WorldWideScience

Sample records for neq261 surprisingly neq261

  1. Ontological Surprises

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leahu, Lucian

    2016-01-01

    a hybrid approach where machine learning algorithms are used to identify objects as well as connections between them; finally, it argues for remaining open to ontological surprises in machine learning as they may enable the crafting of different relations with and through technologies.......This paper investigates how we might rethink design as the technological crafting of human-machine relations in the context of a machine learning technique called neural networks. It analyzes Google’s Inceptionism project, which uses neural networks for image recognition. The surprising output...

  2. Surprise Trips

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Korn, Matthias; Kawash, Raghid; Andersen, Lisbet Møller

    2010-01-01

    We report on a platform that augments the natural experience of exploration in diverse indoor and outdoor environments. The system builds on the theme of surprises in terms of user expectations and finding points of interest. It utilizes physical icons as representations of users' interests...... and as notification tokens to alert users when they are within proximity of a surprise. To evaluate the concept, we developed mock-ups, a video prototype and conducted a wizard-of-oz user test for a national park in Denmark....

  3. Charming surprise

    CERN Multimedia

    Antonella Del Rosso

    2011-01-01

    The CP violation in charm quarks has always been thought to be extremely small. So, looking at particle decays involving matter and antimatter, the LHCb experiment has recently been surprised to observe that things might be different. Theorists are on the case. The study of the physics of the charm quark was not in the initial plans of the LHCb experiment, whose letter “b” stands for “beauty quark”. However, already one year ago, the Collaboration decided to look into a wider spectrum of processes that involve charm quarks among other things. The LHCb trigger allows a lot of these processes to be selected, and, among them, one has recently shown interesting features. Other experiments at b-factories have already performed the same measurement but this is the first time that it has been possible to achieve such high precision, thanks to the huge amount of data provided by the very high luminosity of the LHC. “We have observed the decay modes of the D0, a pa...

  4. Charming surprise

    CERN Multimedia

    Antonella Del Rosso

    2011-01-01

    The CP violation in charm quarks has always been thought to be extremely small. So, looking at particle decays involving matter and antimatter, the LHCb experiment has recently been surprised to observe that things might be different. Theorists are on the case.   The study of the physics of the charm quark was not in the initial plans of the LHCb experiment, whose letter “b” stands for “beauty quark”. However, already one year ago, the Collaboration decided to look into a wider spectrum of processes that involve charm quarks among other things. The LHCb trigger allows a lot of these processes to be selected, and, among them, one has recently shown interesting features. Other experiments at b-factories have already performed the same measurement but this is the first time that it has been possible to achieve such high precision, thanks to the huge amount of data provided by the very high luminosity of the LHC. “We have observed the decay modes of t...

  5. Surprise, Recipes for Surprise, and Social Influence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loewenstein, Jeffrey

    2018-02-07

    Surprising people can provide an opening for influencing them. Surprises garner attention, are arousing, are memorable, and can prompt shifts in understanding. Less noted is that, as a result, surprises can serve to persuade others by leading them to shifts in attitudes. Furthermore, because stories, pictures, and music can generate surprises and those can be widely shared, surprise can have broad social influence. People also tend to share surprising items with others, as anyone on social media has discovered. This means that in addition to broadcasting surprising information, surprising items can also spread through networks. The joint result is that surprise not only has individual effects on beliefs and attitudes but also collective effects on the content of culture. Items that generate surprise need not be random or accidental. There are predictable methods or recipes for generating surprise. One such recipe is discussed, the repetition-break plot structure, to explore the psychological and social possibilities of examining surprise. Recipes for surprise offer a useful means for understanding how surprise works and offer prospects for harnessing surprise to a wide array of ends. Copyright © 2017 Cognitive Science Society, Inc.

  6. Surprise... Surprise..., An Empirical Investigation on How Surprise is Connected to Customer Satisfaction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. Vanhamme (Joëlle)

    2003-01-01

    textabstractThis research investigates the specific influence of the emotion of surprise on customer transaction-specific satisfaction. Four empirical studies-two field studies (a diary study and a cross section survey) and two experiments-were conducted. The results show that surprise positively

  7. Surprise as a design strategy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ludden, G.D.S.; Schifferstein, H.N.J.; Hekkert, P.P.M.

    2008-01-01

    Imagine yourself queuing for the cashier’s desk in a supermarket. Naturally, you have picked the wrong line, the one that does not seem to move at all. Soon, you get tired of waiting. Now, how would you feel if the cashier suddenly started to sing? Many of us would be surprised and, regardless of

  8. Some Surprising Introductory Physics Facts and Numbers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mallmann, A. James

    2016-01-01

    In the entertainment world, people usually like, and find memorable, novels, short stories, and movies with surprise endings. This suggests that classroom teachers might want to present to their students examples of surprising facts associated with principles of physics. Possible benefits of finding surprising facts about principles of physics are…

  9. The role of surprise in satisfaction judgements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vanhamme, J.; Snelders, H.M.J.J.

    2001-01-01

    Empirical findings suggest that surprise plays an important role in consumer satisfaction, but there is a lack of theory to explain why this is so. The present paper provides explanations for the process through which positive (negative) surprise might enhance (reduce) consumer satisfaction. First,

  10. Climate Change as a Predictable Surprise

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bazerman, M.H.

    2006-01-01

    In this article, I analyze climate change as a 'predictable surprise', an event that leads an organization or nation to react with surprise, despite the fact that the information necessary to anticipate the event and its consequences was available (Bazerman and Watkins, 2004). I then assess the cognitive, organizational, and political reasons why society fails to implement wise strategies to prevent predictable surprises generally and climate change specifically. Finally, I conclude with an outline of a set of response strategies to overcome barriers to change

  11. A toolkit for detecting technical surprise.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trahan, Michael Wayne; Foehse, Mark C.

    2010-10-01

    The detection of a scientific or technological surprise within a secretive country or institute is very difficult. The ability to detect such surprises would allow analysts to identify the capabilities that could be a military or economic threat to national security. Sandia's current approach utilizing ThreatView has been successful in revealing potential technological surprises. However, as data sets become larger, it becomes critical to use algorithms as filters along with the visualization environments. Our two-year LDRD had two primary goals. First, we developed a tool, a Self-Organizing Map (SOM), to extend ThreatView and improve our understanding of the issues involved in working with textual data sets. Second, we developed a toolkit for detecting indicators of technical surprise in textual data sets. Our toolkit has been successfully used to perform technology assessments for the Science & Technology Intelligence (S&TI) program.

  12. Surprise: a belief or an emotion?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mellers, Barbara; Fincher, Katrina; Drummond, Caitlin; Bigony, Michelle

    2013-01-01

    Surprise is a fundamental link between cognition and emotion. It is shaped by cognitive assessments of likelihood, intuition, and superstition, and it in turn shapes hedonic experiences. We examine this connection between cognition and emotion and offer an explanation called decision affect theory. Our theory predicts the affective consequences of mistaken beliefs, such as overconfidence and hindsight. It provides insight about why the pleasure of a gain can loom larger than the pain of a comparable loss. Finally, it explains cross-cultural differences in emotional reactions to surprising events. By changing the nature of the unexpected (from chance to good luck), one can alter the emotional reaction to surprising events. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Viral marketing: the use of surprise

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lindgreen, A.; Vanhamme, J.; Clarke, I.; Flaherty, T.B.

    2005-01-01

    Viral marketing involves consumers passing along a company's marketing message to their friends, family, and colleagues. This chapter reviews viral marketing campaigns and argues that the emotion of surprise often is at work and that this mechanism resembles that of word-of-mouth marketing.

  14. Exploration, Novelty, Surprise and Free Energy Minimisation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philipp eSchwartenbeck

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper reviews recent developments under the free energy principle that introduce a normative perspective on classical economic (utilitarian decision-making based on (active Bayesian inference. It has been suggested that the free energy principle precludes novelty and complexity, because it assumes that biological systems – like ourselves - try to minimise the long-term average of surprise to maintain their homeostasis. However, recent formulations show that minimising surprise leads naturally to concepts such as exploration and novelty bonuses. In this approach, agents infer a policy that minimises surprise by minimising the difference (or relative entropy between likely and desired outcomes, which involves both pursuing the goal-state that has the highest expected utility (often termed ‘exploitation’ and visiting a number of different goal-states (‘exploration’. Crucially, the opportunity to visit new states increases the value of the current state. Casting decision-making problems within a variational framework, therefore, predicts that our behaviour is governed by both the entropy and expected utility of future states. This dissolves any dialectic between minimising surprise and exploration or novelty seeking.

  15. Glial heterotopia of maxilla: A clinical surprise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santosh Kumar Mahalik

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Glial heterotopia is a rare congenital mass lesion which often presents as a clinical surprise. We report a case of extranasal glial heterotopia in a neonate with unusual features. The presentation, management strategy, etiopathogenesis and histopathology of the mass lesion has been reviewed.

  16. Radar Design to Protect Against Surprise

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doerry, Armin W. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2015-02-01

    Technological and doctrinal surprise is about rendering preparations for conflict as irrelevant or ineffective . For a sensor, this means essentially rendering the sensor as irrelevant or ineffective in its ability to help determine truth. Recovery from this sort of surprise is facilitated by flexibility in our own technology and doctrine. For a sensor, this mean s flexibility in its architecture, design, tactics, and the designing organizations ' processes. - 4 - Acknowledgements This report is the result of a n unfunded research and development activity . Sandia National Laboratories is a multi - program laboratory manage d and operated by Sandia Corporation, a wholly owned subsidiary of Lockheed Martin Corporation, for the U.S. Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration under contract DE - AC04 - 94AL85000.

  17. Pupil size tracks perceptual content and surprise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kloosterman, Niels A; Meindertsma, Thomas; van Loon, Anouk M; Lamme, Victor A F; Bonneh, Yoram S; Donner, Tobias H

    2015-04-01

    Changes in pupil size at constant light levels reflect the activity of neuromodulatory brainstem centers that control global brain state. These endogenously driven pupil dynamics can be synchronized with cognitive acts. For example, the pupil dilates during the spontaneous switches of perception of a constant sensory input in bistable perceptual illusions. It is unknown whether this pupil dilation only indicates the occurrence of perceptual switches, or also their content. Here, we measured pupil diameter in human subjects reporting the subjective disappearance and re-appearance of a physically constant visual target surrounded by a moving pattern ('motion-induced blindness' illusion). We show that the pupil dilates during the perceptual switches in the illusion and a stimulus-evoked 'replay' of that illusion. Critically, the switch-related pupil dilation encodes perceptual content, with larger amplitude for disappearance than re-appearance. This difference in pupil response amplitude enables prediction of the type of report (disappearance vs. re-appearance) on individual switches (receiver-operating characteristic: 61%). The amplitude difference is independent of the relative durations of target-visible and target-invisible intervals and subjects' overt behavioral report of the perceptual switches. Further, we show that pupil dilation during the replay also scales with the level of surprise about the timing of switches, but there is no evidence for an interaction between the effects of surprise and perceptual content on the pupil response. Taken together, our results suggest that pupil-linked brain systems track both the content of, and surprise about, perceptual events. © 2015 Federation of European Neuroscience Societies and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. A surprising palmar nevus: A case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rana Rafiei

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Raised palmar or plantar nevus especially in white people is an unusual feature. We present an uncommon palmar compound nevus in a 26-year-old woman with a large diameter (6 mm which had a collaret-shaped margin. In histopathologic evaluation intralymphatic protrusions of nevic nests were noted. This case was surprising to us for these reasons: size, shape, location and histopathology of the lesion. Palmar nevi are usually junctional (flat and below 3 mm diameter and intra lymphatic protrusion or invasion in nevi is an extremely rare phenomenon.

  19. Primary Care Practice: Uncertainty and Surprise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crabtree, Benjamin F.

    I will focus my comments on uncertainty and surprise in primary care practices. I am a medical anthropologist by training, and have been a full-time researcher in family medicine for close to twenty years. In this talk I want to look at primary care practices as complex systems, particularly taking the perspective of translating evidence into practice. I am going to discuss briefly the challenges we have in primary care, and in medicine in general, of translating new evidence into the everyday care of patients. To do this, I will look at two studies that we have conducted on family practices, then think about how practices can be best characterized as complex adaptive systems. Finally, I will focus on the implications of this portrayal for disseminating new knowledge into practice.

  20. Surprises and counterexamples in real function theory

    CERN Document Server

    Rajwade, A R

    2007-01-01

    This book presents a variety of intriguing, surprising and appealing topics and nonroutine theorems in real function theory. It is a reference book to which one can turn for finding that arise while studying or teaching analysis.Chapter 1 is an introduction to algebraic, irrational and transcendental numbers and contains the Cantor ternary set. Chapter 2 contains functions with extraordinary properties; functions that are continuous at each point but differentiable at no point. Chapters 4 and intermediate value property, periodic functions, Rolle's theorem, Taylor's theorem, points of tangents. Chapter 6 discusses sequences and series. It includes the restricted harmonic series, of alternating harmonic series and some number theoretic aspects. In Chapter 7, the infinite peculiar range of convergence is studied. Appendix I deal with some specialized topics. Exercises at the end of chapters and their solutions are provided in Appendix II.This book will be useful for students and teachers alike.

  1. The conceptualization model problem—surprise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bredehoeft, John

    2005-03-01

    The foundation of model analysis is the conceptual model. Surprise is defined as new data that renders the prevailing conceptual model invalid; as defined here it represents a paradigm shift. Limited empirical data indicate that surprises occur in 20-30% of model analyses. These data suggest that groundwater analysts have difficulty selecting the appropriate conceptual model. There is no ready remedy to the conceptual model problem other than (1) to collect as much data as is feasible, using all applicable methods—a complementary data collection methodology can lead to new information that changes the prevailing conceptual model, and (2) for the analyst to remain open to the fact that the conceptual model can change dramatically as more information is collected. In the final analysis, the hydrogeologist makes a subjective decision on the appropriate conceptual model. The conceptualization problem does not render models unusable. The problem introduces an uncertainty that often is not widely recognized. Conceptual model uncertainty is exacerbated in making long-term predictions of system performance. C'est le modèle conceptuel qui se trouve à base d'une analyse sur un modèle. On considère comme une surprise lorsque le modèle est invalidé par des données nouvelles; dans les termes définis ici la surprise est équivalente à un change de paradigme. Des données empiriques limitées indiquent que les surprises apparaissent dans 20 à 30% des analyses effectuées sur les modèles. Ces données suggèrent que l'analyse des eaux souterraines présente des difficultés lorsqu'il s'agit de choisir le modèle conceptuel approprié. Il n'existe pas un autre remède au problème du modèle conceptuel que: (1) rassembler autant des données que possible en utilisant toutes les méthodes applicables—la méthode des données complémentaires peut conduire aux nouvelles informations qui vont changer le modèle conceptuel, et (2) l'analyste doit rester ouvert au fait

  2. X rays and radioactivity: a complete surprise

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radvanyi, P.; Bordry, M.

    1995-01-01

    The discoveries of X rays and of radioactivity came as complete experimental surprises; the physicists, at that time, had no previous hint of a possible structure of atoms. It is difficult now, knowing what we know, to replace ourselves in the spirit, astonishment and questioning of these years, between 1895 and 1903. The nature of X rays was soon hypothesized, but the nature of the rays emitted by uranium, polonium and radium was much more difficult to disentangle, as they were a mixture of different types of radiations. The origin of the energy continuously released in radioactivity remained a complete mystery for a few years. The multiplicity of the radioactive substances became soon a difficult matter: what was real and what was induced ? Isotopy was still far ahead. It appeared that some radioactive substances had ''half-lifes'': were they genuine radioactive elements or was it just a transitory phenomenon ? Henri Becquerel (in 1900) and Pierre and Marie Curie (in 1902) hesitated on the correct answer. Only after Ernest Rutherford and Frederick Soddy established that radioactivity was the transmutation of one element into another, could one understand that a solid element transformed into a gaseous element, which in turn transformed itself into a succession of solid radioactive elements. It was only in 1913 - after the discovery of the atomic nucleus -, through precise measurements of X ray spectra, that Henry Moseley showed that the number of electrons of a given atom - and the charge of its nucleus - was equal to its atomic number in the periodic table. (authors)

  3. X rays and radioactivity: a complete surprise

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Radvanyi, P. [Laboratoire National Saturne, Centre d`Etudes de Saclay, 91 - Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Bordry, M. [Institut du Radium, 75 - Paris (France)

    1995-12-31

    The discoveries of X rays and of radioactivity came as complete experimental surprises; the physicists, at that time, had no previous hint of a possible structure of atoms. It is difficult now, knowing what we know, to replace ourselves in the spirit, astonishment and questioning of these years, between 1895 and 1903. The nature of X rays was soon hypothesized, but the nature of the rays emitted by uranium, polonium and radium was much more difficult to disentangle, as they were a mixture of different types of radiations. The origin of the energy continuously released in radioactivity remained a complete mystery for a few years. The multiplicity of the radioactive substances became soon a difficult matter: what was real and what was induced ? Isotopy was still far ahead. It appeared that some radioactive substances had ``half-lifes``: were they genuine radioactive elements or was it just a transitory phenomenon ? Henri Becquerel (in 1900) and Pierre and Marie Curie (in 1902) hesitated on the correct answer. Only after Ernest Rutherford and Frederick Soddy established that radioactivity was the transmutation of one element into another, could one understand that a solid element transformed into a gaseous element, which in turn transformed itself into a succession of solid radioactive elements. It was only in 1913 - after the discovery of the atomic nucleus -, through precise measurements of X ray spectra, that Henry Moseley showed that the number of electrons of a given atom - and the charge of its nucleus - was equal to its atomic number in the periodic table. (authors).

  4. A Shocking Surprise in Stephan's Quintet

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-01-01

    This false-color composite image of the Stephan's Quintet galaxy cluster clearly shows one of the largest shock waves ever seen (green arc). The wave was produced by one galaxy falling toward another at speeds of more than one million miles per hour. The image is made up of data from NASA's Spitzer Space Telescope and a ground-based telescope in Spain. Four of the five galaxies in this picture are involved in a violent collision, which has already stripped most of the hydrogen gas from the interiors of the galaxies. The centers of the galaxies appear as bright yellow-pink knots inside a blue haze of stars, and the galaxy producing all the turmoil, NGC7318b, is the left of two small bright regions in the middle right of the image. One galaxy, the large spiral at the bottom left of the image, is a foreground object and is not associated with the cluster. The titanic shock wave, larger than our own Milky Way galaxy, was detected by the ground-based telescope using visible-light wavelengths. It consists of hot hydrogen gas. As NGC7318b collides with gas spread throughout the cluster, atoms of hydrogen are heated in the shock wave, producing the green glow. Spitzer pointed its infrared spectrograph at the peak of this shock wave (middle of green glow) to learn more about its inner workings. This instrument breaks light apart into its basic components. Data from the instrument are referred to as spectra and are displayed as curving lines that indicate the amount of light coming at each specific wavelength. The Spitzer spectrum showed a strong infrared signature for incredibly turbulent gas made up of hydrogen molecules. This gas is caused when atoms of hydrogen rapidly pair-up to form molecules in the wake of the shock wave. Molecular hydrogen, unlike atomic hydrogen, gives off most of its energy through vibrations that emit in the infrared. This highly disturbed gas is the most turbulent molecular hydrogen ever seen. Astronomers were surprised not only by the turbulence

  5. Surprise: Dwarf Galaxy Harbors Supermassive Black Hole

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    The surprising discovery of a supermassive black hole in a small nearby galaxy has given astronomers a tantalizing look at how black holes and galaxies may have grown in the early history of the Universe. Finding a black hole a million times more massive than the Sun in a star-forming dwarf galaxy is a strong indication that supermassive black holes formed before the buildup of galaxies, the astronomers said. The galaxy, called Henize 2-10, 30 million light-years from Earth, has been studied for years, and is forming stars very rapidly. Irregularly shaped and about 3,000 light-years across (compared to 100,000 for our own Milky Way), it resembles what scientists think were some of the first galaxies to form in the early Universe. "This galaxy gives us important clues about a very early phase of galaxy evolution that has not been observed before," said Amy Reines, a Ph.D. candidate at the University of Virginia. Supermassive black holes lie at the cores of all "full-sized" galaxies. In the nearby Universe, there is a direct relationship -- a constant ratio -- between the masses of the black holes and that of the central "bulges" of the galaxies, leading them to conclude that the black holes and bulges affected each others' growth. Two years ago, an international team of astronomers found that black holes in young galaxies in the early Universe were more massive than this ratio would indicate. This, they said, was strong evidence that black holes developed before their surrounding galaxies. "Now, we have found a dwarf galaxy with no bulge at all, yet it has a supermassive black hole. This greatly strengthens the case for the black holes developing first, before the galaxy's bulge is formed," Reines said. Reines, along with Gregory Sivakoff and Kelsey Johnson of the University of Virginia and the National Radio Astronomy Observatory (NRAO), and Crystal Brogan of the NRAO, observed Henize 2-10 with the National Science Foundation's Very Large Array radio telescope and

  6. Old Star's "Rebirth" Gives Astronomers Surprises

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-04-01

    Astronomers using the National Science Foundation's Very Large Array (VLA) radio telescope are taking advantage of a once-in-a-lifetime opportunity to watch an old star suddenly stir back into new activity after coming to the end of its normal life. Their surprising results have forced them to change their ideas of how such an old, white dwarf star can re-ignite its nuclear furnace for one final blast of energy. Sakurai's Object Radio/Optical Images of Sakurai's Object: Color image shows nebula ejected thousands of years ago. Contours indicate radio emission. Inset is Hubble Space Telescope image, with contours indicating radio emission; this inset shows just the central part of the region. CREDIT: Hajduk et al., NRAO/AUI/NSF, ESO, StSci, NASA Computer simulations had predicted a series of events that would follow such a re-ignition of fusion reactions, but the star didn't follow the script -- events moved 100 times more quickly than the simulations predicted. "We've now produced a new theoretical model of how this process works, and the VLA observations have provided the first evidence supporting our new model," said Albert Zijlstra, of the University of Manchester in the United Kingdom. Zijlstra and his colleagues presented their findings in the April 8 issue of the journal Science. The astronomers studied a star known as V4334 Sgr, in the constellation Sagittarius. It is better known as "Sakurai's Object," after Japanese amateur astronomer Yukio Sakurai, who discovered it on February 20, 1996, when it suddenly burst into new brightness. At first, astronomers thought the outburst was a common nova explosion, but further study showed that Sakurai's Object was anything but common. The star is an old white dwarf that had run out of hydrogen fuel for nuclear fusion reactions in its core. Astronomers believe that some such stars can undergo a final burst of fusion in a shell of helium that surrounds a core of heavier nuclei such as carbon and oxygen. However, the

  7. The Influence of Negative Surprise on Hedonic Adaptation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Paula Kieling

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available After some time using a product or service, the consumer tends to feel less pleasure with consumption. This reduction of pleasure is known as hedonic adaptation. One of the emotions that interfere in this process is surprise. Based on two experiments, we suggest that negative surprise – differently to positive – influences with the level of pleasure foreseen and experienced by the consumer. Study 1 analyzes the influence of negative (vs. positive surprise on the consumer’s post-purchase hedonic adaptation expectation. Results showed that negative surprise influences the intensity of adaptation, augmenting its strength. Study 2 verifies the influence of negative (vs positive surprise over hedonic adaptation. The findings suggested that negative surprise makes adaptation happen more intensively and faster as time goes by, which brings consequences to companies and consumers in the post-purchase process, such as satisfaction and loyalty.

  8. A Dichotomic Analysis of the Surprise Examination Paradox

    OpenAIRE

    Franceschi, Paul

    2002-01-01

    This paper presents a dichotomic analysis of the surprise examination paradox. In section 1, I analyse the surprise notion in detail. I introduce then in section 2, the distinction between a monist and dichotomic analysis of the paradox. I also present there a dichotomy leading to distinguish two basically and structurally different versions of the paradox, respectively based on a conjoint and a disjoint definition of the surprise. In section 3, I describe the solution to SEP corresponding to...

  9. The Value of Surprising Findings for Research on Marketing

    OpenAIRE

    JS Armstrong

    2004-01-01

    In the work of Armstrong (Journal of Business Research, 2002), I examined empirical research on the scientific process and related these to marketing science. The findings of some studies were surprising. In this reply, I address surprising findings and other issues raised by commentators.

  10. Corrugator Activity Confirms Immediate Negative Affect in Surprise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sascha eTopolinski

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The emotion of surprise entails a complex of immediate responses, such as cognitive interruption, attention allocation to, and more systematic processing of the surprising stimulus. All these processes serve the ultimate function to increase processing depth and thus cognitively master the surprising stimulus. The present account introduces phasic negative affect as the underlying mechanism responsible for these consequences. Surprising stimuli are schema-discrepant and thus entail cognitive disfluency, which elicits immediate negative affect. This affect in turn works like a phasic cognitive tuning switching the current processing mode from more automatic and heuristic to more systematic and reflective processing. Directly testing the initial elicitation of negative affect by suprising events, the present experiment presented high and low surprising neutral trivia statements to N = 28 participants while assessing their spontaneous facial expressions via facial electromyography. High compared to low suprising trivia elicited higher corrugator activity, indicative of negative affect and mental effort, while leaving zygomaticus (positive affect and frontalis (cultural surprise expression activity unaffected. Future research shall investigate the mediating role of negative affect in eliciting surprise-related outcomes.

  11. Managing Uncertainity: Soviet Views on Deception, Surprise, and Control

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hull, Andrew

    1989-01-01

    .... In the first two cases (deception and surprise), the emphasis is on how the Soviets seek to sow uncertainty in the minds of the enemy and how the Soviets then plan to use that uncertainty to gain military advantage...

  12. Dividend announcements reconsidered: Dividend changes versus dividend surprises

    OpenAIRE

    Andres, Christian; Betzer, André; van den Bongard, Inga; Haesner, Christian; Theissen, Erik

    2012-01-01

    This paper reconsiders the issue of share price reactions to dividend announcements. Previous papers rely almost exclusively on a naive dividend model in which the dividend change is used as a proxy for the dividend surprise. We use the difference between the actual dividend and the analyst consensus forecast as obtained from I/B/E/S as a proxy for the dividend surprise. Using data from Germany, we find significant share price reactions after dividend announcements. Once we control for analys...

  13. The Surprise Examination Paradox and the Second Incompleteness Theorem

    OpenAIRE

    Kritchman, Shira; Raz, Ran

    2010-01-01

    We give a new proof for Godel's second incompleteness theorem, based on Kolmogorov complexity, Chaitin's incompleteness theorem, and an argument that resembles the surprise examination paradox. We then go the other way around and suggest that the second incompleteness theorem gives a possible resolution of the surprise examination paradox. Roughly speaking, we argue that the flaw in the derivation of the paradox is that it contains a hidden assumption that one can prove the consistency of the...

  14. An efficient community detection algorithm using greedy surprise maximization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiang, Yawen; Jia, Caiyan; Yu, Jian

    2014-01-01

    Community detection is an important and crucial problem in complex network analysis. Although classical modularity function optimization approaches are widely used for identifying communities, the modularity function (Q) suffers from its resolution limit. Recently, the surprise function (S) was experimentally proved to be better than the Q function. However, up until now, there has been no algorithm available to perform searches to directly determine the maximal surprise values. In this paper, considering the superiority of the S function over the Q function, we propose an efficient community detection algorithm called AGSO (algorithm based on greedy surprise optimization) and its improved version FAGSO (fast-AGSO), which are based on greedy surprise optimization and do not suffer from the resolution limit. In addition, (F)AGSO does not need the number of communities K to be specified in advance. Tests on experimental networks show that (F)AGSO is able to detect optimal partitions in both simple and even more complex networks. Moreover, algorithms based on surprise maximization perform better than those algorithms based on modularity maximization, including Blondel–Guillaume–Lambiotte–Lefebvre (BGLL), Clauset–Newman–Moore (CNM) and the other state-of-the-art algorithms such as Infomap, order statistics local optimization method (OSLOM) and label propagation algorithm (LPA). (paper)

  15. Surprise and Memory as Indices of Concrete Operational Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Achenbach, Thomas M.

    1973-01-01

    Normal and retarded children's use of color, number, length and continuous quantity as attributes of identification was assessed by presenting them with contrived changes in three properties. Surprise and correct memory responses for color preceded those to number, which preceded logical verbal responses to a conventional number-conservation task.…

  16. Effects of surprisal and locality on Danish sentence processing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Balling, Laura Winther; Kizach, Johannes

    2017-01-01

    An eye-tracking experiment in Danish investigates two dominant accounts of sentence processing: locality-based theories that predict a processing advantage for sentences where the distance between the major syntactic heads is minimized, and the surprisal theory which predicts that processing time...

  17. Surprisal analysis and probability matrices for rotational energy transfer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Levine, R.D.; Bernstein, R.B.; Kahana, P.; Procaccia, I.; Upchurch, E.T.

    1976-01-01

    The information-theoretic approach is applied to the analysis of state-to-state rotational energy transfer cross sections. The rotational surprisal is evaluated in the usual way, in terms of the deviance of the cross sections from their reference (''prior'') values. The surprisal is found to be an essentially linear function of the energy transferred. This behavior accounts for the experimentally observed exponential gap law for the hydrogen halide systems. The data base here analyzed (taken from the literature) is largely computational in origin: quantal calculations for the hydrogenic systems H 2 +H, He, Li + ; HD+He; D 2 +H and for the N 2 +Ar system; and classical trajectory results for H 2 +Li + ; D 2 +Li + and N 2 +Ar. The surprisal analysis not only serves to compact a large body of data but also aids in the interpretation of the results. A single surprisal parameter theta/subR/ suffices to account for the (relative) magnitude of all state-to-state inelastic cross sections at a given energy

  18. Things may not be as expected: Surprising findings when updating ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2015-05-14

    May 14, 2015 ... Things may not be as expected: Surprising findings when updating .... (done at the end of three months after the first review month) ..... Allen G. Getting beyond form filling: The role of institutional governance in human research ...

  19. Automation surprise : results of a field survey of Dutch pilots

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Boer, R.J.; Hurts, Karel

    2017-01-01

    Automation surprise (AS) has often been associated with aviation safety incidents. Although numerous laboratory studies have been conducted, few data are available from routine flight operations. A survey among a representative sample of 200 Dutch airline pilots was used to determine the prevalence

  20. Sleeping beauties in theoretical physics 26 surprising insights

    CERN Document Server

    Padmanabhan, Thanu

    2015-01-01

    This book addresses a fascinating set of questions in theoretical physics which will both entertain and enlighten all students, teachers and researchers and other physics aficionados. These range from Newtonian mechanics to quantum field theory and cover several puzzling issues that do not appear in standard textbooks. Some topics cover conceptual conundrums, the solutions to which lead to surprising insights; some correct popular misconceptions in the textbook discussion of certain topics; others illustrate deep connections between apparently unconnected domains of theoretical physics; and a few provide remarkably simple derivations of results which are not often appreciated. The connoisseur of theoretical physics will enjoy a feast of pleasant surprises skilfully prepared by an internationally acclaimed theoretical physicist. Each topic is introduced with proper background discussion and special effort is taken to make the discussion self-contained, clear and comprehensible to anyone with an undergraduate e...

  1. The June surprises: balls, strikes, and the fog of war.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fried, Charles

    2013-04-01

    At first, few constitutional experts took seriously the argument that the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act exceeded Congress's power under the commerce clause. The highly political opinions of two federal district judges - carefully chosen by challenging plaintiffs - of no particular distinction did not shake that confidence that the act was constitutional. This disdain for the challengers' arguments was only confirmed when the act was upheld by two highly respected conservative court of appeals judges in two separate circuits. But after the hostile, even mocking questioning of the government's advocate in the Supreme Court by the five Republican-appointed justices, the expectation was that the act would indeed be struck down on that ground. So it came as no surprise when the five opined the act did indeed exceed Congress's commerce clause power. But it came as a great surprise when Chief Justice John Roberts, joined by the four Democrat-appointed justices, ruled that the act could be sustained as an exercise of Congress's taxing power - a ground urged by the government almost as an afterthought. It was further surprising, even shocking, that Justices Antonin Scalia, Anthony Kennedy, Clarence Thomas, and Samuel Alito not only wrote a joint opinion on the commerce clause virtually identical to that of their chief, but that in writing it they did not refer to or even acknowledge his opinion. Finally surprising was the fact that Justices Ruth Bader Ginsburg and Stephen Breyer joined the chief in holding that aspects of the act's Medicaid expansion were unconstitutional. This essay ponders and tries to unravel some of these puzzles.

  2. ORMS IN SURPRISING PLACES: CLINICAL AND MORPHOLOGICAL FEATURES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Myroshnychenko MS

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Helminthes are the most common human diseases, which are characterized by involvement in the pathological process of all organs and systems. In this article, the authors discuss a few cases of typical and atypical localizations for parasitic worms such as filarial and pinworms which were recovered from surprising places in the bodies of patients in Kharkiv region. This article will allow the doctors of practical health care to pay special attention to the timely prevention and diagnostics of this pathology.

  3. On the surprising rigidity of the Pauli exclusion principle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greenberg, O.W.

    1989-01-01

    I review recent attempts to construct a local quantum field theory of small violations of the Pauli exclusion principle and suggest a qualitative reason for the surprising rigidity of the Pauli principle. I suggest that small violations can occur in our four-dimensional world as a consequence of the compactification of a higher-dimensional theory in which the exclusion principle is exactly valid. I briefly mention a recent experiment which places a severe limit on possible violations of the exclusion principle. (orig.)

  4. Teacher Supply and Demand: Surprises from Primary Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew J. Wayne

    2000-09-01

    Full Text Available An investigation of primary research studies on public school teacher supply and demand revealed four surprises. Projections show that enrollments are leveling off. Relatedly, annual hiring increases should be only about two or three percent over the next few years. Results from studies of teacher attrition also yield unexpected results. Excluding retirements, only about one in 20 teachers leaves each year, and the novice teachers who quit mainly cite personal and family reasons, not job dissatisfaction. Each of these findings broadens policy makers' options for teacher supply.

  5. Estimations of expectedness and potential surprise in possibility theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prade, Henri; Yager, Ronald R.

    1992-01-01

    This note investigates how various ideas of 'expectedness' can be captured in the framework of possibility theory. Particularly, we are interested in trying to introduce estimates of the kind of lack of surprise expressed by people when saying 'I would not be surprised that...' before an event takes place, or by saying 'I knew it' after its realization. In possibility theory, a possibility distribution is supposed to model the relative levels of mutually exclusive alternatives in a set, or equivalently, the alternatives are assumed to be rank-ordered according to their level of possibility to take place. Four basic set-functions associated with a possibility distribution, including standard possibility and necessity measures, are discussed from the point of view of what they estimate when applied to potential events. Extensions of these estimates based on the notions of Q-projection or OWA operators are proposed when only significant parts of the possibility distribution are retained in the evaluation. The case of partially-known possibility distributions is also considered. Some potential applications are outlined.

  6. Physics Nobel prize 2004: Surprising theory wins physics Nobel

    CERN Multimedia

    2004-01-01

    From left to right: David Politzer, David Gross and Frank Wilczek. For their understanding of counter-intuitive aspects of the strong force, which governs quarks inside protons and neutrons, on 5 October three American physicists were awarded the 2004 Nobel Prize in Physics. David J. Gross (Kavli Institute of Theoretical Physics, University of California, Santa Barbara), H. David Politzer (California Institute of Technology), and Frank Wilczek (Massachusetts Institute of Technology) made a key theoretical discovery with a surprising result: the closer quarks are together, the weaker the force - opposite to what is seen with electromagnetism and gravity. Rather, the strong force is analogous to a rubber band stretching, where the force increases as the quarks get farther apart. These physicists discovered this property of quarks, known as asymptotic freedom, in 1976. It later became a key part of the theory of quantum chromodynamics (QCD) and the Standard Model, the current best theory to describe the interac...

  7. Surprises in the suddenly-expanded infinite well

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aslangul, Claude

    2008-01-01

    I study the time evolution of a particle prepared in the ground state of an infinite well after the latter is suddenly expanded. It turns out that the probability density |Ψ(x, t)| 2 shows up quite a surprising behaviour: for definite times, plateaux appear for which |Ψ(x, t)| 2 is constant on finite intervals for x. Elements of theoretical explanation are given by analysing the singular component of the second derivative ∂ xx Ψ(x, t). Analytical closed expressions are obtained for some specific times, which easily allow us to show that, at these times, the density organizes itself into regular patterns provided the size of the box is large enough; more, above some critical size depending on the specific time, the density patterns are independent of the expansion parameter. It is seen how the density at these times simply results from a construction game with definite rules acting on the pieces of the initial density

  8. Hepatobiliary fascioliasis in non-endemic zones: a surprise diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jha, Ashish Kumar; Goenka, Mahesh Kumar; Goenka, Usha; Chakrabarti, Amrita

    2013-03-01

    Fascioliasis is a zoonotic infection caused by Fasciola hepatica. Because of population migration and international food trade, human fascioliasis is being an increasingly recognised entity in nonendemic zones. In most parts of Asia, hepatobiliary fascioliasis is sporadic. Human hepatobiliary infection by this trematode has two distinct phases: an acute hepatic phase and a chronic biliary phase. Hepatobiliary infection is mostly associated with intense peripheral eosinophilia. In addition to classically defined hepatic phase and biliary phase fascioliasis, some cases may have an overlap of these two phases. Chronic liver abscess formation is a rare presentation. We describe a surprise case of hepatobiliary fascioliasis who presented to us with liver abscess without intense peripheral eosinophilia, a rare presentation of human fascioliasis especially in non-endemic zones. Copyright © 2013 Arab Journal of Gastroenterology. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. The Value of Change: Surprises and Insights in Stellar Evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bildsten, Lars

    2018-01-01

    Astronomers with large-format cameras regularly scan the sky many times per night to detect what's changing, and telescopes in space such as Kepler and, soon, TESS obtain very accurate brightness measurements of nearly a million stars over time periods of years. These capabilities, in conjunction with theoretical and computational efforts, have yielded surprises and remarkable new insights into the internal properties of stars and how they end their lives. I will show how asteroseismology reveals the properties of the deep interiors of red giants, and highlight how astrophysical transients may be revealing unusual thermonuclear outcomes from exploding white dwarfs and the births of highly magnetic neutron stars. All the while, stellar science has been accelerated by the availability of open source tools, such as Modules for Experiments in Stellar Astrophysics (MESA), and the nearly immediate availability of observational results.

  10. Exploring the concept of climate surprises. A review of the literature on the concept of surprise and how it is related to climate change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glantz, M.H.; Moore, C.M.; Streets, D.G.; Bhatti, N.; Rosa, C.H.

    1998-01-01

    This report examines the concept of climate surprise and its implications for environmental policymaking. Although most integrated assessment models of climate change deal with average values of change, it is usually the extreme events or surprises that cause the most damage to human health and property. Current models do not help the policymaker decide how to deal with climate surprises. This report examines the literature of surprise in many aspects of human society: psychology, military, health care, humor, agriculture, etc. It draws together various ways to consider the concept of surprise and examines different taxonomies of surprise that have been proposed. In many ways, surprise is revealed to be a subjective concept, triggered by such factors as prior experience, belief system, and level of education. How policymakers have reacted to specific instances of climate change or climate surprise in the past is considered, particularly with regard to the choices they made between proactive and reactive measures. Finally, the report discusses techniques used in the current generation of assessment models and makes suggestions as to how climate surprises might be included in future models. The report concludes that some kinds of surprises are simply unpredictable, but there are several types that could in some way be anticipated and assessed, and their negative effects forestalled

  11. Exploring the concept of climate surprises. A review of the literature on the concept of surprise and how it is related to climate change

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glantz, M.H.; Moore, C.M. [National Center for Atmospheric Research, Boulder, CO (United States); Streets, D.G.; Bhatti, N.; Rosa, C.H. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States). Decision and Information Sciences Div.; Stewart, T.R. [State Univ. of New York, Albany, NY (United States)

    1998-01-01

    This report examines the concept of climate surprise and its implications for environmental policymaking. Although most integrated assessment models of climate change deal with average values of change, it is usually the extreme events or surprises that cause the most damage to human health and property. Current models do not help the policymaker decide how to deal with climate surprises. This report examines the literature of surprise in many aspects of human society: psychology, military, health care, humor, agriculture, etc. It draws together various ways to consider the concept of surprise and examines different taxonomies of surprise that have been proposed. In many ways, surprise is revealed to be a subjective concept, triggered by such factors as prior experience, belief system, and level of education. How policymakers have reacted to specific instances of climate change or climate surprise in the past is considered, particularly with regard to the choices they made between proactive and reactive measures. Finally, the report discusses techniques used in the current generation of assessment models and makes suggestions as to how climate surprises might be included in future models. The report concludes that some kinds of surprises are simply unpredictable, but there are several types that could in some way be anticipated and assessed, and their negative effects forestalled.

  12. Atom Surprise: Using Theatre in Primary Science Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peleg, Ran; Baram-Tsabari, Ayelet

    2011-10-01

    Early exposure to science may have a lifelong effect on children's attitudes towards science and their motivation to learn science in later life. Out-of-class environments can play a significant role in creating favourable attitudes, while contributing to conceptual learning. Educational science theatre is one form of an out-of-class environment, which has received little research attention. This study aims to describe affective and cognitive learning outcomes of watching such a play and to point to connections between theatrical elements and specific outcomes. "Atom Surprise" is a play portraying several concepts on the topic of matter. A mixed methods approach was adopted to investigate the knowledge and attitudes of children (grades 1-6) from two different school settings who watched the play. Data were gathered using questionnaires and in-depth interviews. Analysis suggested that in both schools children's knowledge on the topic of matter increased after the play with younger children gaining more conceptual knowledge than their older peers. In the public school girls showed greater gains in conceptual knowledge than boys. No significant changes in students' general attitudes towards science were found, however, students demonstrated positive changes towards science learning. Theatrical elements that seemed to be important in children's recollection of the play were the narrative, props and stage effects, and characters. In the children's memory, science was intertwined with the theatrical elements. Nonetheless, children could distinguish well between scientific facts and the fictive narrative.

  13. X-rays from comets - a surprising discovery

    CERN Document Server

    CERN. Geneva

    2000-01-01

    Comets are kilometre-size aggregates of ice and dust, which remained from the formation of the solar system. It was not obvious to expect X-ray emission from such objects. Nevertheless, when comet Hyakutake (C/1996 B2) was observed with the ROSAT X-ray satellite during its close approach to Earth in March 1996, bright X-ray emission from this comet was discovered. This finding triggered a search in archival ROSAT data for comets, which might have accidentally crossed the field of view during observations of unrelated targets. To increase the surprise even more, X-ray emission was detected from four additional comets, which were optically 300 to 30 000 times fainter than Hyakutake. For one of them, comet Arai (C/1991 A2), X-ray emission was even found in data which were taken six weeks before the comet was optically discovered. These findings showed that comets represent a new class of celestial X-ray sources. The subsequent detection of X-ray emission from several other comets in dedicated observations confir...

  14. Beyond surprise : A longitudinal study on the experience of visual-tactual incongruities in products

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ludden, G.D.S.; Schifferstein, H.N.J.; Hekkert, P.

    2012-01-01

    When people encounter products with visual-tactual incongruities, they are likely to be surprised because the product feels different than expected. In this paper, we investigate (1) the relationship between surprise and the overall liking of the products, (2) the emotions associated with surprise,

  15. Surprising Incentive: An Instrument for Promoting Safety Performance of Construction Employees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fakhradin Ghasemi

    2015-09-01

    Conclusion: The results of this study proved that the surprising incentive would improve the employees' safety performance just in the short term because the surprising value of the incentives dwindle over time. For this reason and to maintain the surprising value of the incentive system, the amount and types of incentives need to be evaluated and modified annually or biannually.

  16. The Role of Surprise in Game-Based Learning for Mathematics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wouters, Pieter; van Oostendorp, Herre; ter Vrugte, Judith; Vandercruysse, Sylke; de Jong, Anthonius J.M.; Elen, Jan; De Gloria, Alessandro; Veltkamp, Remco

    2016-01-01

    In this paper we investigate the potential of surprise on learning with prevocational students in the domain of proportional reasoning. Surprise involves an emotional reaction, but it also serves a cognitive goal as it directs attention to explain why the surprising event occurred and to learn for

  17. Human amygdala response to dynamic facial expressions of positive and negative surprise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vrticka, Pascal; Lordier, Lara; Bediou, Benoît; Sander, David

    2014-02-01

    Although brain imaging evidence accumulates to suggest that the amygdala plays a key role in the processing of novel stimuli, only little is known about its role in processing expressed novelty conveyed by surprised faces, and even less about possible interactive encoding of novelty and valence. Those investigations that have already probed human amygdala involvement in the processing of surprised facial expressions either used static pictures displaying negative surprise (as contained in fear) or "neutral" surprise, and manipulated valence by contextually priming or subjectively associating static surprise with either negative or positive information. Therefore, it still remains unresolved how the human amygdala differentially processes dynamic surprised facial expressions displaying either positive or negative surprise. Here, we created new artificial dynamic 3-dimensional facial expressions conveying surprise with an intrinsic positive (wonderment) or negative (fear) connotation, but also intrinsic positive (joy) or negative (anxiety) emotions not containing any surprise, in addition to neutral facial displays either containing ("typical surprise" expression) or not containing ("neutral") surprise. Results showed heightened amygdala activity to faces containing positive (vs. negative) surprise, which may either correspond to a specific wonderment effect as such, or to the computation of a negative expected value prediction error. Findings are discussed in the light of data obtained from a closely matched nonsocial lottery task, which revealed overlapping activity within the left amygdala to unexpected positive outcomes. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved.

  18. Stars Form Surprisingly Close to Milky Way's Black Hole

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-10-01

    The supermassive black hole at the center of the Milky Way has surprisingly helped spawn a new generation of stars, according to observations from NASA's Chandra X-ray Observatory. This novel mode of star formation may solve several mysteries about the supermassive black holes that reside at the centers of nearly all galaxies. "Massive black holes are usually known for violence and destruction," said Sergei Nayakshin of the University of Leicester, United Kingdom, and coauthor of a paper on this research in an upcoming issue of the Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society. "So it's remarkable that this black hole helped create new stars, not just destroy them." Black holes have earned their fearsome reputation because any material -- including stars -- that falls within the so-called event horizon is never seen again. However, these new results indicate that the immense disks of gas known to orbit many black holes at a "safe" distance from the event horizon can help nurture the formation of new stars. Animation of Stars Forming Around Black Hole Animation of Stars Forming Around Black Hole This conclusion came from new clues that could only be revealed in X-rays. Until the latest Chandra results, astronomers have disagreed about the origin of a mysterious group of massive stars discovered by infrared astronomers to be orbiting less than a light year from the Milky Way's central black hole, a.k.a. Sagittarius A*, or Sgr A*. At such close distances to Sgr A*, the standard model for star formation predicts that gas clouds from which stars form should have been ripped apart by tidal forces from the black hole. Two models to explain this puzzle have been proposed. In the disk model, the gravity of a dense disk of gas around Sgr A* offsets the tidal forces and allows stars to form; in the migration model, the stars formed in a star cluster far away from the black hole and migrated in to form the ring of massive stars. The migration scenario predicts about a

  19. Carbon Dioxide: Surprising Effects on Decision Making and Neurocognitive Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, John T.

    2013-01-01

    The occupants of modern submarines and the International Space Station (ISS) have much in common as far as their air quality is concerned. Air is polluted by materials offgassing, use of utility compounds, leaks of systems chemicals, and anthropogenic sources. The primary anthropogenic compound of concern to submariners and astronauts has been carbon dioxide (CO2). NASA and the US Navy rely on the National Research Council Committee on Toxicology (NRC-COT) to help formulate exposure levels to CO2 that are thought to be safe for exposures of 3-6 months. NASA calls its limits Spacecraft Maximum Allowable Concentrations (SMACs). Years of experience aboard the ISS and a recent publication on deficits in decision making in ground-based subjects exposed briefly to 0.25% CO2 suggest that exposure levels that have been presumed acceptable to preserve health and performance need to be reevaluated. The current CO2 exposure limits for 3-6 months set by NASA and the UK Navy are 0.7%, and the limit for US submariners is 0.5%, although the NRC-COT recommended a 90-day level of 0.8% as safe a few years ago. NASA has set a 1000-day SMAC at 0.5% for exploration-class missions. Anecdotal experience with ISS operations approaching the current 180-day SMAC of 0.7% suggest that this limit is too high. Temporarily, NASA has limited exposures to 0.5% until further peer-reviewed data become available. In the meantime, a study published last year in the journal Environmental Health Perspectives (Satish U, et al. 2012) demonstrated that complexdecision- making performance is somewhat affected at 0.1% CO2 and becomes "dysfunctional" for at least half of the 9 indices of performance at concentrations approaching 0.25% CO2. The investigators used the Strategic Management Simulation (SMS) method of testing for decisionmaking ability, and the results were so surprising to the investigators that they declared that their findings need to be independently confirmed. NASA has responded to the

  20. Are seismic hazard assessment errors and earthquake surprises unavoidable?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kossobokov, Vladimir

    2013-04-01

    Why earthquake occurrences bring us so many surprises? The answer seems evident if we review the relationships that are commonly used to assess seismic hazard. The time-span of physically reliable Seismic History is yet a small portion of a rupture recurrence cycle at an earthquake-prone site, which makes premature any kind of reliable probabilistic statements about narrowly localized seismic hazard. Moreover, seismic evidences accumulated to-date demonstrate clearly that most of the empirical relations commonly accepted in the early history of instrumental seismology can be proved erroneous when testing statistical significance is applied. Seismic events, including mega-earthquakes, cluster displaying behaviors that are far from independent or periodic. Their distribution in space is possibly fractal, definitely, far from uniform even in a single segment of a fault zone. Such a situation contradicts generally accepted assumptions used for analytically tractable or computer simulations and complicates design of reliable methodologies for realistic earthquake hazard assessment, as well as search and definition of precursory behaviors to be used for forecast/prediction purposes. As a result, the conclusions drawn from such simulations and analyses can MISLEAD TO SCIENTIFICALLY GROUNDLESS APPLICATION, which is unwise and extremely dangerous in assessing expected societal risks and losses. For example, a systematic comparison of the GSHAP peak ground acceleration estimates with those related to actual strong earthquakes, unfortunately, discloses gross inadequacy of this "probabilistic" product, which appears UNACCEPTABLE FOR ANY KIND OF RESPONSIBLE SEISMIC RISK EVALUATION AND KNOWLEDGEABLE DISASTER PREVENTION. The self-evident shortcomings and failures of GSHAP appeals to all earthquake scientists and engineers for an urgent revision of the global seismic hazard maps from the first principles including background methodologies involved, such that there becomes: (a) a

  1. Chandra Finds Surprising Black Hole Activity In Galaxy Cluster

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-09-01

    Scientists at the Carnegie Observatories in Pasadena, California, have uncovered six times the expected number of active, supermassive black holes in a single viewing of a cluster of galaxies, a finding that has profound implications for theories as to how old galaxies fuel the growth of their central black holes. The finding suggests that voracious, central black holes might be as common in old, red galaxies as they are in younger, blue galaxies, a surprise to many astronomers. The team made this discovery with NASA'S Chandra X-ray Observatory. They also used Carnegie's 6.5-meter Walter Baade Telescope at the Las Campanas Observatory in Chile for follow-up optical observations. "This changes our view of galaxy clusters as the retirement homes for old and quiet black holes," said Dr. Paul Martini, lead author on a paper describing the results that appears in the September 10 issue of The Astrophysical Journal Letters. "The question now is, how do these black holes produce bright X-ray sources, similar to what we see from much younger galaxies?" Typical of the black hole phenomenon, the cores of these active galaxies are luminous in X-ray radiation. Yet, they are obscured, and thus essentially undetectable in the radio, infrared and optical wavebands. "X rays can penetrate obscuring gas and dust as easily as they penetrate the soft tissue of the human body to look for broken bones," said co-author Dr. Dan Kelson. "So, with Chandra, we can peer through the dust and we have found that even ancient galaxies with 10-billion-year-old stars can have central black holes still actively pulling in copious amounts of interstellar gas. This activity has simply been hidden from us all this time. This means these galaxies aren't over the hill after all and our theories need to be revised." Scientists say that supermassive black holes -- having the mass of millions to billions of suns squeezed into a region about the size of our Solar System -- are the engines in the cores of

  2. A Neural Mechanism for Surprise-related Interruptions of Visuospatial Working Memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wessel, Jan R

    2018-01-01

    Surprising perceptual events recruit a fronto-basal ganglia mechanism for inhibition, which suppresses motor activity following surprise. A recent study found that this inhibitory mechanism also disrupts the maintenance of verbal working memory (WM) after surprising tones. However, it is unclear whether this same mechanism also relates to surprise-related interruptions of non-verbal WM. We tested this hypothesis using a change-detection task, in which surprising tones impaired visuospatial WM. Participants also performed a stop-signal task (SST). We used independent component analysis and single-trial scalp-electroencephalogram to test whether the same inhibitory mechanism that reflects motor inhibition in the SST relates to surprise-related visuospatial WM decrements, as was the case for verbal WM. As expected, surprising tones elicited activity of the inhibitory mechanism, and this activity correlated strongly with the trial-by-trial level of surprise. However, unlike for verbal WM, the activity of this mechanism was unrelated to visuospatial WM accuracy. Instead, inhibition-independent activity that immediately succeeded the inhibitory mechanism was increased when visuospatial WM was disrupted. This shows that surprise-related interruptions of visuospatial WM are not effected by the same inhibitory mechanism that interrupts verbal WM, and instead provides evidence for a 2-stage model of distraction. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  3. Distinct medial temporal networks encode surprise during motivation by reward versus punishment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murty, Vishnu P.; LaBar, Kevin S.; Adcock, R. Alison

    2016-01-01

    Adaptive motivated behavior requires predictive internal representations of the environment, and surprising events are indications for encoding new representations of the environment. The medial temporal lobe memory system, including the hippocampus and surrounding cortex, encodes surprising events and is influenced by motivational state. Because behavior reflects the goals of an individual, we investigated whether motivational valence (i.e., pursuing rewards versus avoiding punishments) also impacts neural and mnemonic encoding of surprising events. During functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), participants encountered perceptually unexpected events either during the pursuit of rewards or avoidance of punishments. Despite similar levels of motivation across groups, reward and punishment facilitated the processing of surprising events in different medial temporal lobe regions. Whereas during reward motivation, perceptual surprises enhanced activation in the hippocampus, during punishment motivation surprises instead enhanced activation in parahippocampal cortex. Further, we found that reward motivation facilitated hippocampal coupling with ventromedial PFC, whereas punishment motivation facilitated parahippocampal cortical coupling with orbitofrontal cortex. Behaviorally, post-scan testing revealed that reward, but not punishment, motivation resulted in greater memory selectivity for surprising events encountered during goal pursuit. Together these findings demonstrate that neuromodulatory systems engaged by anticipation of reward and punishment target separate components of the medial temporal lobe, modulating medial temporal lobe sensitivity and connectivity. Thus, reward and punishment motivation yield distinct neural contexts for learning, with distinct consequences for how surprises are incorporated into predictive mnemonic models of the environment. PMID:26854903

  4. Distinct medial temporal networks encode surprise during motivation by reward versus punishment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murty, Vishnu P; LaBar, Kevin S; Adcock, R Alison

    2016-10-01

    Adaptive motivated behavior requires predictive internal representations of the environment, and surprising events are indications for encoding new representations of the environment. The medial temporal lobe memory system, including the hippocampus and surrounding cortex, encodes surprising events and is influenced by motivational state. Because behavior reflects the goals of an individual, we investigated whether motivational valence (i.e., pursuing rewards versus avoiding punishments) also impacts neural and mnemonic encoding of surprising events. During functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), participants encountered perceptually unexpected events either during the pursuit of rewards or avoidance of punishments. Despite similar levels of motivation across groups, reward and punishment facilitated the processing of surprising events in different medial temporal lobe regions. Whereas during reward motivation, perceptual surprises enhanced activation in the hippocampus, during punishment motivation surprises instead enhanced activation in parahippocampal cortex. Further, we found that reward motivation facilitated hippocampal coupling with ventromedial PFC, whereas punishment motivation facilitated parahippocampal cortical coupling with orbitofrontal cortex. Behaviorally, post-scan testing revealed that reward, but not punishment, motivation resulted in greater memory selectivity for surprising events encountered during goal pursuit. Together these findings demonstrate that neuromodulatory systems engaged by anticipation of reward and punishment target separate components of the medial temporal lobe, modulating medial temporal lobe sensitivity and connectivity. Thus, reward and punishment motivation yield distinct neural contexts for learning, with distinct consequences for how surprises are incorporated into predictive mnemonic models of the environment. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. A Contrast-Based Computational Model of Surprise and Its Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macedo, Luis; Cardoso, Amílcar

    2017-11-19

    We review our work on a contrast-based computational model of surprise and its applications. The review is contextualized within related research from psychology, philosophy, and particularly artificial intelligence. Influenced by psychological theories of surprise, the model assumes that surprise-eliciting events initiate a series of cognitive processes that begin with the appraisal of the event as unexpected, continue with the interruption of ongoing activity and the focusing of attention on the unexpected event, and culminate in the analysis and evaluation of the event and the revision of beliefs. It is assumed that the intensity of surprise elicited by an event is a nonlinear function of the difference or contrast between the subjective probability of the event and that of the most probable alternative event (which is usually the expected event); and that the agent's behavior is partly controlled by actual and anticipated surprise. We describe applications of artificial agents that incorporate the proposed surprise model in three domains: the exploration of unknown environments, creativity, and intelligent transportation systems. These applications demonstrate the importance of surprise for decision making, active learning, creative reasoning, and selective attention. Copyright © 2017 Cognitive Science Society, Inc.

  6. A Statistical Analysis of the Relationship between Harmonic Surprise and Preference in Popular Music.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miles, Scott A; Rosen, David S; Grzywacz, Norberto M

    2017-01-01

    Studies have shown that some musical pieces may preferentially activate reward centers in the brain. Less is known, however, about the structural aspects of music that are associated with this activation. Based on the music cognition literature, we propose two hypotheses for why some musical pieces are preferred over others. The first, the Absolute-Surprise Hypothesis, states that unexpected events in music directly lead to pleasure. The second, the Contrastive-Surprise Hypothesis, proposes that the juxtaposition of unexpected events and subsequent expected events leads to an overall rewarding response. We tested these hypotheses within the framework of information theory, using the measure of "surprise." This information-theoretic variable mathematically describes how improbable an event is given a known distribution. We performed a statistical investigation of surprise in the harmonic structure of songs within a representative corpus of Western popular music, namely, the McGill Billboard Project corpus. We found that chords of songs in the top quartile of the Billboard chart showed greater average surprise than those in the bottom quartile. We also found that the different sections within top-quartile songs varied more in their average surprise than the sections within bottom-quartile songs. The results of this study are consistent with both the Absolute- and Contrastive-Surprise Hypotheses. Although these hypotheses seem contradictory to one another, we cannot yet discard the possibility that both absolute and contrastive types of surprise play roles in the enjoyment of popular music. We call this possibility the Hybrid-Surprise Hypothesis. The results of this statistical investigation have implications for both music cognition and the human neural mechanisms of esthetic judgments.

  7. Summit surprises.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myers, N

    1994-01-01

    A New Delhi Population Summit, organized by the Royal Society, the US National Academy of Sciences, the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences, and the Indian National Science Academy, was convened with representation of 120 (only 10% women) scientists from 50 countries and about 12 disciplines and 43 national scientific academies. Despite the common assumption that scientists never agree, a 3000 word statement was signed by 50 prominent national figures and supported by 25 professional papers on diverse subjects. The statement proclaimed that stable world population and "prodigious planning efforts" are required for dealing with global social, economic, and environmental problems. The target should be zero population growth by the next generation. The statement, although containing many uncompromising assertions, was not as strong as a statement by the Royal Society and the US National Academy of Sciences released last year: that, in the future, science and technology may not be able to prevent "irreversible degradation of the environment and continued poverty," and that the capacity to sustain life on the planet may be permanently jeopardized. The Delhi statement was backed by professional papers highlighting several important issues. Dr Mahmoud Fathalla of the Rockefeller Foundation claimed that the 500,000 annual maternal deaths worldwide, of which perhaps 33% are due to "coathanger" abortions, are given far less attention than a one-day political event of 500 deaths would receive. Although biologically women have been given a greater survival advantage, which is associated with their reproductive capacity, socially disadvantaged females are relegated to low status. There is poorer nutrition and overall health care for females, female infanticide, and female fetuses are increasingly aborted in China, India, and other countries. The sex ratio in developed countries is 95-97 males to every 100 females, but in developing Asian countries the ratio is 105 males to 100 females. There are reports of 60-100 million missing females. The human species 12,000 years ago had a population of 6 million, a life expectancy of 20 years, and a doubling time of 8000 years; high birth rates were important for preservation of the species. Profertility attitudes are still prevalent today. Insufficient funds go to contraceptive research.

  8. Distinct medial temporal networks encode surprise during motivation by reward versus punishment

    OpenAIRE

    Murty, Vishnu P.; LaBar, Kevin S.; Adcock, R. Alison

    2016-01-01

    Adaptive motivated behavior requires predictive internal representations of the environment, and surprising events are indications for encoding new representations of the environment. The medial temporal lobe memory system, including the hippocampus and surrounding cortex, encodes surprising events and is influenced by motivational state. Because behavior reflects the goals of an individual, we investigated whether motivational valence (i.e., pursuing rewards versus avoiding punishments) also...

  9. Ignorance, Vulnerability and the Occurrence of "Radical Surprises": Theoretical Reflections and Empirical Findings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuhlicke, C.

    2009-04-01

    By definition natural disasters always contain a moment of surprise. Their occurrence is mostly unforeseen and unexpected. They hit people unprepared, overwhelm them and expose their helplessness. Yet, there is surprisingly little known on the reasons for their being surprised. Aren't natural disasters expectable and foreseeable after all? Aren't the return rates of most hazards well known and shouldn't people be better prepared? The central question of this presentation is hence: Why do natural disasters so often radically surprise people at all (and how can we explain this being surprised)? In the first part of the presentation, it is argued that most approaches to vulnerability are not able to grasp this moment of surprise. On the contrary, they have their strength in unravelling the expectable: A person who is marginalized or even oppressed in everyday life is also vulnerable during times of crisis and stress, at least this is the central assumption of most vulnerability studies. In the second part, an understanding of vulnerability is developed, which allows taking into account such radical surprises. First, two forms of the unknown are differentiated: An area of the unknown an actor is more or less aware of (ignorance), and an area, which is not even known to be not known (nescience). The discovery of the latter is mostly associated with a "radical surprise", since it is per definition impossible to prepare for it. Second, a definition of vulnerability is proposed, which allows capturing the dynamics of surprises: People are vulnerable when they discover their nescience exceeding by definition previously established routines, stocks of knowledge and resources—in a general sense their capacities—to deal with their physical and/or social environment. This definition explicitly takes the view of different actors serious and departs from their being surprised. In the third part findings of a case study are presented, the 2002 flood in Germany. It is shown

  10. What is a surprise earthquake? The example of the 2002, San Giuliano (Italy event

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Mucciarelli

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Both in scientific literature and in the mass media, some earthquakes are defined as «surprise earthquakes». Based on his own judgment, probably any geologist, seismologist or engineer may have his own list of past «surprise earthquakes». This paper tries to quantify the underlying individual perception that may lead a scientist to apply such a definition to a seismic event. The meaning is different, depending on the disciplinary approach. For geologists, the Italian database of seismogenic sources is still too incomplete to allow for a quantitative estimate of the subjective degree of belief. For seismologists, quantification is possible defining the distance between an earthquake and its closest previous neighbor. Finally, for engineers, the San Giuliano quake could not be considered a surprise, since probabilistic site hazard estimates reveal that the change before and after the earthquake is just 4%.

  11. Conference of “Uncertainty and Surprise: Questions on Working with the Unexpected and Unknowable”

    CERN Document Server

    McDaniel, Reuben R; Uncertainty and Surprise in Complex Systems : Questions on Working with the Unexpected

    2005-01-01

    Complexity science has been a source of new insight in physical and social systems and has demonstrated that unpredictability and surprise are fundamental aspects of the world around us. This book is the outcome of a discussion meeting of leading scholars and critical thinkers with expertise in complex systems sciences and leaders from a variety of organizations sponsored by the Prigogine Center at The University of Texas at Austin and the Plexus Institute to explore strategies for understanding uncertainty and surprise. Besides distributions to the conference it includes a key digest by the editors as well as a commentary by the late nobel laureat Ilya Prigogine, "Surprises in half of a century". The book is intended for researchers and scientists in complexity science as well as for a broad interdisciplinary audience of both practitioners and scholars. It will well serve those interested in the research issues and in the application of complexity science to physical and social systems.

  12. Salience and attention in surprisal-based accounts of language processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandra eZarcone

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The notion of salience has been singled out as the explanatory factor for a diverse range oflinguistic phenomena. In particular, perceptual salience (e.g. visual salience of objects in the world,acoustic prominence of linguistic sounds and semantic-pragmatic salience (e.g. prominence ofrecently mentioned or topical referents have been shown to influence language comprehensionand production. A different line of research has sought to account for behavioral correlates ofcognitive load during comprehension as well as for certain patterns in language usage usinginformation-theoretic notions, such as surprisal. Surprisal and salience both affect languageprocessing at different levels, but the relationship between the two has not been adequatelyelucidated, and the question of whether salience can be reduced to surprisal / predictability isstill open. Our review identifies two main challenges in addressing this question: terminologicalinconsistency and lack of integration between high and low levels of representations in salience-based accounts and surprisal-based accounts. We capitalise upon work in visual cognition inorder to orient ourselves in surveying the different facets of the notion of salience in linguisticsand their relation with models of surprisal. We find that work on salience highlights aspects oflinguistic communication that models of surprisal tend to overlook, namely the role of attentionand relevance to current goals, and we argue that the Predictive Coding framework provides aunified view which can account for the role played by attention and predictability at different levelsof processing and which can clarify the interplay between low and high levels of processes andbetween predictability-driven expectation and attention-driven focus.

  13. Salience and Attention in Surprisal-Based Accounts of Language Processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zarcone, Alessandra; van Schijndel, Marten; Vogels, Jorrig; Demberg, Vera

    2016-01-01

    The notion of salience has been singled out as the explanatory factor for a diverse range of linguistic phenomena. In particular, perceptual salience (e.g., visual salience of objects in the world, acoustic prominence of linguistic sounds) and semantic-pragmatic salience (e.g., prominence of recently mentioned or topical referents) have been shown to influence language comprehension and production. A different line of research has sought to account for behavioral correlates of cognitive load during comprehension as well as for certain patterns in language usage using information-theoretic notions, such as surprisal. Surprisal and salience both affect language processing at different levels, but the relationship between the two has not been adequately elucidated, and the question of whether salience can be reduced to surprisal / predictability is still open. Our review identifies two main challenges in addressing this question: terminological inconsistency and lack of integration between high and low levels of representations in salience-based accounts and surprisal-based accounts. We capitalize upon work in visual cognition in order to orient ourselves in surveying the different facets of the notion of salience in linguistics and their relation with models of surprisal. We find that work on salience highlights aspects of linguistic communication that models of surprisal tend to overlook, namely the role of attention and relevance to current goals, and we argue that the Predictive Coding framework provides a unified view which can account for the role played by attention and predictability at different levels of processing and which can clarify the interplay between low and high levels of processes and between predictability-driven expectation and attention-driven focus.

  14. Salience and Attention in Surprisal-Based Accounts of Language Processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zarcone, Alessandra; van Schijndel, Marten; Vogels, Jorrig; Demberg, Vera

    2016-01-01

    The notion of salience has been singled out as the explanatory factor for a diverse range of linguistic phenomena. In particular, perceptual salience (e.g., visual salience of objects in the world, acoustic prominence of linguistic sounds) and semantic-pragmatic salience (e.g., prominence of recently mentioned or topical referents) have been shown to influence language comprehension and production. A different line of research has sought to account for behavioral correlates of cognitive load during comprehension as well as for certain patterns in language usage using information-theoretic notions, such as surprisal. Surprisal and salience both affect language processing at different levels, but the relationship between the two has not been adequately elucidated, and the question of whether salience can be reduced to surprisal / predictability is still open. Our review identifies two main challenges in addressing this question: terminological inconsistency and lack of integration between high and low levels of representations in salience-based accounts and surprisal-based accounts. We capitalize upon work in visual cognition in order to orient ourselves in surveying the different facets of the notion of salience in linguistics and their relation with models of surprisal. We find that work on salience highlights aspects of linguistic communication that models of surprisal tend to overlook, namely the role of attention and relevance to current goals, and we argue that the Predictive Coding framework provides a unified view which can account for the role played by attention and predictability at different levels of processing and which can clarify the interplay between low and high levels of processes and between predictability-driven expectation and attention-driven focus. PMID:27375525

  15. Risk, surprises and black swans fundamental ideas and concepts in risk assessment and risk management

    CERN Document Server

    Aven, Terje

    2014-01-01

    Risk, Surprises and Black Swans provides an in depth analysis of the risk concept with a focus on the critical link to knowledge; and the lack of knowledge, that risk and probability judgements are based on.Based on technical scientific research, this book presents a new perspective to help you understand how to assess and manage surprising, extreme events, known as 'Black Swans'. This approach looks beyond the traditional probability-based principles to offer a broader insight into the important aspects of uncertain events and in doing so explores the ways to manage them.

  16. Surprise Gift” Purchases of Small Electric Appliances: A Pilot Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. Vanhamme (Joëlle); C.J.P.M. de Bont (Cees)

    2005-01-01

    textabstractUnderstanding decision-making processes for gifts is of strategic importance for companies selling small electrical appliances as gifts account for a large part of their sales. Among all gifts, the ones that are surprising are the most valued by recipients. However, research about

  17. Dealing with unexpected events on the flight deck : A conceptual model of startle and surprise

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Landman, H.M.; Groen, E.L.; Paassen, M.M. van; Bronkhorst, A.W.; Mulder, M.

    2017-01-01

    Objective: A conceptual model is proposed in order to explain pilot performance in surprising and startling situations. Background: Today’s debate around loss of control following in-flight events and the implementation of upset prevention and recovery training has highlighted the importance of

  18. Bagpipes and Artichokes: Surprise as a Stimulus to Learning in the Elementary Music Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobi, Bonnie Schaffhauser

    2016-01-01

    Incorporating surprise into music instruction can stimulate student attention, curiosity, and interest. Novelty focuses attention in the reticular activating system, increasing the potential for brain memory storage. Elementary ages are ideal for introducing novel instruments, pieces, composers, or styles of music. Young children have fewer…

  19. The Educational Philosophies of Mordecai Kaplan and Michael Rosenak: Surprising Similarities and Illuminating Differences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schein, Jeffrey; Caplan, Eric

    2014-01-01

    The thoughts of Mordecai Kaplan and Michael Rosenak present surprising commonalities as well as illuminating differences. Similarities include the perception that Judaism and Jewish education are in crisis, the belief that Jewish peoplehood must include commitment to meaningful content, the need for teachers to teach from a position of…

  20. Models of Automation surprise : results of a field survey in aviation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Boer, Robert; Dekker, Sidney

    2017-01-01

    Automation surprises in aviation continue to be a significant safety concern and the community’s search for effective strategies to mitigate them are ongoing. The literature has offered two fundamentally divergent directions, based on different ideas about the nature of cognition and collaboration

  1. Decision-making under surprise and uncertainty: Arsenic contamination of water supplies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Randhir, Timothy O.; Mozumder, Pallab; Halim, Nafisa

    2018-05-01

    With ignorance and potential surprise dominating decision making in water resources, a framework for dealing with such uncertainty is a critical need in hydrology. We operationalize the 'potential surprise' criterion proposed by Shackle, Vickers, and Katzner (SVK) to derive decision rules to manage water resources under uncertainty and ignorance. We apply this framework to managing water supply systems in Bangladesh that face severe, naturally occurring arsenic contamination. The uncertainty involved with arsenic in water supplies makes the application of conventional analysis of decision-making ineffective. Given the uncertainty and surprise involved in such cases, we find that optimal decisions tend to favor actions that avoid irreversible outcomes instead of conventional cost-effective actions. We observe that a diversification of the water supply system also emerges as a robust strategy to avert unintended outcomes of water contamination. Shallow wells had a slight higher optimal level (36%) compare to deep wells and surface treatment which had allocation levels of roughly 32% under each. The approach can be applied in a variety of other cases that involve decision making under uncertainty and surprise, a frequent situation in natural resources management.

  2. Surprising results: HIV testing and changes in contraceptive practices among young women in Malawi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sennott, Christie; Yeatman, Sara

    2015-01-01

    This study uses eight waves of data from the population-based Tsogolo la Thanzi study (2009–2011) in rural Malawi to examine changes in young women’s contraceptive practices, including the use of condoms, non-barrier contraceptive methods, and abstinence, following positive and negative HIV tests. The analysis factors in women’s prior perceptions of their HIV status that may already be shaping their behaviour and separates surprise HIV test results from those that merely confirm what was already believed. Fixed effects logistic regression models show that HIV testing frequently affects the contraceptive practices of young Malawian women, particularly when the test yields an unexpected result. Specifically, women who are surprised to test HIV positive increase their condom use and are more likely to use condoms consistently. Following an HIV negative test (whether a surprise or expected), women increase their use of condoms and decrease their use of non-barrier contraceptives; the latter may be due to an increase in abstinence following a surprise negative result. Changes in condom use following HIV testing are robust to the inclusion of potential explanatory mechanisms including fertility preferences, relationship status, and the perception that a partner is HIV positive. The results demonstrate that both positive and negative tests can influence women’s sexual and reproductive behaviours, and emphasise the importance of conceptualizing of HIV testing as offering new information only insofar as results deviate from prior perceptions of HIV status. PMID:26160156

  3. Surprise, Memory, and Retrospective Judgment Making: Testing Cognitive Reconstruction Theories of the Hindsight Bias Effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ash, Ivan K.

    2009-01-01

    Hindsight bias has been shown to be a pervasive and potentially harmful decision-making bias. A review of 4 competing cognitive reconstruction theories of hindsight bias revealed conflicting predictions about the role and effect of expectation or surprise in retrospective judgment formation. Two experiments tested these predictions examining the…

  4. Models of Automation Surprise: Results of a Field Survey in Aviation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert De Boer

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Automation surprises in aviation continue to be a significant safety concern and the community’s search for effective strategies to mitigate them are ongoing. The literature has offered two fundamentally divergent directions, based on different ideas about the nature of cognition and collaboration with automation. In this paper, we report the results of a field study that empirically compared and contrasted two models of automation surprises: a normative individual-cognition model and a sensemaking model based on distributed cognition. Our data prove a good fit for the sense-making model. This finding is relevant for aviation safety, since our understanding of the cognitive processes that govern human interaction with automation drive what we need to do to reduce the frequency of automation-induced events.

  5. Human Amygdala Tracks a Feature-Based Valence Signal Embedded within the Facial Expression of Surprise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, M Justin; Mattek, Alison M; Bennett, Randi H; Solomon, Kimberly M; Shin, Jin; Whalen, Paul J

    2017-09-27

    Human amygdala function has been traditionally associated with processing the affective valence (negative vs positive) of an emotionally charged event, especially those that signal fear or threat. However, this account of human amygdala function can be explained by alternative views, which posit that the amygdala might be tuned to either (1) general emotional arousal (activation vs deactivation) or (2) specific emotion categories (fear vs happy). Delineating the pure effects of valence independent of arousal or emotion category is a challenging task, given that these variables naturally covary under many circumstances. To circumvent this issue and test the sensitivity of the human amygdala to valence values specifically, we measured the dimension of valence within the single facial expression category of surprise. Given the inherent valence ambiguity of this category, we show that surprised expression exemplars are attributed valence and arousal values that are uniquely and naturally uncorrelated. We then present fMRI data from both sexes, showing that the amygdala tracks these consensus valence values. Finally, we provide evidence that these valence values are linked to specific visual features of the mouth region, isolating the signal by which the amygdala detects this valence information. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT There is an open question as to whether human amygdala function tracks the valence value of cues in the environment, as opposed to either a more general emotional arousal value or a more specific emotion category distinction. Here, we demonstrate the utility of surprised facial expressions because exemplars within this emotion category take on valence values spanning the dimension of bipolar valence (positive to negative) at a consistent level of emotional arousal. Functional neuroimaging data showed that amygdala responses tracked the valence of surprised facial expressions, unconfounded by arousal. Furthermore, a machine learning classifier identified

  6. Prediction, Expectation, and Surprise: Methods, Designs, and Study of a Deployed Traffic Forecasting Service

    OpenAIRE

    Horvitz, Eric J.; Apacible, Johnson; Sarin, Raman; Liao, Lin

    2012-01-01

    We present research on developing models that forecast traffic flow and congestion in the Greater Seattle area. The research has led to the deployment of a service named JamBayes, that is being actively used by over 2,500 users via smartphones and desktop versions of the system. We review the modeling effort and describe experiments probing the predictive accuracy of the models. Finally, we present research on building models that can identify current and future surprises, via efforts on mode...

  7. The effect of emotionally valenced eye region images on visuocortical processing of surprised faces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Shuaixia; Li, Ping; Wang, Wei; Zhu, Xiangru; Luo, Wenbo

    2018-05-01

    In this study, we presented pictorial representations of happy, neutral, and fearful expressions projected in the eye regions to determine whether the eye region alone is sufficient to produce a context effect. Participants were asked to judge the valence of surprised faces that had been preceded by a picture of an eye region. Behavioral results showed that affective ratings of surprised faces were context dependent. Prime-related ERPs with presentation of happy eyes elicited a larger P1 than those for neutral and fearful eyes, likely due to the recognition advantage provided by a happy expression. Target-related ERPs showed that surprised faces in the context of fearful and happy eyes elicited dramatically larger C1 than those in the neutral context, which reflected the modulation by predictions during the earliest stages of face processing. There were larger N170 with neutral and fearful eye contexts compared to the happy context, suggesting faces were being integrated with contextual threat information. The P3 component exhibited enhanced brain activity in response to faces preceded by happy and fearful eyes compared with neutral eyes, indicating motivated attention processing may be involved at this stage. Altogether, these results indicate for the first time that the influence of isolated eye regions on the perception of surprised faces involves preferential processing at the early stages and elaborate processing at the late stages. Moreover, higher cognitive processes such as predictions and attention can modulate face processing from the earliest stages in a top-down manner. © 2017 Society for Psychophysiological Research.

  8. Analysis of physiological signals for recognition of boredom, pain, and surprise emotions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Eun-Hye; Park, Byoung-Jun; Park, Mi-Sook; Kim, Sang-Hyeob; Sohn, Jin-Hun

    2015-06-18

    The aim of the study was to examine the differences of boredom, pain, and surprise. In addition to that, it was conducted to propose approaches for emotion recognition based on physiological signals. Three emotions, boredom, pain, and surprise, are induced through the presentation of emotional stimuli and electrocardiography (ECG), electrodermal activity (EDA), skin temperature (SKT), and photoplethysmography (PPG) as physiological signals are measured to collect a dataset from 217 participants when experiencing the emotions. Twenty-seven physiological features are extracted from the signals to classify the three emotions. The discriminant function analysis (DFA) as a statistical method, and five machine learning algorithms (linear discriminant analysis (LDA), classification and regression trees (CART), self-organizing map (SOM), Naïve Bayes algorithm, and support vector machine (SVM)) are used for classifying the emotions. The result shows that the difference of physiological responses among emotions is significant in heart rate (HR), skin conductance level (SCL), skin conductance response (SCR), mean skin temperature (meanSKT), blood volume pulse (BVP), and pulse transit time (PTT), and the highest recognition accuracy of 84.7% is obtained by using DFA. This study demonstrates the differences of boredom, pain, and surprise and the best emotion recognizer for the classification of the three emotions by using physiological signals.

  9. Spatiotemporal neural characterization of prediction error valence and surprise during reward learning in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fouragnan, Elsa; Queirazza, Filippo; Retzler, Chris; Mullinger, Karen J; Philiastides, Marios G

    2017-07-06

    Reward learning depends on accurate reward associations with potential choices. These associations can be attained with reinforcement learning mechanisms using a reward prediction error (RPE) signal (the difference between actual and expected rewards) for updating future reward expectations. Despite an extensive body of literature on the influence of RPE on learning, little has been done to investigate the potentially separate contributions of RPE valence (positive or negative) and surprise (absolute degree of deviation from expectations). Here, we coupled single-trial electroencephalography with simultaneously acquired fMRI, during a probabilistic reversal-learning task, to offer evidence of temporally overlapping but largely distinct spatial representations of RPE valence and surprise. Electrophysiological variability in RPE valence correlated with activity in regions of the human reward network promoting approach or avoidance learning. Electrophysiological variability in RPE surprise correlated primarily with activity in regions of the human attentional network controlling the speed of learning. Crucially, despite the largely separate spatial extend of these representations our EEG-informed fMRI approach uniquely revealed a linear superposition of the two RPE components in a smaller network encompassing visuo-mnemonic and reward areas. Activity in this network was further predictive of stimulus value updating indicating a comparable contribution of both signals to reward learning.

  10. 'Surprise': Outbreak of Campylobacter infection associated with chicken liver pâté at a surprise birthday party, Adelaide, Australia, 2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parry, Amy; Fearnley, Emily; Denehy, Emma

    2012-10-01

    In July 2012, an outbreak of Campylobacter infection was investigated by the South Australian Communicable Disease Control Branch and Food Policy and Programs Branch. The initial notification identified illness at a surprise birthday party held at a restaurant on 14 July 2012. The objective of the investigation was to identify the potential source of infection and institute appropriate intervention strategies to prevent further illness. A guest list was obtained and a retrospective cohort study undertaken. A combination of paper-based and telephone questionnaires were used to collect exposure and outcome information. An environmental investigation was conducted by Food Policy and Programs Branch at the implicated premises. All 57 guests completed the questionnaire (100% response rate), and 15 met the case definition. Analysis showed a significant association between illness and consumption of chicken liver pâté (relative risk: 16.7, 95% confidence interval: 2.4-118.6). No other food or beverage served at the party was associated with illness. Three guests submitted stool samples; all were positive for Campylobacter. The environmental investigation identified that the cooking process used in the preparation of chicken liver pâté may have been inconsistent, resulting in some portions not cooked adequately to inactivate potential Campylobacter contamination. Chicken liver products are a known source of Campylobacter infection; therefore, education of food handlers remains a high priority. To better identify outbreaks among the large number of Campylobacter notifications, routine typing of Campylobacter isolates is recommended.

  11. The influence of the surprising decay properties of element 108 on search experiments for new elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hofmann, S.; Armbruster, P.; Muenzenberg, G.; Reisdorf, W.; Schmidt, K.H.; Burkhard, H.G.; Hessberger, F.P.; Schoett, H.J.; Agarwal, Y.K.; Berthes, G.; Gollerthan, U.; Folger, H.; Hingmann, J.G.; Keller, J.G.; Leino, M.E.; Lemmertz, P.; Montoya, M.; Poppensieker, K.; Quint, B.; Zychor, I.

    1986-01-01

    Results of experiments to synthesize the heaviest elements are reported. Surprising is the high stability against fission not only of the odd and odd-odd nuclei but also of even isotopes of even elements. Alpha decay data gave an increasing stability of nuclei by shell effects up to 266 109, the heaviest known element. Theoretically, the high stability is explained by an island of nuclei with big quadrupole and hexadecapole deformations around Z=109 and N=162. Future experiments will be planned to prove the island character of these heavy nuclei. (orig.)

  12. Surprisal analysis of Glioblastoma Multiform (GBM) microRNA dynamics unveils tumor specific phenotype.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zadran, Sohila; Remacle, Francoise; Levine, Raphael

    2014-01-01

    Gliomablastoma multiform (GBM) is the most fatal form of all brain cancers in humans. Currently there are limited diagnostic tools for GBM detection. Here, we applied surprisal analysis, a theory grounded in thermodynamics, to unveil how biomolecule energetics, specifically a redistribution of free energy amongst microRNAs (miRNAs), results in a system deviating from a non-cancer state to the GBM cancer -specific phenotypic state. Utilizing global miRNA microarray expression data of normal and GBM patients tumors, surprisal analysis characterizes a miRNA system response capable of distinguishing GBM samples from normal tissue biopsy samples. We indicate that the miRNAs contributing to this system behavior is a disease phenotypic state specific to GBM and is therefore a unique GBM-specific thermodynamic signature. MiRNAs implicated in the regulation of stochastic signaling processes crucial in the hallmarks of human cancer, dominate this GBM-cancer phenotypic state. With this theory, we were able to distinguish with high fidelity GBM patients solely by monitoring the dynamics of miRNAs present in patients' biopsy samples. We anticipate that the GBM-specific thermodynamic signature will provide a critical translational tool in better characterizing cancer types and in the development of future therapeutics for GBM.

  13. Cloud Surprises in Moving NASA EOSDIS Applications into Amazon Web Services

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mclaughlin, Brett

    2017-01-01

    NASA ESDIS has been moving a variety of data ingest, distribution, and science data processing applications into a cloud environment over the last 2 years. As expected, there have been a number of challenges in migrating primarily on-premises applications into a cloud-based environment, related to architecture and taking advantage of cloud-based services. What was not expected is a number of issues that were beyond purely technical application re-architectures. We ran into surprising network policy limitations, billing challenges in a government-based cost model, and difficulty in obtaining certificates in an NASA security-compliant manner. On the other hand, this approach has allowed us to move a number of applications from local hosting to the cloud in a matter of hours (yes, hours!!), and our CMR application now services 95% of granule searches and an astonishing 99% of all collection searches in under a second. And most surprising of all, well, you'll just have to wait and see the realization that caught our entire team off guard!

  14. Vascular legacy: HOPE ADVANCEs to EMPA-REG and LEADER: A Surprising similarity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanjay Kalra

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Recently reported cardiovascular outcome studies on empagliflozin (EMPA-REG and liraglutide (LEADER have spurred interest in this field of diabetology. This commentary compares and contrasts these studies with two equally important outcome trials conducted using blood pressure lowering agents. A comparison with MICROHOPE (using ramipril and ADVANCE (using perindopril + indapamide blood pressure arms throws up interesting facts. The degree of blood pressure lowering, dissociation between cardiovascular and cerebrovascular benefits, and discordance between renal and retinal outcomes are surprisingly similar in these trials, conducted using disparate molecules. The time taken to achieve such benefits is similar for all drugs except empagliflozin. Such discussion helps inform rational and evidence-based choice of therapy and forms the framework for future research.

  15. Self-organizing weights for Internet AS-graphs and surprisingly simple routing metrics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scholz, Jan Carsten; Greiner, Martin

    2011-01-01

    The transport capacity of Internet-like communication networks and hence their efficiency may be improved by a factor of 5–10 through the use of highly optimized routing metrics, as demonstrated previously. The numerical determination of such routing metrics can be computationally demanding...... to an extent that prohibits both investigation of and application to very large networks. In an attempt to find a numerically less expensive way of constructing a metric with a comparable performance increase, we propose a local, self-organizing iteration scheme and find two surprisingly simple and efficient...... metrics. The new metrics have negligible computational cost and result in an approximately 5-fold performance increase, providing distinguished competitiveness with the computationally costly counterparts. They are applicable to very large networks and easy to implement in today's Internet routing...

  16. Probing Critical Point Energies of Transition Metal Dichalcogenides: Surprising Indirect Gap of Single Layer WSe 2

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, Chendong

    2015-09-21

    By using a comprehensive form of scanning tunneling spectroscopy, we have revealed detailed quasi-particle electronic structures in transition metal dichalcogenides, including the quasi-particle gaps, critical point energy locations, and their origins in the Brillouin zones. We show that single layer WSe surprisingly has an indirect quasi-particle gap with the conduction band minimum located at the Q-point (instead of K), albeit the two states are nearly degenerate. We have further observed rich quasi-particle electronic structures of transition metal dichalcogenides as a function of atomic structures and spin-orbit couplings. Such a local probe for detailed electronic structures in conduction and valence bands will be ideal to investigate how electronic structures of transition metal dichalcogenides are influenced by variations of local environment.

  17. Probing Critical Point Energies of Transition Metal Dichalcogenides: Surprising Indirect Gap of Single Layer WSe 2

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, Chendong; Chen, Yuxuan; Johnson, Amber; Li, Ming-yang; Li, Lain-Jong; Mende, Patrick C.; Feenstra, Randall M.; Shih, Chih Kang

    2015-01-01

    By using a comprehensive form of scanning tunneling spectroscopy, we have revealed detailed quasi-particle electronic structures in transition metal dichalcogenides, including the quasi-particle gaps, critical point energy locations, and their origins in the Brillouin zones. We show that single layer WSe surprisingly has an indirect quasi-particle gap with the conduction band minimum located at the Q-point (instead of K), albeit the two states are nearly degenerate. We have further observed rich quasi-particle electronic structures of transition metal dichalcogenides as a function of atomic structures and spin-orbit couplings. Such a local probe for detailed electronic structures in conduction and valence bands will be ideal to investigate how electronic structures of transition metal dichalcogenides are influenced by variations of local environment.

  18. Surprising judgments about robot drivers: Experiments on rising expectations and blaming humans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Danielson

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available N-Reasons is an experimental Internet survey platform designed to enhance public participation in applied ethics and policy. N-Reasons encourages individuals to generate reasons to support their judgments, and groups to converge on a common set of reasons pro and con various issues.  In the Robot Ethics Survey some of the reasons contributed surprising judgments about autonomous machines. Presented with a version of the trolley problem with an autonomous train as the agent, participants gave unexpected answers, revealing high expectations for the autonomous machine and shifting blame from the automated device to the humans in the scenario. Further experiments with a standard pair of human-only trolley problems refine these results. While showing the high expectations even when no autonomous machine is involved, human bystanders are only blamed in the machine case. A third experiment explicitly aimed at responsibility for driverless cars confirms our findings about shifting blame in the case of autonomous machine agents. We conclude methodologically that both results point to the power of an experimental survey based approach to public participation to explore surprising assumptions and judgments in applied ethics. However, both results also support using caution when interpreting survey results in ethics, demonstrating the importance of qualitative data to provide further context for evaluating judgments revealed by surveys. On the ethics side, the result about shifting blame to humans interacting with autonomous machines suggests caution about the unintended consequences of intuitive principles requiring human responsibility.http://dx.doi.org/10.5324/eip.v9i1.1727

  19. Hillslope, river, and Mountain: some surprises in Landscape evolution (Ralph Alger Bagnold Medal Lecture)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tucker, G. E.

    2012-04-01

    Geomorphology, like the rest of geoscience, has always had two major themes: a quest to understand the earth's history and 'products' - its landscapes and seascapes - and, in parallel, a quest to understand its formative processes. This dualism is manifest in the remarkable career of R. A. Bagnold, who was inspired by landforms such as dunes, and dedicated to understanding the physical processes that shaped them. His legacy inspires us to emulate two principles at the heart of his contributions: the benefits of rooting geomorphic theory in basic physics, and the importance of understanding geomorphic systems in terms of simple equations framed around energy or force. Today, following Bagnold's footsteps, the earth-surface process community is engaged in a quest to build, test, and refine an ever-improving body of theory to describe our planet's surface and its evolution. In this lecture, I review a small sample of some of the fruits of that quest, emphasizing the value of surprises encountered along the way. The first example involves models of long-term river incision into bedrock. When the community began to grapple with how to represent this process mathematically, several different ideas emerged. Some were based on the assumption that sediment transport is the limiting factor; others assumed that hydraulic stress on rock is the key, while still others treated rivers as first-order 'reactors.' Thanks in part to advances in digital topography and numerical computing, the predictions of these models can be tested using natural-experiment case studies. Examples from the King Range, USA, the Central Apennines, Italy, and the fold-thrust belt of Taiwan, illustrate that independent knowledge of history and/or tectonics makes it possible to quantify how the rivers have responded to external forcing. Some interesting surprises emerge, such as: that the relief-uplift relationship can be highly nonlinear in a steady-state landscape because of grain-entrainment thresholds

  20. Cerebral metastasis masquerading as cerebritis: A case of misguiding history and radiological surprise!

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashish Kumar

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Cerebral metastases usually have a characteristic radiological appearance. They can be differentiated rather easily from any infective etiology. Similarly, positive medical history also guides the neurosurgeon towards the possible diagnosis and adds to the diagnostic armamentarium. However, occasionally, similarities on imaging may be encountered where even history could lead us in the wrong direction and tends to bias the clinician. We report a case of a 40-year-old female with a history of mastoidectomy for otitis media presenting to us with a space occupying lesion in the right parietal region, which was thought pre-operatively as an abscess along with the cerebritis. Surprisingly, the histopathology proved it to be a metastatic adenocarcinoma. Hence, a ring enhancing lesion may be a high grade neoplasm/metastasis/abscess, significant gyral enhancement; a feature of cerebritis is not linked with a neoplastic etiology more often. This may lead to delayed diagnosis, incorrect prognostication and treatment in patients having coincidental suggestive history of infection. We review the literature and highlight the key points helping to differentiate an infective from a neoplastic pathology which may look similar at times.

  1. Beyond interests and institutions: US health policy reform and the surprising silence of big business.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smyrl, Marc E

    2014-02-01

    Interest-based arguments do not provide satisfying explanations for the surprising reticence of major US employers to take a more active role in the debate surrounding the 2010 Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (ACA). Through focused comparison with the Bismarckian systems of France and Germany, on the one hand, and with the 1950s and 1960s in the United States, on the other, this article concludes that while institutional elements do account for some of the observed behavior of big business, a necessary complement to this is a fuller understanding of the historically determined legitimating ideology of US firms. From the era of the "corporate commonwealth," US business inherited the principles of private welfare provision and of resistance to any expansion of government control. Once complementary, these principles are now mutually exclusive: employer-provided health insurance increasingly is possible only at the cost of ever-increasing government subsidy and regulation. Paralyzed by the uncertainty that followed from this clash of legitimate ideas, major employers found themselves unable to take a coherent and unified stand for or against the law. As a consequence, they failed either to oppose it successfully or to secure modifications to it that would have been useful to them.

  2. Surprise responses in the human brain demonstrate statistical learning under high concurrent cognitive demand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrido, Marta Isabel; Teng, Chee Leong James; Taylor, Jeremy Alexander; Rowe, Elise Genevieve; Mattingley, Jason Brett

    2016-06-01

    The ability to learn about regularities in the environment and to make predictions about future events is fundamental for adaptive behaviour. We have previously shown that people can implicitly encode statistical regularities and detect violations therein, as reflected in neuronal responses to unpredictable events that carry a unique prediction error signature. In the real world, however, learning about regularities will often occur in the context of competing cognitive demands. Here we asked whether learning of statistical regularities is modulated by concurrent cognitive load. We compared electroencephalographic metrics associated with responses to pure-tone sounds with frequencies sampled from narrow or wide Gaussian distributions. We showed that outliers evoked a larger response than those in the centre of the stimulus distribution (i.e., an effect of surprise) and that this difference was greater for physically identical outliers in the narrow than in the broad distribution. These results demonstrate an early neurophysiological marker of the brain's ability to implicitly encode complex statistical structure in the environment. Moreover, we manipulated concurrent cognitive load by having participants perform a visual working memory task while listening to these streams of sounds. We again observed greater prediction error responses in the narrower distribution under both low and high cognitive load. Furthermore, there was no reliable reduction in prediction error magnitude under high-relative to low-cognitive load. Our findings suggest that statistical learning is not a capacity limited process, and that it proceeds automatically even when cognitive resources are taxed by concurrent demands.

  3. Pseudohalide (SCN(-))-Doped MAPbI3 Perovskites: A Few Surprises.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halder, Ansuman; Chulliyil, Ramya; Subbiah, Anand S; Khan, Tuhin; Chattoraj, Shyamtanu; Chowdhury, Arindam; Sarkar, Shaibal K

    2015-09-03

    Pseudohalide thiocyanate anion (SCN(-)) has been used as a dopant in a methylammonium lead tri-iodide (MAPbI3) framework, aiming for its use as an absorber layer for photovoltaic applications. The substitution of SCN(-) pseudohalide anion, as verified using Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy, results in a comprehensive effect on the optical properties of the original material. Photoluminescence measurements at room temperature reveal a significant enhancement in the emission quantum yield of MAPbI3-x(SCN)x as compared to MAPbI3, suggestive of suppression of nonradiative channels. This increased intensity is attributed to a highly edge specific emission from MAPbI3-x(SCN)x microcrystals as revealed by photoluminescence microscopy. Fluoresence lifetime imaging measurements further established contrasting carrier recombination dynamics for grain boundaries and the bulk of the doped material. Spatially resolved emission spectroscopy on individual microcrystals of MAPbI3-x(SCN)x reveals that the optical bandgap and density of states at various (local) nanodomains are also nonuniform. Surprisingly, several (local) emissive regions within MAPbI3-x(SCN)x microcrystals are found to be optically unstable under photoirradiation, and display unambiguous temporal intermittency in emission (blinking), which is extremely unusual and intriguing. We find diverse blinking behaviors for the undoped MAPbI3 crystals as well, which leads us to speculate that blinking may be a common phenomenon for most hybrid perovskite materials.

  4. Surprises from a Deep ASCA Spectrum of the Broad Absorption Line Quasar PHL 5200

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathur, Smita; Matt, G.; Green, P. J.; Elvis, M.; Singh, K. P.

    2002-01-01

    We present a deep (approx. 85 ks) ASCA observation of the prototype broad absorption line quasar (BALQSO) PHL 5200. This is the best X-ray spectrum of a BALQSO yet. We find the following: (1) The source is not intrinsically X-ray weak. (2) The line-of-sight absorption is very strong, with N(sub H) = 5 x 10(exp 23)/sq cm. (3) The absorber does not cover the source completely; the covering fraction is approx. 90%. This is consistent with the large optical polarization observed in this source, implying multiple lines of sight. The most surprising result of this observation is that (4) the spectrum of this BALQSO is not exactly similar to other radio-quiet quasars. The hard X-ray spectrum of PHL 5200 is steep, with the power-law spectral index alpha approx. 1.5. This is similar to the steepest hard X-ray slopes observed so far. At low redshifts, such steep slopes are observed in narrow-line Seyfert 1 (NLS1) galaxies, believed to be accreting at a high Eddington rate. This observation strengthens the analogy between BALQSOs and NLS1 galaxies and supports the hypothesis that BALQSOs represent an early evolutionary state of quasars. It is well accepted that the orientation to the line of sight determines the appearance of a quasar: age seems to play a significant role as well.

  5. From Lithium-Ion to Sodium-Ion Batteries: Advantages, Challenges, and Surprises.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nayak, Prasant Kumar; Yang, Liangtao; Brehm, Wolfgang; Adelhelm, Philipp

    2018-01-02

    Mobile and stationary energy storage by rechargeable batteries is a topic of broad societal and economical relevance. Lithium-ion battery (LIB) technology is at the forefront of the development, but a massively growing market will likely put severe pressure on resources and supply chains. Recently, sodium-ion batteries (SIBs) have been reconsidered with the aim of providing a lower-cost alternative that is less susceptible to resource and supply risks. On paper, the replacement of lithium by sodium in a battery seems straightforward at first, but unpredictable surprises are often found in practice. What happens when replacing lithium by sodium in electrode reactions? This review provides a state-of-the art overview on the redox behavior of materials when used as electrodes in lithium-ion and sodium-ion batteries, respectively. Advantages and challenges related to the use of sodium instead of lithium are discussed. © 2018 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  6. Effect of Temperature Shock and Inventory Surprises on Natural Gas and Heating Oil Futures Returns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, John Wei-Shan; Lin, Chien-Yu

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to examine the impact of temperature shock on both near-month and far-month natural gas and heating oil futures returns by extending the weather and storage models of the previous study. Several notable findings from the empirical studies are presented. First, the expected temperature shock significantly and positively affects both the near-month and far-month natural gas and heating oil futures returns. Next, significant temperature shock has effect on both the conditional mean and volatility of natural gas and heating oil prices. The results indicate that expected inventory surprises significantly and negatively affects the far-month natural gas futures returns. Moreover, volatility of natural gas futures returns is higher on Thursdays and that of near-month heating oil futures returns is higher on Wednesdays than other days. Finally, it is found that storage announcement for natural gas significantly affects near-month and far-month natural gas futures returns. Furthermore, both natural gas and heating oil futures returns are affected more by the weighted average temperature reported by multiple weather reporting stations than that reported by a single weather reporting station. PMID:25133233

  7. Surprises from the resolution of operator mixing in N=4 SYM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bianchi, Massimo; Rossi, Giancarlo; Stanev, Yassen S.

    2004-01-01

    We reexamine the problem of operator mixing in N=4 SYM. Particular attention is paid to the correct definition of composite gauge invariant local operators, which is necessary for the computation of their anomalous dimensions beyond lowest order. As an application we reconsider the case of operators with naive dimension Δ 0 =4, already studied in the literature. Stringent constraints from the resummation of logarithms in power behaviours are exploited and the role of the generalized N=4 Konishi anomaly in the mixing with operators involving fermions is discussed. A general method for the explicit (numerical) resolution of the operator mixing and the computation of anomalous dimensions is proposed. We then resolve the order g 2 mixing for the 15 (purely scalar) singlet operators of naive dimension Δ 0 =6. Rather surprisingly we find one isolated operator which has a vanishing anomalous dimension up to order g 4 , belonging to an apparently long multiplet. We also solve the order g 2 mixing for the 26 operators belonging to the representation 20' of SU(4). We find an operator with the same one-loop anomalous dimension as the Konishi multiplet

  8. The Ultraviolet Surprise. Efficient Soft X-Ray High Harmonic Generation in Multiply-Ionized Plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Popmintchev, Dimitar; Hernandez-Garcia, Carlos; Dollar, Franklin; Mancuso, Christopher; Perez-Hernandez, Jose A.; Chen, Ming-Chang; Hankla, Amelia; Gao, Xiaohui; Shim, Bonggu; Gaeta, Alexander L.; Tarazkar, Maryam; Romanov, Dmitri A.; Levis, Robert J.; Gaffney, Jim A.; Foord, Mark; Libby, Stephen B.; Jaron-Becker, Agnieskzka; Becker, Andreas; Plaja, Luis; Muranane, Margaret M.; Kapteyn, Henry C.; Popmintchev, Tenio

    2015-01-01

    High-harmonic generation is a universal response of matter to strong femtosecond laser fields, coherently upconverting light to much shorter wavelengths. Optimizing the conversion of laser light into soft x-rays typically demands a trade-off between two competing factors. Reduced quantum diffusion of the radiating electron wave function results in emission from each species which is highest when a short-wavelength ultraviolet driving laser is used. But, phase matching - the constructive addition of x-ray waves from a large number of atoms - favors longer-wavelength mid-infrared lasers. We identified a regime of high-harmonic generation driven by 40-cycle ultraviolet lasers in waveguides that can generate bright beams in the soft x-ray region of the spectrum, up to photon energies of 280 electron volts. Surprisingly, the high ultraviolet refractive indices of both neutral atoms and ions enabled effective phase matching, even in a multiply ionized plasma. We observed harmonics with very narrow linewidths, while calculations show that the x-rays emerge as nearly time-bandwidt-limited pulse trains of ~100 attoseconds

  9. A conceptual geochemical model of the geothermal system at Surprise Valley, CA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fowler, Andrew P. G.; Ferguson, Colin; Cantwell, Carolyn A.; Zierenberg, Robert A.; McClain, James; Spycher, Nicolas; Dobson, Patrick

    2018-03-01

    Characterizing the geothermal system at Surprise Valley (SV), northeastern California, is important for determining the sustainability of the energy resource, and mitigating hazards associated with hydrothermal eruptions that last occurred in 1951. Previous geochemical studies of the area attempted to reconcile different hot spring compositions on the western and eastern sides of the valley using scenarios of dilution, equilibration at low temperatures, surface evaporation, and differences in rock type along flow paths. These models were primarily supported using classical geothermometry methods, and generally assumed that fluids in the Lake City mud volcano area on the western side of the valley best reflect the composition of a deep geothermal fluid. In this contribution, we address controls on hot spring compositions using a different suite of geochemical tools, including optimized multicomponent geochemistry (GeoT) models, hot spring fluid major and trace element measurements, mineralogical observations, and stable isotope measurements of hot spring fluids and precipitated carbonates. We synthesize the results into a conceptual geochemical model of the Surprise Valley geothermal system, and show that high-temperature (quartz, Na/K, Na/K/Ca) classical geothermometers fail to predict maximum subsurface temperatures because fluids re-equilibrated at progressively lower temperatures during outflow, including in the Lake City area. We propose a model where hot spring fluids originate as a mixture between a deep thermal brine and modern meteoric fluids, with a seasonally variable mixing ratio. The deep brine has deuterium values at least 3 to 4‰ lighter than any known groundwater or high-elevation snow previously measured in and adjacent to SV, suggesting it was recharged during the Pleistocene when meteoric fluids had lower deuterium values. The deuterium values and compositional characteristics of the deep brine have only been identified in thermal springs and

  10. Explanatory models of health and disease: surprises from within the former Soviet Union

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana I Andreeva

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Extract The review of anthropological theories as applied to public health by Jennifer J. Carroll (Carroll, 2013 published in this issue of TCPHEE made me recollect my first and most surprising discoveries of how differently same things can be understood in different parts of the world. Probably less unexpectedly, these impressions concern substance abuse and addiction behaviors, similarly to many examples deployed by Jennifer J. Carroll. The first of these events happened soon after the break-up of the Soviet Union when some of the most active people from the West rushed to discover what was going on behind the opening iron curtain. A director of an addiction clinic, who had just come into contact with a Dutch counterpart, invited me to join the collaboration and the innovation process he planned to launch. Being a participant of the exchange program started within this collaboration, I had an opportunity to discover how addictive behaviors were understood and explained in books (English, 1961; Kooyman, 1992; Viorst, 1986 recommended by the colleagues in the Netherlands and, as I could observe with my own eyes, addressed in everyday practice. This was a jaw-dropping contrast to what I learnt at the soviet medical university and some post-graduate courses, where all the diseases related to alcohol, tobacco, or drug abuse were considered predominantly a result of the substance intake. In the Soviet discourse, the intake itself was understood as 'willful and deliberate' or immoral behavior which, in some cases, was to be rectified in prison-like treatment facilities. In the West, quite oppositely, substance abuse was seen rather as a consequence of a constellation of life-course adversities thoroughly considered by developmental psychology. This approach was obviously deeply ingrained in how practitioners diagnosed and treated their patients.

  11. Metaproteomics of cellulose methanisation under thermophilic conditions reveals a surprisingly high proteolytic activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lü, Fan; Bize, Ariane; Guillot, Alain; Monnet, Véronique; Madigou, Céline; Chapleur, Olivier; Mazéas, Laurent; He, Pinjing; Bouchez, Théodore

    2014-01-01

    Cellulose is the most abundant biopolymer on Earth. Optimising energy recovery from this renewable but recalcitrant material is a key issue. The metaproteome expressed by thermophilic communities during cellulose anaerobic digestion was investigated in microcosms. By multiplying the analytical replicates (65 protein fractions analysed by MS/MS) and relying solely on public protein databases, more than 500 non-redundant protein functions were identified. The taxonomic community structure as inferred from the metaproteomic data set was in good overall agreement with 16S rRNA gene tag pyrosequencing and fluorescent in situ hybridisation analyses. Numerous functions related to cellulose and hemicellulose hydrolysis and fermentation catalysed by bacteria related to Caldicellulosiruptor spp. and Clostridium thermocellum were retrieved, indicating their key role in the cellulose-degradation process and also suggesting their complementary action. Despite the abundance of acetate as a major fermentation product, key methanogenesis enzymes from the acetoclastic pathway were not detected. In contrast, enzymes from the hydrogenotrophic pathway affiliated to Methanothermobacter were almost exclusively identified for methanogenesis, suggesting a syntrophic acetate oxidation process coupled to hydrogenotrophic methanogenesis. Isotopic analyses confirmed the high dominance of the hydrogenotrophic methanogenesis. Very surprising was the identification of an abundant proteolytic activity from Coprothermobacter proteolyticus strains, probably acting as scavenger and/or predator performing proteolysis and fermentation. Metaproteomics thus appeared as an efficient tool to unravel and characterise metabolic networks as well as ecological interactions during methanisation bioprocesses. More generally, metaproteomics provides direct functional insights at a limited cost, and its attractiveness should increase in the future as sequence databases are growing exponentially.

  12. [Fall from height--surprising autopsy diagnosis in primarily unclear initial situations].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schyma, Christian; Doberentz, Elke; Madea, Burkhard

    2012-01-01

    External post-mortem examination and first police assessments are often not consistent with subsequent autopsy results. This is all the more surprising the more serious the injuries found at autopsy are. Such discrepancies result especially from an absence of gross external injuries, as demonstrated by four examples. A 42-year-old, externally uninjured male was found at night time in a helpless condition in the street and died in spite of resuscitation. Autopsy showed severe polytrauma with traumatic brain injury and lesions of the thoracic and abdominal organs. A jump from the third floor was identified as the cause. At dawn, a twenty-year-old male was found dead on the grounds of the adjacent house. Because of the blood-covered head the police assumed a traumatic head injury by strike impact. The external examination revealed only abrasions on the forehead and to a minor extent on the back. At autopsy a midfacial fracture, a trauma of the thorax and abdomen and fractures of the spine and pelvis were detected. Afterwards investigations showed that the man, intoxicated by alcohol, had fallen from the flat roof of a multistoried house. A 77-year-old man was found unconscious on his terrace at day time; a cerebral seizure was assumed. He was transferred to emergency care where he died. The corpse was externally inconspicuous. Autopsy revealed serious traumatic injuries of the brain, thorax, abdomen and pelvis, which could be explained by a fall from the balcony. A 47-year-old homeless person without any external injuries was found dead in a barn. An alcohol intoxication was assumed. At autopsy severe injuries of the brain and cervical spine were found which were the result of a fall from a height of 5 m. On the basis of an external post-mortem examination alone gross blunt force trauma cannot be reliably excluded.

  13. Virtual Volatility, an Elementary New Concept with Surprising Stock Market Consequences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prange, Richard; Silva, A. Christian

    2006-03-01

    Textbook investors start by predicting the future price distribution, PDF, of a candidate stock (or portfolio) at horizon T, e.g. a year hence. A (log)normal PDF with center (=drift =expected return) μT and width (=volatility) σT is often assumed on Central Limit Theorem grounds, i.e. by a random walk of daily (log)price increments δs. The standard deviation, stdev, of historical (ex post) δs `s is usually a fair predictor of the coming year's (ex ante) stdev(δs) = σdaily, but the historical mean E(δs) at best roughly limits the true, to be predicted, drift by μtrueT˜ μhistT ± σhistT. Textbooks take a PDF with σ ˜ σdaily and μ as somehow known, as if accurate predictions of μ were possible. It is elementary and presumably new to argue that an average of PDF's over a range of μ values should be taken, e.g. an average over forecasts by different analysts. We estimate that this leads to a PDF with a `virtual' volatility σ ˜ 1.3σdaily. It is indeed clear that uncertainty in the value of the expected gain parameter increases the risk of investment in that security by most measures, e. g. Sharpe's ratio μT/σT will be 30% smaller because of this effect. It is significant and surprising that there are investments which benefit from this 30% virtual increase in the volatility

  14. Technological monitoring radar: a weak signals interpretation tool for the identification of strategic surprises

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adalton Ozaki

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available In the current competitive scenario, marked by rapid and constant changes, it is vital that companies actively monitor the business environment, in search of signs which might anticipate changes. This study poses to propose and discuss a tool called Technological Monitoring Radar, which endeavours to address the following query: “How can a company systematically monitor the environment and capture signs that anticipate opportunities and threats concerning a particular technology?”. The literature review covers Competitive Intelligence, Technological Intelligence, Environmental Analysis and Anticipative Monitoring. Based on the critical analysis of the literature, a tool called Technological Monitoring Radar is proposed comprising five environments to be monitored (political, economical, technological, social and competition each of which with key topics for analysis. To exemplify the use of the tool, it is applied to the smartphone segment in an exclusively reflexive manner, and without the participation of a specific company. One of the suggestions for future research is precisely the application of the proposed methodology in an actual company. Despite the limitation of this being a theoretical study, the example demonstrated the tool´s applicability. The radar prove to be very useful for a company that needs to monitor the environment in search of signs of change. This study´s main contribution is to relate different fields of study (technological intelligence, environmental analysis and anticipative monitoring and different approaches to provide a practical tool that allows a manager to identify and better visualize opportunities and threats, thus avoiding strategic surprises in the technological arena.Key words: Technological monitoring. Technological intelligence. Competitive intelligence. Weak signals.

  15. The genome of Pelobacter carbinolicus reveals surprising metabolic capabilities and physiological features

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aklujkar, Muktak [University of Massachusetts, Amherst; Haveman, Shelley [University of Massachusetts, Amherst; DiDonatoJr, Raymond [University of Massachusetts, Amherst; Chertkov, Olga [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Han, Cliff [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Land, Miriam L [ORNL; Brown, Peter [University of Massachusetts, Amherst; Lovley, Derek [University of Massachusetts, Amherst

    2012-01-01

    Background: The bacterium Pelobacter carbinolicus is able to grow by fermentation, syntrophic hydrogen/formate transfer, or electron transfer to sulfur from short-chain alcohols, hydrogen or formate; it does not oxidize acetate and is not known to ferment any sugars or grow autotrophically. The genome of P. carbinolicus was sequenced in order to understand its metabolic capabilities and physiological features in comparison with its relatives, acetate-oxidizing Geobacter species. Results: Pathways were predicted for catabolism of known substrates: 2,3-butanediol, acetoin, glycerol, 1,2-ethanediol, ethanolamine, choline and ethanol. Multiple isozymes of 2,3-butanediol dehydrogenase, ATP synthase and [FeFe]-hydrogenase were differentiated and assigned roles according to their structural properties and genomic contexts. The absence of asparagine synthetase and the presence of a mutant tRNA for asparagine encoded among RNA-active enzymes suggest that P. carbinolicus may make asparaginyl-tRNA in a novel way. Catabolic glutamate dehydrogenases were discovered, implying that the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle can function catabolically. A phosphotransferase system for uptake of sugars was discovered, along with enzymes that function in 2,3-butanediol production. Pyruvate: ferredoxin/flavodoxin oxidoreductase was identified as a potential bottleneck in both the supply of oxaloacetate for oxidation of acetate by the TCA cycle and the connection of glycolysis to production of ethanol. The P. carbinolicus genome was found to encode autotransporters and various appendages, including three proteins with similarity to the geopilin of electroconductive nanowires. Conclusions: Several surprising metabolic capabilities and physiological features were predicted from the genome of P. carbinolicus, suggesting that it is more versatile than anticipated.

  16. A surprisingly simple correlation between the classical and quantum structural networks in liquid water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamm, Peter; Fanourgakis, George S.; Xantheas, Sotiris S.

    2017-08-01

    Nuclear quantum effects in liquid water have profound implications for several of its macroscopic properties related to the structure, dynamics, spectroscopy, and transport. Although several of water's macroscopic properties can be reproduced by classical descriptions of the nuclei using interaction potentials effectively parameterized for a narrow range of its phase diagram, a proper account of the nuclear quantum effects is required to ensure that the underlying molecular interactions are transferable across a wide temperature range covering different regions of that diagram. When performing an analysis of the hydrogen-bonded structural networks in liquid water resulting from the classical (class) and quantum (qm) descriptions of the nuclei with two interaction potentials that are at the two opposite ends of the range in describing quantum effects, namely the flexible, pair-wise additive q-TIP4P/F, and the flexible, polarizable TTM3-F, we found that the (class) and (qm) results can be superimposed over the temperature range T = 250-350 K using a surprisingly simple, linear scaling of the two temperatures according to T(qm) = α T(class) + ΔT, where α = 0.99 and ΔT = -6 K for q-TIP4P/F and α = 1.24 and ΔT = -64 K for TTM3-F. This simple relationship suggests that the structural networks resulting from the quantum and classical treatment of the nuclei with those two very different interaction potentials are essentially similar to each other over this extended temperature range once a model-dependent linear temperature scaling law is applied.

  17. A post-genomic surprise. The molecular reinscription of race in science, law and medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duster, Troy

    2015-03-01

    The completion of the first draft of the Human Genome Map in 2000 was widely heralded as the promise and future of genetics-based medicines and therapies - so much so that pundits began referring to the new century as 'The Century of Genetics'. Moreover, definitive assertions about the overwhelming similarities of all humans' DNA (99.9 per cent) by the leaders of the Human Genome Project were trumpeted as the end of racial thinking about racial taxonomies of human genetic differences. But the first decade of the new century brought unwelcomed surprises. First, gene therapies turned out to be far more complicated than any had anticipated - and instead the pharmaceutical industry turned to a focus on drugs that might be 'related' to population differences based upon genetic markers. While the language of 'personalized medicine' dominated this frame, research on racially and ethnically designated populations differential responsiveness to drugs dominated the empirical work in the field. Ancestry testing and 'admixture research' would play an important role in a new kind of molecular reification of racial categories. Moreover, the capacity of the super-computer to map differences reverberated into personal identification that would affect both the criminal justice system and forensic science, and generate new levels of concern about personal privacy. Social scientists in general, and sociologists in particular, have been caught short by these developments - relying mainly on assertions that racial categories are socially constructed, regionally and historically contingent, and politically arbitrary. While these assertions are true, the imprimatur of scientific legitimacy has shifted the burden, since now 'admixture research' can claim that its results get at the 'reality' of human differentiation, not the admittedly flawed social constructions of racial categories. Yet what was missing from this framing of the problem: 'admixture research' is itself based upon socially

  18. Modern Sedimentation along the SE Bangladesh Coast Reveal Surprisingly Low Accumulation Rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    McHugh, C.; Mustaque, S.; Mondal, D. R.; Akhter, S. H.; Iqbal, M.

    2016-12-01

    Recent sediments recovered along the SE coast of Bangladesh, from Teknaf to Cox's Bazar and drainage basin analyses reveal sediment sources and very low sedimentation rates of 1mm/year. These low rates are surprisingly low given that this coast is adjacent to the Ganges-Brahmaputra Delta with a yearly discharge of 1GT. The Teknaf anticline (elevation 200 m), part of the western Burma fold-thrust belt dominates the topography extending across and along the Teknaf peninsula. It is thought to have begun evolving since the Miocene (Alam et al. 2003 & Allen et al. 2008). Presently the anticline foothills on the west are flanked by uplifted terraces, the youngest linked to coseismic displacement during the 1762 earthquake (Mondal et al. 2015), and a narrow beach 60-200 m in width. Petrography, semi-quantitative bulk mineralogy and SEM/EDX analyses were conducted on sediments recovered along the west coast from 1-4 m deep trenches and three 4-8 m deep drill holes. GIS mapping of drainage basins and quartz-feldspar-lithic (QFL) ternary plots based on grain counting show mixing of sediments from multiple sources: Himalayan provenance of metamorphic and igneous origin (garnet-mostly almandine, tourmaline, rutile, kyanite, zircon, sillimanite and clinopyroxene) similar to Uddin et al. (2007); Brahmaputra provenance of igneous and metamorphic origin (amphibole, epidote, plagioclase 40% Na and 60% Ca, apatite, ilmenite, magnetite, Cr-spinel and garnet-mostly grossular,) as indicated by Garzanti et al. (2010) & Rahman et al. (2016) and Burmese sources (cassiterite and wolframite) (Zaw 1990 & Searle et al. 2007). Low sedimentation rates are the result of two main factors: 1. Strong longshore currents from the south-east that interact with high tidal ranges as evidenced by the morphology of sand waves and ridge and runnel landforms along the beach. 2. Streams draining the Teknaf anticline are dry during the winter and during summer monsoon rains, the sediments bypass the narrow

  19. The Most Distant Mature Galaxy Cluster - Young, but surprisingly grown-up

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-01

    Astronomers have used an armada of telescopes on the ground and in space, including the Very Large Telescope at ESO's Paranal Observatory in Chile to discover and measure the distance to the most remote mature cluster of galaxies yet found. Although this cluster is seen when the Universe was less than one quarter of its current age it looks surprisingly similar to galaxy clusters in the current Universe. "We have measured the distance to the most distant mature cluster of galaxies ever found", says the lead author of the study in which the observations from ESO's VLT have been used, Raphael Gobat (CEA, Paris). "The surprising thing is that when we look closely at this galaxy cluster it doesn't look young - many of the galaxies have settled down and don't resemble the usual star-forming galaxies seen in the early Universe." Clusters of galaxies are the largest structures in the Universe that are held together by gravity. Astronomers expect these clusters to grow through time and hence that massive clusters would be rare in the early Universe. Although even more distant clusters have been seen, they appear to be young clusters in the process of formation and are not settled mature systems. The international team of astronomers used the powerful VIMOS and FORS2 instruments on ESO's Very Large Telescope (VLT) to measure the distances to some of the blobs in a curious patch of very faint red objects first observed with the Spitzer space telescope. This grouping, named CL J1449+0856 [1], had all the hallmarks of being a very remote cluster of galaxies [2]. The results showed that we are indeed seeing a galaxy cluster as it was when the Universe was about three billion years old - less than one quarter of its current age [3]. Once the team knew the distance to this very rare object they looked carefully at the component galaxies using both the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope and ground-based telescopes, including the VLT. They found evidence suggesting that most of the

  20. Cloud Surprises Discovered in Moving NASA EOSDIS Applications into Amazon Web Services… and #6 Will Shock You!

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLaughlin, B. D.; Pawloski, A. W.

    2017-12-01

    NASA ESDIS has been moving a variety of data ingest, distribution, and science data processing applications into a cloud environment over the last 2 years. As expected, there have been a number of challenges in migrating primarily on-premises applications into a cloud-based environment, related to architecture and taking advantage of cloud-based services. What was not expected is a number of issues that were beyond purely technical application re-architectures. From surprising network policy limitations, billing challenges in a government-based cost model, and obtaining certificates in an NASA security-compliant manner to working with multiple applications in a shared and resource-constrained AWS account, these have been the relevant challenges in taking advantage of a cloud model. And most surprising of all… well, you'll just have to wait and see the "gotcha" that caught our entire team off guard!

  1. The influence of psychological resilience on the relation between automatic stimulus evaluation and attentional breadth for surprised faces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grol, Maud; De Raedt, Rudi

    2015-01-01

    The broaden-and-build theory relates positive emotions to resilience and cognitive broadening. The theory proposes that the broadening effects underly the relation between positive emotions and resilience, suggesting that resilient people can benefit more from positive emotions at the level of cognitive functioning. Research has investigated the influence of positive emotions on attentional broadening, but the stimulus in the target of attention may also influence attentional breadth, depending on affective stimulus evaluation. Surprised faces are particularly interesting as they are valence ambiguous, therefore, we investigated the relation between affective evaluation--using an affective priming task--and attentional breadth for surprised faces, and how this relation is influenced by resilience. Results show that more positive evaluations are related to more attentional broadening at high levels of resilience, while this relation is reversed at low levels. This indicates that resilient individuals can benefit more from attending to positively evaluated stimuli at the level of attentional broadening.

  2. Team play with a powerful and independent agent: operational experiences and automation surprises on the Airbus A-320

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarter, N. B.; Woods, D. D.

    1997-01-01

    Research and operational experience have shown that one of the major problems with pilot-automation interaction is a lack of mode awareness (i.e., the current and future status and behavior of the automation). As a result, pilots sometimes experience so-called automation surprises when the automation takes an unexpected action or fails to behave as anticipated. A lack of mode awareness and automation surprises can he viewed as symptoms of a mismatch between human and machine properties and capabilities. Changes in automation design can therefore he expected to affect the likelihood and nature of problems encountered by pilots. Previous studies have focused exclusively on early generation "glass cockpit" aircraft that were designed based on a similar automation philosophy. To find out whether similar difficulties with maintaining mode awareness are encountered on more advanced aircraft, a corpus of automation surprises was gathered from pilots of the Airbus A-320, an aircraft characterized by high levels of autonomy, authority, and complexity. To understand the underlying reasons for reported breakdowns in human-automation coordination, we also asked pilots about their monitoring strategies and their experiences with and attitude toward the unique design of flight controls on this aircraft.

  3. Communication Management and Trust: Their Role in Building Resilience to "Surprises" Such As Natural Disasters, Pandemic Flu, and Terrorism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. H. Longstaff

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available In times of public danger such as natural disasters and health emergencies, a country's communication systems will be some of its most important assets because access to information will make individuals and groups more resilient. Communication by those charged with dealing with the situation is often critical. We analyzed reports from a wide variety of crisis incidents and found a direct correlation between trust and an organization's preparedness and internal coordination of crisis communication and the effectiveness of its leadership. Thus, trust is one of the most important variables in effective communication management in times of "surprise."

  4. Surprising finding on colonoscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griglione, Nicole; Naik, Jahnavi; Christie, Jennifer

    2010-02-01

    A 48-year-old man went to his primary care physician for his annual physical. He told his physician that for the past few years, he had intermittent, painless rectal bleeding consisting of small amounts of blood on the toilet paper after defecation. He also mentioned that he often spontaneously awoke, very early in the morning. His past medical history was unremarkable. The patient was born in Cuba but had lived in the United States for more than 30 years. He was divorced, lived alone, and had no children. He had traveled to Latin America-including Mexico, Brazil, and Cuba-off and on over the past 10 years. His last trip was approximately 2 years ago. His physical exam was unremarkable. Rectal examination revealed no masses or external hemorrhoids; stool was brown and Hemoccult negative. Labs were remarkable for eosinophilia ranging from 10% to 24% over the past several years (the white blood cell count ranged from 5200 to 5900/mcL). A subsequent colonoscopy revealed many white, thin, motile organisms dispersed throughout the colon. The organisms were most densely populated in the cecum. Of note, the patient also had nonbleeding internal hemorrhoids. An aspiration of the organisms was obtained and sent to the microbiology lab for further evaluation. What is your diagnosis? How would you manage this condition?

  5. Surprising quantum bounces

    CERN Document Server

    Nesvizhevsky, Valery

    2015-01-01

    This unique book demonstrates the undivided unity and infinite diversity of quantum mechanics using a single phenomenon: quantum bounces of ultra-cold particles. Various examples of such "quantum bounces" are: gravitational quantum states of ultra-cold neutrons (the first observed quantum states of matter in a gravitational field), the neutron whispering gallery (an observed matter-wave analog of the whispering gallery effect well known in acoustics and for electromagnetic waves), and gravitational and whispering gallery states for anti-matter atoms that remain to be observed. These quantum states are an invaluable tool in the search for additional fundamental short-range forces, for exploring the gravitational interaction and quantum effects of gravity, for probing physics beyond the standard model, and for furthering studies into the foundations of quantum mechanics, quantum optics, and surface science.

  6. More Supernova Surprises

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-24

    originated in South America. E veryone appreciates the beauty of dai- sies, chrysanthemums, and sunfl ow- ers, and many of us enjoy eating lettuce ...few fossils. On page 1621 of this issue, Barreda et al. ( 1) describe an unusually well-preserved new fossil that sheds light on the history of

  7. Surprising radiation detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Fleischer, Robert

    2003-01-01

    Radiation doses received by the human body can be measured indirectly and retrospectively by counting the tracks left by particles in ordinary objects like pair of spectacles, glassware, compact disks...This method has been successfully applied to determine neutron radiation doses received 50 years ago on the Hiroshima site. Neutrons themselves do not leave tracks in bulk matter but glass contains atoms of uranium that may fission when hurt by a neutron, the recoil of the fission fragments generates a track that is detectable. The most difficult is to find adequate glass items and to evaluate the radiation shield they benefited at their initial place. The same method has been used to determine the radiation dose due to the pile-up of radon in houses. In that case the tracks left by alpha particles due to the radioactive decay of polonium-210 have been counted on the superficial layer of the window panes. Other materials like polycarbonate plastics have been used to determine the radiation dose due to heavy io...

  8. More statistics, less surprise

    CERN Multimedia

    Antonella Del Rosso & the LHCb collaboration

    2013-01-01

    The LHCb collaboration has recently announced new results for a parameter that measures the CP violation effect in particles containing charm quarks. The new values obtained with a larger data set and with a new independent method are showing that the effect is smaller than previous measurements had  suggested. The parameter is back into the Standard Model picture.   CP violation signals – in particles containing charm quarks, such as the D0 particle, is a powerful probe of new physics. Indeed, such effects could result in unexpected values of parameters whose expectation values in the Standard Model are known. Although less precise than similar approaches used in particles made of b quarks, the investigation of the charm system has proven  to be intriguing. The LHCb collaboration has reported new measurements of ΔACP, the difference in CP violation between the D0→K+K– and D0→π+π– decays. The results are ob...

  9. Surprisingly high specificity of the PPD skin test for M. tuberculosis infection from recent exposure in The Gambia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Philip C; Brookes, Roger H; Fox, Annette; Jackson-Sillah, Dolly; Lugos, Moses D; Jeffries, David J; Donkor, Simon A; Adegbola, Richard A; McAdam, Keith P W J

    2006-12-20

    Options for intervention against Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection are limited by the diagnostic tools available. The Purified Protein Derivative (PPD) skin test is thought to be non-specific, especially in tropical settings. We compared the PPD skin test with an ELISPOT test in The Gambia. Household contacts over six months of age of sputum smear positive TB cases and community controls were recruited. They underwent a PPD skin test and an ELISPOT test for the T cell response to PPD and ESAT-6/CFP10 antigens. Responsiveness to M. tuberculosis exposure was analysed according to sleeping proximity to an index case using logistic regression. 615 household contacts and 105 community controls were recruited. All three tests assessed increased significantly in positivity with increasing M. tuberculosis exposure, the PPD skin test most dramatically (OR 15.7; 95% CI 6.6-35.3). While the PPD skin test positivity continued to trend downwards in the community with increasing distance from a known case (61.9% to 14.3%), the PPD and ESAT-6/CFP-10 ELISPOT positivity did not. The PPD skin test was more in agreement with ESAT-6/CFP-10 ELISPOT (75%, p = 0.01) than the PPD ELISPOT (53%, pPPD skin test positive increased (pPPD skin test negative decreased (pPPD skin test has surprisingly high specificity for M. tuberculosis infection from recent exposure in The Gambia. In this setting, anti-tuberculous prophylaxis in PPD skin test positive individuals should be revisited.

  10. Surprising transformation of a block copolymer into a high performance polystyrene ultrafiltration membrane with a hierarchically organized pore structure

    KAUST Repository

    Shevate, Rahul

    2018-02-08

    We describe the preparation of hierarchical polystyrene nanoporous membranes with a very narrow pore size distribution and an extremely high porosity. The nanoporous structure is formed as a result of unusual degradation of the poly(4-vinyl pyridine) block from self-assembled poly(styrene)-b-poly(4-vinyl pyridine) (PS-b-P4VP) membranes through the formation of an unstable pyridinium intermediate in an alkaline medium. During this process, the confined swelling and controlled degradation produced a tunable pore size. We unequivocally confirmed the successful elimination of the P4VP block from a PS-b-P4VPVP membrane using 1D/2D NMR spectroscopy and other characterization techniques. Surprisingly, the long range ordered surface porosity was preserved even after degradation of the P4VP block from the main chain of the diblock copolymer, as revealed by SEM. Aside from a drastically improved water flux (∼67% increase) compared to the PS-b-P4VP membrane, the hydraulic permeability measurements validated pH independent behaviour of the isoporous PS membrane over a wide pH range from 3 to 10. The effect of the pore size on protein transport rate and selectivity (a) was investigated for lysozyme (Lys), bovine serum albumin (BSA) and globulin-γ (IgG). A high selectivity of 42 (Lys/IgG) and 30 (BSA/IgG) was attained, making the membranes attractive for size selective separation of biomolecules from their synthetic model mixture solutions.

  11. How to reach clients of female sex workers: a survey by surprise in brothels in Dakar, Senegal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espirito Santo, M. E. Gomes do; Etheredge, G. D.

    2002-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To describe the sampling techniques and survey procedures used in identifying male clients who frequent brothels to buy sexual services from female sex workers in Dakar, Senegal, with the aim of measuring the prevalence of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection and investigating related risk behaviours. METHODS: Surveys were conducted in seven brothels in Dakar, Senegal. Clients were identified "by surprise" and interviewed and requested to donate saliva for HIV testing. RESULTS: Of the 1450 clients of prostitutes who were solicited to enter the study, 1140 (79.8%) agreed to be interviewed; 1083 (95%) of these clients provided saliva samples for testing. Of the samples tested, 47 were positive for HIV-1 or HIV-2, giving an HIV prevalence of 4.4%. CONCLUSION: The procedures adopted were successful in reaching the target population. Men present in the brothels could not deny being there, and it proved possible to explain the purpose of the study and to gain their confidence. Collection of saliva samples was shown to be an excellent method for performing HIV testing in difficult field conditions where it is hard to gain access to the population under study. The surveying of prostitution sites is recommended as a means of identifying core groups for HIV infection with a view to targeting education programmes more effectively. In countries such as Senegal, where the prevalence of HIV infection is still low, interventions among commercial sex workers and their clients may substantially delay the onset of a larger epidemic in the general population. PMID:12378288

  12. The Impact of a Surprise Dividend Increase on a Stocks Performance : the Analysis of Companies Listed on the Warsaw Stock Exchange

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomasz Słoński

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The reaction of marginal investors to the announcement of a surprise dividend increase has been measured. Although field research is performed on companies listed on the Warsaw Stock Exchange, the paper has important theoretical implications. Valuation theory gives many clues for the interpretation of changes in dividends. At the start of the literature review, the assumption of the irrelevance of dividends (to investment decisions is described. This assumption is the basis for up-to-date valuation procedures leading to fundamental and fair market valuation of equity (shares. The paper is designed to verify whether the market value of stock is immune to the surprise announcement of a dividend increase. This study of the effect of a surprise dividend increase gives the chance to partially isolate such an event from dividend changes based on long-term expectations. The result of the research explicitly shows that a surprise dividend increase is on average welcomed by investors (an average abnormal return of 2.24% with an associated p-value of 0.001. Abnormal returns are realized by investors when there is a surprise increase in a dividend payout. The subsample of relatively high increases in a dividend payout enables investors to gain a 3.2% return on average. The results show that valuation models should be revised to take into account a possible impact of dividend changes on investors behavior. (original abstract

  13. A new in vivo model of pantothenate kinase-associated neurodegeneration reveals a surprising role for transcriptional regulation in pathogenesis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Varun ePandey

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Pantothenate Kinase-Associated Neurodegeneration (PKAN is a neurodegenerative disorder with a poorly understood molecular mechanism. It is caused by mutations in Pantothenate Kinase, the first enzyme in the Coenzyme A (CoA biosynthetic pathway. Here, we developed a Drosophila model of PKAN (tim-fbl flies that allows us to continuously monitor the modeled disease in the brain. In tim-fbl flies, downregulation of fumble, the Drosophila PanK homologue in the cells containing a circadian clock results in characteristic features of PKAN such as developmental lethality, hypersensitivity to oxidative stress, and diminished life span. Despite quasi-normal circadian transcriptional rhythms, tim-fbl flies display brain-specific aberrant circadian locomotor rhythms, and a unique transcriptional signature. Comparison with expression data from flies exposed to paraquat demonstrates that, as previously suggested, pathways others than oxidative stress are affected by PANK downregulation. Surprisingly we found a significant decrease in the expression of key components of the photoreceptor recycling pathways, which could lead to retinal degeneration, a hallmark of PKAN. Importantly, these defects are not accompanied by changes in structural components in eye genes suggesting that changes in gene expression in the eye precede and may cause the retinal degeneration. Indeed tim-fbl flies have diminished response to light transitions, and their altered day/night patterns of activity demonstrates defects in light perception. This suggest that retinal lesions are not solely due to oxidative stress and demonstrates a role for the transcriptional response to CoA deficiency underlying the defects observed in dPanK deficient flies. Moreover, in the present study we developed a new fly model that can be applied to other diseases and that allows the assessment of neurodegeneration in the brains of living flies.

  14. Semantic relation vs. surprise: the differential effects of related and unrelated co-verbal gestures on neural encoding and subsequent recognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Straube, Benjamin; Meyer, Lea; Green, Antonia; Kircher, Tilo

    2014-06-03

    Speech-associated gesturing leads to memory advantages for spoken sentences. However, unexpected or surprising events are also likely to be remembered. With this study we test the hypothesis that different neural mechanisms (semantic elaboration and surprise) lead to memory advantages for iconic and unrelated gestures. During fMRI-data acquisition participants were presented with video clips of an actor verbalising concrete sentences accompanied by iconic gestures (IG; e.g., circular gesture; sentence: "The man is sitting at the round table"), unrelated free gestures (FG; e.g., unrelated up down movements; same sentence) and no gestures (NG; same sentence). After scanning, recognition performance for the three conditions was tested. Videos were evaluated regarding semantic relation and surprise by a different group of participants. The semantic relationship between speech and gesture was rated higher for IG (IG>FG), whereas surprise was rated higher for FG (FG>IG). Activation of the hippocampus correlated with subsequent memory performance of both gesture conditions (IG+FG>NG). For the IG condition we found activation in the left temporal pole and middle cingulate cortex (MCC; IG>FG). In contrast, for the FG condition posterior thalamic structures (FG>IG) as well as anterior and posterior cingulate cortices were activated (FG>NG). Our behavioral and fMRI-data suggest different mechanisms for processing related and unrelated co-verbal gestures, both of them leading to enhanced memory performance. Whereas activation in MCC and left temporal pole for iconic co-verbal gestures may reflect semantic memory processes, memory enhancement for unrelated gestures relies on the surprise response, mediated by anterior/posterior cingulate cortex and thalamico-hippocampal structures. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Would you be surprised if this patient died?: Preliminary exploration of first and second year residents' approach to care decisions in critically ill patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Armstrong John D

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background How physicians approach decision-making when caring for critically ill patients is poorly understood. This study aims to explore how residents think about prognosis and approach care decisions when caring for seriously ill, hospitalized patients. Methods Qualitative study where we conducted structured discussions with first and second year internal medicine residents (n = 8 caring for critically ill patients during Medical Intensive Care Unit Ethics and Discharge Planning Rounds. Residents were asked to respond to questions beginning with "Would you be surprised if this patient died?" Results An equal number of residents responded that they would (n = 4 or would not (n = 4 be surprised if their patient died. Reasons for being surprised included the rapid onset of an acute illness, reversible disease, improving clinical course and the patient's prior survival under similar circumstances. Residents reported no surprise with worsening clinical course. Based on the realization that their patient might die, residents cited potential changes in management that included clarifying treatment goals, improving communication with families, spending more time with patients and ordering fewer laboratory tests. Perceived or implied barriers to changes in management included limited time, competing clinical priorities, "not knowing" a patient, limited knowledge and experience, presence of diagnostic or prognostic uncertainty and unclear treatment goals. Conclusions These junior-level residents appear to rely on clinical course, among other factors, when assessing prognosis and the possibility for death in severely ill patients. Further investigation is needed to understand how these factors impact decision-making and whether perceived barriers to changes in patient management influence approaches to care.

  16. On predicting quantal cross sections by interpolation: Surprisal analysis of j/sub z/CCS and statistical j/sub z/ results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goldflam, R.; Kouri, D.J.

    1976-01-01

    New methods for predicting the full matrix of integral cross sections are developed by combining the surprisal analysis of Bernstein and Levine with the j/sub z/-conserving coupled states method (j/sub z/CCS) of McGuire, Kouri, and Pack and with the statistical j/sub z/ approximation (Sj/sub z/) of Kouri, Shimoni, and Heil. A variety of approaches is possible and only three are studied in the present work. These are (a) a surprisal fit of the j=0→j' column of the j/sub z/CCS cross section matrix (thereby requiring only a solution of the lambda=0 set of j/sub z/CCS equations), (b) a surprisal fit of the lambda-bar=0 Sj/sub z/ cross section matrix (again requiring solution of the lambda=0 set of j/sub z/CCS equations only), and (c) a surprisal fit of a lambda-bar not equal to 0 Sj/sub z/ submatrix (involving input cross sections for j,j'> or =lambda-bar transitions only). The last approach requires the solution of the lambda=lambda-bar set of j/sub z/CCS equations only, which requires less computation effort than the effective potential method. We explore three different choices for the prior and two-parameter (i.e., linear) and three-parameter (i.e., parabolic) fits as applied to Ar--N 2 collisions. The results are in general very encouraging and for one choice of prior give results which are within 20% of the exact j/sub z/CCS results

  17. ‘Surprise’: Outbreak of Campylobacter infection associated with chicken liver pâté at a surprise birthday party, Adelaide, Australia, 2012

    OpenAIRE

    Emma Denehy; Amy Parry; Emily Fearnley

    2012-01-01

    Objective: In July 2012, an outbreak of Campylobacter infection was investigated by the South Australian Communicable Disease Control Branch and Food Policy and Programs Branch. The initial notification identified illness at a surprise birthday party held at a restaurant on 14 July 2012. The objective of the investigation was to identify the potential source of infection and institute appropriate intervention strategies to prevent further illness.Methods: A guest list was obtained and a retro...

  18. Surpresa refrativa pós-facoemulsificação em distrofia corneana posterior amorfa Post-phacoemulsification refractive surprise in a posterior amorphous corneal dystrophy patient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuliano de Oliveira Freitas

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Relato de um caso de surpresa refracional pós-operatória não pretendida em paciente portador de distrofia corneana posterior amorfa submetida à facoemulsificação. A provável causa do erro, bem como a conduta tomada a partir do reconhecimento da mesma, são discutidas neste relato.One case of post-phacoemulsification refractive surprise in a posterior amorphous corneal dystrophy patient is reported herein. Its likely causative factor, as well as our approach once it was recognized are discussed in this report.

  19. Centrifugal force: a few surprises

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abramowicz, M.A.; Max-Planck-Institut fuer Physik und Astrophysik, Garching

    1990-01-01

    The need for a rather fundamental revision in understanding of the nature of the centrifugal force is discussed. It is shown that in general relativity (and contrary to the situation in Newtonian theory) rotation of a reference frame is a necessary but not sufficient condition for the centrifugal force to appear. A sufficient condition for its appearance, in the instantaneously corotating reference frame of a particle, is that the particle motion in space (observed in the global rest frame) differs from a photon trajectory. The direction of the force is the same as that of the gradient of the effective potential for photon motion. In some cases, the centrifugal force will attract towards the axis of rotation. (author)

  20. Cartel surprised by quota reduction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Debnar, M.

    2003-01-01

    Development of world prices of petroleum in April - September 2003 are analysed. OPEC accepted a decision to lower oil production in 900 thousands barrels per day to 24.5 millions barrels per day from 1 November 2003. Although Russian Federation reports higher oil production every month, it does not represent danger for OPEC for the present. Problem is to import the oil. Situation will change dramatically from 2008. Russian Federation plans anyway to build gigantic pipeline to Murmansk port in Barents Sea. Thanks to it Russian oil export to USA should sharply extend. It was reported by Russian Minister of economy German Gref with note that construction of pipeline is priority for Russian Federation, which wants to diversification its oil export from traditional Europe. Project of pipeline construction from Western Siberia to deep water of Murmansk terminal was published by five oil companies leaded by Lukoil and Yukos already at the end of last year. Pipeline should cost 4 billions USD and it should transport up to 2.4 millions barrels of oil per day. In the meantime Caspian oil should start to flow to Europe

  1. Conversation Simulation and Sensible Surprises

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutchens, Jason L.

    I have entered the Loebner Prize five times, winning the "most humanlike program" category in 1996 with a surly ELIZA-clone named HeX, but failed to repeat the performance in subsequent years with more sophisticated techniques. Whether this is indicative of an unanticipated improvement in "conversation simulation" technology, or whether it highlights the strengths of ELIZA-style trickery, is as an exercise for the reader. In 2000, I was invited to assume the role of Chief Scientist at Artificial Intelligence Ltd. (Ai) on a project inspired by the advice given by Alan Turing in the final section of his classic paper - our quest was to build a "child machine" that could learn and use language from scratch. In this chapter, I will discuss both of these experiences, presenting my thoughts regarding the Chinese Room argument and Artificial Intelligence (AI) in between.

  2. Some new surprises in chaos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bunimovich, Leonid A; Vela-Arevalo, Luz V

    2015-09-01

    "Chaos is found in greatest abundance wherever order is being sought.It always defeats order, because it is better organized"Terry PratchettA brief review is presented of some recent findings in the theory of chaotic dynamics. We also prove a statement that could be naturally considered as a dual one to the Poincaré theorem on recurrences. Numerical results demonstrate that some parts of the phase space of chaotic systems are more likely to be visited earlier than other parts. A new class of chaotic focusing billiards is discussed that clearly violates the main condition considered to be necessary for chaos in focusing billiards.

  3. Experimental results surprise quantum theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    White, C.

    1986-01-01

    Interest in results from Darmstadt that positron-electron pairs are created in nuclei with high atomic numbers (in the Z range from 180-188) lies in the occurrence of a quantized positron kinetic energy peak at 300. The results lend substance to the contention of Erich Bagge that the traditionally accepted symmetries in positron-electron emission do not exist and, therefore, there is no need to posit the existence of the neutrino. The search is on for the decay of a previously unknown boson to account for the findings, which also points to the need for a major revision in quantum theory. 1 figure

  4. Surprises and omissions in toxicology

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Rašková, H.; Zídek, Zdeněk

    2004-01-01

    Roč. 12, - (2004), S94-S96 ISSN 1210-7778. [Inderdisciplinary Czech-Slovak Toxicological Conference /8./. Praha, 03.09.2004-05.09.2004] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5008914 Keywords : bacterial toxins Subject RIV: FR - Pharmacology ; Medidal Chemistry

  5. A review of the Nearctic genus Prostoia (Ricker) (Plecoptera, Nemouridae), with the description of a new species and a surprising range extension for P. hallasi Kondratieff & Kirchner.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grubbs, Scott A; Baumann, Richard W; DeWalt, R Edward; Tweddale, Tari

    2014-01-01

    The Nearctic genus Prostoia (Plecoptera: Nemouridae) is reviewed. Prostoia ozarkensis sp. n. is described from the male and female adult stages mainly from the Interior Highland region encompassing portions of Arkansas, Missouri, and Oklahoma. Prostoia ozarkensis sp. n. appears most closely related to two species, one distributed broadly across the western Nearctic region, P. besametsa (Ricker), and one found widely throughout the central and eastern Nearctic regions, P. completa (Walker). A surprising range extension is noted for P. hallasi Kondratieff & Kirchner, a species once known only from the Great Dismal Swamp, from small upland streams in southern Illinois. Additional new state records are documented for P. besametsa, P. completa, P. hallasi and P. similis (Hagen). Taxonomic keys to Prostoia males and females are provided, and scanning electron micrographs of adult genitalia of all species are given.

  6. Crystal structure of di-μ-chlorido-bis[dichloridobis(methanol-κOiridium(III] dihydrate: a surprisingly simple chloridoiridium(III dinuclear complex with methanol ligands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph S. Merola

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The reaction between IrCl3·xH2O in methanol led to the formation of small amounts of the title compound, [Ir2Cl6(CH3OH4]·2H2O, which consists of two IrCl4O2 octahedra sharing an edge via chloride bridges. The molecule lies across an inversion center. Each octahedron can be envisioned as being comprised of four chloride ligands in the equatorial plane with methanol ligands in the axial positions. A lattice water molecule is strongly hydrogen-bonded to the coordinating methanol ligands and weak interactions with coordinating chloride ligands lead to the formation of a three-dimensional network. This is a surprising structure given that, while many reactions of iridium chloride hydrate are carried out in alcoholic solvents, especially methanol and ethanol, this is the first structure of a chloridoiridium compound with only methanol ligands.

  7. ‘Surprise’: Outbreak of Campylobacter infection associated with chicken liver pâté at a surprise birthday party, Adelaide, Australia, 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fearnley, Emily; Denehy, Emma

    2012-01-01

    Objective In July 2012, an outbreak of Campylobacter infection was investigated by the South Australian Communicable Disease Control Branch and Food Policy and Programs Branch. The initial notification identified illness at a surprise birthday party held at a restaurant on 14 July 2012. The objective of the investigation was to identify the potential source of infection and institute appropriate intervention strategies to prevent further illness. Methods A guest list was obtained and a retrospective cohort study undertaken. A combination of paper-based and telephone questionnaires were used to collect exposure and outcome information. An environmental investigation was conducted by Food Policy and Programs Branch at the implicated premises. Results All 57 guests completed the questionnaire (100% response rate), and 15 met the case definition. Analysis showed a significant association between illness and consumption of chicken liver pâté (relative risk: 16.7, 95% confidence interval: 2.4–118.6). No other food or beverage served at the party was associated with illness. Three guests submitted stool samples; all were positive for Campylobacter. The environmental investigation identified that the cooking process used in the preparation of chicken liver pâté may have been inconsistent, resulting in some portions not cooked adequately to inactivate potential Campylobacter contamination. Discussion Chicken liver products are a known source of Campylobacter infection; therefore, education of food handlers remains a high priority. To better identify outbreaks among the large number of Campylobacter notifications, routine typing of Campylobacter isolates is recommended. PMID:23908933

  8. Collaborative Resilience to Episodic Shocks and Surprises: A Very Long-Term Case Study of Zanjera Irrigation in the Philippines 1979–2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruth Yabes

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available This thirty-year case study uses surveys, semi-structured interviews, and content analysis to examine the adaptive capacity of Zanjera San Marcelino, an indigenous irrigation management system in the northern Philippines. This common pool resource (CPR system exists within a turbulent social-ecological system (SES characterized by episodic shocks such as large typhoons as well as novel surprises, such as national political regime change and the construction of large dams. The Zanjera nimbly responded to these challenges, although sometimes in ways that left its structure and function substantially altered. While a partial integration with the Philippine National Irrigation Agency was critical to the Zanjera’s success, this relationship required on-going improvisation and renegotiation. Over time, the Zanjera showed an increasing capacity to learn and adapt. A core contribution of this analysis is the integration of a CPR study within an SES framework to examine resilience, made possible the occurrence of a wide range of challenges to the Zanjera’s function and survival over the long period of study. Long-term analyses like this one, however rare, are particularly useful for understanding the adaptive and transformative dimensions of resilience.

  9. Surprisingly different star-spot distributions on the near equal-mass equal-rotation-rate stars in the M dwarf binary GJ 65 AB

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnes, J. R.; Jeffers, S. V.; Haswell, C. A.; Jones, H. R. A.; Shulyak, D.; Pavlenko, Ya. V.; Jenkins, J. S.

    2017-10-01

    We aim to understand how stellar parameters such as mass and rotation impact the distribution of star-spots on the stellar surface. To this purpose, we have used Doppler imaging to reconstruct the surface brightness distributions of three fully convective M dwarfs with similar rotation rates. We secured high cadence spectral time series observations of the 5.5 au separation binary GJ 65, comprising GJ 65A (M5.5V, Prot = 0.24 d) and GJ 65B (M6V, Prot = 0.23 d). We also present new observations of GJ 791.2A (M4.5V, Prot = 0.31 d). Observations of each star were made on two nights with UVES, covering a wavelength range from 0.64 - 1.03μm. The time series spectra reveal multiple line distortions that we interpret as cool star-spots and which are persistent on both nights suggesting stability on the time-scale of 3 d. Spots are recovered with resolutions down to 8.3° at the equator. The global spot distributions for GJ 791.2A are similar to observations made a year earlier. Similar high latitude and circumpolar spot structure is seen on GJ 791.2A and GJ 65A. However, they are surprisingly absent on GJ 65B, which instead reveals more extensive, larger, spots concentrated at intermediate latitudes. All three stars show small amplitude latitude-dependent rotation that is consistent with solid body rotation. We compare our measurements of differential rotation with previous Doppler imaging studies and discuss the results in the wider context of other observational estimates and recent theoretical predictions.

  10. ‘Surprise’: Outbreak of Campylobacter infection associated with chicken liver pâté at a surprise birthday party, Adelaide, Australia, 2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emma Denehy

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Objective: In July 2012, an outbreak of Campylobacter infection was investigated by the South Australian Communicable Disease Control Branch and Food Policy and Programs Branch. The initial notification identified illness at a surprise birthday party held at a restaurant on 14 July 2012. The objective of the investigation was to identify the potential source of infection and institute appropriate intervention strategies to prevent further illness.Methods: A guest list was obtained and a retrospective cohort study undertaken. A combination of paper-based and telephone questionnaires were used to collect exposure and outcome information. An environmental investigation was conducted by Food Policy and Programs Branch at the implicated premises.Results: All 57 guests completed the questionnaire (100% response rate, and 15 met the case definition. Analysis showed a significant association between illness and consumption of chicken liver pâté (relative risk: 16.7, 95% confidence interval: 2.4–118.6. No other food or beverage served at the party was associated with illness. Three guests submitted stool samples; all were positive for Campylobacter. The environmental investigation identified that the cooking process used in the preparation of chicken liver pâté may have been inconsistent, resulting in some portions not cooked adequately to inactivate potential Campylobacter contamination.Discussion: Chicken liver products are a known source of Campylobacter infection; therefore, education of food handlers remains a high priority. To better identify outbreaks among the large number of Campylobacter notifications, routine typing of Campylobacter isolates is recommended.

  11. Investor Reaction to Market Surprises on the Istanbul Stock Exchange Investor Reaction to Market Surprises on the Istanbul Stock Exchange = İstanbul Menkul Kıymetler Borsasında Piyasa Sürprizlerine Yatırımcı Tepkisi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yaman Ömer ERZURUMLU

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the reaction of investors to the arrival of unexpected information on the Istanbul Stock Exchange. The empirical results suggest that the investor reaction following unexpected news on the ISE100 is consistent with Overreaction Hypothesis especially after unfavorable market surprises. Interestingly such pattern does not exist for ISE30 index which includes more liquid and informationally efficient securities. A possible implication of this study for investors is that employing a semi contrarian investment strategy of buying losers in ISE100 may generate superior returns. Moreover, results are supportive of the last regulation change of Capital Market Board of Turkey which mandates more disclosure regarding the trading of less liquid stocks with lower market capitalization.

  12. The surprisingly small but increasing role of international agricultural trade on the European Union’s dependence on mineral phosphorus fertiliser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nesme, Thomas; Roques, Solène; Metson, Geneviève S.; Bennett, Elena M.

    2016-02-01

    Phosphorus (P) is subject to global management challenges due to its importance to both food security and water quality. The European Union (EU) has promoted policies to limit fertiliser over-application and protect water quality for more than 20 years, helping to reduce European P use. Over this time period, the EU has, however, become more reliant on imported agricultural products. These imported products require fertiliser to be used in distant countries to grow crops that will ultimately feed European people and livestock. As such, these imports represent a displacement of European P demand, possibly allowing Europe to decrease its apparent P footprint by moving P use to locations outside the EU. We investigated the effect of EU imports on the European P fertiliser footprint to better understand whether the EU’s decrease in fertiliser use over time resulted from P demand being ‘outsourced’ to other countries or whether it truly represented a decline in P demand. To do this, we quantified the ‘virtual P flow’ defined as the amount of mineral P fertiliser applied to agricultural soils in non-EU countries to support agricultural product imports to the EU. We found that the EU imported a virtual P flow of 0.55 Tg P/yr in 1995 that, surprisingly, decreased to 0.50 Tg P/yr in 2009. These results were contrary to our hypothesis that trade increases would be used to help the EU reduce its domestic P fertiliser use by outsourcing its P footprint abroad. Still, the contribution of virtual P flows to the total P footprint of the EU has increased by 40% from 1995 to 2009 due to a dramatic decrease in domestic P fertiliser use in Europe: in 1995, virtual P was equivalent to 32% of the P used as fertiliser domestically to support domestic consumption but jumped to 53% in 2009. Soybean and palm tree products from South America and South East Asia contributed most to the virtual P flow. These results demonstrate that, although policies in the EU have successfully

  13. The Origin of Carbon-bearing Volatiles in Surprise Valley Hot Springs in the Great Basin: Carbon Isotope and Water Chemistry Characterizations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Qi; Socki, Richard A.; Niles, Paul B.; Romanek, Christopher; Datta, Saugata; Darnell, Mike; Bissada, Adry K.

    2013-01-01

    There are numerous hydrothermal fields within the Great Basin of North America, some of which have been exploited for geothermal resources. With methane and other carbon-bearing compounds being observed, in some cases with high concentrations, however, their origins and formation conditions remain unknown. Thus, studying hydrothermal springs in this area provides us an opportunity to expand our knowledge of subsurface (bio)chemical processes that generate organic compounds in hydrothermal systems, and aid in future development and exploration of potential energy resources as well. While isotope measurement has long been used for recognition of their origins, there are several secondary processes that may generate variations in isotopic compositions: oxidation, re-equilibration of methane and other alkanes with CO2, mixing with compounds of other sources, etc. Therefore, in addition to isotopic analysis, other evidence, including water chemistry and rock compositions, are necessary to identify volatile compounds of different sources. Surprise Valley Hot Springs (SVHS, 41 deg 32'N, 120 deg 5'W), located in a typical basin and range province valley in northeastern California, is a terrestrial hydrothermal spring system of the Great Basin. Previous geophysical studies indicated the presence of clay-rich volcanic and sedimentary rocks of Tertiary age beneath the lava flows in late Tertiary and Quaternary. Water and gas samples were collected for a variety of chemical and isotope composition analyses, including in-situ pH, alkalinity, conductivity, oxidation reduction potential (ORP), major and trace elements, and C and H isotope measurements. Fluids issuing from SVHS can be classified as Na-(Cl)-SO4 type, with the major cation and anion being Na+ and SO4(2-), respectively. Thermodynamic calculation using ORP and major element data indicated that sulfate is the most dominant sulfur species, which is consistent with anion analysis results. Aquifer temperatures at depth

  14. The Origin of Carbon-bearing Volatiles in Surprise Valley Hot Springs in the Great Basin: Carbon Isotope aud Water Chemistry Characterizations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Qi; Socki, Richard A.; Niles, Paul B.; Romanek, Christopher; Datta, Saugata; Darnell, Mike; Bissada, Adry K.

    2013-01-01

    There are numerous hydrothermal fields within the Great Basin of North America, some of which have been exploited for geothermal resources. With methane and other carbon-bearing compounds being observed, in some cases with high concentrations, however, their origins and formation conditions remain unknown. Thus, studying hydrothermal springs in this area provides us an opportunity to expand our knowledge of subsurface (bio)chemical processes that generate organic compounds in hydrothermal systems, and aid in future development and exploration of potential energy resources as well. While isotope measurement has long been used for recognition of their origins, there are several secondary processes that may generate variations in isotopic compositions: oxidation, re-equilibration of methane and other alkanes with CO2, mixing with compounds of other sources, etc. Therefore, in addition to isotopic analysis, other evidence, including water chemistry and rock compositions, are necessary to identify volatile compounds of different sources. Surprise Valley Hot Springs (SVHS, 41º32'N, 120º5'W), located in a typical basin and range province valley in northeastern California, is a terrestrial hydrothermal spring system of the Great Basin. Previous geophysical studies indicated the presence of clay-rich volcanic and sedimentary rocks of Tertiary age beneath the lava flows in late Tertiary and Quaternary. Water and gas samples were collected for a variety of chemical and isotope composition analyses, including in-situ pH, alkalinity, conductivity, oxidation reduction potential (ORP), major and trace elements, and C and H isotope measurements. Fluids issuing from SVHS can be classified as Na-(Cl)-SO4 type, with the major cation and anion being Na+ and SO4 2-, respectively. Thermodynamic calculation using ORP and major element data indicated that sulfate is the most dominant sulfur species, which is consistent with anion analysis results. Aquifer temperatures at depth estimated

  15. Leishmaniasis — Surprise from the East

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I.V. Bogadelnikov

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The clinical case of cutaneous leishmaniasis in a 4-year-old child is presented in the article. The child came to the Crimea from area where leishmaniasis is endemic — Republic of Uzbekistan. Clinical case is interesting for consideration in terms of differential diagnosis of specific rash.

  16. Cyber Deterrence by Engagement and Surprise

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-12-21

    Stability Through Strength,” Military and Strategic Affairs, vol. 4, no. 3, (2012), 3–23; Martin Libicki, Cyberdeterrence and Cyberwar, (RAND...Defense, May 2015). 6 The levels of severity are based on the levels of bellig- erence as outlined by Martin Libicki in Cyberdeterrence and Cyberwar...See: Martin Libicki, Cyberdeterrence and Cyberwar, (RAND Corporation, Project Air Force, 2009), 8.

  17. Fundamental surprise in the application of airpower

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-05-25

    explain transformations in scientific research proposed by Thomas Kuhn in his book “The Structure of Scientific Revolutions." Kuhn proposed the idea...that the accepted traditions of scientific research within a particular community, known as a paradigm, provide the tools to perform "normal science...the large-scale attacks on Lebanese infrastructure would have on the regime, this concept was a non- starter . The order issued to the IDF on 12 July

  18. Office gossip: a surprising source of liability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregg, Robert E

    2003-01-01

    Rumors and gossip are inevitable ingredients of work life. Within limits, they may have some beneficial functions. Still, practitioners and managers must be aware of the dangers inherent in defamation of character and harassment. This article defines workplace comments and activities that should be avoided and the employer's legal liability when situations get out of hand. It also outlines the manager's responsibilities and lists privacy rights that are codified by state and federal laws.

  19. The surprising power of neighborly advice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbert, Daniel T; Killingsworth, Matthew A; Eyre, Rebecca N; Wilson, Timothy D

    2009-03-20

    Two experiments revealed that (i) people can more accurately predict their affective reactions to a future event when they know how a neighbor in their social network reacted to the event than when they know about the event itself and (ii) people do not believe this. Undergraduates made more accurate predictions about their affective reactions to a 5-minute speed date (n = 25) and to a peer evaluation (n = 88) when they knew only how another undergraduate had reacted to these events than when they had information about the events themselves. Both participants and independent judges mistakenly believed that predictions based on information about the event would be more accurate than predictions based on information about how another person had reacted to it.

  20. Comment exploiter les 'corpus-surprise' ?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rittaud-Hutinet, Chantal

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available To what extent non-recorded oral corpora may constitute objects of analysis of pragmatic meaning?These corpora are heard by chance: on the radio, on television, in the street, a shop, a means of transport or generally in any conversational interaction in which the linguist participates, but had not previously planned to record for his research. The problem of the use of these corpora in linguistics is all the more crucial since the aim, in phonopragmatics, is to discover the functions and significations of their phonic part. I shall attempt to answer the following questions:–The accuracy of the transcription with respect to the original. To what extent can we ignore our own phonological code, our regional variants, mastered/partly known styles of speech?–The reliability of the oral reproduction carried out by the linguist – for example, during a talk at a conference. What is his capacity for deferred mimicry?–The relation between a significant discrepancy and the elocutionary habits of the speaker.–The relation between the comprehension of the external auditors and the effect produced on the 'real' person addressed.Considering that transparency is (sometimes? often? an illusion, I shall also examine what precautions should be taken so that these corpora offer guarantees as to the veracity.

  1. Older Galaxy Pair Has Surprisingly Youthful Glow

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Poster Version A pair of interacting galaxies might be experiencing the galactic equivalent of a mid-life crisis. For some reason, the pair, called Arp 82, didn't make their stars early on as is typical of most galaxies. Instead, they got a second wind later in life -- about 2 billion years ago -- and started pumping out waves of new stars as if they were young again. Arp 82 is an interacting pair of galaxies with a strong bridge and a long tail. NGC 2535 is the big galaxy and NGC 2536 is its smaller companion. The disk of the main galaxy looks like an eye, with a bright 'pupil' in the center and oval-shaped 'eyelids.' Dramatic 'beads on a string' features are visible as chains of evenly spaced star-formation complexes along the eyelids. These are presumably the result of large-scale gaseous shocks from a grazing encounter. The colors of this galaxy indicate that the observed stars are young to intermediate in age, around 2 million to 2 billion years old, much less than the age of the universe (13.7 billion years). The puzzle is: why didn't Arp 82 form many stars earlier, like most galaxies of that mass range? Scientifically, it is an oddball and provides a relatively nearby lab for studying the age of intermediate-mass galaxies. This picture is a composite captured by Spitzer's infrared array camera with light at wavelength 8 microns shown in red, NASA's Galaxy Evolution Explorer combined 1530 and 2310 Angstroms shown in blue, and the Southeastern Association for Research in Astronomy Observatory light at 6940 Angstroms shown in green.

  2. Intraperitoneal Glucose Sensing is Sometimes Surprisingly Rapid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anders Lyngvi Fougner

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Rapid, accurate and robust glucose measurements are needed to make a safe artificial pancreas for the treatment of diabetes mellitus type 1 and 2. The present gold standard of continuous glucose sensing, subcutaneous (SC glucose sensing, has been claimed to have slow response and poor robustness towards local tissue changes such as mechanical pressure, temperature changes, etc. The present study aimed at quantifying glucose dynamics from central circulation to intraperitoneal (IP sensor sites, as an alternative to the SC location. Intraarterial (IA and IP sensors were tested in three anaesthetized non-diabetic pigs during experiments with intravenous infusion of glucose boluses, enforcing rapid glucose level excursions in the range 70--360 mg/dL (approximately 3.8--20 mmol/L. Optical interferometric sensors were used for IA and IP measurements. A first-order dynamic model with time delay was fitted to the data after compensating for sensor dynamics. Additionally, off-the-shelf Medtronic Enlite sensors were used for illustration of SC glucose sensing. The time delay in glucose excursions from central circulation (IA to IP sensor location was found to be in the range 0--26 s (median: 8.5 s, mean: 9.7 s, SD 9.5 s, and the time constant was found to be 0.5--10.2 min (median: 4.8 min, mean: 4.7 min, SD 2.9 min. IP glucose sensing sites have a substantially faster and more distinctive response than SC sites when sensor dynamics is ignored, and the peritoneal fluid reacts even faster to changes in intravascular glucose levels than reported in previous animal studies. This study may provide a benchmark for future, rapid IP glucose sensors.

  3. Summer Student takes ISOLDE by surprise

    CERN Multimedia

    Katarina Anthony

    2012-01-01

    Two weeks ago, the Collinear Resonant Ionization Spectroscopy (CRIS) experiment at ISOLDE performed some of the world’s most sensitive measurements of the nuclear structure of francium, one of the rarest and least-understood elements. Gathered in record time and with excellent background resolution, the results are in good agreement with model predictions. The developer of their model? 2012 Summer Student, Ruben de Groote.   When student Ruben de Groote arrived at CERN this June, he joined one of CERN’s smallest experiments: CRIS. With a team of just 8 people at CERN, the CRIS experiment has become the world’s best facility to study the nuclear structure of light francium isotopes. By using a combination of resonant ionization spectroscopy and collinear laser spectroscopy, the experiment can select francium beams in a specific nuclear state with little background noise. As part of his thesis, Ruben has been developing a model – based on work by his Univers...

  4. An undiagnosed pleural effusion with surprising consequences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.G. Casalini

    2017-01-01

    With this case report, we would like to underline the importance of making a correct diagnosis of any pleural effusion as soon as possible by at least a thoracocentesis. If untreated, tuberculosis may easily disseminate to other organs. Some considerations and suggestions for antibiotic treatment of pleural effusion will also be given, since many antibiotics have some anti-tuberculosis effect and may delay the diagnosis of this infectious disease.

  5. A surprise case of colonic interposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Law, Robert

    2006-01-01

    Blind nasogastric intubation failure as a result of changes to the normal anatomical pathway is not uncommon. This case report is of fluoroscopically guided intubation in a patient in whom blind intubation failed as a result of what was subsequently found to be a colonic interposition with associated late complications. Fluroscopically guided nasogastric intubation is a safe and effective procedure that should always be considered when blind intubation has failed

  6. Resilience to Surprises through Communicative Planning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruce Evan. Goldstein

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Resilience thinkers share an interest in collaborative deliberation with communicative planners, who aim to accommodate different forms of knowledge and styles of reasoning to promote social learning and yield creative and equitable agreements. Members of both fields attended a symposium at Virginia Tech in late 2008, where communicative planners considered how social-ecological resilience informed new possibilities for planning practice beyond disaster mitigation and response. In turn, communicative planners offered resilience scholars ideas about how collaboration could accomplish more than enhance rational decision making of the commons. Through these exchanges, the symposium fostered ideas about collaborative governance and the critical role of expertise in fostering communicative resilience.

  7. Latest Surprises from Mira the Wonderful

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karovska, Margarita; Marengo, Massimo; Wood, Brian

    We report the latest results from our long-term study of Mira A and its companion Mira B. These include a study of the dust environment in mid-IR wavelengths (Marengo et al. 2001), and of the accretion processes in the Mira AB interacting system (Wood, Karovska, and Raymond 2002).

  8. Surprise Ultraviolet Party in the Sky

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-01-01

    Galaxies aren't the only objects filling up the view of NASA's Galaxy Evolution Explorer. Since its launch in 2003, the space telescope -- originally designed to observe galaxies across the universe in ultraviolet light -- has discovered a festive sky blinking with flaring and erupting stars, as well as streaking asteroids, satellites and space debris. A group of six streaking objects -- the identities of which remain unknown -- can be seen here flying across the telescope's sight in this sped-up movie. The two brightest objects appear to perform a sharp turn then travel in the reverse direction. This illusion is most likely the result of the Galaxy Evolution Explorer overtaking the objects as it orbits around Earth. Careful inspection reveals four additional faint objects with the same timing and behavior. These faint objects are easiest to see during the retrograde portion of their paths. Three appear between the two bright sources, and one is above them, near the edge of the field of view. These bonus objects are being collected in to public catalogues for other astronomers to study.

  9. Equilibrium deuterium isotope effect of surprising magnitude

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goldstein, M.J.; Pressman, E.J.

    1981-01-01

    Seemingly large deuterium isotope effects are reported for the preference of deuterium for the α-chloro site to the bridgehead or to the vinyl site in samples of anti-7-chlorobicyclo[4.3.2]undecatetraene-d 1 . Studies of molecular models did not provide a basis for these large equilibrium deuterium isotope effects. The possibility is proposed that these isotope effects only appear to be large for want of comparison with isotope effects measured for molecules that might provide even greater contrasts in local force fields

  10. Plasmid and chromosome partitioning: surprises from phylogeny

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gerdes, Kenn; Møller-Jensen, Jakob; Bugge Jensen, Rasmus

    2000-01-01

    Plasmids encode partitioning genes (par) that are required for faithful plasmid segregation at cell division. Initially, par loci were identified on plasmids, but more recently they were also found on bacterial chromosomes. We present here a phylogenetic analysis of par loci from plasmids and chr...

  11. A review of the Nearctic genus Prostoia (Ricker (Plecoptera, Nemouridae, with the description of a new species and a surprising range extension for P. hallasi Kondratieff & Kirchner

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scott Grubbs

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The Nearctic genus Prostoia (Plecoptera: Nemouridae is reviewed. Prostoia ozarkensis sp. n. is described from the male and female adult stages mainly from the Interior Highland region encompassing portions of Arkansas, Missouri, and Oklahoma. Prostoia ozarkensis sp. n. appears most closely related to two species, one distributed broadly across the western Nearctic region, P. besametsa (Ricker, and one found widely throughout the central and eastern Nearctic regions, P. completa (Walker. A surprising range extension is noted for P. hallasi Kondratieff & Kirchner, a species once known only from the Great Dismal Swamp, from small upland streams in southern Illinois. Additional new state records are documented for P. besametsa, P. completa, P. hallasi and P. similis (Hagen. Taxonomic keys to Prostoia males and females are provided, and scanning electron micrographs of adult genitalia of all species are given.

  12. A structural study of [CpM(CO)3H] (M = Cr, Mo and W) by single-crystal X-ray diffraction and DFT calculations: sterically crowded yet surprisingly flexible molecules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burchell, Richard P L; Sirsch, Peter; Decken, Andreas; McGrady, G Sean

    2009-08-14

    The single-crystal X-ray structures of the complexes [CpCr(CO)3H] 1, [CpMo(CO)3H] 2 and [CpW(CO)3H] 3 are reported. The results indicate that 1 adopts a structure close to a distorted three-legged piano stool geometry, whereas a conventional four-legged piano stool arrangement is observed for 2 and 3. Further insight into the equilibrium geometries and potential energy surfaces of all three complexes was obtained by DFT calculations. These show that in the gas phase complex 1 also prefers a geometry close to a four-legged piano stool in line with its heavier congeners, and implying strong packing forces at work for 1 in the solid state. Comparison with their isolelectronic group 7 tricarbonyl counterparts [CpM(CO)3] (M = Mn 4 and Re 5) illustrates that 1, 2 and 3 are sterically crowded complexes. However, a surprisingly soft bending potential is evident for the M-H moiety, whose order (1 approximately = 2 < 3) correlates with the M-H bond strength rather than with the degree of congestion at the metal centre, indicating electronic rather than steric control of the potential. The calculations also reveal cooperative motions of the hydride and carbonyl ligands in the M(CO)3H unit, which allow the M-H moiety to move freely, in spite of the closeness of the four basal ligands, helping to explain the surprising flexibility of the crowded coordination sphere observed for this family of high CN complexes.

  13. Presentation of an umbilical cord cyst with a surprising jet: a case report of a patent urachus [v1; ref status: indexed, http://f1000r.es/xx

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Svigos

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available We report a baby with an unusual true umbilical cord cyst detected at 12 weeks gestation which as the pregnancy progressed became increasingly difficult to distinguish from a pseudocyst of the umbilical cord. Concern of the possibility of cord compression/cord accident led to an elective caesarean section being performed at 35+ week’s gestation with delivery of a healthy female infant weighing 2170g. At birth the cyst ruptured and the resultant thickened elongated cord was clamped accordingly. After the cord clamp fell off at 5 days post delivery an elongated umbilical stump was left behind from which a stream of urine surprisingly jetted out from the umbilicus each time the baby cried. A patent urachus was confirmed on ultrasound and the umbilical jet of urine resolved at 4 weeks post delivery after treatment of an Escherichia coli urinary tract infection. At 11 weeks post delivery a laparoscopic excision of the urachus was successfully performed. The baby, now 18 months of age, continues to thrive without incident.

  14. Symmetry breaking and spectral considerations of the surprisingly floppy c-C3H radical and the related dipole-bound excited state of c-C3H-

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bassett, Matthew K.; Fortenberry, Ryan C.

    2017-06-01

    The C3H radical is believed to be prevalent throughout the interstellar medium and may be involved in the formation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. C3H exists as both a linear and a cyclic isomer. The C2 v cyclopropenylidenyl radical isomer was detected in the dark molecular cloud TMC-1, and the linear propenylidenyl radical isomer has been observed in various dark molecular clouds. Even though the c-C3H radical has been classified rotationally, the vibrational frequencies of this seemingly important interstellar molecule have never been directly observed. Established, highly accurate quartic force field methodologies are employed here to compute useful geometrical data, spectroscopic constants, and vibrational frequencies. The computed rotational constants are consistent with the experimental results. Consequently, the three a1 (ν1, ν2, and ν3) and one b1 (ν6) anharmonic vibrational frequencies at 3117.7 cm-1, 1564.3 cm-1, 1198.5 cm-1, and 826.7 cm-1, respectively, are reliable predictions for these, as of yet unseen, observables. Unfortunately, the two b2 fundamentals (ν4 and ν5) cannot be treated adequately in the current approach due to a flat and possible double-well potential described in detail herein. The dipole-bound excited state of the anion suffers from the same issues and may not even be bound. However, the trusted fundamental vibrational frequencies described for the neutral radical should not be affected by this deformity and are the first robustly produced for c-C3H. The insights gained here will also be applicable to other structures containing three-membered bare and exposed carbon rings that are surprisingly floppy in nature.

  15. Analogies and surprising differences between recombinant nitric oxide synthase-like proteins from Staphylococcus aureus and Bacillus anthracis in their interactions with l-arginine analogs and iron ligands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salard, Isabelle; Mercey, Emilie; Rekka, Eleni; Boucher, Jean-Luc; Nioche, Pierre; Mikula, Ivan; Martasek, Pavel; Raman, C S; Mansuy, Daniel

    2006-12-01

    Genome sequencing has recently shown the presence of genes coding for NO-synthase (NOS)-like proteins in bacteria. The roles of these proteins remain unclear. The interactions of a series of l-arginine (l-arg) analogs and iron ligands with two recombinant NOS-like proteins from Staphylococcus aureus (saNOS) and Bacillus anthracis (baNOS) have been studied by UV-visible spectroscopy. SaNOS and baNOS in their ferric native state, as well as their complexes with l-arg analogs and with various ligands, exhibit spectral characteristics highly similar to the corresponding complexes of heme-thiolate proteins such as cytochromes P450 and NOSs. However, saNOS greatly differs from baNOS at the level of three main properties: (i) native saNOS mainly exists under an hexacoordinated low-spin ferric state whereas native baNOS is mainly high-spin, (ii) the addition of tetrahydrobiopterin (H4B) or H4B analogs leads to an increase of the affinity of l-arg for saNOS but not for baNOS, and (iii) saNOS Fe(II), contrary to baNOS, binds relatively bulky ligands such as nitrosoalkanes and tert-butylisocyanide. Thus, saNOS exhibits properties very similar to those of the oxygenase domain of inducible NOS (iNOS(oxy)) not containing H4B, as expected for a NOSoxy-like protein that does not contain H4B. By contrast, the properties of baNOS which look like those of H4B-containing iNOS(oxy) are unexpected for a NOS-like protein not containing H4B. The origin of these surprising properties of baNOS remains to be determined.

  16. The klystron: A microwave source of surprising range and endurance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caryotakis, G.

    1998-04-01

    This year marks the 60th anniversary of the birth of the klystron at Stanford University. The tube was the first practical source of microwaves and its invention initiated a search for increasingly more powerful sources, which continues to this day. This paper reviews the scientific uses of the klystron and outlines its operating principles. The history of the device is traced, from its scientific beginnings, to its role in World War II and the Cold War, and to its current resurgence as the key component in a major accelerator project. Finally, the paper describes the development of a modular klystron, which may someday power future accelerators at millimeter wavelengths

  17. Can surprising nonreward and adjunctive behavior influence each other?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia Rick

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Adjunctive or schedule-induced behavior can be defined as an increase in the frequency of a behavior under conditions of intermittent reinforcement. Adjunctive behavior has been explained as developing from reinforcement contingencies and emotional responses of frustration due to periods of reward omission, among other accounts. Two experiments with rats were designed to test the hypothesis that frustration mediates adjunctive behavior. According to this hypothesis, extensive training under conditions involving both reward and reward omission (e.g., partial reinforcement and intermittent reinforcement promote frustration counterconditioning, a mechanism activated when reward omissions are followed by reward. Frustration counterconditioning reduces avoidance and enhances approach, inducing behavioral persistence that transfers across situations inducing frustration—a mechanism yielding transsituational transfer. In Experiment 1, Phase 1 involved runway training under continuous vs. partial food reinforcement, whereas Phase 2 involved exposure to a fixed-time 60-s schedule of intermittent food reinforcement with free access to a wheel. Counterconditioning of goal approach in Phase 1 led only to a modest increase in wheel running in Phase 2. In Experiment 2, Phase 1 involved groups exposed to either intermittent reinforcement or massed-food control, both with access to a wheel, followed in Phase 2 by runway training under continuous reinforcement and extinction. No support was found for a transfer effect. The results are discussed in relation to accounts of adjunctive behavior based on Amsel’s frustration theory and Killeen-Pellón’s reinforcement theory of adjunctive behavior.

  18. SURPRISINGLY WEAK MAGNETISM ON YOUNG ACCRETING BROWN DWARFS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reiners, A.; Basri, G.; Christensen, U. R.

    2009-01-01

    We have measured the surface magnetic flux on four accreting young brown dwarfs and one nonaccreting young very low mass (VLM) star utilizing high-resolution spectra of absorption lines of the FeH molecule. A magnetic field of 1-2 kG had been proposed for one of the brown dwarfs, Two Micron All Sky Survey (2MASS) J1207334-393254, because of its similarities to higher mass T Tauri stars as manifested in accretion and the presence of a jet. We do not find clear evidence for a kilogauss field in any of our young brown dwarfs but do find a 2 kG field on the young VLM star. Our 3σ upper limit for the magnetic flux in 2MASS J1207334-393254 just reaches 1 kG. We estimate the magnetic field required for accretion in young brown dwarfs given the observed rotations, and find that fields of only a few hundred gauss are sufficient for magnetospheric accretion. This predicted value is less than our observed upper limit. We conclude that magnetic fields in young brown dwarfs are a factor of 5 or more lower than in young stars of about one solar mass, and in older stars with spectral types similar to our young brown dwarfs. It is interesting that, during the first few million years, the fields scale down with mass in line with what is needed for magnetospheric accretion, yet no such scaling is observed at later ages within the same effective temperature range. This scaling is opposite to the trend in rotation, with shorter rotation periods for very young accreting brown dwarfs compared with accreting solar-mass objects (and very low Rossby numbers in all cases). We speculate that in young objects a deeper intrinsic connection may exist between magnetospheric accretion and magnetic field strength, or that magnetic field generation in brown dwarfs may be less efficient than in stars. Neither of these currently has an easy physical explanation.

  19. Leonids 2017 from Norway – A bright surprise!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaarder, K.

    2018-01-01

    I am very pleased to have been able to observe near maximum activity of the Leonids, and clearly witnessed the unequal mass distribution during these hours. A lot of bright Leonids were seen, followed by a short period of high activity of fainter meteors, before a sharp drop in activity. The Leonids is undoubtedly a shower to watch closely, with its many variations in activity level and magnitude distribution. I already look forward to observing the next years’ display, hopefully under a dark and clear sky, filled with bright meteors!

  20. Orbital melanocytoma: When a tumor becomes a relieving surprise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haytham E. Nasr

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Melanocytomas are rare pigmented tumors that arise form melanocytes and have been reported in the central nervous system. Orbital melanocytomas “also known as blue nevus” are rarely reported. The occurrence of choroidal melanoma and orbital melanocytomas has never been described. Observations: This is a case of orbital melanocytoma in a 34 year old female who presented with left proptosis and ecchymosis. She has the right eye enucleated to treat a large choroidal melanoma, 6 years earlier. Orbital metastasis was suspected. After orbital imaging and systemic evaluation, incisional biopsy was planned yet the mass could be totally excised and it turned out to be melanocytoma. The condition was not associated with nevus of Ota and the patient is not known to have any predisposing condition for melanocytic lesions. Conclusion and importance: Melanocytoma and malignant melanoma share the same cell of origin. The benign course, the well differentiated cells, absence of anaplasia and the positive reaction to Human Melanoma Black-45 (HMB-45 and S-100 proteins established the diagnosis of the former. Such diagnosis was a relief for this one eyed patient.(HMB-45:human melanoma black-45. Keywords: Orbit, Melanocytoma, Choroidal melanoma, HMB-45, S-100

  1. Tree Leaf Shadows to the Sun's Density: A Surprising Route

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mallmann, A. James

    2013-01-01

    Rays of sunlight that strike raindrops produce rainbows that provide information about the spectrum of sunlight. Rays of sunlight that strike airborne ice crystals produce halos, sun pillars, and many other patterns of light and color in the sky. Analysis of those patterns makes it possible to determine the types and orientations of the ice…

  2. Defense Science Board Summer Study on Strategic Surprise

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-07-01

    actions and hedges against changing priorities. The study focused on potential regrets in eight areas and provides recommendations to avoid ... avoid   potential  regrets  in 2024.  A Changing Context for Operations  The study explored current and future operational contexts. The study defined...hedge against these and similar surprises—and to  avoid   regretting  actions or lack  of action taken today—the study evaluated several key mission and

  3. A surprising exception. Himachal's success in promoting female education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dreze, J

    1999-01-01

    Gender inequalities in India are derived partly from the economic dependence of women on men. Low levels of formal education among women reinforce the asymmetry of power between the sexes. A general pattern of sharp gender bias in education levels is noted in most Indian states; however, in the small state of Himachal Pradesh, school participation rates are almost as high for girls as for boys. Rates of school participation for girls at the primary level is close to universal in this state, and while gender bias persists at higher levels of education, it is much lower than elsewhere in India and rapidly declining. This was not the case 50 years ago; educational levels in Himachal Pradesh were no higher than in Bihar or Uttar Pradesh. Today, the spectacular transition towards universal elementary education in Himachal Pradesh has contributed to the impressive reduction of poverty, mortality, illness, undernutrition, and related deprivations.

  4. Mitigating Surprise Through Enhanced Operational Design: Civilian Conceptual Planning Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-01-01

    political, historical, cultural , and economic contexts. If we are going to fight among the people, we must understand them.1 When evaluating US military...represents both the Christian and Yoruba minorities as well as the military, continues to compete against rival elites representing disparate elements...undeniably have to learn a new culture , the physical battlespace would not be alien since MS-13 maintains a large presence in areas that are home to

  5. Blue Horizons IV: Deterrence in the Age of Surprise

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    indicate the level of current that would be induced along the power lines and other metallic objects. The color merely indicates whether the charge...this subject. Among the more heavily cited are S. Radhakrishnan et al., “Conducting Polyaniline-nano- TiO2 Composites for Smart Corrosion Resistant...misattribution can have disastrous conse- quences. When Japan sequestered the Chinese fishing vessel for transgress- ing its territorial waters in the Senkaku

  6. Therapeutic surprise! Photodynamic therapy for cavernous haemangioma of the disc

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahesh P Shanmugam

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To report the response of cavernous haemangioma of the disc to PDT. Methods and Patients: A 32 years old lady presented to us with complaints of sudden onset of blurry vision in her right eye. What seemed initially as polypoidal choroidal vasculopathy turned out as cavernous haemangioma of the disc after pneumatic displacement of the sub-retinal haeme. She was treated with PDT as she was prone to recurrent haemorrhage from the lesion due to her low platelet count. Results: Complete regression of the cavernous haemangioma was noted as early as the second week itself and remained regressed for 4 months. Conclusion: PDT can be safe option for patients presenting with symptomatic cavernous haemangioma of the disc or retina.

  7. Things may not be as Expected: Surprising Findings when Updating ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    South African Journal of Bioethics and Law. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 8, No 1 (2015) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads.

  8. A surprising role for conformational entropy in protein function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wand, A. Joshua; Moorman, Veronica R.; Harpole, Kyle W.

    2014-01-01

    Formation of high-affinity complexes is critical for the majority of enzymatic reactions involving proteins. The creation of the family of Michaelis and other intermediate complexes during catalysis clearly involves a complicated manifold of interactions that are diverse and complex. Indeed, computing the energetics of interactions between proteins and small molecule ligands using molecular structure alone remains a grand challenge. One of the most difficult contributions to the free energy of protein-ligand complexes to experimentally access is that due to changes in protein conformational entropy. Fortunately, recent advances in solution nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) relaxation methods have enabled the use of measures-of-motion between conformational states of a protein as a proxy for conformational entropy. This review briefly summarizes the experimental approaches currently employed to characterize fast internal motion in proteins, how this information is used to gain insight into conformational entropy, what has been learned and what the future may hold for this emerging view of protein function. PMID:23478875

  9. Electricity consumption in France: the 2011 big surprise

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2012-01-01

    During the last ten years, the evolution of electricity consumption in France has been slow but constant. In 2011, however, the consumption, not corrected for seasonal variations, has suddenly drop by 7% to reach the level of the year 2004, thus impacting the economic balance of the production means

  10. Microsoft's Book-Search Project Has a Surprise Ending

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, Andrea L.

    2008-01-01

    It is hard to imagine a Microsoft venture falling under the weight of a competitor. That's the post-mortem offered by many academic librarians as they ponder the software giant's recent and sudden announcement that it is shutting down its book-digitization project. The librarians' conclusion: Google did it. Microsoft quietly revealed in May that…

  11. A SURPRISING DYNAMICAL MASS FOR V773 Tau B

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boden, Andrew F. [Division of Physics, Mathematics, and Astronomy, California Institute of Technology, MS 11-17, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Torres, Guillermo [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Duchene, Gaspard [Division of Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Konopacky, Quinn [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, 7000 East Avenue, Livermore, CA 94550 (United States); Ghez, A. M. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, UCLA, Los Angeles, CA 90095-1562 (United States); Torres, Rosa M. [Argelander-Institut fuer Astronomie, Universitaet Bonn, Auf dem Huegel 71, D-53121 Bonn (Germany); Loinard, Laurent [Centro de Radiostronomia y Astrofisica, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Apartado Postal 72-3 (Xangari), 58089 Morelia, Michoacan (Mexico)

    2012-03-01

    We report on new high-resolution imaging and spectroscopy on the multiple T Tauri star system V773 Tau over the 2003-2009 period. With these data we derive relative astrometry, photometry between the A and B components, and radial velocity (RV) of the A-subsystem components. Combining these new data with previously published astrometry and RVs, we update the relative A-B orbit model. This updated orbit model, the known system distance, and A-subsystem parameters yield a dynamical mass for the B component for the first time. Remarkably, the derived B dynamical mass is in the range 1.7-3.0 M{sub Sun }. This is much higher than previous estimates and suggests that like A, B is also a multiple stellar system. Among these data, spatially resolved spectroscopy provides new insight into the nature of the B component. Similar to A, these near-IR spectra indicate that the dominant source in B is of mid-K spectral type. If B is in fact a multiple star system as suggested by the dynamical mass estimate, the simplest assumption is that B is composed of similar {approx}1.2 M{sub Sun} pre-main-sequence stars in a close (<1 AU) binary system. This inference is supported by line-shape changes in near-IR spectroscopy of B, tentatively interpreted as changing RV among components in V773 Tau B. Relative photometry indicates that B is highly variable in the near-IR. The most likely explanation for this variability is circum-B material resulting in variable line-of-sight extinction. The distribution of this material must be significantly affected by both the putative B multiplicity and the A-B orbit.

  12. No surprise in the first Born approximation for electron scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lentzen, M.

    2014-01-01

    In a recent article it is argued that the far-field expansion of electron scattering, a pillar of electron diffraction theory, is wrong (Treacy and Van Dyck, 2012 [1]). It is further argued that in the first Born approximation of electron scattering the intensity of the electron wave is not conserved to first order in the scattering potential. Thus a “mystery of the missing phase” is investigated, and the supposed flaw in scattering theory is seeked to be resolved by postulating a standing spherical electron wave (Treacy and Van Dyck, 2012 [1]). In this work we show, however, that these theses are wrong. A review of the essential parts of scattering theory with careful checks of the underlying assumptions and limitations for high-energy electron scattering yields: (1) the traditional form of the far-field expansion, comprising a propagating spherical wave, is correct; (2) there is no room for a missing phase; (3) in the first Born approximation the intensity of the scattered wave is conserved to first order in the scattering potential. The various features of high-energy electron scattering are illustrated by wave-mechanical calculations for an explicit target model, a Gaussian phase object, and for a Si atom, considering the geometric conditions in high-resolution transmission electron microscopy. - Highlights: Treacy and Van Dyck (2012) argue that the far-field expansion of electron scattering is wrong. The chief theses of that former work are wrong. There is no room for the missing phase proposed by Treacy and Van Dyck. There is no violation of the intensity conservation to first order in the scattering potential. Calculations for a phase object and an atomic target confirm traditional scattering theory

  13. Natural gas from the socket. A surprising novelty

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bakker, P.

    1997-01-01

    A Dutch public utility (Obragas) introduced a new way to supply gas for their household clients in Helmond, Netherlands: the gas wall socket, which is in use in Japan for years. It appears that the Netherlands will follow. 6 ills

  14. Research on Divorce among Postsecondary Students: Surprisingly Missing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galvin, Christina Rosen

    2006-01-01

    The rigors of university life can be demanding, especially with non-traditional students juggling multiple responsibilities such as being a student, parent, and/or spouse, and working full-time. Such responsibilities can affect couple relationships and marriages. This article reviews the research literature on divorce among postsecondary students.…

  15. Nearest star the surprising science of our sun

    CERN Document Server

    Golub, Leon

    2014-01-01

    How did the Sun evolve, and what will it become? What is the origin of its light and heat? How does solar activity affect the atmospheric conditions that make life on Earth possible? These are the questions at the heart of solar physics, and at the core of this book. The Sun is the only star near enough to study in sufficient detail to provide rigorous tests of our theories and help us understand the more distant and exotic objects throughout the cosmos. Having observed the Sun using both ground-based and spaceborne instruments, the authors bring their extensive personal experience to this sto

  16. Surprisingly rational: probability theory plus noise explains biases in judgment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costello, Fintan; Watts, Paul

    2014-07-01

    The systematic biases seen in people's probability judgments are typically taken as evidence that people do not use the rules of probability theory when reasoning about probability but instead use heuristics, which sometimes yield reasonable judgments and sometimes yield systematic biases. This view has had a major impact in economics, law, medicine, and other fields; indeed, the idea that people cannot reason with probabilities has become a truism. We present a simple alternative to this view, where people reason about probability according to probability theory but are subject to random variation or noise in the reasoning process. In this account the effect of noise is canceled for some probabilistic expressions. Analyzing data from 2 experiments, we find that, for these expressions, people's probability judgments are strikingly close to those required by probability theory. For other expressions, this account produces systematic deviations in probability estimates. These deviations explain 4 reliable biases in human probabilistic reasoning (conservatism, subadditivity, conjunction, and disjunction fallacies). These results suggest that people's probability judgments embody the rules of probability theory and that biases in those judgments are due to the effects of random noise. (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved.

  17. New Technology's Surprising Security Threats. Building Digital Libraries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huwe, Terence

    2005-01-01

    In recent years, security issues have increasingly come to dominate the technological development process--although still in a more reactive than proactive mode. It now seems more important than ever to monitor security trends and policy developments, especially if technology is regarded as a potential community builder. This article suggests…

  18. Ampullary Mixed Adenoneuroendocrine Carcinoma: Surprise Histology, Familiar Management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahansaria, Shyam Sunder; Agrawal, Nikhil; Arora, Asit; Bihari, Chhagan; Appukuttan, Murali; Chattopadhyay, Tushar Kanti

    2017-10-01

    Mixed adenoneuroendocrine carcinoma (MANEC) has recently been defined by the World Health Organization in 2010. These are rare tumors and MANECs of ampullary region are even rarer. Only 19 cases have been reported in literature. We present 3 cases; the largest series, second case of amphicrine tumor and first case associated with chronic pancreatitis. Retrospective review of 3 patients who were diagnosed to have ampullary MANEC. All 3 patients were diagnosed preoperatively as neuroendocrine carcinoma and underwent margin negative pancreaticoduodenectomy. The histopathology revealed MANECs of small cell, mixed type in 2 patients and large cell, amphicrine type in 1 patient. The neuroendocrine component was grade 3 in all, the tumor was T3 in 2 and T2 in 1 and all had nodal metastases. Two patients received adjuvant chemotherapy and 2 of them had recurrence at 13 and 16 months. The median survival was 15 months. Ampullary MANECs are rare tumors. They are diagnosed on histopathologic examination of the resected specimen. Clinical presentation, management, and prognosis is similar to ampullary adenocarcinoma in literature.

  19. Alternate Futures for 2025: Security Planning to Avoid Surprise

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Engelbrecht, Joseph

    1996-01-01

    .... The methodology details how the study participants identified the three drivers, created the strategic planning space, selected the worlds of interest, created the plausible histories, and developed...

  20. Probability and Surprisal in Auditory Comprehension of Morphologically Complex Words

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Balling, Laura Winther; Baayen, R. Harald

    2012-01-01

    Two auditory lexical decision experiments document for morphologically complex words two points at which the probability of a target word given the evidence shifts dramatically. The first point is reached when morphologically unrelated competitors are no longer compatible with the evidence. Adapt...

  1. Surprising cause of dysphagia in an elderly male

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyle Bennett

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available A 73 year old man presented to his primary care physician with sudden onset dysphagia to solids and liquids. He urgently completed a barium swallow study showing what was believed to be a coin. Endoscopic removal subsequently revealed it was a lithium battery. Consequences and management of lithium battery ingestion are discussed.

  2. Surprised by Bird, Bard, and Bach: Language, Silence, and Transcendence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suhor, Charles

    1991-01-01

    Argues the importance of the relationships among silence and literature, the arts, and other experiences that point toward transcendence. Suggests that English teachers can expand the repertoire of classroom activities and teaching techniques that make use of silence. (KEH)

  3. Surprising structures hiding in Penrose’s future null infinity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newman, Ezra T.

    2017-07-01

    Since the late1950s, almost all discussions of asymptotically flat (Einstein-Maxwell) space-times have taken place in the context of Penrose’s null infinity, I+. In addition, almost all calculations have used the Bondi coordinate and tetrad systems. Beginning with a known asymptotically flat solution to the Einstein-Maxwell equations, we show first, that there are other natural coordinate systems, near I+, (analogous to light-cones in flat-space) that are based on (asymptotically) shear-free null geodesic congruences (analogous to the flat-space case). Using these new coordinates and their associated tetrad, we define the complex dipole moment, (the mass dipole plus i times angular momentum), from the l  =  1 harmonic coefficient of a component of the asymptotic Weyl tensor. Second, from this definition, from the Bianchi identities and from the Bondi-Sachs mass and linear momentum, we show that there exists a large number of results—identifications and dynamics—identical to those of classical mechanics and electrodynamics. They include, among many others, {P}=M{v}+..., {L}= {r} × {P} , spin, Newton’s second law with the rocket force term (\\dotM v) and radiation reaction, angular momentum conservation and others. All these relations take place in the rather mysterious H-space rather than in space-time. This leads to the enigma: ‘why do these well known relations of classical mechanics take place in H-space?’ and ‘What is the physical meaning of H-space?’

  4. Shifting Perspectives: Using Complexity Theory to Anticipate Strategic Surprise

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-08-08

    Gregory F. Treverton, and C. Bryan Gabbard , Assessing the Tradecraft of Intelligence Analysis (Santa Monica, CA: RAND Corporation, 2008), http...Treverton and Gabbard , 6. 20 a wide variety of sources collected from both open and...negatively 13. Treverton and Gabbard , 35. 14. Matthew Weaver and Saeed Kamali Dehghan, “New Protests in Iran,” The Guardian, November 4, 2009, http

  5. Surprises of the Transformer as a Coupled Oscillator System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, J. P.; Silvestre, A. J.

    2008-01-01

    We study a system of two RLC oscillators coupled through a variable mutual inductance. The system is interesting because it exhibits some peculiar features of coupled oscillators: (i) there are two natural frequencies; (ii) in general, the resonant frequencies do not coincide with the natural frequencies; (iii) the resonant frequencies of both…

  6. Surprises of the transformer as a coupled oscillator system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, J P; Silvestre, A J

    2008-01-01

    We study a system of two RLC oscillators coupled through a variable mutual inductance. The system is interesting because it exhibits some peculiar features of coupled oscillators: (i) there are two natural frequencies; (ii) in general, the resonant frequencies do not coincide with the natural frequencies; (iii) the resonant frequencies of both oscillators differ; (iv) for certain choices of parameters, there is only one resonant frequency, instead of the two expected

  7. Surprises of the transformer as a coupled oscillator system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, J P; Silvestre, A J [Instituto Superior de Engenharia de Lisboa, Rua Conselheiro EmIdio Navarro, 1950-062 Lisboa (Portugal)], E-mail: jpsilva@deea.isel.ipl.pt, E-mail: asilvestre@deq.isel.ipl.pt

    2008-05-15

    We study a system of two RLC oscillators coupled through a variable mutual inductance. The system is interesting because it exhibits some peculiar features of coupled oscillators: (i) there are two natural frequencies; (ii) in general, the resonant frequencies do not coincide with the natural frequencies; (iii) the resonant frequencies of both oscillators differ; (iv) for certain choices of parameters, there is only one resonant frequency, instead of the two expected.

  8. Interest in smart metering project surprises utility, IBM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horne, D.

    2006-01-01

    This article provided an outline of Hydro Ottawa and IBM's smart metering pilot project, which has resulted in high approval ratings from the public. The project features 375 participants broken down into 3 separate groups to look for potential consumption differences between customers charged according to standard time-of-use pricing; time-of-use with critical peak pricing; and time-of-use with critical peak rebates. The Ontario Smart Price Pilot project will be run for 5 months, and is expected to provide detailed energy information about usage. Past projects have indicated that customers respond quickly to smart metering, as they are able to monitor their energy usage and more effectively manage their energy consumption. Ontario plans to have all homes and small businesses using smart meters by 2010, as high seasonal demand has indicated that conservation and balanced resource use are now top priorities for many utility companies. At least 10 states in the United States have conducted smart metering pilot projects. The California Public Utilities Commissions has recently approved a $1.7 billion statewide plan to replace old meters with smart meters. In Ontario, customers have ordered 10,000 electricity monitors that Hydro One is giving away. It was concluded that research results from an earlier Hydro One demonstration project with 500 Ontario homeowners showed that real time electricity monitors can help homeowners reduce their consumption of electricity by up to 15 per cent. 4 figs

  9. Invited Commentary: More Surprises From a Gene Desert

    OpenAIRE

    Wacholder, Sholom; Yeager, Meredith; Liao, Linda M.

    2012-01-01

    Pleiotropy across the 8q24 region is perhaps the most intriguing of the genome-wide association findings relating to cancer. This region of chromosome 8 is a gene desert, far from any recognized genes. Guarrera et al., whose work is reported in this issue (Am J Epidemiol. 2012;175(6):479–487), took an epidemiologic approach to learn more about the 8q24 region. They capitalized on their ascertainment of other endpoints in members of the cohort at the Turin site of the European Prospective Inve...

  10. Cassini-Huygens Science Highlights: Surprises in the Saturn System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spilker, Linda; Altobelli, Nicolas; Edgington, Scott

    2014-05-01

    The Cassini-Huygens mission has greatly enhanced our understanding of the Saturn system. Fundamental discoveries have altered our views of Saturn, its retinue of icy moons including Titan, the dynamic rings, and the system's complex magnetosphere. Launched in 1997, the Cassini-Huygens spacecraft spent seven years traveling to Saturn, arriving in July 2004, roughly two years after the northern winter solstice. Cassini has orbited Saturn for 9.5 years, delivering the Huygens probe to its Titan landing in 2005, crossing northern equinox in August 2009, and completing its Prime and Equinox Missions. It is now three years into its 7-year Solstice mission, returning science in a previously unobserved seasonal phase between equinox and solstice. As it watches the approach of northern summer, long-dark regions throughout the system become sunlit, allowing Cassini's science instruments to probe as-yet unsolved mysteries. Key Cassini-Huygens discoveries include icy jets of material streaming from tiny Enceladus' south pole, lakes of liquid hydrocarbons and methane rain on giant Titan, three-dimensional structures in Saturn's rings, and curtain-like aurorae flickering over Saturn's poles. The Huygens probe sent back amazing images of Titan's surface, and made detailed measurements of the atmospheric composition, structure and winds. Key Cassini-Huygens science highlights will be presented. The Solstice Mission continues to provide new science. First, the Cassini spacecraft observes seasonally and temporally dependent processes on Saturn, Titan, Enceladus and other icy satellites, and within the rings and magnetosphere. Second, it addresses new questions that have arisen during the mission thus far, for example providing qualitatively new measurements of Enceladus and Titan that could not be accommodated in the earlier mission phases. Third, it will conduct a close-in mission at Saturn yielding fundamental knowledge about the interior of Saturn. This grand finale of the mission occurs in 2017, when a series of 22 inclined orbits sends Cassini between the innermost D ring and the upper portions of Saturn's atmosphere, enabling unique gravity and magnetic field measurements of the planet, unprecedented determination of the ring mass, some of the highest resolution measurements of the rings and Saturn, and in situ observations in a completely new region around the planet. Cassini-Huygens is a cooperative undertaking by NASA, the European Space Agency (ESA), and the Italian space agency (Agenzia Spaziale Italiana, ASI). This work was carried out in part at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, under contract with NASA. Copyright 2014 California Institute of Technology. Government sponsorship is acknowledged.

  11. Latin America: how a region surprised the experts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Sherbinin, A

    1993-02-01

    In 1960-1970, family planning specialists and demographers worried that poverty, limited education, Latin machismo, and strong catholic ideals would obstruct family planning efforts to reduce high fertility in Latin America. It had the highest annual population growth rate in the world (2.8%), which would increase the population 2-fold in 25 years. Yet, the UN's 1992 population projection for Latin America and the Caribbean in the year 2000 was about 20% lower than its 1963 projection (just over 500 vs. 638 million). Since life expectancy increased simultaneously from 57 to 68 years, this reduced projection was caused directly by a large decline in fertility from 5.9 to 3. A regression analysis of 11 Latin American and Caribbean countries revealed that differences in the contraceptive prevalence rates accounted for 90% of the variation in the total fertility rate between countries. Thus, contraception played a key role in the fertility decline. The second most significant determinant of fertility decline was an increase in the average age at first marriage from about 20 to 23 years. Induced abortion and breast feeding did not contribute significantly to fertility decline. The major socioeconomic factors responsible for the decline included economic development and urbanization, resulting in improvements in health care, reduced infant and child mortality, and increases in female literacy, education, and labor force participation. Public and private family planning programs also contributed significantly to the decline. They expanded from cities to remote rural areas, thereby increasing access to contraception. By the early 1990s, Brazil, Mexico, and Colombia had among the lowest levels of unmet need (13-24%) in developing countries. Other key factors of fertility decline were political commitment, strong communication efforts, and stress on quality services. Latin America provides hope to other regions where religion and culture promote a large family size.

  12. The Surprising History of Claims for Life on the Sun

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crowe, Michael J.

    2011-11-01

    Because astronomers are now convinced that it is impossible for life, especially intelligent life, to exist on the Sun and stars, it might be assumed that astronomers have always held this view. This paper shows that throughout most of the history of astronomy, some intellectuals, including a number of well-known astronomers, have advocated the existence of intelligent life on our Sun and thereby on stars. Among the more prominent figures discussed are Nicolas of Cusa, Giordano Bruno, William Whiston, Johann Bode, Roger Boscovich, William Herschel, Auguste Comte, Carl Gauss, Thomas Dick, John Herschel, and François Arago. One point in preparing this paper is to show differences between the astronomy of the past and that of the present.

  13. A Well-Known but Still Surprising Generator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haugland, Ole Anton

    2014-01-01

    The bicycle generator is often mentioned as an example of a method to produce electric energy. It is cheap and easily accessible, so it is a natural example to use in teaching. There are different types, but I prefer the old side-wall dynamo. The most common explanation of its working principle seems to be something like the illustration in Fig.…

  14. Surprising Intrinsic Photostability of the Disulfide Bridge Common in Proteins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stephansen, Anne Boutrup; Brogaard, Rasmus Yding; Kuhlman, Thomas Scheby

    2012-01-01

    on the femtosecond time scale and found the reason for the existence of the S–S bridge as a natural building block in folded structures. The sulfur atoms will indeed move apart on the excited state but only to oscillate around the S–S center of mass. At long S–S distances, there is a strong coupling to the ground...

  15. Automated Atmospheric Composition Dataset Level Metadata Discovery. Difficulties and Surprises

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strub, R. F.; Falke, S. R.; Kempler, S.; Fialkowski, E.; Goussev, O.; Lynnes, C.

    2015-12-01

    The Atmospheric Composition Portal (ACP) is an aggregator and curator of information related to remotely sensed atmospheric composition data and analysis. It uses existing tools and technologies and, where needed, enhances those capabilities to provide interoperable access, tools, and contextual guidance for scientists and value-adding organizations using remotely sensed atmospheric composition data. The initial focus is on Essential Climate Variables identified by the Global Climate Observing System - CH4, CO, CO2, NO2, O3, SO2 and aerosols. This poster addresses our efforts in building the ACP Data Table, an interface to help discover and understand remotely sensed data that are related to atmospheric composition science and applications. We harvested GCMD, CWIC, GEOSS metadata catalogs using machine to machine technologies - OpenSearch, Web Services. We also manually investigated the plethora of CEOS data providers portals and other catalogs where that data might be aggregated. This poster is our experience of the excellence, variety, and challenges we encountered.Conclusions:1.The significant benefits that the major catalogs provide are their machine to machine tools like OpenSearch and Web Services rather than any GUI usability improvements due to the large amount of data in their catalog.2.There is a trend at the large catalogs towards simulating small data provider portals through advanced services. 3.Populating metadata catalogs using ISO19115 is too complex for users to do in a consistent way, difficult to parse visually or with XML libraries, and too complex for Java XML binders like CASTOR.4.The ability to search for Ids first and then for data (GCMD and ECHO) is better for machine to machine operations rather than the timeouts experienced when returning the entire metadata entry at once. 5.Metadata harvest and export activities between the major catalogs has led to a significant amount of duplication. (This is currently being addressed) 6.Most (if not all) Earth science atmospheric composition data providers store a reference to their data at GCMD.

  16. Of Syntheses and Surprises: Toward a Critical Integral Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Gustav Anderson

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available The central concern of this article is how the search for formal structures with universal values functions ideologically, addressing Zizek’s claim that East-West syntheses may represent the dominant ideology par excellance of global capitalism. To this end, the article offers a Foucaultian genealogy of Integral theory, tracing its origins to the cultural and subjective contingencies of the British Empire, primarily in the work of Integral theory’s foundational thinker, Aurobindo Ghose. The article poses a primary critique of synthesis and evolution as mythological keys to Ultimate Reality which suggests that Zizek’s critique may have some validity, and offers the potential for a “critical integral theory” as an alternative. Situated in Deleuze and Guattari’s concept of becoming, and represented in the ideas and practices of a constellation of thinkers inclusive of Gurdjieff, Benjamin, and Trungpa, the article’s view of integration supports radical democracy as presented in the writings of Laclau and Mouffe as a model outcome for social and personal transformational practices.

  17. Of Syntheses and Surprises:Toward a Critical Integral Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Gustav Anderson

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available The central concern of this article is how the search for formal structures with universal values functions ideologically, addressing Zizek’s claim that East-West syntheses may represent the dominant ideology par excellance of global capitalism. To this end, the article offers a Foucaultian genealogy of Integral theory, tracing its origins to the cultural and subjective contingencies of the British Empire, primarily in the work of Integral theory’s foundational thinker, Aurobindo Ghose. The article poses a primary critique of synthesis and evolution as mythological keys to Ultimate Reality which suggests that Zizek’s critique may have some validity, and offers the potential for a “critical integral theory” as an alternative. Situated in Deleuze and Guattari’s concept of becoming, and represented in the ideas and practices of a constellation of thinkers inclusive of Gurdjieff, Benjamin, and Trungpa, the article’s view of integration supports radical democracy as presented in the writings of Laclau and Mouffe as a model outcome for social and personal transformational practices.

  18. Land processes lead to surprising patterns in atmospheric residence time

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Ent, R.; Tuinenburg, O.

    2017-12-01

    Our research using atmospheric moisture tracking methods shows that the global average atmospheric residence time of evaporation is 8-10 days. This residence time appears to be Gamma distributed with a higher probability of shorter than average residence times and a long tail. As a consequence the median of this residence time is around 5 days. In some places in the world the first few hours/days after evaporation there seems to be a little chance for a moisture particle to precipitate again, which is reflected by a Gamma distribution having a shape parameter below 1. In this study we present global maps of this parameter using different datasets (GLDAS and ERA-Interim). The shape parameter is as such also a measure for the land-atmospheric coupling strength along the path of the atmospheric water particle. We also find that different evaporation components: canopy interception, soil evaporation and transpiration appear to have different residence time distributions. We find a daily cycle in the residence time distribution over land, which is not present over the oceans. In this paper we will show which of the evaporation components is mainly responsible for this daily pattern and thus exhibits the largest daily cycle of land-atmosphere coupling strength.

  19. Surprisingly high substrate specificities observed in complex biofilms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nierychlo, Marta; Kindaichi, Tomonori; Kragelund, Caroline

    The behavior of microorganisms in natural ecosystems (e.g. biofilms) differs significantly from laboratory studies. In nature microorganisms experience alternating periods of surplus nutrients, nutrient-limitation, and starvation. Literature data suggests that to survive and compete successfully......, microorganisms can regulate their metabolism expressing wide range of uptake and catabolic systems. However, ecophysiological studies of natural biofilms indicate that bacteria are very specialized in their choice of substrate, so even minor changes in substrate composition can affect the community composition...... by selection for different specialized species. We hypothesized that bacteria growing in natural environment express strongly conserved substrate specificity which is independent on short-term (few hours) variations in growth conditions. In this study, biofilm from Aalborg wastewater treatment plant was used...

  20. A Brief Introduction on Mystery, the Unknown, Surprise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sean Scanlan

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available In this age of globalization, this age of so many ways to know—and so many ways to know things so quickly—it is both satisfying and deeply unnerving to come upon things and events that are really hard to understand, things and events so shocking or strange or mysterious, that they seem Unknown. Perhaps even unknowable. The first note of NANO Issue 2 focuses on an unsolved murder and reveals a mystery that is confounding, creepy, and yet oddly compelling. In “Karr’s Kill Cult: Virtual Cults and Pseudo-Killing in the Digital Age,” Jeremy Biles and Brian Collins explore the edges of where cyber-crime threatens to turn real—and vice versa. In the second note, Jennifer Ballengee compares Oedipus at Colonus with Don DeLillo’s Falling Man.

  1. A surprise in the first Born approximation for electron scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Treacy, M.M.J.; Van Dyck, D.

    2012-01-01

    A standard textbook derivation for the scattering of electrons by a weak potential under the first Born approximation suggests that the far-field scattered wave should be in phase with the incident wave. However, it is well known that waves scattered from a weak phase object should be phase-shifted by π/2 relative to the incident wave. A disturbing consequence of this missing phase is that, according to the Optical Theorem, the total scattering cross section would be zero in the first Born approximation. We resolve this mystery pedagogically by showing that the first Born approximation fails to conserve electrons even to first order. Modifying the derivation to conserve electrons introduces the correct phase without changing the scattering amplitude. We also show that the far-field expansion for the scattered waves used in many texts is inappropriate for computing an exit wave from a sample, and that the near-field expansion also give the appropriately phase-shifted result. -- Highlights: ► The first Born approximation is usually invoked as the theoretical physical basis for kinematical electron scattering theory. ► Although it predicts the correct scattering amplitude, it predicts the wrong phase; the scattered wave is missing a prefactor of i. ► We show that this arises because the standard textbook version of the first Born approximation does not conserve electrons. ► We show how this can be fixed.

  2. Segmentation, Diarization and Speech Transcription: Surprise Data Unraveled

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huijbregts, M.A.H.

    2008-01-01

    In this thesis, research on large vocabulary continuous speech recognition for unknown audio conditions is presented. For automatic speech recognition systems based on statistical methods, it is important that the conditions of the audio used for training the statistical models match the conditions

  3. The Surprising Impact of Seat Location on Student Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perkins, Katherine K.; Wieman, Carl E.

    2005-01-01

    Every physics instructor knows that the most engaged and successful students tend to sit at the front of the class and the weakest students tend to sit at the back. However, it is normally assumed that this is merely an indication of the respective seat location preferences of weaker and stronger students. Here we present evidence suggesting that in fact this may be mixing up the cause and effect. It may be that the seat selection itself contributes to whether the student does well or poorly, rather than the other way around. While a number of studies have looked at the effect of seat location on students, the results are often inconclusive, and few, if any, have studied the effects in college classrooms with randomly assigned seats. In this paper, we report on our observations of a large introductory physics course in which we randomly assigned students to particular seat locations at the beginning of the semester. Seat location during the first half of the semester had a noticeable impact on student success in the course, particularly in the top and bottom parts of the grade distribution. Students sitting in the back of the room for the first half of the term were nearly six times as likely to receive an F as students who started in the front of the room. A corresponding but less dramatic reversal was evident in the fractions of students receiving As. These effects were in spite of many unusual efforts to engage students at the back of the class and a front-to-back reversal of seat location halfway through the term. These results suggest there may be inherent detrimental effects of large physics lecture halls that need to be further explored.

  4. Defense Science Board (DSB) Summer Study Report on Strategic Surprise

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-07-01

    modeling  and  simulation capabilities and test facilities.  Recommendation 15  Leveraging the Internet of Things  Department of Defense should create a...Manferdelli      Intel  Dr. Joseph  Markowitz       Private Consultant  Dr. Mark Maybury      MITRE  Hon. James Miller      Private Consultant  Hon. Judith

  5. Aeolian comminution experiments revealing surprising sandball mineral aggregates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nørnberg, P.; Bak, E.; Finster, K.; Gunnlaugsson, H. P.; Iversen, J. J.; Jensen, S. Knak; Merrison, J. P.

    2014-06-01

    We have undertaken a set of wind erosion experiments on a simple and well defined mineral, quartz. In these experiments wind action is simulated by end over end tumbling of quartz grains in a sealed quartz flask. The tumbling induces collisions among the quartz grains and the walls of the flask. This process simulates wind action impact speed of ∼1.2 m/s. After several months of tumbling we observed the formation of a large number of spherical sand aggregates, which resemble small snowballs under optical microscopy. Upon mechanical load the aggregates are seen to be more elastic than quartz and their mechanical strength is comparable, though slightly lower than that of sintered silica aerogels. Aggregates of this kind have not been reported from field sites or from closed circulation systems. However, sparse occurrence might explain this, or in nature the concentration of the aggregate building particles is so low that they never meet and just appear as the most fine grained tail of the sediment particle size distribution.

  6. A rare case of primary gastric plasmacytoma: An unforeseen surprise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krishnamoorthy Navin

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Primary plasmacytoma of the gastrointestinal tract is a rare entity. We report a case of a primary gastric plasmacytoma in a 57-year-old man who presented with upper-gastrointestinal bleeding. Endoscopy showed a nodular gastric mass with central umblication. Histological examination of the gastrectomy specimen revealed a monoclonal lambda-chain extramedullary plasmacytoma. Further staging was found to be negative for multiple myeloma. As other more common pathologic processes at this site may also be endowed with numerous plasma cells, awareness of this entity and distinction using immunohistochemistry are extremely crucial. Because systemic disease ultimately develops in many patients with localized plasmacytoma, such patients should be followed closely for the appearance of clinical, biochemical, and roentgenologic evidence of multiple myeloma.

  7. Novice Teachers' Case Dilemmas: Surprising Perspectives Related to Diversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mastrilli, Thomas; Sardo-Brown, Deborah; Hinson, Stephanie

    This study described novice teachers' case dilemmas, analyzing them for assumptions made by teachers about teaching and learning as well as for solutions to the dilemmas. Twenty-one of the thirty-six dilemmas emphasized either minority students, students of low socioeconomic status, or students from single-parent households. Among the issues…

  8. Alternate Futures for 2025. Security Planning to Avoid Surprise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1996-09-01

    September 1995, 96-98B. Antoninus, Marcus Aurelius . Meditations. Chicago: Encyclo- paedia Britannica, 1955. Ashley, Steven. "Voyage to the Bottom of...Zemin has acknowledged this risk. See Craig S. Smith and Marcus W. Bracchli, "Despite Rapid Growth of China’s Economy, Many are Suffering," The Wall...draft of white paper for 2025 Study. Smith, Craig S., and Marcus W. Bracchli. "Despite Rapid Growth of China’s Economy, Many are Suffering." The Wall

  9. From Surprise Parties to Mapmaking: Undergraduate Journeys toward Interdisciplinary Understanding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haynes, Carolyn; Leonard, Jeannie Brown

    2010-01-01

    As educators in academic programs featuring interdisciplinary learning, the authors can attest that helping undergraduate students in an interdisciplinary studies major engage in interdisciplinary learning--that is, draw from two or more disciplines to advance understanding of a problem, question, or phenomenon--is no mean feat. Consequently, the…

  10. The surprising Crab pulsar and its nebula: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bühler, R; Blandford, R

    2014-06-01

    The Crab nebula and its pulsar (referred to together as 'the Crab') have historically played a central role in astrophysics. True to this legacy, several unique discoveries have been made recently. The Crab was found to emit gamma-ray pulsations up to energies of 400 GeV, beyond what was previously expected from pulsars. Strong gamma-ray flares, of durations of a few days, were discovered from within the nebula, while the source was previously expected to be stable in flux on these time scales. Here we review these intriguing and suggestive developments. In this context we give an overview of the observational properties of the Crab and our current understanding of pulsars and their nebulae.

  11. Threats and surprises behind IPv6 extension headers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hendriks, Luuk; Velan, Petr; de Oliveira Schmidt, Ricardo; De Boer, Pieter Tjerk; Pras, Aiko

    2017-01-01

    The concept of Extension Headers, newly introduced with IPv6, is elusive and enables new types of threats in the Internet. Simply dropping all traffic containing any Extension Header - a current practice by operators-seemingly is an effective solution, but at the cost of possibly dropping legitimate

  12. Electron impact ionization of heavy ions: some surprises

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Younger, S.M.

    1986-01-01

    This paper reports the results of calculations of electron impact ionization cross sections for a variety of heavy ions using a distorted wave Born-exchange approximation. The target is described by a Hartree-Fock wavefunction. The scattering matrix element is represented by a triple partial wave expansion over incident, scattered, and ejected (originally bound) continuum states. These partial waves are computed in the potentials associated with the initial target (incident and scattered waves) and the residual ion (ejected waves). A Gauss integration was performed over the distribution of energy between the two final state continuum electrons. For ionization of closed d- and f-subshells, the ejected f-waves were computed in frozen-core term-dependent Hartree-Fock potentials, which include the strong repulsive contribution in singlet terms which arises from the interaction of an excited orbital with an almost closed shell. Ground state correlation was included in some calculations of ionization of d 10 subshells

  13. Surprises and pitfalls arising from (pseudo)symmetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zwart, Peter H.; Grosse-Kunstleve, Ralf W.; Lebedev, Andrey A.; Murshudov, Garib N.; Adams, Paul D.

    2008-01-01

    The presence of pseudosymmetry can cause problems in structure determination and refinement. The relevant background and representative examples are presented. It is not uncommon for protein crystals to crystallize with more than a single molecule per asymmetric unit. When more than a single molecule is present in the asymmetric unit, various pathological situations such as twinning, modulated crystals and pseudo translational or rotational symmetry can arise. The presence of pseudosymmetry can lead to uncertainties about the correct space group, especially in the presence of twinning. The background to certain common pathologies is presented and a new notation for space groups in unusual settings is introduced. The main concepts are illustrated with several examples from the literature and the Protein Data Bank

  14. Dicionários monolíngues para aprendizes avançados de inglês: uma análise das definições do adjetivo surprising e seus sinônimos - doi: 10.4025/actascilangcult.v35i4.17857

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo José Andrelino

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available O dicionário monolíngue é uma obra lexicográfica muito utilizada por aprendizes de inglês. De quando em quando surgem novas edições, atualizadas, de obras já consagradas no mercado. Um dos principais motivos da consulta de um dicionário é a busca de significados de palavras tanto na decodificação quanto na codificação da língua estrangeira. Utilizando o critério de compreensibilidade desenvolvido por Bogaards (1996, que engloba o uso de palavras familiares na definição, o tipo e a precisão das definições, este trabalho objetiva realizar uma comparação das definições do adjetivo surprising e seus sinônimos entre três dicionários monolíngues para aprendizes avançados de inglês: Collins COBUILD Advanced Dictionary of American English, Longman Dictionary of Contemporary English e Oxford Advanced Learner’s Dictionary. A escolha desse verbete partiu de uma atividade de decodificação realizada em sala de aula, na qual os alunos-professores deveriam abordar o seu uso (e seus possíveis sinônimos em contextos específicos. Concluímos que, pelo estilo próprio que cada dicionário possui na apresentação das informações de sua microestrutura, mais comparações, visando outras classes gramaticais e outros aspectos da microestrutura, são necessárias para que possamos obter uma visão mais clara de como esses três diferentes dicionários tratam as definições em sua microestrutura.

  15. Piggyback secundário com LIO de PMMA para correção de surpresa refracional pós-facoemulsificação: resultados a longo prazo de 20 casos Secondary piggyback with PMMA IOL for the correction of refractive surprise after phacoemulsification long-term results of 20 cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Cançado Trindade

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Avaliar os resultados a longo prazo da técnica do piggyback secundário utilizada para a correção de ametropia indesejável pós-facoemulsificação. MÉTODOS: Estudo retrospectivo que compreendeu 20 olhos (19 pacientes. A LIO utilizada foi de peça única de PMMA de 12,5 mm de comprimento total, com óptica oval de 5x6mm, com borda fina e arredondada e angulação de 10 graus com as hápticas. A mesma técnica cirúrgica foi utilizada em todos os casos, consistindo na confecção de túnel esclero-corneano com 5mm de largura, através do qual foi implantada a lente secundária no sulco ciliar. RESULTADOS: A ametropia indesejável foi corrigida em todos os casos. Não foi observado qualquer tipo de complicação durante ou após a cirurgia do piggyback secundário. CONCLUSÃO: A utilização de LIO de peça única de PMMA foi segura e eficaz no piggyback secundário para a correção das surpresas refracionais pós-facoemulsificação.PURPOSE: To evaluate long-term results of the secondary piggyback technique used for the correction of undesired ametropia after phacoemulsification. METHODS: Retrospective study comprising of 20 eyes (19 patients. The IOL used was a single-piece PMMA with an overall length of 12.5mm, a 5x6mm oval thin-edged optic with a 10-degree haptic angulation. The same technique was used in all cases, consisting of a scleral-corneal tunnel with a 5mm opening, through which the secondary intraocular lens was implanted into the ciliary sulcus. RESULTS: The undesired ametropia was corrected in all cases. No complications were observed during or after the secondary piggyback procedure. CONCLUSION: The use of a single-piece PMMA IOL proved to be safe and effective in secondary piggyback for the correction of refractive surprises after phacoemulsification.

  16. L’imaginaire du rêve : entre surprise et répétition (The Imaginary of Dream: Between Surprise and Repetition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Délia Popa

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Why do we dream? What is the relation between dreaming and being aware? Following Walter Benjamin’s and Maria Zambrano’s approach, the paper will focus on an analysis of dream that takes some distance from the phenomenological description made by some of the most known Husserl’s followers, such as Fink, Merleau-Ponty and Sartre. While the phenomenological description investigates the dreaming experience proceeding from the state of being awake and aware, our analysis will look at the latter from the point of view opened by the state we are in when we are dreaming. This perspective brings out some new questions about the importance of dreams in the present-past connexion and about the relation between dream and history.

  17. Fancy a gene? A surprisingly complex evolutionary history/nof peroxiredoxins

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Zíková, Alena; Oborník, Miroslav; Lukeš, Julius

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 2, č. 2 (2015), s. 33-37 E-ISSN 2311-2638 EU Projects: European Commission(XE) 316304 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : horizontal gene transfer * Apicomplexa * endosymbiont * Plasmodium * Chromera * peroxiredoxin * oxidative stress Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology

  18. Surprisingly low frequency attenuation effects in long tubes when measuring turbulent fluxes at tall towers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ibrom, Andreas; Brændholt, Andreas; Pilegaard, Kim

    2016-01-01

    The eddy covariance technique relies on the fast and accurate measurement of gas concentration fluctuations. While for some gasses robust and compact sensors are available, measurement of, e.g., non CO2 greenhouse gas fluxes is often performed with sensitive equipment that cannot be run on a tower...... without massively disturbing the wind field. To measure CO and N2O fluxes, we installed an eddy covariance system at a 125 m mast, where the gas analyser was kept in a laboratory close to the tower and the sampling was performed using a 150 m long tube with a gas intake at 96 m height. We investigated...... by reducing both the water vapour dilution correction and the cross sensitivity effects on the N2O and CO flux measurements. Here we present the set-up of the concentration step change experiment and its results and compare them with recently developed theories for the behaviour of gases in turbulent tube...

  19. Surprised at all the entropy: hippocampal, caudate and midbrain contributions to learning from prediction errors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne-Marike Schiffer

    Full Text Available Influential concepts in neuroscientific research cast the brain a predictive machine that revises its predictions when they are violated by sensory input. This relates to the predictive coding account of perception, but also to learning. Learning from prediction errors has been suggested for take place in the hippocampal memory system as well as in the basal ganglia. The present fMRI study used an action-observation paradigm to investigate the contributions of the hippocampus, caudate nucleus and midbrain dopaminergic system to different types of learning: learning in the absence of prediction errors, learning from prediction errors, and responding to the accumulation of prediction errors in unpredictable stimulus configurations. We conducted analyses of the regions of interests' BOLD response towards these different types of learning, implementing a bootstrapping procedure to correct for false positives. We found both, caudate nucleus and the hippocampus to be activated by perceptual prediction errors. The hippocampal responses seemed to relate to the associative mismatch between a stored representation and current sensory input. Moreover, its response was significantly influenced by the average information, or Shannon entropy of the stimulus material. In accordance with earlier results, the habenula was activated by perceptual prediction errors. Lastly, we found that the substantia nigra was activated by the novelty of sensory input. In sum, we established that the midbrain dopaminergic system, the hippocampus, and the caudate nucleus were to different degrees significantly involved in the three different types of learning: acquisition of new information, learning from prediction errors and responding to unpredictable stimulus developments. We relate learning from perceptual prediction errors to the concept of predictive coding and related information theoretic accounts.

  20. The role of surprising events in a math-game on proportional reasoning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wouters, Pieter; van Oostendorp, Herre; ter Vrugte, Judith; de Jong, Ton; Vandercruysse, Sylke; Elen, Jan; Munkvold, Robin; Kolas, Line

    2015-01-01

    Reviews regarding serious games show that the effect on learning can be qualified as moderately positive. Despite the active involvement of players it seems that they sometimes refrain from relevant cognitive processes during game play. This study addresses a technique involving the generation of

  1. Consumers' various and surprising responses to direct-to-consumer advertisements in magazine print

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arney J

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Jennifer Arney,1–3 Richard L Street Jr,2–4 Aanand D Naik2,31Department of Sociology, University of Houston – Clear Lake, 2Houston VA Health Services Research and Development Center of Excellence, Michael E DeBakey Department of Veterans Affairs Medical Center, 3Section on Health Services Research, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, 4Department of Communication, Texas A&M University, College Station, TX, USAAbstract: Direct-to-consumer advertising (DTCA is ubiquitous in media outlets, but little is known about the ways in which consumers' values, needs, beliefs, and biases influence the perceived meaning and value of DTCA. This article aims to identify the taxonomy of readership categories that reflect the complexity of how health care consumers interact with DTCA, with particular focus on individuals' perceptions of print DTCA in popular magazines. Respondent-driven sampling was used to recruit 18 male and female magazine readers and 18 male and female prescription medication users aged 18–71 years. Semi-structured, in-depth interviews with consumers about their attentiveness, motivations, perceived value, and behavioral responses to DTCA were conducted. The analyses were guided by principles of grounded theory analysis; four categories that vary in consumers' attentiveness, motivations, perceived value, and behavioral responses to DTCA were identified. Two categories – the lay physician and the informed shopper – see value in information from DTCA and are likely to seek medical care based on the information. One category – the voyeur – reads DTCA, but is not likely to approach a clinician regarding advertised information. The fourth category – the evader – ignores DTCA and is not likely to approach a clinician with DTCA information. Responses to DTCA vary considerably among consumers, and physicians should view patients' understanding and response to DTCA within the context of their health-related needs. Patients' comments related to DTCA may be used as an opportunity to engage and understand patients' perspectives about illness and medication use. Clinicians may use information about these categories to facilitate shared understanding and improve communication within the doctor–patient relationship.Keywords: communication, decision making, doctor–patient relationships, qualitative research

  2. Complex Outcomes from Insect and Weed Control with Transgenic Plants: Ecological Surprises?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Bøhn

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Agriculture is fundamental for human survival through food production and is performed in ecosystems that, while simplified, still operate along ecological principles and retain complexity. Agricultural plants are thus part of ecological systems, and interact in complex ways with the surrounding terrestrial, soil, and aquatic habitats. We discuss three case studies that demonstrate how agricultural solutions to pest and weed control, if they overlook important ecological and evolutionary factors, cause “surprises”: (i the fast emergence of resistance against the crop-inserted Bt-toxin in South Africa, (ii the ecological changes generated by Bt-cotton landscapes in China, and (iii the decline of the monarch butterfly, Danaus plexippus, in North America. The recognition that we work with complex systems is in itself important, as it should limit the belief in reductionist solutions. Agricultural practices lacking eco-evolutionary understanding result in “surprises” like resistance evolution both in weeds and pest insects, risking the reappearance of the “pesticide treadmill”—with increased use of toxic pesticides as the follow-up. We recommend prioritization of research that counteracts the tendencies of reductionist approaches. These may be beneficial on a short term, but with trade-off costs on a medium- to long-term. Such costs include loss of biodiversity, ecosystem services, long-term soil productivity, pollution, and reduced food quality.

  3. Surprising discovery of high-grade pelitic schist on Cavalli Seamount, offshore Northland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mortimer, N.; Walker, N.H.; Herzer, R.H.; Calvert, A.; Seward, D.

    1999-01-01

    Serendipity waits in the world's unexplored places. In March 1999, GNS's ONSIDE expedition to the South Fiji Basin made two dredge hauls on Cavalli seamount expecting to recover Miocene oceanic volcanic rocks. Instead dredge DIA recored 1 kg of 10 cm slickensided and chloritised schist pieces and dredge DIB, which was 1.1 km distant, 100 kg of well-foliated biotite schist, mainly in the form of two large subangular boulders. The presence of calsilicate bands initially suggested a correlation with Buller or Takaka Terranes, but whole rock chemical composition of the schist is more consistent with Murihiku, Waipapa or Pahau Terranes. U-Pb TIMS gheochronometry of individual detrital zircons indicates a maximum 170Ma depositional age for the schist protolith, thus clearly ruling out a Buller or Takaka correlation. Rb-Sr whole rock data suggest a young (Cenozoic?) metamorphic age. (author)

  4. Driving Technological Surprise: DARPA’s Mission in a Changing World

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-01

    fundamental ways. Our research, innovation, and entrepreneurial capacity is the envy of the world, but others are building universities, labs, and...through deep engagement with companies, universities, and DoD and other labs. Our success hinges on having a healthy U.S. R&D ecosystem . Within

  5. Surprise! Infants Consider Possible Bases of Generalization for a Single Input Example

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerken, LouAnn; Dawson, Colin; Chatila, Razanne; Tenenbaum, Josh

    2015-01-01

    Infants have been shown to generalize from a small number of input examples. However, existing studies allow two possible means of generalization. One is via a process of noting similarities shared by several examples. Alternatively, generalization may reflect an implicit desire to explain the input. The latter view suggests that generalization…

  6. The Surprise Element: How Allaying Parents' Misconceptions Improves a Teacher's Communicative Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Rashmi

    2010-01-01

    Challenged by parents' misconceptions about the role of cooperative learning activities in developing their gifted children, a teacher began to mentor the parents. The act of mentoring those parents resulted in the teacher's longer-term professional development: specifically, creating a process of seeking structured feedback from parents and…

  7. Surprising conformers of the biologically important A·T DNA base pairs: QM/QTAIM proofs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brovarets', Ol'ha O.; Tsiupa, Kostiantyn S.; Hovorun, Dmytro M.

    2018-02-01

    For the first time novel high-energy conformers – A·T(wWC) (5.36), A·T(wrWC) (5.97), A·T(wH) (5.78) and A·T(wrH) (ΔG=5.82 kcal•mol-1) were revealed for each of the four biologically important A·T(WC) DNA base pairs – Watson-Crick A·T(WC), reverse Watson-Crick A·T(rWC), Hoogsteen A·T(H) and reverse Hoogsteen A·T(rH) at the MP2/aug-cc-pVDZ//B3LYP/6-311++G(d,p) level of quantum-mechanical theory in the continuum with ɛ=4 under normal conditions. Each of these conformers possesses substantially non-planar wobble (w) structure and is stabilized by the participation of the two anti-parallel N6H/N6H'…O4/O2 and N3H…N6 H-bonds, involving the pyramidalized amino group of the A DNA base as an acceptor and a donor of the H-bonding. The transition states – TSA·T(WC)↔A·T(wWC), TSA·T(rWC)↔A·T(wrWC), TSA·T(H)↔A·T(wH) and TSA·T(rH)↔A·T(wrH), controlling the dipole-active transformations of the conformers from the main plane-symmetric state into the high-energy, significantly non-planar state and vice versa, were localized. They also possess wobble structures similarly to the high-energy conformers and are stabilized by the participation of the N6H/N6H'…O4/O2 and N3H…N6 H-bonds. Discovered conformers of the A·T DNA base pairs are dynamically stable short-lived structures (lifetime τ = (1.4-3.9) ps). Their possible biological significance and future perspectives have been briefly discussed.

  8. The President's pleasant surprise: how LGBT advocates ended Don't Ask, Don't Tell.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frank, Nathaniel

    2013-01-01

    This study assesses the role of LGBT advocates in repealing the military's Don't Ask, Don't Tell policy in the U.S. Congress. It draws on the author's direct involvement with that effort as well as personal interviews and media evidence to consider the contributions of the Obama Administration, members of Congress, the media, and individuals and pressure groups in the repeal process. It argues that repeal succeeded not because of the effective implementation of a White House plan but because the pressure of LGBT advocates ultimately shattered several key obstacles including inadequate messaging and dysfunction and inertia among both politicians and interest groups in Washington. The article offers insight into the role of public pressure in forwarding social change.

  9. False Memories Are Not Surprising: The Subjective Experience of an Associative Memory Illusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karpicke, Jeffrey D.; McCabe, David P.; Roediger, Henry L., III

    2008-01-01

    Four experiments examined subjective experience during retrieval in the DRM false memory paradigm [Deese, J. (1959). "On the prediction of occurrence of particular verbal intrusions in immediate recall." "Journal of Experimental Psychology," 58, 17-22; Roediger, H. L., & McDermott, K. B. (1995). "Creating false memories: Remembering words not…

  10. Hemispheric Chronic Subdural Hematoma Concealing Subdural Metastases: Terrible Surprise Behind Routine Emergency Department Consultation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caruso, Riccardo; Pesce, Alessandro; Martines, Valentina

    2017-10-01

    The patient is a 79-year-old male, suffering from advanced metastatic prostate cancer, who developed a progressively worsening ideomotor slowing and was therefore referred to the emergency department of our institution. A plain axial computed tomography (CT) scan revealed a vast hemispheric subdural fluid collection, apparently a subdural hematoma. On closer inspection, and most of all, in hindsight, a tenuously isohyperdense signal irregularity at the frontal aspect of the fluid collection appears. Because of the declined general medical conditions and the paucity of the neurologic impairment, a high-dose, corticosteroid-based conservative strategy was performed. The total body CT scan for the routine oncologic follow-up of the prostate cancer scan fell at 20 days from the first CT of the emergency department. A second contrast-enhanced axial CT scan demonstrated the presence of 2 subdural metastases, presumably the initial pathogenesis of the subdural fluid collection. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Surprisingly small HONO emissions from snow surfaces at Browning Pass, Antarctica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. J. Beine

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Measured Fluxes of nitrous acid at Browning Pass, Antarctica were very low, despite conditions that are generally understood as favorable for HONO emissions, including: acidic snow surfaces, an abundance of NO3- anions in the snow surface, and abundant UV light for NO3- photolysis. Photochemical modeling suggests noon time HONO fluxes of 5–10 nmol m-2 h-1; the measured fluxes, however, were close to zero throughout the campaign. The location and state of NO3- in snow is crucial to its reactivity. The analysis of soluble mineral ions in snow reveals that the NO3- ion is probably present in aged snows as NaNO3. This is peculiar to our study site, and we suggest that this may affect the photochemical reactivity of NO3-, by preventing the release of products, or providing a reactive medium for newly formed HONO. In fresh snow, the NO3- ion is probably present as dissolved or adsorbed HNO3 and yet, no HONO emissions were observed. We speculate that HONO formation from NO3- photolysis may involve electron transfer reactions of NO2 from photosensitized organics and that fresh snows at our site had insufficient concentrations of adequate organic compounds to favor this reaction.

  12. DNA Barcoding the Geometrid Fauna of Bavaria (Lepidoptera): Successes, Surprises, and Questions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hausmann, Axel; Haszprunar, Gerhard; Hebert, Paul D. N.

    2011-01-01

    Background The State of Bavaria is involved in a research program that will lead to the construction of a DNA barcode library for all animal species within its territorial boundaries. The present study provides a comprehensive DNA barcode library for the Geometridae, one of the most diverse of insect families. Methodology/Principal Findings This study reports DNA barcodes for 400 Bavarian geometrid species, 98 per cent of the known fauna, and approximately one per cent of all Bavarian animal species. Although 98.5% of these species possess diagnostic barcode sequences in Bavaria, records from neighbouring countries suggest that species-level resolution may be compromised in up to 3.5% of cases. All taxa which apparently share barcodes are discussed in detail. One case of modest divergence (1.4%) revealed a species overlooked by the current taxonomic system: Eupithecia goossensiata Mabille, 1869 stat.n. is raised from synonymy with Eupithecia absinthiata (Clerck, 1759) to species rank. Deep intraspecific sequence divergences (>2%) were detected in 20 traditionally recognized species. Conclusions/Significance The study emphasizes the effectiveness of DNA barcoding as a tool for monitoring biodiversity. Open access is provided to a data set that includes records for 1,395 geometrid specimens (331 species) from Bavaria, with 69 additional species from neighbouring regions. Taxa with deep intraspecific sequence divergences are undergoing more detailed analysis to ascertain if they represent cases of cryptic diversity. PMID:21423340

  13. Spatial trends in tourism within South Africa: The expected and the surprising

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Mc Kelly, David H

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The aim is to provide an indication of the value of such comparative analyses of the spatial trends and impacts of the tourism sector in local economies in South Africa. The discussion of the tourism space economy is based on an analysis of a local...

  14. TAXATION OF INCOME OF PHYSICAL PERSONS AND LOCAL FINANCES: SURPRISES AND PERSPECTIVES OF THEIR SOLUTIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Lyutyi

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The article proposes a comprehensive vision of the personal income tax system issues in the context of its use as a tool for the formation of local public finances, a systemic approach to increasing its effectiveness in the context of the need to balance the interests in the chains of the individual-society general system: individual-local community, the territory of the labor force supplier-the territory of the labor force recipient (scope of application of labor, the local community-the territory/sphere where social services are provided. A conclusion is drawn about the dominant fiscal function of the personal income tax and the tax on real property other than a parcel of land, which exhibits the constant growth of its tax rates without an acceptable extension of the preferential part. The process of transforming these taxes and their budget-forming role in the formation of the capable united territorial communities were investigated. The main issues of enrollment and distribution of income tax among the budgets of different territorial communities as subjects of the process of decentralization of public finances were revealed. The significant amount of work is required to assess the actual and potential capacity of the respective territories in order to provide the relevant services in the context of the entire array of the settlement network, which requires the development of a budget classification that would contribute to more detailed local budgets in developing a model for their distribution of profitable tax that would better take into account the parameters of the capacity of territorial communities, provision of their residents with the relevant services. The conclusion is made on the necessity of forming the preferential part of the mentioned taxes on the new conceptual principles, which provide for an extensive and effective system of tax incentives that would be provided to taxpayers, indirectly through the participation of the state, opportunities for obtaining education, treatment, introduction of energy-saving technologies, saving, investing in construction of housing, etc., and also formed the motivation for legalization of incomes as the basis for expanding the tax base, increasing budget formation of relevant taxes.

  15. A Western Professor in Singapore: Cross-Cultural Readings, Expectations, and Surprises in the Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freeman, Bradley

    2015-01-01

    The educational field is seeing an increased growth in English-language teaching opportunities abroad. This situation gives rise to a number of interesting research inquiries. For example, can teaching experience in one cultural context translate well into another? What do studies tell us about cross-cultural awareness and effectiveness of those…

  16. Technical challenges of upset recovery training : simulating the element of surprise

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-30

    This invited paper is written in the context of a concerted effort by the aviation industry and regulators to reduce the occurrence of Loss of Control (LOC) accidents. LOC accidents have taken the lead among fatal airplane accidents, recently outpaci...

  17. Those Crafty Cepheids: Surprises From Ground-Based Photometry and HST-COS FUV Spectra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engle, Scott G.; Guinan, E. F.; Neilson, H.; Wasatonic, R. P.; Harper, G.

    2013-06-01

    Several years ago the Secret Lives of Cepheids (SLiC) program was initiated to look for unexpected or exotic behaviors from Cepheids. Regular photometric monitoring of Cepheids already possessing robust historical datasets was started to better understand long-term pulsation period changes, but to look for possible amplitude changes as well. At the time, only two “unusual” Cepheids were known to have undergone amplitude changes - Polaris and V473 Lyr. To date, however, the SLiC program has found evidence for amplitude changes in seven other Cepheids, raising the possibility that a "Blazhko effect" could be at work in certain Cepheids, as exists in a subset of RR Lyr stars. As the program expanded, we found that previous International Ultraviolet Exporer (IUE) studies showed certain Cepheids to have UV emissions from warm-to-hot stellar atmospheres. On top of that, the emissions were variable and well-phased to the stellar pulsation period, indicating that the mechanism heating the Cepheid atmosphere was influenced by these pulsations, if not linked to them. With the installation of the Cosmic Origins Spectrograph (COS) onboard the Hubble Space Telescope (HST), a modern, high-quality UV spectrograph was now operating that could efficiently obtain high-resolution spectra of the Cepheids. We have been fortunate to observe four Cepheids to date with COS, and the results are well beyond anything IUE had led us to expect. Here we will present the current optical and UV results of the SLiC program, the implications of the results, and the future direction and expansion of the program. We gratefully acknowledge support for this program from HST grants HST-GO-11726.01-A, HST-GO-12302.01-A and HST-GO-13019.01-A, as well as NSF/RUI grant AST-1009903.

  18. Controlled, Rapid Uprighting of Molars: A surprisingly Simple Solution The Pivot Arm Appliance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warise, Timothy R; Galella, Steve A

    2015-01-01

    In orthodontic cases where the regional anatomy provides limited room for eruption, there is etiologically a higher occurrence of tipped/impacted second molars. Although second molar extraction with third molar replacement is a useful option, the "Pivot Arm Appliance" encourages the uprighting of the second molar as a preferred treatment. The most unique and important attribute of the "Pivot Arm Appliance" is the rotating tube. In cases of access limitation, the disto-occlusal surface of the molar presents as one area that is accessible. Other features of the "Pivot Arm Appliance" include: The position of the rotator tube delivers optimal rotational force through the pivoting action of the tube/arm complex. The "Pivot Arm Appliance" takes advantage of the efficiency and simplicity of a Class I lever system. The anatomical fulcrum being the dense cortical bone located anterior to the ascending ramus. The vertical spring system is compact, reliable and delivers gentle controlled force in rotational direction. The lingual location of the "Pivot Arm Appliance" does not hinder the function of the tongue, impinge on the soft tissue or interfere with normal masticatory function. The ease of placement of the rotator tube and subsequent insertion of the spring. It is well to note the uprighting appliance provides a very useful and practical approach to the unique problem of severely tipped second molars with limited buccal access. The "Pivot Arm Appliance" does not function only in these situations but can be used in all cases of second molar uprighting of a moderate to severe nature.

  19. Revisiting Our Reappraisal of the (Surprisingly Few) Benefits of High Self-Esteem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumeister, Roy F; Vohs, Kathleen D

    2018-03-01

    Our 2003 article clashed with conventional wisdom by concluding that high self-esteem has only a couple of benefits, notably high initiative (based on trusting one's own judgment) and feeling good. Its high citation rate reflects not only the novel conclusions but also widespread interest in self-esteem both among researchers and in the broader society. Psychology may have lost some credibility by advocating efforts to raise self-esteem that were based on correlational evidence, which may be a salutary lesson for the field. There is still much to learn about self-esteem, but future work can improve by noting weaknesses in self-report data and correcting for confounds.

  20. Self-organizing weights for Internet AS-graphs and surprisingly simple routing metrics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scholz, Jan Carsten; Greiner, Martin

    The transport capacity of Internet-like communication networks and hence their efficiency may be improved by a factor of 5-10 through the use of highly optimized routing metrics, as demonstrated previously. Numerical determination of such routing metrics can be computationally demanding...... metrics. The new metrics have negligible computational cost and result in an approximately 5-fold performance increase, providing distinguished competitiveness with the computationally costly counterparts. They are applicable to very large networks and easy to implement in today's Internet routing...

  1. Pattern of Internet use among professionals in India: Critical look at a surprising survey result

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandeep Grover

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: To study the pattern of Internet use across people of various professions who have access to it; the impact of Internet use on their personal, social, and occupational life; and to evaluate their Internet use on the International Classification of Diseases-Tenth Revision (ICD-10 dependence criteria and Young′s Internet Addiction Diagnostic Questionnaire (IADQ. Materials and Methods: Hundred four respondents were assessed on a 31-items self-rated questionnaire covering all the ICD-10 criteria and Young′s criteria for Internet addiction. Results: The typical profile of an Internet user was as follows: the mean duration of Internet use was 73.43 months (SD 44.51, two-thirds (65.38% of them were using Internet on a regular basis for a period of more than a year, the mean duration of daily Internet use was 39.13 months (SD 35.97, the average time spent in Internet use was 2.13 h (SD 1.98 everyday, more than half (56.73% of the sample was using Internet at least for 2 h/day, and the most common purpose of Internet use was educational for two-thirds (62.5% of the sample. The five most commonly endorsed items were as follows: the need to use the Internet everyday (53.8%, Internet use helping to overcome bad moods (50%, staying online longer than one originally intends to (43.3%, eating while surfing (24%, and physical activity going down since one has started using the Internet (22.1%. When evaluated on ICD-10 substance dependence criteria and Young′s IADQ separately, the prevalence of the ′cases′ of Internet addiction came out to be 51.9 and 3.8%, respectively. Conclusions: The Internet affects the users′ life in multiple ways. The sharp difference in the prevalence estimates of Internet addiction depending on the type of criteria used shows the fragility of the construct of Internet addiction. A cautious approach should be adopted while revising the nosological system to differentiate users from those who are dependent.

  2. Improvised Explosive Devices in Iraq, 2003-09: A Case of Operational Surprise and Institutional Response

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-01

    plementation for operations in Iraq and Afghanistan under no-win, no-loss arrangements. While impos- sible to isolate in the published budget data...the slow erosion of our agreeable way of life. The dilemma facing modern militaries, therefore, is to balance their efforts and investment between

  3. Conundrums, paradoxes, and surprises: a brave new world of biodiversity conservation

    Science.gov (United States)

    A.E. Lugo

    2012-01-01

    Anthropogenic activity is altering the global disturbance regime through such processes as urbanization, deforestation, and climate change. These disturbance events alter the environmental conditions under which organisms live and adapt and trigger succession, thus setting the biota in otiion in both ecological and evolutionary space. The result is the mixing of...

  4. Gravitational Waves from Isolated Systems: Surprising Consequences of a Positive Cosmological Constant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashtekar, Abhay; Bonga, Béatrice; Kesavan, Aruna

    2016-02-05

    There is a deep tension between the well-developed theory of gravitational waves from isolated systems and the presence of a positive cosmological constant Λ, however tiny. In particular a generalization of Einstein's 1918 quadrupole formula that would allow a positive Λ is not yet available. We first explain the principal difficulties and then show that it is possible to overcome them in the weak field limit. These results also provide concrete hints for constructing the Λ>0 generalization of the Bondi-Sachs framework for full, nonlinear general relativity.

  5. Surprised!” Telling the pictures. Can the illustrations in picture books promote language acquisition?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandie Mourão

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo procura apresentar os resultados da re-análise dos dados recolhidos em dois projectos de investigaçãoacçãosobre a utilização de álbuns em língua inglesa nas aulas de Inglês da Educação Pré-Escolar em Portugal.Dois álbums forum usados, demonstrando diferentes interacções entre texto e imagem, ‘paralela’ e ‘interdependente’. Transcrições de gravações de horas do conto com estes livros foram categorizadas de acordo com asfalas em Inglês a que o texto ou imagem deram origem. Os resultados indicam que a linguagem que as criançasaprendem de facto, com os livros ‘inter-dependentes’ (onde a história escrita é diferente da história ilustrada émais rica e as próprias crianças tomam um papel mais activo na criação de um significado. As implicações destesresultados são discutidas.The following article presents the findings of a re-analysis of data from two action research projects investigatingthe use of English picture books in Pre-school English classes in Portugal. Two picture books were used, eachrepresenting parallel and interdependent storytelling models. Audio tapescripts of the picture book read aloudswere categorised according to the utterances prompted by the verbal and visual texts. Results show that foreignlanguage acquisition is extended when both the verbal and visual texts of a picture book are used for languageinput and that children are more actively involved in meaning making. Implications are discussed.

  6. Biosourced Polymetallic Catalysis: A Surprising and Efficient Means to Promote the Knoevenagel Condensation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pierre-Alexandre Deyris

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Zn hyperaccumulator (Arabidobsis halleri and Zn accumulator Salix “Tordis” (Salix schwerinii × Salix viminalis have shown their interest in the phytoextraction of polluted brownfields. Herein, we explore a novel methodology based on the chemical valorization of Zn-rich biomass produced by these metallophyte plants. The approach is based on the use of polymetallic salts derived from plants as bio-based catalysts in organic chemistry. The formed ecocatalysts were characterized via ICP-MS, X-ray diffraction (XRD, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR in order to precise the chemical composition, structure, and behavior of the formed materials. The Doebner-Knoevenagel reaction was chosen as model reaction to study their synthetic potential. Significant differences to usual catalysts such as zinc (II chloride are observed. They can principally be related to a mixture of unusual mineral species. DFT calculations were carried out on these salts in the context of the Gutmann theory. They allow the rationalization of experimental results. Finally, these new bio-based polymetallic catalysts illustrated the interest of this concept for green and sustainable catalysis.

  7. Biosourced polymetallic catalysis: A surprising and efficient means to promote the Knoevenagel condensation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deyris, Pierre-Alexandre; Bert, Valérie; Diliberto, Sébastien; Boulanger, Clotilde; Petit, Eddy; Legrand, Yves-Marie; Grison, Claude

    2018-03-01

    Zn hyperaccumulator (Arabidobsis halleri) and Zn accumulator Salix ‘Tordis’ (Salix schwerinii x S. viminalis) have shown their interest in the phytoextraction of polluted brownfields. Herein, we explore an innovative methodology based on the chemical valorization of Zn-rich biomass produced by these metallophyte plants. The approach is based on the direct use of polymetallic salts derived from plants as “Lewis acid” catalysts in organic chemistry. The formed ecocatalysts were characterized via ICP-MS, XRD, FT-IR in order to elucidate the chemical composition, structure and behavior of the formed materials. The Doebner-Knoevenagel reaction was chosen as model reaction to study their synthetic potential. Significant differences to conventional catalysts such as zinc (II) chloride are observed. They can principally be related to a mixture of unusual mineral species. DFT calculations were carried out on these salts in the context of the Gutmann theory. They allow the rationalization of experimental results. Finally, these new bio-based polymetallic catalysts illustrated the interest of this concept for green and sustainable catalysis.

  8. On some surprising statistical properties of a DNA fingerprinting technique called AFLP

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gort, G.

    2010-01-01

    AFLP is a widely used DNA fingerprinting technique, resulting in band absence - presence profiles, like a bar code. Bands represent DNA fragments, sampled from the genome of an individual plant or other organism. The DNA fragments travel through a lane of an electrophoretic gel or microcapillary

  9. The Zen of Magic Squares, Circles, and Stars An Exhibition of Surprising Structures across Dimensions

    CERN Document Server

    Pickover, Clifford A

    2011-01-01

    Humanity's love affair with mathematics and mysticism reached a critical juncture, legend has it, on the back of a turtle in ancient China. As Clifford Pickover briefly recounts in this enthralling book, the most comprehensive in decades on magic squares, Emperor Yu was supposedly strolling along the Yellow River one day around 2200 B.C. when he spotted the creature: its shell had a series of dots within squares. To Yu's amazement, each row of squares contained fifteen dots, as did the columns and diagonals. When he added any two cells opposite along a line through the center square, like 2 a

  10. Surprising similarities: Recent monetary regimes of small economies / Andrew K. Rose

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Rose, Andrew K.

    2014-01-01

    Artikkel keskendub väikese majandusega riikide (sh Eesti) rahapoliitikale enne ja pärast ülemaailmset finantskriisi. Kokku analüüsitakse 170 riigi näitajaid aastatest 2007-2012 ning jõutakse järeldusele, et riikide rahapoliitika mõju makromajanduslikele ja finantstagajärgedele on tegelikult üllatavalt väike

  11. Corn Ethanol: The Surprisingly Effective Route for Natural Gas Consumption in the Transportation Sector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Szybist, James P. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Curran, Scott [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2015-05-01

    Proven reserves and production of natural gas (NG) in the United States have increased dramatically in the last decade, due largely to the commercialization of hydraulic fracturing. This has led to a plentiful supply of NG, resulting in a significantly lower cost on a gallon of gasoline-equivalent (GGE) basis. Additionally, NG is a domestic, non-petroleum source of energy that is less carbon-intensive than coal or petroleum products, and thus can lead to lower greenhouse gas emissions. Because of these factors, there is a desire to increase the use of NG in the transportation sector in the United States (U.S.). However, using NG directly in the transportation sector requires that several non-trivial challenges be overcome. One of these issues is the fueling infrastructure. There are currently only 1,375 NG fueling stations in the U.S. compared to 152,995 fueling stations for gasoline in 2014. Additionally, there are very few light-duty vehicles that can consume this fuel directly as dedicated or bi-fuel options. For example, in model year 2013Honda was the only OEM to offer a dedicated CNG sedan while a number of others offered CNG options as a preparation package for LD trucks and vans. In total, there were a total of 11 vehicle models in 2013 that could be purchased that could use natural gas directly. There are additional potential issues associated with NG vehicles as well. Compared to commercial refueling stations, the at-home refueling time for NG vehicles is substantial – a result of the small compressors used for home refilling. Additionally, the methane emissions from both refueling (leakage) and from tailpipe emissions (slip) from these vehicles can add to their GHG footprint, and while these emissions are not currently regulated it could be a barrier in the future, especially in scenarios with broad scale adoption of CNG vehicles. However, NG consumption already plays a large role in other sectors of the economy, including some that are important to the transportation sector. Examples include steam reforming of natural gas to provide hydrogen for hydrotreating unit operations within the refinery and production of urea for use as a reductant for diesel after treatment in selective catalytic reduction (SCR). This discussion focuses on the consumption of natural gas in the production pathway of conventional ethanol (non-cellulosic) from corn through fermentation. Though it is clear that NG would also play a significant role in the cellulosic production pathways, those cases are not considered in this analysis.

  12. Nonlocal continuum electrostatic theory predicts surprisingly small energetic penalties for charge burial in proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bardhan, Jaydeep P

    2011-09-14

    We study the energetics of burying charges, ion pairs, and ionizable groups in a simple protein model using nonlocal continuum electrostatics. Our primary finding is that the nonlocal response leads to markedly reduced solvent screening, comparable to the use of application-specific protein dielectric constants. Employing the same parameters as used in other nonlocal studies, we find that for a sphere of radius 13.4 Å containing a single +1e charge, the nonlocal solvation free energy varies less than 18 kcal/mol as the charge moves from the surface to the center, whereas the difference in the local Poisson model is ∼35 kcal/mol. Because an ion pair (salt bridge) generates a comparatively more rapidly varying Coulomb potential, energetics for salt bridges are even more significantly reduced in the nonlocal model. By varying the central parameter in nonlocal theory, which is an effective length scale associated with correlations between solvent molecules, nonlocal-model energetics can be varied from the standard local results to essentially zero; however, the existence of the reduction in charge-burial penalties is quite robust to variations in the protein dielectric constant and the correlation length. Finally, as a simple exploratory test of the implications of nonlocal response, we calculate glutamate pK(a) shifts and find that using standard protein parameters (ε(protein) = 2-4), nonlocal results match local-model predictions with much higher dielectric constants. Nonlocality may, therefore, be one factor in resolving discrepancies between measured protein dielectric constants and the model parameters often used to match titration experiments. Nonlocal models may hold significant promise to deepen our understanding of macromolecular electrostatics without substantially increasing computational complexity. © 2011 American Institute of Physics

  13. Short- and long-lasting consequences of novelty, deviance, and surprise on brain and cognition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schomaker, J.; Meeter, M.

    2015-01-01

    When one encounters a novel stimulus this sets off a cascade of brain responses, activating several neuromodulatory systems. As a consequence novelty has a wide range of effects on cognition; improving perception and action, increasing motivation, eliciting exploratory behavior, and promoting

  14. Short- and long-lasting consequences of novelty, deviance and surprise on brain and cognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schomaker, J; Meeter, M

    2015-08-01

    When one encounters a novel stimulus this sets off a cascade of brain responses, activating several neuromodulatory systems. As a consequence novelty has a wide range of effects on cognition; improving perception and action, increasing motivation, eliciting exploratory behavior, and promoting learning. Here, we review these benefits and how they may arise in the brain. We propose a framework that organizes novelty's effects on brain and cognition into three groups. First, novelty can transiently enhance perception. This effect is proposed to be mediated by novel stimuli activating the amygdala and enhancing early sensory processing. Second, novel stimuli can increase arousal, leading to short-lived effects on action in the first hundreds of milliseconds after presentation. We argue that these effects are related to deviance, rather than to novelty per se, and link them to activation of the locus-coeruleus norepinephrine system. Third, spatial novelty may trigger the dopaminergic mesolimbic system, promoting dopamine release in the hippocampus, having longer-lasting effects, up to tens of minutes, on motivation, reward processing, and learning and memory. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Heuristics can produce surprisingly rational probability estimates: Comment on Costello and Watts (2014).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nilsson, Håkan; Juslin, Peter; Winman, Anders

    2016-01-01

    Costello and Watts (2014) present a model assuming that people's knowledge of probabilities adheres to probability theory, but that their probability judgments are perturbed by a random noise in the retrieval from memory. Predictions for the relationships between probability judgments for constituent events and their disjunctions and conjunctions, as well as for sums of such judgments were derived from probability theory. Costello and Watts (2014) report behavioral data showing that subjective probability judgments accord with these predictions. Based on the finding that subjective probability judgments follow probability theory, Costello and Watts (2014) conclude that the results imply that people's probability judgments embody the rules of probability theory and thereby refute theories of heuristic processing. Here, we demonstrate the invalidity of this conclusion by showing that all of the tested predictions follow straightforwardly from an account assuming heuristic probability integration (Nilsson, Winman, Juslin, & Hansson, 2009). We end with a discussion of a number of previous findings that harmonize very poorly with the predictions by the model suggested by Costello and Watts (2014). (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  16. Spatial trends in tourism within South Africa: The expected and the surprising

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    McKelly, David H

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available presented at the European Regional Science Association 41st Annual Meeting, Zagreb, August. Rogerson, C.M. 2014a. The Uneven Geography of Tourism in South Africa. African Journal of Hospitality, Tourism and Leisure, 3 (1), 1-15. ~ 13 ~ Rogerson, C...

  17. Seeking surprise : rethinking monitoring for collective learning in rural resource management

    OpenAIRE

    Guijt, I.M.

    2008-01-01

    Commonsense says that monitoring systems should be able to provide feedback that can help correct ineffective actions. But practice shows that when dealing with complex rural development issues that involve collaborative action by a changing configuration of stakeholders, monitoring practice often falls short of its potential. In this thesis, I describe my search to understand why practice is so limited and what might be needed to design monitoring processes that foster learning in concerted ...

  18. Surprise in simplicity: an unusual spectral evolution of a single pulse GRB 151006A

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basak, R.; Iyyani, S.; Chand, V.; Chattopadhyay, T.; Bhattacharya, D.; Rao, A. R.; Vadawale, S. V.

    2017-11-01

    We present a detailed analysis of GRB 151006A, the first gamma-ray burst (GRB) detected by AstroSat Cadmium-Zinc-Telluride Imager (CZTI). We study the long-term spectral evolution by exploiting the capabilities of Fermi and Swift satellites at different phases, which is complemented by the polarization measurement with the CZTI. While the light curve of the GRB in different energy bands shows a simple pulse profile, the spectrum shows an unusual evolution. The first phase exhibits a hard-to-soft evolution until ∼16-20 s, followed by a sudden increase in the spectral peak reaching a few MeV. Such a dramatic change in the spectral evolution in the case of a single pulse burst is reported for the first time. This is captured by all models we used namely, Band function, blackbody+Band and two blackbodies+power law. Interestingly, the Fermi Large Area Telescope also detects its first photon (>100 MeV) during this time. This new injection of energy may be associated with either the beginning of afterglow phase, or a second hard pulse of the prompt emission itself that, however, is not seen in the otherwise smooth pulse profile. By constructing Bayesian blocks and studying the hardness evolution we find a good evidence for a second hard pulse. The Swift data at late epochs (>T90 of the GRB) also show a significant spectral evolution consistent with the early second phase. The CZTI data (100-350 keV), though having low significance (1σ), show high values of polarization in the two epochs (77-94 per cent), in agreement with our interpretation.

  19. Bimolecular Excited-State Electron Transfer with Surprisingly Long-Lived Radical Ions

    KAUST Repository

    Alsam, Amani Abdu

    2015-09-02

    We explored the excited-state interactions of bimolecular, non-covalent systems consisting of cationic poly[(9,9-di(3,3’-N,N’-trimethyl-ammonium) propyl fluorenyl-2,7-diyl)-alt-co-(9,9-dioctyl-fluorenyl-2,7-diyl)] diiodide salt (PFN) and 1,4-dicyanobenzene (DCB) using steady-state and time-resolved techniques, including femto- and nanosecond transient absorption and femtosecond infrared spectroscopies with broadband capabilities. The experimental results demonstrated that photo-induced electron transfer from PFN to DCB occurs on the picosecond time scale, leading to the formation of PFN+• and DCB-• radical ions. Interestingly, real-time observations of the vibrational marker modes on the acceptor side provided direct evidence and insight into the electron transfer process indirectly inferred from UV-Vis experiments. The band narrowing on the picosecond time scale observed on the antisymmetric C-N stretching vibration of the DCB radical anion provides clear experimental evidence that a substantial part of the excess energy is channeled into vibrational modes of the electron transfer product and that the geminate ion pairs dissociate. More importantly, our nanosecond time-resolved data indicate that the charge-separated state is very long lived ( 30 ns) due to the dissociation of the contact radical ion pair into free ions. Finally, the fast electron transfer and slow charge recombination anticipate the current donor−acceptor system with potential applications in organic solar cells.

  20. Testing an emerging paradigm in migration ecology shows surprising differences in efficiency between flight modes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam E Duerr

    Full Text Available To maximize fitness, flying animals should maximize flight speed while minimizing energetic expenditure. Soaring speeds of large-bodied birds are determined by flight routes and tradeoffs between minimizing time and energetic costs. Large raptors migrating in eastern North America predominantly glide between thermals that provide lift or soar along slopes or ridgelines using orographic lift (slope soaring. It is usually assumed that slope soaring is faster than thermal gliding because forward progress is constant compared to interrupted progress when birds pause to regain altitude in thermals. We tested this slope-soaring hypothesis using high-frequency GPS-GSM telemetry devices to track golden eagles during northbound migration. In contrast to expectations, flight speed was slower when slope soaring and eagles also were diverted from their migratory path, incurring possible energetic costs and reducing speed of progress towards a migratory endpoint. When gliding between thermals, eagles stayed on track and fast gliding speeds compensated for lack of progress during thermal soaring. When thermals were not available, eagles minimized migration time, not energy, by choosing energetically expensive slope soaring instead of waiting for thermals to develop. Sites suited to slope soaring include ridges preferred for wind-energy generation, thus avian risk of collision with wind turbines is associated with evolutionary trade-offs required to maximize fitness of time-minimizing migratory raptors.

  1. Testing an emerging paradigm in migration ecology shows surprising differences in efficiency between flight modes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duerr, Adam E; Miller, Tricia A; Lanzone, Michael; Brandes, Dave; Cooper, Jeff; O'Malley, Kieran; Maisonneuve, Charles; Tremblay, Junior; Katzner, Todd

    2012-01-01

    To maximize fitness, flying animals should maximize flight speed while minimizing energetic expenditure. Soaring speeds of large-bodied birds are determined by flight routes and tradeoffs between minimizing time and energetic costs. Large raptors migrating in eastern North America predominantly glide between thermals that provide lift or soar along slopes or ridgelines using orographic lift (slope soaring). It is usually assumed that slope soaring is faster than thermal gliding because forward progress is constant compared to interrupted progress when birds pause to regain altitude in thermals. We tested this slope-soaring hypothesis using high-frequency GPS-GSM telemetry devices to track golden eagles during northbound migration. In contrast to expectations, flight speed was slower when slope soaring and eagles also were diverted from their migratory path, incurring possible energetic costs and reducing speed of progress towards a migratory endpoint. When gliding between thermals, eagles stayed on track and fast gliding speeds compensated for lack of progress during thermal soaring. When thermals were not available, eagles minimized migration time, not energy, by choosing energetically expensive slope soaring instead of waiting for thermals to develop. Sites suited to slope soaring include ridges preferred for wind-energy generation, thus avian risk of collision with wind turbines is associated with evolutionary trade-offs required to maximize fitness of time-minimizing migratory raptors.

  2. Biliary Fasciola gigantica infestation in a nonendemic area--An intraoperative surprise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menon, Prema; Sinha, Amit Kumar; Rao, Katragadda Lakshmi Narasimha; Khurana, Sumeeta; Lal, Sadhana; Thapa, Babu Ram

    2015-11-01

    A 7year old girl infected with the zoonotic trematode, Fasciola gigantica is reported because of the extreme rarity of this condition in our region. Because of the overlap in symptomatology and radiological features, the more common amebic/pyogenic liver abscess in the initial hepatic migratory phase and later choledochal cyst/biliary ascariasis when the parasite was finally located in the extrahepatic bile ducts, were thought of delaying effective treatment. The diagnosis was confirmed only by surgical exploration. The characteristic contrast enhanced computed tomography scan features retrospectively identified were multiple clustered hypodense lesions in the liver with peripheral enhancement in the acute hepatic migratory phase, and periportal tracking in the previously affected areas of the liver with biliary dilatation and a linear hypointense lesion within the common bile duct in the chronic phase. Although a known association, she did not have eosinophilia. This child, who became symptomatic at the age of 5.5years, also appears to be one of the youngest patients reported with Fasciola gigantica. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Isolated Tenosynovitis as a Sole Manifestation: The Great Mimicker Still Continues to Surprise Us

    Science.gov (United States)

    De, Abhishek; Surana, Trupti V; Biswas, Saugato; Reja, Abu Hena Hasanoor; Chatterjee, Gobinda

    2015-01-01

    A middle aged male presented with non-tender cystic swelling over left distal forearm since 1 year. No other cutaneous abnormality could be found except mild paresthesia of the overlying skin and equivocal thickening of the ipsilateral ulnar nerve. Routine investigation was within normal limits. Detailed workup of the patient including MRI of the lesion suggested the diagnosis as tenosynovitis with a soft tissue mass. Fine needle aspiration cytology from the cyst showed foamy macrophages and acid fast bacilli; while PCR of the aspirate confirmed the etiological agent as M. leprae. We, thus, report a unique case of isolated tenosynovitis as a sole manifestation of pure neural leprosy which is extremely rare in world literature. PMID:25814736

  4. Report of the Defense Science Board 2008 Summer Study on Capability Surprise. Volume 2: Supporting Papers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    increased demands. Furthermore, urbanization tends to concentrate precisely in the demographic groups most inclined to violence . This seems particularly...situation on the ground in Iraq. Violence is down and IEDs are more or less isolated events that "we are doing something about." Public support has...way, the impact those foreign capabilities might have on U.S. national interests. Option analyses examine, in a multiplayer , nonzero-sum game

  5. Surprisingly Mild Enolate-Counterion-Free Pd(0)-Catalyzed Intramolecular Allylic Alkylations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madec, David; Prestat, Guillaume; Martini, Elisabetta

    2005-01-01

    Palladium-catalyzed intramolecular allylic alkylations of unsaturated EWG-activated amides can take place under phase-transfer conditions or in the presence of a crown ether. These new reaction conditions are milder and higher yielding than those previously reported. A rationalization for such an...... for such an unexpected result is put forth and validated by DFT-B3LYP calculations. The results suggest cyclization via a counterion-free (E)-enolate TS....

  6. Parents and vehicle purchases for their children: a surprising source of weight bias.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraha, Amanda; Boals, Adriel

    2011-03-01

    According to current estimates, 68% of the population in United States is considered either overweight or obese. Despite its relative frequency, prejudice and discrimination against overweight and obese Americans is a common occurrence. This study seeks to build on previous findings that overweight individuals are more likely than their skinnier peers to rely on themselves, rather than family, to fund their education. We examined whether this trend continued in car-buying practices. Results suggest that overweight and obese individuals differentially rely on their own sources of income to finance a car, even after controlling for socioeconomic differences. Possible explanations and implications are discussed.

  7. Surprises and insights from long-term aquatic datasets and experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walter K. Dodds; Christopher T. Robinson; Evelyn E. Gaiser; Gretchen J.A. Hansen; Heather Powell; Joseph M. Smith; Nathaniel B. Morse; Sherri L. Johnson; Stanley V. Gregory; Tisza Bell; Timothy K. Kratz; William H. McDowell

    2012-01-01

    Long-term research on freshwater ecosystems provides insights that can be difficult to obtain from other approaches. Widespread monitoring of ecologically relevant water-quality parameters spanning decades can facilitate important tests of ecological principles. Unique long-term data sets and analytical tools are increasingly available, allowing for powerful and...

  8. A multiwavelength survey of H I-excess galaxies with surprisingly inefficient star formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geréb, K.; Janowiecki, S.; Catinella, B.; Cortese, L.; Kilborn, V.

    2018-05-01

    We present the results of a multiwavelength survey of H I-excess galaxies, an intriguing population with large H I reservoirs associated with little current star formation. These galaxies have stellar masses M⋆ > 1010 M⊙, and were identified as outliers in the gas fraction versus NUV-r colour and stellar mass surface density scaling relations based on the GALEX Arecibo SDSS Survey (GASS). We obtained H I interferometry with the Giant Metrewave Radio Telescope, Keck optical long-slit spectroscopy, and deep optical imaging (where available) for four galaxies. Our analysis reveals multiple possible reasons for the H I excess in these systems. One galaxy, AGC 10111, shows an H I disc that is counter-rotating with respect to the stellar bulge, a clear indication of external origin of the gas. Another galaxy appears to host a Malin 1-type disc, where a large specific angular momentum has to be invoked to explain the extreme M_{H I}/M⋆ ratio of 166 per cent. The other two galaxies have early-type morphology with very high gas fractions. The lack of merger signatures (unsettled gas, stellar shells, and streams) in these systems suggests that these gas-rich discs have been built several Gyr ago, but it remains unclear how the gas reservoirs were assembled. Numerical simulations of large cosmological volumes are needed to gain insight into the formation of these rare and interesting systems.

  9. Seen one dam, seen 'em all?: the surprising story of the Deschutes River.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sally. Duncan

    2000-01-01

    In the next few decades, hundreds of private dams will be relicensed by the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission. Many of them are on or influence Forest Service lands. Relicensing requires rigorous technical assessments of the effects of dams on critical resources, including channels, aquatic habitat, water quality, and recreation. Dams differ widely in their...

  10. Surprising volume change in PPy(DBS): An atomic force microscopy study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Smela, E.; Gadegaard, N.

    1999-01-01

    Communication: Conjugated polymers such as polypyrrole (PPy) have potential use as artificial muscles or in microsystems such as valves for micro-fluid handling. One of the most important parameters in such uses is the magnitude of volume change during associated redox processes; however, until now...... estimates have varied greatly. Atomic force microscopy is reported here as allowing direct measurement of the in situ thickness change during oxidation and reduction of thin films of PPy doped with dodecylbenzenesulfonate....

  11. New findings on the d(TGGGAG) sequence: Surprising anti-HIV-1 activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romanucci, Valeria; Zarrelli, Armando; Liekens, Sandra; Noppen, Sam; Pannecouque, Christophe; Di Fabio, Giovanni

    2018-02-10

    The biological relevance of tetramolecular G-quadruplexes especially as anti-HIV agents has been extensively reported in the literature over the last years. In the light of our recent results regarding the slow G-quadruplex folding kinetics of ODNs based on d(TGGGAG) sequence, here we report a systematic anti-HIV screening to investigate the impact of the G-quadruplex folding on their anti-HIV activity. In particular, varying the single stranded concentrations of ODNs, it has been tested a pool of ODN sample solutions with different G-quadruplex concentrations. The anti-HIV assays have been designed favouring the limited kinetics involved in the tetramolecular G4-association based on the d(TGGGAG) sequence. Aiming to determine the stoichiometry of G-quadruplex structures in the same experimental conditions of the anti-HIV assays, a native gel electrophoresis was performed. The gel confirmed the G-quadruplex formation for almost all sample solutions while showing the formation of high order G4 structures for the more concentrated ODNs solutions. The most significant result is the discovery of a potent anti-HIV activity of the G-quadruplex formed by the natural d(TGGGAG) sequence (IC 50  = 14 nM) that, until now, has been reported to be completely inactive against HIV infection. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  12. Surprise and Awe: Learning from Indigenous Managers and Implications for Management Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwabenland, Christina

    2011-01-01

    This article describes a self-reflexive exploration of five instances of encounters with indigenous managers that challenged my preconceptions about management. My focus is on the praxis of the moments in which these challenges occurred. I analyze these experiences to answer four questions: How did learning occur? What was that learning? How did…

  13. Structural surprises in friction-deposited films of poly(tetrafluoroethylene)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Breiby, Dag Werner; Sølling, Theis Ivan; Bunk, Oliver

    2005-01-01

    Thin films of poly(tetrafluoroethylene) (PTFE) produced by friction deposition were studied using grazing incidence X-ray diffraction as the principal tool. The structure of the deposited thin films was compared with that of the surface of the PTFE bar used for depositing the films. Both exhibited...... the 15/7 helix conformation characteristic of crystal PTFE phase IV. A high degree of biaxial orientation was found for the highly crystalline thin films. Whereas the unit cell of the bar surface material appeared to be single-stem hexagonal, the film displayed diffraction characteristics consistent...... the possibility of a continuous transition between the low-order single-stem hexagonal and the multistem high-order unit cell. The degree of chain orientation was much lower at the surface of the bar than in the thin film. A modification of the commonly accepted mechanism for the transfer of material from the bar...

  14. Bimolecular Excited-State Electron Transfer with Surprisingly Long-Lived Radical Ions

    KAUST Repository

    Alsam, Amani Abdu; Aly, Shawkat Mohammede; Usman, Anwar; Parida, Manas R.; Del Gobbo, Silvano; Alarousu, Erkki; Mohammed, Omar F.

    2015-01-01

    We explored the excited-state interactions of bimolecular, non-covalent systems consisting of cationic poly[(9,9-di(3,3’-N,N’-trimethyl-ammonium) propyl fluorenyl-2,7-diyl)-alt-co-(9,9-dioctyl-fluorenyl-2,7-diyl)] diiodide salt (PFN) and 1,4-dicyanobenzene (DCB) using steady-state and time-resolved techniques, including femto- and nanosecond transient absorption and femtosecond infrared spectroscopies with broadband capabilities. The experimental results demonstrated that photo-induced electron transfer from PFN to DCB occurs on the picosecond time scale, leading to the formation of PFN+• and DCB-• radical ions. Interestingly, real-time observations of the vibrational marker modes on the acceptor side provided direct evidence and insight into the electron transfer process indirectly inferred from UV-Vis experiments. The band narrowing on the picosecond time scale observed on the antisymmetric C-N stretching vibration of the DCB radical anion provides clear experimental evidence that a substantial part of the excess energy is channeled into vibrational modes of the electron transfer product and that the geminate ion pairs dissociate. More importantly, our nanosecond time-resolved data indicate that the charge-separated state is very long lived ( 30 ns) due to the dissociation of the contact radical ion pair into free ions. Finally, the fast electron transfer and slow charge recombination anticipate the current donor−acceptor system with potential applications in organic solar cells.

  15. Unusual Surprises in Glaucoma Filtering Surgeries: Lessons Learned and Review of Literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, Aparna; Padhy, Debananda; Roy, Avik Kumar; Senthil, Sirisha

    2018-01-01

    To describe an unusual series of complications after glaucoma filtering surgeries with their clinical findings and outcome after tailored non-conventional modes of therapy. Eighteen patients who underwent re-interventions (medical or surgical) after glaucoma filtering surgeries during the period at two tertiary centers, excluding those that required conventional modes of treatment (medical control or re-trabeculectomy, simple wound closure for traumatic wound dehiscence, bleb revision or needling, laser iridotomy), were included. Relevant clinical details with intraoperative videos, intraoperative or postoperative problems, and images with course after re-intervention were retrieved from the hospital database. Clinical details which helped in clinching diagnosis and cause for problems and course after intervention with final vision and intraocular pressure were evaluated. Six of 18 eyes required surgical management for an unusual course of events after an uneventful filtering surgery. Bleb morphology and close follow-up of the conjunctiva, in addition to intraocular pressure (IOP) and anterior chamber (AC) configuration, helped diagnose possible aetiology and appropriate tailored management. All patients had good IOP and visual outcome in all except one with macular scar status after retinal detachment surgery. Assessment of the bleb morphology in the postoperative course coupled with monitoring of the conjunctival wound are essential to conventional monitoring of IOP and anterior chamber configuration to arrive at appropriate management for rare unusual events after glaucoma surgery.

  16. Unusual metal coordination chemistry from an amino-amide derivative of 4-nitrophenol, a surprising ligand

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McGinley, John; McKee, Vickie; Toftlund, Hans

    2009-01-01

    The simple ligand N-(2-aminoethyl)-2-hydroxy-5-nitrobenzamide () exhibits several coordination modes depending on the reaction conditions, acting as a zwitterion on its own or being ionic in the presence of acid and depending on the concentration of metal present in a reaction, it can coordinate...... to the metal in either a 1:1 or a 1:2 metal:ligand mode. Furthermore, the role of solvent plays an important role in these complexation reactions with both four and six coordinate copper complexes being obtained using water as solvent but only six coordinate copper complexes obtained using acetonitrile...

  17. When Does a Good Working Memory Counteract Proactive Interference? Surprising Evidence from a Probe Recognition Task

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cowan, Nelson; Saults, J. Scott

    2013-01-01

    It is often proposed that individuals with high working memory span overcome proactive interference (PI) from previous trials, saving working memory for task-relevant items. We examined this hypothesis in word-list probe recognition. We found no difference in PI related to span. Instead, ex-Gaussian analysis of reaction time showed speed…

  18. Spectral analysis of four surprisingly similar hot hydrogen-rich subdwarf O stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latour, M.; Chayer, P.; Green, E. M.; Irrgang, A.; Fontaine, G.

    2018-01-01

    Context. Post-extreme horizontal branch stars (post-EHB) are helium-shell burning objects evolving away from the EHB and contracting directly towards the white dwarf regime. While the stars forming the EHB have been extensively studied in the past, their hotter and more evolved progeny are not so well characterized. Aims: We perform a comprehensive spectroscopic analysis of four such bright sdO stars, namely Feige 34, Feige 67, AGK+81°266, and LS II+18°9, among which the first three are used as standard stars for flux calibration. Our goal is to determine their atmospheric parameters, chemical properties, and evolutionary status to better understand this class of stars that are en route to become white dwarfs. Methods: We used non-local thermodynamic equilibrium model atmospheres in combination with high quality optical and UV spectra. Photometric data were also used to compute the spectroscopic distances of our stars and to characterize the companion responsible for the infrared excess of Feige 34. Results: The four bright sdO stars have very similar atmospheric parameters with Teff between 60 000 and 63 000 K and log g (cm s-2) in the range 5.9 to 6.1. This places these objects right on the theoretical post-EHB evolutionary tracks. The UV spectra are dominated by strong iron and nickel lines and suggest abundances that are enriched with respect to those of the Sun by factors of 25 and 60. On the other hand, the lighter elements, C, N, O, Mg, Si, P, and S are depleted. The stars have very similar abundances, although AGK+81°266 shows differences in its light element abundances. For instance, the helium abundance of this object is 10 times lower than that observed in the other three stars. All our stars show UV spectral lines that require additional line broadening that is consistent with a rotational velocity of about 25 km s-1. The infrared excess of Feige 34 is well reproduced by a M0 main-sequence companion and the surface area ratio of the two stars suggests that the system is a physical binary. However, the lack of radial velocity variations points towards a low inclination and/or long orbital period. Spectroscopic and Hipparcos distances are in good agreement for our three brightest stars. Conclusions: We performed a spectroscopic analysis of four hot sdO stars that are very similar in terms of atmospheric parameters and chemical compositions. The rotation velocities of our stars are significantly higher than what is observed in their immediate progenitors on the EHB, suggesting that angular momentum may be conserved as the stars evolve away from the EHB.

  19. More surprises from the violent gamma-ray binary LS 2883 /B1259-63.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kargaltsev, Oleg; Hare, Jeremy; Pavlov, George G.

    2018-01-01

    We report the results of a Chandra X-ray Observatory (CXO) monitoring campaign of the high-mass gamma-ray binary LS 2883, which hosts the young pulsar B1259-63. The monitoring now covers two binary cycles (6.8 years) and allows us to conclude that ejections of high-velocity X-ray emitting material are common for this binary. In the first cycle we observed an extended feature which detached and moved away from the binary. The observed changes in position were consistent with a steady motion with v=(0.07+/-0.01)c and a slight hint of acceleration. Tracing the motion back in time suggested that the X-ray emitting matter was ejected close to periastron passage. In the last orbital cycle, accelerated motion (reaching (0.13+/-0.02)c) is strongly preferred over a steady motion (the latter would imply that the ejected material was launched ~400 days after the periastron passage). The moving feature is also more luminous, compared to the previous binary cycle, larger in its apparent extent, and exhibits a puzzling morphology. We will show the CXO movies from both binary cycles and discuss physical interpretation of the resolved outflow dynamics in this remarkable system, which provides unique insight into the properties of the pulsar and stellar winds and their interaction.

  20. Rugby and Mathematics: A Surprising Link among Geometry, the Conics, and Calculus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Troy; Jackson, Steven

    2001-01-01

    Describes a rugby problem designed to help students understand the maximum-minimum situation. Presents a series of explorations that locate an optimal place for kicking the ball to maximize the angle at the goalposts. Uses interactive geometry software to construct a model of the situation. Includes a sample student activity. (KHR)

  1. Filament Chirality over an Entire Cycle Determined with an Automated Detection Module -- a Neat Surprise!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martens, Petrus C.; Yeates, A. R.; Mackay, D.; Pillai, K. G.

    2013-07-01

    Using metadata produced by automated solar feature detection modules developed for SDO (Martens et al. 2012) we have discovered some trends in filament chirality and filament-sigmoid relations that are new and in part contradict the current consensus. Automated detection of solar features has the advantage over manual detection of having the detection criteria applied consistently, and in being able to deal with enormous amounts of data, like the 1 Terabyte per day that SDO produces. Here we use the filament detection module developed by Bernasconi, which has metadata from 2000 on, and the sigmoid sniffer, which has been producing metadata from AIA 94 A images since October 2011. The most interesting result we find is that the hemispheric chirality preference for filaments (dextral in the north, and v.v.), studied in detail for a three year period by Pevtsov et al. (2003) seems to disappear during parts of the decline of cycle 23 and during the extended solar minimum that followed. Moreover the hemispheric chirality rule seems to be much less pronounced during the onset of cycle 24. For sigmoids we find the expected correlation between chirality and handedness (S or Z) shape but not as strong as expected.

  2. Rare Presentation of Genitourinary Tuberculosis Masquerading as Renal Cell Carcinoma: A Histopathological Surprise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santosh Kumar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Genitourinary tuberculosis (GUTB is a rare extrapulmonary manifestation of tuberculosis (TB. Various forms of presentation are described and in most cases the disease results in calcification, atrophy, or necrosis of the renal parenchyma. The kidney is not generally palpable except in cases of hydronephrosis due to an upper ureteric stricture. We present a case of GUTB presenting as inflammatory pseudotumor. This case was initially diagnosed as renal malignancy and managed accordingly. Histopathology confirmed the diagnosis of pseudotumoral renal TB.

  3. One-at-a-time versus grouped presentation of mug book pictures: some surprising results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, H A; McAllister, H A

    2001-12-01

    Eyewitnesses to a simulated crime attempted to identify the perpetrator from a computerized mug book. The 208 mug book pictures were presented either 1 mug shot per page or in groups of 12 mug shots per page. Half of the mug books were arranged by similarity to the perpetrator as determined by a facial recognition algorithm, and half were randomly arranged. In contrast to past findings with photospreads, false-positive identifications were significantly higher using the one-at-a-time procedure than the grouped procedure. Results suggest that the best practice for mug books may be the use of groups of pictures per page rather than the one-at-a-time procedure long advocated by experts for use in lineups and photospreads.

  4. Biodiesel from Mandarin Seed Oil: A Surprising Source of Alternative Fuel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. K. Azad

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Mandarin (Citrus reticulata is one of the most popular fruits in tropical and sub-tropical countries around the world. It contains about 22–34 seeds per fruit. This study investigated the potential of non-edible mandarin seed oil as an alternative fuel in Australia. The seeds were prepared after drying in the oven for 20 h to attain an optimum moisture content of around 13.22%. The crude oil was extracted from the crushed seed using 98% n-hexane solution. The biodiesel conversion reaction (transesterification was designed according to the acid value (mg KOH/g of the crude oil. The study also critically examined the effect of various reaction parameters (such as effect of methanol: oil molar ratio, % of catalyst concentration, etc. on the biodiesel conversion yield. After successful conversion of the bio-oil into biodiesel, the physio-chemical fuel properties of the virgin biodiesel were measured according to relevant ASTM standards and compared with ultra-low sulphur diesel (ULSD and standard biodiesel ASTM D6751. The fatty acid methyl esters (FAMEs were analysed by gas chromatography (GC using the EN 14103 standard. The behaviour of the biodiesel (variation of density and kinematic viscosity at various temperatures (10–40 °C was obtained and compared with that of diesel fuel. Finally, mass and energy balances were conducted for both the oil extraction and biodiesel conversion processes to analyse the total process losses of the system. The study found 49.23 wt % oil yield from mandarin seed and 96.82% conversion efficiency for converting oil to biodiesel using the designated transesterification reaction. The GC test identified eleven FAMEs. The biodiesel mainly contains palmitic acid (C16:0 26.80 vol %, stearic acid (C18:0 4.93 vol %, oleic acid (C18:1 21.43 vol % (including cis. and trans., linoleic acid (C18:2 4.07 vol %, and less than one percent each of other fatty acids. It is an important source of energy because it has a higher heating value of 41.446 MJ/kg which is close to ULSD (45.665 MJ/kg. In mass and energy balances, 49.23% mass was recovered as crude bio-oil and 84.48% energy was recovered as biodiesel from the total biomass.

  5. Surprising spectra of root-associated fungi in submerged aquatic plants

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kohout, Petr; Sýkorová, Zuzana; Čtvrtlíková, Martina; Rydlová, Jana; Suda, Jan; Vohník, Martin; Sudová, Radka

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 80, č. 1 (2012), s. 216-235 ISSN 0168-6496 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP504/10/0781 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60050516; CEZ:AV0Z50070508 Keywords : arbuscular mycorrhiza * dark septate endophytes * fungal diversity Subject RIV: EF - Botanics; DA - Hydrology ; Limnology (BC-A) Impact factor: 3.563, year: 2012

  6. Surprising Conformers of the Biologically Important A·T DNA Base Pairs: QM/QTAIM Proofs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ol'ha O. Brovarets'

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available For the first time novel high-energy conformers–A·T(wWC (5.36, A·T(wrWC (5.97, A·T(wH (5.78, and A·T(wrH (ΔG = 5.82 kcal·mol−1 (See Graphical Abstract were revealed for each of the four biologically important A·T DNA base pairs – Watson-Crick A·T(WC, reverse Watson-Crick A·T(rWC, Hoogsteen A·T(H and reverse Hoogsteen A·T(rH at the MP2/aug-cc-pVDZ//B3LYP/6-311++G(d,p level of quantum-mechanical theory in the continuum with ε = 4 under normal conditions. Each of these conformers possesses substantially non-planar wobble (w structure and is stabilized by the participation of the two anti-parallel N6H/N6H′…O4/O2 and N3H…N6 H-bonds, involving the pyramidalized amino group of the A DNA base as an acceptor and a donor of the H-bonding. The transition states – TSA·T(WC↔A·T(wWC, TSA·T(rWC↔A·T(wrWC, TSA·T(H↔A·T(wH, and TSA·T(rH↔A·T(wrH, controlling the dipole-active transformations of the conformers from the main plane-symmetric state into the high-energy, significantly non-planar state and vice versa, were localized. They also possess wobble structures similarly to the high-energy conformers and are stabilized by the participation of the N6H/N6H′…O4/O2 and N3H…N6 H-bonds. Discovered conformers of the A·T DNA base pairs are dynamically stable short-lived structures [lifetime τ = (1.4–3.9 ps]. Their possible biological significance and future perspectives have been briefly discussed.

  7. You'll Be Surprised - Digital Business Strategy as Driver of Organizational Innovativeness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wunderlich, Nico; Beck, Roman

    2018-01-01

    The presence of digital infrastructures fundamentally changes market conditions, business and IT strategy, and consequently organizational structures. This research investigates how the concept of a digital business strategy leads to increased organizational innovativeness and firm performance. We...... significantly higher influenced by the IT knowledge of business employees in organizations giving the digital business strategy high importance, whereas the top management team IT knowledge plays a greater role when digital business strategy is given low priority. By this research, we deliver first results...... of consequences for organizations conducting a digital business strategy and contribute to the discussion on IT-enabled innovation, CIO leadership, and the increasing relevance of organization-wide IT capabilities....

  8. Birds, magnets, soap, and sandblasting: surprising connections in the theory of incompressible flocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toner, John

    In this talk I'll describe the hydrodynamic theory of the motion of incompressible flocks: that is, collections of self-propelled entities (birds\\x9D) that are packed so tightly together that their density cannot change as they move. In two dimensions, this problem can be mapped onto an equilibrium magnet with a peculiar constraint. This problem, in turn, can be shown to be equivalent to a 2d smectic (soap\\x9D), with the flow lines of the flock playing the role of the smectic layers. Finally, this smectic problem can be mapped onto the 1+1 dimensional KPZ equation, which describes the growth or corrosion (sandblasting\\x9D) of a one dimensional interface. The scaling properties of this last system, which have been known exactly for a long time, can thereby be used to determine those of incompressible 2d flocks. One important implication of the resulting scaling laws is that such flocks can exhibit long-ranged order in two dimensions, unlike their equilibrium counterparts.

  9. Illicit Drug Funding: The Surprising Systemic Similarities between the FARC and the Taliban

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-20

    conquest of northern South America in the 16th century. This monograph will focus on the social turmoil that began about halfway through the 20th... Desarrollo Y Sociedad 52 (September, 2003): 99-142. 40Ibid. 41In Jean Batou’s 2008 interview of FARC Political spokesman Rodrigo Granda, Granda...a social base (in terms of the labour force involved) and the income they need to escalate and expand their armed struggle.52 It is no coincidence

  10. Surprisingly low natural gas consumption for hot water in the Netherlands in 1996

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geerse, C.

    1997-01-01

    The Dutch use hot water more efficient than previously expected. This conclusion is drawn from a recent study of hot water consumption in Dutch households and the corresponding natural gas consumption. Based on that (once-only) hot water use survey the hot water use models, as applied in the annual Basic Survey of Natural Gas Consumption of Small-scale Consumers in the Netherlands (BAK), will be modified. 6 tabs

  11. Not Surprised, But Concerned: The Professoriate's Reaction to PETE Doctoral Education in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Melissa; Sutherland, Sue; Sinclair, Christina; Ward, Phillip

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this qualitative study was to initiate a discussion and explore reactions to PETE doctoral education in the United States. A purposeful sample of 27 representatives from doctoral and non doctoral granting programs in the U.S. was interviewed. Analysis resulted in four themes: (a) Is the dog wagging its tail or the tail wagging the…

  12. Surprise and Deception in the Early War Years, 1940-1942

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-04-15

    second plan was tu be a iariation of the "Haversack Ruse". The terrain around the Alam Haifa ridge contained an area known as the Ragil depression, which...encountered the soft sands of the Ragil . His armored vehicles were mired in the sand and made easy targets for the RAF fighters. For three days, the

  13. Consumers' various and surprising responses to direct-to-consumer advertisements in magazine print.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arney, Jennifer; Street, Richard L; Naik, Aanand D

    2013-01-01

    Direct-to-consumer advertising (DTCA) is ubiquitous in media outlets, but little is known about the ways in which consumers' values, needs, beliefs, and biases influence the perceived meaning and value of DTCA. This article aims to identify the taxonomy of readership categories that reflect the complexity of how health care consumers interact with DTCA, with particular focus on individuals' perceptions of print DTCA in popular magazines. Respondent-driven sampling was used to recruit 18 male and female magazine readers and 18 male and female prescription medication users aged 18-71 years. Semi-structured, in-depth interviews with consumers about their attentiveness, motivations, perceived value, and behavioral responses to DTCA were conducted. The analyses were guided by principles of grounded theory analysis; four categories that vary in consumers' attentiveness, motivations, perceived value, and behavioral responses to DTCA were identified. Two categories - the lay physician and the informed shopper - see value in information from DTCA and are likely to seek medical care based on the information. One category - the voyeur - reads DTCA, but is not likely to approach a clinician regarding advertised information. The fourth category - the evader - ignores DTCA and is not likely to approach a clinician with DTCA information. Responses to DTCA vary considerably among consumers, and physicians should view patients' understanding and response to DTCA within the context of their health-related needs. Patients' comments related to DTCA may be used as an opportunity to engage and understand patients' perspectives about illness and medication use. Clinicians may use information about these categories to facilitate shared understanding and improve communication within the doctor-patient relationship.

  14. Surprisingly facile CO2 insertion into cobalt alkoxide bonds: A theoretical investigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Willem K. Offermans

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Exploiting carbon dioxide as co-monomer with epoxides in the production of polycarbonates is economically highly attractive. More effective catalysts for this reaction are intensively being sought. To promote better understanding of the catalytic pathways, this study uses density functional theory calculations to elucidate the reaction step of CO2 insertion into cobalt(III–alkoxide bonds, which is also the central step of metal catalysed carboxylation reactions. It was found that CO2 insertion into the cobalt(III–alkoxide bond of [(2-hydroxyethoxyCoIII(salen(L] complexes (salen = N,N”-bis(salicyliden-1,6-diaminophenyl is exothermic, whereby the exothermicity depends on the trans-ligand L. The more electron-donating this ligand is, the more exothermic the insertion step is. Interestingly, we found that the activation barrier decreases with increasing exothermicity of the CO2 insertion. Hereby, a linear Brønsted–Evans–Polanyi relationship was found between the activation energy and the reaction energy.

  15. The surprising costs of silence: Asymmetric preferences for prosocial lies of commission and omission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levine, Emma; Hart, Joanna; Moore, Kendra; Rubin, Emily; Yadav, Kuldeep; Halpern, Scott

    2018-01-01

    Across 7 experiments (N = 3883), we demonstrate that communicators and targets make egocentric moral judgments of deception. Specifically, communicators focus more on the costs of deception to them-for example, the guilt they feel when they break a moral rule-whereas targets focus more on whether deception helps or harms them. As a result, communicators and targets make asymmetric judgments of prosocial lies of commission and omission: Communicators often believe that omitting information is more ethical than telling a prosocial lie, whereas targets often believe the opposite. We document these effects within the context of health care discussions, employee layoffs, and economic games, among both clinical populations (i.e., oncologists and cancer patients) and lay people. We identify moderators and downstream consequences of this asymmetry. We conclude by discussing psychological and practical implications for medicine, management, behavioral ethics, and human communication. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).

  16. El Chichón's "surprise" eruption in 1982: lessons for reducing volcano risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tilling, R.I.

    2009-01-01

    During one week (28 March–4 April 1982), three powerful explosive eruptions (VEI 5) of El Chichón Volcano caused the worst volcanic disaster in Mexico's recorded history. Pyroclastic flows and surges obliterated nine villages, killing about 2,000 people, and ashfalls downwind posed socio–economic hardships for many thousands of inhabitants of the States of Chiapas and Tabasco. The unexpected and vigorous eruption of 28 caused a hasty, confused evacuation of most villagers in the area. Activity was greatly diminished the next five days, and then the most powerful and lethal eruptions occurred 3–4 April—tragically, after many evacuees were allowed by authorities to return home.

  17. Surprising Behavior of Spinning Tops and Eggs on an Inclined Plane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cross, Rod

    2016-01-01

    A spinning top or a spinning hard-boiled egg is fascinating to observe since both objects can remain upright for a relatively long time without falling over. If spun at sufficient speed on a horizontal surface, the spin axis rises to a vertical position and the bottom end tends to remain fixed in position on the surface. If the initial spin is…

  18. Charge-density waves in alpha-uranium: A story of endless surprises

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lander, G.H.

    1982-01-01

    The properties of element 92, uranium at low temperature have remained an enigma since major anomalies in almost all physical property measurements were first reported over twenty years ago. By far the most dramatic measurements were those by Fisher on the elastic constants, which strongly suggested a structural phase transition at approx. equal to43 K. Initially no such phase transition was found. Recently, neutron inelastic experiments at Oak Ridge mapped out the phonon dispersion curves at room temperature, and in the process discovered an anomalous soft phonon of Σ 4 symmetry along the [100] axis. On cooling, weak satellites were found to form near the position [0.5, 0.0] thus signaling a periodic distortion. However, such a charge-density wave appeared to have a complex wave vector relationship with the fundamental lattice, leading the authors to introduce a two-phase model for the phase transition. Simultaneously, by using photographic technique designed to view large segments of reciprocal space, Marmeggi and Delapalme at the ILL discovered a completely new set of satellite reflections, indexable with wave vector [0.5, qsub(y), qsub(z)], where qsub(y) and qsub(z) are incommensurable (approx. equal to0.18), not equal, and vary with temperature. We have now measured the intensities of a great number of these new satellites and been able to fit the results with a modulated α-U structure. The atoms are displaced in all three independent crystallographic directions according to a sinusoidal wave form. The overall agreement between the predicted and observed structure factors is excellent, suggesting that at least the static positions of the atoms at low temperature in this element are now understood. In this review the status of research on the structural phase transition will be presented. Neither the full details of the phase transition nor the reasons for it are understood at this time. A number of further experiments are suggested. (orig.)

  19. Surprising origin of two carved bones donated to the Buchenwald Memorial Museum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gapert, René

    2018-03-28

    Unidentified bones were donated to the Buchenwald Memorial Museum in Weimar, Germany. The donor thought the bones may have belonged to internees of the concentration camp and had been decoratively carved by camp personnel. Non-destructive forensic anthropological examination was carried out on the bones to identify their possible origin. Comparative human and non-human bones samples were used to determine the provenance of the bones and the anatomical region they may have come from. Literature and internet searches were conducted to trace the origin of the carved motifs on the bones. The bones were determined to belong to the lower limb region of bovids. The carvings were found to correspond with those of existing bone examples found in some museums in the UK. They were traced to German prisoners of war dating to the First World War. An in-depth examination of the donated bones revealed their non-human provenance. It further showed that no link existed between the bones, internees of the concentration camp, and the time of the camp's existence. It was discovered that they belonged to the period 1914-1918 and form an important part of German prisoner of war history in the UK.

  20. A surprising cause of wheezing in a morbidly obese patient: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kurnutala LN

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Lakshmi N Kurnutala, Minal Joshi, Hattiyangadi Kamath, Joel Yarmush Department of Anesthesiology, New York Methodist Hospital, Brooklyn, NY, USA Abstract: A typical patient with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease has small airway disease, which often responds to bronchodilators. If the patient is obese, he or she may be further compromised and not tolerate being in the supine position. We present a case of a patient with history of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and obstructive sleep apnea with acute renal failure and urosepsis scheduled for an emergent debridement of Fournier's gangrene. In this patient, the fiberoptic intubation was performed in semi-Fowler's position, and tracheomalacia was observed. Keywords: tracheomalacia, difficult airway, fiberoptic intubation, COPD

  1. Short time propagation of a singular wave function: Some surprising results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchewka, A.; Granot, E.; Schuss, Z.

    2007-08-01

    The Schrödinger evolution of an initially singular wave function was investigated. First it was shown that a wide range of physical problems can be described by initially singular wave function. Then it was demonstrated that outside the support of the initial wave function the time evolution is governed to leading order by the values of the wave function and its derivatives at the singular points. Short-time universality appears where it depends only on a single parameter—the value at the singular point (not even on its derivatives). It was also demonstrated that the short-time evolution in the presence of an absorptive potential is different than in the presence of a nonabsorptive one. Therefore, this dynamics can be harnessed to the determination whether a potential is absorptive or not simply by measuring only the transmitted particles density.

  2. THE SURPRISINGLY CONSTANT STRENGTH OF O VI ABSORBERS OVER COSMIC TIME

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fox, Andrew J.

    2011-01-01

    O VI absorption is observed in a wide range of astrophysical environments, including the local interstellar medium, the disk and halo of the Milky Way, high-velocity clouds, the Magellanic Clouds, starburst galaxies, the intergalactic medium (IGM), damped Lyα systems, and gamma-ray-burst host galaxies. Here, a new compilation of 775 O VI absorbers drawn from the literature is presented, all observed at high resolution (instrumental FWHM ≤ 20 km s -1 ) and covering the redshift range z = 0-3. In galactic environments [log N(H I) ∼> 20], the mean O VI column density is shown to be insensitive to metallicity, taking a value log N(O VI) ∼ 14.5 for galaxies covering the range -1.6 ∼ 4 K) clouds and hot (∼10 6 K) plasma, although many such layers would have to be intersected by a typical galaxy-halo sight line to build up the characteristic galactic N(O VI). The alternative, widely used model of single-phase photoionization for intergalactic O VI is ruled out by kinematic evidence in the majority of IGM O VI components at low and high redshift.

  3. Mitigating Aviation Communication and Satellite Orbit Operations Surprises from Adverse Space Weather

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tobiska, W. Kent

    2008-01-01

    Adverse space weather affects operational activities in aviation and satellite systems. For example, large solar flares create highly variable enhanced neutral atmosphere and ionosphere electron density regions. These regions impact aviation communication frequencies as well as precision orbit determination. The natural space environment, with its dynamic space weather variability, is additionally changed by human activity. The increase in orbital debris in low Earth orbit (LEO), combined with lower atmosphere CO2 that rises into the lower thermosphere and causes increased cooling that results in increased debris lifetime, adds to the environmental hazards of navigating in near-Earth space. This is at a time when commercial space endeavors are posed to begin more missions to LEO during the rise of the solar activity cycle toward the next maximum (2012). For satellite and aviation operators, adverse space weather results in greater expenses for orbit management, more communication outages or aviation and ground-based high frequency radio used, and an inability to effectively plan missions or service customers with space-based communication, imagery, and data transferal during time-critical activities. Examples of some revenue-impacting conditions and solutions for mitigating adverse space weather are offered.

  4. Surprising results from a search for effective disinfectants for Tobacco mosaic virus-contaminated tools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tobacco mosaic virus (TMV) and four other tobamoviruses infected multiple petunia cultivars without producing obvious viral symptoms. A single cutting event on a TMV-infected plant was sufficient for transmission to many plants subsequently cut with the same clippers. A number of 'old standbys' an...

  5. For Catholic Colleges, an Important Goal: Don't Surprise the Bishop

    Science.gov (United States)

    Supiano, Beckie

    2009-01-01

    Every college president's success depends on building good relationships with outside groups, whether donors, alumni, or legislators. Presidents of Roman Catholic colleges have one more party to please: the local bishop. In recent months, the bishop of Scranton, Pennsylvania, asked colleges in his diocese to assure him that they were not providing…

  6. 2014’s Presidential elections: Victor Ponta and the surprise of failure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabin Drăgulin

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to analyze Victor Ponta’s electoral campaign as a candidate of the PSD-UNPR-PC alliance, in November 2014. The main working hypotheses that have been demonstrated during this study concern the main stake of these elections.

  7. France’s National Front – the surprise in European elections of 2014?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Gilia

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of our study was to conduct an analysis over the ballot that was held on 24-25 May in France, with emphasis on judging the results of the National Front, the group that won the elections, leaving behind both the governing party – the Socialist Party, and the second largest party in France – the Union for a Popular Movement. The spectacular results of the National Front, a far-right, nationalist and populist party, emerged in a context where the extremist Eurosceptic parties of the countries with consolidated democracies within the European Union have either won the elections or reached top positions in the European elections of 2014.

  8. France’s National Front – the surprise in European elections of 2014?

    OpenAIRE

    Claudia Gilia

    2014-01-01

    The aim of our study was to conduct an analysis over the ballot that was held on 24-25 May in France, with emphasis on judging the results of the National Front, the group that won the elections, leaving behind both the governing party – the Socialist Party, and the second largest party in France – the Union for a Popular Movement. The spectacular results of the National Front, a far-right, nationalist and populist party, emerged in a context where the extremist Eurosceptic parties of the cou...

  9. Radioactivity in Kerala. In an Indian area, the cancer rate surprises the researchers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neelesh, Misra

    1999-05-01

    In a small are in the South of india the natural radioactivity gives to its inhabitants a radiation dose thirty times more important that the most part of populations of our planet. Curiously, the cancer rate is not more important than in the region where there is no radioactivity. A study concluded that the inhabitants would have become immunized against radiations and have perhaps developed immunities to other diseases. Several international experts have expressed their skepticism about this conclusion. (N.C.)

  10. Market learns how to handle imbalance. TenneT surprised by persistent balance disturbances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roggen, M.

    2003-01-01

    Up until 1992 the electric power balance in the Netherlands was, on an hourly basis, among the least accurate in Europe. At present, the network is even more stable than in the days before liberalisation. TenneT (the Dutch Transmission System Operator) and the market parties have spent a lot of time and energy on maintaining the balance and now the question arises whether this is sufficient or a little less would be sufficient as well. Because control involves cost, while current results are a bit better than was expected beforehand [nl

  11. The effects of surprise political events on quoted firms: The March 2004 election in Spain

    OpenAIRE

    Castells, Pau; Trillas, Francesc

    2013-01-01

    In the last days of the electoral campaign for the 2004 general election in Spain, on Thursday March 11th 2004, a series of simultaneous terror attacks caused the death of 191 persons in commuting trains in the capital Madrid. Four days later, the opposition party won the election, against all predictions that were made prior to the terror attacks. This change in expectations presents a unique opportunity to take advantage of event study techniques to test some politico-economic hypotheses. T...

  12. "The fieldwork is full of surprises": anthropological research methodology from Vesna Vucinic Neškovic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danijela Velimirović

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Review of the book: Vesna Vučinić Nešković, Metodologija terenskog istraživanja u antropologiji. Beograd: Srpski genealoški centar – Odeljenje za etnologiju i antropologiju Filozofskog fakulteta, 365 str

  13. A reassessment of the taxonomic position of mesosaurs, and a surprising phylogeny of early amniotes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laurin, Michel; Piñeiro, Graciela H.

    2017-11-01

    We reassess the phylogenetic position of mesosaurs by using a data matrix that is updated and slightly expanded from a matrix that the first author published in 1995 with his former thesis advisor. The revised matrix, which incorporates anatomical information published in the last twenty years and observations on several mesosaur specimens (mostly from Uruguay) includes seventeen terminal taxa and 129 characters (four more taxa and five more characters than the original matrix from 1995). The new matrix also differs by incorporating more ordered characters (all morphoclines were ordered). Parsimony analyses in PAUP 4 using the branch and bound algorithm show that the new matrix supports a position of mesosaurs at the very base of Sauropsida, as suggested by the first author in 1995. The exclusion of mesosaurs from a less inclusive clade of sauropsids is supported by a Bremer (Decay) index of 4 and a bootstrap frequency of 66%, both of which suggest that this result is moderately robust. The most parsimonious trees include some unexpected results, such as placing the anapsid reptile Paleothyris near the base of diapsids, and all of parareptiles as the sister-group of younginiforms (the most crownward diapsids included in the analyses). Turtles are placed among parareptiles, as the sister-group of pareiasaurs (and in diapsids, given that parareptiles are nested within diapsids). This unexpected result offers a potential solution to the long-lasting controversy about the position of turtles because previous studies viewed a position among diapsids and among parareptiles as mutually exclusive alternatives.

  14. Young Adult Literature and the Common Core: A Surprisingly Good Fit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostenson, Jonathan; Wadham, Rachel

    2012-01-01

    Advocates have long argued that an increased role for young adult literature in the classroom would help students' reading development. At first glance, the widely adopted Common Core State Standards might seem in opposition to an increased role for such literature. A closer examination of the common core documents suggests, however, that young…

  15. Surprised at all the entropy: hippocampal, caudate and midbrain contributions to learning from prediction errors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schiffer, Anne-Marike; Ahlheim, Christiane; Wurm, Moritz F; Schubotz, Ricarda I

    2012-01-01

    Influential concepts in neuroscientific research cast the brain a predictive machine that revises its predictions when they are violated by sensory input. This relates to the predictive coding account of perception, but also to learning. Learning from prediction errors has been suggested for take place in the hippocampal memory system as well as in the basal ganglia. The present fMRI study used an action-observation paradigm to investigate the contributions of the hippocampus, caudate nucleus and midbrain dopaminergic system to different types of learning: learning in the absence of prediction errors, learning from prediction errors, and responding to the accumulation of prediction errors in unpredictable stimulus configurations. We conducted analyses of the regions of interests' BOLD response towards these different types of learning, implementing a bootstrapping procedure to correct for false positives. We found both, caudate nucleus and the hippocampus to be activated by perceptual prediction errors. The hippocampal responses seemed to relate to the associative mismatch between a stored representation and current sensory input. Moreover, its response was significantly influenced by the average information, or Shannon entropy of the stimulus material. In accordance with earlier results, the habenula was activated by perceptual prediction errors. Lastly, we found that the substantia nigra was activated by the novelty of sensory input. In sum, we established that the midbrain dopaminergic system, the hippocampus, and the caudate nucleus were to different degrees significantly involved in the three different types of learning: acquisition of new information, learning from prediction errors and responding to unpredictable stimulus developments. We relate learning from perceptual prediction errors to the concept of predictive coding and related information theoretic accounts.

  16. Surprising synthesis of nanodiamond from single-walled carbon nanotubes by the spark plasma sintering process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirzaei, Ali; Ham, Heon; Na, Han Gil; Kwon, Yong Jung; Kang, Sung Yong; Choi, Myung Sik; Bang, Jae Hoon; Park, No-Hyung; Kang, Inpil; Kim, Hyoun Woo

    2016-10-01

    Nanodiamond (ND) was successfully synthesized using single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) as a pure solid carbon source by means of a spark plasma sintering process. Raman spectra and X-ray diffraction patterns revealed the generation of the cubic diamond phase by means of the SPS process. Lattice-resolved TEM images confirmed that diamond nanoparticles with a diameter of about ˜10 nm existed in the products. The NDs were generated mainly through the gas-phase nucleation of carbon atoms evaporated from the SWCNTs. [Figure not available: see fulltext.

  17. Consumers’ various and surprising responses to direct-to-consumer advertisements in magazine print

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arney, Jennifer; Street, Richard L; Naik, Aanand D

    2013-01-01

    Direct-to-consumer advertising (DTCA) is ubiquitous in media outlets, but little is known about the ways in which consumers’ values, needs, beliefs, and biases influence the perceived meaning and value of DTCA. This article aims to identify the taxonomy of readership categories that reflect the complexity of how health care consumers interact with DTCA, with particular focus on individuals’ perceptions of print DTCA in popular magazines. Respondent-driven sampling was used to recruit 18 male and female magazine readers and 18 male and female prescription medication users aged 18–71 years. Semi-structured, in-depth interviews with consumers about their attentiveness, motivations, perceived value, and behavioral responses to DTCA were conducted. The analyses were guided by principles of grounded theory analysis; four categories that vary in consumers’ attentiveness, motivations, perceived value, and behavioral responses to DTCA were identified. Two categories – the lay physician and the informed shopper – see value in information from DTCA and are likely to seek medical care based on the information. One category – the voyeur – reads DTCA, but is not likely to approach a clinician regarding advertised information. The fourth category – the evader – ignores DTCA and is not likely to approach a clinician with DTCA information. Responses to DTCA vary considerably among consumers, and physicians should view patients’ understanding and response to DTCA within the context of their health-related needs. Patients’ comments related to DTCA may be used as an opportunity to engage and understand patients’ perspectives about illness and medication use. Clinicians may use information about these categories to facilitate shared understanding and improve communication within the doctor–patient relationship. PMID:23378746

  18. Seeking surprise : rethinking monitoring for collective learning in rural resource management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Guijt, I.M.

    2008-01-01

    Commonsense says that monitoring systems should be able to provide feedback that can help correct ineffective actions. But practice shows that when dealing with complex rural development issues that involve collaborative action by a changing configuration of stakeholders, monitoring practice often

  19. The Medium Shapes the Message: The Surprising Negative Spin of Close Friends’ Word-of-Mouth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dubois David

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Many social media handbooks recommend targeting customers’ close connections and encouraging consumers to spread the word about their products and services among friends. But according to the findings of this research this strategy might not be the most effective way to build positive momentum. In fact, it might just do the opposite. The feelings of closeness that WOM senders experience toward their recipients determine what they share. Being close instills the desire to protect a recipient from having a bad experience. Therefore, communicating negative information, which highlights potential negative outcomes or attributes of a product, becomes more likely to be shared among close friends. In relations with loose acquaintances the motive to impress is more prevalent. Therefore, communicating positive information, which is more likely to shed a positive light on the WOM sender, is more likely to be shared in such instances. To encourage positive WOM for seeding campaigns, marketers should select the right platform and monitor closeness. Further, by framing the context of the campaign in the right way, they can also insure more positive WOM for a brand.

  20. The Politics of Surprise Devaluations: Modelling Motives for Giving Up a Peg

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bohn, F.

    2013-01-01

    Planned ‘‘surprise’’ devaluations are often spurred by non-economic circumstances: a rentseeking government; political instability; or the opportunity to put the blame on a predecessor government. In this paper, these aspects are incorporated in the monetary and fiscal policy framework first

  1. A Reassessment of the Taxonomic Position of Mesosaurs, and a Surprising Phylogeny of Early Amniotes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michel Laurin

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available We reassess the phylogenetic position of mesosaurs by using a data matrix that is updated and slightly expanded from a matrix that the first author published in 1995 with his former thesis advisor. The revised matrix, which incorporates anatomical information published in the last 20 years and observations on several mesosaur specimens (mostly from Uruguay includes 17 terminal taxa and 129 characters (four more taxa and five more characters than the original matrix from 1995. The new matrix also differs by incorporating more ordered characters (all morphoclines were ordered. Parsimony analyses in PAUP 4 using the branch and bound algorithm show that the new matrix supports a position of mesosaurs at the very base of Sauropsida, as suggested by the first author in 1995. The exclusion of mesosaurs from a less inclusive clade of sauropsids is supported by a Bremer (Decay index of 4 and a bootstrap frequency of 66%, both of which suggest that this result is moderately robust. The most parsimonious trees include some unexpected results, such as placing the anapsid reptile Paleothyris near the base of diapsids, and all of parareptiles as the sister-group of younginiforms (the most crownward diapsids included in the analyses. Turtles are placed among parareptiles, as the sister-group of pareiasaurs (and in diapsids, given that parareptiles are nested within diapsids. This unexpected result offers a potential solution to the long-lasting controversy about the position of turtles because previous studies viewed a position among diapsids and among parareptiles as mutually exclusive alternatives.

  2. Long-term surveillance of zinc implant in murine artery: Surprisingly steady biocorrosion rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drelich, Adam J; Zhao, Shan; Guillory, Roger J; Drelich, Jaroslaw W; Goldman, Jeremy

    2017-08-01

    Metallic zinc implanted into the abdominal aorta of rats out to 6months has been demonstrated to degrade while avoiding responses commonly associated with the restenosis of vascular implants. However, major questions remain regarding whether a zinc implant would ultimately passivate through the production of stable corrosion products or via a cell mediated fibrous encapsulation process that prevents the diffusion of critical reactants and products at the metal surface. Here, we have conducted clinically relevant long term in vivo studies in order to characterize late stage zinc implant biocorrosion behavior and products to address these critical questions. We found that zinc wires implanted in the murine artery exhibit steady corrosion without local toxicity for up to at least 20months post-implantation, despite a steady buildup of passivating corrosion products and intense fibrous encapsulation of the wire. Although fibrous encapsulation was not able to prevent continued implant corrosion, it may be related to the reduced chronic inflammation observed between 10 and 20months post-implantation. X-ray elemental and infrared spectroscopy analyses confirmed zinc oxide, zinc carbonate, and zinc phosphate as the main components of corrosion products surrounding the Zn implant. These products coincide with stable phases concluded from Pourbaix diagrams of a physiological solution and in vitro electrochemical impedance tests. The results support earlier predictions that zinc stents could become successfully bio-integrated into the arterial environment and safely degrade within a time frame of approximately 1-2years. Previous studies have shown zinc to be a promising candidate material for bioresorbable endovascular stenting applications. An outstanding question, however, is whether a zinc implant would ultimately passivate through the production of stable corrosion products or via a cell mediated tissue encapsulation process that prevented the diffusion of critical reactants and products at the metal surface. We found that zinc wires implanted in the murine artery exhibit steady corrosion for up to at least 20months post-implantation. The results confirm earlier predictions that zinc stents could safely degrade within a time frame of approximately 1-2years. Copyright © 2017 Acta Materialia Inc. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. The weight of the nation: surprising lessons about diets, food, and fat from the extraordinary series from HBO documentary films

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hoffman, John; Salerno, Judith A; Moss, Alexandra; Brownell, Kelly D; Fineberg, Harvey V

    2012-01-01

    .... But people today work harder and take better care of their health than ever before. So how could three-quarters of us somehow suddenly lack willpower when it comes to eating right and exercising...

  4. The effects of black-tailed prairie dogs on plant communities within a complex urban landscape: an ecological surprise?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beals, Stower C; Hartley, Laurel M; Prevéy, Janet S; Seastedt, Timothy R

    2014-05-01

    Historically, prairie dogs (Cynomys spp.) have been considered essential keystone species of western United States grassland ecosystems because they provide unique services and increase vegetation community richness, evenness, and diversity. However, the effects of black-tailed prairie dogs (Cynomys ludovicianus) on lands adjacent to or surrounded by urban areas may not result in the same ecosystem benefits historically associated with their presence. An urban landscape presents prairie dogs with movement challenges unparalleled in natural landscapes, as well as suites of nonnative plant species that are more common in disturbed areas. This study examined a complex ecosystem where vegetation communities are being influenced by directional environmental change, and quantified the synergistic effects resulting from the protective management of a native keystone species. The data set for this analysis was comprised of 71 paired (occupied by prairie dogs vs. unoccupied) vegetation surveys and 156 additional unpaired surveys collected from around the city of Boulder, Colorado, USA for 14 yr. Linear mixed models were used to compare data from transects occupied and unoccupied by prairie dogs, as well as to evaluate the effect of prairie dog occupation duration. In the absence of prairie dogs, vegetation in this region exhibited declines in native grasses, no changes in introduced grasses, and increases in native and nonnative forbs and bare soil over the study interval. In the presence of prairie dogs, these observed directional changes were nearly all amplified at rates four to 10 times greater than when prairie dogs were absent. Areas in Boulder occupied by prairie dogs also had significantly lower richness, evenness, and diversity of plant species, compared to unoccupied areas. Analysis of plant functional groups revealed the significant reduction of perennial native grasses, as well as a significantly higher cover of introduced forbs in occupied areas. Prairie dogs amplified the effects of low-impact environmental directional changes, creating more novel vegetation communities than the environmental factors alone. Results from this research provide insight regarding the synergistic effects of a native keystone species within a complex human-impacted 21st century landscape.

  5. On the surprising lack of differences between two congeneric calanoid copepod species, Calanus finmarchicus and C. helgolandicus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Robert J.; Speirs, Douglas C.; Heath, Michael R.

    2015-05-01

    The important calanoid copepod species Calanus finmarchicus and C. helgolandicus have distinct geographic ranges which are changing under the influence of climate change. Understanding the mechanisms underlying their distributions is becoming increasingly important as a result of the possible ecological impacts of these range shifts. Here we review inter-species differences in key life cycle traits that influence each species' geographic distribution, in particular development and growth, fecundity, feeding behaviour, vertical migration and overwintering behaviour. The distinct temperature niche of each species leads to an a priori assumption that the response of life cycle traits to temperature is a key determinant of their contrasting geographic distributions. A new development model was created to reconcile published experimental development times for each species. Model output indicates that at temperatures below approximately 12-13 °C, C. finmarchicus is the faster developing species, but above these temperatures C. helgolandicus develops more quickly. Conventionally Calanus development time is assumed to decrease monotonically with temperature; however our model indicates that the response of development time to temperature is instead U-shaped. Differences in life cycle aspects such as seasonality and vertical structuring are interpreted in light of this development model. Body size and lipid accumulation abilities could be significant influences on each species' geographic distribution; however evidence is consistent with inter-species differences not existing for these traits. Published evidence shows that inter-species differences in egg production may exist, but do not follow a clear pattern. Diapause is an important and well studied life cycle adaptation of C. finmarchicus, but has received little attention in C. helgolandicus. We reviewed knowledge of diapause and suggest the hypothesis that C. helgolandicus is restricted to continental shelf regions as a result of an inability to diapause for significant periods. This synthesised view of each species' respective life cycle traits is that response of growth and development to temperature is the only known difference between each species, which indicates a promising direction for the extension of population models of C. finmarchicus to C. helgolandicus.

  6. Mouse Genetic Models Reveal Surprising Functions of IκB Kinase Alpha in Skin Development and Skin Carcinogenesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xia, Xiaojun [The Methodist Hospital Research Institute, Houston, TX 77030 (United States); Park, Eunmi [Department of Radiation Oncology, Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02115 (United States); Fischer, Susan M. [Department of Molecular Carcinogenesis, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Smithville, TX 78967 (United States); Hu, Yinling, E-mail: huy2@mail.nih.gov [Cancer and Inflammation Program, Center for Cancer Research, Frederick National Laboratory for Cancer Research, Frederick, MD 21701 (United States)

    2013-02-15

    Gene knockout studies unexpectedly reveal a pivotal role for IκB kinase alpha (IKKα) in mouse embryonic skin development. Skin carcinogenesis experiments show that Ikkα heterozygous mice are highly susceptible to chemical carcinogen or ultraviolet B light (UVB) induced benign and malignant skin tumors in comparison to wild-type mice. IKKα deletion mediated by keratin 5 (K5).Cre or K15.Cre in keratinocytes induces epidermal hyperplasia and spontaneous skin squamous cell carcinomas (SCCs) in Ikkα floxed mice. On the other hand, transgenic mice overexpressing IKKα in the epidermis, under the control of a truncated loricrin promoter or K5 promoter, develop normal skin and show no defects in the formation of the epidermis and other epithelial organs, and the transgenic IKKα represses chemical carcinogen or UVB induced skin carcinogenesis. Moreover, IKKα deletion mediated by a mutation, which generates a stop codon in the Ikkα gene, has been reported in a human autosomal recessive lethal syndrome. Downregulated IKKα and Ikkα mutations and deletions are found in human skin SCCs. The collective evidence not only highlights the importance of IKKα in skin development, maintaining skin homeostasis, and preventing skin carcinogenesis, but also demonstrates that mouse models are extremely valuable tools for revealing the mechanisms underlying these biological events, leading our studies from bench side to bedside.

  7. [Surprisingly old skeleton found at Bornheim-Uedorf (Rhein-Sieg-Kreis)--Research results in forensic medicine, anthropology and archaeology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zesch, Stephanie; Doberentz, Elke; Schmauder, Michael; Rosendahl, Wilfried; Madea, Burkhard

    2016-01-01

    On April 15th 2014, human skeletal remains were found during digging activities for constructing a new building at Bornheim-Uedorf (Rhein-Sieg-Kreis) near the river Rhine (about 20 meters) in a pit measuring 10 by 10 meters and having a depth of about 150 cm. The skeletal remains were preserved quite well considering the fact that they were located so near to the Rhine, although several skeletal parts were missing. The preserved skeletal remains comprised some skull fragments (including two ear bones of the right side), right scapula, both humeri, left ulna, left radius, left metacarpal bone 2, right metacarpal bones 1, 3 and 4, rib fragments, three thoracic vertebrae, all lumbar vertebrae, one sacral vertebra, pelvis fragments, left femur, proximal part of the left tibial diaphysis, right tibia and diaphysis of both fibulae. The anthropological analysis revealed that the skeletal remains belonged to a 20-to-30-year-old presumably male individual with a body height of about 163 to 173 cm (depending on the formula used for body height estimation). Evidence of intense physical activity and traumatological findings could not be detected on the preserved bones. Periosteal reactions on the bone surface caused by nonspecific bacterial infection were found on the right humerus close to the elbow and on both tibiae, especially the left one. Besides the skeletal remains, metal fragments were recovered--among them an arrowhead, which was typologically classified as an early medieval finding (6th to 7th century). Radiocarbon dating of a bone sample revealed an age of 1561 ± 19 a BP corresponding to a calibrated age of 436 to 540 AD (1 sigma). So, the archaeological classification of the recovered skeleton into the early medieval period was verified. Amongst the human remains, there was also a metatarsal bone of cattle with cut marks. The animal bone as well as the metal fragments indicated that the find was part of an early medieval burial with typical grave goods.

  8. Normalization of Phenotypic Data from a Clinical Data Warehouse: Case Study of Heterogeneous Blood Type Data with Surprising Results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cimino, James J

    2015-01-01

    Clinical data warehouses often contain analogous data from disparate sources, resulting in heterogeneous formats and semantics. We have developed an approach that attempts to represent such phenotypic data in its most atomic form to facilitate aggregation. We illustrate this approach with human blood antigen typing (ABO-Rh) data drawn from the National Institutes of Health's Biomedical Translational Research Information System (BTRIS). In applying the method to actual patient data, we discovered a 2% incidence of changed blood types. We believe our approach can be applied to any institution's data to obtain comparable patient phenotypes. The actual discrepant blood type data will form the basis for a future study of the reasons for blood typing variation.

  9. Universal power-law diet partitioning by marine fish and squid with surprising stability–diversity implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossberg, Axel G.; Farnsworth, Keith D.; Satoh, Keisuke; Pinnegar, John K.

    2011-01-01

    A central question in community ecology is how the number of trophic links relates to community species richness. For simple dynamical food-web models, link density (the ratio of links to species) is bounded from above as the number of species increases; but empirical data suggest that it increases without bounds. We found a new empirical upper bound on link density in large marine communities with emphasis on fish and squid, using novel methods that avoid known sources of bias in traditional approaches. Bounds are expressed in terms of the diet-partitioning function (DPF): the average number of resources contributing more than a fraction f to a consumer's diet, as a function of f. All observed DPF follow a functional form closely related to a power law, with power-law exponents independent of species richness at the measurement accuracy. Results imply universal upper bounds on link density across the oceans. However, the inherently scale-free nature of power-law diet partitioning suggests that the DPF itself is a better defined characterization of network structure than link density. PMID:21068048

  10. [Benign multicystic peritoneal mesothelioma (BMPM) - a surprising differential diagnosis in case of an expected intraabdominal abscess formation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipp, Michael Josef; Jusufi, Maximilian Stanley; Backer, Christoph; Feyerabend, Bernd; Weilert, Hauke; Oldhafer, Karl Jürgen

    2017-03-01

    The benign multicystic peritoneal mesothelioma is a rare disease. Most frequently, young women in reproductive age are affected by this disease. Nevertheless, there are known cases of multicystic peritoneal mesothelioma in male patients. The pathogenesis remains uncertain. Whereas asbestos fibers can cause the development of malignant mesothelioma, the exposure to asbestos particles cannot induce this type of mesothelioma. An inflammatory genesis is discussed as well as the idea of a neoplastic development. Since a high rate of recurrence after surgery is observed, an aggressive surgical treatment is recommended. The complete resection of affected tissue is recently considered to be the therapy of choice. The combination of complete surgical tumor reduction with an intraperitoneal hyperthermic chemotherapy (HIPEC) seems to be promising. Although malignant transformation is detected very rarely a close follow up in centers with high surgical and oncological expertise is recommended. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  11. Judith Husband: 'it's surprising what we can actually live without, other than air, water and food'. Interview by Laura Pacey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Husband, Judith

    2013-05-01

    Judith Husband speaks to the BDJ about current challenges facing dentistry, the new BDA PEC and her love of social media site Twitter. The only catch is she has accepted the challenge issued by interviewer and fellow Twitter enthusiast Laura Pacey of answering every question, in 140 characters or less. Follow on Twitter @Judith_Husband and @The_BDJ.

  12. MASS-TO-LIGHT RATIOS FOR M31 GLOBULAR CLUSTERS: AGE DATING AND A SURPRISING METALLICITY TREND

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strader, Jay; Huchra, John P.; Smith, Graeme H.; Brodie, Jean P.; Larsen, Soeren

    2009-01-01

    We have obtained velocity dispersions from Keck high-resolution integrated spectroscopy of 10 M31 globular clusters (GCs), including three candidate intermediate-age GCs. We show that these candidates have the same V-band mass-to-light (M/L V ) ratios as the other GCs, implying that they are likely to be old. We also find a trend of derived velocity dispersion with wavelength, but cannot distinguish between a systematic error and a physical effect. Our new measurements are combined with photometric and spectroscopic data from the literature in a re-analysis of all M31 GC M/L V values. In a combined sample of 27 GCs, we show that the metal-rich GCs have lower M/L V than the metal-poor GCs, in conflict with predictions from stellar population models. Fragmentary data for other galaxies support this observation. The M31 GC fundamental plane is extremely tight, and we follow up an earlier suggestion by Djorgovski to show that the fundamental plane can be used to estimate accurate distances (potentially 10% or better).

  13. The X40×10 Halogen Bonding Benchmark Revisited: Surprising Importance of (n-1)d Subvalence Correlation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kesharwani, Manoj K; Manna, Debashree; Sylvetsky, Nitai; Martin, Jan M L

    2018-03-01

    We have re-evaluated the X40×10 benchmark for halogen bonding using conventional and explicitly correlated coupled cluster methods. For the aromatic dimers at small separation, improved CCSD(T)-MP2 "high-level corrections" (HLCs) cause substantial reductions in the dissociation energy. For the bromine and iodine species, (n-1)d subvalence correlation increases dissociation energies and turns out to be more important for noncovalent interactions than is generally realized; (n-1)sp subvalence correlation is much less important. The (n-1)d subvalence term is dominated by core-valence correlation; with the smaller cc-pVDZ-F12-PP and cc-pVTZ-F12-PP basis sets, basis set convergence for the core-core contribution becomes sufficiently erratic that it may compromise results overall. The two factors conspire to generate discrepancies of up to 0.9 kcal/mol (0.16 kcal/mol RMS) between the original X40×10 data and the present revision.

  14. The Austrians were surprised that I didn’t speak German”: The role of language in Czech-Austrian relations

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Petrjánošová, Magda; Graf, Sylvie

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 22, č. 4 (2012), s. 539-557 ISSN 1210-3055 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP407/10/2394 Institutional support: RVO:68081740 Keywords : content analysis * critical discursive analysis * intergroup contact * intergroup attitudes * communication * language Subject RIV: AN - Psychology

  15. Surprising Rapid Collapse of Sirius B from Red Giant to White Dwarf Through Mass Transfer to Sirius a

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yousef, Shahinaz; Ali, Ola

    2013-03-01

    Sirius was observed in antiquity as a red star. In his famous astronomy textbook the Almagest written 140 AD, Ptolemy described the star Sirius as fiery red. He curiously depicted it as one of six red-colored stars. The other five are class M and K stars, such as Arcturus and Betelgeuse. Apparent confirmation in ancient Greek and Roman sources are found and Sirius was also reported red in Europe about 1400 years ago. Sirius must have changed to a white dwarf in the night of Ascension. The star chapter in the Quran started with "by the star as it collapsed (1) your companion have not gone astray nor being misled (2), and in verse 49 which is the rotation period of the companion Sirius B around Sirius A, it is said" He is the Lord of Sirius (49). If Sirius actually was red what could have caused it to change into the brilliant bluish-white star we see today? What the naked eye perceives as a single star is actually a binary star system, consisting of a white main sequence star of spectral type A1V, termed Sirius A, and a faint white dwarf companion of spectral type DA2, termed Sirius B. The red color indicates that the star seen then was a red giant. It looks that what they have seen in antiquity was Sirius B which was then a red giant and it collapsed to form a white dwarf. Since there is no evidence of a planetary nebula, then the red Sirius paradox can be solved in terms of stellar evolution with mass transfer. Sirius B was the most massive star which evolved to a red giant and filled the Roche lobe. Mass transfer to Sirius A occurred through the Lagrangian point. Sirius A then became more massive while Sirius B lost mass and shrank. Sirius B then collapsed abruptly into a white dwarf. In the case of Algol, Ptolmy observed it as white star but it was red at the time of El sufi. At present it is white. The rate of mass transfer from Sirius B to Sirius A, and from Algol B to A is estimated from observational data of colour change from red to bullish white to be 0.0021 and 0.0024 M⊙/yr respectively.

  16. Tolerance by surprise: evidence for a generalized reduction in prejudice and increased egalitarianism through novel category combination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasiljevic, Milica; Crisp, Richard J

    2013-01-01

    Prejudices towards different groups are interrelated, but research has yet to find a way to promote tolerance towards multiple outgroups. We devise, develop and implement a new cognitive intervention for achieving generalized tolerance based on scientific studies of social categorization. In five laboratory experiments and one field study the intervention led to a reduction of prejudice towards multiple outgroups (elderly, disabled, asylum seekers, HIV patients, gay men), and fostered generalized tolerance and egalitarian beliefs. Importantly, these effects persisted outside the laboratory in a context marked by a history of violent ethnic conflict, increasing trust and reconciliatory tendencies towards multiple ethnic groups in the Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia. We discuss the implications of these findings for intervention strategies focused on reducing conflict and promoting peaceful intergroup relations.

  17. Conversations about electricity and the future: Findings of an international seminar and lessons from a year of surprises

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rossin, A.D.; Fowler, K. (eds.)

    1991-06-01

    In January 1990 thirty-two experts from twelve countries convened for a five-day working Seminar on the Berkeley Campus of the University of California to discuss electricity supply and demand. The participants brought with them deep and diverse backgrounds in energy issues. A major concern of the First 1990 Group on Electricity was the potential impact of electricity shortages on the environment, just at a time of growing awareness of environmental deterioration. These concerns extend from local problems to nations, regions and global impacts. Indeed, because of the importance of electricity in our lives, potential electric power shortages already foreseeable in this decade could overwhelm public concern for the environment, unless critical, long-leadtime measures are taken very soon. The First 1990 Group on Electricity's Findings and Conclusions, the thinking that led to them, and the impact of events in the intervening year form the content of this book.

  18. A surprise southern hemisphere meteor shower on New-Year's Eve 2015: the Volantids (IAU#758, VOL)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenniskens, P.; Baggaley, J.; Crumpton, I.; Aldous, P.; Gural, P. S.; Samuels, D.; Albers, J.; Soja, R.

    2016-04-01

    A new 32-camera CAMS network in New Zealand, spread over two stations on South Island, has detected a high southern declination shower that was active on New Year's Eve, 2015 December 31. During the observing interval from 09h12m - 15h45m UT, 21 out of 59 detected meteors radiated from the constellation of Volans, the flying fish, with a geocentric radiant at RA = 122.9 deg +- 4.7 deg, Dec = -71.9 deg +- 1.9 deg, and speed V_g = 28.4 +- 1.5 km/s. The new year arrived in New Zealand at 11h00m UT. Two more were detected the next night. No activity from this shower was observed the year prior. The meteoroids move in a 48 deg-inclined Jupiter-family comet orbit. The parent body has not yet been identified.

  19. Surprising phenomena at the surface of solids: complex molecule emission after impact of ions or of energetic photons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Le Beyec, Y.

    1990-01-01

    The vanishing of large mass molecules, by particle or photon impact is an unexpected behavior of the matter which allows to study the medium answer to the interaction. This phenomenon has several applications and gives rise development of analysis scientific instrumentation for non volatile compounds as the time of flight mass spectrometers. - In this report, the point is made about the induced desorption by rapid heavy ions [fr

  20. Feedback first: the surprisingly weak effects of magnetic fields, viscosity, conduction and metal diffusion on sub-L* galaxy formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Kung-Yi; Hopkins, Philip F.; Hayward, Christopher C.; Faucher-Giguère, Claude-André; Kereš, Dušan; Ma, Xiangcheng; Robles, Victor H.

    2017-10-01

    Using high-resolution simulations with explicit treatment of stellar feedback physics based on the FIRE (Feedback In Realistic Environments) project, we study how galaxy formation and the interstellar medium (ISM) are affected by magnetic fields, anisotropic Spitzer-Braginskii conduction and viscosity, and sub-grid metal diffusion from unresolved turbulence. We consider controlled simulations of isolated (non-cosmological) galaxies but also a limited set of cosmological 'zoom-in' simulations. Although simulations have shown significant effects from these physics with weak or absent stellar feedback, the effects are much weaker than those of stellar feedback when the latter is modelled explicitly. The additional physics have no systematic effect on galactic star formation rates (SFRs). In contrast, removing stellar feedback leads to SFRs being overpredicted by factors of ˜10-100. Without feedback, neither galactic winds nor volume-filling hot-phase gas exist, and discs tend to runaway collapse to ultra-thin scaleheights with unphysically dense clumps congregating at the galactic centre. With stellar feedback, a multi-phase, turbulent medium with galactic fountains and winds is established. At currently achievable resolutions and for the investigated halo mass range 1010-1013 M⊙, the additional physics investigated here (magnetohydrodynamic, conduction, viscosity, metal diffusion) have only weak (˜10 per cent-level) effects on regulating SFR and altering the balance of phases, outflows or the energy in ISM turbulence, consistent with simple equipartition arguments. We conclude that galactic star formation and the ISM are primarily governed by a combination of turbulence, gravitational instabilities and feedback. We add the caveat that active galactic nucleus feedback is not included in the present work.

  1. Surprising performance for vibrational frequencies of the distinguishable clusters with singles and doubles (DCSD) and MP2.5 approximations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kesharwani, Manoj K.; Sylvetsky, Nitai; Martin, Jan M. L.

    2017-11-01

    We show that the DCSD (distinguishable clusters with all singles and doubles) correlation method permits the calculation of vibrational spectra at near-CCSD(T) quality but at no more than CCSD cost, and with comparatively inexpensive analytical gradients. For systems dominated by a single reference configuration, even MP2.5 is a viable alternative, at MP3 cost. MP2.5 performance for vibrational frequencies is comparable to double hybrids such as DSD-PBEP86-D3BJ, but without resorting to empirical parameters. DCSD is also quite suitable for computing zero-point vibrational energies in computational thermochemistry.

  2. A "Surprising Shock" in the Cathedral: Getting Year 7 to Vocalise Responses to the Murder of Thomas Becket

    Science.gov (United States)

    Partridge, Mary

    2011-01-01

    Mary Partridge wanted her pupils not only to become more aware of competing and contrasting voices in the past, but to understand how historians orchestrate those voices. Using Edward Grim's eye-witness account of Thomas Becket's murder, her Year 7 pupils explored nuances in the word "shocking" as a way of distinguishing the responses of…

  3. Some surprises and paradoxes revealed by inverse problem approach and notion about qualitative solutions of Schroedinger equations 'in mind'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zakhariev, B.N.; Chabanov, V.M.

    2008-01-01

    It was an important examination to give a review talk at the previous Conference on Inverse Quantum Scattering (1996, Lake Balaton) about computer visualization of this science in front of its fathers - creators, B.M. Levitan and V.A. Marchenko. We have achieved a new understanding that the discovered main rules of transformations of a single wave function bump, e.g., for the ground bound states of one dimensional quantum systems are applicable to any state of any potential with arbitrary number of bumps from finite to unlimited ones as scattering states and bound states embedded into continuum. It appeared that we need only to repeat the rule mentally the necessary number of times. That uttermost simplification and unification of physical notion of spectral, scattering and decay control for any potential have got an obligatory praise from B.M. Levitan at the conference and was a mighty stimulus for our further research. After that we have written both Russian (2002) and improved English editions of 'Submissive Quantum Mechanics. New Status of the Theory in Inverse Problem Approach' (appeared at the very end of 2007). This book was written for correction of the present defect in quantum education throughout the world. Recently the quantum IP intuition helped us to discover a new concept of permanent wave resonance with potential spatial oscillations. This means the constant wave swinging frequency on the whole energy intervals of spectral forbidden zones destroying physical solutions and deepening the theory of waves in periodic potentials. It also shows the other side of strengthening the fundamentally important magic structures. A 'new language' of wave bending will be presented to enrich our quantum intuition, e.g., the paradoxical effective attraction of barriers and repulsion of wells in multichannel systems, etc. (author)

  4. Protein profiling of plastoglobules in chloroplasts and chromoplasts. A surprising site for differential accumulation of metabolic enzymes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ytterberg, A Jimmy; Peltier, Jean-Benoit; van Wijk, Klaas J

    2006-03-01

    Plastoglobules (PGs) are oval or tubular lipid-rich structures present in all plastid types, but their specific functions are unclear. PGs contain quinones, alpha-tocopherol, and lipids and, in chromoplasts, carotenoids as well. It is not known whether PGs contain any enzymes or regulatory proteins. Here, we determined the proteome of PGs from chloroplasts of stressed and unstressed leaves of Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) as well as from pepper (Capsicum annuum) fruit chromoplasts using mass spectrometry. Together, this showed that the proteome of chloroplast PGs consists of seven fibrillins, providing a protein coat and preventing coalescence of the PGs, and an additional 25 proteins likely involved in metabolism of isoprenoid-derived molecules (quinines and tocochromanols), lipids, and carotenoid cleavage. Four unknown ABC1 kinases were identified, possibly involved in regulation of quinone monooxygenases. Most proteins have not been observed earlier but have predicted N-terminal chloroplast transit peptides and lack transmembrane domains, consistent with localization in the PG lipid monolayer particles. Quantitative differences in PG composition in response to high light stress and degreening were determined by differential stable-isotope labeling using formaldehyde. More than 20 proteins were identified in the PG proteome of pepper chromoplasts, including four enzymes of carotenoid biosynthesis and several homologs of proteins observed in the chloroplast PGs. Our data strongly suggest that PGs in chloroplasts form a functional metabolic link between the inner envelope and thylakoid membranes and play a role in breakdown of carotenoids and oxidative stress defense, whereas PGs in chromoplasts are also an active site for carotenoid conversions.

  5. Protein Profiling of Plastoglobules in Chloroplasts and Chromoplasts. A Surprising Site for Differential Accumulation of Metabolic Enzymes1[W

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ytterberg, A. Jimmy; Peltier, Jean-Benoit; van Wijk, Klaas J.

    2006-01-01

    Plastoglobules (PGs) are oval or tubular lipid-rich structures present in all plastid types, but their specific functions are unclear. PGs contain quinones, α-tocopherol, and lipids and, in chromoplasts, carotenoids as well. It is not known whether PGs contain any enzymes or regulatory proteins. Here, we determined the proteome of PGs from chloroplasts of stressed and unstressed leaves of Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) as well as from pepper (Capsicum annuum) fruit chromoplasts using mass spectrometry. Together, this showed that the proteome of chloroplast PGs consists of seven fibrillins, providing a protein coat and preventing coalescence of the PGs, and an additional 25 proteins likely involved in metabolism of isoprenoid-derived molecules (quinines and tocochromanols), lipids, and carotenoid cleavage. Four unknown ABC1 kinases were identified, possibly involved in regulation of quinone monooxygenases. Most proteins have not been observed earlier but have predicted N-terminal chloroplast transit peptides and lack transmembrane domains, consistent with localization in the PG lipid monolayer particles. Quantitative differences in PG composition in response to high light stress and degreening were determined by differential stable-isotope labeling using formaldehyde. More than 20 proteins were identified in the PG proteome of pepper chromoplasts, including four enzymes of carotenoid biosynthesis and several homologs of proteins observed in the chloroplast PGs. Our data strongly suggest that PGs in chloroplasts form a functional metabolic link between the inner envelope and thylakoid membranes and play a role in breakdown of carotenoids and oxidative stress defense, whereas PGs in chromoplasts are also an active site for carotenoid conversions. PMID:16461379

  6. Mouse Genetic Models Reveal Surprising Functions of IκB Kinase Alpha in Skin Development and Skin Carcinogenesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xia, Xiaojun; Park, Eunmi; Fischer, Susan M.; Hu, Yinling

    2013-01-01

    Gene knockout studies unexpectedly reveal a pivotal role for IκB kinase alpha (IKKα) in mouse embryonic skin development. Skin carcinogenesis experiments show that Ikkα heterozygous mice are highly susceptible to chemical carcinogen or ultraviolet B light (UVB) induced benign and malignant skin tumors in comparison to wild-type mice. IKKα deletion mediated by keratin 5 (K5).Cre or K15.Cre in keratinocytes induces epidermal hyperplasia and spontaneous skin squamous cell carcinomas (SCCs) in Ikkα floxed mice. On the other hand, transgenic mice overexpressing IKKα in the epidermis, under the control of a truncated loricrin promoter or K5 promoter, develop normal skin and show no defects in the formation of the epidermis and other epithelial organs, and the transgenic IKKα represses chemical carcinogen or UVB induced skin carcinogenesis. Moreover, IKKα deletion mediated by a mutation, which generates a stop codon in the Ikkα gene, has been reported in a human autosomal recessive lethal syndrome. Downregulated IKKα and Ikkα mutations and deletions are found in human skin SCCs. The collective evidence not only highlights the importance of IKKα in skin development, maintaining skin homeostasis, and preventing skin carcinogenesis, but also demonstrates that mouse models are extremely valuable tools for revealing the mechanisms underlying these biological events, leading our studies from bench side to bedside

  7. Whole-genome sequencing of Campylobacter jejuni isolated from Danish routine human stool samples reveals surprising degree of clustering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Joensen, K G; Kuhn, K G; Müller, L

    2018-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Outbreaks of Campylobacter are traditionally considered to be rare, however rather than being the true nature of the disease, this may reflect our present inability to detect them. The aim of this study was to determine the genetic and epidemiological degree of clustering among Campyl...... of the most important cause of bacterial gastroenteritis in the industrialized world....

  8. TEMPERATURE SENSITIVITY OF SOIL RESPIRATION AND ITS EFFECTS ON ECOSYSTEM CARBON BUDGET: NONLINEARITY BEGETS SURPRISES. (R827676)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nonlinearity is a salient feature in all complex systems, and it certainly characterizes biogeochemical cycles in ecosystems across a wide range of scales. Soil carbon emission is a major source of uncertainty in estimating the terrestrial carbon budget at the ecosystem level ...

  9. Conversations about electricity and the future: Findings of an international seminar and lessons from a year of surprises

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rossin, A.D.; Fowler, K.

    1991-06-01

    In January 1990 thirty-two experts from twelve countries convened for a five-day working Seminar on the Berkeley Campus of the University of California to discuss electricity supply and demand. The participants brought with them deep and diverse backgrounds in energy issues. A major concern of the First 1990 Group on Electricity was the potential impact of electricity shortages on the environment, just at a time of growing awareness of environmental deterioration. These concerns extend from local problems to nations, regions and global impacts. Indeed, because of the importance of electricity in our lives, potential electric power shortages already foreseeable in this decade could overwhelm public concern for the environment, unless critical, long-leadtime measures are taken very soon. The First 1990 Group on Electricity's Findings and Conclusions, the thinking that led to them, and the impact of events in the intervening year form the content of this book

  10. Transforming Your Regional Economy through Uncertainty and Surprise: Learning from Complexity Science, Network Theory and the Field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holley, June

    The field of regional development blossomed in the last decade, as researchers and practitioners increasingly asserted that the region was the most effective geographic unit for supporting the excellence and innovation of entrepreneurs. See, for example, the many studies by the European Union and the work by Michael Porter.

  11. Tolerance by Surprise: Evidence for a Generalized Reduction in Prejudice and Increased Egalitarianism through Novel Category Combination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasiljevic, Milica; Crisp, Richard J.

    2013-01-01

    Prejudices towards different groups are interrelated, but research has yet to find a way to promote tolerance towards multiple outgroups. We devise, develop and implement a new cognitive intervention for achieving generalized tolerance based on scientific studies of social categorization. In five laboratory experiments and one field study the intervention led to a reduction of prejudice towards multiple outgroups (elderly, disabled, asylum seekers, HIV patients, gay men), and fostered generalized tolerance and egalitarian beliefs. Importantly, these effects persisted outside the laboratory in a context marked by a history of violent ethnic conflict, increasing trust and reconciliatory tendencies towards multiple ethnic groups in the Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia. We discuss the implications of these findings for intervention strategies focused on reducing conflict and promoting peaceful intergroup relations. PMID:23483895

  12. The (Surprising) Impact of Televised Antidepressant Direct-to-Consumer Advertising on the Stigmatization of Mental Illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rainone, Nicolette; Oodal, Reshma; Niederdeppe, Jeff

    2018-04-01

    This study tests the effect of pharmaceutical Direct-to-Consumer Advertising (DTCA) for antidepressants on perceived stigma surrounding mental disorders. We randomly assigned participants into one of three experimental conditions: antidepressant DTCA with portrayals of discrimination, cognitive separation, and stereotyping (DCSS), antidepressant DTCA without these representations, or a no-exposure control. Contrary to study hypotheses, participants who viewed ads containing portrayals of DCSS were significantly less likely to want to socially distance themselves from those with mental illnesses than those assigned to the no-exposure control condition, even when controlling for demographics and personal experience with mental illness. We discuss plausible explanations for the unexpected pattern of effects and resulting implications for future research on the topic.

  13. Surprising Performance for Vibrational Frequencies of the Distinguishable Clusters with Singles and Doubles (DCSD) and MP2.5 Approximations

    OpenAIRE

    Kesharwani, Manoj K.; Sylvetsky, Nitai; Martin, Jan M. L.

    2017-01-01

    We show that the DCSD (distinguishable clusters with all singles and doubles) correlation method permits the calculation of vibrational spectra at near-CCSD(T) quality but at no more than CCSD cost, and with comparatively inexpensive analytical gradients. For systems dominated by a single reference configuration, even MP2.5 is a viable alternative, at MP3 cost. MP2.5 performance for vibrational frequencies is comparable to double hybrids such as DSD-PBEP86-D3BJ, but without resorting to empir...

  14. Determination of the 3Pj phase shifts from nucleon-nucleon data: a critical evaluation and a surprising result

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tornow, T.; Tornow, W.

    1999-01-01

    It Is shown that the 3 P j neutron-proton (proton-proton) phase shifts cannot be determined to less than ± 100 % (± 20 %) uncertainty at low energies (∼ 10 MeV), even if high-accuracy nucleon-nucleon data were to become available for currently inaccessible observables. For a more accurate determination, appropriate theoretical constraints have to be invoked, but their accuracy can be judged only from the comparison of rigorous three-nucleon continuum calculations with particular three-nucleon observables. (author)

  15. [A sarcophagus with a surprise: computed tomography of a mummy from the Late Period of ancient Egypt].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isidro, Albert; Díez-Santacoloma, Iván; Bagot, Jaume; Milla, Lidón; Gallart, Anna

    2016-01-01

    Diagnostic imaging techniques, at present especially computed tomography (CT), have become the most important noninvasive method for the study of mummies because they enable high resolution images and three-dimensional reconstructions without damaging the mummified subject. We present a sarcophagus with a mummy hidden inside that was acquired by a gallery in Barcelona. The sarcophagus and mummy were examined by CT at the Hospital Universitari Sagrat Cor in Barcelona. A flexible clamp was used to obtain tissue samples for further study. The results showed the presence of an anatomically intact female human subject albeit with a destructured thorax and upper abdomen. Various metal objects were detected, corresponding to amulets, artificial eyes, and an external wooden brace. CT is an excellent noninvasive imaging technique for the detailed study of mummies, as it enables not only the anatomic identification of the mummified subject but also the obtainment of tissue samples for complementary analyses. The description of these findings enables us to know the major radiologic landmarks for the paleopathologic study of mummies. Copyright © 2015 SERAM. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  16. Surprise! From CEOs to Navy Seals: How a Select Group of Professionals Prepare for and Respond to the Unexpected

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    one of the longest- serving coaches in franchise history. Over the span of his career, he has seen it all, including the time an opposing team... skilled in touch-labor: they work with their hands.2 This observation is likely due to the fact that all of these professionals need to get things done...test pilot, Mojave, Calif., October 24, 2012; CEO of a firm with 1,200 worldwide employees , Arlington, Va., November 8, 2012; small-busi- ness CEO and

  17. Surprising luminescent properties of the polyphosphates Ln(PO3)3:Eu (Ln = Y, Gd, Lu).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Höppe, Henning A; Kazmierczak, Karolina; Kacprzak, Sylwia; Schellenberg, Inga; Pöttgen, Rainer

    2011-10-21

    The optical emission properties of the lanthanoid catena-polyphosphates Ln(PO(3))(3) (Ln = Y, Gd, Lu) doped with europium were investigated. Incommensurately modulated β-Y(PO(3))(3):Eu (super space group Cc (0|0.364|0)0) and Gd(PO(3))(3):Eu (space group I2/a) show the usual emission characteristics of Eu(3+), while in Lu(PO(3))(3):Eu (space group Cc) the europium is unprecedentedly partially reduced to the divalent state, as proven by both a broad emission band at 406 nm excited at 279 nm and an EPR spectroscopic investigation. (151)Eu-Mössbauer spectroscopy showed that only a very small part of the europium is reduced in Lu(PO(3))(3):Eu. An explanation for this unusual behaviour is given. This journal is © The Royal Society of Chemistry 2011

  18. Surprising transformation of a block copolymer into a high performance polystyrene ultrafiltration membrane with a hierarchically organized pore structure

    KAUST Repository

    Shevate, Rahul; Kumar, Mahendra; Karunakaran, Madhavan; Canlas, Christian; Peinemann, Klaus-Viktor

    2018-01-01

    ) block from self-assembled poly(styrene)-b-poly(4-vinyl pyridine) (PS-b-P4VP) membranes through the formation of an unstable pyridinium intermediate in an alkaline medium. During this process, the confined swelling and controlled degradation produced a

  19. Toward an epistemology of nano-technosciences: Probing technoscience from a historical perspective: on today's surprising prevalence and relevance of Francis Bacon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Jan C

    2011-12-01

    This paper aims to contribute to the attempts to clarify and classify the vague notion of "technosciences" from a historical perspective. A key question that is raised is as follows: Does Francis Bacon, one of the founding fathers of the modern age, provide a hitherto largely undiscovered programmatic position, which might facilitate a more profound understanding of technosciences? The paper argues that nearly everything we need today for an ontologically well-informed epistemology of technoscience can be found in the works of Bacon-this position will be called epistemological real-constructivism. Rather than realist or constructivist, empiricist or rationalist, Bacon's position can best be understood as real-constructivist since it challenges modern dichotomies. Reflection upon the contemporary relevance of Bacon could contribute to the expanding and critical discussion on technoscience. In the following I will reconstruct the term "technoscience". My finding is that at least four different understandings or types of the term "technoscience" co-exist. In a second step, I will analyze and elaborate on Bacon's epistemological position. I will identify central elements of the four different understandings in Bacon's work. Finally, I will conclude that the epistemology of technoscience is, indeed, very old-it is the epistemological position put forward by Bacon.

  20. Evolutionarily conserved TCR binding sites, identification of T cells in primary lymphoid tissues, and surprising trans-rearrangements in nurse shark.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Criscitiello, Michael F; Ohta, Yuko; Saltis, Mark; McKinney, E Churchill; Flajnik, Martin F

    2010-06-15

    Cartilaginous fish are the oldest animals that generate RAG-based Ag receptor diversity. We have analyzed the genes and expressed transcripts of the four TCR chains for the first time in a cartilaginous fish, the nurse shark (Ginglymostoma cirratum). Northern blotting found TCR mRNA expression predominantly in lymphoid and mucosal tissues. Southern blotting suggested translocon-type loci encoding all four chains. Based on diversity of V and J segments, the expressed combinatorial diversity for gamma is similar to that of human, alpha and beta may be slightly lower, and delta diversity is the highest of any organism studied to date. Nurse shark TCRdelta have long CDR3 loops compared with the other three chains, creating binding site topologies comparable to those of mammalian TCR in basic paratope structure; additionally, nurse shark TCRdelta CDR3 are more similar to IgH CDR3 in length and heterogeneity than to other TCR chains. Most interestingly, several cDNAs were isolated that contained IgM or IgW V segments rearranged to other gene segments of TCRdelta and alpha. Finally, in situ hybridization experiments demonstrate a conservation of both alpha/beta and gamma/delta T cell localization in the thymus across 450 million years of vertebrate evolution, with gamma/delta TCR expression especially high in the subcapsular region. Collectively, these data make the first cellular identification of TCR-expressing lymphocytes in a cartilaginous fish.

  1. Evolutionarily Conserved TCR Binding Sites, Identification of T Cells in Primary Lymphoid Tissues, and Surprising Trans-Rearrangements in Nurse Shark

    OpenAIRE

    Criscitiello, Michael F.; Ohta, Yuko; Saltis, Mark; McKinney, E. Churchill; Flajnik, Martin F.

    2010-01-01

    Cartilaginous fish are the oldest animals that generate RAG-based Ag receptor diversity. We have analyzed the genes and expressed transcripts of the four TCR chains for the first time in a cartilaginous fish, the nurse shark (Ginglymostoma cirratum). Northern blotting found TCR mRNA expression predominantly in lymphoid and mucosal tissues. Southern blotting suggested translocon-type loci encoding all four chains. Based on diversity of V and J segments, the expressed combinatorial diversity fo...

  2. Metabolic analysis of the soil microbe Dechloromonas aromatica str. RCB: indications of a surprisingly complex life-style and cryptic anaerobic pathways for aromatic degradation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salinero, Kennan Kellaris; Keller, Keith; Feil, William S.; Feil, Helene; Trong, Stephan; Di Bartolo, Genevieve; Lapidus, Alla

    2008-11-17

    Initial interest in Dechloromonas aromatica strain RCB arose from its ability to anaerobically degrade benzene. It is also able to reduce perchlorate and oxidize chlorobenzoate, toluene, and xylene, creating interest in using this organism for bioremediation. Little physiological data has been published for this microbe. It is considered to be a free-living organism. The a priori prediction that the D. aromatica genome would contain previously characterized 'central' enzymes involved in anaerobic aromatic degradation proved to be false, suggesting the presence of novel anaerobic aromatic degradation pathways in this species. These missing pathways include the benzyl succinyl synthase (bssABC) genes (responsible for formate addition to toluene) and the central benzoylCoA pathway for monoaromatics. In depth analyses using existing TIGRfam, COG, and InterPro models, and the creation of de novo HMM models, indicate a highly complex lifestyle with a large number of environmental sensors and signaling pathways, including a relatively large number of GGDEF domain signal receptors and multiple quorum sensors. A number of proteins indicate interactions with an as yet unknown host, as indicated by the presence of predicted cell host remodeling enzymes, effector enzymes, hemolysin-like proteins, adhesins, NO reductase, and both type III and type VI secretory complexes. Evidence of biofilm formation including a proposed exopolysaccharide complex with the somewhat rare exosortase (epsH), is also present. Annotation described in this paper also reveals evidence for several metabolic pathways that have yet to be observed experimentally, including a sulphur oxidation (soxFCDYZAXB) gene cluster, Calvin cycle enzymes, and nitrogen fixation (including RubisCo, ribulose-phosphate 3-epimerase, and nif gene families, respectively). Analysis of the D. aromatica genome indicates there is much to be learned regarding the metabolic capabilities, and life-style, for this microbial species. Examples of recent gene duplication events in signaling as well as dioxygenase clusters are present, indicating selective gene family expansion as a relatively recent event in D. aromatica's evolutionary history. Gene families that constitute metabolic cycles presumed to create D. aromatica's environmental 'foot-print' indicate a high level of diversification between its predicted capabilities and those of its close relatives, A. aromaticum str EbN1 and Azoarcus BH72.

  3. Limnology in El Dorado: some surprising aspects of the regulation of phytoplankton productive capacity in a high-altitude Andean lake (Laguna de Guatavita, Colombia).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donato, Jhon; Jimenez, Paola; Reynolds, Colin

    2012-09-01

    High-altitude mountain lakes remain understudied, mostly because of their relative inaccessibility. Laguna de Guatavita, a small, equatorial, high-altitude crater lake in the Eastern Range of the Colombian Andes, was once of high cultural importance to pre-Columban inhabitants, the original location of the legendary El Dorado. We investigated the factors regulating the primary production in Laguna de Guatavita (4degrees58'50" N - 73degrees46'43" W, alt. 2 935m.a.s.l., area: 0.11km2, maximum depth: 30m), during a series of three intensive field campaigns, which were conducted over a year-long period in 2003-2004. In each, standard profiles of temperature, oxygen concentration and light intensity were determined on each of 16-18 consecutive days. Samples were collected and analysed for chlorophyll and for biologically-significant solutes in GF/F-filtered water (NH4+, NO3(-), NO2(-); soluble reactive phosphorus). Primary production was also determined, by oxygen generation, on each day of the campaign. Our results showed that the productive potential of the lake was typically modest (campaign averages of 45-90mg C/m2.h) but that many of the regulating factors were not those anticipated intuitively. The lake is demonstrably meromictic, reminiscent ofkarstic dolines in higher latitudes, its stratification being maintained by solute- concentration gradients. Light penetration is poor, attributable to the turbidity owing to fine calcite and other particulates in suspension. Net primary production in the mixolimnion of Laguna de Guavita is sensitive to day-to-day variations in solar irradiance at the surface. However, deficiencies in nutrient availability, especially nitrogen, also constrain the capacity of the lake to support a phytoplankton. We deduced that Laguna de Guatavita is something of a limnological enigma, atypical of the common anticipation of a "mountain lake". While doubtlessly not unique, comparable descriptions of similar sites elsewhere are sufficiently rare to justify the presentation of the data from Laguna de Guatavita that our studies have revealed so far.

  4. Surprising abundance of Gallionella-related iron oxidizers in creek sediments at pH 4.4 or at high heavy metal concentrations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fabisch, Maria; Beulig, Felix; Akob, Denise M.; Küsel, Kirsten

    2013-01-01

    We identified and quantified abundant iron-oxidizing bacteria (FeOB) at three iron-rich, metal-contaminated creek sites with increasing sediment pH from extremely acidic (R1, pH 2.7), to moderately acidic (R2, pH 4.4), to slightly acidic (R3, pH 6.3) in a former uranium-mining district. The geochemical parameters showed little variations over the 1.5 year study period. The highest metal concentrations found in creek sediments always coincided with the lowest metal concentrations in creek water at the slightly acidic site R3. Sequential extractions of R3 sediment revealed large portions of heavy metals (Ni, Cu, Zn, Pb, U) bound to the iron oxide fraction. Light microscopy of glass slides exposed in creeks detected twisted stalks characteristic of microaerobic FeOB of the family Gallionellaceae at R3 but also at the acidic site R2. Sequences related to FeOB such as Gallionella ferruginea, Sideroxydans sp. CL21, Ferritrophicum radicicola, and Acidovorax sp. BrG1 were identified in the sediments. The highest fraction of clone sequences similar to the acidophilic “Ferrovum myxofaciens” was detected in R1. Quantitative PCR using primer sets specific for Gallionella spp., Sideroxydans spp., and “Ferrovum myxofaciens” revealed that ~72% (R2 sediment) and 37% (R3 sediment) of total bacterial 16S rRNA gene copies could be assigned to groups of FeOB with dominance of microaerobic Gallionella spp. at both sites. Gallionella spp. had similar and very high absolute and relative gene copy numbers in both sediment communities. Thus, Gallionella-like organisms appear to exhibit a greater acid and metal tolerance than shown before. Microaerobic FeOB from R3 creek sediment enriched in newly developed metal gradient tubes tolerated metal concentrations of 35 mM Co, 24 mM Ni, and 1.3 mM Cd, higher than those in sediments. Our results will extend the limited knowledge of FeOB at contaminated, moderately to slightly acidic environments.

  5. A surprisingly poor correlation between in vitro and in vivo testing of biomaterials for bone regeneration : results of a multicentre analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hulsart-Billström, G.; Dawson, J.I.; Hofmann, S.; Müller, R.; Stoddart, M.J.; Alini, M.; Redl, H.; El Haj, A.; Brown, R.; Salih, V.; Hilborn, J.; Larsson, S.; Oreffo, R.O.C.

    2016-01-01

    New regenerative materials and approaches need to be assessed through reliable and comparable methods for rapid translation to the clinic. There is a considerable need for proven in vitro assays that are able to reduce the burden on animal testing, by allowing assessment of biomaterial utility

  6. More surprises in the global greenhouse: Human health impacts from recent toxic marine aerosol formations, due to centennial alterations of world-wide coastal food webs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walsh, J.J.; Lenes, J.M.; Weisberg, R.H.; Zheng, L.; Hu, C.; Fanning, K.A.; Snyder, R.; Smith, J.

    2017-01-01

    Reductions of zooplankton biomasses and grazing pressures were observed during overfishing-induced trophic cascades and concurrent oil spills at global scales. Recent phytoplankton increments followed, once Fe-, P-, and N-nutrient limitations of commensal diazotrophs and dinoflagellates were also eliminated by respective human desertification, deforestation, and eutrophication during climate changes. Si-limitation of diatoms instead ensued during these last anthropogenic perturbations of agricultural effluents and sewage loadings. Consequently, ~ 15% of total world-wide annual asthma trigger responses, i.e. amounting to ~ 45 million adjacent humans during 2004, resulted from brevetoxin and palytoxin poisons in aerosol forms of western boundary current origins. They were denoted by greater global harmful algal bloom [HAB] abundances and breathing attacks among sea-side children during prior decadal surveys of asthma prevalence, compiled here in ten paired shelf ecosystems of western and eutrophied boundary currents. Since 1965, such inferred onshore fluxes of aerosolized DOC poisons of HABs may have served as additional wind-borne organic carriers of toxic marine MeHg, phthalate, and DDT/DDE vectors, traced by radio-iodine isotopes to potentially elicit carcinomas. During these exchanges, as much as 40% of mercury poisonings may instead have been effected by inhalation of collateral HAB-carried marine neurotoxic aerosols of MeHg, not just from eating marine fish. Health impacts in some areas were additional asthma and pneumonia episodes, as well as endocrine disruptions among the same adjacent humans, with known large local rates of thyroid cancers, physician-diagnosed pulmonary problems, and ubiquitous high indices of mercury in hair, pesticides in breast milk, and phthalates in urine. - Highlights: • Oil spills, heavy metals, and overfishing decimated zooplankton grazers • Desert expansions and eutrophication concurrently fueled diazotrophs to set free commensal ungrazed dinoflagellate HABs • Nitrogen-fixers set free commensal ungrazed dinoflagellate HABs • HAB increments caused ~ 45 million global asthma attacks during 2004 • HAB aerosols served as surrogates of inhaled MeHg, phthalate, and DDT neurotoxins • Downwind of nuclear facilities radio-iodes carried by HABs also caused thyroid cancers

  7. Building-Up of a DNA Barcode Library for True Bugs (Insecta: Hemiptera: Heteroptera) of Germany Reveals Taxonomic Uncertainties and Surprises

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raupach, Michael J.; Hendrich, Lars; Küchler, Stefan M.; Deister, Fabian; Morinière, Jérome; Gossner, Martin M.

    2014-01-01

    During the last few years, DNA barcoding has become an efficient method for the identification of species. In the case of insects, most published DNA barcoding studies focus on species of the Ephemeroptera, Trichoptera, Hymenoptera and especially Lepidoptera. In this study we test the efficiency of DNA barcoding for true bugs (Hemiptera: Heteroptera), an ecological and economical highly important as well as morphologically diverse insect taxon. As part of our study we analyzed DNA barcodes for 1742 specimens of 457 species, comprising 39 families of the Heteroptera. We found low nucleotide distances with a minimum pairwise K2P distance 2.2% were detected for 16 traditionally recognized and valid species. With a successful identification rate of 91.5% (418 species) our study emphasizes the use of DNA barcodes for the identification of true bugs and represents an important step in building-up a comprehensive barcode library for true bugs in Germany and Central Europe as well. Our study also highlights the urgent necessity of taxonomic revisions for various taxa of the Heteroptera, with a special focus on various species of the Miridae. In this context we found evidence for on-going hybridization events within various taxonomically challenging genera (e.g. Nabis Latreille, 1802 (Nabidae), Lygus Hahn, 1833 (Miridae), Phytocoris Fallén, 1814 (Miridae)) as well as the putative existence of cryptic species (e.g. Aneurus avenius (Duffour, 1833) (Aradidae) or Orius niger (Wolff, 1811) (Anthocoridae)). PMID:25203616

  8. “I seek to shock and surprise the reader” Grande Sertão: Veredas – the poetics of creation and translation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Berthold Zilly

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This article, motivated by my project of a new German translation of Grande Sertão: Veredas, by João Guimarães Rosa, examines the source text in view of real and possible strategies in foreign language translations, which  are part of the critical fortune and, at the same time, an interpretation tool, since translating allows a privileged hermeneutic approach, by tracking, revealing and trying to reconfigure the "manner of meaning" (Benjamin of a text, its "logic of being-produced" (Adorno, and its "shaping operations" (Haroldo de Campos. For Rosa, the poetics of creation must guide the poetics of translation, aiming at systematic deviation of the standard language, regarding musicality, elliptical composition, effects of shock, defamiliarization, mystery and suggestiveness. A comparative microanalysis of six phrases from the beginning of the novel in nine translations allows us to make the hypothesis that for the last 50 years there has been a certain reorientation from assimilation and domestication strategies towards defamiliarization and foreignization strategies, some which are closer to the intentions of the author and the text itself.

  9. Surprising abundance of Gallionella-related iron oxidizers in creek sediments at pH 4.4 or at high heavy metal concentrations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria eFabisch

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available We identified and quantified abundant iron-oxidizing bacteria (FeOB at three iron-rich, metal-contaminated creek sites with increasing sediment pH from extremely acidic (R1, pH 2.7, to moderately acidic (R2, pH 4.4, to slightly acidic (R3, pH 6.3 in a former uranium-mining district. The geochemical parameters showed little variations over the 1.5 year study period. The highest metal concentrations found in creek sediments always coincided with the lowest metal concentrations in creek water at the slightly acidic site R3. Sequential extractions of R3 sediment revealed large portions of heavy metals (Ni, Cu, Zn, Pb, U bound to the iron oxide fraction. Light microscopy of glass slides exposed in creeks detected twisted stalks characteristic of microaerobic FeOB of the family Gallionellaceae at R3 but also at the acidic site R2. Sequences related to FeOB such as Gallionella ferruginea, Sideroxydans sp. CL21, Ferritrophicum radicicola, and Acidovorax sp. BrG1 were identified in the sediments. The highest fraction of clone sequences similar to the acidophilic ‘Ferrovum myxofaciens’ was detected in R1. Quantitative PCR using primer sets specific for Gallionella spp., Sideroxydans spp., and ‘Ferrovum myxofaciens’ revealed that approximately 72% (R2 sediment and 37% (R3 sediment of total bacterial 16S rRNA gene copies could be assigned to groups of FeOB with dominance of microaerobic Gallionella spp. at both sites. Gallionella spp. had similar and very high absolute and relative gene copy numbers in both sediment communities. Thus, Gallionella-like organisms appear to exhibit a greater acid and metal tolerance than shown before. Microaerobic FeOB from R3 creek sediment enriched in newly developed metal gradient tubes tolerated metal concentrations of 35 mM Co, 24 mM Ni, and 1.3 mM Cd, higher than those in sediments. Our results will extend the limited knowledge of FeOB at contaminated, moderately to slightly acidic environments.

  10. Surprisingly small increase of the sedimentation rate in the floodplain of Morava River in the Straznice area, Czech Republic, in the last 1300 years

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Matys Grygar, Tomáš; Nováková, Tereza; Mihaljevič, M.; Strnad, L.; Světlík, Ivo; Koptíková, Leona; Lisá, Lenka; Brázdil, R.; Máčka, Z.; Stachoň, Z.; Svitavská-Svobodová, Helena; Wray, D.S.

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 86, č. 3 (2011), s. 192-207 ISSN 0341-8162 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAAX00130801 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40320502; CEZ:AV0Z10480505; CEZ:AV0Z30130516; CEZ:AV0Z60050516 Keywords : fluvial archives * environmental change * proxy analyses * floodplain fines * anthropogenic impact * chemostratigraphy Subject RIV: DD - Geochemistry Impact factor: 1.889, year: 2011

  11. Limnology in El Dorado: some surprising aspects of the regulation of phytoplankton productive capacity in a high-altitude Andean lake (Laguna de Guatavita, Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jhon Donato

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available High-altitude mountain lakes remain understudied, mostly because of their relative inaccessibility. Laguna de Guatavita, a small, equatorial, high-altitude crater lake in the Eastern Range of the Colombian Andes, was once of high cultural importance to pre-Columban inhabitants, the original location of the legendary El Dorado. We investigated the factors regulating the primary production in Laguna de Guatavita (4°58’50” N - 73°46’43” W, alt. 2 935m.a.s.l., area: 0.11km², maximum depth: 30m, during a series of three intensive field campaigns, which were conducted over a year-long period in 2003-2004. In each, standard profiles of temperature, oxygen concentration and light intensity were determined on each of 16-18 consecutive days. Samples were collected and analysed for chlorophyll and for biologically-significant solutes in GF/F-filtered water (NH4+, NO3- , NO2-; soluble reactive phosphorus. Primary production was also determined, by oxygen generation, on each day of the campaign. Our results showed that the productive potential of the lake was typically modest (campaign averages of 45-90mg C/m².h but that many of the regulating factors were not those anticipated intuitively. The lake is demonstrably meromictic, reminiscent of karstic dolines in higher latitudes, its stratification being maintained by solute- concentration gradients. Light penetration is poor, attributable to the turbidity owing to fine calcite and other particulates in suspension. Net primary production in the mixolimnion of Laguna de Guavita is sensitive to day-to-day variations in solar irradiance at the surface. However, deficiencies in nutrient availability, especially nitrogen, also constrain the capacity of the lake to support a phytoplankton. We deduced that Laguna de Guatavita is something of a limnological enigma, atypical of the common anticipation of a “mountain lake”. While doubtlessly not unique, comparable descriptions of similar sites elsewhere are sufficiently rare to justify the presentation of the data from Laguna de Guatavita that our studies have revealed so far.Los factores que regulan la producción primaria en un lago remoto, pequeño, ecuatorial y de elevada altitud en la región Oriental de los Andes Colombianos (4°58’50” N - 73°46’43” W, altura 2 935m.s.n.m., área 0.11km² y profundidad máxima 30m, que también tuvo importancia cultural para los indígenas precolombinos y los orígenes de la leyenda de El Dorado, fueron investigados. La relativa lejanía del lugar requirió una serie de tres campañas intensivas de estudio, en un periodo de un año (2003-2004. Durante cada campaña se realizaron perfiles temperatura, concentración de oxígeno e intensidad de luz. Se recolectaron muestras para medir la concentración de clorofila y de solutos de significado biológico en agua filtrada GF/F. Cada día de la campaña se llevaron a cabo mediciones de la producción primaria, como se indica por la producción de oxígeno. Estas demostraron que el potencial productivo es particularmente modesto (promedio de campañas de 45-90mgC/m².h, pero casi todos los aspectos de su regulación fueron sorprendentes y contrarios al sentido común. El lago es meromíctico, reminiscencia de dolinas kársticas de latitudes más altas y la estratificación se mantiene por los solutos. La penetración de luz es pobre, atribuible a la alta turbidez debida a la calcita fina y a otras partículas en suspensión. La producción primaria neta del mixolimnion de la Laguna de Guatavita es sensible a las variaciones del día a día de la radiación superficial. Deficiencias en la disponibilidad de nutrientes, sobre todo, del nitrógeno, también limitaron la capacidad productiva del fitoplancton. La laguna de Guatavita es una especie de enigma limnológico: aunque sin duda, no es el único, las descripciones de sitios similares en otras partes son lo suficientemente raras para justificar la presentación de los datos revelados hasta hoy en nuestro estudio.

  12. More surprises in the global greenhouse: Human health impacts from recent toxic marine aerosol formations, due to centennial alterations of world-wide coastal food webs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, J J; Lenes, J M; Weisberg, R H; Zheng, L; Hu, C; Fanning, K A; Snyder, R; Smith, J

    2017-03-15

    Reductions of zooplankton biomasses and grazing pressures were observed during overfishing-induced trophic cascades and concurrent oil spills at global scales. Recent phytoplankton increments followed, once Fe-, P-, and N-nutrient limitations of commensal diazotrophs and dinoflagellates were also eliminated by respective human desertification, deforestation, and eutrophication during climate changes. Si-limitation of diatoms instead ensued during these last anthropogenic perturbations of agricultural effluents and sewage loadings. Consequently, ~15% of total world-wide annual asthma trigger responses, i.e. amounting to ~45 million adjacent humans during 2004, resulted from brevetoxin and palytoxin poisons in aerosol forms of western boundary current origins. They were denoted by greater global harmful algal bloom [HAB] abundances and breathing attacks among sea-side children during prior decadal surveys of asthma prevalence, compiled here in ten paired shelf ecosystems of western and eutrophied boundary currents. Since 1965, such inferred onshore fluxes of aerosolized DOC poisons of HABs may have served as additional wind-borne organic carriers of toxic marine MeHg, phthalate, and DDT/DDE vectors, traced by radio-iodine isotopes to potentially elicit carcinomas. During these exchanges, as much as 40% of mercury poisonings may instead have been effected by inhalation of collateral HAB-carried marine neurotoxic aerosols of MeHg, not just from eating marine fish. Health impacts in some areas were additional asthma and pneumonia episodes, as well as endocrine disruptions among the same adjacent humans, with known large local rates of thyroid cancers, physician-diagnosed pulmonary problems, and ubiquitous high indices of mercury in hair, pesticides in breast milk, and phthalates in urine. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. 2014 Global Energy Trends: a year full of surprises. Based on its 2014 data for G20 countries, Enerdata analyses the trends in the world energy demand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2015-01-01

    According to the 2014 Global Energy Trends publication, Enerdata points out 2014 as a remarkable year with a near stagnation in energy demand and CO_2 emissions despite economic growth. The G20's 2014 Key Energy figures: +3.5% Economic Growth; +0.3% (10.8 Gtep) Energy consumption stagnation; -0.2% (26 GtCO_2) CO_2 emissions stabilizations. The main trends derived from the publication are: - Historical stagnation in energy consumption; - Stabilisation in CO_2 emissions; - Global energy consumption stabilisation is reflected everywhere: - 0 growth for gas, - Fall in coal consumption, - Slight increase in electricity consumption. The Global Energy Trends Analysis also provides additional graphs on such topics as: Coal: most consumed energy source in G20 countries; Oil: 50% fall in international prices; Oil: demand continues to slightly increase; Gas: high impact of climate on gas consumption. (authors)

  14. Water - The radiological health of rivers: releases are very much controlled downstream power plants. What do hospital releases represent? The Seine reserves a surprise

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2015-01-01

    After a brief presentation of the role of the IRSN in the control of the radioactivity present in waters and in the control and follow-up of all sources of radioactivity, a first article briefly present the hydro-collector network, indicates that some point samplings of sediment and aquatic species are performed, that a national network of beacons for a continuous radioactivity measurement is installed in the main French rivers, downstream nuclear installations, and that advanced measurement techniques are used to detect very small level of tritium. Maps giving a brief indication of the radiological condition of the Loire and Rhone are provided. A second article addresses the control of releases downstream power plants, and evokes the legal context and the associated objectives and produced documents. The third article discusses the risk associated with hospital wastes and releases (liquid and solid effluents), how radioactivity is controlled between the hospital and tap water distribution. The last article reports and comments the results obtained by an analysis of historical pollutions trapped in the sediments of the Seine: 40 year-old traces of plutonium have been discovered, due to an accidental release from a CEA installation in Fontenay-aux-Roses, with no detrimental impact on population or on sewer workers

  15. It's no surprise! Men are not hit more than women by the health consequences of unemployment in the Northern Swedish Cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammarström, Anne; Gustafsson, Per E; Strandh, Mattias; Virtanen, Pekka; Janlert, Urban

    2011-03-01

    Research often fails to ascertain whether men and women are equally hit by the health consequences of unemployment. The aim of this study was to analyze whether men's self-reported health and health behaviour were hit more by unemployment than women's in a follow-up of the Northern Swedish Cohort. A follow-up study of a cohort of all school leavers in a middle-sized industrial town in northern Sweden was performed from age 16 to age 42. Of those still alive of the original cohort, 94% (n = 1,006) participated during the whole period. A sample was made of participants in the labour force and living in Sweden (n = 916). Register data were used to assess the length of unemployment from age 40 to 42, while questionnaire data were used for the other variables. In multivariate logistic regression analyses significant relations between unemployment and mental health/smoking were found among both women and men, even after control for unemployment at the time of the investigation and indicators of health-related selection. Significant relations between unemployment and alcohol consumption were found among women, while few visits to a dentist was significant among men. Men are not hit more by the health consequences of unemployment in a Swedish context, with a high participation rate of women in the labour market. The public health relevance is that the study indicates the need to take gendered contexts into account in public health research.

  16. Breeding ecology of the southern shrike, Lanius meridionalis, in an agrosystem of south–eastern Spain: the surprisingly excellent breeding success in a declining population

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moreno-Rueda, G.; Abril-Colon, I.; Lopez-Orta, A.; Alvarez-Benito, I.; Castillo-Gomez, C.; Comas, M.; Rivas, J.M.

    2016-07-01

    The southern shrike, Lanius meridionalis, is declining at the Spanish and European level. One cause of this decline could be low reproductive success due to low availability of prey in agricultural environments. To investigate this possibility we analysed the breeding ecology of a population of southern shrike in an agrosystem in Lomas de Padul (SE Spain). Our results suggest the population is declining in this area. However, contrary to expectations, the population showed the highest reproductive success (% nests in which at least one egg produces a fledgling) reported for this species to date (83.3%), with a productivity of 4.04 fledglings per nest. Reproductive success varied throughout the years, ranging from 75% in the worst year to 92.9% in the best year. Similarly, productivity ranged from 3.25 to 5.0 fledglings per nest depending on the year. Other aspects of reproductive biology, such as clutch size, brood size, and nestling diet, were similar to those reported in other studies. Based on these results, we hypothesise that the determinant of population decline acts on the juvenile fraction, drastically reducing the recruitment rate, or affecting the dispersion of adults and recruits. Nevertheless, the exact factor or factors are unknown. This study shows that a high reproductive success does not guarantee good health status of the population. (Author)

  17. Detection and Interpretation of Low-Level and High-Level Surprising and Important Events in Large-Scale Data Streams

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-28

    a current (start) state to one or several desired (goal) state or states. Note that like in standard search in Artificial Intelligence , the goal may...datasets. Publications: J. Zhao, C. Siagian, L. Itti, Fixation Bank : Learning to Reweight Fixation Candidates, In: Proc. IEEE Confer- ence on Computer...eyeglasses, In: Proc. IEEE/RSJ International Con- ference on Intelligent Robots and Systems (IROS), pp. 5674-5679, Nov 2013. [2013 acceptance rate: 43%] A

  18. Édifier, surprendre et faire rire To Edify, Surprise and Amuse - Burmese Buddhist Society as Depicted in the Chindwin Region’s Visual Sermons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristophe Munier-Gaillard

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Les peintures murales de styles Nyaungyan sont situées dans une zone allant de Magway à Monywa et Mandalay. Toutefois, de même qu’il n’y a pas un mais plusieurs styles Nyaungyan, de même cette zone est-elle loin de présenter une homogénéité stylistique et iconographique : ainsi la région allant de Powin Taung à Yezagyo présente les caractéristiques d’une identité culturelle bien distincte – un des traits de cette identité régionale est l’iconographie du gardien de la cité royale auquel cette région confère un statut tout à fait original qui s’inspire très vraisemblablement d’un fonds populaire local.Nyaungyan styles mural paintings are located in an area stretching from Magway to Monywa and Mandalay. However, just as there are several Nyaungyan styles, and not just one, this area does not exhibit stylistic and iconographic homogeneity. As an illustration of this, the region that extends from Powin Taung to Yezagyo displays the features of a clearly distinct cultural identity. One of the features of this regional identity is the iconography of the royal city’s gatekeeper who, in this region, is bestowed an entirely original status most likely inspired by a local popular background.

  19. The higher-dimensional Ablowitz–Ladik model: From (non-)integrability and solitary waves to surprising collapse properties and more exotic solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kevrekidis, P.G.; Herring, G.J.; Lafortune, S.; Hoq, Q.E.

    2012-01-01

    We propose a consideration of the properties of the two-dimensional Ablowitz–Ladik discretization of the ubiquitous nonlinear Schrödinger (NLS) model. We use singularity confinement techniques to suggest that the relevant discretization should not be integrable. More importantly, we identify the prototypical solitary waves of the model and examine their stability, illustrating the remarkable feature that near the continuum limit, this discretization leads to the absence of collapse and complete spectral wave stability, in stark contrast to the standard discretization of the NLS. We also briefly touch upon the three-dimensional case and generalizations of our considerations therein, and also present some more exotic solutions of the model, such as exact line solitons and discrete vortices. -- Highlights: ► The two-dimensional version of the Ablowitz–Ladik discretization of the nonlinear Schrödinger (NLS) equation is considered. ► It is found that near the continuum limit the fundamental discrete soliton is spectrally stable. ► This finding is in sharp contrast with the case of the standard discretization of the NLS equation. ► In the three-dimensional version of the model, the fundamental solitons are unstable. ► Additional waveforms such as exact unstable line solitons and discrete vortices are also touched upon.

  20. The higher-dimensional Ablowitz–Ladik model: From (non-)integrability and solitary waves to surprising collapse properties and more exotic solutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kevrekidis, P.G., E-mail: kevrekid@gmail.com [Department of Mathematics and Statistics, University of Massachusetts, Amherst, MA 01003-4515 (United States); Herring, G.J. [Department of Mathematics and Statistics, Cameron University, Lawton, OK 73505 (United States); Lafortune, S. [Department of Mathematics, College of Charleston, Charleston, SC 29401 (United States); Hoq, Q.E. [Department of Mathematics and Computer Science, Western New England College, Springfield, MA 01119 (United States)

    2012-02-06

    We propose a consideration of the properties of the two-dimensional Ablowitz–Ladik discretization of the ubiquitous nonlinear Schrödinger (NLS) model. We use singularity confinement techniques to suggest that the relevant discretization should not be integrable. More importantly, we identify the prototypical solitary waves of the model and examine their stability, illustrating the remarkable feature that near the continuum limit, this discretization leads to the absence of collapse and complete spectral wave stability, in stark contrast to the standard discretization of the NLS. We also briefly touch upon the three-dimensional case and generalizations of our considerations therein, and also present some more exotic solutions of the model, such as exact line solitons and discrete vortices. -- Highlights: ► The two-dimensional version of the Ablowitz–Ladik discretization of the nonlinear Schrödinger (NLS) equation is considered. ► It is found that near the continuum limit the fundamental discrete soliton is spectrally stable. ► This finding is in sharp contrast with the case of the standard discretization of the NLS equation. ► In the three-dimensional version of the model, the fundamental solitons are unstable. ► Additional waveforms such as exact unstable line solitons and discrete vortices are also touched upon.

  1. "I was a little surprised": Qualitative Insights from Patients Enrolled in a 12-Month Trial Comparing Opioids to Non-Opioid Medications for Chronic Musculoskeletal Pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marianne S Matthias; Donaldson, Melvin T; Jensen, Agnes C; Krebs, Erin E

    2018-04-28

    Chronic musculoskeletal pain is a major public health problem. Although opioid prescribing for chronic pain has increased dramatically since the 1990s, this practice has come under scrutiny because of increases in opioid-related harms and lack of evidence for long-term effectiveness. The Strategies for Prescribing Analgesics Comparative Effectiveness (SPACE) trial was a pragmatic 12-month randomized trial comparing benefits and harms of opioid versus non-opioid medications for chronic musculoskeletal pain. The current qualitative study was designed to better understand trial results by exploring patients' experiences, including perceptions of medications, experiences with the intervention, and whether expectations were met. Thirty-four participants who were purposefully sampled based on treatment group and intervention response participated in semi-structured interviews. The constant comparison method guided analysis. Results revealed that participants often held strong beliefs about opioid medications, which sometimes changed during the trial as they gained experience with medications; participants described a wide variety of experiences with treatment effectiveness, regardless of study group or their response to the intervention; and participants highly valued the personalized pain care model used in SPACE. SPACE trial results indicated no advantage for opioid over non-opioid medications. Qualitative findings suggest that, for patients in both treatment groups, pre-existing expectations of medications and of anticipated improvement in pain shaped experiences with and responses to medications. In addition, the personalized pain care model was described as contributing to positive outcomes in both groups. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  2. Metabolic analysis of the soil microbe Dechloromonas aromatica str. RCB: indications of a surprisingly complex life-style and cryptic anaerobic pathways for aromatic degradation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feil Helene

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Initial interest in Dechloromonas aromatica strain RCB arose from its ability to anaerobically degrade benzene. It is also able to reduce perchlorate and oxidize chlorobenzoate, toluene, and xylene, creating interest in using this organism for bioremediation. Little physiological data has been published for this microbe. It is considered to be a free-living organism. Results The a priori prediction that the D. aromatica genome would contain previously characterized "central" enzymes to support anaerobic aromatic degradation of benzene proved to be false, suggesting the presence of novel anaerobic aromatic degradation pathways in this species. These missing pathways include the benzylsuccinate synthase (bssABC genes (responsible for fumarate addition to toluene and the central benzoyl-CoA pathway for monoaromatics. In depth analyses using existing TIGRfam, COG, and InterPro models, and the creation of de novo HMM models, indicate a highly complex lifestyle with a large number of environmental sensors and signaling pathways, including a relatively large number of GGDEF domain signal receptors and multiple quorum sensors. A number of proteins indicate interactions with an as yet unknown host, as indicated by the presence of predicted cell host remodeling enzymes, effector enzymes, hemolysin-like proteins, adhesins, NO reductase, and both type III and type VI secretory complexes. Evidence of biofilm formation including a proposed exopolysaccharide complex and exosortase (epsH are also present. Annotation described in this paper also reveals evidence for several metabolic pathways that have yet to be observed experimentally, including a sulphur oxidation (soxFCDYZAXB gene cluster, Calvin cycle enzymes, and proteins involved in nitrogen fixation in other species (including RubisCo, ribulose-phosphate 3-epimerase, and nif gene families, respectively. Conclusion Analysis of the D. aromatica genome indicates there is much to be learned regarding the metabolic capabilities, and life-style, for this microbial species. Examples of recent gene duplication events in signaling as well as dioxygenase clusters are present, indicating selective gene family expansion as a relatively recent event in D. aromatica's evolutionary history. Gene families that constitute metabolic cycles presumed to create D. aromatica's environmental 'foot-print' indicate a high level of diversification between its predicted capabilities and those of its close relatives, A. aromaticum str EbN1 and Azoarcus BH72.

  3. Evidence of elevated pressure and temperature during burial of the Salem Limestone in south-central Indiana, USA, and its implications for surprisingly deep burial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ambers, Clifford P.

    2001-09-01

    A minor, normal fault related to compaction of the grainstone shoal facies of the Salem Limestone in south-central Indiana provides an unusual opportunity to test the pressure and temperature of both faulting and associated stylolitization. Syn-deformational sphalerite occurs in voids along the fault where it intersects an organic-rich shale parting in the sand flat facies overlying the grainstone. The sphalerite contains fluid inclusions that can be used for microthermobaric measurements. Most fluid inclusions in the sphalerite are demonstrably cogenetic with the host sphalerite and of the two-phase aqueous type common in Indiana, although many contain petroleum and others contain gas. Crushing tests in kerosene indicate that the aqueous inclusions contain dissolved methane in varying amounts as high as 1000 ppm. Microthermometry shows that late sphalerite growth, late fault movement, and late stylolitization all occurred as conditions approached 108°C and 292 bars. This pressure is in accord with a normal, basinal, geothermal gradient of 32.5°C/km that would produce the observed temperature under hydrostatic conditions at a burial depth of 2.7 km using an average fluid density of 1.1 g/cm 3. These results serve as a reminder that fluid inclusions in diagenetic minerals hold important temperature and pressure information regarding burial diagenesis of Paleozoic rocks across the North American midcontinent. Detailed study of dissolved gases in fluids trapped in disseminated sphalerite that is common across the midcontinent could help resolve the enigma of sedimentary rocks with high thermal maturity exposed at the surface across the region.

  4. Autologous mesenchymal stem cells applied on the pressure ulcers had produced a surprising outcome in a severe case of neuromyelitis optica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Octaviana Dulamea

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Recent studies provided evidence that mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs have regenerative potential in cutaneous repair and profound immunomodulatory properties making them a candidate for therapy of neuroimmunologic diseases. Neuromyelitis optica (NMO is an autoimmune, demyelinating central nervous system disorder characterized by a longitudinally extensive spinal cord lesion. A 46-year-old male diagnosed with NMO had relapses with paraplegia despite treatment and developed two stage IV pressure ulcers (PUs on his legs. The patient consented for local application of autologous MSCs on PUs. MSCs isolated from the patient′s bone marrow aspirate were multiplied in vitro during three passages and embedded in a tridimensional collagen-rich matrix which was applied on the PUs. Eight days after MSCs application the patient showed a progressive healing of PUs and improvement of disability. Two months later the patient was able to walk 20 m with bilateral assistance and one year later he started to walk without assistance. For 76 months the patient had no relapse and no adverse event was reported. The original method of local application of autologous BM-MSCs contributed to healing of PUs. For 6 years the patient was free of relapses and showed an improvement of disability. The association of cutaneous repair, sustained remission of NMO and improvement of disability might be explained by a promotion/optimization of recovery mechanisms in the central nervous system even if alternative hypothesis should be considered. Further studies are needed to assess the safety and efficacy of mesenchymal stem cells in NMO treatment.

  5. "Location is surprisingly a lot more important than you think": a critical thematic analysis of push and pull factor messaging used on Caribbean offshore medical school websites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, Jeffrey; Crooks, Valorie A; Sampson, Carla Jackie; Snyder, Jeremy

    2017-06-02

    Offshore medical schools are for-profit, private enterprises located in the Caribbean that provide undergraduate medical education to students who must leave the region for postgraduate training and also typically to practice. This growing industry attracts many medical students from the US and Canada who wish to return home to practice medicine. After graduation, international medical graduates can encounter challenges obtaining residency placements and can face other barriers related to practice. We conducted a qualitative thematic analysis to discern the dominant messages found on offshore medical school websites. Dominant messages included frequent references to push and pull factors intended to encourage potential applicants to consider attending an offshore medical school. We reviewed 38 English-language Caribbean offshore medical school websites in order to extract and record content pertaining to push and pull factors. We found two push and four pull factors present across most offshore medical school websites. Push factors include the: shortages of physicians in the US and Canada that require new medical trainees; and low acceptance rates at medical schools in intended students' home countries. Pull factors include the: financial benefits of attending an offshore medical school; geographic location and environment of training in the Caribbean; training quality and effectiveness; and the potential to practice medicine in one's home country. This analysis contributes to our understanding of some of the factors behind students' decisions to attend an offshore medical school. Importantly, push and pull factors do not address the barriers faced by offshore medical school graduates in finding postgraduate residency placements and ultimately practicing elsewhere. It is clear from push and pull factors that these medical schools heavily focus messaging and marketing towards students from the US and Canada, which raises questions about who benefits from this offshoring practice.

  6. Surprisingly Different Reaction Behavior of Alkali and Alkaline Earth Metal Bis(trimethylsilyl)amides toward Bulky N-(2-Pyridylethyl)-N'-(2,6-diisopropylphenyl)pivalamidine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalden, Diana; Oberheide, Ansgar; Loh, Claas; Görls, Helmar; Krieck, Sven; Westerhausen, Matthias

    2016-07-25

    N-(2,6-Diisopropylphenyl)-N'-(2-pyridylethyl)pivalamidine (Dipp-N=C(tBu)-N(H)-C2 H4 -Py) (1), reacts with metalation reagents of lithium, magnesium, calcium, and strontium to give the corresponding pivalamidinates [(tmeda)Li{Dipp-N=C(tBu)-N-C2 H4 -Py}] (6), [Mg{Dipp-N=C(tBu)-N-C2 H4 -Py}2 ] (3), and heteroleptic [{(Me3 Si)2 N}Ae{Dipp-N=C(tBu)-N-C2 H4 -Py}], with Ae being Ca (2 a) and Sr (2 b). In contrast to this straightforward deprotonation of the amidine units, the reaction of 1 with the bis(trimethylsilyl)amides of sodium or potassium unexpectedly leads to a β-metalation and an immediate deamidation reaction yielding [(thf)2 Na{Dipp-N=C(tBu)-N(H)}] (4 a) or [(thf)2 K{Dipp-N=C(tBu)-N(H)}] (4 b), respectively, as well as 2-vinylpyridine in both cases. The lithium derivative shows a similar reaction behavior to the alkaline earth metal congeners, underlining the diagonal relationship in the periodic table. Protonation of 4 a or the metathesis reaction of 4 b with CaI2 in tetrahydrofuran yields N-(2,6-diisopropylphenyl)pivalamidine (Dipp-N=C(tBu)-NH2 ) (5), or [(thf)4 Ca{Dipp-N=C(tBu)-N(H)}2 ] (7), respectively. The reaction of AN(SiMe3 )2 (A=Na, K) with less bulky formamidine Dipp-N=C(H)-N(H)-C2 H4 -Py (8) leads to deprotonation of the amidine functionality, and [(thf)Na{Dipp-N=C(H)-N-C2 H4 -Py}]2 (9 a) or [(thf)K{Dipp-N=C(H)-N-C2 H4 -Py}]2 (9 b), respectively, are isolated as dinuclear complexes. From these experiments it is obvious, that β-metalation/deamidation of N-(2-pyridylethyl)amidines requires bases with soft metal ions and also steric pressure. The isomeric forms of all compounds are verified by single-crystal X-ray structure analysis and are maintained in solution. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  7. Challenges, pitfalls and surprises: development and validation of a monoclonal antibody for enzyme immunoassay of the steroid 1α-hydroxycorticosterone in elasmobranch species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheaton, Catharine J; Mylniczenko, Natalie D; Rimoldi, John M; Gadepalli, Rama S V S; Hart, R; O'Hara, Bobbi R; Evans, Andrew N

    2018-01-31

    Sharks and rays are popular species used in wildlife ecotourism and aquariums to educate the public on the behavior, ecology and conservation challenges of elasmobranchs. To understand long-term physiological health and welfare under varying social and husbandry conditions, we developed and validated an enzyme immunoassay (EIA) to measure stress/ionoregulatory hormones in managed and semi-free range southern rays (Hypanus americanus). Banked serum and interrenal samples from 27 female rays managed at Disney's The Seas with Nemo and Friends® and Castaway Cay were used to evaluate measurement of 1α-hydroxycorticosterone (1αOHB) relative to corticosterone (B). Although commercial EIAs are available for B, those tested exhibit only low relative cross-reactivity to 1αOHB (3-5%). To improve measurement of 1αOHB, we developed a monoclonal antibody using a synthesized 1αOHB-derivative for evaluation using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and EIA. Relative displacements of cross-reactant compounds showed that the antibody had good sensitivity for the target antigen 1αOHB, and low sensitivity to related steroids (desoxycorticosterone and B), but greater sensitivity to 11-dehydrocorticosterone. Tests of competitive vs. noncompetitive EIA formats, reagent titration, and incubation times of the antibody and conjugate were used to optimize sensitivity, repeatability and precision of measured 1αOHB in standards and samples (4 ng/ml, 90% binding). Tests of sample pre-treatment (pH adjustment) and extraction with varying solvent polarity were used to optimize measurement of 1αOHB in <1 ml (serum) or 1 g (interrenal) samples. HPLC analysis revealed the 1αOHB EIA to be superior for measurement of 1αOHB compared to use of a B EIA with or without HPLC fractioning. Results may prove useful for extrapolation to guide best practices for 1αOHB measurement in other elasmobranch species. Improved measurement of stress/ionoregulatory hormones in sharks and rays will be important for many aspects of collection, transport, medical treatment in aquaria and conservation management of these charismatic and ecologically important species. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Surprising Ripple Effects: How Changing the SAT Score-Sending Policy for Low-Income Students Impacts College Access and Success

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurwitz, Michael; Mbekeani, Preeya P.; Nipson, Margaret M.; Page, Lindsay C.

    2017-01-01

    Subtle policy adjustments can induce relatively large "ripple effects." We evaluate a College Board initiative that increased the number of free SAT score reports available to low-income students and changed the time horizon for using these score reports. Using a difference-in-differences analytic strategy, we estimate that targeted…

  9. A surprising way to control the charge transport in molecular electronics: the subtle impact of the coverage of self-assembled monolayers of floppy molecules adsorbed on metallic electrodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bâldea, Ioan

    2017-10-26

    Inspired by earlier attempts in organic electronics aiming at controlling charge injection from metals into organic materials by manipulating the Schottky energy barrier using self-assembled monolayers (SAMs), recent experimental and theoretical work in molecular electronics showed that metal-organic interfaces can be controlled via changes in the metal work function that are induced by SAMs. In this paper we indicate a different route to achieve interface-driven control over the charge transfer/transport at the molecular scale. It is based on the fact that, in floppy molecule based SAMs, the molecular conformation can be tuned by varying the coverage of the adsorbate. We demonstrate this effect with the aid of benchmark molecules that are often used to fabricate nanojunctions and consist of two rings that can easily rotate relative to each other. We show that, by varying the coverage of the SAM, the twisting angle φ of the considered molecular species can be modified by a factor of two. Given the fact that the low bias conductance G scales as cos 2  φ, this results in a change in G of over one order of magnitude for the considered molecular species. Tuning the twisting angle by controlling the SAM coverage may be significant, e.g., for current efforts to fabricate molecular switches. Conversely, the lack of control over the local SAM coverage may be problematic for the reproducibility and interpretation of the STM (scanning tunneling microscope) measurements on repeatedly forming single molecule break junctions.

  10. A sluggish U.S. economy is no surprise: Declining the rate of growth of profits and other indicators in the last three quarters of 2015 predicted a slowdown in the US economy in the coming months

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bob Namvar

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Recession is a built-in feature of the market economy, it is unavoidable but controllable. Almost all of the recent recessions have had the same chain of causes from the demand and supply sides and profit has been the first leading indicator to signal a sluggish US economy. The recent economic slowdown began in the third quarter of 2015 but it did not start suddenly. It was a result of cumulating tensions built up in the expansion after the recession of 2007-2009.

  11. Dimorphism in La{sub 5}Ge{sub 3} and Ce{sub 5}Ge{sub 3}? How exploratory syntheses led to surprising new finds in the La-Ge and Ce-Ge binary phase diagrams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suen, Nian-Tzu; Bobev, Svilen [Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, University of Delaware, Newark, DE (United States)

    2014-04-15

    Reported are the synthesis, the crystal structures, and the electronic structures of two new tetragonal phases, La{sub 5}Ge{sub 3} and Ce{sub 5}Ge{sub 3}. Both title compounds crystallize in the Pu{sub 5}Rh{sub 3} (P4/ncc) structure type, which has close structural relationship with the W{sub 5}Si{sub 3} (I4/mcm) structure type. The synthetic results, supported by thermal analysis suggest that this tetragonal phase is only stable at relatively low temperature and it transforms to the hexagonal form (Mn{sub 5}Si{sub 3} structure type, P6{sub 3}/mcm) at above 850 C. The structural relationship between La{sub 5}Ge{sub 3} (Pu{sub 5}Rh{sub 3} type) and La{sub 5}Sn{sub 3} (W{sub 5}Si{sub 3} type) is discussed as well. Temperature dependent DC magnetization and resistivity measurements indicate that the tetragonal phase La{sub 5}Ge{sub 3} exhibits Pauli-like paramagnetism and is a good metallic conductor. For the tetragonal phase Ce{sub 5}Ge{sub 3}, the magnetic behavior obeys the Curie-Weiss law in the high-temperature regime, while it deviates from the Curie-Weiss law at low temperature. No long-range magnetic ordering was observed down to 5 K, although short-range correlations can be inferred below ca. 50 K. The resistivity measurements of Ce{sub 5}Ge{sub 3} also show metallic-like temperature dependence, although the low-temperature behavior resembling a T{sup 2} law could signify anomalous electron-scattering (e.g., Kondo-like effect). The electronic structures of multiple phases with the same nominal compositions, computed by the TB-LMTO-ASA method, are compared and discussed. (Copyright copyright 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  12. Contribuição da reabilitação vestibular na melhora do zumbido: um resultado inesperado Contribution of vestibular rehabilitation in tinnitus recovery: a surprising result

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keila A. B. Knobel

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUÇÃO: A tontura e o zumbido são sintomas comuns na prática clínica que podem ocorrer simultânea ou independentemente. Ambos podem ter etiologia indefinida ou múltipla, ser agravados por fatores emocionais e limitar as atividades rotineiras do indivíduo. OBJETIVO: avaliar os resultados da reabilitação vestibular (RV enfocando a melhora dos acúfenos. FORMA DE ESTUDO: Coorte longitudinal. MÉTODO: após a observação clínica da melhora (não intencional do zumbido com a RV realizamos o levantamento dos prontuários dos pacientes submetidos à terapia. RESULTADOS: Após a RV 100% dos sujeitos relataram melhora da tontura, 58% tiveram redução do zumbido e 75% relataram melhora da hipersensibilidade auditiva. A comparação da diferença entre os valores pós e pré-tratamento dos índices da escala análogo visual (0 a 5 de cada paciente evidenciou melhora da tontura (2,42, do zumbido (1,17 e da hipersensibilidade auditiva (1,00. CONCLUSÕES: A RV pode interferir positivamente no zumbido em alguns casos. Tais resultados abrem discussões a respeito das correlações e interferências entre os dois sintomas.INTRODUCTION: Dizziness and tinnitus are common symptoms on clinical practice that can occur simultaneous or independently. Both can have multiple or unknown etiology, and can be worsen by emotional factors and limit day-by-day activities. AIM: evaluate the results of vestibular rehabilitation (VR focusing on tinnitus recovery. STUDY DESIGN: Longitudinal cohorte. METHOD: after the clinical observation of the non-intentional tinnitus recovery with the VR we studied the patients' files with dizziness and tinnitus that underwent the therapy. RESULTS: After VR 100% of the subjects recovered from dizziness, 58% had tinnitus reduction and 75% had reduction on hypersensitivity to sound. The comparison of the difference between post and pre treatment values of the analog visual scale (0 a 5 of each patient showed the following: 2,42 for dizziness 1,17 for tinnitus and 1,00 for hypersensitivity to sound. CONCLUSION: The VR may have a positive interference on tinnitus.

  13. Photodissociation Spectroscopy of Cold Protonated Synephrine: Surprising Differences between IR-UV Hole-Burning and IR Photodissociation Spectroscopy of the O-H and N-H Modes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nieuwjaer, N; Desfrançois, C; Lecomte, F; Manil, B; Soorkia, S; Broquier, M; Grégoire, G

    2018-04-19

    We report the UV and IR photofragmentation spectroscopies of protonated synephrine in a cryogenically cooled Paul trap. Single (UV or IR) and double (UV-UV and IR-UV) resonance spectroscopies have been performed and compared to quantum chemistry calculations, allowing the assignment of the lowest-energy conformer with two rotamers depending on the orientation of the phenol hydroxyl (OH) group. The IR-UV hole burning spectrum exhibits the four expected vibrational modes in the 3 μm region, i.e., the phenol OH, C β -OH, and two NH 2 + stretches. The striking difference is that, among these modes, only the free phenol OH mode is active through IRPD. The protonated amino group acts as a proton donor in the internal hydrogen bond and displays large frequency shifts upon isomerization expected during the multiphoton absorption process, leading to the so-called IRMPD transparency. More interestingly, while the C β -OH is a proton acceptor group with moderate frequency shift for the different conformations, this mode is still inactive through IRPD.

  14. A Surprise Out of Zion? Case Studies in Israel’s Decisions on Whether to Alert the United States to Preemptive and Preventive Strikes, from Suez to the Syrian Nuclear Reactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    Israelis had their own great-power patrons in 1956 and chose not to also ask Washington’s blessing—which, of course, would have probably risked the...1956. But future Israeli policymakers would conclude that their great-power patron of choice lay not across the Mediterranean, but across the Atlantic...Osiraq, and he believes that Reagan’s anger cooled fairly shortly after seeing the cable and grasping the background. At a press conference on June

  15. The Eric Cantor Upset

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ashbee, Edward

    2014-01-01

    US update. The surprise primary defat of Eric Cantor, which shows that the Tea Party is still in business......US update. The surprise primary defat of Eric Cantor, which shows that the Tea Party is still in business...

  16. Financial market implications of monetary policy coincidences: Evidence from the UK and Euro Area government-bond markets

    OpenAIRE

    Arestis, Philip; Phelps, P

    2017-01-01

    Relatively little is known about the financial market impact of international monetary surprises arising on the same trading day. This paper estimates a suite of multi-security factor models, which captures international monetary surprise effects on UK and Euro Area government-bond markets over the period 1999–2014. In doing so, we shed light on the relative importance of coinciding, non-coinciding monetary surprises and non-monetary surprises across the yield curve. We find some support for ...

  17. Systematic Procedural Error

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Byrne, Michael D

    2006-01-01

    .... This problem has received surprisingly little attention from cognitive psychologists. The research summarized here examines such errors in some detail both empirically and through computational cognitive modeling...

  18. Searching for the productivity slowdown

    OpenAIRE

    Steiner, Viktor

    1990-01-01

    Searching for the productivity slowdown : some surprising findings from West- German manufacturing / by Gebhard Flaig and Viktor Steiner. - Augsburg, 1990. - 29 S. - (Volkswirtschaftliche Diskussionsreihe ; 45)

  19. Evaluating musical instruments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Campbell, D. Murray

    2014-01-01

    Scientific measurements of sound generation and radiation by musical instruments are surprisingly hard to correlate with the subtle and complex judgments of instrumental quality made by expert musicians

  20. Anatomy of a Rescue: What Makes Hostage Rescue Operations Successful?

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Perez, Carlos

    2004-01-01

    ...: surprise, intelligence, operator's skill, and deception. These principles are derived from planning models used in special operations, personal experience, and an analysis of six historical case studies...

  1. 76 FR 72389 - Marine Mammals; File No. 16479

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-23

    ... Pacific Whale Foundation [Responsible Party: Gregory Kaufman; Principal Investigator: Daniela Maldini... humpback whales, and define the probability of 'surprise encounters' with humpback whales in relation to...

  2. Scaring Them into Learning!? Using a Snake Screen to Enhance the Knowledge Transfer Effectiveness of a Web Interface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kock, Ned; Chatelain-Jardón, Ruth; Carmona, Jesus

    2009-01-01

    It seems that surprise events have the potential to turn short-term memories into long-term memories, an unusual phenomenon that may have limited but interesting applications in learning tasks. This surprise-enhanced cognition phenomenon is theoretically modeled based on the notion that many human mental traits have evolved through natural…

  3. Fostering resilience through changing realities. Introduction to operational resilience capabilities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zuiderwijk, D.; Vorm, J. van der; Beek, F.A. van der; Veldhuis, G.J.

    2016-01-01

    The reality of operations does not always follow the book. Operational circumstances may develop into surprising situations that procedures have not accounted for. Still, we make things work. Resilient performance recognizes surprise early and acts upon it through adaptation, which is critical for

  4. The Logic of Animal Conflict

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    It is not surprising that ani- mals are often in conflict because they compete for limited resources. What is surprising however is that such conflict is often re- solved by a trial of strength, followed by the weaker ani- mal surrendering resources to the stronger rival, with- out an injurious fight until. A sparring match between male ...

  5. The Military Assistance Command-Vietnam Studies and Observations Group-A Case Study in Special Operations Campaigning

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-10

    realistically rehearsed , and executed with surprise, speed and purpose.”13 McRaven’s 11 William H...objective of special operations rather than the techniques used. For SOF to continue to achieve operational surprise, and to innovate in a constantly ...achieve success in 91 Peterson, 4-5. 49 an ever changing environment, they will need to constantly

  6. Glioma spheroids obtained via ultrasonic aspiration are viable and express stem cell markers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Stine Skov; Aaberg-Jessen, Charlotte; Andersen, Claus

    2013-01-01

    Ultrasonic aspirators allow safe, rapid, and accurate removal of brain tumors. However, the tissue fragments removed are used surprisingly little in research.......Ultrasonic aspirators allow safe, rapid, and accurate removal of brain tumors. However, the tissue fragments removed are used surprisingly little in research....

  7. 76 FR 30906 - Foreign-Trade Zone 277-Western Maricopa County, AZ; Application for Reorganization Under...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-27

    ... complex, Bullard Avenue and Van Buren Street, Goodyear; Site 2 (133 acres)--within the 286-acre Surprise Pointe Business Park, Waddell Road and Litchfield Road, Surprise; Site 3 (235 acres)--within the 1,600... comment is invited from interested parties. Submissions (original and 3 copies) shall be addressed to the...

  8. Yachting club

    CERN Multimedia

    Yachting club

    2010-01-01

    "New SU" doing very nicely! It seems to me what we most urgently need is a proper name for the "New SU". For a boat that is currently ranking a vey respectable 21st out of 35 in the Swiss Sailing Championships for Surprise, "New Surprise" is not sufficient identification! Check out http://www.cnpully.ch/uploads/media/cs_surprise_s.htm. All congratulations to Thierry and his crew, some old members (we speak chronologically), some newer, one completely new this year.   SUI 702    NEW SURPRISE   BOILEAU Thierry KLUDAS Jana (F1980) DELA ROCHEFORDIERE Antoine (M1957) PROKOFIEV Kirill (M1978) SWOBODA Detlef (M1948)   Still on the subject of the new Surprise, if you have not seen our webpage blog,...

  9. Working memory representations persist in the face of unexpected task alterations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swan, Garrett; Wyble, Brad; Chen, Hui

    2017-07-01

    It is well known that information can be held in memory while performing other tasks concurrently, such as remembering a color or number during a separate visual search task. However, it is not clear what happens to stored information in the face of unexpected tasks, such as the surprise questions that are often used in experiments related to inattentional and change blindness. Does the unpredicted shift in task context cause memory representations to be cleared in anticipation of new information? To answer this question, we ran two experiments where the task unexpectedly switched partway through the experiment with a surprise question. Half of the participants were asked to report the same attribute (Exp. 1 = Identity, Exp. 2 = Color) of a target stimulus in both presurprise and postsurprise trials, while for the other half, the reported attribute switched from identity to color (Exp. 1) or vice versa (Exp. 2). Importantly, all participants had to read an unexpected set of instructions and respond differently on the surprise trial. Accuracy on the surprise trial was higher for the same-attribute groups than the different-attribute groups. Furthermore, there was no difference in reaction time on the surprise trial between the two groups. These results suggest that information participants expected to report can survive an encounter with an unexpected task. The implication is that failures to report information on a surprise trial in many experiments reflect genuine differences in memory encoding, rather than forgetting or overwriting induced by the surprise question.

  10. Non-intuitive fluid dynamics from reactor and containment technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moody, F.J.

    1986-01-01

    One exciting aspect of fluid dynamics is that the subject has many surprises. The surprises can be good, but if not anticipated, they sometimes can be costly and embarrassing. Several non-intuitive fluid responses have emerged from studies in nuclear reactor and containment design. These responses include bubble behavior, blowdown, and waterhammer phenomena. Apologies are extended to those who are not surprised by the results. However, many will find the examples interesting; some have been amazed; a few have declared a personal crisis in their engineering perception

  11. Modern Nondestructive Test Methods for Army Ceramic Matrix Composites

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Strand, Douglas J

    2008-01-01

    .... Ceramic matrix composites (CMC) are potentially good high-temperature structural materials because of their low density, high elastic moduli, high strength, and for those with weak interfaces, surprisingly good damage tolerance...

  12. The Cost of Failure: An Empirical Look at the Financial Effect of Business Failure on the Self-Employed

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Harting, Troy R

    2005-01-01

    ... demographically comparable families who have not experienced entrepreneurial failure. Surprisingly, business failure is associated with slightly higher wealth at closure, with the resulting failure bonus dissipating in five years or less...

  13. Living with COPD: Nutrition

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Diseases > Lung Disease Lookup > COPD > Living With COPD Nutrition and COPD Most people are surprised to learn ... asking your doctor or visiting the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics at EatRight.org . Be sure to ...

  14. Male aggression and mating opportunity in a poeciliid fish ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Male aggression and mating opportunity in a poeciliid fish. ... the strength of which can be assessed using repeatability of aggressive behaviour. ... A surprising finding highlighted by this study was the contradictory results for consistency in ...

  15. Determination of the Crystal Structure of Human Zn-Alpha 2-Gylcoprotein, A Protein Implicated in Breast Cancer

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bjorkman, Pamela

    2000-01-01

    Zn-alpha 2-glycoprotein (ZAG) is a 41 kDa soluble protein whose sequence and domain organization are surprisingly similar to those of the membrane glycoproteins of the major histocompatibility complex (MHC...

  16. Anxious ultimatums: How anxiety disorders affect socioeconomic behaviour

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grecucci, A.; Giorgetta, C.; Brambilla, P.; Zuanon, S.; Perini, L; Balestrieri, M.; Bonini, N.; Sanfey, A.G.

    2013-01-01

    Although the role of emotion in socioeconomic decision making is increasingly recognised, the impact of specific emotional disorders, such as anxiety disorders, on these decisions has been surprisingly neglected. Twenty anxious patients and twenty matched controls completed a commonly used

  17. Test Your Sodium Smarts

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... You may be surprised to learn how much sodium is in many foods. Sodium, including sodium chloride ... foods with little or no salt. Test your sodium smarts by answering these 10 questions about which ...

  18. Risk factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robbins, Catherine J; Connors, K C; Sheehan, Timothy J; Vaughan, James S

    2005-06-01

    Minimize surprises on your financial statement by adopting a model for integrated risk management that: Examines interrelationships among operations, investments, and financing. Incorporates concepts of the capital asset pricing model to manage unexpected volatility

  19. The case of farmers and cattle graziers in the northwest region

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    economic significance of land, it is not surprising that social or ethnic conflicts over land are .... Most socio-economic activities in Cameroon hinge on farming activities. ..... Cambridge,. Harvard University Press. .... London, Zed Books. Yanou ...

  20. Know Stroke: Know the Signs, Act in Time Video

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... despite high blood pressure, diabetes and a family history, her stroke came as a surprise. Sylvia Saxon: " ... sickle cell disease, high cholesterol, or a family history of stroke. Dr. Galen Henderson, Harvard Medical School, ...

  1. Less is More: Lightweight Ontologies and User Interfaces for Smart Labs

    OpenAIRE

    Frey, J.G.; Hughes, G.V.; Mill, H.R.; schraefel, mc; Smith, G.M.; De Roure, D.

    2004-01-01

    The Smart Tea project to date has focused on the issues and surprises of using a human-centred design and development approach from the front end interaction design to the back end systems architecture.

  2. Discovery and Characterization of Novel Signatures from the Ricinus communis L. (Castor Bean) Genome

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    O'Connell, Kevin P; Skowronski, Evan W; Dretchen, Kenneth L; Leshin, Jonathan A; Weeks, Andrea

    2006-01-01

    Given the infamous toxicity of ricin and the industrial usefulness of castor oil, there is a surprising lack of information about the genetic diversity of the species that produces both, the castor bean plant (Ricinus communis L...

  3. the role of force in state formation: a comparative analysis

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    plt

    monopoly of arms” are the three advantages which the armed forces have over ... military organisation depends rather heavily on intelligence, surprise and adequate information for effective ..... In other words, an artificial separation of 47 years ...

  4. Slide:ology: the art and science of creating great presentations

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Duarte, Nancy

    2008-01-01

    ... take off. But much to our surprise it did. Up to this point business presentations were delivered in 35mm format and created by specialized professional designers. Presentation software was developed in...

  5. Constructive heuristics for the residential waste collection problem

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Willemse, EJ

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The Residential Waste Collection Problem (RWCP) is a realistic extension of the classical Capacitated Arc Routing Problem (CARP), with application in municipal waste collection. Surprisingly, the problem with its extensions have not been solved...

  6. Lamps, Factorizations and Finite Fields

    OpenAIRE

    Bartholdi, Laurent

    1999-01-01

    I answer a question from the 1993 International Mathematical Olympiads by constructing an equivalent algebraic problem, and unearth a surprising behaviour of some polynomials over the two-element field.

  7. Spatial solitons in nonlinear liquid waveguides

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    As concerns the creation of self-trapped filaments we observe that the critical power in .... small dip appears in the center of the laser line (figure 11). ..... Observations of spectral properties of the two components TE, TM reserve surprising.

  8. Constitutive Curve and Velocity Profile in Entangled Polymers during Start-Up of Steady Shear Flow

    KAUST Repository

    Hayes, Keesha A.; Buckley, Mark R.; Qi, Haibo; Cohen, Itai; Archer, Lynden A.

    2010-01-01

    -4]. Surprisingly, we find that even polymer systems which exhibit transient, nonmonotonic shear stress-shear rate relationships in bulk rheology experiments manifest time-dependent velocity profiles that are decidedly linear and show no evidence of unstable flow

  9. Search Results | Page 24 | IDRC - International Development ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Results 231 - 240 of 869 ... Regional patterns and controls of ecosystem salinization with grassland ... Water subsidies from mountains to deserts : their role in sustaining ... biotech firms in developing countries reveals a surprisingly high level of ...

  10. Complexation-Induced Phase Separation: Preparation of Metal-Rich Polymeric Membranes

    KAUST Repository

    Villalobos, Luis Francisco

    2017-01-01

    The majority of state-of-the-art polymeric membranes for industrial or medical applications are fabricated by phase inversion. Complexation induced phase separation (CIPS)—a surprising variation of this well-known process—allows direct fabrication

  11. Can North Korean Airborne Special Purpose Forces Successfully Conduct Military Operations Against the United States and South Korea?

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Allmond, Samuel

    2003-01-01

    ...; and secondly by producing the world's largest SPF. North Korea (NK) has built the world's largest SPF in the world with more than 100,000 men to support surprise attacks to disrupt CFC combat buildup and operations...

  12. When the plant is taking shape

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meyer, J.P.

    2006-01-01

    Solar thermal facades can be used for extraordinary architectural designs. Results of intensive investigations are now available, which show how well vertical solar plants function. Surprisingly even the north side of a house can be covered with solar collectors. (orig.)

  13. Voice and silence in an autoethnography about chronic illness

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Kate H

    a lecture by Lori Hartwell, a transplant recipient from America. When she told us of her .... surprises of Photovoice and film in a study of chronic illness. International ... Considering the violence of voicelessness: Censorship and self- censorship ...

  14. Eliciting Subjective Probability Distributions with Binary Lotteries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harrison, Glenn W.; Martínez-Correa, Jimmy; Swarthout, J. Todd

    2015-01-01

    We test in a laboratory experiment the theoretical prediction that risk attitudes have a surprisingly small role in distorting reports from true belief distributions. We find evidence consistent with theory in our experiment....

  15. Assembly of vorticity-aligned hard-sphere colloidal strings in a simple shear flow

    KAUST Repository

    Cheng, X.; Xu, X.; Rice, S. A.; Dinner, A. R.; Cohen, I.

    2011-01-01

    under shear, there are conflicting predictions about whether particles link up into string-like structures along the shear flow direction. Here, using confocal microscopy, we measure the shear-induced suspension structure. Surprisingly, rather than flow

  16. Kosovo: The Quest for Lasting Internal Security

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sullivan, Dennis

    2001-01-01

    .... Given the legacy of violence in the region, it is not surprising that the situation in Kosovo is still far from settled and will most likely require long-term engagement from the international community...

  17. Staff gossip tells managers what's really going on.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-10-19

    'Gossip helps keep patients safe and organisations healthy, study claims' was the headline in our most popular online story of the past week. Perhaps it's no surprise that an item on gossiping got our readers talking.

  18. FUNCTIONAL ANATOMY OF THE FEEDING APPARATUS OF ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    in body size and jaw force are thought to reduce competition for food between ...... through the water and prey is taken by surprise or actively pursued (Van ..... differences in limb and axial anatomy probably exist among the four South African.

  19. Impact of Neutrino Oscillation Measurements on Theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murayama, Hitoshi

    2003-01-01

    Neutrino oscillation data had been a big surprise to theorists, and indeed they have ongoing impact on theory. I review what the impact has been, and what measurements will have critical impact on theory in the future.

  20. Dynamic Modelling of The Series Resonant Converter Operating in Discontinous Conduction Mode And its Application in Space

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soto A.

    2017-01-01

    This paper presents a method to obtain the theoretical dynamic model of the SRFB-DCM with fixed frequency and duty cycle which seems easier to understand but surprisingly not treated in literature. Results are contrasted with simulations.

  1. Two Genes Encoding Uracil Phosphoribosyltransferase Are Present in Bacillus subtilis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martinussen, Jan; Glaser, Philippe; Andersen, Paal S.

    1995-01-01

    Uracil phosphoribosyltransferase (UPRTase) catalyzes the key reaction in the salvage of uracil in many microorganisms. Surprisingly, two genes encoding UPRTase activity were cloned from Bacillus subtilis by complementation of an Escherichia coli mutant. The genes were sequenced, and the putative...

  2. Emotion perception after moderate-severe traumatic brain injury: The valence effect and the role of working memory, processing speed, and nonverbal reasoning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rosenberg, H.; Dethier, M.; Kessels, R.P.C.; Westbrook, R.F.; McDonald, S.

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Traumatic brain injury (TBI) impairs emotion perception. Perception of negative emotions (sadness, disgust, fear, and anger) is reportedly affected more than positive (happiness and surprise) ones. It has been argued that this reflects a specialized neural network underpinning negative

  3. Emotion perception after moderate–severe traumatic brain injury: The valence effect and the role of working memory, processing speed, and nonverbal reasoning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rosenberg, H.; Dethier, M.; Kessels, R.P.C.; Westbrook, R.F.; McDonald, S.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Traumatic brain injury (TBI) impairs emotion perception. Perception of negative emotions (sadness, disgust, fear, and anger) is reportedly affected more than positive (happiness and surprise) ones. It has been argued that this reflects a specialized neural network underpinning negative

  4. Diminishing Role of Accounting Information for Investment Decisions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ladislav Tyll

    2014-12-01

    some cases even stopped completely. Surprisingly, the association between stock price and change in book value plus earnings has been found to be significantly improving. This trend should be subjected to further analysis.

  5. Know Stroke: Know the Signs, Act in Time Video

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... voice]: "I'm calling 911." Announcer: An alert family member or bystander can be a real hero. [ ... example, despite high blood pressure, diabetes and a family history, her stroke came as a surprise. Sylvia ...

  6. A New (?) Physiological Effect in a Demonstration Experiment in Geometrical Optics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganci, S.

    2018-01-01

    A surprising phenomenology from a traditional demonstration experiment in Geometrical Optics reveals here an interesting matter of discussion and analysis. Hence, the main focus of this paper is to observe and discuss such an innovative phenomenology.

  7. How to use the Fast Fourier Transform in Large Finite Fields

    OpenAIRE

    Petersen, Petur Birgir

    2011-01-01

    The article contents suggestions on how to perform the Fast Fourier Transform over Large Finite Fields. The technique is to use the fact that the multiplicative groups of specific prime fields are surprisingly composite.

  8. Coevolution of economic behaviour and instituions: towards a theory of institutional change.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Bergh, J.C.J.M.; Stagl, S.

    2003-01-01

    Traditionally, economics has regarded institutions, notably norms and regulations, as fixed or exogenous. Surprisingly few insights on institutional evolution from natural and social sciences have made their way into economics. This article gives an overview of evolutionary theories of institutions

  9. Coevolution of economic behaviour and institutions: towards a theory of institutional change

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Bergh, J.C.J.M.

    2003-01-01

    Traditionally, economics has regarded institutions, notably norms and regulations, as fixed or exogenous. Surprisingly few insights on institutional evolution from natural and social sciences have made their way into economics. This article gives an overview of evolutionary theories of institutions

  10. Pruning the vocabulary for better context recognition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Rasmus Elsborg; Sigurdsson, Sigurdur; Hansen, Lars Kai

    2004-01-01

    Language independent 'bag-of-words' representations are surprisingly effective for text classification. The representation is high dimensional though, containing many inconsistent words for text categorization. These inconsistent words result in reduced generalization performance of subsequent cl...

  11. DNA is a co-factor for its own replication in Xenopus egg extracts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lebofsky, Ronald; van Oijen, Antoine M.; Walter, Johannes C.

    Soluble Xenopus egg extracts efficiently replicate added plasmids using a physiological mechanism, and thus represent a powerful system to understand vertebrate DNA replication. Surprisingly, DNA replication in this system is highly sensitive to plasmid concentration, being undetectable below

  12. Fulltext PDF

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    MADU

    (2006) advances the surprising possibility that proteins from Leishmania may in fact be ... is associated with point mutations in human mitochondrial DNA at positions 8344 ... difficulties – for example, low efficiency and toxicity caused by the ...

  13. Status of a seagrass ecosystem: An ecologically sensitive wetland habitat from India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Jagtap, T.G.; Komarpant, D.S.; Rodrigues, R.S.

    , and management points of views. In spite of being one of the predominant marine macrophytic floras, surprisingly, seagrasses have not been introduced in plant science studies, even at the university level. Unawareness regarding the functions of seagrasses...

  14. The semantics of secrecy: young children's classification of secret content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anagnostaki, Lida; Wright, Michael J; Bourchier-Sutton, Alison J

    2010-01-01

    The authors explored whether young children can distinguish potential secrets from nonsecrets by their content, as can older children, adolescents, and adults. Ninety children, 4, 5, and 6 years old, rated the secrecy of items from an adult-validated list of personal information about an age- and gender-appropriate puppet. Two factors of the children's data corresponded to the adult categories of nonsecrets and secrets, and a third factor corresponded to surprises. All ages rated surprises as significantly more secret than nonsecret items; however, the surprise items contained linguistic cues to secrecy. A tendency to rate nonsecrets as secret decreased with age, but only the 6-year-olds rated secrets other than surprises as significantly more secret than nonsecrets. Thus, children acquire the implicit rules defining secret content from a somewhat later age than that reported for the cognitive or behavioral capacities for secrecy.

  15. The changing role of the hospital chief financial officer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freitag, T R; Freitag, W

    1980-01-01

    Things are changing. That statement is obviously true of things political, economic and scientific. Not surprisingly, therefore, the statement applies to the activities, responsibilities, qualifications and, ultimately, status of the hospital chief financial officer (CFO).

  16. Optimizing graph algorithms on pregel-like systems

    KAUST Repository

    Salihoglu, Semih; Widom, Jennifer

    2014-01-01

    We study the problem of implementing graph algorithms efficiently on Pregel-like systems, which can be surprisingly challenging. Standard graph algorithms in this setting can incur unnecessary inefficiencies such as slow convergence or high

  17. COMPARISON OF ACCEPTOR PROPERTIES FOR INTERACTION ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Preferred Customer

    determined by UV-Vis titration method for the adducts. Surprisingly, the ... Interaction of. TCNE and DDQ as π-acceptors with hydrocarbon donors such as cycloalkanes, alkenes, ... obtained from a Shimadzu GC-MS model QP5050 instrument.

  18. Emotion regulation choice : A conceptual framework and supporting evidence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sheppes, Gal; Scheibe, Susanne; Suri, Gaurav; Radu, Peter; Blechert, Jens; Gross, James J.

    Choice behavior is considered the fundamental means by which individuals exert control over their environments. One important choice domain that remains virtually unexplored is that of emotion regulation. This is surprising given that healthy adaptation requires flexibly choosing between regulation

  19. Optimization of anti-infective dosing regimens during online haemodiafiltration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jager, Nynke G. L.; Zandvliet, Anthe S.; Touw, Daniel J.; Penne, Erik L.

    2017-01-01

    Online haemodiafiltration (HDF) is increasingly used in clinical practice as a routine intermittent dialysis modality. It is well known that renal impairment and renal replacement therapy can substantially affect the pharmacokinetic behaviour of several drugs. However, surprisingly few data are

  20. Optimization of anti-infective dosing regimens during online haemodiafiltration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jager, Nynke G L; Zandvliet, Anthe S; Touw, Daniel J; Penne, Erik L

    Online haemodiafiltration (HDF) is increasingly used in clinical practice as a routine intermittent dialysis modality. It is well known that renal impairment and renal replacement therapy can substantially affect the pharmacokinetic behaviour of several drugs. However, surprisingly few data are

  1. Byblos Speech Recognition Benchmark Results

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kubala, F; Austin, S; Barry, C; Makhoul, J; Placeway, P; Schwartz, R

    1991-01-01

    .... Surprisingly, the 12-speaker model performs as well as the one made from 109 speakers. Also within the RM domain, we demonstrate that state-of-the-art SI models perform poorly for speakers with strong dialects...

  2. Evolution of Plant Growth and Defense in a Continental Introduction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Agrawal, A.A.; Hastings, A.P.; Bradburd, G.S.; Woods, E.C.; Züst, T.; Harvey, J.A.; Bukovinszky, T.

    2015-01-01

    Substantial research has addressed adaptation of nonnative biota to novel environments, yet surprisingly little work has integrated population genetic structure and the mechanisms underlying phenotypic differentiation in ecologically important traits. We report on studies of the common milkweed

  3. Evolution of plant growth and defense in a continental introduction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Agrawal, A.A.; Hastings, A.P.; Bradburd, G.S.; Woods, E.C.; Züst, T.; Harvey, J.A.; Bukovinszki, T.

    2015-01-01

    Substantial research has addressed adaptation of nonnative biota to novel environments, yet surprisingly little work has integrated population genetic structure and the mechanisms underlying phenotypic differentiation in ecologically important traits. We report on studies of the common milkweed

  4. Evolution of Plant Growth and Defense in a Continental Introduction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Agrawal, Anurag A.; Hastings, Amy P.; Bradburd, Gideon S.; Woods, Ellen C.; Züst, Tobias; Harvey, Jeffrey A.; Bukovinszky, Tibor

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Substantial research has addressed adaptation of nonnative biota to novel environments, yet surprisingly little work has integrated population genetic structure and the mechanisms underlying phenotypic differentiation in ecologically important traits. We report on studies of the common

  5. RECURRENT CONVULSIONS IN CAPE TOWN CHILDREN*

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1970-11-03

    Nov 3, 1970 ... Child Health, Medical School, University of Cape Town studied and the .... Sex Distribution (Table III) ... family history in children with brain damage is surprisingly high. .... nized that more male infants develop the respiratory.

  6. CALL FOR PROPOSALS

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Charles

    The Institute of Statistical, Social and Economic Research (ISSER) of the University of ... surprisingly little about differences in entrepreneurial practices, business ... methods to address the above questions and to provide solid and credible ...

  7. Climate science: Autopsy of two mega-heatwaves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Erich M.

    2014-05-01

    Record-breaking heatwaves in 2003 and 2010 surprised both the public and experts. Observations provide new insights into how temperatures escalated to unprecedented values through the interaction of boundary-layer dynamics and land surface drying.

  8. Use of Modeling and Simulation (M&S) in Support of Joint Command and Control Experimentation: Naval Simulation System (NSS) Support to Fleet Battle Experiments

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Gagnon, Colleen M; Stevens, William K

    1999-01-01

    .... Despite the high level of visibility that first generation Joint and Service-specific experimentation programs have attracted, surprisingly little attention has been paid to how to best leverage...

  9. Exploring "Extreme" Physics with an Inexpensive Plastic Toy Popper

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lapp, David R.

    2008-01-01

    This article describes an activity that can be performed with an inexpensive plastic toy popper. The activity builds skill at analysing motion and results in the calculation of a surprisingly extreme acceleration. (Contains 1 figure.)

  10. Un anno molto verde e senza fili

    CERN Document Server

    2008-01-01

    The review American "Popular Science" gives the directory of the surprises who reserves us 2008: Biocarburants and electronic paper to save computer and cellular phone that won't owe to be reloaded anymore

  11. Development of Millimeter Imaging Technologies

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — One of the most important physical discoveries, and largest surprises, over the past decade has been the discovery of the mysterious, so-called dark energy. This...

  12. conference report thai me up, thai me down — the xv ias conference ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2004-08-01

    Aug 1, 2004 ... makers, network with collaborators, sample the local Asian cuisine, and try to ... Bangkok is hot, bustling and polluted, with traffic from hell; it's also fun, ..... for us were the surprisingly large number of 'data-empty' presentations,.

  13. On the number of vertices of each rank in phylogenetic trees and their generalizations

    OpenAIRE

    Bóna, Miklós

    2015-01-01

    We find surprisingly simple formulas for the limiting probability that the rank of a randomly selected vertex in a randomly selected phylogenetic tree or generalized phylogenetic tree is a given integer.

  14. Supply chain partnership within housing renovation : Approaches and expectations in the Dutch housing association sector

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gruis, V.H.; Roders, M.J.; Straub, A.

    2011-01-01

    Supply chain partnerships within housing refurbishment have not been given much specific attention which may be found surprising because the refurbishment market is becoming of increasing importance compared to new construction and has specific characteristics that require adapted approaches to

  15. Phylogeny of rock-inhabiting fungi related to Dothideomycetes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ruibal, C.; Gueidan, C.; Selbmann, L.; Gorbushina, A.A.; Crous, P.W.; Groenewald, J.Z.; Muggia, L.; Grube, M.; Isola, D.; Schoch, C.L.; Staley, J.T.; Lutzoni, F.; Hoog, de G.S.

    2009-01-01

    The class Dothideomycetes (along with Eurotiomycetes) includes numerous rock-inhabiting fungi (RIF), a group of ascomycetes that tolerates surprisingly well harsh conditions prevailing on rock surfaces. Despite their convergent morphology and physiology, RIF are phylogenetically highly diverse in

  16. Fulltext PDF

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Madhu

    We humans seem to have an insatiable curiosity about our origins. Surprisingly .... The genetic data are only one element in our complete understanding of the complex peopling of India. Geneticists ... The Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute,.

  17. The Vascular Biology of Atherosclerosis

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Carter, R; Jones, H. P

    2006-01-01

    .... Despite this fact, most individuals are asymptomatic until many decades later. Autopsy studies of coronary arteries from healthy, young American soldiers killed during the Korean conflict revealed surprisingly advanced atherosclerotic lesions...

  18. The Roles of Scene Characteristics, Memory and Attentional Breadth on the Representation of Complex Real-World Scenes

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Pringle, Heather

    2000-01-01

    .... Unfortunately, when change in the environment coincides with an interruption to the ongoing visual processing, observers are surprisingly slow to detect the change, if at all, The factors that play...

  19. Petrology of tectonically segmented Central Indian Ridge

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Mukhopadhyay, R.; Iyer, S.D.

    , and associated stress regime. To understand such phenomena along an extremely low magmatic budget spreading axis, rock samples from nine sites were examined. Rocks at these sites differ markedly in mineralogical composition and texture, but, surprisingly...

  20. Military Deception Reconsidered

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Martin, Charmaine L

    2008-01-01

    ...: focus, integration, timeliness, security, objective, and centralized control. However, I propose that operational advantage, consisting of surprise, information advantage and security, are essential elements of a successful military deception...