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Sample records for nerve head topography

  1. Scanning laser topography and scanning laser polarimetry: comparing both imaging methods at same distances from the optic nerve head.

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    Kremmer, Stephan; Keienburg, Marcus; Anastassiou, Gerasimos; Schallenberg, Maurice; Steuhl, Klaus-Peter; Selbach, J Michael

    2012-01-01

    To compare the performance of scanning laser topography (SLT) and scanning laser polarimetry (SLP) on the rim of the optic nerve head and its surrounding area and thereby to evaluate whether these imaging technologies are influenced by other factors beyond the thickness of the retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL). A total of 154 eyes from 5 different groups were examined: young healthy subjects (YNorm), old healthy subjects (ONorm), patients with normal tension glaucoma (NTG), patients with open-angle glaucoma and early glaucomatous damage (OAGE) and patients with open-angle glaucoma and advanced glaucomatous damage (OAGA). SLT and SLP measurements were taken. Four concentric circles were superimposed on each of the images: the first one measuring at the rim of the optic nerve head (1.0 ONHD), the next measuring at 1.25 optic nerve head diameters (ONHD), at 1.5 ONHD and at 1.75 ONHD. The aligned images were analyzed using GDx/NFA software. Both methods showed peaks of RNFL thickness in the superior and inferior segments of the ONH. The maximum thickness, registered by the SLT device was at the ONH rim where the SLP device tended to measure the lowest values. SLT measurements at the ONH were influenced by other tissues besides the RNFL like blood vessels and glial tissues. SLT and SLP were most strongly correlated at distances of 1.25 and 1.5 ONHD. While both imaging technologies are valuable tools in detecting glaucoma, measurements at the ONH rim should be interpreted critically since both methods might provide misleading results. For the assessment of the retinal nerve fiber layer we would like to recommend for both imaging technologies, SLT and SLP, measurements in 1.25 and 1.5 ONHD distance of the rim of the optic nerve head.

  2. Ulnar nerve entrapment complicating radial head excision

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    Kevin Parfait Bienvenu Bouhelo-Pam

    Full Text Available Introduction: Several mechanisms are involved in ischemia or mechanical compression of ulnar nerve at the elbow. Presentation of case: We hereby present the case of a road accident victim, who received a radial head excision for an isolated fracture of the radial head and complicated by onset of cubital tunnel syndrome. This outcome could be the consequence of an iatrogenic valgus of the elbow due to excision of the radial head. Hitherto the surgical treatment of choice it is gradually been abandoned due to development of radial head implant arthroplasty. However, this management option is still being performed in some rural centers with low resources. Discussion: The radial head plays an important role in the stability of the elbow and his iatrogenic deformity can be complicated by cubital tunnel syndrome. Conclusion: An ulnar nerve release was performed with favorable outcome. Keywords: Cubital tunnel syndrome, Peripheral nerve palsy, Radial head excision, Elbow valgus

  3. Cranial nerve injury after minor head trauma.

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    Coello, Alejandro Fernández; Canals, Andreu Gabarrós; Gonzalez, Juan Martino; Martín, Juan José Acebes

    2010-09-01

    There are no specific studies about cranial nerve (CN) injury following mild head trauma (Glasgow Coma Scale Score 14-15) in the literature. The aim of this analysis was to document the incidence of CN injury after mild head trauma and to correlate the initial CT findings with the final outcome 1 year after injury. The authors studied 49 consecutive patients affected by minor head trauma and CN lesions between January 2000 and January 2006. Detailed clinical and neurological examinations as well as CT studies using brain and bone windows were performed in all patients. Based on the CT findings the authors distinguished 3 types of traumatic injury: no lesion, skull base fracture, and other CT abnormalities. Patients were followed up for 1 year after head injury. The authors distinguished 3 grades of clinical recovery from CN palsy: no recovery, partial recovery, and complete recovery. Posttraumatic single nerve palsy was observed in 38 patients (77.6%), and multiple nerve injuries were observed in 11 (22.4%). Cranial nerves were affected in 62 cases. The most affected CN was the olfactory nerve (CN I), followed by the facial nerve (CN VII) and the oculomotor nerves (CNs III, IV, and VI). When more than 1 CN was involved, the most frequent association was between CNs VII and VIII. One year after head trauma, a CN deficit was present in 26 (81.2%) of the 32 cases with a skull base fracture, 12 (60%) of 20 cases with other CT abnormalities, and 3 (30%) of 10 cases without CT abnormalities. Trivial head trauma that causes a minor head injury (Glasgow Coma Scale Score 14-15) can result in CN palsies with a similar distribution to moderate or severe head injuries. The CNs associated with the highest incidence of palsy in this study were the olfactory, facial, and oculomotor nerves. The trigeminal and lower CNs were rarely damaged. Oculomotor nerve injury can have a good prognosis, with a greater chance of recovery if no lesion is demonstrated on the initial CT scan.

  4. The optic nerve head in glaucoma

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    Rupert RA Bourne

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available ll types of glaucoma involve glaucomatous optic neuropathy. The key to detection and management of glaucoma is understanding how to examine the optic nerve head (ONH. This pictorial glossary addresses the following issues: how to examine the ONH; normal characteristics of the ONH; characteristics of a glaucomatous ONH; how to tell if the glaucomatous optic neuropathy is getting worse;‘pitfalls and pearls’.

  5. Isolated third nerve palsy from mild closed head trauma.

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    Najafi, Mohammad Reza; Mehrbod, Noushin

    2012-09-01

    Head injury is a common occurrence in motor vehicle accidents. There are numerous causes for cranial nerve injury that include head trauma or other lesions. Few studies regarding cranial nerve injury following mild head trauma (GCS: 14 - 15) exist in the literature. The oculomotor nerve is a somatic and visceral motor nerve. When it is completely injured the result is ptosis, pupils that are non-reactive to light and a lack of eye movement. We report the case of a completely isolated oculomotor nerve palsy associated with minor head injury.

  6. Congenital pits of the optic nerve head and retinochoroidal colobomas.

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    Brown, G C; Augsburger, J J

    1980-07-01

    A 45-year-old man presented with bilateral retinochoroidal colobomas associated with an inferonasal congenital pit of the optic nerve head in each eye. Different theories on the origin of such pits are discussed. This case supports the theory that some congenital optic pits occur as a result of failure of closure of the superior end of the embryonic fissure.

  7. Radial head fracture associated with posterior interosseous nerve injury

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    Bernardo Barcellos Terra

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Fractures of the radial head and radial neck correspond to 1.7-5.4% of all fractures and approximately 30% may present associated injuries. In the literature, there are few reports of radial head fracture with posterior interosseous nerve injury. This study aimed to report a case of radial head fracture associated with posterior interosseous nerve injury. CASE REPORT: A male patient, aged 42 years, sought medical care after falling from a skateboard. The patient related pain and limitation of movement in the right elbow and difficulty to extend the fingers of the right hand. During physical examination, thumb and fingers extension deficit was observed. The wrist extension showed a slight radial deviation. After imaging, it became evident that the patient had a fracture of the radial head that was classified as grade III in the Mason classification. The patient underwent fracture fixation; at the first postoperative day, thumb and fingers extension was observed. Although rare, posterior interosseous nerve branch injury may be associated with radial head fractures. In the present case, the authors believe that neuropraxia occurred as a result of the fracture hematoma and edema.

  8. Ocular Movement Nerve Palsy After Mild Head Trauma.

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    Li, Guichen; Zhu, Xiaobo; Gu, Xiuhong; Sun, Yang; Gao, Xianfeng; Zhang, Yang; Hou, Kun

    2016-10-01

    Ocular movement nerve (cranial nerve III, IV and VI) palsy (OMNP) is rarely encountered after mild head trauma. As a result of the inconsistent definition of this specific entity in published studies, it is difficult to offer an accurate management strategy and prognosis assessment to affected patients. A retrospective review of the medical records of the patients at the First Hospital of Jilin University combined with a systematic review of published studies was conducted. Thirty-one patients (17 females, 55%), including 6 cases in our institution, were identified in this systematic review. Cranial nerves III, IV, and VI were involved in 54.8%, 3.2%, and 45.2% of the patients, respectively. Although all the patients in our case series experienced complete resolution, only 54.6% experienced complete resolution in a time course of 10 days to 13 months. Additional intracranial findings other than traumatic brain injury on imaging modalities that might predispose to OMNP after mild head trauma were identified in 25.8% of the patients. OMNP after mild head trauma is a rare entity in neurosurgical practice. In patients with no positive intracranial finding, observation and follow-up are the mainstay of management. If any underlying intracranial lesions are identified, the management should be focused on the underlying lesions. From the data available, mild trauma does not mean mild injury or favorable recovery in OMNP after mild head trauma. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Nerve transfer from triceps medial head and anconeus to deltoid for axillary nerve palsy.

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    Bertelli, Jayme Augusto; Ghizoni, Marcos Flávio

    2014-05-01

    To report our results with reconstruction of the axillary nerve by transferring the branch to the triceps lower medial head and anconeus to the anterior division of the axillary nerve. This study included 9 patients with isolated injury of the axillary nerve. Their average age ± SD was 35 ± 9 years, and the mean interval ± SD between injury and surgery was 6.6 ± 2.6 months. Through a posterior arm approach, the radial nerve branch to the lower triceps medial head and anconeus was transferred to the anterior division of the axillary nerve. We observed patients for a mean of 34 ± 7 months. At final evaluation, we measured range of shoulder motion, shoulder abduction and elbow extension strength, and abduction endurance. Patients were assessed via the deltoid extension lag test and abduction-in-internal-rotation test. All patients recovered deltoid function and maintained full active elbow extension. Seven of 9 patients recovered from lagging abduction in internal rotation. Abduction strength improved from approximately 40% that of the normal side at 90° of abduction preoperatively to 60% of normal strength postoperatively. There was improved endurance in abduction from approximately 25% to 65% that of the normal side, which was sufficient to eliminate all reports of shoulder pain or fatigability. Transfer of the radial nerve branch for the lower triceps medial head and anconeus to the anterior division of the axillary nerve proved to be an effective method of deltoid reinnervation. Therapeutic IV. Copyright © 2014 American Society for Surgery of the Hand. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. [Study of optic nerve head-fovea angle with retinophotography in congenital fourth nerve palsy].

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    Lefèvre, F; Péchereau, A

    2009-04-01

    Measurement of ocular torsion is an important element for analysis of certain oculomotor pathologies such as fourth nerve palsy. With nonmydriatic retinography, objective measurements of ocular torsion are now accessible in daily practice: the normal values in healthy subjects are known. We compared a population of subjects with fourth nerve palsy to a reference population. Prospective study of 38 cases of congenital fourth nerve palsy, who had never undergone surgery. Each of these subjects had nonmydriatic retinography done according to a standardized protocol. The ocular torsion was measured using graphic software with consideration of reproducible anatomical marks. A statistical study determined the thresholds of significance. In this pathological population, the angle between the optic nerve head and fovea is organized in a Gaussian distribution but the values are different from those found with the same method in a population of healthy subjects (6.3 degrees +/-3.4) (t test, pExtorsion exists in paralytic eyes (mean, 10.7 degrees +/-3.8), as in the other eye (mean, 8.8 degrees +/-5.7). In addition, the study of the anatomical marks of the fundus (optic nerve head and the lower pole of the papilla) was shown to be reliable. This study confirms ocular torsion's variation in fourth nerve palsy. Extortion was found in both eyes. We demonstrated no relation between the severity of the extortion and the lateralization of the fixating eye. We confirmed the results of previous studies. This study confirms the relevance of the objective measures of the ocular torsion in a pathological situation. Simple anatomical marks of eye fundus provide a useful analysis of these clinical presentations.

  11. Evaluation of image reconstruction algorithm for near infrared topography by virtual head phantom

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    Kawaguchi, Hiroshi; Okada, Eiji

    2007-07-01

    The poor spatial resolution and reproducibility of the images are disadvantages of near infrared topography. The authors proposed the combination of the double-density probe arrangement and the image reconstruction algorithm using a spatial sensitivity profile to improve the spatial resolution and the reproducibility. However, the proposed method was evaluated only by the simplified adult head model. It is uncertain whether the proposed method is effective to the actual head that has complicated structure. In this study, the proposed method is evaluated by the virtual head phantom the 3Dstructure of which is based upon an MRI scan of an adult head. The absorption change the size of which is almost equivalent to the width of the brain gyri was measured by the conventional method and the proposed method to evaluate the spatial resolution of the topographic images obtained by each method. The positions of the probe arrangements are slightly changed and the topographic images of the same brain activation measured by two probe positions are compared to evaluate the reproducibility of the NIR topography. The results indicate that the combination of the double-density probe arrangement and the image reconstruction algorithm using the spatial sensitivity profile can improve both the spatial resolution and the reproducibility of the topographic image of brain activation in the virtual head phantom. However, the uneven thickness of the superficial tissues affects the accuracy of the position of activation in the images.

  12. Isolated abducens nerve palsy after closed head trauma: a pediatric case report.

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    Janssen, Karen; Wojciechowski, Marek; Poot, Sandra; De Keyser, Katrien; Ceulemans, Berten

    2008-09-01

    Cranial nerve lessions often accompany head trauma. Nevertheless, isolated involvement of the sixth nerve without any cranial or cervical fracture is rare. Nerve injury could occur at the sites of the dural entry points and at the petrous apex during down- or upward movement of the brain caused by violent linear force to the head. Management is symptomatic. Most cases improve within three months and many resolve by six months, but spontaneous recovery does not always occur. We describe the case of a 13-year-old boy who developed isolated abducens nerve palsy after closed head trauma.

  13. NMR imaging of the head-neck region. Topography of function - clinical findings - imaging and spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vogl, T.J.

    1991-01-01

    The book on nmr imaging in the head-neck region offers, on a total of 221 pages, 344 detailed representations with 141 figures and 44 tables. It provides information as to the relevant topography of function, presents clinical findings, explains imaging characteristics and also takes account of spectroscopic procedures. The multifarious methods of investigation are described and discussed in connection with the differential diagnoses. A score of suitable diagnostic measures is assigned to each region of examination. The method's value is assessed against that of other imaging techniques. (orig.) [de

  14. Effect of the menstrual cycle on the optic nerve head in diabetes: analysis by confocal scanning laser ophthalmoscopy.

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    Akar, Munire Erman; Yucel, Iclal; Erdem, Uzeyir; Taskin, Omur; Ozel, Alper; Akar, Yusuf

    2005-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine and compare menstrual-cycle-dependent topographic changes in the optic nerve head of normally menstruating women with different grades of type 2 diabetes mellitus. We studied the right eyes of 123 normally menstruating women (36 with severe nonproliferative diabetic retinopathy [NPDR], 42 with mild NPDR and 45 healthy subjects). All subjects underwent a complete ocular examination at baseline. At 4 hormonally distinct phases of the menstrual cycle (early follicular, late follicular, mid-luteal and late luteal), we analysed the topography of the optic nerve head, using a confocal scanning laser ophthalmoscope, and measured the serum levels of estradiol, progesterone and luteinizing hormone. We excluded from analysis the data for 8 patients with severe NPDR, 10 patients with mild NPDR and 15 control subjects who were lost to follow-up examinations during the menstrual cycle. The mean age and optic disc area did not differ significantly among the 3 groups. The duration of diabetes was significantly longer in the patients with severe NPDR than in those with mild NPDR (p cup-shape measure, linear cup/disc ratio, cup/disc area ratio and cup area in the late luteal phase compared with the other phases of the menstrual cycle (p menstrual cycle. Severe NPDR is associated with significant topographic changes in the rim and cup of the optic nerve head during the menstrual cycle. This must be considered in the evaluation of women with both diabetes and glaucoma. The normal fluctuations in serum sex hormone levels during the menstrual cycle of diabetic women seem to affect the optic nerve head more when the disease is advanced.

  15. Does Surface Topography Play a Role in Taper Damage in Head-neck Modular Junctions?

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    Pourzal, Robin; Hall, Deborah J; Ha, Nguyen Q; Urban, Robert M; Levine, Brett R; Jacobs, Joshua J; Lundberg, Hannah J

    2016-10-01

    There are increasing reports of total hip arthroplasty failure subsequent to modular taper junction corrosion. The surfaces of tapers are machined to have circumferential machining marks, resulting in a surface topography of alternating peaks and valleys on the scale of micrometers. It is unclear if the geometry of this machined surface topography influences the degree of fretting and corrosion damage present on modular taper junctions or if there are differences between modular taper junction material couples. (1) What are the differences in damage score and surface topography between CoCr/CoCr and CoCr/Ti modular junctions? (2) How are initial surface topography, flexural rigidity, taper angle mismatch, and time in situ related to visual taper damage scores for CoCr/CoCr couples? (3) How are initial surface topography, flexural rigidity, taper angle mismatch, and time in situ related to visual taper damage scores for CoCr/Ti couples? Damage on stem and head tapers was evaluated with a modified Goldberg score. Differences in damage scores were determined between a group of 140 CoCr/CoCr couples and 129 CoCr/Ti couples using a chi-square test. For a subgroup of 70 retrievals, selected at random, we measured five variables, including initial stem taper machining mark height and spacing, initial head taper roughness, flexural rigidity, and taper angle mismatch. All retrievals were obtained at revision surgeries. None were retrieved as a result of metal-on-metal failures or were recalled implants. Components were chosen so there was a comparable number of each material couple and damage score. Machining marks around the circumference of the tapers were measured using white light interferometry to characterize the initial stem taper surface topography in terms of the height of and spacing between machining mark peaks as well as initial head taper roughness. The taper angle mismatch was assessed with a coordinate measuring machine. Flexural rigidity was determined based

  16. Oncologic safety of cervical nerve preservation in neck dissection for head and neck cancer.

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    Honda, Keigo; Asato, Ryo; Tsuji, Jun; Miyazaki, Masakazu; Kada, Shinpei; Tsujimura, Takashi; Kataoka, Michiko

    2017-09-01

    Although the functional merits of preserving cervical nerves in neck dissection for head and neck cancer have been reported, the oncologic safety has not yet been determined. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to evaluate the safety of cervical nerve preservation. A retrospective chart review was performed on patients with head and neck cancer who had been treated by neck dissection between 2009 and 2014 at Kyoto Medical Center. Management of cervical nerves and clinical results were analyzed. A total of 335 sides of neck dissection had been performed in 222 patients. Cervical nerves were preserved in 175 neck sides and resected in 160 sides. The 5-year overall survival (OS) rate calculated by the Kaplan-Meier method was 71%. The 5-year neck control rate was 95% in cervical nerve preserved sides and 89% in cervical nerve resected sides. Preserving cervical nerves in neck dissection is oncologically safe in selected cases. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Retinal Nerve Fiber Layer Converges More Convexly on Normal Smaller Optic Nerve Head.

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    Jung, Kyoung In; Shin, Jeong Ah; Park, Hae-Young Lopilly; Park, Chan Kee

    2015-08-01

    To investigate retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) configuration in the optic nerve head (ONH) and peripapillary area according to disc size and to determine whether it explains cup discrepancy among eyes with different disc sizes. Horizontal and vertical RNFL curvature and mean thickness were measured using confocal scanning laser ophthalmoscopy (Heidelberg Retina Tomograph) in 63 normal subjects grouped by disc size. Average and quadrant RNFL thickness, disc size, average cup-to-disc ratio (CDR), and convergence angle at the optic disc were also measured using Cirrus HD-optical coherence tomography. The relationships between disc size and RNFL curvature, thickness, angle at optic disc, and CDR were evaluated. RNFL curvature and convergence angle reflects convexity "on" and "into" the optic disc, respectively. CDR was smaller for small discs and was positively correlated with disc size (Poptic disc were positively correlated with disc size (POptic disc area was negatively correlated with mean RNFL thickness at the optic disc margin measured by HRT (P=0.002), but not in the peripapillary area by optical coherence tomography. Using imaging techniques, we demonstrated that the shape of the RNFLs converging "on" and entering "into" the optic disc was more convex for small optic discs compared with large discs. A low CDR for small discs could be mediated by these RNFL profiles at the ONH, which may guide the clinical evaluation of glaucomatous ONH damage.

  18. Network analysis of human glaucomatous optic nerve head astrocytes

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    Bhattacharya Sanjoy K

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Astrocyte activation is a characteristic response to injury in the central nervous system, and can be either neurotoxic or neuroprotective, while the regulation of both roles remains elusive. Methods To decipher the regulatory elements controlling astrocyte-mediated neurotoxicity in glaucoma, we conducted a systems-level functional analysis of gene expression, proteomic and genetic data associated with reactive optic nerve head astrocytes (ONHAs. Results Our reconstruction of the molecular interactions affected by glaucoma revealed multi-domain biological networks controlling activation of ONHAs at the level of intercellular stimuli, intracellular signaling and core effectors. The analysis revealed that synergistic action of the transcription factors AP-1, vitamin D receptor and Nuclear Factor-kappaB in cross-activation of multiple pathways, including inflammatory cytokines, complement, clusterin, ephrins, and multiple metabolic pathways. We found that the products of over two thirds of genes linked to glaucoma by genetic analysis can be functionally interconnected into one epistatic network via experimentally-validated interactions. Finally, we built and analyzed an integrative disease pathology network from a combined set of genes revealed in genetic studies, genes differentially expressed in glaucoma and closely connected genes/proteins in the interactome. Conclusion Our results suggest several key biological network modules that are involved in regulating neurotoxicity of reactive astrocytes in glaucoma, and comprise potential targets for cell-based therapy.

  19. Optical coherence tomography in papilledema and pseudopapilledema with and without optic nerve head drusen

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    Shikha Talwar Bassi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To compare the spectral domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT findings of the optic disc and the peripapillary retina of patients with a true papilledema and pseudopapilledema with and without optic nerve head drusen (ONHD. Study Design: Retrospective Case Control Study. Subjects and Methods: Peripapillary retinal nerve fiber layer (PPRNFL thickness as depicted by SD-OCT of 94 eyes of 66 patients with papilledema (30 eyes, pseudopapiledema (31 eyes, and normal controls (33 eyes was analyzed. The mean RNFL thickness, total retinal thickness (TRT at a superior and inferior edge of the disc and the quadrant wise topography of increased RNFL were compared in all three groups. Sensitivity, specificity, and area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AROC were calculated for all the parameters. Results: The median RNFL thickness was 185.4 (129.5-349.3 μm, 122.3 (109-156.3 μm and 91.62 ± 7 μm in papilledema, pseudopapilledema, and controls, respectively. Papilledema group had thicker PPRNFL in all quadrants except temporal quadrant. TRT was thicker in papilledema and pseudopapilledema compared to controls. ONHD could be directly visualized as high reflective clumps in the sub-retinal space or the RNFL in 30 eyes. Increased RNFL thickness in all four quadrants was noted 43.3% in papilledema and 9.7% in pseudopapilledema. Normal RNFL thickness in all four quadrants was noted in 0% in papilledema and 32.3% in pseudopapilledema. Nasal RNFL had the highest AROC (0.792 indicating high diagnostic ability to differentiate papilledema from pseudopapilledema. Conclusion: SD-OCT can be used as a tool to differentiate between papilledema and pseudopapilledema.

  20. Lack of blood-brain barrier properties in microvessels of the prelaminar optic nerve head

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hofman, P.; Hoyng, P.; VanderWerf, F.; Vrensen, G. F.; Schlingemann, R. O.

    2001-01-01

    PURPOSE: To define the blood-brain barrier (BBB) characteristics of microvessels in the optic nerve head (ONH). METHODS: Immunohistochemical staining of different regions of the ONH, retro-laminar optic nerve, and retina of human and monkey eyes was carried out, using antibodies against BBB markers

  1. [Cranial nerve palsy caused by tumours of the head and neck

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Delsing, C.P.; Verbist, B.M.; Hoogen, F.J.A. van den

    2013-01-01

    Cranial nerve palsy is a diagnostic guiding symptom, but often goes unrecognized. The differential diagnosis includes a variety of diseases, including malignant tumours of the head and neck. Here we describe three cases of cranial nerve palsy. In two of the cases the palsy was recognized following

  2. Optic Nerve Head Drusen: The Relationship Between Intraocular Pressure and Optic Nerve Structure and Function.

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    Nolan, Kaitlyn W; Lee, Michael S; Jalalizadeh, Rohan A; Firl, Kevin C; Van Stavern, Gregory P; McClelland, Collin M

    2017-11-09

    To determine whether at the time of diagnosis, the intraocular pressure (IOP) in patients with optic nerve head drusen (ONHD) correlates with the perimetric mean deviation (PMD) and the mean retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) thickness on optical coherence tomography (OCT). This retrospective chart review included adults with ONHD from 2 academic medical centers. Inclusion criteria were age older than 18 years, definitive diagnosis of ONHD, measurement of IOP, and an automated visual field (VF) within 3 months of diagnosis. Exclusion criteria were unreliable VFs, use of IOP-lowering therapy, and visually significant ocular comorbidities. Data were collected from the initial visit. Age, IOP, method of diagnosis of ONHD, mean RNFL thickness, and PMD were recorded. Multiple and logistic regression models were used to control for potential confounders in statistical analyses. Chart review identified 623 patients, of which 146 patients met inclusion criteria. Mean age was 44.2 years (range: 19-82 years). Average PMD of 236 eyes was -5.22 dB (range, -31.2 to +1.21 dB). Mean IOP was 15.7 mm Hg (range: 6-24 mm Hg). Forty eyes (16.9%) underwent RNFL measurement using OCT; mean RNFL thickness was 79.9 μm (range: 43-117 μm). There was no statistically significant association between IOP and PMD (P = 0.13) or RNFL thickness (P = 0.65). Eyes with ocular hypertension tended to have less depressed PMD than those without (P= 0.031). Stratified analyses of visible and buried subgroups yielded similar results. Lowering IOP in patients with ONHD has been proposed as a means to prevent progression of optic neuropathy. Our study demonstrated that among predominately normotensive eyes, higher IOP was not associated with greater VF loss or thinner RNFL at the time of presentation. This suggests that lowering IOP may not be beneficial in preventing visual loss in normotensive eyes with ONHD.

  3. Iodine and freeze-drying enhanced high-resolution MicroCT imaging for reconstructing 3D intraneural topography of human peripheral nerve fascicles.

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    Yan, Liwei; Guo, Yongze; Qi, Jian; Zhu, Qingtang; Gu, Liqiang; Zheng, Canbin; Lin, Tao; Lu, Yutong; Zeng, Zitao; Yu, Sha; Zhu, Shuang; Zhou, Xiang; Zhang, Xi; Du, Yunfei; Yao, Zhi; Lu, Yao; Liu, Xiaolin

    2017-08-01

    The precise annotation and accurate identification of the topography of fascicles to the end organs are prerequisites for studying human peripheral nerves. In this study, we present a feasible imaging method that acquires 3D high-resolution (HR) topography of peripheral nerve fascicles using an iodine and freeze-drying (IFD) micro-computed tomography (microCT) method to greatly increase the contrast of fascicle images. The enhanced microCT imaging method can facilitate the reconstruction of high-contrast HR fascicle images, fascicle segmentation and extraction, feature analysis, and the tracing of fascicle topography to end organs, which define fascicle functions. The complex intraneural aggregation and distribution of fascicles is typically assessed using histological techniques or MR imaging to acquire coarse axial three-dimensional (3D) maps. However, the disadvantages of histological techniques (static, axial manual registration, and data instability) and MR imaging (low-resolution) limit these applications in reconstructing the topography of nerve fascicles. Thus, enhanced microCT is a new technique for acquiring 3D intraneural topography of the human peripheral nerve fascicles both to improve our understanding of neurobiological principles and to guide accurate repair in the clinic. Additionally, 3D microstructure data can be used as a biofabrication model, which in turn can be used to fabricate scaffolds to repair long nerve gaps. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Optic nerve head and fibre layer imaging for diagnosing glaucoma

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    Michelessi, Manuele; Lucenteforte, Ersilia; Oddone, Francesco; Brazzelli, Miriam; Parravano, Mariacristina; Franchi, Sara; Ng, Sueko M; Virgili, Gianni

    2016-01-01

    Background The diagnosis of glaucoma is traditionally based on the finding of optic nerve head (ONH) damage assessed subjectively by ophthalmoscopy or photography or by corresponding damage to the visual field assessed by automated perimetry, or both. Diagnostic assessments are usually required when ophthalmologists or primary eye care professionals find elevated intraocular pressure (IOP) or a suspect appearance of the ONH. Imaging tests such as confocal scanning laser ophthalmoscopy (HRT), optical coherence tomography (OCT) and scanning laser polarimetry (SLP, as used by the GDx instrument), provide an objective measure of the structural changes of retinal nerve fibre layer (RNFL) thickness and ONH parameters occurring in glaucoma. Objectives To determine the diagnostic accuracy of HRT, OCT and GDx for diagnosing manifest glaucoma by detecting ONH and RNFL damage. Search methods We searched several databases for this review. The most recent searches were on 19 February 2015. Selection criteria We included prospective and retrospective cohort studies and case-control studies that evaluated the accuracy of OCT, HRT or the GDx for diagnosing glaucoma. We excluded population-based screening studies, since we planned to consider studies on self-referred people or participants in whom a risk factor for glaucoma had already been identified in primary care, such as elevated IOP or a family history of glaucoma. We only considered recent commercial versions of the tests: spectral domain OCT, HRT III and GDx VCC or ECC. Data collection and analysis We adopted standard Cochrane methods. We fitted a hierarchical summary ROC (HSROC) model using the METADAS macro in SAS software. After studies were selected, we decided to use 2 × 2 data at 0.95 specificity or closer in meta-analyses, since this was the most commonly-reported level. Main results We included 106 studies in this review, which analysed 16,260 eyes (8353 cases, 7907 controls) in total. Forty studies (5574

  5. Proteomics Analyses of Human Optic Nerve Head Astrocytes Following Biomechanical Strain*

    OpenAIRE

    Rogers, Ronan S.; Dharsee, Moyez; Ackloo, Suzanne; Sivak, Jeremy M.; Flanagan, John G.

    2011-01-01

    We investigate the role of glial cell activation in the human optic nerve caused by raised intraocular pressure, and their potential role in the development of glaucomatous optic neuropathy. To do this we present a proteomics study of the response of cultured, optic nerve head astrocytes to biomechanical strain, the magnitude and mode of strain based on previously published quantitative models. In this case, astrocytes were subjected to 3 and 12% stretches for either 2 h or 24 h. Proteomic me...

  6. Alterations of sympathetic nerve fibers in avascular necrosis of femoral head.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Deqiang; Liu, Peilai; Zhang, Yuankai; Li, Ming

    2015-01-01

    Avascular necrosis of the femoral head (ANFH) was mainly due to alterations of bone vascularity. And noradrenaline (NA), as the neurotransmitter of the sympathetic nervous system (SNS), leads to the vasoconstriction by activating its α-Receptor. This study was to explore the nerve fiber density of the femoral head in the rabbit model of ANFH. Twenty New Zealand white rabbits were used in this study. The rabbit model of ANFH was established by the injection of methylprednisolone acetate. The nerve fiber density and distribution in the femoral head was determined using an Olympus BH2 microscope. Significant fewer sympathetic nerve fibers was found in the ANFH intertrochanteric bone samples (P = 0.036) with osteonecrosis. The number of sympathetic nerve fibers was compared between the two groups. And less sympathetic nerve fibers were found in later stage ANFH samples in comparison with those of early stages. ANFH might be preceded by an inflammatory reaction, and an inflammatory response might lead to arthritic changes in tissue samples, which in turn reduces the number of sympathetic nerve fibers.

  7. A step towards stereotactic navigation during pelvic surgery: 3D nerve topography

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.R. Wijsmuller; Giraudeau, C. (C.); Leroy, J. (J.); G.J. Kleinrensink (Gert Jan); E. Rociu (Elena); Romagnolo, L.G. (L. G.); Melani, A.G.F. (A. G.F.); Agnus, V. (V.); Diana, M. (M.); Soler, L. (L.); Dallemagne, B. (B.); Marescaux, J. (J.); Mutter, D. (D.)

    2018-01-01

    textabstractBackground: Long-term morbidity after multimodal treatment for rectal cancer is suggested to be mainly made up by nerve-injury-related dysfunctions. Stereotactic navigation for rectal surgery was shown to be feasible and will be facilitated by highlighting structures at risk of

  8. Sixth cranial nerve palsy following closed head injury in a child.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hollis, G J

    1997-01-01

    A five year old female had an isolated abducens nerve palsy following closed head injury. There was no associated skull fracture, haematoma, or other cranial nerve injury. The significance, frequency, and differential diagnosis of traumatic sixth cranial nerve injury is discussed, particularly in paediatric patients. Management is symptomatic; occlusion with an eye pad may be used if diplopia is significant. In young children alternate day occlusion of each eye will help prevent amblyopia. Most cases improve within three months and many resolve by six months. Residual palsy at six months is likely to be permanent and surgical treatment may be needed. PMID:9193985

  9. [Long head of the triceps brachii in axillary nerve injury: anatomy and clinical aspects].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rezzouk, J; Durandeau, A; Vital, J M; Fabre, T

    2002-10-01

    Earlier work has demonstrated possible paralysis of the long head of the triceps brachii (LTB) after surgical repair of traumatic injury to the axillary nerve. Anatomy textbooks describe the motor branch of the LTB arising from the radial nerve within the body of the triceps. We studied the position of the motor branch for the LTB to determine its exact origin. Three groups were studied: Group I included 9 traumatic injuries of the axillary nerve associated with clinical involvement of the LTB; Group II included 20 secondary posterior trunks dissected from cadaver specimens; Group III included 15 dissections of the infraclavicular plexus with complete dissection of the secondary posterior trunk. The position of the axillary nerve injury was retrieved from the operative reports for Group I. The precise origin of the motor branch for the LTB was identified for Group II. Neurostimulation was used to identify the origin of the motor branch for the LTB in Group III. For Group I: injury to the axillary nerve was situated 10 mm (mean) from the bifurcation of the secondary posterior trunk in 6 cases and at the bifurcation in 3. Type IV injury was identified in 4 cases and type V in 5. For Group II: the motor branch for the LTB arose 6 mm (mean) from the bifurcation of the secondary posterior branch in 13 cases, at the bifurcation in 5, and 10 mm proximally in 2, but never from the radial nerve. For Group III: the motor branch for the LTB arose 4.5 mm (mean) from the bifurcation of the secondary posterior trunk in 11 cases, at the bifurcation in 4, and never from the radial nerve. Observed injuries to the axillary nerve with an associated paralysis of the long head of the triceps brachii were located proximally and were severe. Our dissections always located the motor branch of the LTB arising from the axillary nerve or the secondary posterior branch. We thus deducted that associated LTB paralysis is a sign of poor prognosis. In patients with axillary nerve injury it is a

  10. Optic Nerve Head Hemorrhages Associated With Posterior Vitreous Detachment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polkinghorne, Philip J

    2018-01-01

    To report and evaluate the clinical and optical coherence tomography (OCT) features of optic nerve hemorrhages (ONH) associated with spontaneous posterior vitreous detachment (PVD). A prospective case series conducted at a private ophthalmic practice in Auckland, New Zealand. A consecutive series of patients presenting at a private multispecialty practice in Auckland, New Zealand, with symptoms of PVD with ONH underwent imaging of the optic nerve with digital retinal photography and OCT. The number and location of each hemorrhage were recorded, together with relevant ophthalmic and demographic data. Twenty of 30 eyes with ONH had evidence of persistent vitreopapillary adhesion. Three patterns of adhesion were identified: central, peripheral, and combined. In all, 52 hemorrhages were identified, of which the majority were flame-shaped, although other types were seen including dot and blot hemorrhages. One subretinal hemorrhage occurred in a patient with a central vitreopapillary adhesion. ONH hemorrhages associated with PVD are commonly found with persistent vitreopapillary adhesions as evidenced on OCT. The clinical features of ONH together with OCT imaging may help to distinguish ONH associated with PVD from other hemorrhages found on or adjacent to the optic nerve. Copyright 2017 Asia-Pacific Academy of Ophthalmology.

  11. Loss of sympathetic nerve fibers in vital intertrochanteric bone cylinders lateral to osteonecrosis of the femoral head.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beckmann, Johannes; Knödl, Matthias; Bauser, Eva; Tingart, Markus; Grifka, Joachim; Straub, Rainer H

    2013-03-01

    Although etiology in osteonecrosis of the femoral head mainly depends on alterations of bone blood flow, vasoregulatory nerve fibers of the sympathetic and sensory nervous system have never been investigated in bone of osteonecrosis patients. This study aimed to demonstrate density of sympathetic and sensory nerve fibers in femoral head and, for comparison, adjacent periosteum, and synovium of the hip joint in patients with osteonecrosis. Immunofluorescence staining techniques were applied using specific nerve fiber markers. A total of 10 patients with early femoral head osteonecrosis (ARCO I-II), 10 with late femoral head osteonecrosis (ARCO III-IV), and 10 patients with osteoarthritis of the hip were investigated. In the bone of the femoral head, density of sympathetic nerve fibers was lower in early and late osteonecrosis compared to osteoarthritis. There was a marked preponderance of sympathetic over sensory nerve fibers in bone of osteoarthritis patients, which was opposite in early and late femoral head osteonecrosis. In periosteum, density of sympathetic nerve fibers was similar in all three groups but density of sensory nerve fibers and cellularity were higher in early osteonecrosis compared to the other two groups. Due to the different affinity of norepinephrine for α-adrenoceptors (high affinity) and β-adrenoceptors (low affinity), the loss of sympathetic nerve fibers relative to sensory nerve fibers in femoral head osteonecrosis might change the femoral head blood flow (towards α-adrenergic vasoconstriction). Higher density of sensory nerve fibers and cellularity in periosteum might indicate an inflammatory response in early osteonecrosis. Copyright © 2012 Société française de rhumatologie. Published by Elsevier SAS. All rights reserved.

  12. Correlation between optic nerve head parameters and retinal nerve fibre layer thickness measured by spectral-domain optical coherence tomography in myopic eyes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Young H; Kim, Yong Y

    2012-01-01

      To evaluate the correlation between optic nerve head parameters and retinal nerve fiber layer thickness measured by Cirrus HD spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (Cirrus HD-OCT; Carl Zeiss Meditec) in healthy myopic eyes.   Cross-sectional study.   One hundred and sixty-one right eyes from 161 healthy young myopic subjects.   Optic nerve head parameters and retinal nerve fiber layer thickness were measured with the Cirrus HD-OCT. The distance between optic disc margin and scan circle (disc margin-to-scan distance) was measured on the Cirrus HD-OCT en-face optic nerve head image with aid of National Institutes of Health ImageJ image-analysis software (developed by Wayne Rasbands, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD).   The correlations among optic nerve head parameters, retinal nerve fibre layer thickness and the disc margin-to-scan distance were evaluated with and without adjustment of the magnification effect.   Without correction of the magnification effect, the thicker average retinal nerve fiber layer was correlated with greater rim area and lower degree of myopia (P fibre layer was associated with greater disc area and greater rim area in univariate and multivariate analyses (P ≤ 0.028); however, degrees of myopia and the disc margin-to-scan distance were not significantly associated with average RNFL thickness (P ≥ 0.104).   Thicker average retinal nerve fibre layer thickness was associated with greater rim and disc areas. Disc margin-to-scan distance was not significantly correlated with average retinal nerve fibre layer thickness in healthy myopic eyes. © 2012 The Authors. Clinical and Experimental Ophthalmology © 2012 Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Ophthalmologists.

  13. Bioinformatic and statistical analysis of the optic nerve head in a primate model of ocular hypertension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rasmussen Carol A

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The nonhuman primate model of glaucomatous optic neuropathy most faithfully reproduces the human disease. We used high-density oligonucleotide arrays to investigate whole genome transcriptional changes occurring at the optic nerve head during primate experimental glaucoma. Results Laser scarification of the trabecular meshwork of cynomolgus macaques produced elevated intraocular pressure that was monitored over time and led to varying degrees of damage in different samples. The macaques were examined clinically before enucleation and the myelinated optic nerves were processed post-mortem to determine the degree of neuronal loss. Global gene expression was examined in dissected optic nerve heads with Affymetrix GeneChip microarrays. We validated a subset of differentially expressed genes using qRT-PCR, immunohistochemistry, and immuno-enriched astrocytes from healthy and glaucomatous human donors. These genes have previously defined roles in axonal outgrowth, immune response, cell motility, neuroprotection, and extracellular matrix remodeling. Conclusion Our findings show that glaucoma is associated with increased expression of genes that mediate axonal outgrowth, immune response, cell motility, neuroprotection, and ECM remodeling. These studies also reveal that, as glaucoma progresses, retinal ganglion cell axons may make a regenerative attempt to restore lost nerve cell contact.

  14. The effect of the menstrual cycle on optic nerve head analysis in healthy women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akar, Munire Erman; Taskin, Omur; Yucel, Iclal; Akar, Yusuf

    2004-12-01

    To determine the effect of the menstrual cycle on optic nerve head topographic analysis in normally menstruating, healthy women. The study included single eyes selected randomly from each of 52 healthy women with regular menstrual cycles. All subjects underwent a complete ocular examination. Optic nerve head topographic analyses were performed using a confocal scanning laser ophthalmoscope, the Heidelberg Retinal Tomograph II (HRT II, software version 1.6). The analyses were repeated three times during the menstrual cycle: in the follicular phase (days 7-10 of the cycle), at ovulation, and in the late luteal phase (days 1-3 before menstrual bleeding). Serum oestradiol, progesterone and luteinizing hormone levels were measured at each menstrual phase. Fourteen subjects were excluded from the study. The mean age of the subjects (n = 38) was 25.6 +/- 3.7 years (range 21-34 years). Blood oestradiol levels were significantly lower in the late luteal phase (35.8 pg/ml) (p cup : disc ratio, cup : disc area ratio and the cup area were significantly higher during the luteal phase (p menstrual cycle in healthy women significantly alter neuroretinal rim area and cup variables of the optic nerve head. These findings should be taken into consideration in the clinical follow-up of young women with glaucoma.

  15. Comparison of Optic Nerve Head Topographic Parameters in Patients With Primary Open-Angle Glaucoma With and Without Diabetes Mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akkaya, Serkan; Can, Ertuğrul; Öztürk, Faruk

    2016-01-01

    To evaluate the optic nerve head (ONH) parameters of primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG) patients with and without diabetes and to investigate the effect of the metabolic control of diabetes on ONH topography. A study group of 60 eyes of 60 POAG patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus and a control group of 41 eyes of 41 POAG patients without diabetes were recruited for the study. Complete ophthalmic examinations of all patients were performed and the quantitative optic disc parameters were evaluated with Heidelberg retina tomography (HRT) III. HbA1c measurements of diabetic patients were assessed on the same day when the ophthalmic assessments were performed. Mean rim area and rim volume of the study group was statistically higher than the control group (P=0.04 for rim area and P=0.02 for rim volume). The difference in other parameters of the HRT between the groups were insignificant (P>0.05). In the study group, the duration of the diabetes was not significantly correlated to rim area and rim volume (r=0.03, P=0.81 for rim area; r=0.03, P=0.79 for rim volume). Analysis of covariance showed insignificant effects of age, sex, MD, and PSD values over rim area and rim volume (P>0.05). There were weak but statistically significant correlations between HbA1c levels and some HRT parameters including disc area, cup area, cup volume, and cup shape measure (r=0.35 and P=0.006 for disc area; r=0.35 and P=0.006 for cup area; r=0.32 and P=0.01 for cup volume; r=0.32 and P=0.01 for cup shape measure). The results of this study imply the protective effect of diabetes over glaucomatous optic nerve damage in POAG patients. However, larger and controlled studies are warranted to confirm those findings.

  16. Integrated Model of the Eye/Optic Nerve Head Biomechanical Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ethier, C. R.; Feola, A.; Myers, J. G.; Nelson, E.; Raykin, J.; Samuels, B.

    2017-01-01

    Visual Impairment and Intracranial Pressure (VIIP) syndrome is a concern for long-duration space flight. Previously, it has been suggested that ocular changes observed in VIIP syndrome are related to the cephalad fluid shift that results in altered fluid pressures [1]. We are investigating the impact of changes in intracranial pressure (ICP) using a combination of numerical models, which simulate the effects of various environment conditions, including finite element (FE) models of the posterior eye. The specific interest is to understand how altered pressures due to gravitational changes affect the biomechanical environment of tissues of the posterior eye and optic nerve sheath. METHODS: Additional description of the numerical modeling is provided in the IWS abstract by Nelson et al. In brief, to simulate the effects of a cephalad fluid shift on the cardiovascular and ocular systems, we utilized a lumped-parameter compartment model of these systems. The outputs of this lumped-parameter model then inform boundary conditions (pressures) for a finite element model of the optic nerve head (Figure 1). As an example, we show here a simulation of postural change from supine to 15 degree head-down tilt (HDT), with primary outcomes being the predicted change in strains at the optic nerve head (ONH) region, specifically in the lamina cribrosa (LC), retrolaminar optic nerve, and prelaminar neural tissue (PLNT). The strain field can be decomposed into three orthogonal components, denoted as the first, second and third principal strains. We compare the peak tensile (first principal) and compressive (third principal) strains, since elevated strain alters cell phenotype and induces tissue remodeling. RESULTS AND CONCLUSIONS: Our lumped-parameter model predicted an IOP increase of c. 7 mmHg after 21 minutes of 15 degree HDT, which agreed with previous reports of IOP in HDT [1]. The corresponding FEM simulations predicted a relative increase in the magnitudes of the peak tensile

  17. Plate reader-based cell viability assays for glioprotection using primary rat optic nerve head astrocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaja, Simon; Payne, Andrew J; Naumchuk, Yuliya; Levy, Deborah; Zaidi, Danish H; Altman, Alexa M; Nawazish, Saba; Ghuman, Jasleen K; Gerdes, Bryan C; Moore, Mark A; Koulen, Peter

    2015-09-01

    Optic nerve head astrocytes (ONHAs) are the major glia cell type in the non-myelinated optic nerve head where they contribute critically to extracellular matrix synthesis during development and throughout life. In glaucoma, and in related disorders affecting the optic nerve and the optic nerve head, pathological changes include altered astrocyte gene and protein expression resulting in their activation and extracellular matrix remodeling. ONHAs are highly sensitive to mechanical and oxidative stress resulting in the initiation of axon damage early during pathogenesis. Furthermore, ONHAs are crucial for the maintenance of retinal ganglion cell physiology and function. Therefore, glioprotective strategies with the goal to preserve and/or restore the structural and functional viability of ONHA in order to slow glaucoma and related pathologies are of high clinical relevance. Herein, we describe the development of standardized methods that will allow for the systematic advancement of such glioprotective strategies. These include isolation, purification and culture of primary adult rat ONHAs, optimized immunocytochemical protocols for cell type validation, as well as plate reader-based assays determining cellular viability, proliferation and the intracellular redox state. We validated and standardized our protocols by performing a glioprotection study using primary ONHAs. Specifically, we measured protection against exogenously-applied oxidative stress using tert-butylhydroperoxide (tBHP) as a model of disease-mediated oxidative stress in the retina and optic nerve head by the prototypic antioxidant, 6-hydroxy-2,5,7,8-tetramethylchroman-2-carboxylic acid (Trolox). Levels of oxidative stress were increased in the response to exogenously applied tBHP and were assessed by 6-carboxy-2', 7' dichlorodihydrofluorescein diacetate (DCFDA) fluorescence. Normalized DCFDA fluorescence showed a maximal 5.1-fold increase; the half-maximal effect (EC50) for tBHP was 212 ± 25

  18. Tele-transmission of stereoscopic images of the optic nerve head in glaucoma via Internet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergua, Antonio; Mardin, Christian Y; Horn, Folkert K

    2009-06-01

    The objective was to describe an inexpensive system to visualize stereoscopic photographs of the optic nerve head on computer displays and to transmit such images via the Internet for collaborative research or remote clinical diagnosis in glaucoma. Stereoscopic images of glaucoma patients were digitized and stored in a file format (joint photographic stereoimage [jps]) containing all three-dimensional information for both eyes on an Internet Web site (www.trizax.com). The size of jps files was between 0.4 to 1.4 MB (corresponding to a diagonal stereo image size between 900 and 1400 pixels) suitable for Internet protocols. A conventional personal computer system equipped with wireless stereoscopic LCD shutter glasses and a CRT-monitor with high refresh rate (120 Hz) can be used to obtain flicker-free stereo visualization of true-color images with high resolution. Modern thin-film transistor-LCD displays in combination with inexpensive red-cyan goggles achieve stereoscopic visualization with the same resolution but reduced color quality and contrast. The primary aim of our study was met to transmit stereoscopic images via the Internet. Additionally, we found that with both stereoscopic visualization techniques, cup depth, neuroretinal rim shape, and slope of the inner wall of the optic nerve head, can be qualitatively better perceived and interpreted than with monoscopic images. This study demonstrates high-quality and low-cost Internet transmission of stereoscopic images of the optic nerve head from glaucoma patients. The technique allows exchange of stereoscopic images and can be applied to tele-diagnostic and glaucoma research.

  19. Changes in retinal nerve fibre layer, optic nerve head morphology, and visual field after acute primary angle closure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sng, C C A; See, J S L; Ngo, C S; Singh, M; Chan, Y-H; Aquino, M C; Tan, A M; Shabana, N; Chew, P T K

    2011-05-01

    To determine and correlate the long-term changes in retinal nerve fibre layer (RNFL) thickness, optic nerve head (ONH) morphology, and visual fields after a single episode of acute primary angle closure (APAC). This was a cross-sectional comparative study of patients at National University Hospital (Singapore) from 2000 to 2006 after an episode of unilateral APAC. The peripapillary and macular RNFL were measured using Stratus optical coherence tomography (OCT) and ONH configuration was assessed using Heidelberg Retina Tomography (HRT)-III. Humphrey perimetry was also performed, and the presence of disc pallor was noted. APAC eyes were compared with fellow eyes as matched controls. Twenty-five patients were assessed at a median of 33 months (range, 11-85 months) after APAC. OCT showed that there was a reduction in the peripapillary and outer macular RNFL thickness in APAC eyes compared with controls. Humphrey perimetry revealed significantly reduced mean deviation (P=0.006) and increased pattern standard deviation (P=0.045) in APAC eyes compared with controls. HRT-III showed no difference in mean rim area, rim volume, or cup-disc ratio between APAC eyes and controls. Disc pallor was present in nine APAC eyes (36%) but was absent in fellow eyes (P=0.002), and was associated with peripapillary RNFL thinning, visual field loss, and an increased interval between the onset of symptoms and normalization of intraocular pressure (P=0.023). APAC results in peripapillary and outer macular RNFL loss, visual field defects, and optic disc pallor, even in cases in which the ONH configuration remains unchanged.

  20. Peripapillary retinal nerve fiber layer and optic nerve head characteristics in eyes with situs inversus of the optic disc.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Sunah; Jin, Sunyoung; Roh, Kyu Hwa; Hwang, Young Hoon

    2015-01-01

    This study was performed to investigate the peripapillary retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) and optic nerve head (ONH) characteristics, as determined using a spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (OCT), in eyes with situs inversus of the optic disc. The peripapillary RNFL and the ONH were assessed in 12 eyes belonging to 6 subjects with situs inversus of the optic disc (situs inversus group) and 24 eyes in 12 age-matched, sex-matched, and refractive error-matched healthy subjects (control group) by using OCT. The average, quadrant, and clock-hour RNFL thicknesses (clock-hour 9 on the scan represented the temporal side of the optic disc in both eyes), the superior/inferior RNFL peak locations, and ONH characteristics such as disc area, rim area, cup-to-disc ratio, vertical cup-to-disc ratio, and cup volume were obtained. The differences in RNFL and ONH characteristics between the 2 groups were analyzed. The situs inversus group had a thicker RNFL in the clock-hour sectors 3 and 4, a thinner RNFL in the clock-hour sectors 7, 8, and 11, and more nasally located superior and inferior RNFL peak locations than the control group (P≤0.001). The situs inversus group had a smaller cup-to-disc area ratio, smaller vertical cup-to-disc ratio, and a lesser cup volume than the control group (Poptic disc showed different peripapillary RNFL and ONH characteristics from those without this abnormality. These findings should be considered when assessing eyes with situs inversus of the optic disc.

  1. Developmental abnormalities of the optic nerve head in mouse fetuses caused by simultaneous irradiation of x-rays and ultrasound

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shirai, Shoichiro; Yuguchi, Shuji; Majima, Akio.

    1981-01-01

    Eye abnormalities in mouse fetuses caused by irradiation of X-rays alone, or simultaneous irradiation of X-rays and ultrasound on day 7 of gestation were histologically studied on day 18 of gestation. Developmental abnormalities of the optic nerve head were examined in the present experiment, and the following results were obtained: 1. Developmental abnormalities of the optic nerve head associated with developmental abnormalities of the vitreous were detected in 4 fetuses (5 eyes). In all cases, excessive mesenchymal tissue of components of the primary vitreous was found from the optic nerve head to the vitreous cavity. It was impossible to distinguish between the neuroectodermal tissue of Bergmeister's papilla and the mesodermal tissue of components of the primary vitreous. 2. In 3 fetuses (4 eyes), the fetal fissure involving the optic nerve head was open. At the peripapillary region, the inner layer of the optic cup was everted and hyperplastic. The inner neuroblastic layer of the everted portion contacted the outer coat of the eyeball, directly. In these cases, the optic nerve entrance was very wide. 3. The relation between the congenital optic nerve head anomalies encountered clinically and those observed experimentally in the mouse fetuses was discussed. It was considered that the pathogenesis of congenital optic nerve head anomalies consists of the malformation of the primitive epithelial papilla, the faulty closure of the proximal end of the fetal fissure, the anomalies of Bergmeister's papilla, the anomalies of the hyaloid system, or the abnormal differentiation and growth of the neuroectodermal cells of the optic cup. (author)

  2. Topography and landmarks for the nerve supply to the levator ani and its relevance to pelvic floor pathologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loukas, Marios; Joseph, Shamfa; Etienne, Denzil; Linganna, Sanjay; Hallner, Barry; Tubbs, R Shane

    2016-05-01

    The aim of this study was to explore the anatomical variations of the nerve to the levator ani (LA) and to relate these findings to LA dysfunction. One hundred fixed human female cadavers were dissected using transabdominal, gluteal, and perineal approaches, resulting in two hundred dissections of the sacral plexus. The pudendal nerve and the sacral nerve roots were traced from their origin at the sacral foramina to their termination. All nerves contributing to the innervation of the LA were considered to be the nerve to the LA. Based on the spinal nerve components, the nerve to the LA was classified into the following categories: 50% (n = 100) originated from S4 and S5 (type I); 19% (n = 38) originated from S5 (type II); 16% (n = 32) originated from S4 (type III); 11% (n = 22) originated from S3 and S4 (type IV); 4% (n = 8) originated from S3, S4, and S5 (type V). Two patterns of nerve termination were observed. In 42% of specimens, the nerve to the LA penetrated the coccygeus muscle and assumed an external position along the inferior surface of the LA muscle. In the remaining 58% of specimens, the nerve crossed the superior surface of the coccygeus muscle and continued along the superior surface of the iliococcygeus muscle. Damage to the nerve to LA has been associated with various pathologies. In order to minimize injuries during surgical procedures, a thorough understanding of the course and variations of the nerve to the LA is extremely important. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. The effect of the menstrual cycle on the optic nerve head analysis of migrainous women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yucel, Iclal; Akar, Munire; Durukan, A; Akar, Yusuf; Taskin, Omur; Dora, Babur; Yilmaz, Nurgul

    2005-03-01

    To determine the effect of the menstrual cycle on the optic nerve head topographic analysis of normally menstruating migrainous women. Randomly selected one eye of 44 migrainous and 49 healthy control women with regular menstrual cycles were included in the study. All subjects underwent complete ocular examination. Optic nervehead topographic analysis were performed using a confocal scanning laser ophthalmoscope, HRT II (Heidelberg Retinal Tomograph II, software version 1.6;Heidelberg Engineering, Heidelberg, Germany). They were repeated for two times during the menstrual cycle: in follicular phase (7th to 10th day of the cycle) and in the luteal phase (days 3 to 4 before the menstrual bleeding). Serum estradiol, progesterone, and luteinizing hormone measurements were repeated at each menstrual phase. The mean age of migrainous and control subjects were 31.5 + 5.1 years and 33.4 +/- 3.7 years, respectively (P > 0.05). Their mean disc areas were 2.26 +/- 0.46 mm(2) and 1.95 +/- 0.39 mm(2), respectively(P 0.05). The parameter rim volume decreased, while the parameters cup volume and cup shape measure increased significantly in the luteal phase of the migrainous women (all P values cup parameters during the menstrual cycle of the migrainous women. Further clinical trials on ocular blood flow changes during the menstrual cycle of the migrainous women may highlight the role of sex steroids in the optic nerve head of the migrainous women.

  4. [Analysis of topograph and relevant factors of optic nerve head in normal subjects].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xing; Liang, Yuan-bo; Ling, Yun-lan; Zheng, Xiao-ping

    2004-10-01

    To study the optic nerve head (ONH) parameters and topograph features of normal subjects, and analyze the effect of gender, laterality, age and disc size on the topograph of ONH. Heidelberg Retina Tomograph (HRT) was used to obtain the optic nerve head parameters and topograph images in 216 eyes of 116 normal volunteers. The impact of gender, laterality, age and disc size on the topograph was analyzed. The optic disc was divided into three groups by their size, small (less than 1.5 mm2), middle and large disc (equal or larger than 2.5 mm2), to evaluate the differences of parameters. The parameters of ONH in normal eyes were as following: disc area (DA) (2.208 +/- 0.411) mm, cup area (CA) (0.466 +/- 0.355) mm2, cup/disk area ratio (C/DAR) (0.217 +/- 0.137), rim area (RA) (1.563 +/- 0.339) mm2, height variation contour (HVC) (0.404 +/- 0.096) mm, cup volume (CV) 0.127 mm3, rim volume (RV) (0.446 +/- 0.173) mm3, mean cup depth (MCD) (0.196 +/- 0.096) mm, maximum cup depth (MxCD) (0.559 +/- 0.228) mm, cup shape measure (CSM) (-0.213 +/- 0.076), mean retinal nerve fiber layer thickness (mRNFLT) (0.272 +/- 0.076) mm, and retinal nerve fiber layer cross section area (RNFLA) (1.364 +/- 0.375) mm2. There were significant differences between right and left eyes in C/DAR, RA and RV, but no difference between different genders in all parameters. A negative correlation was found between mRNFLT, RNFLA and age. There were significant differences in most parameters among three groups with different disc size, such as CA, C/DAR, CV, RA and CSM, but not in mRNFLT, RNFLA and RV. Significant variations were found in parameters of ONH in normal subjects. Some parameters of ONH were affected by age and optic disc size. There were differences in some parameters between right and left eyes, but not between different genders. There were differences of parameters between different quadrants of ONH.

  5. Estimating a structural bottle neck for eye-brain transfer of visual information from 3D-volumes of the optic nerve head from a commercial OCT device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malmberg, Filip; Sandberg-Melin, Camilla; Söderberg, Per G.

    2016-03-01

    The aim of this project was to investigate the possibility of using OCT optic nerve head 3D information captured with a Topcon OCT 2000 device for detection of the shortest distance between the inner limit of the retina and the central limit of the pigment epithelium around the circumference of the optic nerve head. The shortest distance between these boundaries reflects the nerve fiber layer thickness and measurement of this distance is interesting for follow-up of glaucoma.

  6. Ametropia, retinal anatomy, and OCT abnormality patterns in glaucoma. 2. Impacts of optic nerve head parameters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baniasadi, Neda; Wang, Mengyu; Wang, Hui; Jin, Qingying; Elze, Tobias

    2017-12-01

    Clinicians use retinal nerve fiber layer thickness (RNFLT) measured by optical coherence tomography (OCT) as an adjunct to glaucoma diagnosis. Ametropia is accompanied by changes to the optic nerve head (ONH), which may affect how OCT machines mark RNFLT measurements as abnormal. These changes in abnormality patterns may bias glaucoma diagnosis. Here, we investigate the relationship between OCT abnormality patterns and the following ONH-related and ametropia-associated parameters on 421 eyes of glaucoma patients: optic disc tilt and torsion, central retinal vessel trunk location (CRVTL), and nasal and temporal retinal curvature adjacent to ONH, quantified as nasal/temporal slopes of the inner limiting membrane. We applied multivariate logistic regression with abnormality marks as regressands to 40,401 locations of the peripapillary region and generated spatial maps of locations of false positive/negative abnormality marks independent of glaucoma severity. Effects of torsion and temporal slope were negligible. The effect of tilt could be explained by covariation with ametropia. For CRVTL/nasal slope, abnormality pattern shifts at 7.2%/23.5% of the peripapillary region were detected, respectively, independent of glaucoma severity and ametropia. Therefore, CRVTL and nasal curvature should be included in OCT RNFLT norms. Our spatial location maps may aid clinicians to improve diagnostic accuracy.

  7. Proteomics analyses of human optic nerve head astrocytes following biomechanical strain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, Ronan S; Dharsee, Moyez; Ackloo, Suzanne; Sivak, Jeremy M; Flanagan, John G

    2012-02-01

    We investigate the role of glial cell activation in the human optic nerve caused by raised intraocular pressure, and their potential role in the development of glaucomatous optic neuropathy. To do this we present a proteomics study of the response of cultured, optic nerve head astrocytes to biomechanical strain, the magnitude and mode of strain based on previously published quantitative models. In this case, astrocytes were subjected to 3 and 12% stretches for either 2 h or 24 h. Proteomic methods included nano-liquid chromatography, tandem mass spectrometry, and iTRAQ labeling. Using controls for both stretch and time, a six-plex iTRAQ liquid chromatography- tandem MS (LC/MS/MS) experiment yielded 573 proteins discovered at a 95% confidence limit. The pathways included transforming growth factor β1, tumor necrosis factor, caspase 3, and tumor protein p53, which have all been implicated in the activation of astrocytes and are believed to play a role in the development of glaucomatous optic neuropathy. Confirmation of the iTRAQ analysis was performed by Western blotting of various proteins of interest including ANXA 4, GOLGA2, and αB-Crystallin.

  8. Proteomics Analyses of Human Optic Nerve Head Astrocytes Following Biomechanical Strain*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, Ronan S.; Dharsee, Moyez; Ackloo, Suzanne; Sivak, Jeremy M.; Flanagan, John G.

    2012-01-01

    We investigate the role of glial cell activation in the human optic nerve caused by raised intraocular pressure, and their potential role in the development of glaucomatous optic neuropathy. To do this we present a proteomics study of the response of cultured, optic nerve head astrocytes to biomechanical strain, the magnitude and mode of strain based on previously published quantitative models. In this case, astrocytes were subjected to 3 and 12% stretches for either 2 h or 24 h. Proteomic methods included nano-liquid chromatography, tandem mass spectrometry, and iTRAQ labeling. Using controls for both stretch and time, a six-plex iTRAQ liquid chromatography- tandem MS (LC/MS/MS) experiment yielded 573 proteins discovered at a 95% confidence limit. The pathways included transforming growth factor β1, tumor necrosis factor, caspase 3, and tumor protein p53, which have all been implicated in the activation of astrocytes and are believed to play a role in the development of glaucomatous optic neuropathy. Confirmation of the iTRAQ analysis was performed by Western blotting of various proteins of interest including ANXA 4, GOLGA2, and αB-Crystallin. PMID:22126795

  9. Is the Optic Nerve Head Structure Impacted by a Diagnostic Lumbar Puncture in Humans?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poli, Muriel; Denis, Philippe; Sellem, Eric; Aho-Glélé, Ludwig-Serge; Bron, Alain M

    2017-11-01

    The purpose of this study is to assess in vivo whether diagnostic lumbar puncture (LP) is followed by optic nerve head (ONH) and parapapillary anatomic changes in normal human eyes. Prospective, single-center, observational case series. ONH structures (prelaminar tissue surface, anterior surface of the lamina cribrosa, central retinal vessels) and parapapillary structures (internal limiting membrane, posterior surfaces of retinal nerve fiber layer and Bruch membrane/retinal pigment epithelium complex, Bruch membrane opening, posterior surface of the choroid) were quantitatively evaluated by means of swept-source optical coherence tomography (Triton Ver.10.05, Topcon, Tokyo, Japan) before and after LP (5, 60, and 360 min). Each of these structures was manually delineated for measurement before being superimposed to detect any displacement, using peripheral margins of parapapillary structures as a reference plane. A total of 16 eyes of 8 nonglaucomatous patients were evaluated. The CSF volume was median (IQR), 1.65 mL (1.16 to 2.00) and none of the ONH structures showed any anatomic changes at any time point after LP. According to the design of this study, diagnostic LP is a safe procedure regarding deep ONH structures in nonglaucomatous subjects.

  10. Expression of ciliary neurotrophic factor (CNTF) and its tripartite receptor complex by cells of the human optic nerve head.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiaochun; Clark, Abbot F; Wordinger, Robert J

    2007-05-23

    Ciliary neurotrophic factor (CNTF) promotes gene expression, cell survival and differentiation in various types of peripheral and central neurons, glia and nonneural cells. The level of CNTF rises rapidly upon injury to neural tissue, suggesting that CNTF exerts its cytoprotective effects after release from cells via mechanisms induced by cell injury. The purpose of this study was to determine if cells in the optic nerve head express CNTF and its tripartite receptor complex. Well-established optic nerve head astrocytes (ONHA) and lamina cribrosa (LC) cell cultures were derived from normal human donors. Total RNA was reverse transcribed and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplified for mRNA detection. Cytoplasmic protein expression was determined by immunocytochemistry and Western blot analysis of the cellular lysates. Serum free medium was concentrated and used for detecting extracellular proteins. CNTF complexed with CNTFR-alpha was assayed by immunoprecipitation. Cells isolated from the human optic nerve head express CNTF and its tripartite receptor complex members (CNTFR-alpha, gp130, LIFR-beta). Taken together, these data suggest a possible neuroprotective role of CNTF in the optic nerve head.

  11. In Vivo Imaging of the Retina, Choroid and Optic Nerve Head in Guinea Pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jnawali, Ashutosh; Beach, Krista M; Ostrin, Lisa A

    2018-04-11

    Guinea pigs are increasingly being used as a model of myopia, and may also represent a novel model of glaucoma. Here, optical coherence tomography (OCT) imaging was performed in guinea pigs. In vivo measurements of retinal, choroidal and optic nerve head parameters were compared with histology, and repeatability and interocular variations were assessed. OCT imaging and histology were performed on adult guinea pigs (n = 9). Using a custom program in Matlab, total retina, ganglion cell/nerve fiber layer (GC/NFL), outer retina and choroid thicknesses were determined. Additionally, Bruch's membrane opening (BMO) area and diameter, and minimum rim width were calculated. Intraobserver, interocular and intersession coefficients of variation (CV) and intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC) were assessed. Retina, GC/NFL, outer retina and choroid thicknesses from in vivo OCT imaging were 147.7 ± 5.8 μm, 59.2 ± 4.5 μm, 72.4 ± 2.4 μm, and 64.8 ± 11.6 μm, respectively. Interocular CV ranged from 1.8 to 11% (paired t-test, p = 0.16 to 0.81), and intersession CV ranged from 1.1 to 5.6% (p = 0.12 to 0.82), with the choroid showing the greatest variability. BMO area was 0.192 ± 0.023 mm 2 , and diameter was 493.79 ± 31.89, with intersession CV of 3.3% and 1.7%, respectively. Hyper reflective retinal layers in OCT correlated with plexiform and RPE layers in histology. In vivo OCT imaging and quantification of guinea pig retina and optic nerve head parameters were repeatable and similar between eyes of the same animal. In vivo visibility of retinal cell layers correlated well with histological images.

  12. Rat Optic Nerve Head Anatomy within 3D Histomorphometric Reconstructions of Normal Control Eyes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pazos, Marta; Yang, Hongli; Gardiner, Stuart K.; Cepurna, William O.; Johnson, Elaine C.; Morrison, John C.; Burgoyne, Claude F.

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to three-dimensionally (3D) characterize the principal macroscopic and microscopic relationships within the rat optic nerve head (ONH) and quantify them in normal control eyes. Perfusion-fixed, trephinated ONH from 8 normal control eyes of 8 Brown Norway Rats were 3D histomorphometrically reconstructed, visualized, delineated and parameterized. The rat ONH consists of 2 scleral openings, (a superior neurovascular and inferior arterial) separated by a thin connective tissue strip we have termed the “scleral sling”. Within the superior opening, the nerve abuts a prominent extension of Bruch's Membrane (BM) superiorly and is surrounded by a vascular plexus, as it passes through the sclera, that is a continuous from the choroid into and through the dural sheath and contains the central retinal vein (CRV), (inferiorly). The inferior scleral opening contains the central retinal artery and three long posterior ciliary arteries which obliquely pass through the sclera to obtain the choroid. Bruch's Membrane Opening (BMO) is irregular and vertically elongated, enclosing the nerve (superiorly) and CRV and CRA (inferiorly). Overall mean BMO Depth, BMO Area, Choroidal Thickness and peripapillary Scleral Thickness were 29 μm, 56.5 × 103 μm2, 57 μm and 104 μm respectively. Mean anterior scleral canal opening (ASCO) and posterior scleral canal opening (PSCO) radii were 201 ± 15 μm and 204 ± 16 μm, respectively. Mean optic nerve area at the ASCO and PSCO were 46.3 × 103 ± 4.4 × 103 μm2 and 44.1 × 103 ± 4.5 × 103 μm2 respectively. In conclusion, the 3D complexity of the rat ONH and the extent to which it differs from the primate have been under-appreciated within previous 2D studies. Properly understood, these anatomic differences may provide new insights into the relative susceptibilities of the rat and primate ONH to elevated intraocular pressure. PMID:26021973

  13. Rat optic nerve head anatomy within 3D histomorphometric reconstructions of normal control eyes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pazos, Marta; Yang, Hongli; Gardiner, Stuart K; Cepurna, William O; Johnson, Elaine C; Morrison, John C; Burgoyne, Claude F

    2015-10-01

    The purpose of this study is to three-dimensionally (3D) characterize the principal macroscopic and microscopic relationships within the rat optic nerve head (ONH) and quantify them in normal control eyes. Perfusion-fixed, trephinated ONH from 8 normal control eyes of 8 Brown Norway Rats were 3D histomorphometrically reconstructed, visualized, delineated and parameterized. The rat ONH consists of 2 scleral openings, (a superior neurovascular and inferior arterial) separated by a thin connective tissue strip we have termed the "scleral sling". Within the superior opening, the nerve abuts a prominent extension of Bruch's Membrane (BM) superiorly and is surrounded by a vascular plexus, as it passes through the sclera, that is a continuous from the choroid into and through the dural sheath and contains the central retinal vein (CRV), (inferiorly). The inferior scleral opening contains the central retinal artery and three long posterior ciliary arteries which obliquely pass through the sclera to obtain the choroid. Bruch's Membrane Opening (BMO) is irregular and vertically elongated, enclosing the nerve (superiorly) and CRV and CRA (inferiorly). Overall mean BMO Depth, BMO Area, Choroidal Thickness and peripapillary Scleral Thickness were 29 μm, 56.5 × 10(3) μm(2), 57 μm and 104 μm respectively. Mean anterior scleral canal opening (ASCO) and posterior scleral canal opening (PSCO) radii were 201 ± 15 μm and 204 ± 16 μm, respectively. Mean optic nerve area at the ASCO and PSCO were 46.3 × 10(3)±4.4 × 10(3) μm(2) and 44.1 × 10(3)±4.5 × 10(3) μm(2) respectively. In conclusion, the 3D complexity of the rat ONH and the extent to which it differs from the primate have been under-appreciated within previous 2D studies. Properly understood, these anatomic differences may provide new insights into the relative susceptibilities of the rat and primate ONH to elevated intraocular pressure. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Diagnostic capability of optic nerve head rim width and retinal nerve fiber thickness in open-angle glaucoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Staso, Silvio; Agnifili, Luca; Di Staso, Federico; Climastone, Hilary; Ciancaglini, Marco; Scuderi, Gian Luca

    2018-03-01

    This study was performed to test the diagnostic capability of the minimum rim width compared to peripapillary retinal nerve fiber layer thickness in patients with glaucoma. A case control, observer masked study, was conducted. Minimum rim width and retinal nerve fiber layer thickness were assessed using the patient-specific axis traced between fovea-to-Bruch's membrane opening center axis. For both minimum rim width and retinal nerve fiber layer thickness, the regionalization in six sectors (nasal, superior-nasal, superior-temporal, temporal, inferior-temporal, and inferior-nasal) was analyzed. Eyes with at least one sector with value below the 5% or 1% normative limit of the optical coherence tomography normative database were classified as glaucomatous. The area under the receiver operator characteristic curve, the accuracy, sensitivity, specificity, and predictive positive and negative values were calculated for both minimum rim width and retinal nerve fiber layer thickness. A total of 118 eyes of 118 Caucasian subjects (80 eyes with open-angle glaucoma and 38 control eyes) were enrolled in the study. Accuracy, sensitivity, and specificity were 79.7%, 77.5%, and 84.2%, respectively, for minimum rim width and 84.7%, 82.5%, and 89.5% for retinal nerve fiber layer thickness. The positive predictive values were 0.91% and 0.94% for minimum rim width and retinal nerve fiber layer thickness, respectively, whereas the negative predictive values were 0.64% and 0.70%. The area under the receiver operator characteristic curve was 0.892 for minimum rim width and 0.938 for retinal nerve fiber layer thickness. Our results indicated that the sector analysis based on Bruch's membrane opening and fovea to disk alignment is able to detect glaucomatous defects, and that Bruch's membrane opening minimum rim width and retinal nerve fiber layer thickness showed equivalent diagnostic ability.

  15. Characterization of Pax2 expression in the goldfish optic nerve head during retina regeneration.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Parrilla

    Full Text Available The Pax2 transcription factor plays a crucial role in axon-guidance and astrocyte differentiation in the optic nerve head (ONH during vertebrate visual system development. However, little is known about its function during regeneration. The fish visual system is in continuous growth and can regenerate. Müller cells and astrocytes of the retina and ONH play an important role in these processes. We demonstrate that pax2a in goldfish is highly conserved and at least two pax2a transcripts are expressed in the optic nerve. Moreover, we show two different astrocyte populations in goldfish: Pax2(+ astrocytes located in the ONH and S100(+ astrocytes distributed throughout the retina and the ONH. After peripheral growth zone (PGZ cryolesion, both Pax2(+ and S100(+ astrocytes have different responses. At 7 days after injury the number of Pax2(+ cells is reduced and coincides with the absence of young axons. In contrast, there is an increase of S100(+ astrocytes in the retina surrounding the ONH and S100(+ processes in the ONH. At 15 days post injury, the PGZ starts to regenerate and the number of S100(+ astrocytes increases in this region. Moreover, the regenerating axons reach the ONH and the pax2a gene expression levels and the number of Pax2(+ cells increase. At the same time, S100(+/GFAP(+/GS(+ astrocytes located in the posterior ONH react strongly. In the course of the regeneration, Müller cell vitreal processes surrounding the ONH are primarily disorganized and later increase in number. During the whole regenerative process we detect a source of Pax2(+/PCNA(+ astrocytes surrounding the posterior ONH. We demonstrate that pax2a expression and the Pax2(+ astrocyte population in the ONH are modified during the PGZ regeneration, suggesting that they could play an important role in this process.

  16. Characterization of Abnormal Optic Nerve Head Morphology in Albinism Using Optical Coherence Tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammad, Sarim; Gottlob, Irene; Sheth, Viral; Pilat, Anastasia; Lee, Helena; Pollheimer, Ellen; Proudlock, Frank Anthony

    2015-07-01

    To characterize abnormalities in three-dimensional optic nerve head (ONH) morphology in people with albinism (PWA) using spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) and to determine whether ONH abnormalities relate to other retinal and clinical abnormalities. Spectral-domain OCT was used to obtain three-dimensional images from 56 PWA and 60 age- and sex-matched control subjects. B-scans were corrected for nystagmus-associated motion artefacts. Disc, cup, and rim ONH dimensions and peripapillary retinal nerve fiber layer (ppRNFL) thickness were calculated using Copernicus and ImageJ software. Median disc areas were similar in PWA (median = 1.65 mm2) and controls (1.71 mm2, P = 0.128), although discs were significantly elongated horizontally in PWA (P < 0.001). In contrast, median optic cup area in PWA (0.088 mm2) was 23.7% of that in controls (0.373 mm2, P < 0.001), with 39.4% of eyes in PWA not demonstrating a measurable optic cup. This led to significantly smaller cup to disc ratios in PWA (P < 0.001). Median rim volume in PWA (0.273 mm3) was 136.6% of that in controls (0.200 mm3). The ppRNFL was significantly thinner in PWA compared with controls (P < 0.001), especially in the temporal quadrant. In PWA, ppRNFL thickness was correlated to ganglion cell thickness at the central fovea (P = 0.007). Several ONH abnormalities, such as cup to disc ratio, were related to higher refractive errors in PWA. In PWA, ocular maldevelopment is not just limited to the retina but also involves the ONH. Reduced ppRNFL thickness is consistent with previous reports of reduced ganglion cell numbers in PWA. The thicker rim volumes may be a result of incomplete maturation of the ONH.

  17. A poroelastic model for the perfusion of the lamina cribrosa in the optic nerve head.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Causin, Paola; Guidoboni, Giovanna; Harris, Alon; Prada, Daniele; Sacco, Riccardo; Terragni, Samuele

    2014-11-01

    In this work we present a mathematical model for the coupling between biomechanics and hemodynamics in the lamina cribrosa, a thin porous tissue at the base of the optic nerve head which is thought to be the site of injury in ocular neurodegenerative diseases such as glaucoma. In this exploratory two-dimensional investigation, the lamina cribrosa is modeled as a poroelastic material where blood vessels are viewed as pores in a solid elastic matrix. The model is used to investigate the influence on the distributions of stress, blood volume fraction (or vascular porosity) and blood velocity within the lamina cribrosa due to the application of different levels of the intraocular pressure (IOP) and the enforcement of different mechanical constraints at the lamina's boundary. The model simulations suggest that the degree of fixity of the boundary constraint strongly influences the lamina's response to IOP elevation. Specifically, when the boundary is mechanically clamped, IOP elevation leads to an increase in stress close to the lamina's boundary, making it more susceptible to tissue damage. On the other hand, when rotations are allowed at the boundary, the most vulnerable region appears to be located at the lamina's central axis, in proximity of the eye globe, where increased stress and reduced vascular porosity and blood velocity are predicted for increased levels of IOP. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  18. The effects of graded intraocular pressure challenge on the optic nerve head.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Nimesh; McAllister, Faith; Pardon, Laura; Harwerth, Ronald

    2018-04-01

    Intraocular pressure (IOP) is an important risk factor for glaucoma, and the response of the ONH and surrounding tissues to elevated IOP are often investigated to better understand pathophysiology. In vivo structure including that of the optic nerve head (ONH) and surrounding tissue of the eye are often assessed using optical coherence tomography (OCT). With advances in OCT technology, both large vessels and capillaries can be imaged non-invasively (OCT Angiography). Because a significant portion of retinal thickness is comprised of vasculature, the purpose of the current study was to investigate OCT structural and vascular changes in healthy non-human primate eyes with systematic graded increases and decreases in IOP. Six healthy animals with no previous experimental intervention were used. The pressure in the anterior chamber was adjusted from 10 mmHg to 60 mmHg and back to 10 mmHg in 10 mmHg steps every 10 min. Using optical coherence tomography (OCT), retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) thickness, minimum rim width (MRW), Bruch's membrane opening (BMO) size and relative height, anterior lamina cribrosa surface (ALCS) depth, choroidal thickness, and angiography (OCTA) were quantified. With IOP challenge there were significant changes in all morphological measures quantified (p < 0.01) other than BMO size (p = 0.30) and RNFL thickness (p = 0.29). Specifically, the position of the BMO was sensitive to both an increase and decease in IOP. The inner retinal capillary density gradually decreased with increasing IOP, reaching statistical significance when pressure exceeded 50 mmHg, but returned when IOP was reduced. The average choroidal thickness around the ONH decreased for elliptical annuli 500-1000 μm and 1000-1500 μm, from the BMO, with increasing IOP (p < 0.01). For the 1000-1500 μm annulus, choroid thickness did not return to baseline with IOP reduction. Similarly, the MRW decreased with increase in IOP, but with pressure

  19. Optical coherence tomography angiography of optic nerve head and parafovea in multiple sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiaogang; Jia, Yali; Spain, Rebecca; Potsaid, Benjamin; Liu, Jonathan J; Baumann, Bernhard; Hornegger, Joachim; Fujimoto, James G; Wu, Qiang; Huang, David

    2014-10-01

    To investigate swept-source optical coherence tomography (OCT) angiography in the optic nerve head (ONH) and parafoveal regions in patients with multiple sclerosis (MS). Fifty-two MS eyes and 21 healthy control (HC) eyes were included. There were two MS subgroups: 38 MS eyes without an optic neuritis (ON) history (MS -ON), and 14 MS eyes with an ON history (MS +ON). The OCT images were captured by high-speed 1050 nm swept-source OCT. The ONH flow index (FI) and parafoveal FI were quantified from OCT angiograms. The mean ONH FI was 0.160 ± 0.010 for the HC group, 0.156 ± 0.017 for the MS-ON group, and 0.140 ± 0.020 for the MS+ON group. The ONH FI of the MS+ON group was reduced by 12.5% compared to HC eyes (p=0.004). A higher percentage of MS+ON eyes had abnormal ONH FI compared to HC patients (43% vs 5%, p=0.01). Mean parafoveal FIs were 0.126 ± 0.007, 0.127 ± 0.010, and 0.129 ± 0.005 for the HC, MS-ON, and MS +ON groups, respectively, and did not differ significantly among them. The coefficient of variation (CV) of intravisit repeatability and intervisit reproducibility were 1.03% and 4.53% for ONH FI, and 1.65% and 3.55% for parafoveal FI. Based on OCT angiography, the FI measurement is feasible, highly repeatable and reproducible, and it is suitable for clinical measurement of ONH and parafoveal perfusion. The ONH FI may be useful in detecting damage from ON and quantifying its severity. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  20. Association Between Optic Nerve Head Deformation and Retinal Microvasculature in High Myopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sung, Mi Sun; Lee, Tae Hee; Heo, Hwan; Park, Sang Woo

    2018-04-01

    To evaluate the retinal microvasculature of peripapillary and macular regions in highly myopic eyes and investigate the association between the vascular parameters and optic nerve head (ONH) deformation. Cross-sectional study. Seventy-one subjects with highly myopic eyes and 26 subjects with emmetropic eyes were included. Horizontal B-scan images of the ONH were obtained using optical coherence tomography (OCT) and horizontal tilt angles were measured. Integrated automated algorithms in the Avanti OCT angiography were used to quantify the peripapillary vessel density and area of the foveal avascular zone (FAZ) at the level of superficial and deep vascular networks. Association between horizontal disc tilt and the vascular parameters was evaluated. The mean axial length and horizontal tilt angle were 26.73 ± 0.63 mm and 9.77 ± 3.00 degrees in the highly myopic group and 23.46 ± 0.55 mm and 5.95 ± 3.48 degrees in the emmetropic group, respectively. Highly myopic eyes exhibited significantly lower average peripapillary vessel density (P = .010) and larger superficial and deep FAZs (P = .001 and P < .001, respectively) compared with emmetropic eyes. Linear regression analyses showed that horizontal tilt angle significantly correlated the average peripapillary vessel density (P = .037) and the areas of superficial (P < .001) and deep (P < .001) FAZs. The retinal microvasculature was significantly different in highly myopic eyes according to the degree of horizontal optic disc tilt. In addition to peripapillary vessel density, FAZ can be affected by the degree of optic disc tilt. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. A hybrid method for 3D mosaicing of OCT images of macula and Optic Nerve Head.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahdi, Alieh; Rabbani, Hossein; Vard, Alireza

    2017-12-01

    A mosaiced image is the result of merging two or more images with overlapping area in order to generate a high resolution panorama of a large scene. A wide view of Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT) images can help clinicians in diagnosis by enabling simultaneous analysis of different portions of the gathered information. In this paper, we present a novel method for mosaicing of 3D OCT images of macula and Optic Nerve Head (ONH) that is carried out in two phases; registration of OCT projections and mosaicing of B-scans. In the first phase, in order to register the OCT projection images of macula and ONH, their corresponding color fundus image is considered as the main frame and the geometrical features of their curvelet-based extracted vessels are employed for registration. The registration parameters obtained are then applied on all x-y slices of the 3D OCT images of macula and ONH. In the B-scan mosaicing phase, the overlapping areas of corresponding reprojected B-scans are extracted and the best registration model is obtained based on line-by-line matching of corresponding A-scans in overlapping areas. This registration model is then applied to the remaining A-scans of the ONH-based B-scan. The aligned B-scans of macular OCT and OCT images of ONH are finally blended and 3D mosaiced OCT images are obtained. Two criteria are considered for assessment of mosaiced images; the quality of alignment/mosaicing of B-scans and the loss of clinical information from the B-scans after mosaicing. The average grading values of 3.5 ± 0.74 and 3.63 ± 0.55 (out of 4) are obtained for the first and second criteria, respectively. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Inter-Relationship of Arterial Supply to Human Retina, Choroid, and Optic Nerve Head Using Micro Perfusion and Labeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Paula K; McAllister, Ian L; Morgan, William H; Cringle, Stephen J; Yu, Dao-Yi

    2017-07-01

    The prevailing view is that the human retina is supplied by the central retinal artery (CRA), the short posterior ciliary arteries (SPCAs) support the choroid, and both the CRA and the SPCAs are so-called "end artery" systems. In this study, we investigate whether vascular connections among the retina, choroid, and the optic nerve head (ONH) exist, using selective cannulation and microperfusion-labeling techniques. The CRA and/or one or more of the SPCAs were selected for cannulation in 18 human donor eyes. Fluorescent probes with different excitation wavelengths were perfused through different arteries on the same eye to distinguish the supply sources of different vascular beds. After labeling and fixation, the ONH region was dissected either longitudinally or transversely as thick sections for confocal microscopy. Retina, choroid, and ONH were imaged from whole-mount specimens. Probes perfused through the CRA or the SPCA alone labeled the microvessels in the retina, choroid, and ONH regions, as well as the optic nerve trunk. The vessels of the lamina cribrosa and the optic nerve trunk were labeled when probes were perfused through the SPCA. Perfusion through both the CRA and SPCA produced double labeling of vessels in the retina, the choroid, and the ONH. The results indicate an inter-relationship of arterial supply to the retina, choroid, and ONH in the human eye. This has important implications in understanding clinical observations and disease mechanisms such as that of glaucoma and ischemic optic nerve disease.

  3. Significant correlations between optic nerve head microcirculation and visual field defects and nerve fiber layer loss in glaucoma patients with myopic glaucomatous disk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yokoyama Y

    2011-12-01

    .Conclusions: Our study suggests that there is a causal relationship between the thinner RNFLT that led to the MD and reduction in the microcirculation in the optic nerve head.Keywords: glaucoma, visual field defects, optic disk, optic neuropathy, myopia, microcirculation, optic nerve head, retinal nerve fiber layer

  4. Retinal Nerve Fiber Layer Thicknesses in Three Different Optic Nerve Head Size Groups Measured by Cirrus Spectral Domain Optical Coherence Tomography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sirel Gür Güngör

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To compare the retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL thicknesses in three different optic nerve head (ONH size groups measured by Cirrus spectral domain optical coherence tomography (OCT. Materials and Methods: Between January and March 2013, 253 eyes of 253 healthy subjects were enrolled in this study (mean age: 42.7±7.4 years [28-62 years]; 121 men and 132 women. The patients were divided into 3 groups according to ONH size: 77 patients in the “small ONH” group (ONH area 1.97 mm2. Results: There were significant differences in superior (p=0.008, inferior (p=0.004 and average RNFL thickness (p=0.001 between the small, medium and large ONH groups. Positive correlations between ONH size and inferior/average RNFL thicknesses were significant but very weak (r=0.150, p=0.017 and r=0.157, p=0.013 respectively. Conclusion: RNFL thickness as measured by Cirrus OCT is positively correlated with ONH size and the differences in RNFL thickness were statistically significant between groups. This correlation and difference may be the result of a varying distance between the circular scan and the ONH margin.

  5. Digital versus film stereo-photography for assessment of the optic nerve head in glaucoma and glaucoma suspect patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasanreisoglu, Murat; Priel, Ethan; Naveh, Lili; Lusky, Moshe; Weinberger, Dov; Benjamini, Yoav; Gaton, Dan D

    2013-03-01

    One of the leading methods for optic nerve head assessment in glaucoma remains stereoscopic photography. This study compared conventional film and digital stereoscopy in the quantitative and qualitative assessment of the optic nerve head in glaucoma and glaucoma suspect patients. Fifty patients with glaucoma or suspected glaucoma underwent stereoscopic photography of the optic nerve head with a 35-mm color slide film and a digital camera. Photographs/images were presented in random order to 3 glaucoma specialists for independent analysis using a standardized assessment form. Findings for the following parameters were compared among assessors and between techniques: cup/disc (C/D) ratio, state of the optic rim, presence of peripapillary atrophy and appearance of the retinal nerve fiber layer, blood vessels, and lamina cribrosa. The film-based and image-based diagnoses (glaucoma yes/no) were compared as well. Despite high level of agreement across graders using the same method for the horizontal and vertical C/D ratio, (intraclass correlations 0.80 to 0.83), the agreement across graders was much lower for the other parameters using the same method. Similarly the agreement between the findings of the same grader using either method was high for horizontal and vertical C/D ratio, but low for the other parameters. The latter differences were reflected in the disagreement regarding the final diagnosis: The diagnoses differed by technique for each grader in 18% to 46% of eyes, resulting in 38.5% of eyes diagnosed with glaucoma by film photography that "lost" their diagnosis on the digital images, whereas 18.7% of eyes diagnosed as nonglaucomatous by film photography were considered to have glaucoma on the digital images. Although there is consistency between 35-mm film stereoscopy and digital stereoscopy in determining the cup/disc (C/D) ratio, in all other parameters large differences exist, leading to differences in diagnosis. Differences in capturing images between

  6. Morphology and morphometry of the ulnar head of the pronator teres muscle in relation to median nerve compression at the proximal forearm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurses, I A; Altinel, L; Gayretli, O; Akgul, T; Uzun, I; Dikici, F

    2016-12-01

    The pronator syndrome is a rare compression neuropathy of the median nerve. Ulnar head of the pronator teres muscle may cause compression at proximal forearm. Detailed morphologic and morphometric studies on the anatomy of the ulnar head of pronator teres is scarce. We dissected 112 forearms of fresh cadavers. We evaluated the morphology and morphometry of the ulnar head of pronator teres muscle. The average ulnar head width was 16.3±8.2mm. The median nerve passed anterior to the ulnar head at a distance of 50.4±10.7mm from the interepicondylar line. We classified the morphology of the ulnar head into 5 types. In type 1, the ulnar head was fibromuscular in 60 forearms (53.6%). In type 2, it was muscular in 23 forearms (20.5%). In type 3, it was just a fibrotic band in 18 forearms (16.1%). In type 4, it was absent in 9 forearms (8%). In type 5, the ulnar head had two arches in 2 forearms (1.8%). In 80 forearms (71.5%: types 1, 3, and 5), the ulnar head was either fibromuscular or a fibrotic band. Although the pronator syndrome is a rare compression syndrome, the ulnar head of pronator teres is reported as the major cause of entrapment in the majority of the cases. The location of the compression of the median nerve in relation to the ulnar head of pronator teres muscle and the morphology of the ulnar head is important for open or minimally-invasive surgical treatment. Sectional study. Basic science study. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  7. Design and validation of a method to determine the position of the fovea by using the nerve-head to fovea distance of the fellow eye.

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    Mathijs A J van de Put

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To measure the nerve-head to fovea distance (NFD on fundus photographs in fellow eyes, and to compare the NFD between fellow eyes. METHODS: Diabetic patients without retinopathy, (n = 183 who were screened by fundus photography at the University Medical Center Groningen, the Netherlands from January 1(st 2005 until January 1(st 2006 were included. The NFD was measured in left and right eyes both from the center and from the rim of the nerve-head. To determine inter- and intra-observer agreement, repeated measurements by one observer (n = 3 were performed on all photographs and by two observers on 60 photographs (30 paired eyes. The effect of age, gender, and refractive error on NFD was analysed. RESULTS: The correlation of NFDs between the left and the right eye was 0.958 when measured from the center of the nerve head (mean difference 0.0078 mm. ±SD 0.079 (95% limits of agreement -0.147-0.163 and 0.963 when measured from the rim (mean difference 0.0056±SD 0.073 (95% limits of agreement -0.137-0.149. Using the NFD between fellow eyes interchangeably, resulted in a standard error of 0.153 mm. Intra- and inter-observer variability was small. We found a significant effect of age (center of the nerve-head (P = 0.006 and rim of the nerve head (P = 0.003 and refractive error (center of nerve-head (P<0.001 and rim of nerve head (P<0.001 on NFD. CONCLUSIONS: The NFD in one eye provides a confident, reproducible, and valid method to address the position of the fovea in the fellow eye. We recommend using the NFD measured from the center of the nerve-head since the standard error by this method was smallest. Age and refractive error have an effect on NFD.

  8. Optic Nerve Head and Retinal Nerve Fiber Layer Analysis in Ocular Hypertension and Early-Stage Glucoma Using Spectral-Domain Optical Coherence Tomography Copernicus

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    Nilgün Solmaz

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Evaluation of structural alterations of the optic nerve head (ONH and the retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL in patients with ocular hypertension (OHT and early-stage glaucoma and assessment of the discriminatory diagnostic performance of spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT Copernicus (Optopol Technology S.A.. Materials and Methods: This study included 59 eyes of a total of 59 patients, 29 of whom were diagnosed with OHT (Group 1 and 30 with early-stage glaucoma (Group 2. The differentiation of early-stage glaucoma and OHT was carried out on the basis of standard achromatic visual field test results. Analysis of the ONH and RNFL thickness of all cases was made using SD-OCT. Group 1 and Group 2 were compared with respect to the ONH parameters and RNFL thickness. The diagnostic sensitivity of the OCT parameters was evaluated by the area under the receiver operating characteristics curves (AUC. Results: The average, superior, inferior, and nasal RNFL thicknesses in early-stage glaucoma cases were approximately 10% (12-14 µm less compared to the OHT eyes, with differences being highly significant (p≤0.001. However, there was no statistically significant difference in the temporal RNFL thicknesses. The most sensitive parameter in the early diagnosis of glaucoma was average RNFL thickness corresponding to AUC: 0.852, followed by AUC: 0.816 and AUC: 0.773 values in superior and inferior RNFL thickness, respectively. In localized RNFL defects, the highest sensitivity corresponded to superior and superonasal quadrants (ACU: 0.805 and ACU: 0.781, respectively. There were not any statistically significant differences between the ONH morphological parameters of the two groups. Conclusion: RNFL analysis obtained using SD-OCT Copernicus is able to discriminate early-stage glaucoma eyes from those with OHT. However, ONH morphological parameters do not have the same diagnostic sensitivity. Turk J Ophthalmol 2014; 44: 35-41

  9. Spectral Domain Optical Coherence Tomography in Glaucoma: Qualitative and Quantitative Analysis of the Optic Nerve Head and Retinal Nerve Fiber Layer (An AOS Thesis)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Teresa C.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: To demonstrate that video-rate spectral domain optical coherence tomography (SDOCT) can qualitatively and quantitatively evaluate optic nerve head (ONH) and retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) glaucomatous structural changes. To correlate quantitative SDOCT parameters with disc photography and visual fields. Methods: SDOCT images from 4 glaucoma eyes (4 patients) with varying stages of open-angle glaucoma (ie, early, moderate, late) were qualitatively contrasted with 2 age-matched normal eyes (2 patients). Of 61 other consecutive patients recruited in an institutional setting, 53 eyes (33 patients) met inclusion/exclusion criteria for quantitative studies. Images were obtained using two experimental SDOCT systems, one utilizing a superluminescent diode and the other a titanium:sapphire laser source, with axial resolutions of about 6 μm and 3 μm, respectively. Results: Classic glaucomatous ONH and RNFL structural changes were seen in SDOCT images. An SDOCT reference plane 139 μm above the retinal pigment epithelium yielded cup-disc ratios that best correlated with masked physician disc photography cup-disc ratio assessments. The minimum distance band, a novel SDOCT neuroretinal rim parameter, showed good correlation with physician cup-disc ratio assessments, visual field mean deviation, and pattern standard deviation (P values range, .0003–.024). RNFL and retinal thickness maps correlated well with disc photography and visual field testing. Conclusions: To our knowledge, this thesis presents the first comprehensive qualitative and quantitative evaluation of SDOCT images of the ONH and RNFL in glaucoma. This pilot study provides basis for developing more automated quantitative SDOCT-specific glaucoma algorithms needed for future prospective multicenter national trials. PMID:20126502

  10. Acute Appendicitis, Somatosensory Disturbances ("Head Zones"), and the Differential Diagnosis of Anterior Cutaneous Nerve Entrapment Syndrome (ACNES).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roumen, Rudi M H; Vening, Wouter; Wouda, Rosanne; Scheltinga, Marc M

    2017-06-01

    Anterior cutaneous nerve entrapment syndrome (ACNES) is a neuropathic abdominal wall pain syndrome typically characterized by locally altered skin sensations. On the other hand, visceral disease may also be associated with similar painful and altered skin sensations ("Head zones"). Aim of the study was to determine if patients with acute appendicitis demonstrated somatosensory disturbances in the corresponding right lower quadrant Head zone. The presence of somatosensory disturbances such as hyperalgesia, hypoesthesia, altered cool perception, or positive pinch test was determined in 100 patients before and after an appendectomy. Potential associations between altered skin sensations and various items including age, sex, history, body temperature, C-reactive protein (CRP), leukocyte count, and type of appendicopathy (normal, inflamed, necrotic, or perforated) were assessed. A total of 39 patients demonstrated at least one right lower abdominal quadrant skin somatosensory disturbance before the laparoscopic appendectomy. However, locoregional skin sensation normalized in all but 2 patients 2 weeks postoperatively. No differences were found concerning patient characteristics or type of appendicopathy between populations with or without altered lower abdominal skin sensations. A substantial portion of patients with acute appendicitis demonstrate right lower abdominal somatosensory disturbances that are similar as observed in acute ACNES. Both may be different sides of the same coin and are possibly expressions of segmental phenomena as described by Head. McBurney's point, a landmark area of maximum pain in acute appendicitis, is possibly a trigger point within a Head zone. Differentiating acute appendicitis from acute ACNES is extremely difficult, but imaging and observation may aid in the diagnostic process.

  11. Shared-hole graph search with adaptive constraints for 3D optic nerve head optical coherence tomography image segmentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Kai; Shi, Fei; Gao, Enting; Zhu, Weifang; Chen, Haoyu; Chen, Xinjian

    2018-01-01

    Optic nerve head (ONH) is a crucial region for glaucoma detection and tracking based on spectral domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) images. In this region, the existence of a “hole” structure makes retinal layer segmentation and analysis very challenging. To improve retinal layer segmentation, we propose a 3D method for ONH centered SD-OCT image segmentation, which is based on a modified graph search algorithm with a shared-hole and locally adaptive constraints. With the proposed method, both the optic disc boundary and nine retinal surfaces can be accurately segmented in SD-OCT images. An overall mean unsigned border positioning error of 7.27 ± 5.40 µm was achieved for layer segmentation, and a mean Dice coefficient of 0.925 ± 0.03 was achieved for optic disc region detection. PMID:29541497

  12. [Comparison of optic nerve head between normal and glaucoma subjects with Heidelberg Retina Topograph: to introduce a new diagnostic pattern].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Yuanbo; Liu, Xing; Ling, Yunlan; Huang, Jingjing; Zheng, Xiaoping

    2004-12-01

    To compare the differences of optic disc topograph between normal and glaucomatous persons, and to establish the score classification pattern for glaucoma using Heidelberg Retina Topograph (HRT). One hundred and sixteen eyes from 116 normal controls, 99 eyes from 63 consecutive primary open angle glaucoma(POAG) patients, and 75 eyes from 42 patients with POAG in early stage were included. All subjects underwent HRT exams. The topograph parameters of optic nerve head obtained from HRT were compared between normal and glaucoma, according to the 50%,95%,and 99% distribution of each parameter defining as score -4, -3, -2, -1, 1, 2, 3, 4. The total value of all parameters in one eye were calculated as a diagnostic index. And the cut-off points were determined by specificity of 95% for certain glaucoma and certain normal, the others were classified into suspects. The differences of optic disc topograph between normals and glaucomatous patients were significant. When consecutive glaucoma data were analyzed by the new score classification pattern, miss-diagnosis ratio was 6.1%, mis-diagnosis was 5.2%, correctly diagnostic ratio was 57.6%, suspects ratio was 36.4%. When POAG in early stage data were analyzed, the miss-diagnosis ratio and mis-diagnosis ratio were 5.2%, 5.2%, respectively; correctly diagnosis ratio is 36%, suspects ratio is 53.3%. The differences of optic nerve head topograph between normals and glaucomatous patients are significant. The new diagnostic pattern which will classify subjects into normals, suspects, and glaucoma, may be useful to lower miss-and misdiagnosis rate clinically.

  13. Comparison of the Deep Optic Nerve Head Structure between Normal-Tension Glaucoma and Nonarteritic Anterior Ischemic Optic Neuropathy.

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    Eun Ji Lee

    Full Text Available To compare the deep optic nerve head (ONH structure between normal-tension glaucoma (NTG and nonarteritic anterior ischemic optic neuropathy (NAION and also in healthy subjects as a control using enhanced depth imaging (EDI spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT.This prospective cross-sectional study included 21 NAION patients who had been diagnosed as NAION at least 6 months prior to study entry, and 42 NTG patients and 42 healthy controls who were matched with NAION patients in terms of age, intraocular pressure (IOP, and optic disc area. The retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL thickness in the affected sector was also matched between NAION and NTG patients. The ONH was imaged using SD-OCT with the EDI technique. The anterior lamina cribrosa surface depth (LCD and average prelaminar tissue (PT thickness were measured in a sector of interest in each eye and compared among the three groups.In the sector-matched comparison, LCD was largest in NTG patients, followed by NAION patients, while PT was thinner in NTG patients than in NAION patients (all P < 0.001. NAION patients had a comparable LCD and a thinner PT relative to normal controls (P = 0.170 and < 0.001, respectively.The deep ONH configuration is strikingly different between NTG and NAION. The differing features provide comparative insight into the pathophysiology of the two diseases, and may be useful for differential diagnosis.

  14. Interocular symmetry of retinal nerve fiber layer and optic nerve head parameters measured by Cirrus high-definition optical coherence tomography in a normal pediatric population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pawar, Neelam; Maheshwari, Devendra; Ravindran, Meenakshi; Ramakrishnan, Renagappa

    2017-10-01

    To determine interocular differences in the retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) and optic nerve head (ONH) parameters in a pediatric population using Cirrus high-definition optical coherence tomography (HD-OCT). Seventy normal Indian children aged 5-17 years presenting to the Pediatric Clinic were included in this observational cross-sectional study. All subjects underwent a comprehensive ophthalmologic examination and an evaluation of the RNFL and ONH by Cirrus HD-OCT. Differences between the right and left eyes were calculated and values were compared by means of a paired t-test. Subjects were also divided into two groups based on age (under or over 10 years of age). Interocular differences in RNFL and ONH parameters together with sex and age variations for these differences were determined. The mean age of studied pediatric population was 11.83 ± 3.3 years (range 5-17). Average RNFL thickness was 94.46 ± 8.7 μm (± SD) (range 77-111). Differences in the average RNFL between right and left eyes were not statistically significant (P = 0.060). Superior quadrant RNFL was thicker in the left eye and temporal quadrant was thicker in the right eye. Among ONH parameters, there were no statistically significant differences in any parameters, except vertical cup-disc (CD) ratio which was significant (P = 0.007). The 2.5%-97.5% limits of asymmetry were 9 μm for average RNFL, 0.14 for average CD ratio, and 0.22 for vertical CD ratio. Mean interocular RNFL thickness differences in superior, superior nasal, and temporal superior quadrants were 10.61 (P sex, while only significant differences with age were observed in 12 clock hour sector analysis, mainly in nasal inferior and inferior quadrant. We report the degree of interocular symmetry of RNFL and ONH parameters measured by Cirrus HD-OCT in a healthy pediatric population. The normal interocular RNFL asymmetry should not exceed 9 μm and vertical CD ratio beyond 0.22 should be considered for further investigations. The

  15. Sox10 Expression in Goldfish Retina and Optic Nerve Head in Controls and after the Application of Two Different Lesion Paradigms.

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    Marta Parrilla

    Full Text Available The mammalian central nervous system (CNS is unable to regenerate. In contrast, the CNS of fish, including the visual system, is able to regenerate after damage. Moreover, the fish visual system grows continuously throughout the life of the animal, and it is therefore an excellent model to analyze processes of myelination and re-myelination after an injury. Here we analyze Sox10+ oligodendrocytes in the goldfish retina and optic nerve in controls and after two kinds of injuries: cryolesion of the peripheral growing zone and crushing of the optic nerve. We also analyze changes in a major component of myelin, myelin basic protein (MBP, as a marker for myelinated axons. Our results show that Sox10+ oligodendrocytes are located in the retinal nerve fiber layer and along the whole length of the optic nerve. MBP was found to occupy a similar location, although its loose appearance in the retina differed from the highly organized MBP+ axon bundles in the optic nerve. After optic nerve crushing, the number of Sox10+ cells decreased in the crushed area and in the optic nerve head. Consistent with this, myelination was highly reduced in both areas. In contrast, after cryolesion we did not find changes in the Sox10+ population, although we did detect some MBP- degenerating areas. We show that these modifications in Sox10+ oligodendrocytes are consistent with their role in oligodendrocyte identity, maintenance and survival, and we propose the optic nerve head as an excellent area for research aimed at better understanding of de- and remyelination processes.

  16. Three-dimensional interactive and stereotactic atlas of head muscles and glands correlated with cranial nerves and surface and sectional neuroanatomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nowinski, Wieslaw L; Chua, Beng Choon; Johnson, Aleksandra; Qian, Guoyu; Poh, Lan Eng; Yi, Su Hnin Wut; Bivi, Aminah; Nowinska, Natalia G

    2013-04-30

    Three-dimensional (3D) relationships between head muscles and cranial nerves innervating them are complicated. Existing sources present these relationships in illustrations, radiologic scans, or autopsy photographs, which are limited for learning and use. Developed electronic atlases are limited in content, quality, functionality, and/or presentation. We create a truly 3D interactive, stereotactic and high quality atlas, which provides spatial relationships among head muscles, glands and cranial nerves, and correlates them to surface and sectional neuroanatomy. The head muscles and glands were created from a 3T scan by contouring them and generating 3D models. They were named and structured according to Terminologia anatomica. The muscles were divided into: extra-ocular, facial, masticatory and other muscles, and glands into mouth and other glands. The muscles, glands (and also head) were placed in a stereotactic coordinate system. This content was integrated with cranial nerves and neuroanatomy created earlier. To explore this complex content, a scalable user interface was designed with 12 modules including central nervous system (cerebrum, cerebellum, brainstem, spinal cord), cranial nerves, muscles, glands, arterial system, venous system, tracts, deep gray nuclei, ventricles, white matter, visual system, head. Anatomy exploration operations include compositing/decompositing, individual/group selection, 3D view-index mapping, 3D labeling, highlighting, distance measuring, 3D brain cutting, and axial/coronal/sagittal triplanar display. To our best knowledge, this is the first truly 3D, stereotactic, interactive, fairly complete atlas of head muscles, and the first attempt to create a 3D stereotactic atlas of glands. Its use ranges from education of students and patients to research to potential clinical applications. Crown Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Optic Nerve Head and Retinal Nerve Fiber Layer Differences Between Caribbean Black and African American Patients as Measured by Spectral Domain OCT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, Rohini; Dhrami-Gavazi, Elona; Al-Aswad, Lama; Ciarleglio, Adam; Cioffi, George A; Blumberg, Dana M

    2015-01-01

    There are well-established differences in optic nerve morphology between patients of African and European descent. Spectral domain optical coherence tomography (OCT) scanning has demonstrated these differences with respect to optic disc area (DA), average cup-disc ratio, cup volume, and nerve fiber layer thickness. However, the term "African descent" describes a heterogenous group with considerable variability. This study evaluates differences in optic nerve and retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) parameters as measured by Cirrus HD-OCT between Caribbean black and African American patients. A total of 25 African American subjects and 25 Caribbean black subjects with normal ocular examinations were consecutively recruited to this study. All patients received imaging of the optic nerve and nerve fiber layer with Cirrus HD-OCT. Optic nerve and RNFL parameters were evaluated for statistically significant differences using a t test. A mixed effect model for correlated data was then created to adjust outcome variables for (1) repeated measures and (2) optic nerve size. Two one-sided t tests were then utilized to determine equivalence. After adjustment for DA, RNFL thickness, cup volume, DA, inferior nerve fiber layer, and vertical cup-disc ratio demonstrated statistically significant equivalence between the 2 groups (P value fiber layer quadrant was significantly different between the 2 groups and may merit further investigation. Findings of this study suggest that optic nerve and RNFL morphology is markedly similar between Caribbean blacks and African Americans once adjusted for optic nerve size but cannot be considered equivalent in all measures, particularly in the superior nerve fiber layer.

  18. Ultrahigh-speed optical coherence tomography for three-dimensional and en face imaging of the retina and optic nerve head.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srinivasan, Vivek J; Adler, Desmond C; Chen, Yueli; Gorczynska, Iwona; Huber, Robert; Duker, Jay S; Schuman, Joel S; Fujimoto, James G

    2008-11-01

    To demonstrate ultrahigh-speed optical coherence tomography (OCT) imaging of the retina and optic nerve head at 249,000 axial scans per second and a wavelength of 1060 nm. To investigate methods for visualization of the retina, choroid, and optic nerve using high-density sampling enabled by improved imaging speed. A swept-source OCT retinal imaging system operating at a speed of 249,000 axial scans per second was developed. Imaging of the retina, choroid, and optic nerve were performed. Display methods such as speckle reduction, slicing along arbitrary planes, en face visualization of reflectance from specific retinal layers, and image compounding were investigated. High-definition and three-dimensional (3D) imaging of the normal retina and optic nerve head were performed. Increased light penetration at 1060 nm enabled improved visualization of the choroid, lamina cribrosa, and sclera. OCT fundus images and 3D visualizations were generated with higher pixel density and less motion artifacts than standard spectral/Fourier domain OCT. En face images enabled visualization of the porous structure of the lamina cribrosa, nerve fiber layer, choroid, photoreceptors, RPE, and capillaries of the inner retina. Ultrahigh-speed OCT imaging of the retina and optic nerve head at 249,000 axial scans per second is possible. The improvement of approximately 5 to 10x in imaging speed over commercial spectral/Fourier domain OCT technology enables higher density raster scan protocols and improved performance of en face visualization methods. The combination of the longer wavelength and ultrahigh imaging speed enables excellent visualization of the choroid, sclera, and lamina cribrosa.

  19. Anterior Interosseous Nerve Neuropraxia Secondary to Shoulder Arthroscopy and Open Subpectoral Long Head Biceps Tenodesis

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    Jeremiah T. Steed

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Arthroscopic rotator cuff tendon repair is a common elective procedure performed by trained orthopaedic surgeons with a relatively low complication rate. Specifically, isolated neuropraxia of the anterior interosseous nerve (AIN is a very rare complication of shoulder arthroscopy. An analysis of peer-reviewed published literature revealed only three articles reporting a total of seven cases that describe this specific complication following standard shoulder arthroscopic procedures. This article reports on three patients diagnosed with AIN neuropraxia following routine shoulder arthroscopy done by a single surgeon within a three-year period. All three patients also underwent open biceps tenodesis immediately following completion of the arthroscopic procedures. The exact causal mechanism of AIN neuropraxia following shoulder arthroscopy with biceps tenodesis is not known. This case report reviews possible mechanisms with emphasis on specific factors that make a traction injury the most likely etiology in these cases. We critically analyze our operating room setup and patient positioning practices in light of the existing biomechanical and cadaveric research to propose changes to our standard practices that may help to reduce the incidence of this specific postoperative complication in patients undergoing elective shoulder arthroscopy with biceps tenodesis.

  20. Comparison of Optic Nerve Head Blood Flow Autoregulation among Quadrants Induced by Decreased Ocular Perfusion Pressure during Vitrectomy

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    Ryuya Hashimoto

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. The present study aimed to examine changes in optic nerve head (ONH blood flow autoregulation in 4 quadrants (superior, nasal, inferior, and temporal with decreased ocular perfusion pressure (OPP during vitrectomy in order to determine whether there is a significant difference of autoregulatory capacity in response to OPP decrease at each ONH quadrant. Methods. This study included 24 eyes with an epiretinal membrane or macular hole that underwent vitrectomy at Toho University Sakura Medical Center. Following vitrectomy, the tissue mean blur rate (MBR, which reflects ONH blood flow, was measured. Mean tissue MBRs in the four quadrants were generated automatically in the software analysis report. Measurements were conducted before and 5 and 10 min after intraocular pressure (IOP elevation of approximately 15 mmHg in the subjects without systemic disorders. Results. The baseline tissue MBR of the temporal quadrant was significantly lower than that of the other 3 quadrants (all P<0.05. However, the time courses of tissue MBR in response to OPP decrease were not significantly different among the four quadrants during vitrectomy (P=0.23. Conclusions. There is no significant difference in the autoregulatory capacity of the four ONH quadrants in patients without systemic disorders during vitrectomy.

  1. Electrical Stimulation of the Ear, Head, Cranial Nerve, or Cortex for the Treatment of Tinnitus: A Scoping Review

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    Derek J. Hoare

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Tinnitus is defined as the perception of sound in the absence of an external source. It is often associated with hearing loss and is thought to result from abnormal neural activity at some point or points in the auditory pathway, which is incorrectly interpreted by the brain as an actual sound. Neurostimulation therapies therefore, which interfere on some level with that abnormal activity, are a logical approach to treatment. For tinnitus, where the pathological neuronal activity might be associated with auditory and other areas of the brain, interventions using electromagnetic, electrical, or acoustic stimuli separately, or paired electrical and acoustic stimuli, have been proposed as treatments. Neurostimulation therapies should modulate neural activity to deliver a permanent reduction in tinnitus percept by driving the neuroplastic changes necessary to interrupt abnormal levels of oscillatory cortical activity and restore typical levels of activity. This change in activity should alter or interrupt the tinnitus percept (reduction or extinction making it less bothersome. Here we review developments in therapies involving electrical stimulation of the ear, head, cranial nerve, or cortex in the treatment of tinnitus which demonstrably, or are hypothesised to, interrupt pathological neuronal activity in the cortex associated with tinnitus.

  2. Symmetry of optic nerve head parameters measured by the heidelberg retina tomograph 3 in healthy eyes: the Blue Mountains Eye study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Haitao; Healey, Paul R; Tariq, Yasser M; Teber, Erdahl; Mitchell, Paul

    2013-03-01

    To assess the symmetry of optic nerve head parameters measured by the Heidelberg Retina Tomograph 3 (HRT 3) between fellow eyes in a normal elderly population. Cross-sectional population-based study. Participants of the Blue Mountains Eye Study 10-year follow-up who did not have optic disc disease, including glaucoma, were included. Optic nerve head parameters measured by HRT 3 were compared between fellow eyes. The normal range of interocular asymmetry (larger disc minus smaller disc) was determined by the 2.5th and 97.5th percentiles. A total of 1276 eligible participants had HRT scans of both eyes. HRT measurements in right eyes differed slightly in rim steepness and rim volume from those in left eyes (P measured by HRT 3. Interocular asymmetry greater than 0.2 for cup-to-disc area ratio was considered outside the normal range. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Diagnosis of glaucoma using telemedicine--the effect of compression on the evaluation of optic nerve head cup-disc ratio.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beauregard, D; Lewis, J; Piccolo, M; Bedell, H

    2000-01-01

    A photograph of the optic nerve head requires a lot of disk space (over 1 MByte) for storage and may require substantial bandwidth and time for transmission to a remote practitioner for a second opinion. To test whether compression degrades the image quality of the images, 302 slides were digitized at an optical resolution of 2400 pixels/inch (945 pixels/cm) and 30 bit/pixel. The images were saved both in non-compressed TIFF format and in compressed JPEG (compression ratio of 60) format. A blinded observer measured the optic nerve head cup-disc ratio for all three groups: the original slides, uncompressed TIFF and compressed JPEG images. The results showed that digital images were less accurate than slides. However, compression, even up to a ratio of 40, did not make matters worse.

  4. GlyCAM1 negatively regulates monocyte entry into the optic nerve head and contributes to radiation-based protection in glaucoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Pete A; Braine, Catherine E; Foxworth, Nicole E; Cochran, Kelly E; John, Simon W M

    2017-04-26

    We previously reported a profound long-term neuroprotection subsequent to a single radiation-therapy in the DBA/2J mouse model of glaucoma. This neuroprotection prevents entry of monocyte-like immune cells into the optic nerve head during glaucoma. Gene expression studies in radiation-treated mice implicated Glycam1 in this protection. Glycam1 encodes a proteoglycan ligand for L-selectin and is an excellent candidate to modulate immune cell entry into the eye. Here, we experimentally test the hypothesis that radiation-induced over-expression of Glycam1 is a key component of the neuroprotection. We generated a null allele of Glycam1 on a DBA/2J background. Gene and protein expression of Glycam1, monocyte entry into the optic nerve head, retinal ganglion cell death, and axon loss in the optic nerve were assessed. Radiation therapy potently inhibits monocyte entry into the optic nerve head and prevents retinal ganglion cell death and axon loss. DBA/2J mice carrying a null allele of Glycam1 show increased monocyte entry and increased retinal ganglion cell death and axon loss following radiation therapy, but the majority of optic nerves were still protected by radiation therapy. Although GlyCAM1 is an L-selectin ligand, its roles in immunity are not yet fully defined. The current study demonstrates a partial role for GlyCAM1 in radiation-mediated protection. Furthermore, our results clearly show that GlyCAM1 levels modulate immune cell entry from the vasculature into neural tissues. As Glycam1 deficiency has a more profound effect on cell entry than on neurodegeneration, further experiments are needed to precisely define the role of monocyte entry in DBA/2J glaucoma. Nevertheless, GlyCAM1's function as a negative regulator of extravasation may lead to novel therapeutic strategies for an array of common conditions involving inflammation.

  5. Topography Grid

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NGDC builds and distributes high-resolution, coastal digital elevation models (DEMs) that integrate ocean bathymetry and land topography to support NOAA's mission to...

  6. Retinal and choroidal oxygen saturation of the optic nerve head in open-angle glaucoma subjects by multispectral imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Gai-Yun; Al-Wesabi, Samer Abdo; Zhang, Hong

    2016-12-01

    The aim of this study was to determine whether differences exist in oxygen supply to the optic nerve head (ONH) from the retinal and choroidal vascular layers in patients with primary open angle glaucoma (POAG) using multispectral imaging (MSI).This ia an observational, cross-sectional study.Multispectral images were acquired from 38 eyes of 19 patients with POAG, and 42 healthy eyes from 21 matched volunteers with Annidis' RHA multispectral digital ophthalmoscopy. Superficial and deeper oxygen saturation of the optic disc was represented by the mean gray scale values on the retinal and choroidal oxy-deoxy maps, respectively. Statistical analysis was performed to detect differences in ONH oxygen saturation between the 2 groups. Oxygen saturation levels in the eyes of POAG patients with severe glaucoma were compared to those of fellow eyes from the same subjects. Linear correlation analysis was performed to assess the association between ONH oxygen saturation and systemic and ocular parameters.No statistical difference was found in retinal and choroidal oxygen saturation between the POAG and control groups. In the glaucoma patients, retinal oxygen saturation was lower for eyes with worse visual fields than in those with good visual fields (t = 4.009, P = 0.001). In POAG patients, retinal oxygen saturation was dependent on mean defect of visual field and retinal nerve fiber layer thickness (RNFLT) (r = 0.511, 0.504, P = 0.001, 0.001, respectively), whereas the choroid vasculature oxygen saturation was inversely related to RNFLT (r = -0.391, P = 0.015). An age-dependent increase in retinal oxygen saturation was found for both the POAG and control groups (r = 0.473, 0.410, P = 0.007, 0.003, respectively).MSI revealed a significant correlation between functional and structural impairments in glaucoma and retinal oxygen saturation. MSI could provide objective assessments of perfusion impairments of the glaucomatous ONH. This is a

  7. Spectral domain optical coherence tomography cross-sectional image of optic nerve head during intraocular pressure elevation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ji Young Lee

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To analyze changes of the optic nerve head (ONH and peripapillary region during intraocular pressure (IOP elevation in patients using spectral domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT.METHODS: Both an optic disc 200×200 cube scan and a high-definition 5-line raster scan were obtained from open angle glaucoma patients presented with monocular elevation of IOP (≥30 mm Hg using SD-OCT. Additional baseline characteristics included age, gender, diagnosis, best-corrected visual acuity, refractive error, findings of slit lamp biomicroscopy, findings of dilated stereoscopic examination of the ONH and fundus, IOP, pachymetry findings, and the results of visual field.RESULTS: The 24 patients were selected and divided into two groups:group 1 patients had no history of IOP elevation or glaucoma (n=14, and group 2 patients did have history of IOP elevation or glaucoma (n=10. In each patient, the study eye with elevated IOP was classified into group H (high, and the fellow eye was classified into group L (low. The mean deviation (MD differed significantly between groups H and L when all eyes were considered (P=0.047 and in group 2 (P=0.042, not in group 1 (P=0.893. Retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL average thickness (P=0.050, rim area (P=0.015, vertical cup/disc ratio (P=0.011, cup volume (P=0.028, inferior quadrant RNFL thickness (P=0.017, and clock-hour (1, 5, and 6 RNFL thicknesses (P=0.050, 0.012, and 0.018, respectively, cup depth (P=0.008, central prelaminar layer thickness (P=0.023, mid-inferior prelaminar layer thickness (P=0.023, and nasal retinal slope (P=0.034 were significantly different between the eyes with groups H and L.CONCLUSION:RNFL average thickness, rim area, vertical cup/disc ratio, cup volume, inferior quadrant RNFL thickness, and clock-hour (1, 5, and 6 RNFL thicknesses significantly changed during acute IOP elevation.

  8. Optical Coherence Tomography Analysis of the Optic Nerve Head and Surrounding Structures in Long-Duration International Space Station Astronauts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Nimesh; Pass, Anastas; Mason, Sara; Gibson, Charles R; Otto, Christian

    2018-02-01

    After long-duration spaceflight, morphological changes in the optic nerve head (ONH) and surrounding tissues have been reported. To develop methods to quantify ONH and surrounding tissue changes using preflight and postflight optical coherence tomographic scans of the ONH region. Two separate analyses were done on retrospective data, with the first comparing a preflight group with a control group, followed by preflight to postflight analysis. All astronaut data were collected on the same instrument and maintained by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Lifetime Surveillance of Astronaut Health. Control data were all collected at the University of Houston. Participants were 15 astronauts who had previously been on an approximately 6-month long-duration mission and had associated preflight and postflight ONH scans. The control group consisted of 43 individuals with no history of ocular pathology or microgravity exposure. Development of algorithms and data analysis were performed between 2012 and 2015. The optical coherence tomography data were analyzed using custom MATLAB programs (MathWorks) in which the Bruch membrane opening (BMO) was manually delineated and used as a reference for all morphological measures. The retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) position 2 mm from the center of the BMO was used to calculate the BMO height. Global and quadrant total retinal thickness and retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) thickness were calculated for elliptical annular regions referenced to the BMO. The standard circumpapillary circular scan was used to quantify RNFL and choroidal thickness. Among 15 astronauts (mean [SD] age at preflight evaluation, 48.7 [4.0] years) in this retrospective study, the BMO was recessed in preflight astronauts compared with healthy controls and deepened after long-duration microgravity exposure (median change, -9.9 μm; 95% CI of difference, -16.3 to 3.7 μm; P = .03). After long-duration missions, there was an increase in total

  9. Structural changes of the macula and optic nerve head in the remaining eyes after enucleation for retinoblastoma: an optical coherence tomography study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Said, Azza Mohamed Ahmed; Elbayomi, Ahmed Mohamed; Shaat, Ashraf Abdelsalam Kandeel

    2017-12-16

    To describe objectively the possible structural changes of the macula and optic nerve head in the free eyes of unilateral cured retinoblastoma patients and, also after enucleation using spectral domain optical coherence tomography. A cross sectional study involving 60 patients subdivided into three groups; 15 unilateral RB patients in whom enucleation was indicated as a sole treatment performed earlier in life [(study group (I)], 15 unilateral RB patients who had completely regressed disease with a preserved eye [(study group (II)] and 30 age and sex matched healthy controls. The remaining and free eyes in study groups and right eyes of control group had full ophthalmological examination, static automated perimetry and optical coherence tomography of the macula and optic nerve head. In study group (II); a significant thinning of total macula, central fovea, ganglion cell layer (GCL), ganglion cell complex (GCC), and some sectors of outer nuclear layer (P- values ≤0.05) was found with no significant difference in peripapillary nerve fiber layer (pRNFL) thickness and optic nerve head parameters compared to the control group and the study group (I). A significantly thickened total macula, GCL, GCC, and pRNFL in study group (I) compared to study group (II). Thickened pRNFL was significantly correlated to standard automated perimetry pattern deviations. No significant difference was found between study group (I) and control group. Retinoblastoma eyes characterized by thinning of central fovea, GCL, GCC compared to the control group. After unilateral enucleation, increased GCC and pRNFL thicknesses were detected compared to retinoblastoma group.

  10. Brain function measurement using optical topography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koizumi, Hideaki; Maki, Atsushi; Yamamoto, Tsuyoshi; Kawaguchi, Hideo

    2003-01-01

    Optical topography is a completely non-invasive method to image the high brain function with the near infrared spectroscopy, does not need the restriction of human behavior for imaging and thereby is applicable even for infants. The principle is based on irradiation of the near infrared laser beam with the optical-fiber onto the head surface and detection with the fiber of the reflection, of which spectroscopy for blood-borne hemoglobin gives the local cerebral homodynamics related with the nerve activity. The infrared laser beam of 1-10 mW is found safe on direct irradiation to the human body. The topography is applicable in the fields of clinical medicine like internal neurology (an actual image of the activated Broca's and Welnicke's areas at writing is presented), neurosurgery, psychiatry and pedriatric neurology, of developmental cognitive neuroscience, of educational science and of communication. ''MIT Technology Reviews'' mentions that this technique is one of 4 recent promising innovative techniques in the world. (N.I.)

  11. Scalp Nerve Block pada Kraniotomi Evakuasi Pasien Moderate Head Injury dengan Subdural Hemorrhage dan Intracerebral Hemorrhage Frontotemporoparietal Dekstra Mencegah Stress Response Selama dan Pascabedah

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariko Gunadi

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Skin incision and craniotomy are recognized as an acute noxious stimulation during intracranial surgery which may result in stress response causing an increase in intracranial pressure. Scalp nerve block may be effective in reducing stress response. It can also be used to provide post-operative analgesia. A twenty two years old male with moderate head injury, subdural hemorrhage, intracerebral hemorrhage at right fronto-temporo-parietal region underwent evacuation craniotomy with combined scalp nerve block and general anesthesia at Dr. Hasan General Sadikin Hospital Bandung on August 14th 2012. After induction and before incision of the skin, a scalp nerve block was performed using 0.5% bupivacaine. Hemodynamic (blood pressure and heart rate changes after incision of the skin and craniotomy were not significant, and so was post-operative blood glucose concentration. Post-operative analgetic was given eight hours after the block. The result demonstrates that scalp nerve block using 0.5% bupivacaine successfully blunts stress response and can be used as post-operative analgesia.

  12. Primary study on median nerve stimulation therapy in improving the level of consciousness of patients in coma caused by head traumas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu Ping; Wang Zhong; Cui Gang; Wu Yiwei; Zhang Bin; He Huai

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the therapeutic effect of median nerve stimulation in improving the level of consciousness of patients in coma caused by severe head traumas and the possible mechanism of its hastening awakening from coma. Methods: 30 unconscious patients with severe brain traumas were randomly assigned to the treated group (n=15) and the control group (n=15). The patients in the control group were treated routinely. Besides routine therapy the patients in the treated group were treated with median nerve electrical stimulation. As the treated group were treated with initial stimulation, SPECT brain perfusion imaging was performed before and after 30 minutes' median nerve electrical stimulation under the same condition. The changes of the regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) of lesion spot of brain were compared and analysed with visual method and semi-quantitative method in BFCK% mathematical model. A week after stimulation authors assess the therapeutic effect in the two groups with GCS scores. Results: The patients in the treated group's rCBF of the lesion spot increased significantly after stimulation. A week later the patients in the treated group had improved by average of 4.8 on the GCS in contrast to 2.0 on the GCS in the control group which showed that the GCS scores of the two groups had significant difference (P<0.05). Conclusion: The median nerve electrical stimulation can improve the level of consciousness of patients in coma caused by severe head traumas. The increase of rCBF of lesion spot of brain can be one of mechanisms of its hastening awakening from coma

  13. Movement of retinal vessels toward the optic nerve head after increasing intraocular pressure in monkey eyes with experimental glaucoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuroda, Atsumi; Enomoto, Nobuko; Ishida, Kyoko; Shimazawa, Masamitsu; Noguchi, Tetsuro; Horai, Naoto; Onoe, Hirotaka; Hara, Hideaki; Tomita, Goji

    2017-09-01

    A shift or displacement of the retinal blood vessels (RBVs) with neuroretinal rim thinning indicates the progression of glaucomatous optic neuropathy. In chronic open angle glaucoma, individuals with RBV positional shifts exhibit more rapid visual field loss than those without RBV shifts. The retinal vessels reportedly move onto the optic nerve head (ONH) in response to glaucoma damage, suggesting that RBVs are pulled toward the ONH in response to increased cupping. Whether this phenomenon only applies to RVBs located in the vicinity or inside the ONH or, more generally, to RBVs also located far from the ONH, however, is unclear. The aim of this study was to evaluate the movement of RBVs located relatively far from the ONH edge after increasing intraocular pressure (IOP) in an experimental monkey model of glaucoma. Fundus photographs were obtained in 17 monkeys. High IOP was induced in the monkeys by laser photocoagulation burns applied uniformly with 360° irradiation around the trabecular meshwork of the left eye. The right eye was left intact and used as a non-treated control. Considering the circadian rhythm of IOP, it was measured in both eyes of each animal at around the same time-points. Then, fundus photographs were obtained. Using Image J image analysis software, an examiner (N.E.) measured the fundus photographs at two time-points, i.e. before laser treatment (time 1) and the last fundus photography after IOP elevation (time 2). The following parameters were measured (in pixels): 1) vertical diameter of the ONH (DD), 2) distance from the ONH edge to the first bifurcation point of the superior branch of the central retinal vein (UV), 3) distance from the ONH edge to the first bifurcation point of the inferior branch of the central retinal vein (LV), 4) ONH area, and 5) surface area of the cup of the ONH. We calculated the ratios of UV to DD (UV/DD), LV to DD (LV/DD), and the cup area to disc area ratio (C/D). The mean UV/DD at time 1 (0.656 ± 0.233) was

  14. Investigations into Hypoxia and Oxidative Stress at the Optic Nerve Head in a Rat Model of Glaucoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Glyn Chidlow

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The vascular hypothesis of glaucoma proposes that retinal ganglion cell axons traversing the optic nerve head (ONH undergo oxygen and nutrient insufficiency as a result of compromised local blood flow, ultimately leading to their degeneration. To date, evidence for the hypothesis is largely circumstantial. Herein, we made use of an induced rat model of glaucoma that features reproducible and widespread axonal transport disruption at the ONH following chronic elevation of intraocular pressure. If vascular insufficiency plays a role in the observed axonal transport failure, there should exist a physical signature at this time point. Using a range of immunohistochemical and molecular tools, we looked for cellular events indicative of vascular insufficiency, including the presence of hypoxia, upregulation of hypoxia-inducible, or antioxidant-response genes, alterations to antioxidant enzymes, increased formation of superoxide, and the presence of oxidative stress. Our data show that ocular hypertension caused selective hypoxia within the laminar ONH in 11/13 eyes graded as either medium or high for axonal transport disruption. Hypoxia was always present in areas featuring injured axons, and, the greater the abundance of axonal transport disruption, the greater the likelihood of a larger hypoxic region. Nevertheless, hypoxic regions were typically focal and were not necessarily evident in sections taken deeper within the same ONH, while disrupted axonal transport was frequently encountered without any discernible hypoxia. Ocular hypertension caused upregulation of heme oxygenase-1—an hypoxia-inducible and redox-sensitive enzyme—in ONH astrocytes. The distribution and abundance of heme oxygenase-1 closely matched that of axonal transport disruption, and encompassed hypoxic regions and their immediate penumbra. Ocular hypertension also caused upregulations in the iron-regulating protein ceruloplasmin, the anaerobic glycolytic enzyme lactate

  15. TOPOGRAFÍA INTRANEURAL DE LA RAMA PROFUNDA DEL NERVIO ULNAR EN EL ANTEBRAZO DISTAL: ESTUDIO CADAVÉRICO. Intraneural topography of the deep branch of the ulnar nerve in the distal forearm: cadaveric study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joaquín García Pisón

    2016-07-01

    the deep branch of the ulnar nerve was performed under magnification (Olympus OME, 4-20x and its intraneural position was registered using a quadrants scheme. Distance from pisiform to the origin of the dorsal cutaneous branch of the ulnar nerve (DCB was measured and its intraneural position relative to DBUN was identified. Results: The DBUN could be identified up to 69mm (41-94 proximal to the pisiform and occupied the posteromedial quadrant of the ulnar nerve in 78% (67-87, 93% (92-93 and 100% of the cases in the 0-2, 3-6 and 7-9cm ranges, respectively. Distance from pisiform to the origin of the DCB was 63mm (52-83. The DBUN could be identified proximal to the origin of the DCB in 11 forearms, being located between the latter and the superficial branch of the ulnar nerve in all this cases.  Conclusions: Intraneural topography of the DBUN in the most appropriate site for its identification during its anastomosis to the PQN is predictable in the majority of cases, which supports the viability of safe identification of the de DBUN by means of minimal intraneural dissection.

  16. STATIC CORRECTION OF THE FACE DUE TO FACIAL NERVE DAMAGE IN TREATMENT OF HEAD AND NECK TUMORS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. P. Polyakov

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Facial nerve paralysis disconnects person»s emotions and expression, causes lagophthalmos, disorders of taste, touch, salivation, and lymph efflux in the damaged area. Among causes of consistent facial nerve conduction defects, the most common is iatrogenic injury during extensive surgical interventions for removal of tumors of the parotid gland. Various surgery interventions are used for correction of such disorders. The article objective is to present results of performed static plastic surgeries using polypropylene thread in patients with facial nerve damage caused by radical parotidectomy.Materials and methods. From 2014 to 2016 in the Department of Microsurgery of the P.A. Hertzen Moscow Oncology Research Institute – branch of the National Medical Research Radiological Center, 14 patients underwent static correction using polypropylene thread to treat iatrogenic injury of the facial nerve after radical surgery for malignant and benign tumors.Results. In all patients, optimal results of repair of the esthetic component of the facial nerve were achieved. Postoperative period didn»t exceed 3 days. Effect duration is longer than 3 years.Conclusions. Use of polypropylene thread in static plastic surgery allows to perform cosmetic facial correction, eliminate gravitational ptosis and lymphostasis in patients with consistent syndrome of complete damage of facial nerve conductance.

  17. Acupuncture therapy to the head and face to treat post-trauma paralysis of peripheral fascial nerve dextra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mihardja, H.; Meuratana, PA; Ibrahim, A.

    2017-08-01

    Damage to the facial nerve due to trauma from traffic accidents is the second most common cause of paralysis of the facial nerve. The treatments include both pharmacological and non-pharmacological therapy. Acupuncture is a method of treatment that applies evidence-based medical principles and uses anatomy, physiology, and pathology to place needles atcertain acupuncture points. This paper describes a 26-year-old female patient with right-side facial palsy following a traffic accident who had animproved Brackmann’s score after 12 sessions of acupuncture treatment. The acupuncture points were chosen based on Liu Yan’sbrain-clearing needling technique. Acupuncture can shorten healing time and improve the effect of treatment for facial-nerve paralysis.

  18. Size of the Optic Nerve Head and Its Relationship with the Thickness of the Macular Ganglion Cell Complex and Peripapillary Retinal Nerve Fiber Layer in Patients with Primary Open Angle Glaucoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nobuko Enomoto

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To evaluate the relationships among the optic nerve head (ONH area, macular ganglion cell complex (mGCC thickness, circumpapillary retinal nerve fiber layer (cpRNFL thickness, and visual field defects in patients with primary open angle glaucoma (POAG. Methods. This retrospective study included 90 eyes of 90 patients with POAG. The ONH area, rim area, mGCC thickness, and cpRNFL thickness were measured using optical coherence tomography. Mean deviation (MD was measured using standard automated perimetry. The relationships among clinical factors including age, refraction, the ONH area, the rim area, the mGCC thickness, the cpRNFL thickness, and MD were evaluated using correlation coefficients and multiple regression analyses. Results. The significant correlation of the ONH area with refraction (r=0.362, P<0.001, the mGCC thickness (r=0.225, P=0.033, and the cpRNFL thickness (r=0.253, P=0.016 was found. Multiple regression analysis showed that the ONH area, rim area, and MD were selected as significant contributing factors to explain the mGCC thickness and cpRNFL thickness. No factor was selected to explain MD. Conclusions. The ONH area, in other words, the disc size itself may affect the mGCC thickness and cpRNFL thickness in POAG patients.

  19. Common peroneal nerve entrapment with the communication ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sciatic nerve divides into tibial nerve and common peroneal nerve at the level of superior angle of popliteal fossa and variations in its branching pattern are common. The most common nerve entrapment syndrome in the lower limbs is common peroneal nerve entrapment at fibular head. Invariably it can also be trapped in ...

  20. Optic nerve oxygen tension

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    la Cour, M; Kiilgaard, Jens Folke; Eysteinsson, T

    2000-01-01

    To investigate the influence of acute changes in intraocular pressure on the oxygen tension in the vicinity of the optic nerve head under control conditions and after intravenous administration of 500 mg of the carbonic anhydrase inhibitor dorzolamide....

  1. Radial to axillary nerve transfer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanaclocha, Vicente; Herrera, Juan Manuel; Rivera-Paz, Marlon; Martínez-Gómez, Deborah; Vanaclocha, Leyre

    2018-01-01

    Axillary nerve injury is common after brachial plexus injuries, particularly with shoulder luxation. Nerve grafting is the traditional procedure for postganglionic injuries. Nerve transfer is emerging as a viable option particularly in late referrals. At the proximal arm the radial and axillary nerves lie close by. Sacrificing one of the triceps muscle nerve branches induces little negative consequences. Transferring the long head of the triceps nerve branch is a good option to recover axillary nerve function. The surgical technique is presented in a video, stressing the steps to achieve a successful result. The video can be found here: https://youtu.be/WbVbpMuPxIE .

  2. Optic nerve oxygen tension

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    la Cour, M; Kiilgaard, Jens Folke; Eysteinsson, T

    2000-01-01

    To investigate the influence of acute changes in intraocular pressure on the oxygen tension in the vicinity of the optic nerve head under control conditions and after intravenous administration of 500 mg of the carbonic anhydrase inhibitor dorzolamide.......To investigate the influence of acute changes in intraocular pressure on the oxygen tension in the vicinity of the optic nerve head under control conditions and after intravenous administration of 500 mg of the carbonic anhydrase inhibitor dorzolamide....

  3. Flow Around Steep Topography

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-30

    Flow around steep topography T. M. Shaun Johnston Scripps Institution of Oceanography University of California, San Diego 9500 Gilman Drive, M...tall, steep, submarine topography and islands. During the Flow Encountering Abrupt Topography (FLEAT) DRI, investigators will determine: • Whether...estimates from making accurate statistical/deterministic predictions at ᝺ km resolution around submarine topography and islands? How can we

  4. Anatomy of the trigeminal nerve

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Eijden, T.M.G.J.; Langenbach, G.E.J.; Baart, J.A.; Brand, H.S.

    2017-01-01

    The trigeminal nerve is the fifth cranial nerve (n. V), which plays an important role in the innervation of the head and neck area, together with other cranial and spinal nerves. Knowledge of the nerve’s anatomy is very important for the correct application of local anaesthetics.

  5. Pulse-Wave Analysis of Optic Nerve Head Circulation Is Significantly Correlated with Kidney Function in Patients with and without Chronic Kidney Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomoaki Shiba

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To determine whether there is a significant correlation between the optic nerve head (ONH circulation determined by laser speckle flowgraphy (LSFG and kidney function. Materials. Seventy-one subjects were investigated. The estimated glomerular filtration rate (GFR and serum creatinine, cystatin C, and urinary albumin excretion were measured. The ONH circulation was determined by an analysis of the pulse wave of LSFG, and this parameter was named blowout time (BOT. Chronic kidney disease (CKD was defined to be present when the estimated GFR was <60 mL/min per 1.73 m2. Pearson’s correlation coefficients were used to determine the relationship between the BOT and the kidney function. We also examined whether there were significant differences in all parameters in patients with and without CKD. Results. BOT was significantly correlated with the level of creatinine (r=-0.24, P=0.04, the estimated GFR (r=0.42, P=0.0003, cystatin C (r=-0.29, P=0.01, and urinary albumin excretion (r=-0.29, P=0.01. The BOT level in subjects with CKD was significantly lower than that in subjects without CKD (P=0.002. Conclusion. BOT in ONH by LSFG can detect the organ damage such as kidney dysfunction, CKD.

  6. Sensitivity and specificity of monochromatic photography of the ocular fundus in differentiating optic nerve head drusen and optic disc oedema: optic disc drusen and oedema.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gili, Pablo; Flores-Rodríguez, Patricia; Yangüela, Julio; Orduña-Azcona, Javier; Martín-Ríos, María Dolores

    2013-03-01

    Evaluation of the efficacy of monochromatic photography of the ocular fundus in differentiating optic nerve head drusen (ONHD) and optic disc oedema (ODE). Sixty-six patients with ONHD, 31 patients with ODE and 70 healthy subjects were studied. Colour and monochromatic fundus photography with different filters (green, red and autofluorescence) were performed. The results were analysed blindly by two observers. The sensitivity, specificity and interobserver agreement (k) of each test were assessed. Colour photography offers 65.5 % sensitivity and 100 % specificity for the diagnosis of ONHD. Monochromatic photography improves sensitivity and specificity and provides similar results: green filter (71.20 % sensitivity, 96.70 % specificity), red filter (80.30 % sensitivity, 96.80 % specificity), and autofluorescence technique (87.8 % sensitivity, 100 % specificity). The interobserver agreement was good with all techniques used: autofluorescence (k = 0.957), green filter (k = 0.897), red filter (k = 0.818) and colour (k = 0.809). Monochromatic fundus photography permits ONHD and ODE to be differentiated, with good sensitivity and very high specificity. The best results were obtained with autofluorescence and red filter study.

  7. The use of Bruch's membrane opening-based optical coherence tomography of the optic nerve head for glaucoma detection in microdiscs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enders, Philip; Schaub, Friederike; Adler, Werner; Nikoluk, Roman; Hermann, Manuel M; Heindl, Ludwig M

    2017-04-01

    To assess the performance of Bruch's membrane opening (BMO)-based spectral domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) of the optic nerve head for glaucoma detection in microdiscs in comparison with confocal scanning laser tomography (CSLT). Retrospective cohort study. 82 eyes of 82 patients with disc size receiver operating characteristic analysis, sensitivity of BMO-MRW was 68.6% at 95% specificity (area under curve (AUC)=0.87), similar to sensitivity of RNFLT (66.4%; AUC=0.81). Performance of CSLT rim area was significantly worse (AUC=0.70, p=0.008). In healthy controls, mean BMO-MRW was 344.3±64.1 µm, mean RNFLT 78.0±11.3 µm and CSLT mean rim area 1.07±0.18 mm 2 . In small optic discs, BMO-MRW and peripapillary RNFLT (OCT) have similar sensitivity to discriminate patients with glaucoma from normal controls; both exceed CSLT rim area in diagnostic power. In glaucomatous patients, BMO-MRW correlates strongest with visual field function. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  8. Analysis of the variation in OCT measurements of a structural bottle neck for eye-brain transfer of visual information from 3D-volumes of the optic nerve head, PIMD-Average [02π

    Science.gov (United States)

    Söderberg, Per G.; Malmberg, Filip; Sandberg-Melin, Camilla

    2016-03-01

    The present study aimed to analyze the clinical usefulness of the thinnest cross section of the nerve fibers in the optic nerve head averaged over the circumference of the optic nerve head. 3D volumes of the optic nerve head of the same eye was captured at two different visits spaced in time by 1-4 weeks, in 13 subjects diagnosed with early to moderate glaucoma. At each visit 3 volumes containing the optic nerve head were captured independently with a Topcon OCT- 2000 system. In each volume, the average shortest distance between the inner surface of the retina and the central limit of the pigment epithelium around the optic nerve head circumference, PIMD-Average [02π], was determined semiautomatically. The measurements were analyzed with an analysis of variance for estimation of the variance components for subjects, visits, volumes and semi-automatic measurements of PIMD-Average [0;2π]. It was found that the variance for subjects was on the order of five times the variance for visits, and the variance for visits was on the order of 5 times higher than the variance for volumes. The variance for semi-automatic measurements of PIMD-Average [02π] was 3 orders of magnitude lower than the variance for volumes. A 95 % confidence interval for mean PIMD-Average [02π] was estimated to 1.00 +/-0.13 mm (D.f. = 12). The variance estimates indicate that PIMD-Average [02π] is not suitable for comparison between a onetime estimate in a subject and a population reference interval. Cross-sectional independent group comparisons of PIMD-Average [02π] averaged over subjects will require inconveniently large sample sizes. However, cross-sectional independent group comparison of averages of within subject difference between baseline and follow-up can be made with reasonable sample sizes. Assuming a loss rate of 0.1 PIMD-Average [02π] per year and 4 visits per year it was found that approximately 18 months follow up is required before a significant change of PIMDAverage [02π] can

  9. Mixing Over Rough Topography

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-10-25

    1 DISTRIBUTION STATEMENT A. Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. Mixing Over Rough Topography Michael C. Gregg APL/UW...OBJECTIVES To understand mixing over rough topography. APPROACH To supplement NRL’s Mixing Over Rough Topography (MORT) measurements over ...to 1) Assess hydraulic control along lines crossing the bank, and 2) Measure turbulent dissipation rates over the bank. WORK COMPLETED The

  10. Assessment of Glaucomatous Damage After Boston Keratoprosthesis Implantation Based on Digital Planimetric Quantification of Visual Fields and Optic Nerve Head Imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Mohsin H; Dikopf, Mark S; Finder, Anthony G; Aref, Ahmad A; Vajaranant, Thasarat; de la Cruz, Jose; Cortina, Maria Soledad

    2018-05-01

    To investigate glaucomatous damage in Boston keratoprosthesis type I (KPro) patients through structural analysis of the optic nerve head and digital planimetric quantification of Goldmann visual fields, a novel method of monitoring perimetric changes in KPro patients. Records of patients undergoing KPro implantation from 2007 to 2015 at a single institution were reviewed. Parameters related to glaucoma status and KPro outcomes were analyzed. Twenty-two eyes from 21 patients met inclusion criteria, with mean follow-up of 49.4 months (range 15-90). Mean results for the following parameters before KPro implantation and at last follow-up were (pre-KPro; at last follow-up): best-corrected visual acuity (2.07; 0.70 logMAR), number of glaucoma medications (1.14; 1.05), intraocular pressure (IOP) (18.4; 18.4 mm Hg), vertical cup-to-disc ratio (C/D) (0.48; 0.50), and horizontal C/D (0.52; 0.52). IOP-lowering procedures were performed pre-KPro (5/22), concurrently with KPro (10/22), post-KPro (6/22), or never (6/22). An increase in C/D ≥0.1 and loss of V4e isopter area >30% occurred in 22.7% and 12.5%, respectively. Development of post-KPro glaucoma, progression of preexisting or post-KPro glaucoma, and no glaucoma development as evidenced by an objective assessment of structural and functional parameters were seen in 2/22 (9.1%), 7/22 (31.8%), and 6/22 (27.3%) eyes, respectively. Clinicians should strive to vigilantly monitor for glaucoma despite the inherent difficulties in tonometry, optic nerve visualization and imaging, and visual field testing in KPro patients. Meticulous glaucoma surveillance with structural and functional testing combined with earlier IOP-lowering surgical intervention may result in decreased rates of glaucomatous vision loss in KPro patients.

  11. Spatial clustering analysis in neuroanatomy: Applications of different approaches to motor nerve fiber distribution

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Crunelli, V.; Prodanov, D.P.; Nagelkerke, Nico; Marani, Enrico

    2007-01-01

    Spatial organization of the nerve fibers in the peripheral nerves may be important for the studies of axonal regeneration, the degenerative nerve diseases and the construction of interfaces with peripheral nerves, such as nerve prostheses. Functional topography of motor axons related to the

  12. Optic Nerve Head Biomechanic and IOP Changes Before and After the Injection of Aflibercept for Neovascular Age-Related Macular Degeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rebolleda, Gema; Puerto, Beatriz; de Juan, Victoria; Gómez-Mariscal, Marta; Muñoz-Negrete, Francisco José; Casado, Alfonso

    2016-10-01

    We investigated the early effects of intravitreal aflibercept injection (IAI) on optic nerve head (ONH) morphology. All of the participants underwent applanation tonometry and enhanced depth imaging by spectral-domain optical coherence tomography immediately before injection, and within 5 and 30 minutes after IAI. Changes in the anterior lamina cribrosa surface depth, prelaminar tissue thickness (PTT), optic cup width, optic cup depth, and Bruch's membrane opening (BMO) were assessed. The study included 30 eyes of 30 subjects with a mean age of 77.4 ± 6.8 years (range, 65-89 years) following IAI (2 mg in 0.05 ml). Within 5 minutes after injection, the mean cup depth, mean cup width, and BMO were significantly increased (P = 0.013, P = 0.000, and P = 0.004, respectively), whereas the mean PTT was thinned (P = 0.009). These morphologic changes returned to near baseline values 30 minutes after injection. Cup widening and BMO expansion (P = 0.000; r, 0.668), as well as cup deepening and prelaminar thinning (P = 0.000; r, -0.838), were significantly correlated. The magnitude of cup deepening and prelaminar tissue thinning correlated with the IOP change in the opposite direction than expected (P = 0.039; r, -0.379 and P = 0.377; r, 0.040). A significant widening and deepening of the optic cup, BMO expansion, and prelaminar tissue thinning occurred following IAI for neovascular AMD. Eyes having greater optic disc cup deepening and prelaminar tissue condensation after IAI, associated with a lower IOP increase after injection, suggesting that ONH compliance might buffer the effect of additional intravitreal fluid injection on IOP values.

  13. Genetic analysis of optic nerve head coloboma in the Nova Scotia Duck Tolling Retriever identifies discordance with the NHEJ1 intronic deletion (collie eye anomaly mutation).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Emily A; Thomasy, Sara M; Murphy, Christopher J; Bannasch, Danika L

    2018-03-01

    Collie eye anomaly (CEA) encompasses a spectrum of different ophthalmic phenotypes from clinically inconsequential choroidal hypoplasia to blindness from coloboma of the optic nerve head (ONH). A previous study found a 7.8-kb deletion in intron 4 of the NHEJ1 gene to be associated with CEA. A genetic test based on this association is recommended for many breeds, including the Nova Scotia Duck Tolling Retriever (NSDTR). Collection of ONH coloboma-affected NSDTR showed lack of concordance of the NHEJ1 intronic deletion with ONH coloboma. Using genomewide single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) genotyping in 7 ONH coloboma-affected NSDTR cases and 47 unaffected NSDTR controls with no ophthalmic signs, one SNP, located on chromosome 7, demonstrated genomewide significance. However, high genomic inflation may have confounded the results. Therefore, the genomewide association study was repeated using EMMAX to control for population structure in the cohort of 7 cases and 47 controls. However, no regions of the genome were significantly associated with ONH coloboma. These results failed to document significant association with the CEA locus. Due to the complex genetic etiology of ONH coloboma, the NHEJ1 intronic deletion test results should be carefully considered when making breeding decisions. If the goal is to select for visually competent dogs, our data suggest that eye examinations of puppies would be more effective as a guide in selection of breeding pairs than relying solely on currently available genetic tests. © 2017 The Authors. Veterinary Ophthalmology published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of American College of Veterinary Ophthalmologists.

  14. Analysis of Vision Loss Caused by Radiation-Induced Optic Neuropathy After Particle Therapy for Head-and-Neck and Skull-Base Tumors Adjacent to Optic Nerves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Demizu, Yusuke; Murakami, Masao; Miyawaki, Daisuke; Niwa, Yasue; Akagi, Takashi; Sasaki, Ryohei; Terashima, Kazuki; Suga, Daisaku; Kamae, Isao; Hishikawa, Yoshio

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: To assess the incident rates of vision loss (VL; based on counting fingers or more severe) caused by radiation-induced optic neuropathy (RION) after particle therapy for tumors adjacent to optic nerves (ONs), and to evaluate factors that may contribute to VL. Methods and Materials: From August 2001 to August 2006, 104 patients with head-and-neck or skull-base tumors adjacent to ONs were treated with carbon ion or proton radiotherapy. Among them, 145 ONs of 75 patients were irradiated and followed for greater than 12 months. The incident rate of VL and the prognostic factors for occurrence of VL were evaluated. The late effects of carbon ion and proton beams were compared on the basis of a biologically effective dose at α/β = 3 gray equivalent (GyE 3 ). Results: Eight patients (11%) experienced VL resulting from RION. The onset of VL ranged from 17 to 58 months. The median follow-up was 25 months. No significant difference was observed between the carbon ion and proton beam treatment groups. On univariate analysis, age (>60 years), diabetes mellitus, and maximum dose to the ON (>110 GyE 3 ) were significant, whereas on multivariate analysis only diabetes mellitus was found to be significant for VL. Conclusions: The time to the onset of VL was highly variable. There was no statistically significant difference between carbon ion and proton beam treatments over the follow-up period. Based on multivariate analysis, diabetes mellitus correlated with the occurrence of VL. A larger study with longer follow-up is warranted.

  15. 3D Histomorphometry of the Normal and Early Glaucomatous Monkey Optic Nerve Head: Lamina Cribrosa and Peripapillary Scleral Position and Thickness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Hongli; Downs, J. Crawford; Girkin, Christopher; Sakata, Lisandro; Bellezza, Anthony; Thompson, Hilary; Burgoyne, Claude F.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose To three-dimensionally delineate the anterior and posterior surface of the lamina cribrosa, scleral flange and peripapillary sclera so as to determine the position and thickness of these structures within digital three-dimensional (3D) reconstructions of the monkey optic nerve head (ONH). Methods The trephinated ONH and peripapillary sclera from both eyes of three early glaucoma (EG) monkeys (one eye Normal, one eye given laser-induced EG) were serial-sectioned at 3-μm thickness, with the embedded tissue block face stained and imaged after each cut. Images were aligned and stacked to create 3D reconstructions, within which Bruch's membrane opening (BMO) and the anterior and posterior surfaces of the lamina cribrosa and peripapillary sclera were delineated in 40 serial, radial (4.5° interval), digital, sagittal sections. For each eye, a BMO zero reference plane was fit to the 80 BMO points, which served as the reference from which all position measurements were made. Regional laminar, scleral flange, and peripapillary scleral position and thickness were compared between the Normal and EG eyes of each monkey and between treatment groups by analysis of variance. Results Laminar thickness varies substantially within the Normal eyes and is profoundly thicker within the three EG eyes. Laminar position is permanently posteriorly deformed in all three EG eyes, with substantial differences in the magnitude and extent of deformation among them. Scleral flange and peripapillary scleral thickness vary regionally within each Normal ONH with the scleral flange and peripapillary sclera thinnest nasally. Overall, the scleral flange and peripapillary sclera immediately surrounding the ONH are posteriorly displaced relative to the more peripheral sclera. Conclusion Profound fixed posterior deformation and thickening of the lamina is accompanied by mild posterior deformation and thinning of the scleral flange and peripapillary sclera at the onset of confocal scanning laser

  16. Positional Change of Optic Nerve Head Vasculature during Axial Elongation as Evidence of Lamina Cribrosa Shifting: Boramae Myopia Cohort Study Report 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kyoung Min; Choung, Ho-Kyung; Kim, Martha; Oh, Sohee; Kim, Seok Hwan

    2018-03-12

    To investigate the positional change of central retinal vasculature and vascular trunk to deduce the change in the lamina cribrosa (LC) during axial elongation. Prospective cohort study. Twenty-three healthy myopic children (46 eyes). Participants had undergone a full ophthalmologic examination and axial length measurement every 6 months for 2 years. Using spectral-domain OCT, circle scans centered around the optic disc in the glaucoma progression analysis mode, which enabled capturing of the same positions throughout the entire study period, and enhanced depth imaging of the deep optic nerve head complex were performed. Infrared imaging of the circle scans was used to measure the changes in the angles between the first and final visits. The angle between the major superior and inferior retinal arteries was measured along the circle scan twice: from the center of the circle scan and from the central retinal vascular trunk, respectively. The positional change of the retinal vascular trunk also was measured. Change in vascular angle and position of vascular trunk with axial elongation and associated factors. The vascular angle measured from the center of the circle scan did not change (P = 0.247), whereas the angle measured from the central retinal arterial trunk decreased with axial elongation (P dragging (P dragging was associated with axial elongation (P dragging could not be explained fully by their combination. The major directionality of dragging was mostly to the nasal side of the optic disc, with large variations among participants. During axial elongation, the retinal vasculature at the posterior pole was unchanged, whereas the position of the central vascular trunk was dragged nasally. Because the central retinal vascular trunk is embedded in the LC, its dragging indicates nasal shifting of the LC, which could explain the vulnerability of myopic eyes to glaucomatous optic neuropathy. Copyright © 2018 American Academy of Ophthalmology. Published by

  17. A Randomized Treatment Study to Compare the Efficacy of Repeated Nerve Blocks with Cognitive Therapy for Control of Chronic Head and Neck Pain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George Gale

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available This prospective study compared the efficacy of two antinociceptive modalities: nerve blocks and cognitive therapy. A consecutive series of patients receiving nerve block therapy was invited to take part in a six-week randomized comparison of nerve blocks and cognitive therapy. Sixty-eight of 102 patients approached by telephone agreed to participate. Patients attended eight weekly treatment sessions. Baseline and seven weekly sets of values were recorded. The principal measure of outcome was the Pain on a Visual Analogue Scale (VAS. The secondary measures were the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale, and the Activities of Daily Living as measured on the Primary Care Cooperative Information Project/World Organization of National Colleges, Academies (COOP-WONCA scale. Within the first week, one patient of 34 in the nerve block group withdrew and 12 of 34 in the cognitive therapy group withdrew from the study. After seven weeks, 33 patients in the nerve block group remained in the trial, but only 21 patients completed the questionnaires. Four of 22 patients in the cognitive therapy group completed the trial and their questionnaires. Mean VAS scores in the nerve block group dropped slightly during treatment. Mean VAS scores in the cognitive therapy group rose during the trial. However, the mean VAS score of the remaining four in the last week was below the initial group mean. Patients who had been receiving nerve blocks proved willing to remain in the study if allocated to the nerve block group and unwilling to remain in the cognitive therapy group while foregoing their accustomed treatment.

  18. Dynamic Topography Revisited

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moresi, Louis

    2015-04-01

    Dynamic Topography Revisited Dynamic topography is usually considered to be one of the trinity of contributing causes to the Earth's non-hydrostatic topography along with the long-term elastic strength of the lithosphere and isostatic responses to density anomalies within the lithosphere. Dynamic topography, thought of this way, is what is left over when other sources of support have been eliminated. An alternate and explicit definition of dynamic topography is that deflection of the surface which is attributable to creeping viscous flow. The problem with the first definition of dynamic topography is 1) that the lithosphere is almost certainly a visco-elastic / brittle layer with no absolute boundary between flowing and static regions, and 2) the lithosphere is, a thermal / compositional boundary layer in which some buoyancy is attributable to immutable, intrinsic density variations and some is due to thermal anomalies which are coupled to the flow. In each case, it is difficult to draw a sharp line between each contribution to the overall topography. The second definition of dynamic topography does seem cleaner / more precise but it suffers from the problem that it is not measurable in practice. On the other hand, this approach has resulted in a rich literature concerning the analysis of large scale geoid and topography and the relation to buoyancy and mechanical properties of the Earth [e.g. refs 1,2,3] In convection models with viscous, elastic, brittle rheology and compositional buoyancy, however, it is possible to examine how the surface topography (and geoid) are supported and how different ways of interpreting the "observable" fields introduce different biases. This is what we will do. References (a.k.a. homework) [1] Hager, B. H., R. W. Clayton, M. A. Richards, R. P. Comer, and A. M. Dziewonski (1985), Lower mantle heterogeneity, dynamic topography and the geoid, Nature, 313(6003), 541-545, doi:10.1038/313541a0. [2] Parsons, B., and S. Daly (1983), The

  19. Moire topography in odontology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno Yeras, A.

    2001-08-01

    For several decades measurement optical techniques have been used in different branches of Science and Technology and in medicine. One of these techniques is the so-called Moire topography that allows the accurate measurement of different parts of the human body topography. This investigation presents the measurement of topographies of teeth and gums using an automated system of shadow moire, with which precision can be reached up to the order of the microns by the phase shift instrumentation in an original way. Advantages and disadvantages of using the Moire topography and its comparison with other techniques used in the optical metrology are presented. Also, some positive and negative aspects of the implementation of this technique are shown in dentistry.

  20. Topography of The Posterior Communicating Artery in a Kenyan ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    *Note: B= Basillar artery ICA= Internal Carotid Artery. PCA= Posterior Cerebral artery. CN III= 3rd cranial nerve. A - Hypoplastic configuration. C- Transitional configuration. B- Co-existence of Adult [(PComA (A)] and fetal [PComA (F)] configuration. Topography of The Posterior Communicating Artery in a Kenyan Population.

  1. Nerve conduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the central nervous system (CNS) and peripheral nervous system (PNS). The CNS contains the brain and the spinal cord and the PNS consists of thousands of nerves that connect the spinal cord to muscles and sensory receptors. A peripheral nerve is composed of nerve ...

  2. Universal multifractal Martian topography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landais, F.; Schmidt, F.; Lovejoy, S.

    2015-11-01

    In the present study, we investigate the scaling properties of the topography of Mars. Planetary topographic fields are well known to roughly exhibit (mono)fractal behavior. Indeed, the fractal formalism reproduces much of the variability observed in topography. Still, a single fractal dimension is not enough to explain the huge variability and intermittency. Previous studies have claimed that fractal dimensions might be different from one region to another, excluding a general description at the planetary scale. In this article, we analyze the Martian topographic data with a multifractal formalism to study the scaling intermittency. In the multifractal paradigm, the apparent local variation of the fractal dimension is interpreted as a statistical property of multifractal fields. We analyze the topography measured with the Mars Orbiter Laser altimeter (MOLA) at 300 m horizontal resolution, 1 m vertical resolution. We adapted the Haar fluctuation method to the irregularly sampled signal. The results suggest a multifractal behavior from the planetary scale down to 10 km. From 10 to 300 m, the topography seems to be simple monofractal. This transition indicates a significant change in the geological processes governing the Red Planet's surface.

  3. Terminal nerve: cranial nerve zero

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Eduardo Duque Parra

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available It has been stated, in different types of texts, that there are only twelve pairs of cranial nerves. Such texts exclude the existence of another cranial pair, the terminal nerve or even cranial zero. This paper considers the mentioned nerve like a cranial pair, specifying both its connections and its functional role in the migration of liberating neurons of the gonadotropic hormone (Gn RH. In this paper is also stated the hypothesis of the phylogenetic existence of a cerebral sector and a common nerve that integrates the terminal nerve with the olfactory nerves and the vomeronasals nerves which seem to carry out the odors detection function as well as in the food search, pheromone detection and nasal vascular regulation.

  4. Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) -- Head

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... ports artificial limbs or metallic joint prostheses implanted nerve stimulators metal pins, screws, plates, stents or surgical ... Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) Safety Alzheimer's Disease Head Injury Brain Tumors Images related to Magnetic Resonance Imaging ( ...

  5. The Dawn Topography Investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raymond, C. A.; Jaumann, R.; Nathues, A.; Sierks, H.; Roatsch, T.; Preusker, E; Scholten, F.; Gaskell, R. W.; Jorda, L.; Keller, H.-U.; hide

    2011-01-01

    The objective of the Dawn topography investigation is to derive the detailed shapes of 4 Vesta and 1 Ceres in order to create orthorectified image mosaics for geologic interpretation, as well as to study the asteroids' landforms, interior structure, and the processes that have modified their surfaces over geologic time. In this paper we describe our approaches for producing shape models, plans for acquiring the needed image data for Vesta, and the results of a numerical simulation of the Vesta mapping campaign that quantify the expected accuracy of our results. Multi-angle images obtained by Dawn's framing camera will be used to create topographic models with 100 m/pixel horizontal resolution and 10 m height accuracy at Vesta, and 200 m/pixel horizontal resolution and 20 m height accuracy at Ceres. Two different techniques, stereophotogrammetry and stereophotoclinometry, are employed to model the shape; these models will be merged with the asteroidal gravity fields obtained by Dawn to produce geodetically controlled topographic models for each body. The resulting digital topography models, together with the gravity data, will reveal the tectonic, volcanic and impact history of Vesta, and enable co-registration of data sets to determine Vesta's geologic history. At Ceres, the topography will likely reveal much about processes of surface modification as well as the internal structure and evolution of this dwarf planet.

  6. Shrapnel Injury of Isolated Third Cranial Nerve

    OpenAIRE

    Ulutaş, Murat; Seçer, Mehmet

    2014-01-01

    Isolated third nerve palsy develops in numerous intracranial pathologies such as closed head trauma, tumor, and aneurysm. Isolated oculomotor nerve palsy caused by shrapnel injury is uncommon. After a penetrating intracranial shrapnel injury, our patient with oculomotor ophthalmoplegia underwent surgery. Microsurgery removed the shrapnel that was applying pressure on the third nerve, resulting in contusion. A partial recovery associated with regeneration was observed at month 9. Extraocular m...

  7. Terminal nerve: cranial nerve zero

    OpenAIRE

    Jorge Eduardo Duque Parra; Carlos Alberto Duque Parra

    2006-01-01

    It has been stated, in different types of texts, that there are only twelve pairs of cranial nerves. Such texts exclude the existence of another cranial pair, the terminal nerve or even cranial zero. This paper considers the mentioned nerve like a cranial pair, specifying both its connections and its functional role in the migration of liberating neurons of the gonadotropic hormone (Gn RH). In this paper is also stated the hypothesis of the phylogenetic existence of a cerebral sector and a co...

  8. A mouse ocular explant model that enables the study of living optic nerve head events after acute and chronic intraocular pressure elevation: Focusing on retinal ganglion cell axons and mitochondria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimball, Elizabeth C; Pease, Mary E; Steinhart, Matthew R; Oglesby, Ericka N; Pitha, Ian; Nguyen, Cathy; Quigley, Harry A

    2017-07-01

    We developed an explant model of the mouse eye and optic nerve that facilitates the study of retinal ganglion cell axons and mitochondria in the living optic nerve head (ONH) in an ex vivo environment. Two transgenic mouse strains were used, one expressing yellow fluorescent protein in selected axons and a second strain expressing cyan fluorescent protein in all mitochondria. We viewed an explanted mouse eye and optic nerve by laser scanning microscopy at and behind the ONH, the site of glaucoma injury. Explants from previously untreated mice were studied with the intraocular pressure (IOP) set artificially at normal or elevated levels for several hours. Explants were also studied from eyes that had undergone chronic IOP elevation from 14 h to 6 weeks prior to ex vivo study. Image analysis in static images and video of individual mitochondria or axonal structure determined effects of acute and chronic IOP elevation. At normal IOP, fluorescent axonal structure was stable for up to 3 h under ex vivo conditions. After chronic IOP elevation, axonal integrity index values indicated fragmentation of axon structure in the ONH. In mice with fluorescent mitochondria, the normal density decreased with distance behind the ONH by 45% (p = 0.002, t-test). Density increased with prior chronic IOP elevation to 21,300 ± 4176 mitochondria/mm 2 compared to control 16,110 ± 3159 mitochondria/mm 2 (p = 0.025, t-test), but did not increase significantly after 4 h, acute IOP elevation (1.5% decrease in density, p = 0.83, t-test). Mean normal mitochondrial length of 2.3 ± 1.4 μm became 13% smaller after 4 h of IOP elevation ex vivo compared to baseline (p = 0.015, t-test, N-10). Normal mitochondrial speed of movement was significantly slower in the anterograde direction (towards the brain) than retrograde, but there were more mitochondria in motion and traveling longer lengths in anterograde direction. The percent of mitochondria in motion decreased by >50

  9. [Comparison of angiofluorography and Heidelberg II retinal tomography of the head of the optic nerve in patients with primary open-angle glaucoma].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voinea, Liliana; Ion, Daniela Adriana; Dascălu, Ana Maria; Ungureanu, Emil; Panca, Aida; Chivu, Răzvan Daniel

    2007-01-01

    This prospective study aims to evaluate how the vascular involvement of the optic disc, emphasised by angiofluorography (AFG), correlates with morphologic lesions observed by Heidelberg retinal tomography (HRT) II. AFG (Visucam Zeiss) and HRT II (with Moorfields regression and keratometry) have been performed on the study group -50 pts. with POAG- and in the control group -25 healthy subjects. Correlations have been calculated with Student (t) and Fisher tests. The value of p<0,05 was considered statistically significant. The number and size of hypo-fluorescent areas are significantly bigger in POAG pts. than in healthy subjects. They correlate with the involvement of retinal nerve fibers and C/D value. In POAG pts., areas of hypo-fluorescence are located mainly on the excavation's walls and the neuroretinal ring. Localization on the excavation's floor is not pathological, since it was also observed in the control group. The vascular involvement shown by angiofluorography significantly correlates with morphologic lesions observed by HRT II.

  10. Fast optical computerized topography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinhasi, S. V.; Alimi, R.; Eliezer, S.; Perelmutter, L.

    2010-06-01

    The topography of samples is recovered from the phase reconstruction by solving the Transport Intensity Equation (TIE). The TIE is solved by expanding the equation into a series of Zernike polynomials, leading to a set of appropriate algebraic equations. In the experiments laser light was used and the illuminated region defined the boundary conditions on the target. The phase was uniquely reconstructed and the geometry of the target was calculated. The novel technique has been successfully tested on a transparent phase plate as well as on a gold coated one. Using this technique with illumination of a short laser pulse makes it well suited for reconstructing surfaces of moving objects.

  11. [Head to head comparison of two currently used nomograms predicting the risk of side specific extra capsular extension to indicate nerve sparing during radical prostatectomy for treatment of prostate cancer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clement, C; Maurin, C; Villeret, J; Marcy, M; Salem, N; Brunelle, S; Gravis, G; Garcia, S; Giusiano, S; Bastide, C; Rossi, D; Bladou, F; Walz, J

    2014-07-01

    To perform a head to head comparison of these two nomograms by an external validation combined with an identification of probability cut-offs when to indicate NS. The full models of the nomograms of Ohori et al. and Steuber et al. were used to calculate the risk of ECE based on PSA and side specific information on clinical stage, biopsy Gleason score, % positive cores, and % cancer in cores. A dataset of 968 prostate half lobes was used retrospectively for analysis. All patients underwent laparoscopic robot-assisted or open radical prostatectomy for localized prostate cancer. The predictive accuracy of the Ohori nomogram was at 0.80 and for the Steuber Nomogram at 0.78 (comparison P > 0.05). In the calibration plot, the Ohori nomogram showed less departures from ideal predictions than the Steuber nomogram. The best probability cut-off to allow NS for the Ohori nomogram seemed to be ≤ 10%, permitting NS in 59.7% of all cases and being associated with a false negative rate of 10%. The best cut-off for the Steuber nomogram seemed to be ≤ 8%, permitting NS in 44% and associated with a false negative rate 12.5%. The Ohori et al. and the Steuber et al. nomograms allow highly accurate and comparable predictions of the risk of side specific ECE. 4. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  12. Axon Counts Yield Multiple Options for Triceps Fascicular Nerve to Axillary Nerve Transfer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khair, M Michael; Schreiber, Joseph J; Rosenblatt, Lauren; Byun, David J; Lee, Steve K; Wolfe, Scott W

    2016-11-01

    To evaluate the relative axonal match between potential donor and recipient nerves, so that maximal reinnervation potential may be reached with the least chance of donor site morbidity. In 10 fresh-frozen cadaveric specimens, the main trunk and anterior, posterior, sensory and teres minor branches of the axillary nerve were identified, as were the radial nerve branches to the long, medial, and lateral heads of the triceps. The swing distances of the triceps fascicular nerve branches and the axillary nerve branches relative to the inferior border of the teres major muscle were recorded. Histomorphological analysis and axon counts were performed on sections of each branch. The median number of axons in the main axillary trunk was 7,887, with 4,052, 1,242, and 1,161 axons in the anterior, posterior, and teres minor branches, respectively. All specimens had a single long head triceps branch (median, 2,302 axons), a range of 1 to 3 branches to the medial head of the triceps (composite axon count, 2,198 axons), and 1 to 3 branches to the lateral head of the triceps (composite average, 1,462 axons). The medial and lateral head branches had sufficient swing distance to reach the anterior branch of the axillary nerve in all 10 specimens, with only 4 specimens having adequate long head branch swing distances. It is anatomically feasible to transfer multiple branches of the radial nerve supplying the medial, lateral, and sometimes, long head of the triceps to all branches of the axillary nerve in an attempt to reinnervate the deltoid and teres minor muscles. Understanding the axon counts of the different possible transfer combinations will improve operative flexibility and enable peripheral nerve surgeons to reinnervate for both abduction and external rotation with the highest donor/recipient axon count ratios. Copyright © 2016 American Society for Surgery of the Hand. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. end-to-side nerve suture - a technique to repair peripheral nerve injury

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Raubenheimer, Head of the Department of Oral Pathology and. Oral Biology, Faculty of Dentistry, MEDUNSA, for the meticulous histology investigations. References. 1. Mennen U. End-lo-side nerve suture in the non-human primate. Hand Surgery 1998; 3(1): 1-6. 2. Mennen U. End-to-side nerve suture in the human patient.

  14. Anterior deltopectoral approach for axillary nerve neurotisation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jerome, J Terrence Jose

    2012-04-01

    To report outcome of axillary nerve neurotisation for brachial plexus injury through the anterior deltopectoral approach. Nine men aged 20 to 52 (mean, 27.8) years with brachial plexus injury underwent axillary nerve neurotisation through the anterior deltopectoral approach. Three of the patients had complete avulsion of C5-T1 nerve roots. The remaining 6 patients had brachial plexus injury of C5-C6 nerve roots, with associated subluxation of the glenohumeral joint, atrophy of the supraspinatus, deltoid and elbow flexors. They had no active shoulder abduction, external rotation, and elbow flexion. The pectoralis major and minor were cut and/or retracted to expose the underlying infraclavicular plexus. The axillary nerve was identified with respect to the available donor nerves (long head of triceps branch, thoracodorsal nerve, and medial pectoral nerve). In addition to the axillary nerve neurotisation, each patient had a spinal accessory nerve transferred to the suprascapular nerve for better shoulder animation. Patients were followed up for 24 to 30 (mean, 26) months. In the 3 patients with C5-T1 nerve root injuries, the mean active abduction and external rotation were 63 and 20 degrees, respectively, whereas the mean abduction strength was M3 (motion against gravity). In the 6 patients with C5-C6 nerve root injuries, the mean active abduction and external rotation were 133 and 65 degrees, respectively, whereas the strength of the deltoids and triceps was M5 (normal) in all. In 4 patients with the pectoralis major cut and repaired, the muscle regained normal strength. The anterior deltopectoral approach enabled easy access to all available donor nerves for axillary nerve neurotisation and achieved good outcomes.

  15. Metabolic topography of Parkinsonism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jae Seung [Asan Medical Center, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2007-04-15

    Parkinson's disease is one of the most frequent neurodegenerative diseases, which mainly affects the elderly. Parkinson's disease is often difficult to differentiate from atypical parkinson disorder such as progressive supranuclear palsy, multiple system atrophy, dementia with Lewy body, and corticobasal ganglionic degeneration, based on the clinical findings because of the similarity of phenotypes and lack of diagnostic markers. The accurate diagnosis of Parkinson's disease and atypical Parkinson disorders is not only important for deciding on treatment regimens and providing prognosis, but also it is critical for studies designed to investigate etiology and pathogenesis of parkinsonism and to develop new therapeutic strategies. Although degeneration of the nigrostriatal dopamine system results in marked loss of striatal dopamine content in most of the diseases causing parkinsonism, pathologic studies revealed different topographies of the neuronal cell loss in Parkinsonism. Since the regional cerebral glucose metabolism is a marker of integrated local synaptic activity and as such is sensitive to both direct neuronal/synaptic damage and secondary functional disruption at synapses distant from the primary site of pathology, and assessment of the regional cerebral glucose metabolism with F-18 FDG PET is useful in the differential diagnosis of parkinsonism and evaluating the pathophysiology of Parkinsonism.

  16. Metabolic topography of Parkinsonism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Jae Seung

    2007-01-01

    Parkinson's disease is one of the most frequent neurodegenerative diseases, which mainly affects the elderly. Parkinson's disease is often difficult to differentiate from atypical parkinson disorder such as progressive supranuclear palsy, multiple system atrophy, dementia with Lewy body, and corticobasal ganglionic degeneration, based on the clinical findings because of the similarity of phenotypes and lack of diagnostic markers. The accurate diagnosis of Parkinson's disease and atypical Parkinson disorders is not only important for deciding on treatment regimens and providing prognosis, but also it is critical for studies designed to investigate etiology and pathogenesis of parkinsonism and to develop new therapeutic strategies. Although degeneration of the nigrostriatal dopamine system results in marked loss of striatal dopamine content in most of the diseases causing parkinsonism, pathologic studies revealed different topographies of the neuronal cell loss in Parkinsonism. Since the regional cerebral glucose metabolism is a marker of integrated local synaptic activity and as such is sensitive to both direct neuronal/synaptic damage and secondary functional disruption at synapses distant from the primary site of pathology, and assessment of the regional cerebral glucose metabolism with F-18 FDG PET is useful in the differential diagnosis of parkinsonism and evaluating the pathophysiology of Parkinsonism

  17. The nerves around the shoulder

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blum, Alain, E-mail: alain.blum@gmail.com [Service d’Imagerie GUILLOZ, CHU Nancy, Nancy 54000 (France); Lecocq, Sophie; Louis, Matthias; Wassel, Johnny; Moisei, Andreea; Teixeira, Pedro [Service d’Imagerie GUILLOZ, CHU Nancy, Nancy 54000 (France)

    2013-01-15

    Neuropathies of the shoulder are considered to be entrapment syndromes. They are relatively common, accounting for about 2% of cases of sport-related shoulder pain. Many instances involve suprascapular neuropathy, but the clinical diagnosis is often delayed because of nonspecific symptoms. Classically, EMG is the gold standard investigation but MRI currently reveals muscular abnormality in 50% of cases. Muscle edema, the most characteristic symptom, is nonspecific. In general, the topography of edema, the presence of a lesion compressing the nerve and clinical history contribute to the diagnosis. Although atrophy and fatty degeneration may persist after the disappearance of edema, they are rarely symptomatic. The main differential diagnosis is Parsonage–Turner syndrome. Evidence of a cyst pressing on a nerve may prompt puncture-infiltration guided by ultrasonography or CT-scan.

  18. Unilateral traumatic oculomotor nerve paralysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asari, Syoji; Satoh, Toru; Yamamoto, Yuji

    1982-01-01

    The present authors report a case of unilateral traumatic oculomotor nerve paralysis which shows interesting CT findings which suggest its mechanism. A 60-year-old woman was admitted to our hospital with a cerebral concussion soon after a traffic accident. A CT scan was performed soon after admission. A high-density spot was noted at the medial aspect of the left cerebral peduncle, where the oculomotor nerve emerged from the midbrain, and an irregular, slender, high-density area was delineated in the right dorsolateral surface of the midbrain. Although the right hemiparesis had already improved by the next morning, the function of the left oculomotor nerve has been completely disturbed for the three months since the injury. In our case, it is speculated that an avulsion of the left oculomotor nerve rootlet occurred at the time of impact as the mechanism of the oculomotor nerve paralysis. A CT taken soon after the head injury showed a high-density spot; this was considered to be a hemorrhage occurring because of the avulsion of the nerve rootlet at the medial surface of the cerebral peduncle. (J.P.N.)

  19. Tumors Presenting as Multiple Cranial Nerve Palsies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kishore Kumar

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Cranial nerve palsy could be one of the presenting features of underlying benign or malignant tumors of the head and neck. The tumor can involve the cranial nerves by local compression, direct infiltration or by paraneoplastic process. Cranial nerve involvement depends on the anatomical course of the cranial nerve and the site of the tumor. Patients may present with single or multiple cranial nerve palsies. Multiple cranial nerve involvement could be sequential or discrete, unilateral or bilateral, painless or painful. The presentation could be acute, subacute or recurrent. Anatomic localization is the first step in the evaluation of these patients. The lesion could be in the brain stem, meninges, base of skull, extracranial or systemic disease itself. We present 3 cases of underlying neoplasms presenting as cranial nerve palsies: a case of glomus tumor presenting as cochlear, glossopharyngeal, vagus and hypoglossal nerve palsies, clivus tumor presenting as abducens nerve palsy, and diffuse large B-cell lymphoma presenting as oculomotor, trochlear, trigeminal and abducens nerve palsies due to paraneoplastic involvement. History and physical examination, imaging, autoantibodies and biopsy if feasible are useful for the diagnosis. Management outcomes depend on the treatment of the underlying tumor.

  20. Tumors Presenting as Multiple Cranial Nerve Palsies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Kishore; Ahmed, Rafeeq; Bajantri, Bharat; Singh, Amandeep; Abbas, Hafsa; Dejesus, Eddy; Khan, Rana Raheel; Niazi, Masooma; Chilimuri, Sridhar

    2017-01-01

    Cranial nerve palsy could be one of the presenting features of underlying benign or malignant tumors of the head and neck. The tumor can involve the cranial nerves by local compression, direct infiltration or by paraneoplastic process. Cranial nerve involvement depends on the anatomical course of the cranial nerve and the site of the tumor. Patients may present with single or multiple cranial nerve palsies. Multiple cranial nerve involvement could be sequential or discrete, unilateral or bilateral, painless or painful. The presentation could be acute, subacute or recurrent. Anatomic localization is the first step in the evaluation of these patients. The lesion could be in the brain stem, meninges, base of skull, extracranial or systemic disease itself. We present 3 cases of underlying neoplasms presenting as cranial nerve palsies: a case of glomus tumor presenting as cochlear, glossopharyngeal, vagus and hypoglossal nerve palsies, clivus tumor presenting as abducens nerve palsy, and diffuse large B-cell lymphoma presenting as oculomotor, trochlear, trigeminal and abducens nerve palsies due to paraneoplastic involvement. History and physical examination, imaging, autoantibodies and biopsy if feasible are useful for the diagnosis. Management outcomes depend on the treatment of the underlying tumor. PMID:28553221

  1. Nerve entrapment after hamstring injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lohrer, Heinz; Nauck, Tanja; Konerding, Moritz A

    2012-09-01

    Hamstring muscle injuries are a frequent cause of athletic sequelae, and the frequency of reinjuries is high. Frequently, disability in sport is the consequence and performance is limited. A case report of a soccer player who was unable to play his sport after a minor hamstring muscle injury is presented. We introduce a previously undescribed lesion featured by a scar compromising a motor branch of the sciatic nerve to the long head of the biceps femoris muscle. Resection of the involved branch of the nerve resulted in complete pain relief and full sport capacity. This case report demonstrates that in very rare cases, a scar tissue-induced intramuscular entrapment of a branch of the sciatic nerve must be considered as a reason for athletic incapacity after minor hamstring injury. Both the degree of a muscular injury and its specific location within the injured muscle may therefore influence the functional outcome.

  2. Multifunctional Silk Nerve Guides for Axon Outgrowth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tupaj, Marie C.

    Peripheral nerve regeneration is a critical issue as 2.8% of trauma patients present with this type of injury, estimating a total of 200,000 nerve repair procedures yearly in the United States. While the peripheral nervous system exhibits slow regeneration, at a rate of 0.5 mm -- 9 mm/day following trauma, this regenerative ability is only possible under certain conditions. Clinical repairs have changed slightly in the last 30 years and standard methods of treatment include suturing damaged nerve ends, allografting, and autografting, with the autograft the gold standard of these approaches. Unfortunately, the use of autografts requires a second surgery and there is a shortage of nerves available for grafting. Allografts are a second option however allografts have lower success rates and are accompanied by the need of immunosuppressant drugs. Recently there has been a focus on developing nerve guides as an "off the shelf" approach. Although some natural and synthetic guidance channels have been approved by the FDA, these nerve guides are unfunctionalized and repair only short gaps, less than 3 cm in length. The goal of this project was to identify strategies for functionalizing peripheral nerve conduits for the outgrowth of neuron axons in vitro . To accomplish this, two strategies (bioelectrical and biophysical) were indentified for increasing axon outgrowth and promoting axon guidance. Bioelectrical strategies exploited electrical stimulation for increasing neurite outgrowth. Biophysical strategies tested a range of surface topographies for axon guidance. Novel methods were developed for integrating electrical and biophysical strategies into silk films in 2D. Finally, a functionalized nerve conduit system was developed that integrated all strategies for the purpose of attaching, elongating, and guiding nervous tissue in vitro. Future directions of this work include silk conduit translation into a rat sciatic nerve model in vivo for the purpose of repairing long

  3. Posterior Approach for Double Nerve Transfer for Restoration of Shoulder Function in Upper Brachial Plexus Palsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colbert, Stephen H.

    2006-01-01

    Restoration of shoulder function is one of the most critical goals of treatment of brachial plexus injuries. Primary repair or nerve grafting of avulsion injuries of the upper brachial plexus in adults often leads to poor recovery. Nerve transfers have provided an alternative treatment with great potential for improved return of function. Many different nerves have been utilized as donor nerves for transfer to the suprascapular nerve and axillary nerve for return of shoulder function with variable results. As our knowledge of shoulder neuromuscular anatomy and physiology improves and our experience with nerve transfers increases, so evolve the specific transfer procedures. This article presents a technique and rationale for reconstructing shoulder function by transferring the distal spinal accessory nerve to the suprascapular nerve and the nerve branch to the medial head of the triceps to the axillary nerve, both through a posterior approach. PMID:18780028

  4. Facial nerve function in carcinoma of the parotid gland

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Terhaard, Chris; Lubsen, Herman; Tan, Bing; Merkx, Thijs; van der Laan, Bernard; Jong, Rob Baatenburg-de; Manni, Hans; Kneght, Paul

    2006-01-01

    Aim: To analyse, for patients with carcinoma of the parotid gland, the prognostic value for treatment outcome of the function of the facial nerve (NVII), and determining facial nerve dysfunction after treatment. Methods and materials: In a retrospective study of the Dutch head and Neck cooperative

  5. Malignant Transformation of Vagal Nerve Schwannoma in to ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Malignant Transformation of Vagal Nerve Schwannoma in to Angiosarcoma: A Rare Event. Sangeet Kumar Agarwal, Manish Munjal, Devinder Rai, Seema Rao. Abstract. Schwannomas are benign, rare peripheral nerve sheath tumors that occur in the head and neck region. Some physicians opt to closely observe cases of ...

  6. Multichannel recording of tibial-nerve somatosensory evoked potentials

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Wassenberg, W. J. G. van; Kruizinga, W. J.; van der Hoeven, J. H.; Leenders, K. L.; Maurits, N. M.

    2008-01-01

    Study aims. -The topography of the peaks of tibial.-nerve somatosensory evoked potential (SEP) varies among healthy subjects, most likely because of differences in position and orientation of their cortical generator(s). Therefore, amplitude estimation with a standard one- or two-channel derivation

  7. Head Lice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Head lice are parasitic wingless insects. They live on people's heads and feed on their blood. An adult louse ... Children ages 3-11 and their families get head lice most often. Personal hygiene has nothing to ...

  8. Radiation-induced cranial nerve palsy: hypoglossal nerve and vocal cord palsies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takimoto, Toru; Saito, Yasuo; Suzuki, Masayuki; Nishimura, Toshirou (Kanazawa Univ. (Japan). School of Medicine)

    1991-01-01

    Cranial nerve palsies are an unexpected complication of radiotherapy for head and neck tumours. We present a case of this radiation-induced cranial palsy. An 18-year-old female with nasopharyngeal carcinoma developed a right hypoglossal nerve palsy 42 months after cancericidal doses of radiotherapy. In addition, she developed a bilateral vocal cord palsy 62 months after the therapy. Follow-up over four years has demonstrated no evidence of tumour recurrence and no sign of neurological improvement. (author).

  9. Ciliary body melanoma with optic nerve invasion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    al-Haddab, S; Hidayat, A; Tabbara, K F

    1990-01-01

    A case of melanoma of the ciliary body is presented. Initially the patient was diagnosed and treated for uveitis, but following CT scanning and ultrasound a tumour was detected and the eye enucleated. Histopathologically it was found that the tumour had invaded the optic nerve head, apparently via Cloquet's canal. Images PMID:2310725

  10. Surface Micro Topography Replication in Injection Moulding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arlø, Uffe Rolf; Hansen, Hans Nørgaard; Kjær, Erik Michael

    2005-01-01

    carried out with rough EDM (electrical discharge machining) mould surfaces, a PS grade, and by applying established three-dimensional topography parameters. Significant quantitative relationships between process parameters and topography parameters were established. It further appeared that replication...

  11. A case of traumatic bilateral abducens and unilateral hypoglossal nerve palsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selçuk, Ferda; Mut, Senem E.

    2013-01-01

    Patient: Female, 47 Final Diagnosis: Traumatic bilateral abducens • unilateral hypoglossal nerve palsy Symptoms: Diplopia Medication: — Clinical Procedure: — Specialty: Neurology Objective: Rare disease Background: Incidence of unilateral abducens palsy from head trauma has been reported to be as high as 1% to 2.7%, but bilateral abducens nerve palsy is extremely rare. Case Report: We present a case in which bilateral abducens nerve and unilateral hypoglossal nerve palsy developed with a high Glasgow Coma Score (GCS) 3 hours after head trauma due to a motor vehicle crash. Conclusions: This case highlights the occurrence and management of posttraumatic bilateral sixth nerve palsy. PMID:23847710

  12. Cellular Scale Anisotropic Topography Guides Schwann Cell Motility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchel, Jennifer A.; Hoffman-Kim, Diane

    2011-01-01

    Directed migration of Schwann cells (SC) is critical for development and repair of the peripheral nervous system. Understanding aspects of motility specific to SC, along with SC response to engineered biomaterials, may inform strategies to enhance nerve regeneration. Rat SC were cultured on laminin-coated microgrooved poly(dimethyl siloxane) platforms that were flat or presented repeating cellular scale anisotropic topographical cues, 30 or 60 µm in width, and observed with timelapse microscopy. SC motion was directed parallel to the long axis of the topography on both the groove floor and the plateau, with accompanying differences in velocity and directional persistence in comparison to SC motion on flat substrates. In addition, feature dimension affected SC morphology, alignment, and directional persistence. Plateaus and groove floors presented distinct cues which promoted differential motility and variable interaction with the topographical features. SC on the plateau surfaces tended to have persistent interactions with the edge topography, while SC on the groove floors tended to have infrequent contact with the corners and walls. Our observations suggest the capacity of SC to be guided without continuous contact with a topographical cue. SC exhibited a range of distinct motile morphologies, characterized by their symmetry and number of extensions. Across all conditions, SC with a single extension traveled significantly faster than cells with more or no extensions. We conclude that SC motility is complex, where persistent motion requires cellular asymmetry, and that anisotropic topography with cellular scale features can direct SC motility. PMID:21949703

  13. Nano-topography Enhances Communication in Neural Cells Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onesto, V; Cancedda, L; Coluccio, M L; Nanni, M; Pesce, M; Malara, N; Cesarelli, M; Di Fabrizio, E; Amato, F; Gentile, F

    2017-08-29

    Neural cells are the smallest building blocks of the central and peripheral nervous systems. Information in neural networks and cell-substrate interactions have been heretofore studied separately. Understanding whether surface nano-topography can direct nerve cells assembly into computational efficient networks may provide new tools and criteria for tissue engineering and regenerative medicine. In this work, we used information theory approaches and functional multi calcium imaging (fMCI) techniques to examine how information flows in neural networks cultured on surfaces with controlled topography. We found that substrate roughness S a affects networks topology. In the low nano-meter range, S a  = 0-30 nm, information increases with S a . Moreover, we found that energy density of a network of cells correlates to the topology of that network. This reinforces the view that information, energy and surface nano-topography are tightly inter-connected and should not be neglected when studying cell-cell interaction in neural tissue repair and regeneration.

  14. Nano-topography Enhances Communication in Neural Cells Networks

    KAUST Repository

    Onesto, V.

    2017-08-23

    Neural cells are the smallest building blocks of the central and peripheral nervous systems. Information in neural networks and cell-substrate interactions have been heretofore studied separately. Understanding whether surface nano-topography can direct nerve cells assembly into computational efficient networks may provide new tools and criteria for tissue engineering and regenerative medicine. In this work, we used information theory approaches and functional multi calcium imaging (fMCI) techniques to examine how information flows in neural networks cultured on surfaces with controlled topography. We found that substrate roughness Sa affects networks topology. In the low nano-meter range, S-a = 0-30 nm, information increases with Sa. Moreover, we found that energy density of a network of cells correlates to the topology of that network. This reinforces the view that information, energy and surface nano-topography are tightly inter-connected and should not be neglected when studying cell-cell interaction in neural tissue repair and regeneration.

  15. MR neurography of sciatic nerve injection injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pham, Mirko; Wessig, Carsten; Brinkhoff, Jörg; Reiners, Karlheinz; Stoll, Guido; Bendszus, Martin

    2011-06-01

    We report on magnetic resonance neurography (MRN) as a supplementary diagnostic tool in sciatic nerve injection injury. The object of the study was to test if T2-weighted (w) contrast within the sciatic nerve serves as an objective criterion for sciatic injection injury. Three patients presented with acute sensory and/or motor complaints in the distribution of the sciatic nerve after dorsogluteal injection and underwent MRN covering gluteal, thigh and knee levels. Native and contrast-enhanced T1-w images were employed to identify the tibial and peroneal division of the sciatic nerve while T2-w images with fat suppression allowed visualization of the site and extent of the nerve lesion. MRN in the two patients with clinically severe sensory and motor impairment correctly depicted sciatic injury: continuity of the T2-w lesion within the nerve at the lesion site and distal to it corresponded well to severe injury confirmed by NCS/EMG as axonotmetic or neurotmetic. Topography of the T2-w lesion on cross-section corresponded to predominant peroneal involvement; moreover, associated denervation patterns of distal target muscles were revealed. One of these patients completely recovered with concomitant complete regression of MRN abnormalities on follow-up. The third patient experienced transient sensory and mild motor impairment with complete recovery after 2 weeks. In this patient, T2-w signal within the nerve and distal target muscles remained normal indicating only mild, non-axonal nerve affliction. Our case series shows that MRN can be very useful in precisely determining the site of sciatic injection injury and may provide diagnostic criteria for the assessment of lesion severity and recovery.

  16. Surgical outcomes following nerve transfers in upper brachial plexus injuries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhandari P

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Brachial plexus injuries represent devastating injuries with a poor prognosis. Neurolysis, nerve repair, nerve grafts, nerve transfer, functioning free-muscle transfer and pedicle muscle transfer are the main surgical procedures for treating these injuries. Among these, nerve transfer or neurotization is mainly indicated in root avulsion injury. Materials and Methods: We analysed the results of various neurotization techniques in 20 patients (age group 20-41 years, mean 25.7 years in terms of denervation time, recovery time and functional results. The inclusion criteria for the study included irreparable injuries to the upper roots of brachial plexus (C5, C6 and C7 roots in various combinations, surgery within 10 months of injury and a minimum follow-up period of 18 months. The average denervation period was 4.2 months. Shoulder functions were restored by transfer of spinal accessory nerve to suprascapular nerve (19 patients, and phrenic nerve to suprascapular nerve (1 patient. In 11 patients, axillary nerve was also neurotized using different donors - radial nerve branch to the long head triceps (7 patients, intercostal nerves (2 patients, and phrenic nerve with nerve graft (2 patients. Elbow flexion was restored by transfer of ulnar nerve motor fascicle to the motor branch of biceps (4 patients, both ulnar and median nerve motor fascicles to the biceps and brachialis motor nerves (10 patients, spinal accessory nerve to musculocutaneous nerve with an intervening sural nerve graft (1 patient, intercostal nerves (3rd, 4th and 5th to musculocutaneous nerve (4 patients and phrenic nerve to musculocutaneous nerve with an intervening graft (1 patient. Results: Motor and sensory recovery was assessed according to Medical Research Council (MRC Scoring system. In shoulder abduction, five patients scored M4 and three patients M3+. Fair results were obtained in remaining 12 patients. The achieved abduction averaged 95 degrees (range, 50 - 170

  17. EXTRACRANIAL HEAD AND NECK SCHWANNOMA: CASE REPORT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashok

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Schwannoma is a benign nerve sheath tumour composed of Schwan cells which normally produce the insulating myelin sheath covering peripheral nerves. Schwannoma is a homogenous tumour, consisting only of schwan cells. The tumour cells stay outside the nerve, but the tumour itself may either push the nerve aside or up against a bony structure there by producing nerve damage. They arise from peripheral, cranial and autonomic nerves and usually present as solitary well demarcated lesions. Extracranial Head and Neck schwannomas are rare tumours. They may produce secondary symptoms like nasal obstruction, dysphagia, and hoarseness of voice depending upon the location of the tumour. FNAC, Ultra sound, CT, MRI may be of limited help in the diagnosis. Complete surgical excision is the treatment of choice. Post operative histopa thological examination establishes the final diagnosis

  18. Imaging of muscular denervation secondary to motor cranial nerve dysfunction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Connor, S.E.J. [Neuroradiology Department, Kings College Hospital, Denmark Hill, London SE5 9RS (United Kingdom)]. E-mail: sejconnor@tiscali.co.uk; Chaudhary, N. [Neuroradiology Department, Kings College Hospital, Denmark Hill, London SE5 9RS (United Kingdom); Fareedi, S. [Neuroradiology Department, Kings College Hospital, Denmark Hill, London SE5 9RS (United Kingdom); Woo, E.K. [Neuroradiology Department, Kings College Hospital, Denmark Hill, London SE5 9RS (United Kingdom)

    2006-08-15

    The effects of motor cranial nerve dysfunction on the computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) appearances of head and neck muscles are reviewed. Patterns of denervation changes are described and illustrated for V, VII, X, XI and XII cranial nerves. Recognition of the range of imaging manifestations, including the temporal changes in muscular appearances and associated muscular grafting or compensatory hypertrophy, will avoid misinterpretation as local disease. It will also prompt the radiologist to search for underlying cranial nerve pathology, which may be clinically occult. The relevant cranial nerve motor division anatomy will be described to enable a focussed search for such a structural abnormality.

  19. Musculocutaneous nerve substituting for the distal part of radial nerve: A case report and its embryological basis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A S Yogesh

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In the present case, we have reported a unilateral variation of the radial and musculocutaneous nerves on the left side in a 64-year-old male cadaver. The radial nerve supplied all the heads of the triceps brachii muscle and gave cutaneous branches such as lower lateral cutaneous nerve of the arm and posterior cutaneous nerve of forearm. The radial nerve ended without continuing further. The musculocutaneous nerve supplied the brachioradialis, extensor carpi radialis longus and extensor carpi radialis brevis muscles. The musculocutaneous nerve divided terminally into two branches, superficial and deep. The deep branch of musculocutaneous nerve corresponded to usual deep branch of the radial nerve while the superficial branch of musculocutaneous nerve corresponded to usual superficial branch of the radial nerve. The dissection was continued to expose the entire brachial plexus from its origin and it was found to be normal. The structures on the right upper limb were found to be normal. Surgeons should keep such variations in mind while performing the surgeries of the upper limb.

  20. Heads Up

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Form Controls Cancel Submit Search the CDC HEADS UP Note: Javascript is disabled or is not supported ... please visit this page: About CDC.gov . HEADS UP Brain Injury Basics What Is a Concussion? Concussion ...

  1. Nerve Injuries in Athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, Kathryn; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Over a two-year period this study evaluated the condition of 65 athletes with nerve injuries. These injuries represent the spectrum of nerve injuries likely to be encountered in sports medicine clinics. (Author/MT)

  2. Multiscale Study of Currents Affected by Topography

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-30

    1 DISTRIBUTION STATEMENT A. Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. Multiscale Study of Currents Affected by Topography ...the effects of topography on the ocean general and regional circulation with a focus on the wide range of scales of interactions. The small-scale...details of the topography and the waves, eddies, drag, and turbulence it generates (at spatial scales ranging from meters to mesoscale) interact in the

  3. The anatomy of the perineal branch of the sciatic nerve.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibbs, Christopher M; Ginsburg, Alexander D; Wilson, Thomas J; Lachman, Nirusha; Hevesi, Mario; Spinner, Robert J; Krych, Aaron J

    2018-04-01

    A "perineal" branch of the sciatic nerve has been visualized during surgery, but there is currently no description of this nerve branch in the literature. Our study investigates the presence and frequency of occurrence of perineal innervation by the sciatic nerve and characterizes its anatomy in the posterior thigh. Fifteen cadavers were obtained for dissection. Descriptive results were recorded and analyzed statistically. Twenty-one sciatic nerves were adequately anatomically preserved. Six sciatic nerves contained a perineal branch. Five sciatic nerves had a branch contributing to the perineal branch of the posterior femoral cutaneous (PFC) nerve. In specimens with adequate anatomical preservation, the perineal branch of the sciatic nerve passed posterior to the ischial tuberosity in three specimens and posterior to the conjoint tendon of the long head of biceps femoris and semitendinosus muscles (conjoint tendon) in one. In specimens in which the perineal branch of the PFC nerve received a contribution from the sciatic nerve, the branch passed posterior to the sacrotuberous ligament in one case and posterior to the conjoint tendon in three. Unilateral nerve anatomy was found to be a poor predictor of contralateral anatomy (Cohen's kappa = 0.06). Our study demonstrates for the first time the presence and frequency of occurrence of the perineal branch of the sciatic nerve and a sciatic contribution to the perineal branch of the PFC nerve. Clinicians should be cognizant of this nerve and its varying anatomy so their practice is better informed. Clin. Anat. 31:357-363, 2018. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. [Spinal accessory nerve and lymphatic neck dissection].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinsolle, V; Michelet, V; Majoufre, C; Caix, P; Siberchicot, F; Pinsolle, J

    1997-09-01

    Radical neck dissection was the golden standard of treatment for cervical nodes in head and neck tumors. From the seventies, the preservation of the spinal accessory nerve has become increasingly popular in order to improve the functional result of the neck dissections. The aim of this study was to assess the degree of functional disability associated with each type of neck dissection and the value of anatomical references for dissection of the spinal accessory nerve. One hundred twenty seven patients were evaluated 1 month and 1 year after radical, functional or supraomohyoid neck dissection with a questionnaire and a physical examination. Anatomical measurements of the spinal accessory nerve were performed in 20 patients. We found considerable or severe shoulder dysfunction in 7%, 34% and 51% respectively of patients in whom supraomohyoid, functional and radical neck dissections were performed. Furthermore 49% of patients having undergone a radical neck dissection had little or no symptoms. Sacrifice of the spinal accessory nerve in radical neck dissection may lead to shoulder dysfunction. A functional disability may also be associated, although in a less extent, with any neck dissection in which the spinal accessory nerve is dissected and placed in traction. There is a large variation in the degree of functional disability and pain in patients with similar neck dissections. The course of the spinal accessory nerve in the neck makes it particularly vulnerable to injury during the dissection near the sternocleidomastoid muscle and in the posterior cervical triangle.

  5. Optic Nerve Pit

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Conditions Frequently Asked Questions Español Condiciones Chinese Conditions Optic Nerve Pit What is optic nerve pit? An optic nerve pit is a ... may be seen in both eyes. How is optic pit diagnosed? If the pit is not affecting ...

  6. Optic nerve oxygenation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stefánsson, Einar; Pedersen, Daniella Bach; Jensen, Peter Koch

    2005-01-01

    The oxygen tension of the optic nerve is regulated by the intraocular pressure and systemic blood pressure, the resistance in the blood vessels and oxygen consumption of the tissue. The oxygen tension is autoregulated and moderate changes in intraocular pressure or blood pressure do not affect...... the optic nerve oxygen tension. If the intraocular pressure is increased above 40 mmHg or the ocular perfusion pressure decreased below 50 mmHg the autoregulation is overwhelmed and the optic nerve becomes hypoxic. A disturbance in oxidative metabolism in the cytochromes of the optic nerve can be seen...... at similar levels of perfusion pressure. The levels of perfusion pressure that lead to optic nerve hypoxia in the laboratory correspond remarkably well to the levels that increase the risk of glaucomatous optic nerve atrophy in human glaucoma patients. The risk for progressive optic nerve atrophy in human...

  7. Optic nerve oxygenation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stefánsson, Einar; Pedersen, Daniella Bach; Jensen, Peter Koch

    2005-01-01

    at similar levels of perfusion pressure. The levels of perfusion pressure that lead to optic nerve hypoxia in the laboratory correspond remarkably well to the levels that increase the risk of glaucomatous optic nerve atrophy in human glaucoma patients. The risk for progressive optic nerve atrophy in human...... glaucoma patients is six times higher at a perfusion pressure of 30 mmHg, which corresponds to a level where the optic nerve is hypoxic in experimental animals, as compared to perfusion pressure levels above 50 mmHg where the optic nerve is normoxic. Medical intervention can affect optic nerve oxygen......-oxygenase inhibitor, indomethacin, which indicates that prostaglandin metabolism plays a role. Laboratory studies suggest that carbonic anhydrase inhibitors might be useful for medical treatment of optic nerve and retinal ischemia, potentially in diseases such as glaucoma and diabetic retinopathy. However, clinical...

  8. BSRF X-ray topography experimental system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Gongli; Jiang Jianhua; Tian Yulian; Han Yong; Wang Zhouguang

    1997-01-01

    The article presents the BSRF white beam topography experimental system, including a white radiation topography camera, a versatile environmental chamber, an X-ray video imaging system and an image processing facility. The specification of the experimental system and some physical results have been discussed

  9. Navigating neurites utilize cellular topography of Schwann cell somas and processes for optimal guidance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez-Fagundo, Cristina; Mitchel, Jennifer A.; Ramchal, Talisha D.; Dingle, Yu-Ting L.; Hoffman-Kim, Diane

    2013-01-01

    The path created by aligned Schwann cells (SCs) after nerve injury underlies peripheral nerve regeneration. We developed geometric bioinspired substrates to extract key information needed for axon guidance by deconstructing the topographical cues presented by SCs. We have previously reported materials that directly replicate SC topography with micro- and nanoscale resolution, but a detailed explanation of the means of directed axon extension on SC topography has not yet been described. Here, using neurite tracing and time-lapse microscopy, we analyzed the SC features that influence axon guidance. Novel poly(dimethylsiloxane) materials, fabricated via photolithography, incorporated bioinspired topographical components with the shapes and sizes of aligned SCs, namely somas and processes, where the length of the processes were varied but the soma geometry and dimensions were kept constant. Rat dorsal root ganglia neurites aligned to all materials presenting bioinspired topography after a 5 days in culture and to bioinspired materials presenting soma and process features after only 17 hours in culture. Key findings of this study were: Neurite response to underlying bioinspired topographical features was time dependent, where at 5 days, neurites aligned most strongly to materials presenting combinations of soma and process features, with higher than average density of either process or soma features; but at 17 hours they aligned more strongly to materials presenting average densities of soma and process features and to materials presenting process features only. These studies elucidate the influence of SC topography on axon guidance in a time-dependent setting and have implications for the optimization of nerve regeneration strategies. PMID:23557939

  10. Topography and Landforms of Ecuador

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chirico, Peter G.; Warner, Michael B.

    2005-01-01

    EXPLANATION The digital elevation model of Ecuador represented in this data set was produced from over 40 individual tiles of elevation data from the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM). Each tile was downloaded, converted from its native Height file format (.hgt), and imported into a geographic information system (GIS) for additional processing. Processing of the data included data gap filling, mosaicking, and re-projection of the tiles to form one single seamless digital elevation model. For 11 days in February of 2000, NASA, the National Geospatial-Intelligence Agency (NGA), the German Aerospace Center (DLR), and the Italian Space Agency (ASI) flew X-band and C-band radar interferometry onboard the Space Shuttle Endeavor. The mission covered the Earth between 60?N and 57?S and will provide interferometric digital elevation models (DEMs) of approximately 80% of the Earth's land mass when processing is complete. The radar-pointing angle was approximately 55? at scene center. Ascending and descending orbital passes generated multiple interferometric data scenes for nearly all areas. Up to eight passes of data were merged to form the final processed SRTM DEMs. The effect of merging scenes averages elevation values recorded in coincident scenes and reduces, but does not completely eliminate, the amount of area with layover and terrain shadow effects. The most significant form of data processing for the Ecuador DEM was gap-filling areas where the SRTM data contained a data void. These void areas are a result of radar shadow, layover, standing water, and other effects of terrain, as well as technical radar interferometry phase unwrapping issues. To fill these gaps, topographic contours were digitized from 1:50,000 - scale topographic maps which date from the mid-late 1980's (Souris, 2001). Digital contours were gridded to form elevation models for void areas and subsequently were merged with the SRTM data through GIS and remote sensing image-processing techniques

  11. Neuroanatomic and clinical correspondences: acupuncture and vagus nerve stimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, Marco Antonio Helio; Dorsher, Peter T

    2014-04-01

    The use of surgically implanted electronic devices for vagus nerve stimulation (VNS) is expanding in contemporary allopathic medical practice as a treatment option for selected clinical conditions, such as epilepsy, depression, tremor, and pain conditions, that are unresponsive to standard pharmacologic interventions. Although VNS device surgeries are considered minimally invasive, they are costly and have surgical and device-related risks; they can also cause serious adverse effects from excessive vagus nerve stimulation. For millennia, acupuncturists have treated those same clinical conditions by piquering acupoints that are located proximate to the sternocleidomastoid muscle site where the VNS device is implanted on the vagus nerve. The hypothesis of this study is that these acupuncture points produce clinical benefits through stimulation of the vagus nerve and/or its branches in the head and neck region. By using reference anatomic and acupuncture texts, classical and extraordinary acupoints in the head and neck region were identified that are anatomically proximate to vagus nerve pathways there, where the VNS electrode is surgically implanted. The clinical indications of these acupuncture points, as described in the acupuncture reference texts, were examined for similarities to those of VNS. This analysis demonstrated marked correspondences of the indications for those lateral head and neck acupoints to the clinical effects (beneficial and adverse) documented for the VNS device in the medical literature. This clinical correspondence, in conjunction with the anatomic proximity of the acupoints to the vagus nerve in the lateral neck, strongly suggests that vagus nerve (and hence the autonomic nervous system) stimulation is fundamental in producing the clinical effects of the acupoints. By having anatomic access to the vagus nerve and parasympathetic chain that permits electrical stimulation of those nerves in clinical practice, acupuncture may offer a less

  12. Imaging the trigeminal nerve

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borges, Alexandra [Radiology Department, Instituto Portugues de Oncologia Francisco Gentil, Centro de Lisboa, Rua Prof. Lima Basto, 1093, Lisboa (Portugal)], E-mail: borgalexandra@gmail.com; Casselman, Jan [Department of Radiology, A. Z. St Jan Brugge and A. Z. St Augustinus Antwerpen Hospitals (Belgium)

    2010-05-15

    Of all cranial nerves, the trigeminal nerve is the largest and the most widely distributed in the supra-hyoid neck. It provides sensory input from the face and motor innervation to the muscles of mastication. In order to adequately image the full course of the trigeminal nerve and its main branches a detailed knowledge of neuroanatomy and imaging technique is required. Although the main trunk of the trigeminal nerve is consistently seen on conventional brain studies, high-resolution tailored imaging is mandatory to depict smaller nerve branches and subtle pathologic processes. Increasing developments in imaging technique made possible isotropic sub-milimetric images and curved reconstructions of cranial nerves and their branches and led to an increasing recognition of symptomatic trigeminal neuropathies. Whereas MRI has a higher diagnostic yield in patients with trigeminal neuropathy, CT is still required to demonstrate the bony anatomy of the skull base and is the modality of choice in the context of traumatic injury to the nerve. Imaging of the trigeminal nerve is particularly cumbersome as its long course from the brainstem nuclei to the peripheral branches and its rich anastomotic network impede, in most cases, a topographic approach. Therefore, except in cases of classic trigeminal neuralgia, in which imaging studies can be tailored to the root entry zone, the full course of the trigeminal nerve has to be imaged. This article provides an update in the most recent advances on MR imaging technique and a segmental imaging approach to the most common pathologic processes affecting the trigeminal nerve.

  13. Acute sixth nerve palsy in a young man, beware of the 'red herring'.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    O'Neill, E C

    2012-02-01

    BACKGROUND: Cranial nerve palsies has several etiologies including vascular insufficiency, neoplasm, trauma and inflammation. Isolated sixth nerve palsy is an extremely rare presenting feature of leukemia. AIM: We describe an unusual ocular presentation of a bilateral progressive sixth nerve palsy in a young male with a preceding head injury. CONCLUSION: Acquired sixth nerve palsies in young adults may be due to trauma but in the absence of a definitive history other systemic processes must be outruled. We describe a case of bilateral sixth nerve palsy in a patient with ALL with no obvious CNS involvement. Potential etiological mechanisms are discussed.

  14. Acute sixth nerve palsy in a young man, beware of the 'red herring'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Neill, E C; Connell, P P; Kadare, S; Tormey, P T

    2010-06-01

    Cranial nerve palsies has several etiologies including vascular insufficiency, neoplasm, trauma and inflammation. Isolated sixth nerve palsy is an extremely rare presenting feature of leukemia. We describe an unusual ocular presentation of a bilateral progressive sixth nerve palsy in a young male with a preceding head injury. Acquired sixth nerve palsies in young adults may be due to trauma but in the absence of a definitive history other systemic processes must be outruled. We describe a case of bilateral sixth nerve palsy in a patient with ALL with no obvious CNS involvement. Potential etiological mechanisms are discussed.

  15. Upper limb reinnervation in C6 tetraplegia using a triple nerve transfer: case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Zyl, Natasha; Hahn, Jodie B; Cooper, Catherine A; Weymouth, Michael D; Flood, Stephen J; Galea, Mary P

    2014-09-01

    Restoration of elbow extension, grasp, key pinch, and release are major goals in low-level tetraplegia. Traditionally, these functions are achieved using tendon transfers. In this case these goals were achieved using nerve transfers. We present a 21-year-old man with a C6 level of tetraplegia. The left upper limb was treated 6 months after injury with a triple nerve transfer. A teres minor nerve branch to long head of triceps nerve branch, brachialis nerve branch to anterior interosseous nerve, and supinator nerve branch to posterior interosseous nerve transfer were used successfully to reconstruct elbow extension, key pinch, grasp, and release simultaneously. Copyright © 2014 American Society for Surgery of the Hand. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Ocular globe topography in radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karlsson, Ulf; Kirby, Thomas; Orrison, William; Lionberger, Margaret

    1995-01-01

    Purpose: Ocular lens, retina, and olfactory bulb exposure are common concerns in contemporary radiotherapy practice. Methods to clinically localize soft tissue structures (i.e., lens and retina) are varied and often imprecise. We hypothesized that eyelid markers constituted a better reference point than the commonly used lateral canthus marker for lateral beam simulations, unless diagnostic computed tomography or ultrasound examinations were available and/or used. Methods and Materials: Sixty-six pre-Magnetic Resonance Image, normal, orbital computed tomography scans from adult patients were used to measure (a) sagittal distances from eyelid to posterior lens surface, from lateral canthus to posterior lens surface and to the globe's posterior pole, (b) supero-inferior distances in the lateral projection from the lens to the cribriform plate, and (c) common dimensions to establish internal validity of the measurements. Results: The eyelid to lens and retina topography is individually more constant than that from the canthus. There is little if any supero-inferior separation between the lens and the cribriform plate lateral projections. Conclusions: The lateral canthus does not specify lens or retina locations. Eyelid markers of known size provide more accurate anatomical information. Lateral beam ocular globe shielding has to be individualized. Lens shielding is questionable if the olfactory bulb needs to be irradiated by a lateral beam

  17. Pseudoradial Nerve Palsy Caused by Acute Ischemic Stroke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hassan Tahir MD

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Pseudoperipheral palsy has been used to characterize isolated monoparesis secondary to stroke. Isolated hand nerve palsy is a rare presentation for acute cerebral stroke. Our patient presented with clinical features of typical peripheral radial nerve palsy and a normal computed tomography scan of the head, which, without a detailed history and neurological examination, could have been easily misdiagnosed as a peripheral nerve lesion deferring further investigation for a stroke. We stress the importance of including cerebral infarction as a critical differential diagnosis in patients presenting with sensory-motor deficit in an isolated peripheral nerve pattern. A good history and physical exam can differentiate stroke from peripheral neuropathy as the cause of radial nerve palsy.

  18. Anatomical aspects of the nerves of the leg and foot of the giant anteater (Myrmecophaga tridactyla, Linnaeus, 1758

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.S. Cruz

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Although distal stifle joint nerve distribution has been well established in domestic animals, this approach is scarcely reported in wild animals. Therefore, the aim of this study was to describe the nerves of the leg and foot of Myrmecophaga tridactyla with emphasis on their ramification, distribution, topography and territory of innervation. For this purpose, six adult cadavers fixed and preserved in 10% formalin solution were used. The nerves of the leg and foot of the M. tridactyla were the saphenous nerve (femoral nerve branch, fibular and tibial nerves and lateral sural cutaneous nerve (branches of the sciatic nerve and caudal sural cutaneous nerve (tibial nerve branch. The saphenous nerve branches to the skin, the craniomedial surface of the leg, the medial surface of the tarsal and metatarsal regions and the dorsomedial surface of the digits I and II (100% of cases, III (50% of cases and IV (25% of cases. The lateral sural cutaneous nerve innervates the skin of the craniolateral region of the knee and leg. The fibular nerve innervates the flexor and extensor muscles of the tarsal region of the digits and skin of the craniolateral surface of the leg and dorsolateral surface of the foot. The tibial nerve innervates the extensor muscles of the tarsal joint and flexor, adductor and abductor muscles of the digits and the skin of the plantar surface. The caudal sural cutaneous nerve innervates the skin of the caudal surface of the leg. The nerves responsible for the leg and foot innervation were the same as reported in domestic and wild animals, but with some differences, such as the more distal division of the common fibular nerve, the absence of dorsal metatarsal branches of the deep fibular nerve and a greater involvement of the saphenous nerve in the digital innervation with branches to the digits III and IV, in addition to digits I and II.

  19. Topography-guided laser refractive surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasquali, Theodore; Krueger, Ronald

    2012-07-01

    Topography-guided laser refractive surgery seeks to correct vision by altering the major refractive surface of the eye. Whereas results are not significantly different from current treatment options for primary surgery, topography-guided treatment is uniquely effective in eyes with corneal irregularity. This review highlights topography-guided ablations, emphasizing recent advances in treating highly aberrated eyes, including treatment for corneal ectasia in conjunction with collagen cross-linking (CXL). Studies continue to document similar outcomes between topography-guided and wavefront-guided customized corneal ablations while exploring the indications for each modality. Topography-guided ablations demonstrate good outcomes for the correction of astigmatism after penetrating keratoplasty, laser-assisted in-situ keratomileusis (LASIK) flap or interface complications, post-radial keratotomy eyes, and other highly aberrated corneas, many of which are poor candidates for wavefront-guided therapy. The use of topography-guided ablations with CXL seeks to address both the refractive and structural abnormalities of corneal ectasias. This combination therapy has shown promising results for keratoconus, post-LASIK ectasia, and pellucid marginal degeneration. Topography-guided customized corneal ablation is well tolerated and effective. Recent attention has been focused on the unique therapeutic benefits of this treatment for highly irregular and ectatic corneas with encouraging results.

  20. SECTION 6.2 SURFACE TOPOGRAPHY ANALYSIS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Seah, M. P.; De Chiffre, Leonardo

    2005-01-01

    Surface physical analysis, i.e. topography characterisation, encompasses measurement, visualisation, and quantification. This is critical for both component form and for surface finish at macro-, micro- and nano-scales. The principal methods of surface topography measurement are stylus profilometry......, optical scanning techniques, and scanning probe microscopy (SPM). These methods, based on acquisition of topography data from point by point scans, give quantitative information of heights with respect to position. Based on a different approach, the so-called integral methods produce parameters...

  1. Sword-Like Trauma to the Shoulder with Open Head-Splitting Fracture of the Head

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas Panagopoulos

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Head-splitting fractures occur as a result of violent compression of the head against the glenoid; the head splits and the tuberosities may remain attached to the fragments or split and separate. Isolated humeral head-splitting fractures are rare injuries. Favorable results with osteosynthesis can be difficult to achieve because of the very proximal location of the head fracture and associated poor vascularity. We present a case of a 67-year-old man who sustained a severe, sword-like trauma to his left shoulder after a road traffic accident with associated isolated open Gustilo-Anderson IIIA humeral head-splitting fracture. Bony union was achieved with minimal internal fixation but the clinical outcome deteriorated due to accompanying axillary nerve apraxia. To our knowledge, this type of sword-like injury with associated humeral head-split fracture has not previously been reported.

  2. Controlling droplet spreading with topography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kant, P.; Hazel, A. L.; Dowling, M.; Thompson, A. B.; Juel, A.

    2017-09-01

    We present an experimental system that can be used to study the dynamics of a picoliter droplet (in-flight radius of 12.2 μ m ) as it spreads over substrates with topographic variations. We concentrate on the spreading of a droplet within a recessed stadium-shaped pixel, with applications to the manufacture of polymer organic light-emitting-diode displays, and find that the sloping sidewall of the pixel can either locally enhance or hinder spreading depending on whether the topography gradient ahead of the contact line is positive or negative, respectively. Locally enhanced spreading occurs via the formation of thin pointed rivulets along the sidewalls of the pixel through a mechanism similar to capillary rise in sharp corners. We demonstrate that a simplified model involving quasistatic surface-tension effects within the framework of a thin-film approximation combined with an experimentally measured dynamic spreading law, relating the speed of the contact line to the contact angle, provides excellent predictions of the evolving liquid morphologies. A key feature of the liquid-substrate interaction studied here is the presence of significant contact angle hysteresis, which enables the persistence of noncircular fluid morphologies. We also show that the spreading law for an advancing contact line can be adequately approximated by a Cox-Voinov law for the majority of the evolution. The model does not include viscous effects in the bulk of the droplet and hence the time scales for the propagation of the thin pointed rivulets are not captured. Nonetheless, this simple model can be used very effectively to predict the areas covered by the liquid and may serve as a useful design tool for systems that require precise control of liquid on substrates.

  3. Axillary nerve conduction changes in hemiplegia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ring Haim

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Aim To prove the possibility of axillary nerve conduction changes following shoulder subluxation due to hemiplegia, in order to investigate the usefulness of screening nerve conduction studies in patients with hemiplegia for finding peripheral neuropathy. Methods Forty-four shoulders of twenty-two patients with a first-time stroke having flaccid hemiplegia were tested, 43 ± 12 days after stroke onset. Wasting and weakness of the deltoid were present in the involved side. Motor nerve conduction latency and compound muscle action potential (CMAP amplitude were measured along the axillary nerve, comparing the paralyzed to the sound shoulder. The stimulation was done at the Erb's point whilst the recording needle electrode was inserted into the deltoid muscle 4 cm directly beneath the lateral border of the acromion. Wilcoxon signed rank test was used to compare the motor conduction between the sound and the paralytic shoulder. Mann-Whitney test was used to compare between plegic and sound shoulder in each side. Results Mean motor nerve conduction latency time to the deltoid muscle was 8.49, SD 4.36 ms in the paralyzed shoulder and 5.17, SD 1.35 ms in the sound shoulder (p Mean compound muscle action potential (CMAP amplitude was 2.83, SD 2.50 mV in the paralyzed shoulder and was 7.44, SD 5.47 mV in the sound shoulder (p p p = 0.003, 1-sided for amplitude, and patients with left paralyzed shoulder compared to patients with left sound shoulder (p = 0.011, 1-sided for latency, p = 0.001, 1-sided for amplitude, support the same outcomes. The electro-physiological changes in the axillary nerve may appear during the first six weeks after stroke breakout. Conclusion Continuous traction of the axillary nerve, as in hypotonic shoulder, may affect the electro-physiological properties of the nerve. It most probably results from subluxation of the head of the humerus, causing demyelinization and even axonopathy. Slowing of the conduction velocities of

  4. Generalized mechanical pain sensitivity over nerve tissues in patients with strictly unilateral migraine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-de-las-Peñas, César; Arendt-Nielsen, Lars; Cuadrado, María Luz; Pareja, Juan A

    2009-06-01

    No study has previously analyzed pressure pain sensitivity of nerve trunks in migraine. This study aimed to examine the differences in mechanical pain sensitivity over specific nerves between patients with unilateral migraine and healthy controls. Blinded investigators assessed pressure pain thresholds (PPT) over the supra-orbital nerves (V1) and peripheral nerve trunks of both upper extremities (median, radial, and ulnar nerves) in 20 patients with strictly unilateral migraine and 20 healthy matched controls. Pain intensity after palpation over both supra-orbital nerves was also assessed. A pressure algometer was used to quantify PPT, whereas a 10-point numerical pain rate scale was used to evaluate pain to palpation over the supra-orbital nerve. The analysis of covariance revealed that pain to palpation over the supra-orbital nerve was significantly higher (P0.6). In patients with unilateral migraine, we found increased mechano-sensitivity of the supra-orbital nerve on the symptomatic side of the head. Outside the head, the same patients showed increased mechano-sensitivity of the main peripheral nerves of both upper limbs, without asymmetries. Such diffuse hypersensitivity of the peripheral nerves lends further evidence to the presence of a state of hyperexcitability of the central nervous system in patients with unilateral migraine.

  5. Nanofiber Nerve Guide for Peripheral Nerve Repair and Regeneration

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-04-01

    project was to develop an alternative to autologous nerve grafts used in repair of peripheral nerve injuries in war and civilian life. Based on our...gradient compositions tested in Aim 1 in preparation to studies in the large animal model of peripheral nerve injury and repair . As it was not...this specific aim was to test the efficacy of optimized nanofiber nerve guide in a canine model of peripheral nerve injury and repair . Peripheral nerve

  6. Sensory properties of menthol and smoking topography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hoffman Allison C

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Although there is a great deal known about menthol as a flavoring agent in foods and confections, less is known about the particular sensory properties of menthol cigarette smoke. Similarly, although smoking topography (the unique way an individual smokes a cigarette has been well studied using non-menthol cigarettes, there is relatively less known about how menthol affects smoking behavior. The objective of this review is to assess the sensory properties of menthol tobacco smoke, and smoking topography associated with menthol cigarettes. The cooling, analgesic, taste, and respiratory effects of menthol are well established, and studies have indicated that menthol’s sensory attributes can have an influence on the positive, or rewarding, properties associated smoking, including ratings of satisfaction, taste, perceived smoothness, and perceived irritation. Despite these sensory properties, the data regarding menthol’s effect on smoking topography are inconsistent. Many of the topography studies have limitations due to various methodological issues.

  7. Advanced Metrologies for Topography and Thickness Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riou, G.; Acosta, P.; Darwin, M.; Kamenev, B.

    2011-11-01

    Despite its limitations, like the low through put, Atomic force microscopy (AFM) is in common use in the semiconductor industry for surface geometry characterization. Recent development in optical profilometry, Index Corrected Topography (ICT), further expands the technique by analysis of the collected interferograms to extract films parameters (thickness, for instance) and surface topography. This model based technique delivers literally complete information (e.g. topography, roughness, filmstack properties) of measured structure with sub-micron lateral resolution and angstrom vertical resolution. The approach is a strong asset since it allows contact less topography measurement of wafer surfaces. In this paper we will show how this specific metrology can meet the aforementioned stringent requirements. The comparison with both the AFM and the spectroscopic ellipsometry will be presented.

  8. Surface Topography Hinders Bacterial Surface Motility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Yow-Ren; Weeks, Eric R; Ducker, William A

    2018-03-21

    We demonstrate that the surface motility of the bacterium, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, is hindered by a crystalline hemispherical topography with wavelength in the range of 2-8 μm. The motility was determined by the analysis of time-lapse microscopy images of cells in a flowing growth medium maintained at 37 °C. The net displacement of bacteria over 5 min is much lower on surfaces containing 2-8 μm hemispheres than on flat topography, but displacement on the 1 μm hemispheres is not lower. That is, there is a threshold between 1 and 2 μm for response to the topography. Cells on the 4 μm hemispheres were more likely to travel parallel to the local crystal axis than in other directions. Cells on the 8 μm topography were less likely to travel across the crowns of the hemispheres and were also more likely to make 30°-50° turns than on flat surfaces. These results show that surface topography can act as a significant barrier to surface motility and may therefore hinder surface exploration by bacteria. Because surface exploration can be a part of the process whereby bacteria form colonies and seek nutrients, these results help to elucidate the mechanism by which surface topography hinders biofilm formation.

  9. Impact of lithospheric rheology on surface topography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, K.; Becker, T. W.

    2017-12-01

    The expression of mantle flow such as due to a buoyant plume as surface topography is a classical problem, yet the role of rheological complexities could benefit from further exploration. Here, we investigate the topographic expressions of mantle flow by means of numerical and analytical approaches. In numerical modeling, both conventional, free-slip and more realistic, stress-free boundary conditions are applied. For purely viscous rheology, a high viscosity lithosphere will lead to slight overestimates of topography for certain settings, which can be understood by effectively modified boundary conditions. Under stress-free conditions, numerical and analytical results show that the magnitude of dynamic topography decreases with increasing lithosphere thickness (L) and viscosity (ηL), as L-1 and ηL-3. The wavelength of dynamic topography increases linearly with L and (ηL/ ηM) 1/3. We also explore the time-dependent interactions of a rising plume with the lithosphere. For a layered lithosphere with a decoupling weak lower crust embedded between stronger upper crust and lithospheric mantle, dynamic topography increases with a thinner and weaker lower crust. The dynamic topography saturates when the decoupling viscosity is 3-4 orders lower than the viscosity of upper crust and lithospheric mantle. We further explore the role of visco-elastic and visco-elasto-plastic rheologies.

  10. Corneal topography measurements for biometric applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Nathan D.

    The term biometrics is used to describe the process of analyzing biological and behavioral traits that are unique to an individual in order to confirm or determine his or her identity. Many biometric modalities are currently being researched and implemented including, fingerprints, hand and facial geometry, iris recognition, vein structure recognition, gait, voice recognition, etc... This project explores the possibility of using corneal topography measurements as a trait for biometric identification. Two new corneal topographers were developed for this study. The first was designed to function as an operator-free device that will allow a user to approach the device and have his or her corneal topography measured. Human subject topography data were collected with this device and compared to measurements made with the commercially available Keratron Piccolo topographer (Optikon, Rome, Italy). A third topographer that departs from the standard Placido disk technology allows for arbitrary pattern illumination through the use of LCD monitors. This topographer was built and tested to be used in future research studies. Topography data was collected from 59 subjects and modeled using Zernike polynomials, which provide for a simple method of compressing topography data and comparing one topographical measurement with a database for biometric identification. The data were analyzed to determine the biometric error rates associated with corneal topography measurements. Reasonably accurate results, between three to eight percent simultaneous false match and false non-match rates, were achieved.

  11. Orientated Guidance of Peripheral Nerve Regeneration Using Conduits with a Microtube Array Sheet (MTAS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yueming; Wang, Wenjin; Wo, Yan; Gui, Ting; Zhu, Hao; Mo, Xiumei; Chen, Chien-Chung; Li, Qingfeng; Ding, Wenlong

    2015-04-29

    Material surface topography has been shown to affect the biological behavior of cells in vitro; however, the in vivo effect on peripheral nerve regeneration has not been explored. Here, we studied the potential of a microtube array sheet (MTAS) with a unique longitudinal surface topography to promote peripheral nerve regeneration efficiency, both in vivo and in vitro. Schwann cells, spinal cord motor neurons, and dorsal root ganglion neurons were seeded on the MTAS to study the effect of the construct on the biological properties and behaviors of neural cells. The MTAS guided the oriented migration of Schwann cells without affecting other critical biological properties, such as proliferation and neurotrophin expression. In addition, the MTAS guided the directed extension of neurites from both types of neurons. Next, we tested the capability of the MTAS to facilitate peripheral nerve regeneration by bridging a 10 mm sciatic nerve defect in rats with a nerve conduit equipped with an MTAS lining. The MTAS significantly promoted peripheral nerve regeneration, as suggested by the greater fiber caliber in the midconduit and the greater abundance of fibers in nerve segment distal to the conduit. Moreover, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) analysis suggested the orientated guidance of nerve regeneration by the MTAS, as indicated by the smaller eccentricity of the nerve fibers and the concordant arrangement of the collagen fiber in both the fibers and the matrix in the MTAS group. Our results collectively suggest that the conduits with the MTAS developed in this study have significant potential for facilitating peripheral nerve regeneration by modifying critical biological behaviors and guiding orientated nerve growth.

  12. Topography of inland deltas: Observations, modeling, and experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seybold, H. J.; Molnar, P.; Akca, D.; Doumi, M.; Cavalcanti Tavares, M.; Shinbrot, T.; Andrade, J. S.; Kinzelbach, W.; Herrmann, H. J.

    2010-04-01

    The topography of inland deltas is influenced by the water-sediment balance in distributary channels and local evaporation and seepage rates. In this letter a reduced complexity model is applied to simulate inland delta formation, and results are compared with the Okavango Delta, Botswana and with a laboratory experiment. We show that water loss in inland deltas produces fundamentally different dynamics of water and sediment transport than coastal deltas, especially deposition associated with expansion-contraction dynamics at the channel head. These dynamics lead to a systematic decrease in the mean topographic slope of the inland delta with distance from the apex following a power law with exponent α = -0.69 ± 0.02 where the data for both simulation and experiment can be collapsed onto a single curve. In coastal deltas, on the contrary, the slope increases toward the end of the deposition zone.

  13. Head Injuries

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... numbness in the arms or legs. Loss of consciousness. Seizures. What causes a head injury? There are ... Aid and Injury Prevention Crisis Situations Pets and Animals myhealthfinder Food and Nutrition Healthy Food Choices Weight ...

  14. Head Lice

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Head lice cannot jump or fly. Only the direct contact with an infested person or their contaminated ... the complex world of health care and making…Sports and Exercise at Every AgeRead Article >>Exercise and ...

  15. Isolated optic nerve pseudotumour

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patankar, T.; Prasad, S.; Krishnan, A.; Laxminarayan, R.

    2000-01-01

    Isolated optic nerve involvement by the idiopathic inflammatory process is a rare finding and very few reports are available. Here a case of an isolated optic nerve inflammatory pseudotumour presenting with gradually progressive unilateral loss of vision is described. It showed dramatic response to a trial of steroids and its differential diagnoses are discussed. Copyright (1999) Blackwell Science Pty Ltd

  16. Diabetic Nerve Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... vessels that bring oxygen to your nerves. Damaged nerves may stop sending messages, or may send messages slowly or at the wrong times. This damage is called diabetic neuropathy. Over half of people with diabetes get it. Symptoms may include Numbness in your ...

  17. Review of a series with abducens nerve palsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayberk, Giyas; Ozveren, Mehmet Faik; Yildirim, Timur; Ercan, Karabekir; Cay, Emine Kalkan; Koçak, Ayşegül

    2008-10-01

    In this report, we aimed to investigate the patients that presented at our clinic complaint with diplopia due to the abducens nerve palsy and neurosurgical disease. The study design was a retrospective review of ten cases with the abducens nerve palsy. The causes of the abducens nerve paralysis of our patients were as follows: two cases with head trauma, three cases with pituitary tumors, one case with sphenoid sinus mucocele, one case with greater superficial petrosal nerve cellular schwannoma at the petrous apex, one case with hypertensive intraventricular hemmorhage, one case with hydrocephalus, and one case with parotid tumor and skull base/brain stem invasion. Depending on the location of the lesion, the symptoms due to nuclear damage showed no improvement as in our case with adenocarcinoma of the parotid gland. The lesions sited at the subarachnoid portion of the abducens nerve or in the cavernous sinus, the abducens nerve palsy improved or botilinum injection was performed during recovery period. We presented abducens nerve palsy cases due to neruosurgical disorders. A botilinum injection was performed in three patients with the abducens palsy. Botilinum injection can help patients with sixth nerve palsy during the recovery period.

  18. Correlation Among Ultrasound, Cross-Sectional Anatomy, and Histology of the Sciatic Nerve A Review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moayeri, Nizar; van Geffen, Geert J.; Bruhn, Jorgen; Chan, Vincent W.; Groen, Gerbrand J.

    2010-01-01

    Background and Objectives: Efficient identification of the sciatic nerve (SN) requires a thorough knowledge of its topography in relation to the surrounding structures. Anatomic cross sections in similar oblique planes as observed during SN ultrasonography are lacking. A survey of sonoanatomy

  19. Correlation among ultrasound, cross-sectional anatomy, and histology of the sciatic nerve: a review.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moayeri, N.; Geffen, G.J. van; Bruhn, J.; Chan, V.W.; Groen, G.J.

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Efficient identification of the sciatic nerve (SN) requires a thorough knowledge of its topography in relation to the surrounding structures. Anatomic cross sections in similar oblique planes as observed during SN ultrasonography are lacking. A survey of sonoanatomy

  20. Hippocampal neurons respond uniquely to topographies of various sizes and shapes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fozdar, David Y; Chen Shaochen; Lee, Jae Young; Schmidt, Christine E

    2010-01-01

    A number of studies have investigated the behavior of neurons on microfabricated topography for the purpose of developing interfaces for use in neural engineering applications. However, there have been few studies simultaneously exploring the effects of topographies having various feature sizes and shapes on axon growth and polarization in the first 24 h. Accordingly, here we investigated the effects of arrays of lines (ridge grooves) and holes of microscale (∼2 μm) and nanoscale (∼300 nm) dimensions, patterned in quartz (SiO 2 ), on the (1) adhesion, (2) axon establishment (polarization), (3) axon length, (4) axon alignment and (5) cell morphology of rat embryonic hippocampal neurons, to study the response of the neurons to feature dimension and geometry. Neurons were analyzed using optical and scanning electron microscopy. The topographies were found to have a negligible effect on cell attachment but to cause a marked increase in axon polarization, occurring more frequently on sub-microscale features than on microscale features. Neurons were observed to form longer axons on lines than on holes and smooth surfaces; axons were either aligned parallel or perpendicular to the line features. An analysis of cell morphology indicated that the surface features impacted the morphologies of the soma, axon and growth cone. The results suggest that incorporating microscale and sub-microscale topographies on biomaterial surfaces may enhance the biomaterials' ability to modulate nerve development and regeneration.

  1. Unusual Variation of the Biceps Brachii with Possible Median Nerve Entrapment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danylo Yershov

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The biceps brachii is one of three muscles of the anterior compartment of arm. Variations of the biceps brachii are not rare. The most frequent is the existence of a third head called the humeral head by Le Double (1897 (Rodríguez-Vázquez et al., 1999. Our article is based on the unexpected result of a routine dissection class held for medical students. Dissection was performed according to the guidelines accepted by the anatomy department (Seichert, 1999. We describe a third (accessory head of the biceps brachii. In addition of two regular heads, the third head originated together with the short head from the coracoid process and had three insertions on the humerus after enfolding the median nerve and the brachial artery. This particular variation is important from a clinical perspective as the third head may cause entrapment syndrome of the median nerve and hypoperfusion of the upper limb due to compression of the brachial artery.

  2. Neurophysiological approach to disorders of peripheral nerve

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Crone, Clarissa; Krarup, Christian

    2013-01-01

    Disorders of the peripheral nerve system (PNS) are heterogeneous and may involve motor fibers, sensory fibers, small myelinated and unmyelinated fibers and autonomic nerve fibers, with variable anatomical distribution (single nerves, several different nerves, symmetrical affection of all nerves...

  3. Anatomical variations of pronator teres muscle: predispositional role for nerve entrapment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edie Benedito Caetano

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE: To assess the anatomical variations of the pronator teres muscle (PTM and its implication in the compression of the median nerve, which passes through the humeral and ulnar heads of the PTM. METHODS: For the present study, 100 upper limbs from human cadavers from the anatomy laboratory were dissected. Forty-six specimens were male and four, female, whose aged ranged from 28 to 77 years; 27 were white and 23, non-white. A pilot study consisting of six hands from three fresh cadaver dissections was conducted to familiarize the authors with the local anatomy; these were not included in the present study. RESULTS: The humeral and ulnar heads of PTM were present in 86 limbs. In 72 out of the 86 limbs, the median nerve was positioned between the two heads of the PTM; in 11, it passed through the muscle belly of ulnar head of the PTM, and in three, posteriorly to both heads of the PTM. When both heads were present, the median nerve was not observed as passing through the muscle belly of the humeral head of PTM. In 14 out of the 100 dissected limbs, the ulnar head of the PTM was not observed; in this situation, the median nerve was positioned posteriorly to the humeral head in 11 limbs, and passed through the humeral head in three. In 17 limbs, the ulnar head of PTM was little developed, with a fibrous band originating from the ulnar coronoid process, associated with a distal muscle component near the union with the humeral head. In four limbs, the ulnar head of the MPR was represented by a fibrous band. In both limbs of one cadaver, a fibrous band was observed between the supinator muscle and the humeral head of the PTM, passing over median nerve. CONCLUSION: The results suggest that these anatomical variations in relationship median nerve and PTM are potential factors for median nerve compression, as they narrow the space through which the median nerve passes.

  4. Exploring scaling laws in surface topography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abedini, M.J.; Shaghaghian, M.R.

    2009-01-01

    Surface topography affects many soil properties and processes, particularly surface water storage and runoff. Application of fractal analysis helps understand the scaling laws inherent in surface topography at a wide range of spatial scales and climatic regimes. In this research, a high resolution digital elevation model with a 3 mm resolution on one side of the spectrum and large scale DEMs, with a 500 m spatial resolution on the other side were used to explore scaling laws in surface topography. With appropriate exploratory spatial data analysis of both types of data sets, two conventional computational procedures - variogram and Box Counting Methods (BCM) - address scaling laws in surface topography. The results respect scaling laws in surface topography to some extent as neither the plot treatment nor the direction treatment has a significant impact on fractal dimension variability. While in the variogram method, the change in slope in Richardson's plots appears to be the norm rather than the exception; Richardson's plots resulting from box counting implementation lack such mathematical behavior. These breaks in slope might have useful implications for delineating homogeneous hydrologic units and detecting change in trend in hydrologic time series. Furthermore, it is shown that fractal dimension cannot be used to capture anisotropic variabilities both within and among micro-plots. In addition, its numerical value remains insignificant at the 5% level in moving from one direction to another and also from one spatial scale to another while the ordinate intercept could discriminate the surface roughness variability from one spatial scale to another.

  5. Electronic Cigarette Topography in the Natural Environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, R J; Hensel, E C; Morabito, P N; Roundtree, K A

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents the results of a clinical, observational, descriptive study to quantify the use patterns of electronic cigarette users in their natural environment. Previously published work regarding puff topography has been widely indirect in nature, and qualitative rather than quantitative, with the exception of three studies conducted in a laboratory environment for limited amounts of time. The current study quantifies the variation in puffing behaviors among users as well as the variation for a given user throughout the course of a day. Puff topography characteristics computed for each puffing session by each subject include the number of subject puffs per puffing session, the mean puff duration per session, the mean puff flow rate per session, the mean puff volume per session, and the cumulative puff volume per session. The same puff topography characteristics are computed across all puffing sessions by each single subject and across all subjects in the study cohort. Results indicate significant inter-subject variability with regard to puffing topography, suggesting that a range of representative puffing topography patterns should be used to drive machine-puffed electronic cigarette aerosol evaluation systems.

  6. Electronic Cigarette Topography in the Natural Environment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R J Robinson

    Full Text Available This paper presents the results of a clinical, observational, descriptive study to quantify the use patterns of electronic cigarette users in their natural environment. Previously published work regarding puff topography has been widely indirect in nature, and qualitative rather than quantitative, with the exception of three studies conducted in a laboratory environment for limited amounts of time. The current study quantifies the variation in puffing behaviors among users as well as the variation for a given user throughout the course of a day. Puff topography characteristics computed for each puffing session by each subject include the number of subject puffs per puffing session, the mean puff duration per session, the mean puff flow rate per session, the mean puff volume per session, and the cumulative puff volume per session. The same puff topography characteristics are computed across all puffing sessions by each single subject and across all subjects in the study cohort. Results indicate significant inter-subject variability with regard to puffing topography, suggesting that a range of representative puffing topography patterns should be used to drive machine-puffed electronic cigarette aerosol evaluation systems.

  7. Cross-modal plasticity in Cuban visually-impaired child cochlear implant candidates: topography of somatosensory evoked potentials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charroó-Ruíz, Lidia E; Pérez-Abalo, María C; Hernández, María C; Alvarez, Beatriz; Bermejo, Beatriz; Bermejo, Sandra; Galán, Lídice; Díaz-Comas, Lourdes

    2012-04-01

    Studies of neuroplasticity have shown that the brain's neural networks change in the absence of sensory input such as hearing or vision. However, little is known about what happens when both sensory modalities are lost (deaf-blindness). Hence, this study of cortical reorganization in visually-impaired child cochlear implant (CI) candidates. Assess cross-modal plasticity, specifically cortical reorganization for tactile representation in visually-impaired child CI candidates, through study of topography of somatosensory evoked potentials (SEP). From April through September 2005, SEP from median and tibial nerve electrical stimulation were studied in 12 visually-impaired child CI candidates aged 3-15 years and 23 healthy controls. Following placement of 19 recording electrodes using the International 10-20 System , SEP were recorded and then processed. Topographic maps were obtained for SEP N20 (median nerve) and SEP P40 (tibial nerve), permitting assessment of cortical reorganization by comparing visually-impaired, deaf children's maps with those of healthy children by means of visual inspection and statistical comparison using a permutation test. SEP N20 topography was significantly more extensive in visually-impaired child CI candidates than in healthy children. An asymmetrical pattern occurred from the expansion of hand tactile activation into the temporal and occipital regions in the left hemisphere on right median nerve stimulation. This did not occur for SEP P40 on tibial nerve stimulation (right and left). Magnitude of expanded SEP N20 response was related to severity of visual impairment and longer duration of dual sensory loss. Changes in SEP N20 topography are evidence of cross-modal plasticity in visually-impaired child CI candidates, appearing to result from a complex interaction between severity of visual impairment and duration of multisensory deprivation.

  8. Overview of the Cranial Nerves

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to the back). Viewing the Cranial Nerves Twelve pairs of cranial nerves emerge from the underside of the brain, ... eye movement. Eye movement is controlled by 3 pairs of muscles. These muscles move the eye up and down, right and ... nerve 4th cranial nerve 6th ...

  9. Large Extremity Peripheral Nerve Repair

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-12-01

    rodents as a function of time after surgery. As predicted, those animals in the negative control group (no repair following nerve deficit injury ...80% of penetrating injuries being associated with peripheral nerve damage, typically involve large segmental nerve deficits. Standard repair uses...technology for repair of peripheral nerve injuries involving significant neural deficit with improved functional outcomes for the wounded warrior. The

  10. Moiré topography in odontology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno Yeras, A.

    2003-07-01

    For several decades, measurement of optical techniques has been used in different branches of science and technology. One of these techniques is the so-called moiré topography (MT) that enables the accurate measurement of different parts of the human body topography. This investigation presents the measurement of topographies of teeth and gums using an automated system of shadow moiré and the phase shift method in an original way. The fringe patterns used to compute the shape and the shape matrix itself are presented in the article. The phase shift method ensures precisions up to the order of microns. Advantages and disadvantages of using the MT are included. Besides, some positive and negative aspects concerned with the implementation of this technique in odontology are shown in the article.

  11. Diabetes and nerve damage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diabetic neuropathy; Diabetes - neuropathy; Diabetes - peripheral neuropathy ... In people with diabetes, the body's nerves can be damaged by decreased blood flow and a high blood sugar level. This condition is ...

  12. Optic Nerve Drusen

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... nerve. Ocular ultrasound, CT scan and/or fundus photography can also aid in the diagnosis. Drusen can ... Medical Disclaimer Search Site ▶ AAPOS Headquarters 655 Beach Street San Francisco, CA 94109-1336 Phone: (415) 561- ...

  13. Vagus Nerve Stimulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... you do certain activities such as public speaking, singing or exercising, or when you're eating if ... of life. Research is still mixed on the benefits of vagus nerve stimulation for the treatment of ...

  14. Laryngeal nerve damage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Symptoms include: Difficulty speaking Difficulty swallowing Hoarseness Injury to the left and right laryngeal nerves at the same time can cause a breathing problem. This can be an urgent medical problem.

  15. Degenerative Nerve Diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Degenerative nerve diseases affect many of your body's activities, such as balance, movement, talking, breathing, and heart function. Many of these diseases are genetic. Sometimes the cause is a medical ...

  16. Conjoined lumbosacral nerve roots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atila Yılmaz

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Lumbosacral nerve root anomalies are a rare group ofcongenital anatomical anomalies. Various types of anomaliesof the lumbosacral nerve roots have been documentedin the available international literature. Ttheseanomalies may consist of a bifid, conjoined structure, ofa transverse course or of a characteristic anastomizedappearance. Firstly described as an incidental findingduring autopsies or surgical procedures performed forlumbar disk herniations and often asymptomatic, lumbosacralnerve root anomalies have been more frequentlydescribed in the last years due to the advances made inradiological diagnosis.

  17. The global topography mission gains momentum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farr, Tom; Evans, Diane; Zebker, Howard; Harding, David; Bufton, Jack; Dixon, Timothy; Vetrella, S.; Gesch, Dean B.

    1995-01-01

    An accurate description of the surface elevation of the Earth is of fundamental importance to many branches of Earth science. Continental topographic data are required for studies of hydrology, ecology, glaciology, geomorphology, and atmospheric circulation. For example, in hydrologic and terrestrial ecosystem studies, topography exerts significant control on intercepted solar radiation, water runoff and subsurface water inventory, microclimate, vegetation type and distribution, and soil development. The topography of the polar ice caps and mountain glaciers directly reflects ice-flow dynamics and is closely linked to global climate and sea level change.

  18. Head Tilt

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... bones in the neck. Children with Klippel-Feil syndrome may have a short, broad neck, low hairline, and very restricted neck movement. Torticollis ... surgery may be necessary. To treat Klippel-Feil syndrome, a specialist may recommend ... to ease head and neck pain. Your pediatrician can refer you to a ...

  19. Head lice

    OpenAIRE

    Burgess, Ian F

    2011-01-01

    Head lice can only be diagnosed by finding live lice, as eggs take 7 days to hatch, and may appear viable for weeks after death of the egg. Infestation may be more likely in school children, with risks increased in children with more siblings, longer hair, or of lower socioeconomic group.

  20. A rare case of post traumatic isolated bilateral abducens nerve palsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaiswal Manish

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Although unilateral abducens nerve palsy has been reported to be as high as 1% to 2.7% of traumatic brain injury, bilateral abducens nerve palsy following injury is extremely rare. In this report, we present the case of a patient who developed isolated bilateral abducens nerve palsy following minor head injury. He had a Glasgow Coma Score (GCS of 15 points. Computed tomography (CT images & Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI brain demonstrated no intracranial lesion. Herein, we discuss the possible mechanisms of bilateral abducens nerve palsy and its management.

  1. Is HEADS in our heads?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boisen, Kirsten A; Hertz, Pernille Grarup; Blix, Charlotte

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Outpatient clinic visits are a window of opportunity to address health risk behaviors and promote a healthier lifestyle among young people. The HEADS (Home, Education, Eating, Activities, Drugs [i.e. substance use including tobacco, alcohol, and illegal drugs], Sexuality [including...... contraception], Safety, Self-harm) interview is a feasible way of exploring health risk behaviors and resilience. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to evaluate how often HEADS topics were addressed according to young patients and staff in pediatric and adult outpatient clinics. METHODS: We conducted...

  2. The EEG microstate topography is predominantly determined by intracortical sources in the alpha band.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milz, P; Pascual-Marqui, R D; Achermann, P; Kochi, K; Faber, P L

    2017-11-15

    Human brain electric activity can be measured at high temporal and fairly good spatial resolution via electroencephalography (EEG). The EEG microstate analysis is an increasingly popular method used to investigate this activity at a millisecond resolution by segmenting it into quasi-stable states of approximately 100 ms duration. These so-called EEG microstates were postulated to represent atoms of thoughts and emotions and can be classified into four classes of topographies A through D, which explain up to 90% of the variance of continuous EEG. The present study investigated whether these topographies are primarily driven by alpha activity originating from the posterior cingulate cortex (all topographies), left and right posterior cortices, and the anterior cingulate cortex (topographies A, B, and C, respectively). We analyzed two 64-channel resting state EEG datasets (N = 61 and N = 78) of healthy participants. Sources of head-surface signals were determined via exact low resolution electromagnetic tomography (eLORETA). The Hilbert transformation was applied to identify instantaneous source strength of four EEG frequency bands (delta through beta). These source strength values were averaged for each participant across time periods belonging to a particular microstate. For each dataset, these averages of the different microstate classes were compared for each voxel. Consistent differences across datasets were identified via a conjunction analysis. The intracortical strength and spatial distribution of alpha band activity mainly determined whether a head-surface topography of EEG microstate class A, B, C, or D was induced. EEG microstate class C was characterized by stronger alpha activity compared to all other classes in large portions of the cortex. Class A was associated with stronger left posterior alpha activity than classes B and D, and class B was associated with stronger right posterior alpha activity than A and D. Previous results indicated that EEG

  3. Simultaneous intercostal nerve transfers to deltoid and triceps muscle through the posterior approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malungpaishrope, Kanchai; Leechavengvongs, Somsak; Witoonchart, Kiat; Uerpairojkit, Chairoj; Boonyalapa, Artit; Janesaksrisakul, Disorn

    2012-04-01

    This study reports the results of restoring the deltoid and triceps functions in patients with C5, C6, and C7 root avulsion injuries by simultaneously transferring 4 intercostal nerves to the anterior axillary nerve and the nerve to the long head of the triceps through the posterior approach. Nine patients with C5, C6, and C7 root avulsion injuries underwent spinal accessory nerve transfer to the suprascapular nerve combined with transfer of the third and fourth intercostal nerves to the anterior axillary nerve for shoulder reconstruction. Simultaneous transfer of the fifth and sixth intercostal nerves to the radial nerve branch of the triceps was done to restore elbow extension. For shoulder function, 8 patients had M4 recovery and 1 patient had M2 recovery. Average shoulder abduction and external rotation were 69° and 42°, respectively. For elbow extension, 3 patients achieved M3 recovery, 5 patients had M2 recovery, and 1 patient had M1 recovery. Reconstruction of 2 muscles with intercostal nerves is possible when both muscles act synergistically, such as shoulder abduction and elbow extension. Two intercostal nerves are adequate to transfer for deltoid reconstruction but not enough for elbow extension against gravity. Therapeutic IV. Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  4. Axillary nerve neurotization with the anterior deltopectoral approach in brachial plexus injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jerome, J Terrence Jose; Rajmohan, Bennet

    2012-09-01

    Combined neurotization of both axillary and suprascapular nerves in shoulder reanimation has been widely accepted in brachial plexus injuries, and the functional outcome is much superior to single nerve transfer. This study describes the surgical anatomy for axillary nerve relative to the available donor nerves and emphasize the salient technical aspects of anterior deltopectoral approach in brachial plexus injuries. Fifteen patients with brachial plexus injury who had axillary nerve neurotizations were evaluated. Five patients had complete avulsion, 9 patients had C5, six patients had brachial plexus injury pattern, and one patient had combined axillary and suprascapular nerve injury. The long head of triceps branch was the donor in C5,6 injuries; nerve to brachialis in combined nerve injury and intercostals for C5-T1 avulsion injuries. All these donors were identified through the anterior approach, and the nerve transfer was done. The recovery of deltoid was found excellent (M5) in C5,6 brachial plexus injuries with an average of 134.4° abduction at follow up of average 34.6 months. The shoulder recovery was good with 130° abduction in a case of combined axillary and suprascapular nerve injury. The deltoid recovery was good (M3) in C5-T1 avulsion injuries patients with an average of 64° shoulder abduction at follow up of 35 months. We believe that anterior approach is simple and easy for all axillary nerve transfers in brachial plexus injuries. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Preserving the Facial Nerve During Orbitozygomatic Craniotomy: Surgical Anatomy Assessment and Stepwise Illustration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tayebi Meybodi, Ali; Lawton, Michael T; Yousef, Sonia; Sánchez, J J González; Benet, Arnau

    2017-09-01

    Surgical safety and efficiency during an orbitozygomatic (OZ) osteotomy rely on thorough knowledge of the surgical anatomy of the facial nerve. Although the anatomy of the facial nerve and its relation to the pterional craniotomy are described, a thorough assessment of facial nerve preservation techniques during the OZ approach and its variations is lacking. We assessed the surgical anatomy of the facial nerve related to the OZ approach and provided a thorough stepwise description on how to preserve it. The OZ approach was performed bilaterally in 15 cadaveric heads. The interfascial and subfascial techniques were performed to study their nuances in preserving the facial nerve. We compared the 2 techniques and provided a thorough description on how to preserve the facial nerve during each step of the OZ approach. At the zygomatic arch, the facial nerve was found between the galea and the superficial temporal fascia. A cut in the fascia at the posterior end of the zygomatic arch did not cross any facial nerve branches. The subfascial technique was simpler, more efficient, and provided more structural protection of the facial nerve branches than the interfascial technique. The frontal division of the facial nerve is related directly to dissection over the zygomatic bone and may be injured during fascial dissection or osteotomies. Both interfascial and subfascial techniques are feasible to use during the OZ craniotomy and provide ample exposure of the OZ unit. Regarding the preservation of the facial nerve branches, we favor the subfascial method. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Geomagnetic and Geoelectric determination of Topography and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Geomagnetic and geoelectric surveys were executed in a complex zone with the aim of determining the topography and estimated depth of constituent bedrock in the study area. The ground magnetic and geoelectric – Schlumberger's vertical electrical sounding – methods were applied for this study. The presence of a ...

  7. X-ray topography and multiple diffraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, S.-L.

    1983-01-01

    A short summary on X-ray topography, which is based on the dynamical theory of X-ray diffraction, is made. The applications and properties related to the use of the multiple diffraction technique are analized and discussed. (L.C.) [pt

  8. Mapping Bedrock Topography using Electromagnetic Profiling ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Electromagnetic profiling method was used in Echara Unuhu, within the Abakaliki Urban, to map the bedrock topography which also aids us to determine the position of the deepest fractured shale where a productive borehole will be constructed The area under study is within the Abakaliki Shales Geologic Formation.

  9. Surface micro topography replication in injection moulding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arlø, Uffe Rolf

    , the topography itself, and other factors were also investigated. The experimental work is based on a multi-purpose experimental injection mould with a collection of test surface inserts manufactured by EDM (electrical discharge machining). Experimental production took place with an injection moulding machine...

  10. Small-angle scattering, topography and radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schelten, J.

    1978-01-01

    A table is given showing scattering and imaging methods for X-rays and neutrons, followed, by a discussion of such topics as 1. Radiography 2. Topography 3. Small-angle scattering 3.1. The differential cross section 3.2. Comparison of X-ray and neutron small-angle scattering 3.3. Examples of small-angle scattering. (orig.) [de

  11. Regeneration of Optic Nerve

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kwok-Fai So

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The optic nerve is part of the central nervous system (CNS and has a structure similar to other CNS tracts. The axons that form the optic nerve originate in the ganglion cell layer of the retina and extend through the optic tract. As a tissue, the optic nerve has the same organization as the white matter of the brain in regard to its glia. There are three types of glial cells: Oligodendrocytes, astrocytes, and microglia. Little structural and functional regeneration of the CNS takes place spontaneously following injury in adult mammals. In contrast, the ability of the mammalian peripheral nervous system (PNS to regenerate axons after injury is well documented. A number of factors are involved in the lack of CNS regeneration, including: (i the response of neuronal cell bodies against the damage; (ii myelin-mediated inhibition by oligodendrocytes; (iii glial scarring, by astrocytes; (iv macrophage infiltration; and (v insufficient trophic factor support. The fundamental difference in the regenerative capacity between CNS and PNS neuronal cell bodies has been the subject of intensive research. In the CNS the target normally conveys a retrograde trophic signal to the cell body. CNS neurons die because of trophic deprivation. Damage to the optic nerve disconnects the neuronal cell body from its target-derived trophic peptides, leading to the death of retinal ganglion cells. Furthermore, the axontomized neurons become less responsive to the peptide trophic signals they do receive. On the other hand, adult PNS neurons are intrinsically responsive to neurotrophic factors and do not lose trophic responsiveness after axotomy. In this talk different strategies to promote optic-nerve regeneration in adult mammals are reviewed. Much work is still needed to resolve many issues. This is a very important area of neuroregeneration and neuroprotection, as currently there is no cure after traumatic optic nerve injury or retinal disease such as glaucoma, which

  12. Isolated Superior Divisional Oculomotor Nerve Palsy and Nystagmus Following Mild Trauma

    OpenAIRE

    Jain, Mukesh; Kasturi, Nirupama; Srinivasan, Renuka

    2017-01-01

    Traumatic isolated divisional oculomotor nerve palsy has not been reported following mild head injury. We present an interesting case of a 10-year-old male boy who presented with right-sided ptosis, upgaze palsy, and horizontal nystagmus following a mild head trauma. Magnetic resonance imaging showed right superior rectus muscle atrophy. After observing for 6 months, right inferior rectus recession was done. The abnormal head posture and diplopia got corrected, but nystagmus persisted, althou...

  13. ECHOGRAPHIC PICTURE OF OPTIC NERVE GLIOMA IN NEUROFIBROMATOSIS TYPE-1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Biljana Kuzmanović

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available Background. Authors want to present echographic picture of orbital part of low-grade pilocytic astrocytoma involving the optic nerve and/or chiasm and optic tract (optic pathway glioma or visual pathway glioma.Methods. 4 children with neurofibromatosis type-1 complicated with optic pathway glioma diagnosed earlier with magnetic resonance were examined by ultrasound. Standardised A-scan technique was used for optic nerve width measurement. The 30° test and B-scan (axial, transverse and longitudinal sections of both eyes and orbits were performed as well.Results. The optic nerve diameter in our cases ranged from 4.48 to 8.5 mm. Two children had the left side optic pathway glioma, one boy had the right side optic pathway glioma and in one tumour was bilateral. The transversal section of the nerve revealed dark oval and in more perpendicular sections round void of the nerve. As the beam is swept towards the orbital apex void becomes more fusiform. The nerve and its sheaths are markedly widened. An abnormal increase in reflectivity and irregularity of the spike’s pattern is exhibited as well. No calcification along the sheaths is noticed. The transverse section of the tumour demonstrated an »inverse doughnut« sign. The outer whiter outline of the widened sheaths surrounds an inner darker circle. The longitudinal section revealed the optic nerve head continuing into the widened optic nerve. The 30° test was negative. The differential diagnosis of meningeoma, optic neuritis and orbital cysticercosis should be considered.Conclusions. Ultrasound as a cheap, safe, easily repeatable imaging method should become a method of choice for screening optic nerve tumours in neurofibromatosis type-1, especially in children, as well as for follow-up after treatment.

  14. Computed Tomography (CT) -- Head

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Professions Site Index A-Z Computed Tomography (CT) - Head Computed tomography (CT) of the head uses special ... the Head? What is CT Scanning of the Head? Computed tomography, more commonly known as a CT ...

  15. Long-nerve grafts and nerve transfers demonstrate comparable outcomes for axillary nerve injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolfe, Scott W; Johnsen, Parker H; Lee, Steve K; Feinberg, Joseph H

    2014-07-01

    To compare the functional and EMG outcomes of long-nerve grafts to nerve transfers for complete axillary nerve palsy. Over a 10-year period at a single institution, 14 patients with axillary nerve palsy were treated with long-nerve grafts and 24 patients were treated with triceps-to-axillary nerve transfers by the same surgeon (S.W.W.). Data were collected prospectively at regular intervals, beginning before surgery and continuing up to 11 years after surgery. Prior to intervention, all patients demonstrated EMG evidence of complete denervation of the deltoid. Deltoid recovery (Medical Research Council [MRC] grade), shoulder abduction (°), improvement in shoulder abduction (°), and EMG evidence of deltoid reinnervation were compared between cohorts. There were no significant differences between the long-nerve graft cohort and the nerve transfer cohort with respect to postoperative range of motion, deltoid recovery, improvement in shoulder abduction, or EMG evidence of deltoid reinnervation. These data demonstrate that outcomes of long-nerve grafts for axillary nerve palsy are comparable with those of modern nerve transfers and question a widely held belief that long-nerve grafts do poorly. When healthy donor roots or trunks are available, long-nerve grafts should not be overlooked as an effective intervention for the treatment of axillary nerve injuries in adults with brachial plexus injuries. Therapeutic III. Copyright © 2014 American Society for Surgery of the Hand. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Cranial nerve palsies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruggieri, P.; Adelizzi, J.; Modic, M.T.; Ross, J.S.; Tkach, J.; Masaryk, T.J.

    1990-01-01

    This paper evaluates the utility of multiplanar reconstructions (MPRs) of three-dimensional (3D) MR angiography data sets in the examination of patients with cranial nerve palsies. The authors hypothesis was that 3D data could be reformatted to highlight the intricate spatial relationships of vessels to adjacent neural tissues by taking advantage of the high vessel-parenchyma contrast in high-resolution 3D time-of-flight sequences. Twenty patients with cranial nerve palsies and 10 asymptomatic patients were examined with coronal T1-weighted and axial T2-weighted imaging plus a gadolinium-enhanced 3D MRA sequence (40/7/15 degrees, axial 60-mm volume, 0.9-mm isotropic resolution). Cranial nerves II-VIII were subsequently evaluated on axial and reformatted coronal and/or sagittal images

  17. OCULAR MANIFESTATIONS OF HEAD INJURIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kanukollu Venkata Madusudana Rao

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND This prospective study aimed to evaluate the incidence of ocular manifestations in head injury and their correlation with the intracranial lesions. MATERIALS AND METHODS A total of 108 consecutive cases of closed head injury admitted in the neurosurgical ward of a tertiary teaching hospital underwent a thorough ophthalmic assessment. Clinical examination, radiological imaging and Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS were applied to grade the severity of injury. RESULTS Total number of 108 patients of head injury were examined of which 38 patients had ocular manifestations (35.18%. Of these, 85.18% were males, 84% of injuries were due to road traffic accidents and 16% were due to fall from a height. The ocular manifestations were as follows- Orbital complications were seen in 6 patients (15.8%. Anterior segment manifestations included black eyes seen in 10 patients (26.3%, subconjunctival haemorrhage in 10.5% of patients (4 patients, corneal involvement in 21% of patients (8 patients and pupillary involvement in 50% of patients (19 patients. Posterior segment manifestations were seen in 26.3% of patients (10 patients and were as follows- Purtscher’s retinopathy in 2 patients and optic atrophy in 5 patients. Cranial nerve palsies were seen in 15 patients (39.47% and supranuclear movement disorders were seen in 3 patients (8%. CONCLUSION Even though, neurosurgeons perform comprehensive clinical examination including eye examination, the main purpose is limited to aid topical diagnosis of neurological lesions. This study emphasises the importance of a detailed eye examination by an ophthalmologist to prevent irreversible visual loss in addition to aiding in the neurological diagnosis. Pupillary involvement, papilloedema and ocular motor paresis pointed to a more severe head injury. This observational prospective study helped us to correlate the severity of head injuries in association with ocular findings in patients admitted in neurosurgical ward

  18. PERFORATION OF INFERIOR ALVEOLAR NERVE BY MAXILLARY ARTERY. LA PERFORACION DEL NERVIO ALVEOLAR INFERIOR POR LA ARTERIA MAXILAR

    OpenAIRE

    Vanishree S Nayak; Ramachandra Bhat K; Prakash Billakanti Babu

    2011-01-01

    Infratemporal fossa is clinically important anatomical area for the delivery of local anesthetic agents in dentistry and maxillofacial surgery. Variations in the anatomy of the inferior alveolar nerve and maxillary artery were studied in infratemporal dissection. During routine dissection of the head in an adult male cadaver an unusual variation in the origin of the inferior alveolar nerve and its relationship with the surrounding structures was observed. The inferior alveolar nerve originate...

  19. Nerve Transfers in Tetraplegia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, Ida K

    2016-05-01

    Hand and upper extremity function is instrumental to basic activities of daily living and level of independence in cervical spinal cord injury (SCI). Nerve transfer surgery is a novel and alternate approach for restoring function in SCI. This article discusses the biologic basis of nerve transfers in SCI, patient evaluation, management, and surgical approaches. Although the application of this technique is not new; recent case reports and case series in the literature have increased interest in this field. The challenges are to improve function, achieve maximal gains in function, avoid complications, and to primum non nocere. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Optic nerve astrocyte reactivity protects function in experimental glaucoma and other nerve injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Daniel; Moore, Sara; Jakobs, Tatjana C

    2017-05-01

    Reactive remodeling of optic nerve head astrocytes is consistently observed in glaucoma and other optic nerve injuries. However, it is unknown whether this reactivity is beneficial or harmful for visual function. In this study, we used the Cre recombinase (Cre)- loxP system under regulation of the mouse glial fibrillary acidic protein promoter to knock out the transcription factor signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) from astrocytes and test the effect this has on reactive remodeling, ganglion cell survival, and visual function after experimental glaucoma and nerve crush. After injury, STAT3 knockout mice displayed attenuated astrocyte hypertrophy and reactive remodeling; astrocytes largely maintained their honeycomb organization and glial tubes. These changes were associated with increased loss of ganglion cells and visual function over a 30-day period. Thus, reactive astrocytes play a protective role, preserving visual function. STAT3 signaling is an important mediator of various aspects of the reactive phenotype within optic nerve astrocytes. © 2017 Sun et al.

  1. Specialized Nerve Tests: EMG, NCV and SSEP

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... grouped according to where they leave the spinal column. There are eight pairs of neck (cervical) nerves, 12 pairs of upper back (thoracic) nerves, five pairs of lower back (lumbar) nerves, five pairs of pelvis (sacral) nerves and ...

  2. Bray Head

    OpenAIRE

    Brocas, Samuel Frederick (Irish cityscape painter, watercolorist, and draftsman, 1792-1847)

    2008-01-01

    'A number of Martello towers were built around the coast of Ireland, especially along the east, from Millmount (Drogheda), to Bray, around Dublin Bay but also around Cork Harbour on the south coast. On the east coast, concentrated mainly around Dublin Bay, the towers were in line of sight of each other, providing the ability to communicate with one another, or warn of any incoming attacks.' (en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Martello_Tower#Ireland) 'Bray Head (Irish: Ceann Bre) is a hill and headland, of...

  3. Goniometer head

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dzhazairov-Kakhramanov, V.; Berger, V.D.; Kadyrzhanov, K.K.; Zarifov, R.A.

    1994-01-01

    The goniometer head is an electromechanical instrument that performs the independent transfer of a testing sample on three coordinate axes (X, Y, Z) within limits of ±8 mm and independent rotation relative of these directions. The instrument comprises a sample holder, bellows component and three electrometer drives. The sample holder rotates around the axes X and Y, and is installed on the central arm which rotates around axis Z. One characteristic of this instrument is its independence which allows its use in any camera for researches in the field of radiation physics. 2 figs

  4. Tumors of the optic nerve

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindegaard, Jens; Heegaard, Steffen

    2009-01-01

    A variety of lesions may involve the optic nerve. Mainly, these lesions are inflammatory or vascular lesions that rarely necessitate surgery but may induce significant visual morbidity. Orbital tumors may induce proptosis, visual loss, relative afferent pupillary defect, disc edema and optic...... atrophy, but less than one-tenth of these tumors are confined to the optic nerve or its sheaths. No signs or symptoms are pathognomonic for tumors of the optic nerve. The tumors of the optic nerve may originate from the optic nerve itself (primary tumors) as a proliferation of cells normally present...... in the nerve (e.g., astrocytes and meningothelial cells). The optic nerve may also be invaded from tumors originating elsewhere (secondary tumors), invading the nerve from adjacent structures (e.g., choroidal melanoma and retinoblastoma) or from distant sites (e.g., lymphocytic infiltration and distant...

  5. Description of two-process surface topography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grabon, W; Pawlus, P

    2014-01-01

    After two machining processes, a large number of surface topography measurements were made using Talyscan 150 stylus measuring equipment. The measured samples were divided into two groups. The first group contained two-process surfaces of random nature, while the second group used random-deterministic textures of random plateau parts and portions of deterministic valleys. For comparison, one-process surfaces were also analysed. Correlation and regression analysis was used to study the dependencies among surface texture parameters in 2D and 3D systems. As the result of this study, sets of parameters describing multi-process surface topography were obtained for two-process surfaces of random and of random-deterministic types. (papers)

  6. Isolated optic nerve oedema as unusual presentation of electric injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izzy, Saef; Deeb, Wissam; Peters, George B; Mitchell, Ann

    2014-10-15

    A 45-year-old man with no significant medical history presented following an electric current injury (380 V). He developed multiple systemic injuries including third degree burns and after 1 week of hospitalisation he reported unilateral visual changes. Examination suggested the presence of optic nerve oedema without evidence of haemorrhage, exudate or vessel abnormality. This was considered to be related to the electric shock. A trial of corticosteroids was considered. He was followed up to 5 months in clinic and was noted to have developed unilateral optic atrophy and no other systemic manifestations. Initial and 5 months follow-up optic nerve colour photograph and optical coherence topography were documented. The present case highlights the fact that electric current injury can present with only a unilateral ischaemic optic neuropathy, the need for early diagnosis for timely treatment and the controversial role of corticosteroids. 2014 BMJ Publishing Group Ltd.

  7. Nerve Transfer versus Interpositional Nerve Graft Reconstruction for Posttraumatic, Isolated Axillary Nerve Injuries: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koshy, John C; Agrawal, Nikhil A; Seruya, Mitchel

    2017-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare functional outcomes between nerve grafting and nerve transfer procedures in the setting of isolated, posttraumatic axillary nerve injuries. A systematic review was performed using the PubMed, Scopus, and Cochrane databases to identify all cases of isolated, posttraumatic axillary nerve injuries in patients aged 18 years or older. Patients who underwent axillary nerve reconstruction were included and categorized by technique: graft or transfer. Demographics were recorded, including age, time to operation, and presence of concomitant injuries. Functional outcomes were evaluated, including British Medical Research Council strength and range of motion for shoulder abduction. Ten retrospective studies met criteria, for a total of 66 patients (20 nerve grafts and 46 nerve transfers). Median time from injury to operation was equivalent across the nerve graft and nerve transfer groups (8.0 months versus 7.0 months; p = 0.41). Postoperative follow-up was 24.0 months for nerve grafting versus 18.5 months for nerve transfer (p = 0.13). Clinically useful shoulder abduction, defined as British Medical Research Council grade M3 or greater, was obtained in 100 percent of nerve graft patients versus 87 percent of nerve transfer patients (p = 0.09). Grade M4 or better strength was obtained in 85 percent of nerve graft patients and 73.9 percent of nerve transfer patients (p = 0.32). Significant differences in functional outcomes between nerve graft and transfer procedures for posttraumatic axillary nerve injuries are not apparent at this time. Prospective outcomes studies are needed to better elucidate whether functional differences do exist. Therapeutic, IV.

  8. Airborne laser altimeter measurements of landscape topography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ritchie, J.C.

    1995-01-01

    Measurements of topography can provide a wealth of information on landscape properties for managing hydrologic and geologic systems and conserving natural and agricultural resources. This article discusses the application of an airborne laser altimeter to measure topography and other landscape surface properties. The airborne laser altimeter makes 4000 measurements per second with a vertical recording resolution of 5 cm. Data are collected digitally with a personal computer. A video camera, borehole sighted with the laser, records an image for locating flight lines. GPS data are used to locate flight line positions on the landscape. Laser data were used to measure vegetation canopy topography, height, cover, and distribution and to measure microtopography of the land surface and gullies with depths of 15–20 cm. Macrotopography of landscape profiles for segments up to 4 km were in agreement with available topographic maps but provided more detail. Larger gullies with and without vegetation, and stream channel cross sections and their associated floodplains have also been measured and reported in other publications. Landscape segments for any length could be measured for either micro- or macrotopography. Airborne laser altimeter measurements of landscape profiles can provide detailed information on landscape properties or specific needs that will allow better decisions on the design and location of structures (i.e., roads, pipe, and power lines) and for improving the management and conservation of natural and agricultural landscapes. (author)

  9. Refining the ischemic penumbra with topography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thirugnanachandran, Tharani; Ma, Henry; Singhal, Shaloo; Slater, Lee-Anne; Davis, Stephen M; Donnan, Geoffrey A; Phan, Thanh

    2018-04-01

    It has been 40 years since the ischemic penumbra was first conceptualized through work on animal models. The topography of penumbra has been portrayed as an infarcted core surrounded by penumbral tissue and an extreme rim of oligemic tissue. This picture has been used in many review articles and textbooks before the advent of modern imaging. In this paper, we review our understanding of the topography of the ischemic penumbra from the initial experimental animal models to current developments with neuroimaging which have helped to further define the temporal and spatial evolution of the penumbra and refine our knowledge. The concept of the penumbra has been successfully applied in clinical trials of endovascular therapies with a time window as long as 24 h from onset. Further, there are reports of "good" outcome even in patients with a large ischemic core. This latter observation of good outcome despite having a large core requires an understanding of the topography of the penumbra and the function of the infarcted regions. It is proposed that future research in this area takes departure from a time-dependent approach to a more individualized tissue and location-based approach.

  10. Triangular Quantum Loop Topography for Machine Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yi; Kim, Eun-Ah

    Despite rapidly growing interest in harnessing machine learning in the study of quantum many-body systems there has been little success in training neural networks to identify topological phases. The key challenge is in efficiently extracting essential information from the many-body Hamiltonian or wave function and turning the information into an image that can be fed into a neural network. When targeting topological phases, this task becomes particularly challenging as topological phases are defined in terms of non-local properties. Here we introduce triangular quantum loop (TQL) topography: a procedure of constructing a multi-dimensional image from the ''sample'' Hamiltonian or wave function using two-point functions that form triangles. Feeding the TQL topography to a fully-connected neural network with a single hidden layer, we demonstrate that the architecture can be effectively trained to distinguish Chern insulator and fractional Chern insulator from trivial insulators with high fidelity. Given the versatility of the TQL topography procedure that can handle different lattice geometries, disorder, interaction and even degeneracy our work paves the route towards powerful applications of machine learning in the study of topological quantum matters.

  11. Coarsely resolved topography along protein folding pathways

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández, Ariel; Kostov, Konstantin S.; Berry, R. Stephen

    2000-03-01

    The kinetic data from the coarse representation of polypeptide torsional dynamics described in the preceding paper [Fernandez and Berry, J. Chem. Phys. 112, 5212 (2000), preceding paper] is inverted by using detailed balance to obtain a topographic description of the potential-energy surface (PES) along the dominant folding pathway of the bovine pancreatic trypsin inhibitor (BPTI). The topography is represented as a sequence of minima and effective saddle points. The dominant folding pathway displays an overall monotonic decrease in energy with a large number of staircaselike steps, a clear signature of a good structure-seeker. The diversity and availability of alternative folding pathways is analyzed in terms of the Shannon entropy σ(t) associated with the time-dependent probability distribution over the kinetic ensemble of contact patterns. Several stages in the folding process are evident. Initially misfolded states form and dismantle revealing no definite pattern in the topography and exhibiting high Shannon entropy. Passage down a sequence of staircase steps then leads to the formation of a nativelike intermediate, for which σ(t) is much lower and fairly constant. Finally, the structure of the intermediate is refined to produce the native state of BPTI. We also examine how different levels of tolerance to mismatches of side chain contacts influence the folding kinetics, the topography of the dominant folding pathway, and the Shannon entropy. This analysis yields upper and lower bounds of the frustration tolerance required for the expeditious and robust folding of BPTI.

  12. Tumors of the optic nerve

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindegaard, Jens; Heegaard, Steffen

    2009-01-01

    in the nerve (e.g., astrocytes and meningothelial cells). The optic nerve may also be invaded from tumors originating elsewhere (secondary tumors), invading the nerve from adjacent structures (e.g., choroidal melanoma and retinoblastoma) or from distant sites (e.g., lymphocytic infiltration and distant...

  13. Imaging the ocular motor nerves.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ferreira, T.; Verbist, B.M.; Buchem, M. van; Osch, T. van; Webb, A.

    2010-01-01

    The ocular motor nerves (OMNs) comprise the oculomotor, trochlear and the abducens nerves. According to their course, they are divided into four or five anatomic segments: intra-axial, cisternal, cavernous and intra-orbital and, for the abducens nerve, an additional interdural segment. Magnetic

  14. Nerve conduction and excitability studies in peripheral nerve disorders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krarup, Christian; Moldovan, Mihai

    2009-01-01

    PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The review is aimed at providing information about the role of nerve excitability studies in peripheral nerve disorders. It has been known for many years that the insight into peripheral nerve pathophysiology provided by conventional nerve conduction studies is limited. Nerve....... Studies of different metabolic neuropathies have assessed the influence of uremia, diabetes and ischemia, and the use of these methods in toxic neuropathies has allowed pinpointing damaging factors. Various mutations in ion channels associated with central nervous system disorders have been shown to have...

  15. Optic nerve oxygen tension

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kiilgaard, Jens Folke; Pedersen, D B; Eysteinsson, T

    2004-01-01

    The authors have previously reported that carbonic anhydrase inhibitors such as acetazolamide and dorzolamide raise optic nerve oxygen tension (ONPO(2)) in pigs. The purpose of the present study was to investigate whether timolol, which belongs to another group of glaucoma drugs called beta...

  16. Optic nerve oxygen tension

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kiilgaard, Jens Folke; Pedersen, D B; Eysteinsson, T

    2004-01-01

    The authors have previously reported that carbonic anhydrase inhibitors such as acetazolamide and dorzolamide raise optic nerve oxygen tension (ONPO(2)) in pigs. The purpose of the present study was to investigate whether timolol, which belongs to another group of glaucoma drugs called beta block...

  17. Optic nerve sheath meningiomas

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Saeed, Peerooz; Rootman, Jack; Nugent, Robert A.; White, Valerie A.; Mackenzie, Ian R.; Koornneef, Leo

    2003-01-01

    To study the natural history and growth of optic nerve sheath meningiomas and evaluate their management outcome. Clinicopathologic retrospective noncomparative case series. A retrospective study of 88 patients who were treated between 1976 and 1999 at the University of British Columbia and the

  18. Topography-modified refraction: adjustment of treated cylinder amount and axis to the topography versus standard clinical refraction in myopic topography-guided LASIK

    OpenAIRE

    Alpins,Noel

    2017-01-01

    Noel Alpins1,2 1NewVision Clinics, Melbourne, VIC, Australia; 2Department Ophthalmology, Melbourne University, Melbourne, VIC, Australia It is encouraging to see the results in the article by Kanellopoulos “Topography-modified refraction (TMR): adjustment of treated cylinder amount and axis to the topography versus standard clinical refraction in myopic topography-guided LASIK”,1 where the combination of refractive and corneal data in the treatment parameters pro...

  19. OpenTopography: Enabling Online Access to High-Resolution Lidar Topography Data and Processing Tools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crosby, Christopher; Nandigam, Viswanath; Baru, Chaitan; Arrowsmith, J. Ramon

    2013-04-01

    High-resolution topography data acquired with lidar (light detection and ranging) technology are revolutionizing the way we study the Earth's surface and overlying vegetation. These data, collected from airborne, tripod, or mobile-mounted scanners have emerged as a fundamental tool for research on topics ranging from earthquake hazards to hillslope processes. Lidar data provide a digital representation of the earth's surface at a resolution sufficient to appropriately capture the processes that contribute to landscape evolution. The U.S. National Science Foundation-funded OpenTopography Facility (http://www.opentopography.org) is a web-based system designed to democratize access to earth science-oriented lidar topography data. OpenTopography provides free, online access to lidar data in a number of forms, including the raw point cloud and associated geospatial-processing tools for customized analysis. The point cloud data are co-located with on-demand processing tools to generate digital elevation models, and derived products and visualizations which allow users to quickly access data in a format appropriate for their scientific application. The OpenTopography system is built using a service-oriented architecture (SOA) that leverages cyberinfrastructure resources at the San Diego Supercomputer Center at the University of California San Diego to allow users, regardless of expertise level, to access these massive lidar datasets and derived products for use in research and teaching. OpenTopography hosts over 500 billion lidar returns covering 85,000 km2. These data are all in the public domain and are provided by a variety of partners under joint agreements and memoranda of understanding with OpenTopography. Partners include national facilities such as the NSF-funded National Center for Airborne Lidar Mapping (NCALM), as well as non-governmental organizations and local, state, and federal agencies. OpenTopography has become a hub for high-resolution topography

  20. Multiple Heads of Gastrocnemius with Bipennate Fiber Arrangement- A Clinically Significant Variation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, Vincent; Rao, Mohandas Kg; Nayak, Shivananda

    2016-08-01

    It is common to have additional muscles or muscle slips in the extremities. Some of them may compress the nerves and vessels or restrict the movements, while others may enhance the muscular activity. However, a small number of them may go unnoticed. Knowledge of such variant muscles becomes important for plastic surgeons while performing various reconstructive surgeries and for clinicians while managing the pain. A case of multiple heads of gastrocnemius muscle was observed during routine dissection of the right lower limb of about 70-year-old male cadaver. It was observed that the medial head of gastrocnemius was attached to the femur with 3 thick heads and lateral head was arising from the lateral condyle of femur by 3 thick heads. All the heads of the muscles remained separate till they formed tendocalcaneus. Some of these heads showed bipinnate fiber arrangement. All the heads were innervated by the branches of tibial nerve. As the muscle heads passed down from their origin, they entrapped the sural nerve and sural nerve was seen emerging at the beginning of tendocalcaneus. Further, detailed literature and the clinical and surgical importance of the case are discussed.

  1. Risk of injury to the axillary nerve during antegrade proximal humeral blade nail fixation - an anatomical study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spiegelberg, Ben G I; Riley, Nicholas D; Taylor, Geoffrey J

    2014-08-01

    The antegrade intramedullary Locking Blade Nail (Marquardt, Germany) is a device aimed at improving purchase in the humeral head and reducing varus displacement by providing medial buttress support and triangular stability within the humeral head. The aim of this study is to measure the relationship of the proximal fixation screws to the axillary nerve. 13 whole cadavers underwent insertion of an antegrade proximal humeral blade nail via a deltoid split approach to both shoulders. The anatomic proximity of the anterior branch of the axillary nerve to the screws was measured following soft tissue dissection and inspection of the nerve. The mean distance of the nerve from the anterolateral acromion was 62 mm (range 45-81 mm). The nerve lay closest to the distal blade fixation screw 4.9 mm (range 0-19 mm). In three cases the nerve lay directly underneath the washer and in all three cases there was macroscopic evidence of damage to the nerve. In 5 cases the nerve travelled obliquely in a cranial direction to lie 1.8 mm (range 0-3 mm) from the distal blade fixation screw, in 2 of these cases the nerve lay beneath the washer. The anterior branch of the axillary nerve is placed at risk during insertion of the locking screws despite use of protection sleeves and trocars. We advocate that when using antegrade intramedullary nails that incorporate an inferomedial calcar screw an extended anterolateral acromial approach is undertaken. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Effects of ozone on sciatic nerve in rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Q; Chen, H; Lu, C; Wang, B; Zhang, Y; He, X; Yu, B

    2011-09-01

    This study evaluated the influence of ozone on rat sciatic nerve structure and function. Thirty Wistar rats were randomly divided into six groups (n = 5). In groups I to IV, 1ml of ozone (O(3)) 10 μg/ml, 30 μg/ml, 50 μg/ml, 8 0 μg/ml was injected at the junction of gluteus maximus margin and lateral edge of the long head of biceps femoris respectively, in group V, 1 ml of pure O(2) was injected at the same point, and group V had puncture without any injection. Ozone was manufactured by an ozone generator (Ozone Line Co, Italy). The rats were investigated by both gross measurement and behavioral changes. One day, one week and three weeks after injection, rat hindlimb footprints were measured and the sciatic nerve function index (SFI) was calculated, and after three weeks, all right sciatic nerves were exposed under anesthesia. Near neural stimulation of the rat sciatic nerve was calculated and nerve conduction velocity, latency and maximum amplitude recorded. Animals were sacrificed for pathology, and ipsilateral triceps surae were taken for wet weight. No serious behavioral abnormalities were observed in any animal. SFI comparison in the various times and various groups showed no significant differences (pozone concentrations from 10 μg/ml to 80 μg/ml injected around rat's peripheral nerve will not cause serious sequelae or serious damage to the structure and function of peripheral nerve. This finding provides evidence of the safety of ozone injected around the peripheral nerve.

  3. Pathology of the vestibulocochlear nerve

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Foer, Bert [Department of Radiology, Sint-Augustinus Hospital, Oosterveldlaan 24, 2610 Wilrijk (Belgium)], E-mail: bert.defoer@GZA.be; Kenis, Christoph [Department of Radiology, Sint-Augustinus Hospital, Oosterveldlaan 24, 2610 Wilrijk (Belgium)], E-mail: christophkenis@hotmail.com; Van Melkebeke, Deborah [Department of Neurology, Sint-Augustinus Hospital, Oosterveldlaan 24, 2610 Wilrijk (Belgium)], E-mail: Deborah.vanmelkebeke@Ugent.be; Vercruysse, Jean-Philippe [University Department of ENT, Sint-Augustinus Hospital, Oosterveldlaan 24, 2610 Wilrijk (Belgium)], E-mail: jphver@yahoo.com; Somers, Thomas [University Department of ENT, Sint-Augustinus Hospital, Oosterveldlaan 24, 2610 Wilrijk (Belgium)], E-mail: Thomas.somers@GZA.be; Pouillon, Marc [Department of Radiology, Sint-Augustinus Hospital, Oosterveldlaan 24, 2610 Wilrijk (Belgium)], E-mail: marc.pouillon@GZA.be; Offeciers, Erwin [University Department of ENT, Sint-Augustinus Hospital, Oosterveldlaan 24, 2610 Wilrijk (Belgium)], E-mail: Erwin.offeciers@GZA.be; Casselman, Jan W. [Department of Radiology, AZ Sint-Jan AV Hospital, Ruddershove 10, Bruges (Belgium); Consultant Radiologist, Sint-Augustinus Hospital, Oosterveldlaan 24, 2610 Wilrijk (Belgium); Academic Consultent, University of Ghent (Belgium)], E-mail: jan.casselman@azbrugge.be

    2010-05-15

    There is a large scala of pathology affecting the vestibulocochlear nerve. Magnetic resonance imaging is the method of choice for the investigation of pathology of the vestibulocochlear nerve. Congenital pathology mainly consists of agenesis or hypoplasia of the vestibulocochlear nerve. Tumoral pathology affecting the vestibulocochlear nerve is most frequently located in the internal auditory canal or cerebellopontine angle. Schwannoma of the vestibulocochlear nerve is the most frequently found tumoral lesion followed by meningeoma, arachnoid cyst and epidermoid cyst. The most frequently encountered pathologies as well as some more rare entities are discussed in this chapter.

  4. Stimulus point distribution in deep or superficial peroneal nerve for treatment of ankle spasticity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubota, Shinji; Tanabe, Shigeo; Sugawara, Kenichi; Muraoka, Yoshihiro; Itoh, Norihide; Kanada, Yoshikiyo

    2013-01-01

     To develop effective electrical stimulation treatment to reduce spasticity, we examined the optimal stimulus point of the common peroneal nerve.  The locations of selective stimulus points for the deep peroneal nerve or superficial peroneal nerve fiber were examined in 25 healthy subjects in both legs (50 legs) using the ratio of the tibialis anterior (TA) to the peroneus longus (PL) M-wave amplitude (TA/PL ratio). In addition, we measured reciprocal Ia inhibition in ten healthy subjects. The amount of inhibition was determined from short-latency suppression of the soleus (Sol) H-reflex by conditioning stimuli to the deep or superficial peroneal nerve. The paired t-test was used for statistical analysis.  The mean TA/PL ratio during deep peroneal nerve stimulation was significantly different from superficial peroneal nerve stimulation (p < 0.001). The mean stimulus point for the deep peroneal nerve was located 7 ± 5 mm distal and 3 ± 6 mm anterior from the distal edges of the head of fibula and was markedly different from the stimulus point for the superficial peroneal nerve (20 ± 7 mm distal and 12 ± 8 mm posterior). During deep peroneal nerve stimulation, the mean conditioned H-reflex was depressed to 83.8 ± 10.7% of the unconditioned value of the H-reflex. In contrast, during superficial peroneal nerve stimulation, the mean conditioned H-reflex increased to 105.3 ± 5.2%. These values were significantly different (p < 0.001).  In the present study, we revealed a stimulus area of the deep peroneal nerve. Also, we observed the inhibitory effects of stimulation upon the deep peroneal nerve at individual stimulus point. Our results appear to indicate that localized stimulation of the deep peroneal nerve is more useful for the reduction of ankle spasticity. © 2012 International Neuromodulation Society.

  5. Vascularized nerve grafts for lower extremity nerve reconstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terzis, Julia K; Kostopoulos, Vasileios K

    2010-02-01

    Vascularized nerve grafts (VNG) were introduced in 1976 but since then, there have been no reports of their usage in lower extremity reconstruction systematically. The factors influencing outcomes as well as a comparison with conventional nerve grafts will be presented.Since 1981, 14 lower extremity nerve injuries in 12 patients have been reconstructed with VNG. Common peroneal nerve was injured in 12 and posterior tibial nerve in 5 patients. The level of the injury was at the knee or thigh. Twelve sural nerves were used as VNG with or without concomitant vascularized posterior calf fascia.All patients regained improved sensibility and adequate posterior tibial nerve function. For common peroneal nerve reconstructions, all patients with denervation time less than 6 months regained muscle strength of grade at least 4, even when long grafts were used for defects of 20 cm or more. Late cases, yielded inadequate muscle function even with the use of VNG.Denervation time of 6 months or less was critical for reconstruction with vascularized nerve graft. Not only the results were statistically significant compared with late cases, but also all early operated patients achieved excellent results. VNG are strongly recommended in traction avulsion injuries of the lower extremity with lengthy nerve damage.

  6. Surgical anatomy of the radial nerve at the elbow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Artico, M; Telera, S; Tiengo, C; Stecco, C; Macchi, V; Porzionato, A; Vigato, E; Parenti, A; De Caro, R

    2009-02-01

    An anatomical study of the brachial portion of the radial nerve with surgical implications is proposed. Thirty specimens of arm from 20 fresh cadavers (11 male, 9 female) were used to examine the topographical relations of the radial nerve with reference to the following anatomical landmarks: acromion angle, medial and lateral epicondyles, point of division between the lateral and long heads of the triceps brachii, lateral intermuscular septum, site of division of the radial nerve into its superficial and posterior interosseous branches and entry and exit point of the posterior interosseous branch into the supinator muscle. The mean distances between the acromion angle and the medial and lateral levels of crossing the posterior aspect of the humerus were 109 (+/-11) and 157 (+/-11) mm, respectively. The mean length and calibre of the nerve in the groove were 59 (+/-4) and 6 (+/-1) mm, respectively. The division of the lateral and long heads of the triceps was found at a mean distance of 126 (+/-13) mm from the acromion angle. The mean distances between the lateral point of crossing the posterior aspect of the humerus and the medial and lateral epicondyles were 125 (+/-13) and 121 (+/-13) mm, respectively. The mean distance between the lateral point of crossing the posterior aspect of the humerus and the entry point in the lateral intermuscular septum (LIS) was 29 (+/-6) mm. The mean distances between the entry point of the nerve in the LIS and the medial and lateral epicondyles were 133 (+/-14) and 110 (+/-23) mm, respectively. Our study provides reliable and objective data of surgical anatomy of the radial nerve which should be always kept in mind by surgeons approaching to the surgery of the arm, in order to avoid iatrogenic injuries.

  7. Probabilistic Modeling of Intracranial Pressure Effects on Optic Nerve Biomechanics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ethier, C. R.; Feola, Andrew J.; Raykin, Julia; Myers, Jerry G.; Nelson, Emily S.; Samuels, Brian C.

    2016-01-01

    Altered intracranial pressure (ICP) is involved/implicated in several ocular conditions: papilledema, glaucoma and Visual Impairment and Intracranial Pressure (VIIP) syndrome. The biomechanical effects of altered ICP on optic nerve head (ONH) tissues in these conditions are uncertain but likely important. We have quantified ICP-induced deformations of ONH tissues, using finite element (FE) and probabilistic modeling (Latin Hypercube Simulations (LHS)) to consider a range of tissue properties and relevant pressures.

  8. Learning topography with Tangible Landscape games

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrasova, A.; Tabrizian, P.; Harmon, B. A.; Petras, V.; Millar, G.; Mitasova, H.; Meentemeyer, R. K.

    2017-12-01

    Understanding topography and its representations is crucial for correct interpretation and modeling of surface processes. However, novice earth science and landscape architecture students often find reading topographic maps challenging. As a result, many students struggle to comprehend more complex spatial concepts and processes such as flow accumulation or sediment transport.We developed and tested a new method for teaching hydrology, geomorphology, and grading using Tangible Landscape—a tangible interface for geospatial modeling. Tangible Landscape couples a physical and digital model of a landscape through a real-time cycle of hands-on modeling, 3D scanning, geospatial computation, and projection. With Tangible Landscape students can sculpt a projection-augmented topographic model of a landscape with their hands and use a variety of tangible objects to immediately see how they are changing geospatial analytics such as contours, profiles, water flow, or landform types. By feeling and manipulating the shape of the topography, while seeing projected geospatial analytics, students can intuitively learn about 3D topographic form, its representations, and how topography controls physical processes. Tangible Landscape is powered by GRASS GIS, an open source geospatial platform with extensive libraries for geospatial modeling and analysis. As such, Tangible Landscape can be used to design a wide range of learning experiences across a large number of geoscience disciplines.As part of a graduate level course that teaches grading, 16 students participated in a series of workshops, which were developed as serious games to encourage learning through structured play. These serious games included 1) diverting rain water to a specified location with minimal changes to landscape, 2) building different combinations of landforms, and 3) reconstructing landscapes based on projected contour information with feedback.In this poster, we will introduce Tangible Landscape, and

  9. Unilateral sixth nerve palsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sotoodehnia, Mehran; Safaei, Arash; Rasooli, Fatemeh; Bahreini, Maryam

    2017-06-01

    The diagnosis of cerebral venous sinus thrombosis still remains a real challenge. Seizure, unusual headache with sudden onset, unexplained persistently unilateral vascular headache and neurologic deficit-which is difficult to be attributed to a vascular territory are some of the suggestive symptoms. An isolated sixth nerve palsy is discussed as a rare presentation for cerebral venous thrombosis. Following the extensive investigation to rule out other possible diagnoses, magnetic resonance venogram revealed the final etiology of sixth nerve palsy that was ipsilateral left transverse sinus thrombosis; therefore, anticoagulant treatment with low molecular weight heparin was administered. Rapid and accurate diagnosis and treatment cause to achieve excellent outcomes for most patients. Considering different clinical features, risk factors and high index of suspicion are helpful to reach the diagnosis. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Welcome to Surface Topography: Metrology and Properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leach, Richard

    2013-11-01

    I am delighted to welcome readers to this inaugural issue of Surface Topography: Metrology and Properties (STMP). In these days of citation indexes and academic reviews, it is a tough, and maybe a brave, job to start a new journal. But the subject area has never been more active and we are seeing genuine breakthroughs in the use of surfaces to control functional performance. Most manufactured parts rely on some form of control of their surface characteristics. The surface is usually defined as that feature on a component or device, which interacts with either the environment in which it is housed (or in which the device operates), or with another surface. The surface topography and material characteristics of a part can affect how fluids interact with it, how the part looks and feels and how two bearing parts will slide together. The need to control, and hence measure, surface features is becoming increasingly important as we move into a miniaturized world. Surface features can become the dominant functional features of a part and may become large in comparison to the overall size of an object. Research into surface texture measurement and characterization has been carried out for over a century and is now more active than ever, especially as new areal surface texture specification standards begin to be introduced. The range of disciplines for which the function of a surface relates to its topography is very diverse; from metal sheet manufacturing to art restoration, from plastic electronics to forensics. Until now, there has been no obvious publishing venue to bring together all these applications with the underlying research and theory, or to unite those working in academia with engineering and industry. Hence the creation of Surface Topography: Metrology and Properties . STMP will publish the best work being done across this broad discipline in one journal, helping researchers to share common themes and highlighting and promoting the extraordinary benefits this

  11. Head Stabilization Reflex in Patients with Brain Stem Vascular Lesions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ferah Kızılay

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The head stabilization reflex (HSR elicited by stimulating the accessory nerve is an oligo-polysynaptic/plurisegmental flexor reflex, which brings the head back to its previous position in response to a variety of sudden head position changes. This reflex was studied in numerous diseases and was inhibited in patients with cerebellar lesions. The present study aimed to investigate how HSR is affected in patients with brain stem vascular lesions. METHODS: The study included 18 patients with brain stem vascular lesions and 18 normal control subjects. Concentric needle electrodes were inserted into the belly of both the sternocleidomastoid muscle and the accessory nerve, and were stimulated separately from the posterior triangle. In all, 8 HSR responses were recorded and mean onset latencies were measured. RESULTS: By stimulating the left accessory nerve in patients with brain stem vascular lesions, contralateral HSR could not be elicited. Similarly, by stimulating the right accessory nerve, contralateral HSR response was elicited only in 3 of the 18 patients. In contrast, stimulation of both the left and right accessory nerves elicited contralateral HSR in all the controls. CONCLUSION: HSR was inhibited in patients with brain stem vascular lesions. This observation shows that the descending pathways in the brain stem facilitate HSR in a similar fashion as the cerebellum was shown to do in a previous study

  12. Optic nerve hypoplasia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Savleen Kaur

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Optic nerve hypoplasia (ONH is a congenital anomaly of the optic disc that might result in moderate to severe vision loss in children. With a vast number of cases now being reported, the rarity of ONH is obviously now refuted. The major aspects of ophthalmic evaluation of an infant with possible ONH are visual assessment, fundus examination, and visual electrophysiology. Characteristically, the disc is small, there is a peripapillary double-ring sign, vascular tortuosity, and thinning of the nerve fiber layer. A patient with ONH should be assessed for presence of neurologic, radiologic, and endocrine associations. There may be maternal associations like premature births, fetal alcohol syndrome, maternal diabetes. Systemic associations in the child include endocrine abnormalities, developmental delay, cerebral palsy, and seizures. Besides the hypoplastic optic nerve and chiasm, neuroimaging shows abnormalities in ventricles or white- or gray-matter development, septo-optic dysplasia, hydrocephalus, and corpus callosum abnormalities. There is a greater incidence of clinical neurologic abnormalities in patients with bilateral ONH (65% than patients with unilateral ONH. We present a review on the available literature on the same to urge caution in our clinical practice when dealing with patients with ONH. Fundus photography, ocular coherence tomography, visual field testing, color vision evaluation, neuroimaging, endocrinology consultation with or without genetic testing are helpful in the diagnosis and management of ONH. (Method of search: MEDLINE, PUBMED.

  13. [Proximal interlocking of humeral intramedullary nails and risk of axillary nerve injury].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blum, J; Rommens, P M

    2002-01-01

    Possible injuries to the axillary nerve are criticised in antegrade and retrograde endomedullary nailing of the humeral shaft during proximal interlocking. Clinical experience seems not to support the theory of a high risk of nerve injury. The real risk although remains unknown under anatomical-morphological aspects. Eight complete human cadaveric shoulder-arm regions with original soft-tissue coverage had been used. Four times the unreamed humeral nail (UHN) had been inserted retrograde, and four times antegrade, distributed in each pair. Antegrade interlocking was performed after skin incision and spreading of soft tissues through the aiming devices. This involved one oblique bolt from lateral to medial. Retrograde proximal interlocking was performed under image intensifier. This involved triple interlocking, once dorso-ventrally and twice latero-medially. The incision paths have been marked. After preparation of the nerve stem in the lateral axillary portal the different branches have been searched and exposed. The spatial relations of bolts and nerve branches have been measured and the insertion path of the bolts has been revised, finally lesions of nerve structures have been documented. We found the latero-medially inserted bolt heads of the retrograde approach and the oblique bolt head of the antegrade approach being placed in a safe distance from the medio-dorsally positioned stem of the axillary nerve. On the other hand the dorsoventrally inserted bolt head (retrograde approach) showed in most cases a very tight relation to the nerve stem. Exploring the axillary nerve and its branches showed in no case a direct nerve lesion. We suggest to perform only a sharp cutaneous incision and then to prepare the muscle only by careful spreading until touching bone, with tissue retraction during drilling. In retrograde nailing the dorso-ventral bolt should only be used in extreme proximal fractures.

  14. Differences in optic nerve structure between individuals of predominantly African and European ancestry: Implications for disease detection and pathogenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher A Girkin

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Christopher A GirkinUniversity of Alabama at Birmingham School of Medicine, Birmingham, AL, USAAbstract: Glaucoma disproportionately affects individual of African ancestry. Additionally, racial differences in the optic nerve head have been well described that may alter the vulnerability to intraocular pressure related injury and, in addition, alter the clinical ability to detect the presence of early optic nerve injury. This paper will review the literature describing racial differences in the optic nerve head between individuals of African and European ancestry with regards to the potential effects of these differences on the ability to detect glaucoma in different racial groups and to potential differences in the pathogenesis of glaucomatous injury.Keywords: primary open angle glaucoma, African American, optic nerve, optic disc, retinal nerve fiber layer

  15. Head circumference (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Head circumference is a measurement of the circumference of the child's head at its largest area, above the eyebrows and ears and around the back of the head. During routine check-ups, the distance is measured ...

  16. Abnormal Head Position

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Frequently Asked Questions Español Condiciones Chinese Conditions Abnormal Head Position En Español Read in Chinese What is an abnormal head posture? An abnormal or compensatory head posture occurs ...

  17. Computed Tomography (CT) -- Head

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... of the Head? What is CT Scanning of the Head? Computed tomography, more commonly known as a ... of page What are some common uses of the procedure? CT scanning of the head is typically ...

  18. Cranial nerves in the Australian lungfish, Neoceratodus forsteri, and in fossil relatives (Osteichthyes: Dipnoi).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kemp, A

    2017-02-01

    Three systems, two sensory and one protective, are present in the skin of the living Australian lungfish, Neoceratodus forsteri, and in fossil lungfish, and the arrangement and innervation of the sense organs is peculiar to lungfish. Peripheral branches of nerves that innervate the sense organs are slender and unprotected, and form before any skeletal structures appear. When the olfactory capsule develops, it traps some of the anterior branches of cranial nerve V, which emerged from the chondrocranium from the lateral sphenotic foramen. Cranial nerve I innervates the olfactory organ enclosed within the olfactory capsule and cranial nerve II innervates the eye. Cranial nerve V innervates the sense organs of the snout and upper lip, and, in conjunction with nerve IX and X, the sense organs of the posterior and lateral head. Cranial nerve VII is primarily a motor nerve, and a single branch innervates sense organs in the mandible. There are no connections between nerves V and VII, although both emerge from the brain close to each other. The third associated system consists of lymphatic vessels covered by an extracellular matrix of collagen, mineralised as tubules in fossils. Innervation of the sensory organs is separate from the lymphatic system and from the tubule system of fossil lungfish. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. ocular complications among cases of head injury seen in a neurosurgi

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    EZENWUGO CHIEDOZIE OBIORA

    ocular cranial nerves were the most commonly occurring complication among the cases of head injury seen in Memphys. Hospital for Neurosurgery, Enugu. Key words: Ocular complications, head injury, Nigeria. INTRODUCTION. Road traffic accidents have been on the increase in Nigeria. Some studies have attributed this ...

  20. Snap evaporation of droplets on smooth topographies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wells, Gary G; Ruiz-Gutiérrez, Élfego; Le Lirzin, Youen; Nourry, Anthony; Orme, Bethany V; Pradas, Marc; Ledesma-Aguilar, Rodrigo

    2018-04-11

    Droplet evaporation on solid surfaces is important in many applications including printing, micro-patterning and cooling. While seemingly simple, the configuration of evaporating droplets on solids is difficult to predict and control. This is because evaporation typically proceeds as a "stick-slip" sequence-a combination of pinning and de-pinning events dominated by static friction or "pinning", caused by microscopic surface roughness. Here we show how smooth, pinning-free, solid surfaces of non-planar topography promote a different process called snap evaporation. During snap evaporation a droplet follows a reproducible sequence of configurations, consisting of a quasi-static phase-change controlled by mass diffusion interrupted by out-of-equilibrium snaps. Snaps are triggered by bifurcations of the equilibrium droplet shape mediated by the underlying non-planar solid. Because the evolution of droplets during snap evaporation is controlled by a smooth topography, and not by surface roughness, our ideas can inspire programmable surfaces that manage liquids in heat- and mass-transfer applications.

  1. Nerves and nerve endings in the skin of tropical cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amakiri, S F; Ozoya, S E; Ogunnaike, P O

    1978-01-01

    The nerves and nerve endings in the skin of tropical cattle were studied using histological and histochemical techniques. Many nerve trunks and fibres were present in the reticular and papillary dermis in both hairy and non-hairy skin sites. In non-hairy skin locations such as the muzzle and lower lip, encapsulated endings akin to Krause and Ruffini end bulbs, which arise from myelinated nerve trunks situated lower down the dermis were observed at the upper papillary layer level. Some fibre trunks seen at this level extended upwards to terminate within dermal papillae as bulb-shaped longitudinally lamellated Pacinian-type endings, while other onion-shaped lamellated nerve structures were located either within dermal papillae or near the dermo-epidermal area. Intraepidermal free-ending nerve fibres, appearing non-myelinated were observed in areas with thick epidermis. Intraepidermal free-ending nerve fibres, appearing non-myelinated were observed in areas with thick epidermis. On hairy skin sites, however, organized nerve endings or intraepidermal nerve endings were not readily identifiable.

  2. Peripheral Nerve Injury: Stem Cell Therapy and Peripheral Nerve Transfer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, Robert; Dailey, Travis; Duncan, Kelsey; Abel, Naomi; Borlongan, Cesario V

    2016-12-14

    Peripheral nerve injury can lead to great morbidity in those afflicted, ranging from sensory loss, motor loss, chronic pain, or a combination of deficits. Over time, research has investigated neuronal molecular mechanisms implicated in nerve damage, classified nerve injury, and developed surgical techniques for treatment. Despite these advancements, full functional recovery remains less than ideal. In this review, we discuss historical aspects of peripheral nerve injury and introduce nerve transfer as a therapeutic option, as well as an adjunct therapy to transplantation of Schwann cells and their stem cell derivatives for repair of the damaged nerve. This review furthermore, will provide an elaborated discussion on the sources of Schwann cells, including sites to harvest their progenitor and stem cell lines. This reflects the accessibility to an additional, concurrent treatment approach with nerve transfers that, predicated on related research, may increase the efficacy of the current approach. We then discuss the experimental and clinical investigations of both Schwann cells and nerve transfer that are underway. Lastly, we provide the necessary consideration that these two lines of therapeutic approaches should not be exclusive, but conversely, should be pursued as a combined modality given their mutual role in peripheral nerve regeneration.

  3. Peripheral Nerve Injury: Stem Cell Therapy and Peripheral Nerve Transfer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Sullivan

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Peripheral nerve injury can lead to great morbidity in those afflicted, ranging from sensory loss, motor loss, chronic pain, or a combination of deficits. Over time, research has investigated neuronal molecular mechanisms implicated in nerve damage, classified nerve injury, and developed surgical techniques for treatment. Despite these advancements, full functional recovery remains less than ideal. In this review, we discuss historical aspects of peripheral nerve injury and introduce nerve transfer as a therapeutic option, as well as an adjunct therapy to transplantation of Schwann cells and their stem cell derivatives for repair of the damaged nerve. This review furthermore, will provide an elaborated discussion on the sources of Schwann cells, including sites to harvest their progenitor and stem cell lines. This reflects the accessibility to an additional, concurrent treatment approach with nerve transfers that, predicated on related research, may increase the efficacy of the current approach. We then discuss the experimental and clinical investigations of both Schwann cells and nerve transfer that are underway. Lastly, we provide the necessary consideration that these two lines of therapeutic approaches should not be exclusive, but conversely, should be pursued as a combined modality given their mutual role in peripheral nerve regeneration.

  4. Intraoral Neurinoma of the Lingual Nerve: An Uncommon Tumor in Floor of the Mouth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santhosh Kumar kuppusamy

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Neurinoma or schwannoma is an uncommon benign tumor that arises primarily from the nerve sheath of Schwann cells. About 25% has been reported in head and neck region extracranially, but only 1% in the intraoral origin. Intraorally, the tongue is the most common site followed by the palate, floor of the mouth, lips and buccal mucosa. In review of literature, intraoral schwannoma of the lingual nerve origin has not been reported frequently. So, we present a case of intraoral neurinoma of the lingual nerve.

  5. Head Impact Laboratory (HIL)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The HIL uses testing devices to evaluate vehicle interior energy attenuating (EA) technologies for mitigating head injuries resulting from head impacts during mine/...

  6. [Topography of the large nodus lymphaticus pancreaticoduodenalis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sapin, M R; Ussowitsch, A K

    1982-01-01

    While investigating the regional lymph nodes of the liver of 72 elder men and women we found a large nymph node--75 X 32 mm, belonging to the group of Nodi lymphatici pancreatico-duodenales superiores posteriores. The bigger part of the lymph node lies behind the head of pancreas, the upper pole of the lymph node in 79.2% of cases is situated above the head of pancreas behind ductus choledochus. The left part of the lymph node in 33.3% of cases is situated on the upper surface of a. celiaca.

  7. Neurovascular compression syndrome of the eighth cranial nerve

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Itoh, Akinori

    2010-01-01

    Neurovascular compression syndrome (NVCS) involves neuropathy due to intracranial blood vessels compressing the cranial nerves. NVCS of the eighth cranial nerve is less reportedly established as a clinical entity than that of the fifth and seventh cranial nerves. We report 17 cases of NVCS of the eighth cranial nerve and their clinical features. Clinical symptoms and test findings among our subjects indicated that most were aged more than 65 years, were unilateral, had intermittent tinnitus, suffered attacks lasting a few seconds dozens of times a day, experienced dizziness concomitantly with tinnitus, aggravated tinnitus and dizziness when tilting the head toward the affected side and looking downward (positional tinnitus, positional dizziness), heard specific tinnitus sounds such as crackling differing from those in cochlear tinnitus, had mild or no hearing loss, were diagnosed with retrocochlear hearing disturbance due to an interpeak latency delay between waves I and III of the auditory brainstem response (ABR), often had no nystagmus or canal paresis (CP), were found in constructive interference steady state magnetic resonance imaging (CISS MRI) to have compression of the eighth cranial nerve by the vertebral artery (VA) or the anterior inferior cerebellar artery (AICA), rarely had concomitant facial spasms, and had tinnitus and dizziness markedly suppressed by carbamazepine. With the number of elderly individuals continuing to increase, cases of NVCS due to arteriosclerotic changes in cerebral blood vessels are expected to increase, making it necessary to consider NVCS in elderly subjects with dizziness, tinnitus, and hearing loss. (author)

  8. Nerve cross-bridging to enhance nerve regeneration in a rat model of delayed nerve repair.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tessa Gordon

    Full Text Available There are currently no available options to promote nerve regeneration through chronically denervated distal nerve stumps. Here we used a rat model of delayed nerve repair asking of prior insertion of side-to-side cross-bridges between a donor tibial (TIB nerve and a recipient denervated common peroneal (CP nerve stump ameliorates poor nerve regeneration. First, numbers of retrogradely-labelled TIB neurons that grew axons into the nerve stump within three months, increased with the size of the perineurial windows opened in the TIB and CP nerves. Equal numbers of donor TIB axons regenerated into CP stumps either side of the cross-bridges, not being affected by target neurotrophic effects, or by removing the perineurium to insert 5-9 cross-bridges. Second, CP nerve stumps were coapted three months after inserting 0-9 cross-bridges and the number of 1 CP neurons that regenerated their axons within three months or 2 CP motor nerves that reinnervated the extensor digitorum longus (EDL muscle within five months was determined by counting and motor unit number estimation (MUNE, respectively. We found that three but not more cross-bridges promoted the regeneration of axons and reinnervation of EDL muscle by all the CP motoneurons as compared to only 33% regenerating their axons when no cross-bridges were inserted. The same 3-fold increase in sensory nerve regeneration was found. In conclusion, side-to-side cross-bridges ameliorate poor regeneration after delayed nerve repair possibly by sustaining the growth-permissive state of denervated nerve stumps. Such autografts may be used in human repair surgery to improve outcomes after unavoidable delays.

  9. Elucidating Dynamical Processes Relevant to Flow Encountering Abrupt Topography (FLEAT)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-30

    Encountering Abrupt Topography (FLEAT) Bo Qiu Dept of Oceanography, University of Hawaii at Manoa 1000 Pope Rd. Honolulu, HI 96822 phone: (808) 956...c) to explore relevant dynamics by using both simplified models and OGCM output with realistic topography and surface boundary conditions...scale abyssal circulation, we propose to use the Hallberg Isopycnal Model (HIM). The HIM allows sloping isopycnals to interact with bottom topography

  10. Aplasia of the optic nerve.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Daniel C W; Man, Eric M W; Cheng, Sunny C S

    2015-08-01

    Aplasia of the optic nerve is an extraordinarily rare congenital anomaly that affects one or both optic nerves and is associated with the absence of the central retinal vessel and retinal ganglion cells. We report a case of unilateral optic nerve aplasia in a 4-month-old infant who was found to have left microphthalmos on routine postnatal checkup. Family history, antenatal history, and systemic evaluation were unremarkable. Magnetic resonance imaging showed absent left optic nerve with left microphthalmos. The optic chiasm was present and slightly deviated towards the right side. The remaining cerebral and ocular structures were normal.

  11. Origin of bending in uncoated microcantilever - Surface topography?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lakshmoji, K.; Prabakar, K.; Tripura Sundari, S.; Jayapandian, J.; Tyagi, A. K.; Sundar, C. S.

    2014-01-01

    We provide direct experimental evidence to show that difference in surface topography on opposite sides of an uncoated microcantilever induces bending, upon exposure to water molecules. Examination on opposite sides of the microcantilever by atomic force microscopy reveals the presence of localized surface features on one side, which renders the induced stress non-uniform. Further, the root mean square inclination angle characterizing the surface topography shows a difference of 73° between the opposite sides. The absence of deflection in another uncoated microcantilever having similar surface topography confirms that in former microcantilever bending is indeed induced by differences in surface topography

  12. Occasional head of flexor pollicis longus muscle: a study of its morphology and clinical significance.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hemmady M

    1993-01-01

    Full Text Available A cadaveric dissection study of 54 upper extremities to determine the incidence of occurrence, morphology and relations of the occasional head of the flexor pollicis longus muscle is presented. The occasional head of the flexor pollicis longus muscle was found to be present more frequently (66.66% than absent. It mainly arose from the medical epicondyle of the humerus (55.55% and the medial border of the coronoid process of the ulna (16.66%. It was found to be in close association with the median nerve (anteriorly and the anterior interosseous nerve (posteriorly. The clinical implications of these findings are discussed viz. entrapment neuropathies of the median and anterior interosseous nerves, cicatricial contraction of the occasional head leading to flexion deformity of the thumb and the likely necessity to lengthen/release the occasional head in spastic paralysis of the flexor pollicis longus muscle.

  13. An unusual ulnar nerve-median nerve communicating branch.

    OpenAIRE

    Hoogbergen, M M; Kauer, J M

    1992-01-01

    Branching of the ulnar nerve distal to the origin of the dorsal cutaneous branch was investigated in 25 hands in one of which an anatomical variation was observed. This finding may be of importance in the evaluation of certain entrapment phenomena of the ulnar nerve or unexplained sensory loss after trauma or surgical intervention in that particular area.

  14. Transient femoral nerve palsy following ilioinguinal nerve block for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nigerian Journal of Surgery ... Background: Elective inguinal hernia repair in young fit patients is preferably done under ilioinguinal nerve block anesthesia in the ambulatory setting to improve ... Conclusion: TFNP is a rare complication of ilioinguinal nerve block which delays patient discharge postambulatory hernioplasty.

  15. Delayed-onset bilateral abducens paresis after head trauma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pravin Salunke

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Bilateral sixth nerve paresis following closed head injury, though rare, is a known entity. However, delayed-onset post-traumatic bilateral abducens paresis is extremely rare. We present two cases. The first patient had onset of bilateral abducens paresis 2 weeks after closed head injury and the second patient after 3 days. The cause in the former was detected to be chronic subdural hematoma and in the latter is speculated to be edema/ischemia due to injury to soft tissue structures housing these nerves. The delayed onset of bilateral abducens paresis following head injury may vary according to the cause. There may be another mechanism of injury apart from direct trauma. Though rare, it needs to be evaluated and may have a treatable cause like elevated intracranial pressure.

  16. Mean Dynamic Topography of the Arctic Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrell, Sinead Louise; Mcadoo, David C.; Laxon, Seymour W.; Zwally, H. Jay; Yi, Donghui; Ridout, Andy; Giles, Katherine

    2012-01-01

    ICESat and Envisat altimetry data provide measurements of the instantaneous sea surface height (SSH) across the Arctic Ocean, using lead and open water elevation within the sea ice pack. First, these data were used to derive two independent mean sea surface (MSS) models by stacking and averaging along-track SSH profiles gathered between 2003 and 2009. The ICESat and Envisat MSS data were combined to construct the high-resolution ICEn MSS. Second, we estimate the 5.5-year mean dynamic topography (MDT) of the Arctic Ocean by differencing the ICEn MSS with the new GOCO02S geoid model, derived from GRACE and GOCE gravity. Using these satellite-only data we map the major features of Arctic Ocean dynamical height that are consistent with in situ observations, including the topographical highs and lows of the Beaufort and Greenland Gyres, respectively. Smaller-scale MDT structures remain largely unresolved due to uncertainties in the geoid at short wavelengths.

  17. Nanoscale surface topographies for structural colors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, Jeppe Sandvik

    The thesis describes and demonstrates the possibilities for utilization of structural colors in mass fabricated plastic products as replacement for or in combination with pigments and inks. The motivation is the possible advantages related to re-cycling and re-use of plastic by limiting the number......-polymer interface is suppressed. This improves the ability to see through a clear plastic in the presence of specular reflection. The tapered nanostructures are also utilized to enhance the chroma of pigmented polymers. Larger tapered structures fabricated in a similar manor are shown to work as color filters....... Through an experimental study is the color of the transmitted light linked directly to the random topography of the surface by use of diffraction theory. The color effects from periodic structures and how these might be employed to create bright colors are investigated. This is done both for opaque...

  18. Topography-modified refraction: adjustment of treated cylinder amount and axis to the topography versus standard clinical refraction in myopic topography-guided LASIK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alpins N

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Noel Alpins1,2 1NewVision Clinics, Melbourne, VIC, Australia; 2Department Ophthalmology, Melbourne University, Melbourne, VIC, Australia It is encouraging to see the results in the article by Kanellopoulos “Topography-modified refraction (TMR: adjustment of treated cylinder amount and axis to the topography versus standard clinical refraction in myopic topography-guided LASIK”,1 where the combination of refractive and corneal data in the treatment parameters provide better outcomes than treatment by optimal subjective refraction. View the original paper by Kanellopoulos AJ.

  19. Electroencephalographic topography measures of experienced utility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedroni, Andreas; Langer, Nicolas; Koenig, Thomas; Allemand, Michael; Jäncke, Lutz

    2011-07-20

    Economic theory distinguishes two concepts of utility: decision utility, objectively quantifiable by choices, and experienced utility, referring to the satisfaction by an obtainment. To date, experienced utility is typically measured with subjective ratings. This study intended to quantify experienced utility by global levels of neuronal activity. Neuronal activity was measured by means of electroencephalographic (EEG) responses to gain and omission of graded monetary rewards at the level of the EEG topography in human subjects. A novel analysis approach allowed approximating psychophysiological value functions for the experienced utility of monetary rewards. In addition, we identified the time windows of the event-related potentials (ERP) and the respective intracortical sources, in which variations in neuronal activity were significantly related to the value or valence of outcomes. Results indicate that value functions of experienced utility and regret disproportionally increase with monetary value, and thus contradict the compressing value functions of decision utility. The temporal pattern of outcome evaluation suggests an initial (∼250 ms) coarse evaluation regarding the valence, concurrent with a finer-grained evaluation of the value of gained rewards, whereas the evaluation of the value of omitted rewards emerges later. We hypothesize that this temporal double dissociation is explained by reward prediction errors. Finally, a late, yet unreported, reward-sensitive ERP topography (∼500 ms) was identified. The sources of these topographical covariations are estimated in the ventromedial prefrontal cortex, the medial frontal gyrus, the anterior and posterior cingulate cortex and the hippocampus/amygdala. The results provide important new evidence regarding "how," "when," and "where" the brain evaluates outcomes with different hedonic impact.

  20. Evolution of Neogene Dynamic Topography in Madagascar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, J. D.; Roberts, G.; White, N. J.

    2012-12-01

    Madagascar is located on the fringes of the African superswell. Its position and the existence of a +30 mGal long wavelength free-air gravity anomaly suggest that its present-day topography is maintained by convective circulation of the sub-lithospheric mantle. Residual depth anomalies of oceanic crust encompassing the island imply that Madagascar straddles a dynamic topographic gradient. In June-July 2012, we examined geologic evidence for Neogene uplift around the Malagasy coastline. Uplifted coral reef deposits, fossil beach rock, and terraces demonstrate that the northern and southern coasts are probably being uplifted at a rate of ~0.2 mm/yr. Rates of uplift clearly vary around the coastline. Inland, extensive peneplains occur at elevations of 1 - 2 km. These peneplains are underlain by 10 - 20 m thick laterite deposits, and there is abundant evidence for rapid erosion (e.g. lavaka). Basaltic volcanism also occurred during Neogene times. These field observations can be combined with an analysis of drainage networks to determine the spatial and temporal pattern of convectively driven uplift. ~100 longitudinal river profiles were extracted from a digital elevation model of Madagascar. An inverse model is then used to minimize the misfit between observed and calculated river profiles as a function of uplift rate history. During inversion, the residual misfit decreases from ~20 to ~4. Our results suggest that youthful and rapid uplift of 1-2 km occurred at rates of 0.2-0.4 mm/yr during the last ˜15 Myr. The algorithm resolves distinct phases of uplift which generate localized swells of high topography and relief (e.g. the Hauts Plateaux). Our field observations and modeling indicate that the evolution of drainage networks may contain useful information about mantle convective processes.

  1. Ultrasound imaging of the axillary nerve and its role in the diagnosis of traumatic impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gruber, H; Peer, S; Gruber, L; Loescher, W; Bauer, T; Loizides, A

    2014-08-01

    The axillary nerve (AN) is frequently injured during shoulder trauma and imaging is required to define the site and extent of nerve injury. However, the AN has a rather complex course through several soft tissue compartments of the shoulder and axilla. Therefore, imaging of the nerve with MRI and sonography is troublesome. Thus detection and sonographic assessment bases on thorough knowledge of local topography. This investigation aimed at defining reliable anatomical landmarks for AN-sonography in 5 volunteers and later validating the proposed sonographic examination protocol in 10 unselected patients. With strict adherence to the proposed examination algorithm, sonography of the AN was feasible in all volunteers and patients. Furthermore, sonographic findings correlated nicely with the golden standard "surgical exploration" concerning severity and topography of neural impairment. Based on our study results we propose our algorithm for AN-sonography as the first-line imaging tool for the assessment of axillary nerve trauma. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  2. Peripheral Nerve Stimulation of Brachial Plexus Nerve Roots and Supra-Scapular Nerve for Chronic Refractory Neuropathic Pain of the Upper Limb.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouche, Bénédicte; Manfiotto, Marie; Rigoard, Philippe; Lemarie, Jean; Dix-Neuf, Véronique; Lanteri-Minet, Michel; Fontaine, Denys

    2017-10-01

    We report the outcome of a consecutive series of 26 patients suffering from chronic medically-refractory neuropathic pain of the upper limb (including 16 patients with complex regional pain syndrome), topographically limited, treated by brachial plexus (BP) nerve roots or supra-scapular nerve (SSN) peripheral nerve stimulation (PNS). The technique consisted in ultrasound-guided percutaneous implantation of a cylindrical lead (Pisces-Quad, Medtronic) close to the SSN or the cervical nerve roots within the BP, depending on the pain topography. All the patients underwent a positive trial stimulation before lead connection to a subcutaneous stimulator. Chronic bipolar stimulation mean parameters were: frequency 55.5 Hertz, voltage 1.17 Volts. The voltage was set below the threshold inducing muscle contractions or paresthesias. Two patients were lost immediately after surgery. At last follow-up (mean 27.5 months), the 20 patients still using the stimulation experienced a mean pain relief of 67.1%. Seventeen patients were improved ≥50%, including 12 improved ≥70%. In 11 patients with a follow-up >2 years, the mean pain relief was 68%. At last follow-up, respectively, six out of the nine (67%) patients treated by SSN stimulation and 10 out of 17 patients (59%) treated by BP stimulation were improved ≥50%. At last follow-up, 12 out of 20 patients still using the stimulation were very satisfied, six were satisfied, and two were poorly satisfied. Complications were: stimulation intolerance due to shock-like sensations (three cases), superficial infection (1), lead fractures (2), and migration (1). In this pilot study, SSN or BP roots PNS provided a relatively safe, durable and effective option to control upper limb neuropathic pain. © 2017 International Neuromodulation Society.

  3. Side Effects: Nerve Problems (Peripheral Neuropathy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nerve problems, such as peripheral neuropathy, can be caused by cancer treatment. Learn about signs and symptoms of nerve changes. Find out how to prevent or manage nerve problems during cancer treatment.

  4. Nerve Transfers for Treatment of Isolated Axillary Nerve Injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheelock, Margie; Clark, Tod A; Giuffre, Jennifer L

    2015-01-01

    The most common neurological defect in traumatic anterior glenohumeral dislocation is isolated axillary nerve palsy. Most recover spontaneously; however, some have persistent axillary neuropathy. An intact rotator cuff may compensate for an isolated axillary nerve injury; however, given the high rate of rotator cuff pathology with advancing age, patients with an axillary nerve injury are at risk for complete shoulder disability. To review reconstruction of the axillary nerve to alleviate shoulder pain, augment shoulder stability, abduction and external rotation to alleviate sole reliance on the rotator cuff to move and stabilize the shoulder. A retrospective review of 10 patients with an isolated axillary nerve injury and an intact rotator cuff who underwent a triceps nerve branch to axillary nerve transfer was performed. Patient demographics, surgical technique, deltoid strength, donor-site morbidity, complications and time to surgery were evaluated. Ten male patients, mean age 38.3 years (range 18 to 66 years), underwent a triceps to axillary nerve transfer for isolated axillary nerve injury 7.4 months (range five to 12 months) post-traumatic shoulder dislocation. Deltoid function was British Medical Research Council grade 0/5 in all patients preoperatively and ≥3/5 deltoid strength in eight patients at final follow-up (14.8 months [range 12 to 25 months]). There were no complications and no donor-site morbidity. A triceps to axillary nerve transfer for isolated axillary neuropathy following traumatic shoulder dislocation improved shoulder pain, stability and deltoid strength, and potentially preserves shoulder function with advancing age by alleviating sole reliance on the rotator cuff for shoulder abduction and external rotation.

  5. Head and neck cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vogl, S.E.

    1988-01-01

    This book contains 10 chapters. Some of the titles are: Combined Surgical Resection and Irradiation for Head and Neck Cancers; Analysis of Radiation Therapy Oncology Group Head and Neck Database: Identification of Prognostic Factors and the Re-evaluation of American Joint Committee Stages; Combined Modality Approach to Head and Neck Cancer; Induction Combination Chemotherapy of Regionally Advanced Head and Neck Cancer; and Outcome after Complete Remission to Induction Chemotherapy in Head and Neck Cancer

  6. The Surgical Management of Facial Nerve Injury

    OpenAIRE

    Rovak, Jason M.; Tung, Thomas H.; Mackinnon, Susan E.

    2004-01-01

    The surgical management of facial nerve injuries is dependent upon a thorough understanding of facial nerve anatomy, nerve physiology, and microsurgical techniques. When possible, primary neurorrhaphy is the “gold standard” repair technique. Injuries resulting in long nerve gaps or a significant delay between the time of injury and repair requires alterative techniques, such as nerve grafts, nerve transfers, regional muscle transfers, free tissue transfers, and static procedures. Scrupulous t...

  7. Neuromas of the calcaneal nerves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, J; Dellon, A L

    2001-11-01

    A neuroma of a calcaneal nerve has never been reported. A series of 15 patients with heel pain due to a neuroma of a calcaneal nerve are reviewed. These patients previously had either a plantar fasciotomy (n = 4), calcaneal spur removal (n = 2), ankle fusion (n = 2), or tarsal tunnel decompression (n = 7). Neuromas occurred on calcaneal branches that arose from either the posterior tibial nerve (n = 1), lateral plantar nerve (n = 1), the medial plantar nerve (n = 9), or more than one of these nerves (n = 4). Operative approach was through an extended tarsal tunnel incision to permit identification of all calcaneal nerves. The neuroma was resected and implanted into the flexor hallucis longus muscle. Excellent relief of pain occurred in 60%, and good relief in 33%. One patient (17%) had no improvement and required resection of the lateral plantar nerve. Awareness that the heel may be innervated by multiple calcaneal branches suggests that surgery for heel pain of neural origin employ a surgical approach that permits identification of all possible calcaneal branches.

  8. Preservation of cranial nerves during removal of the brain for an enhanced student experience in neuroanatomy classes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Jennifer; Roberts, David J H; Pickering, James D

    2014-01-01

    Neuroanatomy teaching at the University of Leeds includes the examination of isolated brains by students working in small groups. This requires the prosected brains to exhibit all 12 pairs of cranial nerves. Traditional methods of removing the brain from the skull involve elevating the frontal lobes and cutting each cranial nerve as the brain is reflected posteriorly. This can leave a substantial length of each nerve attached to the skull base rather than to the removed brain. We have found a posterior approach more successful. In this study, five adult heads were disarticulated at the level of the thyroid cartilage and placed, prone, in a head stand. A wedge of bone from the occipital region was removed before the cerebellum and brainstem were elevated to visualize the cranial nerves associated with the medulla oblongata, cerebellopontine angle and mesencephalic-pontine junction prior to cutting them as close to the skull as possible. Five brains were successfully removed from the skull, each having a full complement of cranial nerves of good length attached to them. This approach significantly increases the length and number of cranial nerves remaining attached to the brain, which supports student education. For integration into head and neck dissection courses, careful consideration will be required to ensure the necks are suitably dissected and to decide whether the cranial nerves are best left attached to the skull base or brain. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Variant palmaris profundus enclosed by an unusual loop of the median nerve

    Science.gov (United States)

    CHOU, HSIU-CHU; JENG, HELLEN; KO, TSUI-LING; PAI, MAN-HUI; CHANG, CHIU-YUN; WU, CHING-HSIANG

    2001-01-01

    According to the usual description in most anatomy texts, the median nerve in the forearm passes between the 2 heads of pronator teres. It continues distally between flexor digitorum superficialis and profundus almost to the retinaculum. Muscular branches leave the nerve near the elbow and supply all superficial muscles of the anterior part of the forearm except flexor carpi ulnaris. Many variations of the median nerve in the forearm have been reported (Urban & Krosman, 1992). The palmaris profundus is also a rare anomaly of the forearm (Dyreby & Engber, 1982). It originates from the radial side of the common flexor tendon in the proximal forearm and inserts into the undersurface of the palmar aponeurosis. The origin of palmaris profundus may be close to the median nerve and its branches, and may be involved in compressive neuropathy of the anterior interosseous nerve. Its tendon crossing through the carpal canal has been implicated in the carpal tunnel syndrome (reviewed by Lahey & Aulicino, 1986). In some cases, palmaris profundus was found enclosed in a common fascial sheath with the median nerve (Stark, 1992; Sahinoglu et al. 1994). To indicate its close association with the median nerve, the palmaris profundus was also named ‘musculus comitans nervi mediani’ (Sahinoglu et al. 1994). This article reports an unusual loop of the median nerve encircling an anomalous palmaris profundus in the forearm, which, to the best of our knowledge, has not been previously described. PMID:11693311

  10. Ocular motor nerve palsies: implications for diagnosis and mechanisms of repair

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharpe, James A.; Wong, Agnes M.F.; Fouladvand, Mohammad

    2016-01-01

    Measurements of the dynamics of the eyes in ocular motor nerve palsies may aid diagnosis, characterize peripheral and central palsies, and reveal adaptive properties of the brain. Saccadic and vestibulo-ocular reflex (VOR) functions of patients with peripheral and central sixth, and peripheral third and fourth nerve palsies were studied by three dimensional magnetic field search coil oculography. Combined third and fourth cranial nerve microvascular ischaemic palsy in diabetes mellitus produced low ratios of intorsion to adduction amplitudes. Presumed isolated third nerve palsy caused higher ratios of adduction to intorsion and violations of Listing’s law. The VOR in third, fourth, and sixth nerve palsies reveals adaptive equilibration of the action of paretic agonist and their non-paretic antagonist muscles in violation of Hering’s law during head motion. Saccadic speeds in the field of paretic agonists are repaired in chronic peripheral palsies despite limited ductions, but remain reduced in central palsies. Limited intorsion with third nerve palsy is attributed to concurrent fourth nerve ischaemia in the distribution of the inferolateral trunk of the intracavernous carotid artery. Adaptive repair of the VOR after ocular motor nerve palsies reduces asymmetric retinal image slip and binocular disparity, and repair of saccadic velocity drives both eyes rapidly and simultaneously into the paretic field of motion. PMID:18718283

  11. Diagnostic nerve ultrasonography; Diagnostische Nervensonographie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baeumer, T. [Universitaet zu Luebeck CBBM, Haus 66, Institut fuer Neurogenetik, Luebeck (Germany); Grimm, A. [Universitaetsklinikum Tuebingen, Klinik und Poliklinik fuer Neurologie, Tuebingen (Germany); Schelle, T. [Staedtisches Klinikum Dessau, Neurologische Klinik, Dessau (Germany)

    2017-03-15

    For the diagnostics of nerve lesions an imaging method is necessary to visualize peripheral nerves and their surrounding structures for an etiological classification. Clinical neurological and electrophysiological investigations provide functional information about nerve lesions. The information provided by a standard magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) examination is inadequate for peripheral nerve diagnostics; however, MRI neurography is suitable but on the other hand a resource and time-consuming method. Using ultrasonography for peripheral nerve diagnostics. With ultrasonography reliable diagnostics of entrapment neuropathies and traumatic nerve lesions are possible. The use of ultrasonography for neuropathies shows that a differentiation between different forms is possible. Nerve ultrasonography is an established diagnostic tool. In addition to the clinical examination and clinical electrophysiology, structural information can be obtained, which results in a clear improvement in the diagnostics. Ultrasonography has become an integral part of the diagnostic work-up of peripheral nerve lesions in neurophysiological departments. Nerve ultrasonography is recommended for the diagnostic work-up of peripheral nerve lesions in addition to clinical and electrophysiological investigations. It should be used in the clinical work-up of entrapment neuropathies, traumatic nerve lesions and spacy-occupying lesions of nerves. (orig.) [German] Fuer die Diagnostik von Nervenlaesionen ist ein bildgebendes Verfahren zur Darstellung des peripheren Nervs und seiner ihn umgebenden Strukturen fuer eine aetiologische Einordnung erforderlich. Mit der klinisch-neurologischen Untersuchung und Elektrophysiologie ist eine funktionelle Aussage ueber die Nervenlaesion moeglich. In der Standard-MRT-Untersuchung wird der periphere Nerv nur unzureichend gut dargestellt. Die MRT-Neurographie ist ein sehr gutes, aber auch zeit- und ressourcenintensives Verfahren. Nutzung des Ultraschalls fuer die

  12. Measurement noise of a point autofocus surface topography instrument

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Feng, Xiaobing; Quagliotti, Danilo; Maculotti, Giacomo

    Optical instruments for areal topography measurement can be especially sensitive to noise when scanning is required. Such noise has different sources, including those internally generated and external sources from the environment.......Optical instruments for areal topography measurement can be especially sensitive to noise when scanning is required. Such noise has different sources, including those internally generated and external sources from the environment....

  13. Investigating Flow Features Near Abrupt Topography in the Mariana Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-30

    1 DISTRIBUTION STATEMENT A. Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. Investigating Flow Features Near Abrupt Topography in...waves generated by flow over topography and mesoscale eddies generated by flow past islands. Having identified the prime locations in the region for such

  14. La topographie au dahomey a la veille des independances ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    La topographie au dahomey a la veille des independances : Organisation et attributions du service de la topographie. ... Exclusively livened up at first by French executives, the topographic Department and the land registry knew in time, the intervention of land surveyors and draftsmen of Dahomey. The proof is that this ...

  15. Cokriging surface elevation and seismic refraction data for bedrock topography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nyquist, J.E.; Doll, W.E.; Davis, R.K.; Hopkins, R.A.

    1992-01-01

    Analysis of seismic refraction data collected at a proposed site of the Advanced Neutron Source (ANS) Facility showed a strong correlation between surface and bedrock topography. By combining seismically determined bedrock elevation data with surface elevation data using cokriging, we were able to significantly improve our map of bedrock topography without collecting additional seismic data

  16. Coupled influences of topography and wind on wildland fire behaviour

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodman Linn; Judith Winterkamp; Carleton Edminster; Jonah J. Colman; William S. Smith

    2007-01-01

    Ten simulations were performed with the HIGRAD/FIRETEC wildfire behaviour model in order to explore its utility in studying wildfire behaviour in inhomogeneous topography. The goal of these simulations is to explore the potential extent of the coupling between the fire, atmosphere, and topography. The ten simulations described in this paper include five different...

  17. Nerve transection repair using laser-activated chitosan in a rat model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhatt, Neel K; Khan, Taleef R; Mejias, Christopher; Paniello, Randal C

    2017-08-01

    Cranial nerve transection during head and neck surgery is conventionally repaired with microsuture. Previous studies have demonstrated recovery with laser nerve welding (LNW), a novel alternative to microsuture. LNW has been reported to have poorer tensile strength, however. Laser-activated chitosan, an adhesive biopolymer, may promote nerve recovery while enhancing the tensile strength of the repair. Using a rat posterior tibial nerve injury model, we compared four different methods of nerve repair in this pilot study. Animal study. Animals underwent unilateral posterior tibial nerve transection. The injury was repaired by potassium titanyl phosphate (KTP) laser alone (n = 20), KTP + chitosan (n = 12), microsuture + chitosan (n = 12), and chitosan alone (n = 14). Weekly walking tracks were conducted to measure functional recovery (FR). Tensile strength (TS) was measured at 6 weeks. At 6 weeks, KTP laser alone had the best recovery (FR = 93.4% ± 8.3%). Microsuture + chitosan, KTP + chitosan, and chitosan alone all showed good FR (87.4% ± 13.5%, 84.6% ± 13.0%, and 84.1% ± 10.0%, respectively). One-way analysis of variance was performed (F(3,56) = 2.6, P = .061). A TS threshold of 3.8 N was selected as a control mean recovery. Three groups-KTP alone, KTP + chitosan, and microsuture + chitosan-were found to meet threshold 60% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 23.1%-88.3%), 75% (95% CI: 46.8%-91.1%), and 100% (95% CI: 75.8%-100.0%), respectively. In the posterior tibial nerve model, all repair methods promoted nerve recovery. Laser-activated chitosan as a biopolymer anchor provided good TS and appears to be a novel alternative to microsuture. This repair method may have surgical utility following cranial nerve injury during head and neck surgery. NA Laryngoscope, 127:E253-E257, 2017. © 2017 The American Laryngological, Rhinological and Otological Society, Inc.

  18. Vagus Nerve Stimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekmekçi, Hakan; Kaptan, Hülagu

    2017-06-15

    The vagus nerve stimulation (VNS) is an approach mainly used in cases of intractable epilepsy despite all the efforts. Also, its benefits have been shown in severe cases of depression resistant to typical treatment. The aim of this study was to present current knowledge of vagus nerve stimulation. A new value has emerged just at this stage: VNS aiming the ideal treatment with new hopes. It is based on the placement of a programmable generator on the chest wall. Electric signals from the generator are transmitted to the left vagus nerve through the connection cable. Control on the cerebral bioelectrical activity can be achieved by way of these signal sent from there in an effort for controlling the epileptic discharges. The rate of satisfactory and permanent treatment in epilepsy with monotherapy is around 50%. This rate will increase by one-quarters (25%) with polytherapy. However, there is a patient group roughly constituting one-thirds of this population, and this group remains unresponsive or refractory to all the therapies and combined regimes. The more the number of drugs used, the more chaos and side effects are observed. The anti-epileptic drugs (AEDs) used will have side effects on both the brain and the systemic organs. Cerebral resection surgery can be required in some patients. The most commonly encountered epilepsy type is the partial one, and the possibility of benefiting from invasive procedures is limited in most patients of this type. Selective amygdala-hippocampus surgery is a rising value in complex partial seizures. Therefore, as epilepsy surgery can be performed in very limited numbers and rather developed centres, success can also be achieved in limited numbers of patients. The common ground for all the surgical procedures is the target of preservation of memory, learning, speaking, temper and executive functions as well as obtaining a good control on seizures. However, the action mechanism of VNS is still not exactly known. On the other hand

  19. [Suprascapular nerve entrapment syndrome].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lang, C; Druschky, K F; Sturm, U; Neundörfer, B; Fahlbusch, R

    1988-09-02

    Nineteen patients with isolated suprascapular entrapment neuropathy were seen between 1980 and 1986. A neurogenic cause and absence of other deficits were confirmed by electromyography. Electroneurographic tests were performed in 13 and demonstrated delayed conduction time and (or) reduction in stimulus response amplitude. In 16 patients there was an acute or chronic mechanical cause (direct pressure on the suprascapular nerve, forced dislocation of the shoulder blade). Two types of paralysis could be distinguished, an upper one affecting both the infra- and the supraspinatus muscles (12 patients), and a lower one involving only the infraspinatus muscle (4 patients). In two patients an inflammatory cause was considered likely, while in one the cause remained unclear. Restricting movement brought about an improvement in most patients, while in one the neurophysiological parameters improved after neurosurgical intervention, without complete clinical restoration.

  20. Functional assessment of sciatic nerve reconstruction : Biodegradable poly (DLLA-epsilon-CL) nerve guides versus autologous nerve grafts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meek, MF; Dijkstra, [No Value; Den Dunnen, WFA; Ijkema-Paassen, J; Schakenraad, JM; Gramsbergen, A; Robinson, PH

    1999-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare functional nerve recovery after reconstruction with a biodegradable p(DLLA-epsilon-CL) nerve guide filled with modified denatured muscle tissue (MDMT), or an autologous nerve graft. We evaluated nerve recovery using walking track analysis (measurement of the

  1. Superior rectus transposition and medial rectus recession for Duane syndrome and sixth nerve palsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehendale, Reshma A; Dagi, Linda R; Wu, Carolyn; Ledoux, Danielle; Johnston, Suzanne; Hunter, David G

    2012-02-01

    To describe our results using augmented temporal superior rectus transposition (SRT) with adjustable medial rectus muscle recession (MRc) for treatment of Duane syndrome and sixth nerve palsy. Retrospective surgical case review of patients undergoing SRT. Preoperative and postoperative orthoptic measurements were recorded. Minimum follow-up was 6 weeks. Main outcome measures included the angle of esotropia in the primary position and the angle of head turn. Secondary outcomes included duction limitation, stereopsis, and new vertical deviations. The review identified 17 patients: 10 with Duane syndrome and 7 with sixth nerve palsy. Combining SRT with MRc improved esotropia from 44 to 10 prism diopters (P sixth nerve palsy and none with Duane syndrome. No patient described torsional diplopia. Superior rectus transposition allows for the option of simultaneous MRc in patients with severe abduction imitation who require transposition surgery. Combining SRT and MRc improved esotropia, head position, abduction limitation, and stereopsis without inducing torsional diplopia.

  2. Scleral topography analysed by optical coherence tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bandlitz, Stefan; Bäumer, Joachim; Conrad, Uwe; Wolffsohn, James

    2017-08-01

    A detailed evaluation of the corneo-scleral-profile (CSP) is of particular relevance in soft and scleral lenses fitting. The aim of this study was to use optical coherence tomography (OCT) to analyse the profile of the limbal sclera and to evaluate the relationship between central corneal radii, corneal eccentricity and scleral radii. Using OCT (Optos OCT/SLO; Dunfermline, Scotland, UK) the limbal scleral radii (SR) of 30 subjects (11M, 19F; mean age 23.8±2.0SD years) were measured in eight meridians 45° apart. Central corneal radii (CR) and corneal eccentricity (CE) were evaluated using the Oculus Keratograph 4 (Oculus, Wetzlar, Germany). Differences between SR in the meridians and the associations between SR and corneal topography were assessed. Median SR measured along 45° (58.0; interquartile range, 46.8-84.8mm) was significantly (ptopography and may provide additional data useful in fitting soft and scleral contact lenses. Copyright © 2017 British Contact Lens Association. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Mercury's Global Topography from Radar Ranging Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, J. D.; Schubert, G.; Asmar, S. W.; Jurgens, R. F.; Lau, E. L.; Moore, W. B.; Slade, M. A., III; Standish, E. M., Jr.

    2001-01-01

    When Mercury's radius is expanded in Legendre functions to the second degree and order, the systematic error in radar ranging data is reduced substantially. Previously, data spanning an observing interval from 1966 to 1990 were used to infer an equatorial ellipticity (a - b)/a = (540 +/- 54) X 10(exp -6) and a center-of-figure minus center-of-mass offset of (640 +/- 78) m. The magnitude of this equatorial center of figure offset implies an excess crustal thickness of 12 km or less, comparable to the Moon's excess. By comparing the equatorial ellipticity with the Mariner 10 gravity field, and assuming Airy isostatic compensation, bounds on crustal thickness can be derived. Mercury's crustal thickness is in the range from 100 to 300 km. The Mercury radar ranging observing interval has been extended from 1966 to the present. In addition, improvements in data reduction techniques have resulted in a set of Mercury ranging data less affected by systematic error, in particular the biases introduced by local topographic variations. We use this new set of reduced ranging data to improve Mercury's global topography and center-of-figure minus center-of-mass offset. New results on crustal thickness are derived, and prospects for further improvement with Mercury Orbiter data are discussed.

  4. Calibration of areal surface topography measuring instruments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seewig, J.; Eifler, M.

    2017-06-01

    The ISO standards which are related to the calibration of areal surface topography measuring instruments are the ISO 25178-6xx series which defines the relevant metrological characteristics for the calibration of different measuring principles and the ISO 25178-7xx series which defines the actual calibration procedures. As the field of areal measurement is however not yet fully standardized, there are still open questions to be addressed which are subject to current research. Based on this, selected research results of the authors in this area are presented. This includes the design and fabrication of areal material measures. For this topic, two examples are presented with the direct laser writing of a stepless material measure for the calibration of the height axis which is based on the Abbott- Curve and the manufacturing of a Siemens star for the determination of the lateral resolution limit. Based on these results, as well a new definition for the resolution criterion, the small scale fidelity, which is still under discussion, is presented. Additionally, a software solution for automated calibration procedures is outlined.

  5. Wettability control by DLC coated nanowire topography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zihui; Meng, Fanhao; Liu, Xuanyong

    2011-04-01

    Here we have developed a convenient method to fabricate wettability controllable surfaces that can be applied to various nanostructured surfaces with complex shapes for different industrial needs. Diamond-like carbon (DLC) films were synthesized on titanium substrate with a nanowire structured surface using plasma immersion ion implantation and deposition (PIII&D). The nanostructure of the DLC films was characterized by field emission scanning electron microscopy and found to grow in a rippling layer-by-layer manner. Raman spectroscopy was used to investigate the different bonding presented in the DLC films. To determine the wettability of the samples, water contact angles were measured and found to vary in the range of 50°-141°. The results indicated that it was critical to construct a proper surface topography for high hydrophobicity, while suitable ID/IG and sp2/sp3 ratios of the DLC films had a minor contribution. Superhydrophobicity could be achieved by further CF4 implantation on suitably structured DLC films and was attributed to the existence of fluorine. In order to maintain the nanostructure during CF4 implantation, it was favorable to pre-deposit an appropriate carbon content on the nanostructure, as a nanostructure with low carbon content would be deformed during CF4 implantation due to local accumulation of surface charge and the following discharge resulting from the low conductivity.

  6. Wettability control by DLC coated nanowire topography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zihui; Meng, Fanhao; Liu, Xuanyong

    2011-04-01

    Here we have developed a convenient method to fabricate wettability controllable surfaces that can be applied to various nanostructured surfaces with complex shapes for different industrial needs. Diamond-like carbon (DLC) films were synthesized on titanium substrate with a nanowire structured surface using plasma immersion ion implantation and deposition (PIII&D). The nanostructure of the DLC films was characterized by field emission scanning electron microscopy and found to grow in a rippling layer-by-layer manner. Raman spectroscopy was used to investigate the different bonding presented in the DLC films. To determine the wettability of the samples, water contact angles were measured and found to vary in the range of 50°-141°. The results indicated that it was critical to construct a proper surface topography for high hydrophobicity, while suitable I(D)/I(G) and sp²/sp³ ratios of the DLC films had a minor contribution. Superhydrophobicity could be achieved by further CF₄ implantation on suitably structured DLC films and was attributed to the existence of fluorine. In order to maintain the nanostructure during CF₄ implantation, it was favorable to pre-deposit an appropriate carbon content on the nanostructure, as a nanostructure with low carbon content would be deformed during CF₄ implantation due to local accumulation of surface charge and the following discharge resulting from the low conductivity.

  7. Quantum Loop Topography for Machine Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yi; Kim, Eun-Ah

    2017-05-01

    Despite rapidly growing interest in harnessing machine learning in the study of quantum many-body systems, training neural networks to identify quantum phases is a nontrivial challenge. The key challenge is in efficiently extracting essential information from the many-body Hamiltonian or wave function and turning the information into an image that can be fed into a neural network. When targeting topological phases, this task becomes particularly challenging as topological phases are defined in terms of nonlocal properties. Here, we introduce quantum loop topography (QLT): a procedure of constructing a multidimensional image from the "sample" Hamiltonian or wave function by evaluating two-point operators that form loops at independent Monte Carlo steps. The loop configuration is guided by the characteristic response for defining the phase, which is Hall conductivity for the cases at hand. Feeding QLT to a fully connected neural network with a single hidden layer, we demonstrate that the architecture can be effectively trained to distinguish the Chern insulator and the fractional Chern insulator from trivial insulators with high fidelity. In addition to establishing the first case of obtaining a phase diagram with a topological quantum phase transition with machine learning, the perspective of bridging traditional condensed matter theory with machine learning will be broadly valuable.

  8. The Head Bone's Connected to the Neck Bone: When Do Toddlers Represent Their Own Body Topography?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brownell, Celia A.; Nichols, Sara R.; Svetlova, Margarita; Zerwas, Stephanie; Ramani, Geetha

    2010-01-01

    Developments in very young children's topographic representations of their own bodies were examined. Sixty-one 20- and 30-month-old children were administered tasks that indexed the ability to locate specific body parts on oneself and knowledge of how one's body parts are spatially organized, as well as body-size knowledge and self-awareness. Age…

  9. [Development of peripheral nerve surgery].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sames, M

    1998-03-01

    In the submitted review the author deals with the development of peripheral nerve surgery (PN) from ancient times to the present time incl. hithero unpublished details. He analyses in great detail the period of the last 40 years which is divided into three stages--the mechanical, biological period and the period of neurotrophism. From the Second World War to the sixties the period bears the term mechanical. The results of reinnervation during this period were not satisfactory as the nerves were connected without the use of a microscope, in major defects they were connected under considerable traction and the only criterion was the resistance against dehiscence. Significant improvement of results of regeneration of PN was recorded during the biological period. Mechanical ideas were overcome and biological and physiological reactions of the peripheral nerves were taken into account. Suture of nerves under traction was refuted and into clinical practice the surgical microscope, microsurgical technique and microsurgical autotransplantation with a nervous graft were introduced. The anatomical structure of the nerve with a plexiform pattern of the fascicles became however the limitation of surgical methods. After discovery of NGF (nerve growth factor) we can speak of the onset of a new period, neurotrophism. In laboratory experiments many substances are studied and theoretically new non-surgical possibilities how to promote regeneration lie ahead. However they cannot be applied yet in clinical practice. In injuries of peripheral nerves the only correct reconstruction method is still microsuture of the nerve and in case of losses microsurgical autotransplantation using a nerve graft.

  10. Outcome of axillary nerve injuries treated with nerve grafts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okazaki, M; Al-Shawi, A; Gschwind, C R; Warwick, D J; Tonkin, M A

    2011-09-01

    This study evaluates the outcome of axillary nerve injuries treated with nerve grafting. Thirty-six patients were retrospectively reviewed after a mean of 53 months (minimum 12 months). The mean interval from injury to surgery was 6.5 months. Recovery of deltoid function was assessed by the power of both abduction and retropulsion, the deltoid bulk and extension lag. The deltoid bulk was almost symmetrical in nine of 34 cases, good in 22 and wasted in three. Grade M4 or M5* was achieved in 30 of 35 for abduction and in 32 of 35 for retropulsion. There was an extension lag in four patients. Deltoid bulk continued to improve with a longer follow-up following surgery. Nerve grafting to the axillary nerve is a reliable method of regaining deltoid function when the lesion is distal to its origin from the posterior cord.

  11. Neurofibromatosis of the head and neck: classification and surgical management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latham, Kerry; Buchanan, Edward P; Suver, Daniel; Gruss, Joseph S

    2015-03-01

    Neurofibromatosis is common and presents with variable penetrance and manifestations in one in 2500 to one in 3000 live births. The management of these patients is often multidisciplinary because of the complexity of the disease. Plastic surgeons are frequently involved in the surgical management of patients with head and neck involvement. A 20-year retrospective review of patients treated surgically for head and neck neurofibroma was performed. Patients were identified according to International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision codes for neurofibromatosis and from the senior author's database. A total of 59 patients with head and neck neurofibroma were identified. These patients were categorized into five distinct, but not exclusive, categories to assist with diagnosis and surgical management. These categories included plexiform, cranioorbital, facial, neck, and parotid/auricular neurofibromatosis. A surgical classification system and clinical characteristics of head and neck neurofibromatosis is presented to assist practitioners with diagnosis and surgical management of this complex disease. The surgical management of the cranioorbital type is discussed in detail in 24 patients. The importance and safety of facial nerve dissection and preservation using intraoperative nerve monitoring were validated in 16 dissections in 15 patients. Massive involvement of the neck extending from the skull base to the mediastinum, frequently considered inoperable, has been safely resected by the use of access osteotomies of the clavicle and sternum, muscle takedown, and brachial plexus dissection and preservation using intraoperative nerve monitoring. Therapeutic, IV.

  12. Central Mandibular Nerve Sheath Myxoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Narges Ghazi

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Nerve sheath myxoma has been described as a rare neural tumor arising from Schwann cells. It is observed most frequently in the central area of the face, neck and upper extremities. In the past the term neurothekeoma was used as synonym for nerve sheath myxoma but according to new reports, they are separate entities which can be confirmed by immunohistochemistry as in our case. Oral involvement of this tumor is extremely rare. Here, we present an unusual case of nerve sheath myxoma in the mandible of a 22-year old female patient. This case appears to be the first myxomatous variant which is centrally located in the mandible.

  13. Light source for synchrotron radiation x-ray topography study at Beijing Synchrotron Radiation Laboratory (BSRL)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao Jiyong; Jiang Jianhua; Tian Yulian

    1992-01-01

    Characteristics of the synchrotron radiation source for X-ray topography study at Beijing Synchrotron Radiation Laboratory (BSRL) is described, local geometrical resolution of topographies is discussed, and the diffracting intensities of white beam topography is given

  14. Characterizing smoking topography of cannabis in heavy users.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClure, Erin A; Stitzer, Maxine L; Vandrey, Ryan

    2012-03-01

    Little is known about the smoking topography characteristics of heavy cannabis users. Such measures may be able to predict cannabis use-related outcomes and could be used to validate self-reported measures of cannabis use. The current study was conducted to measure cannabis smoking topography characteristics during periods of ad libitum use and to correlate topography assessments with measures of self-reported cannabis use, withdrawal and craving during abstinence, and cognitive task performance. Participants (N = 20) completed an inpatient study in which they alternated between periods of ad libitum cannabis use and abstinence. Measures of self-reported cannabis use, smoking topography, craving, withdrawal, and sleep measures were collected. Participants smoked with greater intensity (e.g., greater volume, longer duration) on initial cigarette puffs with a steady decline on subsequent puffs. Smoking characteristics were significantly correlated with severity of withdrawal, notably sleep quality and architecture, and craving during abstinence, suggesting dose-related effects of cannabis use on these outcomes. Smoking characteristics generally were not significantly associated with cognitive performance. Smoking topography measures were significantly correlated with self-reported measures of cannabis use, indicating validity of these assessments, but topography measures were more sensitive than self-report in predicting cannabis-related outcomes. A dose-effect relationship between cannabis consumption and outcomes believed to be clinically important was observed. With additional research, smoking topography assessments may become a useful clinical tool.

  15. Dynamic and reversible surface topography influences cell morphology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiang, Jennifer D; Wen, Jessica H; del Álamo, Juan C; Engler, Adam J

    2013-08-01

    Microscale and nanoscale surface topography changes can influence cell functions, including morphology. Although in vitro responses to static topography are novel, cells in vivo constantly remodel topography. To better understand how cells respond to changes in topography over time, we developed a soft polyacrylamide hydrogel with magnetic nickel microwires randomly oriented in the surface of the material. Varying the magnetic field around the microwires reversibly induced their alignment with the direction of the field, causing the smooth hydrogel surface to develop small wrinkles; changes in surface roughness, ΔRRMS , ranged from 0.05 to 0.70 μm and could be oscillated without hydrogel creep. Vascular smooth muscle cell morphology was assessed when exposed to acute and dynamic topography changes. Area and shape changes occurred when an acute topographical change was imposed for substrates exceeding roughness of 0.2 μm, but longer-term oscillating topography did not produce significant changes in morphology irrespective of wire stiffness. These data imply that cells may be able to use topography changes to transmit signals as they respond immediately to changes in roughness. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Characterizing smoking topography of cannabis in heavy users

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stitzer, Maxine L.; Vandrey, Ryan

    2013-01-01

    Rationale Little is known about the smoking topography characteristics of heavy cannabis users. Such measures may be able to predict cannabis use-related outcomes and could be used to validate self-reported measures of cannabis use. Objectives The current study was conducted to measure cannabis smoking topography characteristics during periods of ad libitum use and to correlate topography assessments with measures of self-reported cannabis use, withdrawal and craving during abstinence, and cognitive task performance. Methods Participants (N=20) completed an inpatient study in which they alternated between periods of ad libitum cannabis use and abstinence. Measures of self-reported cannabis use, smoking topography, craving, withdrawal, and sleep measures were collected. Results Participants smoked with greater intensity (e.g., greater volume, longer duration) on initial cigarette puffs with a steady decline on subsequent puffs. Smoking characteristics were significantly correlated with severity of withdrawal, notably sleep quality and architecture, and craving during abstinence, suggesting dose-related effects of cannabis use on these outcomes. Smoking characteristics generally were not significantly associated with cognitive performance. Smoking topography measures were significantly correlated with self-reported measures of cannabis use, indicating validity of these assessments, but topography measures were more sensitive than self-report in predicting cannabis-related outcomes. Conclusions A dose–effect relationship between cannabis consumption and outcomes believed to be clinically important was observed. With additional research, smoking topography assessments may become a useful clinical tool. PMID:21922170

  17. Nerve damage associated with inferior alveolar nerve blocks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pogrel, M A; Bryan, J; Regezi, J

    1995-08-01

    The authors reviewed 12 cases in which altered sensation occurred in the distribution of the inferior alveolar or lingual nerves following injection of a local anesthetic for restorative treatment only. Most patients suffered only partial damage, but recovery was poor. The exact mechanism of the nerve damage is unknown, but a number of theories are proposed. The extent of this problem is also unknown, but many more cases probably exist than have been reported to date.

  18. Nerve Transfers for Treatment of Isolated Axillary Nerve Injuries

    OpenAIRE

    Wheelock, Margie; Clark, Tod A; Giuffre, Jennifer L

    2015-01-01

    Almost one-half of all dislocations involve the shoulder and may also involve the axillary nerves, which may influence functional recovery and result in persistent shoulder neuropathy. Although individuals with intact rotator cuffs may be able to compensate for axillary nerve dysfunction, the injury may become problematic in later years, especially given the increasing incidence of rotator cuff tears in aging populations, thus placing increased importance on the immediate success of acute man...

  19. Head and face reconstruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/002980.htm Head and face reconstruction To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Head and face reconstruction is surgery to repair or ...

  20. Head CT scan

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... CT; Cranial CT; CT scan - skull; CT scan - head; CT scan - orbits; CT scan - sinuses; Computed tomography - ... Head CT is done in the hospital or radiology center. You lie on a narrow table that ...

  1. Head Lice: Diagnosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... CDC Cancel Submit Search The CDC Parasites - Lice - Head Lice Note: Javascript is disabled or is not ... please visit this page: About CDC.gov . Lice Head Lice General Information Frequently Asked Questions (FAQs) Treatment ...

  2. Head and Neck Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Head and neck cancer includes cancers of the mouth, nose, sinuses, salivary glands, throat, and lymph nodes ... swallowing A change or hoarseness in the voice Head and neck cancers are twice as common in ...

  3. Computed Tomography (CT) -- Head

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... the limitations of CT Scanning of the Head? What is CT Scanning of the Head? Computed tomography, ... than regular radiographs (x-rays). top of page What are some common uses of the procedure? CT ...

  4. Head injury - first aid

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... medlineplus.gov/ency/article/000028.htm Head injury - first aid To use the sharing features on this page, ... a concussion can range from mild to severe. First Aid Learning to recognize a serious head injury and ...

  5. Computed Tomography (CT) -- Head

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... for Brain Tumors Radiation Therapy for Head and Neck Cancer Others American Stroke Association National Stroke Association ... Computer Tomography (CT) Safety During Pregnancy Head and Neck Cancer X-ray, Interventional Radiology and Nuclear Medicine ...

  6. Corticosteroids for treating nerve damage in leprosy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    N.H.J. van Veen (Natasja); P.G. Nicholls (Peter); W.C.S. Smith (Cairns); J.H. Richardus (Jan Hendrik)

    2007-01-01

    textabstractBackground: Leprosy causes nerve damage which can result in nerve function impairment and disability. Corticosteroids are commonly used for treating nerve damage, although the long-term effect is uncertain. Objectives: To assess the effects of corticosteroids on nerve damage in leprosy.

  7. Right hypoglossal nerve paralysis after tracheal intubation for aesthetic breast surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sammy Al-Benna

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Aesthetic and functional complications caused by general anesthesia have been rarely described after aesthetic surgery. We report a case of unilateral right hypoglossal nerve paralysis following the use of a cuffed endotracheal airway in a 24-year-old woman undergoing aesthetic breast surgery. Neurological examination and magnetic resonance imaging of the head failed to provide additional insights into the cause of the nerve injury. Postoperatively, the patient was carefully monitored and made a full recovery within 2 weeks without any pharmacological treatment. The transient hypoglossal nerve paralysis seemed to be due to neuropraxia. In this patient, we postulate that the right hypoglossal nerve was compressed between the endotracheal tube cuff and the hyoid bone, which was inflated with 30 cm H 2 O. Patients undergoing aesthetic surgery must be appropriately and adequately informed that postoperative aesthetic and functional deficits can occur due to anesthesia as well as the surgery.

  8. In Vivo MR Microneurography of the Tibial and Common Peroneal Nerves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paolo F. Felisaz

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available MR microneurography is a noninvasive technique that provides visualization of the microanatomy of peripheral nerves, otherwise available only with histopathology. The objective of this study was to present a protocol to visualize the microstructure of peripheral nerves in vivo, using a 3T MRI scanner with a clinical set of coils and sequences. The tibial and the common peroneal nerves of healthy volunteers were imaged above the medial malleolus and at the level of the fibular head, respectively. The acquired images provided details about the internal structure of peripheral nerves, with visualization of the fascicles, the interfascicular fat, the epineurium, and the perineurium. MR microneurography can be performed in a clinical setting with acceptable imaging times and can be a potentially powerful tool that complements standard MR neurography.

  9. Retinal nerve fiber layer thickness is associated with lesion length in acute optic neuritis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kallenbach, K; Simonsen, Helle Juhl; Sander, B

    2010-01-01

    included 41 patients with unilateral optic neuritis and 19 healthy volunteers. All patients were evaluated and examined within 28 days of onset of symptoms. The peripapillary retinal nerve fiber layer thickness (RNFLT), an objective quantitative measure of optic nerve head edema, was measured by optical...... coherence tomography and the length and location of the inflammatory optic nerve lesion were evaluated using MRI. RESULTS: Ophthalmoscopically, 34% of the patients had papillitis. The retinal nerve fiber layer in affected eyes (mean 123.1 microm) was higher during the acute phase than that of fellow eyes......BACKGROUND: Acute optic neuritis occurs with and without papillitis. The presence of papillitis has previously been thought to imply an anterior location of the neuritis, but imaging studies seeking to test this hypothesis have been inconclusive. METHODS: This prospective observational cohort study...

  10. Use of tubulization (nerve conduits in repairing nerve defects in children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filippo Maria Sénès

    2015-01-01

    Conclusions: In peripheral nerve repairing in children by using nerve conduits, the outcome has been widely effective even when dealing with mixed and motor nerve, thus nerve tubulization might be considered as an alternative to nerve grafting. Conversely, considering the uncertain result obtained in brachial plexus repairing, the conduits cannot be considered as afirst choice of treatment in brachial plexus reconstruction.

  11. Poly(DL-lactide-epsilon-caprolactone) nerve guides perform better than autologous nerve grafts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    DenDunnen, WFA; VanderLei, B; Schakenraad, JM; Stokroos, [No Value; Blaauw, E; Pennings, AJ; Robinson, PH; Bartels, H.

    1996-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the speed and quality of nerve regeneration after reconstruction using a biodegradable nerve guide or an autologous nerve graft. We evaluated nerve regeneration using light microscopy, transmission electron microscopy and morphometric analysis. Nerve regeneration

  12. Computed Tomography (CT) -- Head

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Perfusion of the Head CT Angiography (CTA) Stroke Brain Tumors Computer Tomography (CT) Safety During Pregnancy Head and Neck Cancer X-ray, Interventional Radiology and Nuclear Medicine Radiation Safety Images related to Computed Tomography (CT) - Head Videos related to Computed Tomography ( ...

  13. Decreased Nerve Conduction Velocity in Football Players

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daryoush Didehdar

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Lower limbs nerves are exposed to mechanical injuries in the football players and the purpose of this study is to evaluate the influence of football on the lower leg nerves. Materials and Methods: Nerve conduction studies were done on 35 male college students (20 football players, 15 non active during 2006 to 2007 in the Shiraz rehabilitation faculty. Standard nerve conduction techniques using to evaluate dominant and non dominant lower limb nerves. Results: The motor latency of deep peroneal and tibial nerves of dominant leg of football players and sensory latency of superficial peroneal, tibial and compound nerve action potential of tibial nerve of both leg in football players were significantly prolonged (p<0.05. Motor and sensory nerve conduction velocity of tibial and common peroneal in football players were significant delayed (p<0.05. Conclusion: It is concluded that football is sport with high contact and it causes sub-clinical neuropathies due to nerve entrapment.

  14. A non-recurrent inferior laryngeal nerve in a man undergoing thyroidectomy: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sousa Daniel

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction A non-recurrent variant of the inferior laryngeal nerve has been seldom reported. These reports are mostly based on cadaveric dissection studies or large chart review studies in which the emphasis is placed on the determination of the frequency of the variation, and not on the clinical appearance of this variant. We graphically describe the intraoperative identification of a non-recurrent inferior laryngeal nerve. Case Presentation A 44-year old Caucasian man was referred to the Head and Neck Surgery Outpatient Clinic with the diagnosis of a nodular mass in his left thyroid lobe that had been growing for one year. A fine needle aspiration puncture was compatible with thyroid papillary cancer. It was decided that the patient should undergo total thyroidectomy. During surgery, a non-recurrent right inferior laryngeal nerve was noted. This nerve emanated from the right vagus nerve, entering the larynx 3 cm after its origin. The nerve did not show a recurrent course. The nerve on the left side had a normal configuration. The surgery and post-operative period were uneventful, and the patient had no change in his voice. Conclusion This paper allows those interested to become acquainted with the normal intraoperative appearance of a non-recurrent inferior laryngeal nerve. This will undoubtedly be of significance for all of those performing invasive diagnostic and surgical procedures in the neck and upper thoracic regions, in order to minimize the risk of iatrogenic injury to this nerve. This is of extreme importance, since a unilateral lesion of this nerve may result in permanent hoarseness, and a bilateral lesion may lead to aphonia and life-threatening dyspnea.

  15. Panic Attack History and Smoking Topography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farris, Samantha G.; Brown, Lily A.; Goodwin, Renee D.; Zvolensky, Michael J.

    2016-01-01

    Background Little is known about panic attacks and puffing topography, a behavioral index of the value of smoking reinforcement. This study examined smoking style during the course of smoking of a single cigarette among adult daily smokers with and without a history of panic attacks. Method Participants (n = 124, Mage = 43.9, SD = 9.7; 44.4% female) were non-treatment seeking daily smokers. Lifetime panic attack history was assessed via diagnostic assessment; 28.2% (n = 35) of the sample had a panic attack history. Participants smoked one cigarette during an ad libitum smoking trial. Puff volume, duration, and inter-puff interval were measured using the Clinical Research Support System (CReSS) pocket device. Results Regression analyses revealed that panic attack status was not associated with significant differences in average puff volume, duration, or inter-puff interval. Multi-level modeling was used to examine puffing trajectories. Puff-level data revealed that there was a significant quadratic time x panic effect for puff volume and duration. Those with a panic attack history demonstrated relatively sustained levels of both puff volume and duration over time, whereas those without a history of panic attacks demonstrated an increase followed by a decrease in volume and duration over time. These effects were not accounted for by the presence of general psychopathology. Discussion Smokers with a panic attack history demonstrate more persistent efforts to self-regulate the delivery of nicotine, and thus may be at risk for continued smoking and dependence. Tailored treatment may be needed to address unique vulnerabilities among this group. PMID:28033542

  16. Epithelial topography for repetitive tooth formation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcia Gaete

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available During the formation of repetitive ectodermally derived organs such as mammary glands, lateral line and teeth, the tissue primordium iteratively initiates new structures. In the case of successional molar development, new teeth appear sequentially in the posterior region of the jaw from Sox2+ cells in association with the posterior aspect of a pre-existing tooth. The sequence of molar development is well known, however, the epithelial topography involved in the formation of a new tooth is unclear. Here, we have examined the morphology of the molar dental epithelium and its development at different stages in the mouse in vivo and in molar explants. Using regional lineage tracing we show that within the posterior tail of the first molar the primordium for the second and third molar are organized in a row, with the tail remaining in connection with the surface, where a furrow is observed. The morphology and Sox2 expression of the tail retains characteristics reminiscent of the earlier stages of tooth development, such that position along the A-P axes of the tail correlates with different temporal stages. Sox9, a stem/progenitor cell marker in other organs, is expressed mainly in the suprabasal epithelium complementary with Sox2 expression. This Sox2 and Sox9 expressing molar tail contains actively proliferating cells with mitosis following an apico-basal direction. Snail2, a transcription factor implicated in cell migration, is expressed at high levels in the tip of the molar tail while E-cadherin and laminin are decreased. In conclusion, our studies propose a model in which the epithelium of the molar tail can grow by posterior movement of epithelial cells followed by infolding and stratification involving a population of Sox2+/Sox9+ cells.

  17. Large Extremity Peripheral Nerve Repair

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-10-01

    decellularized nerve allograft for inferior alveolar nerve reconstruction: a case report. Journal of oral and maxillofacial surgery : official journal of...the American Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. 2011 Feb;69(2):550-3. PubMed PMID: 21145638. Epub 2010/12/15. eng. 16. Gunn S, Cosetti M...Massachusetts General Hospital (protocol #2012N000117) and was also granted ACURO approval on 11/19/2012. Task 2b. Rodent surgeries for segmental deficit

  18. Etiology and treatment of pediatric sixth nerve palsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merino, Pilar; Gómez de Liaño, Pilar; Villalobo, Jose Miguel Caro; Franco, Gema; Gómez de Liaño, Rosario

    2010-12-01

    To describe the causes and treatment of sixth (abducens) nerve palsy in a series of pediatric patients. This was a 14-year retrospective study of sixth nerve palsy in children under 14 years of age. Outcomes studied included horizontal deviation, degree of limitation of abduction, and head turn. Patients were treated with botulinum toxin injection at the time of diagnosis; surgery was indicated if treatment with botulinum toxin was unsuccessful. Success was defined as final deviation of orthotropia with no head turn or diplopia. Sixth nerve palsy was diagnosed in 15 patients (10 boys; mean age, 4.1 years) between 1995 and 2008. Involvement was bilateral in 2 cases and unilateral in 13 (7 right eyes). Causes included neoplasm (4 cases), trauma (2), idiopathic (3), congenital (2), viral (2), and inflammatory (1). Neoplastic causes were associated with other neurologic signs. Recovery was spontaneous in 5 cases (2 idiopathic, 1 traumatic, 1 congenital, and 1 inflammatory). Botulinum toxin was successful in 7 of 10 patients treated, with follow-up surgery required in the remaining 3 cases. The final result was good in all cases. In all 15 patients, mean time from diagnosis to resolution was 39 months (range, 5 to 170 months). Neoplasms were the most frequent cause of sixth nerve palsy in our patient population. Recovery was spontaneous in one third of the patients. Most required treatment with botulinum toxin, which was successful in most cases. Surgery was successful after a single procedure. Copyright © 2010 American Association for Pediatric Ophthalmology and Strabismus. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Augmented superior rectus transposition procedure in Duane retraction syndrome compared with sixth nerve palsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akbari, Mohammadreza; Shomali, Setareh; Mirmohammadsadeghi, Arash; Fard, Masoud Aghsaei

    2018-01-03

    Superior rectus transposition (SRT) with medial rectus recession has been used for the treatment of sixth nerve palsy and esotropic Duane retraction syndrome (DRS). The purpose of this study was to compare the results of augmented SRT (with scleral fixation) without medial rectus recession in DRS and sixth nerve palsy. Patients with unilateral esotropic DRS (DRS group) and sixth nerve palsy were included in this prospective, comparative study and underwent SRT. Preoperative forced duction testing was negative or slightly positive in both groups. Prospective measurements were compared between the two groups. There were 11 patients in the DRS group and 11 patients in the sixth nerve palsy group. The mean preoperative esotropia decreased from 20.9 ± 6.0 prism diopter (PD) at far to 13.2 ± 5.8 PD in the DRS group (P = 0.003). The same measurement improved from 28.0 ± 8.5 PD to 8.4 ± 7.3 PD in the sixth nerve palsy group (P = 0.003). In the sixth nerve palsy group, the improvement in primary gaze esotropia and abnormal head posture was more than the DRS group (Both P sixth nerve palsy group. Although objective intorsion was significantly induced after SRT, subjective torsion was not significant after surgery in both groups. SRT appears to be more effective in improving primary gaze deviation and head posture in sixth nerve palsy compared with DRS. Subjective torsional and vertical diplopia were rare in both groups.

  20. A novel method of lengthening the accessory nerve for direct coaptation during nerve repair and nerve transfer procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tubbs, R Shane; Maldonado, Andrés A; Stoves, Yolanda; Fries, Fabian N; Li, Rong; Loukas, Marios; Oskouian, Rod J; Spinner, Robert J

    2018-01-01

    OBJECTIVE The accessory nerve is frequently repaired or used for nerve transfer. The length of accessory nerve available is often insufficient or marginal (under tension) for allowing direct coaptation during nerve repair or nerve transfer (neurotization), necessitating an interpositional graft. An attractive maneuver would facilitate lengthening of the accessory nerve for direct coaptation. The aim of the present study was to identify an anatomical method for such lengthening. METHODS In 20 adult cadavers, the C-2 or C-3 connections to the accessory nerve were identified medial to the sternocleidomastoid (SCM) muscle and the anatomy of the accessory nerve/cervical nerve fibers within the SCM was documented. The cervical nerve connections were cut. Lengths of the accessory nerve were measured. Samples of the cut C-2 and C-3 nerves were examined using immunohistochemistry. RESULTS The anatomy and adjacent neural connections within the SCM are complicated. However, after the accessory nerve was "detethered" from within the SCM and following transection, the additional length of the accessory nerve increased from a mean of 6 cm to a mean of 10.5 cm (increase of 4.5 cm) after cutting the C-2 connections, and from a mean of 6 cm to a mean length of 9 cm (increase of 3.5 cm) after cutting the C-3 connections. The additional length of accessory nerve even allowed direct repair of an infraclavicular target (i.e., the proximal musculocutaneous nerve). The cervical nerve connections were shown not to contain motor fibers. CONCLUSIONS An additional length of the accessory nerve made available in the posterior cervical triangle can facilitate direct repair or neurotization procedures, thus eliminating the need for an interpositional nerve graft, decreasing the time/distance for regeneration and potentially improving clinical outcomes.

  1. Stem cells and related factors involved in facial nerve function regeneration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamil H. Nelke

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The facial nerve (VII is one of the most important cranial nerves for head and neck surgeons. Its function is closely related to facial expressions that are individual for every person. After its injury or palsy, its functions can be either impaired or absent. Because of the presence of motor, sensory and parasympathetic fibers, the biology of its repair and function restoration depends on many factors. In order to achieve good outcome, many different therapies can be performed in order to restore as much of the nerve function as possible. When rehabilitation and physiotherapy are not sufficient, additional surgical procedures and therapies are taken into serious consideration. The final outcome of many of them is discussable, depending on nerve damage etiology. Stem cells in facial nerve repair are used, but long-term outcomes and results are still not fully known. In order to understand this therapeutic approach, clinicians and surgeons should understand the immunobiology of nerve repair and regeneration. In this review, potential stem cell usage in facial nerve regeneration procedures is discussed.

  2. Clinical correlation of imaging findings in congenital cranial dysinnervation disorders involving abducens nerve

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chanchal Gupta

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: High-resolution magnetic resonance imaging (MRI of intracranial parts of sixth nerve and seventh nerve and the extraocular muscles (EOMs in orbit to correlate the clinical characteristics in patients with two special forms of strabismus in congenital cranial dysinnervation disorders which are Duane's retraction syndrome (DRS and Mobius syndrome. Materials and Methods: Morphological analysis by 3T MRI of orbit (using surface coils and brain (using 32 channel head coil was performed on 6 patients with clinical DRS (1 bilateral, 2 cases with Mobius syndrome, and 1 case with congenital sixth nerve palsy. These were compared with findings in five controls. Results: We observed absence/hypoplasia of sixth nerve in five out of seven eyes with DRS (71.42%, anomalous course in one eye, sixth and seventh nerve absence/hypoplasia in affected eyes with Mobius syndrome and bilateral absence/hypoplasia of the sixth nerve in congenital sixth nerve palsy. For EOMs we calculated maximum diameter, area, and circumference of muscles using Osirix software, and noticed significant hypoplasia of lateral rectus in comparison to controls (P < 0.001. Conclusions: MRI gives useful information regarding confirmation of clinical diagnosis and its neurological anomalies in complex cases and helps to plan tailor made surgical management.

  3. Variations in the anatomic relations of the posterior interosseous nerve associated with proximal forearm trauma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calfee, Ryan P; Wilson, Joyce M; Wong, Ambrose H W

    2011-01-05

    The posterior interosseous nerve is at risk for iatrogenic injury during surgery involving the proximal aspect of the radius. Anatomic relationships of this nerve in skeletally intact cadavers have been defined, but variations associated with osseous and soft-tissue trauma have not been examined. This study quantifies the effect of a simulated diaphyseal fracture of the proximal aspect of the radius and of a radial neck fracture with an Essex-Lopresti injury on the posterior interosseous nerve. In twenty unembalmed cadaveric upper extremities, the distance from the radiocapitellar joint to the point where the posterior interosseous nerve crosses the midpoint of the axis of the radius (Thompson approach) was recorded in three forearm positions (supination, neutral, and pronation). Specimens were then treated with either proximal diaphyseal osteotomy (n = 10) or radial head excision with simulated Essex-Lopresti injury (n = 10), and the position of the nerve in each forearm position was remeasured. We evaluated the effect of the simulated trauma on nerve position and correlated baseline measurements with radial length. In neutral rotation, the posterior interosseous nerve crossed the radius at a mean of 4.2 cm (range, 2.5 to 6.2 cm) distal to the radiocapitellar joint. In pronation, the distance increased to 5.6 cm (range, 3.1 to 7.4 cm) (p 0.50, p = 0.01). Diaphyseal osteotomy of the radius markedly decreased the effect of forearm rotation, as the change in nerve position from supination to pronation decreased from 2.13 ± 0.8 cm to 0.24 ± 0.2 cm (p = 0.001). Proximal migration of the radius following radial head excision was accompanied by similar magnitudes of proximal nerve migration in all forearm positions. Forearm pronation has minimal effect on posterior interosseous nerve position within the surgical window following a displaced diaphyseal osteotomy of the proximal aspect of the radius. The nerve migrates proximally toward the capitellum with proximal

  4. Analysis of the accuracy of Shuttle Radar Topography Mission ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    DTM; SRTM. Abstract. The Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) carried out in February 2000 has provided near global topographic data that has been widely used in many fields of earth sciences. The mission goal of an absolute vertical ...

  5. Measurement of Angle Kappa Using Ultrasound Biomicroscopy and Corneal Topography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeo, Joon Hyung; Moon, Nam Ju; Lee, Jeong Kyu

    2017-06-01

    To introduce a new convenient and accurate method to measure the angle kappa using ultrasound biomicroscopy (UBM) and corneal topography. Data from 42 eyes (13 males and 29 females) were analyzed in this study. The angle kappa was measured using Orbscan II and calculated with UBM and corneal topography. The angle kappa of the dominant eye was compared with measurements by Orbscan II. The mean patient age was 36.4 ± 13.8 years. The average angle kappa measured by Orbscan II was 3.98° ± 1.12°, while the average angle kappa calculated with UBM and corneal topography was 3.19° ± 1.15°. The difference in angle kappa measured by the two methods was statistically significant (p topography to calculate the angle kappa. This method is convenient to use and allows for measurement of the angle kappa without an expensive device. © 2017 The Korean Ophthalmological Society

  6. Influence of surface topography on the sputtering yields of silver

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pan Jisheng; Wang Zhenxia; Tao Zhenlan; Zhang Jiping

    1992-01-01

    The sputtering yields of silver have been measured as a function of the fluence of incident Ar + ions (27 keV) using the collector technique and RBS analysis. The irradiated surface was examined by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). It is shown that the sputtering yields of surfaces with topography are enhanced relative to smooth surfaces of silver, but the extent of the enhancement depends on the irradiation dose. The experimental results can be explained assuming that the surface topography and sputtering yield are a function of incident angle. It is obvious that the surface topography is an important factor to influence the sputtering yield. The term ''apparent sputtering yield'' has specifically been used when referring to the experimental sputtering yield of a surface with topography, to emphasize the difference with a smooth surface. (orig.)

  7. Topography measurements for determining the decay factors in surface replication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song, J; Zheng, A; Vorburger, T V; Rubert, P

    2008-01-01

    The electro-forming technique is used at National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) for the production of standard reference material (SRM) 2461 standard casings to support nationwide ballistics measurement traceability and measurement quality control in the US. In order to ensure that the SRM casings are produced with virtually the same surface topography, it is necessary to test the decay factors of the replication process. Twenty-six replica casings are replicated from the same master casing for the decay factor tests. The NIST topography measurement system is used for measurements and correlations of surface topography. The topography decays are quantified by the cross-correlation function maximum CCF max . Based on the test, it is expected that 256 SRM casings can be replicated from the same master with CCF max values higher than 95%

  8. Silk Film Topography Directs Collective Epithelial Cell Migration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenblatt, Mark I.

    2012-01-01

    The following study provides new insight into how surface topography dictates directed collective epithelial cell sheet growth through the guidance of individual cell movement. Collective cell behavior of migrating human corneal limbal-epithelial cell sheets were studied on highly biocompatible flat and micro-patterned silk film surfaces. The silk film edge topography guided the migratory direction of individual cells making up the collective epithelial sheet, which resulted in a 75% increase in total culture elongation. This was due to a 3-fold decrease in cell sheet migration rate efficiency for movement perpendicular to the topography edge. Individual cell migration direction is preferred in the parallel approach to the edge topography where localization of cytoskeletal proteins to the topography’s edge region is reduced, which results in the directed growth of the collective epithelial sheet. Findings indicate customized biomaterial surfaces may be created to direct both the migration rate and direction of tissue epithelialization. PMID:23185573

  9. Influence of local topography on precision irrigation management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Precision irrigation management is currently accomplished using spatial information about soil properties through soil series maps or electrical conductivity (EC measurements. Crop yield, however, is consistently influenced by local topography, both in rain-fed and irrigated environments. Utilizing ...

  10. Head, Neck, and Oral Cancer

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... out more. Oral, Head and Neck Pathology Oral, Head and Neck Pathology Close to 49,750 Americans ... out more. Oral, Head and Neck Pathology Oral, Head and Neck Pathology Close to 49,750 Americans ...

  11. Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) -- Head

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Site Index A-Z Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) - Head Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the head uses ... of the Head? What is MRI of the Head? Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is a noninvasive medical ...

  12. CT Perfusion of the Head

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Site Index A-Z CT Perfusion of the Head Computed tomography (CT) perfusion of the head uses ... the Head? What is CT Perfusion of the Head? Computed tomography (CT) perfusion imaging shows which areas ...

  13. Head, Neck, and Oral Cancer

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Head and Neck Pathology Oral, Head and Neck Pathology Close to 49,750 Americans will be diagnosed ... Head and Neck Pathology Oral, Head and Neck Pathology Close to 49,750 Americans will be diagnosed ...

  14. EEG topographies provide subject-specific correlates of motor control

    OpenAIRE

    Pirondini, Elvira; Coscia, Martina; Minguillon, Jesus; Millán, José del R.; Van De Ville, Dimitri; Micera, Silvestro

    2017-01-01

    Electroencephalography (EEG) of brain activity can be represented in terms of dynamically changing topographies (microstates). Notably, spontaneous brain activity recorded at rest can be characterized by four distinctive topographies. Despite their well-established role during resting state, their implication in the generation of motor behavior is debated. Evidence of such a functional role of spontaneous brain activity would provide support for the design of novel and sensitive biomarkers in...

  15. Reformation and utilization of complicated topography for a uranium mill

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Taoan; Zhou Xinghuo; Lv Junwen

    2004-01-01

    It is successful for how to reform and utilized complicated topography in the design of general plan and transport for technological reformation of a uranium mill. The unfavorable factors of complicated topography are turned into favorable ones. The general plan is designed compactly and the land is economized. The transport is designed simply and directly. the leaching liquid flows by gravity so that the power is economical

  16. Influence of surface topography on elastically backscattered electrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ding, X; Da, B; Gong, J B; Ding, Z J; Mao, S F

    2014-01-01

    A Monte Carlo simulation, taking into account of the detailed surface roughness of a realistic solid sample, has been performed to study the surface topography influence on elastic peak intensity. To describe quantitatively the surface topography effect, here we introduce surface roughness parameter (SRP) according to the ratio of elastic peak intensities between a rough surface and an ideal planar surface. Simulation results for Al sample have shown that SRP varies with surface roughness particularly at large incidence/emission angles

  17. Asymmetric three-dimensional topography over mantle plumes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burov, Evgueni; Gerya, Taras

    2014-09-04

    The role of mantle-lithosphere interactions in shaping surface topography has long been debated. In general, it is supposed that mantle plumes and vertical mantle flows result in axisymmetric, long-wavelength topography, which strongly differs from the generally asymmetric short-wavelength topography created by intraplate tectonic forces. However, identification of mantle-induced topography is difficult, especially in the continents. It can be argued therefore that complex brittle-ductile rheology and stratification of the continental lithosphere result in short-wavelength modulation and localization of deformation induced by mantle flow. This deformation should also be affected by far-field stresses and, hence, interplay with the 'tectonic' topography (for example, in the 'active/passive' rifting scenario). Testing these ideas requires fully coupled three-dimensional numerical modelling of mantle-lithosphere interactions, which so far has not been possible owing to the conceptual and technical limitations of earlier approaches. Here we present new, ultra-high-resolution, three-dimensional numerical experiments on topography over mantle plumes, incorporating a weakly pre-stressed (ultra-slow spreading), rheologically realistic lithosphere. The results show complex surface evolution, which is very different from the smooth, radially symmetric patterns usually assumed as the canonical surface signature of mantle upwellings. In particular, the topography exhibits strongly asymmetric, small-scale, three-dimensional features, which include narrow and wide rifts, flexural flank uplifts and fault structures. This suggests a dominant role for continental rheological structure and intra-plate stresses in controlling dynamic topography, mantle-lithosphere interactions, and continental break-up processes above mantle plumes.

  18. Topography-modified refraction (TMR): adjustment of treated cylinder amount and axis to the topography versus standard clinical refraction in myopic topography-guided LASIK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanellopoulos, Anastasios John

    2016-01-01

    To evaluate the safety, efficacy, and contralateral eye comparison of topography-guided myopic LASIK with two different refraction treatment strategies. Private clinical ophthalmology practice. A total of 100 eyes (50 patients) in consecutive cases of myopic topography-guided LASIK procedures with the same refractive platform (FS200 femtosecond and EX500 excimer lasers) were randomized for treatment as follows: one eye with the standard clinical refraction (group A) and the contralateral eye with the topographic astigmatic power and axis (topography-modified treatment refraction; group B). All cases were evaluated pre- and post-operatively for the following parameters: refractive error, best corrected distance visual acuity (CDVA), uncorrected distance visual acuity (UDVA), topography (Placido-disk based) and tomography (Scheimpflug-image based), wavefront analysis, pupillometry, and contrast sensitivity. Follow-up visits were conducted for at least 12 months. Mean refractive error was -5.5 D of myopia and -1.75 D of astigmatism. In group A versus group B, respectively, the average UDVA improved from 20/200 to 20/20 versus 20/16; post-operative CDVA was 20/20 and 20/13.5; 1 line of vision gained was 27.8% and 55.6%; and 2 lines of vision gained was 5.6% and 11.1%. In group A, 27.8% of eyes had over -0.50 diopters of residual refractive astigmatism, in comparison to 11.7% in group B ( P Topography-modified refraction (TMR): topographic adjustment of the amount and axis of astigmatism treated, when different from the clinical refraction, may offer superior outcomes in topography-guided myopic LASIK. These findings may change the current clinical paradigm of the optimal subjective refraction utilized in laser vision correction.

  19. Nerve fascicle transfer using a part of the C-7 nerve for spinal accessory nerve injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Xuan; Shen, Yun-Dong; Feng, Jun-Tao; Xu, Wen-Dong

    2018-02-09

    OBJECTIVE Spinal accessory nerve (SAN) injury results in a series of shoulder dysfunctions and continuous pain. However, current treatments are limited by the lack of donor nerves as well as by undesirable nerve regeneration. Here, the authors report a modified nerve transfer technique in which they employ a nerve fascicle from the posterior division (PD) of the ipsilateral C-7 nerve to repair SAN injury. The technique, first performed in cadavers, was then undertaken in 2 patients. METHODS Six fresh cadavers (12 sides of the SAN and ipsilateral C-7) were studied to observe the anatomical relationship between the SAN and C-7 nerve. The length from artificial bifurcation of the middle trunk to the point of the posterior cord formation in the PD (namely, donor nerve fascicle) and the linear distance from the cut end of the donor fascicle to both sites of the jugular foramen and medial border of the trapezius muscle (d-SCM and d-Traps, respectively) were measured. Meanwhile, an optimal route for nerve fascicle transfer (NFT) was designed. The authors then performed successful NFT operations in 2 patients, one with an injury at the proximal SAN and another with an injury at the distal SAN. RESULTS The mean lengths of the cadaver donor nerve fascicle, d-SCM, and d-Traps were 4.2, 5.2, and 2.5 cm, respectively. In one patient who underwent proximal SAN excision necessitated by a partial thyroidectomy, early signs of reinnervation were seen on electrophysiological testing at 6 months after surgery, and an impaired left trapezius muscle, which was completely atrophic preoperatively, had visible signs of improvement (from grade M0 to grade M3 strength). In the other patient in whom a distal SAN injury was the result of a neck cyst resection, reinnervation and complex repetitive discharges were seen 1 year after surgery. Additionally, the patient's denervated trapezius muscle was completely resolved (from grade M2 to grade M4 strength), and her shoulder pain had disappeared

  20. The Role of Nerve Exploration in Supracondylar Humerus Fracture in Children with Nerve Injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anuar RIM

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The supracondylar humerus fracture (SCHF in children is common and can be complicated with nerve injury either primarily immediate post-trauma or secondarily posttreatment. The concept of neurapraxic nerve injury makes most surgeons choose to ‘watch and see’ the nerve recovery before deciding second surgery if the nerve does not recover. We report three cases of nerve injury in SCHF, all of which underwent nerve exploration for different reasons. Early reduction in the Casualty is important to release the nerve tension before transferring the patient to the operation room. If close reduction fails, we proceed to explore the nerve together with open reduction of the fracture. In iatrogenic nerve injury, we recommend nerve exploration to determine the surgical procedure that is causing the injury. Primary nerve exploration will allow early assessment of the injured nerve and minimize subsequent surgery.

  1. Topography and refractometry of sperm cells using spatial light interference microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Lina; Kandel, Mikhail E; Rubessa, Marcello; Schreiber, Sierra; Wheeler, Mathew B; Popescu, Gabriel

    2018-02-01

    Characterization of spermatozoon viability is a common test in treating infertility. Recently, it has been shown that label-free, phase-sensitive imaging can provide a valuable alternative for this type of assay. We employ spatial light interference microscopy (SLIM) to perform high-accuracy single-cell phase imaging and decouple the average thickness and refractive index information for the population. This procedure was enabled by quantitative-phase imaging cells on media of two different refractive indices and using a numerical tool to remove the curvature from the cell tails. This way, we achieved ensemble averaging of topography and refractometry of 100 cells in each of the two groups. The results show that the thickness profile of the cell tail goes down to 150 nm and the refractive index can reach values of 1.6 close to the head. (2018) COPYRIGHT Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers (SPIE).

  2. Effects of Ozone on Sciatic Nerve in Rat

    OpenAIRE

    Lin, Q.; Chen, H.; Lu, C.; Wang, B.; Zhang, Y.; He, X.; Yu, B.

    2011-01-01

    This study evaluated the influence of ozone on rat sciatic nerve structure and function. Thirty Wistar rats were randomly divided into six groups (n = 5). In groups I to IV, 1ml of ozone (O3) 10 μg/ml, 30 μg/ml, 50 μg/ml, 8 0μg/ml was injected at the junction of gluteus maximus margin and lateral edge of the long head of biceps femoris respectively, in group V, 1 ml of pure O2 was injected at the same point, and group V had puncture without any injection. Ozone was manufactured by an ozone ge...

  3. Retinal ganglion cell topography in elasmobranchs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bozzano, A; Collin, S P

    2000-04-01

    Retinal wholemounts are used to examine the topographic distribution of retinal cells within the ganglion cell layer in a range of elasmobranchs from different depths. The retina is examined for regional specializations for acute vision in six species of selachians, Galeocerdo cuvieri, Hemiscyllium ocellatum, Scyliorhinus canicula, Galeus melastomus, Etmopterus spinax, Isistius brasiliensis, one species of batoid, Raja bigelowi and one species of chimaera, Hydrolagus mirabilis. These species represent a range of lifestyles including pelagic, mesopelagic and benthic habitats, living from shallow water to the sea bottom at a depth of more than 3000 m. The topography of cells within the ganglion cell layer is non-uniform and changes markedly across the retina. Most species possess an increased density of cells across the horizontal (dorsal) meridian or visual streak, with a density range of 500 to 2,500 cells per mm(2) with one or more regional increases in density lying within this specialized horizontal area. It is proposed that the higher spatial resolving power provided by the horizontal streak in these species mediates panoramic vision in the lower frontal visual field. Only I. brasiliensis possesses a concentric arrangement of retinal iso-density contours in temporal retina or an area centralis, thereby increasing spatial resolving power in a more specialized part of the visual field, an adaptation for its unusual feeding behavior. In Nissl-stained material, amacrine and ganglion cell populations could be distinguished on the criteria of soma size, soma shape and nuclear staining. Quantitative analyses show that the proportion of amacrine cells lying within the ganglion cell layer is non-uniform and ranges between 0.4 and 12.3% in specialized retinal areas and between 8.2 and 48.1% in the peripheral non-specialized regions. Analyses of soma area of the total population of cells in the ganglion cell layer also show that the pelagic species possess significantly

  4. Shuttle Topography Data Inform Solar Power Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    The next time you flip on a light switch, there s a chance that you could be benefitting from data originally acquired during the Space Shuttle Program. An effort spearheaded by Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) and the National Geospatial-Intelligence Agency (NGA) in 2000 put together the first near-global elevation map of the Earth ever assembled, which has found use in everything from 3D terrain maps to models that inform solar power production. For the project, called the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM), engineers at JPL designed a 60-meter mast that was fitted onto Shuttle Endeavour. Once deployed in space, an antenna attached to the end of the mast worked in combination with another antenna on the shuttle to simultaneously collect data from two perspectives. Just as having two eyes makes depth perception possible, the SRTM data sets could be combined to form an accurate picture of the Earth s surface elevations, the first hight-detail, near-global elevation map ever assembled. What made SRTM unique was not just its surface mapping capabilities but the completeness of the data it acquired. Over the course of 11 days, the shuttle orbited the Earth nearly 180 times, covering everything between the 60deg north and 54deg south latitudes, or roughly 80 percent of the world s total landmass. Of that targeted land area, 95 percent was mapped at least twice, and 24 percent was mapped at least four times. Following several years of processing, NASA released the data to the public in partnership with NGA. Robert Crippen, a member of the SRTM science team, says that the data have proven useful in a variety of fields. "Satellites have produced vast amounts of remote sensing data, which over the years have been mostly two-dimensional. But the Earth s surface is three-dimensional. Detailed topographic data give us the means to visualize and analyze remote sensing data in their natural three-dimensional structure, facilitating a greater understanding of the features

  5. The Role of Nerve Exploration in Supracondylar Humerus Fracture in Children with Nerve Injury

    OpenAIRE

    Anuar RIM; Gooi SG; Zulkiflee O

    2015-01-01

    The supracondylar humerus fracture (SCHF) in children is common and can be complicated with nerve injury either primarily immediate post-trauma or secondarily posttreatment. The concept of neurapraxic nerve injury makes most surgeons choose to ?watch and see? the nerve recovery before deciding second surgery if the nerve does not recover. We report three cases of nerve injury in SCHF, all of which underwent nerve exploration for different reasons. Early reduction in the Casualty is important ...

  6. Phrenic nerve transfer to the musculocutaneous nerve for the repair of brachial plexus injury: electrophysiological characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying Liu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Phrenic nerve transfer is a major dynamic treatment used to repair brachial plexus root avulsion. We analyzed 72 relevant articles on phrenic nerve transfer to repair injured brachial plexus that were indexed by Science Citation Index. The keywords searched were brachial plexus injury, phrenic nerve, repair, surgery, protection, nerve transfer, and nerve graft. In addition, we performed neurophysiological analysis of the preoperative condition and prognosis of 10 patients undergoing ipsilateral phrenic nerve transfer to the musculocutaneous nerve in our hospital from 2008 to 201 3 and observed the electromyograms of the biceps brachii and motor conduction function of the musculocutaneous nerve. Clinically, approximately 28% of patients had brachial plexus injury combined with phrenic nerve injury, and injured phrenic nerve cannot be used as a nerve graft. After phrenic nerve transfer to the musculocutaneous nerve, the regenerated potentials first appeared at 3 months. Recovery of motor unit action potential occurred 6 months later and became more apparent at 12 months. The percent of patients recovering ′excellent′ and ′good′ muscle strength in the biceps brachii was 80% after 18 months. At 12 months after surgery, motor nerve conduction potential appeared in the musculocutaneous nerve in seven cases. These data suggest that preoperative evaluation of phrenic nerve function may help identify the most appropriate nerve graft in patients with an injured brachial plexus. The functional recovery of a transplanted nerve can be dynamically observed after the surgery.

  7. Cranial Nerves IX, X, XI, and XII.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillig, Paulette Marie; Sanders, Richard D

    2010-05-01

    This article concludes the series on cranial nerves, with review of the final four (IX-XII). To summarize briefly, the most important and common syndrome caused by a disorder of the glossopharyngeal nerve (craniel nerve IX) is glossopharyngeal neuralgia. Also, swallowing function occasionally is compromised in a rare but disabling form of tardive dyskinesia called tardive dystonia, because the upper motor portion of the glossopharyngel nerve projects to the basal ganglia and can be affected by lesions in the basal ganglia. Vagus nerve funtion (craniel nerve X) can be compromised in schizophrenia, bulimia, obesity, and major depression. A cervical lesion to the nerve roots of the spinal accessory nerve (craniel nerve XI) can cause a cervical dystonia, which sometimes is misdiagnosed as a dyskinesia related to neuroleptic use. Finally, unilateral hypoglossal (craniel nerve XII) nerve palsy is one of the most common mononeuropathies caused by brain metastases. Supranuclear lesions of cranial nerve XII are involved in pseudobulbar palsy and ALS, and lower motor neuron lesions of cranial nerve XII can also be present in bulbar palsy and in ALS patients who also have lower motor neuron involvement. This article reviews these and other syndromes related to cranial nerves IX through XII that might be seen by psychiatry.

  8. Manual therapy and neurodynamic mobilization in a patient with peroneal nerve paralysis: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villafañe, Jorge Hugo; Pillastrini, Paolo; Borboni, Alberto

    2013-09-01

    The purpose of this case report is to describe a therapeutic intervention for peroneal nerve paralysis involving the sciatic nerve. A 24-year-old man presented with peroneal nerve paralysis with decreased sensation, severe pain in the popliteal fossa, and steppage gait, which occurred 3 days prior to the consultation. Magnetic resonance imaging and electromyography confirmed lumbar disk herniation with sciatic common peroneal nerve entrapment in the popliteal fossa. A combined treatment protocol of spinal and fibular head manipulation and neurodynamic mobilization including soft tissue work of the psoas and hamstring muscles was performed. Outcome measures were assessed at pretreatment, 1 week posttreatment, and 3-month follow-up and included numeric pain rating scale, range of motion, pressure pain threshold, and manual muscle testing. Treatment interventions were applied for 3 sessions over a period of 1 week. Results showed reduction of the patient's subjective pain and considerable improvement in range of motion, strength, and sensation in his left foot, which was restored to full function. A combined program of spinal and fibular head manipulation and neurodynamic mobilization reduced pain, increased range of motion and strength, and restored full function to the left leg in this patient who had severe functional impairment related to a compressed left common peroneal nerve.

  9. Imaging the ocular motor nerves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferreira, Teresa [Department of Radiology, Leiden University Medical Center (Netherlands)], E-mail: T.A.Ferreira@lumc.nl; Verbist, Berit [Department of Radiology, Leiden University Medical Center (Netherlands)], E-mail: B.M.Verbist@lumc.nl; Buchem, Mark van [Department of Radiology, Leiden University Medical Center (Netherlands)], E-mail: M.A.van_Buchem@lumc.nl; Osch, Thijs van [C.J. Gorter for High-Field MRI, Department of Radiology, Leiden University Medical Center (Netherlands)], E-mail: M.J.P.van_Osch@lumc.nl; Webb, Andrew [C.J. Gorter for High-Field MRI, Department of Radiology, Leiden University Medical Center (Netherlands)], E-mail: A.Webb@lumc.nl

    2010-05-15

    The ocular motor nerves (OMNs) comprise the oculomotor, trochlear and the abducens nerves. According to their course, they are divided into four or five anatomic segments: intra-axial, cisternal, cavernous and intra-orbital and, for the abducens nerve, an additional interdural segment. Magnetic resonance imaging is the imaging method of choice in the evaluation of the normal and pathologic ocular motor nerves. CT still plays a limited but important role in the evaluation of the intraosseous portions at the skull base and bony foramina. We describe for each segment of these cranial nerves, the normal anatomy, the most appropriate image sequences and planes, their imaging appearance and pathologic conditions. Magnetic resonance imaging with high magnetic fields is a developing and promising technique. We describe our initial experience with a Phillips 7.0 T MRI scanner in the evaluation of the brainstem segments of the OMNs. As imaging becomes more refined, an understanding of the detailed anatomy is increasingly necessary, as the demand on radiology to diagnose smaller lesions also increases.

  10. Nerve excitability in the rat forelimb

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arnold, Ria; Moldovan, Mihai; Rosberg, Mette Romer

    2017-01-01

    a novel setup to explore the ulnar nerve excitability in rodents. We provide normative ulnar data in 11 adult female Long Evans rats under anaesthesia by comparison with tibial and caudal nerves. Additionally, these measures were repeated weekly on 3 occasions to determine the repeatability of these tests....... Results Nerve excitability assessment of ulnar nerve proved to be a longitudinally repeatable measure of axonal function mature in rats, as were measures in tibial and caudal nerves. Comparison with existing method: Ulnar nerve motor excitability measures were different from the caudal and tibial...

  11. Magnetic resonance imaging of optic nerve

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gala, Foram

    2015-01-01

    Optic nerves are the second pair of cranial nerves and are unique as they represent an extension of the central nervous system. Apart from clinical and ophthalmoscopic evaluation, imaging, especially magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), plays an important role in the complete evaluation of optic nerve and the entire visual pathway. In this pictorial essay, the authors describe segmental anatomy of the optic nerve and review the imaging findings of various conditions affecting the optic nerves. MRI allows excellent depiction of the intricate anatomy of optic nerves due to its excellent soft tissue contrast without exposure to ionizing radiation, better delineation of the entire visual pathway, and accurate evaluation of associated intracranial pathologies

  12. Treatment and Follow Up Outcomes of Patients with Peroneal Nerve Injury: A Single Center Experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasar Dagistan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Trap neuropathy is characterized by compression of the peripheral nerve into fibro osseous channels in trespassing areas of body segments. Peroneal nerve is the most frequently injured nerve in traumatic injuries of the lower extremities. In the present study, we investigated functional results of surgical treatment of patients with peroneal nerve injury who delayed visiting our clinics after the damage; we also aimed to observe the effects of this delay on prognosis. We interpreted postoperative results of the patients with EMG and physical examination findings. Material and Method: Subjects with peroneal nerve damage who visited our clinics between 2012 and 2015 were included in the present study. EMG and muscle motor strength tests were conducted pre and postoperatively for clinical assessment. Results: Of the 16 patients in the study population, 7 were men and 9 were women. The median age of the subjects was 49.6 years (14-77 years. Admission time was 9 months after injury. Causes of the peroneal nerve damage were as follows: prosthesis surgery in 4 (25%, ankle damage in 2 (12.5%, excessive squatting by agriculture workers in 4 (25%, aggressive exercise in 2 (12.5%, bone fracture in 2 (12.5%, and unknown origin in 2 (12.5%. Discussion: Peroneal nerve injury usually occurs by compression of the nerve at the head or neck of the fibula. Results of decompression surgery are usually compromising in non-traumatic nerve palsies. Period of duration between injury and diagnosis and muscular atrophy are main factors associated with success of treatment.

  13. Topography-modified refraction (TMR: adjustment of treated cylinder amount and axis to the topography versus standard clinical refraction in myopic topography-guided LASIK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kanellopoulos AJ

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Anastasios John Kanellopoulos1,2 1LaserVision Clinical and Research Institute, Athens, Greece; 2Department of Ophthalmology, NYU Medical School, New York, NY, USA Purpose: To evaluate the safety, efficacy, and contralateral eye comparison of topography-guided myopic LASIK with two different refraction treatment strategies. Setting: Private clinical ophthalmology practice. Patients and methods: A total of 100 eyes (50 patients in consecutive cases of myopic topography-guided LASIK procedures with the same refractive platform (FS200 femtosecond and EX500 excimer lasers were randomized for treatment as follows: one eye with the standard clinical refraction (group A and the contralateral eye with the topographic astigmatic power and axis (topography-modified treatment refraction; group B. All cases were evaluated pre- and post-operatively for the following parameters: refractive error, best corrected distance visual acuity (CDVA, uncorrected distance visual acuity (UDVA, topography (Placido-disk based and tomography (Scheimpflug-image based, wavefront analysis, pupillometry, and contrast sensitivity. Follow-up visits were conducted for at least 12 months. Results: Mean refractive error was -5.5 D of myopia and -1.75 D of astigmatism. In group A versus group B, respectively, the average UDVA improved from 20/200 to 20/20 versus 20/16; post-operative CDVA was 20/20 and 20/13.5; 1 line of vision gained was 27.8% and 55.6%; and 2 lines of vision gained was 5.6% and 11.1%. In group A, 27.8% of eyes had over -0.50 diopters of residual refractive astigmatism, in comparison to 11.7% in group B (P<0.01. The residual percentages in both groups were measured with refractive astigmatism of more than –0.5 diopters. Conclusion: Topography-modified refraction (TMR: topographic adjustment of the amount and axis of astigmatism treated, when different from the clinical refraction, may offer superior outcomes in topography-guided myopic LASIK. These findings

  14. Head Injuries in Soccer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myrick, Karen M

    2016-07-01

    Soccer is currently the most popular and fastest growing sport worldwide, with approximately 265 million registered soccer players existing around the world. The popularity of the sport, coupled with the high incidence of 18.8-21.5 head injuries per 1,000 player hours reported, make it essential that clinicians, coaches, and the athletes, have a solid understanding of head injuries. The successful rehabilitation of athletes with head injuries relies upon early and accurate identification strategies and implementation of appropriate return to play measures across all areas in the continuum of care. Soccer is a frequently played sport, and head injuries are common. Therefore, it is imperative that clinicians, coaches, and the athletes themselves have a solid understanding of head injury prevention, diagnosis, and treatment options. The purpose of this article was to provide rehabilitation nurses with current information regarding frequently occurring head injuries in the widespread sport of soccer. © 2015 Association of Rehabilitation Nurses.

  15. Variability of the temporal bone surface's topography: implications for otologic surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lecoeur, Jérémy; Noble, Jack H.; Balachandran, Ramya; Labadie, Robert F.; Dawant, Benoit M.

    2012-02-01

    Otologic surgery is performed for a variety of reasons including treatment of recurrent ear infections, alleviation of dizziness, and restoration of hearing loss. A typical ear surgery consists of a tympanomastoidectomy in which both the middle ear is explored via a tympanic membrane flap and the bone behind the ear is removed via mastoidectomy to treat disease and/or provide additional access. The mastoid dissection is performed using a high-speed drill to excavate bone based on a pre-operative CT scan. Intraoperatively, the surface of the mastoid component of the temporal bone provides visual feedback allowing the surgeon to guide their dissection. Dissection begins in "safe areas" which, based on surface topography, are believed to be correlated with greatest distance from surface to vital anatomy thus decreasing the chance of injury to the brain, large blood vessels (e.g. the internal jugular vein and internal carotid artery), the inner ear, and the facial nerve. "Safe areas" have been identified based on surgical experience with no identifiable studies showing correlation of the surface with subsurface anatomy. The purpose of our study was to investigate whether such a correlation exists. Through a three-step registration process, we defined a correspondence between each of twenty five clinically-applicable temporal bone CT scans of patients and an atlas and explored displacement and angular differences of surface topography and depth of critical structures from the surface of the skull. The results of this study reflect current knowledge of osteogenesis and anatomy. Based on two features (distance and angular difference), two regions (suprahelical and posterior) of the temporal bone show the least variability between surface and subsurface anatomy.

  16. The Use of Degradable Nerve Conduits for Human Nerve Repair: A Review of the Literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. F. Meek

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The management of peripheral nerve injury continues to be a major clinical challenge. The most widely used technique for bridging defects in peripheral nerves is the use of autologous nerve grafts. This technique, however, has some disadvantages. Many alternative experimental techniques have thus been developed, such as degradable nerve conduits. Degradable nerve guides have been extensively studied in animal experimental studies. However, the repair of human nerves by degradable nerve conduits has been limited to only a few clinical studies. In this paper, an overview of the available international published literature on degradable nerve conduits for bridging human peripheral nerve defects is presented for literature available until 2004. Also, the philosophy on the use of nerve guides and nerve grafts is given.

  17. Head and Neck

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Højgaard, Liselotte; Berthelsen, Anne Kiil; Loft, Annika

    2014-01-01

    Positron emission tomography (PET)/computed tomography with FDG of the head and neck region is mainly used for the diagnosis of head and neck cancer, for staging, treatment evaluation, relapse, and planning of surgery and radio therapy. This article is a practical guide of imaging techniques......, including a detailed protocol for FDG PET in head and neck imaging, physiologic findings, and pitfalls in selected case stories....

  18. Raman spectroscopic detection of peripheral nerves towards nerve-sparing surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minamikawa, Takeo; Harada, Yoshinori; Takamatsu, Tetsuro

    2017-02-01

    The peripheral nervous system plays an important role in motility, sensory, and autonomic functions of the human body. Preservation of peripheral nerves in surgery, namely nerve-sparing surgery, is now promising technique to avoid functional deficits of the limbs and organs following surgery as an aspect of the improvement of quality of life of patients. Detection of peripheral nerves including myelinated and unmyelinated nerves is required for the nerve-sparing surgery; however, conventional nerve identification scheme is sometimes difficult to identify peripheral nerves due to similarity of shape and color to non-nerve tissues or its limited application to only motor peripheral nerves. To overcome these issues, we proposed a label-free detection technique of peripheral nerves by means of Raman spectroscopy. We found several fingerprints of peripheral myelinated and unmyelinated nerves by employing a modified principal component analysis of typical spectra including myelinated nerve, unmyelinated nerve, and adjacent tissues. We finally realized the sensitivity of 94.2% and the selectivity of 92.0% for peripheral nerves including myelinated and unmyelinated nerves against adjacent tissues. Although further development of an intraoperative Raman spectroscopy system is required for clinical use, our proposed approach will serve as a unique and powerful tool for peripheral nerve detection for nerve-sparing surgery in the future.

  19. Progress of nerve bridges in the treatment of peripheral nerve disruptions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ao Q

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Qiang Ao Department of Tissue Engineering, School of Fundamental Science, China Medical University, Shenyang, Liaoning, Peoples’ Republic of China Abstract: Clinical repair of a nerve defect is one of the most challenging surgical problems. Autologous nerve grafting remains the gold standard treatment in addressing peripheral nerve injuries that cannot be bridged by direct epineural suturing. However, the autologous nerve graft is not readily available, and the process of harvesting autologous nerve graft results in several complications. Thus, it is necessary to explore an alternative to autologous nerve graft. In the last few decades, with significant advances in the life sciences and biotechnology, a lot of artificial nerve grafts have been developed to aim at the treatment of peripheral nerve disruptions. Artificial nerve grafts range from biological tubes to synthetic tubes and from nondegradable tubes to degradable tubes. Among them, acellular nerve allografts and artificial nerve repair conduits are two kinds of the most promising substitutes for nerve autografts. The history, research status, and prospect of acellular nerve allografts and artificial nerve repair conduits are described briefly in this review. Keywords: peripheral nerve injury, repair, acellular nerve graft, nerve conduit

  20. The impact of motor and sensory nerve architecture on nerve regeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moradzadeh, Arash; Borschel, Gregory H; Luciano, Janina P; Whitlock, Elizabeth L; Hayashi, Ayato; Hunter, Daniel A; Mackinnon, Susan E

    2008-08-01

    Sensory nerve autografting is the standard of care for injuries resulting in a nerve gap. Recent work demonstrates superior regeneration with motor nerve grafts. Improved regeneration with motor grafting may be a result of the nerve's Schwann cell basal lamina tube size. Motor nerves have larger SC basal lamina tubes, which may allow more nerve fibers to cross a nerve graft repair. Architecture may partially explain the suboptimal clinical results seen with sensory nerve grafting techniques. To define the role of nerve architecture, we evaluated regeneration through acellular motor and sensory nerve grafts. Thirty-six Lewis rats underwent tibial nerve repairs with 5 mm double-cable motor or triple-cable sensory nerve isografts. Grafts were harvested and acellularized in University of Wisconsin solution. Control animals received fresh motor or sensory cable isografts. Nerves were harvested after 4 weeks and histomorphometry was performed. In 6 animals per group from the fresh motor and sensory cable graft groups, weekly walking tracks and wet muscle mass ratios were performed at 7 weeks. Histomorphometry revealed more robust nerve regeneration in both acellular and cellular motor grafts. Sensory groups showed poor regeneration with significantly decreased percent nerve, fiber count, and density (parchitecture (size of SC basal lamina tubes) plays an important role in nerve regeneration in a mixed nerve gap model.

  1. Bottom head assembly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fife, A.B.

    1998-01-01

    A bottom head dome assembly is described which includes, in one embodiment, a bottom head dome and a liner configured to be positioned proximate the bottom head dome. The bottom head dome has a plurality of openings extending there through. The liner also has a plurality of openings extending there through, and each liner opening aligns with a respective bottom head dome opening. A seal is formed, such as by welding, between the liner and the bottom head dome to resist entry of water between the liner and the bottom head dome at the edge of the liner. In the one embodiment, a plurality of stub tubes are secured to the liner. Each stub tube has a bore extending there through, and each stub tube bore is coaxially aligned with a respective liner opening. A seat portion is formed by each liner opening for receiving a portion of the respective stub tube. The assembly also includes a plurality of support shims positioned between the bottom head dome and the liner for supporting the liner. In one embodiment, each support shim includes a support stub having a bore there through, and each support stub bore aligns with a respective bottom head dome opening. 2 figs

  2. Peripheral nerve conduits: technology update

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arslantunali D

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available D Arslantunali,1–3,* T Dursun,1,2,* D Yucel,1,4,5 N Hasirci,1,2,6 V Hasirci,1,2,7 1BIOMATEN, Center of Excellence in Biomaterials and Tissue Engineering, Middle East Technical University (METU, Ankara, Turkey; 2Department of Biotechnology, METU, Ankara, Turkey; 3Department of Bioengineering, Gumushane University, Gumushane, Turkey; 4Faculty of Engineering, Department of Medical Engineering, Acibadem University, Istanbul, Turkey; 5School of Medicine, Department of Histology and Embryology, Acibadem University, Istanbul, Turkey; 6Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Arts and Sciences, METU, Ankara, Turkey; 7Department of Biological Sciences, Faculty of Arts and Sciences, METU, Ankara, Turkey *These authors have contributed equally to this work Abstract: Peripheral nerve injury is a worldwide clinical problem which could lead to loss of neuronal communication along sensory and motor nerves between the central nervous system (CNS and the peripheral organs and impairs the quality of life of a patient. The primary requirement for the treatment of complete lesions is a tension-free, end-to-end repair. When end-to-end repair is not possible, peripheral nerve grafts or nerve conduits are used. The limited availability of autografts, and drawbacks of the allografts and xenografts like immunological reactions, forced the researchers to investigate and develop alternative approaches, mainly nerve conduits. In this review, recent information on the various types of conduit materials (made of biological and synthetic polymers and designs (tubular, fibrous, and matrix type are being presented. Keywords: peripheral nerve injury, natural biomaterials, synthetic biomaterials

  3. Geology, Bedrock - BEDROCK_TOPOGRAPHY_MM36_IN: Bedrock Topography Contours, Indiana (Indiana Geological Survey, 1:500,000, Line Shapefile)

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC State | GIS Inventory — Bedrock topography was converted from the original published map, Indiana Geological Survey Miscellaneous Map 36. The contours define the elevation/topography of the...

  4. Imaging of the optic nerve

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Becker, Minerva [Head and Neck and Maxillofacial Radiology, Department of Radiology, Geneva University Hospital, Rue Gabrielle-Perret-Gentil 4, CH - 1211 Geneva 14 (Switzerland)], E-mail: minerva.becker@hcuge.ch; Masterson, Karen [Head and Neck and Maxillofacial Radiology, Department of Radiology, Geneva University Hospital, Rue Gabrielle-Perret-Gentil 4, CH - 1211 Geneva 14 (Switzerland); Delavelle, Jacqueline [Neuroradiology, Department of Radiology, Geneva University Hospital, Rue Gabrielle-Perret-Gentil 4, CH - 1211 Geneva 14 (Switzerland); Viallon, Magalie [Department of Radiology, Geneva University Hospital, Rue Gabrielle-Perret-Gentil 4, CH - 1211 Geneva 14 (Switzerland); Vargas, Maria-Isabel [Neuroradiology, Department of Radiology, Geneva University Hospital, Rue Gabrielle-Perret-Gentil 4, CH - 1211 Geneva 14 (Switzerland); Becker, Christoph D. [Department of Radiology, Geneva University Hospital, Rue Gabrielle-Perret-Gentil 4, CH - 1211 Geneva 14 (Switzerland)

    2010-05-15

    This article provides an overview of the imaging findings of diseases affecting the optic nerve with special emphasis on clinical-radiological correlation and on the latest technical developments in MR imaging and CT. The review deals with congenital malformations, tumors, toxic/nutritional and degenerative entities, inflammatory and infectious diseases, compressive neuropathy, vascular conditions and trauma involving the optic nerve from its ocular segment to the chiasm. The implications of imaging findings on patient management and outcome and the importance of performing high-resolution tailored examinations adapted to the clinical situation are discussed.

  5. Smoking topography and abstinence in adult female smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClure, Erin A; Saladin, Michael E; Baker, Nathaniel L; Carpenter, Matthew J; Gray, Kevin M

    2013-12-01

    Preliminary evidence, within both adults and adolescents, suggests that the intensity with which cigarettes are smoked (i.e., smoking topography) is predictive of success during a cessation attempt. These reports have also shown topography to be superior compared to other variables, such as cigarettes per day, in the prediction of abstinence. The possibility that gender may influence this predictive relationship has not been evaluated but may be clinically useful in tailoring gender-specific interventions. Within the context of a clinical trial for smoking cessation among women, adult daily smokers completed a laboratory session that included a 1-hour ad libitum smoking period in which measures of topography were collected (N=135). Participants were then randomized to active medication (nicotine patch vs. varenicline) and abstinence was monitored for 4weeks. Among all smoking topography measures and all abstinence outcomes, a moderate association was found between longer puff duration and greater puff volume and continued smoking during the active 4-week treatment phase, but only within the nicotine patch group. Based on the weak topography-abstinence relationship among female smokers found in the current study, future studies should focus on explicit gender comparisons to examine if these associations are specific to or more robust in male smokers. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Toroidal vortices over isolated topography in geophysical flows

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koshel, Konstantin V; Ryzhov, Evgeny A; Zyryanov, Valery N

    2014-01-01

    This work deals with a model of a topographically trapped vortex appearing over isolated topography in a geophysical flow. The main feature of the study is that we pay special attention to the vertical structure of a topographically trapped vortex. The model considered allows one to study the vertical motion which is known not to be negligible in many cases. Given topography in the form of an isolated cylinder, and radial symmetry and stationarity of a uniform flow, in the linear approximation, we formulate a boundary value problem that determines all the components of the velocity field through a six-order differential operator, and nonincreasing boundary conditions at the center of the topography, and at infinity. The eigenvalues of the boundary value problem correspond to bifurcation points, in which the flow becomes unstable, hence non-negligible vertical velocities occur. We formulate a condition for the boundary value problem to have a discrete spectrum of these bifurcation points, and hence to be solvable. Conducting a series of test calculations, we show that the resulting vortex lies in the vicinity of topography, and can attain the distance up to half of the topography characteristic radius. (papers)

  7. Theoretical evaluation of accuracy in position and size of brain activity obtained by near-infrared topography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawaguchi, Hiroshi; Hayashi, Toshiyuki; Kato, Toshinori; Okada, Eiji

    2004-01-01

    Near-infrared (NIR) topography can obtain a topographical distribution of the activated region in the brain cortex. Near-infrared light is strongly scattered in the head, and the volume of tissue sampled by a source-detector pair on the head surface is broadly distributed in the brain. This scattering effect results in poor resolution and contrast in the topographic image of the brain activity. In this study, a one-dimensional distribution of absorption change in a head model is calculated by mapping and reconstruction methods to evaluate the effect of the image reconstruction algorithm and the interval of measurement points for topographic imaging on the accuracy of the topographic image. The light propagation in the head model is predicted by Monte Carlo simulation to obtain the spatial sensitivity profile for a source-detector pair. The measurement points are one-dimensionally arranged on the surface of the model, and the distance between adjacent measurement points is varied from 4 mm to 28 mm. Small intervals of the measurement points improve the topographic image calculated by both the mapping and reconstruction methods. In the conventional mapping method, the limit of the spatial resolution depends upon the interval of the measurement points and spatial sensitivity profile for source-detector pairs. The reconstruction method has advantages over the mapping method which improve the results of one-dimensional analysis when the interval of measurement points is less than 12 mm. The effect of overlapping of spatial sensitivity profiles indicates that the reconstruction method may be effective to improve the spatial resolution of a two-dimensional reconstruction of topographic image obtained with larger interval of measurement points. Near-infrared topography with the reconstruction method potentially obtains an accurate distribution of absorption change in the brain even if the size of absorption change is less than 10 mm

  8. Transient Femoral Nerve Palsy Following Ilioinguinal Nerve Block ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Intramuscular sodium diclofenac 75 mg was administered intraoperatively into the contralateral gluteal muscle. A 5–6‑cm oblique incision was made from the .... Mechanism of femoral nerve palsy complicating percutaneous ilioinguinal field block. Br J Anaesth 1997;78:314‑6. 19. Chan PY, Lee MP, Cheung HY, Chung CC, ...

  9. Functional nerve recovery after bridging a 15 mm gap in rat sciatic nerve with a biodegradable nerve guide

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meek, MF; Klok, F; Robinson, PH; Nicolai, JPA; Gramsbergen, A; van der Werf, J.F.A.

    2003-01-01

    Recovery of nerve function was evaluated after bridging a 15 mm sciatic nerve gap in 51 rats with a biodegradable poly(DL-lactide-epsilon-caprolactone) nerve guide. Recovery of function was investigated by analysing the footprints, by analysing video recordings of gait, by electrically eliciting the

  10. Detection of macular ganglion cell loss in preperimetric glaucoma patients with localized retinal nerve fibre defects by spectral-domain optical coherence tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Na, Jung Hwa; Lee, Kyoungsub; Lee, Jong Rak; Baek, Seunghee; Yoo, Sung Jun; Kook, Michael S

    2013-12-01

    To evaluate and compare the utility of ganglion cell complex with peripapillary retinal nerve fibre layer and optic nerve head measurements for detection of localized defects in patients with preperimetric glaucoma using spectral-domain optical coherence tomography. Prospective study. Preperimetric glaucoma patients. A total of 105 eyes with preperimetric glaucoma and 68 age- and refractive error-matched control eyes were enrolled. The ability to detect localized retinal nerve fibre layer defects by RTVue-100 spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (Optovue, Inc., Fremont, CA, USA) was assessed calculating the areas under receiver operating characteristic curves. The ability to detect localized retinal nerve fibre layer defects by spectral-domain optical coherence tomography. Global volume loss and superior ganglion cell complex thickness showed the largest area under receiver operating characteristic curve values (both areas under receiver operating characteristic curves 0.84, P fibre layer thickness afforded the best diagnostic capability (area under receiver operating characteristic curve 0.89, P optic nerve head parameters, the horizontal cup:disc ratio yielded the highest area under receiver operating characteristic curve (0.85, P fibre layer, and optic nerve head) (P > 0.02). Ganglion cell complex thickness was significantly reduced in eyes with preperimetric glaucoma. Ganglion cell complex imaging using spectral-domain optical coherence tomography may be a useful ancillary modality for detection of early macular changes in glaucomatous eyes with localized retinal nerve fibre layer defects. © 2013 Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Ophthalmologists.

  11. Vagus Nerve Stimulation for Treating Epilepsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and their FAMILIES VAGUS NERVE STIMULATION FOR TREATING EPILEPSY This information sheet is provided to help you ... how vagus nerve stimulation (VNS) may help treat epilepsy. The American Academy of Neurology (AAN) is the ...

  12. Simulation of spinal nerve blocks for training anesthesiology residents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blezek, Daniel J.; Robb, Richard A.; Camp, Jon J.; Nauss, Lee A.; Martin, David P.

    1998-06-01

    Deep nerve regional anesthesiology procedures, such as the celiac plexus block, are challenging to learn. The current training process primarily involves studying anatomy and practicing needle insertion is cadavers. Unfortunately, the training often continues on the first few patients subjected to the care of the new resident. To augment the training, we have developed a virtual reality surgical simulation designed to provide an immersive environment in which an understanding of the complex 3D relationships among the anatomic structures involved can be obtained and the mechanics of the celiac block procedure practiced under realistic conditions. Study of the relevant anatomy is provided by interactive 3D visualization of patient specific data nd the practice simulated using a head mounted display, a 6 degree of freedom tracker, and a haptic feedback device simulating the needle insertion. By training in a controlled environment, the resident may practice procedures repeatedly without the risks associated with actual patient procedures, and may become more adept and confident in the ability to perform nerve blocks. The resident may select a variety of different nerve block procedures to practice, and may place the virtual patient in any desired position and orientation. The preliminary anatomic models used in the simulation have been computed from the Visible Human Male; however, patient specific models may be generated from patient image data, allowing the physician to evaluate, plan, and practice difficult blocks and/or understand variations in anatomy before attempting the procedure on any specific patient.

  13. Comparison of nerve regenerative efficacy between decellularized nerve graft and nonwoven chitosan conduit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kusaba, Hiroki; Terada-Nakaishi, Michiko; Wang, Wei; Itoh, Soichiro; Nozaki, Kosuke; Nagai, Akiko; Ichinose, Shizuko; Takakuda, Kazuo

    2016-05-12

    Recently decellularized nerves with various methods are reported as highly functional nerve grafts for the treatment of nerve defects. To evaluate the efficacy of decellularized allogeneic nerve, compared with oriented chitosan mesh tube, and an autologous nerve. Sciatic nerves harvested from Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats were decellularized in combination with Sodium dodecyl sulfate and Triton X-100. A graft into the sciatic nerve in Wistar rats was performed with the decellularized SD rat sciatic nerves or oriented chitosan nonwoven nanofiber mesh tubes (15 mm in length, N=5 in each group). A portion of sciatic nerve of Wistar rat was cut, reversed and re-sutured in-situ as a control. Nerve functional and histological evaluations were performed 25 weeks postoperatively. It was revealed that functional, electrophysiological and histological recoveries in the decellularized nerve group match those in the autograft group. Recovery of sensory function and nerve maturation in the decellularized nerve group were superior to those in the chitosan mesh tube group. Nerve regeneration in the decellularized nerves could match that in the autografts and is somehow superior to artificial chitosan mesh tube. Detergents wash of SDS and Triton X-100 could obtain highly functional nerve grafts from allografts.

  14. An anatomical study of porcine peripheral nerve and its potential use in nerve tissue engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zilic, Leyla; Garner, Philippa E; Yu, Tong; Roman, Sabiniano; Haycock, John W; Wilshaw, Stacy-Paul

    2015-01-01

    Current nerve tissue engineering applications are adopting xenogeneic nerve tissue as potential nerve grafts to help aid nerve regeneration. However, there is little literature that describes the exact location, anatomy and physiology of these nerves to highlight their potential as a donor graft. The aim of this study was to identify and characterise the structural and extracellular matrix (ECM) components of porcine peripheral nerves in the hind leg. Methods included the dissection of porcine nerves, localisation, characterisation and quantification of the ECM components and identification of nerve cells. Results showed a noticeable variance between porcine and rat nerve (a commonly studied species) in terms of fascicle number. The study also revealed that when porcine peripheral nerves branch, a decrease in fascicle number and size was evident. Porcine ECM and nerve fascicles were found to be predominately comprised of collagen together with glycosaminoglycans, laminin and fibronectin. Immunolabelling for nerve growth factor receptor p75 also revealed the localisation of Schwann cells around and inside the fascicles. In conclusion, it is shown that porcine peripheral nerves possess a microstructure similar to that found in rat, and is not dissimilar to human. This finding could extend to the suggestion that due to the similarities in anatomy to human nerve, porcine nerves may have utility as a nerve graft providing guidance and support to regenerating axons. PMID:26200940

  15. Detergent-free Decellularized Nerve Grafts for Long-gap Peripheral Nerve Reconstruction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Srikanth Vasudevan, PhD

    2014-08-01

    Conclusions: This study describes a detergent-free nerve decellularization technique for reconstruction of long-gap nerve injuries. We compared DFD grafts with an established detergent processing technique and found that DFD nerve grafts are successful in promoting regeneration across long-gap peripheral nerve defects as an alternative to existing strategies.

  16. Retinal nerve fibre layer thickness measurements in normal Indian population by optical coherence tomography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramakrishnan R

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To obtain retinal nerve fibre layer thickness measurements by optical coherence tomography (OCT in normal Indian population. Materials and Methods: Total of 118 randomly selected eyes of 118 normal Indian subjects of both sex and various age groups underwent retinal nerve fiber layer thickness analysis by Stratus OCT 3000 V 4.0.1. The results were evaluated and compared to determine the normal retinal nerve fiber layer thickness measurements and its variations with sex and age. Results: Mean + standard deviation retinal nerve fiber layer thickness for various quadrants of superior, inferior, nasal, temporal, and along the entire circumference around the optic nerve head were 138.2 + 21.74, 129.1 + 25.67, 85.71 + 21, 66.38 + 17.37, and 104.8 + 38.81 µm, respectively. There was no significant difference in the measurements between males and females, and no significant correlation with respect to age. Conclusion: Our results provide the normal retinal nerve fiber layer thickness measurements and its variations with age and sex in Indian population.

  17. Cranial Nerves IX, X, XI, and XII

    OpenAIRE

    Gillig, Paulette Marie; Sanders, Richard D.

    2010-01-01

    This article concludes the series on cranial nerves, with review of the final four (IX–XII). To summarize briefly, the most important and common syndrome caused by a disorder of the glossopharyngeal nerve (craniel nerve IX) is glossopharyngeal neuralgia. Also, swallowing function occasionally is compromised in a rare but disabling form of tardive dyskinesia called tardive dystonia, because the upper motor portion of the glossopharyngel nerve projects to the basal ganglia and can be affected b...

  18. Isolated trochlear nerve palsy with midbrain hemorrhage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raghavendra S

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Midbrain hemorrhage causing isolated fourth nerve palsy is extremely rare. Idiopathic, traumatic and congenital abnormalities are the most common causes of fourth nerve palsy. We report acute isolated fourth nerve palsy in an 18-year-old lady due to a midbrain hemorrhage probably due to a midbrain cavernoma. The case highlights the need for neuroimaging in selected cases of isolated trochlear nerve palsy.

  19. Corticosteroids for treating nerve damage in leprosy

    OpenAIRE

    Veen, Natasja; Nicholls, Peter; Smith, Cairns; Richardus, Jan Hendrik

    2007-01-01

    textabstractBackground: Leprosy causes nerve damage which can result in nerve function impairment and disability. Corticosteroids are commonly used for treating nerve damage, although the long-term effect is uncertain. Objectives: To assess the effects of corticosteroids on nerve damage in leprosy. Search strategy: We searched the Cochrane Neuromuscular Disease Group Register, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (Issue 4), MEDLINE (from 1966), EMBASE (from 1980), CINAHL (from 1...

  20. Facial fracture approaches with landmark ratios to predict the location of the infraorbital and supraorbital nerves: an anatomic study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilhelmi, Bradon J; Mowlavi, Arian; Neumeister, Michael W; Blackwell, Steven J

    2003-07-01

    In exposing facial fractures for reduction and fixation with coronal, subciliary, subtarsal, and upper buccal sulcus approaches, the supraorbital and infraorbital nerves are susceptible to injury. The location of the supraorbital and infraorbital nerves can be predicted by palpating for the supraorbital notch. Significant edema as seen with facial fractures can make these prominent bony landmarks difficult to palpate, however. The purpose of this study was to determine a method to predict the location of the supraorbital and infraorbital nerves in the face of frontal and periorbital edema when the supraorbital and infraorbital nerves are not palpable. The supraorbital and infraorbital nerves were identified in 14 cadaver heads. The orbital width from the medial to lateral canthus was measured. The distance of the vertical vector of the supraorbital and infraorbital nerves from the medial canthus was measured along this horizontal vector of the orbit. The distance of the infraorbital nerve from the infraorbital rim was measured. The orbital width measured 42.2 +/- 1.6 mm from the medial to lateral canthus. The vertical vector of the supraorbital nerve measured 15.9 +/- 1.1 mm from the medial canthus along the horizontal vector of the orbit. The vertical vector of the infraorbital verve measured 16.8 +/- 1.4 mm from the medial canthus along the horizontal vector of the orbit. The infraorbital nerve measured 9.8 +/- 1.0 mm inferior to the infraorbital rim. The medial one third of the orbit measured 14.1 mm. Therefore, the supraorbital and infraorbital nerves are located approximately along the medial third of the orbit, with the upper bound of 95% confidence at 3.1 mm. The location of the supraorbital and infraorbital nerves can be predicted by the previous landmark ratio to within 3 mm.

  1. Sintered silver joints via controlled topography of electronic packaging subcomponents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wereszczak, Andrew A.

    2014-09-02

    Disclosed are sintered silver bonded electronic package subcomponents and methods for making the same. Embodiments of the sintered silver bonded EPSs include topography modification of one or more metal surfaces of semiconductor devices bonded together by the sintered silver joint. The sintered silver bonded EPSs include a first semiconductor device having a first metal surface, the first metal surface having a modified topography that has been chemically etched, grit blasted, uniaxial ground and/or grid sliced connected to a second semiconductor device which may also include a first metal surface with a modified topography, a silver plating layer on the first metal surface of the first semiconductor device and a silver plating layer on the first metal surface of the second semiconductor device and a sintered silver joint between the silver plating layers of the first and second semiconductor devices which bonds the first semiconductor device to the second semiconductor device.

  2. The Effects of Micro- and Nano-Topography on Cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kolind, Kristian

    2013-01-01

    molecules and insoluble protein structures that act in a finely coordinated manner to direct cell fate. The insoluble protein structures possess physical and chemical characteristics that guide cells, an important one being topography at the micro- and nano-length scale. Research performed regarding......Cells continuously make decisions on what proteins to express, and when to divide, differentiate and commit suicide, through a complex network of intracellular processes. The signals that determine the cellular processes reside within the extracellular matrix. They involve soluble signaling...... the effect of topography on cells has received much attention understanding how important this is for the rational design of bio-interfaces. Nevertheless, there is still a limited understanding of the effect of topography on cells making it impossible to tailor a biomaterial with specific cellular activity...

  3. Single implant restorations: prosthetically induced soft tissue topography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bichacho, N; Landsberg, C J

    1997-09-01

    An aesthetic transition from the smaller diameter of the implant to the prosthetic restoration that resembles the size of the natural tooth has presented an ongoing challenge to the implant restorative dentists. The appearance of the surrounding soft tissue is of major importance, and various techniques have been developed to guide and optimize its topography. The learning objective of this article is to present a cervical contouring concept, whereby the soft tissue topography is optimally determined already in the laboratory phase. Using a custom abutment and provisional crown as components of the transmucosal prosthetic unit (TPU), the topography is transferred to the vital intraoral tissues, which predictably adapt to the enhanced aesthetic configuration. Clinical cases are presented to demonstrate the sequence of the technique in treating the anterior region of the maxilla.

  4. Morphology and topography of the external male genital organs of spotted paca (Cuniculus paca Linnaeus, 1766

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Márcia Rita Fernandes Machado

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Spotted paca (Cuniculus paca is a rodent species from the family Cuniculidae, found in South America, from the Orinoco River Basin to Paraguay. Although widely studied with regard to its morphological and reproductive aspects, still there’re no records on the morphology of the male reproductive system in this species. Thus, this study aimed to evaluate not only the macro and microscopic anatomy of the external genital organs in this species, but also their topography. We studied the external genital organs of 10 adult spotted pacas; 5 specimens, fixed in a 10% aqueous formaldehyde solution, were macroscopically studied and from 5 specimens we collected fragments from the reproductive system, for microscopic analysis. The testicles showed a parenchyma structured in seminiferous tubules and the germinal epithelium rested on its basal membrane. These organs were located in the abdominal cavity, the inguinal path, or within the scrotum. Penis, fibroelastic, was located in the pubic region, in caudal direction. Its glans, coated by keratinized epithelium, were covered by the prepuce and, below this, we identified a slender cartilaginous structure with serrated edges. A couple of bone spurs was located into a bag ventral to the urethra, whose mucosa was lined by transitional epithelium. The epididymal duct was balled up in the head, had a body and tail, and its head was lined by pseudo-stratified stereociliated epithelium, and the tail by simple cubic epithelium; from this, the deferent duct stemmed, lined by columnar stratified epithelium.

  5. Head Injuries in Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pennington, Nicole

    2010-01-01

    School nurses play a crucial role in injury prevention and initial treatment when injuries occur at school. The role of school nurses includes being knowledgeable about the management of head injuries, including assessment and initial treatment. The school nurse must be familiar with the outcomes of a head injury and know when further evaluation…

  6. Computed Tomography (CT) -- Head

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Computed tomography (CT) of the head uses special x-ray equipment to help assess head injuries, severe headaches, ... is a diagnostic medical test that, like traditional x-rays, produces multiple images or pictures of the inside ...

  7. Some Aspects of Facial Nerve Paralysis*

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In 1872 Duchenne described the technique of nerve ex- citability testing for facial paralysis. According to the severity of the condition, peripheral nerve lesions can be classified on the bases of electrical tests, as: (a) neurapraxia; (b) axonotmesis; and (c) neurot- mesis. This classification for peripheral nerve lesions was intro-.

  8. Peripheral nerve lesions in Zimbabwe: a retrospective

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Tests of nerve function carried out in this laboratory include sensory and motor nerve conduction measurements, electromyography and somatosensory evoked potentials. Their application has been reviewed previously1. Peripheral nerves are common sites of injury. The consequences can be debilitating to the individual.

  9. a technique to repair peripheral nerve injury

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    End-to-side nerve suture (ETSNS) has until recently been extensively researched in the laboratory animal (rat and baboon). Lateral sprouting from an intact nerve into an attached nerve does occur, and functional recovery (sensory and motor) has been demonstrated. We have demonstrated conclusively that ETSNS in the ...

  10. Effects of Topography-driven Micro-climatology on Evaporation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, D. D.; Boll, J.; Wagenbrenner, N. S.

    2017-12-01

    The effects of spatial-temporal variation of climatic conditions on evaporation in micro-climates are not well defined. Current spatially-based remote sensing and modeling for evaporation is limited for high resolutions and complex topographies. We investigated the effect of topography-driven micro-climatology on evaporation supported by field measurements and modeling. Fourteen anemometers and thermometers were installed in intersecting transects over the complex topography of the Cook Agronomy Farm, Pullman, WA. WindNinja was used to create 2-D vector maps based on recorded observations for wind. Spatial analysis of vector maps using ArcGIS was performed for analysis of wind patterns and variation. Based on field measurements, wind speed and direction show consequential variability based on hill-slope location in this complex topography. Wind speed and wind direction varied up to threefold and more than 45 degrees, respectively for a given time interval. The use of existing wind models enables prediction of wind variability over the landscape and subsequently topography-driven evaporation patterns relative to wind. The magnitude of the spatial-temporal variability of wind therefore resulted in variable evaporation rates over the landscape. These variations may contribute to uneven crop development patterns observed during the late growth stages of the agricultural crops at the study location. Use of hill-slope location indexes and appropriate methods for estimating actual evaporation support development of methodologies to better define topography-driven heterogeneity in evaporation. The cumulative effects of spatially-variable climatic factors on evaporation are important to quantify the localized water balance and inform precision farming practices.

  11. Ulva linza zoospore sensitivity to systematic variation of surface topography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheats, Julian Taylor

    The use of surface topographical microstructure is abundant in nature. The lotus plant uses a fractal-like topography to create a highly non-wetting surface that self-cleans as water drops take dirt particles with them as they roll off. Analysis of how topography affects surface interactions offers a unique opportunity to attack a problem that affects our economy and societal health significantly. The attachment of biological material to manmade surfaces can be looked at as fouling or directed adhesion. Marine fouling on ship hulls costs the United States $600 million each year due to increased fuel usage caused by drag. Hospital-acquired methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus infections cause thousands of deaths annually as a result of colonization of hospital surfaces. The lack of biocompatible synthetic surfaces for implants such as vascular grafts lead to restenosis as cells are unable to develop a natural interaction with the graft surface. In each circumstance there is much to learn about the complicated attachment process. This work expands the investigation of the role of topography in the attachment of the green fouling algae Ulva linza to poly(dimethylsiloxane) surfaces. Spore attachment density was correlated to the Wenzel roughness ratio on low surface energy, high-modulus poly(dimethylsiloxane)-grafted-silicon topographies. The role of topography on a scale less than the size of a spore was investigated on nano-roughened poly(dimethylsiloxane) elastomer surfaces. For a specific group of patterns, the spatial distribution of spores attached to topographies was quantitatively analyzed and shown to correlate with feature dimensions.

  12. Overview of the Cranial Nerves

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Swallowing, the gag reflex, and speech Control of muscle in some internal organs and the heart rate This function is not tested as part of the cranial nerve examination. 11th Accessory Neck turning and shoulder shrugging The person is asked to turn the ...

  13. Neuromodulation of the Suprascapular Nerve

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kurt, E.; Eijk, T. van; Henssen, D.J.H.A.; Arnts, I.; Steegers, M.A.H.

    2016-01-01

    Chronic intractable shoulder pain (CISP) is defined as shoulder pain which is present for longer than 6 months and does not respond to standard treatments like medication, physical therapy, rehabilitation, selective nerve blocks and local infiltrations, or orthopedic procedures. The etiology of CISP

  14. Transdermal optogenetic peripheral nerve stimulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maimon, Benjamin E.; Zorzos, Anthony N.; Bendell, Rhys; Harding, Alexander; Fahmi, Mina; Srinivasan, Shriya; Calvaresi, Peter; Herr, Hugh M.

    2017-06-01

    Objective: A fundamental limitation in both the scientific utility and clinical translation of peripheral nerve optogenetic technologies is the optical inaccessibility of the target nerve due to the significant scattering and absorption of light in biological tissues. To date, illuminating deep nerve targets has required implantable optical sources, including fiber-optic and LED-based systems, both of which have significant drawbacks. Approach: Here we report an alternative approach involving transdermal illumination. Utilizing an intramuscular injection of ultra-high concentration AAV6-hSyn-ChR2-EYFP in rats. Main results: We demonstrate transdermal stimulation of motor nerves at 4.4 mm and 1.9 mm depth with an incident laser power of 160 mW and 10 mW, respectively. Furthermore, we employ this technique to accurately control ankle position by modulating laser power or position on the skin surface. Significance: These results have the potential to enable future scientific optogenetic studies of pathologies implicated in the peripheral nervous system for awake, freely-moving animals, as well as a basis for future clinical studies.

  15. Trunnion-Head Stresses in THA: Are Big Heads Trouble?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavernia, Carlos J; Iacobelli, David A; Villa, Jesus M; Jones, Kinzy; Gonzalez, Jose L; Jones, William Kinzy

    2015-06-01

    The effects of large heads on stresses at the THA trunnion-head junction and their impact on tribocorrosion/metal ion release remain controversial. A 12/14 3D-model of a stem with different head sizes was investigated. Material properties of titanium were assigned to the trunnion and cobalt-chrome/alumina to the heads. A load simulating walking single-leg stand phase was applied to the head. A total contact head-trunnion interface was assumed. The area underneath the junction underwent significant elevations in stresses as head size increased from 28- to 40-mm. Maximum principal stress doubled between 28 and 40-mm heads, regardless of head material. Stress levels had a direct correlation to head diameter. Stress increases observed using increasingly larger heads will probably contribute to head-trunnion tribocorrosion and ion release. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Mulitple Origins of Sand Dune-Topography Interactions on Titan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goggin, H.; Ewing, R. C.; Hayes, A.; Cisneros, J.; Epps, J. C.

    2015-12-01

    The interaction between sand dune patterns and topographic obstacles is a primary signal of sand transport direction in the equatorial region of Saturn's moon, Titan. The streamlined, tear drop appearance of the sand-dune patterns as they wrap around obstacles and a dune-free zone on the east side of many obstacles gives the impression that sand transport is from the west to east at equatorial latitudes. However, the physical mechanism behind the dune-obstacle interaction is not well explained, leaving a gap in our understanding of the equatorial sand transport and implied wind directions and magnitudes on Titan. In order to better understand this interaction and evaluate wind and sand transport direction, we use morphometric analysis of optical images on Earth and Cassini SAR images on Titan combined with analog wind tunnel experiments to study dune-topography interactions. Image analysis is performed in a GIS environment to map spatial variations in dune crestline orientations proximal to obstacles. We also use digital elevation models to and analyze the three-dimensional geometry - height, length, width and slope of the dune-topography relationships on Earth. Preliminary results show that dune patterns are deflected similarly around positive, neutral, or negative topography, where positive topography is greater than the surrounding dune height, neutral topography is at dune height and negative topography is lower than dune heights. In the latter case these are typically intra-dune field playas. The obstacle height, width, slope and wind variability appear to play a primary role in determining if a lee-dune, rather than a dune-free lee-zone, develops. In many cases a dune-free playa with evaporite and mud desiccation polygons forms lee-ward of the obstacle. To support and elaborate on the mapping and spatial characterization of dune-topography interactions, a series of experiments using a wind tunnel were conducted. Wind tunnel experiments examine the formation

  17. The cortical topography of tonal structures underlying Western music.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janata, Petr; Birk, Jeffrey L; Van Horn, John D; Leman, Marc; Tillmann, Barbara; Bharucha, Jamshed J

    2002-12-13

    Western tonal music relies on a formal geometric structure that determines distance relationships within a harmonic or tonal space. In functional magnetic resonance imaging experiments, we identified an area in the rostromedial prefrontal cortex that tracks activation in tonal space. Different voxels in this area exhibited selectivity for different keys. Within the same set of consistently activated voxels, the topography of tonality selectivity rearranged itself across scanning sessions. The tonality structure was thus maintained as a dynamic topography in cortical areas known to be at a nexus of cognitive, affective, and mnemonic processing.

  18. Airborne Instrument Simulator for the Lidar Surface Topography (LIST) Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Anthony W.; Krainak, Michael A.; Harding, David J.; Abshire, James B.; Sun, Xiaoli; Cavanaugh, John; Valett, Susan; Ramos-Izquierdo, Luis

    2010-01-01

    In 2007, the National Research Council (NRC) completed its first decadal survey for Earth science at the request of NASA, NOAA, and USGS. The Lidar Surface Topography (LIST) mission is one of fifteen missions recommended by NRC, whose primary objectives are to map global topography and vegetation structure at 5 m spatial resolution, and to acquire global coverage with a few years. NASA Goddard conducted an initial mission concept study for the LIST mission 2007, and developed the initial measurement requirements for the mission.

  19. Airborne Lidar Simulator for the Lidar Surface Topography (LIST) Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Anthony W.; Krainak, Michael A.; Abshire, James B.; Cavanaugh, John; Valett, Susan; Ramos-Izquierdo, Luis

    2010-01-01

    In 2007, the National Research Council (NRC) completed its first decadal survey for Earth science at the request of NASA, NOAA, and USGS. The Lidar Surface Topography (LIST) mission is one of fifteen missions recommended by NRC, whose primary objectives are to map global topography and vegetation structure at 5 m spatial resolution, and to acquire global surface height mapping within a few years. NASA Goddard conducted an initial mission concept study for the LIST mission in 2007, and developed the initial measurement requirements for the mission.

  20. Topography measurements and applications in ballistics and tool mark identifications*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vorburger, T V; Song, J; Petraco, N

    2016-01-01

    The application of surface topography measurement methods to the field of firearm and toolmark analysis is fairly new. The field has been boosted by the development of a number of competing optical methods, which has improved the speed and accuracy of surface topography acquisitions. We describe here some of these measurement methods as well as several analytical methods for assessing similarities and differences among pairs of surfaces. We also provide a few examples of research results to identify cartridge cases originating from the same firearm or tool marks produced by the same tool. Physical standards and issues of traceability are also discussed. PMID:27182440

  1. Enhancing Peripheral Nerve Regeneration with a Novel Drug-Delivering Nerve Conduit

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-10-01

    NGF) and glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) for at least 30 days to improve rate of nerve regeneration. We have successfully...deliver nerve growth factor (NGF) and glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) for at least 30 days to improve the nerve regeneration. The...regeneration, nerve conduits, autograft, drug delivery device, nerve growth factor, glial cell line-derived neutrophic factor, polytetrafluoroethylene

  2. Exogenous nerve growth factor protects the hypoglossal nerve against crush injury

    OpenAIRE

    Fan, Li-yuan; Wang, Zhong-chao; Wang, Pin; Lan, Yu-yan; Tu, Ling

    2015-01-01

    Studies have shown that sensory nerve damage can activate the p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway, but whether the same type of nerve injury after exercise activates the p38MAPK pathway remains unclear. Several studies have demonstrated that nerve growth factor may play a role in the repair process after peripheral nerve injury, but there has been little research focusing on the hypoglossal nerve injury and repair. In this study, we designed and established rat models of hypog...

  3. Let-7 microRNAs Regenerate Peripheral Nerve Regeneration by Targeting Nerve Growth Factor

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Shiying; Wang, Xinghui; Gu, Yun; Chen, Chu; Wang, Yaxian; Liu, Jie; Hu, Wen; Yu, Bin; Wang, Yongjun; Ding, Fei; Liu, Yan; Gu, Xiaosong

    2015-01-01

    Peripheral nerve injury is a common clinical problem. Nerve growth factor (NGF) promotes peripheral nerve regeneration, but its clinical applications are limited by several constraints. In this study, we found that the time-dependent expression profiles of eight let-7 family members in the injured nerve after sciatic nerve injury were roughly similar to each other. Let-7 microRNAs (miRNAs) significantly reduced cell proliferation and migration of primary Schwann cells (SCs) by directly target...

  4. Transfer of pectoral nerves to suprascapular and axillary nerves: an anatomic feasibility study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    David, Sylvain; Balaguer, Thierry; Baque, Patrick; Lebreton, Elisabeth

    2010-01-01

    We conducted an anatomic study to provide detailed information on the pectoral nerves and anatomic data on the transfer of the pectoral nerves to the axillary nerve. Moreover, we experimentally determined the feasibility of transferring the pectoral nerves to the suprascapular nerve in upper brachial plexus injury. We dissected 26 brachial plexus from 15 fresh cadavers. The origin, location, course, and branching of the pectoral nerves were recorded. The length and the diameter of the pectoral nerves were measured. The diameter of the suprascapular and axillary nerves was recorded. In all dissections, we assessed the feasibility of directly transferring the pectoral nerves to the suprascapular and axillary nerves. We found 3 constant branches of pectoral nerves arising from 3 distinct origins in 20 cases, and 3 constant branches arising from 2 distinct origins in 6 cases. The C7 sent nerve fibers to all 3 branches. The average length and diameter of the superior, middle, and inferior branches of the pectoral nerves were 65 mm, 110 mm, and 105 mm, and 2.0 mm, 2.3 mm, ad 2.4 mm, respectively. The average diameter of the suprascapular and axillary were 2.8 mm and 3.6 mm, respectively. The superior branch reached the suprascapular and axillary nerves in 17 and 8 cases. The middle and inferior branches reached the suprascapular and axillary nerve in all dissections. With an adequate length, diameter, and nerve composition, the middle and inferior branches of the pectoral nerves are suitable donor nerves to the axillary nerve and a potential source of reinnervation of the suprascapular nerve in upper brachial plexus injury. Copyright 2010 American Society for Surgery of the Hand. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Traction injury of the brachial plexus confused with nerve injury due to interscalene brachial block: A case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Ferrero-Manzanal

    2016-01-01

    Conclusion: When postoperative brachial plexus palsy appears, nerve block is a confusing factor that tends to be attributed as the cause of palsy by the orthopedic surgeon. The beach chair position may predispose brachial plexus traction injury. The head and neck position should be regularly checked during long procedures, as intraoperative maneuvers may cause eventual traction of the brachial plexus.

  6. Vestibular neuritis affects both superior and inferior vestibular nerves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Rachael L; McGarvie, Leigh A; Reid, Nicole; Young, Allison S; Halmagyi, G Michael; Welgampola, Miriam S

    2016-10-18

    To characterize the profiles of afferent dysfunction in a cross section of patients with acute vestibular neuritis using tests of otolith and semicircular canal function sensitive to each of the 5 vestibular end organs. Forty-three patients fulfilling clinical criteria for acute vestibular neuritis were recruited between 2010 and 2016 and studied within 10 days of symptom onset. Otolith function was evaluated with air-conducted cervical and bone-conducted ocular/vestibular evoked myogenic potentials and the subjective visual horizontal test. Canal-plane video head impulse tests (vHITs) assessed the function of each semicircular canal. Patterns of recovery were investigated in 16 patients retested after a 6- to 12-month follow-up period. Rates of horizontal canal (97.7%), anterior canal (90.7%), and utricular (72.1%) dysfunction were significantly higher than rates of posterior canal (39.5%) and saccular (39.0%) dysfunction (p vestibular nerve divisions; 18 patients (41.9%) had superior neuritis; and 1 patient (2.3%) had inferior neuritis. A test battery that included horizontal and posterior canal vHIT and the cervical/vestibular evoked myogenic potentials identified superior or inferior neuritis in all patients tested acutely. Eight of 16 patients who were retested at follow-up had recovered a normal vestibular evoked myogenic potential and vHIT profile. Acute vestibular neuritis most often affects both vestibular nerve divisions. The horizontal vHIT alone identifies superior nerve dysfunction in all patients with vestibular neuritis tested acutely, whereas both cervical/vestibular evoked myogenic potentials and posterior vHIT are necessary for diagnosing inferior vestibular nerve involvement. © 2016 American Academy of Neurology.

  7. Neuro-ophthalmological approach to facial nerve palsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Portelinha, Joana; Passarinho, Maria Picoto; Costa, João Marques

    2014-01-01

    Facial nerve palsy is associated with significant morbidity and can have different etiologies. The most common causes are Bell’s palsy, Ramsay–Hunt syndrome and trauma, including surgical trauma. Incidence varies between 17 and 35 cases per 100,000. Initial evaluation should include accurate clinical history, followed by a comprehensive investigation of the head and neck, including ophthalmological, otological, oral and neurological examination, to exclude secondary causes. Routine laboratory testing and diagnostic imaging is not indicated in patients with new-onset Bell’s palsy, but should be performed in patients with risk factors, atypical cases or in any case without resolution within 4 months. Many factors are involved in determining the appropriate treatment of these patients: the underlying cause, expected duration of nerve dysfunction, anatomical manifestations, severity of symptoms and objective clinical findings. Systemic steroids should be offered to patients with new-onset Bell’s palsy to increase the chance of facial nerve recovery and reduce synkinesis. Ophthalmologists play a pivotal role in the multidisciplinary team involved in the evaluation and rehabilitation of these patients. In the acute phase, the main priority should be to ensure adequate corneal protection. Treatment depends on the degree of nerve lesion and on the risk of the corneal damage based on the amount of lagophthalmos, the quality of Bell’s phenomenon, the presence or absence of corneal sensitivity and the degree of lid retraction. The main therapy is intensive lubrication. Other treatments include: taping the eyelid overnight, botulinum toxin injection, tarsorrhaphy, eyelid weight implants, scleral contact lenses and palpebral spring. Once the cornea is protected, longer term planning for eyelid and facial rehabilitation may take place. Spontaneous complete recovery of Bell’s palsy occurs in up to 70% of cases. Long-term complications include aberrant regeneration

  8. Head and Neck Cancer Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... News Physician Resources Professions Site Index A-Z Head and Neck Cancer Treatment Head and neck cancer ... there any new developments in treating my disease? Head and neck cancer overview The way a particular ...

  9. American Head and Neck Society

    Science.gov (United States)

    American Head & Neck Society Mission Statement: Advance Education, Research, and Quality of Care for the head and neck oncology patient. American Head & Neck Society | AHNS The mission of the AHNS is to ...

  10. Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) -- Head

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... MRI of the Head? What is MRI of the Head? Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is a noninvasive ... of page What are some common uses of the procedure? MR imaging of the head is performed ...

  11. HEAD AND NECK SURGERY

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Postoperative complications were hypocalcaemia in 22 (4.9%), unilateral recurrent laryngeal nerve palsy in 13 (2.8%) and haemorrhage in 2 patients. Others were seroma and cellulitis. Tracheostomy was required in 35 (5.8%) patients but none was permanent. Conclusion: Total thyroidectomy is a relatively safe treatment ...

  12. Head injuries in sport.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cantu, R C

    1996-12-01

    Injuries to the head and neck are the most frequent catastrophic sports injury, and head injuries are the most common direct athletic cause of death. Although direct compressive forces may injure the brain, neural tissue is particularly susceptible to injury from shearing stresses, which are most likely to occur when rotational forces are applied to the head. The most common athletic head injury is concussion, which may very widely in severity. Intracranial haemorrhage is the leading cause of head injury death in sports, making rapid initial assessment and appropriate follow up mandatory after a head injury. Diffuse cerebral swelling is another serious condition that may be found in the child or adolescent athlete, and the second impact syndrome is a major concern in adult athletes. Many head injuries in athletes are the result of improper playing techniques and can be reduced by teaching proper skills and enforcing safety promoting rules. Improved conditioning (particularly of the neck), protective headgear, and careful medical supervision of athletes will also minimise this type of injury.

  13. Tractography of lumbar nerve roots: initial results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balbi, Vincent; Budzik, Jean-Francois; Thuc, Vianney le; Cotten, Anne [Hopital Roger Salengro, Service de Radiologie et d' Imagerie musculo-squelettique, Lille Cedex (France); Duhamel, Alain [Universite de Lille 2, UDSL, Lille (France); Bera-Louville, Anne [Service de Rhumatologie, Hopital Roger Salengro, Lille (France)

    2011-06-15

    The aims of this preliminary study were to demonstrate the feasibility of in vivo diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) and fibre tracking (FT) of the lumbar nerve roots, and to assess potential differences in the DTI parameters of the lumbar nerves between healthy volunteers and patients suffering from disc herniation. Nineteen patients with unilateral sciatica related to posterolateral or foraminal disc herniation and 19 healthy volunteers were enrolled in this study. DTI with tractography of the L5 or S1 nerves was performed. Mean fractional anisotropy (FA) and mean diffusivity (MD) values were calculated from tractography images. FA and MD values could be obtained from DTI-FT images in all controls and patients. The mean FA value of the compressed lumbar nerve roots was significantly lower than the FA of the contralateral nerve roots (p=0.0001) and of the nerve roots of volunteers (p=0.0001). MD was significantly higher in compressed nerve roots than in the contralateral nerve root (p=0.0002) and in the nerve roots of volunteers (p=0.04). DTI with tractography of the lumbar nerves is possible. Significant changes in diffusion parameters were found in the compressed lumbar nerves. (orig.)

  14. [Short-term efficacy of multiple nerves branch transfer for treating superior trunk brachial plexus in jury].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Jiuzhou; Xu, Jianguang; Xu, Wendong; Xu, Lei; Gu, Shihui; Shen, Yundong; Zhao, Xin; Gu, Yudong

    2008-09-01

    To recover the loss of the shoulder and elbow function after superior trunks injury of brachial plexus through multiple nerves branch transfer simultaneously near the nerve entering points of recipient nerves. Four male patients (aged 21-39 years) with superior trunks injury of brachial plexus were treated from February to September 2007. All cases were injured in the traffic accident, left side in 1 case and right side in 3 cases, resulting in the loss of shoulder abduction, shoulder extorsion, shoulder lift and elbow flexion, and the increase of muscle strength of shoulder shrug, elbow extension and finger flexion to above or equal to 4th grade. Patients were hospitalized 3-11 months after injury. Electromyography showed that the functions of accessory nerve, ulnar nerve and the branch to long head of triceps brachii were good, but the function of median nerve was injured partially. The following multiple donor nerves transfer were performed under general anaesthesia, namely from posterior approach accessory nerve to suprascapular nerve, from triceps to axillary nerve, from the partial branch of ulnar nerve to the biceps and/or brachial is muscular branch of musculocutaneous nerve. All incisions healed by first intention. One case suffered postoperative numbness on the ulnar side of hand and was symptomatically relieved after expectant treatment, while 3 cases had no manifestation of the motor and sensory functional injury related to donor nerve. All patients were followed up for 7-12 months. All patients regained the shoulder abduction and the elbow flexion 3-4 months after operation and electromyography showed that there was the regenerative potential in 3 recipient muscles. The shoulder abduction, elbow flexion and the muscle strength of the patients was 30-65 degrees, 90-120 degrees and 3-4 grade, respectively, 6-7 months after operation. Twelve months after operation, the first patient's shoulder abduction, external rotation, superinduction and elbow flexion

  15. Infraorbital nerve block within the Pterygopalatine fossa of the horse: anatomical landmarks defined by computed tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carsten, S.; Hagen, G.

    2008-01-01

    In order to provide anaesthesia of the equine maxillary cheek teeth, a local nerve block of the infraorbital nerve in the pterygopalatine fossa had been proposed, which is referred to as the 'Palatine Bone Insertion' (PBI). As several complications with this method were reported, our study was designed to recommend a modified injection technique which avoids the risk of puncturing of relevant anatomical structures. Five cadaver heads and two living horses were examined by contrast medium injections and subsequent computed tomography (CT). Spinal needles were inserted using two different insertion techniques: The above mentioned (PBI), and a modification called 'Extraperiorbital Fat Body Insertion' (EFBI). Both techniques (PBI and EFBI) provide a consistent distribution of contrast medium around the infraorbital nerve. However, only the EFBI technique is appropriate to minimize the risk of complications. This study is an example for the permanent challenge of anatomists to supply a basis for clinical and surgical procedures

  16. Concurrent idiopathic vestibular syndrome and facial nerve paralysis in a cat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraser, A R; Long, S N; le Chevoir, M A

    2015-07-01

    A 4-year-old male neutered Domestic Medium-hair cat was referred for right head tilt and ataxia of 2 weeks duration. On examination it was determined that the cat had right facial nerve paralysis and peripheral vestibular signs. Haematology and serum biochemical testing were performed in addition to magnetic resonance imaging of the brain and ears, and cerebrospinal fluid analysis. An underlying condition was not identified. A diagnosis of idiopathic vestibular syndrome and concurrent idiopathic right facial nerve paralysis was consequently made. The cat was re-evaluated over the following weeks and was determined to have complete resolution of clinical signs within 7 weeks. Vestibular dysfunction and concurrent facial nerve paralysis have previously been reported in the cat, but not of an idiopathic nature. © 2015 Australian Veterinary Association.

  17. Contralateral eye surgery with adjustable suture for management of third nerve palsy with aberrant regeneration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Phuong Thi Thanh Nguyen

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Aberrant regeneration of the third nerve following its palsy is commonly seen after trauma and compressive lesions. This phenomenon is thought to result due to misdirection of the regenerating axons. Surgical management is a great challenge in the third nerve palsy owing to multiple muscle involvement and is often accompanied by ptosis and poor Bell's phenomenon. We present a case of a 27-year-old male who developed isolated complete third nerve palsy of the left eye following head trauma. Features of aberrant regeneration were seen after 6 months, namely, inverse Duane's sign and Pseudo-Von Graefe's sign. He underwent recess-resect procedure in the unaffected eye with adjustable suture technique which not only corrected the deviation but also the ptosis by utilizing the oculomotor synkinesis. Thus, contralateral eye surgery combined with adjustable suture technique resulted in an accurate alignment of the eye and obviated the need for ptosis correction.

  18. Factors that influence peripheral nerve regeneration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krarup, Christian; Archibald, Simon J; Madison, Roger D

    2002-01-01

    median nerve lesions (n = 46) in nonhuman primates over 3 to 4 years, a time span comparable with such lesions in humans. Nerve gap distances of 5, 20, or 50mm were repaired with nerve grafts or collagen-based nerve guide tubes, and three electrophysiological outcome measures were followed: (1) compound...... predictors. Thus, nerve gap distance and repair type exert their influence through time to muscle reinnervation. These findings emphasize that factors that control early axonal outgrowth influence the final level of recovery attained years later. They also highlight that a time window exists within which...... muscle action potentials in the abductor pollicis brevis muscle, (2) the number and size of motor units in reinnervated muscle, and (3) compound sensory action potentials from digital nerve. A statistical model was used to assess the influence of three variables (repair type, nerve gap distance, and time...

  19. Femoral head avascular necrosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chrysikopoulos, H.; Sartoris, D.J.; Resnick, D.L.; Ashburn, W.; Pretorius, T.

    1988-01-01

    MR imaging has been shown to be more sensitive and specific than planar scintigraphy for avascular necrosis (AVN) of the femoral head. However, experience with single photon emission CT (SPECT) is limited. The authors retrospectively compared 1.5-T MR imaging with SPECT in 14 patients with suspected femoral head AVN. Agreement between MR imaging and SPECT was present in 24 femurs, 14 normal and ten with AVN. MR imaging showed changes of AVN in the remaining four femoral heads. Of these, one was normal and the other three inconclusive for AVN by SPECT. The authors conclude that MR imaging is superior to SPECT for the evaluation of AVN of the hip

  20. An anatomical and functional topography of human auditory cortical areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelle eMoerel

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available While advances in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI throughout the last decades have enabled the detailed anatomical and functional inspection of the human brain non-invasively, to date there is no consensus regarding the precise subdivision and topography of the areas forming the human auditory cortex. Here, we propose a topography of the human auditory areas based on insights on the anatomical and functional properties of human auditory areas as revealed by studies of cyto- and myelo-architecture and fMRI investigations at ultra-high magnetic field (7 Tesla. Importantly, we illustrate that - whereas a group-based approach to analyze functional (tonotopic maps is appropriate to highlight the main tonotopic axis - the examination of tonotopic maps at single subject level is required to detail the topography of primary and non-primary areas that may be more variable across subjects. Furthermore, we show that considering multiple maps indicative of anatomical (i.e. myelination as well as of functional properties (e.g. broadness of frequency tuning is helpful in identifying auditory cortical areas in individual human brains. We propose and discuss a topography of areas that is consistent with old and recent anatomical post mortem characterizations of the human auditory cortex and that may serve as a working model for neuroscience studies of auditory functions.

  1. Ice thickness, volume and subglacial topography of Urumqi Glacier ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Journal of Earth System Science; Volume 123; Issue 3. Ice thickness, volume and subglacial topography of Urumqi Glacier No. 1, Tianshan mountains, central Asia, by ground penetrating radar survey. Puyu Wang Zhongqin Li Shuang Jin Ping Zhou Hongbing Yao Wenbin Wang. Volume 123 Issue 3 April ...

  2. Mandibular molar crown-topography, a biological predisposing ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mandibular molar crown-topography, a biological predisposing factor to development of caries – a post-mortem analysis of 2500 extracted lower permanent molars at ... (12.57%), distol surface attack 1,528 (12.22%) buccal surface attack 926 (7.40%), lingual surface attack 59 (0.47%) occlusal surface attack 6540 (52.32%).

  3. Influence of nanophase titania topography on bacterial attachment and metabolism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margaret R Park

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Margaret R Park1, Michelle K Banks1, Bruce Applegate2, Thomas J Webster31School of Civil Engineering; 2Department of Food Science; 3School of Biomedical Engineering, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN, USAAbstract: Surfaces with nanophase compared to conventional (or nanometer smooth topographies are known to have different properties of area, charge, and reactivity. Previously published research indicates that the attachment of certain bacteria (such as Pseudomonas fluorescens 5RL is higher on surfaces with nanophase compared to conventional topographies, however, their effect on bacterial metabolism is unclear. Results presented here show that the adhesion of Pseudomonas fluorescens 5RL and Pseudomonas putida TVA8 was higher on nanophase than conventional titania. Importantly, in terms of metabolism, bacteria attached to the nanophase surfaces had higher bioluminescence rates than on the conventional surfaces under all nutrient conditions. Thus, the results from this study show greater select bacterial metabolism on nanometer than conventional topographies, critical results with strong consequences for the design of improved biosensors for bacteria detection.Keywords: bacteria, attachment, nanophase, topography, metabolism

  4. Topography and distribution of ostia venae hepatica in the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background : Openings of hepatic veins into the retrohepatic surface of the inferior vena cava (ostia venae hepatica) play a part in controlling hepatic circulation by acting as collateral channels in obstruction. Their topography and distribution must be taken into account during catheterization and liver transplantation.

  5. Ice thickness, volume and subglacial topography of Urumqi Glacier ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    on four alpine glaciers located in Switzerland, for which the bedrock topography is partially known from radio-echo soundings. Although the scaling approach is an easy ..... industry, and agriculture in Xinjiang Uygur. Autonomous Region. 5. Conclusion and outlook. Ice thickness of Urumqi Glacier No. 1 was sys- tematically ...

  6. Percolation, statistical topography, and transport in random media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Isichenko, M.B.

    1992-01-01

    A review of classical percolation theory is presented, with an emphasis on novel applications to statistical topography, turbulent diffusion, and heterogeneous media. Statistical topography involves the geometrical properties of the isosets (contour lines or surfaces) of a random potential ψ(x). For rapidly decaying correlations of ψ, the isopotentials fall into the same universality class as the perimeters of percolation clusters. The topography of long-range correlated potentials involves many length scales and is associated either with the correlated percolation problem or with Mandelbrot's fractional Brownian reliefs. In all cases, the concept of fractal dimension is particularly fruitful in characterizing the geometry of random fields. The physical applications of statistical topography include diffusion in random velocity fields, heat and particle transport in turbulent plasmas, quantum Hall effect, magnetoresistance in inhomogeneous conductors with the classical Hall effect, and many others where random isopotentials are relevant. A geometrical approach to studying transport in random media, which captures essential qualitative features of the described phenomena, is advocated

  7. The Space-Time Topography of English Speakers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duman, Steve

    2016-01-01

    English speakers talk and think about Time in terms of physical space. The past is behind us, and the future is in front of us. In this way, we "map" space onto Time. This dissertation addresses the specificity of this physical space, or its topography. Inspired by languages like Yupno (Nunez, et al., 2012) and Bamileke-Dschang (Hyman,…

  8. Embankment and Changing Micro-Topography of Lower Ajoy Basin ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Morphology of the river as well as the micro-topography of the floodplain undergoes great changes as a result of confinement of river flow due to construction of embankment. With this concept in background a geomorphological study has done in the Lower Ajoy Basin of Eastern India. The chronological study about ...

  9. Water balance and topography predict fire and forest structure patterns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van R. Kane; James A. Lutz; C. Alina Cansler; Nicholas A. Povak; Derek J. Churchill; Douglas F. Smith; Jonathan T. Kane; Malcolm P. North

    2015-01-01

    Mountainous topography creates fine-scale environmental mosaics that vary in precipitation, temperature, insolation, and slope position. This mosaic in turn influences fuel accumulation and moisture and forest structure. We studied these the effects of varying environmental conditions across a 27,104 ha landscape within Yosemite National Park, California, USA, on the...

  10. Role of Cigarette Sensory Cues in Modifying Puffing Topography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rees, Vaughan W.; Kreslake, Jennifer M.; Wayne, Geoffrey Ferris; O Connor, Richard J.; Cummings, K. Michael; Connolly, Gregory N.

    2012-01-01

    Background Human puffing topography promotes tobacco dependence by ensuring nicotine delivery, but the factors that determine puffing behavior are not well explained by existing models. Chemosensory cues generated by variations in cigarette product design features may serve as conditioned cues to allow the smoker to optimize nicotine delivery by adjusting puffing topography. Internal tobacco industry research documents were reviewed to understand the influence of sensory cues on puffing topography, and to examine how the tobacco industry has designed cigarettes, including modified risk tobacco products (MRTPs), to enhance puffing behavior to optimize nicotine delivery and product acceptability. Methods Relevant internal tobacco industry documents were identified using systematic searching with key search terms and phrases, and then snowball sampling method was applied to establish further search terms. Results Modern cigarettes are designed by cigarette manufacturers to provide sensory characteristics that not only maintain appeal, but provide cues which inform puffing intensity. Alterations in the chemosensory cues provided in tobacco smoke play an important role in modifying smoking behavior independently of the central effects of nicotine. Conclusions An associative learning model is proposed to explain the influence of chemosensory cues on variation in puffing topography. These cues are delivered via tobacco smoke and are moderated by design features and additives used in cigarettes. The implications for regulation of design features of modified risk tobacco products, which may act to promote intensive puffing while lowering risk perceptions, are discussed. PMID:22365895

  11. Nanotubular topography enhances the bioactivity of titanium implants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jingyan; Zhang, Xinchun; Yan, Wangxiang; Chen, Zhipei; Shuai, Xintao; Wang, Anxun; Wang, Yan

    2017-08-01

    Surface modification on titanium implants plays an important role in promoting mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) response to enhance osseointegration persistently. In this study, nano-scale TiO 2 nanotube topography (TNT), micro-scale sand blasted-acid etched topography (SLA), and hybrid sand blasted-acid etched/nanotube topography (SLA/TNT) were fabricated on the surfaces of titanium implants. Although the initial cell adherence at 60 min among TNT, SLA and TNT/SLA was not different, SLA and SLA/TNT presented to be rougher and suppressed the proliferation of MSC. TNT showed hydrophilic surface and balanced promotion of cellular functions. After being implanted in rabbit femur models, TNT displayed the best osteogenesis inducing ability as well as strong bonding strength to the substrate. These results indicate that nano-scale TNT provides favorable surface topography for improving the clinical performance of endosseous implants compared with micro and hybrid micro/nano surfaces, suggesting a promising and reliable surface modification strategy of titanium implants for clinical application. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. 175 Years of Linear Programming-Minimax and Cake Topography

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 4; Issue 7. 175 Years of Linear Programming - Minimax and Cake Topography. Vijay Chandru M R Rao. Series Article Volume 4 Issue 7 July 1999 pp 4-13. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link:

  13. Underwater topography acquired by remote sensing based on SOFM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Jianhu; Zhou, Fengnian; Zhang, Hongmei; Li, Juanjuan

    2008-12-01

    In large-scope marine investigation, the traditional bathymetric measurement can not meet the requirement of rapid data acquisition with lower cost of financial and material resources, while remote sensing (RS) technology provides a perfect way in the work. RS can not only provide quickly and efficiently the information of underwater topography with respect to the traditional method, but also present corresponding underwater topography with different-period RS images. In this paper, we depict in detail the procedures and some key techniques in acquiring underwater topography by remote sensing inversion technology based on self-organization feature mapping (SOFM). Firstly, we introduce some basic theories about the acquisition of underwater topography by the RS inversion technology. Besides, we discuss the data acquisition and preparation in the work. Moreover, we implement correlation analysis and find out the sensitive bands used for building RS inversion model. In virtue of SOFM, we construct the mapping relation between water depth and the reflectivity of sensitive band in the studied area, and test the it in two experimental water areas. The model achieves satisfying accuracy and can meet the requirement of given bathymetric scale. Finally the mapping relation is used for the water depth inversion in the studied water area. We also use the water depth from the model to draw the underwater topographic map in the water area.

  14. The Effect of Substrate Topography on Coating Cathodic Delamination

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Erik Weinell, Claus; Sørensen, Per A.; Kiil, Søren

    2011-01-01

    This article describes the effect of steel substrate topography on coating cathodic delamination. The study showed that the surface preparation can be used to control and minimize the rate of cathodic delamination. The coating should have maximum wetting properties so that substrates with high...

  15. Analysis of Multiple Manding Topographies during Functional Communication Training

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harding, Jay W.; Wacker, David P.; Berg, Wendy K.; Winborn-Kemmerer, Lisa; Lee, John F.; Ibrahimovic, Muska

    2009-01-01

    We evaluated the effects of reinforcing multiple manding topographies during functional communication training (FCT) to decrease problem behavior for three preschool-age children. During Phase 1, a functional analysis identified conditions that maintained problem behavior for each child. During Phase 2, the children's parents taught them to…

  16. Recent advances in engineering topography mediated antibacterial surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasan, Jafar; Chatterjee, Kaushik

    2015-09-01

    The tendency of bacterial cells to adhere and colonize a material surface leading to biofilm formation is a fundamental challenge underlying many different applications including microbial infections associated with biomedical devices and products. Although, bacterial attachment to surfaces has been extensively studied in the past, the effect of surface topography on bacteria-material interactions has received little attention until more recently. We review the recent progress in surface topography based approaches for engineering antibacterial surfaces. Biomimicry of antibacterial surfaces in nature is a popular strategy. Whereas earlier endeavors in the field aimed at minimizing cell attachment, more recent efforts have focused on developing bactericidal surfaces. However, not all such topography mediated bactericidal surfaces are necessarily cytocompatible thus underscoring the need for continued efforts for research in this area for developing antibacterial and yet cytocompatible surfaces for use in implantable biomedical applications. This mini-review provides a brief overview of the current strategies and challenges in the emerging field of topography mediated antibacterial surfaces.

  17. Topography and distribution of ostia venae hepatica in the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    BACKGROUND: Openings of hepatic veins into the retrohepatic surface of the inferior vena cava. (ostia venae hepatica) play a part in controlling hepatic circulation by acting as collateral channels in obstruction. Their topography and distribution must be taken into account during catheterization and liver transplantation.

  18. Analysis of the accuracy of Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM)

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Analysis of the accuracy of Shuttle Radar Topography. Mission (SRTM) height models using International Global. Navigation Satellite System Service (IGS) Network. Manas Mukul, Vinee Srivastava and Malay Mukul. J. Earth Syst. Sci. 124(6) cO Indian Academy of Sciences. Supplementary data ...

  19. Payload topography camera of Chang'e-3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu, Guo-Bin; Liu, En-Hai; Zhao, Ru-Jin; Zhong, Jie; Zhou, Xiang-Dong; Zhou, Wu-Lin; Wang, Jin; Chen, Yuan-Pei; Hao, Yong-Jie

    2015-01-01

    Chang'e-3 was China's first soft-landing lunar probe that achieved a successful roving exploration on the Moon. A topography camera functioning as the lander's “eye” was one of the main scientific payloads installed on the lander. It was composed of a camera probe, an electronic component that performed image compression, and a cable assembly. Its exploration mission was to obtain optical images of the lunar topography in the landing zone for investigation and research. It also observed rover movement on the lunar surface and finished taking pictures of the lander and rover. After starting up successfully, the topography camera obtained static images and video of rover movement from different directions, 360° panoramic pictures of the lunar surface around the lander from multiple angles, and numerous pictures of the Earth. All images of the rover, lunar surface, and the Earth were clear, and those of the Chinese national flag were recorded in true color. This paper describes the exploration mission, system design, working principle, quality assessment of image compression, and color correction of the topography camera. Finally, test results from the lunar surface are provided to serve as a reference for scientific data processing and application. (paper)

  20. Ice thickness, volume and subglacial topography of Urumqi Glacier ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The results of radar survey for three times are presented, aiming to determine ice thickness, volume and subglacial topography of Urumqi Glacier No. 1, Tianshan Mountains, central Asia. Results show that the distribution of ice is more in the center and lesser at both ends of the glacier. The bedrock is quite regular with ...

  1. How to handle topography in practical geoid determination: three examples

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Omang, O.C.D.; Forsberg, René

    2000-01-01

    Three different methods of handling topography in geoid determination were investigated. The first two methods employ the residual terrain model (RTM) remove-restore technique, yielding the quasi-geoid, whereas the third method uses the classical Helmert condensation method, yielding the geoid. A...

  2. Causes and Consequences of Time-Varying Dynamic Topography

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Nicky

    2013-04-01

    Convective circulation of the Earth's mantle maintains plate motion but we know little about the spatial and temporal details of this circulation. Accurate maps of the spatial and temporal pattern of dynamic topography will profoundly affect our understanding the the relationship between surface geology and deep Earth processes. A major difficulty is the 'tyranny of isostasy'. In other words, dynamic topography is difficult to measure because crustal and lithospheric thickness and density changes are the dominant control of surface elevation. Some progress can be made along continental margins by measuring residual depth anomalies of the oldest oceanic floor on newly available seismic reflection and wide-angle profiles. These estimates of dynamic topography have amplitudes of ±1 km and wavelengths of 102-104 km. They mostly, but not always, correlate with long wavelength free-air gravity anomalies. Correlation with seismic tomographic images is much poorer. The distribution of dynamic topography throughout the rest of the oceanic realm can be supplemented by using ship-track data in regions with sparse sedimentary cover and by exploiting the mid-oceanic ridge system. On the continents, it is more difficult to measure dynamic topography with the same accuracy since the density structure of continental lithosphere is so variable but progress can be made on three fronts. First, long-wavelength gravity anomalies which straddle continental margins are an obvious and important guide. Secondly, stratal geometries across continental shelves contain information about positive and negative surface elevation changes. In several cases, 2- and 3-D seismic surveys calibrated by boreholes can be used to constrain spatial and temporal patterns of dynamic topography. In the North Atlantic Ocean, examples of buried ephemeral landscapes suggest that dynamic topography can grow and decay on timescales as short as a few million years. Recognition of positive and negative vertical

  3. Imaging of the optic disc and retinal nerve fiber layer: the effects of age, optic disc area, refractive error, and gender

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowd, Christopher; Zangwill, Linda M.; Blumenthal, Eytan Z.; Vasile, Cristiana; Boehm, Andreas G.; Gokhale, Parag A.; Mohammadi, Kourosh; Amini, Payam; Sankary, Timothy M.; Weinreb, Robert N.

    2002-01-01

    We cross-sectionally examined the relationship between age, optic disc area, refraction, and gender and optic disc topography and retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) measurements, using optical imaging techniques. One eye from each of 155 Caucasian subjects (age range 23.0-80.8 y) without ocular pathology was included. Measurements were obtained by using the Heidelberg Retina Tomography (HRT), the GDx Nerve Fiber Analyzer, and the Optical Coherence Tomograph (OCT). The effects of age were small (R2associated with most HRT parameters and isolated GDx and OCT parameters. Refraction and gender were not significantly associated with any optic disc or RNFL parameters. Although effects of age on the optic disc and RNFL are small, they should be considered in monitoring ocular disease. Optic disc area should be considered when cross-sectionally evaluating disc topography and, to a lesser extent, RNFL thickness.

  4. Complement components of nerve regeneration conditioned fluid influence the microenvironment of nerve regeneration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guang-shuai Li

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Nerve regeneration conditioned fluid is secreted by nerve stumps inside a nerve regeneration chamber. A better understanding of the proteinogram of nerve regeneration conditioned fluid can provide evidence for studying the role of the microenvironment in peripheral nerve regeneration. In this study, we used cylindrical silicone tubes as the nerve regeneration chamber model for the repair of injured rat sciatic nerve. Isobaric tags for relative and absolute quantitation proteomics technology and western blot analysis confirmed that there were more than 10 complement components (complement factor I, C1q-A, C1q-B, C2, C3, C4, C5, C7, C8ß and complement factor D in the nerve regeneration conditioned fluid and each varied at different time points. These findings suggest that all these complement components have a functional role in nerve regeneration.

  5. Therapeutic electrical stimulation of injured peripheral nerve tissue using implantable thin-film wireless nerve stimulators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacEwan, Matthew R; Gamble, Paul; Stephen, Manu; Ray, Wilson Z

    2018-02-09

    OBJECTIVE Electrical stimulation of peripheral nerve tissue has been shown to accelerate axonal regeneration. Yet existing methods of applying electrical stimulation to injured peripheral nerves have presented significant barriers to clinical translation. In this study, the authors examined the use of a novel implantable wireless nerve stimulator capable of simultaneously delivering therapeutic electrical stimulation of injured peripheral nerve tissue and providing postoperative serial assessment of functional recovery. METHODS Flexible wireless stimulators were fabricated and implanted into Lewis rats. Thin-film implants were used to deliver brief electrical stimulation (1 hour, 20 Hz) to sciatic nerves after nerve crush or nerve transection-and-repair injuries. RESULTS Electrical stimulation of injured nerves via implanted wireless stimulators significantly improved functional recovery. Brief electrical stimulation was observed to increase the rate of functional recovery after both nerve crush and nerve transection-and-repair injuries. Wireless stimulators successfully facilitated therapeutic stimulation of peripheral nerve tissue and serial assessment of nerve recovery. CONCLUSIONS Implantable wireless stimulators can deliver therapeutic electrical stimulation to injured peripheral nerve tissue. Implantable wireless nerve stimulators might represent a novel means of facilitating therapeutic electrical stimulation in both intraoperative and postoperative settings.

  6. Exogenous nerve growth factor protects the hypoglossal nerve against crush injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li-yuan Fan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Studies have shown that sensory nerve damage can activate the p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK pathway, but whether the same type of nerve injury after exercise activates the p38MAPK pathway remains unclear. Several studies have demonstrated that nerve growth factor may play a role in the repair process after peripheral nerve injury, but there has been little research focusing on the hypoglossal nerve injury and repair. In this study, we designed and established rat models of hypoglossal nerve crush injury and gave intraperitoneal injections of exogenous nerve growth factor to rats for 14 days. p38MAPK activity in the damaged neurons was increased following hypoglossal nerve crush injury; exogenous nerve growth factor inhibited this increase in acitivity and increased the survival rate of motor neurons within the hypoglossal nucleus. Under transmission electron microscopy, we found that the injection of nerve growth factor contributed to the restoration of the morphology of hypoglossal nerve after crush injury. Our experimental findings indicate that exogenous nerve growth factor can protect damaged neurons and promote hypoglossal nerve regeneration following hypoglossal nerve crush injury.

  7. The longitudinal epineural incision and complete nerve transection method for modeling sciatic nerve injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xing-long Cheng

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Injury severity, operative technique and nerve regeneration are important factors to consider when constructing a model of peripheral nerve injury. Here, we present a novel peripheral nerve injury model and compare it with the complete sciatic nerve transection method. In the experimental group, under a microscope, a 3-mm longitudinal incision was made in the epineurium of the sciatic nerve to reveal the nerve fibers, which were then transected. The small, longitudinal incision in the epineurium was then sutured closed, requiring no stump anastomosis. In the control group, the sciatic nerve was completely transected, and the epineurium was repaired by anastomosis. At 2 and 4 weeks after surgery, Wallerian degeneration was observed in both groups. In the experimental group, at 8 and 12 weeks after surgery, distinct medullary nerve fibers and axons were observed in the injured sciatic nerve. Regular, dense myelin sheaths were visible, as well as some scarring. By 12 weeks, the myelin sheaths were normal and intact, and a tight lamellar structure was observed. Functionally, limb movement and nerve conduction recovered in the injured region between 4 and 12 weeks. The present results demonstrate that longitudinal epineural incision with nerve transection can stably replicate a model of Sunderland grade IV peripheral nerve injury. Compared with the complete sciatic nerve transection model, our method reduced the difficulties of micromanipulation and surgery time, and resulted in good stump restoration, nerve regeneration, and functional recovery.

  8. Delayed peripheral nerve repair: methods, including surgical ′cross-bridging′ to promote nerve regeneration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tessa Gordon

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Despite the capacity of Schwann cells to support peripheral nerve regeneration, functional recovery after nerve injuries is frequently poor, especially for proximal injuries that require regenerating axons to grow over long distances to reinnervate distal targets. Nerve transfers, where small fascicles from an adjacent intact nerve are coapted to the nerve stump of a nearby denervated muscle, allow for functional return but at the expense of reduced numbers of innervating nerves. A 1-hour period of 20 Hz electrical nerve stimulation via electrodes proximal to an injury site accelerates axon outgrowth to hasten target reinnervation in rats and humans, even after delayed surgery. A novel strategy of enticing donor axons from an otherwise intact nerve to grow through small nerve grafts (cross-bridges into a denervated nerve stump, promotes improved axon regeneration after delayed nerve repair. The efficacy of this technique has been demonstrated in a rat model and is now in clinical use in patients undergoing cross-face nerve grafting for facial paralysis. In conclusion, brief electrical stimulation, combined with the surgical technique of promoting the regeneration of some donor axons to ′protect′ chronically denervated Schwann cells, improves nerve regeneration and, in turn, functional outcomes in the management of peripheral nerve injuries.

  9. Future Perspectives in the Management of Nerve Injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackinnon, Susan E

    2018-04-01

     The author presents a solicited "white paper" outlining her perspective on the role of nerve transfers in the management of nerve injuries.  PubMed/MEDLINE and EMBASE databases were evaluated to compare nerve graft and nerve transfer. An evaluation of the scientific literature by review of index articles was also performed to compare the number of overall clinical publications of nerve repair, nerve graft, and nerve transfer. Finally, a survey regarding the prevalence of nerve transfer surgery was administrated to the World Society of Reconstructive Microsurgery (WSRM) results.  Both nerve graft and transfer can generate functional results and the relative success of graft versus transfer depended on the function to be restored and the specific transfers used. Beginning in the early 1990s, there has been a rapid increase from baseline of nerve transfer publications such that clinical nerve transfer publication now exceeds those of nerve repair or nerve graft. Sixty-two responses were received from WSRM membership. These surgeons reported their frequency of "usually or always using nerve transfers for repairing brachial plexus injuries as 68%, radial nerves as 27%, median as 25%, and ulnar as 33%. They reported using nerve transfers" sometimes for brachial plexus 18%, radial nerve 30%, median nerve 34%, ulnar nerve 35%.  Taken together this evidence suggests that nerve transfers do offer an alternative technique along with tendon transfers, nerve repair, and nerve grafts. Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.

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    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Nationally representative, longitudinal information from an evaluation where children were randomly assigned to Head Start or community services as usual;direct...

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