C.; Kleihues, P.; Korshunov, A.; Kros, J.M.; Lopes, M. Beatriz; Ng, H.K.; Ohgaki, H.; Paulus, W.; Pietsch, T.; Rosenblum, M.; Rushing, E.; Soylemezoglu, F.; Wiestler, O.; Wesseling, P.

    2014-01-01

    Major discoveries in the biology of nervous system tumors have raised the question of how non-histological data such as molecular information can be incorporated into the next World Health Organization (WHO) classification of central nervous system tumors. To address this question, a meeting of

  3. Primary central nervous system B-cell lymphoma in a young dog

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Na-Hyun; Ciesielski, Thomas; Kim, Jung H.; Yhee, Ji-Young; Im, Keum-Soon; Nam, Hae-Mi; Kim, Il-Hwan; Kim, Jong-Hyuk; Sur, Jung-Hyang

    2012-01-01

    This report describes a primary central nervous system B-cell lymphoma in a 3-year-old intact female Maltese dog. Canine primary central nervous system lymphomas constitute about 4% of all intracranial primary neoplasms, but comprehensive histopathologic classifications have rarely been carried out. This is the first report of this disease in a young adult dog. PMID:23115372

  4. 75 FR 12768 - Peripheral and Central Nervous System Drugs Advisory Committee; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-17

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration [Docket No. FDA-2010-N-0001] Peripheral and Central Nervous System Drugs Advisory Committee; Notice of Meeting AGENCY: Food and Drug...: Peripheral and Central Nervous System Drugs Advisory Committee. General Function of the Committee: To provide...

  5. Marital Conflict and Growth in Children's Internalizing Symptoms: The Role of Autonomic Nervous System Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Sheikh, Mona; Keiley, Margaret; Erath, Stephen; Dyer, W. Justin

    2013-01-01

    We assessed trajectories of children's internalizing symptoms, indexed through anxiety and depression, with a focus on the role of interactions between interparental marital conflict, children's sympathetic nervous system activity indexed by skin conductance level (SCL), and parasympathetic nervous system activity indexed by respiratory sinus…

  6. 76 FR 44595 - Peripheral and Central Nervous System Drugs Advisory Committee; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-26

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration [Docket No. FDA-2011-N-0002] Peripheral and Central Nervous System Drugs Advisory Committee; Notice of Meeting AGENCY: Food and Drug... Committee: Peripheral and Central Nervous System Drugs Advisory Committee. General Function of the Committee...

  7. 78 FR 20328 - Peripheral and Central Nervous System Drugs Advisory Committee; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-04

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration [Docket No. FDA-2013-N-0001] Peripheral and Central Nervous System Drugs Advisory Committee; Notice of Meeting AGENCY: Food and Drug...: Peripheral and Central Nervous System Drugs Advisory Committee. General Function of the Committee: To provide...

  8. 78 FR 63478 - Peripheral and Central Nervous System Drugs Advisory Committee; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-24

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration [Docket No. FDA-2013-N-0001] Peripheral and Central Nervous System Drugs Advisory Committee; Notice of Meeting AGENCY: Food and Drug...: Peripheral and Central Nervous System Drugs Advisory Committee. General Function of the Committee: To provide...

  9. 75 FR 36428 - Peripheral and Central Nervous System Drugs Advisory Committee; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-25

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration [Docket No. FDA-2010-N-0001] Peripheral and Central Nervous System Drugs Advisory Committee; Notice of Meeting AGENCY: Food and Drug...: Peripheral and Central Nervous System Drugs Advisory Committee. General Function of the Committee: To provide...

  10. 77 FR 20037 - Peripheral and Central Nervous System Drugs Advisory Committee; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-03

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration [Docket No. FDA-2012-N-0001] Peripheral and Central Nervous System Drugs Advisory Committee; Notice of Meeting AGENCY: Food and Drug...: Peripheral and Central Nervous System Drugs Advisory Committee. General Function of the Committee: To provide...

  11. MicroRNA expression in the adult mouse central nervous system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bak, Mads; Silahtaroglu, Asli; Møller, Morten

    2008-01-01

    distinct areas of the adult mouse central nervous system (CNS). Microarray profiling in combination with real-time RT-PCR and LNA (locked nucleic acid)-based in situ hybridization uncovered 44 miRNAs displaying more than threefold enrichment in the spinal cord, cerebellum, medulla oblongata, pons......RNA-related gene regulatory networks in the mammalian central nervous system. Udgivelsesdato: 2008-Mar...

  12. 76 FR 3912 - Peripheral and Central Nervous System Drugs Advisory Committee; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-21

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration [Docket No. FDA-2011-N-0002] Peripheral and Central Nervous System Drugs Advisory Committee; Notice of Meeting AGENCY: Food and Drug...: Peripheral and Central Nervous System Drugs Advisory Committee. General Function of the Committee: To provide...

  13. 75 FR 17417 - Peripheral and Central Nervous System Drugs Advisory Committee; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-06

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration [Docket No. FDA-2010-N-0001] Peripheral and Central Nervous System Drugs Advisory Committee; Notice of Meeting AGENCY: Food and Drug...: Peripheral and Central Nervous System Drugs Advisory Committee. General Function of the Committee: To provide...

  14. 78 FR 63481 - Peripheral and Central Nervous System Drugs Advisory Committee; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-24

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration [Docket No. FDA-2013-N-0001] Peripheral and Central Nervous System Drugs Advisory Committee; Notice of Meeting AGENCY: Food and Drug...: Peripheral and Central Nervous System Drugs Advisory Committee. General Function of the Committee: To provide...

  15. Of Scaredy Cats and Cold Fish: The autonomic nervous system and behaviour in young children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    B. Dierckx (Bram)

    2014-01-01

    markdownabstract__Abstract__ The autonomic nervous system regulates the body’s internal functions. The goal of this regulation is to maintain bodily homeostasis in a changing external environment. The autonomic nervous system acts largely independent of volition and controls heart rate,

  16. Explanation of diagnostic criteria for radiation-induced nervous system disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xing Zhiwei; Jiang Enhai

    2012-01-01

    National occupational health standard-Diagnostic Criteria for Radiation-Induced Nervous System Disease has been issued and implemented by the Ministry of health. This standard contained three independent criteria of the brain, spinal cord and peripheral nerve injury. These three kinds of disease often go together in clinic,therefore,the three diagnostic criteria were merged into radioactive nervous system disease diagnostic criteria for entirety and maneuverability of the standard. This standard was formulated based on collection of the clinical practice experience, extensive research of relevant literature and foreign relevant publications. It is mainly applied to diagnosis and treatment of occupational radiation-induced nervous system diseases, and to nervous system diseases caused by medical radiation exposure as well. In order to properly implement this standard, also to correctly deal with radioactive nervous system injury, the main contents of this standard including dose threshold, clinical manifestation, indexing standard and treatment principle were interpreted in this article. (authors)

  17. Central nervous system tumors: Radiologic pathologic correlation and diagnostic approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ishita Pant

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: This study was conducted to formulate location-wise radiologic diagnostic algorithms and assess their concordance with the final histopathological diagnosis so as to evaluate their utility in a rural setting where only basic facilities are available. Materials and Methods: A retrospective analysis to assess the concordance of radiology (primarily MRI with final histopathology report was done. Based on the most common incidence of tumor location and basic radiology findings, diagnostic algorithms were prepared. Results: For supratentorial intraaxial parenchymal location concordance was seen in all high-grade astrocytomas, low- and high-grade oligodendrogliomas, metastatic tumors, primitive neuroectodermal tumors, high-grade ependymomas, neuronal and mixed neuro-glial tumors and tumors of hematopoietic system. Lowest concordance was seen in low-grade astrocytomas. In the supratentorial intraaxial ventricular location, agreement was observed in choroid plexus tumors, ependymomas, low-grade astrocytomas and meningiomas; in the supratentorial extraaxial location, except for the lack of concordance in the only case of metastatic tumor, concordance was observed in meningeal tumors, tumors of the sellar region, tumors of cranial and paraspinal nerves; the infratentorial intraaxial parenchymal location showed agreement in low- as well as high-grade astrocytomas, metastatic tumors, high-grade ependymoma, embryonal tumors and hematopoietic tumors; in the infratentorial intraaxial ventricular location, except for the lack of concordance in one case of low-grade astrocytoma and two cases of medulloblastomas, agreement was observed in low- and high-grade ependymoma; infratentorial extraaxial tumors showed complete agreement in all tumors of cranial and paraspinal nerves, meningiomas, and hematopoietic tumors. Conclusion: A location-based approach to central nervous system (CNS tumors is helpful in establishing an appropriate differential diagnosis.

  18. Central nervous system pathology in pediatric AIDS: an autopsy study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickson, D W; Belman, A L; Park, Y D; Wiley, C; Horoupian, D S; Llena, J; Kure, K; Lyman, W D; Morecki, R; Mitsudo, S

    1989-01-01

    The neuropathologic findings of brains and spinal cords removed at autopsy from 26 infants and children with AIDS is described; in two cases, only the spinal cords were available. The most common finding in the brains was dystrophic calcification of blood vessels of all calibers in the basal ganglia and deep cerebral white matter (21 og 24 cases). The next most frequent finding was subacute encephalitis (SE) (15 of 24 cases) with microglial nodules and multinulceated giant cells. Immunocytochemical and in situ hybridization studies showed HIV antigen or genetic sequences only in the brains of cases with SE. Multinucleated giants cells (MGC) were the most frequent cells with reaction products. MGC were labeled with ricinus lectin (RCA), but not with leukocyte common antigen (LCA) or glial fibrillary acidic protein. Many cells in microglial nodules were labeled with RCA, but not LCA; cells in the perivascular compartment were labeled with LCA, but not RCA. Corticospinal tract degeneration was noted in 15 of 20 spinal cords. In six cases tract degeneration was consistent with delayed myelination, and the remaining cases had axonal injury consistent with Wallerian degeneration. Opportunistic infections were rare (three cases). Central nervous system lymphoma occurred in three children and was the most common mass lesion. In two cases lymphoma occurred in the setting of a systemic polyclonal immunoproliferation possibly related to Epstein-Barr virus infection. Cerebrovascular accidents were noted in seven cases. Two cases had hemorrhage associated with immune thrombocytopenia; one hemorrhage was catastrophic. Two children had large vessel arteriopathy with multiple encephalomalacias. Two children had a necrotizing encephalopathy with encephalomalacia and vascular changes suggestive of a mitochondrial cytopathy.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  19. Neuroregulatory properties of substance P in the enteric nervous system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, K.E.

    1985-01-01

    Substance P (SP) is a putative neurotransmitter in both central and peripheral nervous systems. Its presence in intrinsic neurons of the gut, combined with its potent biological effects on this tissue, suggest that endogenous SP may play a role in the physiological regulation of gastrointestinal function. SP elicits potent, atropine-resistant contractions of guinea-pig ileum which mimic the effects of high-frequency electrical field stimulation. In addition, SP-like immunoreactivity was found to be released from segments of guinea-pig ileum in a calcium-dependent fashion by electrical stimulation. A SP radioligand binding assay was developed in order to characterize SP receptors in the rat gut. 3 H-SP binds with specificity and high-affinity to membranes of rat small intestine; Scatchard plots of saturation data are curved, indicating the presence of multiple binding sites. The K/sub D/ for the high-affinity site is 0.25 nM as determined by computerized non-linear least squares analysis. Specific binding is linear with protein, dependent on temperature, and reversible. The rate constants for association and dissociation of 0.5 nm 3 H-SP are: value derived form these constants, 0.34nM, agrees well with K/sub D/ derived from Scatchard plots. The rank order of potency for various tachykinins in inhibiting 3 H-SP binding indicates that the high-affinity site is a P-type tachykinin receptor. Specific 3 H-SP binding is modulated in a dose-related fashion by guanine nucleotides; a reduction in binding is seen which can be largely attributed to an increase in the rate of dissociation of 3 H-SP in the presence of GTP. This suggests that the binding site is a receptor linked to an effector system by a GTP-binding protein

  20. Lost among the trees? The autonomic nervous system and paediatrics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rees, Corinne A

    2014-06-01

    The autonomic nervous system (ANS) has been strikingly neglected in Western medicine. Despite its profound importance for regulation, adjustment and coordination of body systems, it lacks priority in training and practice and receives scant attention in numerous major textbooks. The ANS is integral to manifestations of illness, underlying familiar physical and psychological symptoms. When ANS activity is itself dysfunctional, usual indicators of acute illness may prove deceptive. Recognising the relevance of the ANS can involve seeing the familiar through fresh eyes, challenging assumptions in clinical assessment and in approaches to practice. Its importance extends from physical and psychological well-being to parenting and safeguarding, public services and the functioning of society. Exploration of its role in conditions ranging from neurological, gastrointestinal and connective tissue disorders, diabetes and chronic fatigue syndrome, to autism, behavioural and mental health difficulties may open therapeutic avenues. The ANS offers a mechanism for so-called functional illnesses and illustrates the importance of recognising that 'stress' takes many forms, physical, psychological and environmental, desirable and otherwise. Evidence of intrauterine and post-natal programming of ANS reactivity suggests that neonatal care and safeguarding practice may offer preventive opportunity, as may greater understanding of epigenetic change of ANS activity through, for example, accidental or psychological trauma or infection. The aim of this article is to accelerate recognition of the importance of the ANS throughout paediatrics, and of the potential physical and psychological cost of neglecting it. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  1. Central nervous system imaging in childhood Langerhans cell histiocytosis – a reference center analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Porto, Luciana; Schöning, Stefan; Hattingen, Elke; Sörensen, Jan; Jurcoane, Alina; Lehrnbecher, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    The aim of our study was (1) to describe central nervous system (CNS) manifestations in children with Langerhans cell histiocytosis (LCH) based on images sent to a reference center and meeting minimum requirements and (2) to assess the inter-rater agreement of CNS-MRI results, which represents the overall reproducibility of this investigation. We retrospectively reviewed brain MRI examinations in children with LCH, for which MRI minimum requirements were met. Abnormalities were rated by two experienced neuroradiologists, and the inter-rater agreement was assessed. Out of a total of 94 imaging studies, only 31 MRIs met the minimum criteria, which included T2w, FLAIR, T1w images before/after contrast in at least two different section planes, and thin post contrast sagittal slices T1w through the sella. The most common changes were osseous abnormalities, followed by solid enlargement of the pineal gland, thickened enhancing stalk and signal changes of the dentate nucleus. Whereas inter-rater agreement in assessing most of the CNS lesions was relatively high (κ > 0.61), the application of minimum criteria often did not allow to evaluate the posterior pituitary. The diversity of radiological protocols from different institutions leads to difficulties in the diagnosis of CNS abnormalities in children with LCH. Although the inter-rater agreement between neuroradiologists was high, not all the LCH manifestations could be completely ruled out when using the minimum criteria. Brain MRIs should therefore follow LCH guideline protocols and include T1 pre-gadolinium sagittal images, and be centrally reviewed in order to improve the comparison of clinical trials

  2. Central nervous system abnormalities on midline facial defects with hypertelorism detected by magnetic resonance image and computed tomography Anomalias de sistema nervoso central em defeitos de linha média facial com hipertelorismo detectados por ressonância magnética e tomografia computadorizada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vera Lúcia Gil-da-Silva-Lopes

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study were to describe and to compare structural central nervous system (CNS anomalies detected by magnetic resonance image (MRI and computed tomography (CT in individuals affected by midline facial defects with hypertelorism (MFDH isolated or associated with multiple congenital anomalies (MCA. The investigation protocol included dysmorphological examination, skull and facial X-rays, brain CT and/or MRI. We studied 24 individuals, 12 of them had an isolated form (Group I and the others, MCA with unknown etiology (Group II. There was no significative difference between Group I and II and the results are presented in set. In addition to the several CNS anomalies previously described, MRI (n=18 was useful for detection of neuronal migration errors. These data suggested that structural CNS anomalies and MFDH seem to have an intrinsic embryological relationship, which should be taken in account during the clinical follow-up.Este estudo objetivou descrever e comparar as anomalias estruturais do sistema nervoso central (SNC detectadas por meio de ressonância magnética (RM e tomografia computadorizada (TC de crânio em indivíduos com defeitos de linha média facial com hipertelorismo (DLMFH isolados ou associados a anomalias congênitas múltiplas (ACM. O protocolo de investigação incluiu exame dismorfológico, RX de crânio e face, CT e RM de crânio. Foram estudados 24 indivíduos, sendo que 12 apresentavam a forma isolada (Grupo I e os demais, DLMFH com ACM de etiologia não esclarecida (Grupo II. Não houve diferença entre os dois grupos e os resultados foram agrupados. Além de várias anomalias de SNC já descritas, a RM foi útil para detecção de erros de migração neuronal. Os dados sugerem que as alterações estruturais de SNC e os DLMFH têm relação embriológica, o que deve ser levado em conta durante o seguimento clínico.

  3. Autonomic nervous system mediated effects of food intake. Interaction between gastrointestinal and cardiovascular systems.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Orshoven, N.P.

    2008-01-01

    The studies presented in this thesis focused on the autonomic nervous system mediated interactions between the gastrointestinal and cardiovascular systems in response to food intake and on potential consequences of failure of these interactions. The effects of food intake on cardiovascular

  4. Extrarenal rhabdoid tumours outside the central nervous system in infancy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garces-Inigo, Enrique F. [Great Ormond Street Hospital for Children, Department of Radiology, London (United Kingdom); Complejo Hospitalario Universitario de Albacete, Radiology Department, Hermanos Falco, Albacete (Spain); Leung, Rebecca; McHugh, Kieran [Great Ormond Street Hospital for Children, Department of Radiology, London (United Kingdom); Sebire, Neil J. [Great Ormond Street Hospital for Children, Department of Histopathology, London (United Kingdom)

    2009-08-15

    Malignant rhabdoid tumours (RT) are increasingly recognized in young children, probably as a consequence of advances in accurate histological diagnosis rather than a true increase in frequency. Although typically presenting as renal tumours in infancy, extrarenal tumours outside the central nervous system (CNS) in children less than 12 months of age are now well recognized, but previous literature on their imaging features is very limited. To demonstrate the imaging features of extrarenal RTs outside the CNS. A retrospective database review was made from 1989 to 2007 of patients diagnosed with extrarenal RT in infancy, i.e. below 12 months of age. There were nine patients (six boys and three girls). The age at presentation varied from 1 to 11 months (average 6 months). Tumours were located in the thorax/mediastinum (n=3), liver (n=3), neck (n=1), shoulder (n=1) and axilla (n=1). The imaging modalities used included US (n=8), CT (n=7) and MRI (n=6). Bone scan was positive in one patient, while metastases at the time of diagnosis occurred in four patients. On MRI the tumours tended to show nonspecific hypointensity on T1-W images and heterogeneous hyperintensity on T2-W images, with heterogeneous enhancement. This is the largest radiological series of extrarenal RTs outside the CNS in infancy. In our series no imaging features were found specific to the diagnosis. A tendency towards large size and mediastinal/paravertebral location were noted. A hypodense solid component on CT and a heterogeneous hyperintensity on T2-W MR images suggest that this tumour should be considered in the routine differential diagnosis of soft-tissue tumours in infancy, in addition to rhabdomyosarcoma. (orig.)

  5. Idiopathic inflammatory-demyelinating diseases of the central nervous system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rovira Canellas, A. [Vall d' Hebron University Hospital, Magnetic Resonance Unit (I.D.I.), Department of Radiology, Barcelona (Spain); Rovira Gols, A. [Parc Tauli University Institute - UAB, UDIAT, Diagnostic Centre, Sabadell (Spain); Rio Izquierdo, J.; Tintore Subirana, M.; Montalban Gairin, X. [Vall d' Hebron University Hospital, Neuroimmunology Unit, Department of Neurology, Barcelona (Spain)

    2007-05-15

    Idiopathic inflammatory-demyelinating diseases (IIDDs) include a broad spectrum of central nervous system disorders that can usually be differentiated on the basis of clinical, imaging, laboratory and pathological findings. However, there can be a considerable overlap between at least some of these disorders, leading to misdiagnoses or diagnostic uncertainty. The relapsing-remitting and secondary progressive forms of multiple sclerosis (MS) are the most common IIDDs. Other MS phenotypes include those with a progressive course from onset (primary progressive and progressive relapsing) or with a benign course continuing for years after onset (benign MS). Uncommon forms of IIDDs can be classified clinically into: (1) fulminant or acute IIDDs, such as the Marburg variant of MS, Balo's concentric sclerosis, Schilder's disease, and acute disseminated encephalomyelitis; (2) monosymptomatic IIDDs, such as those involving the spinal cord (transverse myelitis), optic nerve (optic neuritis) or brainstem and cerebellum; and (3) IIDDs with a restricted topographical distribution, including Devic's neuromyelitis optica, recurrent optic neuritis and relapsing transverse myelitis. Other forms of IIDD, which are classified clinically and radiologically as pseudotumoral, can have different forms of presentation and clinical courses. Although some of these uncommon IIDDs are variants of MS, others probably correspond to different entities. MR imaging of the brain and spine is the imaging technique of choice for diagnosing these disorders, and together with the clinical and laboratory findings can accurately classify them. Precise classification of these disorders may have relevant prognostic and treatment implications, and might be helpful in distinguishing them from tumoral or infectious lesions, avoiding unnecessary aggressive diagnostic or therapeutic procedures. (orig.)

  6. Hox gene regulation in the central nervous system of Drosophila

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maheshwar eGummalla

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Hox genes specify the structures that form along the anteroposterior (AP axis of bilateria. Within the genome, they often form clusters where, remarkably enough, their position within the clusters reflects the relative positions of the structures they specify along the AP axis. This correspondence between genomic organization and gene expression pattern has been conserved through evolution and provides a unique opportunity to study how chromosomal context affects gene regulation. In Drosophila, a general rule, often called posterior dominance, states that Hox genes specifying more posterior structures repress the expression of more anterior Hox genes. This rule explains the apparent spatial complementarity of Hox gene expression patterns in Drosophila. Here we review a noticeable exception to this rule where the more-posteriorly expressed Abd-B hox gene fails to repress the more-anterior abd-A gene in cells of the central nervous system (CNS. While Abd-B is required to repress ectopic expression of abd-A in the posterior epidermis, abd-A repression in the posterior CNS is accomplished by a different mechanism that involves a large 92kb long non-coding RNA (lncRNA encoded by the intergenic region separating abd-A and Abd-B (the iab8ncRNA. Dissection of this lncRNA revealed that abd-A is repressed by the lncRNA using two redundant mechanisms. The 1st mechanism is mediated by a microRNA (mir-iab-8 encoded by intronic sequence within the large iab8-ncRNA. Meanwhile, the second mechanism seems to involve transcriptional interference by the long iab-8 ncRNA on the abd-A promoter. Recent work demonstrating CNS-specific regulation of genes by ncRNAs in Drosophila, seem to highlight a potential role for the iab-8-ncRNA in the evolution of the Drosophila hox complexes

  7. Idiopathic inflammatory-demyelinating diseases of the central nervous system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rovira Canellas, A.; Rovira Gols, A.; Rio Izquierdo, J.; Tintore Subirana, M.; Montalban Gairin, X.

    2007-01-01

    Idiopathic inflammatory-demyelinating diseases (IIDDs) include a broad spectrum of central nervous system disorders that can usually be differentiated on the basis of clinical, imaging, laboratory and pathological findings. However, there can be a considerable overlap between at least some of these disorders, leading to misdiagnoses or diagnostic uncertainty. The relapsing-remitting and secondary progressive forms of multiple sclerosis (MS) are the most common IIDDs. Other MS phenotypes include those with a progressive course from onset (primary progressive and progressive relapsing) or with a benign course continuing for years after onset (benign MS). Uncommon forms of IIDDs can be classified clinically into: (1) fulminant or acute IIDDs, such as the Marburg variant of MS, Balo's concentric sclerosis, Schilder's disease, and acute disseminated encephalomyelitis; (2) monosymptomatic IIDDs, such as those involving the spinal cord (transverse myelitis), optic nerve (optic neuritis) or brainstem and cerebellum; and (3) IIDDs with a restricted topographical distribution, including Devic's neuromyelitis optica, recurrent optic neuritis and relapsing transverse myelitis. Other forms of IIDD, which are classified clinically and radiologically as pseudotumoral, can have different forms of presentation and clinical courses. Although some of these uncommon IIDDs are variants of MS, others probably correspond to different entities. MR imaging of the brain and spine is the imaging technique of choice for diagnosing these disorders, and together with the clinical and laboratory findings can accurately classify them. Precise classification of these disorders may have relevant prognostic and treatment implications, and might be helpful in distinguishing them from tumoral or infectious lesions, avoiding unnecessary aggressive diagnostic or therapeutic procedures. (orig.)

  8. Citation classics in central nervous system inflammatory demyelinating disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jee-Eun; Park, Kang M; Kim, Yerim; Yoon, Dae Y; Bae, Jong S

    2017-06-01

    To identify and analyze the characteristics of the most influential articles about central nervous system (CNS) inflammatory demyelinating disease. The Institute for Scientific Information (ISI) Web of Science database and the 2014 Journal Citation Reports Science Edition were used to retrieve the top 100 cited articles on CNS inflammatory demyelinating disease. The citation numbers, journals, years of publication, authorships, article types, subjects and main issues were analyzed. For neuromyelitis optica (NMO), articles that were cited more than 100 times were regarded as a citation classic and described separately. The top 100 cited articles were published between 1972 and 2011 in 13 journals. The highest number of articles ( n  = 24) was published in Brain, followed by The New England Journal of Medicine ( n  = 21). The average number of citations was 664 (range 330-3,897), and 64% of the articles were from the United States and the United Kingdom. The majority of the top 100 cited articles were related to multiple sclerosis ( n  = 87), and only a few articles reported on other topics such as NMO ( n  = 9), acute disseminated encephalomyelitis ( n  = 2) and optic neuritis ( n  = 2). Among the top 100 cited articles, 77% were original articles. Forty-one citation classics were found for NMO. Our study provides a historical perspective on the research progress on CNS inflammatory demyelinating disease and may serve as a guide for important advances and trends in the field for associated researchers.

  9. Mechanisms of magnetic stimulation of central nervous system neurons.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamar Pashut

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS is a stimulation method in which a magnetic coil generates a magnetic field in an area of interest in the brain. This magnetic field induces an electric field that modulates neuronal activity. The spatial distribution of the induced electric field is determined by the geometry and location of the coil relative to the brain. Although TMS has been used for several decades, the biophysical basis underlying the stimulation of neurons in the central nervous system (CNS is still unknown. To address this problem we developed a numerical scheme enabling us to combine realistic magnetic stimulation (MS with compartmental modeling of neurons with arbitrary morphology. The induced electric field for each location in space was combined with standard compartmental modeling software to calculate the membrane current generated by the electromagnetic field for each segment of the neuron. In agreement with previous studies, the simulations suggested that peripheral axons were excited by the spatial gradients of the induced electric field. In both peripheral and central neurons, MS amplitude required for action potential generation was inversely proportional to the square of the diameter of the stimulated compartment. Due to the importance of the fiber's diameter, magnetic stimulation of CNS neurons depolarized the soma followed by initiation of an action potential in the initial segment of the axon. Passive dendrites affect this process primarily as current sinks, not sources. The simulations predict that neurons with low current threshold are more susceptible to magnetic stimulation. Moreover, they suggest that MS does not directly trigger dendritic regenerative mechanisms. These insights into the mechanism of MS may be relevant for the design of multi-intensity TMS protocols, may facilitate the construction of magnetic stimulators, and may aid the interpretation of results of TMS of the CNS.

  10. Phenotypic expression in the developing murine enteric nervous system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rothman, T.P.; Gershon, M.D.

    1982-01-01

    The development of the enteric nervous system was examined in fetal mice. Synthesis of [3H] acetylcholine ([3H]ACh) from [3H]choline and acetylcholinesterase histochemistry were used as phenotypic markers for cholinergic neurons, while the radioautographic detection of the specific uptake of [3H]serotonin (5-[3H]HT) and immunocytochemical staining with antiserum to 5-HT marked serotonergic neurons. The gut also was examined by light and electron microscopy. Development of the gut was studied in situ and in explants grown in organotypic tissue culture. Neurons were first detected morphologically in the foregut on embryonic day 12 (E12). Synthesis of [3H]ACh was detectable on days E10 to E12 but increased markedly between days E13 and E14. Uptake and radioautographic labeling by 5-[3H]HT was seen first in the foregut on day E12, in the colon on day E13, and in the terminal colon on day E14. Gut explanted from both distal and proximal bowel prior to the time when neurons could be detected (days E9 to E11) nevertheless formed neurons in culture. These cultures of early explants displayed markers for both cholinergic and serotonergic neurons. Enhances development of both cholinergic and serotonergic neurons was found in cultures explanted at day E11 over that found in cultures explanted on days E9 or E10. The evidence presented indicates (1) that enteric neurons develop from nonrecognizable precursors, (2) that the proximodistal gradient in neuronal phenotypic expression probably is not related to a proximodistal migration of precursor cells down the gut, (3) that the colonization of the bowel by neuronal precursors may be a prolonged process continuing from day E9 at least through day E11, (4) that the first pool of neuronal primordia to colonize the developing bowel can produce both cholinergic and serotonergic neurons

  11. Staphylococcus aureus Central Nervous System Infections in Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vallejo, Jesus G; Cain, Alexandra N; Mason, Edward O; Kaplan, Sheldon L; Hultén, Kristina G

    2017-10-01

    Central nervous system (CNS) infections caused by Staphylococcus aureus are uncommon in pediatric patients. We review the epidemiology, clinical features and treatment in 68 patients with a S. aureus CNS infection evaluated at Texas Children's Hospital. Cases of CNS infection in children with positive cerebrospinal fluid cultures or spinal epidural abscess (SEA) for S. aureus at Texas Children's Hospital from 2001 to 2013 were reviewed. Seventy cases of S. aureus CNS infection occurred in 68 patients. Forty-nine cases (70%) were secondary to a CNS device, 5 (7.1%) were postoperative meningitis, 9 (12.8%) were hematogenous meningitis and 7 (10%) were SEAs. Forty-seven (67.2%) were caused by methicillin-sensitive S. aureus (MSSA) and 23 (32.8%) by methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA). Community-acquired infections were more often caused by MRSA that was clone USA300/pvl. Most patients were treated with nafcillin (MSSA) or vancomycin (MRSA) with or without rifampin. Among patients with MRSA infection, 50% had a serum vancomycin trough obtained with the median level being 10.6 μg/mL (range: 5.4-15.7 μg/mL). Only 1 death was associated with S. aureus infection. The epidemiology of invasive of S. aureus infections continues to evolve with MSSA accounting for most of the infections in this series. The majority of cases were associated with neurosurgical procedures; however, hematogenous S. aureus meningitis and SEA occurred as community-acquired infections in patients without predisposing factors. Patients with MRSA CNS infections had a favorable response to vancomycin, but the beneficial effect of combination therapy or targeting vancomycin trough concentrations of 15-20 μg/mL remains unclear.

  12. Craniotomy and Survival for Primary Central Nervous System Lymphoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rae, Ali I; Mehta, Amol; Cloney, Michael; Kinslow, Connor J; Wang, Tony J C; Bhagat, Govind; Canoll, Peter D; Zanazzi, George J; Sisti, Michael B; Sheth, Sameer A; Connolly, E Sander; McKhann, Guy M; Bruce, Jeffrey N; Iwamoto, Fabio M; Sonabend, Adam M

    2018-04-04

    Cytoreductive surgery is considered controversial for primary central nervous system lymphoma (PCNSL). To investigate survival following craniotomy or biopsy for PCNSL. The National Cancer Database-Participant User File (NCDB, n = 8936), Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results Program (SEER, n = 4636), and an institutional series (IS, n = 132) were used. We retrospectively investigated the relationship between craniotomy, prognostic factors, and survival for PCNSL using case-control design.  In NCDB, craniotomy was associated with increased median survival over biopsy (19.5 vs 11.0 mo), independent of subsequent radiation and chemotherapy (hazard ratio [HR] 0.80, P < .001). We found a similar trend with survival for craniotomy vs biopsy in the IS (HR 0.68, P = .15). In SEER, gross total resection was associated with increased median survival over biopsy (29 vs 10 mo, HR 0.68, P < .001). The survival benefit associated with craniotomy was greater within recursive partitioning analysis (RPA) class 1 group in NCDB (95.1 vs 29.1 mo, HR 0.66, P < .001), but was smaller for RPA 2-3 (14.9 vs 10.0 mo, HR 0.86, P < .001). A surgical risk category (RC) considering lesion location and number, age, and frailty was developed. Craniotomy was associated with increased survival vs biopsy for patients with low RC (133.4 vs 41.0 mo, HR 0.33, P = .01), but not high RC in the IS. Craniotomy is associated with increased survival over biopsy for PCNSL in 3 retrospective datasets. Prospective studies are necessary to adequately evaluate this relationship. Such studies should evaluate patients most likely to benefit from cytoreductive surgery, ie, those with favorable RPA and RC.

  13. Mechanisms of magnetic stimulation of central nervous system neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pashut, Tamar; Wolfus, Shuki; Friedman, Alex; Lavidor, Michal; Bar-Gad, Izhar; Yeshurun, Yosef; Korngreen, Alon

    2011-03-01

    Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) is a stimulation method in which a magnetic coil generates a magnetic field in an area of interest in the brain. This magnetic field induces an electric field that modulates neuronal activity. The spatial distribution of the induced electric field is determined by the geometry and location of the coil relative to the brain. Although TMS has been used for several decades, the biophysical basis underlying the stimulation of neurons in the central nervous system (CNS) is still unknown. To address this problem we developed a numerical scheme enabling us to combine realistic magnetic stimulation (MS) with compartmental modeling of neurons with arbitrary morphology. The induced electric field for each location in space was combined with standard compartmental modeling software to calculate the membrane current generated by the electromagnetic field for each segment of the neuron. In agreement with previous studies, the simulations suggested that peripheral axons were excited by the spatial gradients of the induced electric field. In both peripheral and central neurons, MS amplitude required for action potential generation was inversely proportional to the square of the diameter of the stimulated compartment. Due to the importance of the fiber's diameter, magnetic stimulation of CNS neurons depolarized the soma followed by initiation of an action potential in the initial segment of the axon. Passive dendrites affect this process primarily as current sinks, not sources. The simulations predict that neurons with low current threshold are more susceptible to magnetic stimulation. Moreover, they suggest that MS does not directly trigger dendritic regenerative mechanisms. These insights into the mechanism of MS may be relevant for the design of multi-intensity TMS protocols, may facilitate the construction of magnetic stimulators, and may aid the interpretation of results of TMS of the CNS.

  14. Role of the autonomic nervous system in rat liver regeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Cunshuan; Zhang, Xinsheng; Wang, Gaiping; Chang, Cuifang; Zhang, Lianxing; Cheng, Qiuyan; Lu, Ailing

    2011-05-01

    To study the regulatory role of autonomic nervous system in rat regenerating liver, surgical operations of rat partial hepatectomy (PH) and its operation control (OC), sympathectomy combining partial hepatectomy (SPH), vagotomy combining partial hepatectomy (VPH), and total liver denervation combining partial hepatectomy (TDPH) were performed, then expression profiles of regenerating livers at 2 h after operation were detected using Rat Genome 230 2.0 array. It was shown that the expressions of 97 genes in OC, 230 genes in PH, 253 genes in SPH, 187 genes in VPH, and 177 genes in TDPH were significantly changed in biology. The relevance analysis showed that in SPH, genes involved in stimulus response, immunity response, amino acids and K(+) transport, amino acid catabolism, cell adhesion, cell proliferation mediated by JAK-STAT, Ca(+), and platelet-derived growth factor receptor, cell growth and differentiation through JAK-STAT were up-regulated, while the genes involved in chromatin assembly and disassembly, and cell apoptosis mediated by MAPK were down-regulated. In VPH, the genes associated with chromosome modification-related transcription factor, oxygen transport, and cell apoptosis mediated by MAPK pathway were up-regulated, but the genes associated with amino acid catabolism, histone acetylation-related transcription factor, and cell differentiation mediated by Wnt pathway were down-regulated. In TDPH, the genes related to immunity response, growth and development of regenerating liver, cell growth by MAPK pathway were up-regulated. Our data suggested that splanchnic and vagal nerves could regulate the expressions of liver regeneration-related genes.

  15. Central nervous system activity of Illicium verum fruit extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chouksey, Divya; Upmanyu, Neeraj; Pawar, R S

    2013-11-01

    To research the acute toxicity of Illicium verum (I. verum) fruit extracts and its action on central nervous system. The TLC and HPTLC techniques were used as fingerprints to determine the chemical components present in I. verum. Male albino rats and mice were utilized for study. The powdered material was successively extracted with n-hexane, ethyl acetate and methanol using a Soxhlet extractor. Acute toxicity studies were performed as per OECD guidelines. The CNS activity was evaluated on parameters of general behavior, sleeping pattern, locomotor activity, anxiety and myocoordination activity. The animals were trained for seven days prior to experiments and the divided into five groups with six animals in each. The drug was administered by intraperitoneal route according to body weight. The dosing was done as prescribed in each protocol. Toxicity studies reported 2 000 mg/kg as toxicological dose and 1/10 of the same dose was taken as therapeutic dose Intraperitoneal injection of all extracts at dose of 200 mg prolonged phenobarbitone induced sleeping time, produced alteration in general behavior pattern, reduced locomotor activity and produced anxiolytic effects but the extracts do not significantly alter muscles coordination activity. The three extracts of I. verum at the dose of 200 mg, methanol extract was found to produce more prominent effects, then hexane and ethylacetate extracts. The observation suggested that the extracts of I. verum possess potent CNS depressant action and anxiolytic effect without interfering with motor coordination. Copyright © 2013 Hainan Medical College. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Anxiety, depression and autonomic nervous system dysfunction in hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bajkó, Zoltán; Szekeres, Csilla-Cecília; Kovács, Katalin Réka; Csapó, Krisztina; Molnár, Sándor; Soltész, Pál; Nyitrai, Erika; Magyar, Mária Tünde; Oláh, László; Bereczki, Dániel; Csiba, László

    2012-06-15

    This study examined the relationship between autonomic nervous system dysfunction, anxiety and depression in untreated hypertension. 86 newly diagnosed hypertensive patients and 98 healthy volunteers were included in the study. The psychological parameters were assessed with Spielberger State-Trait Anxiety Inventory and Beck Depression Inventory by a skilled psychologist. Autonomic parameters were examined during tilt table examination (10min lying position, 10min passive tilt). Heart rate variability (HRV) was calculated by autoregressive methods. Baroreflex sensitivity (BRS) was calculated by non-invasive sequence method from the recorded beat to beat blood pressure values and RR intervals. Significantly higher state (42.6±9.3 vs. 39.6±10.7 p=0.05) and trait (40.1±8.9 vs. 35.1±8.6, p<0.0001) anxiety scores were found in the hypertension group. There was no statistically significant difference in the depression level. LF-RRI (Low Frequency-RR interval) of HRV in passive tilt (377.3±430.6 vs. 494.1±547, p=0.049) and mean BRS slope (11.4±5.5 vs. 13.2±6.4, p=0.07) in lying position were lower in hypertensives. Trait anxiety score correlates significantly with sympatho/vagal balance (LF/HF-RRI) in passive tilt position (Spearman R=-0.286, p=0.01). Anxiety could play a more important role than depression in the development of hypertension. Altered autonomic control of the heart could be one of the pathophysiological links between hypertension and psychological factors. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Sperm protein 17 is expressed in human nervous system tumours

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grizzi, Fabio; Baena, Riccardo Rodriguez y; Dioguardi, Nicola; Chiriva-Internati, Maurizio; Gaetani, Paolo; Franceschini, Barbara; Di Ieva, Antonio; Colombo, Piergiuseppe; Ceva-Grimaldi, Giorgia; Bollati, Angelo; Frezza, Eldo E; Cobos, E

    2006-01-01

    Human sperm protein 17 (Sp17) is a highly conserved protein that was originally isolated from a rabbit epididymal sperm membrane and testis membrane pellet. It has recently been included in the cancer/testis (CT) antigen family, and shown to be expressed in multiple myeloma and ovarian cancer. We investigated its immunolocalisation in specimens of nervous system (NS) malignancies, in order to establish its usefulness as a target for tumour-vaccine strategies. The expression of Sp17 was assessed by means of a standardised immunohistochemical procedure [(mAb/antigen) MF1/Sp17] in formalin-fixed and paraffin embedded surgical specimens of NS malignancies, including 28 neuroectodermal primary tumours (6 astrocytomas, 16 glioblastoma multiforme, 5 oligodendrogliomas, and 1 ependymoma), 25 meningeal tumours, and five peripheral nerve sheath tumours (4 schwannomas, and 1 neurofibroma),. A number of neuroectodermal (21%) and meningeal tumours (4%) were found heterogeneously immunopositive for Sp17. None of the peripheral nerve sheath tumours was immunopositive for Sp17. The expression pattern was heterogeneous in all of the positive samples, and did not correlate with the degree of malignancy. The frequency of expression and non-uniform cell distribution of Sp17 suggest that it cannot be used as a unique immunotherapeutic target in NS cancer. However, our results do show the immunolocalisation of Sp17 in a proportion of NS tumour cells, but not in their non-pathological counterparts. The emerging complex function of Sp17 makes further studies necessary to clarify the link between it and immunopositive cells

  18. Current opinions on radiotherapy of pediatric central nervous system tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chojnacka, M.; Skowronska-Gardas, A.

    2006-01-01

    Primary central nervous system (CNS) neoplasms are the most frequent solid tumors in childhood accounting for 20% of all pediatric malignancies. Despite developments in neurosurgery, radiotherapy and chemotherapy, a significant proportion of these patients suffer progressive disease. A good treatment management strategy should consider not only survival but also the quality of life of the child. Irradiation is ann essential part of the management of the majority of CNS tumors. During then last decade, there significant advances in the technology of planning and delivery of radiation treatment. These new radiotherapy techniques such as conformal, intensity modulated photon beam and stereotactic methods allow a high homogenous dose to the tumor region with minimal doses to normal tissue. This is particularly important in children with localized low-grade tumors, whose prognosis of long-term survival is often excellent and should be accompanied by smallest risk of treatment toxicity. For small tumors fractionated radiotherapy stereotactic radiotherapy using multiple fixed non-coplanar beams is an appropriate treatment. Modification of craniospinal technique, lowering of the total craniospinal dose with adjuvant chemotherapy, new radiotherapy modalities to treat the posterior fossa may be employed to possibly decrease the late rectifies of radiation therapy. For malignant glioma and brain stem tumors we need new approaches, as chemo sensitization, angiogenesis inhibitors and gene therapies. These new methods in therapy of pediatric brain tumors and our experience in treatment of children with medulloblastoma, low-grade astrocytoma, craniopharyngioma and brain stem tumors are presented. We summarize therapeutic aspects of most childhood brain tumors. (author)

  19. Interaction of Plant Extracts with Central Nervous System Receptors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenneth Lundstrom

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Plant extracts have been used in traditional medicine for the treatment of various maladies including neurological diseases. Several central nervous system receptors have been demonstrated to interact with plant extracts and components affecting the pharmacology and thereby potentially playing a role in human disease and treatment. For instance, extracts from Hypericum perforatum (St. John’s wort targeted several CNS receptors. Similarly, extracts from Piper nigrum, Stephania cambodica, and Styphnolobium japonicum exerted inhibition of agonist-induced activity of the human neurokinin-1 receptor. Methods: Different methods have been established for receptor binding and functional assays based on radioactive and fluorescence-labeled ligands in cell lines and primary cell cultures. Behavioral studies of the effect of plant extracts have been conducted in rodents. Plant extracts have further been subjected to mood and cognition studies in humans. Results: Mechanisms of action at molecular and cellular levels have been elucidated for medicinal plants in support of standardization of herbal products and identification of active extract compounds. In several studies, plant extracts demonstrated affinity to a number of CNS receptors in parallel indicating the complexity of this interaction. In vivo studies showed modifications of CNS receptor affinity and behavioral responses in animal models after treatment with medicinal herbs. Certain plant extracts demonstrated neuroprotection and enhanced cognitive performance, respectively, when evaluated in humans. Noteworthy, the penetration of plant extracts and their protective effect on the blood-brain-barrier are discussed. Conclusion: The affinity of plant extracts and their isolated compounds for CNS receptors indicates an important role for medicinal plants in the treatment of neurological disorders. Moreover, studies in animal and human models have confirmed a scientific basis for the

  20. Progress in study on central nervous system injuries caused by obstructive sleep apnea syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ZHAO Xiang-xiang

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Chronic and repetitive intermittent hypoxia and dysfunction of sleep architecture mainly contribute to obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS. More and more evidences demonstrate it is a systemic disease, which is common encountered in clinic and strongly related to the systemic lesion of central nervous system. The central nervous system complications comprise cognitive impairment, brain atrophy and the growing risk of stroke and so on. Early treatment for OSAS has a positive significance on complications of central nervous system, and even the damage can be completely reversed.

  1. Materials directed to implants for repairing Central Nervous System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Canillas, M.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Central Nervous System (CNS can be damaged by a wide range of injuries and disorders which entail permanent disability in some cases. Moreover, CNS repairing process presents some complications. The natural repair mechanism, which consists on the glial scar formation, is triggered by the inflammatory process. Molecules delivered during these processes, inflammation and glial scar formation as well as oxygen and glucose deficiencies due to the injury, create an inhibitory environment for axon regeneration and remyelination which is known as “secondary injury”. Biomaterials are taking up an even more important role in repairing CNS. Physicochemical properties of some ceramic materials have inspired different applications to repair CNS as substrates, electrodes or molecule vehicles. Based on their biocompatibility, capability to neutralize reactive species involved in the inflammatory processes and their versatile processing to obtain scaffolds with different shapes and sizes, ceramics are a succulent offer in nervous tissue engineering. Furthermore, their possibilities have been increased with polymeric-ceramics composites development, which have given rise to new interesting horizon.Existen diferentes tipos de lesiones o desordenes del Sistema Nervioso Central (SNC que pueden provocar graves secuelas e incluso en algunos casos una discapacidad permanente. Además, el proceso de reparación del SNC tiene algunas complicaciones. El mecanismo natural de reacción a una lesión, el cual consiste en la formación de una cicatriz glial, es desencadenado por un proceso inflamatorio. Las moléculas liberadas durante estos procesos, la inflamación y formación de la cicatriz glial, así como la deficiencia en oxígeno y glucosa debidos a la lesión, crean un ambiente que inhibe la regeneración axonal creando la llamada “lesión secundaria”. Los biomateriales están adquiriendo un papel cada vez más importante en la reparación de SNC. Las

  2. FMRFamide immunoreactivity is generally occurring in the nervous systems of coelenterates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grimmelikhuijzen, C J

    1983-01-01

    Abundant FMRFamide immunoreactivity has been found in the nervous systems of all hydrozoan, anthozoan, scyphozoan and ctenophoran species that were looked upon. This general and abundant occurrence shows that FMRFamide-like material must play a crucial role in the functioning of primitive nervous...

  3. Aromatherapy Improves Work Performance Through Balancing the Autonomic Nervous System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Lin; Capdevila, Lluis

    2017-03-01

    This study analyzed the efficacy of aromatherapy in improving work performance and reducing workplace stress. The initial sample comprised 42 administrative university workers (M age  = 42.21 years, standard deviation = 7.12; 10 male). All sessions were performed in a university computer classroom. The participants were randomly assigned into an aromatherapy group (AG) and a control group (CG), and they were invited to participate in a specific session only once. They were seated in front of a computer. During the intervention period, some oil diffusers were switched on and were in operation throughout the session with petitgrain essential oil for AG sessions and a neutral oil (almond) for CG sessions. At the same time, participants completed a computer task on a specific Web site typing on their keyboard until they had finished it. The single times were different for all participants and were recorded on the Web site as "performance time." Before and after the intervention, participants completed anxiety and mood state questionnaires (the Stait-Trait Anxiety Inventory [STAI] and the Profile of Mood States [POMS]). Heart-rate variability (HRV) was measured before (PRE), during (20-25 min), and after (POS) the intervention to analyze autonomic nervous system regulation. The AG performed the Web site task 2.28 min faster than the CG (p = 0.05). The two groups showed differences in the following HRV parameters: low frequency (p = 0.05), high frequency (p = 0.02), standard deviation of all RR intervals (p = 0.05), and root mean square of differences (p = 0.02). All participants in all groups showed a decrease from PRE to POST for STAI (p Aromatherapy (inhaling petitgrain essential oil) can improve performance in the workplace. These results could be explained by an autonomic balance on the sympathetic/parasympathetic system through a combined action of the petitgrain main components (linalyl acetate, linalool, and myrcene). The final

  4. A planetary nervous system for social mining and collective awareness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giannotti, F.; Pedreschi, D.; Pentland, A.; Lukowicz, P.; Kossmann, D.; Crowley, J.; Helbing, D.

    2012-11-01

    We present a research roadmap of a Planetary Nervous System (PNS), capable of sensing and mining the digital breadcrumbs of human activities and unveiling the knowledge hidden in the big data for addressing the big questions about social complexity. We envision the PNS as a globally distributed, self-organizing, techno-social system for answering analytical questions about the status of world-wide society, based on three pillars: social sensing, social mining and the idea of trust networks and privacy-aware social mining. We discuss the ingredients of a science and a technology necessary to build the PNS upon the three mentioned pillars, beyond the limitations of their respective state-of-art. Social sensing is aimed at developing better methods for harvesting the big data from the techno-social ecosystem and make them available for mining, learning and analysis at a properly high abstraction level. Social mining is the problem of discovering patterns and models of human behaviour from the sensed data across the various social dimensions by data mining, machine learning and social network analysis. Trusted networks and privacy-aware social mining is aimed at creating a new deal around the questions of privacy and data ownership empowering individual persons with full awareness and control on own personal data, so that users may allow access and use of their data for their own good and the common good. The PNS will provide a goal-oriented knowledge discovery framework, made of technology and people, able to configure itself to the aim of answering questions about the pulse of global society. Given an analytical request, the PNS activates a process composed by a variety of interconnected tasks exploiting the social sensing and mining methods within the transparent ecosystem provided by the trusted network. The PNS we foresee is the key tool for individual and collective awareness for the knowledge society. We need such a tool for everyone to become fully aware of how

  5. Regulation of Central Nervous System Myelination in Higher Brain Functions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mara Nickel

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The hippocampus and the prefrontal cortex are interconnected brain regions, playing central roles in higher brain functions, including learning and memory, planning complex cognitive behavior, and moderating social behavior. The axons in these regions continue to be myelinated into adulthood in humans, which coincides with maturation of personality and decision-making. Myelin consists of dense layers of lipid membranes wrapping around the axons to provide electrical insulation and trophic support and can profoundly affect neural circuit computation. Recent studies have revealed that long-lasting changes of myelination can be induced in these brain regions by experience, such as social isolation, stress, and alcohol abuse, as well as by neurological and psychiatric abnormalities. However, the mechanism and function of these changes remain poorly understood. Myelin regulation represents a new form of neural plasticity. Some progress has been made to provide new mechanistic insights into activity-independent and activity-dependent regulations of myelination in different experimental systems. More extensive investigations are needed in this important but underexplored research field, in order to shed light on how higher brain functions and myelination interplay in the hippocampus and prefrontal cortex.

  6. Myocardial perfusion abnormalities in asymptomatic patients with systemic lupus erythematosus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hosenpud, J.D.; Montanaro, A.; Hart, M.V.; Haines, J.E.; Specht, H.D.; Bennett, R.M.; Kloster, F.E.

    1984-01-01

    Accelerated coronary artery disease and myocardial infarction in young patients with systemic lupus erythematosus is well documented; however, the prevalence of coronary involvement is unknown. Accordingly, 26 patients with systemic lupus were selected irrespective of previous cardiac history to undergo exercise thallium-201 cardiac scintigraphy. Segmental perfusion abnormalities were present in 10 of the 26 studies (38.5 percent). Five patients had reversible defects suggesting ischemia, four patients had persistent defects consistent with scar, and one patient had both reversible and persistent defects in two areas. There was no correlation between positive thallium results and duration of disease, amount of corticosteroid treatment, major organ system involvement or age. Only a history of pericarditis appeared to be associated with positive thallium-201 results (p less than 0.05). It is concluded that segmental myocardial perfusion abnormalities are common in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus. Whether this reflects large-vessel coronary disease or small-vessel abnormalities remains to be determined

  7. Microglia - insights into immune system structure, function, and reactivity in the central nervous system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wirenfeldt, Martin; Babcock, Alicia A; Vinters, Harry V

    2011-01-01

    Microglia are essential cellular components of a well-functioning central nervous system (CNS). The development and establishment of the microglial population differs from the other major cell populations in the CNS i.e. neurons and macroglia (astrocytes and oligodendrocytes). This different onto...

  8. Emergency Department Visits Involving Nonmedical Use of Central Nervous System Stimulants among Adults Aged 18 to 34 ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Emergency Department Visits Involving Nonmedical Use of Central Nervous System Stimulants among Adults Aged 18 to 34 Increased between 2005 and 2011 Central nervous system (CNS) stimulants include prescription drugs, like those used ...

  9. Insulin in the nervous system and the mind: Functions in metabolism, memory, and mood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Seung-Hwan; Zabolotny, Janice M; Huang, Hu; Lee, Hyon; Kim, Young-Bum

    2016-08-01

    Insulin, a pleotrophic hormone, has diverse effects in the body. Recent work has highlighted the important role of insulin's action in the nervous system on glucose and energy homeostasis, memory, and mood. Here we review experimental and clinical work that has broadened the understanding of insulin's diverse functions in the central and peripheral nervous systems, including glucose and body weight homeostasis, memory and mood, with particular emphasis on intranasal insulin. Implications for the treatment of obesity, type 2 diabetes, dementia, and mood disorders are discussed in the context of brain insulin action. Intranasal insulin may have potential in the treatment of central nervous system-related metabolic disorders.

  10. Central nervous system tumors and related intracranial pathologies in radium dial workers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stebbings, J.H.; Semkiw, W.

    1988-01-01

    Among the female radiation workers in the radium dial industry there is no overall excess of brain or central nervous system tumors. A significant excess did appear, however, in one of three major cohorts; the excess was not due to an excess of gliomas and cannot be ascribed with certainty to radium or external radiation. A significant proportional excess of tumors outside the brain was observed, and is consistent with irradiation of nervous system tissue from adjacent bone. Early deaths from brain abscess or mastoiditis, which are coded as diseases of the nervous system and sense organs, were observed. 12 refs., 11 tabs

  11. Central nervous system tumours and related intracranial pathologies in radium dial workers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stebbings, J.H.; Semkiw, W.

    1989-01-01

    Among female radiation workers in the radium dial industry there is no overall excess of fatal brain or central nervous system tumours. A significant excess did appear, in one of three major cohorts; the excess was not due to an excess of gliomas and cannot be ascribed with certainty to radium or external radiation. A significant proportional excess of tumours outside of the brain was observed, consistent with irradiation of nervous system tissue from adjacent bone. Excess tumours of the eye, pituitary or pineal did not occur. Early deaths from brain abscess or mastoiditis, coded as diseases of the nervous system and sense organs, were observed. (author)

  12. Central nervous system involvement in systemic lupus erythematosus. The application of cranial computed tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nagaoka, S; Ishigatsubo, Y; Katou, K; Sakamoto, H; Chiba, J [Yokohama City Univ. (Japan). Faculty of Medicine

    1982-06-01

    Cranial computed tomography scans were performed on 47 patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). Abnormal findings in the computed tomograms (CT) were observed in 17 patients (36.2%). Cerebral atrophy was the most common feature (eight cases), followed by abnormal high density areas (five cases), abnormal low density areas (three cases), sulcal enlargement (two cases), intracranial hemorrhage (one case) and others (two cases). The abnormal cranial CT group of SLE was associated with a significantly higher incidence of urinary casts and of thrombocytopenia. In particular, the frequency of urinary casts was greater in the group with cerebral atrophy than in the group with normal CT findings, and there was a higher incidence of alopecia, leukopenia and thrombocytopenia in the group with intracranial calcifications. Neuropsychiatric involvements were noted in 70.6% of patients with CT abnormalities, but neuropsychiatric features (20.7%) and electroencephalographic abnormalities (44.8%) were also observed in patients with normal CT findings. The age at onset of SLE, the mean duration of the disease and the survival rate were not significantly different between the groups with and without CT abnormalities, but the mortality rate was significantly greater in the group with CT abnormalities, especially among those with brain atrophy. Concerning the relationship between the findings of cranial CT and corticosteroid treatment, there was no significant difference in either the total dose or the mean duration of prednisolone therapy. Although SLE patients with cerebral atrophy were taking a larger maintenance dose of corticosteroids, the differences were not statistically significant.

  13. MRI changes in the central nervous system in a child with lupus erythematosus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gieron, M.A.; Khoromi, S.; Campos, A.

    1995-01-01

    We report on a 10-year-old girl with systemic lupus erythematosus who presented in status epilepticus as the only manifestation of central nervous system involvement. MRI of the brain showed diffuse gray and white matter lesions which almost completely resolved after treatment with methylprednisolone. MRI findings in this child are similar to those in adults with diffuse clinical manifestations. The study is essential in the initial evaluation of patients suspected of central nervous system lupus. (orig.)

  14. MRI changes in the central nervous system in a child with lupus erythematosus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gieron, M A [Dept. of Pediatrics, Univ. of South Florida, Coll. of Medicine, Tampa, FL (United States); Khoromi, S [Dept. of Neurology, Univ. of South Florida, Coll. of Medicine, Tampa, FL (United States); Campos, A [Dept. of Pediatrics, Univ. of South Florida, Coll. of Medicine, Tampa, FL (United States)

    1995-05-01

    We report on a 10-year-old girl with systemic lupus erythematosus who presented in status epilepticus as the only manifestation of central nervous system involvement. MRI of the brain showed diffuse gray and white matter lesions which almost completely resolved after treatment with methylprednisolone. MRI findings in this child are similar to those in adults with diffuse clinical manifestations. The study is essential in the initial evaluation of patients suspected of central nervous system lupus. (orig.)

  15. An abnormal event advisory expert system prototype for reactor operators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hance, D.C.

    1989-01-01

    Nuclear plant operators must respond correctly during abnormal conditions in the presence of dynamic and potentially overwhelming volumes of information. For this reason, considerable effort has been directed toward the development of nuclear plant operator aids using artificial intelligence techniques. The objective of such systems is to diagnose abnormal conditions within the plant, possibly predict consequences, and advise the operators of corrective actions in a timely manner. The objective of the work is the development of a prototype expert system to diagnose abnormal events at a nuclear power plant and advise plant operators of the event and applicable procedures in an on-line mode. The major difference between this effort and previous work is the use of plant operating procedures as a knowledge source and as an integral part of the advice provided by the expert system. The acceptance by utilities of expert systems as operator aids requires that such systems be compatible with the regulatory environment and provide economic benefits. For this reason, commercially viable operator aid systems developed in the near future must complement existing plant procedures rather than reach beyond them in a revolutionary manner. A knowledge source is the resource providing facts and relationships that are coded into the expert system program. In this case, the primary source of knowledge is a set of selected abnormal operating procedures for a modern Westinghouse pressurized water reactor

  16. Brain Hypoactivation, Autonomic Nervous System Dysregulation, and Gonadal Hormones in Depression: A Preliminary Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holsen, Laura M.; Lee, Jong-Hwan; Spaeth, Sarah B.; Ogden, Lauren A.; Klibanski, Anne; Whitfield-Gabrieli, Susan; Sloan, Richard P.; Goldstein, Jill M.

    2012-01-01

    The comorbidity of major depressive disorder (MDD) and cardiovascular disease (CVD) is among the 10th leading cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Thus, understanding the co-occurrence of these disorders will have major public health significance. MDD is associated with an abnormal stress response, manifested in brain circuitry deficits, gonadal dysfunction, and autonomic nervous system (ANS) dysregulation. Contribution of the relationships between these systems to the pathophysiology of MDD is not well understood. The objective of this preliminary study was to investigate, in parallel, relationships between HPG-axis functioning, stress response circuitry activation, and parasympathetic reactivity in healthy controls and women with MDD. Using fMRI with pulse oximetry [from which we calculated the high frequency (HF) component of R-R interval variability (HF-RRV), a measure of parasympathetic modulation] and hormone data, we studied eight women with recurrent MDD in remission and six controls during a stress response paradigm. We demonstrated that hypoactivations of hypothalamus, amygdala, hippocampus, anterior cingulate cortex (ACC), orbitofrontal cortex (OFC), and subgenual ACC were associated with lower parasympathetic cardiac modulation in MDD women. Estradiol and progesterone attenuated group differences in the effect of HF-RRV on hypoactivation in the amygdala, hippocampus, ACC, and OFC in MDD women. Findings have implications for understanding the relationship between mood, arousal, heart regulation, and gonadal hormones, and may provide insights into MDD and CVD risk comorbidity. PMID:22395084

  17. The Therapeutic Potential of Insulin-Like Growth Factor-1 in Central Nervous System Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costales, Jesse; Kolevzon, Alexander

    2016-01-01

    Central nervous system (CNS) development is a finely tuned process that relies on multiple factors and intricate pathways to ensure proper neuronal differentiation, maturation, and connectivity. Disruption of this process can cause significant impairments in CNS functioning and lead to debilitating disorders that impact motor and language skills, behavior, and cognitive functioning. Recent studies focused on understanding the underlying cellular mechanisms of neurodevelopmental disorders have identified a crucial role for insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) in normal CNS development. Work in model systems has demonstrated rescue of pathophysiological and behavioral abnormalities when IGF-1 is administered, and several clinical studies have shown promise of efficacy in disorders of the CNS, including autism spectrum disorder (ASD). In this review, we explore the molecular pathways and downstream effects of IGF-1 and summarize the results of completed and ongoing pre-clinical and clinical trials using IGF-1 as a pharmacologic intervention in various CNS disorders. This aim of this review is to provide evidence for the potential of IGF-1 as a treatment for neurodevelopmental disorders and ASD. PMID:26780584

  18. Central nervous system leukemia and lymphoma: computed tomographic manifestations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pagani, J.J.; Libshitz, H.I.; Wallace, S.; Hayman, L.A.

    1981-01-01

    Computed tomographic (CT) abnormalities in the brain were identified in 31 of 405 patients with leukemia or lymphoma. Abnormalities included neoplastic masses (15), hemorrhage (nine), abscess (two), other brain tumors (four), and methotrexate leukoencephalopathy (one). CT was normal in 374 patients including 148 with meningeal disease diagnosed by cerebrospinal fluid cytologic examination. Prior to treatment, malignant masses were isodense or of greater density with varying amounts of edema. Increase in size or number of the masses indicated worsening. Response to radiation and chemotherapy was manifested by development of a central low density region with an enhancing rim. CT findings correlated with clinical and cerebrospinal fluid findings. The differential diagnosis of the various abnormalities is considered

  19. Central nervous system complications in non-Hodgkin-lymphomas and radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liffers, R.

    1981-01-01

    261 case historys of malignant non-Hodgkin-lymphomas were analysed in the years from 1969 until 1978 in the 'Radiologische Universitaetsklinik Kiel'/West-Germany. 18 Patients got a central nervous complication of Non Hodgkin-Lymphoma earlier or later, a percentage of about 7. There were 7 cases of lymphoblastic lymphoma (LB), a percentage of 10 for this entity. In the group of immunoblastic lymphoma (IB) 6 cases of central nervous infiltration were detected, that is a ratio of 7.7 percent. 4 case histories M. Brill-Symmers (CC/CB) were complicated by central nervous dissemination, a percentage of 5.3. Patients with lymphoblastic lymphoma have the highest risk of central nervous complication. The beginning of central nervous dissemination in the single case histories is very different between the histological groups. Patients with lymphoblastic lymphoma suffered from central nervous complication in an early phase of history, in cases of M. Brill-Symmers central nervous infiltration can occur also in a late phase. The results may determine the discussion about stratifying of radiotherapy. Early radiotherapy including central nervous system may be discussed and investigated in special histological entities of malignant non-Hodgkin-lymphoma. (orig.) [de

  20. Effects of Sweet Bee Venom on the Central Nervous System in Rats -using the Functional Observational Battery-

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joong Chul An

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: This study was performed to analyse the effects of Sweet Bee Venom(Sweet BV-pure melittin, the major component of honey bee venom on the central nervous system in rats. Methods: All experiments were conducted at Biotoxtech Company, a non-clinical studies authorized institution, under the regulations of Good Laboratory Practice (GLP. Male rats of 5 weeks old were chosen for this study and after confirming condition of rats was stable, Sweet BV was administered in thigh muscle of rats. And checked the effects of Sweet BV on the central nervous system using the functional observational battery (FOB, which is a neuro-toxicity screening assay composed of 30 descriptive, scalar, binary, and continuous endpoints. And home cage observations, home cage removal and handling, open field activity, sensorimotor reflex test/physiological measurements were conducted. Results: 1. In the home cage observation, there was not observed any abnormal signs in rats. 2. In the observation of open field activity, the reduction of number of unit areas crossed and rearing count was observed caused by Sweet BV treatment. 3. In the observation of handling reactivity, there was not observed any abnormal signs in rats. 4. In the observation of sensorimotor reflex tests/physiological measurements, there was not observed any neurotoxic signs in rats. 5. In the measurement of rectal temperature, treatment of Sweet BV did not showed great influences in the body temperature of rats. Conclusions: Above findings suggest that Sweet BV is relatively safe treatment in the central nervous system. But in the using of over dose, Sweet BV may the cause of local pain and disturbance of movement. Further studies on the subject should be conducted to yield more concrete evidences.

  1. Development of Abnormality Detection System for Bathers using Ultrasonic Sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohnishi, Yosuke; Abe, Takehiko; Nambo, Hidetaka; Kimura, Haruhiko; Ogoshi, Yasuhiro

    This paper proposes an abnormality detection system for bather sitting in bathtub. Increasing number of in-bathtub drowning accidents in Japan draws attention. Behind this large number of bathing accidents, Japan's unique social and cultural background come surface. For majority of people in Japan, bathing serves purpose in deep warming up of body, relax and enjoyable time. Therefore it is the custom for the Japanese to soak in bathtub. However overexposure to hot water may cause dizziness or fainting, which is possible to cause in-bathtub drowning. For drowning prevention, the system detects bather's abnormal state using an ultrasonic sensor array. The array, which has many ultrasonic sensors, is installed on the ceiling of bathroom above bathtub. The abnormality detection system uses the following two methods: posture detection and behavior detection. The function of posture detection is to estimate the risk of drowning by monitoring bather's posture. Meanwhile, the function of behavior detection is to estimate the risk of drowning by monitoring bather's behavior. By using these methods, the system detects bathers' different state from normal. As a result of experiment with a subject in the bathtub, the system was possible to detect abnormal state using subject's posture and behavior. Therefore the system is useful for monitoring bather to prevent drowning in bathtub.

  2. Radiologic studies in two outbreaks of isolated vasculitis in the central nervous system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robertson, H.J.; Perez, M.; Tilton, A.H.; Garcia, C.; McGarry, P.

    1989-01-01

    Cerebral vasculitis is only occasionally diagnosed with angiography. Two outbreaks of isolated central nervous system vasculitis permitted a comparison of the accuracy of diagnostic radiologic studies. Two new radiologic features and methods of diagnosis are discussed

  3. Cerebral angiography as a guide for therapy in isolated central nervous system vasculitis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stein, R.L.; Martino, C.R.; Weinert, D.M.; Hueftle, M.; Kammer, G.M.

    1987-01-01

    The authors present a case of isolated central nervous system vasculitis documented by cerebral arteriography in which remission, using a treatment regimen of prednisone and cyclophosphamide, was guided by serial arteriography during a 15-month period

  4. Mild hypothermia as a treatment for central nervous system injuries: Positive or negative effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darwazeh, Rami; Yan, Yi

    2013-10-05

    Besides local neuronal damage caused by the primary insult, central nervous system injuries may secondarily cause a progressive cascade of related events including brain edema, ischemia, oxida-tive stress, excitotoxicity, and dysregulation of calcium homeostasis. Hypothermia is a beneficial strategy in a variety of acute central nervous system injuries. Mild hypothermia can treat high intra-cranial pressure following traumatic brain injuries in adults. It is a new treatment that increases sur-vival and quality of life for patients suffering from ischemic insults such as cardiac arrest, stroke, and neurogenic fever following brain trauma. Therapeutic hypothermia decreases free radical produc-tion, inflammation, excitotoxicity and intracranial pressure, and improves cerebral metabolism after traumatic brain injury and cerebral ischemia, thus protecting against central nervous system dam-age. Although a series of pathological and physiological changes as well as potential side effects are observed during hypothermia treatment, it remains a potential therapeutic strategy for central nervous system injuries and deserves further study.

  5. A generalized coherence framework for detecting and characterizing nonlinear interactions in the nervous system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yang, Y.; Solis Escalante, T.; van der Helm, F.C.T.; Schouten, A.C.

    2016-01-01

    Objective: This paper introduces a generalized coherence framework for detecting and characterizing nonlinear interactions in the nervous system, namely cross-spectral coherence (CSC). CSC can detect different types of nonlinear interactions including harmonic and intermodulation coupling as present

  6. Morphological changes of the central nervous system after radiation exposure in utero

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brizzee, K.R.; Ordy, J.M.

    1982-01-01

    The present paper is a brief review of available experimental data on the structural nervous system effects of prenatal radiation in rodents, nonhuman primates and man from the late 19th century to the present. (orig./MG)

  7. Insulin in the nervous system and the mind: Functions in metabolism, memory, and mood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seung-Hwan Lee

    2016-08-01

    Major conclusions: Implications for the treatment of obesity, type 2 diabetes, dementia, and mood disorders are discussed in the context of brain insulin action. Intranasal insulin may have potential in the treatment of central nervous system-related metabolic disorders.

  8. Contraindications to Athletic Participation. Cardiac, Respiratory, and Central Nervous System Conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moeller, James L.

    1996-01-01

    Discusses contraindications to athletic participation, examining the cardiac, respiratory, and central nervous system conditions that warrant activity disqualification. Provides guidelines about when it is safe for individuals to participate, and discusses the physician's responsibility. (SM)

  9. Functional Observational Battery Testing for Nervous System Effects of Drugs and Other Chemicals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Screening for behavioral toxicity, or neurotoxicity, has become standard practice in preclinical safety pharmacology and toxicology. Behavior represents the integrated sum of activities mediated by the nervous system. Current screening batteries, such as the functional observat...

  10. Subtle involvement of the sympathetic nervous system in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oey, P.L.; Vos, P.E.; Wieneke, G.H.; Wokke, J.H.J.; Blankestijn, P.J.; Karemaker, J.M.

    2002-01-01

    The literature on the involvement of the autonomic nervous system (ANS) in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is conflicting. We therefore investigated several aspects of autonomic function, namely muscle sympathetic nerve activity (MSNA), blood pressure, cardiac function (electrocardiogram; ECG),

  11. Balancing the autonomic nervous system to reduce inflammation in rheumatoid arthritis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koopman, F. A.; van Maanen, M. A.; Vervoordeldonk, M. J.; Tak, P. P.

    2017-01-01

    Imbalance in the autonomic nervous system (ANS) has been observed in many established chronic autoimmune diseases, including rheumatoid arthritis (RA), which is a prototypic immune-mediated inflammatory disease (IMID). We recently discovered that autonomic dysfunction precedes and predicts arthritis

  12. Subtle involvement of the sympathetic nervous system in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oey, P. Liam; Vos, Pieter E.; Wieneke, George H.; Wokke, John H. J.; Blankestijn, Peter J.; Karemaker, John M.

    2002-01-01

    The literature on the involvement of the autonomic nervous system (ANS) in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is conflicting. We therefore investigated several aspects of autonomic function, namely muscle sympathetic nerve activity (MSNA), blood pressure, cardiac function (electrocardiogram; ECG),

  13. Echoes from the anatomical theater of Padua: Fabrici on the nervous system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zanchin, Giorgio; Panetto, Monica; Dalla Francesca, Elisabetta Hellman

    2015-06-01

    Girolamo Fabrici d'Acquapendente, never published a systematic description nor an iconographic record of the nervous system except for the series of 21 pictures, entitled De Anatomia Capitis Cerebri Nervorum, stored in the Biblioteca Marciana of Venice.

  14. Central nervous system involvement in the autonomic responses to psychological distress

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Morree, H.M.; Szabó, B.M.; Rutten, G.J.; Kop, W.J.

    2013-01-01

    Psychological distress can trigger acute coronary syndromes and sudden cardiac death in vulnerable patients. The primary pathophysiological mechanism that plays a role in stress-induced cardiac events involves the autonomic nervous system, particularly disproportional sympathetic activation and

  15. A practical guide for the diagnosis of primary enteric nervous system disorders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schäppi, M G; Staiano, A; Milla, P J

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Primary gastrointestinal neuropathies are a heterogeneous group of enteric nervous system (ENS) disorders that continue to cause difficulties in diagnosis and histological interpretation. Recently, an international working group published guidelines for histological techniques...

  16. Adult Central Nervous System Tumors Treatment (PDQ®)—Patient Version

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adult central nervous system tumor treatment may include surgery, radiosurgery, radiation therapy, chemotherapy, surveillance, and targeted therapy. Treatment depends on the tumor type. Learn more about brain and spinal tumor treatment in this expert-reviewed summary.

  17. Candida infection of the central nervous system following neurosurgery: a 12-year review.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    O'Brien, Deirdre

    2011-06-01

    Candida infection of the central nervous system (CNS) following neurosurgery is relatively unusual but is associated with significant morbidity and mortality. We present our experience with this infection in adults and discuss clinical characteristics, treatment options, and outcome.

  18. Childhood Central Nervous System Embryonal Tumors Treatment (PDQ®)—Patient Version

    Science.gov (United States)

    Childhood central nervous system embryonal tumors and pineal tumors are treated with surgery, radiation therapy, chemotherapy, high-dose chemotherapy with stem cell rescue and targeted therapy. Learn more in this expert-reviewed summary.

  19. Comprehensive allelotype and genetic anaysis of 466 human nervous system tumors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    von Deimling, A; Fimmers, R; Schmidt, M C

    2000-01-01

    Brain tumors pose a particular challenge to molecular oncology. Many different tumor entities develop in the nervous system and some of them appear to follow distinct pathogenic routes. Molecular genetic alterations have increasingly been reported in nervous system neoplasms. However......, a considerable number of affected genes remain to be identified. We present here a comprehensive allelotype analysis of 466 nervous system tumors based on loss of heterozygosity (LOH) studies with 129 microsatellite markers that span the genome. Specific alterations of the EGFR, CDK4, CDKN2A, TP53, DMBT1, NF2...... may provide a valuable framework for future studies to delineate molecular pathways in many types of human central nervous system tumors....

  20. Adult Central Nervous System Tumors Treatment (PDQ®)—Health Professional Version

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adult central nervous system tumor treatment options include surgery, radiosurgery, radiation therapy, chemotherapy, surveillance, and supportive care. Get detailed information about the types and treatment of newly diagnosed and recurrent brain and spinal tumors in this clinician summary.

  1. The nervous system of Tricladida. I. Neuroanatomy of Procerodes littoralis (Maricola, Procerodidae) : an immunocytochemical study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reuter, M.; Gustafsson, M.K.S.; Sahlgren, C.; Halton, D.W.; Maule, A.G.; Shaw, C.

    1995-01-01

    The organization of the nervous system of Procerodes littoralis (Tricladida, Maricola, Procerodidae) was studied by immunocytochemistry, using antibodies to authentic flatworm neuropeptide F (NPF) (Moniezia expansa). Compared to earlier investigations of the neuroanatomy of tricladid flatworms, the

  2. Congenital muscular dystrophy and severe central nervous system atrophy in two siblings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leyten, Q. H.; Barth, P. G.; Gabreëls, F. J.; Renkawek, K.; Renier, W. O.; Gabreëls-Festen, A. A.; ter Laak, H. J.; Smits, M. G.

    1995-01-01

    Severe degenerative features of the nervous system of a hitherto unknown kind, associated with a neuromuscular disorder with histopathological features of congenital muscular dystrophy, are reported in two female siblings. The clinical profile was characterized by generalized hypotonia followed by

  3. Peptides in the nervous systems of cnidarians: structure, function, and biosynthesis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grimmelikhuijzen, C J; Leviev, I; Carstensen, Kathrine

    1996-01-01

    Cnidarians are the lowest animal group having a nervous system and it was probably within this phylum or in a related ancestor group that nervous systems first evolved. The primitive nervous systems of cnidarians are strongly peptidergic. From a single sea anemone species, Anthopleura elegantissima...... molecule. In addition to well-known, "classical" processing enzymes, novel prohormone processing enzymes must be present in cnidarian neurons. These include a processing enzyme hydrolyzing at the C-terminal sides of acidic (Asp and Glu) residues and a dipeptidyl aminopeptidase digesting at the C......-terminal sides of N-terminally located X-Pro and X-Ala sequences. All this shows that the primitive nervous systems of cnidarians are already quite complex, and that neuropeptides play a central role in the physiology of these animals....

  4. Bioactivity of marine organisms: Part 7- Effect of seaweed extract on central nervous system

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Kamat, S.Y.; Wahidullah, S.; DeSouza, L.; Naik, C.G.; Ambiye, V.; Bhakuni, D.S.; Jain, S.; Goel, A.K.; Srimal, R.C.

    Alcohol extracts of marine algae (Rhodophyceae, Phaeophyceae and Chlorophyceae) was screened for their effect on central nervous system. Of 69 species investigated 8 appeared biologically active, 6 being CNS stimulant, sites and dates of collection...

  5. Central nervous system involvement in adults with haemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis: a single-center study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Guilan; Wang, Yini; Liu, Xiaojing; Han, Yanfei; Wang, Zhao

    2017-08-01

    Hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (HLH) is a rare multisystem disorder characterized by proliferation and diffuse infiltration multiple organs with histiocytes, including the central nervous system (CNS). Neurological manifestations of HLH have been recognized in different studies with children, but they remain relatively ill-defined in adults with HLH. From March 2008 to October 2014, 289 adult patients with HLH were admitted to our center. Clinical, radiological, and cerebral spinal fluid (CSF) data of the patients with CNS involvement were reviewed, and a retrospective study in our single-center was carried out. CNS involvement was observed in 29 patients (10%) either in their diagnosis process or during disease course. CNS symptoms included disturbance of consciousness, cranial nerve palsies, seizures, headache, limb paralysis, irritability, meningism, and memory loss. CSF analysis was conducted in 17 patients (59%). Among them, 11 patients (65%) were reported as having abnormal CSF. Neuroradiological studies were performed in 25 patients (86%). Among the 13 cases that underwent CT scan, one patient hemorrhaged. Single or multiple hypodense foci were detected in the other 2 patients. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) abnormalities were found in 15 patients, including focal lesions in cortical and adjacent subcortical regions with or without variable nodular or ring contrast-enhancement, multiple lesions in white matter, diffuse white matter signal changes, and meningeal enhancement. Basal ganglia, cerebellum, and brainstem lesions were also observed. CNS involvement could also be found in adult patients with HLH, but not as frequent as it was in children. The clinical manifestations could be diversified. By carrying out rigorous CNS examinations, an early diagnosis could be made and it was of the utmost importance for the prevention of further lesions.

  6. Dynamic simulation of variable capacity refrigeration systems under abnormal conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liang Nan; Shao Shuangquan; Tian Changqing; Yan Yuying

    2010-01-01

    There are often abnormal working conditions at evaporator outlet of a refrigeration system, such as two-phase state in transient process, and it is essential to investigate such transient behaviours for system design and control strategy. In this paper, a dynamic lumped parameter model is developed to simulate the transient behaviours of refrigeration system with variable capacity in both normal and abnormal working conditions. The appropriate discriminant method is adopted to switch the normal and abnormal conditions smoothly and to eliminate the simulated data oscillation. In order to verify the dynamic model, we built a test system with variable frequency compressor, water-cooling condenser, evaporator and electronic expansion valve. Calculated values from the mathematical model show reasonable agreement with the experimental data. The simulation results show that the transient behaviours of the variable capacity refrigeration system in the abnormal working conditions can be calculated reliably with the dynamic model when the compressor rotary speed or the opening of electronic expansion valve changes abruptly.

  7. Serial cranial computed-tomography scans in children with leukemia given two different forms of central nervous system therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ochs, J.J.; Parvey, L.S.; Whitaker, J.N.; Bowman, W.P.; Ch'ien, L.; Campbell, M.; Coburn, T.

    1983-01-01

    Cranial computed tomography (CT) was used to estimate the frequency and permanence of brain abnormalities in 108 consecutive children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL). Fifty-five patients received cranial irradiation (1,800 rad) with intrathecal methotrexate (RT group) and 53 patients received intravenous and intrathecal methotrexate without irradiation (IVIT group). Continuation treatment included sequential drug pairs for the RT group and periodic IVIT methotrexate for the other group. After 12 to 24 months of serial evaluation, five (9%) of the 55 patients in the RT group have had CT scan abnormalities, compared to 10 (19%) of 52 in the IVIT group (p . 0.171). Fourteen of the 15 patients with CT scan abnormalities had focal or diffuse white-matter hypodensity; these have reverted to normal in most cases, reflecting a dynamic process. While such CT findings are of concern and may be an early indicator of central nervous system toxicity, this remains to be proven. Therapy should not be altered on the basis of abnormal CT scans alone but in the context of the entire clinical situation

  8. Prevalence and characteristics of central nervous system involvement by chronic lymphocytic leukemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strati, Paolo; Uhm, Joon H; Kaufmann, Timothy J; Nabhan, Chadi; Parikh, Sameer A; Hanson, Curtis A; Chaffee, Kari G; Call, Timothy G; Shanafelt, Tait D

    2016-04-01

    Abroad array of conditions can lead to neurological symptoms in chronic lymphocytic leukemia patients and distinguishing between clinically significant involvement of the central nervous system by chronic lymphocytic leukemia and symptoms due to other etiologies can be challenging. Between January 1999 and November 2014, 172 (4%) of the 4174 patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia followed at our center had a magnetic resonance imaging of the central nervous system and/or a lumbar puncture to evaluate neurological symptoms. After comprehensive evaluation, the etiology of neurological symptoms was: central nervous system chronic lymphocytic leukemia in 18 patients (10% evaluated by imaging and/or lumbar puncture, 0.4% overall cohort); central nervous system Richter Syndrome in 15 (9% evaluated, 0.3% overall); infection in 40 (23% evaluated, 1% overall); autoimmune/inflammatory conditions in 28 (16% evaluated, 0.7% overall); other cancer in 8 (5% evaluated, 0.2% overall); and another etiology in 63 (37% evaluated, 1.5% overall). Although the sensitivity of cerebrospinal fluid analysis to detect central nervous system disease was 89%, the specificity was only 42% due to the frequent presence of leukemic cells in the cerebrospinal fluid in other conditions. No parameter on cerebrospinal fluid analysis (e.g. total nucleated cells, total lymphocyte count, chronic lymphocytic leukemia cell percentage) were able to offer a reliable discrimination between patients whose neurological symptoms were due to clinically significant central nervous system involvement by chronic lymphocytic leukemia and another etiology. Median overall survival among patients with clinically significant central nervous system chronic lymphocytic leukemia and Richter syndrome was 12 and 11 months, respectively. In conclusion, clinically significant central nervous system involvement by chronic lymphocytic leukemia is a rare condition, and neurological symptoms in patients with chronic lymphocytic

  9. Insulin in the nervous system and the mind: Functions in metabolism, memory, and mood

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Seung-Hwan; Zabolotny, Janice M.; Huang, Hu; Lee, Hyon; Kim, Young-Bum

    2016-01-01

    Background: Insulin, a pleotrophic hormone, has diverse effects in the body. Recent work has highlighted the important role of insulin's action in the nervous system on glucose and energy homeostasis, memory, and mood. Scope of review: Here we review experimental and clinical work that has broadened the understanding of insulin's diverse functions in the central and peripheral nervous systems, including glucose and body weight homeostasis, memory and mood, with particular emphasis on intra...

  10. MRT of the central nervous system. 2. rev. and enl. ed.; MRT des Zentralnervensystems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Forsting, Michael [Universitaetsklinikum Essen (Germany). Inst. fuer Diagnostische und Interventionelle Radiologie und Neuroradiologie; Jansen, Olav (ed.) [Universitaetsklinikum Schleswig-Holstein, Kiel (Germany). Klinik fuer Radiologie und Neuroradiologie

    2014-11-01

    The book on MRT of the central nervous system includes the following chapters: anatomy, vascular diseases, brain tumors, craniocerebral injuries, infectious diseases, multiple sclerosis and related diseases, metabolic diseases, degenerative diseases, malformations and developmental disorders, hydrocephalus and intracranial hypertension, spinal marrow, degenerative caused spinal and foraminal stenosis, traumata, tumors and tumor-like neoplasm, vascular diseases, inflammations, infections and related diseases, diseases of the peripheral nervous system.

  11. Arg-Phe-amide-like peptides in the primitive nervous systems of coelenterates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grimmelikhuijzen, C J; Ebbesen, Ditte Graff

    1985-01-01

    By using immunocytochemistry and radioimmunoassays, several substances resembling vertebrate or invertebrate neuropeptides have been found in the nervous systems of coelenterates. The most abundant neuropeptides were those related to the molluscan neuropeptide Phe-Met-Arg-Phe-amide (FMRFamide......). Of antisera against different fragments of FMRFamide, those against RFamide were superior in recognizing the coelenterate peptide. Incubation of whole mounts with these RFamide antisera visualized the coelenterate nervous system in such a detail as has previously not been possible. By using a radioimmunoassay...

  12. A pediatric renal lymphoma case presenting with central nervous system findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baran, Ahmet; Küpeli, Serhan; Doğru, Omer

    2013-06-01

    In pediatric patients renal lymphoma frequently presents in the form of multiple, bilateral mass lesions, infrequently as a single or retroperitoneal mass, and rarely as diffuse infiltrative lesions. In patients with apparent central nervous system involvement close attention to other physical and laboratory findings are essential for preventing a delay in the final diagnosis. Herein we present a pediatric patient with renal lymphoma that presented with central nervous system findings that caused a delay in diagnosis. None declared.

  13. Stimulation of the peripheral nervous system for pain control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, D M

    1983-01-01

    Transcutaneous stimulation is a proven effective way to relieve pain. Its optimal use requires an accurate patient diagnosis. Treatment of pain as a symptom only is likely to fail. There must be a careful psychosocial evaluation, for the majority of patients who come to the doctor complaining of pain have major psychological, social, or behavioral factors that are most important in the genesis of the complaint. Drug abuse must be corrected. Related symptoms, such as anxiety and depression, must be treated. Then, a thorough trail of transcutaneous stimulation is mandatory. A desultory use will undoubtedly lead to failure. This trial must begin with patient education by experienced personnel. Then the electrodes must be properly applied, and there must be a regular follow-up of stimulation to be certain the patient is utilizing it correctly. The patient must be supported through an adequate trial which should extend over 2-4 weeks before purchase of the device is contemplated. Furthermore, all related nursing and physician personnel must be educated in the proper use of the technique. The uninformed professional who denigrates the therapy is a very effective deterrent to appropriate use. In this situation, transcutaneous electrical stimulation will be of great value in the treatment of acute musculoskeletal injury and acute postoperative pain. It will be effective in the treatment of peripheral nerve injury pain, chronic musculoskeletal abnormalities, chronic pain in the patient who has undergone multiple operations upon the low back and neck, visceral pain, some of the reflex sympathetic dystrophies, and postherpetic neuralgia. Stimulation will not help a complaint which is psychosomatic in origin. It will not influence drug addiction. It is not likely to be useful in any situation where secondary gain is important. The metabolic neuropathies, pain of spinal cord injury, and pain from cerebrovascular accident will not respond frequently enough to warrant more than

  14. Your brain on drugs: imaging of drug-related changes in the central nervous system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamrazi, Benita; Almast, Jeevak

    2012-01-01

    Drug abuse is a substantial problem in society today and is associated with significant morbidity and mortality. Various drugs are associated with serious complications affecting the brain, and it is critical to recognize the imaging findings of these complications to provide prompt medical management. The central nervous system (CNS) is a target organ for drugs of abuse as well as specific prescribed medications. Drugs of abuse affecting the CNS include cocaine, heroin, alcohol, amphetamines, toluene, and cannabis. Prescribed medications or medical therapies that can affect the CNS include immunosuppressants, antiepileptics, nitrous oxide, and total parenteral nutrition. The CNS complications of these drugs include neurovascular complications, encephalopathy, atrophy, infection, changes in the corpus callosum, and other miscellaneous changes. Imaging abnormalities indicative of these complications can be appreciated at both magnetic resonance (MR) imaging and computed tomography (CT). It is critical for radiologists to recognize complications related to drugs of abuse as well as iatrogenic effects of various medications. Therefore, diagnostic imaging modalities such as MR imaging and CT can play a pivotal role in the recognition and timely management of drug-related complications in the CNS.

  15. Retrospective study of 48 cases of primary central nervous system lymphoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucas Alessandro

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Primary central nervous system lymphoma (PCNSL is an infrequent form of non-Hodgkin lymphoma restricted to the CNS. More than 90% are type B and mainly affect patients aged 50-70 years. Immunodeficiency is the most important risk factor. The aim of our study was to evaluate the immune status, clinical presentation and findings in complementary studies of PCNSL patients. A retrospective analysis of 48 cases treated in our center between January 1992 and May 2015 was performed. Median age at diagnosis was 61 years (range 25-84; with male predominance (2.1:1. Forty one cases (85% were immunocompetent patients. Brain MRI findings showed parenchymal involvement in 45 cases (94%, 43% with frontal lobe and 35% basal ganglia, 4% had meningeal involvement and 2% had ophthalmic involvement at diagnosis. Fifty-five percent had restricted signal on diffusion weighted imaging and contrast enhancement was found in 89%. Pyramidal syndrome was the main initial clinical manifestation (56%. There were abnormal findings in 62% of CSF samples, but in only 11.1% positive cytology results were detected. The most frequent type was diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (83%, being B-cell type the most common form between them (96%. In our series PCNSL was more frequent in immunocompetent elderly male subjects. At initial evaluation, clinical manifestations and MRI findings were variable. The initial suspicion of this entity would allow an early diagnosis, avoiding empirical treatments that may confuse or delay diagnosis

  16. Bilateral primary adrenal lymphoma with central nervous system involvement: a case report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nacif, Marcelo Souto; Heizer, Marcia; Nahime, Carolina Benvegnu; Santos, Alair Augusto Sarmet Moreira Damas dos

    2005-01-01

    The authors review the main findings of primary adrenal lymphoma on abdominal and brain computed tomography (CT) scans and brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and report a rare case of a 72-year-old male patient with deterioration in mental status progressing from recent memory loss to disorientation and ultimately dementia in a period of two months. The patient was investigated using imaging methods including brain (without intravenous administration of iodinated contrast media), chest and abdomen (pre and post intravenous administration of iodinated contrast media) CT scans and brain MRI (pre and post intravenous administration of gadolinium). Brain CT scan showed slightly hyperdense nodules adjacent to the lateral ventricles. No gross abnormalities were seen on the chest CT scan. CT of the abdomen showed solid nodules on both adrenals. Brain MRI showed diffuse nodular enhancement of the ependyma of the fourth ventricle, third ventricle, frontal and temporal horns, atria and body of the lateral ventricles. Definitive diagnosis was made by immunohistochemical study of the biopsed adrenal. After a comprehensive review of the literature the authors concluded that CT and MRI are essential methods for the detection and accurate evaluation of primary adrenal lymphomas, particularly when there is involvement of the central nervous system. MRI is more sensitive in the detection of extracerebral lesions in the epidural and subdural spaces, especially after intravenous administration of gadolinium. (author)

  17. Central nervous system complications of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma. The potential role for prophylactic therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Young, R.C.; Howser, D.M.; Anderson, T.; Fisher, R.I.; Jaffe, E.; DeVita, V.T. Jr.

    1979-01-01

    In 38 patients with non-Hodgkin's lymphoma, involvement of the central nervous system (CNS) by malignant lymphoma developed during an eight year period. All patients had lymphomatous meningitis; clinical involvement of the spinal nerves or cranial nerves suggested the diagnosis. Spinal fluid was abnormal in 97% of the patients although a positive cytology could be documented in only 67% by lumbar puncture. The histology in 82% of the patients was diffuse. Involvement of the CNS in nodular lymphoma was uncommon (3%), and the histology in virtually all of these patients had converted to diffuse. At the time of diagnosis of CNS disease, 95% of the patients had other evidence of advanced disease; 66% had bone marrow involvement. In only 18% of the patients did CNS disease develop while they werin clinical remission. Eighty-five percent of the patients treated with whole brain irradiation and intrathecal chemotherapy had a good clinical response. Knowledge of these risk factors permits definition of a group of patients who may benefit from CNS prophylaxis

  18. System for detecting and processing abnormality in electromagnetic shielding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takahashi, T.; Nakamura, M.; Yabana, Y.; Ishikawa, T.; Nagata, K.

    1991-01-01

    The present invention relates to a system for detecting and processing an abnormality in electromagnetic shielding of an intelligent building which is constructed using an electromagnetic shielding material for the skeleton and openings such as windows and doorways so that the whole of the building is formed into an electromagnetic shielding structure. (author). 4 figs

  19. Abnormal Events for Reactor System and Facilities in HANARO

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Ho Young; Lee, B. H.; Lee, M.; Kang, I. H.; Lee, U. G.; Sin, H. C.; Park, C. Y.; Song, B. S.; Lee, S. H.; Han, J. S

    2006-12-15

    This report gathers abnormal events related to reactor system and facilities of HANARO that happened during its operation over 10 years since the first criticality on February 1995. The collected examples will be utilized to the HANARO's operators as a useful guide.

  20. Prions spread via the autonomic nervous system from the gut to the central nervous system in cattle incubating bovine spongiform encephalopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffmann, Christine; Ziegler, Ute; Buschmann, Anne; Weber, Artur; Kupfer, Leila; Oelschlegel, Anja; Hammerschmidt, Baerbel; Groschup, Martin H

    2007-03-01

    To elucidate the still-unknown pathogenesis of bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE), an oral BSE challenge and sequential kill study was carried out on 56 calves. Relevant tissues belonging to the peripheral and central nervous system, as well as to the lymphoreticular tract, from necropsied animals were analysed by highly sensitive immunohistochemistry and immunoblotting techniques to reveal the presence of BSE-associated pathological prion protein (PrPSc) depositions. Our results demonstrate two routes involving the autonomic nervous system through which BSE prions spread by anterograde pathways from the gastrointestinal tract (GIT) to the central nervous system (CNS): (i) via the coeliac and mesenteric ganglion complex, splanchnic nerves and the lumbal/caudal thoracic spinal cord (representing the sympathetic GIT innervation); and (ii) via the Nervus vagus (parasympathetic GIT innervation). The dorsal root ganglia seem to be subsequently affected, so it is likely that BSE prion invasion of the non-autonomic peripheral nervous system (e.g. sciatic nerve) is a secondary retrograde event following prion replication in the CNS. Moreover, BSE-associated PrPSc was already detected in the brainstem of an animal 24 months post-infection, which is 8 months earlier than reported previously. These findings are important for the understanding of BSE pathogenesis and for the development of new diagnostic strategies for this infectious disease.

  1. Magnetic resonance imaging characteristics in four dogs with central nervous system neosporosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parzefall, Birgit; Driver, Colin J; Benigni, Livia; Davies, Emma

    2014-01-01

    Neosporosis is a polysystemic disease that can affect dogs of any age and can cause inflammation of the central nervous system. Antemortem diagnosis can be challenging, as clinical and conventional laboratory test findings are often nonspecific. A previous report described cerebellar lesions in brain MRI studies of seven dogs and proposed that these may be characteristic for central nervous system Neosporosis. The purpose of this retrospective study was to describe MRI characteristics in another group of dogs with confirmed central nervous system neosporosis and compare them with the previous report. The hospital's database was searched for dogs with confirmed central nervous system neosporosis and four observers recorded findings from each dog's MRI studies. A total of four dogs met inclusion criteria. Neurologic examination was indicative of a forebrain and cerebellar lesion in dog 2 and multifocal central nervous system disease in dogs 1, 3, and 4. Magnetic resonance imaging showed mild bilateral and symmetrical cerebellar atrophy in three of four dogs (dogs 2, 3, 4), intramedullary spinal cord changes in two dogs (dogs 3, 4) and a mesencephalic and metencephalic lesion in one dog (dog 2). Multifocal brain lesions were recognized in two dogs (dogs 1, 4) and were present in the thalamus, lentiform nucleus, centrum semiovale, internal capsule, brainstem and cortical gray matter of the frontal, parietal or temporal lobe. Findings indicated that central nervous system neosporosis may be characterized by multifocal MRI lesions as well as cerebellar involvement in dogs. © 2014 American College of Veterinary Radiology.

  2. Overview of the Anatomy, Physiology, and Pharmacology of the Autonomic Nervous System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wehrwein, Erica A; Orer, Hakan S; Barman, Susan M

    2016-06-13

    Comprised of the sympathetic nervous system, parasympathetic nervous system, and enteric nervous system, the autonomic nervous system (ANS) provides the neural control of all parts of the body except for skeletal muscles. The ANS has the major responsibility to ensure that the physiological integrity of cells, tissues, and organs throughout the entire body is maintained (homeostasis) in the face of perturbations exerted by both the external and internal environments. Many commonly prescribed drugs, over-the-counter drugs, toxins, and toxicants function by altering transmission within the ANS. Autonomic dysfunction is a signature of many neurological diseases or disorders. Despite the physiological relevance of the ANS, most neuroscience textbooks offer very limited coverage of this portion of the nervous system. This review article provides both historical and current information about the anatomy, physiology, and pharmacology of the sympathetic and parasympathetic divisions of the ANS. The ultimate aim is for this article to be a valuable resource for those interested in learning the basics of these two components of the ANS and to appreciate its importance in both health and disease. Other resources should be consulted for a thorough understanding of the third division of the ANS, the enteric nervous system. © 2016 American Physiological Society. Compr Physiol 6:1239-1278, 2016. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

  3. A theoretical model of naturally occurring cell death in the nervous system

    OpenAIRE

    Galli, Resta; Resta, Giovanni

    1991-01-01

    Throughout the animal kingdom, the formation of the nervous system involves the elimination of many cells, soon after their generation. This phenomenon, known as naturally occurring cell death, has precise time schedules, is observed in the vast majority of nervous structures and causes the 1oss of 15 - 85% of the neurones generated initially. Elimination of erroneous projections, as well as proper size matching between connecting structures can be achieved through cell death. However if elim...

  4. NSF Workshop Report: Discovering General Principles of Nervous System Organization by Comparing Brain Maps across Species

    OpenAIRE

    Striedter, Georg F.; Belgard, T. Grant; Chen, Chun-Chun; Davis, Fred P.; Finlay, Barbara L.; Güntürkün, Onur; Hale, Melina E.; Harris, Julie A.; Hecht, Erin E.; Hof, Patrick R.; Hofmann, Hans A.; Holland, Linda Z.; Iwaniuk, Andrew N.; Jarvis, Erich D.; Karten, Harvey J.

    2014-01-01

    Efforts to understand nervous system structure and function have received new impetus from the federal Brain Research through Advancing Innovative Neurotechnologies (BRAIN) Initiative. Comparative analyses can contribute to this effort by leading to the discovery of general principles of neural circuit design, information processing, and gene-structure-function relationships that are not apparent from studies on single species. We here propose to extend the comparative approach to nervous sys...

  5. Multiple myeloma and central nervous system involvement: experience of a Brazilian center

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Luiza Miranda Silva Dias

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The estimated involvement of the central nervous system in patients with multiple myeloma is rare at about 1%. The infiltration can be identified at the time multiple myeloma is diagnosed or during its progression. However, it is more common in refractory disease or during relapse. Methods: This retrospective cohort study reviewed data from medical records of patients followed up at the Gammopathy Outpatient Clinic of Santa Casa de Misericórdia de São Paulo from January 2008 to December 2016. Results: Twenty patients were included, with a median follow-up of 33.5 months after central nervous system infiltration. The prevalence was 7%. The median age at diagnosis of multiple myeloma was 56.1 years, with 70% of participants being female. Sixteen patients had central nervous system infiltration at diagnosis of multiple myeloma. Seventeen patients had exclusive osteodural lesions and three had infiltrations of the leptomeninge, of which one had exclusive involvement and two had associated osteodural lesions. The median overall survival was 40.3 months after central nervous system involvement. The median overall survival in the group with central nervous system infiltration at relapse was 7.4 months. The patients with leptomeningeal involvement had a median overall survival of 5.8 months. Conclusion: Central nervous system infiltration is a rare condition, but it should be considered as a possibility in patients with multiple myeloma and neurological symptoms. The best treatment regimen for this condition remains unknown and, in most cases, the prognosis is unfavorable. Keywords: Central nervous system, Multiple myeloma, Radiotherapy, Chemotherapy, Prognosis

  6. Risk of central nervous system defects in offspring of women with and without mental illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayoub, Aimina; Fraser, William D; Low, Nancy; Arbour, Laura; Healy-Profitós, Jessica; Auger, Nathalie

    2018-02-22

    We sought to determine the relationship between maternal mental illness and the risk of having an infant with a central nervous system defect. We analyzed a cohort of 654,882 women aged less than 20 years between 1989 and 2013 who later delivered a live born infant in any hospital in Quebec, Canada. The primary exposure was mental illness during pregnancy or hospitalization for mental illness before pregnancy. The outcomes were neural and non-neural tube defects of the central nervous system in any offspring. We computed risk ratios (RR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for the association between mental disorders and risk of central nervous system defects in log-binomial regression models adjusted for age at delivery, total parity, comorbidity, socioeconomic deprivation, place of residence, and time period. Maternal mental illness was associated with an increased risk of nervous system defects in offspring (RR 1.76, 95% CI 1.64-1.89). Hospitalization for any mental disorder was more strongly associated with non-neural tube (RR 1.84, 95% CI 1.71-1.99) than neural tube defects (RR 1.31, 95% CI 1.08-1.59). Women at greater risk of nervous system defects in offspring tended to be diagnosed with multiple mental disorders, have more than one hospitalization for mental disease, or be 17 or older at first hospitalization. A history of mental illness is associated with central nervous system defects in offspring. Women hospitalized for mental illness may merit counseling at first symptoms to prevent central nervous system defects at pregnancy.

  7. Central nervous system: a conductor orchestrating metabolic regulations harmed by both hyperglycaemia and hypoglycaemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheen, A J

    2010-10-01

    Recent evidence suggests that the brain has a key role in the control of energy metabolism, body fat content and glucose metabolism. Neuronal systems, which regulate energy intake, energy expenditure, and endogenous glucose production, sense and respond to input from hormonal and nutrient-related signals that convey information regarding both body energy stores and current energy availability. In response to this input, adaptive changes occur that promote energy homeostasis and the maintenance of blood glucose levels in the normal range. Defects in this control system are implicated in the link between obesity and type 2 diabetes mellitus. The central nervous system may be considered the conductor of an orchestra involving many peripheral organs involved in these homeostatic processes. However, the brain is mainly a glucose-dependent organ, which can be damaged by both hypoglycaemia and hyperglycaemia. Hypoglycaemia unawareness is a major problem in clinical practice and is associated with an increased risk of coma. Stroke is another acute complication associated with diabetes mellitus, especially in elderly people, and the control of glucose level in this emergency situation remains challenging. The prognosis of stroke is worse in diabetic patients and both its prevention and management in at-risk patients should be improved. Finally, chronic diabetic encephalopathies, which may lead to cognitive dysfunction and even dementia, are also recognized. They may result from recurrent hypoglycaemia and/or from chronic hyperglycaemia leading to cerebral vascular damage. Functional imaging is of interest for exploring diabetes-associated cerebral abnormalities. Thus, the intimate relationship between the brain and diabetes is increasingly acknowledged in both research and clinical practice. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  8. Gastrointestinal mucosal abnormalities using videocapsule endoscopy in systemic sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marie, I; Antonietti, M; Houivet, E; Hachulla, E; Maunoury, V; Bienvenu, B; Viennot, S; Smail, A; Duhaut, P; Dupas, J-L; Dominique, S; Hatron, P-Y; Levesque, H; Benichou, J; Ducrotté, P

    2014-07-01

    To date, there are no large studies on videocapsule endoscopy in systemic sclerosis (SSc). Consequently, the prevalence and features of gastrointestinal mucosal abnormalities in SSc have not been determined. To determine both prevalence and characteristics of gastrointestinal mucosal abnormalities in unselected patients with SSc, using videocapsule endoscopy. To predict which SSc patients are at risk of developing potentially bleeding gastrointestinal vascular mucosal abnormalities. Videocapsule endoscopy was performed on 50 patients with SSc. Prevalence of gastrointestinal mucosal abnormalities was 52%. Potentially bleeding vascular mucosal lesions were predominant, including: watermelon stomach (34.6%), gastric and/or small intestinal telangiectasia (26.9%) and gastric and/or small intestinal angiodysplasia (38.5%). SSc patients with gastrointestinal vascular mucosal lesions more often exhibited: limited cutaneous SSc (P = 0.06), digital ulcers (P = 0.05), higher score of nailfold videocapillaroscopy (P = 0.0009), anaemia (P = 0.02), lower levels of ferritin (P correlation between gastrointestinal vascular mucosal lesions and presence of severe extra-digestive vasculopathy (digital ulcers and higher nailfold videocapillaroscopy scores). This latter supports the theory that SSc-related diffuse vasculopathy is responsible for both cutaneous and digestive vascular lesions. Therefore, we suggest that nailfold videocapillaroscopy may be a helpful test for managing SSc patients. In fact, nailfold videocapillaroscopy score should be calculated routinely, as it may result in identification of SSc patients at higher risk of developing potentially bleeding gastrointestinal vascular mucosal lesions. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Current Management of Primary Central Nervous System Lymphoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schultz, Christopher J.; Bovi, Joseph

    2010-01-01

    Primary central nervous cell lymphoma (PCNSL) is an uncommon neoplasm of the brain, leptomeninges, and rarely the spinal cord. Initially thought to be characteristically associated with congenital, iatrogenic, or acquired immunosuppression, PCNSL is now recognized with increasing frequency in immunocompetent individuals. The role of surgery is limited to establishing diagnosis, as PCNSL is often multifocal with a propensity to involve the subarachnoid space. A whole-brain radiation volume has empirically been used to adequately address the multifocal tumor frequently encountered at the time of PCNSL diagnosis. Despite high rates of response after whole-brain radiotherapy (WBRT), rapid recurrence is common and long-term survival is the exception. Chemotherapy alone or in combination with WBRT has more recently become the treatment of choice. Most effective regimens contain high-dose methotrexate and or other agents that are capable of penetrating the blood-brain barrier. High response rates and improved survival with the use of chemotherapy has led to treatment strategies that defer or eliminate WBRT in hopes of lessening the risk of neurotoxicity attributed to WBRT. Unfortunately, elimination of WBRT is also associated with a higher rate of relapse. Combined chemotherapy and WBRT regimens are now being explored that use lower total doses of radiation and altered fractionation schedules with the aim of maintaining high rates of tumor control while minimizing neurotoxicity. Pretreatment, multifactor prognostic indices have recently been described that may allow selection of treatment regimens that strike an appropriate balance of risk and benefit for the individual PCNSL patient.

  10. The larval nervous system of the penis worm Priapulus caudatus (Ecdysozoa).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martín-Durán, José M; Wolff, Gabriella H; Strausfeld, Nicholas J; Hejnol, Andreas

    2016-01-05

    The origin and extreme diversification of the animal nervous system is a central question in biology. While most of the attention has traditionally been paid to those lineages with highly elaborated nervous systems (e.g. arthropods, vertebrates, annelids), only the study of the vast animal diversity can deliver a comprehensive view of the evolutionary history of this organ system. In this regard, the phylogenetic position and apparently conservative molecular, morphological and embryological features of priapulid worms (Priapulida) place this animal lineage as a key to understanding the evolution of the Ecdysozoa (i.e. arthropods and nematodes). In this study, we characterize the nervous system of the hatching larva and first lorica larva of the priapulid worm Priapulus caudatus by immunolabelling against acetylated and tyrosinated tubulin, pCaMKII, serotonin and FMRFamide. Our results show that a circumoral brain and an unpaired ventral nerve with a caudal ganglion characterize the central nervous system of hatching embryos. After the first moult, the larva attains some adult features: a neck ganglion, an introvert plexus, and conspicuous secondary longitudinal neurites. Our study delivers a neuroanatomical framework for future embryological studies in priapulid worms, and helps illuminate the course of nervous system evolution in the Ecdysozoa. © 2015 The Authors.

  11. Low-level hydrogen sulfide and central nervous system dysfunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilburn, Kaye H; Thrasher, Jack D; Gray, Michael R

    2010-08-01

    Forty-nine adults living in Lovington, Tatum, and Artesia, the sour gas/oil sector of Southeastern New Mexico, were tested for neurobehavioral impairment. Contributing hydrogen sulfide were (1) an anaerobic sewage plant; (2) two oil refineries; (3) natural gas/oil wells and (4) a cheese-manufacturing plant and its waste lagoons. Comparisons were to unexposed Wickenburg, Arizona, adults. Neurobehavioral functions were measured in 26 Lovington adults including 23 people from Tatum and Artesia, New Mexico, and 42 unexposed Arizona people. Participants completed questionnaires including chemical exposures, symptom frequencies and the Profile of Mood States. Measurements included balance, reaction time, color discrimination, blink reflex, visual fields, grip strength, hearing, vibration, problem solving, verbal recall, long-term memory, peg placement, trail making and fingertip number writing errors (FTNWE). Average numbers of abnormalities and test scores were adjusted for age, gender, educational level, height and weight, expressed as percent predicted (% pred) and compared by analysis of variance (ANOVA). Ages and educational attainment of the three groups were not statistically significantly different (ssd). Mean values of Lovington residents were ssd from the unexposed Arizona people for simple and choice reaction times, balance with eyes open and closed, visual field score, hearing and grip strength. Culture Fair, digit symbol substitution, vocabulary, verbal recall, peg placement, trail making A and B, FTNWE, information, picture completion and similarities were also ssd. The Lovington adults who averaged 11.8 abnormalities were ssd from, Tatum-Artesia adults who had 3.6 and from unexposed subjects with 2.0. Multiple source community hydrogen sulfide exposures impaired neurobehavioral functions.

  12. The role of ZAP70 kinase in acute lymphoblastic leukemia infiltration into the central nervous system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alsadeq, Ameera; Fedders, Henning; Vokuhl, Christian; Belau, Nele M; Zimmermann, Martin; Wirbelauer, Tim; Spielberg, Steffi; Vossen-Gajcy, Michaela; Cario, Gunnar; Schrappe, Martin; Schewe, Denis M

    2017-02-01

    Central nervous system infiltration and relapse are poorly understood in childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia. We examined the role of zeta-chain-associated protein kinase 70 in preclinical models of central nervous system leukemia and performed correlative studies in patients. Zeta-chain-associated protein kinase 70 expression in acute lymphoblastic leukemia cells was modulated using short hairpin ribonucleic acid-mediated knockdown or ectopic expression. We show that zeta-chain-associated protein kinase 70 regulates CCR7/CXCR4 via activation of extracellular signal-regulated kinases. High expression of zeta-chain-associated protein kinase 70 in acute lymphoblastic leukemia cells resulted in a higher proportion of central nervous system leukemia in xenografts as compared to zeta-chain-associated protein kinase 70 low expressing counterparts. High zeta-chain-associated protein kinase 70 also enhanced the migration potential towards CCL19/CXCL12 gradients in vitro CCR7 blockade almost abrogated homing of acute lymphoblastic leukemia cells to the central nervous system in xenografts. In 130 B-cell precursor acute lymphoblastic leukemia and 117 T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia patients, zeta-chain-associated protein kinase 70 and CCR7/CXCR4 expression levels were significantly correlated. Zeta-chain-associated protein kinase 70 expression correlated with central nervous system disease in B-cell precursor acute lymphoblastic leukemia, and CCR7/CXCR4 correlated with central nervous system involvement in T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia patients. In multivariate analysis, zeta-chain-associated protein kinase 70 expression levels in the upper third and fourth quartiles were associated with central nervous system involvement in B-cell precursor acute lymphoblastic leukemia (odds ratio=7.48, 95% confidence interval, 2.06-27.17; odds ratio=6.86, 95% confidence interval, 1.86-25.26, respectively). CCR7 expression in the upper fourth quartile correlated with central

  13. ETGAR - Information system for abnormal occurrences in nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baram, J.; Nagar, M.; Pultorak, G.

    1975-01-01

    The need for extensive information on systems and components arises early in the planning stage of a nuclear power plant. This information is equally necessary during the building of the plant and during the licensing process. Another type of information helps preventive maintenance during the operating life of the plant. In the case of abnormal occurrences additional information on their possible consequences and on possible ways of handling them, is essential. To cover these four needs, the ETGAR system, which at present covers mostly PWR and BWR type nuclear power plants, collects and evaluates information on abnormal occurrences in nuclear power plants. The information is coded, using a three-level coding scheme for systems and components, and put on magnetic tape. A search program enables the retrieval of any pertinent information from the data base. The sources for the ETGAR data base are reports on abnormal occurrences in nuclear power plants. Most of them are USAEC dockets, originated at U.S.A. power plants. The relevant documents are accessible through a standard query run for ETGAR in the INIS data base which is maintained by the INIS centre in Israel. This query retrieves every two weeks all the documents which come under the ETGAR scope and these are handed as microfiches to the ETGAR evaluators after each INIS run. The evaluation and coding of the documents, the ETGAR coding scheme and the computer programs are described. (B.G.)

  14. Phenotype of Antigen Unexperienced TH Cells in the Inflamed Central Nervous System in Experimental Autoimmune Encephalomyelitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franck, Sophia; Paterka, Magdalena; Birkenstock, Jerome; Zipp, Frauke; Siffrin, Volker; Witsch, Esther

    2017-06-01

    Multiple sclerosis is a chronic, disseminated inflammation of the central nervous system which is thought to be driven by autoimmune T cells. Genetic association studies in multiple sclerosis and a large number of studies in the animal model of the disease support a role for effector/memory T helper cells. However, the mechanisms underlying relapses, remission and chronic progression in multiple sclerosis or the animal model experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis, are not clear. In particular, there is only scarce information on the role of central nervous system-invading naive T helper cells in these processes. By applying two-photon laser scanning microscopy we could show in vivo that antigen unexperienced T helper cells migrated into the deep parenchyma of the inflamed central nervous system in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis, independent of their antigen specificity. Using flow cytometric analyses of central nervous system-derived lymphocytes we found that only antigen-specific, formerly naive T helper cells became activated during inflammation of the central nervous system encountering their corresponding antigen.

  15. Restoring nervous system structure and function using tissue engineered living scaffolds

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Laura A Struzyna; James P Harris; Kritika S Katiyar; H Isaac Chen; D KacyCullen

    2015-01-01

    Neural tissue engineering is premised on the integration of engineered living tissue with the host nervous system to directly restore lost function or to augment regenerative capacity following ner-vous system injury or neurodegenerative disease. Disconnection of axon pathways – the long-distance ifbers connecting specialized regions of the central nervous system or relaying peripheral signals – is a common feature of many neurological disorders and injury. However, functional axonal regenera-tion rarely occurs due to extreme distances to targets, absence of directed guidance, and the presence of inhibitory factors in the central nervous system, resulting in devastating effects on cognitive and sensorimotor function. To address this need, we are pursuing multiple strategies using tissue engi-neered “living scaffolds”, which are preformed three-dimensional constructs consisting of living neural cells in a deifned, often anisotropic architecture. Living scaffolds are designed to restore function by serving as a living labeled pathway for targeted axonal regeneration – mimicking key developmental mechanisms– or by restoring lost neural circuitry via direct replacement of neurons and axonal tracts. We are currently utilizing preformed living scaffolds consisting of neuronal clusters spanned by long axonal tracts as regenerative bridges to facilitate long-distance axonal regeneration and for targeted neurosurgical reconstruction of local circuits in the brain. Although there are formidable challenges in preclinical and clinical advancement, these living tissue engineered constructs represent a promising strategy to facilitate nervous system repair and functional recovery.

  16. Conceptual Network Model From Sensory Neurons to Astrocytes of the Human Nervous System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yiqun; Yeo, Chai Kiat

    2015-07-01

    From a single-cell animal like paramecium to vertebrates like ape, the nervous system plays an important role in responding to the variations of the environment. Compared to animals, the nervous system in the human body possesses more intricate organization and utility. The nervous system anatomy has been understood progressively, yet the explanation at the cell level regarding complete information transmission is still lacking. Along the signal pathway toward the brain, an external stimulus first activates action potentials in the sensing neuron and these electric pulses transmit along the spinal nerve or cranial nerve to the neurons in the brain. Second, calcium elevation is triggered in the branch of astrocyte at the tripartite synapse. Third, the local calcium wave expands to the entire territory of the astrocyte. Finally, the calcium wave propagates to the neighboring astrocyte via gap junction channel. In our study, we integrate the existing mathematical model and biological experiments in each step of the signal transduction to establish a conceptual network model for the human nervous system. The network is composed of four layers and the communication protocols of each layer could be adapted to entities with different characterizations. We verify our simulation results against the available biological experiments and mathematical models and provide a test case of the integrated network. As the production of conscious episode in the human nervous system is still under intense research, our model serves as a useful tool to facilitate, complement and verify current and future study in human cognition.

  17. Hydatid disease of the Central Nervous System: imaging characteristics and general features

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abbassioun, K.; Amirjamshidi, A.; Sabouri Deylamie, M.

    2003-01-01

    Background: Hydatid disease primarily affects the liver and typically demonstrates characteristic imaging findings. Secondary involvement due to hematogenous dissemination may be seen in almost any locations, e.g., lung, kidney, spleen, bone and central nervous system. Objectives: To review the different aspects of hydatidosis of the central nervous system briefly and discuss the pathognomonic features and rare varieties of radiological findings useful in preoperative diagnosis of the disease in the human central nervous system. Materials and Methods: In a retrospective study, the records of almost 100 cases of central nervous system hydatidosis were analyzed . The available images were reviewed by independent observers, either a radiologist or a neurosurgeon, and reported separately. Results: In skull x-ray films, nonspecific changes denoted increased intracranial pressure, skull asymmetry and curvilinear calcification in rare instances. Computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging demonstrated the round or oval, well-defined cystic mass with an attenuation or signal intensity similar to that of cerebrospinal fluid, with no associated perifocal edema, and no contrast enhancement as the pathognomonic findings of brain hydatidosis. Similar findings were detected in hydatid cysts involving the orbit, spinal column and spinal cord with some variations. Such findings as mild perifocal edema, non homogenous contrast enhancement, non-uniform shapes, calcification and multiplicity or septations have been the atypical radiological findings. Conclusion: In endemic areas, familiarity with typical and atypical radiological manifestations of hydatid disease of the central nervous system, will be helpful in making prompt and correct preoperative diagnosis leading to a better surgical outcome

  18. Review of dextromethorphan administration in 18 patients with subacute methotrexate central nervous system toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afshar, Maryam; Birnbaum, Daniel; Golden, Carla

    2014-06-01

    The pathogenesis of methotrexate central nervous system toxicity is multifactorial, but it is likely related to central nervous system folate homeostasis. The use of folinate rescue has been described to decrease toxicity in patients who had received intrathecal methotrexate. It has also been described in previous studies that there is an elevated level of homocysteine in plasma and cerebrospinal fluid of patients who had received intrathecal methotrexate. Homocysteine is an N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor agonist. The use of dextromethorphan, noncompetitive N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor receptor antagonist, has been used in the treatment of sudden onset of neurological dysfunction associated with methotrexate toxicity. It remains unclear whether the dextromethorphan impacted the speed of recovery, and its use remains controversial. This study reviews the use of dextromethorphan in the setting of subacute methotrexate central nervous system toxicity. Charts of 18 patients who had sudden onset of neurological impairments after receiving methotrexate and were treated with dextromethorphan were reviewed. The use of dextromethorphan in most of our patients resulted in symptomatic improvement. In this patient population, earlier administration of dextromethorphan resulted in faster improvement of impairments and led to prevention of recurrence of seizure activity induced by methotrexate central nervous system toxicity. Our study provides support for the use of dextromethorphan in patients with subacute methotrexate central nervous system toxicity. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Restoring nervous system structure and function using tissue engineered living scaffolds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura A Struzyna

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Neural tissue engineering is premised on the integration of engineered living tissue with the host nervous system to directly restore lost function or to augment regenerative capacity following nervous system injury or neurodegenerative disease. Disconnection of axon pathways - the long-distance fibers connecting specialized regions of the central nervous system or relaying peripheral signals - is a common feature of many neurological disorders and injury. However, functional axonal regeneration rarely occurs due to extreme distances to targets, absence of directed guidance, and the presence of inhibitory factors in the central nervous system, resulting in devastating effects on cognitive and sensorimotor function. To address this need, we are pursuing multiple strategies using tissue engineered "living scaffolds", which are preformed three-dimensional constructs consisting of living neural cells in a defined, often anisotropic architecture. Living scaffolds are designed to restore function by serving as a living labeled pathway for targeted axonal regeneration - mimicking key developmental mechanisms- or by restoring lost neural circuitry via direct replacement of neurons and axonal tracts. We are currently utilizing preformed living scaffolds consisting of neuronal clusters spanned by long axonal tracts as regenerative bridges to facilitate long-distance axonal regeneration and for targeted neurosurgical reconstruction of local circuits in the brain. Although there are formidable challenges in preclinical and clinical advancement, these living tissue engineered constructs represent a promising strategy to facilitate nervous system repair and functional recovery.

  20. The Human Nervous System: A Framework for Teaching and the Teaching Brain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, Vanessa

    2013-01-01

    The teaching brain is a new concept that mirrors the complex, dynamic, and context-dependent nature of the learning brain. In this article, I use the structure of the human nervous system and its sensing, processing, and responding components as a framework for a re-conceptualized teaching system. This teaching system is capable of responses on an…