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Sample records for nerve head topography

  1. Trabeculectomy and optic nerve head topography

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    A. Paranhos Jr.

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the present study was to evaluate changes in optic nerve head parameters, measured by confocal laser tomography, before and after trabeculectomy in order to identify outcome measures for the management of glaucoma. The optic nerve head of 22 eyes (22 patients was analyzed by confocal laser tomography with the Heidelberg retinal tomogram (HRT before and after trabeculectomy. The median time between the first HRT and surgery was 4.6 months (mean: 7.7 ± 8.3 and the median time between surgery and the second HRT was 10.8 months (mean: 12.0 ± 6.8. The patients were divided into two groups, i.e., those with the highest (group A and lowest (group B intraocular pressure (IOP change after surgery. Differences in the 12 standard topographic parameters before and after surgery for each group were evaluated by the Wilcoxon signed rank test and the differences in these parameters between the two groups were compared by the Mann-Whitney rank sum test. Multiple regression analysis was used to evaluate the influence of the change in IOP (deltaIOP and deltaIOP% and the changes in the other parameters. There were significant differences in the HRT measures before and after surgery in group A only for cup volume. In group B, no parameter was statistically different. The changes in group A were not significantly different than those in group B for any parameter (P > 0.004, Bonferroni correction for multiple comparisons. deltaIOP and deltaIOP% had a statistically significant effect on delta cup disk area, delta cup volume and delta mean cup depth. Changes in cup shape size were influenced significantly only by deltaIOP. Some optic disc parameters measured by HRT presented a significant improvement after filtering surgery, depending on the amount of IOP reduction. Long-term studies are needed to determine the usefulness of these findings as outcome measures in the management of glaucoma.

  2. Scanning laser topography and scanning laser polarimetry: comparing both imaging methods at same distances from the optic nerve head.

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    Kremmer, Stephan; Keienburg, Marcus; Anastassiou, Gerasimos; Schallenberg, Maurice; Steuhl, Klaus-Peter; Selbach, J Michael

    2012-01-01

    To compare the performance of scanning laser topography (SLT) and scanning laser polarimetry (SLP) on the rim of the optic nerve head and its surrounding area and thereby to evaluate whether these imaging technologies are influenced by other factors beyond the thickness of the retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL). A total of 154 eyes from 5 different groups were examined: young healthy subjects (YNorm), old healthy subjects (ONorm), patients with normal tension glaucoma (NTG), patients with open-angle glaucoma and early glaucomatous damage (OAGE) and patients with open-angle glaucoma and advanced glaucomatous damage (OAGA). SLT and SLP measurements were taken. Four concentric circles were superimposed on each of the images: the first one measuring at the rim of the optic nerve head (1.0 ONHD), the next measuring at 1.25 optic nerve head diameters (ONHD), at 1.5 ONHD and at 1.75 ONHD. The aligned images were analyzed using GDx/NFA software. Both methods showed peaks of RNFL thickness in the superior and inferior segments of the ONH. The maximum thickness, registered by the SLT device was at the ONH rim where the SLP device tended to measure the lowest values. SLT measurements at the ONH were influenced by other tissues besides the RNFL like blood vessels and glial tissues. SLT and SLP were most strongly correlated at distances of 1.25 and 1.5 ONHD. While both imaging technologies are valuable tools in detecting glaucoma, measurements at the ONH rim should be interpreted critically since both methods might provide misleading results. For the assessment of the retinal nerve fiber layer we would like to recommend for both imaging technologies, SLT and SLP, measurements in 1.25 and 1.5 ONHD distance of the rim of the optic nerve head.

  3. Does optic nerve head surface topography change prior to loss of retinal nerve fiber layer thickness: a test of the site of injury hypothesis in experimental glaucoma.

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    Brad Fortune

    Full Text Available To test the hypothesis that optic nerve head (ONH deformation manifesting as changes in its mean surface height precedes thinning of the peripapillary retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL in experimental glaucoma (EG.68 rhesus macaque monkeys each had three or more baseline imaging sessions under manometric intraocular pressure (IOP control to obtain average RNFL thickness (RNFLT and the ONH surface topography parameter mean position of the disc (MPD. Laser photocoagulation was then applied to the trabecular meshwork of one eye to induce chronic, mild-to-moderate IOP elevation and bi-weekly imaging continued. Event analysis was applied to determine for each parameter when an 'endpoint' occurred (signficant change from baseline for eight different endpoint criteria. Specificity was assessed in the group of 68 fellow control eyes. Classical signal detection theory and survival analysis were used to compare MPD with RNFLT.Regardless of the endpoint criterion, endpoints were always more frequent for MPD than for RNFLT. The discriminability index (d' was 2.7 ± 0.2 for MPD and 1.9 ± 0.2 for RNFLT (p<0.0001. Endpoints were reached by MPD an average of 1-2 months earlier than by RNFLT (p<0.01. At the onset of the first specific, detectable MPD change in EG eyes, there was still no significant change in RNFLT on average (p=0.29 and only 25% of individual eyes exhibited signficant reduction. In contrast, at onset of signficant RNFLT change, MPD had already changed an average of 101 µm from baseline (p<0.0001 and 71% of the individual eyes had exhibited significant change. The magnitude of MPD change was more than could be explained on the basis of axon loss alone.This study demonstrates that the average surface height of the ONH changes prior to any detectable loss of average peripapillary RNFL thickness in non-human primate eyes with experimental glaucoma.

  4. Ulnar nerve entrapment complicating radial head excision

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    Kevin Parfait Bienvenu Bouhelo-Pam

    Full Text Available Introduction: Several mechanisms are involved in ischemia or mechanical compression of ulnar nerve at the elbow. Presentation of case: We hereby present the case of a road accident victim, who received a radial head excision for an isolated fracture of the radial head and complicated by onset of cubital tunnel syndrome. This outcome could be the consequence of an iatrogenic valgus of the elbow due to excision of the radial head. Hitherto the surgical treatment of choice it is gradually been abandoned due to development of radial head implant arthroplasty. However, this management option is still being performed in some rural centers with low resources. Discussion: The radial head plays an important role in the stability of the elbow and his iatrogenic deformity can be complicated by cubital tunnel syndrome. Conclusion: An ulnar nerve release was performed with favorable outcome. Keywords: Cubital tunnel syndrome, Peripheral nerve palsy, Radial head excision, Elbow valgus

  5. The optic nerve head in glaucoma

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    Rupert RA Bourne

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available ll types of glaucoma involve glaucomatous optic neuropathy. The key to detection and management of glaucoma is understanding how to examine the optic nerve head (ONH. This pictorial glossary addresses the following issues: how to examine the ONH; normal characteristics of the ONH; characteristics of a glaucomatous ONH; how to tell if the glaucomatous optic neuropathy is getting worse;‘pitfalls and pearls’.

  6. Quantitative assessment of optic nerve head pallor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vilser, W; Seifert, B U; Riemer, T; Nagel, E; Weisensee, J; Hammer, M

    2008-01-01

    Ischaemia, loss of neural tissue, glial cell activation and tissue remodelling are symptoms of anterior ischaemic as well as glaucomatous optic neuropathy leading to pallor of the optic nerve head. Here, we describe a simple method for the pallor measurement using a fundus camera equipped with a colour CCD camera and a special dual bandpass filter. The reproducibility of the determined mean pallor value was 11.7% (coefficient of variation for repeated measurements in the same subject); the variation over six healthy subjects was 14.8%. A significant difference between the mean pallor of an atrophic disc and that of the contralateral eye of the same individual was found. However, even the clinically unaffected eye showed a significantly increased pallor compared to the mean of the healthy control group. Thus, optic disc pallor measurement, as described here, may be helpful in the early detection and follow-up of optic neuropathy

  7. Optic nerve head pit-associated maculopathy

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    Beltrán Sainz, Raisa Ivis; Hernández Baguer, Raisa; Gonzales Díaz, Rafael Ernesto; Hernández Martínez, Rocío; Galindo Reimond, Kenia

    2016-01-01

    A literature review was made to expand knowledge on the optic nerve head pit-related maculopathy, its physiopathology and main manifestations, clinical and angiographic diagnosis, optical coherence tomography, and to describe some of the treatments recently used worldwide. The current therapeutic tendencies were taken into account. The fundamental sources of information were scientific articles from journals in PubMED and Cochrane databases as well as basic texts which dealt with this topic in the last five years through Google search engine. Despite the rare occurrence of the disease, its management may be difficult particularly in macular effect cases. This paper confirmed that most of the studies used small samples, were retrospective, non-comparative and non-randomized. However, some therapeutic modalities were found, which have been used for years and also descriptions of new techniques that require further research. There is no consensus on the ideal treatment protocol for this disease. (author)

  8. Preoperative percutaneous cranial nerve mapping in head and neck surgery.

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    Park, Jung I

    2003-01-01

    To identify and map the course of the peripheral branches of the cranial nerve preoperatively and percutaneously. Prospective study. Preoperative percutaneous nerve mapping performed prior to the operation under deep sedation or general anesthesia without muscle paralysis. Private office surgery suite, freestanding surgery center, and regional medical centers. A total of 142 patients undergoing head and neck surgery and facial plastic surgery between August 1994 and July 1999. Monopolar probe was used for nerve stimulation. Electromyographic reading was done through intramuscular bipolar recording electrodes. The equipment used was a nerve monitor. The mandibular divisions were tested in 142 cases, the frontal division in 60 cases, the accessory nerve in 12 cases, and the hypoglossal nerve in 3 cases. Satisfactory mappings were obtained in 115 cases of the mandibular division, 49 cases of the frontal division, 8 cases of the accessory division, and 1 case of the hypoglossal nerve. Preoperative percutaneous nerve mapping is a new method of identifying the location of the peripheral branches of the cranial nerves. Identifying and mapping the course of peripheral branches of the cranial nerves safely assists the head and neck surgeon in the placement of incisions in a favorable location and in the dissection of the area involving the nerves. Mapping alerts the surgeon to an area containing a nerve and allows the surgeon to avoid just the specific area where a nerve is present, preventing large-scale abandonment of unmapped areas for fear of potential nerve damage.

  9. [Glaucoma and optic nerve drusen: Limitations of optic nerve head OCT].

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    Poli, M; Colange, J; Goutagny, B; Sellem, E

    2017-09-01

    Optic nerve head drusen are congenital calcium deposits located in the prelaminar section of the optic nerve head. Their association with visual field defects has been classically described, but the diagnosis of glaucoma is not easy in these cases of altered optic nerve head anatomy. We describe the case of a 67-year-old man with optic nerve head drusen complicated by glaucoma, which was confirmed by visual field and OCT examination of the peripapillary retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL), but the measurement of the minimum distance between the Bruch membrane opening and the internal limiting membrane (minimum rim width, BMO-MRW) by OCT was normal. OCT of the BMO-MRW is a new diagnostic tool for glaucoma. Superficial optic nerve head drusen, which are found between the internal limiting membrane and the Bruch's membrane opening, overestimate the value of this parameter. BMO-MRW measurement is not adapted to cases of optic nerve head drusen and can cause false-negative results for this parameter, and the diagnosis of glaucoma in this case should be based on other parameters such as the presence of a fascicular defect in the retinal nerve fibers, RNFL or macular ganglion cell complex thinning, as well as visual field data. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  10. Functional Nerve Preservation in Extracranial Head and Neck Schwannoma Surgery.

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    Ijichi, Kei; Kawakita, Daisuke; Maseki, Shinichiro; Beppu, Shintaro; Takano, Gaku; Murakami, Shingo

    2016-05-01

    A schwannoma is an uncommon, benign neurogenic tumor of Schwann cells. Tumor enucleation is the recommended surgical method to preserve function of the original nerve, although enucleation does not guarantee completely intact nerve function after the operation. To establish a strategy for functional preservation in extracranial head and neck schwannoma treatment by using an electromyographic (EMG) system during tumor resection. A retrospective cohort study was conducted of 15 patients who underwent surgery for removal of schwannoma tumors between April 1, 2006, and March 31, 2015, at an academic tertiary referral center. Data analysis was conducted from April 3, 2006, to September 15, 2015. Neurogenic tumors were diagnosed according to preoperative findings, and during surgery tumors were exposed and given EMG-controlled electrical stimulation to analyze their origins. In motor nerve cases, the electrical activity of the muscle was measured and recorded by EMG. The tumor was then enucleated by incision along tumor fibers mapped using EMG stimulation. If a nerve bundle was visible, we incised along there and enucleated the tumor. A strategy using electrical stimulation to improve preservation of nerve function in extracranial head and neck schwannoma operations. Frequency and duration of postoperative neurologic complications associated with functional preservation surgery with tumor enucleation was evaluated using EMG monitoring according to tumor origin. Of the 15 patients with extracranial schwannoma, 9 (60%) were women (mean [SD] age, 36.3 [15.3] years). All 15 patients underwent surgery using a transcervical approach. The most common nerves of origin were the vagus nerve and the sympathetic chain. In sensory or sympathetic nerve cases, the EMG response was absent. Two of 5 patients with vagus schwannoma had postoperative temporary vocal nerve palsy. These symptoms showed improvement after 1 year. There was no tumor recurrence during the follow-up period in any

  11. Congenital pits of the optic nerve head and retinochoroidal colobomas.

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    Brown, G C; Augsburger, J J

    1980-07-01

    A 45-year-old man presented with bilateral retinochoroidal colobomas associated with an inferonasal congenital pit of the optic nerve head in each eye. Different theories on the origin of such pits are discussed. This case supports the theory that some congenital optic pits occur as a result of failure of closure of the superior end of the embryonic fissure.

  12. Radial head fracture associated with posterior interosseous nerve injury

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    Bernardo Barcellos Terra

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Fractures of the radial head and radial neck correspond to 1.7-5.4% of all fractures and approximately 30% may present associated injuries. In the literature, there are few reports of radial head fracture with posterior interosseous nerve injury. This study aimed to report a case of radial head fracture associated with posterior interosseous nerve injury. CASE REPORT: A male patient, aged 42 years, sought medical care after falling from a skateboard. The patient related pain and limitation of movement in the right elbow and difficulty to extend the fingers of the right hand. During physical examination, thumb and fingers extension deficit was observed. The wrist extension showed a slight radial deviation. After imaging, it became evident that the patient had a fracture of the radial head that was classified as grade III in the Mason classification. The patient underwent fracture fixation; at the first postoperative day, thumb and fingers extension was observed. Although rare, posterior interosseous nerve branch injury may be associated with radial head fractures. In the present case, the authors believe that neuropraxia occurred as a result of the fracture hematoma and edema.

  13. Bilateral abducens nerve and right facial nerve palsy occuring after head trauma

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    ismail Boyraz

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Lesions of the nervus abducens, the 6th cranial nerve tend to be rare, usually occur suddenly following head injuries. A 43-year-old male patient presented with a history of fall from a height due to an occupational accident on the date of 11.01.2014. Cranial tomography demonstrated bilateral epidural hematoma. The epidural hematoma was drained during the operation. After the surgery, eye examination showed no vision loss, except limited bilateral lateral gaze. When the patient was unable to walk due to diplopia, he was advised to close one eye. On the right side, there were findings suggesting central facial paralysis. There may be multiple cranial nerve damage following head injury. Therefore, all cranial nerves should be thoroughly examined. [J Contemp Med 2016; 6(2.000: 110-113

  14. Isolated abducens nerve palsy after closed head trauma: a pediatric case report.

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    Janssen, Karen; Wojciechowski, Marek; Poot, Sandra; De Keyser, Katrien; Ceulemans, Berten

    2008-09-01

    Cranial nerve lessions often accompany head trauma. Nevertheless, isolated involvement of the sixth nerve without any cranial or cervical fracture is rare. Nerve injury could occur at the sites of the dural entry points and at the petrous apex during down- or upward movement of the brain caused by violent linear force to the head. Management is symptomatic. Most cases improve within three months and many resolve by six months, but spontaneous recovery does not always occur. We describe the case of a 13-year-old boy who developed isolated abducens nerve palsy after closed head trauma.

  15. Optic nerve head biomechanics in aging and disease.

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    Downs, J Crawford

    2015-04-01

    This nontechnical review is focused upon educating the reader on optic nerve head biomechanics in both aging and disease along two main themes: what is known about how mechanical forces and the resulting deformations are distributed in the posterior pole and ONH (biomechanics) and what is known about how the living system responds to those deformations (mechanobiology). We focus on how ONH responds to IOP elevations as a structural system, insofar as the acute mechanical response of the lamina cribrosa is confounded with the responses of the peripapillary sclera, prelaminar neural tissues, and retrolaminar optic nerve. We discuss the biomechanical basis for IOP-driven changes in connective tissues, blood flow, and cellular responses. We use glaucoma as the primary framework to present the important aspects of ONH biomechanics in aging and disease, as ONH biomechanics, aging, and the posterior pole extracellular matrix (ECM) are thought to be centrally involved in glaucoma susceptibility, onset and progression. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Effect of the menstrual cycle on the optic nerve head in diabetes: analysis by confocal scanning laser ophthalmoscopy.

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    Akar, Munire Erman; Yucel, Iclal; Erdem, Uzeyir; Taskin, Omur; Ozel, Alper; Akar, Yusuf

    2005-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine and compare menstrual-cycle-dependent topographic changes in the optic nerve head of normally menstruating women with different grades of type 2 diabetes mellitus. We studied the right eyes of 123 normally menstruating women (36 with severe nonproliferative diabetic retinopathy [NPDR], 42 with mild NPDR and 45 healthy subjects). All subjects underwent a complete ocular examination at baseline. At 4 hormonally distinct phases of the menstrual cycle (early follicular, late follicular, mid-luteal and late luteal), we analysed the topography of the optic nerve head, using a confocal scanning laser ophthalmoscope, and measured the serum levels of estradiol, progesterone and luteinizing hormone. We excluded from analysis the data for 8 patients with severe NPDR, 10 patients with mild NPDR and 15 control subjects who were lost to follow-up examinations during the menstrual cycle. The mean age and optic disc area did not differ significantly among the 3 groups. The duration of diabetes was significantly longer in the patients with severe NPDR than in those with mild NPDR (p cup-shape measure, linear cup/disc ratio, cup/disc area ratio and cup area in the late luteal phase compared with the other phases of the menstrual cycle (p menstrual cycle. Severe NPDR is associated with significant topographic changes in the rim and cup of the optic nerve head during the menstrual cycle. This must be considered in the evaluation of women with both diabetes and glaucoma. The normal fluctuations in serum sex hormone levels during the menstrual cycle of diabetic women seem to affect the optic nerve head more when the disease is advanced.

  17. Oncologic safety of cervical nerve preservation in neck dissection for head and neck cancer.

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    Honda, Keigo; Asato, Ryo; Tsuji, Jun; Miyazaki, Masakazu; Kada, Shinpei; Tsujimura, Takashi; Kataoka, Michiko

    2017-09-01

    Although the functional merits of preserving cervical nerves in neck dissection for head and neck cancer have been reported, the oncologic safety has not yet been determined. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to evaluate the safety of cervical nerve preservation. A retrospective chart review was performed on patients with head and neck cancer who had been treated by neck dissection between 2009 and 2014 at Kyoto Medical Center. Management of cervical nerves and clinical results were analyzed. A total of 335 sides of neck dissection had been performed in 222 patients. Cervical nerves were preserved in 175 neck sides and resected in 160 sides. The 5-year overall survival (OS) rate calculated by the Kaplan-Meier method was 71%. The 5-year neck control rate was 95% in cervical nerve preserved sides and 89% in cervical nerve resected sides. Preserving cervical nerves in neck dissection is oncologically safe in selected cases. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. NMR imaging of the head-neck region. Topography of function - clinical findings - imaging and spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vogl, T.J.

    1991-01-01

    The book on nmr imaging in the head-neck region offers, on a total of 221 pages, 344 detailed representations with 141 figures and 44 tables. It provides information as to the relevant topography of function, presents clinical findings, explains imaging characteristics and also takes account of spectroscopic procedures. The multifarious methods of investigation are described and discussed in connection with the differential diagnoses. A score of suitable diagnostic measures is assigned to each region of examination. The method's value is assessed against that of other imaging techniques. (orig.) [de

  19. Cerebrospinal Fluid Pressure: Revisiting Factors Influencing Optic Nerve Head Biomechanics

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    Hua, Yi; Voorhees, Andrew P.; Sigal, Ian A.

    2018-01-01

    Purpose To model the sensitivity of the optic nerve head (ONH) biomechanical environment to acute variations in IOP, cerebrospinal fluid pressure (CSFP), and central retinal artery blood pressure (BP). Methods We extended a previously published numerical model of the ONH to include 24 factors representing tissue anatomy and mechanical properties, all three pressures, and constraints on the optic nerve (CON). A total of 8340 models were studied to predict factor influences on 98 responses in a two-step process: a fractional factorial screening analysis to identify the 16 most influential factors, followed by a response surface methodology to predict factor effects in detail. Results The six most influential factors were, in order: IOP, CON, moduli of the sclera, lamina cribrosa (LC) and dura, and CSFP. IOP and CSFP affected different aspects of ONH biomechanics. The strongest influence of CSFP, more than twice that of IOP, was on the rotation of the peripapillary sclera. CSFP had similar influence on LC stretch and compression to moduli of sclera and LC. On some ONHs, CSFP caused large retrolamina deformations and subarachnoid expansion. CON had a strong influence on LC displacement. BP overall influence was 633 times smaller than that of IOP. Conclusions Models predict that IOP and CSFP are the top and sixth most influential factors on ONH biomechanics. Different IOP and CSFP effects suggest that translaminar pressure difference may not be a good parameter to predict biomechanics-related glaucomatous neuropathy. CON may drastically affect the responses relating to gross ONH geometry and should be determined experimentally. PMID:29332130

  20. Retinal Nerve Fiber Layer Converges More Convexly on Normal Smaller Optic Nerve Head.

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    Jung, Kyoung In; Shin, Jeong Ah; Park, Hae-Young Lopilly; Park, Chan Kee

    2015-08-01

    To investigate retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) configuration in the optic nerve head (ONH) and peripapillary area according to disc size and to determine whether it explains cup discrepancy among eyes with different disc sizes. Horizontal and vertical RNFL curvature and mean thickness were measured using confocal scanning laser ophthalmoscopy (Heidelberg Retina Tomograph) in 63 normal subjects grouped by disc size. Average and quadrant RNFL thickness, disc size, average cup-to-disc ratio (CDR), and convergence angle at the optic disc were also measured using Cirrus HD-optical coherence tomography. The relationships between disc size and RNFL curvature, thickness, angle at optic disc, and CDR were evaluated. RNFL curvature and convergence angle reflects convexity "on" and "into" the optic disc, respectively. CDR was smaller for small discs and was positively correlated with disc size (Poptic disc were positively correlated with disc size (POptic disc area was negatively correlated with mean RNFL thickness at the optic disc margin measured by HRT (P=0.002), but not in the peripapillary area by optical coherence tomography. Using imaging techniques, we demonstrated that the shape of the RNFLs converging "on" and entering "into" the optic disc was more convex for small optic discs compared with large discs. A low CDR for small discs could be mediated by these RNFL profiles at the ONH, which may guide the clinical evaluation of glaucomatous ONH damage.

  1. Absence of musculocutaneous nerve and accessory head of biceps brachii: a case report

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    Arora L

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available During dissection of a 55-year-old female cadaver, we observed that three nerve roots contributed to the formation of Median nerve in her right upper limb. Along with this variation, absence of Musculocutaneous nerve was noticed. The muscles of front of arm i.e. Biceps Brachii, Brachialis and Coracobrachialis received their nerve supply from Median nerve. The Lateral cutaneous nerve of forearm was derived from Median nerve. Also an accessory head of Biceps Brachii muscle was present in the right arm of the same cadaver. It is extremely important to be aware of these variations while planning a surgery in the region of axilla or arm as these nerves are more liable to be injured during operations.

  2. [Cranial nerve palsy caused by tumours of the head and neck

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Delsing, C.P.; Verbist, B.M.; Hoogen, F.J.A. van den

    2013-01-01

    Cranial nerve palsy is a diagnostic guiding symptom, but often goes unrecognized. The differential diagnosis includes a variety of diseases, including malignant tumours of the head and neck. Here we describe three cases of cranial nerve palsy. In two of the cases the palsy was recognized following

  3. Peripapillary Choroidal Neovascularization Associated with Optic Nerve Head Drusen Treated with Anti-VEGF Agents

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    Norman A. Saffra

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Optic nerve head drusen can be associated with peripapillary choroidal neovascularization, in both the pediatric and adult population. These membranes can involve the macula, causing significant visual loss. Herein, we present a case that required treatment with an anti-VEGF agent. The patient failed to respond to the initial agent, but subsequently responded to a change of agent. Adult patients with macular degeneration involving peripapillary choroidal neovascularization associated with optic nerve head drusen may require individualized treatment plans.

  4. Iodine and freeze-drying enhanced high-resolution MicroCT imaging for reconstructing 3D intraneural topography of human peripheral nerve fascicles.

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    Yan, Liwei; Guo, Yongze; Qi, Jian; Zhu, Qingtang; Gu, Liqiang; Zheng, Canbin; Lin, Tao; Lu, Yutong; Zeng, Zitao; Yu, Sha; Zhu, Shuang; Zhou, Xiang; Zhang, Xi; Du, Yunfei; Yao, Zhi; Lu, Yao; Liu, Xiaolin

    2017-08-01

    The precise annotation and accurate identification of the topography of fascicles to the end organs are prerequisites for studying human peripheral nerves. In this study, we present a feasible imaging method that acquires 3D high-resolution (HR) topography of peripheral nerve fascicles using an iodine and freeze-drying (IFD) micro-computed tomography (microCT) method to greatly increase the contrast of fascicle images. The enhanced microCT imaging method can facilitate the reconstruction of high-contrast HR fascicle images, fascicle segmentation and extraction, feature analysis, and the tracing of fascicle topography to end organs, which define fascicle functions. The complex intraneural aggregation and distribution of fascicles is typically assessed using histological techniques or MR imaging to acquire coarse axial three-dimensional (3D) maps. However, the disadvantages of histological techniques (static, axial manual registration, and data instability) and MR imaging (low-resolution) limit these applications in reconstructing the topography of nerve fascicles. Thus, enhanced microCT is a new technique for acquiring 3D intraneural topography of the human peripheral nerve fascicles both to improve our understanding of neurobiological principles and to guide accurate repair in the clinic. Additionally, 3D microstructure data can be used as a biofabrication model, which in turn can be used to fabricate scaffolds to repair long nerve gaps. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Topography and extent of pulmonary vagus nerve supply with respect to transthoracic oesophagectomy

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    Weijs, Teus J.; Ruurda, Jelle P.; Luyer, Misha D P; Nieuwenhuijzen, Grard A P; Van Hillegersberg, Richard; Bleys, Ronald L A W

    2015-01-01

    Pulmonary complications are frequently observed after transthoracic oesophagectomy. These complications may be reduced by sparing the vagus nerve branches to the lung. However, current descriptions of the regional anatomy are insufficient. Therefore, we aimed to provide a highly detailed description

  6. Topography of the inferior alveolar nerve in human embryos and fetuses. An histomorphological study.

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    Sergey Lvovich Kabak

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to establish the position of the inferior alveolar nerve in relation to the Meckel’s cartilage, the anlage of the mandibular body and primordia of the teeth, and also to trace the change in nerve trunk structure in the human prenatal ontogenesis. Serial sections (20µm from thirty-two 6-12 weeks-old entire human embryos and serial sections (10µm of six mandibles of 13-20 weeks-old human fetuses without developmental abnormalities were studied. Histological sections were impregnated with silver nitrate according to Bilshovsky-Buke and stained with hematoxylin and eosin. During embryonic development, the number of branches of the inferior alveolar nerve increases and its fascicular structure changes. In conclusion, the architecture of intraosseous canals in the body of the mandible, as well as the location of the foramina, is predetermined by the course and pattern of the vessel/nerve branching in the mandibular arch, even before the formation of bony trabeculae. Particularly, the formation of the incisive canal of the mandible can be explained by the presence of the incisive nerve as the extension of the inferior alveolar nerve. It has also been established that Meckel’s cartilage does not participate in mandibular canal morphogenesis.

  7. Proteomics Analyses of Human Optic Nerve Head Astrocytes Following Biomechanical Strain*

    OpenAIRE

    Rogers, Ronan S.; Dharsee, Moyez; Ackloo, Suzanne; Sivak, Jeremy M.; Flanagan, John G.

    2011-01-01

    We investigate the role of glial cell activation in the human optic nerve caused by raised intraocular pressure, and their potential role in the development of glaucomatous optic neuropathy. To do this we present a proteomics study of the response of cultured, optic nerve head astrocytes to biomechanical strain, the magnitude and mode of strain based on previously published quantitative models. In this case, astrocytes were subjected to 3 and 12% stretches for either 2 h or 24 h. Proteomic me...

  8. Alterations of sympathetic nerve fibers in avascular necrosis of femoral head.

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    Li, Deqiang; Liu, Peilai; Zhang, Yuankai; Li, Ming

    2015-01-01

    Avascular necrosis of the femoral head (ANFH) was mainly due to alterations of bone vascularity. And noradrenaline (NA), as the neurotransmitter of the sympathetic nervous system (SNS), leads to the vasoconstriction by activating its α-Receptor. This study was to explore the nerve fiber density of the femoral head in the rabbit model of ANFH. Twenty New Zealand white rabbits were used in this study. The rabbit model of ANFH was established by the injection of methylprednisolone acetate. The nerve fiber density and distribution in the femoral head was determined using an Olympus BH2 microscope. Significant fewer sympathetic nerve fibers was found in the ANFH intertrochanteric bone samples (P = 0.036) with osteonecrosis. The number of sympathetic nerve fibers was compared between the two groups. And less sympathetic nerve fibers were found in later stage ANFH samples in comparison with those of early stages. ANFH might be preceded by an inflammatory reaction, and an inflammatory response might lead to arthritic changes in tissue samples, which in turn reduces the number of sympathetic nerve fibers.

  9. 3T MRI evaluation of large nerve perineural spread of head and neck cancers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baulch, Justin; Gandhi, Mitesh; Sommerville, Jennifer; Panizza, Ben

    2015-10-01

    Accurate definition of the presence and extent of large nerve perineural spread (PNS) is a vital component in planning appropriate surgery and radiotherapy for head and neck cancers. Our research aimed to define the sensitivity and specificity of 3T MRI in detecting the presence and extent of large nerve PNS, compared with histologic evaluation. Retrospective review of surgically proven cases of large nerve PNS in patients with preoperative 3T MRI performed as high resolution neurogram. 3T MRI had a sensitivity of 95% and a specificity of 84%, detecting PNS in 36 of 38 nerves and correctly identifying uninvolved nerves in 16 of 19 cases. It correctly identified the zonal extent of spread in 32 of 36 cases (89%), underestimating the extent in three cases and overestimating the extent in one case. Targeted 3T MRI is highly accurate in defining the presence and extent of large nerve PNS in head and neck cancers. However, there is still a tendency to undercall the zonal extent due to microscopic, radiologically occult involvement. Superficial large nerve involvement also remains a difficult area of detection for radiologists and should be included as a 'check area' for review. Further research is required to define the role radiation-induced neuritis plays in the presence of false-positive PNS on MRI. © 2015 The Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Radiologists.

  10. 3T MRI evaluation of large nerve perineural spread of head and neck cancers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baulch, Justin; Gandhi, Mitesh; Sommerville, Jennifer; Panizza, Ben

    2015-01-01

    Accurate definition of the presence and extent of large nerve perineural spread (PNS) is a vital component in planning appropriate surgery and radiotherapy for head and neck cancers. Our research aimed to define the sensitivity and specificity of 3T MRI in detecting the presence and extent of large nerve PNS, compared with histologic evaluation. Retrospective review of surgically proven cases of large nerve PNS in patients with preoperative 3T MRI performed as high resolution neurogram. 3T MRI had a sensitivity of 95% and a specificity of 84%, detecting PNS in 36 of 38 nerves and correctly identifying uninvolved nerves in 16 of 19 cases. It correctly identified the zonal extent of spread in 32 of 36 cases (89%), underestimating the extent in three cases and overestimating the extent in one case. Targeted 3T MRI is highly accurate in defining the presence and extent of large nerve PNS in head and neck cancers. However, there is still a tendency to undercall the zonal extent due to microscopic, radiologically occult involvement. Superficial large nerve involvement also remains a difficult area of detection for radiologists and should be included as a ‘check area’ for review. Further research is required to define the role radiation-induced neuritis plays in the presence of false-positive PNS on MRI.

  11. A joint estimation detection of Glaucoma progression in 3D spectral domain optical coherence tomography optic nerve head images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belghith, Akram; Bowd, Christopher; Weinreb, Robert N.; Zangwill, Linda M.

    2014-03-01

    Glaucoma is an ocular disease characterized by distinctive changes in the optic nerve head (ONH) and visual field. Glaucoma can strike without symptoms and causes blindness if it remains without treatment. Therefore, early disease detection is important so that treatment can be initiated and blindness prevented. In this context, important advances in technology for non-invasive imaging of the eye have been made providing quantitative tools to measure structural changes in ONH topography, an essential element for glaucoma detection and monitoring. 3D spectral domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT), an optical imaging technique, has been commonly used to discriminate glaucomatous from healthy subjects. In this paper, we present a new framework for detection of glaucoma progression using 3D SD-OCT images. In contrast to previous works that the retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) thickness measurement provided by commercially available spectral-domain optical coherence tomograph, we consider the whole 3D volume for change detection. To integrate a priori knowledge and in particular the spatial voxel dependency in the change detection map, we propose the use of the Markov Random Field to handle a such dependency. To accommodate the presence of false positive detection, the estimated change detection map is then used to classify a 3D SDOCT image into the "non-progressing" and "progressing" glaucoma classes, based on a fuzzy logic classifier. We compared the diagnostic performance of the proposed framework to existing methods of progression detection.

  12. Imaging of optic nerve head pore structure with motion corrected deeply penetrating OCT using tracking SLO

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vienola, Kari V.; Braaf, Boy; Sheehy, Christy K.; Yang, Qiang; Tiruveedhula, Pavan; de Boer, Johannes F.; Roorda, Austin

    2013-01-01

    Purpose To remove the eye motion and stabilize the optical frequency domain imaging (OFDI) system for obtaining high quality images of the optic nerve head (ONH) and the pore structure of the lamina cribrosa. Methods An optical coherence tomography (OCT) instrument was combined with an active eye

  13. Experience on treatment of acute head injury combined with optic nerve damage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gao Heng; Feng Dongxia; Ma Yuanpin; Chen Jinqing

    2000-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the therapeutic principle for the management of acute head injury combined with optic nerve damage. Method: the clinical data of treatment and prognosis from 24 patients, in which 15 received operative and 9 conservative measures were collected and analyzed. Results: In 15 operated cases, the vision of 10 cases including one with blindness before operation was improved obviously, while those of other 5 did not get any improvement. In 9 conservatively treated cases, the vision was improved in 4 cases, deteriorated in 4 case and no change in 1 case with blindness after injury. Conclusion: One the optic nerve damage has been manifested by clinical or radiological evidences in acute head injury patients, despite it was primary or secondary reason, surgical optic nerve bone canal decompression should be done as soon as possible

  14. Influence of corneal power on circumpapillary retinal nerve fiber layer and optic nerve head measurements by spectral-domain optical coherence tomography

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    Kazunori Hirasawa

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To evaluate the influence of corneal power on circumpapillary retinal nerve fiber layer (cpRNFL and optic nerve head (ONH measurements by spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT. METHODS: Twenty-five eyes of 25 healthy participants (mean age 23.6±3.6y were imaged by SD-OCT using horizontal raster scans. Disposable soft contact lenses of different powers (from −11 to +5 diopters including 0 diopter were worn to induce 2-diopter changes in corneal power. Differences in the cpRNFL and ONH measurements per diopter of change in corneal power were analyzed. RESULTS: As corneal power increased by 1 diopter, total and quadrant cpRNFL thicknesses, except for the nasal sector, decreased by −0.19 to −0.32 μm (P<0.01. Furthermore, the disc, cup, and rim areas decreased by −0.017, −0.007, and −0.015 mm2, respectively (P<0.001; the cup and rim volumes decreased by −0.0013 and −0.006 mm3, respectively (P<0.01; and the vertical and horizontal disc diameters decreased by −0.006 and −0.007 mm, respectively (P<0.001. CONCLUSION: For more precise OCT imaging, the ocular magnification should be corrected by considering both the axial length and corneal power. However, the effect of corneal power changes on cpRNFL thickness and ONH topography are small when compare with those of the axial length.

  15. Primary oculomotor nerve palsy due to mild head injury. Report of two cases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Katsuno, Makoto; Kobayashi, Shiro; Yokota, Hiroyuki; Teramoto, Akira

    2008-01-01

    Two patients with primary oculomotor nerve palsy due to direct mild head injury are reported. They presented with internal ophthalmoplegia, dilated nonreactive pupils, and very mild disturbance in consciousness. Except for the persistent oculomotor nerve palsy, both the patients recovered fully within one week. Neither demonstrated a history that was suggestive of a cause for their oculomotor nerve palsy. Initial CT scans demonstrated localized subarachnoid hemorrhage around the brain stem. One of the patients had sustained a fracture of the anterior clinoid process. As the underlying pathophysiologic mechanism underlying the oculomotor nerve palsy we suspected mild injury to the pupillomotor fibers at the anterior petroclinoidal ligament and that of the pupillary fibers at the posterior petroclinoidal ligament. We speculate that these perforating fibers at the anterior petroclinoidal ligament acted as a fulcrum due to downward displacement of the brainstem at the time of impact. (author)

  16. The effect of the menstrual cycle on optic nerve head analysis in healthy women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akar, Munire Erman; Taskin, Omur; Yucel, Iclal; Akar, Yusuf

    2004-12-01

    To determine the effect of the menstrual cycle on optic nerve head topographic analysis in normally menstruating, healthy women. The study included single eyes selected randomly from each of 52 healthy women with regular menstrual cycles. All subjects underwent a complete ocular examination. Optic nerve head topographic analyses were performed using a confocal scanning laser ophthalmoscope, the Heidelberg Retinal Tomograph II (HRT II, software version 1.6). The analyses were repeated three times during the menstrual cycle: in the follicular phase (days 7-10 of the cycle), at ovulation, and in the late luteal phase (days 1-3 before menstrual bleeding). Serum oestradiol, progesterone and luteinizing hormone levels were measured at each menstrual phase. Fourteen subjects were excluded from the study. The mean age of the subjects (n = 38) was 25.6 +/- 3.7 years (range 21-34 years). Blood oestradiol levels were significantly lower in the late luteal phase (35.8 pg/ml) (p cup : disc ratio, cup : disc area ratio and the cup area were significantly higher during the luteal phase (p menstrual cycle in healthy women significantly alter neuroretinal rim area and cup variables of the optic nerve head. These findings should be taken into consideration in the clinical follow-up of young women with glaucoma.

  17. Relationship between the Ulnar Nerve and the Branches of the Radial Nerve to the Medial Head of the Triceps Brachii Muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sh, Cho; Ih, Chung; Uy, Lee

    2018-05-17

    One branch of the radial nerve to the medial head of the triceps brachii muscle (MHN) has been described as accompanying or joining the ulnar nerve. Mostly two MHN branches have been reported, with some reports of one; however, the topographical anatomy is not well documented. We dissected 52 upper limbs from adult cadavers and found one, two, and three MHN branches in 9.6%, 80.8%, and 9.6% of cases, respectively. The MHN accompanying the ulnar nerve was always the superior MHN. The relationship between the ulnar nerve and the MHN was classified into four types according to whether the MHN was enveloped along with the ulnar nerve in the connective tissue sheath and whether it was in contact with the ulnar nerve. It contacted the ulnar nerve in 75.0% of cases and accompanied it over a mean distance of 73.6 mm (range 36-116 mm). In all cases in which the connective tissue sheath enveloped the branch of the MHN and the ulnar nerve, removing the sheath confirmed that the MHN branch originated from the radial nerve. The detailed findings and anatomical measurements of the MHN in this study will help in identifying its branches during surgical procedures. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Supernumerary head of biceps brachii and branching pattern of the musculocutaneous nerve

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohan Basavaraj Angadi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available During routine dissection by medical undergraduates, third head of the biceps brachii muscle was found on the left side of a 75-year-old male cadaver in a total of 48 arms dissected in Department of Anatomy Armed Forces Medical College, Pune. Biceps brachii is a muscle of arm having two heads hence the name. The most frequent variation of the muscle is in the number of heads with a prevalence range of 9.1-22.9%. The origin of the supernumerary head in this case was from the humerus, between the insertion of the coracobrachialis and the upper part of the origin of the brachialis, and also from the medial intermuscular septum. The supernumerary head joined the common belly. It was supplied by the musculocutaneous nerve which after emerging from brachialis pierced it near the middle and terminated by finally supplying the biceps belly. In our study, 2.08% (1 of 48 of male cadavers were found to have the third head of biceps. The incidence of this variation can be as much as 10% as, shown in previous studies on Indian population, as reported in standard textbooks of anatomy.

  19. Integrated Model of the Eye/Optic Nerve Head Biomechanical Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ethier, C. R.; Feola, A.; Myers, J. G.; Nelson, E.; Raykin, J.; Samuels, B.

    2017-01-01

    Visual Impairment and Intracranial Pressure (VIIP) syndrome is a concern for long-duration space flight. Previously, it has been suggested that ocular changes observed in VIIP syndrome are related to the cephalad fluid shift that results in altered fluid pressures [1]. We are investigating the impact of changes in intracranial pressure (ICP) using a combination of numerical models, which simulate the effects of various environment conditions, including finite element (FE) models of the posterior eye. The specific interest is to understand how altered pressures due to gravitational changes affect the biomechanical environment of tissues of the posterior eye and optic nerve sheath. METHODS: Additional description of the numerical modeling is provided in the IWS abstract by Nelson et al. In brief, to simulate the effects of a cephalad fluid shift on the cardiovascular and ocular systems, we utilized a lumped-parameter compartment model of these systems. The outputs of this lumped-parameter model then inform boundary conditions (pressures) for a finite element model of the optic nerve head (Figure 1). As an example, we show here a simulation of postural change from supine to 15 degree head-down tilt (HDT), with primary outcomes being the predicted change in strains at the optic nerve head (ONH) region, specifically in the lamina cribrosa (LC), retrolaminar optic nerve, and prelaminar neural tissue (PLNT). The strain field can be decomposed into three orthogonal components, denoted as the first, second and third principal strains. We compare the peak tensile (first principal) and compressive (third principal) strains, since elevated strain alters cell phenotype and induces tissue remodeling. RESULTS AND CONCLUSIONS: Our lumped-parameter model predicted an IOP increase of c. 7 mmHg after 21 minutes of 15 degree HDT, which agreed with previous reports of IOP in HDT [1]. The corresponding FEM simulations predicted a relative increase in the magnitudes of the peak tensile

  20. Unilateral hypoglossal nerve atrophy as a late complication of radiation therapy of head and neck carcinoma: a report of four cases and a review of the literature on peripheral and cranial nerve damages after radiation therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheng, V.S.T.; Schulz, M.D.

    1975-01-01

    The case histories of four patients who developed hemiatrophy of the tongue from 3 to 9 years after a course of curative radiation therapy for carcinomas of the head and neck are presented. These patients were subsequently followed from 1 1 / 2 to 6 years without local recurrence of the tumor, distant metastasis, or involvement of other cranial nerves, indicative of only a unilateral hypoglossal nerve atrophy. A review of the literature showed that peripheral and cranial nerve damages after radiation therapy have been reported for the optic nerve, hypoglossal nerve, oculomotor nerve, abducens nerve, recurrent laryngeal nerve, brachial plexus nerves, and peripheral nerves of the extremities. Review of clinical and experimental data indicated that in most cases, the damages were probably caused by extensive connective tissue fibrosis around and infiltrating the nerve trunks. Three possible types of peripheral and cranial nerve damages after radiation therapy are identified. (U.S.)

  1. Structure-function relationships with spectral-domain optical coherence tomography retinal nerve fiber layer and optic nerve head measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pollet-Villard, Frédéric; Chiquet, Christophe; Romanet, Jean-Paul; Noel, Christian; Aptel, Florent

    2014-05-02

    To evaluate the regional structure-function relationship between visual field sensitivity and retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) thickness and optic nerve head (ONH) measurements using spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT). Prospective cross-sectional study conducted on patients with glaucoma, suspected glaucoma, and healthy subjects. Eyes were tested on Cirrus OCT and standard achromatic perimetry. RNFL thickness of 12 peripapillary 30° sectors, neuroretinal rim thickness extracted from 36 neuroretinal rim scans, and Bruch membrane opening minimum rim width (BMO-MRW)-a recently defined parameter-extracted from 36 neuroretinal rim scans were obtained. Correlations between peripapillary RNFL thickness, neuroretinal rim thickness, all six sectors of BMO-MRW, and visual field sensitivity in the six corresponding areas were evaluated using logarithmic regression analysis. Receiver operating curve areas were calculated for each RNFL, ONH, and macular ganglion cell analysis parameter. We included 142 eyes of 142 subjects. The correlations (r(2)) between RNFL thickness, Cirrus-based neuroretinal rim thickness, BMO-MRW and visual field sensitivity ranged from 0.07 to 0.60, 0.15 to 0.49, and 0.24 to 0.66, respectively. The structure-function correlations were stronger with BMO-MRW than with Cirrus-based neuroretinal rim thickness. The largest areas under the receiver operating curve were seen for rim area (0.926 [95% confidence interval 0.875, 0.977]; P function relationship was significantly stronger with BMO-MRW than other ONH SD-OCT parameters. The best diagnostic capabilities were seen with rim area and average RNFL.

  2. Peripapillary retinal nerve fiber layer and optic nerve head characteristics in eyes with situs inversus of the optic disc.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Sunah; Jin, Sunyoung; Roh, Kyu Hwa; Hwang, Young Hoon

    2015-01-01

    This study was performed to investigate the peripapillary retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) and optic nerve head (ONH) characteristics, as determined using a spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (OCT), in eyes with situs inversus of the optic disc. The peripapillary RNFL and the ONH were assessed in 12 eyes belonging to 6 subjects with situs inversus of the optic disc (situs inversus group) and 24 eyes in 12 age-matched, sex-matched, and refractive error-matched healthy subjects (control group) by using OCT. The average, quadrant, and clock-hour RNFL thicknesses (clock-hour 9 on the scan represented the temporal side of the optic disc in both eyes), the superior/inferior RNFL peak locations, and ONH characteristics such as disc area, rim area, cup-to-disc ratio, vertical cup-to-disc ratio, and cup volume were obtained. The differences in RNFL and ONH characteristics between the 2 groups were analyzed. The situs inversus group had a thicker RNFL in the clock-hour sectors 3 and 4, a thinner RNFL in the clock-hour sectors 7, 8, and 11, and more nasally located superior and inferior RNFL peak locations than the control group (P≤0.001). The situs inversus group had a smaller cup-to-disc area ratio, smaller vertical cup-to-disc ratio, and a lesser cup volume than the control group (Poptic disc showed different peripapillary RNFL and ONH characteristics from those without this abnormality. These findings should be considered when assessing eyes with situs inversus of the optic disc.

  3. Therapeutic effectiveness of epicranial nerve blocks on post-traumatic syndrome from head injury

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    C. A. Caputi

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The autor describes the case of a 53-year-old woman suffering from headache and dizziness, sometimes nausea, tinnitus in the right ear, and diffuse scalp allodynia following an occupational accident involving a head injury. Hyposensitizing treatment by anesthetic blockade at the emergence points of the epicranial nerves, which were hyperalgesic to fi nger pressure, rapidly controlled the allodynia and eventually the headache. Unexpectedly, the patient also reported reduced dizziness and resolution of the tinnitus. The unforeseen outcome highlights the unpredictable therapeutic potential of a simple and modestly invasive procedure. The neuropathophysiological interpretation is consequently very interesting.

  4. Developmental abnormalities of the optic nerve head in mouse fetuses caused by simultaneous irradiation of x-rays and ultrasound

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shirai, Shoichiro; Yuguchi, Shuji; Majima, Akio.

    1981-01-01

    Eye abnormalities in mouse fetuses caused by irradiation of X-rays alone, or simultaneous irradiation of X-rays and ultrasound on day 7 of gestation were histologically studied on day 18 of gestation. Developmental abnormalities of the optic nerve head were examined in the present experiment, and the following results were obtained: 1. Developmental abnormalities of the optic nerve head associated with developmental abnormalities of the vitreous were detected in 4 fetuses (5 eyes). In all cases, excessive mesenchymal tissue of components of the primary vitreous was found from the optic nerve head to the vitreous cavity. It was impossible to distinguish between the neuroectodermal tissue of Bergmeister's papilla and the mesodermal tissue of components of the primary vitreous. 2. In 3 fetuses (4 eyes), the fetal fissure involving the optic nerve head was open. At the peripapillary region, the inner layer of the optic cup was everted and hyperplastic. The inner neuroblastic layer of the everted portion contacted the outer coat of the eyeball, directly. In these cases, the optic nerve entrance was very wide. 3. The relation between the congenital optic nerve head anomalies encountered clinically and those observed experimentally in the mouse fetuses was discussed. It was considered that the pathogenesis of congenital optic nerve head anomalies consists of the malformation of the primitive epithelial papilla, the faulty closure of the proximal end of the fetal fissure, the anomalies of Bergmeister's papilla, the anomalies of the hyaloid system, or the abnormal differentiation and growth of the neuroectodermal cells of the optic cup. (author)

  5. [Traumatic lesion of the optic nerve head by flying fish: a case report].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, M; Orgül, S; Robertson, A; Flammer, J

    2004-05-01

    Traumatic lesion to the optic nerve often leads to severe and persistent functional loss. A male patient was transferred to our hospital from the University Eye Clinic of Guadeloupe 5 days after ocular injury caused by a flying fish. Visual function was light perception. The anterior part of the eye and retina were unremarkable. A computer tomography disclosed a fracture of the sphenoid sinus, with a little bone fragment (DD: foreign body) located close to the optic nerve. Therapy had been started with Aminopenicillin combined with clavulan acid (Augmentin) i. v., 500 ml methylprednisolone (Solumedrol) i. v., lysine-acetyl salicylate (Aspegic) and topical application of dexamethasone combined with neomycin/polymyxin B (Maxitrol). We continued this therapy and intensified it by adding nimodipine (Nimotop) 30 1-1-1 and acetazolamide retard (Diamox sustet) 1-0-1. Unfortunately visual function did not recover under therapy. Traumatic lesions of the optic nerve head, especially when due to axial or tangential forces, can lead to severe and irreversible functional loss. Severe traumatic lesions, even bone fractures induced by flying fish are not a seldom encounter in the Caribbean Sea.

  6. The effect of the menstrual cycle on the optic nerve head analysis of migrainous women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yucel, Iclal; Akar, Munire; Durukan, A; Akar, Yusuf; Taskin, Omur; Dora, Babur; Yilmaz, Nurgul

    2005-03-01

    To determine the effect of the menstrual cycle on the optic nerve head topographic analysis of normally menstruating migrainous women. Randomly selected one eye of 44 migrainous and 49 healthy control women with regular menstrual cycles were included in the study. All subjects underwent complete ocular examination. Optic nervehead topographic analysis were performed using a confocal scanning laser ophthalmoscope, HRT II (Heidelberg Retinal Tomograph II, software version 1.6;Heidelberg Engineering, Heidelberg, Germany). They were repeated for two times during the menstrual cycle: in follicular phase (7th to 10th day of the cycle) and in the luteal phase (days 3 to 4 before the menstrual bleeding). Serum estradiol, progesterone, and luteinizing hormone measurements were repeated at each menstrual phase. The mean age of migrainous and control subjects were 31.5 + 5.1 years and 33.4 +/- 3.7 years, respectively (P > 0.05). Their mean disc areas were 2.26 +/- 0.46 mm(2) and 1.95 +/- 0.39 mm(2), respectively(P 0.05). The parameter rim volume decreased, while the parameters cup volume and cup shape measure increased significantly in the luteal phase of the migrainous women (all P values cup parameters during the menstrual cycle of the migrainous women. Further clinical trials on ocular blood flow changes during the menstrual cycle of the migrainous women may highlight the role of sex steroids in the optic nerve head of the migrainous women.

  7. A numerical solution to define channel heads and hillslope parameters from digital topography of glacially conditioned catchments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salcher, Bernhard; Baumann, Sebastian; Kober, Florian; Robl, Jörg; Heiniger, Lukas

    2016-04-01

    The analysis of the slope-area relationship in bedrock streams is a common way for discriminating the channel from the hillslope domain and associated landscape processes. Spatial variations of these domains are important indicators of landscape change. In fluvial catchments, this relationship is a function of contributing drainage area, channel slope and the threshold drainage area for fluvial erosion. The resulting pattern is related to climate, tectonic and underlying bedrock. These factors may become secondary in catchments affected by glacial erosion, as it is the case in many mid- to high-latitude mountain belts. The perturbation (i.e. the destruction) of an initial steady state fluvial bedrock morphology (where uplift is balanced by surface lowering rates) will tend to become successively larger if the repeated action of glacial processes exceeds the potential of fluvial readjustment during deglaciated periods. Topographic change is associated with a decrease and fragmentation of the channel network and an extension of the hillslope domain. In case of glacially conditioned catchments discrimination of the two domains remains problematic and a discrimination inconsistent. A definition is therefore highly needed considering that (i) a spatial shift in the domains affect the process and rate of erosion and (ii) topographic classifications of alpine catchments often base on channel and hillslope parameters (i.e.channel or hillslope relief). Here we propose a novel numerical approach to topographically define channel heads from digital topography in glacially conditioned mountain range catchments in order to discriminate the channel from the hillslope domain. We analyzed the topography of the southern European Central Alps, a region which (i) has been glaciated multiple times during the Quaternary, shows (ii) little lithological variations, is (iii) home of very low erodible rocks and is (iv) known as a region were tectonic processes have largely ceased. The

  8. Premise and Prediction – How Optic Nerve Head Biomechanics Underlies the Susceptibility and Clinical Behavior of the Aged Optic Nerve Head

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burgoyne, Claude F.; Downs, J. Crawford

    2009-01-01

    We propose that age-related alterations in optic nerve head (ONH) biomechanics underlie the clinical behavior and increased susceptibility of the aged ONH to glaucomatous damage. The literature which suggests that the aged ONH is more susceptible to glaucomatous damage at all levels of intraocular pressure is reviewed. The relevant biomechanics of the aged ONH are discussed and a biomechanical explanation for why, on average, the stiffened peripapillary scleral and lamina cribrosa connective tissues of the aged eye should lead to a shallow (senile sclerotic) form of cupping is proposed. A logic for why age-related axon loss and the optic neuropathy of glaucoma in the aged eye may overlap is discussed. Finally, we argue for a need to characterize all forms of clinical cupping into prelaminar and laminar components so as to add precision to the discussion of clinical cupping which does not currently exist. Such characterization may lead to the early detection of ONH axonal and connective tissue pathology in ocular hypertension and eventually aid in the assessment of etiology in all forms of optic neuropathy including those that may be purely age-related. PMID:18552618

  9. Topography of the inferior alveolar nerve in relation to cystic processes of the mandible in dental MRI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kress, B.; Stippich, C.; Sartor, K.

    2003-01-01

    Purpose: Cystic processes are changing the course of the inferior alveolar nerve in the mandible. This study evaluates the possibility of demonstrating the relationship between space-occupying processes and the course of the neurovascular bundle. Materials and Methods: Thirteen patients with cystic processes in the mandible (9 keratocystic lesions, 1 eosinophilic granuloma, 1 plasmocytoma, 2 adamantinomas) were examined by MRI (1.5-T magnet, 8-cm surface coil, PD-gradient-echo-sequences in sagittal and coronal orientation, without enhancement) and the results retrospectively evaluated. Results: The entire course of the nerve could be delineated in all patients. In six patients with minor cystic processes, the nerve was identified in both sagittal and coronal orientation. In seven patients with major cystic lesions, only parts of the nerve were detected in either image orientation, but the nerve could be visualized in its entire length by evaluating coronal and sagittal images side by side. Conclusion: It is possible to delineate the inferior alveolar nerve in its entirety along pathologic mandibular lesions. For large cystic lesions, this requires the evaluation of both coronal and sagittal sections of multidirectional MRI. (orig.) [de

  10. Hydrostatic Pressure–Induced Release of Stored Calcium in Cultured Rat Optic Nerve Head Astrocytes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandal, Amritlal; Delamere, Nicholas A.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose. Elevated intraocular pressure is associated with glaucomatous optic nerve damage. Other investigators have shown functional changes in optic nerve head astrocytes subjected to elevated hydrostatic pressure (HP) for 1 to 5 days. Recently, the authors reported ERK1/2, p90RSK and NHE1 phosphorylation after 2 hours. Here they examine calcium responses at the onset of HP to determine what precedes ERK1/2 phosphorylation. Methods. Cytoplasmic calcium concentration ([Ca2+]i) was measured in cultured rat optic nerve astrocytes loaded with fura-2. The cells were placed in a closed imaging chamber and subjected to an HP increase of 15 mm Hg. Protein phosphorylation was detected by Western blot analysis. Results. The increase of HP caused an immediate slow increase in [Ca2+]i. The response persisted in calcium-free solution and when nickel chloride (4 mM) was added to suppress channel-mediated calcium entry. Previous depletion of the ER calcium stores by cyclopiazonic acid abolished the HP-induced calcium level increase. The HP-induced increase persisted in cells exposed to xestospongin C, an inhibitor of IP3R-mediated calcium release. In contrast, ryanodine receptor (RyR) antagonist ruthenium red (10 μM) or dantrolene (25 μM) inhibited the HP-induced calcium increase. The HP-induced calcium increase was abolished when ryanodine-sensitive calcium stores were pre-depleted with caffeine (3 mM). HP caused ERK1/2 phosphorylation. The magnitude of the ERK1/2 phosphorylation response was reduced by ruthenium red and dantrolene. Conclusions. Increasing HP causes calcium release from a ryanodine-sensitive cytoplasmic store and subsequent ERK1/2 activation. Calcium store release appears to be a required early step in the initial astrocyte response to an HP increase. PMID:20071675

  11. Bilateral optic nerve head drusen with chorioretinal coloboma in the right eye

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Reza Dehghani

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Chorioretinal coloboma is a congenital defect of the eye caused by improper closure of the embryonic fissure. Optic nerve head drusen (ONHD are white calcareous deposits that are generally asymptomatic. We report a very rare association of both in a healthy patient with no any systemic syndrome. A 16-year-old man was referred to our clinic from suffering blurred vision. Best corrected visual acuity of the right eye was 6/10 and 10/10 in the left one. External ocular and slit lamp examination were normal. Dilated ophthalmoscopy showed marked swelling in both optic nerves and chorioretinal coloboma in the right eye inferiorly. Ultrasonography showed an echodense structure with acoustic shadowing in both eyes consistent with buried ONHD. Visual field testing showed normal field in the left eye and moderate superior field depression in the right eye corresponding to inferior coloboma in funduscopy. Results of general medical and neurologic, cardiologic, and other examinations were normal. To the best our knowledge combination of bilateral ONHD and unilateral chorioretinal coloboma in a healthy patient with no any systemic syndrome has not been published in the literature. We reported this very rare association and recommended examine eyes and other body organs. In such cases that coloboma is associated with ONHD, we should keep in mind Noonan syndrome. The diagnosis of Noonan syndrome is clinical and confirm by the consultant pediatricians and clinical geneticists.

  12. Ametropia, retinal anatomy, and OCT abnormality patterns in glaucoma. 2. Impacts of optic nerve head parameters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baniasadi, Neda; Wang, Mengyu; Wang, Hui; Jin, Qingying; Elze, Tobias

    2017-12-01

    Clinicians use retinal nerve fiber layer thickness (RNFLT) measured by optical coherence tomography (OCT) as an adjunct to glaucoma diagnosis. Ametropia is accompanied by changes to the optic nerve head (ONH), which may affect how OCT machines mark RNFLT measurements as abnormal. These changes in abnormality patterns may bias glaucoma diagnosis. Here, we investigate the relationship between OCT abnormality patterns and the following ONH-related and ametropia-associated parameters on 421 eyes of glaucoma patients: optic disc tilt and torsion, central retinal vessel trunk location (CRVTL), and nasal and temporal retinal curvature adjacent to ONH, quantified as nasal/temporal slopes of the inner limiting membrane. We applied multivariate logistic regression with abnormality marks as regressands to 40,401 locations of the peripapillary region and generated spatial maps of locations of false positive/negative abnormality marks independent of glaucoma severity. Effects of torsion and temporal slope were negligible. The effect of tilt could be explained by covariation with ametropia. For CRVTL/nasal slope, abnormality pattern shifts at 7.2%/23.5% of the peripapillary region were detected, respectively, independent of glaucoma severity and ametropia. Therefore, CRVTL and nasal curvature should be included in OCT RNFLT norms. Our spatial location maps may aid clinicians to improve diagnostic accuracy.

  13. A Deep Learning Approach to Digitally Stain Optical Coherence Tomography Images of the Optic Nerve Head.

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    Devalla, Sripad Krishna; Chin, Khai Sing; Mari, Jean-Martial; Tun, Tin A; Strouthidis, Nicholas G; Aung, Tin; Thiéry, Alexandre H; Girard, Michaël J A

    2018-01-01

    To develop a deep learning approach to digitally stain optical coherence tomography (OCT) images of the optic nerve head (ONH). A horizontal B-scan was acquired through the center of the ONH using OCT (Spectralis) for one eye of each of 100 subjects (40 healthy and 60 glaucoma). All images were enhanced using adaptive compensation. A custom deep learning network was then designed and trained with the compensated images to digitally stain (i.e., highlight) six tissue layers of the ONH. The accuracy of our algorithm was assessed (against manual segmentations) using the dice coefficient, sensitivity, specificity, intersection over union (IU), and accuracy. We studied the effect of compensation, number of training images, and performance comparison between glaucoma and healthy subjects. For images it had not yet assessed, our algorithm was able to digitally stain the retinal nerve fiber layer + prelamina, the RPE, all other retinal layers, the choroid, and the peripapillary sclera and lamina cribrosa. For all tissues, the dice coefficient, sensitivity, specificity, IU, and accuracy (mean) were 0.84 ± 0.03, 0.92 ± 0.03, 0.99 ± 0.00, 0.89 ± 0.03, and 0.94 ± 0.02, respectively. Our algorithm performed significantly better when compensated images were used for training (P deep learning algorithm can simultaneously stain the neural and connective tissues of the ONH, offering a framework to automatically measure multiple key structural parameters of the ONH that may be critical to improve glaucoma management.

  14. Proteomics analyses of human optic nerve head astrocytes following biomechanical strain.

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    Rogers, Ronan S; Dharsee, Moyez; Ackloo, Suzanne; Sivak, Jeremy M; Flanagan, John G

    2012-02-01

    We investigate the role of glial cell activation in the human optic nerve caused by raised intraocular pressure, and their potential role in the development of glaucomatous optic neuropathy. To do this we present a proteomics study of the response of cultured, optic nerve head astrocytes to biomechanical strain, the magnitude and mode of strain based on previously published quantitative models. In this case, astrocytes were subjected to 3 and 12% stretches for either 2 h or 24 h. Proteomic methods included nano-liquid chromatography, tandem mass spectrometry, and iTRAQ labeling. Using controls for both stretch and time, a six-plex iTRAQ liquid chromatography- tandem MS (LC/MS/MS) experiment yielded 573 proteins discovered at a 95% confidence limit. The pathways included transforming growth factor β1, tumor necrosis factor, caspase 3, and tumor protein p53, which have all been implicated in the activation of astrocytes and are believed to play a role in the development of glaucomatous optic neuropathy. Confirmation of the iTRAQ analysis was performed by Western blotting of various proteins of interest including ANXA 4, GOLGA2, and αB-Crystallin.

  15. Proteomics Analyses of Human Optic Nerve Head Astrocytes Following Biomechanical Strain*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, Ronan S.; Dharsee, Moyez; Ackloo, Suzanne; Sivak, Jeremy M.; Flanagan, John G.

    2012-01-01

    We investigate the role of glial cell activation in the human optic nerve caused by raised intraocular pressure, and their potential role in the development of glaucomatous optic neuropathy. To do this we present a proteomics study of the response of cultured, optic nerve head astrocytes to biomechanical strain, the magnitude and mode of strain based on previously published quantitative models. In this case, astrocytes were subjected to 3 and 12% stretches for either 2 h or 24 h. Proteomic methods included nano-liquid chromatography, tandem mass spectrometry, and iTRAQ labeling. Using controls for both stretch and time, a six-plex iTRAQ liquid chromatography- tandem MS (LC/MS/MS) experiment yielded 573 proteins discovered at a 95% confidence limit. The pathways included transforming growth factor β1, tumor necrosis factor, caspase 3, and tumor protein p53, which have all been implicated in the activation of astrocytes and are believed to play a role in the development of glaucomatous optic neuropathy. Confirmation of the iTRAQ analysis was performed by Western blotting of various proteins of interest including ANXA 4, GOLGA2, and αB-Crystallin. PMID:22126795

  16. The Impact of Ocular Pressures, Material Properties and Geometry on Optic Nerve Head Deformation

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    Feola, Andrew J.; Myers, Jerry G.; Raykin, Julia; Nelson, Emily S.; Samuels, Brian C.; Ethier C. Ross

    2017-01-01

    Alteration in intracranial pressure (ICP) has been associated with various diseases that cause visual impairment, including glaucoma, idiopathic intracranial hypertension and Visual Impairment and Intracranial Pressure (VIIP) syndrome. However, how changes in ICP lead to vision loss is unclear, although it is hypothesized to involve deformations of the tissues in the optic nerve head (ONH). Recently, understanding the effect of ICP alterations on ocular tissues has become a major concern for NASA, where 42 of astronauts that partake in long duration space missions suffer from VIIP syndrome. Astronauts with VIIP syndrome suffer from visual impairment and changes in ocular anatomy that persist after returning to earth (1). It is hypothesized that the cephalad fluid shift that occurs upon entering microgravity increases ICP, which leads to an altered biomechanical environment in the posterior globe and optic nerve sheath, and subsequently VIIP syndrome. Our goal was to develop a finite element (FE) model to simulate the acute effects of elevated ICP on the posterior eye. Here, we simulated how inter-individual differences affect the deformation of ONH tissues. Further, we examined how several different geometries influenced deformations when exposed to elevated ICP.

  17. Rat optic nerve head anatomy within 3D histomorphometric reconstructions of normal control eyes.

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    Pazos, Marta; Yang, Hongli; Gardiner, Stuart K; Cepurna, William O; Johnson, Elaine C; Morrison, John C; Burgoyne, Claude F

    2015-10-01

    The purpose of this study is to three-dimensionally (3D) characterize the principal macroscopic and microscopic relationships within the rat optic nerve head (ONH) and quantify them in normal control eyes. Perfusion-fixed, trephinated ONH from 8 normal control eyes of 8 Brown Norway Rats were 3D histomorphometrically reconstructed, visualized, delineated and parameterized. The rat ONH consists of 2 scleral openings, (a superior neurovascular and inferior arterial) separated by a thin connective tissue strip we have termed the "scleral sling". Within the superior opening, the nerve abuts a prominent extension of Bruch's Membrane (BM) superiorly and is surrounded by a vascular plexus, as it passes through the sclera, that is a continuous from the choroid into and through the dural sheath and contains the central retinal vein (CRV), (inferiorly). The inferior scleral opening contains the central retinal artery and three long posterior ciliary arteries which obliquely pass through the sclera to obtain the choroid. Bruch's Membrane Opening (BMO) is irregular and vertically elongated, enclosing the nerve (superiorly) and CRV and CRA (inferiorly). Overall mean BMO Depth, BMO Area, Choroidal Thickness and peripapillary Scleral Thickness were 29 μm, 56.5 × 10(3) μm(2), 57 μm and 104 μm respectively. Mean anterior scleral canal opening (ASCO) and posterior scleral canal opening (PSCO) radii were 201 ± 15 μm and 204 ± 16 μm, respectively. Mean optic nerve area at the ASCO and PSCO were 46.3 × 10(3)±4.4 × 10(3) μm(2) and 44.1 × 10(3)±4.5 × 10(3) μm(2) respectively. In conclusion, the 3D complexity of the rat ONH and the extent to which it differs from the primate have been under-appreciated within previous 2D studies. Properly understood, these anatomic differences may provide new insights into the relative susceptibilities of the rat and primate ONH to elevated intraocular pressure. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Diagnostic capability of optic nerve head rim width and retinal nerve fiber thickness in open-angle glaucoma.

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    Di Staso, Silvio; Agnifili, Luca; Di Staso, Federico; Climastone, Hilary; Ciancaglini, Marco; Scuderi, Gian Luca

    2018-03-01

    This study was performed to test the diagnostic capability of the minimum rim width compared to peripapillary retinal nerve fiber layer thickness in patients with glaucoma. A case control, observer masked study, was conducted. Minimum rim width and retinal nerve fiber layer thickness were assessed using the patient-specific axis traced between fovea-to-Bruch's membrane opening center axis. For both minimum rim width and retinal nerve fiber layer thickness, the regionalization in six sectors (nasal, superior-nasal, superior-temporal, temporal, inferior-temporal, and inferior-nasal) was analyzed. Eyes with at least one sector with value below the 5% or 1% normative limit of the optical coherence tomography normative database were classified as glaucomatous. The area under the receiver operator characteristic curve, the accuracy, sensitivity, specificity, and predictive positive and negative values were calculated for both minimum rim width and retinal nerve fiber layer thickness. A total of 118 eyes of 118 Caucasian subjects (80 eyes with open-angle glaucoma and 38 control eyes) were enrolled in the study. Accuracy, sensitivity, and specificity were 79.7%, 77.5%, and 84.2%, respectively, for minimum rim width and 84.7%, 82.5%, and 89.5% for retinal nerve fiber layer thickness. The positive predictive values were 0.91% and 0.94% for minimum rim width and retinal nerve fiber layer thickness, respectively, whereas the negative predictive values were 0.64% and 0.70%. The area under the receiver operator characteristic curve was 0.892 for minimum rim width and 0.938 for retinal nerve fiber layer thickness. Our results indicated that the sector analysis based on Bruch's membrane opening and fovea to disk alignment is able to detect glaucomatous defects, and that Bruch's membrane opening minimum rim width and retinal nerve fiber layer thickness showed equivalent diagnostic ability.

  19. Characterization of Abnormal Optic Nerve Head Morphology in Albinism Using Optical Coherence Tomography.

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    Mohammad, Sarim; Gottlob, Irene; Sheth, Viral; Pilat, Anastasia; Lee, Helena; Pollheimer, Ellen; Proudlock, Frank Anthony

    2015-07-01

    To characterize abnormalities in three-dimensional optic nerve head (ONH) morphology in people with albinism (PWA) using spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) and to determine whether ONH abnormalities relate to other retinal and clinical abnormalities. Spectral-domain OCT was used to obtain three-dimensional images from 56 PWA and 60 age- and sex-matched control subjects. B-scans were corrected for nystagmus-associated motion artefacts. Disc, cup, and rim ONH dimensions and peripapillary retinal nerve fiber layer (ppRNFL) thickness were calculated using Copernicus and ImageJ software. Median disc areas were similar in PWA (median = 1.65 mm2) and controls (1.71 mm2, P = 0.128), although discs were significantly elongated horizontally in PWA (P < 0.001). In contrast, median optic cup area in PWA (0.088 mm2) was 23.7% of that in controls (0.373 mm2, P < 0.001), with 39.4% of eyes in PWA not demonstrating a measurable optic cup. This led to significantly smaller cup to disc ratios in PWA (P < 0.001). Median rim volume in PWA (0.273 mm3) was 136.6% of that in controls (0.200 mm3). The ppRNFL was significantly thinner in PWA compared with controls (P < 0.001), especially in the temporal quadrant. In PWA, ppRNFL thickness was correlated to ganglion cell thickness at the central fovea (P = 0.007). Several ONH abnormalities, such as cup to disc ratio, were related to higher refractive errors in PWA. In PWA, ocular maldevelopment is not just limited to the retina but also involves the ONH. Reduced ppRNFL thickness is consistent with previous reports of reduced ganglion cell numbers in PWA. The thicker rim volumes may be a result of incomplete maturation of the ONH.

  20. In Vivo Changes in Lamina Cribrosa Microarchitecture and Optic Nerve Head Structure in Early Experimental Glaucoma.

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    Kevin M Ivers

    Full Text Available The lamina cribrosa likely plays an important role in retinal ganglion cell axon injury in glaucoma. We sought to (1 better understand optic nerve head (ONH structure and anterior lamina cribrosa surface (ALCS microarchitecture between fellow eyes of living, normal non-human primates and (2 characterize the time-course of in vivo structural changes in the ONH, ALCS microarchitecture, and retinal nerve fiber layer thickness (RNFLT in non-human primate eyes with early experimental glaucoma (EG. Spectral domain optical coherence tomography (SDOCT images of the ONH were acquired cross-sectionally in six bilaterally normal rhesus monkeys, and before and approximately every two weeks after inducing unilateral EG in seven rhesus monkeys. ONH parameters and RNFLT were quantified from segmented SDOCT images. Mean ALCS pore area, elongation and nearest neighbor distance (NND were quantified globally, in sectors and regionally from adaptive optics scanning laser ophthalmoscope images. In bilaterally normal monkeys, ONH parameters were similar between fellow eyes with few inter-eye differences in ALCS pore parameters. In EG monkeys, an increase in mean ALCS Depth (ALCSD was the first structural change measured in 6 of 7 EG eyes. A decrease in mean minimum rim width (MRW simultaneously accompanied this early change in 4 of 6 EG eyes and was the first structural change in the 7th EG eye. Mean ALCS pore parameters were among the first or second changes measured in 4 EG eyes. Mean ALCS pore area and NND increased in superotemporal and temporal sectors and in central and peripheral regions at the first time-point of change in ALCS pore geometry. RNFLT and/or mean ALCS radius of curvature were typically the last parameters to initially change. Survival analyses found mean ALCSD was the only parameter to significantly show an initial change prior to the first measured loss in RNFLT across EG eyes.

  1. Characterization of Pax2 expression in the goldfish optic nerve head during retina regeneration.

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    Marta Parrilla

    Full Text Available The Pax2 transcription factor plays a crucial role in axon-guidance and astrocyte differentiation in the optic nerve head (ONH during vertebrate visual system development. However, little is known about its function during regeneration. The fish visual system is in continuous growth and can regenerate. Müller cells and astrocytes of the retina and ONH play an important role in these processes. We demonstrate that pax2a in goldfish is highly conserved and at least two pax2a transcripts are expressed in the optic nerve. Moreover, we show two different astrocyte populations in goldfish: Pax2(+ astrocytes located in the ONH and S100(+ astrocytes distributed throughout the retina and the ONH. After peripheral growth zone (PGZ cryolesion, both Pax2(+ and S100(+ astrocytes have different responses. At 7 days after injury the number of Pax2(+ cells is reduced and coincides with the absence of young axons. In contrast, there is an increase of S100(+ astrocytes in the retina surrounding the ONH and S100(+ processes in the ONH. At 15 days post injury, the PGZ starts to regenerate and the number of S100(+ astrocytes increases in this region. Moreover, the regenerating axons reach the ONH and the pax2a gene expression levels and the number of Pax2(+ cells increase. At the same time, S100(+/GFAP(+/GS(+ astrocytes located in the posterior ONH react strongly. In the course of the regeneration, Müller cell vitreal processes surrounding the ONH are primarily disorganized and later increase in number. During the whole regenerative process we detect a source of Pax2(+/PCNA(+ astrocytes surrounding the posterior ONH. We demonstrate that pax2a expression and the Pax2(+ astrocyte population in the ONH are modified during the PGZ regeneration, suggesting that they could play an important role in this process.

  2. Visual loss and optic nerve head swelling in thiamine deficiency without prolonged dietary deficiency

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    Gratton SM

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Sean M Gratton, Byron L LamBascom Palmer Eye Institute, University of Miami, Miller School of Medicine, Miami, FL, USAAbstract: Visual loss due to optic neuropathy is a rare manifestation of thiamine deficiency. We report a case of a 39-year-old woman with a body mass index (BMI of 29 kg/m2 who developed visual loss and bilateral optic nerve head swelling after a short, self-limited gastrointestinal illness. She was disoriented and inattentive and had absent ankle jerk reflexes, diminished sensation in both legs below the knees, and marked truncal ataxia. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI showed increased T2-signal in the medial thalami and mammillary bodies. The serum thiamine level was 8 nmol/L (normal 8–30. The diagnosis of thiamine deficiency was made, and the patient’s vision and neurologic symptoms improved significantly with intramuscular thiamine treatment. Thiamine deficiency can occur in the absence of an obvious predisposing factor such as alcoholism or low body weight. The clinician must be aware of the factors that govern vitamin availability and maintain a high index of suspicion to make the diagnosis in such cases.Keywords: optic neuropathy, nutritional deficiency

  3. The Connective Tissue Components of Optic Nerve Head Cupping in Monkey Experimental Glaucoma Part 1: Global Change

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    Yang, Hongli; Ren, Ruojin; Lockwood, Howard; Williams, Galen; Libertiaux, Vincent; Downs, Crawford; Gardiner, Stuart K.; Burgoyne, Claude F.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To characterize optic nerve head (ONH) connective tissue change within 21 monkey experimental glaucoma (EG) eyes, so as to identify its principal components. Methods Animals were imaged three to five times at baseline then every 2 weeks following chronic unilateral IOP elevation, and euthanized early through end-stage confocal scanning laser tomographic change. Optic nerve heads were serial-sectioned, three-dimensionally (3D) reconstructed, delineated, and quantified. Overall EG versus control eye differences were assessed by general estimating equations (GEE). Significant, animal-specific, EG eye change was required to exceed the maximum physiologic intereye differences in six healthy animals. Results Overall EG eye change was significant (P connective tissue components of ONH “cupping” in monkey EG which serve as targets for longitudinally staging and phenotyping ONH connective tissue alteration within all forms of monkey and human optic neuropathy. PMID:26641545

  4. Optic nerve head and intraocular pressure in the guinea pig eye.

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    Ostrin, Lisa A; Wildsoet, Christine F

    2016-05-01

    The guinea pig is becoming an increasingly popular model for studying human myopia, which carries an increased risk of glaucoma. As a step towards understanding this association, this study sought to characterize the normal, developmental intraocular pressure (IOP) profiles, as well as the anatomy of the optic nerve head (ONH) and adjacent sclera of young guinea pigs. IOP was tracked in pigmented guinea pigs up to 3 months of age. One guinea pig was imaged in vivo with OCT and one with a fundus camera. The eyes of pigmented and albino guinea pigs (ages 2 months) were enucleated and sections from the posterior segment, including the ONH and surrounding sclera, processed for histological analyses - either hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) staining of paraffin embedded, sectioned tissue (n = 1), or cryostat sectioned tissue, processed for immunohistochemistry (n = 3), using primary antibodies against collagen types I-V, elastin, fibronectin and glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP). Transmission and scanning electron microscopy (TEM, SEM) studies of ONHs were also undertaken (n = 2 & 5 respectively). Mean IOPs ranged from 17.33 to 22.7 mmHg, increasing slightly across the age range studied, and the IOPs of individual animals also exhibited diurnal variations, peaking in the early morning (mean of 25.8, mmHg, ∼9 am), and decreasing across the day. H&E-stained sections showed retinal ganglion cell axons organized into fascicles in the prelaminar and laminar region of the ONHs, with immunostained sections revealing collagen types I, III, IV and V, as well as elastin, GFAP and fibronectin in the ONHs. SEM revealed a well-defined lamina cribrosa (LC), with radially-oriented collagen beams. TEM revealed collagen fibrils surrounding non-myelinated nerve fiber bundles in the LC region, with myelination and decreased collagen posterior to the LC. The adjacent sclera comprised mainly crimped collagen fibers in a crisscross arrangement. Both the sclera and LC were

  5. Significant correlations between optic nerve head microcirculation and visual field defects and nerve fiber layer loss in glaucoma patients with myopic glaucomatous disk

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    Yokoyama Y

    2011-12-01

    .Conclusions: Our study suggests that there is a causal relationship between the thinner RNFLT that led to the MD and reduction in the microcirculation in the optic nerve head.Keywords: glaucoma, visual field defects, optic disk, optic neuropathy, myopia, microcirculation, optic nerve head, retinal nerve fiber layer

  6. Heritability of the morphology of optic nerve head and surrounding structures: The Healthy Twin Study.

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    Jong Chul Han

    Full Text Available Optic nerve head (ONH and surrounding structures such as β-zone peripapillary atrophy (PPA are important structures in glaucomatous pathogenesis. Thus, for understanding genetic components in glaucoma pathogenesis, it is necessary to evaluate the heritability of ONH and surrounding structures. The present study investigated the genetic influences on ONH and surrounding structures such as β-zone PPA and retinal vessels.A total of 1,205 adult twins and their family members (362 monozygotic (MZ twin subjects (181 pairs, 64 dizygotic (DZ twin subjects (32 pairs, and 779 singletons from 261 families, were part of the Korean Healthy Twin Study. ONH parameters including the vertical cup-to-disc ratio, the presence, the area and the location of β-zone PPA and the angular location of retinal vein were measured. The genetic influences on the structures were evaluated using variance-component methods.The intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC values of axial length were highest among the parameters. The ICCs of the area and location of PPA were similar to those of vertical cup-to-disc ratio. However, retinal vessel angular locations showed low ICC values even in MZ twins. After age and sex adjustment, for axial length, vertical cup-to-disc ratio, the presence, area and location of PPA, the estimated narrow-sense heritability was 0.85, 0.48, 0.76, 0.50 and 0.65 in the right eye and 0.84, 0.47, 0.72, 0.46 and 0.72 in the left eye, respectively. The estimated narrow-sense heritability of angular location of the superior and inferior vein was 0.17 and 0.12 in the right eye and 0.13 and 0.05 in the left eye, respectively.ONH and surrounding structures such as vertical cup-to-disc ratio and the presence, the area and the location of β-zone PPA seemed to be determined by the substantial genetic influence, whereas the venous angular location did not.

  7. Evolution of an Astrocytic Hamartoma of the Optic Nerve Head in a Patient with Retinitis Pigmentosa – Photographic Documentation over 2 Years of Follow-Up

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loukianou, Eleni; Kisma, Nacima; Pal, Bishwanathan

    2011-01-01

    Aim To report photographically the evolution of an astrocytic hamartoma of the left optic nerve head over a 2-year follow-up in a patient with retinitis pigmentosa. Methods A 14-year-old boy was seen in the medical retina clinic with a 3-year history of night blindness. Best corrected visual acuity was 6/18 in both eyes. Colour vision was normal in both eyes and confrontation fields showed peripheral constriction. Fundus examination revealed bone spicule pigmentary changes at the retinal mid periphery typical of retinitis pigmentosa and superficial globules at the margins of both optic nerve heads. Electrodiagnostic tests confirmed moderately severe rod cone dystrophy with macular involvement bilaterally. Results Two years later, the ocular examination was unchanged except for the appearance of the optic nerve head lesion in the left eye. There was an increase in the size of the lesion which was diagnosed as an astrocytic hamartoma. Further investigations were recommended to exclude neurofibromatosis and tuberous sclerosis. Conclusion Astrocytic hamartomas of the optic nerve head and optic nerve head drusen have both been described in patients with retinitis pigmentosa. They can be a diagnostic dilemma although drusen are more common (10%). To differentiate these two entities it is very important to document any growth during the follow-up period which is suggestive of astrocytic hamartoma rather than optic disc drusen. PMID:21347192

  8. Evolution of an Astrocytic Hamartoma of the Optic Nerve Head in a Patient with Retinitis Pigmentosa - Photographic Documentation over 2 Years of Follow-Up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loukianou, Eleni; Kisma, Nacima; Pal, Bishwanathan

    2011-02-02

    To report photographically the evolution of an astrocytic hamartoma of the left optic nerve head over a 2-year follow-up in a patient with retinitis pigmentosa. A 14-year-old boy was seen in the medical retina clinic with a 3-year history of night blindness. Best corrected visual acuity was 6/18 in both eyes. Colour vision was normal in both eyes and confrontation fields showed peripheral constriction. Fundus examination revealed bone spicule pigmentary changes at the retinal mid periphery typical of retinitis pigmentosa and superficial globules at the margins of both optic nerve heads. Electrodiagnostic tests confirmed moderately severe rod cone dystrophy with macular involvement bilaterally. Two years later, the ocular examination was unchanged except for the appearance of the optic nerve head lesion in the left eye. There was an increase in the size of the lesion which was diagnosed as an astrocytic hamartoma. Further investigations were recommended to exclude neurofibromatosis and tuberous sclerosis. Astrocytic hamartomas of the optic nerve head and optic nerve head drusen have both been described in patients with retinitis pigmentosa. They can be a diagnostic dilemma although drusen are more common (10%). To differentiate these two entities it is very important to document any growth during the follow-up period which is suggestive of astrocytic hamartoma rather than optic disc drusen.

  9. Evolution of an Astrocytic Hamartoma of the Optic Nerve Head in a Patient with Retinitis Pigmentosa – Photographic Documentation over 2 Years of Follow-Up

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eleni Loukianou

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To report photographically the evolution of an astrocytic hamartoma of the left optic nerve head over a 2-year follow-up in a patient with retinitis pigmentosa. Methods: A 14-year-old boy was seen in the medical retina clinic with a 3-year history of night blindness. Best corrected visual acuity was 6/18 in both eyes. Colour vision was normal in both eyes and confrontation fields showed peripheral constriction. Fundus examination revealed bone spicule pigmentary changes at the retinal mid periphery typical of retinitis pigmentosa and superficial globules at the margins of both optic nerve heads. Electrodiagnostic tests confirmed moderately severe rod cone dystrophy with macular involvement bilaterally. Results: Two years later, the ocular examination was unchanged except for the appearance of the optic nerve head lesion in the left eye. There was an increase in the size of the lesion which was diagnosed as an astrocytic hamartoma. Further investigations were recommended to exclude neurofibromatosis and tuberous sclerosis. Conclusion: Astrocytic hamartomas of the optic nerve head and optic nerve head drusen have both been described in patients with retinitis pigmentosa. They can be a diagnostic dilemma although drusen are more common (10%. To differentiate these two entities it is very important to document any growth during the follow-up period which is suggestive of astrocytic hamartoma rather than optic disc drusen.

  10. Digital versus film stereo-photography for assessment of the optic nerve head in glaucoma and glaucoma suspect patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasanreisoglu, Murat; Priel, Ethan; Naveh, Lili; Lusky, Moshe; Weinberger, Dov; Benjamini, Yoav; Gaton, Dan D

    2013-03-01

    One of the leading methods for optic nerve head assessment in glaucoma remains stereoscopic photography. This study compared conventional film and digital stereoscopy in the quantitative and qualitative assessment of the optic nerve head in glaucoma and glaucoma suspect patients. Fifty patients with glaucoma or suspected glaucoma underwent stereoscopic photography of the optic nerve head with a 35-mm color slide film and a digital camera. Photographs/images were presented in random order to 3 glaucoma specialists for independent analysis using a standardized assessment form. Findings for the following parameters were compared among assessors and between techniques: cup/disc (C/D) ratio, state of the optic rim, presence of peripapillary atrophy and appearance of the retinal nerve fiber layer, blood vessels, and lamina cribrosa. The film-based and image-based diagnoses (glaucoma yes/no) were compared as well. Despite high level of agreement across graders using the same method for the horizontal and vertical C/D ratio, (intraclass correlations 0.80 to 0.83), the agreement across graders was much lower for the other parameters using the same method. Similarly the agreement between the findings of the same grader using either method was high for horizontal and vertical C/D ratio, but low for the other parameters. The latter differences were reflected in the disagreement regarding the final diagnosis: The diagnoses differed by technique for each grader in 18% to 46% of eyes, resulting in 38.5% of eyes diagnosed with glaucoma by film photography that "lost" their diagnosis on the digital images, whereas 18.7% of eyes diagnosed as nonglaucomatous by film photography were considered to have glaucoma on the digital images. Although there is consistency between 35-mm film stereoscopy and digital stereoscopy in determining the cup/disc (C/D) ratio, in all other parameters large differences exist, leading to differences in diagnosis. Differences in capturing images between

  11. Morphology and morphometry of the ulnar head of the pronator teres muscle in relation to median nerve compression at the proximal forearm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurses, I A; Altinel, L; Gayretli, O; Akgul, T; Uzun, I; Dikici, F

    2016-12-01

    The pronator syndrome is a rare compression neuropathy of the median nerve. Ulnar head of the pronator teres muscle may cause compression at proximal forearm. Detailed morphologic and morphometric studies on the anatomy of the ulnar head of pronator teres is scarce. We dissected 112 forearms of fresh cadavers. We evaluated the morphology and morphometry of the ulnar head of pronator teres muscle. The average ulnar head width was 16.3±8.2mm. The median nerve passed anterior to the ulnar head at a distance of 50.4±10.7mm from the interepicondylar line. We classified the morphology of the ulnar head into 5 types. In type 1, the ulnar head was fibromuscular in 60 forearms (53.6%). In type 2, it was muscular in 23 forearms (20.5%). In type 3, it was just a fibrotic band in 18 forearms (16.1%). In type 4, it was absent in 9 forearms (8%). In type 5, the ulnar head had two arches in 2 forearms (1.8%). In 80 forearms (71.5%: types 1, 3, and 5), the ulnar head was either fibromuscular or a fibrotic band. Although the pronator syndrome is a rare compression syndrome, the ulnar head of pronator teres is reported as the major cause of entrapment in the majority of the cases. The location of the compression of the median nerve in relation to the ulnar head of pronator teres muscle and the morphology of the ulnar head is important for open or minimally-invasive surgical treatment. Sectional study. Basic science study. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  12. Spectral Domain Optical Coherence Tomography in Glaucoma: Qualitative and Quantitative Analysis of the Optic Nerve Head and Retinal Nerve Fiber Layer (An AOS Thesis)

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    Chen, Teresa C.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: To demonstrate that video-rate spectral domain optical coherence tomography (SDOCT) can qualitatively and quantitatively evaluate optic nerve head (ONH) and retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) glaucomatous structural changes. To correlate quantitative SDOCT parameters with disc photography and visual fields. Methods: SDOCT images from 4 glaucoma eyes (4 patients) with varying stages of open-angle glaucoma (ie, early, moderate, late) were qualitatively contrasted with 2 age-matched normal eyes (2 patients). Of 61 other consecutive patients recruited in an institutional setting, 53 eyes (33 patients) met inclusion/exclusion criteria for quantitative studies. Images were obtained using two experimental SDOCT systems, one utilizing a superluminescent diode and the other a titanium:sapphire laser source, with axial resolutions of about 6 μm and 3 μm, respectively. Results: Classic glaucomatous ONH and RNFL structural changes were seen in SDOCT images. An SDOCT reference plane 139 μm above the retinal pigment epithelium yielded cup-disc ratios that best correlated with masked physician disc photography cup-disc ratio assessments. The minimum distance band, a novel SDOCT neuroretinal rim parameter, showed good correlation with physician cup-disc ratio assessments, visual field mean deviation, and pattern standard deviation (P values range, .0003–.024). RNFL and retinal thickness maps correlated well with disc photography and visual field testing. Conclusions: To our knowledge, this thesis presents the first comprehensive qualitative and quantitative evaluation of SDOCT images of the ONH and RNFL in glaucoma. This pilot study provides basis for developing more automated quantitative SDOCT-specific glaucoma algorithms needed for future prospective multicenter national trials. PMID:20126502

  13. Optic Nerve Head and Retinal Nerve Fiber Layer Analysis in Ocular Hypertension and Early-Stage Glucoma Using Spectral-Domain Optical Coherence Tomography Copernicus

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    Nilgün Solmaz

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Evaluation of structural alterations of the optic nerve head (ONH and the retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL in patients with ocular hypertension (OHT and early-stage glaucoma and assessment of the discriminatory diagnostic performance of spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT Copernicus (Optopol Technology S.A.. Materials and Methods: This study included 59 eyes of a total of 59 patients, 29 of whom were diagnosed with OHT (Group 1 and 30 with early-stage glaucoma (Group 2. The differentiation of early-stage glaucoma and OHT was carried out on the basis of standard achromatic visual field test results. Analysis of the ONH and RNFL thickness of all cases was made using SD-OCT. Group 1 and Group 2 were compared with respect to the ONH parameters and RNFL thickness. The diagnostic sensitivity of the OCT parameters was evaluated by the area under the receiver operating characteristics curves (AUC. Results: The average, superior, inferior, and nasal RNFL thicknesses in early-stage glaucoma cases were approximately 10% (12-14 µm less compared to the OHT eyes, with differences being highly significant (p≤0.001. However, there was no statistically significant difference in the temporal RNFL thicknesses. The most sensitive parameter in the early diagnosis of glaucoma was average RNFL thickness corresponding to AUC: 0.852, followed by AUC: 0.816 and AUC: 0.773 values in superior and inferior RNFL thickness, respectively. In localized RNFL defects, the highest sensitivity corresponded to superior and superonasal quadrants (ACU: 0.805 and ACU: 0.781, respectively. There were not any statistically significant differences between the ONH morphological parameters of the two groups. Conclusion: RNFL analysis obtained using SD-OCT Copernicus is able to discriminate early-stage glaucoma eyes from those with OHT. However, ONH morphological parameters do not have the same diagnostic sensitivity. Turk J Ophthalmol 2014; 44: 35-41

  14. Effect of photorefractive keratectomy on optic nerve head topography and retinal nerve fiber layer thickness measured by heidelberg retina tomograph 3

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    Naveed Nilforushan

    2016-01-01

    Conclusion: PRK can affect some HRT3 parameters. Although the most important stereometric parameters for differentiating normal, suspect or glaucomatous patients such as rim and cup measurements in stereometric parameters were not changed.

  15. Acute Appendicitis, Somatosensory Disturbances ("Head Zones"), and the Differential Diagnosis of Anterior Cutaneous Nerve Entrapment Syndrome (ACNES).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roumen, Rudi M H; Vening, Wouter; Wouda, Rosanne; Scheltinga, Marc M

    2017-06-01

    Anterior cutaneous nerve entrapment syndrome (ACNES) is a neuropathic abdominal wall pain syndrome typically characterized by locally altered skin sensations. On the other hand, visceral disease may also be associated with similar painful and altered skin sensations ("Head zones"). Aim of the study was to determine if patients with acute appendicitis demonstrated somatosensory disturbances in the corresponding right lower quadrant Head zone. The presence of somatosensory disturbances such as hyperalgesia, hypoesthesia, altered cool perception, or positive pinch test was determined in 100 patients before and after an appendectomy. Potential associations between altered skin sensations and various items including age, sex, history, body temperature, C-reactive protein (CRP), leukocyte count, and type of appendicopathy (normal, inflamed, necrotic, or perforated) were assessed. A total of 39 patients demonstrated at least one right lower abdominal quadrant skin somatosensory disturbance before the laparoscopic appendectomy. However, locoregional skin sensation normalized in all but 2 patients 2 weeks postoperatively. No differences were found concerning patient characteristics or type of appendicopathy between populations with or without altered lower abdominal skin sensations. A substantial portion of patients with acute appendicitis demonstrate right lower abdominal somatosensory disturbances that are similar as observed in acute ACNES. Both may be different sides of the same coin and are possibly expressions of segmental phenomena as described by Head. McBurney's point, a landmark area of maximum pain in acute appendicitis, is possibly a trigger point within a Head zone. Differentiating acute appendicitis from acute ACNES is extremely difficult, but imaging and observation may aid in the diagnostic process.

  16. Comparison of the Deep Optic Nerve Head Structure between Normal-Tension Glaucoma and Nonarteritic Anterior Ischemic Optic Neuropathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Eun Ji; Choi, Yun Jeong; Kim, Tae-Woo; Hwang, Jeong-Min

    2016-01-01

    To compare the deep optic nerve head (ONH) structure between normal-tension glaucoma (NTG) and nonarteritic anterior ischemic optic neuropathy (NAION) and also in healthy subjects as a control using enhanced depth imaging (EDI) spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT). This prospective cross-sectional study included 21 NAION patients who had been diagnosed as NAION at least 6 months prior to study entry, and 42 NTG patients and 42 healthy controls who were matched with NAION patients in terms of age, intraocular pressure (IOP), and optic disc area. The retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) thickness in the affected sector was also matched between NAION and NTG patients. The ONH was imaged using SD-OCT with the EDI technique. The anterior lamina cribrosa surface depth (LCD) and average prelaminar tissue (PT) thickness were measured in a sector of interest in each eye and compared among the three groups. In the sector-matched comparison, LCD was largest in NTG patients, followed by NAION patients, while PT was thinner in NTG patients than in NAION patients (all P < 0.001). NAION patients had a comparable LCD and a thinner PT relative to normal controls (P = 0.170 and < 0.001, respectively). The deep ONH configuration is strikingly different between NTG and NAION. The differing features provide comparative insight into the pathophysiology of the two diseases, and may be useful for differential diagnosis.

  17. Comparison of the Deep Optic Nerve Head Structure between Normal-Tension Glaucoma and Nonarteritic Anterior Ischemic Optic Neuropathy.

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    Eun Ji Lee

    Full Text Available To compare the deep optic nerve head (ONH structure between normal-tension glaucoma (NTG and nonarteritic anterior ischemic optic neuropathy (NAION and also in healthy subjects as a control using enhanced depth imaging (EDI spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT.This prospective cross-sectional study included 21 NAION patients who had been diagnosed as NAION at least 6 months prior to study entry, and 42 NTG patients and 42 healthy controls who were matched with NAION patients in terms of age, intraocular pressure (IOP, and optic disc area. The retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL thickness in the affected sector was also matched between NAION and NTG patients. The ONH was imaged using SD-OCT with the EDI technique. The anterior lamina cribrosa surface depth (LCD and average prelaminar tissue (PT thickness were measured in a sector of interest in each eye and compared among the three groups.In the sector-matched comparison, LCD was largest in NTG patients, followed by NAION patients, while PT was thinner in NTG patients than in NAION patients (all P < 0.001. NAION patients had a comparable LCD and a thinner PT relative to normal controls (P = 0.170 and < 0.001, respectively.The deep ONH configuration is strikingly different between NTG and NAION. The differing features provide comparative insight into the pathophysiology of the two diseases, and may be useful for differential diagnosis.

  18. Interocular symmetry of retinal nerve fiber layer and optic nerve head parameters measured by Cirrus high-definition optical coherence tomography in a normal pediatric population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pawar, Neelam; Maheshwari, Devendra; Ravindran, Meenakshi; Ramakrishnan, Renagappa

    2017-10-01

    To determine interocular differences in the retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) and optic nerve head (ONH) parameters in a pediatric population using Cirrus high-definition optical coherence tomography (HD-OCT). Seventy normal Indian children aged 5-17 years presenting to the Pediatric Clinic were included in this observational cross-sectional study. All subjects underwent a comprehensive ophthalmologic examination and an evaluation of the RNFL and ONH by Cirrus HD-OCT. Differences between the right and left eyes were calculated and values were compared by means of a paired t-test. Subjects were also divided into two groups based on age (under or over 10 years of age). Interocular differences in RNFL and ONH parameters together with sex and age variations for these differences were determined. The mean age of studied pediatric population was 11.83 ± 3.3 years (range 5-17). Average RNFL thickness was 94.46 ± 8.7 μm (± SD) (range 77-111). Differences in the average RNFL between right and left eyes were not statistically significant (P = 0.060). Superior quadrant RNFL was thicker in the left eye and temporal quadrant was thicker in the right eye. Among ONH parameters, there were no statistically significant differences in any parameters, except vertical cup-disc (CD) ratio which was significant (P = 0.007). The 2.5%-97.5% limits of asymmetry were 9 μm for average RNFL, 0.14 for average CD ratio, and 0.22 for vertical CD ratio. Mean interocular RNFL thickness differences in superior, superior nasal, and temporal superior quadrants were 10.61 (P sex, while only significant differences with age were observed in 12 clock hour sector analysis, mainly in nasal inferior and inferior quadrant. We report the degree of interocular symmetry of RNFL and ONH parameters measured by Cirrus HD-OCT in a healthy pediatric population. The normal interocular RNFL asymmetry should not exceed 9 μm and vertical CD ratio beyond 0.22 should be considered for further investigations. The

  19. Sox10 Expression in Goldfish Retina and Optic Nerve Head in Controls and after the Application of Two Different Lesion Paradigms.

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    Marta Parrilla

    Full Text Available The mammalian central nervous system (CNS is unable to regenerate. In contrast, the CNS of fish, including the visual system, is able to regenerate after damage. Moreover, the fish visual system grows continuously throughout the life of the animal, and it is therefore an excellent model to analyze processes of myelination and re-myelination after an injury. Here we analyze Sox10+ oligodendrocytes in the goldfish retina and optic nerve in controls and after two kinds of injuries: cryolesion of the peripheral growing zone and crushing of the optic nerve. We also analyze changes in a major component of myelin, myelin basic protein (MBP, as a marker for myelinated axons. Our results show that Sox10+ oligodendrocytes are located in the retinal nerve fiber layer and along the whole length of the optic nerve. MBP was found to occupy a similar location, although its loose appearance in the retina differed from the highly organized MBP+ axon bundles in the optic nerve. After optic nerve crushing, the number of Sox10+ cells decreased in the crushed area and in the optic nerve head. Consistent with this, myelination was highly reduced in both areas. In contrast, after cryolesion we did not find changes in the Sox10+ population, although we did detect some MBP- degenerating areas. We show that these modifications in Sox10+ oligodendrocytes are consistent with their role in oligodendrocyte identity, maintenance and survival, and we propose the optic nerve head as an excellent area for research aimed at better understanding of de- and remyelination processes.

  20. Three-dimensional interactive and stereotactic atlas of head muscles and glands correlated with cranial nerves and surface and sectional neuroanatomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nowinski, Wieslaw L; Chua, Beng Choon; Johnson, Aleksandra; Qian, Guoyu; Poh, Lan Eng; Yi, Su Hnin Wut; Bivi, Aminah; Nowinska, Natalia G

    2013-04-30

    Three-dimensional (3D) relationships between head muscles and cranial nerves innervating them are complicated. Existing sources present these relationships in illustrations, radiologic scans, or autopsy photographs, which are limited for learning and use. Developed electronic atlases are limited in content, quality, functionality, and/or presentation. We create a truly 3D interactive, stereotactic and high quality atlas, which provides spatial relationships among head muscles, glands and cranial nerves, and correlates them to surface and sectional neuroanatomy. The head muscles and glands were created from a 3T scan by contouring them and generating 3D models. They were named and structured according to Terminologia anatomica. The muscles were divided into: extra-ocular, facial, masticatory and other muscles, and glands into mouth and other glands. The muscles, glands (and also head) were placed in a stereotactic coordinate system. This content was integrated with cranial nerves and neuroanatomy created earlier. To explore this complex content, a scalable user interface was designed with 12 modules including central nervous system (cerebrum, cerebellum, brainstem, spinal cord), cranial nerves, muscles, glands, arterial system, venous system, tracts, deep gray nuclei, ventricles, white matter, visual system, head. Anatomy exploration operations include compositing/decompositing, individual/group selection, 3D view-index mapping, 3D labeling, highlighting, distance measuring, 3D brain cutting, and axial/coronal/sagittal triplanar display. To our best knowledge, this is the first truly 3D, stereotactic, interactive, fairly complete atlas of head muscles, and the first attempt to create a 3D stereotactic atlas of glands. Its use ranges from education of students and patients to research to potential clinical applications. Crown Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Optic Nerve Head and Retinal Nerve Fiber Layer Differences Between Caribbean Black and African American Patients as Measured by Spectral Domain OCT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, Rohini; Dhrami-Gavazi, Elona; Al-Aswad, Lama; Ciarleglio, Adam; Cioffi, George A; Blumberg, Dana M

    2015-01-01

    There are well-established differences in optic nerve morphology between patients of African and European descent. Spectral domain optical coherence tomography (OCT) scanning has demonstrated these differences with respect to optic disc area (DA), average cup-disc ratio, cup volume, and nerve fiber layer thickness. However, the term "African descent" describes a heterogenous group with considerable variability. This study evaluates differences in optic nerve and retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) parameters as measured by Cirrus HD-OCT between Caribbean black and African American patients. A total of 25 African American subjects and 25 Caribbean black subjects with normal ocular examinations were consecutively recruited to this study. All patients received imaging of the optic nerve and nerve fiber layer with Cirrus HD-OCT. Optic nerve and RNFL parameters were evaluated for statistically significant differences using a t test. A mixed effect model for correlated data was then created to adjust outcome variables for (1) repeated measures and (2) optic nerve size. Two one-sided t tests were then utilized to determine equivalence. After adjustment for DA, RNFL thickness, cup volume, DA, inferior nerve fiber layer, and vertical cup-disc ratio demonstrated statistically significant equivalence between the 2 groups (P value fiber layer quadrant was significantly different between the 2 groups and may merit further investigation. Findings of this study suggest that optic nerve and RNFL morphology is markedly similar between Caribbean blacks and African Americans once adjusted for optic nerve size but cannot be considered equivalent in all measures, particularly in the superior nerve fiber layer.

  2. Anterior Interosseous Nerve Neuropraxia Secondary to Shoulder Arthroscopy and Open Subpectoral Long Head Biceps Tenodesis

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    Jeremiah T. Steed

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Arthroscopic rotator cuff tendon repair is a common elective procedure performed by trained orthopaedic surgeons with a relatively low complication rate. Specifically, isolated neuropraxia of the anterior interosseous nerve (AIN is a very rare complication of shoulder arthroscopy. An analysis of peer-reviewed published literature revealed only three articles reporting a total of seven cases that describe this specific complication following standard shoulder arthroscopic procedures. This article reports on three patients diagnosed with AIN neuropraxia following routine shoulder arthroscopy done by a single surgeon within a three-year period. All three patients also underwent open biceps tenodesis immediately following completion of the arthroscopic procedures. The exact causal mechanism of AIN neuropraxia following shoulder arthroscopy with biceps tenodesis is not known. This case report reviews possible mechanisms with emphasis on specific factors that make a traction injury the most likely etiology in these cases. We critically analyze our operating room setup and patient positioning practices in light of the existing biomechanical and cadaveric research to propose changes to our standard practices that may help to reduce the incidence of this specific postoperative complication in patients undergoing elective shoulder arthroscopy with biceps tenodesis.

  3. Effect of relative head position on the anesthetic efficacy of inferior alveolar nerve block during endodontic treatment of patients with irreversible pulpitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aggarwal, Vivek; Singla, Mamta; Miglani, Sanjay

    2018-02-01

    The purpose of this prospective randomized single-blind clinical trial was to evaluate the effect of tilting the head on the anesthetic efficacy of inferior alveolar nerve block (IANB) in patients with symptomatic irreversible pulpitis. Ninety-two patients were divided into two groups: the first group received IANB and the head was tilted in the direction of the block for 15 min, whereas the second group received IANB and the head was tilted to the opposite side. Access cavity preparation was initiated after 15 min. Success was defined as no pain or faint/weak/mild pain during endodontic access preparation and instrumentation. The anesthetic success rates were analyzed by Pearson chi-square test at 5% significance levels. The same side position and opposite side position yielded 41% and 30% anesthetic success rates, respectively; there was no significant difference between the two sides. Relative head position has no effect on the anesthetic success rate of IANB.

  4. Penetrating gunshot wound to the head: transotic approach to remove the bullet and masseteric-facial nerve anastomosis for early facial reanimation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donnarumma, Pasquale; Tarantino, Roberto; Gennaro, Paolo; Mitro, Valeria; Valentini, Valentino; Magliulo, Giuseppe; Delfini, Roberto

    2014-01-01

    Gunshot wounds to the head (GSWH) account for the majority of penetrating brain injuries, and are the most lethal. Since they are rare in Europe, the number of neurosurgeons who have experienced this type of traumatic injury is decreasing, and fewer cases are reported in the literature. We describe a case of gunshot to the temporal bone in which the bullet penetrated the skull resulting in the facial nerve paralysis. It was excised with the transotic approach. Microsurgical anastomosis among the masseteric nerve and the facial nerve was performed. GSWH are often devastating. The in-hospital mortality for civilians with penetrating craniocerebral injury is very high. Survivors often have high rate of complications. When facial paralysis is present, masseteric-facial direct neurorraphy represent a good treatment.

  5. The Quantitative Measurements of Vascular Density and Flow Area of Optic Nerve Head Using Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bazvand, Fatemeh; Mirshahi, Reza; Fadakar, Kaveh; Faghihi, Houshangh; Sabour, Siamak; Ghassemi, Fariba

    2017-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the vascular density (VD) and the flow area on optic nerve head (ONH) and peripapillary area, and the impact of age and sex using optical coherence tomography angiography (OCTA) in healthy human subjects. Both eyes of each volunteer were scanned by an RTVue XR Avanti; Optovue with OCTA using the split-spectrum amplitude-decorrelation angiography algorithm technique. Masked graders evaluated enface angiodisc OCTA data. The flow area of ONH and the VD were automatically calculated. A total of 79 eyes of patients with a mean age of 37.03±11.27 were examined. The total ONH (papillary and peripapillary) area VD was 56.03%±4.55%. The flow area of the ONH was 1.74±0.10 mm/1.34 mm. The temporal and inferotemporal peripapillary VD was different between male and female patients. Increasing age causes some changes in the flow area of the ONH and the papillary VD from the third to the fourth decade (analysis of variance test; P<0.05). A normal quantitative database of the flow area and VD of the papillary and peripapillary area, obtained by RTVue XR with OCT angiography technique, is presented here.

  6. 3-D segmentation of retinal blood vessels in spectral-domain OCT volumes of the optic nerve head

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kyungmoo; Abràmoff, Michael D.; Niemeijer, Meindert; Garvin, Mona K.; Sonka, Milan

    2010-03-01

    Segmentation of retinal blood vessels can provide important information for detecting and tracking retinal vascular diseases including diabetic retinopathy, arterial hypertension, arteriosclerosis and retinopathy of prematurity (ROP). Many studies on 2-D segmentation of retinal blood vessels from a variety of medical images have been performed. However, 3-D segmentation of retinal blood vessels from spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (OCT) volumes, which is capable of providing geometrically accurate vessel models, to the best of our knowledge, has not been previously studied. The purpose of this study is to develop and evaluate a method that can automatically detect 3-D retinal blood vessels from spectral-domain OCT scans centered on the optic nerve head (ONH). The proposed method utilized a fast multiscale 3-D graph search to segment retinal surfaces as well as a triangular mesh-based 3-D graph search to detect retinal blood vessels. An experiment on 30 ONH-centered OCT scans (15 right eye scans and 15 left eye scans) from 15 subjects was performed, and the mean unsigned error in 3-D of the computer segmentations compared with the independent standard obtained from a retinal specialist was 3.4 +/- 2.5 voxels (0.10 +/- 0.07 mm).

  7. Quantitative analysis of three-dimensional fibrillar collagen microstructure within the normal, aged and glaucomatous human optic nerve head.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, H J; Girard, M J; White, N; Fautsch, M P; Morgan, J E; Ethier, C R; Albon, J

    2015-05-06

    The aim of this study was to quantify connective tissue fibre orientation and alignment in young, old and glaucomatous human optic nerve heads (ONH) to understand ONH microstructure and predisposition to glaucomatous optic neuropathy. Transverse (seven healthy, three glaucomatous) and longitudinal (14 healthy) human ONH cryosections were imaged by both second harmonic generation microscopy and small angle light scattering (SALS) in order to quantify preferred fibre orientation (PFO) and degree of fibre alignment (DOFA). DOFA was highest within the peripapillary sclera (ppsclera), with relatively low values in the lamina cribrosa (LC). Elderly ppsclera DOFA was higher than that in young ppsclera (p < 0.00007), and generally higher than in glaucoma ppsclera. In all LCs, a majority of fibres had preferential orientation horizontally across the nasal-temporal axis. In all glaucomatous LCs, PFO was significantly different from controls in a minimum of seven out of 12 LC regions (p < 0.05). Additionally, higher fibre alignment was observed in the glaucomatous inferior-temporal LC (p < 0.017). The differences between young and elderly ONH fibre alignment within regions suggest that age-related microstructural changes occur within the structure. The additional differences in fibre alignment observed within the glaucomatous LC may reflect an inherent susceptibility to glaucomatous optic neuropathy, or may be a consequence of ONH remodelling and/or collapse.

  8. Gene expression and functional studies of the optic nerve head astrocyte transcriptome from normal African Americans and Caucasian Americans donors.

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    Haixi Miao

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available To determine whether optic nerve head (ONH astrocytes, a key cellular component of glaucomatous neuropathy, exhibit differential gene expression in primary cultures of astrocytes from normal African American (AA donors compared to astrocytes from normal Caucasian American (CA donors.We used oligonucleotide Affymetrix microarray (HG U133A & HG U133A 2.0 chips to compare gene expression levels in cultured ONH astrocytes from twelve CA and twelve AA normal age matched donor eyes. Chips were normalized with Robust Microarray Analysis (RMA in R using Bioconductor. Significant differential gene expression levels were detected using mixed effects modeling and Statistical Analysis of Microarray (SAM. Functional analysis and Gene Ontology were used to classify differentially expressed genes. Differential gene expression was validated by quantitative real time RT-PCR. Protein levels were detected by Western blots and ELISA. Cell adhesion and migration assays tested physiological responses. Glutathione (GSH assay detected levels of intracellular GSH.Multiple analyses selected 87 genes differentially expressed between normal AA and CA (P<0.01. The most relevant genes expressed in AA were categorized by function, including: signal transduction, response to stress, ECM genes, migration and cell adhesion.These data show that normal astrocytes from AA and CA normal donors display distinct expression profiles that impact astrocyte functions in the ONH. Our data suggests that differences in gene expression in ONH astrocytes may be specific to the development and/or progression of glaucoma in AA.

  9. Comparison of Optic Nerve Head Blood Flow Autoregulation among Quadrants Induced by Decreased Ocular Perfusion Pressure during Vitrectomy

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    Ryuya Hashimoto

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. The present study aimed to examine changes in optic nerve head (ONH blood flow autoregulation in 4 quadrants (superior, nasal, inferior, and temporal with decreased ocular perfusion pressure (OPP during vitrectomy in order to determine whether there is a significant difference of autoregulatory capacity in response to OPP decrease at each ONH quadrant. Methods. This study included 24 eyes with an epiretinal membrane or macular hole that underwent vitrectomy at Toho University Sakura Medical Center. Following vitrectomy, the tissue mean blur rate (MBR, which reflects ONH blood flow, was measured. Mean tissue MBRs in the four quadrants were generated automatically in the software analysis report. Measurements were conducted before and 5 and 10 min after intraocular pressure (IOP elevation of approximately 15 mmHg in the subjects without systemic disorders. Results. The baseline tissue MBR of the temporal quadrant was significantly lower than that of the other 3 quadrants (all P<0.05. However, the time courses of tissue MBR in response to OPP decrease were not significantly different among the four quadrants during vitrectomy (P=0.23. Conclusions. There is no significant difference in the autoregulatory capacity of the four ONH quadrants in patients without systemic disorders during vitrectomy.

  10. Spectral domain optical coherence tomography cross-sectional image of optic nerve head during intraocular pressure elevation

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    Ji Young Lee

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To analyze changes of the optic nerve head (ONH and peripapillary region during intraocular pressure (IOP elevation in patients using spectral domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT.METHODS: Both an optic disc 200×200 cube scan and a high-definition 5-line raster scan were obtained from open angle glaucoma patients presented with monocular elevation of IOP (≥30 mm Hg using SD-OCT. Additional baseline characteristics included age, gender, diagnosis, best-corrected visual acuity, refractive error, findings of slit lamp biomicroscopy, findings of dilated stereoscopic examination of the ONH and fundus, IOP, pachymetry findings, and the results of visual field.RESULTS: The 24 patients were selected and divided into two groups:group 1 patients had no history of IOP elevation or glaucoma (n=14, and group 2 patients did have history of IOP elevation or glaucoma (n=10. In each patient, the study eye with elevated IOP was classified into group H (high, and the fellow eye was classified into group L (low. The mean deviation (MD differed significantly between groups H and L when all eyes were considered (P=0.047 and in group 2 (P=0.042, not in group 1 (P=0.893. Retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL average thickness (P=0.050, rim area (P=0.015, vertical cup/disc ratio (P=0.011, cup volume (P=0.028, inferior quadrant RNFL thickness (P=0.017, and clock-hour (1, 5, and 6 RNFL thicknesses (P=0.050, 0.012, and 0.018, respectively, cup depth (P=0.008, central prelaminar layer thickness (P=0.023, mid-inferior prelaminar layer thickness (P=0.023, and nasal retinal slope (P=0.034 were significantly different between the eyes with groups H and L.CONCLUSION:RNFL average thickness, rim area, vertical cup/disc ratio, cup volume, inferior quadrant RNFL thickness, and clock-hour (1, 5, and 6 RNFL thicknesses significantly changed during acute IOP elevation.

  11. Topography Grid

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    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NGDC builds and distributes high-resolution, coastal digital elevation models (DEMs) that integrate ocean bathymetry and land topography to support NOAA's mission to...

  12. Structural changes of the macula and optic nerve head in the remaining eyes after enucleation for retinoblastoma: an optical coherence tomography study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Said, Azza Mohamed Ahmed; Elbayomi, Ahmed Mohamed; Shaat, Ashraf Abdelsalam Kandeel

    2017-12-16

    To describe objectively the possible structural changes of the macula and optic nerve head in the free eyes of unilateral cured retinoblastoma patients and, also after enucleation using spectral domain optical coherence tomography. A cross sectional study involving 60 patients subdivided into three groups; 15 unilateral RB patients in whom enucleation was indicated as a sole treatment performed earlier in life [(study group (I)], 15 unilateral RB patients who had completely regressed disease with a preserved eye [(study group (II)] and 30 age and sex matched healthy controls. The remaining and free eyes in study groups and right eyes of control group had full ophthalmological examination, static automated perimetry and optical coherence tomography of the macula and optic nerve head. In study group (II); a significant thinning of total macula, central fovea, ganglion cell layer (GCL), ganglion cell complex (GCC), and some sectors of outer nuclear layer (P- values ≤0.05) was found with no significant difference in peripapillary nerve fiber layer (pRNFL) thickness and optic nerve head parameters compared to the control group and the study group (I). A significantly thickened total macula, GCL, GCC, and pRNFL in study group (I) compared to study group (II). Thickened pRNFL was significantly correlated to standard automated perimetry pattern deviations. No significant difference was found between study group (I) and control group. Retinoblastoma eyes characterized by thinning of central fovea, GCL, GCC compared to the control group. After unilateral enucleation, increased GCC and pRNFL thicknesses were detected compared to retinoblastoma group.

  13. Scalp Nerve Block pada Kraniotomi Evakuasi Pasien Moderate Head Injury dengan Subdural Hemorrhage dan Intracerebral Hemorrhage Frontotemporoparietal Dekstra Mencegah Stress Response Selama dan Pascabedah

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariko Gunadi

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Skin incision and craniotomy are recognized as an acute noxious stimulation during intracranial surgery which may result in stress response causing an increase in intracranial pressure. Scalp nerve block may be effective in reducing stress response. It can also be used to provide post-operative analgesia. A twenty two years old male with moderate head injury, subdural hemorrhage, intracerebral hemorrhage at right fronto-temporo-parietal region underwent evacuation craniotomy with combined scalp nerve block and general anesthesia at Dr. Hasan General Sadikin Hospital Bandung on August 14th 2012. After induction and before incision of the skin, a scalp nerve block was performed using 0.5% bupivacaine. Hemodynamic (blood pressure and heart rate changes after incision of the skin and craniotomy were not significant, and so was post-operative blood glucose concentration. Post-operative analgetic was given eight hours after the block. The result demonstrates that scalp nerve block using 0.5% bupivacaine successfully blunts stress response and can be used as post-operative analgesia.

  14. 3 Tesla MRI of patients with a vagus nerve stimulator: initial experience using a T/R head coil under controlled conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorny, Krzysztof R; Bernstein, Matt A; Watson, Robert E

    2010-02-01

    To assess safety of clinical MRI of the head in patients with implanted model 100, 102, and 103 vagus nerve stimulation (VNS) Therapy Systems (Cyberonics, Inc., Houston, TX) in 3.0 Tesla MRI (GE Healthcare, Milwaukee, WI). The distributions of the radiofrequency B(1) (+)-field produced by the clinically used transmit/receive (T/R) head coil (Advanced Imaging Research Incorporated, Cleveland, OH) and body coil were measured in a head and shoulders phantom. These measurements were supplemented by temperature measurements on the lead tips and the implantable pulse generator (IPG) of the VNS devices in a head and torso phantom with the same two coils. Clinical 3T MRI head scans were then acquired under highly controlled conditions in a series of 17 patients implanted with VNS. Phantom studies showed only weak B(1) (+) fields at the location of the VNS IPG and leads for MRI scans using the T/R head coil. The MRI-related heating on a VNS scanned in vitro at 3T was also found to be minimal (0.4-0.8 degrees C at the leads, negligible at the IPG). The patient MRI examinations were completed successfully without any adverse incidents. No patient reported any heating, discomfort, or any other unusual sensation. Safe clinical MRI head scanning of patients with implanted VNS is shown to be feasible on a GE Signa Excite 3T MRI system using one specific T/R head coil. These results apply to this particular MRI system configuration. Extrapolation or generalization of these results to more general or less controlled imaging situations without supporting data of safety is highly discouraged.

  15. Brain function measurement using optical topography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koizumi, Hideaki; Maki, Atsushi; Yamamoto, Tsuyoshi; Kawaguchi, Hideo

    2003-01-01

    Optical topography is a completely non-invasive method to image the high brain function with the near infrared spectroscopy, does not need the restriction of human behavior for imaging and thereby is applicable even for infants. The principle is based on irradiation of the near infrared laser beam with the optical-fiber onto the head surface and detection with the fiber of the reflection, of which spectroscopy for blood-borne hemoglobin gives the local cerebral homodynamics related with the nerve activity. The infrared laser beam of 1-10 mW is found safe on direct irradiation to the human body. The topography is applicable in the fields of clinical medicine like internal neurology (an actual image of the activated Broca's and Welnicke's areas at writing is presented), neurosurgery, psychiatry and pedriatric neurology, of developmental cognitive neuroscience, of educational science and of communication. ''MIT Technology Reviews'' mentions that this technique is one of 4 recent promising innovative techniques in the world. (N.I.)

  16. Movement of retinal vessels toward the optic nerve head after increasing intraocular pressure in monkey eyes with experimental glaucoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuroda, Atsumi; Enomoto, Nobuko; Ishida, Kyoko; Shimazawa, Masamitsu; Noguchi, Tetsuro; Horai, Naoto; Onoe, Hirotaka; Hara, Hideaki; Tomita, Goji

    2017-09-01

    A shift or displacement of the retinal blood vessels (RBVs) with neuroretinal rim thinning indicates the progression of glaucomatous optic neuropathy. In chronic open angle glaucoma, individuals with RBV positional shifts exhibit more rapid visual field loss than those without RBV shifts. The retinal vessels reportedly move onto the optic nerve head (ONH) in response to glaucoma damage, suggesting that RBVs are pulled toward the ONH in response to increased cupping. Whether this phenomenon only applies to RVBs located in the vicinity or inside the ONH or, more generally, to RBVs also located far from the ONH, however, is unclear. The aim of this study was to evaluate the movement of RBVs located relatively far from the ONH edge after increasing intraocular pressure (IOP) in an experimental monkey model of glaucoma. Fundus photographs were obtained in 17 monkeys. High IOP was induced in the monkeys by laser photocoagulation burns applied uniformly with 360° irradiation around the trabecular meshwork of the left eye. The right eye was left intact and used as a non-treated control. Considering the circadian rhythm of IOP, it was measured in both eyes of each animal at around the same time-points. Then, fundus photographs were obtained. Using Image J image analysis software, an examiner (N.E.) measured the fundus photographs at two time-points, i.e. before laser treatment (time 1) and the last fundus photography after IOP elevation (time 2). The following parameters were measured (in pixels): 1) vertical diameter of the ONH (DD), 2) distance from the ONH edge to the first bifurcation point of the superior branch of the central retinal vein (UV), 3) distance from the ONH edge to the first bifurcation point of the inferior branch of the central retinal vein (LV), 4) ONH area, and 5) surface area of the cup of the ONH. We calculated the ratios of UV to DD (UV/DD), LV to DD (LV/DD), and the cup area to disc area ratio (C/D). The mean UV/DD at time 1 (0.656 ± 0.233) was

  17. Comparison of optic area measurement using fundus photography and optical coherence tomography between optic nerve head drusen and control subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flores-Rodríguez, Patricia; Gili, Pablo; Martín-Ríos, María Dolores; Grifol-Clar, Eulalia

    2013-03-01

    To compare optic disc area measurement between optic nerve head drusen (ONHD) and control subjects using fundus photography, time-domain optical coherence tomography (TD-OCT) and spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT). We also made a comparison between each of the three techniques. We performed our study on 66 eyes (66 patients) with ONHD and 70 healthy control subjects (70 controls) with colour ocular fundus photography at 20º (Zeiss FF 450 IR plus), TD-OCT (Stratus OCT) with the Fast Optic Disc protocol and SD-OCT (Cirrus OCT) with the Optic Disc Cube 200 × 200 protocol for measurement of the optic disc area. The measurements were made by two observers and in each measurement a correction of the image magnification factor was performed. Measurement comparison using the Student's t-test/Mann-Whitney U test, the intraclass correlation coefficient, Pearson/Spearman rank correlation coefficient and the Bland-Altman plot was performed in the statistical analysis. Mean and standard deviation (SD) of the optic disc area in ONHD and in controls was 2.38 (0.54) mm(2) and 2.54 (0.42) mm(2), respectively with fundus photography; 2.01 (0.56) mm(2) and 1.66 (0.37) mm(2), respectively with TD-OCT, and 2.03 (0.49) mm(2) and 1.75 (0.38) mm(2), respectively with SD-OCT. In ONHD and controls, repeatability of optic disc area measurement was excellent with fundus photography and optical coherence tomography (TD-OCT and SD-OCT), but with a low degree of agreement between both techniques. Optic disc area measurement is smaller in ONHD compared to healthy subjects with fundus photography, unlike time-domain and spectral-domain optical coherence tomography in which the reverse is true. Both techniques offer good repeatability, but a low degree of correlation and agreement, which means that optic disc area measurement is not interchangeable or comparable between techniques. Ophthalmic & Physiological Optics © 2013 The College of Optometrists.

  18. Effects of high-intensity interval training on optic nerve head and macular perfusion using optical coherence tomography angiography in healthy adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitz, Boris; Nelis, Pieter; Rolfes, Florian; Alnawaiseh, Maged; Klose, Andreas; Krüger, Michael; Eter, Nicole; Brand, Stefan-Martin; Alten, Florian

    2018-07-01

    High-intensity interval training (HIIT) has been identified to be efficient for increasing health-related fitness in general and in lifestyle-induced chronic diseases such as hypertension, obesity and metabolic syndrome. This study aimed to evaluate HIIT effects on optic nerve head (ONH) and macular perfusion in healthy adults using optical coherence tomography angiography (OCTA). Fifty-eight healthy participants (22.0 ± 2.02 years, 40 females (69.0%)) performed a 4-week HIIT with two exercise sessions/week: Group 1, 4 × 30 HIIT, running at maximal speed (all-out) for 4 × 30 s with 30 s active recovery, Group 2, 8 × 15 HIIT, running at maximal speed (all-out) for 8 × 15 s with 15 s active recovery. OCTA of the ONH and the macula was performed at baseline and follow-up to detect changes of the foveal avascular zone (FAZ). Flow density was evaluated in the superficial and deep plexus of the central macula, in the radial peripapillary capillary layer, the nerve head layer of the disc region and of the peripapillary region. The mean deep FAZ area and flow density of the superficial layer decreased by 14.00 ± 13.02% and 1.26 ± 3.20%, respectively, in response to overall HIIT (pre vs. post p HIIT may be performed to induce changes in ophthalmic measures such as FAZ and nerve head perfusion. OCTA imaging of the central retina and the ONH could represent a sensitive tool for the early detection of systemic vascular changes. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. TOPOGRAFÍA INTRANEURAL DE LA RAMA PROFUNDA DEL NERVIO ULNAR EN EL ANTEBRAZO DISTAL: ESTUDIO CADAVÉRICO. Intraneural topography of the deep branch of the ulnar nerve in the distal forearm: cadaveric study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joaquín García Pisón

    2016-07-01

    the deep branch of the ulnar nerve was performed under magnification (Olympus OME, 4-20x and its intraneural position was registered using a quadrants scheme. Distance from pisiform to the origin of the dorsal cutaneous branch of the ulnar nerve (DCB was measured and its intraneural position relative to DBUN was identified. Results: The DBUN could be identified up to 69mm (41-94 proximal to the pisiform and occupied the posteromedial quadrant of the ulnar nerve in 78% (67-87, 93% (92-93 and 100% of the cases in the 0-2, 3-6 and 7-9cm ranges, respectively. Distance from pisiform to the origin of the DCB was 63mm (52-83. The DBUN could be identified proximal to the origin of the DCB in 11 forearms, being located between the latter and the superficial branch of the ulnar nerve in all this cases.  Conclusions: Intraneural topography of the DBUN in the most appropriate site for its identification during its anastomosis to the PQN is predictable in the majority of cases, which supports the viability of safe identification of the de DBUN by means of minimal intraneural dissection.

  20. Acupuncture therapy to the head and face to treat post-trauma paralysis of peripheral fascial nerve dextra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mihardja, H.; Meuratana, PA; Ibrahim, A.

    2017-08-01

    Damage to the facial nerve due to trauma from traffic accidents is the second most common cause of paralysis of the facial nerve. The treatments include both pharmacological and non-pharmacological therapy. Acupuncture is a method of treatment that applies evidence-based medical principles and uses anatomy, physiology, and pathology to place needles atcertain acupuncture points. This paper describes a 26-year-old female patient with right-side facial palsy following a traffic accident who had animproved Brackmann’s score after 12 sessions of acupuncture treatment. The acupuncture points were chosen based on Liu Yan’sbrain-clearing needling technique. Acupuncture can shorten healing time and improve the effect of treatment for facial-nerve paralysis.

  1. Clinical validation and applications for CT-based atlas for contouring the lower cranial nerves for head and neck cancer radiation therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mourad, Waleed F; Young, Brett M; Young, Rebekah; Blakaj, Dukagjin M; Ohri, Nitin; Shourbaji, Rania A; Manolidis, Spiros; Gámez, Mauricio; Kumar, Mahesh; Khorsandi, Azita; Khan, Majid A; Shasha, Daniel; Blakaj, Adriana; Glanzman, Jonathan; Garg, Madhur K; Hu, Kenneth S; Kalnicki, Shalom; Harrison, Louis B

    2013-09-01

    Radiation induced cranial nerve palsy (RICNP) involving the lower cranial nerves (CNs) is a serious complication of head and neck radiotherapy (RT). Recommendations for delineating the lower CNs on RT planning studies do not exist. The aim of the current study is to develop a standardized methodology for contouring CNs IX-XII, which would help in establishing RT limiting doses for organs at risk (OAR). Using anatomic texts, radiologic data, and guidance from experts in head and neck anatomy, we developed step-by-step instructions for delineating CNs IX-XII on computed tomography (CT) imaging. These structures were then contoured on five consecutive patients who underwent definitive RT for locally-advanced head and neck cancer (LAHNC). RT doses delivered to the lower CNs were calculated. We successfully developed a contouring atlas for CNs IX-XII. The median total dose to the planning target volume (PTV) was 70Gy (range: 66-70Gy). The median CN (IX-XI) and (XII) volumes were 10c.c (range: 8-12c.c) and 8c.c (range: 7-10c.c), respectively. The median V50, V60, V66, and V70 of the CN (IX-XI) and (XII) volumes were (85, 77, 71, 65) and (88, 80, 74, 64) respectively. The median maximal dose to the CN (IX-XI) and (XII) were 72Gy (range: 66-77) and 71Gy (range: 64-78), respectively. We have generated simple instructions for delineating the lower CNs on RT planning imaging. Further analyses to explore the relationship between lower CN dosing and the risk of RICNP are recommended in order to establish limiting doses for these OARs. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  2. Size of the Optic Nerve Head and Its Relationship with the Thickness of the Macular Ganglion Cell Complex and Peripapillary Retinal Nerve Fiber Layer in Patients with Primary Open Angle Glaucoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nobuko Enomoto

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To evaluate the relationships among the optic nerve head (ONH area, macular ganglion cell complex (mGCC thickness, circumpapillary retinal nerve fiber layer (cpRNFL thickness, and visual field defects in patients with primary open angle glaucoma (POAG. Methods. This retrospective study included 90 eyes of 90 patients with POAG. The ONH area, rim area, mGCC thickness, and cpRNFL thickness were measured using optical coherence tomography. Mean deviation (MD was measured using standard automated perimetry. The relationships among clinical factors including age, refraction, the ONH area, the rim area, the mGCC thickness, the cpRNFL thickness, and MD were evaluated using correlation coefficients and multiple regression analyses. Results. The significant correlation of the ONH area with refraction (r=0.362, P<0.001, the mGCC thickness (r=0.225, P=0.033, and the cpRNFL thickness (r=0.253, P=0.016 was found. Multiple regression analysis showed that the ONH area, rim area, and MD were selected as significant contributing factors to explain the mGCC thickness and cpRNFL thickness. No factor was selected to explain MD. Conclusions. The ONH area, in other words, the disc size itself may affect the mGCC thickness and cpRNFL thickness in POAG patients.

  3. Head-down posture in glaucoma suspects induces changes in IOP, systemic pressure and PERG that predict future loss of optic nerve tissue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porciatti, Vittorio; Feuer, William J.; Monsalve, Pedro; Triolo, Giacinto; Vazquez, Luis; McSoley, John; Ventura, Lori M.

    2017-01-01

    Purpose To obtain pilot data on posture-induced changes of IOP, systemic pressure and pattern electroretinogram (PERG) predictive of future optic nerve tissue loss glaucoma suspects (GS). Methods Mean peripapillary retinal fiber layer thickness (RNFLT) was measured with OCT two times/year in 28 GS aged 58 ± 8.9 years over 5.0 ± 0.73 years. All patients had a baseline PERG, IOP and brachial blood pressure measurements in the seated and – 10 degrees head-down-body-tilt position (HDT). Outcome measures were seated/HDT PERG amplitude and phase, IOP, mean arterial blood pressure (MAP), and estimated ocular perfusion pressure (OPP). An additional group of 11 similarly-aged controls (SAC) aged 56.9 ± 13 years was tested for comparison. Results While all GS had initial RNFLT in the normal range, 9/28 of them developed significant (P blood pressure, together with their changes upon HDT, may have predictive value for future loss of optic nerve tissue in GS. This study supports the rationale for a full-scale clinical trial to identify patients at high-risk of development of glaucoma. PMID:28263259

  4. Optic nerve oxygen tension

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    la Cour, M; Kiilgaard, Jens Folke; Eysteinsson, T

    2000-01-01

    To investigate the influence of acute changes in intraocular pressure on the oxygen tension in the vicinity of the optic nerve head under control conditions and after intravenous administration of 500 mg of the carbonic anhydrase inhibitor dorzolamide.......To investigate the influence of acute changes in intraocular pressure on the oxygen tension in the vicinity of the optic nerve head under control conditions and after intravenous administration of 500 mg of the carbonic anhydrase inhibitor dorzolamide....

  5. Nerve Blocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... News Physician Resources Professions Site Index A-Z Nerve Blocks A nerve block is an injection to ... the limitations of Nerve Block? What is a Nerve Block? A nerve block is an anesthetic and/ ...

  6. Anatomy of the trigeminal nerve

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Eijden, T.M.G.J.; Langenbach, G.E.J.; Baart, J.A.; Brand, H.S.

    2017-01-01

    The trigeminal nerve is the fifth cranial nerve (n. V), which plays an important role in the innervation of the head and neck area, together with other cranial and spinal nerves. Knowledge of the nerve’s anatomy is very important for the correct application of local anaesthetics.

  7. The influence of positive margins and nerve invasion in adenoid cystic carcinoma of the head and neck treated with surgery and radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garden, Adam S.; Weber, Randal S.; Morrison, William H.; Ang, K. Kian; Peters, Lester J.

    1995-01-01

    Purpose: Surgery is the primary treatment for adenoid cystic carcinomas arising from major and minor salivary glands of the head and neck. However, local recurrence is frequent because of the infiltrative growth pattern and perineural spread associated with these tumors. At UTMDACC, we have had a long-standing policy of using postoperative radiotherapy to reduce the risk of local recurrence and to avoid the need for radical surgery; this 30-year retrospective study analyzes the results of this combined modality approach. Methods and Materials: Between 1962 and 1991, 198 patients ages 13-82 years, with adenoid cystic carcinomas of the head and neck, received postoperative radiotherapy for known or suspected microscopic residual disease following surgery. Distribution of primary sites was: parotid: 30 patients; submandibular/sublingual: 41 patients; lacrimal: 5 patients; and minor salivary glands: 122 patients. Eighty-three patients (42%) had microscopic positive margins and an additional 55 (28%) had close (≤5 mm) or uncertain margins. One hundred thirty-six patients (69%) had perineural spread with invasion of a major (named) nerve in 55 patients (28%). Using radiation techniques appropriate to the primary site, a median dose of 60 Gy (range 50-69 Gy) was delivered to the tumor bed. Follow-up ranged from 5-341 months (median, 93 months). All surviving patients had a minimum of 2 years follow-up. Results: Twenty-three patients (12%) had local recurrences with 5-, 10-, and 15-year actuarial local control rates of 95%, 86%, and 79%, respectively. Fifteen of the 83 patients (18%) with positive margins developed local recurrences, compared to 5 of 55 patients (9%) with close or uncertain margins, and 3 of 60 patients (5%) with negative margins (p 0.02). Patients with and without a major (named) nerve involved had crude failure rates of 18% (10 out of 55) and 9% (13 out of 143), respectively (p 0.02). There was a trend toward better local control with increasing dose

  8. The influence of positive margins and nerve invasion in adenoid cystic carcinoma of the head and neck treated with surgery and radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garden, Adam S; Weber, Randal S; Morrison, William H; Ang, K Kian; Peters, Lester J

    1995-06-15

    Purpose: Surgery is the primary treatment for adenoid cystic carcinomas arising from major and minor salivary glands of the head and neck. However, local recurrence is frequent because of the infiltrative growth pattern and perineural spread associated with these tumors. At UTMDACC, we have had a long-standing policy of using postoperative radiotherapy to reduce the risk of local recurrence and to avoid the need for radical surgery; this 30-year retrospective study analyzes the results of this combined modality approach. Methods and Materials: Between 1962 and 1991, 198 patients ages 13-82 years, with adenoid cystic carcinomas of the head and neck, received postoperative radiotherapy for known or suspected microscopic residual disease following surgery. Distribution of primary sites was: parotid: 30 patients; submandibular/sublingual: 41 patients; lacrimal: 5 patients; and minor salivary glands: 122 patients. Eighty-three patients (42%) had microscopic positive margins and an additional 55 (28%) had close ({<=}5 mm) or uncertain margins. One hundred thirty-six patients (69%) had perineural spread with invasion of a major (named) nerve in 55 patients (28%). Using radiation techniques appropriate to the primary site, a median dose of 60 Gy (range 50-69 Gy) was delivered to the tumor bed. Follow-up ranged from 5-341 months (median, 93 months). All surviving patients had a minimum of 2 years follow-up. Results: Twenty-three patients (12%) had local recurrences with 5-, 10-, and 15-year actuarial local control rates of 95%, 86%, and 79%, respectively. Fifteen of the 83 patients (18%) with positive margins developed local recurrences, compared to 5 of 55 patients (9%) with close or uncertain margins, and 3 of 60 patients (5%) with negative margins (p 0.02). Patients with and without a major (named) nerve involved had crude failure rates of 18% (10 out of 55) and 9% (13 out of 143), respectively (p 0.02). There was a trend toward better local control with increasing dose

  9. Flow Around Steep Topography

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-30

    Flow around steep topography T. M. Shaun Johnston Scripps Institution of Oceanography University of California, San Diego 9500 Gilman Drive, M...tall, steep, submarine topography and islands. During the Flow Encountering Abrupt Topography (FLEAT) DRI, investigators will determine: • Whether...estimates from making accurate statistical/deterministic predictions at ᝺ km resolution around submarine topography and islands? How can we

  10. Angular distribution of Pigment epithelium central limit-Inner limit of the retina Minimal Distance (PIMD), in the young not pathological optic nerve head imaged by OCT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Söderberg, Per G.; Sandberg-Melin, Camilla

    2018-02-01

    The present study aimed to elucidate the angular distribution of the Pigment epithelium central limit-Inner limit of the retina Minimal Distance measured over 2π radians in the frontal plane (PIMD-2π) in young healthy eyes. Both healthy eyes of 16 subjects aged [20;30[ years were included. In each eye, a volume of the optical nerve head (ONH) was captured three times with a TOPCON DRI OCT Triton (Japan). Each volume renders a representation of the ONH 2.8 mm along the sagittal axis resolved in 993 steps, 6 mm long the frontal axis resolved in 512 steps and 6 x mm along the longitudinal axis resolved in 256 steps. The captured volumes were transferred to a custom made software for semiautomatic segmentation of PIMD around the circumference of the ONH. The phases of iterated volumes were calibrated with cross correlation. It was found that PIMD-2π expresses a double hump with a small maximum superiorly, a larger maximum inferiorly, and minima in between. The measurements indicated that there is no difference of PIMD-2π between genders nor between dominant and not dominant eye within subject. The variation between eyes within subject is of the same order as the variation among subjects. The variation among volumes within eye is substantially lower.

  11. Pulse-Wave Analysis of Optic Nerve Head Circulation Is Significantly Correlated with Kidney Function in Patients with and without Chronic Kidney Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomoaki Shiba

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To determine whether there is a significant correlation between the optic nerve head (ONH circulation determined by laser speckle flowgraphy (LSFG and kidney function. Materials. Seventy-one subjects were investigated. The estimated glomerular filtration rate (GFR and serum creatinine, cystatin C, and urinary albumin excretion were measured. The ONH circulation was determined by an analysis of the pulse wave of LSFG, and this parameter was named blowout time (BOT. Chronic kidney disease (CKD was defined to be present when the estimated GFR was <60 mL/min per 1.73 m2. Pearson’s correlation coefficients were used to determine the relationship between the BOT and the kidney function. We also examined whether there were significant differences in all parameters in patients with and without CKD. Results. BOT was significantly correlated with the level of creatinine (r=-0.24, P=0.04, the estimated GFR (r=0.42, P=0.0003, cystatin C (r=-0.29, P=0.01, and urinary albumin excretion (r=-0.29, P=0.01. The BOT level in subjects with CKD was significantly lower than that in subjects without CKD (P=0.002. Conclusion. BOT in ONH by LSFG can detect the organ damage such as kidney dysfunction, CKD.

  12. Sensitivity and specificity of monochromatic photography of the ocular fundus in differentiating optic nerve head drusen and optic disc oedema: optic disc drusen and oedema.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gili, Pablo; Flores-Rodríguez, Patricia; Yangüela, Julio; Orduña-Azcona, Javier; Martín-Ríos, María Dolores

    2013-03-01

    Evaluation of the efficacy of monochromatic photography of the ocular fundus in differentiating optic nerve head drusen (ONHD) and optic disc oedema (ODE). Sixty-six patients with ONHD, 31 patients with ODE and 70 healthy subjects were studied. Colour and monochromatic fundus photography with different filters (green, red and autofluorescence) were performed. The results were analysed blindly by two observers. The sensitivity, specificity and interobserver agreement (k) of each test were assessed. Colour photography offers 65.5 % sensitivity and 100 % specificity for the diagnosis of ONHD. Monochromatic photography improves sensitivity and specificity and provides similar results: green filter (71.20 % sensitivity, 96.70 % specificity), red filter (80.30 % sensitivity, 96.80 % specificity), and autofluorescence technique (87.8 % sensitivity, 100 % specificity). The interobserver agreement was good with all techniques used: autofluorescence (k = 0.957), green filter (k = 0.897), red filter (k = 0.818) and colour (k = 0.809). Monochromatic fundus photography permits ONHD and ODE to be differentiated, with good sensitivity and very high specificity. The best results were obtained with autofluorescence and red filter study.

  13. Morphometric Optic Nerve Head Analysis in Glaucoma Patients: A Comparison between the Simultaneous Nonmydriatic Stereoscopic Fundus Camera (Kowa Nonmyd WX3D and the Heidelberg Scanning Laser Ophthalmoscope (HRT III

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siegfried Mariacher

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To investigate the agreement between morphometric optic nerve head parameters assessed with the confocal laser ophthalmoscope HRT III and the stereoscopic fundus camera Kowa nonmyd WX3D retrospectively. Methods. Morphometric optic nerve head parameters of 40 eyes of 40 patients with primary open angle glaucoma were analyzed regarding their vertical cup-to-disc-ratio (CDR. Vertical CDR, disc area, cup volume, rim volume, and maximum cup depth were assessed with both devices by one examiner. Mean bias and limits of agreement (95% CI were obtained using scatter plots and Bland-Altman analysis. Results. Overall vertical CDR comparison between HRT III and Kowa nonmyd WX3D measurements showed a mean difference (limits of agreement of −0.06 (−0.36 to 0.24. For the CDR < 0.5 group (n=24 mean difference in vertical CDR was −0.14 (−0.34 to 0.06 and for the CDR ≥ 0.5 group (n=16 0.06 (−0.21 to 0.34. Conclusion. This study showed a good agreement between Kowa nonmyd WX3D and HRT III with regard to widely used optic nerve head parameters in patients with glaucomatous optic neuropathy. However, data from Kowa nonmyd WX3D exhibited the tendency to measure larger CDR values than HRT III in the group with CDR < 0.5 group and lower CDR values in the group with CDR ≥ 0.5.

  14. Spatial clustering analysis in neuroanatomy: Applications of different approaches to motor nerve fiber distribution

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Crunelli, V.; Prodanov, D.P.; Nagelkerke, Nico; Marani, Enrico

    2007-01-01

    Spatial organization of the nerve fibers in the peripheral nerves may be important for the studies of axonal regeneration, the degenerative nerve diseases and the construction of interfaces with peripheral nerves, such as nerve prostheses. Functional topography of motor axons related to the

  15. Analysis of Vision Loss Caused by Radiation-Induced Optic Neuropathy After Particle Therapy for Head-and-Neck and Skull-Base Tumors Adjacent to Optic Nerves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Demizu, Yusuke; Murakami, Masao; Miyawaki, Daisuke; Niwa, Yasue; Akagi, Takashi; Sasaki, Ryohei; Terashima, Kazuki; Suga, Daisaku; Kamae, Isao; Hishikawa, Yoshio

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: To assess the incident rates of vision loss (VL; based on counting fingers or more severe) caused by radiation-induced optic neuropathy (RION) after particle therapy for tumors adjacent to optic nerves (ONs), and to evaluate factors that may contribute to VL. Methods and Materials: From August 2001 to August 2006, 104 patients with head-and-neck or skull-base tumors adjacent to ONs were treated with carbon ion or proton radiotherapy. Among them, 145 ONs of 75 patients were irradiated and followed for greater than 12 months. The incident rate of VL and the prognostic factors for occurrence of VL were evaluated. The late effects of carbon ion and proton beams were compared on the basis of a biologically effective dose at α/β = 3 gray equivalent (GyE 3 ). Results: Eight patients (11%) experienced VL resulting from RION. The onset of VL ranged from 17 to 58 months. The median follow-up was 25 months. No significant difference was observed between the carbon ion and proton beam treatment groups. On univariate analysis, age (>60 years), diabetes mellitus, and maximum dose to the ON (>110 GyE 3 ) were significant, whereas on multivariate analysis only diabetes mellitus was found to be significant for VL. Conclusions: The time to the onset of VL was highly variable. There was no statistically significant difference between carbon ion and proton beam treatments over the follow-up period. Based on multivariate analysis, diabetes mellitus correlated with the occurrence of VL. A larger study with longer follow-up is warranted.

  16. Evaluation of optic nerve head blood flow in normal rats and a rodent model of non-arteritic ischemic optic neuropathy using laser speckle flowgraphy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takako, Hidaka; Hideki, Chuman; Nobuhisa, Nao-I

    2017-10-01

    To evaluate optic nerve head (ONH) blood flow in normal rats and a rodent model of non-arteritic ischemic optic neuropathy (rNAION) in vivo using laser speckle flowgraphy (LSFG). Rats were under general anesthesia; to induce NAION, Rose Bengal (RB) was injected into the tail vein. After the administration of RB, the left ONH was photoactivated using an argon green laser. We measured ONH blood flow in the normal rats and the rNAION group (at 1, 3, 7, 14, and 28 days after the induction of NAION) using an LSFG-Micro. We used the mean blur rate (MBR) of the vessel region (MV) and MBR of the tissue region (MT) as indicators of blood flow. We compared the MBR of the right and left eyes in both the normal rats and the rNAION group. In the normal rats, there were no significant differences in MV or MT between the right and left eyes. In the rNAION group, the MV and MT of the affected eyes were significantly lower than those of the unaffected eyes at all time points. There were significant differences between the left/right MV and MT ratios seen before the induction of NAION and those observed at 1, 3, 7, 14, and 28 days after the induction of NAION. However, there were no significant differences in these parameters among any of post-NAION induction time points. Our results indicated that the ONH blood flow of the rNAION rats fell in the acute and chronic phases.

  17. [Facial nerve neurinomas].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sokołowski, Jacek; Bartoszewicz, Robert; Morawski, Krzysztof; Jamróz, Barbara; Niemczyk, Kazimierz

    2013-01-01

    Evaluation of diagnostic, surgical technique, treatment results facial nerve neurinomas and its comparison with literature was the main purpose of this study. Seven cases of patients (2005-2011) with facial nerve schwannomas were included to retrospective analysis in the Department of Otolaryngology, Medical University of Warsaw. All patients were assessed with history of the disease, physical examination, hearing tests, computed tomography and/or magnetic resonance imaging, electronystagmography. Cases were observed in the direction of potential complications and recurrences. Neurinoma of the facial nerve occurred in the vertical segment (n=2), facial nerve geniculum (n=1) and the internal auditory canal (n=4). The symptoms observed in patients were analyzed: facial nerve paresis (n=3), hearing loss (n=2), dizziness (n=1). Magnetic resonance imaging and computed tomography allowed to confirm the presence of the tumor and to assess its staging. Schwannoma of the facial nerve has been surgically removed using the middle fossa approach (n=5) and by antromastoidectomy (n=2). Anatomical continuity of the facial nerve was achieved in 3 cases. In the twelve months after surgery, facial nerve paresis was rated at level II-III° HB. There was no recurrence of the tumor in radiological observation. Facial nerve neurinoma is a rare tumor. Currently surgical techniques allow in most cases, the radical removing of the lesion and reconstruction of the VII nerve function. The rate of recurrence is low. A tumor of the facial nerve should be considered in the differential diagnosis of nerve VII paresis. Copyright © 2013 Polish Otorhinolaryngology - Head and Neck Surgery Society. Published by Elsevier Urban & Partner Sp. z.o.o. All rights reserved.

  18. Pinched Nerve

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... You are here Home » Disorders » All Disorders Pinched Nerve Information Page Pinched Nerve Information Page What research is being done? Within the NINDS research programs, pinched nerves are addressed primarily through studies associated with pain ...

  19. The First Experience of Triple Nerve Transfer in Proximal Radial Nerve Palsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emamhadi, Mohammadreza; Andalib, Sasan

    2018-01-01

    Injury to distal portion of posterior cord of brachial plexus leads to palsy of radial and axillary nerves. Symptoms are usually motor deficits of the deltoid muscle; triceps brachii muscle; and extensor muscles of the wrist, thumb, and fingers. Tendon transfers, nerve grafts, and nerve transfers are options for surgical treatment of proximal radial nerve palsy to restore some motor functions. Tendon transfer is painful, requires a long immobilization, and decreases donor muscle strength; nevertheless, nerve transfer produces promising outcomes. We present a patient with proximal radial nerve palsy following a blunt injury undergoing triple nerve transfer. The patient was involved in a motorcycle accident with complete palsy of the radial and axillary nerves. After 6 months, on admission, he showed spontaneous recovery of axillary nerve palsy, but radial nerve palsy remained. We performed triple nerve transfer, fascicle of ulnar nerve to long head of the triceps branch of radial nerve, flexor digitorum superficialis branch of median nerve to extensor carpi radialis brevis branch of radial nerve, and flexor carpi radialis branch of median nerve to posterior interosseous nerve, for restoration of elbow, wrist, and finger extensions, respectively. Our experience confirmed functional elbow, wrist, and finger extensions in the patient. Triple nerve transfer restores functions of the upper limb in patients with debilitating radial nerve palsy after blunt injuries. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Values of some topographic parameters of optic nerve head obtained by Heidelberg retina tomograph II in volunteers and different stage primary open-angle glaucoma patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Anguelov

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: То assess the values of the top five topographic parameters of optic nerve head (ONH obtained by Heidelberg retina tomograph (HRT II in volunteers and primary open angle glaucoma (POAG patients with different stage of perimetric changes.Methods: 73 eyes (38 volunteers at the age of 56 years ±13, 11 men and 27 women and 170 eyes (90 patients at the age of 66 years ±12, 33 men and 57 women were examined. We performed the comprehensive ophthalmic examination, standard automated perimetry and measurement of the top five topographic parameters of ONH — rim area, rim volume, cup shape measure, height variation contour и mean RNFL thickness. For the purpose of this study we used HRT II.Results: We determine the values of the investigated topographic parameters of the ONH for healthy volunteers (rim area = 1.68±0.22 mm2, rim volume = 0.44±0.07 mm3, cup shape measure = –0.2±0.06, height variation contour = 0.38±0.08 mm and mean RNFL thickness = 0.24±0.03 mm and for the patients in different perimetric glaucoma stages (early stage: rim area = 1.52±0.47 mm2, rim volume = 0.38±0.17 mm3, cup shape measure = –0.14±0.1, height variation contour = 0.36±0.09 mm and mean RNFL thickness = 0.22±0.11 mm; moderate stage: rim area = 1.21±0.46 mm2, rim volume = 0.27±0.17 mm3, cup shape measure = –0.09±0.1, height variation contour = 0.36±0.17 mm and mean RNFL thickness = 0.16±0.12 mm; severe stage: rim area = 0.97±0.01 mm2, rim volume = 0.18±0.17 mm3, cup shape measure = –0.06±0.1, height variation contour = 0.28±0.11 mm and mean RNFL thickness = 0.17±0.11 mm. Hodapp-Parrish-Anderson (H-P-A ’s staging system includes three separate levels (early, moderate and severe of glaucoma according to visual field defects. Each stage is additionally characterized by the values of the top five topographic parameters of the ONH.Conclusion: Early diagnosis, staging and follow-up of POAG are based on both function and

  1. Dynamic Topography Revisited

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moresi, Louis

    2015-04-01

    Dynamic Topography Revisited Dynamic topography is usually considered to be one of the trinity of contributing causes to the Earth's non-hydrostatic topography along with the long-term elastic strength of the lithosphere and isostatic responses to density anomalies within the lithosphere. Dynamic topography, thought of this way, is what is left over when other sources of support have been eliminated. An alternate and explicit definition of dynamic topography is that deflection of the surface which is attributable to creeping viscous flow. The problem with the first definition of dynamic topography is 1) that the lithosphere is almost certainly a visco-elastic / brittle layer with no absolute boundary between flowing and static regions, and 2) the lithosphere is, a thermal / compositional boundary layer in which some buoyancy is attributable to immutable, intrinsic density variations and some is due to thermal anomalies which are coupled to the flow. In each case, it is difficult to draw a sharp line between each contribution to the overall topography. The second definition of dynamic topography does seem cleaner / more precise but it suffers from the problem that it is not measurable in practice. On the other hand, this approach has resulted in a rich literature concerning the analysis of large scale geoid and topography and the relation to buoyancy and mechanical properties of the Earth [e.g. refs 1,2,3] In convection models with viscous, elastic, brittle rheology and compositional buoyancy, however, it is possible to examine how the surface topography (and geoid) are supported and how different ways of interpreting the "observable" fields introduce different biases. This is what we will do. References (a.k.a. homework) [1] Hager, B. H., R. W. Clayton, M. A. Richards, R. P. Comer, and A. M. Dziewonski (1985), Lower mantle heterogeneity, dynamic topography and the geoid, Nature, 313(6003), 541-545, doi:10.1038/313541a0. [2] Parsons, B., and S. Daly (1983), The

  2. Whole-head analysis of cortical spatial organization from unilateral stimulation of median nerve in both hands: No complete hemisphere homology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Theuvenet, Peter J.; van Dijk, Bob W.; Peters, M.J.; van Ree, Jan M.; Lopes da Silva, Fernando L.; Chen, Andrew C.N.

    2005-01-01

    We examined the contralateral hemispheric cortical activity in MEG (151 ch) after unilateral median nerve stimulation of the right and left hand in twenty healthy right-handed subjects. The goal was to establish parameters to describe cortical activity of the hemispheric responses and to study the

  3. Topography. Ch. 10

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chikawa, Jun-Ichi; Kuriyama, Masao

    1991-01-01

    The uniqueness of synchrotron X-ray topography does not lie in new theoretical or experimental notions about the topographic method, but in the characteristics of this new source as a critical optical element. At most synchrotron facilities, the spectrum ranging from 5 keV (2.5A) to 30 keV (0.4A0 can be made available for topography. A synchrotron-radiation source gives tunability (choice of wavelengths) and pulsed time structure with highly collimated an intense photon beams. The continuous spectrum and excellent collimation have made white-beam X-ray topography a practical reality. The high intensity of the synchrotron X-ray source, even after beam monochromatization and further collimation, permits time-dependent observation of kinetics. By selecting the mono-chromatized wavelength close to an absorption edge of an element in the sample crystal, the topographic data selectively emphasize or de-emphasize structures related to that element. For full use of such properties of synchrotron radiation, however, development of new optical systems and imaging detectors is required, and is in progress at most synchrotron facilities. This chapter covers a brief review of X-ray topography, its basic principles, and the necessary X-ray optical and imaging systems. The capability of synchrotron-radiation topography is demonstrated with some recent results. (author). 118 refs.; 22 figs

  4. Terminal nerve: cranial nerve zero

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Eduardo Duque Parra

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available It has been stated, in different types of texts, that there are only twelve pairs of cranial nerves. Such texts exclude the existence of another cranial pair, the terminal nerve or even cranial zero. This paper considers the mentioned nerve like a cranial pair, specifying both its connections and its functional role in the migration of liberating neurons of the gonadotropic hormone (Gn RH. In this paper is also stated the hypothesis of the phylogenetic existence of a cerebral sector and a common nerve that integrates the terminal nerve with the olfactory nerves and the vomeronasals nerves which seem to carry out the odors detection function as well as in the food search, pheromone detection and nasal vascular regulation.

  5. Microsurgical anatomy of the abducens nerve.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joo, Wonil; Yoshioka, Fumitaka; Funaki, Takeshi; Rhoton, Albert L

    2012-11-01

    The aim of this study is to demonstrate and review the detailed microsurgical anatomy of the abducens nerve and surrounding structures along its entire course and to provide its topographic measurements. Ten cadaveric heads were examined using ×3 to ×40 magnification after the arteries and veins were injected with colored silicone. Both sides of each cadaveric head were dissected using different skull base approaches to demonstrate the entire course of the abducens nerve from the pontomedullary sulcus to the lateral rectus muscle. The anatomy of the petroclival area and the cavernous sinus through which the abducens nerve passes are complex due to the high density of critically important neural and vascular structures. The abducens nerve has angulations and fixation points along its course that put the nerve at risk in many clinical situations. From a surgical viewpoint, the petrous tubercle of the petrous apex is an intraoperative landmark to avoid damage to the abducens nerve. The abducens nerve is quite different from the other nerves. No other cranial nerve has a long intradural path with angulations and fixations such as the abducens nerve in petroclival venous confluence. A precise knowledge of the relationship between the abducens nerve and surrounding structures has allowed neurosurgeon to approach the clivus, petroclival area, cavernous sinus, and superior orbital fissure without surgical complications. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Ulnar nerve dysfunction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neuropathy - ulnar nerve; Ulnar nerve palsy; Mononeuropathy; Cubital tunnel syndrome ... Damage to one nerve group, such as the ulnar nerve, is called mononeuropathy . Mononeuropathy means there is damage to a single nerve. Both ...

  7. Radial nerve dysfunction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neuropathy - radial nerve; Radial nerve palsy; Mononeuropathy ... Damage to one nerve group, such as the radial nerve, is called mononeuropathy . Mononeuropathy means there is damage to a single nerve. Both ...

  8. The Dawn Topography Investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raymond, C. A.; Jaumann, R.; Nathues, A.; Sierks, H.; Roatsch, T.; Preusker, E; Scholten, F.; Gaskell, R. W.; Jorda, L.; Keller, H.-U.; hide

    2011-01-01

    The objective of the Dawn topography investigation is to derive the detailed shapes of 4 Vesta and 1 Ceres in order to create orthorectified image mosaics for geologic interpretation, as well as to study the asteroids' landforms, interior structure, and the processes that have modified their surfaces over geologic time. In this paper we describe our approaches for producing shape models, plans for acquiring the needed image data for Vesta, and the results of a numerical simulation of the Vesta mapping campaign that quantify the expected accuracy of our results. Multi-angle images obtained by Dawn's framing camera will be used to create topographic models with 100 m/pixel horizontal resolution and 10 m height accuracy at Vesta, and 200 m/pixel horizontal resolution and 20 m height accuracy at Ceres. Two different techniques, stereophotogrammetry and stereophotoclinometry, are employed to model the shape; these models will be merged with the asteroidal gravity fields obtained by Dawn to produce geodetically controlled topographic models for each body. The resulting digital topography models, together with the gravity data, will reveal the tectonic, volcanic and impact history of Vesta, and enable co-registration of data sets to determine Vesta's geologic history. At Ceres, the topography will likely reveal much about processes of surface modification as well as the internal structure and evolution of this dwarf planet.

  9. Tissue-engineered spiral nerve guidance conduit for peripheral nerve regeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Wei; Shah, Munish B; Lee, Paul; Yu, Xiaojun

    2018-06-01

    Recently in peripheral nerve regeneration, preclinical studies have shown that the use of nerve guidance conduits (NGCs) with multiple longitudinally channels and intra-luminal topography enhance the functional outcomes when bridging a nerve gap caused by traumatic injury. These features not only provide guidance cues for regenerating nerve, but also become the essential approaches for developing a novel NGC. In this study, a novel spiral NGC with aligned nanofibers and wrapped with an outer nanofibrous tube was first developed and investigated. Using the common rat sciatic 10-mm nerve defect model, the in vivo study showed that a novel spiral NGC (with and without inner nanofibers) increased the successful rate of nerve regeneration after 6 weeks recovery. Substantial improvements in nerve regeneration were achieved by combining the spiral NGC with inner nanofibers and outer nanofibrous tube, based on the results of walking track analysis, electrophysiology, nerve histological assessment, and gastrocnemius muscle measurement. This demonstrated that the novel spiral NGC with inner aligned nanofibers and wrapped with an outer nanofibrous tube provided a better environment for peripheral nerve regeneration than standard tubular NGCs. Results from this study will benefit for future NGC design to optimize tissue-engineering strategies for peripheral nerve regeneration. We developed a novel spiral nerve guidance conduit (NGC) with coated aligned nanofibers. The spiral structure increases surface area by 4.5 fold relative to a tubular NGC. Furthermore, the aligned nanofibers was coated on the spiral walls, providing cues for guiding neurite extension. Finally, the outside of spiral NGC was wrapped with randomly nanofibers to enhance mechanical strength that can stabilize the spiral NGC. Our nerve histological data have shown that the spiral NGC had 50% more myelinated axons than a tubular structure for nerve regeneration across a 10 mm gap in a rat sciatic nerve

  10. Computerised tomographic patterns in patients with head injury at ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2011-04-15

    Apr 15, 2011 ... The clinical severity of head injury is classified based on ... head injury include road traffic accidents (RTA), assaults, ... information in the management of patients with head ... Materials and Methods ... The right cerebral hemisphere was involved in 13 cases .... Nerve palsies – 3rd, 5th, 6th cranial nerves. 3.

  11. The nerves around the shoulder

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blum, Alain; Lecocq, Sophie; Louis, Matthias; Wassel, Johnny; Moisei, Andreea; Teixeira, Pedro

    2013-01-01

    Neuropathies of the shoulder are considered to be entrapment syndromes. They are relatively common, accounting for about 2% of cases of sport-related shoulder pain. Many instances involve suprascapular neuropathy, but the clinical diagnosis is often delayed because of nonspecific symptoms. Classically, EMG is the gold standard investigation but MRI currently reveals muscular abnormality in 50% of cases. Muscle edema, the most characteristic symptom, is nonspecific. In general, the topography of edema, the presence of a lesion compressing the nerve and clinical history contribute to the diagnosis. Although atrophy and fatty degeneration may persist after the disappearance of edema, they are rarely symptomatic. The main differential diagnosis is Parsonage–Turner syndrome. Evidence of a cyst pressing on a nerve may prompt puncture-infiltration guided by ultrasonography or CT-scan

  12. The nerves around the shoulder

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blum, Alain, E-mail: alain.blum@gmail.com [Service d’Imagerie GUILLOZ, CHU Nancy, Nancy 54000 (France); Lecocq, Sophie; Louis, Matthias; Wassel, Johnny; Moisei, Andreea; Teixeira, Pedro [Service d’Imagerie GUILLOZ, CHU Nancy, Nancy 54000 (France)

    2013-01-15

    Neuropathies of the shoulder are considered to be entrapment syndromes. They are relatively common, accounting for about 2% of cases of sport-related shoulder pain. Many instances involve suprascapular neuropathy, but the clinical diagnosis is often delayed because of nonspecific symptoms. Classically, EMG is the gold standard investigation but MRI currently reveals muscular abnormality in 50% of cases. Muscle edema, the most characteristic symptom, is nonspecific. In general, the topography of edema, the presence of a lesion compressing the nerve and clinical history contribute to the diagnosis. Although atrophy and fatty degeneration may persist after the disappearance of edema, they are rarely symptomatic. The main differential diagnosis is Parsonage–Turner syndrome. Evidence of a cyst pressing on a nerve may prompt puncture-infiltration guided by ultrasonography or CT-scan.

  13. Unilateral traumatic oculomotor nerve paralysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asari, Syoji; Satoh, Toru; Yamamoto, Yuji

    1982-01-01

    The present authors report a case of unilateral traumatic oculomotor nerve paralysis which shows interesting CT findings which suggest its mechanism. A 60-year-old woman was admitted to our hospital with a cerebral concussion soon after a traffic accident. A CT scan was performed soon after admission. A high-density spot was noted at the medial aspect of the left cerebral peduncle, where the oculomotor nerve emerged from the midbrain, and an irregular, slender, high-density area was delineated in the right dorsolateral surface of the midbrain. Although the right hemiparesis had already improved by the next morning, the function of the left oculomotor nerve has been completely disturbed for the three months since the injury. In our case, it is speculated that an avulsion of the left oculomotor nerve rootlet occurred at the time of impact as the mechanism of the oculomotor nerve paralysis. A CT taken soon after the head injury showed a high-density spot; this was considered to be a hemorrhage occurring because of the avulsion of the nerve rootlet at the medial surface of the cerebral peduncle. (J.P.N.)

  14. Shallow flows with bottom topography

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heijst, van G.J.F.; Kamp, L.P.J.; Theunissen, R.; Rodi, W.; Uhlmann, M.

    2012-01-01

    This paper discusses laboratory experiments and numerical simulations of dipolar vortex flows in a shallow fluid layer with bottom topography. Two cases are considered: a step topography and a linearly sloping bottom. It is found that viscous effects – i.e., no-slip conditions at the non-horizontal

  15. Metabolic topography of Parkinsonism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jae Seung [Asan Medical Center, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2007-04-15

    Parkinson's disease is one of the most frequent neurodegenerative diseases, which mainly affects the elderly. Parkinson's disease is often difficult to differentiate from atypical parkinson disorder such as progressive supranuclear palsy, multiple system atrophy, dementia with Lewy body, and corticobasal ganglionic degeneration, based on the clinical findings because of the similarity of phenotypes and lack of diagnostic markers. The accurate diagnosis of Parkinson's disease and atypical Parkinson disorders is not only important for deciding on treatment regimens and providing prognosis, but also it is critical for studies designed to investigate etiology and pathogenesis of parkinsonism and to develop new therapeutic strategies. Although degeneration of the nigrostriatal dopamine system results in marked loss of striatal dopamine content in most of the diseases causing parkinsonism, pathologic studies revealed different topographies of the neuronal cell loss in Parkinsonism. Since the regional cerebral glucose metabolism is a marker of integrated local synaptic activity and as such is sensitive to both direct neuronal/synaptic damage and secondary functional disruption at synapses distant from the primary site of pathology, and assessment of the regional cerebral glucose metabolism with F-18 FDG PET is useful in the differential diagnosis of parkinsonism and evaluating the pathophysiology of Parkinsonism.

  16. Metabolic topography of Parkinsonism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Jae Seung

    2007-01-01

    Parkinson's disease is one of the most frequent neurodegenerative diseases, which mainly affects the elderly. Parkinson's disease is often difficult to differentiate from atypical parkinson disorder such as progressive supranuclear palsy, multiple system atrophy, dementia with Lewy body, and corticobasal ganglionic degeneration, based on the clinical findings because of the similarity of phenotypes and lack of diagnostic markers. The accurate diagnosis of Parkinson's disease and atypical Parkinson disorders is not only important for deciding on treatment regimens and providing prognosis, but also it is critical for studies designed to investigate etiology and pathogenesis of parkinsonism and to develop new therapeutic strategies. Although degeneration of the nigrostriatal dopamine system results in marked loss of striatal dopamine content in most of the diseases causing parkinsonism, pathologic studies revealed different topographies of the neuronal cell loss in Parkinsonism. Since the regional cerebral glucose metabolism is a marker of integrated local synaptic activity and as such is sensitive to both direct neuronal/synaptic damage and secondary functional disruption at synapses distant from the primary site of pathology, and assessment of the regional cerebral glucose metabolism with F-18 FDG PET is useful in the differential diagnosis of parkinsonism and evaluating the pathophysiology of Parkinsonism

  17. Post traumatic facial nerve palsy without temporal bone fracture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scuotto, A.; Cappabianca, S.; Capasso, R.; Porto, A.; D'Oria, S.; Rotondo, M.

    2016-01-01

    Facial nerve injury following head trauma is a frequent event with or without temporal bone fractures. Computed tomography is the imaging modality of choice for assessing the possible bone disruption of the facial nerve canal. Magnetic resonance is helpful in presence of a facial nerve paralysis, unexplained by computed tomography findings. We present a case of delayed post-traumatic facial nerve palsy without radiological evidence of temporal bone fractures, in which magnetic resonance was crucial for diagnosing the nerve impairment. Radiological findings in accordance both with electrodiagnostic tests and clinical presentation suggested the successful conservative management. - Highlights: • Facial nerve is more prone to damage than any other cranial nerve after trauma. • Facial nerve trauma is usually associated with temporal bone fractures. • MRI is mandatory in case of no evidence of bone disruption at CT.

  18. Optic Nerve Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    The optic nerve is a bundle of more than 1 million nerve fibers that carry visual messages. You have one connecting ... retina) to your brain. Damage to an optic nerve can cause vision loss. The type of vision ...

  19. Optic Nerve Imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... News About Us Donate In This Section Optic Nerve Imaging email Send this article to a friend ... measurements of nerve fiber damage (or loss). The Nerve Fiber Analyzer (GDx) uses laser light to measure ...

  20. Femoral nerve damage (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The femoral nerve is located in the leg and supplies the muscles that assist help straighten the leg. It supplies sensation ... leg. One risk of damage to the femoral nerve is pelvic fracture. Symptoms of femoral nerve damage ...

  1. Ulnar nerve damage (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The ulnar nerve originates from the brachial plexus and travels down arm. The nerve is commonly injured at the elbow because of elbow fracture or dislocation. The ulnar nerve is near the surface of the body where ...

  2. Heads Up

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Connect with Us HEADS UP Apps Reshaping the Culture Around Concussion in Sports Get HEADS UP on Your Web Site Concussion ... HEADS UP on your web site! Create a culture of safety for young athletes Officials, learn how you can ... UP to Providers HEADS UP to Youth Sports HEADS UP to School Sports HEADS UP to ...

  3. Radiation-induced cranial nerve palsy: hypoglossal nerve and vocal cord palsies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takimoto, Toru; Saito, Yasuo; Suzuki, Masayuki; Nishimura, Toshirou

    1991-01-01

    Cranial nerve palsies are an unexpected complication of radiotherapy for head and neck tumours. We present a case of this radiation-induced cranial palsy. An 18-year-old female with nasopharyngeal carcinoma developed a right hypoglossal nerve palsy 42 months after cancericidal doses of radiotherapy. In addition, she developed a bilateral vocal cord palsy 62 months after the therapy. Follow-up over four years has demonstrated no evidence of tumour recurrence and no sign of neurological improvement. (author)

  4. Nerve ring of the hypostome in hydra. I. Its structure, development, and maintenance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koizumi, O; Itazawa, M; Mizumoto, H

    1992-01-01

    neuronal complex consisting of a thick nerve bundle running circumferentially at the border between the hypostome and tentacle zone. Immunostaining showed that the nerve ring was heterogeneous and contained at least four different subsets of neurons. During head regeneration and budding, the nerve ring...

  5. Ciliary body melanoma with optic nerve invasion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    al-Haddab, S; Hidayat, A; Tabbara, K F

    1990-01-01

    A case of melanoma of the ciliary body is presented. Initially the patient was diagnosed and treated for uveitis, but following CT scanning and ultrasound a tumour was detected and the eye enucleated. Histopathologically it was found that the tumour had invaded the optic nerve head, apparently via Cloquet's canal. Images PMID:2310725

  6. Microvascular Cranial Nerve Palsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Español Eye Health / Eye Health A-Z Microvascular Cranial Nerve Palsy Sections What Is Microvascular Cranial Nerve Palsy? ... Microvascular Cranial Nerve Palsy Treatment What Is Microvascular Cranial Nerve Palsy? Leer en Español: ¿Qué es una parálisis ...

  7. Surgical outcomes following nerve transfers in upper brachial plexus injuries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhandari P

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Brachial plexus injuries represent devastating injuries with a poor prognosis. Neurolysis, nerve repair, nerve grafts, nerve transfer, functioning free-muscle transfer and pedicle muscle transfer are the main surgical procedures for treating these injuries. Among these, nerve transfer or neurotization is mainly indicated in root avulsion injury. Materials and Methods: We analysed the results of various neurotization techniques in 20 patients (age group 20-41 years, mean 25.7 years in terms of denervation time, recovery time and functional results. The inclusion criteria for the study included irreparable injuries to the upper roots of brachial plexus (C5, C6 and C7 roots in various combinations, surgery within 10 months of injury and a minimum follow-up period of 18 months. The average denervation period was 4.2 months. Shoulder functions were restored by transfer of spinal accessory nerve to suprascapular nerve (19 patients, and phrenic nerve to suprascapular nerve (1 patient. In 11 patients, axillary nerve was also neurotized using different donors - radial nerve branch to the long head triceps (7 patients, intercostal nerves (2 patients, and phrenic nerve with nerve graft (2 patients. Elbow flexion was restored by transfer of ulnar nerve motor fascicle to the motor branch of biceps (4 patients, both ulnar and median nerve motor fascicles to the biceps and brachialis motor nerves (10 patients, spinal accessory nerve to musculocutaneous nerve with an intervening sural nerve graft (1 patient, intercostal nerves (3rd, 4th and 5th to musculocutaneous nerve (4 patients and phrenic nerve to musculocutaneous nerve with an intervening graft (1 patient. Results: Motor and sensory recovery was assessed according to Medical Research Council (MRC Scoring system. In shoulder abduction, five patients scored M4 and three patients M3+. Fair results were obtained in remaining 12 patients. The achieved abduction averaged 95 degrees (range, 50 - 170

  8. Applied anatomy of the lingual nerve: relevance to dental anaesthesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Vui Leng; Andrawos, Alice; Ghabriel, Mounir N; Townsend, Grant C

    2014-03-01

    (1) to classify the external morphology of the lingual nerve and investigate any relationship between its external and internal morphology, (2) to explore the fascicular structure, nerve tissue density and capillary density of the lingual nerve, and (3) to provide an anatomical explanation as to why adverse clinical outcomes more commonly affect the lingual nerve following local dental anaesthesia. Where possible, comparisons were made between the lingual and inferior alveolar nerves. The lingual and inferior alveolar nerves were examined in 23 hemi-sectioned heads macroscopically and microscopically 2mm above the lingula. The lingual nerve was also examined in the regions of the third and second molars. Specimens underwent histological processing and staining with Haematoxylin & Eosin, Masson's Trichrome, anti-GLUT-1 and anti-CD 34. The lingual nerve became flatter as it traversed through the pterygomandibular space. There was an increase in the connective tissue and a decrease in nerve tissue density along the lingual nerve (p<0.001). At 2mm above the lingula, the lingual nerve was uni-fascicular in 39% of cases, whilst the inferior alveolar nerve consistently had more fascicles (p<0.001). The lingual nerve fascicles had thicker perineurium but the endoneurial vascular density was not significantly different in the two nerves. The greater susceptibility of lingual nerve dysfunction during inferior alveolar nerve blocks may be due to its uni-fascicular structure and the thicker perineurium, leading to increased endoneurial pressure and involvement of all axons if oedema or haemorrhage occurs due to trauma. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Post-traumatic Unilateral Avulsion of the Abducens Nerve with Damage to Cranial Nerves VII and VIII: Case Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamasaki, Fumiyuki; Akiyama, Yuji; Tsumura, Ryu; Kolakshyapati, Manish; Adhikari, Rupendra Bahadur; Takayasu, Takeshi; Nosaka, Ryo; Kurisu, Kaoru

    2016-07-01

    Traumatic injuries of the abducens nerve as a consequence of facial and/or head trauma occur with or without associated cervical or skull base fracture. This is the first report on unilateral avulsion of the abducens nerve in a 29-year-old man with severe right facial trauma. In addition, he exhibited mild left facial palsy, and moderate left hearing disturbance. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) using fast imaging employing steady-state acquisition (FIESTA) revealed avulsion of left sixth cranial nerve. We recommend thin-slice MR examination in patients with abducens palsy after severe facial and/or head trauma.

  10. Radiation-induced cranial nerve palsy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berger, P.S.; Bataini, J.P.

    1977-01-01

    Twenty-five patients with 35 cranial nerve palsies were seen at the Fondation Curie during follow-up after radical radiotherapy for head and neck tumors. The twelfth nerve was involved in 19 cases, the tenth in nine, and the eleventh in five; the fifth and second nerves were involved once each and in the same patient. The twelfth nerve was involved alone in 16 patients and the tenth nerve alone in three, with multiple nerves involved in the remaining six patients. The palsy was noted from 12 to 145 months after diagnosis of the tumor. The latency period could be correlated with dose so that the least square fit equation representing NSD vs delay is NSD = 2598--Delay (in months) x 4.6, with a correlation coefficient of -0.58. The distinction between tumor recurrence and radiation-induced nerve palsy is critical. It can often be inferred from the latency period but must be confirmed by observation over a period of time

  11. Imaging of muscular denervation secondary to motor cranial nerve dysfunction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Connor, S.E.J.; Chaudhary, N.; Fareedi, S.; Woo, E.K.

    2006-01-01

    The effects of motor cranial nerve dysfunction on the computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) appearances of head and neck muscles are reviewed. Patterns of denervation changes are described and illustrated for V, VII, X, XI and XII cranial nerves. Recognition of the range of imaging manifestations, including the temporal changes in muscular appearances and associated muscular grafting or compensatory hypertrophy, will avoid misinterpretation as local disease. It will also prompt the radiologist to search for underlying cranial nerve pathology, which may be clinically occult. The relevant cranial nerve motor division anatomy will be described to enable a focussed search for such a structural abnormality

  12. Imaging of muscular denervation secondary to motor cranial nerve dysfunction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Connor, S.E.J. [Neuroradiology Department, Kings College Hospital, Denmark Hill, London SE5 9RS (United Kingdom)]. E-mail: sejconnor@tiscali.co.uk; Chaudhary, N. [Neuroradiology Department, Kings College Hospital, Denmark Hill, London SE5 9RS (United Kingdom); Fareedi, S. [Neuroradiology Department, Kings College Hospital, Denmark Hill, London SE5 9RS (United Kingdom); Woo, E.K. [Neuroradiology Department, Kings College Hospital, Denmark Hill, London SE5 9RS (United Kingdom)

    2006-08-15

    The effects of motor cranial nerve dysfunction on the computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) appearances of head and neck muscles are reviewed. Patterns of denervation changes are described and illustrated for V, VII, X, XI and XII cranial nerves. Recognition of the range of imaging manifestations, including the temporal changes in muscular appearances and associated muscular grafting or compensatory hypertrophy, will avoid misinterpretation as local disease. It will also prompt the radiologist to search for underlying cranial nerve pathology, which may be clinically occult. The relevant cranial nerve motor division anatomy will be described to enable a focussed search for such a structural abnormality.

  13. Cellular Scale Anisotropic Topography Guides Schwann Cell Motility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchel, Jennifer A.; Hoffman-Kim, Diane

    2011-01-01

    Directed migration of Schwann cells (SC) is critical for development and repair of the peripheral nervous system. Understanding aspects of motility specific to SC, along with SC response to engineered biomaterials, may inform strategies to enhance nerve regeneration. Rat SC were cultured on laminin-coated microgrooved poly(dimethyl siloxane) platforms that were flat or presented repeating cellular scale anisotropic topographical cues, 30 or 60 µm in width, and observed with timelapse microscopy. SC motion was directed parallel to the long axis of the topography on both the groove floor and the plateau, with accompanying differences in velocity and directional persistence in comparison to SC motion on flat substrates. In addition, feature dimension affected SC morphology, alignment, and directional persistence. Plateaus and groove floors presented distinct cues which promoted differential motility and variable interaction with the topographical features. SC on the plateau surfaces tended to have persistent interactions with the edge topography, while SC on the groove floors tended to have infrequent contact with the corners and walls. Our observations suggest the capacity of SC to be guided without continuous contact with a topographical cue. SC exhibited a range of distinct motile morphologies, characterized by their symmetry and number of extensions. Across all conditions, SC with a single extension traveled significantly faster than cells with more or no extensions. We conclude that SC motility is complex, where persistent motion requires cellular asymmetry, and that anisotropic topography with cellular scale features can direct SC motility. PMID:21949703

  14. Nano-topography Enhances Communication in Neural Cells Networks

    KAUST Repository

    Onesto, V.

    2017-08-23

    Neural cells are the smallest building blocks of the central and peripheral nervous systems. Information in neural networks and cell-substrate interactions have been heretofore studied separately. Understanding whether surface nano-topography can direct nerve cells assembly into computational efficient networks may provide new tools and criteria for tissue engineering and regenerative medicine. In this work, we used information theory approaches and functional multi calcium imaging (fMCI) techniques to examine how information flows in neural networks cultured on surfaces with controlled topography. We found that substrate roughness Sa affects networks topology. In the low nano-meter range, S-a = 0-30 nm, information increases with Sa. Moreover, we found that energy density of a network of cells correlates to the topology of that network. This reinforces the view that information, energy and surface nano-topography are tightly inter-connected and should not be neglected when studying cell-cell interaction in neural tissue repair and regeneration.

  15. Surface Micro Topography Replication in Injection Moulding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arlø, Uffe Rolf; Hansen, Hans Nørgaard; Kjær, Erik Michael

    2005-01-01

    The surface micro topography of injection moulded plastic parts can be important for aesthetical and technical reasons. The quality of replication of mould surface topography onto the plastic surface depends among other factors on the process conditions. A study of this relationship has been...... carried out with rough EDM (electrical discharge machining) mould surfaces, a PS grade, and by applying established three-dimensional topography parameters. Significant quantitative relationships between process parameters and topography parameters were established. It further appeared that replication...

  16. The study on transport of brain-derived neurotrophic factor in facial nerve

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Yunchun; Li Lin; Wang Quanlin; Yang Xiaochuan; He Gang; Gao Bingqing; Lin Daicheng; Liang Chuanyu

    2000-01-01

    The transport information of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) in facial nerve is studied using 125 I-BDNF or 131 I-BDNF. After one lateral facial nerve trunk of adult rabbit is transected, a silicone chamber is inserted between the stumps, and labelled compounds are administered into the chamber. Bilateral facial nerve trunk and facial nerve motor neurone of brain-stem of rabbits are collected and counted respectively, and imaged at coronary position of head in live rabbit. The results show that BDNF has a retrograde transport in facial nerve, and the transport of 131 I-BDNF is marked restrained by BDNF in facial nerve

  17. EXTRACRANIAL HEAD AND NECK SCHWANNOMA: CASE REPORT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashok

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Schwannoma is a benign nerve sheath tumour composed of Schwan cells which normally produce the insulating myelin sheath covering peripheral nerves. Schwannoma is a homogenous tumour, consisting only of schwan cells. The tumour cells stay outside the nerve, but the tumour itself may either push the nerve aside or up against a bony structure there by producing nerve damage. They arise from peripheral, cranial and autonomic nerves and usually present as solitary well demarcated lesions. Extracranial Head and Neck schwannomas are rare tumours. They may produce secondary symptoms like nasal obstruction, dysphagia, and hoarseness of voice depending upon the location of the tumour. FNAC, Ultra sound, CT, MRI may be of limited help in the diagnosis. Complete surgical excision is the treatment of choice. Post operative histopa thological examination establishes the final diagnosis

  18. Musculocutaneous nerve substituting for the distal part of radial nerve: A case report and its embryological basis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A S Yogesh

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In the present case, we have reported a unilateral variation of the radial and musculocutaneous nerves on the left side in a 64-year-old male cadaver. The radial nerve supplied all the heads of the triceps brachii muscle and gave cutaneous branches such as lower lateral cutaneous nerve of the arm and posterior cutaneous nerve of forearm. The radial nerve ended without continuing further. The musculocutaneous nerve supplied the brachioradialis, extensor carpi radialis longus and extensor carpi radialis brevis muscles. The musculocutaneous nerve divided terminally into two branches, superficial and deep. The deep branch of musculocutaneous nerve corresponded to usual deep branch of the radial nerve while the superficial branch of musculocutaneous nerve corresponded to usual superficial branch of the radial nerve. The dissection was continued to expose the entire brachial plexus from its origin and it was found to be normal. The structures on the right upper limb were found to be normal. Surgeons should keep such variations in mind while performing the surgeries of the upper limb.

  19. The vestibulocochlear nerve (VIII).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benoudiba, F; Toulgoat, F; Sarrazin, J-L

    2013-10-01

    The vestibulocochlear nerve (8th cranial nerve) is a sensory nerve. It is made up of two nerves, the cochlear, which transmits sound and the vestibular which controls balance. It is an intracranial nerve which runs from the sensory receptors in the internal ear to the brain stem nuclei and finally to the auditory areas: the post-central gyrus and superior temporal auditory cortex. The most common lesions responsible for damage to VIII are vestibular Schwannomas. This report reviews the anatomy and various investigations of the nerve. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.

  20. Historical topography of the Tsarev settlement site

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Glukhov Aleksandr A.

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The topography of the Tsarev settlement site, one of major Golden Horde monuments in the Lower Volga region, is analyzed. The first descriptions of the settlement refer to the second half of the 18th century, while the initial large-scale excavations on the monument were conducted in the mid-19th century. By that time, the scientific community had adhered to the opinion that the ruins of Sarai (the city mainly associated with the Tsarev settlement site would stretch to a great distance from the Akhtuba river-head to Kolobovka village. The results of archaeological research of the 20th – early 21st century make it possible to challenge this view. To date, it is an established fact that the size of the actual urban area had constituted 5 x 2.2–2.3 km. The southern part of the city was occupied by the estates of the nobility, the central and northern parts were represented by trade and artisan quarters. Around the city, there were suburban cemeteries, including brick mausoleums (the ruins of which could be mistaken for the remains of dwellings in the 19th century, as well as the areas of irrigated agriculture.

  1. Radial nerve dysfunction (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The radial nerve travels down the arm and supplies movement to the triceps muscle at the back of the upper arm. ... the wrist and hand. The usual causes of nerve dysfunction are direct trauma, prolonged pressure on the ...

  2. Degenerative Nerve Diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Degenerative nerve diseases affect many of your body's activities, such as balance, movement, talking, breathing, and heart function. Many ... viruses. Sometimes the cause is not known. Degenerative nerve diseases include Alzheimer's disease Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis Friedreich's ...

  3. Nerve conduction velocity

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003927.htm Nerve conduction velocity To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Nerve conduction velocity (NCV) is a test to see ...

  4. Distal median nerve dysfunction

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... later on. Inflammation of the tendons ( tendonitis ) or joints ( arthritis ) can also put pressure on the nerve. ... how fast electrical signals move through a nerve Neuromuscular ultrasound to view problems with the muscles and ...

  5. Electrophysiologic analysis of injury to cranial nerve XI during neck dissection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanisnik, Bostjan; Zargi, Miha; Rodi, Zoran

    2016-04-01

    Despite preservation of the accessory nerve, a considerable number of patients report partial nerve damage after modified radical neck dissection (MRND) and selective neck dissection. Accessory nerve branches for the trapezius muscle were stimulated during neck dissection, and the M wave amplitude was measured during distinct surgical phases. The accessory nerve was mapped in 20 patients. The M wave recordings indicated that major nerve damage occurred during dissection at levels IIa and IIb in the most proximal segment of the nerve. The M waves evoked from this nerve segment decreased significantly during surgery (analysis of variance; p = .001). The most significant intraoperative injury to the accessory nerve during neck dissection occurs at anatomic nerve levels IIa and IIb. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Head Neck 38: E372-E376, 2016. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Optic Nerve Pit

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Conditions Frequently Asked Questions Español Condiciones Chinese Conditions Optic Nerve Pit What is optic nerve pit? An optic nerve pit is a ... may be seen in both eyes. How is optic pit diagnosed? If the pit is not affecting ...

  7. Diagnostic nerve ultrasonography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baeumer, T.; Grimm, A.; Schelle, T.

    2017-01-01

    For the diagnostics of nerve lesions an imaging method is necessary to visualize peripheral nerves and their surrounding structures for an etiological classification. Clinical neurological and electrophysiological investigations provide functional information about nerve lesions. The information provided by a standard magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) examination is inadequate for peripheral nerve diagnostics; however, MRI neurography is suitable but on the other hand a resource and time-consuming method. Using ultrasonography for peripheral nerve diagnostics. With ultrasonography reliable diagnostics of entrapment neuropathies and traumatic nerve lesions are possible. The use of ultrasonography for neuropathies shows that a differentiation between different forms is possible. Nerve ultrasonography is an established diagnostic tool. In addition to the clinical examination and clinical electrophysiology, structural information can be obtained, which results in a clear improvement in the diagnostics. Ultrasonography has become an integral part of the diagnostic work-up of peripheral nerve lesions in neurophysiological departments. Nerve ultrasonography is recommended for the diagnostic work-up of peripheral nerve lesions in addition to clinical and electrophysiological investigations. It should be used in the clinical work-up of entrapment neuropathies, traumatic nerve lesions and spacy-occupying lesions of nerves. (orig.) [de

  8. Corneal topography with an aberrometry-topography system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mülhaupt, Michael; Dietzko, Sven; Wolffsohn, James; Bandlitz, Stefan

    2018-05-07

    To investigate the agreement between the central corneal radii and corneal eccentricity measurements generated by the new Wave Analyzer 700 Medica (WAV) compared to the Keratograph 4 (KER) and to test the repeatability of the instruments. 20 subjects (10 male, mean age 29.1 years, range 21-50 years) were recruited from the students and staff of the Cologne School of Optometry. Central corneal radii for the flat (r c/fl ) and steep (r c/st ) meridian as well as corneal eccentricity for the nasal (e nas ), temporal (e temp ), inferior (e inf ) and superior (e sup ) directions were measured using WAV and KER by one examiner in a randomized order. Central radii of the flat (r c/fl ) and steep (r c/st ) meridian measured with both instruments were statically significantly correlated (r = 0.945 and r = 0.951; p  0.05). Limits of agreement (LoA) indicate a better repeatability for the KER compared to WAV. Corneal topography measurements captured with the WAV were strongly correlated with the KER. However, due to the differences in measured corneal radii and eccentricities, the devices cannot be used interchangeably. For corneal topography the KER demonstrated better repeatability. Copyright © 2018 British Contact Lens Association. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Intraoperative cranial nerve monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harper, C Michel

    2004-03-01

    The purpose of intraoperative monitoring is to preserve function and prevent injury to the nervous system at a time when clinical examination is not possible. Cranial nerves are delicate structures and are susceptible to damage by mechanical trauma or ischemia during intracranial and extracranial surgery. A number of reliable electrodiagnostic techniques, including nerve conduction studies, electromyography, and the recording of evoked potentials have been adapted to the study of cranial nerve function during surgery. A growing body of evidence supports the utility of intraoperative monitoring of cranial nerve nerves during selected surgical procedures.

  10. Optic nerve oxygenation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stefánsson, Einar; Pedersen, Daniella Bach; Jensen, Peter Koch

    2005-01-01

    The oxygen tension of the optic nerve is regulated by the intraocular pressure and systemic blood pressure, the resistance in the blood vessels and oxygen consumption of the tissue. The oxygen tension is autoregulated and moderate changes in intraocular pressure or blood pressure do not affect...... the optic nerve oxygen tension. If the intraocular pressure is increased above 40 mmHg or the ocular perfusion pressure decreased below 50 mmHg the autoregulation is overwhelmed and the optic nerve becomes hypoxic. A disturbance in oxidative metabolism in the cytochromes of the optic nerve can be seen...... at similar levels of perfusion pressure. The levels of perfusion pressure that lead to optic nerve hypoxia in the laboratory correspond remarkably well to the levels that increase the risk of glaucomatous optic nerve atrophy in human glaucoma patients. The risk for progressive optic nerve atrophy in human...

  11. Photogrammetric portrayal of Mars topography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, S.S.C.

    1979-01-01

    Special photogrammetric techniques have been developed to portray Mars topography, using Mariner and Viking imaging and nonimaging topographic information and earth-based radar data. Topography is represented by the compilation of maps at three scales: global, intermediate, and very large scale. The global map is a synthesis of topographic information obtained from Mariner 9 and earth-based radar, compiled at a scale of 1:25,000,000 with a contour interval of 1 km; it gives a broad quantitative view of the planet. At intermediate scales, Viking Orbiter photographs of various resolutions are used to compile detailed contour maps of a broad spectrum of prominent geologic features; a contour interval as small as 20 m has been obtained from very high resolution orbital photography. Imagery from the Viking lander facsimile cameras permits construction of detailed, very large scale (1:10) topographic maps of the terrain surrounding the two landers; these maps have a contour interval of 1 cm. This paper presents several new detailed topographic maps of Mars.-Author

  12. Multiscale Study of Currents Affected by Topography

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-30

    1 DISTRIBUTION STATEMENT A. Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. Multiscale Study of Currents Affected by Topography ...the effects of topography on the ocean general and regional circulation with a focus on the wide range of scales of interactions. The small-scale...details of the topography and the waves, eddies, drag, and turbulence it generates (at spatial scales ranging from meters to mesoscale) interact in the

  13. Ultrasound imaging accurately identifies the intercostobrachial nerve

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed K. Thallaj

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To test the hypothesis that identification and blockade of the intercostobrachial nerve (ICBN can be achieved under ultrasound (US guidance using a small volume of local anesthetic. Methods: Twenty-eight adult male volunteers were examined at King Khalid University Hospital, Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia from November 2012 to September 2013. Intercostobrachial nerve blockade was performed using one ml of 2% lidocaine under US guidance. A sensory map of the blocked area was developed relative to the medial aspect of the humeral head. Results: The ICBN appears as a hyper-echoic structure. The nerve diameter was 2.3±0.28 mm, and the depth was 9±0.28 mm. The measurements of the sensory-blocked area relative to the medial aspect of the humeral head were as follows: 6.3±1.6 cm anteriorly; 6.2±2.9 cm posteriorly; 9.4±2.9 cm proximally; and 9.2±4.4 cm distally. Intercostobrachial nerve blockade using one ml of local anesthetic was successful in all cases. Conclusion: The present study described the sonographic anatomical details of the ICBN and its sensory distribution to successfully perform selective US-guided ICBN blockade.

  14. Optic nerve injury demonstrated by MRI with STIR sequences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takehara, S.; Tanaka, T.; Uemura, K.; Shinohara, Y.; Yamamoto, T.; Tokuyama, T.; Satoh, A.

    1994-01-01

    We studied nine patients with optic nerve injury associated with closed head trauma by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) with short inversion time inversion recovery (STIR) sequences on 11 occasions from 4 days to 14 years after the injury: three studies were within 17 days and eight over 4 months to 14 years. MRI revealed abnormal high signal in 10 of the 11 injured nerves. MRI 4 days after the injury showed no abnormality. (orig.)

  15. Imaging the trigeminal nerve

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borges, Alexandra; Casselman, Jan

    2010-01-01

    Of all cranial nerves, the trigeminal nerve is the largest and the most widely distributed in the supra-hyoid neck. It provides sensory input from the face and motor innervation to the muscles of mastication. In order to adequately image the full course of the trigeminal nerve and its main branches a detailed knowledge of neuroanatomy and imaging technique is required. Although the main trunk of the trigeminal nerve is consistently seen on conventional brain studies, high-resolution tailored imaging is mandatory to depict smaller nerve branches and subtle pathologic processes. Increasing developments in imaging technique made possible isotropic sub-milimetric images and curved reconstructions of cranial nerves and their branches and led to an increasing recognition of symptomatic trigeminal neuropathies. Whereas MRI has a higher diagnostic yield in patients with trigeminal neuropathy, CT is still required to demonstrate the bony anatomy of the skull base and is the modality of choice in the context of traumatic injury to the nerve. Imaging of the trigeminal nerve is particularly cumbersome as its long course from the brainstem nuclei to the peripheral branches and its rich anastomotic network impede, in most cases, a topographic approach. Therefore, except in cases of classic trigeminal neuralgia, in which imaging studies can be tailored to the root entry zone, the full course of the trigeminal nerve has to be imaged. This article provides an update in the most recent advances on MR imaging technique and a segmental imaging approach to the most common pathologic processes affecting the trigeminal nerve.

  16. Imaging the trigeminal nerve

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borges, Alexandra [Radiology Department, Instituto Portugues de Oncologia Francisco Gentil, Centro de Lisboa, Rua Prof. Lima Basto, 1093, Lisboa (Portugal)], E-mail: borgalexandra@gmail.com; Casselman, Jan [Department of Radiology, A. Z. St Jan Brugge and A. Z. St Augustinus Antwerpen Hospitals (Belgium)

    2010-05-15

    Of all cranial nerves, the trigeminal nerve is the largest and the most widely distributed in the supra-hyoid neck. It provides sensory input from the face and motor innervation to the muscles of mastication. In order to adequately image the full course of the trigeminal nerve and its main branches a detailed knowledge of neuroanatomy and imaging technique is required. Although the main trunk of the trigeminal nerve is consistently seen on conventional brain studies, high-resolution tailored imaging is mandatory to depict smaller nerve branches and subtle pathologic processes. Increasing developments in imaging technique made possible isotropic sub-milimetric images and curved reconstructions of cranial nerves and their branches and led to an increasing recognition of symptomatic trigeminal neuropathies. Whereas MRI has a higher diagnostic yield in patients with trigeminal neuropathy, CT is still required to demonstrate the bony anatomy of the skull base and is the modality of choice in the context of traumatic injury to the nerve. Imaging of the trigeminal nerve is particularly cumbersome as its long course from the brainstem nuclei to the peripheral branches and its rich anastomotic network impede, in most cases, a topographic approach. Therefore, except in cases of classic trigeminal neuralgia, in which imaging studies can be tailored to the root entry zone, the full course of the trigeminal nerve has to be imaged. This article provides an update in the most recent advances on MR imaging technique and a segmental imaging approach to the most common pathologic processes affecting the trigeminal nerve.

  17. Functional Outcomes of Multiple Sural Nerve Grafts for Facial Nerve Defects after Tumor-Ablative Surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Myung Chul Lee

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundFunctional restoration of the facial expression is necessary after facial nerve resection to treat head and neck tumors. This study was conducted to evaluate the functional outcomes of patients who underwent facial nerve cable grafting immediately after tumor resection.MethodsPatients who underwent cable grafting from April 2007 to August 2011 were reviewed, in which a harvested branch of the sural nerve was grafted onto each facial nerve division. Twelve patients underwent facial nerve cable grafting after radical parotidectomy, total parotidectomy, or schwannoma resection, and the functional facial expression of each patient was evaluated using the Facial Nerve Grading Scale 2.0. The results were analyzed according to patient age, follow-up duration, and the use of postoperative radiation therapy.ResultsAmong the 12 patients who were evaluated, the mean follow-up duration was 21.8 months, the mean age at the time of surgery was 42.8 years, and the mean facial expression score was 14.6 points, indicating moderate dysfunction. Facial expression scores were not influenced by age at the time of surgery, follow-up duration, or the use of postoperative radiation therapy.ConclusionsThe results of this study indicate that facial nerve cable grafting using the sural nerve can restore facial expression. Although patients were provided with appropriate treatment, the survival rate for salivary gland cancer was poor. We conclude that immediate facial nerve reconstruction is a worthwhile procedure that improves quality of life by allowing the recovery of facial expression, even in patients who are older or may require radiation therapy.

  18. Ophthalmic manifestations of head injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kowal, L

    1992-02-01

    Head injuries are frequently associated with ophthalmic problems. The commonest problems seen in this series of 161 patients with head injury were problems with poor accommodation (16% of patients; 58% of these persisted), convergence (14% of patients; 35% of these persisted), pseudomyopia (19%; 55% persisted) and optic atrophy (26% of the patients; 78% of these were mild and easily missed on routine testing, and 22% were severe). Motility disorders were common, especially cranial nerve palsies. Other less frequent motility disturbances included apparent inferior oblique palsy, comitant esotropia, and exotropia which was often of the convergence insufficiency type.

  19. Acute sixth nerve palsy in a young man, beware of the 'red herring'.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    O'Neill, E C

    2012-02-01

    BACKGROUND: Cranial nerve palsies has several etiologies including vascular insufficiency, neoplasm, trauma and inflammation. Isolated sixth nerve palsy is an extremely rare presenting feature of leukemia. AIM: We describe an unusual ocular presentation of a bilateral progressive sixth nerve palsy in a young male with a preceding head injury. CONCLUSION: Acquired sixth nerve palsies in young adults may be due to trauma but in the absence of a definitive history other systemic processes must be outruled. We describe a case of bilateral sixth nerve palsy in a patient with ALL with no obvious CNS involvement. Potential etiological mechanisms are discussed.

  20. Post-traumatic Unilateral Avulsion of the Abducens Nerve with Damage to Cranial Nerves VII and VIII: Case Report

    OpenAIRE

    Yamasaki, Fumiyuki; Akiyama, Yuji; Tsumura, Ryu; Kolakshyapati, Manish; Adhikari, Rupendra Bahadur; Takayasu, Takeshi; Nosaka, Ryo; Kurisu, Kaoru

    2016-01-01

    Traumatic injuries of the abducens nerve as a consequence of facial and/or head trauma occur with or without associated cervical or skull base fracture. This is the first report on unilateral avulsion of the abducens nerve in a 29-year-old man with severe right facial trauma. In addition, he exhibited mild left facial palsy, and moderate left hearing disturbance. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) using fast imaging employing steady-state acquisition (FIESTA) revealed avulsion of left sixth cra...

  1. Anatomical aspects of the nerves of the leg and foot of the giant anteater (Myrmecophaga tridactyla, Linnaeus, 1758

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.S. Cruz

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Although distal stifle joint nerve distribution has been well established in domestic animals, this approach is scarcely reported in wild animals. Therefore, the aim of this study was to describe the nerves of the leg and foot of Myrmecophaga tridactyla with emphasis on their ramification, distribution, topography and territory of innervation. For this purpose, six adult cadavers fixed and preserved in 10% formalin solution were used. The nerves of the leg and foot of the M. tridactyla were the saphenous nerve (femoral nerve branch, fibular and tibial nerves and lateral sural cutaneous nerve (branches of the sciatic nerve and caudal sural cutaneous nerve (tibial nerve branch. The saphenous nerve branches to the skin, the craniomedial surface of the leg, the medial surface of the tarsal and metatarsal regions and the dorsomedial surface of the digits I and II (100% of cases, III (50% of cases and IV (25% of cases. The lateral sural cutaneous nerve innervates the skin of the craniolateral region of the knee and leg. The fibular nerve innervates the flexor and extensor muscles of the tarsal region of the digits and skin of the craniolateral surface of the leg and dorsolateral surface of the foot. The tibial nerve innervates the extensor muscles of the tarsal joint and flexor, adductor and abductor muscles of the digits and the skin of the plantar surface. The caudal sural cutaneous nerve innervates the skin of the caudal surface of the leg. The nerves responsible for the leg and foot innervation were the same as reported in domestic and wild animals, but with some differences, such as the more distal division of the common fibular nerve, the absence of dorsal metatarsal branches of the deep fibular nerve and a greater involvement of the saphenous nerve in the digital innervation with branches to the digits III and IV, in addition to digits I and II.

  2. Conjoined lumbosacral nerve roots

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kyoshima, Kazumitsu; Nishiura, Iwao; Koyama, Tsunemaro

    1986-01-01

    Several kinds of the lumbosacral nerve root anomalies have already been recognized, and the conjoined nerve roots is the most common among them. It does not make symptoms by itself, but if there is a causation of neural entrapment, for example, disc herniation, lateral recessus stenosis, spondylolisthesis, etc., so called ''biradicular syndrome'' should occur. Anomalies of the lumbosacral nerve roots, if not properly recognized, may lead to injury of these nerves during operation of the lumbar spine. Recently, the chance of finding these anomalous roots has been increased more and more with the use of metrizamide myelography and metrizamide CT, because of the improvement of the opacification of nerve roots. We describe the findings of the anomalous roots as revealed by these two methods. They demonstrate two nerve roots running parallel and the asymmetrical wide root sleeve. Under such circumstances, it is important to distinguish the anomalous roots from the normal ventral and dorsal roots. (author)

  3. Navigating neurites utilize cellular topography of Schwann cell somas and processes for optimal guidance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez-Fagundo, Cristina; Mitchel, Jennifer A.; Ramchal, Talisha D.; Dingle, Yu-Ting L.; Hoffman-Kim, Diane

    2013-01-01

    The path created by aligned Schwann cells (SCs) after nerve injury underlies peripheral nerve regeneration. We developed geometric bioinspired substrates to extract key information needed for axon guidance by deconstructing the topographical cues presented by SCs. We have previously reported materials that directly replicate SC topography with micro- and nanoscale resolution, but a detailed explanation of the means of directed axon extension on SC topography has not yet been described. Here, using neurite tracing and time-lapse microscopy, we analyzed the SC features that influence axon guidance. Novel poly(dimethylsiloxane) materials, fabricated via photolithography, incorporated bioinspired topographical components with the shapes and sizes of aligned SCs, namely somas and processes, where the length of the processes were varied but the soma geometry and dimensions were kept constant. Rat dorsal root ganglia neurites aligned to all materials presenting bioinspired topography after a 5 days in culture and to bioinspired materials presenting soma and process features after only 17 hours in culture. Key findings of this study were: Neurite response to underlying bioinspired topographical features was time dependent, where at 5 days, neurites aligned most strongly to materials presenting combinations of soma and process features, with higher than average density of either process or soma features; but at 17 hours they aligned more strongly to materials presenting average densities of soma and process features and to materials presenting process features only. These studies elucidate the influence of SC topography on axon guidance in a time-dependent setting and have implications for the optimization of nerve regeneration strategies. PMID:23557939

  4. Surface micro topography replication in injection moulding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arlø, Uffe Rolf

    Thermoplastic injection moulding is a widely used industrial process that involves surface generation by replication. The surface topography of injection moulded plastic parts can be important for aesthetical or technical reasons. With the emergence of microengineering and nanotechnology additional...... importance of surface topography follows. In general the replication is not perfect and the topography of the plastic part differs from the inverse topography of the mould cavity. It is desirable to be able to control the degree of replication perfection or replication quality. This requires an understanding...... of the physical mechanisms of replication. Such understanding can lead to improved process design and facilitate in-line process quality control with respect to surface properties. The purpose of the project is to identify critical factors that affect topography replication quality and to obtain an understanding...

  5. Nerve growth factor reduces apoptotic cell death in rat facial motor neurons after facial nerve injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hui, Lian; Yuan, Jing; Ren, Zhong; Jiang, Xuejun

    2015-01-01

    To assess the effects of nerve growth factor (NGF) on motor neurons after induction of a facial nerve lesion, and to compare the effects of different routes of NGF injection on motor neuron survival. This study was carried out in the Department of Otolaryngology Head & Neck Surgery, China Medical University, Liaoning, China from October 2012 to March 2013. Male Wistar rats (n = 65) were randomly assigned into 4 groups: A) healthy controls; B) facial nerve lesion model + normal saline injection; C) facial nerve lesion model + NGF injection through the stylomastoid foramen; D) facial nerve lesion model + intraperitoneal injection of NGF. Apoptotic cell death was detected using the terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end-labeling assay. Expression of caspase-3 and p53 up-regulated modulator of apoptosis (PUMA) was determined by immunohistochemistry. Injection of NGF significantly reduced cell apoptosis, and also greatly decreased caspase-3 and PUMA expression in injured motor neurons. Group C exhibited better efficacy for preventing cellular apoptosis and decreasing caspase-3 and PUMA expression compared with group D (pfacial nerve injury in rats. The NGF injected through the stylomastoid foramen demonstrated better protective efficacy than when injected intraperitoneally.

  6. Schwannomas of the head and neck

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anastasios Kanatas

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Schwannomas are benign encapsulated nerve sheath tumors composed of Schwann cells. Malignant change in head and neck schwannomas is rare, with the incidence varying between 8 and 13.9%. In this review, we discuss the presentation and the management of head and neck schwannomas. The issues and difficulties based on our own experience as well as the experience of published reports from the literature are presented.

  7. Generalized mechanical pain sensitivity over nerve tissues in patients with strictly unilateral migraine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-de-las-Peñas, César; Arendt-Nielsen, Lars; Cuadrado, María Luz; Pareja, Juan A

    2009-06-01

    No study has previously analyzed pressure pain sensitivity of nerve trunks in migraine. This study aimed to examine the differences in mechanical pain sensitivity over specific nerves between patients with unilateral migraine and healthy controls. Blinded investigators assessed pressure pain thresholds (PPT) over the supra-orbital nerves (V1) and peripheral nerve trunks of both upper extremities (median, radial, and ulnar nerves) in 20 patients with strictly unilateral migraine and 20 healthy matched controls. Pain intensity after palpation over both supra-orbital nerves was also assessed. A pressure algometer was used to quantify PPT, whereas a 10-point numerical pain rate scale was used to evaluate pain to palpation over the supra-orbital nerve. The analysis of covariance revealed that pain to palpation over the supra-orbital nerve was significantly higher (P0.6). In patients with unilateral migraine, we found increased mechano-sensitivity of the supra-orbital nerve on the symptomatic side of the head. Outside the head, the same patients showed increased mechano-sensitivity of the main peripheral nerves of both upper limbs, without asymmetries. Such diffuse hypersensitivity of the peripheral nerves lends further evidence to the presence of a state of hyperexcitability of the central nervous system in patients with unilateral migraine.

  8. Communication between radial nerve and medial cutaneous nerve of forearm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R R Marathe

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Radial nerve is usually a branch of the posterior cord of the brachial plexus. It innervates triceps, anconeous, brachialis, brachioradialis, extensor carpi radialis longus muscles and gives the posterior cutaneous nerve of the arm, lower lateral cutaneous nerve of arm, posterior cutaneous nerve of forearm; without exhibiting any communication with the medial cutaneous nerve of forearm or any other nerve. We report communication between the radial nerve and medial cutaneous nerve of forearm on the left side in a 58-year-old male cadaver. The right sided structures were found to be normal. Neurosurgeons should keep such variations in mind while performing the surgeries of axilla and upper arm.

  9. Isolated optic nerve pseudotumour

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patankar, T.; Prasad, S.; Krishnan, A.; Laxminarayan, R.

    2000-01-01

    Isolated optic nerve involvement by the idiopathic inflammatory process is a rare finding and very few reports are available. Here a case of an isolated optic nerve inflammatory pseudotumour presenting with gradually progressive unilateral loss of vision is described. It showed dramatic response to a trial of steroids and its differential diagnoses are discussed. Copyright (1999) Blackwell Science Pty Ltd

  10. Axillary nerve dysfunction

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... changes in sensation or movement No history of injury to the area No signs of nerve damage These medicines reduce swelling and pressure on the nerve. They may be injected directly into the area or taken by mouth. Other medicines include: Over-the-counter pain ...

  11. Tibial nerve (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... nerve is commonly injured by fractures or other injury to the back of the knee or the lower leg. It may be affected by systemic diseases such as diabetes mellitus. The nerve can also be damaged by pressure from a tumor, abscess, or bleeding into the ...

  12. Head Lice

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... nits. You should also use hot water to wash any bed linens, towels, and clothing recently worn by the person who had head lice. Vacuum anything that can’t be washed, such as the couch, carpets, your child’s car seat, and any stuffed animals. Because head lice ...

  13. Development and Functional Organization of the Cranial Nerves in Lampreys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pombal, Manuel A; Megías, Manuel

    2018-04-16

    Lampreys, together with hagfishes, are the only extant representatives of the oldest branch of vertebrates, the agnathans, which are the sister group of gnathostomes; therefore, studies on these animals are of great evolutionary significance. Lampreys exhibit a particular life cycle with remarkable changes in their behavior, concomitant, in part, with important modifications in the head and its musculature, which might influence the development of the cranial nerves. In this context, some cranial nerves such as the optic nerve and the ocular motor nerves, which develop slowly during an extremely long larval period lasting more than five years, have been more thoroughly investigated; however, much less experimental information is available about others, such as the facial or the hypoglossal nerves. In addition, the possible existence of a "true" accessory nerve in these animals is still a matter of conjecture. Although growing in last decades, investigations on the physiology of the lamprey cranial nerves is scanty. This review focuses on past and recent findings that have contributed to characterize the anatomical organization of the cranial nerves in lampreys, including their components and nuclei, and their relations in the brain; in addition, comments on their development and functional role are also included. Anat Rec, 2018. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. SECTION 6.2 SURFACE TOPOGRAPHY ANALYSIS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Seah, M. P.; De Chiffre, Leonardo

    2005-01-01

    Surface physical analysis, i.e. topography characterisation, encompasses measurement, visualisation, and quantification. This is critical for both component form and for surface finish at macro-, micro- and nano-scales. The principal methods of surface topography measurement are stylus profilometry......, optical scanning techniques, and scanning probe microscopy (SPM). These methods, based on acquisition of topography data from point by point scans, give quantitative information of heights with respect to position. Based on a different approach, the so-called integral methods produce parameters...

  15. Promising Technique for Facial Nerve Reconstruction in Extended Parotidectomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ithzel Maria Villarreal

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Malignant tumors of the parotid gland account scarcely for 5% of all head and neck tumors. Most of these neoplasms have a high tendency for recurrence, local infiltration, perineural extension, and metastasis. Although uncommon, these malignant tumors require complex surgical treatment sometimes involving a total parotidectomy including a complete facial nerve resection. Severe functional and aesthetic facial defects are the result of a complete sacrifice or injury to isolated branches becoming an uncomfortable distress for patients and a major challenge for reconstructive surgeons.   Case Report: A case of a 54-year-old, systemically healthy male patient with a 4 month complaint of pain and swelling on the right side of the face is presented. The patient reported a rapid increase in the size of the lesion over the past 2 months. Imaging tests and histopathological analysis reported an adenoid cystic carcinoma. A complete parotidectomy was carried out with an intraoperative notice of facial nerve infiltration requiring a second intervention for nerve and defect reconstruction. A free ALT flap with vascularized nerve grafts was the surgical choice. A 6 month follow-up showed partial facial movement recovery and the facial defect mended.   Conclusion:  It is of critical importance to restore function to patients with facial nerve injury.  Vascularized nerve grafts, in many clinical and experimental studies, have shown to result in better nerve regeneration than conventional non-vascularized nerve grafts. Nevertheless, there are factors that may affect the degree, speed and regeneration rate regarding the free fasciocutaneous flap. In complex head and neck defects following a total parotidectomy, the extended free fasciocutaneous ALT (anterior-lateral thigh flap with a vascularized nerve graft is ideally suited for the reconstruction of the injured site.  Donor–site morbidity is low and additional surgical time is minimal

  16. Promising Technique for Facial Nerve Reconstruction in Extended Parotidectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villarreal, Ithzel Maria; Rodríguez-Valiente, Antonio; Castelló, Jose Ramon; Górriz, Carmen; Montero, Oscar Alvarez; García-Berrocal, Jose Ramon

    2015-11-01

    Malignant tumors of the parotid gland account scarcely for 5% of all head and neck tumors. Most of these neoplasms have a high tendency for recurrence, local infiltration, perineural extension, and metastasis. Although uncommon, these malignant tumors require complex surgical treatment sometimes involving a total parotidectomy including a complete facial nerve resection. Severe functional and aesthetic facial defects are the result of a complete sacrifice or injury to isolated branches becoming an uncomfortable distress for patients and a major challenge for reconstructive surgeons. A case of a 54-year-old, systemically healthy male patient with a 4 month complaint of pain and swelling on the right side of the face is presented. The patient reported a rapid increase in the size of the lesion over the past 2 months. Imaging tests and histopathological analysis reported an adenoid cystic carcinoma. A complete parotidectomy was carried out with an intraoperative notice of facial nerve infiltration requiring a second intervention for nerve and defect reconstruction. A free ALT flap with vascularized nerve grafts was the surgical choice. A 6 month follow-up showed partial facial movement recovery and the facial defect mended. It is of critical importance to restore function to patients with facial nerve injury. Vascularized nerve grafts, in many clinical and experimental studies, have shown to result in better nerve regeneration than conventional non-vascularized nerve grafts. Nevertheless, there are factors that may affect the degree, speed and regeneration rate regarding the free fasciocutaneous flap. In complex head and neck defects following a total parotidectomy, the extended free fasciocutaneous ALT (anterior-lateral thigh) flap with a vascularized nerve graft is ideally suited for the reconstruction of the injured site. Donor-site morbidity is low and additional surgical time is minimal compared with the time of a single ALT flap transfer.

  17. Malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumor of the oculomotor nerve

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kozic, D; Nagulic, M; Ostojic, J

    2006-01-01

    We present the short-term follow-up magnetic resonance (MR) studies and 1H-MR spectroscopy in a child with malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumor of the oculomotor nerve associated with other less aggressive cranial nerve schwannomas. The tumor revealed perineural extension and diffuse nerve...

  18. Mapping Bedrock Topography using Electromagnetic Profiling ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mapping Bedrock Topography using Electromagnetic Profiling. ... will be constructed The area under study is within the Abakaliki Shales Geologic Formation. ... micaceous sandstone; micaceous siltstone, sandy shales and shelly limestone.

  19. What are Head Cavities? - A History of Studies on Vertebrate Head Segmentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuratani, Shigeru; Adachi, Noritaka

    2016-06-01

    Motivated by the discovery of segmental epithelial coeloms, or "head cavities," in elasmobranch embryos toward the end of the 19th century, the debate over the presence of mesodermal segments in the vertebrate head became a central problem in comparative embryology. The classical segmental view assumed only one type of metamerism in the vertebrate head, in which each metamere was thought to contain one head somite and one pharyngeal arch, innervated by a set of cranial nerves serially homologous to dorsal and ventral roots of spinal nerves. The non-segmental view, on the other hand, rejected the somite-like properties of head cavities. A series of small mesodermal cysts in early Torpedo embryos, which were thought to represent true somite homologs, provided a third possible view on the nature of the vertebrate head. Recent molecular developmental data have shed new light on the vertebrate head problem, explaining that head mesoderm evolved, not by the modification of rostral somites of an amphioxus-like ancestor, but through the polarization of unspecified paraxial mesoderm into head mesoderm anteriorly and trunk somites posteriorly.

  20. Malignant Transformation of Vagal Nerve Schwannoma in to ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Schwannomas are benign, rare peripheral nerve sheath tumors that occur in the head and neck region. Some physicians opt to closely observe cases of schwannoma of the neck on an outpatient basis rather than to perform radical surgery. However, there is a possibility, albeit rare, of malignant transformation of a benign ...

  1. Malignant Transformation of Vagal Nerve Schwannoma in to ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Vagal schwannomas are benign, rare peripheral nerve sheath tumors in the head and neck region. Some physicians opt to closely observe cases of schwannoma of the neck on an outpatient basis rather than to perform radical surgery. However, there is a possibility, albeit rare, of malignant transformation of a.

  2. On effects of topography in rotating flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burmann, Fabian; Noir, Jerome; Jackson, Andrew

    2017-11-01

    Both, seismological studies and geodynamic arguments suggest that there is significant topography at the core mantle boundary (CMB). This leads to the question whether the topography of the CMB could influence the flow in the Earth's outer core. As a preliminary experiment, we investigate the effects of bottom topography in the so-called Spin-Up, where motion of a contained fluid is created by a sudden increase of rotation rate. Experiments are performed in a cylindrical container mounted on a rotating table and quantitative results are obtained with particle image velocimetry. Several horizontal length scales of topography (λ) are investigated, ranging from cases where λ is much smaller then the lateral extend of the experiment (R) to cases where λ is a fraction of R. We find that there is an optimal λ that creates maximum dissipation of kinetic energy. Depending on the length scale of the topography, kinetic energy is either dissipated in the boundary layer or in the bulk of the fluid. Two different phases of fluid motion are present: a starting flow in the from of solid rotation (phase I), which is later replaced by meso scale vortices on the length scale of bottom topography (phase II).

  3. Surface Topography Hinders Bacterial Surface Motility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Yow-Ren; Weeks, Eric R; Ducker, William A

    2018-03-21

    We demonstrate that the surface motility of the bacterium, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, is hindered by a crystalline hemispherical topography with wavelength in the range of 2-8 μm. The motility was determined by the analysis of time-lapse microscopy images of cells in a flowing growth medium maintained at 37 °C. The net displacement of bacteria over 5 min is much lower on surfaces containing 2-8 μm hemispheres than on flat topography, but displacement on the 1 μm hemispheres is not lower. That is, there is a threshold between 1 and 2 μm for response to the topography. Cells on the 4 μm hemispheres were more likely to travel parallel to the local crystal axis than in other directions. Cells on the 8 μm topography were less likely to travel across the crowns of the hemispheres and were also more likely to make 30°-50° turns than on flat surfaces. These results show that surface topography can act as a significant barrier to surface motility and may therefore hinder surface exploration by bacteria. Because surface exploration can be a part of the process whereby bacteria form colonies and seek nutrients, these results help to elucidate the mechanism by which surface topography hinders biofilm formation.

  4. Impact of lithospheric rheology on surface topography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, K.; Becker, T. W.

    2017-12-01

    The expression of mantle flow such as due to a buoyant plume as surface topography is a classical problem, yet the role of rheological complexities could benefit from further exploration. Here, we investigate the topographic expressions of mantle flow by means of numerical and analytical approaches. In numerical modeling, both conventional, free-slip and more realistic, stress-free boundary conditions are applied. For purely viscous rheology, a high viscosity lithosphere will lead to slight overestimates of topography for certain settings, which can be understood by effectively modified boundary conditions. Under stress-free conditions, numerical and analytical results show that the magnitude of dynamic topography decreases with increasing lithosphere thickness (L) and viscosity (ηL), as L-1 and ηL-3. The wavelength of dynamic topography increases linearly with L and (ηL/ ηM) 1/3. We also explore the time-dependent interactions of a rising plume with the lithosphere. For a layered lithosphere with a decoupling weak lower crust embedded between stronger upper crust and lithospheric mantle, dynamic topography increases with a thinner and weaker lower crust. The dynamic topography saturates when the decoupling viscosity is 3-4 orders lower than the viscosity of upper crust and lithospheric mantle. We further explore the role of visco-elastic and visco-elasto-plastic rheologies.

  5. Measuring topographies from conventional SEM acquisitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Qiwei; Roux, Stéphane; Latourte, Félix; Hild, François; Loisnard, Dominique; Brynaert, Nicolas

    2018-04-27

    The present study extends the stereoscopic imaging principle for estimating the surface topography to two orientations, namely, normal to the electron beam axis and inclined at 70° as suited for EBSD analyses. In spite of the large angle difference, it is shown that the topography can be accurately determined using regularized global Digital Image Correlation. The surface topography is compared to another estimate issued from a 3D FIB-SEM procedure where the sample surface is first covered by a Pt layer, and its initial topography is progressively revealed from successive FIB-milling. These two methods are successfully compared on a 6% strained steel specimen in an in situ mechanical test. This analysis is supplemented by a third approach estimating the change of topography from crystal rotations as measured from successive EBSD images. This last technique ignores plastic deformation, and thus only holds in an elastic regime. For the studied example, despite the large plastic flow, it is shown that crystal rotation already accounts for a significant part of the deformation-induced topography. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Corneal topography measurements for biometric applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Nathan D.

    The term biometrics is used to describe the process of analyzing biological and behavioral traits that are unique to an individual in order to confirm or determine his or her identity. Many biometric modalities are currently being researched and implemented including, fingerprints, hand and facial geometry, iris recognition, vein structure recognition, gait, voice recognition, etc... This project explores the possibility of using corneal topography measurements as a trait for biometric identification. Two new corneal topographers were developed for this study. The first was designed to function as an operator-free device that will allow a user to approach the device and have his or her corneal topography measured. Human subject topography data were collected with this device and compared to measurements made with the commercially available Keratron Piccolo topographer (Optikon, Rome, Italy). A third topographer that departs from the standard Placido disk technology allows for arbitrary pattern illumination through the use of LCD monitors. This topographer was built and tested to be used in future research studies. Topography data was collected from 59 subjects and modeled using Zernike polynomials, which provide for a simple method of compressing topography data and comparing one topographical measurement with a database for biometric identification. The data were analyzed to determine the biometric error rates associated with corneal topography measurements. Reasonably accurate results, between three to eight percent simultaneous false match and false non-match rates, were achieved.

  7. External factors affecting data acquisition during corneal topography examination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Méijome, José Manuel; Queirós, Antonio; Jorge, Jorge; Fernandes, Paulo; Cerviño, Alejandro; de Almeida, José Borges

    2007-03-01

    To analyze the factors affecting data acquisition during corneal topography examination with the Medmont E-300 videokeratoscope and to provide strategies to minimize their effects. Sixty eyes from thirty young adults were examined. A second observer registered incidences with the potential to affect data acquisition. Those factors were correlated with the difficulty of measurements as judged subjectively by the practitioner who performed the examination. Measurements of axial curvature were analyzed to evaluate the variability expressed as intrasession and intersession coefficient of variation and the standard error of the mean (SEM). The level of difficulty rated by the practitioner was in general low, with 70% of the eyes being easy or very easy to measure. For the remaining 30% of the eyes, corneal topography measurements were considered to be difficult (27%) or very difficult (3%). Of the external parameters investigated, only fixation instability (PSEM improved when three readings from each session were considered. The level of subjective difficulty found during videokeratoscopy examination is correlated strongly with fixation instability and the need for head reorientation in the chin rest, whereas tear-related events seem to be less relevant in the practitioner perception of test ease or difficulty. Those factors have relevance in measurement variability.

  8. Anatomical variations of pronator teres muscle: predispositional role for nerve entrapment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edie Benedito Caetano

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE: To assess the anatomical variations of the pronator teres muscle (PTM and its implication in the compression of the median nerve, which passes through the humeral and ulnar heads of the PTM. METHODS: For the present study, 100 upper limbs from human cadavers from the anatomy laboratory were dissected. Forty-six specimens were male and four, female, whose aged ranged from 28 to 77 years; 27 were white and 23, non-white. A pilot study consisting of six hands from three fresh cadaver dissections was conducted to familiarize the authors with the local anatomy; these were not included in the present study. RESULTS: The humeral and ulnar heads of PTM were present in 86 limbs. In 72 out of the 86 limbs, the median nerve was positioned between the two heads of the PTM; in 11, it passed through the muscle belly of ulnar head of the PTM, and in three, posteriorly to both heads of the PTM. When both heads were present, the median nerve was not observed as passing through the muscle belly of the humeral head of PTM. In 14 out of the 100 dissected limbs, the ulnar head of the PTM was not observed; in this situation, the median nerve was positioned posteriorly to the humeral head in 11 limbs, and passed through the humeral head in three. In 17 limbs, the ulnar head of PTM was little developed, with a fibrous band originating from the ulnar coronoid process, associated with a distal muscle component near the union with the humeral head. In four limbs, the ulnar head of the MPR was represented by a fibrous band. In both limbs of one cadaver, a fibrous band was observed between the supinator muscle and the humeral head of the PTM, passing over median nerve. CONCLUSION: The results suggest that these anatomical variations in relationship median nerve and PTM are potential factors for median nerve compression, as they narrow the space through which the median nerve passes.

  9. Nanofiber Nerve Guide for Peripheral Nerve Repair and Regeneration

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-04-01

    1 Award Number: W81XWH-11-2-0047 TITLE: Nanofiber Nerve Guide for Peripheral Nerve Repair and Regeneration PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Ahmet Höke...TITLE AND SUBTITLE 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER W81XWH-11-2-0047 Nanofiber nerve guide for peripheral nerve repair and regeneration 5b. GRANT NUMBER...goal of this collaborative research project was to develop next generation engineered nerve guide conduits (NGCs) with aligned nanofibers and

  10. Head Injuries

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... a severe blow to the head can still knock the brain into the side of the skull ... following certain precautions and taking a break from sports and other activities that make symptoms worse. Playing ...

  11. Superficial or deep implantation of motor nerve after denervation: an experimental study--superficial or deep implantation of motor nerve.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Askar, Ibrahím; Sabuncuoglu, Bízden Tavíl

    2002-01-01

    Neurorraphy, conventional nerve grafting technique, and artificial nerve conduits are not enough for repair in severe injuries of peripheral nerves, especially when there is separation of motor nerve from muscle tissue. In these nerve injuries, reinnervation is indicated for neurotization. The distal end of a peripheral nerve is divided into fascicles and implanted into the aneural zone of target muscle tissue. It is not known how deeply fascicles should be implanted into muscle tissue. A comparative study of superficial and deep implantation of separated motor nerve into muscle tissue is presented in the gastrocnemius muscle of rabbits. In this experimental study, 30 white New Zealand rabbits were used and divided into 3 groups of 10 rabbits each. In the first group (controls, group I), only surgical exposure of the gastrocnemius muscle and motor nerve (tibial nerve) was done without any injury to nerves. In the superficial implantation group (group II), tibial nerves were separated and divided into their own fascicles. These fascicles were implanted superficially into the lateral head of gastrocnemius muscle-aneural zone. In the deep implantation group (group III), the tibial nerves were separated and divided into their own fascicles. These fascicles were implanted around the center of the muscle mass, into the lateral head of the gastrocnemius muscle-aneural zone. Six months later, histopathological changes and functional recovery of the gastrocnemius muscle were investigated. Both experimental groups had less muscular weight than in the control group. It was found that functional recovery was achieved in both experimental groups, and was better in the superficial implantation group than the deep implantation group. EMG recordings revealed that polyphasic and late potentials were frequently seen in both experimental groups. Degeneration and regeneration of myofibrils were observed in both experimental groups. New motor end-plates were formed in a scattered

  12. Hippocampal neurons respond uniquely to topographies of various sizes and shapes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fozdar, David Y; Chen Shaochen; Lee, Jae Young; Schmidt, Christine E

    2010-01-01

    A number of studies have investigated the behavior of neurons on microfabricated topography for the purpose of developing interfaces for use in neural engineering applications. However, there have been few studies simultaneously exploring the effects of topographies having various feature sizes and shapes on axon growth and polarization in the first 24 h. Accordingly, here we investigated the effects of arrays of lines (ridge grooves) and holes of microscale (∼2 μm) and nanoscale (∼300 nm) dimensions, patterned in quartz (SiO 2 ), on the (1) adhesion, (2) axon establishment (polarization), (3) axon length, (4) axon alignment and (5) cell morphology of rat embryonic hippocampal neurons, to study the response of the neurons to feature dimension and geometry. Neurons were analyzed using optical and scanning electron microscopy. The topographies were found to have a negligible effect on cell attachment but to cause a marked increase in axon polarization, occurring more frequently on sub-microscale features than on microscale features. Neurons were observed to form longer axons on lines than on holes and smooth surfaces; axons were either aligned parallel or perpendicular to the line features. An analysis of cell morphology indicated that the surface features impacted the morphologies of the soma, axon and growth cone. The results suggest that incorporating microscale and sub-microscale topographies on biomaterial surfaces may enhance the biomaterials' ability to modulate nerve development and regeneration.

  13. Diabetic Nerve Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... at the wrong times. This damage is called diabetic neuropathy. Over half of people with diabetes get ... you change positions quickly Your doctor will diagnose diabetic neuropathy with a physical exam and nerve tests. ...

  14. Diabetes and nerve damage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diabetic neuropathy; Diabetes - neuropathy; Diabetes - peripheral neuropathy ... In people with diabetes, the body's nerves can be damaged by decreased blood flow and a high blood sugar level. This condition is ...

  15. Tumors of peripheral nerves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ho, Michael; Lutz, Amelie M.

    2017-01-01

    Differentiation between malignant and benign tumors of peripheral nerves in the early stages is challenging; however, due to the unfavorable prognosis of malignant tumors early identification is required. To show the possibilities for detection, differential diagnosis and clinical management of peripheral nerve tumors by imaging appearance in magnetic resonance (MR) neurography. Review of current literature available in PubMed and MEDLINE, supplemented by the authors' own observations in clinical practice. Although not pathognomonic, several imaging features have been reported for a differentiation between distinct peripheral nerve tumors. The use of MR neurography enables detection and initial differential diagnosis in tumors of peripheral nerves. Furthermore, it plays an important role in clinical follow-up, targeted biopsy and surgical planning. (orig.) [de

  16. Malignant Peripheral Nerve Sheath Tumour of the Maxilla

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Puja Sahai

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A 38-year-old man was diagnosed with malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumour of the maxilla. He was treated with total maxillectomy. Histopathological examination of the resected specimen revealed a close resection margin. The tumour was of high grade with an MIB-1 labelling index of almost 60%. At six weeks following the surgery, he developed local tumour relapse. The patient succumbed to the disease at five months from the time of diagnosis. The present report underlines the locally aggressive nature of malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumour of the maxilla which necessitates an early therapeutic intervention. A complete resection with clear margins is the most important prognostic factor for malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumour in the head and neck region. Adjuvant radiotherapy may be considered to improve the local control. Future research may demarcate the role of targeted therapy for patients with malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumour.

  17. End-to-side neurorrhaphy repairs peripheral nerve injury: sensory nerve induces motor nerve regeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Qing; Zhang, She-Hong; Wang, Tao; Peng, Feng; Han, Dong; Gu, Yu-Dong

    2017-10-01

    End-to-side neurorrhaphy is an option in the treatment of the long segment defects of a nerve. It involves suturing the distal stump of the disconnected nerve (recipient nerve) to the side of the intimate adjacent nerve (donor nerve). However, the motor-sensory specificity after end-to-side neurorrhaphy remains unclear. This study sought to evaluate whether cutaneous sensory nerve regeneration induces motor nerves after end-to-side neurorrhaphy. Thirty rats were randomized into three groups: (1) end-to-side neurorrhaphy using the ulnar nerve (mixed sensory and motor) as the donor nerve and the cutaneous antebrachii medialis nerve as the recipient nerve; (2) the sham group: ulnar nerve and cutaneous antebrachii medialis nerve were just exposed; and (3) the transected nerve group: cutaneous antebrachii medialis nerve was transected and the stumps were turned over and tied. At 5 months, acetylcholinesterase staining results showed that 34% ± 16% of the myelinated axons were stained in the end-to-side group, and none of the myelinated axons were stained in either the sham or transected nerve groups. Retrograde fluorescent tracing of spinal motor neurons and dorsal root ganglion showed the proportion of motor neurons from the cutaneous antebrachii medialis nerve of the end-to-side group was 21% ± 5%. In contrast, no motor neurons from the cutaneous antebrachii medialis nerve of the sham group and transected nerve group were found in the spinal cord segment. These results confirmed that motor neuron regeneration occurred after cutaneous nerve end-to-side neurorrhaphy.

  18. Electronic Cigarette Topography in the Natural Environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, R J; Hensel, E C; Morabito, P N; Roundtree, K A

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents the results of a clinical, observational, descriptive study to quantify the use patterns of electronic cigarette users in their natural environment. Previously published work regarding puff topography has been widely indirect in nature, and qualitative rather than quantitative, with the exception of three studies conducted in a laboratory environment for limited amounts of time. The current study quantifies the variation in puffing behaviors among users as well as the variation for a given user throughout the course of a day. Puff topography characteristics computed for each puffing session by each subject include the number of subject puffs per puffing session, the mean puff duration per session, the mean puff flow rate per session, the mean puff volume per session, and the cumulative puff volume per session. The same puff topography characteristics are computed across all puffing sessions by each single subject and across all subjects in the study cohort. Results indicate significant inter-subject variability with regard to puffing topography, suggesting that a range of representative puffing topography patterns should be used to drive machine-puffed electronic cigarette aerosol evaluation systems.

  19. Regeneration of Optic Nerve

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kwok-Fai So

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The optic nerve is part of the central nervous system (CNS and has a structure similar to other CNS tracts. The axons that form the optic nerve originate in the ganglion cell layer of the retina and extend through the optic tract. As a tissue, the optic nerve has the same organization as the white matter of the brain in regard to its glia. There are three types of glial cells: Oligodendrocytes, astrocytes, and microglia. Little structural and functional regeneration of the CNS takes place spontaneously following injury in adult mammals. In contrast, the ability of the mammalian peripheral nervous system (PNS to regenerate axons after injury is well documented. A number of factors are involved in the lack of CNS regeneration, including: (i the response of neuronal cell bodies against the damage; (ii myelin-mediated inhibition by oligodendrocytes; (iii glial scarring, by astrocytes; (iv macrophage infiltration; and (v insufficient trophic factor support. The fundamental difference in the regenerative capacity between CNS and PNS neuronal cell bodies has been the subject of intensive research. In the CNS the target normally conveys a retrograde trophic signal to the cell body. CNS neurons die because of trophic deprivation. Damage to the optic nerve disconnects the neuronal cell body from its target-derived trophic peptides, leading to the death of retinal ganglion cells. Furthermore, the axontomized neurons become less responsive to the peptide trophic signals they do receive. On the other hand, adult PNS neurons are intrinsically responsive to neurotrophic factors and do not lose trophic responsiveness after axotomy. In this talk different strategies to promote optic-nerve regeneration in adult mammals are reviewed. Much work is still needed to resolve many issues. This is a very important area of neuroregeneration and neuroprotection, as currently there is no cure after traumatic optic nerve injury or retinal disease such as glaucoma, which

  20. The anatomic basis of lingual nerve trauma associated with inferior alveolar block injections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Christopher D; Rasmussen, Jared; Throckmorton, Gaylord S; Finn, Richard

    2010-11-01

    This study describes the anatomic variability in the position of the lingual nerve in the pterygomandibular space, the location of the inferior alveolar nerve block injection. Simulated standard landmark-based inferior alveolar nerve blocks were administered to 44 fixed sagitally bisected cadaver heads. Measurements were made of the diameter of the nerves and distances between the needle and selected anatomic landmarks and the nerves. Of 44 simulated injections, 42 (95.5%) passed lateral to the lingual nerve, 7 (16%) passed within 0.1 mm of the nerve, and 2 (4.5%) penetrated the nerve. The position of the lingual nerve relative to bony landmarks within the interpterygoid fascia was highly variable. Variation in the position of the lingual nerve is an important contributor to lingual nerve trauma during inferior alveolar block injections. This factor should be an important part of preoperative informed consent. Copyright © 2010 American Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Acellular Nerve Allografts in Peripheral Nerve Regeneration: A Comparative Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Amy M.; MacEwan, Matthew; Santosa, Katherine B.; Chenard, Kristofer E.; Ray, Wilson Z.; Hunter, Daniel A.; Mackinnon, Susan E.; Johnson, Philip J.

    2011-01-01

    Background Processed nerve allografts offer a promising alternative to nerve autografts in the surgical management of peripheral nerve injuries where short deficits exist. Methods Three established models of acellular nerve allograft (cold-preserved, detergent-processed, and AxoGen® -processed nerve allografts) were compared to nerve isografts and silicone nerve guidance conduits in a 14 mm rat sciatic nerve defect. Results All acellular nerve grafts were superior to silicone nerve conduits in support of nerve regeneration. Detergent-processed allografts were similar to isografts at 6 weeks post-operatively, while AxoGen®-processed and cold-preserved allografts supported significantly fewer regenerating nerve fibers. Measurement of muscle force confirmed that detergent-processed allografts promoted isograft-equivalent levels of motor recovery 16 weeks post-operatively. All acellular allografts promoted greater amounts of motor recovery compared to silicone conduits. Conclusions These findings provide evidence that differential processing for removal of cellular constituents in preparing acellular nerve allografts affects recovery in vivo. PMID:21660979

  2. High-speed X-ray topography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eckers, W.; Oppolzer, H.

    1977-01-01

    The investigation of lattice defects in semiconductor crystals by conventional X-ray diffraction topography is very time-consuming. Exposure times can be reduced by using high-intensity X-rays and X-ray image intensifiers. The described system comprises a high-power rotating-anode X-ray tube, a remote-controlled X-ray topography camera, and a television system operating with an X-ray sensing VIDICON. System performance is demonstrated with reference to exploratory examples. The exposure time for photographic plates is reduced to 1/20 and for the X-ray TV system (resolution of the order of 30 μm) to 1/100 relative to that required when using a conventional topography system. (orig.) [de

  3. Experiments on topographies lacking tidal conversion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maas, Leo; Paci, Alexandre; Yuan, Bing

    2015-11-01

    In a stratified sea, internal tides are supposedly generated when the tide passes over irregular topography. It has been shown that for any given frequency in the internal wave band there are an infinite number of exceptions to this rule of thumb. This ``stealth-like'' property of the topography is due to a subtle annihilation of the internal waves generated during the surface tide's passage over the irregular bottom. We here demonstrate this in a lab-experiment. However, for any such topography, subsequently changing the surface tide's frequency does lead to tidal conversion. The upshot of this is that a tidal wave passing over an irregular bottom is for a substantial part trapped to this irregularity, and only partly converted into freely propagating internal tides. Financially supported by the European Community's 7th Framework Programme HYDRALAB IV.

  4. Morphological pattern of intrinsic nerve plexus distributed on the rabbit heart and interatrial septum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saburkina, Inga; Gukauskiene, Ligita; Rysevaite, Kristina; Brack, Kieran E; Pauza, Audrys G; Pauziene, Neringa; Pauza, Dainius H

    2014-01-01

    Although the rabbit is routinely used as the animal model of choice to investigate cardiac electrophysiology, the neuroanatomy of the rabbit heart is not well documented. The aim of this study was to examine the topography of the intrinsic nerve plexus located on the rabbit heart surface and interatrial septum stained histochemically for acetylcholinesterase using pressure-distended whole hearts and whole-mount preparations from 33 Californian rabbits. Mediastinal cardiac nerves entered the venous part of the heart along the root of the right cranial vein (superior caval vein) and at the bifurcation of the pulmonary trunk. The accessing nerves of the venous part of the heart passed into the nerve plexus of heart hilum at the heart base. Nerves approaching the heart extended epicardially and innervated the atria, interatrial septum and ventricles by five nerve subplexuses, i.e. left and middle dorsal, dorsal right atrial, ventral right and left atrial subplexuses. Numerous nerves accessed the arterial part of the arterial part of the heart hilum between the aorta and pulmonary trunk, and distributed onto ventricles by the left and right coronary subplexuses. Clusters of intrinsic cardiac neurons were concentrated at the heart base at the roots of pulmonary veins with some positioned on the infundibulum. The mean number of intrinsic neurons in the rabbit heart is not significantly affected by aging: 2200 ± 262 (range 1517–2788; aged) vs. 2118 ± 108 (range 1513–2822; juvenile). In conclusion, despite anatomic differences in the distribution of intrinsic cardiac neurons and the presence of well-developed nerve plexus within the heart hilum, the topography of all seven subplexuses of the intrinsic nerve plexus in rabbit heart corresponds rather well to other mammalian species, including humans. PMID:24527844

  5. Neuromuscular ultrasound of cranial nerves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tawfik, Eman A; Walker, Francis O; Cartwright, Michael S

    2015-04-01

    Ultrasound of cranial nerves is a novel subdomain of neuromuscular ultrasound (NMUS) which may provide additional value in the assessment of cranial nerves in different neuromuscular disorders. Whilst NMUS of peripheral nerves has been studied, NMUS of cranial nerves is considered in its initial stage of research, thus, there is a need to summarize the research results achieved to date. Detailed scanning protocols, which assist in mastery of the techniques, are briefly mentioned in the few reference textbooks available in the field. This review article focuses on ultrasound scanning techniques of the 4 accessible cranial nerves: optic, facial, vagus and spinal accessory nerves. The relevant literatures and potential future applications are discussed.

  6. Chitin biological absorbable catheters bridging sural nerve grafts transplanted into sciatic nerve defects promote nerve regeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhi-Yong; Wang, Jian-Wei; Qin, Li-Hua; Zhang, Wei-Guang; Zhang, Pei-Xun; Jiang, Bao-Guo

    2018-06-01

    To investigate the efficacy of chitin biological absorbable catheters in a rat model of autologous nerve transplantation. A segment of sciatic nerve was removed to produce a sciatic nerve defect, and the sural nerve was cut from the ipsilateral leg and used as a graft to bridge the defect, with or without use of a chitin biological absorbable catheter surrounding the graft. The number and morphology of regenerating myelinated fibers, nerve conduction velocity, nerve function index, triceps surae muscle morphology, and sensory function were evaluated at 9 and 12 months after surgery. All of the above parameters were improved in rats in which the nerve graft was bridged with chitin biological absorbable catheters compared with rats without catheters. The results of this study indicate that use of chitin biological absorbable catheters to surround sural nerve grafts bridging sciatic nerve defects promotes recovery of structural, motor, and sensory function and improves muscle fiber morphology. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. 142 Key words: Brachialis, radial nerve, musculocutaneous nerve.

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    AWORI KIRSTEEN

    The innervation of brachialis muscle by the musculocutaneous nerve has been described as either type I or type II and the main trunk to this muscle is rarely absent. The contribution .... brachialis muscle by fiber analysis of supply nerves].

  8. Nerve conduction and excitability studies in peripheral nerve disorders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krarup, Christian; Moldovan, Mihai

    2009-01-01

    counterparts in the peripheral nervous system, in some instances without peripheral nervous system symptoms. Both hereditary and acquired demyelinating neuropathies have been studied and the effects on nerve pathophysiology have been compared with degeneration and regeneration of axons. SUMMARY: Excitability......PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The review is aimed at providing information about the role of nerve excitability studies in peripheral nerve disorders. It has been known for many years that the insight into peripheral nerve pathophysiology provided by conventional nerve conduction studies is limited. Nerve...... excitability studies are relatively novel but are acquiring an increasingly important role in the study of peripheral nerves. RECENT FINDINGS: By measuring responses in nerve that are related to nodal function (strength-duration time constant, rheobase and recovery cycle) and internodal function (threshold...

  9. Head Start.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenman, Geri

    2000-01-01

    Discusses an art project in which students created drawings of mop heads. Explains that the approach of drawing was more important than the subject. States that the students used the chiaroscuro technique, used by Rembrandt and Caravaggio, in which light appears out of the darkness. (CMK)

  10. Cranial nerve palsies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruggieri, P.; Adelizzi, J.; Modic, M.T.; Ross, J.S.; Tkach, J.; Masaryk, T.J.

    1990-01-01

    This paper evaluates the utility of multiplanar reconstructions (MPRs) of three-dimensional (3D) MR angiography data sets in the examination of patients with cranial nerve palsies. The authors hypothesis was that 3D data could be reformatted to highlight the intricate spatial relationships of vessels to adjacent neural tissues by taking advantage of the high vessel-parenchyma contrast in high-resolution 3D time-of-flight sequences. Twenty patients with cranial nerve palsies and 10 asymptomatic patients were examined with coronal T1-weighted and axial T2-weighted imaging plus a gadolinium-enhanced 3D MRA sequence (40/7/15 degrees, axial 60-mm volume, 0.9-mm isotropic resolution). Cranial nerves II-VIII were subsequently evaluated on axial and reformatted coronal and/or sagittal images

  11. Lower cranial nerves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soldatos, Theodoros; Batra, Kiran; Blitz, Ari M; Chhabra, Avneesh

    2014-02-01

    Imaging evaluation of cranial neuropathies requires thorough knowledge of the anatomic, physiologic, and pathologic features of the cranial nerves, as well as detailed clinical information, which is necessary for tailoring the examinations, locating the abnormalities, and interpreting the imaging findings. This article provides clinical, anatomic, and radiological information on lower (7th to 12th) cranial nerves, along with high-resolution magnetic resonance images as a guide for optimal imaging technique, so as to improve the diagnosis of cranial neuropathy. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Topography of the Betics: crustal thickening, dynamic topography and relief inheritance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janowski, Marianne; Loget, Nicolas; Bellahsen, Nicolas; Husson, Laurent; Le Pourhiet, Laetitia; Meyer, Bertrand

    2017-04-01

    The main mechanism that explains high orogenic topographies is the isostatic adjustment due to crustal thickening. However in the Betic Cordillera (South Spain), the present-day elevation and crustal thickness are not correlated. That is at odds with the general premise of isostasy and requires reappraising the question of the driving mechanisms leading to the current topography. The Betics are located at the western edge of the alpine Mediterranean belt. Its Cenozoic orogenic building was disrupted by a major crustal thinning event induced by a slab rollback in the internal zones (Alboran domain) during Neogene. Topography was largely levelled and flooded by the sea during Neogene extension, and then has been folded since the Late Tortonian inversion. The present-day topography shows flat summits still preserved from fluvial regression in the internal zones (central and eastern Betics). These low-relief surfaces may be inherited from the Neogene planation toward sea-level as rocks cooling histories inferred from low-temperature thermochronology seem to point it out. Post-Tortonian shortening estimated thanks to a crustal-scale N-S cross-section in the eastern Betics (at the Sierra Nevada longitude) does not exceed few kilometers which is much lower than the shortening required by isostatic equilibrium, and is thus insufficient to explain the post-Tortonian topography building. We tested the hypothesis that mantle dynamics could in fact be an important mechanism that explains the topography of the Betics. We first computed the residual topography (i.e. the non-isostatic component of the elevation) using the most recent published Moho mapping of the area. In the western Betics, our results show important negative residual topography (down to -3 km) possibly associated with the west-Alboran slab suction. In the eastern Betics however, positive residual topography is important (up to +3 km) and can be explained by the dynamic mantle support of the topography, possibly

  13. Tumors of the optic nerve

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindegaard, Jens; Heegaard, Steffen

    2009-01-01

    A variety of lesions may involve the optic nerve. Mainly, these lesions are inflammatory or vascular lesions that rarely necessitate surgery but may induce significant visual morbidity. Orbital tumors may induce proptosis, visual loss, relative afferent pupillary defect, disc edema and optic...... atrophy, but less than one-tenth of these tumors are confined to the optic nerve or its sheaths. No signs or symptoms are pathognomonic for tumors of the optic nerve. The tumors of the optic nerve may originate from the optic nerve itself (primary tumors) as a proliferation of cells normally present...... in the nerve (e.g., astrocytes and meningothelial cells). The optic nerve may also be invaded from tumors originating elsewhere (secondary tumors), invading the nerve from adjacent structures (e.g., choroidal melanoma and retinoblastoma) or from distant sites (e.g., lymphocytic infiltration and distant...

  14. X-ray topography and multiple diffraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, S.-L.

    1983-01-01

    A short summary on X-ray topography, which is based on the dynamical theory of X-ray diffraction, is made. The applications and properties related to the use of the multiple diffraction technique are analized and discussed. (L.C.) [pt

  15. Imaging the ocular motor nerves.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ferreira, T.; Verbist, B.M.; Buchem, M. van; Osch, T. van; Webb, A.

    2010-01-01

    The ocular motor nerves (OMNs) comprise the oculomotor, trochlear and the abducens nerves. According to their course, they are divided into four or five anatomic segments: intra-axial, cisternal, cavernous and intra-orbital and, for the abducens nerve, an additional interdural segment. Magnetic

  16. Optic nerve oxygen tension

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kiilgaard, Jens Folke; Pedersen, D B; Eysteinsson, T

    2004-01-01

    The authors have previously reported that carbonic anhydrase inhibitors such as acetazolamide and dorzolamide raise optic nerve oxygen tension (ONPO(2)) in pigs. The purpose of the present study was to investigate whether timolol, which belongs to another group of glaucoma drugs called beta...

  17. Assessment of nerve regeneration across nerve allografts treated with tacrolimus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haisheng, Han; Songjie, Zuo; Xin, Li

    2008-01-01

    Although regeneration of nerve allotransplant is a major concern in the clinic, there have been few papers quantitatively assessing functional recovery of animals' nerve allografts in the long term. In this study, functional recovery, histopathological study, and immunohistochemistry changes of rat nerve allograft with FK506 were investigated up to 12 weeks without slaughtering. C57 and SD rats were used for transplantation. The donor's nerve was sliced and transplanted into the recipient. The sciatic nerve was epineurally sutured with 10-0 nylon. In total, 30 models of transplantation were performed and divided into 3 groups that were either treated with FK506 or not. Functional recovery of the grafted nerve was serially assessed by the pin click test, walking track analysis and electrophysiological evaluations. A histopathological study and immunohistochemistry study were done in the all of the models. Nerve allografts treated with FK506 have no immune rejection through 12 weeks. Sensibility had similarly improved in both isografts and allografts. There has been no difference in each graft. Walk track analysis demonstrates significant recovery of motor function of the nerve graft. No histological results of difference were found up to 12 weeks in each graft. In the rodent nerve graft model, FK506 prevented nerve allograft rejection across a major histocompatibility barrier. Sensory recovery seems to be superior to motor function. Nerve isograft and allograft treated with FK506 have no significant difference in function recovery, histopathological result, and immunohistochemistry changes.

  18. OCULAR MANIFESTATIONS OF HEAD INJURIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kanukollu Venkata Madusudana Rao

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND This prospective study aimed to evaluate the incidence of ocular manifestations in head injury and their correlation with the intracranial lesions. MATERIALS AND METHODS A total of 108 consecutive cases of closed head injury admitted in the neurosurgical ward of a tertiary teaching hospital underwent a thorough ophthalmic assessment. Clinical examination, radiological imaging and Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS were applied to grade the severity of injury. RESULTS Total number of 108 patients of head injury were examined of which 38 patients had ocular manifestations (35.18%. Of these, 85.18% were males, 84% of injuries were due to road traffic accidents and 16% were due to fall from a height. The ocular manifestations were as follows- Orbital complications were seen in 6 patients (15.8%. Anterior segment manifestations included black eyes seen in 10 patients (26.3%, subconjunctival haemorrhage in 10.5% of patients (4 patients, corneal involvement in 21% of patients (8 patients and pupillary involvement in 50% of patients (19 patients. Posterior segment manifestations were seen in 26.3% of patients (10 patients and were as follows- Purtscher’s retinopathy in 2 patients and optic atrophy in 5 patients. Cranial nerve palsies were seen in 15 patients (39.47% and supranuclear movement disorders were seen in 3 patients (8%. CONCLUSION Even though, neurosurgeons perform comprehensive clinical examination including eye examination, the main purpose is limited to aid topical diagnosis of neurological lesions. This study emphasises the importance of a detailed eye examination by an ophthalmologist to prevent irreversible visual loss in addition to aiding in the neurological diagnosis. Pupillary involvement, papilloedema and ocular motor paresis pointed to a more severe head injury. This observational prospective study helped us to correlate the severity of head injuries in association with ocular findings in patients admitted in neurosurgical ward

  19. Biocompatibility of Different Nerve Tubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stang, Felix; Keilhoff, Gerburg; Fansa, Hisham

    2009-01-01

    Bridging nerve gaps with suitable grafts is a major clinical problem. The autologous nerve graft is considered to be the gold standard, providing the best functional results; however, donor site morbidity is still a major disadvantage. Various attempts have been made to overcome the problems of autologous nerve grafts with artificial nerve tubes, which are “ready-to-use” in almost every situation. A wide range of materials have been used in animal models but only few have been applied to date clinically, where biocompatibility is an inevitable prerequisite. This review gives an idea about artificial nerve tubes with special focus on their biocompatibility in animals and humans.

  20. Pathology of the vestibulocochlear nerve

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Foer, Bert [Department of Radiology, Sint-Augustinus Hospital, Oosterveldlaan 24, 2610 Wilrijk (Belgium)], E-mail: bert.defoer@GZA.be; Kenis, Christoph [Department of Radiology, Sint-Augustinus Hospital, Oosterveldlaan 24, 2610 Wilrijk (Belgium)], E-mail: christophkenis@hotmail.com; Van Melkebeke, Deborah [Department of Neurology, Sint-Augustinus Hospital, Oosterveldlaan 24, 2610 Wilrijk (Belgium)], E-mail: Deborah.vanmelkebeke@Ugent.be; Vercruysse, Jean-Philippe [University Department of ENT, Sint-Augustinus Hospital, Oosterveldlaan 24, 2610 Wilrijk (Belgium)], E-mail: jphver@yahoo.com; Somers, Thomas [University Department of ENT, Sint-Augustinus Hospital, Oosterveldlaan 24, 2610 Wilrijk (Belgium)], E-mail: Thomas.somers@GZA.be; Pouillon, Marc [Department of Radiology, Sint-Augustinus Hospital, Oosterveldlaan 24, 2610 Wilrijk (Belgium)], E-mail: marc.pouillon@GZA.be; Offeciers, Erwin [University Department of ENT, Sint-Augustinus Hospital, Oosterveldlaan 24, 2610 Wilrijk (Belgium)], E-mail: Erwin.offeciers@GZA.be; Casselman, Jan W. [Department of Radiology, AZ Sint-Jan AV Hospital, Ruddershove 10, Bruges (Belgium); Consultant Radiologist, Sint-Augustinus Hospital, Oosterveldlaan 24, 2610 Wilrijk (Belgium); Academic Consultent, University of Ghent (Belgium)], E-mail: jan.casselman@azbrugge.be

    2010-05-15

    There is a large scala of pathology affecting the vestibulocochlear nerve. Magnetic resonance imaging is the method of choice for the investigation of pathology of the vestibulocochlear nerve. Congenital pathology mainly consists of agenesis or hypoplasia of the vestibulocochlear nerve. Tumoral pathology affecting the vestibulocochlear nerve is most frequently located in the internal auditory canal or cerebellopontine angle. Schwannoma of the vestibulocochlear nerve is the most frequently found tumoral lesion followed by meningeoma, arachnoid cyst and epidermoid cyst. The most frequently encountered pathologies as well as some more rare entities are discussed in this chapter.

  1. Pathology of the vestibulocochlear nerve

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Foer, Bert; Kenis, Christoph; Van Melkebeke, Deborah; Vercruysse, Jean-Philippe; Somers, Thomas; Pouillon, Marc; Offeciers, Erwin; Casselman, Jan W.

    2010-01-01

    There is a large scala of pathology affecting the vestibulocochlear nerve. Magnetic resonance imaging is the method of choice for the investigation of pathology of the vestibulocochlear nerve. Congenital pathology mainly consists of agenesis or hypoplasia of the vestibulocochlear nerve. Tumoral pathology affecting the vestibulocochlear nerve is most frequently located in the internal auditory canal or cerebellopontine angle. Schwannoma of the vestibulocochlear nerve is the most frequently found tumoral lesion followed by meningeoma, arachnoid cyst and epidermoid cyst. The most frequently encountered pathologies as well as some more rare entities are discussed in this chapter.

  2. Historical development of synchrotron x-ray diffraction topography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawado, Seiji

    2011-01-01

    After a short history of X-ray diffraction topography, from the early stage of laboratory X-ray topography to recent synchrotron-radiation applications, is described, the development of science and technology for the synchrotron X-ray topography and its industrial applications are reviewed in more detail. In addition, the recent trend to synchrotron topography research is clarified on the basis of several data obtained from 256 papers which have been published since 2000. (author)

  3. Flued head replacement alternatives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smetters, J.L.

    1987-01-01

    This paper discusses flued head replacement options. Section 2 discusses complete flued head replacement with a design that eliminates the inaccessible welds. Section 3 discusses alternate flued head support designs that can drastically reduce flued head installation costs. Section 4 describes partial flued head replacement designs. Finally, Section 5 discusses flued head analysis methods. (orig./GL)

  4. Vascularized nerve grafts for lower extremity nerve reconstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terzis, Julia K; Kostopoulos, Vasileios K

    2010-02-01

    Vascularized nerve grafts (VNG) were introduced in 1976 but since then, there have been no reports of their usage in lower extremity reconstruction systematically. The factors influencing outcomes as well as a comparison with conventional nerve grafts will be presented.Since 1981, 14 lower extremity nerve injuries in 12 patients have been reconstructed with VNG. Common peroneal nerve was injured in 12 and posterior tibial nerve in 5 patients. The level of the injury was at the knee or thigh. Twelve sural nerves were used as VNG with or without concomitant vascularized posterior calf fascia.All patients regained improved sensibility and adequate posterior tibial nerve function. For common peroneal nerve reconstructions, all patients with denervation time less than 6 months regained muscle strength of grade at least 4, even when long grafts were used for defects of 20 cm or more. Late cases, yielded inadequate muscle function even with the use of VNG.Denervation time of 6 months or less was critical for reconstruction with vascularized nerve graft. Not only the results were statistically significant compared with late cases, but also all early operated patients achieved excellent results. VNG are strongly recommended in traction avulsion injuries of the lower extremity with lengthy nerve damage.

  5. Goniometer head

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dzhazairov-Kakhramanov, V.; Berger, V.D.; Kadyrzhanov, K.K.; Zarifov, R.A.

    1994-01-01

    The goniometer head is an electromechanical instrument that performs the independent transfer of a testing sample on three coordinate axes (X, Y, Z) within limits of ±8 mm and independent rotation relative of these directions. The instrument comprises a sample holder, bellows component and three electrometer drives. The sample holder rotates around the axes X and Y, and is installed on the central arm which rotates around axis Z. One characteristic of this instrument is its independence which allows its use in any camera for researches in the field of radiation physics. 2 figs

  6. Description of two-process surface topography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grabon, W; Pawlus, P

    2014-01-01

    After two machining processes, a large number of surface topography measurements were made using Talyscan 150 stylus measuring equipment. The measured samples were divided into two groups. The first group contained two-process surfaces of random nature, while the second group used random-deterministic textures of random plateau parts and portions of deterministic valleys. For comparison, one-process surfaces were also analysed. Correlation and regression analysis was used to study the dependencies among surface texture parameters in 2D and 3D systems. As the result of this study, sets of parameters describing multi-process surface topography were obtained for two-process surfaces of random and of random-deterministic types. (papers)

  7. Customizable rigid head fixation for infants: technical note.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Udayakumaran, Suhas; Onyia, Chiazor U

    2016-01-01

    The need and advantages of rigid fixation of the head in cranial surgeries are well documented (Berryhill et al., Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg 121:269-273, 1999). Head fixation for neurosurgical procedures in infants and in early years has been a challenge and is fraught with risk. Despite the fact that pediatric pins are designed, rigid head fixation involving direct application of pins to the head of infants and slightly older children is still generally not safe (Agrawal and Steinbok, Childs Nerv Syst 22:1473-1474, 2006). Yet, there are some surgeries in which some form of rigid fixation is required (Agrawal and Steinbok, Childs Nerv Syst 22:1473-1474, 2006). We describe a simple technique to achieve rigid fixation of the head in infants for neurosurgical procedures. This involves applying a head band made of Plaster of Paris (POP) around the head and then applying the fixation pins of the fixation frame directly on to the POP. We have used this technique of head fixation successfully for infants with no complications.

  8. Median Nerve Palsy following Elastic Stable Intramedullary Nailing of a Monteggia Fracture: An Unusual Case and Review of the Literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Surjit Lidder

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Monteggia fractures are rare in children, and subtle radial head dislocations, with minor plastic deformation of the ulna, may be missed in up to a third of cases. Complications of Monteggia fractures-dislocations include persistent radial head dislocation, forearm deformity, elbow stiffness, and nerve palsies at the time of presentation. An unusual case of median nerve palsy following elastic stable intramedullary nailing of a type I Monteggia lesion in a 6-year-old girl is presented, and we highlight that, although most nerve palsies associated with a Monteggia fracture-dislocations are treated expectantly in children, early intervention here probably provided the best outcome.

  9. Spike voltage topography in temporal lobe epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asadi-Pooya, Ali A; Asadollahi, Marjan; Shimamoto, Shoichi; Lorenzo, Matthew; Sperling, Michael R

    2016-07-15

    We investigated the voltage topography of interictal spikes in patients with temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) to see whether topography was related to etiology for TLE. Adults with TLE, who had epilepsy surgery for drug-resistant seizures from 2011 until 2014 at Jefferson Comprehensive Epilepsy Center were selected. Two groups of patients were studied: patients with mesial temporal sclerosis (MTS) on MRI and those with other MRI findings. The voltage topography maps of the interictal spikes at the peak were created using BESA software. We classified the interictal spikes as polar, basal, lateral, or others. Thirty-four patients were studied, from which the characteristics of 340 spikes were investigated. The most common type of spike orientation was others (186 spikes; 54.7%), followed by lateral (146; 42.9%), polar (5; 1.5%), and basal (3; 0.9%). Characteristics of the voltage topography maps of the spikes between the two groups of patients were somewhat different. Five spikes in patients with MTS had polar orientation, but none of the spikes in patients with other MRI findings had polar orientation (odds ratio=6.98, 95% confidence interval=0.38 to 127.38; p=0.07). Scalp topographic mapping of interictal spikes has the potential to offer different information than visual inspection alone. The present results do not allow an immediate clinical application of our findings; however, detecting a polar spike in a patient with TLE may increase the possibility of mesial temporal sclerosis as the underlying etiology. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. ATM Coastal Topography-Mississippi, 2001

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nayegandhi, Amar; Yates, Xan; Brock, John C.; Sallenger, A.H.; Klipp, Emily S.; Wright, C. Wayne

    2009-01-01

    These remotely sensed, geographically referenced elevation measurements of lidar-derived first-surface (FS) topography were produced collaboratively by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), Florida Integrated Science Center (FISC), St. Petersburg, FL, and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), Wallops Flight Facility, VA. This project provides highly detailed and accurate datasets of the Mississippi coastline, from Lakeshore to Petit Bois Island, acquired September 9-10, 2001. The datasets are made available for use as a management tool to research scientists and natural-resource managers. An innovative scanning lidar instrument originally developed by NASA, and known as the Airborne Topographic Mapper (ATM), was used during data acquisition. The ATM system is a scanning lidar system that measures high-resolution topography of the land surface and incorporates a green-wavelength laser operating at pulse rates of 2 to 10 kilohertz. Measurements from the laser-ranging device are coupled with data acquired from inertial navigation system (INS) attitude sensors and differentially corrected global positioning system (GPS) receivers to measure topography of the surface at accuracies of +/-15 centimeters. The nominal ATM platform is a Twin Otter or P-3 Orion aircraft, but the instrument may be deployed on a range of light aircraft. Elevation measurements were collected over the survey area using the ATM system, and the resulting data were then processed using the Airborne Lidar Processing System (ALPS), a custom-built processing system developed in a NASA-USGS collaboration. ALPS supports the exploration and processing of lidar data in an interactive or batch mode. Modules for presurvey flight-line definition, flight-path plotting, lidar raster and waveform investigation, and digital camera image playback have been developed. Processing algorithms have been developed to extract the range to the first and last significant return within each waveform. ALPS

  11. ATM Coastal Topography-Alabama 2001

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nayegandhi, Amar; Yates, Xan; Brock, John C.; Sallenger, A.H.; Bonisteel, Jamie M.; Klipp, Emily S.; Wright, C. Wayne

    2009-01-01

    These remotely sensed, geographically referenced elevation measurements of Lidar-derived first surface (FS) topography were produced collaboratively by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), Florida Integrated Science Center (FISC), St. Petersburg, FL, and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), Wallops Flight Facility, VA. This project provides highly detailed and accurate datasets of the Alabama coastline, acquired October 3-4, 2001. The datasets are made available for use as a management tool to research scientists and natural resource managers. An innovative scanning Lidar instrument originally developed by NASA, and known as the Airborne Topographic Mapper (ATM), was used during data acquisition. The ATM system is a scanning Lidar system that measures high-resolution topography of the land surface, and incorporates a green-wavelength laser operating at pulse rates of 2 to 10 kilohertz. Measurements from the laser ranging device are coupled with data acquired from inertial navigation system (INS) attitude sensors and differentially corrected global positioning system (GPS) receivers to measure topography of the surface at accuracies of +/-15 centimeters. The nominal ATM platform is a Twin Otter or P-3 Orion aircraft, but the instrument may be deployed on a range of light aircraft. Elevation measurements were collected over the survey area using the ATM system, and the resulting data were then processed using the Airborne Lidar Processing System (ALPS), a custom-built processing system developed in a NASA-USGS collaboration. ALPS supports the exploration and processing of Lidar data in an interactive or batch mode. Modules for pre-survey flight line definition, flight path plotting, Lidar raster and waveform investigation, and digital camera image playback have been developed. Processing algorithms have been developed to extract the range to the first and last significant return within each waveform. ALPS is routinely used to create maps that

  12. Refining the ischemic penumbra with topography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thirugnanachandran, Tharani; Ma, Henry; Singhal, Shaloo; Slater, Lee-Anne; Davis, Stephen M; Donnan, Geoffrey A; Phan, Thanh

    2018-04-01

    It has been 40 years since the ischemic penumbra was first conceptualized through work on animal models. The topography of penumbra has been portrayed as an infarcted core surrounded by penumbral tissue and an extreme rim of oligemic tissue. This picture has been used in many review articles and textbooks before the advent of modern imaging. In this paper, we review our understanding of the topography of the ischemic penumbra from the initial experimental animal models to current developments with neuroimaging which have helped to further define the temporal and spatial evolution of the penumbra and refine our knowledge. The concept of the penumbra has been successfully applied in clinical trials of endovascular therapies with a time window as long as 24 h from onset. Further, there are reports of "good" outcome even in patients with a large ischemic core. This latter observation of good outcome despite having a large core requires an understanding of the topography of the penumbra and the function of the infarcted regions. It is proposed that future research in this area takes departure from a time-dependent approach to a more individualized tissue and location-based approach.

  13. Airborne laser altimeter measurements of landscape topography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ritchie, J.C.

    1995-01-01

    Measurements of topography can provide a wealth of information on landscape properties for managing hydrologic and geologic systems and conserving natural and agricultural resources. This article discusses the application of an airborne laser altimeter to measure topography and other landscape surface properties. The airborne laser altimeter makes 4000 measurements per second with a vertical recording resolution of 5 cm. Data are collected digitally with a personal computer. A video camera, borehole sighted with the laser, records an image for locating flight lines. GPS data are used to locate flight line positions on the landscape. Laser data were used to measure vegetation canopy topography, height, cover, and distribution and to measure microtopography of the land surface and gullies with depths of 15–20 cm. Macrotopography of landscape profiles for segments up to 4 km were in agreement with available topographic maps but provided more detail. Larger gullies with and without vegetation, and stream channel cross sections and their associated floodplains have also been measured and reported in other publications. Landscape segments for any length could be measured for either micro- or macrotopography. Airborne laser altimeter measurements of landscape profiles can provide detailed information on landscape properties or specific needs that will allow better decisions on the design and location of structures (i.e., roads, pipe, and power lines) and for improving the management and conservation of natural and agricultural landscapes. (author)

  14. Coarsely resolved topography along protein folding pathways

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández, Ariel; Kostov, Konstantin S.; Berry, R. Stephen

    2000-03-01

    The kinetic data from the coarse representation of polypeptide torsional dynamics described in the preceding paper [Fernandez and Berry, J. Chem. Phys. 112, 5212 (2000), preceding paper] is inverted by using detailed balance to obtain a topographic description of the potential-energy surface (PES) along the dominant folding pathway of the bovine pancreatic trypsin inhibitor (BPTI). The topography is represented as a sequence of minima and effective saddle points. The dominant folding pathway displays an overall monotonic decrease in energy with a large number of staircaselike steps, a clear signature of a good structure-seeker. The diversity and availability of alternative folding pathways is analyzed in terms of the Shannon entropy σ(t) associated with the time-dependent probability distribution over the kinetic ensemble of contact patterns. Several stages in the folding process are evident. Initially misfolded states form and dismantle revealing no definite pattern in the topography and exhibiting high Shannon entropy. Passage down a sequence of staircase steps then leads to the formation of a nativelike intermediate, for which σ(t) is much lower and fairly constant. Finally, the structure of the intermediate is refined to produce the native state of BPTI. We also examine how different levels of tolerance to mismatches of side chain contacts influence the folding kinetics, the topography of the dominant folding pathway, and the Shannon entropy. This analysis yields upper and lower bounds of the frustration tolerance required for the expeditious and robust folding of BPTI.

  15. Surgical anatomy of the radial nerve at the elbow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Artico, M; Telera, S; Tiengo, C; Stecco, C; Macchi, V; Porzionato, A; Vigato, E; Parenti, A; De Caro, R

    2009-02-01

    An anatomical study of the brachial portion of the radial nerve with surgical implications is proposed. Thirty specimens of arm from 20 fresh cadavers (11 male, 9 female) were used to examine the topographical relations of the radial nerve with reference to the following anatomical landmarks: acromion angle, medial and lateral epicondyles, point of division between the lateral and long heads of the triceps brachii, lateral intermuscular septum, site of division of the radial nerve into its superficial and posterior interosseous branches and entry and exit point of the posterior interosseous branch into the supinator muscle. The mean distances between the acromion angle and the medial and lateral levels of crossing the posterior aspect of the humerus were 109 (+/-11) and 157 (+/-11) mm, respectively. The mean length and calibre of the nerve in the groove were 59 (+/-4) and 6 (+/-1) mm, respectively. The division of the lateral and long heads of the triceps was found at a mean distance of 126 (+/-13) mm from the acromion angle. The mean distances between the lateral point of crossing the posterior aspect of the humerus and the medial and lateral epicondyles were 125 (+/-13) and 121 (+/-13) mm, respectively. The mean distance between the lateral point of crossing the posterior aspect of the humerus and the entry point in the lateral intermuscular septum (LIS) was 29 (+/-6) mm. The mean distances between the entry point of the nerve in the LIS and the medial and lateral epicondyles were 133 (+/-14) and 110 (+/-23) mm, respectively. Our study provides reliable and objective data of surgical anatomy of the radial nerve which should be always kept in mind by surgeons approaching to the surgery of the arm, in order to avoid iatrogenic injuries.

  16. Optic nerve hypoplasia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Savleen Kaur

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Optic nerve hypoplasia (ONH is a congenital anomaly of the optic disc that might result in moderate to severe vision loss in children. With a vast number of cases now being reported, the rarity of ONH is obviously now refuted. The major aspects of ophthalmic evaluation of an infant with possible ONH are visual assessment, fundus examination, and visual electrophysiology. Characteristically, the disc is small, there is a peripapillary double-ring sign, vascular tortuosity, and thinning of the nerve fiber layer. A patient with ONH should be assessed for presence of neurologic, radiologic, and endocrine associations. There may be maternal associations like premature births, fetal alcohol syndrome, maternal diabetes. Systemic associations in the child include endocrine abnormalities, developmental delay, cerebral palsy, and seizures. Besides the hypoplastic optic nerve and chiasm, neuroimaging shows abnormalities in ventricles or white- or gray-matter development, septo-optic dysplasia, hydrocephalus, and corpus callosum abnormalities. There is a greater incidence of clinical neurologic abnormalities in patients with bilateral ONH (65% than patients with unilateral ONH. We present a review on the available literature on the same to urge caution in our clinical practice when dealing with patients with ONH. Fundus photography, ocular coherence tomography, visual field testing, color vision evaluation, neuroimaging, endocrinology consultation with or without genetic testing are helpful in the diagnosis and management of ONH. (Method of search: MEDLINE, PUBMED.

  17. Determining degree of optic nerve edema from color fundus photography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agne, Jason; Wang, Jui-Kai; Kardon, Randy H.; Garvin, Mona K.

    2015-03-01

    Swelling of the optic nerve head (ONH) is subjectively assessed by clinicians using the Frisén scale. It is believed that a direct measurement of the ONH volume would serve as a better representation of the swelling. However, a direct measurement requires optic nerve imaging with spectral domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) and 3D segmentation of the resulting images, which is not always available during clinical evaluation. Furthermore, telemedical imaging of the eye at remote locations is more feasible with non-mydriatic fundus cameras which are less costly than OCT imagers. Therefore, there is a critical need to develop a more quantitative analysis of optic nerve swelling on a continuous scale, similar to SD-OCT. Here, we select features from more commonly available 2D fundus images and use them to predict ONH volume. Twenty-six features were extracted from each of 48 color fundus images. The features include attributes of the blood vessels, optic nerve head, and peripapillary retina areas. These features were used in a regression analysis to predict ONH volume, as computed by a segmentation of the SD-OCT image. The results of the regression analysis yielded a mean square error of 2.43 mm3 and a correlation coefficient between computed and predicted volumes of R = 0:771, which suggests that ONH volume may be predicted from fundus features alone.

  18. Probabilistic Modeling of Intracranial Pressure Effects on Optic Nerve Biomechanics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ethier, C. R.; Feola, Andrew J.; Raykin, Julia; Myers, Jerry G.; Nelson, Emily S.; Samuels, Brian C.

    2016-01-01

    Altered intracranial pressure (ICP) is involved/implicated in several ocular conditions: papilledema, glaucoma and Visual Impairment and Intracranial Pressure (VIIP) syndrome. The biomechanical effects of altered ICP on optic nerve head (ONH) tissues in these conditions are uncertain but likely important. We have quantified ICP-induced deformations of ONH tissues, using finite element (FE) and probabilistic modeling (Latin Hypercube Simulations (LHS)) to consider a range of tissue properties and relevant pressures.

  19. Intracranial schwannomas arising from cranial nerves: Case series and review of literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rashmeet Kaur

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Tumors arising from the cranial nerve sheath are common intracranial neoplasms, with only few articles describing their imaging characteristics. In this present study of four cases of schwannomas originating from the cranial nerves in the head region, we are discussing the radiological features on imaging with the clinical presentation and contrasting them with other differentials in their respective locations. Magnetic resonance imaging and computed tomography were done in these cases and correlated with clinical and biopsy findings.

  20. Visualization of isolated trigeminal nerve invasion by lymphoma using gadolinium-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manon-Espaillat, R.; Lanska, D.J.; Ruff, R.L.; Cleveland Veteran's Administration Medical Center, OH; Case Western Reserve Univ., Cleveland, OH; Masaryk, T.; University Hospitals of Cleveland, OH; Case Western Reserve Univ., Cleveland, OH

    1990-01-01

    A 50-year-old man with active histiocytic lymphoma for 12 years developed an isolated right trigeminal neuropathy. Initial evaluation with head computed tomography, X-rays of the skull base, bone scan, and cerebrospinal fluid analysis including cytology were normal. Gadolinium-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) showed enlargement of the proximal third of the right trigeminal nerve. Gadolinium-enhanced MRI can be useful for the early demonstration of cranial nerve invasion by lymphoma. (orig.)

  1. Sensation, mechanoreceptor, and nerve fiber function after nerve regeneration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krarup, Christian; Rosén, Birgitta; Boeckstyns, Michel

    2017-01-01

    Objective: Sensation is essential for recovery after peripheral nerve injury. However, the relationship between sensory modalities and function of regenerated fibers is uncertain. We have investigated the relationships between touch threshold, tactile gnosis, and mechanoreceptor and sensory fiber...... function after nerve regeneration. Methods: Twenty-one median or ulnar nerve lesions were repaired by a collagen nerve conduit or direct suture. Quantitative sensory hand function and sensory conduction studies by near-nerve technique, including tactile stimulation of mechanoreceptors, were followed for 2...... years, and results were compared to noninjured hands. Results: At both repair methods, touch thresholds at the finger tips recovered to 81 ± 3% and tactile gnosis only to 20 ± 4% (p nerve action potentials (SNAPs) remained dispersed and areas recovered to 23 ± 2...

  2. Electrophysiology of Cranial Nerve Testing: Spinal Accessory and Hypoglossal Nerves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stino, Amro M; Smith, Benn E

    2018-01-01

    Multiple techniques have been developed for the electrodiagnostic evaluation of cranial nerves XI and XII. Each of these carries both benefits and limitations, with more techniques and data being available in the literature for spinal accessory than hypoglossal nerve evaluation. Spinal accessory and hypoglossal neuropathy are relatively uncommon cranial mononeuropathies that may be evaluated in the outpatient electrodiagnostic laboratory setting. A review of available literature using PubMed was conducted regarding electrodiagnostic technique in the evaluation of spinal accessory and hypoglossal nerves searching for both routine nerve conduction studies and repetitive nerve conduction studies. The review provided herein provides a resource by which clinical neurophysiologists may develop and implement clinical and research protocols for the evaluation of both of these lower cranial nerves in the outpatient setting.

  3. Topography-modified refraction: adjustment of treated cylinder amount and axis to the topography versus standard clinical refraction in myopic topography-guided LASIK

    OpenAIRE

    Alpins, Noel

    2017-01-01

    Noel Alpins1,2 1NewVision Clinics, Melbourne, VIC, Australia; 2Department Ophthalmology, Melbourne University, Melbourne, VIC, Australia It is encouraging to see the results in the article by Kanellopoulos “Topography-modified refraction (TMR): adjustment of treated cylinder amount and axis to the topography versus standard clinical refraction in myopic topography-guided LASIK”,1 where the combination of refractive and corneal data in the treatment parameters pro...

  4. OpenTopography: Enabling Online Access to High-Resolution Lidar Topography Data and Processing Tools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crosby, Christopher; Nandigam, Viswanath; Baru, Chaitan; Arrowsmith, J. Ramon

    2013-04-01

    High-resolution topography data acquired with lidar (light detection and ranging) technology are revolutionizing the way we study the Earth's surface and overlying vegetation. These data, collected from airborne, tripod, or mobile-mounted scanners have emerged as a fundamental tool for research on topics ranging from earthquake hazards to hillslope processes. Lidar data provide a digital representation of the earth's surface at a resolution sufficient to appropriately capture the processes that contribute to landscape evolution. The U.S. National Science Foundation-funded OpenTopography Facility (http://www.opentopography.org) is a web-based system designed to democratize access to earth science-oriented lidar topography data. OpenTopography provides free, online access to lidar data in a number of forms, including the raw point cloud and associated geospatial-processing tools for customized analysis. The point cloud data are co-located with on-demand processing tools to generate digital elevation models, and derived products and visualizations which allow users to quickly access data in a format appropriate for their scientific application. The OpenTopography system is built using a service-oriented architecture (SOA) that leverages cyberinfrastructure resources at the San Diego Supercomputer Center at the University of California San Diego to allow users, regardless of expertise level, to access these massive lidar datasets and derived products for use in research and teaching. OpenTopography hosts over 500 billion lidar returns covering 85,000 km2. These data are all in the public domain and are provided by a variety of partners under joint agreements and memoranda of understanding with OpenTopography. Partners include national facilities such as the NSF-funded National Center for Airborne Lidar Mapping (NCALM), as well as non-governmental organizations and local, state, and federal agencies. OpenTopography has become a hub for high-resolution topography

  5. Cranial nerves in the Australian lungfish, Neoceratodus forsteri, and in fossil relatives (Osteichthyes: Dipnoi).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kemp, A

    2017-02-01

    Three systems, two sensory and one protective, are present in the skin of the living Australian lungfish, Neoceratodus forsteri, and in fossil lungfish, and the arrangement and innervation of the sense organs is peculiar to lungfish. Peripheral branches of nerves that innervate the sense organs are slender and unprotected, and form before any skeletal structures appear. When the olfactory capsule develops, it traps some of the anterior branches of cranial nerve V, which emerged from the chondrocranium from the lateral sphenotic foramen. Cranial nerve I innervates the olfactory organ enclosed within the olfactory capsule and cranial nerve II innervates the eye. Cranial nerve V innervates the sense organs of the snout and upper lip, and, in conjunction with nerve IX and X, the sense organs of the posterior and lateral head. Cranial nerve VII is primarily a motor nerve, and a single branch innervates sense organs in the mandible. There are no connections between nerves V and VII, although both emerge from the brain close to each other. The third associated system consists of lymphatic vessels covered by an extracellular matrix of collagen, mineralised as tubules in fossils. Innervation of the sensory organs is separate from the lymphatic system and from the tubule system of fossil lungfish. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Nerves and nerve endings in the skin of tropical cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amakiri, S F; Ozoya, S E; Ogunnaike, P O

    1978-01-01

    The nerves and nerve endings in the skin of tropical cattle were studied using histological and histochemical techniques. Many nerve trunks and fibres were present in the reticular and papillary dermis in both hairy and non-hairy skin sites. In non-hairy skin locations such as the muzzle and lower lip, encapsulated endings akin to Krause and Ruffini end bulbs, which arise from myelinated nerve trunks situated lower down the dermis were observed at the upper papillary layer level. Some fibre trunks seen at this level extended upwards to terminate within dermal papillae as bulb-shaped longitudinally lamellated Pacinian-type endings, while other onion-shaped lamellated nerve structures were located either within dermal papillae or near the dermo-epidermal area. Intraepidermal free-ending nerve fibres, appearing non-myelinated were observed in areas with thick epidermis. Intraepidermal free-ending nerve fibres, appearing non-myelinated were observed in areas with thick epidermis. On hairy skin sites, however, organized nerve endings or intraepidermal nerve endings were not readily identifiable.

  7. Electrophysiology of Cranial Nerve Testing: Cranial Nerves IX and X.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez, Alberto R M; Martins, Melina P; Moreira, Ana Lucila; Martins, Carlos R; Kimaid, Paulo A T; França, Marcondes C

    2018-01-01

    The cranial nerves IX and X emerge from medulla oblongata and have motor, sensory, and parasympathetic functions. Some of these are amenable to neurophysiological assessment. It is often hard to separate the individual contribution of each nerve; in fact, some of the techniques are indeed a composite functional measure of both nerves. The main methods are the evaluation of the swallowing function (combined IX and X), laryngeal electromyogram (predominant motor vagal function), and heart rate variability (predominant parasympathetic vagal function). This review describes, therefore, the techniques that best evaluate the major symptoms presented in IX and X cranial nerve disturbance: dysphagia, dysphonia, and autonomic parasympathetic dysfunction.

  8. Nerve Cross-Bridging to Enhance Nerve Regeneration in a Rat Model of Delayed Nerve Repair

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    There are currently no available options to promote nerve regeneration through chronically denervated distal nerve stumps. Here we used a rat model of delayed nerve repair asking of prior insertion of side-to-side cross-bridges between a donor tibial (TIB) nerve and a recipient denervated common peroneal (CP) nerve stump ameliorates poor nerve regeneration. First, numbers of retrogradely-labelled TIB neurons that grew axons into the nerve stump within three months, increased with the size of the perineurial windows opened in the TIB and CP nerves. Equal numbers of donor TIB axons regenerated into CP stumps either side of the cross-bridges, not being affected by target neurotrophic effects, or by removing the perineurium to insert 5-9 cross-bridges. Second, CP nerve stumps were coapted three months after inserting 0-9 cross-bridges and the number of 1) CP neurons that regenerated their axons within three months or 2) CP motor nerves that reinnervated the extensor digitorum longus (EDL) muscle within five months was determined by counting and motor unit number estimation (MUNE), respectively. We found that three but not more cross-bridges promoted the regeneration of axons and reinnervation of EDL muscle by all the CP motoneurons as compared to only 33% regenerating their axons when no cross-bridges were inserted. The same 3-fold increase in sensory nerve regeneration was found. In conclusion, side-to-side cross-bridges ameliorate poor regeneration after delayed nerve repair possibly by sustaining the growth-permissive state of denervated nerve stumps. Such autografts may be used in human repair surgery to improve outcomes after unavoidable delays. PMID:26016986

  9. Neurovascular compression syndrome of the eighth cranial nerve

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Itoh, Akinori

    2010-01-01

    Neurovascular compression syndrome (NVCS) involves neuropathy due to intracranial blood vessels compressing the cranial nerves. NVCS of the eighth cranial nerve is less reportedly established as a clinical entity than that of the fifth and seventh cranial nerves. We report 17 cases of NVCS of the eighth cranial nerve and their clinical features. Clinical symptoms and test findings among our subjects indicated that most were aged more than 65 years, were unilateral, had intermittent tinnitus, suffered attacks lasting a few seconds dozens of times a day, experienced dizziness concomitantly with tinnitus, aggravated tinnitus and dizziness when tilting the head toward the affected side and looking downward (positional tinnitus, positional dizziness), heard specific tinnitus sounds such as crackling differing from those in cochlear tinnitus, had mild or no hearing loss, were diagnosed with retrocochlear hearing disturbance due to an interpeak latency delay between waves I and III of the auditory brainstem response (ABR), often had no nystagmus or canal paresis (CP), were found in constructive interference steady state magnetic resonance imaging (CISS MRI) to have compression of the eighth cranial nerve by the vertebral artery (VA) or the anterior inferior cerebellar artery (AICA), rarely had concomitant facial spasms, and had tinnitus and dizziness markedly suppressed by carbamazepine. With the number of elderly individuals continuing to increase, cases of NVCS due to arteriosclerotic changes in cerebral blood vessels are expected to increase, making it necessary to consider NVCS in elderly subjects with dizziness, tinnitus, and hearing loss. (author)

  10. Neurovascular compression syndrome of the eighth cranial nerve

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Itoh, Akinori [Saitama Medical Univ., Faculty of Medicine, Moroyama, Saitama (Japan)

    2010-04-15

    Neurovascular compression syndrome (NVCS) involves neuropathy due to intracranial blood vessels compressing the cranial nerves. NVCS of the eighth cranial nerve is less reportedly established as a clinical entity than that of the fifth and seventh cranial nerves. We report 17 cases of NVCS of the eighth cranial nerve and their clinical features. Clinical symptoms and test findings among our subjects indicated that most were aged more than 65 years, were unilateral, had intermittent tinnitus, suffered attacks lasting a few seconds dozens of times a day, experienced dizziness concomitantly with tinnitus, aggravated tinnitus and dizziness when tilting the head toward the affected side and looking downward (positional tinnitus, positional dizziness), heard specific tinnitus sounds such as crackling differing from those in cochlear tinnitus, had mild or no hearing loss, were diagnosed with retrocochlear hearing disturbance due to an interpeak latency delay between waves I and III of the auditory brainstem response (ABR), often had no nystagmus or canal paresis (CP), were found in constructive interference steady state magnetic resonance imaging (CISS MRI) to have compression of the eighth cranial nerve by the vertebral artery (VA) or the anterior inferior cerebellar artery (AICA), rarely had concomitant facial spasms, and had tinnitus and dizziness markedly suppressed by carbamazepine. With the number of elderly individuals continuing to increase, cases of NVCS due to arteriosclerotic changes in cerebral blood vessels are expected to increase, making it necessary to consider NVCS in elderly subjects with dizziness, tinnitus, and hearing loss. (author)

  11. Phrenic nerve conduction studies: normative data and technical aspects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Analucia Abreu Maranhão

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objective: The aim of the present study was to define normative data of phrenic nerve conduction parameters of a healthy population. Methods: Phrenic nerve conduction studies were performed in 27 healthy volunteers. Results: The normative limits for expiratory phrenic nerve compound muscle action potential were: amplitude (0.47 mv - 0.83 mv, latency (5.74 ms - 7.10 ms, area (6.20 ms/mv - 7.20 ms/mv and duration (18.30 ms - 20.96 ms. Inspiratory normative limits were: amplitude (0.67 mv - 1.11 mv, latency (5.90 ms - 6.34 ms, area (5.62 ms/mv - 6.72 ms/mv and duration (13.77 ms - 15.37 ms. Conclusion: The best point of phrenic nerve stimulus in the neck varies among individuals between the medial and lateral border of the clavicular head of the sternocleidomastoid muscle and stimulation of both sites, then choosing the best phrenic nerve response, seems to be the appropriate procedure.

  12. Phrenic nerve conduction studies: normative data and technical aspects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maranhão, Analucia Abreu; Carvalho, Sonia Regina da Silva; Caetano, Marcelo Ribeiro; Alamy, Alexandre Hofke; Peixoto, Eduardo Mesquita; Filgueiras, Pedro Del Esporte Peçanha

    2017-12-01

    The aim of the present study was to define normative data of phrenic nerve conduction parameters of a healthy population. Phrenic nerve conduction studies were performed in 27 healthy volunteers. The normative limits for expiratory phrenic nerve compound muscle action potential were: amplitude (0.47 mv - 0.83 mv), latency (5.74 ms - 7.10 ms), area (6.20 ms/mv - 7.20 ms/mv) and duration (18.30 ms - 20.96 ms). Inspiratory normative limits were: amplitude (0.67 mv - 1.11 mv), latency (5.90 ms - 6.34 ms), area (5.62 ms/mv - 6.72 ms/mv) and duration (13.77 ms - 15.37 ms). The best point of phrenic nerve stimulus in the neck varies among individuals between the medial and lateral border of the clavicular head of the sternocleidomastoid muscle and stimulation of both sites, then choosing the best phrenic nerve response, seems to be the appropriate procedure.

  13. Supraorbital keyhole surgery for optic nerve decompression and dura repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yuan-Hao; Lin, Shinn-Zong; Chiang, Yung-Hsiao; Ju, Da-Tong; Liu, Ming-Ying; Chen, Guann-Juh

    2004-07-01

    Supraorbital keyhole surgery is a limited surgical procedure with reduced traumatic manipulation of tissue and entailing little time in the opening and closing of wounds. We utilized the approach to treat head injury patients complicated with optic nerve compression and cerebrospinal fluid leakage (CSF). Eleven cases of basal skull fracture complicated with either optic nerve compression and/or CSF leakage were surgically treated at our department from February 1995 to June 1999. Six cases had primary optic nerve compression, four had CSF leakage and one case involved both injuries. Supraorbital craniotomy was carried out using a keyhole-sized burr hole plus a small craniotomy. The size of craniotomy approximated 2 x 3 cm2. The optic nerve was decompressed via removal of the optic canal roof and anterior clinoid process with high-speed drills. The defect of dura was repaired with two pieces of tensa fascia lata that were attached on both sides of the torn dural defect with tissue glue. Seven cases with optic nerve injury included five cases of total blindness and two cases of light perception before operation. Vision improved in four cases. The CSF leakage was stopped successfully in all four cases without complication. As optic nerve compression and CSF leakage are skull base lesions, the supraorbital keyhole surgery constitutes a suitable approach. The supraorbital keyhole surgery allows for an anterior approach to the skull base. This approach also allows the treatment of both CSF leakage and optic nerve compression. Our results indicate that supraorbital keyhole operation is a safe and effective method for preserving or improving vision and attenuating CSF leakage following injury.

  14. The role of great auricular-facial nerve neurorrhaphy in facial nerve damage

    OpenAIRE

    Sun, Yan; Liu, Limei; Han, Yuechen; Xu, Lei; Zhang, Daogong; Wang, Haibo

    2015-01-01

    Background: Facial nerve is easy to be damaged, and there are many reconstructive methods for facial nerve reconstructive, such as facial nerve end to end anastomosis, the great auricular nerve graft, the sural nerve graft, or hypoglossal-facial nerve anastomosis. However, there is still little study about great auricular-facial nerve neurorrhaphy. The aim of the present study was to identify the role of great auricular-facial nerve neurorrhaphy and the mechanism. Methods: Rat models of facia...

  15. [Imaging anatomy of cranial nerves].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hermier, M; Leal, P R L; Salaris, S F; Froment, J-C; Sindou, M

    2009-04-01

    Knowledge of the anatomy of the cranial nerves is mandatory for optimal radiological exploration and interpretation of the images in normal and pathological conditions. CT is the method of choice for the study of the skull base and its foramina. MRI explores the cranial nerves and their vascular relationships precisely. Because of their small size, it is essential to obtain images with high spatial resolution. The MRI sequences optimize contrast between nerves and surrounding structures (cerebrospinal fluid, fat, bone structures and vessels). This chapter discusses the radiological anatomy of the cranial nerves.

  16. Learning topography with Tangible Landscape games

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrasova, A.; Tabrizian, P.; Harmon, B. A.; Petras, V.; Millar, G.; Mitasova, H.; Meentemeyer, R. K.

    2017-12-01

    Understanding topography and its representations is crucial for correct interpretation and modeling of surface processes. However, novice earth science and landscape architecture students often find reading topographic maps challenging. As a result, many students struggle to comprehend more complex spatial concepts and processes such as flow accumulation or sediment transport.We developed and tested a new method for teaching hydrology, geomorphology, and grading using Tangible Landscape—a tangible interface for geospatial modeling. Tangible Landscape couples a physical and digital model of a landscape through a real-time cycle of hands-on modeling, 3D scanning, geospatial computation, and projection. With Tangible Landscape students can sculpt a projection-augmented topographic model of a landscape with their hands and use a variety of tangible objects to immediately see how they are changing geospatial analytics such as contours, profiles, water flow, or landform types. By feeling and manipulating the shape of the topography, while seeing projected geospatial analytics, students can intuitively learn about 3D topographic form, its representations, and how topography controls physical processes. Tangible Landscape is powered by GRASS GIS, an open source geospatial platform with extensive libraries for geospatial modeling and analysis. As such, Tangible Landscape can be used to design a wide range of learning experiences across a large number of geoscience disciplines.As part of a graduate level course that teaches grading, 16 students participated in a series of workshops, which were developed as serious games to encourage learning through structured play. These serious games included 1) diverting rain water to a specified location with minimal changes to landscape, 2) building different combinations of landforms, and 3) reconstructing landscapes based on projected contour information with feedback.In this poster, we will introduce Tangible Landscape, and

  17. Is HEADS in our heads?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boisen, Kirsten A; Hertz, Pernille Grarup; Blix, Charlotte

    2016-01-01

    contraception], Safety, Self-harm) interview is a feasible way of exploring health risk behaviors and resilience. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to evaluate how often HEADS topics were addressed according to young patients and staff in pediatric and adult outpatient clinics. METHODS: We conducted...... care professionals participated. We found only small reported differences between staff and young patients regarding whether home, education, and activity were addressed. However, staff reported twice the rate of addressing smoking, alcohol, illegal drugs, sexuality, and contraception compared to young...... patients. Young patients reported that smoking, alcohol, illegal drugs, sexuality, and contraception were addressed significantly more at adult clinics in comparison to pediatric clinics. After controlling for age, gender and duration of illness, according to young patients, adjusted odds ratios...

  18. Synchrotron-radiation plane-wave topography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Riglet, P.; Sauvage, M.; Petroff, J.F.; Epelboin, Y.

    1980-01-01

    A computer program based on the Takagi-Taupin differential equations for X-ray propagation in distorted crystals has been developed in order to simulate dislocation images in the Bragg case. The program is valid both for thin and thick crystals. Simulated images of misfit dislocations formed either in a thin epilayer or in a thick substrate are compared with experimental images obtained by synchrotron-radiation plane-wave topography. The influence of the various strain components on the image features is discussed. (author)

  19. Welcome to Surface Topography: Metrology and Properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leach, Richard

    2013-11-01

    I am delighted to welcome readers to this inaugural issue of Surface Topography: Metrology and Properties (STMP). In these days of citation indexes and academic reviews, it is a tough, and maybe a brave, job to start a new journal. But the subject area has never been more active and we are seeing genuine breakthroughs in the use of surfaces to control functional performance. Most manufactured parts rely on some form of control of their surface characteristics. The surface is usually defined as that feature on a component or device, which interacts with either the environment in which it is housed (or in which the device operates), or with another surface. The surface topography and material characteristics of a part can affect how fluids interact with it, how the part looks and feels and how two bearing parts will slide together. The need to control, and hence measure, surface features is becoming increasingly important as we move into a miniaturized world. Surface features can become the dominant functional features of a part and may become large in comparison to the overall size of an object. Research into surface texture measurement and characterization has been carried out for over a century and is now more active than ever, especially as new areal surface texture specification standards begin to be introduced. The range of disciplines for which the function of a surface relates to its topography is very diverse; from metal sheet manufacturing to art restoration, from plastic electronics to forensics. Until now, there has been no obvious publishing venue to bring together all these applications with the underlying research and theory, or to unite those working in academia with engineering and industry. Hence the creation of Surface Topography: Metrology and Properties . STMP will publish the best work being done across this broad discipline in one journal, helping researchers to share common themes and highlighting and promoting the extraordinary benefits this

  20. Transient femoral nerve palsy following ilioinguinal nerve block for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nigerian Journal of Surgery ... Background: Elective inguinal hernia repair in young fit patients is preferably done under ilioinguinal nerve block anesthesia in the ambulatory setting to improve ... Conclusion: TFNP is a rare complication of ilioinguinal nerve block which delays patient discharge postambulatory hernioplasty.

  1. ocular complications among cases of head injury seen in a neurosurgi

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    EZENWUGO CHIEDOZIE OBIORA

    ocular cranial nerves were the most commonly occurring complication among the cases of head injury seen in Memphys. Hospital for Neurosurgery, Enugu. Key words: Ocular complications, head injury, Nigeria. INTRODUCTION. Road traffic accidents have been on the increase in Nigeria. Some studies have attributed this ...

  2. Electrophysiology of Cranial Nerve Testing: Trigeminal and Facial Nerves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muzyka, Iryna M; Estephan, Bachir

    2018-01-01

    The clinical examination of the trigeminal and facial nerves provides significant diagnostic value, especially in the localization of lesions in disorders affecting the central and/or peripheral nervous system. The electrodiagnostic evaluation of these nerves and their pathways adds further accuracy and reliability to the diagnostic investigation and the localization process, especially when different testing methods are combined based on the clinical presentation and the electrophysiological findings. The diagnostic uniqueness of the trigeminal and facial nerves is their connectivity and their coparticipation in reflexes commonly used in clinical practice, namely the blink and corneal reflexes. The other reflexes used in the diagnostic process and lesion localization are very nerve specific and add more diagnostic yield to the workup of certain disorders of the nervous system. This article provides a review of commonly used electrodiagnostic studies and techniques in the evaluation and lesion localization of cranial nerves V and VII.

  3. Side Effects: Nerve Problems (Peripheral Neuropathy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nerve problems, such as peripheral neuropathy, can be caused by cancer treatment. Learn about signs and symptoms of nerve changes. Find out how to prevent or manage nerve problems during cancer treatment.

  4. Peripheral Nerve Stimulation of Brachial Plexus Nerve Roots and Supra-Scapular Nerve for Chronic Refractory Neuropathic Pain of the Upper Limb.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouche, Bénédicte; Manfiotto, Marie; Rigoard, Philippe; Lemarie, Jean; Dix-Neuf, Véronique; Lanteri-Minet, Michel; Fontaine, Denys

    2017-10-01

    We report the outcome of a consecutive series of 26 patients suffering from chronic medically-refractory neuropathic pain of the upper limb (including 16 patients with complex regional pain syndrome), topographically limited, treated by brachial plexus (BP) nerve roots or supra-scapular nerve (SSN) peripheral nerve stimulation (PNS). The technique consisted in ultrasound-guided percutaneous implantation of a cylindrical lead (Pisces-Quad, Medtronic) close to the SSN or the cervical nerve roots within the BP, depending on the pain topography. All the patients underwent a positive trial stimulation before lead connection to a subcutaneous stimulator. Chronic bipolar stimulation mean parameters were: frequency 55.5 Hertz, voltage 1.17 Volts. The voltage was set below the threshold inducing muscle contractions or paresthesias. Two patients were lost immediately after surgery. At last follow-up (mean 27.5 months), the 20 patients still using the stimulation experienced a mean pain relief of 67.1%. Seventeen patients were improved ≥50%, including 12 improved ≥70%. In 11 patients with a follow-up >2 years, the mean pain relief was 68%. At last follow-up, respectively, six out of the nine (67%) patients treated by SSN stimulation and 10 out of 17 patients (59%) treated by BP stimulation were improved ≥50%. At last follow-up, 12 out of 20 patients still using the stimulation were very satisfied, six were satisfied, and two were poorly satisfied. Complications were: stimulation intolerance due to shock-like sensations (three cases), superficial infection (1), lead fractures (2), and migration (1). In this pilot study, SSN or BP roots PNS provided a relatively safe, durable and effective option to control upper limb neuropathic pain. © 2017 International Neuromodulation Society.

  5. Altered Global Signal Topography in Schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Genevieve J; Murray, John D; Glasser, Matthew; Pearlson, Godfrey D; Krystal, John H; Schleifer, Charlie; Repovs, Grega; Anticevic, Alan

    2017-11-01

    Schizophrenia (SCZ) is a disabling neuropsychiatric disease associated with disruptions across distributed neural systems. Resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging has identified extensive abnormalities in the blood-oxygen level-dependent signal in SCZ patients, including alterations in the average signal over the brain-i.e. the "global" signal (GS). It remains unknown, however, if these "global" alterations occur pervasively or follow a spatially preferential pattern. This study presents the first network-by-network quantification of GS topography in healthy subjects and SCZ patients. We observed a nonuniform GS contribution in healthy comparison subjects, whereby sensory areas exhibited the largest GS component. In SCZ patients, we identified preferential GS representation increases across association regions, while sensory regions showed preferential reductions. GS representation in sensory versus association cortices was strongly anti-correlated in healthy subjects. This anti-correlated relationship was markedly reduced in SCZ. Such shifts in GS topography may underlie profound alterations in neural information flow in SCZ, informing development of pharmacotherapies. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  6. Snap evaporation of droplets on smooth topographies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wells, Gary G; Ruiz-Gutiérrez, Élfego; Le Lirzin, Youen; Nourry, Anthony; Orme, Bethany V; Pradas, Marc; Ledesma-Aguilar, Rodrigo

    2018-04-11

    Droplet evaporation on solid surfaces is important in many applications including printing, micro-patterning and cooling. While seemingly simple, the configuration of evaporating droplets on solids is difficult to predict and control. This is because evaporation typically proceeds as a "stick-slip" sequence-a combination of pinning and de-pinning events dominated by static friction or "pinning", caused by microscopic surface roughness. Here we show how smooth, pinning-free, solid surfaces of non-planar topography promote a different process called snap evaporation. During snap evaporation a droplet follows a reproducible sequence of configurations, consisting of a quasi-static phase-change controlled by mass diffusion interrupted by out-of-equilibrium snaps. Snaps are triggered by bifurcations of the equilibrium droplet shape mediated by the underlying non-planar solid. Because the evolution of droplets during snap evaporation is controlled by a smooth topography, and not by surface roughness, our ideas can inspire programmable surfaces that manage liquids in heat- and mass-transfer applications.

  7. Ecomorphology of eye shape and retinal topography in waterfowl (Aves: Anseriformes: Anatidae) with different foraging modes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lisney, Thomas J; Stecyk, Karyn; Kolominsky, Jeffrey; Schmidt, Brian K; Corfield, Jeremy R; Iwaniuk, Andrew N; Wylie, Douglas R

    2013-05-01

    Despite the large body of literature on ecomorphological adaptations to foraging in waterfowl, little attention has been paid to their sensory systems, especially vision. Here, we compare eye shape and retinal topography across 12 species representing 4 different foraging modes. Eye shape was significantly different among foraging modes, with diving and pursuit-diving species having relatively smaller corneal diameters compared to non-diving species. This may be associated with differences in ambient light intensity while foraging or an ability to tightly constrict the pupil in divers in order to facilitate underwater vision. Retinal topography was similar across all species, consisting of an oblique visual streak, a central area of peak cell density, and no discernible fovea. Because the bill faces downwards when the head is held in the normal posture in waterfowl, the visual streak will be held horizontally, allowing the horizon to be sampled with higher visual acuity. Estimates of spatial resolving power were similar among species with only the Canada goose having a higher spatial resolution. Overall, we found no evidence of ecomorphological adaptations to different foraging modes in the retinal ganglion cell layer in waterfowl. Rather, retinal topography in these birds seems to reflect the 'openness' of their habitats.

  8. Disorders of the lower cranial nerves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finsterer, Josef; Grisold, Wolfgang

    2015-01-01

    Lesions of the lower cranial nerves (LCN) are due to numerous causes, which need to be differentiated to optimize management and outcome. This review aims at summarizing and discussing diseases affecting LCN. Review of publications dealing with disorders of the LCN in humans. Affection of multiple LCN is much more frequent than the affection of a single LCN. LCN may be affected solely or together with more proximal cranial nerves, with central nervous system disease, or with nonneurological disorders. LCN lesions have to be suspected if there are typical symptoms or signs attributable to a LCN. Causes of LCN lesions can be classified as genetic, vascular, traumatic, iatrogenic, infectious, immunologic, metabolic, nutritional, degenerative, or neoplastic. Treatment of LCN lesions depends on the underlying cause. An effective treatment is available in the majority of the cases, but a prerequisite for complete recovery is the prompt and correct diagnosis. LCN lesions need to be considered in case of disturbed speech, swallowing, coughing, deglutition, sensory functions, taste, or autonomic functions, neuralgic pain, dysphagia, head, pharyngeal, or neck pain, cardiac or gastrointestinal compromise, or weakness of the trapezius, sternocleidomastoid, or the tongue muscles. To correctly assess manifestations of LCN lesions, precise knowledge of the anatomy and physiology of the area is required. PMID:26167022

  9. PERFORATION OF INFERIOR ALVEOLAR NERVE BY MAXILLARY ARTERY. Perforation of inferior alveolar nerve by maxillary artery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prakash B Billakanti

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available La fosa infratemporal es un área anatómica clínicamente importante para la administración de agentes anestésicos locales en odontología y cirugía maxilofacial. Fueron estudiadas variaciones en la anatomía del nervio alveolar inferior y la arteria maxilar en la disección infratemporal. Durante la disección rutinaria de la cabeza en el cadáver de un varón adulto, fue observada una variación excepcional en el origen del nervio alveolar inferior y su relación con las estructuras circundantes. El nervio alveolar inferior se originaba en el nervio mandibular por dos raíces y la primera parte de la arteria maxilar estaba incorporada entre ambas. El origen embriológico de esta variación y sus implicaciones clínicas es debatido. Dado que la arteria maxilar transcurría entre las dos raíces del nervio alveolar inferior, y el nervio estaba fijado entre el foramen oval y el foramen mandibular, el atrapamiento vásculo-nervioso pudo causar entume-cimiento o dolor de cabeza e interferir con la inyección de anestésicos locales en la fosa infratemporal.  Variaciones anatómicas en esta región deben ser tenidas en cuenta, especialmente en casos de tratamiento fallido de neuralgia del trigémino. Infratemporal fossa is clinically important anatomical area for the delivery of local anesthetic agents in dentistry and maxillofacial surgery. Variations in the anatomy of the inferior alveolar nerve and maxillary artery were studied in infratemporal dissection. During routine dissection of the head in an adult male cadaver an unusual variation in the origin of the inferior alveolar nerve and its relationship with the surrounding structures was observed. The inferior alveolar nerve originated from the mandibular nerve by two roots and the first part of the maxillary artery was incorporated between them. An embryologic origin of this variation and its clinical implications is discussed. Because the maxillary artery runs between the two roots of

  10. Functional analysis screening for multiple topographies of problem behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Marlesha C; Fahmie, Tara A

    2018-04-23

    The current study evaluated a screening procedure for multiple topographies of problem behavior in the context of an ongoing functional analysis. Experimenters analyzed the function of a topography of primary concern while collecting data on topographies of secondary concern. We used visual analysis to predict the function of secondary topographies and a subsequent functional analysis to test those predictions. Results showed that a general function was accurately predicted for five of six (83%) secondary topographies. A specific function was predicted and supported for a subset of these topographies. The experimenters discuss the implication of these results for clinicians who have limited time for functional assessment. © 2018 Society for the Experimental Analysis of Behavior.

  11. Head Impact Laboratory (HIL)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The HIL uses testing devices to evaluate vehicle interior energy attenuating (EA) technologies for mitigating head injuries resulting from head impacts during mine/...

  12. Diagnostic nerve ultrasonography; Diagnostische Nervensonographie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baeumer, T. [Universitaet zu Luebeck CBBM, Haus 66, Institut fuer Neurogenetik, Luebeck (Germany); Grimm, A. [Universitaetsklinikum Tuebingen, Klinik und Poliklinik fuer Neurologie, Tuebingen (Germany); Schelle, T. [Staedtisches Klinikum Dessau, Neurologische Klinik, Dessau (Germany)

    2017-03-15

    For the diagnostics of nerve lesions an imaging method is necessary to visualize peripheral nerves and their surrounding structures for an etiological classification. Clinical neurological and electrophysiological investigations provide functional information about nerve lesions. The information provided by a standard magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) examination is inadequate for peripheral nerve diagnostics; however, MRI neurography is suitable but on the other hand a resource and time-consuming method. Using ultrasonography for peripheral nerve diagnostics. With ultrasonography reliable diagnostics of entrapment neuropathies and traumatic nerve lesions are possible. The use of ultrasonography for neuropathies shows that a differentiation between different forms is possible. Nerve ultrasonography is an established diagnostic tool. In addition to the clinical examination and clinical electrophysiology, structural information can be obtained, which results in a clear improvement in the diagnostics. Ultrasonography has become an integral part of the diagnostic work-up of peripheral nerve lesions in neurophysiological departments. Nerve ultrasonography is recommended for the diagnostic work-up of peripheral nerve lesions in addition to clinical and electrophysiological investigations. It should be used in the clinical work-up of entrapment neuropathies, traumatic nerve lesions and spacy-occupying lesions of nerves. (orig.) [German] Fuer die Diagnostik von Nervenlaesionen ist ein bildgebendes Verfahren zur Darstellung des peripheren Nervs und seiner ihn umgebenden Strukturen fuer eine aetiologische Einordnung erforderlich. Mit der klinisch-neurologischen Untersuchung und Elektrophysiologie ist eine funktionelle Aussage ueber die Nervenlaesion moeglich. In der Standard-MRT-Untersuchung wird der periphere Nerv nur unzureichend gut dargestellt. Die MRT-Neurographie ist ein sehr gutes, aber auch zeit- und ressourcenintensives Verfahren. Nutzung des Ultraschalls fuer die

  13. Peripheral nerve conduits: technology update

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arslantunali, D; Dursun, T; Yucel, D; Hasirci, N; Hasirci, V

    2014-01-01

    Peripheral nerve injury is a worldwide clinical problem which could lead to loss of neuronal communication along sensory and motor nerves between the central nervous system (CNS) and the peripheral organs and impairs the quality of life of a patient. The primary requirement for the treatment of complete lesions is a tension-free, end-to-end repair. When end-to-end repair is not possible, peripheral nerve grafts or nerve conduits are used. The limited availability of autografts, and drawbacks of the allografts and xenografts like immunological reactions, forced the researchers to investigate and develop alternative approaches, mainly nerve conduits. In this review, recent information on the various types of conduit materials (made of biological and synthetic polymers) and designs (tubular, fibrous, and matrix type) are being presented. PMID:25489251

  14. Elucidating Dynamical Processes Relevant to Flow Encountering Abrupt Topography (FLEAT)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-30

    Encountering Abrupt Topography (FLEAT) Bo Qiu Dept of Oceanography, University of Hawaii at Manoa 1000 Pope Rd. Honolulu, HI 96822 phone: (808) 956...c) to explore relevant dynamics by using both simplified models and OGCM output with realistic topography and surface boundary conditions...scale abyssal circulation, we propose to use the Hallberg Isopycnal Model (HIM). The HIM allows sloping isopycnals to interact with bottom topography

  15. X-ray diffraction topography. Stages and tendencies of development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shul'pina, I.L.

    2000-01-01

    The physical foundation of X-ray diffraction topography, its methods, the achievements in image theory, the stages of evolution were described in this review. It was found that modern topography is well along in development associated with the use of third-generation synchrotron radiation and with its adaptation to advance materials and problems of materials science. Some proposals about prospects for X-ray topography progress in the future have been made [ru

  16. Gravity Terrain Effect of the Seafloor Topography in Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lun-Tao Tong Tai-Rong Guo

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Gravity terrain correction is used to compensate for the gravitational effects of the topography residual to the Bouguer plate. The seafloor topography off the eastern offshore of Taiwan is extremely rugged, and the depth of the sea bottom could be greater than 5000 m. In order to evaluate the terrain effect caused by the seafloor topography, a modern computer algorithm is used to calculate the terrain correction based on the digital elevation model (DEM.

  17. Occasional head of flexor pollicis longus muscle: a study of its morphology and clinical significance.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hemmady M

    1993-01-01

    Full Text Available A cadaveric dissection study of 54 upper extremities to determine the incidence of occurrence, morphology and relations of the occasional head of the flexor pollicis longus muscle is presented. The occasional head of the flexor pollicis longus muscle was found to be present more frequently (66.66% than absent. It mainly arose from the medical epicondyle of the humerus (55.55% and the medial border of the coronoid process of the ulna (16.66%. It was found to be in close association with the median nerve (anteriorly and the anterior interosseous nerve (posteriorly. The clinical implications of these findings are discussed viz. entrapment neuropathies of the median and anterior interosseous nerves, cicatricial contraction of the occasional head leading to flexion deformity of the thumb and the likely necessity to lengthen/release the occasional head in spastic paralysis of the flexor pollicis longus muscle.

  18. Variant palmaris profundus enclosed by an unusual loop of the median nerve

    Science.gov (United States)

    CHOU, HSIU-CHU; JENG, HELLEN; KO, TSUI-LING; PAI, MAN-HUI; CHANG, CHIU-YUN; WU, CHING-HSIANG

    2001-01-01

    According to the usual description in most anatomy texts, the median nerve in the forearm passes between the 2 heads of pronator teres. It continues distally between flexor digitorum superficialis and profundus almost to the retinaculum. Muscular branches leave the nerve near the elbow and supply all superficial muscles of the anterior part of the forearm except flexor carpi ulnaris. Many variations of the median nerve in the forearm have been reported (Urban & Krosman, 1992). The palmaris profundus is also a rare anomaly of the forearm (Dyreby & Engber, 1982). It originates from the radial side of the common flexor tendon in the proximal forearm and inserts into the undersurface of the palmar aponeurosis. The origin of palmaris profundus may be close to the median nerve and its branches, and may be involved in compressive neuropathy of the anterior interosseous nerve. Its tendon crossing through the carpal canal has been implicated in the carpal tunnel syndrome (reviewed by Lahey & Aulicino, 1986). In some cases, palmaris profundus was found enclosed in a common fascial sheath with the median nerve (Stark, 1992; Sahinoglu et al. 1994). To indicate its close association with the median nerve, the palmaris profundus was also named ‘musculus comitans nervi mediani’ (Sahinoglu et al. 1994). This article reports an unusual loop of the median nerve encircling an anomalous palmaris profundus in the forearm, which, to the best of our knowledge, has not been previously described. PMID:11693311

  19. Ultrasound-guided axillary nerve block for ED incision and drainage of deltoid abscess.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyons, Claire; Herring, Andrew A

    2017-07-01

    Deltoid abscesses are common and painful, often a consequence of injection drug use and seen frequently in emergency departments (EDs). The required incision and drainage can be completed successfully with effective pain relief using a peripheral nerve block. The brachial plexus nerve block works well, however it is technically complex with a low, but potentially serious, risk of complications such as phrenic nerve paralysis. Selective blockade of the axillary nerve eliminates the risks associated with a brachial plexus block, while providing more specific anesthesia for the deltoid region. Our initial experience suggests that the axillary nerve block (ANB) is a technically simple, safe, and effective way to manage the pain of deltoid abscesses and the necessary incision and drainage (I&D). The block involves using ultrasound guidance to inject a 20mL bolus of local anesthetic into the quadrangular space surrounding the axillary nerve (inferior to the posterolateral aspect of the acromion, near the overlap of the long head of triceps brachii and teres minor). Once injected the local will anesthetize the axillary nerve resulting in analgesia of the cutaneous area of the lateral shoulder and the deeper tissues including the deltoid muscle. Further research will clarify questions about the volume and concentration of local anesthetic, the role of injected adjuncts, and expected duration of analgesia and anesthesia. Herein we present a description of an axillary nerve block successfully used for deltoid abscess I&D in the ED. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. The intracranial facial nerve as seen through different surgical windows: an extensive anatomosurgical study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernardo, Antonio; Evins, Alexander I; Visca, Anna; Stieg, Phillip E

    2013-06-01

    The facial nerve has a short intracranial course but crosses critical and frequently accessed surgical structures during cranial base surgery. When performing approaches to complex intracranial regions, it is essential to understand the nerve's conventional and topographic anatomy from different surgical perspectives as well as its relationship with surrounding structures. To describe the entire intracranial course of the facial nerve as observed via different neurosurgical approaches and to provide an analytical evaluation of the degree of nerve exposure achieved with each approach. Anterior petrosectomies (middle fossa, extended middle fossa), posterior petrosectomies (translabyrinthine, retrolabyrinthine, transcochlear), a retrosigmoid, a far lateral, and anterior transfacial (extended maxillectomy, mandibular swing) approaches were performed on 10 adult cadaveric heads (20 sides). The degree of facial nerve exposure achieved per segment for each approach was assessed and graded independently by 3 surgeons. The anterior petrosal approaches offered good visualization of the nerve in the cerebellopontine angle and intracanalicular portion superiorly, whereas the posterior petrosectomies provided more direct visualization without the need for cerebellar retraction. The far lateral approach exposed part of the posterior and the entire inferior quadrants, whereas the retrosigmoid approach exposed parts of the superior and inferior quadrants and the entire posterior quadrant. Anterior and anteroinferior exposure of the facial nerve was achieved via the transfacial approaches. The surgical route used must rely on the size, nature, and general location of the lesion, as well as on the capability of the particular approach to better expose the appropriate segment of the facial nerve.

  1. Preservation of cranial nerves during removal of the brain for an enhanced student experience in neuroanatomy classes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Jennifer; Roberts, David J H; Pickering, James D

    2014-01-01

    Neuroanatomy teaching at the University of Leeds includes the examination of isolated brains by students working in small groups. This requires the prosected brains to exhibit all 12 pairs of cranial nerves. Traditional methods of removing the brain from the skull involve elevating the frontal lobes and cutting each cranial nerve as the brain is reflected posteriorly. This can leave a substantial length of each nerve attached to the skull base rather than to the removed brain. We have found a posterior approach more successful. In this study, five adult heads were disarticulated at the level of the thyroid cartilage and placed, prone, in a head stand. A wedge of bone from the occipital region was removed before the cerebellum and brainstem were elevated to visualize the cranial nerves associated with the medulla oblongata, cerebellopontine angle and mesencephalic-pontine junction prior to cutting them as close to the skull as possible. Five brains were successfully removed from the skull, each having a full complement of cranial nerves of good length attached to them. This approach significantly increases the length and number of cranial nerves remaining attached to the brain, which supports student education. For integration into head and neck dissection courses, careful consideration will be required to ensure the necks are suitably dissected and to decide whether the cranial nerves are best left attached to the skull base or brain. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Heading and head injuries in soccer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirkendall, D T; Jordan, S E; Garrett, W E

    2001-01-01

    In the world of sports, soccer is unique because of the purposeful use of the unprotected head for controlling and advancing the ball. This skill obviously places the player at risk of head injury and the game does carry some risk. Head injury can be a result of contact of the head with another head (or other body parts), ground, goal post, other unknown objects or even the ball. Such impacts can lead to contusions, fractures, eye injuries, concussions or even, in rare cases, death. Coaches, players, parents and physicians are rightly concerned about the risk of head injury in soccer. Current research shows that selected soccer players have some degree of cognitive dysfunction. It is important to determine the reasons behind such deficits. Purposeful heading has been blamed, but a closer look at the studies that focus on heading has revealed methodological concerns that question the validity of blaming purposeful heading of the ball. The player's history and age (did they play when the ball was leather and could absorb significant amounts of water), alcohol intake, drug intake, learning disabilities, concussion definition and control group use/composition are all factors that cloud the ability to blame purposeful heading. What does seem clear is that a player's history of concussive episodes is a more likely explanation for cognitive deficits. While it is likely that the subconcussive impact of purposeful heading is a doubtful factor in the noted deficits, it is unknown whether multiple subconcussive impacts might have some lingering effects. In addition, it is unknown whether the noted deficits have any affect on daily life. Proper instruction in the technique is critical because if the ball contacts an unprepared head (as in accidental head-ball contacts), the potential for serious injury is possible. To further our understanding of the relationship of heading, head injury and cognitive deficits, we need to: learn more about the actual impact of a ball on the

  3. Importance of dynamic topography in Himalaya-Tibetan plateau region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, A.; Singh, S.

    2017-12-01

    Himalaya-Tibetan plateau region has the highest topography in the world. Various studies have been done to understand the mechanisms responsible for sustaining this high topography. However, the existence of dynamic topography in this region is still uncertain, though there have been some studies exploring the role of channel flow in lower crust leading to some topography. We investigated the role of radial mantle flow in this region by studying the relationship between geoid and topography. High geoid-to-topography ratios (GTR) were observed along the Himalayas suggesting deeper compensation mechanisms. However, further north, the geoid and topography relationship became a lot more complex as high as well as low GTR values were observed. The high GTR regions also coincided with area of high filtered free air gravity anomalies, indicating dynamic support. We also looked at the spectral components of gravity, geoid and topography, and calculated response functions to distinguish between different compensation mechanisms. We estimated the average elastic thickness of the whole region to be around 40 km from coherence and admittance studies. The GTR and admittance-coherence studies suggest deeper mass anomalies playing a role in supporting the topography along Himalayas and the area between Altyn Tagh and Kunlun faults.

  4. Origin of bending in uncoated microcantilever - Surface topography?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lakshmoji, K.; Prabakar, K.; Tripura Sundari, S.; Jayapandian, J.; Tyagi, A. K.; Sundar, C. S.

    2014-01-01

    We provide direct experimental evidence to show that difference in surface topography on opposite sides of an uncoated microcantilever induces bending, upon exposure to water molecules. Examination on opposite sides of the microcantilever by atomic force microscopy reveals the presence of localized surface features on one side, which renders the induced stress non-uniform. Further, the root mean square inclination angle characterizing the surface topography shows a difference of 73° between the opposite sides. The absence of deflection in another uncoated microcantilever having similar surface topography confirms that in former microcantilever bending is indeed induced by differences in surface topography

  5. Delayed-onset bilateral abducens paresis after head trauma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pravin Salunke

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Bilateral sixth nerve paresis following closed head injury, though rare, is a known entity. However, delayed-onset post-traumatic bilateral abducens paresis is extremely rare. We present two cases. The first patient had onset of bilateral abducens paresis 2 weeks after closed head injury and the second patient after 3 days. The cause in the former was detected to be chronic subdural hematoma and in the latter is speculated to be edema/ischemia due to injury to soft tissue structures housing these nerves. The delayed onset of bilateral abducens paresis following head injury may vary according to the cause. There may be another mechanism of injury apart from direct trauma. Though rare, it needs to be evaluated and may have a treatable cause like elevated intracranial pressure.

  6. Nerve transection repair using laser-activated chitosan in a rat model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhatt, Neel K; Khan, Taleef R; Mejias, Christopher; Paniello, Randal C

    2017-08-01

    Cranial nerve transection during head and neck surgery is conventionally repaired with microsuture. Previous studies have demonstrated recovery with laser nerve welding (LNW), a novel alternative to microsuture. LNW has been reported to have poorer tensile strength, however. Laser-activated chitosan, an adhesive biopolymer, may promote nerve recovery while enhancing the tensile strength of the repair. Using a rat posterior tibial nerve injury model, we compared four different methods of nerve repair in this pilot study. Animal study. Animals underwent unilateral posterior tibial nerve transection. The injury was repaired by potassium titanyl phosphate (KTP) laser alone (n = 20), KTP + chitosan (n = 12), microsuture + chitosan (n = 12), and chitosan alone (n = 14). Weekly walking tracks were conducted to measure functional recovery (FR). Tensile strength (TS) was measured at 6 weeks. At 6 weeks, KTP laser alone had the best recovery (FR = 93.4% ± 8.3%). Microsuture + chitosan, KTP + chitosan, and chitosan alone all showed good FR (87.4% ± 13.5%, 84.6% ± 13.0%, and 84.1% ± 10.0%, respectively). One-way analysis of variance was performed (F(3,56) = 2.6, P = .061). A TS threshold of 3.8 N was selected as a control mean recovery. Three groups-KTP alone, KTP + chitosan, and microsuture + chitosan-were found to meet threshold 60% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 23.1%-88.3%), 75% (95% CI: 46.8%-91.1%), and 100% (95% CI: 75.8%-100.0%), respectively. In the posterior tibial nerve model, all repair methods promoted nerve recovery. Laser-activated chitosan as a biopolymer anchor provided good TS and appears to be a novel alternative to microsuture. This repair method may have surgical utility following cranial nerve injury during head and neck surgery. NA Laryngoscope, 127:E253-E257, 2017. © 2017 The American Laryngological, Rhinological and Otological Society, Inc.

  7. Estimation of ultrasound reference values for the lower limb peripheral nerves in adults: A cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bedewi, Mohamed Abdelmohsen; Abodonya, Ahmed; Kotb, Mamdouh; Kamal, Sanaa; Mahmoud, Gehan; Aldossari, Khaled; Alqabbani, Abdullah; Swify, Sherine

    2018-03-01

    The objective of this study is to estimate the reference values for the lower limb peripheral nerves in adults.The demographics and physical characteristics of 69 adult healthy volunteers were evaluated and recorded. The estimated reference values and their correlations with the age, weight, height, body mass index (BMI) were evaluated.The cross sectional area reference values were obtained at 5 predetermined sites for 3 important lower limb peripheral nerves. Our CSA values correlated significantly with age, weight, and BMI. The normal reference values for each nerve were as follows: Tibial nerve at the popliteal fossa 19 mm ± 6.9, tibial nerve at the level of the medial malleolus 12.7 mm ± 4.5, common peroneal nerve at the popliteal fossa 9.5 mm ± 4, common peroneal nerve fibular head 8.9 mm ± 3.2, sural nerve 3.5 mm ± 1.4.The reference values for the lower limb peripheral nerves were identified. These values could be used for future management of peripheral nerve disorders.

  8. Mean Dynamic Topography of the Arctic Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrell, Sinead Louise; Mcadoo, David C.; Laxon, Seymour W.; Zwally, H. Jay; Yi, Donghui; Ridout, Andy; Giles, Katherine

    2012-01-01

    ICESat and Envisat altimetry data provide measurements of the instantaneous sea surface height (SSH) across the Arctic Ocean, using lead and open water elevation within the sea ice pack. First, these data were used to derive two independent mean sea surface (MSS) models by stacking and averaging along-track SSH profiles gathered between 2003 and 2009. The ICESat and Envisat MSS data were combined to construct the high-resolution ICEn MSS. Second, we estimate the 5.5-year mean dynamic topography (MDT) of the Arctic Ocean by differencing the ICEn MSS with the new GOCO02S geoid model, derived from GRACE and GOCE gravity. Using these satellite-only data we map the major features of Arctic Ocean dynamical height that are consistent with in situ observations, including the topographical highs and lows of the Beaufort and Greenland Gyres, respectively. Smaller-scale MDT structures remain largely unresolved due to uncertainties in the geoid at short wavelengths.

  9. Nanoscale surface topographies for structural colors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, Jeppe Sandvik

    The thesis describes and demonstrates the possibilities for utilization of structural colors in mass fabricated plastic products as replacement for or in combination with pigments and inks. The motivation is the possible advantages related to re-cycling and re-use of plastic by limiting the number......-polymer interface is suppressed. This improves the ability to see through a clear plastic in the presence of specular reflection. The tapered nanostructures are also utilized to enhance the chroma of pigmented polymers. Larger tapered structures fabricated in a similar manor are shown to work as color filters....... Through an experimental study is the color of the transmitted light linked directly to the random topography of the surface by use of diffraction theory. The color effects from periodic structures and how these might be employed to create bright colors are investigated. This is done both for opaque...

  10. Anatomical basis for simultaneous block of greater and third occipital nerves, with an ultrasound-guided technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kariya, Ken; Usui, Yosuke; Higashi, Naoko; Nakamoto, Tatsuo; Shimbori, Hironobu; Terada, Satoshi; Takahashi, Hideo; Ueta, Hisashi; Kitazawa, Yusuke; Sawanobori, Yasushi; Okuda, Yasuhisa; Matsuno, Kenjiro

    2017-11-13

    In some headache disorders, for which the greater occipital nerve block is partly effective, the third occipital nerve is also suggested to be involved. We aimed to establish a simple technique for simultaneously blocking the greater and third occipital nerves. We performed a detailed examination of dorsal neck anatomy in 33 formalin-fixed cadavers, and deduced two candidate target points for blocking both the greater and third occipital nerves. These target points were tested on three Thiel-fixed cadavers. We performed ultrasound-guided dye injections into these points, examined the results by dissection, and selected the most suitable injection point. Finally, this target point was tested in three healthy volunteers. We injected 4 ml of local anesthetic and 1 ml of radiopaque material at the selected point, guided with a standard ultrasound system. Then, the pattern of local anesthetic distribution was imaged with computed tomography. We deduced that the most suitable injection point was the medial head of the semispinalis capitis muscle at the C1 level of the cervical vertebra. Both nerves entered this muscle, in close proximity, with little individual variation. In healthy volunteers, an anesthetic injected was confined to the muscle and induced anesthesia in the skin areas innervated by both nerves. The medial head of the semispinalis capitis muscle is a suitable landmark for blocking the greater and third occipital nerves simultaneously, by which occipital nerve involvement in various headache disorders may be rapidly examined and treated.

  11. Relationship between Topography and Some Soil Properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. J. Pajand

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Topography is an important and effective property affecting the soil quality. Some researchers demonstrated that degree and aspect of land slope may influence the particle size distribution and gravel. Slope degree affects the surface and subsurface run-off, drainage, soil temperature, stability of soil aggregates and soil erosion. This research was carried out to determine the spatial variation of soil properties in different slope degrees of northern and southern slopes in Khorasan Razavei province, Iran. Material and Methods: This study was performed in Sanganeh research station (longitude 60o 15ʹ60ʺ and latitude 36o 41ʹ 36ʺ, of north-eastern, Khorasan Razavi province of Iran. In order to study the effects of topography on some soil physical and chemical properties, a topo-sequence with the same slope length, parent materials and cover crops was selected. 30 soil samples (0-30 cm depth were collected from different slopes of less than 5, 5-15, 15-30, 30-50 and more than 50 percent of both southern and northern aspects. In this study, the soil particle size distribution (texture was measured by hydrometer method, organic carbon and calcium carbonate were determined by wet oxidation and titration with HCl 6 M, respectively and soil structural stability index, aggregates mean weight diameter and particles fractal dimension were calculated by related equations. Finally, the studied soil properties of 5 slopes (less than 5, 5-15, 15-30, 30-50, and more than 50% and 2 aspects (north and south with 3 replicates were compared by nested experimental design and Tuky test in JMP statistical software. Results and Discussion: The maximum and minimum clay contents as well as fractal dimension and organic carbon contents were found in less than 5% and more than 50% of south slopes, respectively. Clay content and fractal dimension in north aspect were also significantly (P

  12. Mars topography: bulk statistics and spectral scaling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nikora, V.; Goring, D.

    2004-01-01

    In this paper we present a systematic study of the Mars topography focusing on the statistical distributions and maps of the 5 deg.x 5 deg.cell-averaged mean elevations, standard deviations, skewness and kurtosis coefficients, and power spectra. Altogether, the obtained data suggest that at a 5 deg.x 5 deg.cell scale a large portion of the Martian surface may be reasonably considered as a Gaussian random field with a three-range spectrum consisting: (1) a high-energy low-wave-number range (∼0.003 -1 ) where the spectrum may deviate from a power law and attain a maximum; (2) scaling range 1 (∼0.03 -1 ) where the spectrum may be well approximated as S(k)∝k -β 1 ; and (3) scaling range 2 (∼(0.2-0.3) -1 ) where the spectrum may be also approximated as a power function but with a different exponent, i.e., S(k)∝k -β 2 . The most probable values for the exponents are β 1 =(2.2-2.4) and β 2 =3.8. The data show that the separation of these two scaling ranges most frequently occurs at L c ∼3.3 km. At a scale larger than the 5 deg.x 5 deg.cell scale the topography is highly intermittent with patchy spatial distributions of the key statistical moments. This patchiness is superimposed with systematic north-to-south trends in statistical properties, reflecting the crustal dichotomy of the planet and large-scale differences in the surface-forming processes

  13. Sensory nerve function and auto-mutilation after reconstruction of various gap lengths with nerve guides and autologous nerve grafts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    den Dunnen, WFA; Meek, MF

    The aim of this study was to evaluate sensory nerve recovery and auto-mutilation after reconstruction of various lengths of nerve gaps in the sciatic nerve of the rat, using different techniques. Group 4, in which the longest nerve gap (15 mm) was reconstructed with a thin-walled

  14. Head Trauma: First Aid

    Science.gov (United States)

    First aid Head trauma: First aid Head trauma: First aid By Mayo Clinic Staff Most head trauma involves injuries that are minor and don't require ... 21, 2015 Original article: http://www.mayoclinic.org/first-aid/first-aid-head-trauma/basics/ART-20056626 . Mayo ...

  15. Phrenic Nerve Transfer for Reconstruction of Elbow Extension in Severe Brachial Plexus Injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flores, Leandro P; Socolovsky, Mariano

    2016-09-01

    Background Restoring elbow extension is an important objective to pursue when repairing the brachial plexus in patients with a flail arm. Based upon the good results obtained using the phrenic nerve to restore elbow flexion and shoulder stability, we hypothesized that this nerve could also be employed to reconstruct elbow extension in patients with severe brachial plexus injuries. Methods A retrospective study of 10 patients in which the phrenic nerve targeted the radial nerve (7 patients) or the branch to the long head of the triceps (3 patients) as a surgical strategy for reconstruction of the brachial plexus. Results The mean postoperative follow-up time was 34 months. At final follow-up, elbow extension graded as M4 was measured in three patients, Medical Research Council MRC M3 in five patients, and M2 in one patient, while one patient experienced no measurable recovery (M0). No patient complained or demonstrated any signs of respiratory insufficiency postoperatively. Conclusions The phrenic nerve is a reliable donor for reanimation of elbow extension in such cases, and the branch to the long head of the triceps should be considered as a better target for the nerve transfer. Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.

  16. Microsurgical reconstruction of large nerve defects using autologous nerve grafts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daoutis, N K; Gerostathopoulos, N E; Efstathopoulos, D G; Misitizis, D P; Bouchlis, G N; Anagnostou, S K

    1994-01-01

    Between 1986 and 1993, 643 patients with peripheral nerve trauma were treated in our clinic. Primary neurorraphy was performed in 431 of these patients and nerve grafting in 212 patients. We present the functional results after nerve grafting in 93 patients with large nerve defects who were followed for more than 2 years. Evaluation of function was based on the Medical Research Council (MRC) classification for motor and sensory recovery. Factors affecting functional outcome, such as age of the patient, denervation time, length of the defect, and level of the injury were noted. Good results according to the MRC classification were obtained in the majority of cases, although function remained less than that of the uninjured side.

  17. Electrophysiology of Extraocular Cranial Nerves: Oculomotor, Trochlear, and Abducens Nerve.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hariharan, Praveen; Balzer, Jeffery R; Anetakis, Katherine; Crammond, Donald J; Thirumala, Parthasarathy D

    2018-01-01

    The utility of extraocular cranial nerve electrophysiologic recordings lies primarily in the operating room during skull base surgeries. Surgical manipulation during skull base surgeries poses a risk of injury to multiple cranial nerves, including those innervating extraocular muscles. Because tumors distort normal anatomic relationships, it becomes particularly challenging to identify cranial nerve structures. Studies have reported the benefits of using intraoperative spontaneous electromyographic recordings and compound muscle action potentials evoked by electrical stimulation in preventing postoperative neurologic deficits. Apart from surgical applications, electromyography of extraocular muscles has also been used to guide botulinum toxin injections in patients with strabismus and as an adjuvant diagnostic test in myasthenia gravis. In this article, we briefly review the rationale, current available techniques to monitor extraocular cranial nerves, technical difficulties, clinical and surgical applications, as well as future directions for research.

  18. Intrapontine malignant nerve sheath tumor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kozić, Dusko; Nagulić, Mirjana; Samardzić, Miroslav

    2008-01-01

    . On pathological examination, the neoplasm appeared to be an intrapontine nerve sheath tumor originating most likely from the intrapontine segment of one of the cranial nerve fibres. The tumor showed exophytic growth, with consequent spread to adjacent subaracnoid space. MR spectroscopy revealed the presence......The primary source of malignant intracerebral nerve sheath tumors is still unclear We report the imaging and MR spectroscopic findings in a 39-year-old man with a very rare brain stem tumor MR examination revealed the presence of intraaxial brain stem tumor with a partial exophytic growth...

  19. The immunologic considerations in human head transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardy, Mark A; Furr, Allen; Barret, Juan P; Barker, John H

    2017-05-01

    The idea of head transplantation appears at first as unrealistic, unethical, and futile. Here we discuss immunological considerations in human head transplantation. In a separate accompanying article we discuss surgical, ethical, and psychosocial issues concerned in body-to-head transplantation (BHT) [1]. The success of such an unusual allograft, where the donor and the recipient can reject each other, depends on prevention of complex immunologic reactions, especially rejection of the head by the body (graft-vs-host) or probably less likely, the possibility of the head rejecting the total body allograft (host-vs-graft). The technical and immunologic difficulties are enormous, especially since rapid nerve and cord connections and regeneration have not yet been possible to achieve. In this article we begin by briefly reviewing neuro-immunologic issues that may favor BHT such as the blood brain barrier (BBB) and point out its shortcomings. And we touch on the cellular and humoral elements in the brain proper that differ in some respects from those in other organs and in the periphery. Based on recent successes in vascular composite allografts (VCAs), we will elaborate on potential specific advantages and difficulties in BHT of various available immunosuppressive medications already utilized in VCAs. The risk/benefit ratio of these drugs will be emphasized in relation to direct brain toxicity such as seizure disorders, interference, or promotion of nerve regeneration, and potentiation of cerebral viral infections. The final portion of this article will focus on pre-transplant immunologic manipulation of the deceased donor body along with pretreatment of the recipient. Copyright © 2017 IJS Publishing Group Ltd. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Head and neck cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vogl, S.E.

    1988-01-01

    This book contains 10 chapters. Some of the titles are: Combined Surgical Resection and Irradiation for Head and Neck Cancers; Analysis of Radiation Therapy Oncology Group Head and Neck Database: Identification of Prognostic Factors and the Re-evaluation of American Joint Committee Stages; Combined Modality Approach to Head and Neck Cancer; Induction Combination Chemotherapy of Regionally Advanced Head and Neck Cancer; and Outcome after Complete Remission to Induction Chemotherapy in Head and Neck Cancer

  1. Metamerism in cephalochordates and the problem of the vertebrate head.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onai, Takayuki; Adachi, Noritaka; Kuratani, Shigeru

    2017-01-01

    The vertebrate head characteristically exhibits a complex pattern with sense organs, brain, paired eyes and jaw muscles, and the brain case is not found in other chordates. How the extant vertebrate head has evolved remains enigmatic. Historically, there have been two conflicting views on the origin of the vertebrate head, segmental and non-segmental views. According to the segmentalists, the vertebrate head is organized as a metameric structure composed of segments equivalent to those in the trunk; a metamere in the vertebrate head was assumed to consist of a somite, a branchial arch and a set of cranial nerves, considering that the head evolved from rostral segments of amphioxus-like ancestral vertebrates. Non-segmentalists, however, considered that the vertebrate head was not segmental. In that case, the ancestral state of the vertebrate head may be non-segmented, and rostral segments in amphioxus might have been secondarily gained, or extant vertebrates might have evolved through radical modifications of amphioxus-like ancestral vertebrate head. Comparative studies of mesodermal development in amphioxus and vertebrate gastrula embryos have revealed that mesodermal gene expressions become segregated into two domains anteroposteriorly to specify the head mesoderm and trunk mesoderm only in vertebrates; in this segregation, key genes such as delta and hairy, involved in segment formation, are expressed in the trunk mesoderm, but not in the head mesoderm, strongly suggesting that the head mesoderm of extant vertebrates is not segmented. Taken together, the above finding possibly adds a new insight into the origin of the vertebrate head; the vertebrate head mesoderm would have evolved through an anteroposterior polarization of the paraxial mesoderm if the ancestral vertebrate had been amphioxus-like.

  2. Measurement noise of a point autofocus surface topography instrument

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Feng, Xiaobing; Quagliotti, Danilo; Maculotti, Giacomo

    Optical instruments for areal topography measurement can be especially sensitive to noise when scanning is required. Such noise has different sources, including those internally generated and external sources from the environment.......Optical instruments for areal topography measurement can be especially sensitive to noise when scanning is required. Such noise has different sources, including those internally generated and external sources from the environment....

  3. Ekman effects in a rotating flow over bottom topography

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zavala Sansón, L.; Heijst, van G.J.F.

    2002-01-01

    This paper presents a general two-dimensional model for rotating barotropic flows over topography. The model incorporates in a vorticity–stream function formulation both inviscid topography effects, associated with stretching and squeezing of fluid columns enforced by their motion over variable

  4. Investigating Flow Features Near Abrupt Topography in the Mariana Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-30

    1 DISTRIBUTION STATEMENT A. Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. Investigating Flow Features Near Abrupt Topography in...waves generated by flow over topography and mesoscale eddies generated by flow past islands. Having identified the prime locations in the region for such

  5. Relating Cenozoic North Sea sediments to topography in southern Norway:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Anell, Ingrid Anna Margareta; Thybo, Hans; Stratford, Wanda Rose

    2010-01-01

    the Shetland platform continued throughout the Cenozoic while supply from southern Norway increased markedly around the Eocene–Oligocene, coeval with the greenhouse–icehouse transition. Mass balance calculations of sediment and eroded rock volumes suggest that while some topography along the western margin...... that Plio-Pleistocene erosion over-deepened a pre-existing topography....

  6. Cokriging surface elevation and seismic refraction data for bedrock topography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nyquist, J.E.; Doll, W.E.; Davis, R.K.; Hopkins, R.A.

    1992-01-01

    Analysis of seismic refraction data collected at a proposed site of the Advanced Neutron Source (ANS) Facility showed a strong correlation between surface and bedrock topography. By combining seismically determined bedrock elevation data with surface elevation data using cokriging, we were able to significantly improve our map of bedrock topography without collecting additional seismic data

  7. Clinical Validation of Point-Source Corneal Topography in Keratoplasty

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vrijling, A C L; Braaf, B.; Snellenburg, J.J.; de Lange, F.; Zaal, M.J.W.; van der Heijde, G.L.; Sicam, V.A.D.P.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose. To validate the clinical performance of point-source corneal topography (PCT) in postpenetrating keratoplasty (PKP) eyes and to compare it with conventional Placido-based topography. Methods. Corneal elevation maps of the anterior corneal surface were obtained from 20 post-PKP corneas using

  8. Diffusion processes in bombardment-induced surface topography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robinson, R.S.

    1984-01-01

    A treatment is given of the problem of surface diffusion processes occurring during surface topography development, whenever a surface is simultaneously seeded with impurities and ion bombarded. The development of controllable topography and the importance of surface diffusion parameters, which can be obtained during these studies, are also analyzed. 101 refs.; 7 figs.; 2 tabs

  9. Computed tomographic study of the complication of head injury

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kojima, Tadashi; Waga, Shiro

    1982-01-01

    Computed tomography (CT) is quite effective in the diagnosis of traumatic intracranial hemorrhage and cerebral contusion. Two hundred and nine consecutive patients with head injury were admitted to the hospital and studied by CT in the year from 1977 to 1980. Fourty-sevenof 209 patients had the complications of head injury, including 6 patients with carotidcavernous fistula (CCF), 6 with traumatic aneurysm, 10 with pneumocephalus, 4 with intracranial foreign body, 15 with optic nerve injury, and 14 with other cranial nerve palsy. Five patients with CCF had abnormal finding on CT. Two traumatic aneurysms of the superficial temporal artery were visualized on CT after injection of contrast material, but all traumatic aneurysms of the carotid siphon were not seven on CT. CT in all 10 patients with pneumocephalus and in all 4 patients with intracranial foreign body was of diagnostic value: On CT in two patients even small air bubbles were seen in details. In the CT examination of 29 patients who presented with cranial nerve injury, we could not find out any abnormality on CT. We emphasize that CT is much less effective in the diagnosis of vascular complication of head injury and traumatic cranial nerve injury. (author)

  10. Intention tremor after head injury

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iwadate, Yasuo; Saeki, Naokatsu; Namba, Hiroki; Odaki, Masaru; Oka, Nobuo.

    1989-01-01

    Eight cases of intention tremor as a late complication of head injury were investigated. The patients ranged in age from 3 to 24 years. All received severe head injuries and lapsed into coma immediately afterward (Glasgow Coma Scale scores ≤8). Six patients exhibited decerebration or decortication. Hemiparesis was present in six cases and oculomotor nerve palsy in four. In the chronic stage, all patients displayed some degree of impairment of higher cortical function and five had dysarthria and/or ataxia. Initial computed tomography (CT) scans within 3 hours after the injury were obtained in five cases, of which four showed a hemorrhagic lesion in the midbrain or its surroundings. Other CT findings were diffuse cerebral swelling (four cases), intraventricular hemorrhage (three), and multiple hemorrhagic lesions (two). In the chronic stage, generalized cortical atrophy or ventricular enlargement was noted in five cases. These clinical features and CT findings indicate diffuse brain damage as well as midbrain damage and may reflect shearing injury. (author)

  11. POROSITY OF THE WALL OF A NEUROLAC (R) NERVE CONDUIT HAMPERS NERVE REGENERATION

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meek, Marcel F.; Den Dunnen, Wilfred F. A.

    2009-01-01

    One way to improve nerve regeneration and bridge longer nerve gaps may be the use of semipermeable/porous conduits. With porosity less biomaterial is used for the nerve conduit. We evaluated the short-term effects of porous Neurolac (R) nerve conduits for in vivo peripheral nerve regeneration. In 10

  12. Poly(DL-lactide-epsilon-caprolactone) nerve guides perform better than autologous nerve grafts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    DenDunnen, WFA; VanderLei, B; Schakenraad, JM; Stokroos, [No Value; Blaauw, E; Pennings, AJ; Robinson, PH; Bartels, H.

    1996-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the speed and quality of nerve regeneration after reconstruction using a biodegradable nerve guide or an autologous nerve graft. We evaluated nerve regeneration using light microscopy, transmission electron microscopy and morphometric analysis. Nerve regeneration

  13. Scaffoldless tissue-engineered nerve conduit promotes peripheral nerve regeneration and functional recovery after tibial nerve injury in rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Aaron M. Adams; Keith W. VanDusen; Tatiana Y. Kostrominova; Jacob P. Mertens; Lisa M. Larkin

    2017-01-01

    Damage to peripheral nerve tissue may cause loss of function in both the nerve and the targeted muscles it innervates. This study compared the repair capability of engineered nerve conduit (ENC), engineered fibroblast conduit (EFC), and autograft in a 10-mm tibial nerve gap. ENCs were fabricated utilizing primary fibroblasts and the nerve cells of rats on embryonic day 15 (E15). EFCs were fabricated utilizing primary fi-broblasts only. Following a 12-week recovery, nerve repair was assessed by measuring contractile properties in the medial gastrocnemius muscle, distal motor nerve conduction velocity in the lateral gastrocnemius, and histology of muscle and nerve. The autografts, ENCs and EFCs reestablished 96%, 87% and 84% of native distal motor nerve conduction velocity in the lateral gastrocnemius, 100%, 44% and 44% of native specific force of medical gastrocnemius, and 63%, 61% and 67% of native medial gastrocnemius mass, re-spectively. Histology of the repaired nerve revealed large axons in the autograft, larger but fewer axons in the ENC repair, and many smaller axons in the EFC repair. Muscle histology revealed similar muscle fiber cross-sectional areas among autograft, ENC and EFC repairs. In conclusion, both ENCs and EFCs promot-ed nerve regeneration in a 10-mm tibial nerve gap repair, suggesting that the E15 rat nerve cells may not be necessary for nerve regeneration, and EFC alone can suffice for peripheral nerve injury repair.

  14. Bilateral absence of musculocutaneous nerve

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mathada V Ravishankar

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Brachial plexus is an important group of spinal nerve plexus that supplies the muscles of the upper limb via the ventral rami of the Cervical 5 - Thoracic 1 fibers of the spinal nerves. It is not uncommon to notice the variations during cadaveric dissections in many regions of the body, at different levels, such as, roots, trunks, division, cords, communications, and branches as reported in the literature. Although the nerve supply of the body musculature takes place in the fetal life itself, its course, branching pattern, innervations, and communication can show variable patterns as the fetal development progresses. One such anomaly was noticed during our routine cadaveric dissection in the Department of Anatomy, Jawaharlal Nehru Medical College, Belgaum, showing bilateral absence of the musculocutaneous nerve, which obviously drew the attention of the students of medicine, physiotherapy, and learning clinicians as well.

  15. Imaging of the facial nerve

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Veillon, F. [Service de Radiologie I, Hopital de Hautepierre, 67098 Strasbourg Cedex (France)], E-mail: Francis.Veillon@chru-strasbourg.fr; Ramos-Taboada, L.; Abu-Eid, M. [Service de Radiologie I, Hopital de Hautepierre, 67098 Strasbourg Cedex (France); Charpiot, A. [Service d' ORL, Hopital de Hautepierre, 67098 Strasbourg Cedex (France); Riehm, S. [Service de Radiologie I, Hopital de Hautepierre, 67098 Strasbourg Cedex (France)

    2010-05-15

    The facial nerve is responsible for the motor innervation of the face. It has a visceral motor function (lacrimal, submandibular, sublingual glands and secretion of the nose); it conveys a great part of the taste fibers, participates to the general sensory of the auricle (skin of the concha) and the wall of the external auditory meatus. The facial mimic, production of tears, nasal flow and salivation all depend on the facial nerve. In order to image the facial nerve it is mandatory to be knowledgeable about its normal anatomy including the course of its efferent and afferent fibers and about relevant technical considerations regarding CT and MR to be able to achieve high-resolution images of the nerve.

  16. Right hypoglossal nerve paralysis after tracheal intubation for aesthetic breast surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sammy Al-Benna

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Aesthetic and functional complications caused by general anesthesia have been rarely described after aesthetic surgery. We report a case of unilateral right hypoglossal nerve paralysis following the use of a cuffed endotracheal airway in a 24-year-old woman undergoing aesthetic breast surgery. Neurological examination and magnetic resonance imaging of the head failed to provide additional insights into the cause of the nerve injury. Postoperatively, the patient was carefully monitored and made a full recovery within 2 weeks without any pharmacological treatment. The transient hypoglossal nerve paralysis seemed to be due to neuropraxia. In this patient, we postulate that the right hypoglossal nerve was compressed between the endotracheal tube cuff and the hyoid bone, which was inflated with 30 cm H 2 O. Patients undergoing aesthetic surgery must be appropriately and adequately informed that postoperative aesthetic and functional deficits can occur due to anesthesia as well as the surgery.

  17. Retinal nerve fiber layer thickness is associated with lesion length in acute optic neuritis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kallenbach, K; Simonsen, Helle Juhl; Sander, B

    2010-01-01

    included 41 patients with unilateral optic neuritis and 19 healthy volunteers. All patients were evaluated and examined within 28 days of onset of symptoms. The peripapillary retinal nerve fiber layer thickness (RNFLT), an objective quantitative measure of optic nerve head edema, was measured by optical...... coherence tomography and the length and location of the inflammatory optic nerve lesion were evaluated using MRI. RESULTS: Ophthalmoscopically, 34% of the patients had papillitis. The retinal nerve fiber layer in affected eyes (mean 123.1 microm) was higher during the acute phase than that of fellow eyes......BACKGROUND: Acute optic neuritis occurs with and without papillitis. The presence of papillitis has previously been thought to imply an anterior location of the neuritis, but imaging studies seeking to test this hypothesis have been inconclusive. METHODS: This prospective observational cohort study...

  18. Large Extremity Peripheral Nerve Repair

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-12-01

    These antimicrobial peptides are implicated in the resistance of epithelial surfaces to microbial colonisation and have been shown to be upregulated...be equivalent to standard autograft repair in rodent models. Outcomes have now been validated in a large animal (swine) model with 5 cm ulnar nerve...Goals of the Project Task 1– Determine mechanical properties, seal strength and resistance to biodegradation of candidate photochemical nerve wrap

  19. Evidence of peripheral nerve blocks for cancer-related pain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klepstad, P; Kurita, G P; Mercadante, S

    2015-01-01

    The European Association for Palliative Care has initiated a comprehensive program to achieve an over-all review of the evidence of multiple cancer pain management strategies in order to extend the current guideline for treatment of cancer pain. The present systematic review analyzed the existing...... evidence of analgesic efficacy for peripheral nerve blocks in adult patients with cancer. A search strategy was elaborated with words related to cancer, pain, peripheral nerve and block. The search was performed in PubMed, EMBASE, and Cochrane for the period until February 2014. The number of abstracts...... retrieved was 155. No controlled studies were identified. Sixteen papers presented a total of 79 cases. The blocks applied were paravertebral blocks (10 cases), blocks in the head region (2 cases), plexus blocks (13 cases), intercostal blocks (43 cases) and others (11 cases). In general, most cases reported...

  20. Retroperitoneal Malignant Peripheral Nerve Sheath Tumour: A Rare Case Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deger, Ayse Nur; Bayar, Mehmet Akif; Caydere, Muzaffer; Deger, Hakki; Tayfur, Mahir

    2015-09-01

    Malignant nerve sheath tumours (MPNST) are rare neoplasias and retroperitoneal cases are fairly rare and clinically difficult to be detected, but they are very agressive neoplasias. MPNST are frequently seen in head, neck and upper extremities. In patients with NF1; MPNST, a poor-prognostic lesion, may result from a malignant degeneration of a former plexiform neurofibroma. It is necessary to be aware of a potential malignancy in patients diagnosed with plexiform neurofibroma. We present a 21-year-old female with a diagnosis of MPNST. The patient was admited to the hospital because of a tumour in the subcutaneous region on her left buttock. The surgeon's clinical diagnosis was lipoma. After the pathological examination of biopsy specimen, the lesion was identified as "plexiform neurofibroma" and then the patient was diagnosed with Neurofibromatosis Type 1 (NF1). Simultaneously, another mass on the retroperitoneal region was identified as malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumour (MPNST).

  1. A non-recurrent inferior laryngeal nerve in a man undergoing thyroidectomy: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sousa Daniel

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction A non-recurrent variant of the inferior laryngeal nerve has been seldom reported. These reports are mostly based on cadaveric dissection studies or large chart review studies in which the emphasis is placed on the determination of the frequency of the variation, and not on the clinical appearance of this variant. We graphically describe the intraoperative identification of a non-recurrent inferior laryngeal nerve. Case Presentation A 44-year old Caucasian man was referred to the Head and Neck Surgery Outpatient Clinic with the diagnosis of a nodular mass in his left thyroid lobe that had been growing for one year. A fine needle aspiration puncture was compatible with thyroid papillary cancer. It was decided that the patient should undergo total thyroidectomy. During surgery, a non-recurrent right inferior laryngeal nerve was noted. This nerve emanated from the right vagus nerve, entering the larynx 3 cm after its origin. The nerve did not show a recurrent course. The nerve on the left side had a normal configuration. The surgery and post-operative period were uneventful, and the patient had no change in his voice. Conclusion This paper allows those interested to become acquainted with the normal intraoperative appearance of a non-recurrent inferior laryngeal nerve. This will undoubtedly be of significance for all of those performing invasive diagnostic and surgical procedures in the neck and upper thoracic regions, in order to minimize the risk of iatrogenic injury to this nerve. This is of extreme importance, since a unilateral lesion of this nerve may result in permanent hoarseness, and a bilateral lesion may lead to aphonia and life-threatening dyspnea.

  2. A clear map of the lower cranial nerves at the superior carotid triangle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavalcanti, Daniel D; Garcia-Gonzalez, Ulises; Agrawal, Abhishek; Tavares, Paulo L M S; Spetzler, Robert F; Preul, Mark C

    2010-07-01

    The lower cranial nerves must be identified to avoid iatrogenic injury during skull base and high cervical approaches. Prompt recognition of these structures using basic landmarks could reduce surgical time and morbidity. The anterior triangle of the neck was dissected in 30 cadaveric head sides. The most superficial segments of the glossopharyngeal, vagus and its superior laryngeal nerves, accessory, and hypoglossal nerves were exposed and designated into smaller anatomic triangles. The midpoint of each nerve segment inside the triangles was correlated to the angle of the mandible (AM), mastoid tip (MT), and bifurcation of the common carotid artery. A triangle bounded by the styloglossus muscle, external carotid artery, and facial artery housed the glossopharyngeal nerve. This nerve segment was 0.06 ± 0.71 cm posterior to the AM and 2.50 ± 0.59 cm inferior to the MT. The vagus nerve ran inside the carotid sheath posterior to internal carotid artery and common carotid artery bifurcation in 48.3% of specimens. A triangle formed by the posterior belly of digastric muscle, sternocleidomastoid muscle, and internal jugular vein housed the accessory nerve, 1.90 ± 0.60 cm posterior to the AM and 2.30 ± 0.57 cm inferior to the MT. A triangle outlined by the posterior belly of digastric muscle, internal jugular vein, and common facial vein housed the hypoglossal nerve, which was 0.82 ± 0.84 cm posterior to the AM and 3.64 ± 0.70 cm inferior to the MT. Comprehensible landmarks can be defined to help expose the lower cranial nerves to avoid injury to this complex region. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Surgical anatomy of the styloid muscles and the extracranial glossopharyngeal nerve.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prades, J M; Gavid, M; Asanau, A; Timoshenko, A P; Richard, C; Martin, C H

    2014-03-01

    The purpose of the study was to determine the relationships between the extracranial glossopharyngeal (IX) nerve and the muscles of the styloid diaphragm. In humans, the IX nerve is a hidden retrostyloid nerve which plays a critical role notably in swallowing and has to be preserved during infratemporal fossa and parapharyngeal spaces surgical procedures. In ten adult heads from cadavers (20 sides) fixed in formalin, dissection of the extracranial IX nerve was performed under operating microscope with special attention given to the relationships between this nerve and the styloid muscles of the styloid diaphragm. The three styloid muscles delimit three triangular intermuscular intervals which were each thoroughly explored. Different osseous landmarks were investigated for easy nerve location. The styloid process (SP) is the main superior osseous landmark for the three muscles of the styloid diaphragm. The stylohyoid muscle (SHM) is anteromedially located to the posterior belly of the digastric muscle. The styloglossus muscle (SGM) is medial and anterior to the SHM. The stylopharyngeal muscle (SPM) is the most vertical and medial of the three styloid muscles. It courses from the medial surface of the SP in a deep plane hidden between the SHM and the SGM. The extracranial IX nerve turns around the SPM superiorly with a vertical segment posterior to the SPM and inferiorly with a horizontal segment lateral to the SPM. The meeting point of the two segments of the IX nerve is about 10 mm anteriorly located from the transverse process of the atlas. The external carotid artery and some of its branches lie in contact with the lateral side of the IX nerve. Such relationships between the extracranial IX nerve, the styloid muscles and the transverse process of the atlas should be appreciated by clinician who treats patients with stylohyoid complex syndromes and by the surgeon for the parapharyngeal spaces approach.

  4. Outcome of different facial nerve reconstruction techniques

    OpenAIRE

    Mohamed, Aboshanif; Omi, Eigo; Honda, Kohei; Suzuki, Shinsuke; Ishikawa, Kazuo

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Introduction: There is no technique of facial nerve reconstruction that guarantees facial function recovery up to grade III. Objective: To evaluate the efficacy and safety of different facial nerve reconstruction techniques. Methods: Facial nerve reconstruction was performed in 22 patients (facial nerve interpositional graft in 11 patients and hypoglossal-facial nerve transfer in another 11 patients). All patients had facial function House-Brackmann (HB) grade VI, either caused by...

  5. Neurophysiological approach to disorders of peripheral nerve

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Crone, Clarissa; Krarup, Christian

    2013-01-01

    Disorders of the peripheral nerve system (PNS) are heterogeneous and may involve motor fibers, sensory fibers, small myelinated and unmyelinated fibers and autonomic nerve fibers, with variable anatomical distribution (single nerves, several different nerves, symmetrical affection of all nerves......, plexus, or root lesions). Furthermore pathological processes may result in either demyelination, axonal degeneration or both. In order to reach an exact diagnosis of any neuropathy electrophysiological studies are crucial to obtain information about these variables. Conventional electrophysiological...

  6. Optic nerve invasion of uveal melanoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindegaard, Jens; Isager, Peter; Prause, Jan Ulrik

    2007-01-01

    in Denmark between 1942 and 2001 were reviewed (n=157). Histopathological characteristics and depth of optic nerve invasion were recorded. The material was compared with a control material from the same period consisting of 85 cases randomly drawn from all choroidal/ciliary body melanomas without optic nerve...... juxtapapillary tumors invading the optic nerve because of simple proximity to the nerve. A neurotropic subtype invades the optic nerve and retina in a diffuse fashion unrelated to tumor size or location. Udgivelsesdato: 2007-Jan...

  7. A novel method of lengthening the accessory nerve for direct coaptation during nerve repair and nerve transfer procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tubbs, R Shane; Maldonado, Andrés A; Stoves, Yolanda; Fries, Fabian N; Li, Rong; Loukas, Marios; Oskouian, Rod J; Spinner, Robert J

    2018-01-01

    OBJECTIVE The accessory nerve is frequently repaired or used for nerve transfer. The length of accessory nerve available is often insufficient or marginal (under tension) for allowing direct coaptation during nerve repair or nerve transfer (neurotization), necessitating an interpositional graft. An attractive maneuver would facilitate lengthening of the accessory nerve for direct coaptation. The aim of the present study was to identify an anatomical method for such lengthening. METHODS In 20 adult cadavers, the C-2 or C-3 connections to the accessory nerve were identified medial to the sternocleidomastoid (SCM) muscle and the anatomy of the accessory nerve/cervical nerve fibers within the SCM was documented. The cervical nerve connections were cut. Lengths of the accessory nerve were measured. Samples of the cut C-2 and C-3 nerves were examined using immunohistochemistry. RESULTS The anatomy and adjacent neural connections within the SCM are complicated. However, after the accessory nerve was "detethered" from within the SCM and following transection, the additional length of the accessory nerve increased from a mean of 6 cm to a mean of 10.5 cm (increase of 4.5 cm) after cutting the C-2 connections, and from a mean of 6 cm to a mean length of 9 cm (increase of 3.5 cm) after cutting the C-3 connections. The additional length of accessory nerve even allowed direct repair of an infraclavicular target (i.e., the proximal musculocutaneous nerve). The cervical nerve connections were shown not to contain motor fibers. CONCLUSIONS An additional length of the accessory nerve made available in the posterior cervical triangle can facilitate direct repair or neurotization procedures, thus eliminating the need for an interpositional nerve graft, decreasing the time/distance for regeneration and potentially improving clinical outcomes.

  8. Evolution of optic nerve and retina alterations in a child with indirect traumatic neuropathy as assessed by optical coherence tomography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia Dutra Rossetto

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Herein, we describe the case of a 4-year-old child with indirect traumatic optic neuropathy and serial changes of the optic nerve head and retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL documented using optical coherence tomography (OCT. Visual acuity improved despite progressive RNFL thinning and optic disc pallor. We concluded that OCT may be useful for monitoring axonal loss but may not predict the final visual outcome.

  9. An Optic Nerve Crush Injury Murine Model to Study Retinal Ganglion Cell Survival

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Zhongshu; Zhang, Shuihua; Lee, Chunsik; Kumar, Anil; Arjunan, Pachiappan; Li, Yang; Zhang, Fan; Li, Xuri

    2011-01-01

    Injury to the optic nerve can lead to axonal degeneration, followed by a gradual death of retinal ganglion cells (RGCs), which results in irreversible vision loss. Examples of such diseases in human include traumatic optic neuropathy and optic nerve degeneration in glaucoma. It is characterized by typical changes in the optic nerve head, progressive optic nerve degeneration, and loss of retinal ganglion cells, if uncontrolled, leading to vision loss and blindness. The optic nerve crush (ONC) injury mouse model is an important experimental disease model for traumatic optic neuropathy, glaucoma, etc. In this model, the crush injury to the optic nerve leads to gradual retinal ganglion cells apoptosis. This disease model can be used to study the general processes and mechanisms of neuronal death and survival, which is essential for the development of therapeutic measures. In addition, pharmacological and molecular approaches can be used in this model to identify and test potential therapeutic reagents to treat different types of optic neuropathy. Here, we provide a step by step demonstration of (I) Baseline retrograde labeling of retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) at day 1, (II) Optic nerve crush injury at day 4, (III) Harvest the retinae and analyze RGC survival at day 11, and (IV) Representative result. PMID:21540827

  10. Stem cells and related factors involved in facial nerve function regeneration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamil H. Nelke

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The facial nerve (VII is one of the most important cranial nerves for head and neck surgeons. Its function is closely related to facial expressions that are individual for every person. After its injury or palsy, its functions can be either impaired or absent. Because of the presence of motor, sensory and parasympathetic fibers, the biology of its repair and function restoration depends on many factors. In order to achieve good outcome, many different therapies can be performed in order to restore as much of the nerve function as possible. When rehabilitation and physiotherapy are not sufficient, additional surgical procedures and therapies are taken into serious consideration. The final outcome of many of them is discussable, depending on nerve damage etiology. Stem cells in facial nerve repair are used, but long-term outcomes and results are still not fully known. In order to understand this therapeutic approach, clinicians and surgeons should understand the immunobiology of nerve repair and regeneration. In this review, potential stem cell usage in facial nerve regeneration procedures is discussed.

  11. Co-effects of matrix low elasticity and aligned topography on stem cell neurogenic differentiation and rapid neurite outgrowth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Shenglian; Liu, Xi; Yu, Shukui; Wang, Xiumei; Zhang, Shuming; Wu, Qiong; Sun, Xiaodan; Mao, Haiquan

    2016-05-01

    The development of novel biomaterials that deliver precise regulatory signals to direct stem cell fate for nerve regeneration is the focus of current intensive research efforts. In this study, a hierarchically aligned fibrillar fibrin hydrogel (AFG) that was fabricated through electrospinning and the concurrent molecular self-assembly process mimics both the soft and oriented features of nerve tissue, thus providing hybrid biophysical cues to instruct cell behavior in vitro and in vivo. The electrospun hydrogels were examined by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), polarized light microscopy, small angle X-ray scattering assay and atomic force microscopy (AFM), showing a hierarchically linear-ordered structure from the nanoscale to the macroscale with a soft elastic character (elasticity ~1 kPa). We found that this low elasticity and aligned topography of AFG exhibit co-effects on promoting the neurogenic differentiation of human umbilical cord mesenchymal stem cells (hUMSCs) in comparison to random fibrin hydrogel (RFG) and tissue culture plate (TCP) control after two week cell culture in growth medium lacking supplementation with soluble neurogenic induction factors. In addition, AFG also induces dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons to rapidly project numerous long neurite outgrowths longitudinally along the AFG fibers for a total neurite extension distance of 1.96 mm in three days in the absence of neurotrophic factor supplementation. Moreover, the AFG implanted in a rat T9 dorsal hemisection spinal cord injury model was found to promote endogenous neural cell fast migration and axonal invasion along AFG fibers, resulting in aligned tissue cables in vivo. Our results suggest that matrix stiffness and aligned topography may instruct stem cell neurogenic differentiation and rapid neurite outgrowth, providing great promise for biomaterial design for applications in nerve regeneration.The development of novel biomaterials that deliver precise regulatory signals to

  12. The Relationship of the Facial Nerve to the Condylar Process: A Cadaveric Study with Implications for Open Reduction Internal Fixation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. P. Barham

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. The mandibular condyle is the most common site of mandibular fracture. Surgical treatment of condylar fractures by open reduction and internal fixation (ORIF demands direct visualization of the fracture. This project aimed to investigate the anatomic relationship of the tragus to the facial nerve and condylar process. Materials and Methods. Twelve fresh hemicadavers heads were used. An extended retromandibular/preauricular approach was utilized, with the incision being based parallel to the posterior edge of the ramus. Measurements were obtained from the tragus to the facial nerve and condylar process. Results. The temporozygomatic division of the facial nerve was encountered during each approach, crossing the mandible at the condylar neck. The mean tissue depth separating the facial nerve from the condylar neck was 5.5 mm (range: 3.5 mm–7 mm, SD 1.2 mm. The upper division of the facial nerve crossed the posterior border of the condylar process on average 2.31 cm (SD 0.10 cm anterior to the tragus. Conclusions. This study suggests that the temporozygomatic division of the facial nerve will be encountered in most approaches to the condylar process. As visualization of the relationship of the facial nerve to condyle is often limited, recognition that, on average, 5.5 mm of tissue separates condylar process from nerve should help reduce the incidence of facial nerve injury during this procedure.

  13. Scleral topography analysed by optical coherence tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bandlitz, Stefan; Bäumer, Joachim; Conrad, Uwe; Wolffsohn, James

    2017-08-01

    A detailed evaluation of the corneo-scleral-profile (CSP) is of particular relevance in soft and scleral lenses fitting. The aim of this study was to use optical coherence tomography (OCT) to analyse the profile of the limbal sclera and to evaluate the relationship between central corneal radii, corneal eccentricity and scleral radii. Using OCT (Optos OCT/SLO; Dunfermline, Scotland, UK) the limbal scleral radii (SR) of 30 subjects (11M, 19F; mean age 23.8±2.0SD years) were measured in eight meridians 45° apart. Central corneal radii (CR) and corneal eccentricity (CE) were evaluated using the Oculus Keratograph 4 (Oculus, Wetzlar, Germany). Differences between SR in the meridians and the associations between SR and corneal topography were assessed. Median SR measured along 45° (58.0; interquartile range, 46.8-84.8mm) was significantly (ptopography and may provide additional data useful in fitting soft and scleral contact lenses. Copyright © 2017 British Contact Lens Association. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. X-ray topography of uranium alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Le Naour, L.

    1984-01-01

    The limitations of x-ray topography methods are due to the variety of structures studied and to the variation of the amplitude of the scattering of incident beams. It is difficult to evaluate the aberrations and the imperfections of the material studied. Interpretation of the x-ray images will often be delicate and that is aggravated by the complexity of the diffraction spectrum of uranium. This negative aspect is compensated for by the advantage that chemical or electrochemical preparations of the alloy surface, along with alterations that can take place and the lack of trueness are avoided. Precise and very reproducible numerical data can be derived from the patterns. The structure of alloys, at a given scale, is revealed and characterized by quantitative parameters such as size of grains or sub-grains, dispersion of their dimensions, mutual disorientations and the continuous or discontinuous nature of the latter. The results of this research, therefore, justify the use of methods inspired by the Berg-Barrett technique. These diffraction procedures constitute a useful means for investigating many elements of microstructure that closely govern the behavior under irradiation of the materials being examined

  15. Calibration of areal surface topography measuring instruments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seewig, J.; Eifler, M.

    2017-06-01

    The ISO standards which are related to the calibration of areal surface topography measuring instruments are the ISO 25178-6xx series which defines the relevant metrological characteristics for the calibration of different measuring principles and the ISO 25178-7xx series which defines the actual calibration procedures. As the field of areal measurement is however not yet fully standardized, there are still open questions to be addressed which are subject to current research. Based on this, selected research results of the authors in this area are presented. This includes the design and fabrication of areal material measures. For this topic, two examples are presented with the direct laser writing of a stepless material measure for the calibration of the height axis which is based on the Abbott- Curve and the manufacturing of a Siemens star for the determination of the lateral resolution limit. Based on these results, as well a new definition for the resolution criterion, the small scale fidelity, which is still under discussion, is presented. Additionally, a software solution for automated calibration procedures is outlined.

  16. Wettability control by DLC coated nanowire topography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zihui; Meng, Fanhao; Liu, Xuanyong

    2011-04-01

    Here we have developed a convenient method to fabricate wettability controllable surfaces that can be applied to various nanostructured surfaces with complex shapes for different industrial needs. Diamond-like carbon (DLC) films were synthesized on titanium substrate with a nanowire structured surface using plasma immersion ion implantation and deposition (PIII&D). The nanostructure of the DLC films was characterized by field emission scanning electron microscopy and found to grow in a rippling layer-by-layer manner. Raman spectroscopy was used to investigate the different bonding presented in the DLC films. To determine the wettability of the samples, water contact angles were measured and found to vary in the range of 50°-141°. The results indicated that it was critical to construct a proper surface topography for high hydrophobicity, while suitable ID/IG and sp2/sp3 ratios of the DLC films had a minor contribution. Superhydrophobicity could be achieved by further CF4 implantation on suitably structured DLC films and was attributed to the existence of fluorine. In order to maintain the nanostructure during CF4 implantation, it was favorable to pre-deposit an appropriate carbon content on the nanostructure, as a nanostructure with low carbon content would be deformed during CF4 implantation due to local accumulation of surface charge and the following discharge resulting from the low conductivity.

  17. The Role of Nerve Exploration in Supracondylar Humerus Fracture in Children with Nerve Injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anuar RIM

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The supracondylar humerus fracture (SCHF in children is common and can be complicated with nerve injury either primarily immediate post-trauma or secondarily posttreatment. The concept of neurapraxic nerve injury makes most surgeons choose to ‘watch and see’ the nerve recovery before deciding second surgery if the nerve does not recover. We report three cases of nerve injury in SCHF, all of which underwent nerve exploration for different reasons. Early reduction in the Casualty is important to release the nerve tension before transferring the patient to the operation room. If close reduction fails, we proceed to explore the nerve together with open reduction of the fracture. In iatrogenic nerve injury, we recommend nerve exploration to determine the surgical procedure that is causing the injury. Primary nerve exploration will allow early assessment of the injured nerve and minimize subsequent surgery.

  18. The Head Bone's Connected to the Neck Bone: When Do Toddlers Represent Their Own Body Topography?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brownell, Celia A.; Nichols, Sara R.; Svetlova, Margarita; Zerwas, Stephanie; Ramani, Geetha

    2010-01-01

    Developments in very young children's topographic representations of their own bodies were examined. Sixty-one 20- and 30-month-old children were administered tasks that indexed the ability to locate specific body parts on oneself and knowledge of how one's body parts are spatially organized, as well as body-size knowledge and self-awareness. Age…

  19. Light source for synchrotron radiation x-ray topography study at Beijing Synchrotron Radiation Laboratory (BSRL)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao Jiyong; Jiang Jianhua; Tian Yulian

    1992-01-01

    Characteristics of the synchrotron radiation source for X-ray topography study at Beijing Synchrotron Radiation Laboratory (BSRL) is described, local geometrical resolution of topographies is discussed, and the diffracting intensities of white beam topography is given

  20. Characterizing smoking topography of cannabis in heavy users

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stitzer, Maxine L.; Vandrey, Ryan

    2013-01-01

    Rationale Little is known about the smoking topography characteristics of heavy cannabis users. Such measures may be able to predict cannabis use-related outcomes and could be used to validate self-reported measures of cannabis use. Objectives The current study was conducted to measure cannabis smoking topography characteristics during periods of ad libitum use and to correlate topography assessments with measures of self-reported cannabis use, withdrawal and craving during abstinence, and cognitive task performance. Methods Participants (N=20) completed an inpatient study in which they alternated between periods of ad libitum cannabis use and abstinence. Measures of self-reported cannabis use, smoking topography, craving, withdrawal, and sleep measures were collected. Results Participants smoked with greater intensity (e.g., greater volume, longer duration) on initial cigarette puffs with a steady decline on subsequent puffs. Smoking characteristics were significantly correlated with severity of withdrawal, notably sleep quality and architecture, and craving during abstinence, suggesting dose-related effects of cannabis use on these outcomes. Smoking characteristics generally were not significantly associated with cognitive performance. Smoking topography measures were significantly correlated with self-reported measures of cannabis use, indicating validity of these assessments, but topography measures were more sensitive than self-report in predicting cannabis-related outcomes. Conclusions A dose–effect relationship between cannabis consumption and outcomes believed to be clinically important was observed. With additional research, smoking topography assessments may become a useful clinical tool. PMID:21922170

  1. Delayed peripheral nerve repair: methods, including surgical ?cross-bridging? to promote nerve regeneration

    OpenAIRE

    Gordon, Tessa; Eva, Placheta; Borschel, Gregory H.

    2015-01-01

    Despite the capacity of Schwann cells to support peripheral nerve regeneration, functional recovery after nerve injuries is frequently poor, especially for proximal injuries that require regenerating axons to grow over long distances to reinnervate distal targets. Nerve transfers, where small fascicles from an adjacent intact nerve are coapted to the nerve stump of a nearby denervated muscle, allow for functional return but at the expense of reduced numbers of innervating nerves. A 1-hour per...

  2. Co-effects of matrix low elasticity and aligned topography on stem cell neurogenic differentiation and rapid neurite outgrowth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Shenglian; Liu, Xi; Yu, Shukui; Wang, Xiumei; Zhang, Shuming; Wu, Qiong; Sun, Xiaodan; Mao, Haiquan

    2016-05-21

    The development of novel biomaterials that deliver precise regulatory signals to direct stem cell fate for nerve regeneration is the focus of current intensive research efforts. In this study, a hierarchically aligned fibrillar fibrin hydrogel (AFG) that was fabricated through electrospinning and the concurrent molecular self-assembly process mimics both the soft and oriented features of nerve tissue, thus providing hybrid biophysical cues to instruct cell behavior in vitro and in vivo. The electrospun hydrogels were examined by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), polarized light microscopy, small angle X-ray scattering assay and atomic force microscopy (AFM), showing a hierarchically linear-ordered structure from the nanoscale to the macroscale with a soft elastic character (elasticity ∼1 kPa). We found that this low elasticity and aligned topography of AFG exhibit co-effects on promoting the neurogenic differentiation of human umbilical cord mesenchymal stem cells (hUMSCs) in comparison to random fibrin hydrogel (RFG) and tissue culture plate (TCP) control after two week cell culture in growth medium lacking supplementation with soluble neurogenic induction factors. In addition, AFG also induces dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons to rapidly project numerous long neurite outgrowths longitudinally along the AFG fibers for a total neurite extension distance of 1.96 mm in three days in the absence of neurotrophic factor supplementation. Moreover, the AFG implanted in a rat T9 dorsal hemisection spinal cord injury model was found to promote endogenous neural cell fast migration and axonal invasion along AFG fibers, resulting in aligned tissue cables in vivo. Our results suggest that matrix stiffness and aligned topography may instruct stem cell neurogenic differentiation and rapid neurite outgrowth, providing great promise for biomaterial design for applications in nerve regeneration.

  3. [Primary malignant schwannoma of the buccal branch of facial nerve].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moumine, M; Thiery, G; Harroudi, T; Amrani, M; El Othmany, A; Rzin, A

    2012-06-01

    Primary malignant schwannomas are rare neoplasms of nerve sheath origin, especially in the location of the head and neck where few cases are described in the literature. We report the case of a 65-year-old male diagnosed with malignant schwannoma in the left cheek. The patient underwent surgery with wide local excision, reconstruction were made later by skin graft. The treatment of choice is radical excision of the lesion with wide margins. In fact, to reduce local tumor recurrence, the use of adjuvant radiation or chemotherapy is still controversial. Copyright © 2009 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  4. UV laser micromachining of ceramic materials: formation of columnar topographies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliveira, V.; Vilar, R.; Conde, O.

    2001-01-01

    Laser machining is increasingly appearing as an alternative for micromachining of ceramics. Using ceramic materials using excimer lasers can result in smooth surfaces or in the formation of cone-like or columnar topography. Potential applications of cone-shaped or columnar surface topography include, for example, light trapping in anti-reflection coatings and improvement of adhesion bonding between ceramic materials. In this communication results of a comparative study of surface topography change during micromachining of several ceramic materials with different ablation behaviors are reported. (orig.)

  5. Head injury - first aid

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... medlineplus.gov/ency/article/000028.htm Head injury - first aid To use the sharing features on this page, ... a concussion can range from mild to severe. First Aid Learning to recognize a serious head injury and ...

  6. Computed Tomography (CT) -- Head

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... the head uses special x-ray equipment to help assess head injuries, severe headaches, dizziness, and other ... aneurysm, bleeding, stroke and brain tumors. It also helps your doctor to evaluate your face, sinuses, and ...

  7. Computed Tomography (CT) -- Head

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... for Brain Tumors Radiation Therapy for Head and Neck Cancer Others American Stroke Association National Stroke Association ... Computer Tomography (CT) Safety During Pregnancy Head and Neck Cancer X-ray, Interventional Radiology and Nuclear Medicine ...

  8. Computed Tomography (CT) -- Head

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... When the image slices are reassembled by computer software, the result is a very detailed multidimensional view ... Safety Images related to Computed Tomography (CT) - Head Videos related to Computed Tomography (CT) - Head Sponsored by ...

  9. Computed Tomography (CT) -- Head

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... the limitations of CT Scanning of the Head? What is CT Scanning of the Head? Computed tomography, ... than regular radiographs (x-rays). top of page What are some common uses of the procedure? CT ...

  10. Phrenic nerve transfer to the musculocutaneous nerve for the repair of brachial plexus injury: electrophysiological characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying Liu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Phrenic nerve transfer is a major dynamic treatment used to repair brachial plexus root avulsion. We analyzed 72 relevant articles on phrenic nerve transfer to repair injured brachial plexus that were indexed by Science Citation Index. The keywords searched were brachial plexus injury, phrenic nerve, repair, surgery, protection, nerve transfer, and nerve graft. In addition, we performed neurophysiological analysis of the preoperative condition and prognosis of 10 patients undergoing ipsilateral phrenic nerve transfer to the musculocutaneous nerve in our hospital from 2008 to 201 3 and observed the electromyograms of the biceps brachii and motor conduction function of the musculocutaneous nerve. Clinically, approximately 28% of patients had brachial plexus injury combined with phrenic nerve injury, and injured phrenic nerve cannot be used as a nerve graft. After phrenic nerve transfer to the musculocutaneous nerve, the regenerated potentials first appeared at 3 months. Recovery of motor unit action potential occurred 6 months later and became more apparent at 12 months. The percent of patients recovering ′excellent′ and ′good′ muscle strength in the biceps brachii was 80% after 18 months. At 12 months after surgery, motor nerve conduction potential appeared in the musculocutaneous nerve in seven cases. These data suggest that preoperative evaluation of phrenic nerve function may help identify the most appropriate nerve graft in patients with an injured brachial plexus. The functional recovery of a transplanted nerve can be dynamically observed after the surgery.

  11. Phrenic nerve transfer to the musculocutaneous nerve for the repair of brachial plexus injury: electrophysiological characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ying; Xu, Xun-Cheng; Zou, Yi; Li, Su-Rong; Zhang, Bin; Wang, Yue

    2015-02-01

    Phrenic nerve transfer is a major dynamic treatment used to repair brachial plexus root avulsion. We analyzed 72 relevant articles on phrenic nerve transfer to repair injured brachial plexus that were indexed by Science Citation Index. The keywords searched were brachial plexus injury, phrenic nerve, repair, surgery, protection, nerve transfer, and nerve graft. In addition, we performed neurophysiological analysis of the preoperative condition and prognosis of 10 patients undergoing ipsilateral phrenic nerve transfer to the musculocutaneous nerve in our hospital from 2008 to 201 3 and observed the electromyograms of the biceps brachii and motor conduction function of the musculocutaneous nerve. Clinically, approximately 28% of patients had brachial plexus injury combined with phrenic nerve injury, and injured phrenic nerve cannot be used as a nerve graft. After phrenic nerve transfer to the musculocutaneous nerve, the regenerated potentials first appeared at 3 months. Recovery of motor unit action potential occurred 6 months later and became more apparent at 12 months. The percent of patients recovering 'excellent' and 'good' muscle strength in the biceps brachii was 80% after 18 months. At 12 months after surgery, motor nerve conduction potential appeared in the musculocutaneous nerve in seven cases. These data suggest that preoperative evaluation of phrenic nerve function may help identify the most appropriate nerve graft in patients with an injured brachial plexus. The functional recovery of a transplanted nerve can be dynamically observed after the surgery.

  12. ANATOMICAL STUDY OF CRANIAL NERVE EMERGENCE AND SKULL FORAMINA IN THE HORSE USING MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING AND COMPUTED TOMOGRAPHY.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonçalves, Rita; Malalana, Fernando; McConnell, James Fraser; Maddox, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    For accurate interpretation of magnetic resonance (MR) images of the equine brain, knowledge of the normal cross-sectional anatomy of the brain and associated structures (such as the cranial nerves) is essential. The purpose of this prospective cadaver study was to describe and compare MRI and computed tomography (CT) anatomy of cranial nerves' origins and associated skull foramina in a sample of five horses. All horses were presented for euthanasia for reasons unrelated to the head. Heads were collected posteuthanasia and T2-weighted MR images were obtained in the transverse, sagittal, and dorsal planes. Thin-slice MR sequences were also acquired using transverse 3D-CISS sequences that allowed mutliplanar reformatting. Transverse thin-slice CT images were acquired and multiplanar reformatting was used to create comparative images. Magnetic resonance imaging consistently allowed visualization of cranial nerves II, V, VII, VIII, and XII in all horses. The cranial nerves III, IV, and VI were identifiable as a group despite difficulties in identification of individual nerves. The group of cranial nerves IX, X, and XI were identified in 4/5 horses although the region where they exited the skull was identified in all cases. The course of nerves II and V could be followed on several slices and the main divisions of cranial nerve V could be distinguished in all cases. In conclusion, CT allowed clear visualization of the skull foramina and occasionally the nerves themselves, facilitating identification of the nerves for comparison with MRI images. © 2015 American College of Veterinary Radiology.

  13. Anatomical variations between the sciatic nerve and the piriformis muscle: a contribution to surgical anatomy in piriformis syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Natsis, Konstantinos; Totlis, Trifon; Konstantinidis, George A; Paraskevas, George; Piagkou, Maria; Koebke, Juergen

    2014-04-01

    To detect the variable relationship between sciatic nerve and piriformis muscle and make surgeons aware of certain anatomical features of each variation that may be useful for the surgical treatment of the piriformis syndrome. The gluteal region of 147 Caucasian cadavers (294 limbs) was dissected. The anatomical relationship between the sciatic nerve and the piriformis muscle was recorded and classified according to the Beaton and Anson classification. The literature was reviewed to summarize the incidence of each variation. The sciatic nerve and piriformis muscle relationship followed the typical anatomical pattern in 275 limbs (93.6 %). In 12 limbs (4.1 %) the common peroneal nerve passed through and the tibial nerve below a double piriformis. In one limb (0.3 %) the common peroneal nerve coursed superior and the tibial nerve below the piriformis. In one limb (0.3 %) both nerves penetrated the piriformis. In one limb (0.3 %) both nerves passed above the piriformis. Four limbs (1.4 %) presented non-classified anatomical variations. When a double piriformis muscle was present, two different arrangements of the two heads were observed. Anatomical variations of the sciatic nerve around the piriformis muscle were present in 6.4 % of the limbs examined. When dissection of the entire piriformis is necessary for adequate sciatic nerve decompression, the surgeon should explore for the possible existence of a second tendon, which may be found either inferior or deep to the first one. Some rare, unclassified variations of the sciatic nerve should be expected during surgical intervention of the region.

  14. Epithelial topography for repetitive tooth formation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcia Gaete

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available During the formation of repetitive ectodermally derived organs such as mammary glands, lateral line and teeth, the tissue primordium iteratively initiates new structures. In the case of successional molar development, new teeth appear sequentially in the posterior region of the jaw from Sox2+ cells in association with the posterior aspect of a pre-existing tooth. The sequence of molar development is well known, however, the epithelial topography involved in the formation of a new tooth is unclear. Here, we have examined the morphology of the molar dental epithelium and its development at different stages in the mouse in vivo and in molar explants. Using regional lineage tracing we show that within the posterior tail of the first molar the primordium for the second and third molar are organized in a row, with the tail remaining in connection with the surface, where a furrow is observed. The morphology and Sox2 expression of the tail retains characteristics reminiscent of the earlier stages of tooth development, such that position along the A-P axes of the tail correlates with different temporal stages. Sox9, a stem/progenitor cell marker in other organs, is expressed mainly in the suprabasal epithelium complementary with Sox2 expression. This Sox2 and Sox9 expressing molar tail contains actively proliferating cells with mitosis following an apico-basal direction. Snail2, a transcription factor implicated in cell migration, is expressed at high levels in the tip of the molar tail while E-cadherin and laminin are decreased. In conclusion, our studies propose a model in which the epithelium of the molar tail can grow by posterior movement of epithelial cells followed by infolding and stratification involving a population of Sox2+/Sox9+ cells.

  15. Computed Tomography (CT) -- Head

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Physician Resources Professions Site Index A-Z Computed Tomography (CT) - Head Computed tomography (CT) of the head uses special x-ray ... What is CT Scanning of the Head? Computed tomography, more commonly known as a CT or CAT ...

  16. Imaging the ocular motor nerves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferreira, Teresa [Department of Radiology, Leiden University Medical Center (Netherlands)], E-mail: T.A.Ferreira@lumc.nl; Verbist, Berit [Department of Radiology, Leiden University Medical Center (Netherlands)], E-mail: B.M.Verbist@lumc.nl; Buchem, Mark van [Department of Radiology, Leiden University Medical Center (Netherlands)], E-mail: M.A.van_Buchem@lumc.nl; Osch, Thijs van [C.J. Gorter for High-Field MRI, Department of Radiology, Leiden University Medical Center (Netherlands)], E-mail: M.J.P.van_Osch@lumc.nl; Webb, Andrew [C.J. Gorter for High-Field MRI, Department of Radiology, Leiden University Medical Center (Netherlands)], E-mail: A.Webb@lumc.nl

    2010-05-15

    The ocular motor nerves (OMNs) comprise the oculomotor, trochlear and the abducens nerves. According to their course, they are divided into four or five anatomic segments: intra-axial, cisternal, cavernous and intra-orbital and, for the abducens nerve, an additional interdural segment. Magnetic resonance imaging is the imaging method of choice in the evaluation of the normal and pathologic ocular motor nerves. CT still plays a limited but important role in the evaluation of the intraosseous portions at the skull base and bony foramina. We describe for each segment of these cranial nerves, the normal anatomy, the most appropriate image sequences and planes, their imaging appearance and pathologic conditions. Magnetic resonance imaging with high magnetic fields is a developing and promising technique. We describe our initial experience with a Phillips 7.0 T MRI scanner in the evaluation of the brainstem segments of the OMNs. As imaging becomes more refined, an understanding of the detailed anatomy is increasingly necessary, as the demand on radiology to diagnose smaller lesions also increases.

  17. Electrodiagnosis and nerve conduction studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Posuniak, E A

    1984-08-01

    The use of electrodiagnostic techniques in evaluation of complaints in the lower extremities provides an objective method of assessment. A basic understanding of principles of neurophysiology, EMG and NCV methodology, and neuropathology of peripheral nerves greatly enhances physical diagnosis and improves the state of the art in treatment of the lower extremity, especially foot and ankle injuries. Familiarity with the method of reporting electrodiagnostic studies and appreciation of the electromyographer's interpretation of the EMG/NCV studies also reflects an enhanced fund of knowledge, skills, and attitudes as pertains to one's level of professional expertise. Information regarding the etiology of positive sharp waves, fibrillation potentials, fasciculation, and normal motor action potentials and conduction studies serves as a sound basis for the appreciation of the categories of nerve injury. Competence in understanding the degree of axonal or myelin function or dysfunction in a nerve improve one's effectiveness not only in medical/surgical treatment but in prognostication of recovery of function. A review of the entrapment syndromes in the lower extremity with emphasis on tarsal tunnel syndrome summarizes the most common nerve entrapments germane to the practice of podiatry. With regard to tarsal tunnel syndrome, the earliest electrodiagnostic study to suggest compression was reported to be the EMG of the foot and leg muscles, even before prolonged nerve latency was noted.

  18. Intraoperative Ultrasound for Peripheral Nerve Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willsey, Matthew; Wilson, Thomas J; Henning, Phillip Troy; Yang, Lynda J-S

    2017-10-01

    Offering real-time, high-resolution images via intraoperative ultrasound is advantageous for a variety of peripheral nerve applications. To highlight the advantages of ultrasound, its extraoperative uses are reviewed. The current intraoperative uses, including nerve localization, real-time evaluation of peripheral nerve tumors, and implantation of leads for peripheral nerve stimulation, are reviewed. Although intraoperative peripheral nerve localization has been performed previously using guide wires and surgical dyes, the authors' approach using ultrasound-guided instrument clamps helps guide surgical dissection to the target nerve, which could lead to more timely operations and shorter incisions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Magnetic resonance imaging of optic nerve

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gala, Foram

    2015-01-01

    Optic nerves are the second pair of cranial nerves and are unique as they represent an extension of the central nervous system. Apart from clinical and ophthalmoscopic evaluation, imaging, especially magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), plays an important role in the complete evaluation of optic nerve and the entire visual pathway. In this pictorial essay, the authors describe segmental anatomy of the optic nerve and review the imaging findings of various conditions affecting the optic nerves. MRI allows excellent depiction of the intricate anatomy of optic nerves due to its excellent soft tissue contrast without exposure to ionizing radiation, better delineation of the entire visual pathway, and accurate evaluation of associated intracranial pathologies

  20. Topography and diffractometry station in synchrotron radiation beam of the VEPP-4 storage ring. Topography of garnets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kub, I.; Poltsarova, M.; Panchenko, V.E.

    1987-01-01

    Advantages of synchrotron radiation (SR) spectrum of the VEhPP-4 storage ring for X-ray topography and diffractometry are shown. The description of ''Topography and diffractometry'' station in SR dump station of the VEhPP storage ring is presented, peculiarities of X-ray topography method used are discussed. X-ray topographic images of gadolinium-gallium and manganese-germanium garnets taken on the VEhPP SR are given in comparison with conventional images taken using X-ray tubes and SR of the VEhPP-3 storage ring

  1. Manual therapy and neurodynamic mobilization in a patient with peroneal nerve paralysis: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villafañe, Jorge Hugo; Pillastrini, Paolo; Borboni, Alberto

    2013-09-01

    The purpose of this case report is to describe a therapeutic intervention for peroneal nerve paralysis involving the sciatic nerve. A 24-year-old man presented with peroneal nerve paralysis with decreased sensation, severe pain in the popliteal fossa, and steppage gait, which occurred 3 days prior to the consultation. Magnetic resonance imaging and electromyography confirmed lumbar disk herniation with sciatic common peroneal nerve entrapment in the popliteal fossa. A combined treatment protocol of spinal and fibular head manipulation and neurodynamic mobilization including soft tissue work of the psoas and hamstring muscles was performed. Outcome measures were assessed at pretreatment, 1 week posttreatment, and 3-month follow-up and included numeric pain rating scale, range of motion, pressure pain threshold, and manual muscle testing. Treatment interventions were applied for 3 sessions over a period of 1 week. Results showed reduction of the patient's subjective pain and considerable improvement in range of motion, strength, and sensation in his left foot, which was restored to full function. A combined program of spinal and fibular head manipulation and neurodynamic mobilization reduced pain, increased range of motion and strength, and restored full function to the left leg in this patient who had severe functional impairment related to a compressed left common peroneal nerve.

  2. Nerve ultrasound shows subclinical peripheral nerve involvement in neurofibromatosis type 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Telleman, Johan A; Stellingwerff, Menno D; Brekelmans, Geert J; Visser, Leo H

    2018-02-01

    Neurofibromatosis type 2 (NF2) is mainly associated with central nervous system (CNS) tumors. Peripheral nerve involvement is described in symptomatic patients, but evidence of subclinical peripheral nerve involvement is scarce. We conducted a cross-sectional pilot study in 2 asymptomatic and 3 minimally symptomatic patients with NF2 to detect subclinical peripheral nerve involvement. Patients underwent clinical examination, nerve conduction studies (NCS), and high-resolution ultrasonography (HRUS). A total of 30 schwannomas were found, divided over 20 nerve segments (33.9% of all investigated nerve segments). All patients had at least 1 schwannoma. Schwannomas were identified with HRUS in 37% of clinically unaffected nerve segments and 50% of nerve segments with normal NCS findings. HRUS shows frequent subclinical peripheral nerve involvement in NF2. Clinicians should consider peripheral nerve involvement as a cause of weakness and sensory loss in the extremities in patients with this disease. Muscle Nerve 57: 312-316, 2018. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. The Use of Degradable Nerve Conduits for Human Nerve Repair: A Review of the Literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. F. Meek

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The management of peripheral nerve injury continues to be a major clinical challenge. The most widely used technique for bridging defects in peripheral nerves is the use of autologous nerve grafts. This technique, however, has some disadvantages. Many alternative experimental techniques have thus been developed, such as degradable nerve conduits. Degradable nerve guides have been extensively studied in animal experimental studies. However, the repair of human nerves by degradable nerve conduits has been limited to only a few clinical studies. In this paper, an overview of the available international published literature on degradable nerve conduits for bridging human peripheral nerve defects is presented for literature available until 2004. Also, the philosophy on the use of nerve guides and nerve grafts is given.

  4. HEAD AND NECK SURGERY

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    simple and well tolerated, and can be used selectively or as a ... up clinical information was obtained from a review of the patients' .... When a mass is clinically malignant, and facial nerve ... extension of surgery and closer attention to tumour.

  5. Topography measurements for determining the decay factors in surface replication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song, J; Zheng, A; Vorburger, T V; Rubert, P

    2008-01-01

    The electro-forming technique is used at National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) for the production of standard reference material (SRM) 2461 standard casings to support nationwide ballistics measurement traceability and measurement quality control in the US. In order to ensure that the SRM casings are produced with virtually the same surface topography, it is necessary to test the decay factors of the replication process. Twenty-six replica casings are replicated from the same master casing for the decay factor tests. The NIST topography measurement system is used for measurements and correlations of surface topography. The topography decays are quantified by the cross-correlation function maximum CCF max . Based on the test, it is expected that 256 SRM casings can be replicated from the same master with CCF max values higher than 95%

  6. Silk Film Topography Directs Collective Epithelial Cell Migration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenblatt, Mark I.

    2012-01-01

    The following study provides new insight into how surface topography dictates directed collective epithelial cell sheet growth through the guidance of individual cell movement. Collective cell behavior of migrating human corneal limbal-epithelial cell sheets were studied on highly biocompatible flat and micro-patterned silk film surfaces. The silk film edge topography guided the migratory direction of individual cells making up the collective epithelial sheet, which resulted in a 75% increase in total culture elongation. This was due to a 3-fold decrease in cell sheet migration rate efficiency for movement perpendicular to the topography edge. Individual cell migration direction is preferred in the parallel approach to the edge topography where localization of cytoskeletal proteins to the topography’s edge region is reduced, which results in the directed growth of the collective epithelial sheet. Findings indicate customized biomaterial surfaces may be created to direct both the migration rate and direction of tissue epithelialization. PMID:23185573

  7. Influence of local topography on precision irrigation management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Precision irrigation management is currently accomplished using spatial information about soil properties through soil series maps or electrical conductivity (EC measurements. Crop yield, however, is consistently influenced by local topography, both in rain-fed and irrigated environments. Utilizing ...

  8. Influence of surface topography on the sputtering yields of silver

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pan Jisheng; Wang Zhenxia; Tao Zhenlan; Zhang Jiping

    1992-01-01

    The sputtering yields of silver have been measured as a function of the fluence of incident Ar + ions (27 keV) using the collector technique and RBS analysis. The irradiated surface was examined by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). It is shown that the sputtering yields of surfaces with topography are enhanced relative to smooth surfaces of silver, but the extent of the enhancement depends on the irradiation dose. The experimental results can be explained assuming that the surface topography and sputtering yield are a function of incident angle. It is obvious that the surface topography is an important factor to influence the sputtering yield. The term ''apparent sputtering yield'' has specifically been used when referring to the experimental sputtering yield of a surface with topography, to emphasize the difference with a smooth surface. (orig.)

  9. Mandibular molar crown-topography, a biological predisposing ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mandibular molar crown-topography, a biological predisposing factor to development of caries – a post-mortem analysis of 2500 extracted lower permanent molars at the dental centre, University of Benin teaching hospital.

  10. Measurement of Angle Kappa Using Ultrasound Biomicroscopy and Corneal Topography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeo, Joon Hyung; Moon, Nam Ju; Lee, Jeong Kyu

    2017-06-01

    To introduce a new convenient and accurate method to measure the angle kappa using ultrasound biomicroscopy (UBM) and corneal topography. Data from 42 eyes (13 males and 29 females) were analyzed in this study. The angle kappa was measured using Orbscan II and calculated with UBM and corneal topography. The angle kappa of the dominant eye was compared with measurements by Orbscan II. The mean patient age was 36.4 ± 13.8 years. The average angle kappa measured by Orbscan II was 3.98° ± 1.12°, while the average angle kappa calculated with UBM and corneal topography was 3.19° ± 1.15°. The difference in angle kappa measured by the two methods was statistically significant (p topography to calculate the angle kappa. This method is convenient to use and allows for measurement of the angle kappa without an expensive device. © 2017 The Korean Ophthalmological Society

  11. Nano-topography Enhances Communication in Neural Cells Networks

    KAUST Repository

    Onesto, V.; Cancedda, L.; Coluccio, M. L.; Nanni, M.; Pesce, M.; Malara, N.; Cesarelli, M.; Di Fabrizio, Enzo M.; Amato, F.; Gentile, F.

    2017-01-01

    Neural cells are the smallest building blocks of the central and peripheral nervous systems. Information in neural networks and cell-substrate interactions have been heretofore studied separately. Understanding whether surface nano-topography can

  12. Sonoanatomical Change of Phrenic Nerve According to Posture During Ultrasound-Guided Stellate Ganglion Block.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joeng, Eui Soo; Jeong, Young Cheol; Park, Bum Jun; Kang, Seok; Yang, Seung Nam; Yoon, Joon Shik

    2016-04-01

    To evaluate the risk of phrenic nerve injury during ultrasound-guided stellate ganglion block (US-SGB) according to sonoanatomy of the phrenic nerve, and determine a safer posture for needle insertion by assessing its relationship with surrounding structure according to positional change. Twenty-nine healthy volunteers were recruited and underwent ultrasound in two postures, i.e., supine position with the neck extension and head rotation, and lateral decubitus position. The transducer was placed at the anterior tubercle of the C6 level to identify phrenic nerve. The cross-sectional area (CSA), depth from skin, distance between phrenic nerve and anterior tubercle of C6 transverse process, and the angle formed by anterior tubercle, posterior tubercle and phrenic nerve were measured. The phrenic nerve was clearly identified in the intermuscular fascia layer between the anterior scalene and sternocleidomastoid muscles. The distance between the phrenic nerve and anterior tubercle was 10.33±3.20 mm with the supine position and 9.20±3.31 mm with the lateral decubitus position, respectively. The mean CSA and skin depth of phrenic nerve were not statistically different between the two positions. The angle with the supine position was 48.37°±27.43°, and 58.89°±30.02° with the lateral decubitus position. The difference of angle between the two positions was statistically significant. Ultrasound is a useful tool for assessing the phrenic nerve and its anatomical relation with other cervical structures. In addition, lateral decubitus position seems to be safer by providing wider angle for needle insertion than the supine position in US-SGB.

  13. Treatment and Follow Up Outcomes of Patients with Peroneal Nerve Injury: A Single Center Experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasar Dagistan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Trap neuropathy is characterized by compression of the peripheral nerve into fibro osseous channels in trespassing areas of body segments. Peroneal nerve is the most frequently injured nerve in traumatic injuries of the lower extremities. In the present study, we investigated functional results of surgical treatment of patients with peroneal nerve injury who delayed visiting our clinics after the damage; we also aimed to observe the effects of this delay on prognosis. We interpreted postoperative results of the patients with EMG and physical examination findings. Material and Method: Subjects with peroneal nerve damage who visited our clinics between 2012 and 2015 were included in the present study. EMG and muscle motor strength tests were conducted pre and postoperatively for clinical assessment. Results: Of the 16 patients in the study population, 7 were men and 9 were women. The median age of the subjects was 49.6 years (14-77 years. Admission time was 9 months after injury. Causes of the peroneal nerve damage were as follows: prosthesis surgery in 4 (25%, ankle damage in 2 (12.5%, excessive squatting by agriculture workers in 4 (25%, aggressive exercise in 2 (12.5%, bone fracture in 2 (12.5%, and unknown origin in 2 (12.5%. Discussion: Peroneal nerve injury usually occurs by compression of the nerve at the head or neck of the fibula. Results of decompression surgery are usually compromising in non-traumatic nerve palsies. Period of duration between injury and diagnosis and muscular atrophy are main factors associated with success of treatment.

  14. Raman spectroscopic detection of peripheral nerves towards nerve-sparing surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minamikawa, Takeo; Harada, Yoshinori; Takamatsu, Tetsuro

    2017-02-01

    The peripheral nervous system plays an important role in motility, sensory, and autonomic functions of the human body. Preservation of peripheral nerves in surgery, namely nerve-sparing surgery, is now promising technique to avoid functional deficits of the limbs and organs following surgery as an aspect of the improvement of quality of life of patients. Detection of peripheral nerves including myelinated and unmyelinated nerves is required for the nerve-sparing surgery; however, conventional nerve identification scheme is sometimes difficult to identify peripheral nerves due to similarity of shape and color to non-nerve tissues or its limited application to only motor peripheral nerves. To overcome these issues, we proposed a label-free detection technique of peripheral nerves by means of Raman spectroscopy. We found several fingerprints of peripheral myelinated and unmyelinated nerves by employing a modified principal component analysis of typical spectra including myelinated nerve, unmyelinated nerve, and adjacent tissues. We finally realized the sensitivity of 94.2% and the selectivity of 92.0% for peripheral nerves including myelinated and unmyelinated nerves against adjacent tissues. Although further development of an intraoperative Raman spectroscopy system is required for clinical use, our proposed approach will serve as a unique and powerful tool for peripheral nerve detection for nerve-sparing surgery in the future.

  15. Dysconnection topography in schizophrenia revealed with state-space analysis of EEG.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jalili, Mahdi; Lavoie, Suzie; Deppen, Patricia; Meuli, Reto; Do, Kim Q; Cuénod, Michel; Hasler, Martin; De Feo, Oscar; Knyazeva, Maria G

    2007-10-24

    The dysconnection hypothesis has been proposed to account for pathophysiological mechanisms underlying schizophrenia. Widespread structural changes suggesting abnormal connectivity in schizophrenia have been imaged. A functional counterpart of the structural maps would be the EEG synchronization maps. However, due to the limits of currently used bivariate methods, functional correlates of dysconnection are limited to the isolated measurements of synchronization between preselected pairs of EEG signals. To reveal a whole-head synchronization topography in schizophrenia, we applied a new method of multivariate synchronization analysis called S-estimator to the resting dense-array (128 channels) EEG obtained from 14 patients and 14 controls. This method determines synchronization from the embedding dimension in a state-space domain based on the theoretical consequence of the cooperative behavior of simultaneous time series-the shrinking of the state-space embedding dimension. The S-estimator imaging revealed a specific synchronization landscape in schizophrenia patients. Its main features included bilaterally increased synchronization over temporal brain regions and decreased synchronization over the postcentral/parietal region neighboring the midline. The synchronization topography was stable over the course of several months and correlated with the severity of schizophrenia symptoms. In particular, direct correlations linked positive, negative, and general psychopathological symptoms to the hyper-synchronized temporal clusters over both hemispheres. Along with these correlations, general psychopathological symptoms inversely correlated within the hypo-synchronized postcentral midline region. While being similar to the structural maps of cortical changes in schizophrenia, the S-maps go beyond the topography limits, demonstrating a novel aspect of the abnormalities of functional cooperation: namely, regionally reduced or enhanced connectivity. The new method of

  16. Dysconnection topography in schizophrenia revealed with state-space analysis of EEG.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahdi Jalili

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available The dysconnection hypothesis has been proposed to account for pathophysiological mechanisms underlying schizophrenia. Widespread structural changes suggesting abnormal connectivity in schizophrenia have been imaged. A functional counterpart of the structural maps would be the EEG synchronization maps. However, due to the limits of currently used bivariate methods, functional correlates of dysconnection are limited to the isolated measurements of synchronization between preselected pairs of EEG signals.To reveal a whole-head synchronization topography in schizophrenia, we applied a new method of multivariate synchronization analysis called S-estimator to the resting dense-array (128 channels EEG obtained from 14 patients and 14 controls. This method determines synchronization from the embedding dimension in a state-space domain based on the theoretical consequence of the cooperative behavior of simultaneous time series-the shrinking of the state-space embedding dimension. The S-estimator imaging revealed a specific synchronization landscape in schizophrenia patients. Its main features included bilaterally increased synchronization over temporal brain regions and decreased synchronization over the postcentral/parietal region neighboring the midline. The synchronization topography was stable over the course of several months and correlated with the severity of schizophrenia symptoms. In particular, direct correlations linked positive, negative, and general psychopathological symptoms to the hyper-synchronized temporal clusters over both hemispheres. Along with these correlations, general psychopathological symptoms inversely correlated within the hypo-synchronized postcentral midline region. While being similar to the structural maps of cortical changes in schizophrenia, the S-maps go beyond the topography limits, demonstrating a novel aspect of the abnormalities of functional cooperation: namely, regionally reduced or enhanced connectivity.The new

  17. Change Detection Of Seafloor Topography By Modeling Multitemporal Multibeam Echosounder Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zirek, E.; Sunar, F.

    2014-09-01

    The term "topography" implies the study of numerous landforms that exist on or below the Earth and a detailed knowledge of topography is required to understand the most Earth processes. In the oceans, sea floor topography refers the geographic features of the sea floor including the configuration of a surface and the position of its natural and man-made features; and detailed nautical charts are fundamental for many sciences such as physical oceanography, biology and marine geology. The hydrographic offices, which use the Multi Beam Echo sounder (MBE) system for the establishment of nautical charts, have their own set of accuracy standards for hydrographic surveys, which generally comply with the standards defined by the International Hydrographic Organization. MBE systems include multiple measurement systems such as sonar head, positioning system, motion sensor that work in a synchronized manner. Before the measurements, the "Patch Test" is required to eliminate the systematic errors due to instrumental synchronization and installation. In this test, signal delay test (latency), Y-axis rotation (roll), X-axis rotation (pitch), Z-axis rotation (yaw) errors are calculated. Besides, the effects of the sound velocity measurement through water column and the sea level changes need to be taken into consideration especially in the multi-temporal data analysis and 3D modeling. In this paper, the seafloor of the Anamur -TRNC Drinking Water Pipeline route in the "Northern Cyprus Water Project" is selected as a study area. This project, a unique in the world, is an international water diversion project designed to supply water for drinking and irrigation from southern Turkey to Northern Cyprus via pipeline under Mediterranean Sea. Multi temporal multi beam echo sounder measurements are used in the change analysis and surface modeling and the efficiency of this system is outlined together with its limitations.

  18. Facial nerve paralysis in children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciorba, Andrea; Corazzi, Virginia; Conz, Veronica; Bianchini, Chiara; Aimoni, Claudia

    2015-01-01

    Facial nerve palsy is a condition with several implications, particularly when occurring in childhood. It represents a serious clinical problem as it causes significant concerns in doctors because of its etiology, its treatment options and its outcome, as well as in little patients and their parents, because of functional and aesthetic outcomes. There are several described causes of facial nerve paralysis in children, as it can be congenital (due to delivery traumas and genetic or malformative diseases) or acquired (due to infective, inflammatory, neoplastic, traumatic or iatrogenic causes). Nonetheless, in approximately 40%-75% of the cases, the cause of unilateral facial paralysis still remains idiopathic. A careful diagnostic workout and differential diagnosis are particularly recommended in case of pediatric facial nerve palsy, in order to establish the most appropriate treatment, as the therapeutic approach differs in relation to the etiology. PMID:26677445

  19. Hypoglossal-facial nerve reconstruction using a Y-tube-conduit reduces aberrant synkinetic movements of the orbicularis oculi and vibrissal muscles in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaya, Yasemin; Ozsoy, Umut; Turhan, Murat; Angelov, Doychin N; Sarikcioglu, Levent

    2014-01-01

    The facial nerve is the most frequently damaged nerve in head and neck trauma. Patients undergoing facial nerve reconstruction often complain about disturbing abnormal synkinetic movements of the facial muscles (mass movements, synkinesis) which are thought to result from misguided collateral branching of regenerating motor axons and reinnervation of inappropriate muscles. Here, we examined whether use of an aorta Y-tube conduit during reconstructive surgery after facial nerve injury reduces synkinesis of orbicularis oris (blink reflex) and vibrissal (whisking) musculature. The abdominal aorta plus its bifurcation was harvested (N = 12) for Y-tube conduits. Animal groups comprised intact animals (Group 1), those receiving hypoglossal-facial nerve end-to-end coaptation alone (HFA; Group 2), and those receiving hypoglossal-facial nerve reconstruction using a Y-tube (HFA-Y-tube, Group 3). Videotape motion analysis at 4 months showed that HFA-Y-tube group showed a reduced synkinesis of eyelid and whisker movements compared to HFA alone.

  20. Reformation and utilization of complicated topography for a uranium mill

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Taoan; Zhou Xinghuo; Lv Junwen

    2004-01-01

    It is successful for how to reform and utilized complicated topography in the design of general plan and transport for technological reformation of a uranium mill. The unfavorable factors of complicated topography are turned into favorable ones. The general plan is designed compactly and the land is economized. The transport is designed simply and directly. the leaching liquid flows by gravity so that the power is economical

  1. Asymmetric three-dimensional topography over mantle plumes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burov, Evgueni; Gerya, Taras

    2014-09-04

    The role of mantle-lithosphere interactions in shaping surface topography has long been debated. In general, it is supposed that mantle plumes and vertical mantle flows result in axisymmetric, long-wavelength topography, which strongly differs from the generally asymmetric short-wavelength topography created by intraplate tectonic forces. However, identification of mantle-induced topography is difficult, especially in the continents. It can be argued therefore that complex brittle-ductile rheology and stratification of the continental lithosphere result in short-wavelength modulation and localization of deformation induced by mantle flow. This deformation should also be affected by far-field stresses and, hence, interplay with the 'tectonic' topography (for example, in the 'active/passive' rifting scenario). Testing these ideas requires fully coupled three-dimensional numerical modelling of mantle-lithosphere interactions, which so far has not been possible owing to the conceptual and technical limitations of earlier approaches. Here we present new, ultra-high-resolution, three-dimensional numerical experiments on topography over mantle plumes, incorporating a weakly pre-stressed (ultra-slow spreading), rheologically realistic lithosphere. The results show complex surface evolution, which is very different from the smooth, radially symmetric patterns usually assumed as the canonical surface signature of mantle upwellings. In particular, the topography exhibits strongly asymmetric, small-scale, three-dimensional features, which include narrow and wide rifts, flexural flank uplifts and fault structures. This suggests a dominant role for continental rheological structure and intra-plate stresses in controlling dynamic topography, mantle-lithosphere interactions, and continental break-up processes above mantle plumes.

  2. Influence of surface topography on elastically backscattered electrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ding, X; Da, B; Gong, J B; Ding, Z J; Mao, S F

    2014-01-01

    A Monte Carlo simulation, taking into account of the detailed surface roughness of a realistic solid sample, has been performed to study the surface topography influence on elastic peak intensity. To describe quantitatively the surface topography effect, here we introduce surface roughness parameter (SRP) according to the ratio of elastic peak intensities between a rough surface and an ideal planar surface. Simulation results for Al sample have shown that SRP varies with surface roughness particularly at large incidence/emission angles

  3. The development of surface topography by heavy ion sputtering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whitton, J.L.; Carter, G.

    1981-01-01

    The results of a detailed, systematic investigation of the development of energetic argon ion bombardment induced surface features on polycrystal and single crystal copper are presented. It is shown that the crystal structure itself is the dominant factor deciding the final form of surface topography. The earlier proposed ''necessary conditions'' for development of surface topography, viz. surface impurity, asperities, growth, surface migration and redeposition are shown to be unimportant under the clean conditions of the experiments. (Auth.)

  4. Topography-modified refraction (TMR): adjustment of treated cylinder amount and axis to the topography versus standard clinical refraction in myopic topography-guided LASIK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanellopoulos, Anastasios John

    2016-01-01

    To evaluate the safety, efficacy, and contralateral eye comparison of topography-guided myopic LASIK with two different refraction treatment strategies. Private clinical ophthalmology practice. A total of 100 eyes (50 patients) in consecutive cases of myopic topography-guided LASIK procedures with the same refractive platform (FS200 femtosecond and EX500 excimer lasers) were randomized for treatment as follows: one eye with the standard clinical refraction (group A) and the contralateral eye with the topographic astigmatic power and axis (topography-modified treatment refraction; group B). All cases were evaluated pre- and post-operatively for the following parameters: refractive error, best corrected distance visual acuity (CDVA), uncorrected distance visual acuity (UDVA), topography (Placido-disk based) and tomography (Scheimpflug-image based), wavefront analysis, pupillometry, and contrast sensitivity. Follow-up visits were conducted for at least 12 months. Mean refractive error was -5.5 D of myopia and -1.75 D of astigmatism. In group A versus group B, respectively, the average UDVA improved from 20/200 to 20/20 versus 20/16; post-operative CDVA was 20/20 and 20/13.5; 1 line of vision gained was 27.8% and 55.6%; and 2 lines of vision gained was 5.6% and 11.1%. In group A, 27.8% of eyes had over -0.50 diopters of residual refractive astigmatism, in comparison to 11.7% in group B ( P Topography-modified refraction (TMR): topographic adjustment of the amount and axis of astigmatism treated, when different from the clinical refraction, may offer superior outcomes in topography-guided myopic LASIK. These findings may change the current clinical paradigm of the optimal subjective refraction utilized in laser vision correction.

  5. Role of magnetic resonance imaging in entrapment and compressive neuropathy - what, where, and how to see the peripheral nerves on the musculoskeletal magnetic resonance image: part 1. Overview and lower extremity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Sungjun [Yonsei University, Department of Diagnostic Radiology, College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea); Hanyang University, Kuri Hospital, Department of Diagnostic Radiology, College of Medicine, Kuri City, Kyunggi-do (Korea); Choi, Jin-Young; Huh, Yong-Min; Song, Ho-Taek; Lee, Sung-Ah [Yonsei University, Department of Diagnostic Radiology, College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea); Kim, Seung Min [Yonsei University, Department of Neurology, College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea); Suh, Jin-Suck [Yonsei University, Department of Diagnostic Radiology, College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea); Yonsei University, Research Institute of Radiological Science, College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea)

    2007-01-15

    The diagnosis of nerve entrapment and compressive neuropathy has been traditionally based on the clinical and electrodiagnostic examinations. As a result of improvements in the magnetic resonance (MR) imaging modality, it plays not only a fundamental role in the detection of space-occupying lesions but also a compensatory role in clinically and electrodiagnostically inconclusive cases. Although ultrasound has undergone further development in the past decades and shows high resolution capabilities, it has inherent limitations due to its operator dependency. We review the general concepts that should be known to evaluate the entrapment and compressive neuropathy in MR imaging. We also review the course of normal peripheral nerves, as well as various clinical demonstrations and pathological features of compressed and entrapped nerves in the lower extremities on MR imaging, according to the nerves involved. The common sites of nerve entrapment of the lower extremity are as follows: sciatic nerve around the piriformis muscle; tibial nerve at the popliteal fossa and tarsal tunnel, common peroneal nerve around the fibular neck, and digital nerve near the metatarsal head. Although MR imaging can depict the peripheral nerves in the extremities effectively, radiologists should be familiar with nerve pathways, common sites of nerve compression, and common space-occupying lesions resulting in nerve compression in MR imaging. (orig.)

  6. Role of magnetic resonance imaging in entrapment and compressive neuropathy - what, where, and how to see the peripheral nerves on the musculoskeletal magnetic resonance image: part 1. Overview and lower extremity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Sungjun; Choi, Jin-Young; Huh, Yong-Min; Song, Ho-Taek; Lee, Sung-Ah; Kim, Seung Min; Suh, Jin-Suck

    2007-01-01

    The diagnosis of nerve entrapment and compressive neuropathy has been traditionally based on the clinical and electrodiagnostic examinations. As a result of improvements in the magnetic resonance (MR) imaging modality, it plays not only a fundamental role in the detection of space-occupying lesions but also a compensatory role in clinically and electrodiagnostically inconclusive cases. Although ultrasound has undergone further development in the past decades and shows high resolution capabilities, it has inherent limitations due to its operator dependency. We review the general concepts that should be known to evaluate the entrapment and compressive neuropathy in MR imaging. We also review the course of normal peripheral nerves, as well as various clinical demonstrations and pathological features of compressed and entrapped nerves in the lower extremities on MR imaging, according to the nerves involved. The common sites of nerve entrapment of the lower extremity are as follows: sciatic nerve around the piriformis muscle; tibial nerve at the popliteal fossa and tarsal tunnel, common peroneal nerve around the fibular neck, and digital nerve near the metatarsal head. Although MR imaging can depict the peripheral nerves in the extremities effectively, radiologists should be familiar with nerve pathways, common sites of nerve compression, and common space-occupying lesions resulting in nerve compression in MR imaging. (orig.)

  7. Peripheral nerve conduits: technology update

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arslantunali D

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available D Arslantunali,1–3,* T Dursun,1,2,* D Yucel,1,4,5 N Hasirci,1,2,6 V Hasirci,1,2,7 1BIOMATEN, Center of Excellence in Biomaterials and Tissue Engineering, Middle East Technical University (METU, Ankara, Turkey; 2Department of Biotechnology, METU, Ankara, Turkey; 3Department of Bioengineering, Gumushane University, Gumushane, Turkey; 4Faculty of Engineering, Department of Medical Engineering, Acibadem University, Istanbul, Turkey; 5School of Medicine, Department of Histology and Embryology, Acibadem University, Istanbul, Turkey; 6Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Arts and Sciences, METU, Ankara, Turkey; 7Department of Biological Sciences, Faculty of Arts and Sciences, METU, Ankara, Turkey *These authors have contributed equally to this work Abstract: Peripheral nerve injury is a worldwide clinical problem which could lead to loss of neuronal communication along sensory and motor nerves between the central nervous system (CNS and the peripheral organs and impairs the quality of life of a patient. The primary requirement for the treatment of complete lesions is a tension-free, end-to-end repair. When end-to-end repair is not possible, peripheral nerve grafts or nerve conduits are used. The limited availability of autografts, and drawbacks of the allografts and xenografts like immunological reactions, forced the researchers to investigate and develop alternative approaches, mainly nerve conduits. In this review, recent information on the various types of conduit materials (made of biological and synthetic polymers and designs (tubular, fibrous, and matrix type are being presented. Keywords: peripheral nerve injury, natural biomaterials, synthetic biomaterials

  8. Head, Neck, and Oral Cancer

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Head and Neck Pathology Oral, Head and Neck Pathology Close to 49,750 Americans will be diagnosed ... Head and Neck Pathology Oral, Head and Neck Pathology Close to 49,750 Americans will be diagnosed ...

  9. Enhanced peripheral nerve regeneration through asymmetrically porous nerve guide conduit with nerve growth factor gradient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Se Heang; Kang, Jun Goo; Kim, Tae Ho; Namgung, Uk; Song, Kyu Sang; Jeon, Byeong Hwa; Lee, Jin Ho

    2018-01-01

    In this study, we fabricated a nerve guide conduit (NGC) with nerve growth factor (NGF) gradient along the longitudinal direction by rolling a porous polycaprolactone membrane with NGF concentration gradient. The NGF immobilized on the membrane was continuously released for up to 35 days, and the released amount of the NGF from the membrane gradually increased from the proximal to distal NGF ends, which may allow a neurotrophic factor gradient in the tubular NGC for a sufficient period. From the in vitro cell culture experiment, it was observed that the PC12 cells sense the NGF concentration gradient on the membrane for the cell proliferation and differentiation. From the in vivo animal experiment using a long gap (20 mm) sciatic nerve defect model of rats, the NGC with NGF concentration gradient allowed more rapid nerve regeneration through the NGC than the NGC itself and NGC immobilized with uniformly distributed NGF. The NGC with NGF concentration gradient seems to be a promising strategy for the peripheral nerve regeneration. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part A: 106A: 52-64, 2018. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Relationship of Aphasia and Topography of Cerebrovascular Territories

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Ghandehari

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available Aphasia is a common manifestation of stroke and evaluation of relationships of aphasia and brain topography could lead to better understanding of cognitive neurophysiology.Consecutive 100 stroke patients with aphasia admitted in Valie Asr hospital, Khorasan in 2003 enrulled in this prospective study. Diagnosis of stroke and aphasia was made by a neurolosist and topography of involved cerebrovascular territories confirmed by topographic maps of brain in CT scan. Global, Broca and Wernicke subtypes of aphasia constituted 52%, 40% and 6% of the cases respectively. Based on the usual nourishment of Broca and Wernicke areas by anterior and posterior cortical branches of the middle cerebral artery, 79% of Global, 47% of Broca and 50% of Wernicke aphasias had a compatible infarct topography. Other cases had no congruent infarct topography with involved linguistic area of their brain. Specific cerebrovascular topography for subtypes of aphasia in stroke patients was not found. The effects of cerebrovascular lesions on linguistic functions are not predictable by their topography in CT scan.

  11. Cognitive “Boy stories”: urban folklore and urban topographies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bojan Žikić

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The culturally cognitive perception of Belgrade’s topographies is considered through its deployment, symbolic use and narrative foundation. As the explanatory material-one football-media incident, the use of certain areas of the city in a spectacleceremonial manner, knowledge and lore of certain elements of the Belgrade topographies and the organization of «the football Belgrade»-were considered. The attitude is taken that the topography of a city is a multifaceted cultural constituent, whose structure of particular meaning, as a part of cultural communication, is determined by the very fact it is an urban space. Physical aspects of spatial-ness are reduced to relationism, i.e. it has a meaning for the cultural communication only when the elements of urban topographies are brought into correlation. Other characteristics of physical spatial-ness are irrelevant for such communication. Meaning relations in which elements of urban topographies exist are formed on the very fact of them being urban, that is, the afore mentioned denotation that is ascribed to space, stems from those cultural features and artifacts that are associated in a given milieu with certain concrete elements of urban topographies.

  12. Spectral analysis of the gravity and topography of Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bills, Bruce G.; Frey, Herbert V.; Kiefer, Walter S.; Nerem, R. Steven; Zuber, Maria T.

    1993-01-01

    New spherical harmonic models of the gravity and topography of Mars place important constraints on the structure and dynamics of the interior. The gravity and topography models are significantly phase coherent for harmonic degrees n less than 30 (wavelengths greater than 700 km). Loss of coherence below that wavelength is presumably due to inadequacies of the models, rather than a change in behavior of the planet. The gravity/topography admittance reveals two very different spectral domains: for n greater than 4, a simple Airy compensation model, with mean depth of 100 km, faithfully represents the observed pattern; for degrees 2 and 3, the effective compensation depths are 1400 and 550 km, respectively, strongly arguing for dynamic compensation at those wavelengths. The gravity model has been derived from a reanalysis of the tracking data for Mariner 9 and the Viking Orbiters, The topography model was derived by harmonic analysis of the USGS digital elevation model of Mars. Before comparing gravity and topography for internal structure inferences, we must ensure that both are consistently referenced to a hydrostatic datum. For the gravity, this involves removal of hydrostatic components of the even degree zonal coefficients. For the topography, it involves adding the degree 4 equipotential reference surface, to get spherically referenced values, and then subtracting the full degree 50 equipotential. Variance spectra and phase coherence of orthometric heights and gravity anomalies are addressed.

  13. Topography and refractometry of sperm cells using spatial light interference microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Lina; Kandel, Mikhail E; Rubessa, Marcello; Schreiber, Sierra; Wheeler, Mathew B; Popescu, Gabriel

    2018-02-01

    Characterization of spermatozoon viability is a common test in treating infertility. Recently, it has been shown that label-free, phase-sensitive imaging can provide a valuable alternative for this type of assay. We employ spatial light interference microscopy (SLIM) to perform high-accuracy single-cell phase imaging and decouple the average thickness and refractive index information for the population. This procedure was enabled by quantitative-phase imaging cells on media of two different refractive indices and using a numerical tool to remove the curvature from the cell tails. This way, we achieved ensemble averaging of topography and refractometry of 100 cells in each of the two groups. The results show that the thickness profile of the cell tail goes down to 150 nm and the refractive index can reach values of 1.6 close to the head. (2018) COPYRIGHT Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers (SPIE).

  14. Imaging of the optic nerve

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Becker, Minerva [Head and Neck and Maxillofacial Radiology, Department of Radiology, Geneva University Hospital, Rue Gabrielle-Perret-Gentil 4, CH - 1211 Geneva 14 (Switzerland)], E-mail: minerva.becker@hcuge.ch; Masterson, Karen [Head and Neck and Maxillofacial Radiology, Department of Radiology, Geneva University Hospital, Rue Gabrielle-Perret-Gentil 4, CH - 1211 Geneva 14 (Switzerland); Delavelle, Jacqueline [Neuroradiology, Department of Radiology, Geneva University Hospital, Rue Gabrielle-Perret-Gentil 4, CH - 1211 Geneva 14 (Switzerland); Viallon, Magalie [Department of Radiology, Geneva University Hospital, Rue Gabrielle-Perret-Gentil 4, CH - 1211 Geneva 14 (Switzerland); Vargas, Maria-Isabel [Neuroradiology, Department of Radiology, Geneva University Hospital, Rue Gabrielle-Perret-Gentil 4, CH - 1211 Geneva 14 (Switzerland); Becker, Christoph D. [Department of Radiology, Geneva University Hospital, Rue Gabrielle-Perret-Gentil 4, CH - 1211 Geneva 14 (Switzerland)

    2010-05-15

    This article provides an overview of the imaging findings of diseases affecting the optic nerve with special emphasis on clinical-radiological correlation and on the latest technical developments in MR imaging and CT. The review deals with congenital malformations, tumors, toxic/nutritional and degenerative entities, inflammatory and infectious diseases, compressive neuropathy, vascular conditions and trauma involving the optic nerve from its ocular segment to the chiasm. The implications of imaging findings on patient management and outcome and the importance of performing high-resolution tailored examinations adapted to the clinical situation are discussed.

  15. Imaging of the optic nerve

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Becker, Minerva; Masterson, Karen; Delavelle, Jacqueline; Viallon, Magalie; Vargas, Maria-Isabel; Becker, Christoph D.

    2010-01-01

    This article provides an overview of the imaging findings of diseases affecting the optic nerve with special emphasis on clinical-radiological correlation and on the latest technical developments in MR imaging and CT. The review deals with congenital malformations, tumors, toxic/nutritional and degenerative entities, inflammatory and infectious diseases, compressive neuropathy, vascular conditions and trauma involving the optic nerve from its ocular segment to the chiasm. The implications of imaging findings on patient management and outcome and the importance of performing high-resolution tailored examinations adapted to the clinical situation are discussed.

  16. Transient Femoral Nerve Palsy Following Ilioinguinal Nerve Block ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2018-04-20

    Apr 20, 2018 ... a 3‑year period under ilioinguinal nerve block only were assessed for evidence of TFNP. All patients ... loss over the anterior aspect of the thigh, weakness of extension at the knee joint, .... and may result in falls with fractures which carry severe ... recovery of the palsy and subsequently discharged same.

  17. Functional nerve recovery after bridging a 15 mm gap in rat sciatic nerve with a biodegradable nerve guide

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meek, MF; Klok, F; Robinson, PH; Nicolai, JPA; Gramsbergen, A; van der Werf, J.F.A.

    2003-01-01

    Recovery of nerve function was evaluated after bridging a 15 mm sciatic nerve gap in 51 rats with a biodegradable poly(DL-lactide-epsilon-caprolactone) nerve guide. Recovery of function was investigated by analysing the footprints, by analysing video recordings of gait, by electrically eliciting the

  18. Shuttle Topography Data Inform Solar Power Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    The next time you flip on a light switch, there s a chance that you could be benefitting from data originally acquired during the Space Shuttle Program. An effort spearheaded by Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) and the National Geospatial-Intelligence Agency (NGA) in 2000 put together the first near-global elevation map of the Earth ever assembled, which has found use in everything from 3D terrain maps to models that inform solar power production. For the project, called the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM), engineers at JPL designed a 60-meter mast that was fitted onto Shuttle Endeavour. Once deployed in space, an antenna attached to the end of the mast worked in combination with another antenna on the shuttle to simultaneously collect data from two perspectives. Just as having two eyes makes depth perception possible, the SRTM data sets could be combined to form an accurate picture of the Earth s surface elevations, the first hight-detail, near-global elevation map ever assembled. What made SRTM unique was not just its surface mapping capabilities but the completeness of the data it acquired. Over the course of 11 days, the shuttle orbited the Earth nearly 180 times, covering everything between the 60deg north and 54deg south latitudes, or roughly 80 percent of the world s total landmass. Of that targeted land area, 95 percent was mapped at least twice, and 24 percent was mapped at least four times. Following several years of processing, NASA released the data to the public in partnership with NGA. Robert Crippen, a member of the SRTM science team, says that the data have proven useful in a variety of fields. "Satellites have produced vast amounts of remote sensing data, which over the years have been mostly two-dimensional. But the Earth s surface is three-dimensional. Detailed topographic data give us the means to visualize and analyze remote sensing data in their natural three-dimensional structure, facilitating a greater understanding of the features

  19. Evolution of Topography in Glaciated Mountain Ranges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brocklehurst, Simon H.

    2002-01-01

    This thesis examines the response of alpine landscapes to the onset of glaciation. The basic approach is to compare fluvial and glacial laudscapes, since it is the change from the former to the latter that accompanies climatic cooling. This allows a detailed evaluation of hypotheses relating climate change to tectonic processes in glaciated mountain belts. Fieldwork was carried out in the eastern Sierra Nevada, California, and the Sangre de Cristo Range, Colorado, alongside digital elevation model analyses in the western US, the Southern Alps of New Zealand, and the Himalaya of northwestern Pakistan. hypothesis is overstated in its appeal to glacial erosion as a major source of relief production and subsequent peak uplift. Glaciers in the eastern Sierra Nevada and the western Sangre de Cristos have redistributed relief, but have produced only modest relief by enlarging drainage basins at the expense of low-relief topography. Glaciers have lowered valley floors and ridgelines by similar amounts, limiting the amount of "missing mass' that can be generated, and causing a decrease in drainage basin relief. The principal response of glaciated landscapes to rapid rock uplift is the development of towering cirque headwalls. This represents considerable relief production, but is not caused by glacial erosion alone. Large valley glaciers can maintain their low gradient regardless of uplift rate, which supports the "glacial buzzsaw" hypothesis. However, the inability of glaciers to erode steep hillslopes as rapidly can cause mean elevations to rise. Cosmogenic isotope dating is used to show that (i) where plucking is active, the last major glaciation removed sufficient material to reset the cosmogenic clock; and (ii) former glacial valley floors now stranded near the crest of the Sierra Nevada are at varying stages of abandonment, suggesting a cycle of drainage reorganiszation and relief inversion due to glacial erosion similar to that observed in river networks. Glaciated

  20. Techniques for Preservation of the Frontotemporal Branch of Facial Nerve during Orbitozygomatic Approaches

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Spiriev, Toma; Poulsgaard, Lars; Fugleholm, Kaare

    2015-01-01

    Background During orbitozygomatic (OZ) approaches, the frontotemporal branch (FTB) of the facial nerve is exposed to injury if proper measures are not taken. This article describes in detail the nuances of the two most common techniques (interfascial and subfascial dissection). Design The FTB...... of the facial nerve was dissected and followed in its tissue planes on fresh-frozen cadaver heads. The interfascial and subfascial dissections were performed, and every step was photographed and examined. Results The interfascial dissection is safe to be started from the most anterior part of the superior...

  1. Nerve supply to the pelvis (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The nerves that branch off the central nervous system (CNS) provide messages to the muscles and organs for normal ... be compromised. In multiple sclerosis, the demyelinization of nerve cells may lead to bowel incontinence, bladder problems ...

  2. Specialized Nerve Tests: EMG, NCV and SSEP

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Treatment Spondylolisthesis BLOG FIND A SPECIALIST Treatments Specialized Nerve Tests: EMG, NCV and SSEP Ajay Jawahar MD ... spinal cord is the thick, whitish bundle of nerve tissue that extends from the lowest part of ...

  3. Nerve damage from diabetes - self-care

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000326.htm Nerve damage from diabetes - self-care To use the ... or at other unusual times. Treating and Preventing Nerve Damage from Diabetes Treating diabetic neuropathy can make ...

  4. Reconstruction of facial nerve injuries in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fattah, Adel; Borschel, Gregory H; Zuker, Ron M

    2011-05-01

    Facial nerve trauma is uncommon in children, and many spontaneously recover some function; nonetheless, loss of facial nerve activity leads to functional impairment of ocular and oral sphincters and nasal orifice. In many cases, the impediment posed by facial asymmetry and reduced mimetic function more significantly affects the child's psychosocial interactions. As such, reconstruction of the facial nerve affords great benefits in quality of life. The therapeutic strategy is dependent on numerous factors, including the cause of facial nerve injury, the deficit, the prognosis for recovery, and the time elapsed since the injury. The options for treatment include a diverse range of surgical techniques including static lifts and slings, nerve repairs, nerve grafts and nerve transfers, regional, and microvascular free muscle transfer. We review our strategies for addressing facial nerve injuries in children.

  5. Cranial nerve palsies in Nigerian children

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PROF. EZECHUKWU

    2014-01-08

    Jan 8, 2014 ... Introduction. Cranial nerve palsy is a common clinical problem ... Methodology ... The two cases with three-nerve involvement were re- lated to viral encephalitis and cerebral contusion from ... RTA = road traffic accident.

  6. Vagus Nerve Stimulation for Treating Epilepsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and their FAMILIES VAGUS NERVE STIMULATION FOR TREATING EPILEPSY This information sheet is provided to help you ... how vagus nerve stimulation (VNS) may help treat epilepsy. The American Academy of Neurology (AAN) is the ...

  7. a technique to repair peripheral nerve injury

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    attached nerve does occi.rr, and functional recovery (sensory and motor) has been demonstrated. ..... Brachial plexus. Upper trunk to lower. 19 Nov 1998 ... Fractured. 13 Mar 1998 Mid shaft hiunerus Radial nerve to. 14 Mar 1999 humerus cut.

  8. External laryngeal nerve in thyroid surgery: is the nerve stimulator necessary?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aina, E N; Hisham, A N

    2001-09-01

    To find out the incidence and type of external laryngeal nerves during operations on the thyroid, and to assess the role of a nerve stimulator in detecting them. Prospective, non-randomised study. Teaching hospital, Malaysia. 317 patients who had 447 dissections between early January 1998 and late November 1999. Number and type of nerves crossing the cricothyroid space, and the usefulness of the nerve stimulator in finding them. The nerve stimulator was used in 206/447 dissections (46%). 392 external laryngeal nerves were seen (88%), of which 196/206 (95%) were detected with the stimulator. However, without the stimulator 196 nerves were detected out of 241 dissections (81%). The stimulator detected 47 (23%) Type I nerves (nerve > 1 cm from the upper edge of superior pole); 86 (42%) Type IIa nerves (nerve edge of superior pole); and 63 (31%) Type IIb nerves (nerve below upper edge of superior pole). 10 nerves were not detected. When the stimulator was not used the corresponding figures were 32 (13%), 113 (47%), and 51 (21%), and 45 nerves were not seen. If the nerve cannot be found we recommend dissection of capsule close to the medial border of the upper pole of the thyroid to avoid injury to the nerve. Although the use of the nerve stimulator seems desirable, it confers no added advantage in finding the nerve. In the event of uncertainty about whether a structure is the nerve, the stimulator may help to confirm it. However, exposure of the cricothyroid space is most important for good exposure in searching for the external laryngeal nerve.

  9. Secondary digital nerve repair in the foot with resorbable p(DLLA-epsilon-CL) nerve conduits

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meek, MF; Nicolai, JPA; Robinson, PH

    Nerve guides are increasingly being used in peripheral nerve repair. In the last decade, Much preclinical research has been undertaken into a resorbable nerve guide composed of p(DLLA-epsilon-CL). This report describes the results of secondary digital nerve reconstruction in the foot in a patient

  10. Peripheral nerve regeneration through P(DLLA-epsilon-CL) nerve guides

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Den Dunnen, WFA; Meek, MF; Robinson, PH; Schakernraad, JM

    1998-01-01

    P(DLLA-epsilon-CL) nerve guides can be used perfectly for short nerve gaps in rats, and are even better than short autologous nerve grafts. The tube dimensions, such as the internal diameter and wall thickness, are very important for the final outcome of peripheral nerve regeneration, as well as the

  11. An anatomical study of porcine peripheral nerve and its potential use in nerve tissue engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zilic, Leyla; Garner, Philippa E; Yu, Tong; Roman, Sabiniano; Haycock, John W; Wilshaw, Stacy-Paul

    2015-01-01

    Current nerve tissue engineering applications are adopting xenogeneic nerve tissue as potential nerve grafts to help aid nerve regeneration. However, there is little literature that describes the exact location, anatomy and physiology of these nerves to highlight their potential as a donor graft. The aim of this study was to identify and characterise the structural and extracellular matrix (ECM) components of porcine peripheral nerves in the hind leg. Methods included the dissection of porcine nerves, localisation, characterisation and quantification of the ECM components and identification of nerve cells. Results showed a noticeable variance between porcine and rat nerve (a commonly studied species) in terms of fascicle number. The study also revealed that when porcine peripheral nerves branch, a decrease in fascicle number and size was evident. Porcine ECM and nerve fascicles were found to be predominately comprised of collagen together with glycosaminoglycans, laminin and fibronectin. Immunolabelling for nerve growth factor receptor p75 also revealed the localisation of Schwann cells around and inside the fascicles. In conclusion, it is shown that porcine peripheral nerves possess a microstructure similar to that found in rat, and is not dissimilar to human. This finding could extend to the suggestion that due to the similarities in anatomy to human nerve, porcine nerves may have utility as a nerve graft providing guidance and support to regenerating axons. PMID:26200940

  12. Multiple Cranial Nerve Involvement In Cryptococcal Meningitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahadevan A

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Cryptococcal meningitis is an uncommon cause of multiple cranial nerve palsies. This case report illustrates one such case of cryptococcal meningitis clinically manifesting with extensive cranial nerve involvement in an HIV seronegative individual. Histology revealed infiltration of the cranial nerves by cryptococci causing axonal disruption with secondary demyelination in the absence of any evidence of inflammation or vasculitis. We believe that axonal damage underlies the pathogenesis of cranial nerve involvement in cryptococcal meningitis.

  13. Isolated trochlear nerve palsy with midbrain hemorrhage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raghavendra S

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Midbrain hemorrhage causing isolated fourth nerve palsy is extremely rare. Idiopathic, traumatic and congenital abnormalities are the most common causes of fourth nerve palsy. We report acute isolated fourth nerve palsy in an 18-year-old lady due to a midbrain hemorrhage probably due to a midbrain cavernoma. The case highlights the need for neuroimaging in selected cases of isolated trochlear nerve palsy.

  14. Ultrasound-Guided Multiple Peripheral Nerve Blocks in a Superobese Patient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alper Kilicaslan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The number of obese patients has increased dramatically worldwide. Morbid obesity is associated with an increased incidence of medical comorbidities and restricts the application choices in anesthesiology. We report a successfully performed combined ultrasound-guided blockade of the femoral, tibial, and common peroneal nerve in a superobese patient. We present a case report of a 31-year-old, ASA-PS II, super obese man (190 kg, 180 cm, BMI: 58 kg/m2 admitted to the emergency department with a type II segmental tibia shaft fracture and ankle dislocation after a vehicle accident. After two failed spinal anesthesia attempts, we decided to apply a femoral block combined with a sciatic block. Femoral blocks were successfully performed with US guided in-plane technique. Separate blocks of the tibial and common peroneal nerves were planned after the sciatic nerve could not be located due to the thick subcutaneous tissue. We performed a tibial nerve block at 2 cm above the popliteal crease and common peroneal nerve at the level of the fibular head with US guided in-plane technique. The blocks were successful and no block-related complications were noted. Ultrasound guidance allows new approaches for multiple peripheral nerve blocks with low local anesthetic doses in obese patients.

  15. The MRI appearance of the optic nerve sheath following fenestration for benign intracranial hypertension

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sallomi, D.; Taylor, H.; Hibbert, J.; Sanders, M.D.; Spalton, D.J.; Tonge, K. [Guys and St. Thomas` Hospitals, London (United Kingdom)

    1998-09-01

    Optic nerve fenestration is carried out in cases of severe benign intracranial hypertension. This study aimed to monitor the optic nerve sheath appearances and orbital changes that occur following this procedure. The eight patients were all female with an average age of 37.3 years and a range of 20-58 years. The duration of symptoms was 2-6 years. Symptoms included headaches, diplopia and visual obscurations. Examination revealed severe papilledema. All investigations, including MRI, biochemical and immunological tests, were negative. Patients had fenestration of a 2 mm x 3 mm segment of the medial aspect of the optic nerve sheath. Imaging was obtained with a 1 T MRI machine using a head coil. Coronal, axial and sagittal 3 mm contiguous sections using STIR sequences with TR 4900 ms, IT 150 ms and TE 60 ms were obtained. Five patients showed clinical improvement. The post-operative MRI findings in four of these included a decreased volume of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) around the optic nerve sheaths and a localized collection of fluid within the orbit. There were no MRI changes in the three patients with no clinical improvement. Decreased CSF volume around the optic nerve and a fluid collection within the orbit may indicate a favorable outcome in optic nerve fenestration. (orig.) With 3 figs., 12 refs.

  16. Extracranial Facial Nerve Schwannoma Treated by Hypo-fractionated CyberKnife Radiosurgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasaki, Ayaka; Miyazaki, Shinichiro; Hori, Tomokatsu

    2016-09-21

    Facial nerve schwannoma is a rare intracranial tumor. Treatment for this benign tumor has been controversial. Here, we report a case of extracranial facial nerve schwannoma treated successfully by hypo-fractionated CyberKnife (Accuray, Sunnyvale, CA) radiosurgery and discuss the efficacy of this treatment. A 34-year-old female noticed a swelling in her right mastoid process. The lesion enlarged over a seven-month period, and she experienced facial spasm on the right side. She was diagnosed with a facial schwannoma via a magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scan of the head and neck and was told to wait until the facial nerve palsy subsides. She was referred to our hospital for radiation therapy. We planned a fractionated CyberKnife radiosurgery for three consecutive days. After CyberKnife radiosurgery, the mass in the right parotid gradually decreased in size, and the facial nerve palsy disappeared. At her eight-month follow-up, her facial spasm had completely disappeared. There has been no recurrence and the facial nerve function has been normal. We successfully demonstrated the efficacy of CyberKnife radiosurgery as an alternative treatment that also preserves neurofunction for facial nerve schwannomas.

  17. Ganglioglioma of the trigeminal nerve: MRI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Athale, S.; Jinkins, J.R. [Neuroradiology Section, The University of Texas Health Science Center at San Antonio, 7703 F. Curl Drive, San Antonio, TX 78284-7800 (United States); Hallet, K.K. [Neuropathology Department, The University of Texas Health Science Center at San Antonio, Texas (United States)

    1999-08-01

    Ganglioglioma of the cranial nerves is extremely rare; only a few cases involving the optic nerves have been reported. We present a case of ganglioglioma of the trigeminal nerve, which was isointense with the brain stem on all MRI sequences and showed no contrast enhancement. (orig.) With 2 figs., 6 refs.

  18. Facial nerve palsy due to birth trauma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seventh cranial nerve palsy due to birth trauma; Facial palsy - birth trauma; Facial palsy - neonate; Facial palsy - infant ... An infant's facial nerve is also called the seventh cranial nerve. It can be damaged just before or at the time of delivery. ...

  19. Ephaptic coupling of myelinated nerve fibers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Binczak, S.; Eilbeck, J. C.; Scott, Alwyn C.

    2001-01-01

    Numerical predictions of a simple myelinated nerve fiber model are compared with theoretical results in the continuum and discrete limits, clarifying the nature of the conduction process on an isolated nerve axon. Since myelinated nerve fibers are often arranged in bundles, this model is used...

  20. Neuromodulation of the Suprascapular Nerve

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kurt, E.; Eijk, T. van; Henssen, D.J.H.A.; Arnts, I.; Steegers, M.A.H.

    2016-01-01

    Chronic intractable shoulder pain (CISP) is defined as shoulder pain which is present for longer than 6 months and does not respond to standard treatments like medication, physical therapy, rehabilitation, selective nerve blocks and local infiltrations, or orthopedic procedures. The etiology of CISP

  1. Transdermal optogenetic peripheral nerve stimulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maimon, Benjamin E.; Zorzos, Anthony N.; Bendell, Rhys; Harding, Alexander; Fahmi, Mina; Srinivasan, Shriya; Calvaresi, Peter; Herr, Hugh M.

    2017-06-01

    Objective: A fundamental limitation in both the scientific utility and clinical translation of peripheral nerve optogenetic technologies is the optical inaccessibility of the target nerve due to the significant scattering and absorption of light in biological tissues. To date, illuminating deep nerve targets has required implantable optical sources, including fiber-optic and LED-based systems, both of which have significant drawbacks. Approach: Here we report an alternative approach involving transdermal illumination. Utilizing an intramuscular injection of ultra-high concentration AAV6-hSyn-ChR2-EYFP in rats. Main results: We demonstrate transdermal stimulation of motor nerves at 4.4 mm and 1.9 mm depth with an incident laser power of 160 mW and 10 mW, respectively. Furthermore, we employ this technique to accurately control ankle position by modulating laser power or position on the skin surface. Significance: These results have the potential to enable future scientific optogenetic studies of pathologies implicated in the peripheral nervous system for awake, freely-moving animals, as well as a basis for future clinical studies.

  2. Nerve growth factor receptor immunostaining suggests an extrinsic origin for hypertrophic nerves in Hirschsprung's disease.

    OpenAIRE

    Kobayashi, H; O'Briain, D S; Puri, P

    1994-01-01

    The expression of nerve growth factor receptor in colon from 20 patients with Hirshsprung's disease and 10 controls was studied immunohistochemically. The myenteric and submucous plexuses in the ganglionic bowel and hypertrophic nerve trunks in the aganglionic bowel displayed strong expression of nerve growth factor receptor. The most important finding was the identical localisation of nerve growth factor receptor immunoreactivity on the perineurium of both hypertrophic nerve trunks in Hirshs...

  3. Geology, Bedrock - BEDROCK_TOPOGRAPHY_MM36_IN: Bedrock Topography Contours, Indiana (Indiana Geological Survey, 1:500,000, Line Shapefile)

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC State | GIS Inventory — Bedrock topography was converted from the original published map, Indiana Geological Survey Miscellaneous Map 36. The contours define the elevation/topography of the...

  4. Aberrant regeneration of the third cranial nerve.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shrestha, U D; Adhikari, S

    2012-01-01

    Aberrant regeneration of the third cranial nerve is most commonly due to its damage by trauma. A ten-month old child presented with the history of a fall from a four-storey building. She developed traumatic third nerve palsy and eventually the clinical features of aberrant regeneration of the third cranial nerve. The adduction of the eye improved over time. She was advised for patching for the strabismic amblyopia as well. Traumatic third nerve palsy may result in aberrant regeneration of the third cranial nerve. In younger patients, motility of the eye in different gazes may improve over time. © NEPjOPH.

  5. [Morphologic changes during neuroplastic nerve restoration].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakalski, E P; Rozhkov, E N

    1976-06-01

    The dynamics of ultrastructural changes in plastic recovery of the function of the additional nerve by the anterior branch of the second cervical nerve was studied. The nerve cells at the level of the donor-nerve were found to be highly reactive and plastic. It was established that in the process of heterogenic regeneration of the nerve the most substantial changes in neuronal structures were observed during the first two months. The cysterns of the endoplasmic network remained dilated for a long time after platic operation with might be related with the increased protein metabolism in the neuron.

  6. Head CT scan

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... scan - orbits; CT scan - sinuses; Computed tomography - cranial; CAT scan - brain ... head size in children Changes in thinking or behavior Fainting Headache, when you have certain other signs ...

  7. Bottom head assembly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fife, A.B.

    1998-01-01

    A bottom head dome assembly is described which includes, in one embodiment, a bottom head dome and a liner configured to be positioned proximate the bottom head dome. The bottom head dome has a plurality of openings extending there through. The liner also has a plurality of openings extending there through, and each liner opening aligns with a respective bottom head dome opening. A seal is formed, such as by welding, between the liner and the bottom head dome to resist entry of water between the liner and the bottom head dome at the edge of the liner. In the one embodiment, a plurality of stub tubes are secured to the liner. Each stub tube has a bore extending there through, and each stub tube bore is coaxially aligned with a respective liner opening. A seat portion is formed by each liner opening for receiving a portion of the respective stub tube. The assembly also includes a plurality of support shims positioned between the bottom head dome and the liner for supporting the liner. In one embodiment, each support shim includes a support stub having a bore there through, and each support stub bore aligns with a respective bottom head dome opening. 2 figs

  8. The influence of surface topography on Kelvin probe force microscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sadewasser, S; Leendertz, C; Streicher, F; Lux-Steiner, M Ch

    2009-01-01

    Long-range electrostatic forces govern the imaging mechanism in electrostatic force microscopy as well as in Kelvin probe force microscopy. To improve the analysis of such images, simulations of the electrostatic field distribution have been performed in the past using a flat surface and a cone-shaped tip. However, the electrostatic field distribution between a tip and a sample depends strongly on the surface topography, which has been neglected in previous studies. It is therefore of general importance to study the influence of sample topography features on Kelvin probe force microscopy images, which we address here by performing finite element simulations. We show how the surface potential measurement is influenced by surface steps and surface grooves, considering potential variations in the form of a potential peak and a potential step. The influence of the topography on the measurement of the surface potential is found to be rather small compared to a typical experimental resolution. Surprisingly, in the case of a coinciding topography and potential step an improvement of the potential profile due to the inclusion of the topography is observed. Finally, based on the obtained results, suggestions for the realization of KPFM measurement are given.

  9. Smoking topography and abstinence in adult female smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClure, Erin A; Saladin, Michael E; Baker, Nathaniel L; Carpenter, Matthew J; Gray, Kevin M

    2013-12-01

    Preliminary evidence, within both adults and adolescents, suggests that the intensity with which cigarettes are smoked (i.e., smoking topography) is predictive of success during a cessation attempt. These reports have also shown topography to be superior compared to other variables, such as cigarettes per day, in the prediction of abstinence. The possibility that gender may influence this predictive relationship has not been evaluated but may be clinically useful in tailoring gender-specific interventions. Within the context of a clinical trial for smoking cessation among women, adult daily smokers completed a laboratory session that included a 1-hour ad libitum smoking period in which measures of topography were collected (N=135). Participants were then randomized to active medication (nicotine patch vs. varenicline) and abstinence was monitored for 4weeks. Among all smoking topography measures and all abstinence outcomes, a moderate association was found between longer puff duration and greater puff volume and continued smoking during the active 4-week treatment phase, but only within the nicotine patch group. Based on the weak topography-abstinence relationship among female smokers found in the current study, future studies should focus on explicit gender comparisons to examine if these associations are specific to or more robust in male smokers. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Toroidal vortices over isolated topography in geophysical flows

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koshel, Konstantin V; Ryzhov, Evgeny A; Zyryanov, Valery N

    2014-01-01

    This work deals with a model of a topographically trapped vortex appearing over isolated topography in a geophysical flow. The main feature of the study is that we pay special attention to the vertical structure of a topographically trapped vortex. The model considered allows one to study the vertical motion which is known not to be negligible in many cases. Given topography in the form of an isolated cylinder, and radial symmetry and stationarity of a uniform flow, in the linear approximation, we formulate a boundary value problem that determines all the components of the velocity field through a six-order differential operator, and nonincreasing boundary conditions at the center of the topography, and at infinity. The eigenvalues of the boundary value problem correspond to bifurcation points, in which the flow becomes unstable, hence non-negligible vertical velocities occur. We formulate a condition for the boundary value problem to have a discrete spectrum of these bifurcation points, and hence to be solvable. Conducting a series of test calculations, we show that the resulting vortex lies in the vicinity of topography, and can attain the distance up to half of the topography characteristic radius. (papers)

  11. Neuro-ophthalmological approach to facial nerve palsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Portelinha, Joana; Passarinho, Maria Picoto; Costa, João Marques

    2015-01-01

    Facial nerve palsy is associated with significant morbidity and can have different etiologies. The most common causes are Bell's palsy, Ramsay-Hunt syndrome and trauma, including surgical trauma. Incidence varies between 17 and 35 cases per 100,000. Initial evaluation should include accurate clinical history, followed by a comprehensive investigation of the head and neck, including ophthalmological, otological, oral and neurological examination, to exclude secondary causes. Routine laboratory testing and diagnostic imaging is not indicated in patients with new-onset Bell's palsy, but should be performed in patients with risk factors, atypical cases or in any case without resolution within 4 months. Many factors are involved in determining the appropriate treatment of these patients: the underlying cause, expected duration of nerve dysfunction, anatomical manifestations, severity of symptoms and objective clinical findings. Systemic steroids should be offered to patients with new-onset Bell's palsy to increase the chance of facial nerve recovery and reduce synkinesis. Ophthalmologists play a pivotal role in the multidisciplinary team involved in the evaluation and rehabilitation of these patients. In the acute phase, the main priority should be to ensure adequate corneal protection. Treatment depends on the degree of nerve lesion and on the risk of the corneal damage based on the amount of lagophthalmos, the quality of Bell's phenomenon, the presence or absence of corneal sensitivity and the degree of lid retraction. The main therapy is intensive lubrication. Other treatments include: taping the eyelid overnight, botulinum toxin injection, tarsorrhaphy, eyelid weight implants, scleral contact lenses and palpebral spring. Once the cornea is protected, longer term planning for eyelid and facial rehabilitation may take place. Spontaneous complete recovery of Bell's palsy occurs in up to 70% of cases. Long-term complications include aberrant regeneration with

  12. Retroauricular transmeatal approach to manage mandibular condylar head fractures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benech, Arnaldo; Arcuri, Francesco; Baragiotta, Nicola; Nicolotti, Matteo; Brucoli, Matteo

    2011-03-01

    There is a multitude of reported surgical approaches and technical variants with some unresolved technical problems to gain direct access to mandibular condylar head fractures; they can be divided into 2 groups: intraoral and extraoral. In 2005, Neff et al (Mund Kiefer Gesichtschir 2005;9:80), supported by a previous experimental work, reported a successful clinical study of condylar head fractures treated by a retroauricular approach; this article is in German, and the later English-language literature does not mention about this approach to open reduction and internal fixation of mandibular condylar fractures. The retroauricular transmeatal access, selected and performed by the senior author to treat 14 patients affected by highly located condylar head fracture, is illustrated in details. We collected data of 14 consecutive adult patients who, after the discussion about all options, had consented to have 16 mandibular condylar head fractures treated with open reduction and internal fixation by miniplates and screws via a retroauricular transmeatal approach. We exposed the temporomandibular joint area easily and better by dissecting via a retroauricular route with identification, ligation, and transection of the retromandibular vein; because of the posterior access, the frontal branch of the facial nerve and the auriculotemporal nerve are located and protected within the substance of the anteriorly retracted flap, superficial to the retromandibular vein. The follow-up clinical examination showed temporary weakness of the frontal branch of the facial nerve in 1 case with a recovery to normal function of 1.6 months; no patients had permanent weakness of the facial nerve or injury of the auriculotemporal nerve. There was absence of any salivary fistula, sialocele, and Frey syndrome; hearing was preserved in all cases, without any auditory stenosis or aesthetic deformity, and there was absence of any infections, hematoma, or scarring. Retroauricular approach provides

  13. Theoretical evaluation of accuracy in position and size of brain activity obtained by near-infrared topography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawaguchi, Hiroshi; Hayashi, Toshiyuki; Kato, Toshinori; Okada, Eiji

    2004-01-01

    Near-infrared (NIR) topography can obtain a topographical distribution of the activated region in the brain cortex. Near-infrared light is strongly scattered in the head, and the volume of tissue sampled by a source-detector pair on the head surface is broadly distributed in the brain. This scattering effect results in poor resolution and contrast in the topographic image of the brain activity. In this study, a one-dimensional distribution of absorption change in a head model is calculated by mapping and reconstruction methods to evaluate the effect of the image reconstruction algorithm and the interval of measurement points for topographic imaging on the accuracy of the topographic image. The light propagation in the head model is predicted by Monte Carlo simulation to obtain the spatial sensitivity profile for a source-detector pair. The measurement points are one-dimensionally arranged on the surface of the model, and the distance between adjacent measurement points is varied from 4 mm to 28 mm. Small intervals of the measurement points improve the topographic image calculated by both the mapping and reconstruction methods. In the conventional mapping method, the limit of the spatial resolution depends upon the interval of the measurement points and spatial sensitivity profile for source-detector pairs. The reconstruction method has advantages over the mapping method which improve the results of one-dimensional analysis when the interval of measurement points is less than 12 mm. The effect of overlapping of spatial sensitivity profiles indicates that the reconstruction method may be effective to improve the spatial resolution of a two-dimensional reconstruction of topographic image obtained with larger interval of measurement points. Near-infrared topography with the reconstruction method potentially obtains an accurate distribution of absorption change in the brain even if the size of absorption change is less than 10 mm

  14. Tractography of lumbar nerve roots: initial results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balbi, Vincent; Budzik, Jean-Francois; Thuc, Vianney le; Cotten, Anne [Hopital Roger Salengro, Service de Radiologie et d' Imagerie musculo-squelettique, Lille Cedex (France); Duhamel, Alain [Universite de Lille 2, UDSL, Lille (France); Bera-Louville, Anne [Service de Rhumatologie, Hopital Roger Salengro, Lille (France)

    2011-06-15

    The aims of this preliminary study were to demonstrate the feasibility of in vivo diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) and fibre tracking (FT) of the lumbar nerve roots, and to assess potential differences in the DTI parameters of the lumbar nerves between healthy volunteers and patients suffering from disc herniation. Nineteen patients with unilateral sciatica related to posterolateral or foraminal disc herniation and 19 healthy volunteers were enrolled in this study. DTI with tractography of the L5 or S1 nerves was performed. Mean fractional anisotropy (FA) and mean diffusivity (MD) values were calculated from tractography images. FA and MD values could be obtained from DTI-FT images in all controls and patients. The mean FA value of the compressed lumbar nerve roots was significantly lower than the FA of the contralateral nerve roots (p=0.0001) and of the nerve roots of volunteers (p=0.0001). MD was significantly higher in compressed nerve roots than in the contralateral nerve root (p=0.0002) and in the nerve roots of volunteers (p=0.04). DTI with tractography of the lumbar nerves is possible. Significant changes in diffusion parameters were found in the compressed lumbar nerves. (orig.)

  15. Tractography of lumbar nerve roots: initial results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balbi, Vincent; Budzik, Jean-Francois; Thuc, Vianney le; Cotten, Anne; Duhamel, Alain; Bera-Louville, Anne

    2011-01-01

    The aims of this preliminary study were to demonstrate the feasibility of in vivo diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) and fibre tracking (FT) of the lumbar nerve roots, and to assess potential differences in the DTI parameters of the lumbar nerves between healthy volunteers and patients suffering from disc herniation. Nineteen patients with unilateral sciatica related to posterolateral or foraminal disc herniation and 19 healthy volunteers were enrolled in this study. DTI with tractography of the L5 or S1 nerves was performed. Mean fractional anisotropy (FA) and mean diffusivity (MD) values were calculated from tractography images. FA and MD values could be obtained from DTI-FT images in all controls and patients. The mean FA value of the compressed lumbar nerve roots was significantly lower than the FA of the contralateral nerve roots (p=0.0001) and of the nerve roots of volunteers (p=0.0001). MD was significantly higher in compressed nerve roots than in the contralateral nerve root (p=0.0002) and in the nerve roots of volunteers (p=0.04). DTI with tractography of the lumbar nerves is possible. Significant changes in diffusion parameters were found in the compressed lumbar nerves. (orig.)

  16. Factors that influence peripheral nerve regeneration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krarup, Christian; Archibald, Simon J; Madison, Roger D

    2002-01-01

    median nerve lesions (n = 46) in nonhuman primates over 3 to 4 years, a time span comparable with such lesions in humans. Nerve gap distances of 5, 20, or 50mm were repaired with nerve grafts or collagen-based nerve guide tubes, and three electrophysiological outcome measures were followed: (1) compound...... muscle action potentials in the abductor pollicis brevis muscle, (2) the number and size of motor units in reinnervated muscle, and (3) compound sensory action potentials from digital nerve. A statistical model was used to assess the influence of three variables (repair type, nerve gap distance, and time...... to earliest muscle reinnervation) on the final recovery of the outcome measures. Nerve gap distance and the repair type, individually and concertedly, strongly influenced the time to earliest muscle reinnervation, and only time to reinnervation was significant when all three variables were included as outcome...

  17. Suprascapular nerve entrapment in newsreel cameramen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karataş, Gülçin Kaymak; Göğüş, Feride

    2003-03-01

    To determine presence of suprascapular nerve entrapment in a group of newsreel cameramen. Thirty-six men working as newsreel cameramen participated in the study. In addition to musculoskeletal and neurologic examinations, bilateral suprascapular nerve conduction studies and needle electromyography were performed. A group of 19 healthy, male volunteers were included in the study as normal controls for suprascapular nerve conduction studies. In newsreel cameramen, mean suprascapular nerve latency was 3.20 +/- 0.56 msec and 2.84 +/- 0.36 msec for right and left shoulders, respectively (P = 0.001). The mean latency difference between right and left suprascapular nerves was -0.05 +/- 0.19 msec in the control group and 0.36 +/- 0.58 msec in the cameramen group (P mobile camera on the shoulder might cause suprascapular nerve entrapment in newsreel cameramen. This could be considered an occupational disorder of the suprascapular nerve, like meat-packer's neuropathy.

  18. Infraorbital nerve block within the Pterygopalatine fossa of the horse: anatomical landmarks defined by computed tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carsten, S.; Hagen, G.

    2008-01-01

    In order to provide anaesthesia of the equine maxillary cheek teeth, a local nerve block of the infraorbital nerve in the pterygopalatine fossa had been proposed, which is referred to as the 'Palatine Bone Insertion' (PBI). As several complications with this method were reported, our study was designed to recommend a modified injection technique which avoids the risk of puncturing of relevant anatomical structures. Five cadaver heads and two living horses were examined by contrast medium injections and subsequent computed tomography (CT). Spinal needles were inserted using two different insertion techniques: The above mentioned (PBI), and a modification called 'Extraperiorbital Fat Body Insertion' (EFBI). Both techniques (PBI and EFBI) provide a consistent distribution of contrast medium around the infraorbital nerve. However, only the EFBI technique is appropriate to minimize the risk of complications. This study is an example for the permanent challenge of anatomists to supply a basis for clinical and surgical procedures

  19. The influence of L-acetylcarnitine on reinnervation of the oculomotor nerve.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pettorossi, V E; Draicchio, F; Fernandez, E; Pallini, R

    1993-01-01

    In guinea-pigs the oral administration of L-acetylcarnitine (L-AC) markedly favours the process of reinnervation of the oculomotor nerve sectioned at intracranial level. The gains of the horizontal and vertical vestibulo-ocular reflexes (HVOR, VVOR) were taken into consideration in testing the functional recovery of the nerve. As a consequence of the drug administration, 24 weeks after the operation the gains of the treated animals were higher than those of the controls. Reduction of misalignments of the stimulus-response orientation was also observed in treated animals as compared to the controls. This suggests that L-AC potentiates motor reinnervation by enhancing the nerve-growing processes and favouring a better consolidation of the appropriate neuromuscular synapses. The increased gain, and the improvement of the alignment in ocular responses, due to L-AC would allow for an increase of visual function during head movement by optimizing gaze stability.

  20. Primary neurolymphomatosis of the lower cranial nerves presenting as Dysphagia and hoarseness: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakai, Naoto; Ito-Yamashita, Tae; Takahashi, Goro; Baba, Satoshi; Koizumi, Shinichiro; Yamasaki, Tomohiro; Tokuyama, Tsutomu; Namba, Hiroki

    2014-08-01

    Primary neurolymphomatosis is an extremely rare tumor. We report the case of a 74-year-old patient presenting with dysphagia and hoarseness. Initial contrast-enhanced computed tomography of the head, neck, and chest did not reveal any lesions. His symptoms improved with short-term administration of prednisone but recurred and deteriorated. Magnetic resonance (MR) imaging revealed a tumor along the ninth and tenth cranial nerves across the jugular foramen. Fluorine-18 fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography indicated this was a primary tumor. Repeated MR imaging after 2 months revealed considerable tumor enlargement. A left suboccipital craniotomy was performed to remove the tumor that infiltrated the ninth and tenth cranial nerves. The histopathologic diagnosis was diffuse large B-cell lymphoma. Although focal radiation therapy was administered to ensure complete eradication of the tumor, the patient died of aspiration pneumonia with systemic metastasis. To our knowledge, this is the first reported case of primary neurolymphomatosis in the lower cranial nerves.

  1. Linking topography to tonotopy in the mouse auditory thalamocortical circuit

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hackett, Troy A; Rinaldi Barkat, Tania; O'Brien, Barbara M J

    2011-01-01

    The mouse sensory neocortex is reported to lack several hallmark features of topographic organization such as ocular dominance and orientation columns in primary visual cortex or fine-scale tonotopy in primary auditory cortex (AI). Here, we re-examined the question of auditory functional topography...... the tonotopic axis in the slice produced an orderly shift of voltage-sensitive dye (VSD) signals along the AI tonotopic axis, demonstrating topography in the mouse thalamocortical circuit that is preserved in the slice. However, compared with BF maps of neuronal spiking activity, the topographic order...... of subthreshold VSD maps was reduced in layer IV and even further degraded in layer II/III. Therefore, the precision of AI topography varies according to the source and layer of the mapping signal. Our findings further bridge the gap between in vivo and in vitro approaches for the detailed cellular study...

  2. On in-vivo skin topography metrology and replication techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosen, B-G; Blunt, L; Thomas, T R

    2005-01-01

    Human skin metrology is an area of growing interest for many disciplines both in research and for commercial purposes. Changes in the skin topography are an early stage diagnosis tool not only for diseases but also give indication of the response to medical and cosmetic treatment. This paper focuses on the evaluation of in vivo and in vitro methodologies for accurate measurements of skin and outlines the quantitative characterisation of the skin topography. The study shows the applicability of in-vivo skin topography characterisation and also the advantages and limitations compared to conventional replication techniques. Finally, aspects of stripe projection methodology and 3D characterisation are discussed as a background to the proposed methodology in this paper

  3. Crystal quality analysis and improvement using x-ray topography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maj, J.; Goetze, K.; Macrander, A.; Zhong, Y.; Huang, X.; Maj, L.

    2008-01-01

    The Topography X-ray Laboratory of the Advanced Photon Source (APS) at Argonne National Laboratory operates as a collaborative effort with APS users to produce high performance crystals for APS X-ray beamline experiments. For many years the topography laboratory has worked closely with an on-site optics shop to help ensure the production of crystals with the highest quality, most stress-free surface finish possible. It has been instrumental in evaluating and refining methods used to produce high quality crystals. Topographical analysis has shown to be an effective method to quantify and determine the distribution of stresses, to help identify methods that would mitigate the stresses and improve the Rocking curve, and to create CCD images of the crystal. This paper describes the topography process and offers methods for reducing crystal stresses in order to substantially improve the crystal optics.

  4. Complement components of nerve regeneration conditioned fluid influence the microenvironment of nerve regeneration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guang-shuai Li

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Nerve regeneration conditioned fluid is secreted by nerve stumps inside a nerve regeneration chamber. A better understanding of the proteinogram of nerve regeneration conditioned fluid can provide evidence for studying the role of the microenvironment in peripheral nerve regeneration. In this study, we used cylindrical silicone tubes as the nerve regeneration chamber model for the repair of injured rat sciatic nerve. Isobaric tags for relative and absolute quantitation proteomics technology and western blot analysis confirmed that there were more than 10 complement components (complement factor I, C1q-A, C1q-B, C2, C3, C4, C5, C7, C8ß and complement factor D in the nerve regeneration conditioned fluid and each varied at different time points. These findings suggest that all these complement components have a functional role in nerve regeneration.

  5. Preliminary study of ergonomic behavior during simulated ultrasound-guided regional anesthesia using a head-mounted display.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Udani, Ankeet D; Harrison, T Kyle; Howard, Steven K; Kim, T Edward; Brock-Utne, John G; Gaba, David M; Mariano, Edward R

    2012-08-01

    A head-mounted display provides continuous real-time imaging within the practitioner's visual field. We evaluated the feasibility of using head-mounted display technology to improve ergonomics in ultrasound-guided regional anesthesia in a simulated environment. Two anesthesiologists performed an equal number of ultrasound-guided popliteal-sciatic nerve blocks using the head-mounted display on a porcine hindquarter, and an independent observer assessed each practitioner's ergonomics (eg, head turning, arching, eye movements, and needle manipulation) and the overall block quality based on the injectate spread around the target nerve for each procedure. Both practitioners performed their procedures without directly viewing the ultrasound monitor, and neither practitioner showed poor ergonomic behavior. Head-mounted display technology may offer potential advantages during ultrasound-guided regional anesthesia.

  6. Morphology and topography of the external male genital organs of spotted paca (Cuniculus paca Linnaeus, 1766

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Márcia Rita Fernandes Machado

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Spotted paca (Cuniculus paca is a rodent species from the family Cuniculidae, found in South America, from the Orinoco River Basin to Paraguay. Although widely studied with regard to its morphological and reproductive aspects, still there’re no records on the morphology of the male reproductive system in this species. Thus, this study aimed to evaluate not only the macro and microscopic anatomy of the external genital organs in this species, but also their topography. We studied the external genital organs of 10 adult spotted pacas; 5 specimens, fixed in a 10% aqueous formaldehyde solution, were macroscopically studied and from 5 specimens we collected fragments from the reproductive system, for microscopic analysis. The testicles showed a parenchyma structured in seminiferous tubules and the germinal epithelium rested on its basal membrane. These organs were located in the abdominal cavity, the inguinal path, or within the scrotum. Penis, fibroelastic, was located in the pubic region, in caudal direction. Its glans, coated by keratinized epithelium, were covered by the prepuce and, below this, we identified a slender cartilaginous structure with serrated edges. A couple of bone spurs was located into a bag ventral to the urethra, whose mucosa was lined by transitional epithelium. The epididymal duct was balled up in the head, had a body and tail, and its head was lined by pseudo-stratified stereociliated epithelium, and the tail by simple cubic epithelium; from this, the deferent duct stemmed, lined by columnar stratified epithelium.

  7. Delayed peripheral nerve repair: methods, including surgical 'cross-bridging' to promote nerve regeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, Tessa; Eva, Placheta; Borschel, Gregory H

    2015-10-01

    Despite the capacity of Schwann cells to support peripheral nerve regeneration, functional recovery after nerve injuries is frequently poor, especially for proximal injuries that require regenerating axons to grow over long distances to reinnervate distal targets. Nerve transfers, where small fascicles from an adjacent intact nerve are coapted to the nerve stump of a nearby denervated muscle, allow for functional return but at the expense of reduced numbers of innervating nerves. A 1-hour period of 20 Hz electrical nerve stimulation via electrodes proximal to an injury site accelerates axon outgrowth to hasten target reinnervation in rats and humans, even after delayed surgery. A novel strategy of enticing donor axons from an otherwise intact nerve to grow through small nerve grafts (cross-bridges) into a denervated nerve stump, promotes improved axon regeneration after delayed nerve repair. The efficacy of this technique has been demonstrated in a rat model and is now in clinical use in patients undergoing cross-face nerve grafting for facial paralysis. In conclusion, brief electrical stimulation, combined with the surgical technique of promoting the regeneration of some donor axons to 'protect' chronically denervated Schwann cells, improves nerve regeneration and, in turn, functional outcomes in the management of peripheral nerve injuries.

  8. Delayed peripheral nerve repair: methods, including surgical ′cross-bridging′ to promote nerve regeneration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tessa Gordon

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Despite the capacity of Schwann cells to support peripheral nerve regeneration, functional recovery after nerve injuries is frequently poor, especially for proximal injuries that require regenerating axons to grow over long distances to reinnervate distal targets. Nerve transfers, where small fascicles from an adjacent intact nerve are coapted to the nerve stump of a nearby denervated muscle, allow for functional return but at the expense of reduced numbers of innervating nerves. A 1-hour period of 20 Hz electrical nerve stimulation via electrodes proximal to an injury site accelerates axon outgrowth to hasten target reinnervation in rats and humans, even after delayed surgery. A novel strategy of enticing donor axons from an otherwise intact nerve to grow through small nerve grafts (cross-bridges into a denervated nerve stump, promotes improved axon regeneration after delayed nerve repair. The efficacy of this technique has been demonstrated in a rat model and is now in clinical use in patients undergoing cross-face nerve grafting for facial paralysis. In conclusion, brief electrical stimulation, combined with the surgical technique of promoting the regeneration of some donor axons to ′protect′ chronically denervated Schwann cells, improves nerve regeneration and, in turn, functional outcomes in the management of peripheral nerve injuries.

  9. The longitudinal epineural incision and complete nerve transection method for modeling sciatic nerve injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xing-long Cheng

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Injury severity, operative technique and nerve regeneration are important factors to consider when constructing a model of peripheral nerve injury. Here, we present a novel peripheral nerve injury model and compare it with the complete sciatic nerve transection method. In the experimental group, under a microscope, a 3-mm longitudinal incision was made in the epineurium of the sciatic nerve to reveal the nerve fibers, which were then transected. The small, longitudinal incision in the epineurium was then sutured closed, requiring no stump anastomosis. In the control group, the sciatic nerve was completely transected, and the epineurium was repaired by anastomosis. At 2 and 4 weeks after surgery, Wallerian degeneration was observed in both groups. In the experimental group, at 8 and 12 weeks after surgery, distinct medullary nerve fibers and axons were observed in the injured sciatic nerve. Regular, dense myelin sheaths were visible, as well as some scarring. By 12 weeks, the myelin sheaths were normal and intact, and a tight lamellar structure was observed. Functionally, limb movement and nerve conduction recovered in the injured region between 4 and 12 weeks. The present results demonstrate that longitudinal epineural incision with nerve transection can stably replicate a model of Sunderland grade IV peripheral nerve injury. Compared with the complete sciatic nerve transection model, our method reduced the difficulties of micromanipulation and surgery time, and resulted in good stump restoration, nerve regeneration, and functional recovery.

  10. The role of great auricular-facial nerve neurorrhaphy in facial nerve damage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Yan; Liu, Limei; Han, Yuechen; Xu, Lei; Zhang, Daogong; Wang, Haibo

    2015-01-01

    Facial nerve is easy to be damaged, and there are many reconstructive methods for facial nerve reconstructive, such as facial nerve end to end anastomosis, the great auricular nerve graft, the sural nerve graft, or hypoglossal-facial nerve anastomosis. However, there is still little study about great auricular-facial nerve neurorrhaphy. The aim of the present study was to identify the role of great auricular-facial nerve neurorrhaphy and the mechanism. Rat models of facial nerve cut (FC), facial nerve end to end anastomosis (FF), facial-great auricular neurorrhaphy (FG), and control (Ctrl) were established. Apex nasi amesiality observation, electrophysiology and immunofluorescence assays were employed to investigate the function and mechanism. In apex nasi amesiality observation, it was found apex nasi amesiality of FG group was partly recovered. Additionally, electrophysiology and immunofluorescence assays revealed that facial-great auricular neurorrhaphy could transfer nerve impulse and express AChR which was better than facial nerve cut and worse than facial nerve end to end anastomosis. The present study indicated that great auricular-facial nerve neurorrhaphy is a substantial solution for facial lesion repair, as it is efficiently preventing facial muscles atrophy by generating neurotransmitter like ACh.

  11. Future Perspectives in the Management of Nerve Injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackinnon, Susan E

    2018-04-01

     The author presents a solicited "white paper" outlining her perspective on the role of nerve transfers in the management of nerve injuries.  PubMed/MEDLINE and EMBASE databases were evaluated to compare nerve graft and nerve transfer. An evaluation of the scientific literature by review of index articles was also performed to compare the number of overall clinical publications of nerve repair, nerve graft, and nerve transfer. Finally, a survey regarding the prevalence of nerve transfer surgery was administrated to the World Society of Reconstructive Microsurgery (WSRM) results.  Both nerve graft and transfer can generate functional results and the relative success of graft versus transfer depended on the function to be restored and the specific transfers used. Beginning in the early 1990s, there has been a rapid increase from baseline of nerve transfer publications such that clinical nerve transfer publication now exceeds those of nerve repair or nerve graft. Sixty-two responses were received from WSRM membership. These surgeons reported their frequency of "usually or always using nerve transfers for repairing brachial plexus injuries as 68%, radial nerves as 27%, median as 25%, and ulnar as 33%. They reported using nerve transfers" sometimes for brachial plexus 18%, radial nerve 30%, median nerve 34%, ulnar nerve 35%.  Taken together this evidence suggests that nerve transfers do offer an alternative technique along with tendon transfers, nerve repair, and nerve grafts. Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.

  12. Spray-coatable negative photoresist for high topography MEMS applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arnold, Markus; Haas, Sven; Schwenzer, Falk; Schwenzer, Gunther; Reuter, Danny; Geßner, Thomas; Voigt, Anja; Gruetzner, Gabi

    2017-01-01

    In microsystem technology, the lithographical processing of substrates with a topography is very important. Interconnecting lines, which are routed over sloped topography sidewalls from the top of the protecting wafer to the contact pads of the device wafer, are one example of patterning over a topography. For structuring such circuit paths, a photolithography process, and therefore a process for homogeneous photoresist coating, is required. The most flexible and advantageous way of depositing a homogeneous photoresist film over structures with high topography steps is spray-coating. As a pattern transfer process for circuit paths in cavities, the lift-off process is widely used. A negative resist, like ma-N (MRT) or AZnLOF (AZ) is favoured for lift-off processes due to the existing negative angle of the sidewalls. Only a few sprayable negative photoresists are commercially available. In this paper, the development of a novel negative resist spray-coating based on a commercially available single-layer lift-off resist for spin-coating, especially for the patterning of structures inside the cavity and on the cavity wall, is presented. A variety of parameters influences the spray-coating process, and therefore the patterning results. Besides the spray-coating tool and the parameters, the composition of the resist solution itself also influences the coating results. For homogeneous resist coverage over the topography of the substrate, different solvent combinations for diluting the resist solution, different chuck temperatures during the coating process, and also the softbake conditions, are all investigated. The solvent formulations and the process conditions are optimized with respect to the homogeneity of the resist coverage on the top edge of the cavities. Finally, the developed spray-coating process, the resist material and the process stability are demonstrated by the following applications: (i) lift-off, (ii) electroplating, (iii) the wet and (iv) the dry

  13. Effects of Topography-driven Micro-climatology on Evaporation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, D. D.; Boll, J.; Wagenbrenner, N. S.

    2017-12-01

    The effects of spatial-temporal variation of climatic conditions on evaporation in micro-climates are not well defined. Current spatially-based remote sensing and modeling for evaporation is limited for high resolutions and complex topographies. We investigated the effect of topography-driven micro-climatology on evaporation supported by field measurements and modeling. Fourteen anemometers and thermometers were installed in intersecting transects over the complex topography of the Cook Agronomy Farm, Pullman, WA. WindNinja was used to create 2-D vector maps based on recorded observations for wind. Spatial analysis of vector maps using ArcGIS was performed for analysis of wind patterns and variation. Based on field measurements, wind speed and direction show consequential variability based on hill-slope location in this complex topography. Wind speed and wind direction varied up to threefold and more than 45 degrees, respectively for a given time interval. The use of existing wind models enables prediction of wind variability over the landscape and subsequently topography-driven evaporation patterns relative to wind. The magnitude of the spatial-temporal variability of wind therefore resulted in variable evaporation rates over the landscape. These variations may contribute to uneven crop development patterns observed during the late growth stages of the agricultural crops at the study location. Use of hill-slope location indexes and appropriate methods for estimating actual evaporation support development of methodologies to better define topography-driven heterogeneity in evaporation. The cumulative effects of spatially-variable climatic factors on evaporation are important to quantify the localized water balance and inform precision farming practices.

  14. Computed Tomography (CT) -- Head

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Physician Resources Professions Site Index A-Z Computed Tomography (CT) - Head Computed tomography (CT) of the head uses special x-ray equipment ... story here Images × Image Gallery Patient undergoing computed tomography (CT) scan. View full size with caption Pediatric Content ...

  15. Computed Tomography (CT) -- Head

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Computed tomography (CT) of the head uses special x-ray equipment to help assess head injuries, severe headaches, ... is a diagnostic medical test that, like traditional x-rays, produces multiple images or pictures of the inside ...

  16. Different ways to handle topography in practical geoid determination

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahl, O.C.; Forsberg, René

    1999-01-01

    In this paper two different methods of how to handle topography in geoid determination is investigated. First method employs the Residual Terrain Model (RTM) remove-restore technique and yields the quasigeoid, whereas the second method is the classical Helmert condensation method, yielding...... the topography was represented by either a detailed (100 m) or a coarse (1000 m) digital terrain model. The inclusion of bathymetry in the terrain model was also investigated. Even if two different methods were used, they produced almost identical results at the 5 cm level in the mountains, but small systematic...

  17. Airborne Instrument Simulator for the Lidar Surface Topography (LIST) Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Anthony W.; Krainak, Michael A.; Harding, David J.; Abshire, James B.; Sun, Xiaoli; Cavanaugh, John; Valett, Susan; Ramos-Izquierdo, Luis

    2010-01-01

    In 2007, the National Research Council (NRC) completed its first decadal survey for Earth science at the request of NASA, NOAA, and USGS. The Lidar Surface Topography (LIST) mission is one of fifteen missions recommended by NRC, whose primary objectives are to map global topography and vegetation structure at 5 m spatial resolution, and to acquire global coverage with a few years. NASA Goddard conducted an initial mission concept study for the LIST mission 2007, and developed the initial measurement requirements for the mission.

  18. Topography measurements and applications in ballistics and tool mark identifications*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vorburger, T V; Song, J; Petraco, N

    2016-01-01

    The application of surface topography measurement methods to the field of firearm and toolmark analysis is fairly new. The field has been boosted by the development of a number of competing optical methods, which has improved the speed and accuracy of surface topography acquisitions. We describe here some of these measurement methods as well as several analytical methods for assessing similarities and differences among pairs of surfaces. We also provide a few examples of research results to identify cartridge cases originating from the same firearm or tool marks produced by the same tool. Physical standards and issues of traceability are also discussed. PMID:27182440

  19. Airborne Lidar Simulator for the Lidar Surface Topography (LIST) Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Anthony W.; Krainak, Michael A.; Abshire, James B.; Cavanaugh, John; Valett, Susan; Ramos-Izquierdo, Luis

    2010-01-01

    In 2007, the National Research Council (NRC) completed its first decadal survey for Earth science at the request of NASA, NOAA, and USGS. The Lidar Surface Topography (LIST) mission is one of fifteen missions recommended by NRC, whose primary objectives are to map global topography and vegetation structure at 5 m spatial resolution, and to acquire global surface height mapping within a few years. NASA Goddard conducted an initial mission concept study for the LIST mission in 2007, and developed the initial measurement requirements for the mission.

  20. Influence of topography on landscape radiation temperature distribution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Florinsky, I.V.; Kulagina, T.B.; Meshalkina, J.L.

    1994-01-01

    The evaluation of the influence of topography on landscape radiation temperature distribution is carried out by statistical processing of digital models of elevation, gradient, aspect, horizontal, vertical and mean land surface curvatures and the infrared thermal scene generated by the Thermovision 880 system. Significant linear correlation coefficients between the landscape radiation temperature and elevation, slope, aspect, vertical and mean landsurface curvatures are determined, being —0-57, 0 38, 0-26, 015, 013, respectively. The equation of the topography influence on the distribution of the landscape radiation temperature is defined. (author)

  1. Venus gravity and topography: 60th degree and order model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konopliv, A. S.; Borderies, N. J.; Chodas, P. W.; Christensen, E. J.; Sjogren, W. L.; Williams, B. G.; Balmino, G.; Barriot, J. P.

    1993-01-01

    We have combined the most recent Pioneer Venus Orbiter (PVO) and Magellan (MGN) data with the earlier 1978-1982 PVO data set to obtain a new 60th degree and order spherical harmonic gravity model and a 120th degree and order spherical harmonic topography model. Free-air gravity maps are shown over regions where the most marked improvement has been obtained (Ishtar-Terra, Alpha, Bell and Artemis). Gravity versus topography relationships are presented as correlations per degree and axes orientation.

  2. Venus gravity anomalies and their correlations with topography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sjogren, W. L.; Bills, B. G.; Birkeland, P. W.; Esposito, P. B.; Konopliv, A. R.; Mottinger, N. A.; Ritke, S. J.; Phillips, R. J.

    1983-01-01

    This report provides a summary of the high-resolution gravity data obtained from the Pioneer Venus Orbiter radio tracking data. Gravity maps, covering a 70 deg latitude band through 360 deg of longitude, are displayed as line-of-sight and vertical gravity. Topography converted to gravity and Bouguer gravity maps are also shown in both systems. Topography to gravity ratios are made over several regions of the planet. There are markedly different ratios for the Aphrodite area as compared to the Beta and Atla areas.

  3. The Effects of Micro- and Nano-Topography on Cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kolind, Kristian

    2013-01-01

    the effect of topography on cells has received much attention understanding how important this is for the rational design of bio-interfaces. Nevertheless, there is still a limited understanding of the effect of topography on cells making it impossible to tailor a biomaterial with specific cellular activity......Cells continuously make decisions on what proteins to express, and when to divide, differentiate and commit suicide, through a complex network of intracellular processes. The signals that determine the cellular processes reside within the extracellular matrix. They involve soluble signaling...

  4. Reactor head shielding apparatus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schukei, G.E.; Roebelen, G.J.

    1992-01-01

    This patent describes a nuclear reactor head shielding apparatus for mounting on spaced reactor head lifting members radially inwardly of the head bolts. It comprises a frame of sections for mounting on the lifting members and extending around the top central area of the head, mounting means for so mounting the frame sections, including downwardly projecting members on the frame sections and complementary upwardly open recessed members for fastening to the lifting members for receiving the downwardly projecting members when the frame sections are lowered thereto with lead shielding supported thereby on means for hanging lead shielding on the frame to minimize radiation exposure or personnel working with the head bolts or in the vicinity thereof

  5. Large Extremity Peripheral Nerve Repair

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-12-01

    LM, de Crombrugghe B. Some recent advances in the chemistry and biology of trans- forming growth factor-beta. J Cell Biol 1987;105:1039e45. 12. Hao Y...SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES 14. ABSTRACT In current war trauma, 20-30% of all extremity injuries and >80% of penetrating injuries being associated with peripheral nerve...through both axonal advance and in revascularization of the graft following placement. We are confident that this technology may allow us to

  6. Large Extremity Peripheral Nerve Repair

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-12-01

    this (Figure 14). Task 2g . Decision on wrap/fixation method for AvanceΤΜ nerve graft studies in rodent model. (Month 16, All PI’s) This decision...completed 3g . Preparation of manuscript based on Task 3 studies and evaluation for recommendation for human studies. This final task will be...significantly reduced mean hospital stay, dressings changes, mean time to epithelialisation, reduced pain, increased mobility . Patient and surgeon 666 N

  7. Mastoid bone fracture presenting as unusual delayed onset of facial nerve palsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Ko-Chiang; Wang, Ann-Ching; Chen, Shyi-Jou

    2008-03-01

    Delayed-onset facial nerve paralysis is a rather uncommon complication of a mastoid bone fracture for children younger than 10 years. We routinely arrange a cranial computed tomography (CT) for patients encountering initial loss of consciousness, severe headache, intractable vomiting, and/or any neurologic deficit arising from trauma to the head. However, minor symptomatic cranial nerve damage may be missed and the presenting symptom diagnosed as being a peripheral nerve problem. Herein, we report a case of a young boy who presented at our emergency department (ED) 3 days subsequent to his accident, complaining of hearing loss in the right ear and paralysis of the ipsilateral face. Unpredictably, we observed his cranial CT scan revealing a linear fracture of the skull over the right temporal bone involving the right mastoid air cells. The patient was treated conservatively and recovered well without any adverse neurologic consequences. We emphasize that ED physicians should arrange a cranial CT scan for a head-injured child with symptomatic facial nerve palsy, even if there are no symptoms such as severe headache, vomiting, Battle sign, and/or initial loss of consciousness.

  8. Hip hemiarthroplasty using major lower limb nerve blocks: A preliminary report of a case series

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taha, Ahmad Muhammad; Ghoneim, Mohammed Abd-Elfttah

    2014-01-01

    Background: Major lower limb nerve blocks are relatively safe techniques. However, their efficacy for hip hemiarthroplasty is unknown. The objective of this study was to determine the effectiveness of combined femoral, sciatic, obturator and lateral femoral cutaneous (LFC) nerve blocks in providing adequate anesthesia for hip hemiarthroplasty. Materials and Methods: A total of 20 patients with fracture neck femur; who underwent hip hemiarthroplasty, participated in this observational study. In the induction room, all patients received ultrasound-guided femoral, proximal obturator, LFC and parasacral sciatic nerve blocks in addition to local infiltration at the proximal site of the skin incision. Anesthesia was considered to be adequate only if the surgery was completed without any requirement for opioid administration. Results: All patients (100% [95% confidence interval, 86-100%]) had adequate anesthesia. Seventeen patients (85% [95% confidence interval, 63-96%] had mild discomfort during the reduction of the prosthetic femur head back into the hip socket; however, no supplementary analgesics were required. Conclusion: The combined femoral, sciatic, obturator and LFC nerve blocks in addition to local infiltration at the proximal site of skin incision could provide adequate anesthesia for hip hemiarthroplasty. Light sedation before reduction of the prosthetic femur head back into the hip socket is advisable. PMID:25191186

  9. Trigeminal neuralgia and facial nerve paralysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borges, Alexandra [IPOFG, Department of Radiology, Lisbon (Portugal)

    2005-03-01

    The trigeminal nerve is the largest of the cranial nerves. It provides sensory input from the face and motor innervation to the muscles of mastication. The facial nerve is the cranial nerve with the longest extracranial course, and its main functions include motor innervation to the muscles of facial expression, sensory control of lacrimation and salivation, control of the stapedial reflex and to carry taste sensation from the anterior two-thirds of the tongue. In order to be able adequately to image and follow the course of these cranial nerves and their main branches, a detailed knowledge of neuroanatomy is required. As we are dealing with very small anatomic structures, high resolution dedicated imaging studies are required to pick up normal and pathologic nerves. Whereas CT is best suited to demonstrate bony neurovascular foramina and canals, MRI is preferred to directly visualize the nerve. It is also the single technique able to detect pathologic processes afflicting the nerve without causing considerable expansion such as is usually the case in certain inflammatory/infectious conditions, perineural spread of malignancies and in very small intrinsic tumours. Because a long course from the brainstem nuclei to the peripheral branches is seen, it is useful to subdivide the nerve in several segments and then tailor the imaging modality and the imaging study to that specific segment. This is particularly true in cases where topographic diagnosis can be used to locate a lesion in the course of these nerves. (orig.)

  10. Peripheral nerve involvement in Bell's palsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. A. Bueri

    1984-12-01

    Full Text Available A group of patients with Bell's palsy were studied in order to disclose the presence of subclinical peripheral nerve involvement. 20 patients, 8 male and 12 female, with recent Bell's palsy as their unique disease were examined, in all cases other causes of polyneuropathy were ruled out. Patients were investigated with CSF examination, facial nerve latencies in the affected and in the sound sides, and maximal motor nerve conduction velocities, as well as motor terminal latencies from the right median and peroneal nerves. CSF laboratory examination was normal in all cases. Facial nerve latencies were abnormal in all patients in the affected side, and they differed significantly from those of control group in the clinically sound side. Half of the patients showed abnormal values in the maximal motor nerve conduction velocities and motor terminal latencies of the right median and peroneal nerves. These results agree with previous reports which have pointed out that other cranial nerves may be affected in Bell's palsy. However, we have found a higher frequency of peripheral nerve involvement in this entity. These findings, support the hypothesis that in some patients Bell's palsy is the component of a more widespread disease, affecting other cranial and peripheral nerves.

  11. Axillary nerve injury associated with sports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sangkook; Saetia, Kriangsak; Saha, Suparna; Kline, David G; Kim, Daniel H

    2011-11-01

    The aim of this retrospective study was to present and investigate axillary nerve injuries associated with sports. This study retrospectively reviewed 26 axillary nerve injuries associated with sports between the years 1985 and 2010. Preoperative status of the axillary nerve was evaluated by using the Louisiana State University Health Science Center (LSUHSC) grading system published by the senior authors. Intraoperative nerve action potential recordings were performed to check nerve conduction and assess the possibility of resection. Neurolysis, suture, and nerve grafts were used for the surgical repair of the injured nerves. In 9 patients with partial loss of function and 3 with complete loss, neurolysis based on nerve action potential recordings was the primary treatment. Two patients with complete loss of function were treated with resection and suturing and 12 with resection and nerve grafting. The minimum follow-up period was 16 months (mean 20 months). The injuries were associated with the following sports: skiing (12 cases), football (5), rugby (2), baseball (2), ice hockey (2), soccer (1), weightlifting (1), and wrestling (1). Functional recovery was excellent. Neurolysis was performed in 9 cases, resulting in an average functional recovery of LSUHSC Grade 4.2. Recovery with graft repairs averaged LSUHSC Grade 3 or better in 11 of 12 cases Surgical repair can restore useful deltoid function in patients with sports-associated axillary nerve injuries, even in cases of severe stretch-contusion injury.

  12. Inferior alveolar nerve block: Alternative technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thangavelu, K; Kannan, R; Kumar, N Senthil

    2012-01-01

    Inferior alveolar nerve block (IANB) is a technique of dental anesthesia, used to produce anesthesia of the mandibular teeth, gingivae of the mandible and lower lip. The conventional IANB is the most commonly used the nerve block technique for achieving local anesthesia for mandibular surgical procedures. In certain cases, however, this nerve block fails, even when performed by the most experienced clinician. Therefore, it would be advantageous to find an alternative simple technique. The objective of this study is to find an alternative inferior alveolar nerve block that has a higher success rate than other routine techniques. To this purpose, a simple painless inferior alveolar nerve block was designed to anesthetize the inferior alveolar nerve. This study was conducted in Oral surgery department of Vinayaka Mission's dental college Salem from May 2009 to May 2011. Five hundred patients between the age of 20 years and 65 years who required extraction of teeth in mandible were included in the study. Out of 500 patients 270 were males and 230 were females. The effectiveness of the IANB was evaluated by using a sharp dental explorer in the regions innervated by the inferior alveolar, lingual, and buccal nerves after 3, 5, and 7 min, respectively. This study concludes that inferior alveolar nerve block is an appropriate alternative nerve block to anesthetize inferior alveolar nerve due to its several advantages.

  13. Trigeminal neuralgia and facial nerve paralysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borges, Alexandra

    2005-01-01

    The trigeminal nerve is the largest of the cranial nerves. It provides sensory input from the face and motor innervation to the muscles of mastication. The facial nerve is the cranial nerve with the longest extracranial course, and its main functions include motor innervation to the muscles of facial expression, sensory control of lacrimation and salivation, control of the stapedial reflex and to carry taste sensation from the anterior two-thirds of the tongue. In order to be able adequately to image and follow the course of these cranial nerves and their main branches, a detailed knowledge of neuroanatomy is required. As we are dealing with very small anatomic structures, high resolution dedicated imaging studies are required to pick up normal and pathologic nerves. Whereas CT is best suited to demonstrate bony neurovascular foramina and canals, MRI is preferred to directly visualize the nerve. It is also the single technique able to detect pathologic processes afflicting the nerve without causing considerable expansion such as is usually the case in certain inflammatory/infectious conditions, perineural spread of malignancies and in very small intrinsic tumours. Because a long course from the brainstem nuclei to the peripheral branches is seen, it is useful to subdivide the nerve in several segments and then tailor the imaging modality and the imaging study to that specific segment. This is particularly true in cases where topographic diagnosis can be used to locate a lesion in the course of these nerves. (orig.)

  14. Mass Casualty Response of a Modern Deployed Head and Neck Surgical Team

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    tures (maxilla, mandible, frontal sinus), and miscellaneous injuries such as a parotid duct injury. Based on review of the operative log, 6 patients...trained to consider subtle head and neck injuries such as facial nerve or parotid duct transection. The flexibility to operate alongside other trauma

  15. Ultrasound of the elbow with emphasis on detailed assessment of ligaments, tendons, and nerves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Maeseneer, Michel; Brigido, Monica Kalume; Antic, Marijana; Lenchik, Leon; Milants, Annemieke; Vereecke, Evie; Jager, Tjeerd; Shahabpour, Maryam

    2015-01-01

    . Slightly more distally the ulnar nerve courses between the two heads of the flexor carpi ulnaris. An accessory muscle, the anconeus epitrochlearis can cover the ulnar nerve at the cubital tunnel, and is easily identified on ultrasound. The radial nerve divides in a superficial sensory branch and a deep motor branch. The motor branch, the posterior interosseous nerve, courses under the arcade of Frohse where it enters the supinator muscle. At the level of the dorsal wrist the posterior interosseous nerve is located at the deep aspect of the extensor tendons. The median nerve may be compressed at various sites, including the lacertus fibrosis, between the pronator teres heads, and the sublimis bridge. These compression sites can be identified with ultrasound

  16. Ultrasound of the elbow with emphasis on detailed assessment of ligaments, tendons, and nerves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Maeseneer, Michel, E-mail: Michel.demaeseneer@uzbrussel.be [Department of Radiology, Universitair Ziekenhuis Brussel, Brussels (Belgium); Brigido, Monica Kalume, E-mail: Mbrigido@med.umich.edu [Department of Radiology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Antic, Marijana, E-mail: Misscroa@gmail.com [Department of Radiology, Universitair Ziekenhuis Brussel, Brussels (Belgium); Lenchik, Leon, E-mail: Llenchik@wakehealth.edu [Department of Radiology, Wake Forest University, Winston-Salem, NC (United States); Milants, Annemieke, E-mail: Annemieke.Milants@gmail.com [Department of Radiology, Universitair Ziekenhuis Brussel, Brussels (Belgium); Vereecke, Evie, E-mail: Evie.Vereecke@kuleuven-kulak.be [Department of Anatomy, KULAK, Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, Campus Kortrijk, Kortrijk (Belgium); Jager, Tjeerd [Aalsters Stedelijk Ziekenhuis, Aalst (Belgium); Shahabpour, Maryam, E-mail: Maryam.Shahabpour@uzbrussel.be [Department of Radiology, Universitair Ziekenhuis Brussel, Brussels (Belgium)

    2015-04-15

    . Slightly more distally the ulnar nerve courses between the two heads of the flexor carpi ulnaris. An accessory muscle, the anconeus epitrochlearis can cover the ulnar nerve at the cubital tunnel, and is easily identified on ultrasound. The radial nerve divides in a superficial sensory branch and a deep motor branch. The motor branch, the posterior interosseous nerve, courses under the arcade of Frohse where it enters the supinator muscle. At the level of the dorsal wrist the posterior interosseous nerve is located at the deep aspect of the extensor tendons. The median nerve may be compressed at various sites, including the lacertus fibrosis, between the pronator teres heads, and the sublimis bridge. These compression sites can be identified with ultrasound.

  17. Oooh, Your Aching Head!

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Development Infections Diseases & Conditions Pregnancy & Baby Nutrition & Fitness Emotions & Behavior School & Family Life First Aid & Safety Doctors & Hospitals ... They also can tighten or go through other changes that stimulate or put ... nerves send a rush of pain messages to your brain, and you end up with ...

  18. Magnetic resonance imaging in the head and neck tumor diagnosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fujimoto, Yasuyuki; Igarashi, Masahito; Miyata, Mamoru; Sonoda, Tetsushi; Miyoshi, Shunji; Hiraide, Fumihisa; Morita, Mamoru; Tanaka, Osamu

    1987-06-01

    MRI (magnetic resonance imaging) is a new diagnostic technique that is being applied to study disease processes that involve the upper aero-digestive tract and cranial nerves of interest to otolaryngologist. Seventy four patients with head and neck tumor were enrolled to study the diagnostic efficacy of MRI in comparison with X-ray computed tomography (X-ray CT). Five cases of head and neck tumors were presented. Characteristic findings of MRI were discussed. T2 weighted images are very useful in the diagnosis of head and neck tumors. Tumors in the areas surrounded by bone tissue were clearly imaged without such artifacts as recognized in X-ray CT. Information from mutiplane imaging, especially from coronal and sagittal sections, made it easier to determine the type and extent of the lesion. High signal linear parts which are in the periphery of the tumor offer important information that no adhesion is present.

  19. Navigation in head and neck oncological surgery: an emerging concept.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gangloff, P; Mastronicola, R; Cortese, S; Phulpin, B; Sergeant, C; Guillemin, F; Eluecque, H; Perrot, C; Dolivet, G

    2011-01-01

    Navigation surgery, initially applied in rhinology, neurosurgery and orthopaedic cases, has been developed over the last twenty years. Surgery based on computed tomography data has become increasingly important in the head and neck region. The technique for hardware fusion between RMI and computed tomography is also becoming more useful. We use such device since 2006 in head and neck carcinologic situation. Navigation allows control of the resection in order to avoid and protect the precise anatomical structures (vessels and nerves). It also guides biopsy and radiofrequency. Therefore, quality of life is much more increased and morbidity is decreased for these patients who undergo major and mutilating head and neck surgery. Here we report the results of 33 navigation procedures performed for 31 patients in our institution.

  20. Diffuse reflectance spectroscopy for optical nerve identification. Preliminary ex vivo results for feedback controlled oral and maxillofacial laser surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stelzle, Florian; Zam, Azhar; Adler, Werner; Douplik, Alexandre; Tangermann-Gerk, Katja; Nkenke, Emeka; Neukam, Friedrich Wilhelm; Schmidt, Michael

    Objective: Laser surgery has many advantages. However, due to a lack of haptic feedback it is accompanied by the risk of iatrogenic nerve damage. The aim of this study was to evaluate the possibilities of optical nerve identification by diffuse reflectance spectroscopy to set the base for a feedback control system to enhance nerve preservation in oral and maxillofacial laser surgery. Materials and Methods: Diffuse reflectance spectra of nerve tissue, skin, mucosa, fat tissue, muscle, cartilage and bone (15120 spectra) of ex vivo pig heads were acquired in the wavelength range of 350-650 nm. Tissue differentiation was performed by principal components analysis (PCA) followed by linear discriminant analysis (LDA). Specificity and sensitivity were calculated by receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis and the area under curve (AUC). Results: Nerve tissue could correctly be identified and differed from skin, mucosa, fat tissue, muscle, cartilage and bone in more than 90% of the cases (AUC results) with a specificity of over 78% and a sensitivity of more than 86%. Conclusion: Nerve tissue can be identified by diffuse reflectance spectroscopy with high precision and reliability. The results may set the base for a feedback system to prevent iatrogenic nerve damage performing oral and maxillofacial laser surgery.