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Sample records for neovascular ocular diseases

  1. Broad spectrum antiangiogenic treatment for ocular neovascular diseases.

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    Ofra Benny

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Pathological neovascularization is a hallmark of late stage neovascular (wet age-related macular degeneration (AMD and the leading cause of blindness in people over the age of 50 in the western world. The treatments focus on suppression of choroidal neovascularization (CNV, while current approved therapies are limited to inhibiting vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF exclusively. However, this treatment does not address the underlying cause of AMD, and the loss of VEGF's neuroprotective can be a potential side effect. Therapy which targets the key processes in AMD, the pathological neovascularization, vessel leakage and inflammation could bring a major shift in the approach to disease treatment and prevention. In this study we have demonstrated the efficacy of such broad spectrum antiangiogenic therapy on mouse model of AMD.Lodamin, a polymeric formulation of TNP-470, is a potent broad-spectrum antiangiogenic drug. Lodamin significantly reduced key processes involved in AMD progression as demonstrated in mice and rats. Its suppressive effects on angiogenesis, vascular leakage and inflammation were studied in a wide array of assays including; a Matrigel, delayed-type hypersensitivity (DTH, Miles assay, laser-induced CNV and corneal micropocket assay. Lodamin significantly suppressed the secretion of various pro-inflammatory cytokines in the CNV lesion including monocyte chemotactic protein-1 (MCP-1/Ccl2. Importantly, Lodamin was found to regress established CNV lesions, unlike soluble fms-like tyrosine kinase-1 (sFlk-1. The drug was found to be safe in mice and have little toxicity as demonstrated by electroretinography (ERG assessing retinal and by histology.Lodamin, a polymer formulation of TNP-470, was identified as a first in its class, broad-spectrum antiangiogenic drug that can be administered orally or locally to treat corneal and retinal neovascularization. Several unique properties make Lodamin especially beneficial for ophthalmic

  2. Placental growth factor and its potential role in diabetic retinopathy and other ocular neovascular diseases.

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    Nguyen, Quan Dong; De Falco, Sandro; Behar-Cohen, Francine; Lam, Wai-Ching; Li, Xuri; Reichhart, Nadine; Ricci, Federico; Pluim, Jennifer; Li, William W

    2018-02-01

    The role of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), including in retinal vascular diseases, has been well studied, and pharmacological blockade of VEGF is the gold standard of treatment for neovascular age-related macular degeneration, retinal vein occlusion and diabetic macular oedema. Placental growth factor (PGF, previously known as PlGF), a homologue of VEGF, is a multifunctional peptide associated with angiogenesis-dependent pathologies in the eye and non-ocular conditions. Animal studies using genetic modification and pharmacological treatment have demonstrated a mechanistic role for PGF in pathological angiogenesis. Inhibition decreases neovascularization and microvascular abnormalities across different models, including oxygen-induced retinopathy, laser-induced choroidal neovascularization and in diabetic mice exhibiting retinopathies. High levels of PGF have been found in the vitreous of patients with diabetic retinopathy. Despite these strong animal data, the exact role of PGF in pathological angiogenesis in retinal vascular diseases remains to be defined, and the benefits of PGF-specific inhibition in humans with retinal neovascular diseases and macular oedema remain controversial. Comparative effectiveness research studies in patients with diabetic retinal disease have shown that treatment that inhibits both VEGF and PGF may provide superior outcomes in certain patients compared with treatment that inhibits only VEGF. This review summarizes current knowledge of PGF, including its relationship to VEGF and its role in pathological angiogenesis in retinal diseases, and identifies some key unanswered questions about PGF that can serve as a pathway for future basic, translational and clinical research. © 2016 The Authors. Acta Ophthalmologica published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of Acta Ophthalmologica Scandinavica Foundation and European Association for Vision & Eye Research.

  3. Antiangiogenic immunotherapy targeting Flk-1, DNA vaccine and adoptive T cell transfer, inhibits ocular neovascularization

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    Zhang, Han [Department of Ophthalmology, Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Kyushu University, 3-1-1 Maidashi, Higashi-Ku, Fukuoka 812-8582 (Japan); Sonoda, Koh-Hei, E-mail: sonodak@med.kyushu-u.ac.jp [Department of Ophthalmology, Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Kyushu University, 3-1-1 Maidashi, Higashi-Ku, Fukuoka 812-8582 (Japan); Hijioka, Kuniaki; Qiao, Hong; Oshima, Yuji; Ishibashi, Tatsuro [Department of Ophthalmology, Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Kyushu University, 3-1-1 Maidashi, Higashi-Ku, Fukuoka 812-8582 (Japan)

    2009-04-17

    Ocular neovascularization (NV) is the primary cause of blindness in a wide range of ocular diseases. The exact mechanism underlying the pathogenesis of ocular NV is not yet well understood, and so there is no satisfactory therapy for ocular NV. Here, we describe a strategy targeting Flk-1, a self-antigen overexpressed on proliferating endothelial cells in ocular NV, by antiangiogenic immunotherapy-DNA vaccine and adoptive T cell therapy. An oral DNA vaccine encoding Flk-1 carried by attenuated Salmonella typhimurium markedly suppressed development of laser-induced choroidal NV. We further demonstrated that adoptive transfer of vaccine-induced CD8{sup +} T cells reduced pathological preretinal NV, with a concomitant facilitation of physiological revascularization after oxygen-induced retinal vessel obliteration. However, physiological retinal vascular development was unaffected in neonatal mice transferred with vaccine-induced CD8{sup +} T cells. These findings suggested that antiangiogenic immunotherapy targeting Flk-1 such as vaccination and adoptive immunotherapy may contribute to future therapies for ocular NV.

  4. Antiangiogenic immunotherapy targeting Flk-1, DNA vaccine and adoptive T cell transfer, inhibits ocular neovascularization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Han; Sonoda, Koh-Hei; Hijioka, Kuniaki; Qiao, Hong; Oshima, Yuji; Ishibashi, Tatsuro

    2009-01-01

    Ocular neovascularization (NV) is the primary cause of blindness in a wide range of ocular diseases. The exact mechanism underlying the pathogenesis of ocular NV is not yet well understood, and so there is no satisfactory therapy for ocular NV. Here, we describe a strategy targeting Flk-1, a self-antigen overexpressed on proliferating endothelial cells in ocular NV, by antiangiogenic immunotherapy-DNA vaccine and adoptive T cell therapy. An oral DNA vaccine encoding Flk-1 carried by attenuated Salmonella typhimurium markedly suppressed development of laser-induced choroidal NV. We further demonstrated that adoptive transfer of vaccine-induced CD8 + T cells reduced pathological preretinal NV, with a concomitant facilitation of physiological revascularization after oxygen-induced retinal vessel obliteration. However, physiological retinal vascular development was unaffected in neonatal mice transferred with vaccine-induced CD8 + T cells. These findings suggested that antiangiogenic immunotherapy targeting Flk-1 such as vaccination and adoptive immunotherapy may contribute to future therapies for ocular NV.

  5. Radiation therapy for ocular choroidal neovascularization (phase I/II study): preliminary report

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    Sasai, Keisuke; Murata, Rumi; Mandai, Michiko; Takahashi, Masayo; Ogura, Yuichiro; Ngata, Yasushi; Nishimura, Yasumasa; Hiraoka, Masahiro

    1997-01-01

    Purpose/Objective: Choroidal neovascularization (CNV) is a major cause of severe loss of visual acuity in some ocular diseases such as age-related macular degeneration (ARMD) and angioid streaks. Laser photocoagulation has been used to treat patients with subfoveal neovascular lesions with well-demarcated boundaries. However, the treatment method is usually associated with a large decrease in visual acuity. Therefore, indications for this treatment are very limited. Recently, some investigators reported the effect of low dose irradiation on the sub retinal neovascular membranes in CNV. We conducted a Phase I/II study to determine the toxicity and efficacy of external photon beam radiotherapy in patients with CNV. Methods and Materials: Between April, 1994 and July, 1995, 36 patients with choroidal neovascularization (34 with ARMD and 2 with angioid streaks) were treated with radiation therapy. Treatment planning was performed using a CT simulator that enables real-time treatment planning from multiple CT slices. The clinical target volume that included the macula and optic disc received a dose of 10 Gy/5 fractions/1 week (first 18 eyes) or 20 Gy/10 fractions/2 weeks (last 18 eyes). All eyes were irradiated with a single lateral 6 MV photon beam, angled 10 degrees posteriorly to exclude the ipsilateral lens and the contralateral eye from the radiation field. The ipsilateral lens was irradiated with less than 10% of the total reference dose. The field size averaged 3.0 x 2.5 cm. Records of the 17 eyes with CNV referred to our hospital in 1993, which satisfied the eligibility criteria for this study, were retrospectively analyzed for comparison. Results: There was no significant acute morbidity. All patients were followed regularly by both ophthalmologists and radiation oncologists. Cataract formation after 1 year of the treatment was observed in one patient who had received a dose of 20 Gy. One patient who had received 20 Gy complained of transient dry-eye sensation

  6. Both Autocrine Signaling and Paracrine Signaling of HB-EGF Enhance Ocular Neovascularization.

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    Inoue, Yuki; Shimazawa, Masamitsu; Nakamura, Shinsuke; Takata, Shinsuke; Hashimoto, Yuhei; Izawa, Hiroshi; Masuda, Tomomi; Tsuruma, Kazuhiro; Sakaue, Tomohisa; Nakayama, Hironao; Higashiyama, Shigeki; Hara, Hideaki

    2018-01-01

    The incidence of blindness is increasing because of the increase in abnormal ocular neovascularization. Anti-VEGF (vascular endothelial growth factor) therapies have led to good results, although they are not a cure for the blindness. The purpose of this study was to determine what role HB-EGF (heparin-binding epidermal growth factor-like growth factor) plays in ocular angiogenesis. We examined the role played by HB-EGF in ocular neovascularization in 2 animal models of neovascularization: laser-induced choroidal neovascularization (CNV) and oxygen-induced retinopathy. We also studied human retinal microvascular endothelial cells in culture. Our results showed that the neovascularization was decreased in both the CNV and oxygen-induced retinopathy models in HB-EGF conditional knockout mice compared with that in wild-type mice. Moreover, the expressions of HB-EGF and VEGF were increased after laser-induced CNV and oxygen-induced retinopathy, and their expression sites were located around the neovascular areas. Exposure of human retinal microvascular endothelial cells to HB-EGF and VEGF increased their proliferation and migration, and CRM-197 (cross-reactive material-197), an HB-EGF inhibitor, decreased the HB-EGF-induced and VEGF-induced cell proliferation and migration. VEGF increased the expression of HB-EGF mRNA. VEGF-dependent activation of EGFR (epidermal growth factor receptor)/ERK1/2 (extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2) signaling and cell proliferation of endothelial cells required stimulation of the ADAM17 (a disintegrin and metalloprotease) and ADAM12. CRM-197 decreased the grades of the fluorescein angiograms and size of the CNV areas in marmoset monkeys. These findings suggest that HB-EGF plays an important role in the development of CNV. Therefore, further investigations of HB-EGF are needed as a potential therapeutic target in the treatment of exudative age-related macular degeneration. © 2017 American Heart Association, Inc.

  7. Radiation therapy for ocular choroidal neovascularization (phase I/II study)

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    Sasai, Keisuke; Murata, Rumi; Mandai, Michiko; Takahashi, Masayo; Hiraoka, Masahiro

    1996-01-01

    Purpose/Objective: Choroidal neovascularization (CNV) is a major cause of severe loss of visual acuity in some ocular diseases such as age-related macular degeneration (ARMD) and angio-streaks. Laser photocoagulation has been used to treat patients with subfoveal neovascular lesions with well demarcated boundaries. However, the treatment method is usually associated with a large decrease in visual acuity. Therefore, indications for this treatment are very limited. Recently, some investigators reported the effect of low dose irradiation on the subretinal neovascular membranes in CNV. We conducted a phase I/II study to determine the toxicity and efficacy of external photon beam radiotherapy in patients with CNV. Materials and Methods: Between April 1994 and July 1995, 36 patients with choroidal neovascularization (34 with ARMD; 2 with angiostreaks) were treated with radiation therapy. Eligibility criteria for this study were as follows: the eyes had subretinal neovascular membranes in the avascular area of the fovea; the neovascular membranes had grown in size in the last 6 months; the best pretreatment corrected visual acuity was worse than (20(25)); there were no large subretinal hemorrhages causing decrease in visual acuity; patients were 50 years or older and had not received laser photocoagulation nor other treatment for this condition. Written informed consent was obtained from all patients. The patients underwent fluorescein angiographic evaluation and documentation of their neovascular disease prior to irradiation. Fluorescein angiography, measurement of the best corrected visual acuity, ophthalmoscopic and biomicroscopic examinations were performed at 1, 3, 6, and 12 months after treatment. Treatment planning was performed using a CT simulator which enables real-time treatment planning from multiple CT slices. The clinical target volume included the macula and optic disc, which received a dose of 10 Gy/5 fractions/1 week (first 18 eyes) or 20 Gy/10 fractions

  8. Gene therapy for ocular diseases.

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    Liu, Melissa M; Tuo, Jingsheng; Chan, Chi-Chao

    2011-05-01

    The eye is an easily accessible, highly compartmentalised and immune-privileged organ that offers unique advantages as a gene therapy target. Significant advancements have been made in understanding the genetic pathogenesis of ocular diseases, and gene replacement and gene silencing have been implicated as potentially efficacious therapies. Recent improvements have been made in the safety and specificity of vector-based ocular gene transfer methods. Proof-of-concept for vector-based gene therapies has also been established in several experimental models of human ocular diseases. After nearly two decades of ocular gene therapy research, preliminary successes are now being reported in phase 1 clinical trials for the treatment of Leber congenital amaurosis. This review describes current developments and future prospects for ocular gene therapy. Novel methods are being developed to enhance the performance and regulation of recombinant adeno-associated virus- and lentivirus-mediated ocular gene transfer. Gene therapy prospects have advanced for a variety of retinal disorders, including retinitis pigmentosa, retinoschisis, Stargardt disease and age-related macular degeneration. Advances have also been made using experimental models for non-retinal diseases, such as uveitis and glaucoma. These methodological advancements are critical for the implementation of additional gene-based therapies for human ocular diseases in the near future.

  9. Lahore general hospital protocol for treatment of neovascular glaucoma caused by retinal disease

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    Khaqan, H.A.; Haider, S.A.

    2013-01-01

    To evaluate efficacy of LGH (Lahore General Hospital) protocol for treatment of neovascular glaucoma caused by retinal diseases. Material and Methods: This case series was performed on 9 consecutive eyes of nine patients with uncontrolled neovascular glaucoma at Department of Ophthalmology, Unit II, Lahore General Hospital/PGMI, Lahore. All nine patients completed six months follow up. Among them 6 patients were having PDR (proliferative diabetic retinopathy) and 3 patients having CRVO (central retinal vein occlusion). LGH protocol for treatment of neovascular glaucoma was: To give intravitreal injection of avastin and then PRP (Pan Retinal Photocoagulation) or Trabeculectomy with MMC (Mitomycin C), if PRP and intravitreal avastin fails to control the intra ocular-pressure (IOP). Results: Three patients had IOP control after intravitreal injection of avastin and PRP, 5 patients had uncontrolled IOP after intravitreal avastin and two sessions of PRP, so they under went trabeculectomy with MMC. One patient had uncontrolled IOP despite of full treatment protocol. All other 8 patients IOP remained stable for six months. Conclusion: Significant decrease in intraocular pressure was achieved after observing LGH protocol for treatment of NVG (Neovascular Glaucoma) caused by retinal diseases. (author)

  10. Modulating release of ranibizumab and aflibercept from thiolated chitosan-based hydrogels for potential treatment of ocular neovascularization.

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    Moreno, Miguel; Pow, Poh Yih; Tabitha, Tan Su Teng; Nirmal, Sonali; Larsson, Andreas; Radhakrishnan, Krishna; Nirmal, Jayabalan; Quah, Soo Tng; Geifman Shochat, Susana; Agrawal, Rupesh; Venkatraman, Subbu

    2017-08-01

    This paper describes the synthesis of thiolated chitosan-based hydrogels with varying degrees of crosslinking that has been utilized to modulate release kinetics of two clinically relevant FDA-approved anti-VEGF protein drugs, ranibizumab and aflibercept. These hydrogels have been fabricated into disc shaped structures for potential use as patches on ocular surface. Protein conformational changes and aggregation after loading and release was evaluated by circular dichroism (CD), steady-state tryptophan fluorescence spectroscopy, electrophoresis and size-exclusion chromatography (SEC). Finally, the capacity of both released proteins to bind to VEGF was tested by ELISA and surface plasmon resonance (SPR) technology. The study demonstrates the versatility of thiolated chitosan-based hydrogels for delivering proteins. The effect of various parameters of the hydrogel on protein release kinetics and mechanism of protein release was studied using the Korsmeyer-Peppas release model. Furthermore, we have studied the stability of released proteins in detail while comparing it with non-entrapped proteins under physiological conditions to understand the effect of formulation conditions on protein stability. The disc-shaped thiolated chitosan-based hydrogels provide a potentially useful platform to deliver ranibizumab and aflibercept for the treatments of ocular diseases such as wet AMD, DME and corneal neovascularization.

  11. Epigalloccatechin-3-gallate Inhibits Ocular Neovascularization and Vascular Permeability in Human Retinal Pigment Epithelial and Human Retinal Microvascular Endothelial Cells via Suppression of MMP-9 and VEGF Activation

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    Hak Sung Lee

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Epigalloccatechin-3-gallate (EGCG is the main polyphenol component of green tea (leaves of Camellia sinensis. EGCG is known for its antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, antiviral, and anti-carcinogenic properties. Here, we identify EGCG as a new inhibitor of ocular angiogenesis and its vascular permeability. Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF play a key role in the processes of extracellular matrix (ECM remodeling and microvascular permeability during angiogenesis. We investigated the inhibitory effects of EGCG on ocular neovascularization and vascular permeability using the retina oriented cells and animal models induced by VEGF and alkaline burn. EGCG treatment significantly decreased mRNA and protein expression levels of MMP-9 in the presence of 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α in human retinal pigment epithelial cells (HRPECs. EGCG also effectively protected ARPE-19 cells from cell death and attenuated mRNA expressions of key angiogenic factors (MMP-9, VEGF, VEGF Receptor-2 by inhibiting generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS. EGCG significantly inhibited proliferation, vascular permeability, and tube formation in VEGF-induced human retinal microvascular endothelial cells (HRMECs. Furthermore, EGCG significantly reduced vascular leakage and permeability by blood-retinal barrier breakdown in VEGF-induced animal models. In addition, EGCG effectively limited upregulation of MMP-9 and platelet endothelial cell adhesion molecule (PECAM/CD31 on corneal neovascularization (CNV induced by alkaline burn. Our data suggest that MMP-9 and VEGF are key therapeutic targets of EGCG for treatment and prevention of ocular angiogenic diseases such as age-related macular degeneration, diabetic retinopathy, and corneal neovascularization.

  12. ROCK inhibitors in ocular disease

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    Eva Halasz

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Rho kinases (ROCKs have a crucial role in actin-cytoskeletal reorganization and thus are involved in broad aspects of cell motility, from smooth muscle contraction to neurite outgrowth. The first marketed ROCK inhibitor, called fasudil, has been used safely for treatment of cerebral vasospasm since 1995 in Japan. During the succeeding decades ROCK inhibitors have been applied in many pathological conditions from central nervous system disorders to cardiovascular disease as potential therapeutic agents or experimental tools to help understand the underlying (pathomechanisms. In 2014, a fasudil derivate named ripasudil was accepted for clinical use in glaucoma and ocular hypertension. Since ROCK kinases are widely expressed in ocular tissues, they have been implicated in the pathology of many ocular conditions such as corneal dysfunction, glaucoma, cataract, diabetic retinopathy, age-related macular degeneration, and retinal detachment. This paper aims to provide an overview of the most recent status/application of ROCK inhibitors in the field of eye disease.

  13. Evolution of Choroidal Neovascularization due to Presumed Ocular Histoplasmosis Syndrome on Multimodal Imaging including Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography

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    T. Y. Alvin Liu

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available A 37-year-old Caucasian woman presented with acute decrease in central vision in her right eye and was found to have subfoveal choroidal neovascularization (CNV due to presumed ocular histoplasmosis syndrome (POHS. Her visual acuity improved from 20/70 to 20/20 at her 6-month follow-up, after 3 consecutive monthly intravitreal bevacizumab injections were initiated at her first visit. Although no CNV activity was seen on fluorescein angiography (FA or spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT at her 2-month, 4-month, and 6-month follow-up visits, persistent flow in the CNV lesion was detected on optical coherence tomography angiography (OCTA. OCTA shows persistent vascular flow as well as changes in vascular flow in CNV lesions associated with POHS, indicating the continued presence of patent vessels and changes in these CNV lesions, even when traditional imaging of the lesion with OCT and FA indicates stability of the lesion with no disease activity. Additional cases with longitudinal follow-up are needed to assess how OCTA should be incorporated into clinical practice.

  14. Methotrexate for ocular inflammatory diseases.

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    Gangaputra, Sapna; Newcomb, Craig W; Liesegang, Teresa L; Kaçmaz, R Oktay; Jabs, Douglas A; Levy-Clarke, Grace A; Nussenblatt, Robert B; Rosenbaum, James T; Suhler, Eric B; Thorne, Jennifer E; Foster, C Stephen; Kempen, John H

    2009-11-01

    To evaluate the outcome of treatment with methotrexate for noninfectious ocular inflammation. Retrospective cohort study. Patients with noninfectious ocular inflammation managed at 4 tertiary ocular inflammation clinics in the United States observed to add methotrexate as a single, noncorticosteroid immunosuppressive agent to their treatment regimen, between 1979 and 2007, inclusive. Participants were identified from the Systemic Immunosuppressive Therapy for Eye Diseases Cohort Study. Demographic and clinical characteristics, including dosage, route of administration of methotrexate, and main outcome measures, were obtained for every eye of every patient at every visit via medical record review by trained expert reviewers. Control of inflammation, corticosteroid-sparing effects, and incidence of and reason for discontinuation of therapy. Among 384 patients (639 eyes) observed from the point of addition of methotrexate to an anti-inflammatory regimen, 32.8%, 9.9%, 21.4%, 14.6%, 15.1%, and 6.3%, respectively, had anterior uveitis, intermediate uveitis, posterior or panuveitis, scleritis, ocular mucous membrane pemphigoid, and other forms of ocular inflammation. In these groups, complete suppression of inflammation sustained for >or=28 days was achieved within 6 months in 55.6%, 47.4%, 38.6%, 56.4%, 39.5%, and 76.7%, respectively. Corticosteroid-sparing success (sustained suppression of inflammation with prednisone Methotrexate was discontinued within 1 year by 42% of patients. It was discontinued owing to ineffectiveness in 50 patients (13%); 60 patients (16%) discontinued because of side effects, which typically were reversible with dose reduction or discontinuation. Remission was seen in 43 patients, with 7.7% remitting within 1 year of treatment. Our data suggest that adding methotrexate to an anti-inflammatory regimen not involving other noncorticosteroid immunosuppressive drugs is moderately effective for management of inflammatory activity and for achieving

  15. Ocular neovascularization in eyes with a central retinal artery occlusion or a branch retinal artery occlusion

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    Mason lll JO

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available John O Mason III,1,2 Shyam A Patel,1 Richard M Feist,1,2 Michael A Albert Jr,1,2 Carrie Huisingh,1 Gerald McGwin Jr,1,3 Martin L Thomley1,2 1Department of Ophthalmology, University of Alabama School of Medicine, Birmingham, AL, USA; 2Retina Consultants of Alabama, Callahan Eye Foundation Hospital, Birmingham, AL, USA; 3Department of Epidemiology, School of Public Health, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, AL, USA Purpose: To investigate the ocular neovascularization (ONV rate in eyes with a branch retinal artery occlusion (BRAO or a central retinal artery occlusion (CRAO, and to study factors that may influence the ONV rate secondary to CRAO.Methods: This was a retrospective case series of consecutive patients (286 total eyes: 83 CRAOs and 203 BRAOs who were diagnosed with a retinal artery occlusion from 1998 to 2013 at the Retina Consultants of Alabama and University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, AL, USA. Generalized estimating equations were used to evaluate the association between hypothesized risk factors and ONV development.Results: Twelve (14.5% of the 83 eyes with a CRAO developed ONV. Eleven of 12 eyes (91.7% had iris neovascularization, ten of 12 eyes (83.3% had neovascular glaucoma, and two of 12 eyes (16.7% had neovascularization of the optic disc. The average time for ONV development secondary to CRAO was 30.7 days, ranging from the date of presentation to 137 days. Only two (<1.0% of the 203 eyes with a BRAO developed iris neovascularization. Diabetes mellitus type 2 was a risk factor for ONV development following a CRAO with an adjusted odds ratio of 5.2 (95% confidence interval: 1.4–19.8 (P=0.02.Conclusion: ONV is an important complication of CRAO and is a less-frequent complication of BRAO. Patients with a CRAO, especially those with diabetes mellitus type 2, should be closely monitored for the first 6 months for ONV. Keywords: neovascularization, neovascular glaucoma, retinal artery occlusion, central

  16. [Ocular graft-versus-host disease: An often misdiagnosed etiology of dry eye syndrome].

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    Moyal, L; Adam, R; Akesbi, J; Rodallec, F T; Nordmann, J-P

    2017-02-01

    To report a case of severe ocular graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) after cataract surgery. Observational case report. We describe the case of a 59-year-old man with postoperative corneal ulcer on his only functional eye. His past history reported allogenic bone marrow transplant. His visual acuity (VA) was limited to hand motions. Slit lamp examination revealed diffuse conjunctival hyperemia, severe blepharitis, Meibomian dysfunction, total corneal opacification with epithelial and stromal keratitis and neovascular invasion. Because of the severe dry eye symptoms and history of allogenic hematological stem cell transplantation, ocular GVHD was diagnosed. Functional and anatomical improvement occurred rapidly with topical cyclosporine 2%, with improved VA after treatment. With any severe dry eye syndrome in the context of allogenic bone marrow transplant, ocular GVHD must be considered. For planned ocular surgery, we recommend adding cyclosporine 0.1% treatment before and after surgery to prevent severe ocular GVHD. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  17. Topical ocular delivery to laser-induced choroidal neovascularization by dual internalizing RGD and TAT peptide-modified nanoparticles

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    Chu YC

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Yongchao Chu,1,* Ning Chen,2,* Huajun Yu,2,* Hongjie Mu,1 Bin He,1 Hongchen Hua,1 Aiping Wang,1 Kaoxiang Sun1 1School of Pharmacy, Collaborative Innovation Center of Advanced Drug Delivery System and Biotech Drugs in Universities of Shandong, Key Laboratory of Molecular Pharmacology and Drug Evaluation, Ministry of Education, Yantai University, Yantai, Shandong, People’s Republic of China; 2Department of Ophthalmology, The Affiliated Yantai Yuhuangding Hospital of Qingdao University, Yantai, Shandong, People’s Republic of China *These authors contributed equally to this work Abstract: A nanoparticle (NP was developed to target choroidal neovascularization (CNV via topical ocular administration. The NPs were prepared through conjugation of internalizing arginine-glycine-aspartic acid RGD (iRGD; Ac-CCRGDKGPDC and transactivated transcription (TAT (RKKRRQRRRC peptide to polymerized ethylene glycol and lactic-co-glycolic acid. The iRGD sequence can specifically bind with integrin αvβ3, while TAT facilitates penetration through the ocular barrier. 1H nuclear magnetic resonance and high-performance liquid chromatography demonstrated that up to 80% of iRGD and TAT were conjugated to poly(ethylene glycol–poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid. The resulting particle size was 67.0±1.7 nm, and the zeta potential of the particles was −6.63±0.43 mV. The corneal permeation of iRGD and TAT NPs increased by 5.50- and 4.56-fold compared to that of bare and iRGD-modified NPs, respectively. Cellular uptake showed that the red fluorescence intensity of iRGD and TAT NPs was highest among primary NPs and iRGD- or TAT-modified NPs. CNV was fully formed 14 days after photocoagulation in Brown Norway (BN rats as shown by optical coherence tomography and fundus fluorescein angiography analyses. Choroidal flat mounts in BN rats showed that the red fluorescence intensity of NPs followed the order of iRGD and TAT NPs > TAT-modified NPs > iRGD-modified NPs

  18. Lenalidomide, an anti-tumor drug, regulates retinal endothelial cell function: Implication for treating ocular neovascular disorder

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    Dong, Ling-Feng; Yao, Jin; Wang, Xiao-Qun; Shan, Kun; Yang, Hong; Yan, Biao; Jiang, Qin

    2015-01-01

    Ocular angiogenesis is an important pathologic character of several ocular diseases, such as retinopathy of prematurity, diabetic retinopathy and age-related macular degeneration (AMD). Inhibition of ocular angiogenesis has great therapeutic value for treating these dieses. Here we show that lenalidomide, an anti-tumor drug, has great anti-angiogenic potential in ocular diseases. Lenalidomide inhibits retinal endothelial cell viability in normal and pathological condition, and inhibits VEGF-induced endothelial cell migration and tube formation in vitro. Moreover, lenalidomide inhibits ocular angiogenesis in vivo through the reduction of angiogenesis- and inflammation-related protein expression. Collectively, lenalidomide is a promising drug for treating ocular angiogenesis through its anti-proliferative and anti-inflammatory property. - Highlights: • Lenalidomide inhibits retinal endothelial cell viability in vitro. • Lenalidomide inhibits retinal endothelial cell migration and tube formation. • Lenalidomide inhibits pathological ocular angiogenesis in vivo. • Lenalidomide inhibits angiogenesis- and inflammation-related protein expression.

  19. Lenalidomide, an anti-tumor drug, regulates retinal endothelial cell function: Implication for treating ocular neovascular disorder

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    Dong, Ling-Feng; Yao, Jin; Wang, Xiao-Qun; Shan, Kun; Yang, Hong [Eye Hospital, Nanjing Medical University, Nanjing (China); The Fourth School of Clinical Medicine, Nanjing Medical University, Nanjing (China); Yan, Biao, E-mail: yanbiao1982@hotmail.com [Eye Hospital, Nanjing Medical University, Nanjing (China); The Fourth School of Clinical Medicine, Nanjing Medical University, Nanjing (China); Jiang, Qin, E-mail: jiangqin710@126.com [Eye Hospital, Nanjing Medical University, Nanjing (China); The Fourth School of Clinical Medicine, Nanjing Medical University, Nanjing (China)

    2015-10-02

    Ocular angiogenesis is an important pathologic character of several ocular diseases, such as retinopathy of prematurity, diabetic retinopathy and age-related macular degeneration (AMD). Inhibition of ocular angiogenesis has great therapeutic value for treating these dieses. Here we show that lenalidomide, an anti-tumor drug, has great anti-angiogenic potential in ocular diseases. Lenalidomide inhibits retinal endothelial cell viability in normal and pathological condition, and inhibits VEGF-induced endothelial cell migration and tube formation in vitro. Moreover, lenalidomide inhibits ocular angiogenesis in vivo through the reduction of angiogenesis- and inflammation-related protein expression. Collectively, lenalidomide is a promising drug for treating ocular angiogenesis through its anti-proliferative and anti-inflammatory property. - Highlights: • Lenalidomide inhibits retinal endothelial cell viability in vitro. • Lenalidomide inhibits retinal endothelial cell migration and tube formation. • Lenalidomide inhibits pathological ocular angiogenesis in vivo. • Lenalidomide inhibits angiogenesis- and inflammation-related protein expression.

  20. Successful single treatment with ziv-aflibercept for existing corneal neovascularization following ocular chemical insult in the rabbit model.

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    Gore, Ariel; Horwitz, Vered; Cohen, Maayan; Gutman, Hila; Cohen, Liat; Gez, Rellie; Kadar, Tamar; Dachir, Shlomit

    2018-03-13

    To evaluate the efficacy of ziv-aflibercept as a treatment for established corneal neovascularization (NV) and to compare its efficacy to that of bevacizumab following ocular chemical insult of sulfur mustard (SM) in the rabbit model. Chemical SM burn was induced in the right eye of NZW rabbits by vapor exposure. Ziv-aflibercept (2 mg) was applied once to neovascularized eyes by subconjunctival injection while subconjunctival bevacizumab (5 mg) was administered twice a week, for 3 weeks. Non-treated exposed eyes served as a control. A clinical follow-up employed by slit-lamp microscope, was performed up to 12 weeks following exposure and digital photographs of the cornea were taken for measurement of blood vessels length using the image analysis software. Eyes were taken for histological evaluation 2, 4 and 8 weeks following treatment for general morphology and for visualization of NV, using H&E and Masson Trichrome stainings, while conjunctival goblet cell density was determined by PAS staining. Corneal NV developed, starting as early as two weeks after exposure. A single subconjunctival treatment of ziv-aflibercept at 4 weeks post exposure, significantly reduced the extent of existing NV already one week following injection, an effect which lasted for at least 8 weeks following treatment, while NV in the non-treated exposed eyes continued to advance. The extensive reduction in corneal NV in the ziv-aflibercept treated group was confirmed by histological evaluation. Bevacizumab multiple treatment showed a benefit in NV reduction, but to a lesser extent compared to the ziv-aflibercept treatment. Finally, ziv-aflibercept increased the density of conjunctival goblet cells as compared to the exposed non-treated group. Subconjunctival ziv-aflibercept single treatment presented a highly efficient long-term therapeutic benefit in reducing existing corneal NV, following ocular sulfur mustard exposure. These findings show the robust anti-angiogenic efficacy of ziv

  1. Republished review: Gene therapy for ocular diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Melissa M; Tuo, Jingsheng; Chan, Chi-Chao

    2011-07-01

    The eye is an easily accessible, highly compartmentalised and immune-privileged organ that offers unique advantages as a gene therapy target. Significant advancements have been made in understanding the genetic pathogenesis of ocular diseases, and gene replacement and gene silencing have been implicated as potentially efficacious therapies. Recent improvements have been made in the safety and specificity of vector-based ocular gene transfer methods. Proof-of-concept for vector-based gene therapies has also been established in several experimental models of human ocular diseases. After nearly two decades of ocular gene therapy research, preliminary successes are now being reported in phase 1 clinical trials for the treatment of Leber congenital amaurosis. This review describes current developments and future prospects for ocular gene therapy. Novel methods are being developed to enhance the performance and regulation of recombinant adeno-associated virus- and lentivirus-mediated ocular gene transfer. Gene therapy prospects have advanced for a variety of retinal disorders, including retinitis pigmentosa, retinoschisis, Stargardt disease and age-related macular degeneration. Advances have also been made using experimental models for non-retinal diseases, such as uveitis and glaucoma. These methodological advancements are critical for the implementation of additional gene-based therapies for human ocular diseases in the near future.

  2. Ocular manifestations of systemic diseases

    OpenAIRE

    Andonegui, J.

    2008-01-01

    Existe un gran número de enfermedades sistémicas que pueden presentar en algún momento de su evolución manifestaciones oculares. Estas alteraciones pueden provocar sintomatología por sí mismas, pueden ayudar a diagnosticar la enfermedad sistémica que las originó o pueden servir para monitorizar el curso evolutivo de la misma. Se destacan las principales características de una serie de enfermedades sistémicas asociadas a patología ocular que serán estudiadas en detalle a lo largo de esta monog...

  3. Nanotherapies for the treatment of ocular diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reimondez-Troitiño, S; Csaba, N; Alonso, M J; de la Fuente, M

    2015-09-01

    The topical route is the most frequent and preferred way to deliver drugs to the eye. Unfortunately, the very low ocular drug bioavailability (less than 5%) associated with this modality of administration, makes the efficient treatment of several ocular diseases a significant challenge. In the last decades, it has been shown that specific nanocarriers can interact with the ocular mucosa, thereby increasing the retention time of the associated drug onto the eye, as well as its permeability across the corneal and conjunctival epithelium. In this review, we comparatively analyze the mechanism of action and specific potential of the most studied nano-drug delivery carriers. In addition, we present the success achieved until now using a number of nanotherapies for the treatment of the most prevalent ocular pathologies, such as infections, inflammation, dry eye, glaucoma, and retinopathies. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. [Predictive ocular motor control in Parkinson's disease].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ying, Li; Liu, Zhen-Guo; Chen, Wei; Gan, Jing; Wang, Wen-An

    2008-02-19

    To investigate the changes of predictive ocular motor function in the patients with Parkinson's disease (PD), and to discuss its clinical value. Videonystagmography (VNG) was used to examine 24 patients with idiopathic Parkinson's disease, 15 males and 9 females, aged 61 +/- 6 (50-69), and 24 sex and age-matched healthy control subjects on random ocular saccade (with the target moving at random intervals to random positions) and predictive ocular saccade (with the 1.25-second light target moving 10 degrees right or left from the center). In the random ocular saccade program, the latency of saccade of the PD patients was 284 ms +/- 58 ms, significantly longer than that of the healthy controls (236 ms +/- 37 ms, P = 0.003). In the predictive ocular saccade pattern, the latency of saccades the PD patients was 150 ms +/- 138 ms, significantly longer than that of the healthy controls (59 ms +/- 102 ms, P = 0.002). The appearance rate of predictive saccades (with the latency of saccade <80 ms) in the PD group was 21%, significantly lower than that in the control group (31%, P = 0.003). There is dysfunction of predictive ocular motor control in the PD patients, and the cognitive function may be impaired at the early stage of PD.

  5. Ocular Manifestations of Mosquito-Transmitted Diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karesh, James W; Mazzoli, Robert A; Heintz, Shannon K

    2018-03-01

    Of the 3,548 known mosquito species, about 100 transmit human diseases. Mosquitoes are distributed globally throughout tropical and temperate regions where standing water sources are available for egg laying and the maturation of larva. Female mosquitoes require blood meals for egg production. This is the main pathway for disease transmission. Mosquitoes carry several pathogenic organisms responsible for significant ocular pathology and vision loss including West Nile, Rift Valley, chikungunya, dengue viruses, various encephalitis viruses, malarial parasites, Francisella tularensis, microfilarial parasites, including Dirofilaria, Wuchereria, and Brugia spp., and human botfly larvae. Health care providers may not be familiar with many of these mosquito-transmitted diseases or their associated ocular findings delaying diagnosis, treatment, and recovery of visual function. This article aims to provide an overview of the ocular manifestations associated with mosquito-transmitted diseases.

  6. Dry Eye: an Inflammatory Ocular Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hessen, Michelle; Akpek, Esen Karamursel

    2014-01-01

    Keratoconjunctivitis sicca, or dry eye, is a common ocular disease prompting millions of individuals to seek ophthalmological care. Regardless of the underlying etiology, dry eye has been shown to be associated with abnormalities in the pre-corneal tear film and subsequent inflammatory changes in the entire ocular surface including the adnexa, conjunctiva and cornea. Since the recognition of the role of inflammation in dry eye, a number of novel treatments have been investigated designed to inhibit various inflammatory pathways. Current medications that are used, including cyclosporine A, corticosteroids, tacrolimus, tetracycline derivatives and autologous serum, have been effective for management of dry eye and lead to measurable clinical improvement. PMID:25279127

  7. Experimental models of autoimmune inflammatory ocular diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabio Gasparin

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Ocular inflammation is one of the leading causes of blindness and loss of vision. Human uveitis is a complex and heterogeneous group of diseases characterized by inflammation of intraocular tissues. The eye may be the only organ involved, or uveitis may be part of a systemic disease. A significant number of cases are of unknown etiology and are labeled idiopathic. Animal models have been developed to the study of the physiopathogenesis of autoimmune uveitis due to the difficulty in obtaining human eye inflamed tissues for experiments. Most of those models are induced by injection of specific photoreceptors proteins (e.g., S-antigen, interphotoreceptor retinoid-binding protein, rhodopsin, recoverin, phosducin. Non-retinal antigens, including melanin-associated proteins and myelin basic protein, are also good inducers of uveitis in animals. Understanding the basic mechanisms and pathogenesis of autoimmune ocular diseases are essential for the development of new treatment approaches and therapeutic agents. The present review describes the main experimental models of autoimmune ocular inflammatory diseases.

  8. Slit2 signaling through Robo1 and Robo2 is required for retinal neovascularization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rama, Nicolas; Dubrac, Alexandre; Mathivet, Thomas; Chárthaigh, Róisín-Ana Ní; Genet, Gael; Cristofaro, Brunella; Pibouin-Fragner, Laurence; Ma, Le; Eichmann, Anne; Chédotal, Alain

    2016-01-01

    Ocular neovascular diseases are a leading cause of blindness. Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) blockade improves vision, but not all individuals respond to anti-VEGF treatment, making additional means to prevent neovascularization necessary. Slit-family proteins (Slits) are ligands of Roundabout (Robo) receptors that repel developing axons in the nervous system. Robo1 expression is altered in ocular neovascular diseases, and previous in vitro studies have reported both pro- and anti-angiogenic effects of Slits. However, genetic evidence supporting a role for Slits in ocular neovascularization is lacking. Here we generated conditional knockout mice deficient in various Slit and Robo proteins and found that Slit2 potently and selectively promoted angiogenesis via Robo1 and Robo2 in mouse postnatal retina and in a model of ocular neovascular disease. Mechanistically, Slit2 acting through Robo1 and Robo2 promoted the migration of endothelial cells. These receptors are required for both Slit2- and VEGF-induced Rac1 activation and lamellipodia formation. Thus, Slit2 blockade could potentially be used therapeutically to inhibit angiogenesis in individuals with ocular neovascular disease. PMID:25894826

  9. Mediators of ocular angiogenesis

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2016-08-26

    Aug 26, 2016 ... Keywords. ocular angiogenesis; corneal neovascularization; retinal neovascularization; diabetic retinopathy; age-related macular degeneration; retinopathy of prematurity; VEGF; PEDF; Flt-1; Flk-1; endostatin; angiopoietin; erythropoietin; Tie2; inflammation; complement; gene therapy; TLR-3; Robo4.

  10. Crohn’s Disease Ocular Manifestations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koev Kr.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Crohn’s disease is an inflammatory bowel disease which causes inflammation of the digestive tract. Crohn’s disease most frequently affects the ileum and the colon. In the active stage of the disease signs and symptoms may include diarrhea, abdominal pain and cramping, blood in the stools, reduced appetite and weight loss. In patients with severe Crohn’s disease the following signs and symptoms may be observed: fever, fatigue, arthritis, eye inflammation, oral ulcers, skin disorders, inflammation of the liver or bile ducts or delayed growth. Heredity and dysfunctions of the immune system are considered to cause the development of Crohn’s disease. About 10% of people with inflammatory bowel disease have also ocular problems. The most common ocular manifestations of Crohn’s disease are uveitis, iritis, episcleritis, keratopathy, keratoconjunctivitis and retinal vasculitis. Untreated uveitis may cause glaucoma and vision loss. Uveitis and iritis are four times more common in women than in men. In patients in the active stage of the disease, episcleritis also flares. Symptoms of episcleritis include inflammation, bright red spots on the sclera and localized pain. Keratoconjunctivitis in Crohn’s disease is caused by decreased tear production or increased tear film evaporation. Dry eyes can cause itching, burning or infection. Keratopathy usually causes no pain or vision loss, therefore in most cases no treatment is needed. In retinal vasculitis tortuosity of retinal veins, retinal edema at the posterior pole and intraretinal blood near blood vessels are observed. Intravenous fluorescein angiography shows intraretinal neovascularisation and haemorrhage in the posterior pole.

  11. Update on pathology of ocular parasitic disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Dipankar; Ramachandra, Varsha; Islam, Saidul; Bhattacharjee, Harsha; Biswas, Jyotirmay; Koul, Akanksha; Deka, Panna; Deka, Apurba

    2016-11-01

    Parasites are a group of eukaryotic organisms that may be free-living or form a symbiotic or parasitic relationship with the hosts. Consisting of over 800,000 recognized species, parasites may be unicellular (Protozoa) or multicellular (helminths and arthropods). The association of parasites with human population started long before the emergence of civilization. Parasitic zoonotic diseases are prevalent worldwide including India. Appropriate epidemiological data are lacking on existing zoonotic parasitic diseases, and newer diseases are emerging in our scenario. Systemic diseases such as cysticercosis, paragonimiasis, hydatidosis, and toxoplasmosis are fairly common. Acquired Toxoplasma infections are rising in immune-deficient individuals. Amongst the ocular parasitic diseases, various protozoas such as Cystoidea, trematodes, tissue flagellates, sporozoas etc. affect humans in general and eyes in particular, in different parts of the world. These zoonoses seem to be a real health related problem globally. Recent intensification of research throughout the world has led to specialization in biological fields, creating a conducive situation for researchers interested in this subject. The basics of parasitology lie in morphology, pathology, and with recent updates in molecular parasitology, the scope has extended further. The current review is to address the recent update in ophthalmic parasites with special reference to pathology and give a glimpse of further research in this field.

  12. Update on pathology of ocular parasitic disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dipankar Das

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Parasites are a group of eukaryotic organisms that may be free-living or form a symbiotic or parasitic relationship with the hosts. Consisting of over 800,000 recognized species, parasites may be unicellular (Protozoa or multicellular (helminths and arthropods. The association of parasites with human population started long before the emergence of civilization. Parasitic zoonotic diseases are prevalent worldwide including India. Appropriate epidemiological data are lacking on existing zoonotic parasitic diseases, and newer diseases are emerging in our scenario. Systemic diseases such as cysticercosis, paragonimiasis, hydatidosis, and toxoplasmosis are fairly common. Acquired Toxoplasma infections are rising in immune-deficient individuals. Amongst the ocular parasitic diseases, various protozoas such as Cystoidea, trematodes, tissue flagellates, sporozoas etc. affect humans in general and eyes in particular, in different parts of the world. These zoonoses seem to be a real health related problem globally. Recent intensification of research throughout the world has led to specialization in biological fields, creating a conducive situation for researchers interested in this subject. The basics of parasitology lie in morphology, pathology, and with recent updates in molecular parasitology, the scope has extended further. The current review is to address the recent update in ophthalmic parasites with special reference to pathology and give a glimpse of further research in this field.

  13. Assessment of effect of intravitreal ranibizumab injection on the ocular blood flow in patients with neovascular age-related macular degeneration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. V. Neroev

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To evaluate the effect of intravitreal ranibizumab injection on the ocular blood flow in patients with neovascular agerelatedmacular degeneration (AMD.Methods: 35 patients with wet AMD undergone intravitreal 0.5 mg ranibizumab injection. Color Doppler Imaging (CDI and dopplerographywere used to measure hemodynamic parameters including the peak systolic velocity (Vsyst, cm / s, end-diastolic velocity (V diast, cm / s, and resistance index (RI of blood flow in the central retinal artery (CRA, the short posterior ciliary arteries (PCA, and the ophthalmic artery (OA. All patients were examined before and after injection on day 1‑7 and 30 day during the 3‑month follow up period.Results: Before intravitreal injection Vsyst was decreased in short PCA (p<0.05, RI in CRA and in short PCA significantly increased in comparison with normal index in same vessels. The peak systolic velocity in OA, in CRA and in short PCA was not significantly changed. After second injection resistance index in CRA and in short PCA was normalized.Conclusion: There was not impairment of ocular blood flow in retinal and choroidal after monthly intravitreal injection of ranibizumab during the 3‑month follow up period.

  14. Assessment of effect of intravitreal ranibizumab injection on the ocular blood flow in patients with neovascular age-related macular degeneration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. V. Neroev

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To evaluate the effect of intravitreal ranibizumab injection on the ocular blood flow in patients with neovascular agerelatedmacular degeneration (AMD.Methods: 35 patients with wet AMD undergone intravitreal 0.5 mg ranibizumab injection. Color Doppler Imaging (CDI and dopplerographywere used to measure hemodynamic parameters including the peak systolic velocity (Vsyst, cm / s, end-diastolic velocity (V diast, cm / s, and resistance index (RI of blood flow in the central retinal artery (CRA, the short posterior ciliary arteries (PCA, and the ophthalmic artery (OA. All patients were examined before and after injection on day 1‑7 and 30 day during the 3‑month follow up period.Results: Before intravitreal injection Vsyst was decreased in short PCA (p<0.05, RI in CRA and in short PCA significantly increased in comparison with normal index in same vessels. The peak systolic velocity in OA, in CRA and in short PCA was not significantly changed. After second injection resistance index in CRA and in short PCA was normalized.Conclusion: There was not impairment of ocular blood flow in retinal and choroidal after monthly intravitreal injection of ranibizumab during the 3‑month follow up period.

  15. Analysis of intravitreal using of anti vegf-medications for diseases of fundus accompanied by exudation and neovascularization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. G. Zavgorodnya

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, new methods of treatment of choroidal neovascularization are being actively developed and introduced in exudative form of age-related macular degeneration (AMD, complicated myopia, diabetic retinopathy and post-thrombotic retinopathy. Medications that block vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF, which is the main link in the pathogenesis of retinal neovascularization and hyperfiltration, have become widespread. It is known that damage of endothelial cells of retinal vessels occurs in consequence of oxidative stress that leads to the death of pericytes, hyperfiltration of plasma from the vascular bed, hemorrhages and retinal hypoxia. The intracellular concentration of specific protein that regulates the transcription of genes (HIF-1 increases in response to hypoxic damage in the cells of the retina, which leads to increased transcription of the VEGF gene, which acts directly on the epithelium providing regeneration, stimulating the proliferation and neovascularization. Considering this, anti-VEGF medications have found their application in the treatment of choroidal neovascularization in clinical practice. Today, two preparations that block VEGF: selective (pegaptanib and non-selective (ranibizumab are used mostly common. The purpose of this investigation was to study the effectiveness of anti-VEGF medications in patients with choroidal neovascularization of different genesis. The analysis presents the results of 50 patients (50 eyes treatment with choroidal neovascularization on the background of various diseases of the retina. Pegaptanib ("Macugen" was used for the treatment of 35 patients (35 eyes, the rest (15 eyes - ranibizumab ("Lucentis". According to fluorescein angiography the subretinal neovascular membrane was in the stage of activity in all eyes. The effectiveness of the treatment was assessed by visometry, ophthalmoscopy, optical coherence tomography and fluorescein angiography. Application of intravitreal injection of

  16. Ocular Complications of Inflammatory Bowel Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rana Mady

    2015-01-01

    the usual intestinal manifestations, leading to an earlier diagnosis. Thus, it is important to understand the clinical presentation of possible ocular manifestations in order to initiate appropriate treatment and to help prevent significant visual morbidity.

  17. Ocular manifestations of Gaucher disease: case report and literature review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mejía-Turizo, Juan Carlos

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available We report the case of a patient with Gaucher disease (GD type 3b, with a homozygous GBA gene mutation (c.1448T > C p.L483P (L444P. Ocular findings characteristic of this mutation are described, including vitreous condensation and macular edema. To our knowledge this is the first case reported in Colombia with these characteristics. A review of the ocular manifestations of this disease is also presented.

  18. Role of ultrasonography in the ocular and the orbital diseases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, S. R.; Kim, K. S.; Lee, Y. C.; Park, S. S.

    1984-01-01

    With conventional methods including orbital arteriography, orbital venography, penumoobitography and positive contrast orbitography, imaging of eyeball and orbit is not only difficult, invasive or expensive but also nonspecific in result. Ultrasonography provides safe, specific and reliable way to obtain image of eyeball and orbit. Fifty six ultrasonograms of 50 patients which were referred under the impression of various ophthalmic diseases were analyzed. 1. Sixteen cases were normal. 2. Ocular diseases were 26 cases and extraocular orbital diseases were 8 cases. 3. Among the ocular diseases, 9 foreign body cases, 6 retinal detachment cases, 5 vitreous hemorrhage 4. Among the extraocular orbital diseases, 6 pseudotumor cases, 1 pseudolymphoma, 1 eyelid cyst case were diagnosed. 5. Ultrasonic findings were specific enough to differentiated from diseases and well corresponded with clinical and pathological diagnosis. 6. It can be concluded that ultrasonography is one of the most reliable imaging method in ocular and extraocular orbital diseases

  19. [OCT and neovascular glaucoma].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellotti, A; Labbé, A; Fayol, N; El Mahtoufi, A; Baudouin, C

    2007-06-01

    Neovascular glaucoma is a chronic and sight-threatening disease. Four different grades have been described. Anterior chamber optical coherence tomography (OCT) is a new imaging technique allowing the visualization of the anterior segment. The purpose of our study was to describe the appearance of the different neovascular glaucoma grades with the OCT in order to refine the clinical analysis of this disease. Eleven patients (nine men and two women) with different grades of neovascular glaucoma were analyzed in this study. Neovascular glaucoma complicated central retinal vein occlusion in seven patients and diabetic retinopathy in four patients. All patients had bilateral biomicroscopical examination and OCT analysis. OCT images and clinical examination were then compared. No modifications could be observed using OCT in patients with grade 1 neovascular glaucoma. For grade 2, a slightly hyper-reflective linear iris secondary to neovascularization was observed. For grade 3, OCT images showed a thickened hyper-reflective iridocorneal angle with possible iridocorneal synechiae. For grade 4, the iridocorneal angle was closed and associated with iris contraction and uveae ectropion. OCT is a new promising technique for the precise analysis of different grades of neovascular glaucoma. It certainly helps in the management of such cases.

  20. Evolution of Choroidal Neovascular Membrane in Best Disease after Single Intravitreal Bevacizumab. Case Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Celea, Christiana; Pop, Mihai; Avidis-Zamfiroiu, Nicoleta; Celea, Cristian

    2015-03-01

    Best's disease is a hereditary form of macular dystrophy that starts in childhood and progresses until visual symptoms occur. In evolution it can be complicated with choroidal neovascularization, condition very rare in children. We report an important visual improvement in a 8-year-old caucasian girl after successful treatment with one intravitreal bevacizumab injection. There are few cases reported in literature (1-7), and the patient presented here have important particularities: one of the youngest children ever-mentioned with this complication, the third-member of her family with this disease and the first patient who didn't receive a second intravitreal bevacizumab at six weeks after first treatment, even though BCVA was lower than expected. The girl accused decrease of vision in the RE for the past 3-4 months. BCVA at presentation was 1/10. After 6 weeks from the intravitreal treatment, BCVA improved, but not very satisfactory (5/10). Because fundus and OCT aspects were encouraging, we waited another 4 weeks before the second injection. BCVA doubled in this period (8/10). Visual acuity, fundus and OCT aspects stabilized for 18 months of follow-up. We note that choroidal neovascular membrane associated with Best's disease can appear at such young children, this fact being very important in the phase of diagnosis, when the clinician should also take in consideration this possibility. Another important idea underlined here is the long-term efficacy of a single intravitreal anti-VEGF injection and also the no-need for imminent, fast re-treatment when the fundus and OCT aspects are encouraging through the follow-up.

  1. Screening athletes with Down syndrome for ocular disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutstein, Walter; Sinclair, Stephen H; North, Rachel V; Bekiroglu, N

    2010-02-01

    Persons with Down syndrome are well known to have a high prevalence of vision and eye health problems, many of which are undetected or untreated primarily because of infrequent ocular examinations. Public screening programs, directed toward the pediatric population, have become more popular and commonly use letter or symbol charts. This study compares 2 vision screening methods, the Lea Symbol chart and a newly developed interactive computer program, the Vimetrics Central Vision Analyzer (CVA), in their ability to identify ocular disease in the Down syndrome population. Athletes with Down syndrome participating in the European Special Olympics underwent an ocular screening including history, auto-refraction, colour vision assessment, stereopsis assessment, motility assessment, pupil reactivity, and tonometry testing, as well as anterior segment and fundus examinations to evaluate for ocular disease. Visual acuity was tested with the Lea chart and CVA to evaluate these as screening tests for detecting ocular disease as well as significant, uncorrected refractive errors. Among the 91 athletes that presented to the screening, 79 (158 eyes) were sufficiently cooperative for the examination to be completed. Mean age was 26 years +/-10.8 SD. Significant, uncorrected refractive errors (>/=1.00 spherical equivalent) were detected in 28 (18%) eyes and ocular pathology in 51 (32%) eyes. The Lea chart sensitivity and specificity were 43% and 74%, respectively, for detecting ocular pathology and 58% and 100% for detecting uncorrected refractive errors. The CVA sensitivity and specificity were 70% and 86% for detecting pathology and 71% and 100% for detecting uncorrected refractive errors. This study confirmed the findings of prior studies in identifying a significant presence of uncorrected refractive errors and ocular pathology in the Down syndrome population. Screening with the Lea symbol chart found borderline sufficient sensitivity and specificity for the test to be used

  2. Ocular manifestations of graft-versus-host disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nassar, Amr; Tabbara, Khalid F.; Aljurf, Mahmoud

    2013-01-01

    Allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) has evolved over the past two decades to become the standard of care for hematologic and lymphoid malignancies. Major ocular complications after allogeneic HSCT have been increasing in number and severity. Graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) remains a major cause of ocular morbidity after allogeneic HSCT. The main objective of this review is to elucidate the ocular complications in patients developing GVHD following HSCT. Ocular complications secondary to GVHD are common and include dry eye syndrome, acquisition of ocular allergy from donors with allergic disorders. Eyelid changes may occur in GVHD leading to scleroderma-like changes. Patients may develop poliosis, madarosis, vitiligo, lagophthalmos, and entropion. The cornea may show filamentary keratitis, superficial punctate keratitis, corneal ulcers, and peripheral corneal melting which may lead to perforation in severe cases. Scleritis may also occur which can be anterior or posterior. Keratoconjunctivis sicca appears to be the most common presentation of GVHD. The lacrimal glands may be involved with mononuclear cell infiltration of both the major and accessory lacrimal glands and decrease in tear production. Severe dry eye syndrome in patients with GVHD may develop conjunctival scarring, keratinization, and cicatrization of the conjunctiva. Therapy of GVHD includes systemic immunosuppression and local therapy. Surgical treatment in refractory cases includes surgical intervention to improve the manifestation of GVHD of the eye. This may include tarsorrhapy, prose lenses, punctal occlusions and corneal transplantation. PMID:24227989

  3. Ocular inserts - Advancement in therapy of eye diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anita Kumari

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The ocular insert represents a significant advancement in the therapy of eye disease. Ocular inserts are defined as sterile, thin, multilayered, drug-impregnated, solid or semisolid consistency devices placed into the cul-de-sac or conjuctival sac, whose size and shape are especially designed for ophthalmic application. They are composed of a polymeric support that may or may not contain a drug. The drug can later be incorporated as dispersion or a solution in the polymeric support. They offer several advantages as increased ocular residence and sustained release of medication into the eye. The insert includes a body portion sized to position within a lachrymal canaliculus of the eyelid. The inserts are classified according to their solubility as insoluble, soluble, or bioerodible inserts. The release of drug from the insert depends upon the diffusion, osmosis, and bioerosion of the drug, and this article is an attempt to present a brief about this newer drug delivery system.

  4. Ocular Drug Delivery Barriers—Role of Nanocarriers in the Treatment of Anterior Segment Ocular Diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bachu, Rinda Devi; Chowdhury, Pallabitha; Al-Saedi, Zahraa H. F.; Karla, Pradeep K.; Boddu, Sai H. S.

    2018-01-01

    Ocular drug delivery is challenging due to the presence of anatomical and physiological barriers. These barriers can affect drug entry into the eye following multiple routes of administration (e.g., topical, systemic, and injectable). Topical administration in the form of eye drops is preferred for treating anterior segment diseases, as it is convenient and provides local delivery of drugs. Major concerns with topical delivery include poor drug absorption and low bioavailability. To improve the bioavailability of topically administered drugs, novel drug delivery systems are being investigated. Nanocarrier delivery systems demonstrate enhanced drug permeation and prolonged drug release. This review provides an overview of ocular barriers to anterior segment delivery, along with ways to overcome these barriers using nanocarrier systems. The disposition of nanocarriers following topical administration, their safety, toxicity and clinical trials involving nanocarrier systems are also discussed. PMID:29495528

  5. Evaluation of Ocular Surface Disease in Patients with Glaucoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathews, Priya M.; Ramulu, Pradeep Y.; Friedman, David S.; Utine, Canan A.; Akpek, Esen K.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose To evaluate the subjective and objective measures of ocular surface disease in patients with glaucoma. Design Cross-sectional study. Participants Sixty-four glaucoma subjects with bilateral visual field (VF) loss and 59 glaucoma suspects with normal VFs. Methods Consecutive patients were recruited prospectively from the Wilmer Eye Institute Glaucoma Clinic. Main Outcome Measures Tear film breakup time (TBUT), corneal staining score (0–15), and Schirmer’s test results were included as objective metrics, whereas the Ocular Surface Disease Index (OSDI) questionnaire was administered to assess symptoms. Total OSDI score, vision-related subscore (derived from questions about vision and task performance), and discomfort-related subscore (derived from questions about ocular surface discomfort) were calculated for each subject. Results Seventy-five percent (48/64) of glaucoma subjects and 41% (24/59) of glaucoma suspects were receiving topical medications. The corneal staining grade was greater in glaucoma subjects than in glaucoma suspects (6.4 vs. 4.1; P0.20 for both). Multivariate regression models showed that topical glaucoma therapy burden was associated with a significantly higher total corneal staining grade (β, +0.9 for each additional glaucoma drop; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.5–1.3; P0.20 for both). Glaucoma subjects had significantly higher total OSDI scores than glaucoma suspects (16.7 vs. 7.9; Pglaucoma group (11.1 vs. 3.3; Pglaucoma therapy burden was not associated with higher total OSDI score or vision- or discomfort-related subscore (P>0.20 for all). Conclusions Glaucoma is associated with significant ocular surface disease, and topical glaucoma therapy burden seems predictive of corneal staining severity. However, OSDI is a poor metric for capturing ocular surface disease in glaucoma because symptoms seem to be related largely to VF loss. PMID:23714318

  6. Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography in Retinal Vascular Diseases and Choroidal Neovascularization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodolfo Mastropasqua

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To assess the ability of optical coherence tomography-angiography (OCT-A to show and analyze retinal vascular patterns and the choroidal neovascularization (CNV in retinal vascular diseases. Methods. Seven eyes of seven consecutive patients with retinal vascular diseases were examined. Two healthy subjects served as controls. All eyes were scanned with the SD-OCT XR Avanti (Optovue Inc, Fremont CA, USA. Split spectrum amplitude decorrelation angiography algorithm was used to identify the blood flow within the tissue. Fluorescein angiography (FA and indocyanine green angiography (ICGA with Spectralis HRA + OCT (Heidelberg Engineering GmbH were performed. Results. In healthy subjects OCT-A visualized major macular vessels and detailed capillary networks around the foveal avascular zone. Patients were affected with myopic CNV (2 eyes, age-related macular degeneration related (2, branch retinal vein occlusion (BRVO (2, and branch retinal artery occlusion (BRAO (1. OCT-A images provided distinct vascular patterns, distinguishing perfused and nonperfused areas in BRVO and BRAO and recognizing the presence, location, and size of CNV. Conclusions. OCT-A provides detailed images of retinal vascular plexuses and quantitative data of pathologic structures. Further studies are warranted to define the role of OCT-A in the assessment of retinovascular diseases, with respect to conventional FA and ICG-A.

  7. Ocular Behçet disease: current therapeutic approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evereklioglu, Cem

    2011-11-01

    To alert physician to timely recognition and current treatment of recurrent hypopyon iridocyclitis or panuveitis in ocular Behçet disease (OBD). Interferon-α, rituximab, intravitreal triamcinolone, and biological response modifiers by tumor necrosis factor inhibitors such as infliximab and adalimumab are being used increasingly for the treatment of severe sight-threatening ocular inflammation including retinal vasculitis and cystoid macular edema (CME). Biological agents offer tremendous potential in the treatment of OBD. Given that OBD predominantly afflicts the younger adults in their most productive years, dermatologist, rheumatologist, internist, or general practitioners supervising patients with oculo-articulo-oromucocutaneous syndromes should be aware of systemic Behçet disease. Early recognition of ocular involvement is important and such patients should strongly be instructed to visit immediately an ophthalmologist, as uveitis management differs from extraocular involvements with high ocular morbidity from sight-threatening complications due to relapsing inflammatory attacks in the posterior segment of the eye. A single infliximab infusion should be considered for the control of acute panuveitis, whereas repeated long-term infliximab infusions were proved to be more effective in reducing the number of episodes in refractory uveoretinitis with faster regression and complete remission of CME.

  8. Variability of disease activity in patients treated with ranibizumab for neovascular age-related macular degeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enders, P; Scholz, P; Muether, P S; Fauser, S

    2016-08-01

    PurposeTo analyze choroidal neovasularization (CNV) activity and recurrence patterns in patients with neovascular age-related macular degeneration (nAMD) treated with ranibizumab, and the correlation with individual intraocular vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) suppression time (VST).MethodsPost-hoc analysis of data from a prospective, non-randomized clinical study. Patients with nAMD treated with ranibizumab on a pro re nata regimen. Disease activity was analyzed monthly by spectral-domain optical coherence tomography and correlated with VSTs.ResultsOverall, 73 eyes of 73 patients were included in the study with a mean follow-up of 717 days (range: 412-1239 days). Overall, the mean CNV-activity-free interval was 76.5 days (range: 0-829 days). The individual range of the length of dry intervals was high. A total of 42% of patients had a range of more than 90 days. Overall, 16% of patients showed persistent activity. And 12% stayed dry after the initial ranibizumab treatment. No significant correlation was found between the CNV-recurrence pattern and VST (P=0.12).ConclusionsCNV activity in nAMD is irregular, which is reflected in the range of the duration of dry intervals and late recurrences. The biomarker VST solely seems not to be sufficient to explain recurrence pattern of CNV in all AMD patients.

  9. IMRT for Sinonasal Tumors Minimizes Severe Late Ocular Toxicity and Preserves Disease Control and Survival

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duprez, Fréderic; Madani, Indira; Morbée, Lieve; Bonte, Katrien; Deron, Philippe; Domján, Vilmos; Boterberg, Tom; De Gersem, Werner; De Neve, Wilfried

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: To report late ocular (primary endpoint) and other toxicity, disease control, and survival (secondary endpoints) after intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) for sinonasal tumors. Methods and Materials: Between 1998 and 2009, 130 patients with nonmetastatic sinonasal tumors were treated with IMRT at Ghent University Hospital. Prescription doses were 70 Gy (n = 117) and 60–66 Gy (n = 13) at 2 Gy per fraction over 6–7 weeks. Most patients had adenocarcinoma (n = 82) and squamous cell carcinoma (n = 23). One hundred and one (101) patients were treated postoperatively. Of 17 patients with recurrent tumors, 9 were reirradiated. T-stages were T1–2 (n = 39), T3 (n = 21), T4a (n = 38), and T4b (n = 22). Esthesioneuroblastoma was staged as Kadish A, B, and C in 1, 3, and 6 cases, respectively. Results: Median follow-up was 52, range 15–121 months. There was no radiation-induced blindness in 86 patients available for late toxicity assessment (≥6 month follow-up). We observed late Grade 3 tearing in 10 patients, which reduced to Grade 1–2 in 5 patients and Grade 3 visual impairment because of radiation-induced ipsilateral retinopathy and neovascular glaucoma in 1 patient. There was no severe dry eye syndrome. The worst grade of late ocular toxicity was Grade 3 (n = 11), Grade 2 (n = 31), Grade 1 (n = 33), and Grade 0 (n = 11). Brain necrosis and osteoradionecrosis occurred in 6 and 1 patients, respectively. Actuarial 5-year local control and overall survival were 59% and 52%, respectively. On multivariate analysis local control was negatively affected by cribriform plate and brain invasion (p = 0.044 and 0.029, respectively) and absence of surgery (p = 0.009); overall survival was negatively affected by cribriform plate and orbit invasion (p = 0.04 and <0.001, respectively) and absence of surgery (p = 0.001). Conclusions: IMRT for sinonasal tumors allowed delivering high doses to targets at minimized ocular toxicity, while maintaining disease control and

  10. IMRT for Sinonasal Tumors Minimizes Severe Late Ocular Toxicity and Preserves Disease Control and Survival

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duprez, Frederic, E-mail: frederic.duprez@ugent.be [Department of Radiotherapy, Ghent University Hospital, Ghent (Belgium); Madani, Indira; Morbee, Lieve [Department of Radiotherapy, Ghent University Hospital, Ghent (Belgium); Bonte, Katrien; Deron, Philippe; Domjan, Vilmos [Department of Head and Neck Surgery, Ghent University Hospital, Ghent (Belgium); Boterberg, Tom; De Gersem, Werner; De Neve, Wilfried [Department of Radiotherapy, Ghent University Hospital, Ghent (Belgium)

    2012-05-01

    Purpose: To report late ocular (primary endpoint) and other toxicity, disease control, and survival (secondary endpoints) after intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) for sinonasal tumors. Methods and Materials: Between 1998 and 2009, 130 patients with nonmetastatic sinonasal tumors were treated with IMRT at Ghent University Hospital. Prescription doses were 70 Gy (n = 117) and 60-66 Gy (n = 13) at 2 Gy per fraction over 6-7 weeks. Most patients had adenocarcinoma (n = 82) and squamous cell carcinoma (n = 23). One hundred and one (101) patients were treated postoperatively. Of 17 patients with recurrent tumors, 9 were reirradiated. T-stages were T1-2 (n = 39), T3 (n = 21), T4a (n = 38), and T4b (n = 22). Esthesioneuroblastoma was staged as Kadish A, B, and C in 1, 3, and 6 cases, respectively. Results: Median follow-up was 52, range 15-121 months. There was no radiation-induced blindness in 86 patients available for late toxicity assessment ({>=}6 month follow-up). We observed late Grade 3 tearing in 10 patients, which reduced to Grade 1-2 in 5 patients and Grade 3 visual impairment because of radiation-induced ipsilateral retinopathy and neovascular glaucoma in 1 patient. There was no severe dry eye syndrome. The worst grade of late ocular toxicity was Grade 3 (n = 11), Grade 2 (n = 31), Grade 1 (n = 33), and Grade 0 (n = 11). Brain necrosis and osteoradionecrosis occurred in 6 and 1 patients, respectively. Actuarial 5-year local control and overall survival were 59% and 52%, respectively. On multivariate analysis local control was negatively affected by cribriform plate and brain invasion (p = 0.044 and 0.029, respectively) and absence of surgery (p = 0.009); overall survival was negatively affected by cribriform plate and orbit invasion (p = 0.04 and <0.001, respectively) and absence of surgery (p = 0.001). Conclusions: IMRT for sinonasal tumors allowed delivering high doses to targets at minimized ocular toxicity, while maintaining disease control and survival

  11. Bile acids in treatment of ocular disease

    OpenAIRE

    Boatright, Jeffrey H.; Nickerson, John M.; Moring, Anisha G.; Pardue, Machelle T.

    2009-01-01

    Bear bile has been included in Asian pharmacopeias for thousands of years in treatment of several diseases, ranging from sore throat to hemorrhoids. The hydrophilic bile acids tauroursodeoxycholic acid (TUDCA) and ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA) are the major bile acids of bear bile. Both of these are available as synthetic formulations and are approved by the health administrations of several countries for treatment of cirrhosis and gallstones. This review briefly covers the use of bear bile in ...

  12. Factors associated with childhood ocular morbidity and blindness in three ecological regions of Nepal: Nepal pediatric ocular disease study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adhikari, Srijana; Shrestha, Mohan Krishna; Adhikari, Kamala; Maharjan, Nhukesh; Shrestha, Ujjowala Devi

    2014-10-23

    Nepal Pediatric Ocular Diseases Study is a three year longitudinal population based study. Here we present the baseline survey report which aims to investigate various risk factors associated with childhood ocular morbidity and blindness in three ecological regions of Nepal. This baseline survey is a population based cross sectional study. The investigation was conducted in a district from each of the following regions: Terai, Hill and Mountain. The Village Development Committees (VDCs) from each district were selected by random sampling. Three Community health workers were given training on vision screening and identification of abnormal ocular signs in children. They conducted a house to house survey in their respected districts examining the children and gathering a standardized set of data variables. Children with abnormal vision or ocular signs were then further examined by pediatric ophthalmologists. A total of 10950 children aged 0-10 years (5403 from Terai, 3204 from the hills, 2343 from the mountains) were enrolled in the study. However 681 (6.2%) were non responders. The male to female ratio was 1.03. The overall prevalence of ocular morbidity was 3.7% (95% CI of 3.4%-4%) and blindness was 0.07% (95% CI of 0.02%-0.12%). Ocular morbidity was more prevalent in the mountain region whereas blindness was more prevalent in the Terai region.Children from the Terai region were more likely to suffer from congenital ocular anomalies compared to the other regions. Children whose mother smoked, drank alcohol, or was illiterate were significantly afflicted with ocular diseases (p Blindness was more prevalent in children who suffered from a systemic illness. Females and under-nourished children were more likely to have ocular morbidity and blindness. It was found that childhood blindness was more prevalent in the Terai region, the undernourished, females and in those with co-morbid systemic illnesses. This study strongly suggests that prevention of childhood

  13. Clinical correlates of common corneal neovascular diseases:a literature review

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    Nizar Saleh Abdelfattah

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available A large subset of corneal pathologies involves the formation of new blood and lymph vessels (neovascularization, leading to compromised visual acuity. This article aims to review the clinical causes and presentations of corneal neovascularization (CNV by examining the mechanisms behind common CNV-related corneal pathologies, with a particular focus on herpes simplex stromal keratitis, contact lenses-induced keratitis and CNV secondary to keratoplasty. Moreover, we reviewed CNV in the context of different types of corneal transplantation and keratoprosthesis, and summarized the most relevant treatments available so far.

  14. Homoisoflavonoids as potential antiangiogenic agents for retinal neovascularization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amin, Sk Abdul; Adhikari, Nilanjan; Gayen, Shovanlal; Jha, Tarun

    2017-11-01

    A number of people worldwide have been suffering from ocular neovascularization that may be treated by a variety of drugs but these may possess adverse effects. Therefore, small antiangiogenic molecules with higher potency and lower toxic effects are intended. However, homoisoflavonoids of natural origin show the potential antiangiogenic effect in ocular neovascularization. These homoisoflavonoids are judged quantitatively in terms of statistical validation through multi-chemometric modeling approaches for the betterment and refinement of their structures required for higher antiangiogenic activity targeted to ocular neovascularization. These approaches may be utilized to design better antiangiogenic homoisoflavonoids. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  15. Improvement of chronic corneal opacity in ocular surface disease with prosthetic replacement of the ocular surface ecosystem (PROSE) treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cressey, Anna; Jacobs, Deborah S; Remington, Crystal; Carrasquillo, Karen G

    2018-06-01

    To demonstrate clearing of chronic corneal opacities and improvement of visual acuity with the use of BostonSight prosthetic replacement of the ocular surface ecosystem (PROSE) treatment in ocular surface disease. We undertook retrospective analysis of the medical records of a series of patients who underwent PROSE treatment from August 2006 to December 2014. Patients were referred for ocular surface disease of various etiologies. Primary inclusion criterion was corneal opacity that improved with PROSE treatment. Patients were excluded if topical steroids or adjuvant therapy used once PROSE treatment was initiated. Underlying disease, prior treatment, clinical presentation, and clinical course were extracted from the medical record. Four patients are included in this series. There were three females and one male; median age at time of treatment initiation was 30 years (range = 0.5-58 years). Median duration of PROSE treatment at time of retrospective analysis was 3.5 years (range = 1-8 years). Two cases had corneal opacification in the context of neurotrophic keratopathy: a unilateral case due to presumed herpes simplex keratitis and a bilateral case due to congenital corneal anesthesia associated with familial dysautonomia. One case had corneal opacity from exposure related to seventh nerve palsy, and one had corneal opacification associated with recurrent surface breakdown, neurotrophic keratopathy, and limbal stem deficiency of uncertain etiology. After consistent wear of prosthetic devices used in PROSE treatment for support of the ocular surface, visual acuity improved and clearing of the opacities was observed, without use of topical steroids or adjuvant therapy. These cases demonstrate clearing of chronic corneal opacity with PROSE treatment for ocular surface disease. This clearing can occur with no adjuvant therapy, suggesting that restoration of ocular surface function and integrity allows for corneal remodeling.

  16. Pattern of Ocular Diseases among Computer users in Enugu, Nigeria

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    7 subjects (1.3%) had monocular blindness with VA<3/60. 37 (3.3%) subjects had low vision with VA < 6/18-3/60. Conclusion: Most of the subjects were young people. Ocular disorders were encountered in computer users. Ocular health status of computer users can be improved through periodic ocular examination and ...

  17. CCR7 signaling pathway and retinal neovascularization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin-Hui Yuan

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Retinal neovascularization diseases are the major causes of blindness. C-C chemokine receptor type 7(CCR7can promote the expression of vascular endothelial growth factor(VEGFthrough the extracellular signal regulated kinase(ERKpathway, leading to vascular leakage, proliferation of vascular endothelial cell, neovascularization and etc. The detection of CCR7 can guide the diagnosis and treatments of retinal neovascularization diseases.

  18. Brain MRI in 17 patients with ocular Behcet's disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Accorinti, Massimo; Pivetti Pezzi, Paola; Di Biasi, Claudio; Trasimeni, Guido; Melone, Antonio; Gualdi, Gianfranco

    1997-01-01

    Behcet's disease is a chronic relapsing disorder of unknown etiology characterized by oral aphthous ulcerations, uveitis, genital ulcerations and bone lesions. A variety of other signs including polyarthritis, vascular conditions (blood vessel occlusions and aneurysms), epididymitis, gastrointestinal, pulmonary and heart lesions may also occur. Central nervous system (CNS) involvement is reported in 10-49 % of cases and it is the first symptom of the disease in 5 % of subjects. The neuro-Behcet's syndrome may appear as a brainstem syndrome, and an organic confusional syndrome or dementia. cranial hypertension, mostly related to cerebral venus thrombosis, is also present in neuro-Behcet's disease and its incidence is reported in up to 10 % of Behcet's patients. MRI is reportedly the most sensitive neuroradiological approach to detect the focal lesions related to neuro-Behcet disease and several single cases or series of Behcet's patients with neurologic sings have been examined with MRI. They used MRI to investigate CNS involvement in Behcet's disease patients with and without previous neurologic sings. MRI was carried out on 17 patients with ocular Behcet's disease without neurological symptoms to assess the possible subclinical involvement of the CNS. PD and T2-weighted hypersignal foci were demonstrated in parietal, frontal, subcortical and periventricular white matter in 6 subjects. Neuroradiological abnormalities were found only in patients with complete disease and with the disease diagnosed more than 10 years earlier. Even though the pathogenesis of these neuroradiological abnormalities and their correlation with Behcet's disease remain to be clarified, their study suggests the possibility of subclinical CNS involvement in these patients, which may affect the therapeutic approach and their prognosis

  19. Sleep and mood disorders in dry eye disease and allied irritating ocular diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayaki, Masahiko; Kawashima, Motoko; Negishi, Kazuno; Kishimoto, Taishiro; Mimura, Masaru; Tsubota, Kazuo

    2016-03-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate sleep and mood disorders in patients with irritating ocular diseases. The study design was a cross-sectional/case-control study conducted in six eye clinics. Out of 715 outpatients diagnosed with irritating ocular surface diseases and initially enrolled, 301 patients with dry eye disease (DED) and 202 age-matched control participants with other ocular surface diseases were analyzed. The mean Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) and Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) scores were 6.4 ± 3.2 and 11.1 ± 5.7 for severe DED (n = 146), 5.5 ± 3.3 and 9.8 ± 4.0 for mild DED (n = 155), 5.5 ± 3.1 and 9.5 ± 6.6 for chronic conjunctivitis (n = 124), and 5.0 ± 3.3 and 8.9 ± 5.3 for allergic conjunctivitis (n = 78). There were significant differences among these diagnostic groups for PSQI (P sleep quality in patients with DED is significantly worse than in patients with other irritating ocular surface diseases and it is correlated with the severity of DED.

  20. The chick eye in vision research: An excellent model for the study of ocular disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wisely, C Ellis; Sayed, Javed A; Tamez, Heather; Zelinka, Chris; Abdel-Rahman, Mohamed H; Fischer, Andy J; Cebulla, Colleen M

    2017-11-01

    The domestic chicken, Gallus gallus, serves as an excellent model for the study of a wide range of ocular diseases and conditions. The purpose of this manuscript is to outline some anatomic, physiologic, and genetic features of this organism as a robust animal model for vision research, particularly for modeling human retinal disease. Advantages include a sequenced genome, a large eye, relative ease of handling and maintenance, and ready availability. Relevant similarities and differences to humans are highlighted for ocular structures as well as for general physiologic processes. Current research applications for various ocular diseases and conditions, including ocular imaging with spectral domain optical coherence tomography, are discussed. Several genetic and non-genetic ocular disease models are outlined, including for pathologic myopia, keratoconus, glaucoma, retinal detachment, retinal degeneration, ocular albinism, and ocular tumors. Finally, the use of stem cell technology to study the repair of damaged tissues in the chick eye is discussed. Overall, the chick model provides opportunities for high-throughput translational studies to more effectively prevent or treat blinding ocular diseases. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Ocular manifestations of graft-versus-host disease: 10 years’ experience

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    Lin X

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Xihui Lin, Harrison Dwight Cavanagh Department of Ophthalmology, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, TX, USA Purpose: To evaluate the ocular presentation, treatment, and clinical course of graft-versus-host disease (GVHD. Design: Retrospective case series. Participants: Two hundred and forty-nine patients with systemic GVHD were included in the study. Methods: Ocular and systemic data were collected from 2003 to 2013. Main outcome measures: Mortality, visual acuity, and response of ocular symptoms. Results: Sixty-four patients had ocular manifestations (25.7%. At presentation, the mean age was 44.5 years and mean latency was 16.4 months. The most common presentations were keratoconjunctivitis sicca, cataract, blepharitis, ocular hypertension, and filamentary keratitis. Visual acuity at presentation was 20/49; at the worst point in the disease was 20/115; and at most recent visit was 20/63. When topical anti-inflammatory drops were used in addition to tears, 54.3% of patients’ ocular symptoms stabilized. When autologous serum was used in addition, 80% stabilized. The overall 10-year mortality of GVHD was 29.7%. For those with ocular involvement, it was 21.9%. Conclusion: Systemic GVHD has a high mortality rate, but ocular involvement does not suggest a worse prognosis. The main ocular presentations were keratoconjunctivitis sicca, cataracts, and ocular hypertension. Dry eyes in this population were very severe with overall worsening in visual acuity. However, with a step-wise approach involving topical anti-inflammatory medications and autologous serum tears, ocular symptoms do improve. It is important to monitor these patients closely, as they are prone to serious ocular complications such as corneal perforation and endophthalmitis. Keywords: dry eye, keratitis, corneal ulceration

  2. Validation of farsi translation of the ocular surface disease index

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    Farzad Pakdel

    2017-01-01

    Conclusion: The obtained F-OSDI showed acceptable internal consistency and test-retest reliability. This F-OSDI could be used for assessment of dry eye, ocular surface discomfort and quality of life in Iranian and Farsi speaking populations.

  3. Neovascularization in Vertebral Artery Atheroma-A Dynamic Contrast-Enhanced Magnetic Resonance Imaging-Based Comparative Study in Patients with Symptomatic and Asymptomatic Carotid Artery Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Usman, Ammara; Yuan, Jianmin; Patterson, Andrew J; Graves, Martin J; Varty, Kevin; Sadat, Umar; Gillard, Jonathan H

    2018-05-24

    Atherosclerosis is a systemic inflammatory disease intertwined with neovascularization. Dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (DCE-MRI) enables the assessment of plaque neovascularization. This study aimed to explore the systemic nature of atherosclerosis by assessing difference in severity of neovascularization as quantified by DCE-MRI of vertebral arteries (VAs) between patients with symptomatic and asymptomatic carotid artery disease. Ten consecutive patients with asymptomatic VA stenosis and concomitant symptomatic carotid artery disease (group 1) and 10 consecutive patients with asymptomatic VA stenosis and concomitant asymptomatic carotid artery disease (group 2) underwent 3-dimensional DCE-MRI of their cervical segment of VAs. A previously validated pharmacokinetic modeling approach was used for DCE-MRI analysis. K trans was calculated in the adventitia and plaque as a measure of neovessel permeability. Both patient groups were comparable for demographics and comorbidities. Mean luminal stenosis was comparable for both groups (54.4% versus 52.27%, P = .32). Group 1 had higher adventitial K trans and plaque K trans (.08 ± .01 min -1 , .07 ± .01 min -1 ) compared with Group 2 (.06 ± .01 min -1 , .06 ± .01 min -1 ) (P = .004 and .03, respectively). Good correlation was present among the two image analysts (intraclass correlation coefficient = .78). Vertebral Artery atheroma of patients with symptomatic carotid artery disease had increased neovessel permeability compared with the patients with asymptomatic carotid artery disease. These findings are consistent with the hypothesis that atherosclerosis is a systemic inflammatory disease. The VA atherosclerosis is likely to have increased severity of neovascularization if another arterial territory is symptomatic in the same patient cohort. Copyright © 2018 National Stroke Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Vision-Related Quality of Life in Patients with Ocular Graft-versus-Host Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saboo, Ujwala S; Amparo, Francisco; Abud, Tulio B; Schaumberg, Debra A; Dana, Reza

    2015-08-01

    To assess the vision-related quality of life (QOL) in a cohort of patients with ocular graft-versus-host disease (GVHD). Prospective study. Eighty-four patients diagnosed with chronic ocular GVHD. We assessed the vision-related QOL with the 25-item National Eye Institute Visual Function Questionnaire (NEI-VFQ-25). The symptoms of ocular GVHD were assessed using the Ocular Surface Disease Index (OSDI) and Symptom Assessment in Dry Eye (SANDE) questionnaires. We assessed vision-related QOL with the NEI-VFQ-25 and compared the scores obtained from patients with ocular GVHD with those from a healthy population. In the ocular GVHD population, we also evaluated the associations between the NEI-VFQ-25 and the dry eye symptoms measured by the OSDI and SANDE questionnaires, age, duration of disease, best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA), corneal fluorescein staining (CFS), tear break-up time, and Schirmer test. The mean composite NEI-VFQ-25 score in patients with ocular GVHD was 76.5±17. Compared with healthy subjects, patients with ocular GVHD reported reduced scores on all NEI-VFQ-25 subscales (each P vision (P = 0.11). The NEI-VFQ-25 composite scores significantly correlated with OSDI (R = -0.81, P vision-related QOL. This study highlights the impact of ocular GVHD on the vision-related QOL, and thus the importance of comprehensive diagnosis and treatment of this condition. Copyright © 2015 American Academy of Ophthalmology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. A review of scoring systems for ocular involvement in chronic cutaneous bullous diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Brendon W H; Tan, Jeremy C K; Radjenovic, Melissa; Coroneo, Minas T; Murrell, Dedee F

    2018-05-22

    Epidermolysis bullosa (EB) and autoimmune blistering diseases (AIBD) describe a group of rare chronic dermatoses characterized by cutaneous fragility and blistering. Although uncommon, significant ocular surface disease (OSD) may occur in both and require ophthalmological assessment. Disease scoring systems have a critical role in providing objective and accurate assessment of disease severity. The objectives of this report were, firstly, to document the prevalence and severity of ocular involvement in EB/AIBD. Secondly, to review and evaluate existing ocular and systemic scoring systems for EB/AIBD. Finally, to identify areas where further development of ocular specific tools in EB/AIBD could be pursued. A literature search was performed in October 2017 utilising Medline, Embase, and Scopus databases. The results were restricted by date of publication, between 01.01.1950 and 31.10.2017. The reference lists of these articles were then reviewed for additional relevant publications. Articles of all languages were included if an English translation was available. Articles were excluded if they were duplicates, had no reference to ocular involvement in EB/AIBD or described ocular involvement in other diseases. Descriptions of ocular involvement in EB/AIBD were identified in 88 peer-reviewed journal articles. Findings reported include but are not limited to: cicatrising conjunctivitis, meibomian gland dysfunction, dry eye disease, trichiasis, symblepharon, fornix fibrosis, keratopathy, ectropion/entropion, ankyloblepharon, corneal ulceration, visual impairment and blindness. Although scoring systems exist for assessment of OSD in mucous membrane pemphigoid, no such tools exist for the other AIBD subtypes or for EB. Several systemic scoring systems exist in the dermatological literature that are efficacious in grading overall EB/AIBD severity, but have limited inclusion of ocular features. To the best of our knowledge, there is no recognised or validated scoring systems

  6. OCULAR MANIFESTATIONS IN PATIENTS WITH CHRONIC KIDNEY DISEASE- A HOSPITALBASED STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shobha Ponmudy

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Chronic kidney disease affects every organ system including the eye. The aim of the study is to conduct a thorough ocular examination and to study the occurrence of various ocular manifestations exhibited by patients with chronic kidney disease and to analyse the findings. MATERIALS AND METHODS 100 patients from Department of Nephrology, Stanley Medical College diagnosed with chronic kidney disease were examined for ocular manifestations at the Department of Ophthalmology, Stanley Medical College. This is a cross-sectional, descriptive, non-interventional, hospital-based study. The period of study was from August 2010 to October 2011. RESULTS The commonest cause of CKD was hypertension in 47 pts. (52.2% followed by both diabetes and hypertension in 30 patients. Patients with only diabetes were 6 patients (6.7% and with other causes were 7 patients (7.8%.10% of patients were legally blind with visual acuity <6/60. In this study, 65 patients belonged to less than 50 years. 49.3% of the presenile patients had cataract. A reduced Schirmer’s value was noted in 54 eyes of the 200 eyes. The incidence of ocular surface disease in the study was 27%. 92 eyes out of 200 eyes studied showed hypertensive retinopathy. Higher grades of hypertensive retinopathy was more in advanced stages of CKD, i.e. 24 eyes in stage IV and 23 eyes in stage V. 51 eyes out of 40 diabetics showed diabetic retinopathy changes of which a majority of 25 eyes belonged to stage V disease. Prevalence of diabetic retinopathy in CKD patients is significantly more when compared to diabetic patients without CKD. CONCLUSION Study demonstrates that routine ocular evaluation is necessary in all patients with chronic kidney disease irrespective of the presence of ocular symptoms. It also highlights the occurrence of a variety of treatable ocular manifestations, which can become vision threatening if not taken care of at the earliest.

  7. Comparison of Newly Diagnosed Ocular Hypertension and Open-Angle Glaucoma: Ocular Variables, Risk Factors, and Disease Severity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yvonne M. Buys

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To describe the distribution of ocular variables, risk factors, and disease severity in newly diagnosed ocular hypertension (OH or open-angle glaucoma (OAG. Methods. Eligible subjects underwent a complete history and examination. Adjusted odds ratios (ORs and 95% confidence intervals (CIs obtained from multiple logistic regression models were used to compare OAG to OH and advanced to early/moderate OAG. Results. 405 subjects were enrolled: 292 (72.1% with OAG and 113 (27.9% with OH. 51.7% had early, 27.1% moderate, and 20.9% advanced OAG. The OR for OAG versus OH was 8.19 (P<0.0001 for disc notch, 5.36 (P<0.0001 for abnormal visual field, 1.45 (P=0.001 for worsening mean deviation, 1.91 (P<0.0001 for increased cupping, 1.03 for increased age (P=0.030, and 0.36 (P=0.010 for smoking. Conclusions. Increased age was a risk for OAG, and smoking decreased the risk of OAG compared to OH. Almost half of the OAG subjects had moderate/advanced disease at diagnosis.

  8. Serum Vitamin A Levels May Affect the Severity of Ocular Graft-versus-Host Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, Jiefeng; Hu, Renjian; Zhao, Yingying; Xu, Yang; Zhao, Xiaoying; Jin, Xiuming

    2017-01-01

    Allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) is a well-established therapeutic option for a range of inherited and acquired hematological disorders. However, graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) remains the leading cause of non-relapse mortality in allogeneic HSCT recipients. Ocular involvement occurs in up to 80% of chronic GVHD patients. In our cases, the diagnosis of vitamin A deficiency was suspected for GVHD patients. Serum vitamin A measurements were conducted to confirm clinical suspicions. Our study revealed significant decrease in serum levels of vitamin A in chronic liver GVHD patients. Although there have been many studies evaluating ocular manifestations in patients with GVHD, the present study is, to our knowledge, the first to study the relationship between vitamin A and ocular manifestations of GVHD in humans. Our data suggest that vitamin A deficiency affects the severity of ocular GVHD in adults.

  9. Serum Vitamin A Levels May Affect the Severity of Ocular Graft-versus-Host Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiefeng Tong

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT is a well-established therapeutic option for a range of inherited and acquired hematological disorders. However, graft-versus-host disease (GVHD remains the leading cause of non-relapse mortality in allogeneic HSCT recipients. Ocular involvement occurs in up to 80% of chronic GVHD patients. In our cases, the diagnosis of vitamin A deficiency was suspected for GVHD patients. Serum vitamin A measurements were conducted to confirm clinical suspicions. Our study revealed significant decrease in serum levels of vitamin A in chronic liver GVHD patients. Although there have been many studies evaluating ocular manifestations in patients with GVHD, the present study is, to our knowledge, the first to study the relationship between vitamin A and ocular manifestations of GVHD in humans. Our data suggest that vitamin A deficiency affects the severity of ocular GVHD in adults.

  10. Current and future molecular diagnostics for ocular infectious diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doan, Thuy; Pinsky, Benjamin A

    2016-11-01

    Confirmation of ocular infections can pose great challenges to the clinician. A fundamental limitation is the small amounts of specimen that can be obtained from the eye. Molecular diagnostics can circumvent this limitation and have been shown to be more sensitive than conventional culture. The purpose of this review is to describe new molecular methods and to discuss the applications of next-generation sequencing-based approaches in the diagnosis of ocular infections. Efforts have focused on improving the sensitivity of pathogen detection using molecular methods. This review describes a new molecular target for Toxoplasma gondii-directed polymerase chain reaction assays. Molecular diagnostics for Chlamydia trachomatis and Acanthamoeba species are also discussed. Finally, we describe a hypothesis-free approach, metagenomic deep sequencing, which can detect DNA and RNA pathogens from a single specimen in one test. In some cases, this method can provide the geographic location and timing of the infection. Pathogen-directed PCRs have been powerful tools in the diagnosis of ocular infections for over 20 years. The use of next-generation sequencing-based approaches, when available, will further improve sensitivity of detection with the potential to improve patient care.

  11. Human tears reveal insights into corneal neovascularization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zakaria, Nadia; Van Grasdorff, Sigi; Wouters, Kristien; Rozema, Jos; Koppen, Carina; Lion, Eva; Cools, Nathalie; Berneman, Zwi; Tassignon, Marie-José

    2012-01-01

    Corneal neovascularization results from the encroachment of blood vessels from the surrounding conjunctiva onto the normally avascular cornea. The aim of this study is to identify factors in human tears that are involved in development and/or maintenance of corneal neovascularization in humans. This could allow development of diagnostic tools for monitoring corneal neovascularization and combination monoclonal antibody therapies for its treatment. In an observational case-control study we enrolled a total of 12 patients with corneal neovascularization and 10 healthy volunteers. Basal tears along with reflex tears from the inferior fornix, superior fornix and using a corneal bath were collected along with blood serum samples. From all patients, ocular surface photographs were taken. Concentrations of the pro-angiogenic cytokines interleukin (IL)-6, IL-8, Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor (VEGF), Monocyte Chemoattractant Protein 1 (MCP-1) and Fas Ligand (FasL) were determined in blood and tear samples using a flow cytometric multiplex assay. Our results show that the concentration of pro-angiogenic cytokines in human tears are significantly higher compared to their concentrations in serum, with highest levels found in basal tears. Interestingly, we could detect a significantly higher concentration of IL- 6, IL-8 and VEGF in localized corneal tears of patients with neovascularized corneas when compared to the control group. This is the first study of its kind demonstrating a significant difference of defined factors in tears from patients with neovascularized corneas as compared to healthy controls. These results provide the basis for future research using animal models to further substantiate the role of these cytokines in the establishment and maintenance of corneal neovascularization.

  12. TEAR AND SERUM EOSINOPHIL CATIONIC PROTEIN AS A MARKER OF DISEASE SEVERITY IN ALLERGIC OCULAR DISEASES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    SOLIMAN, S.ET.; KHALIFA, R.A.

    2007-01-01

    The Eosinophil is a major cellular component in the late allergic response. In its activated state, the Eosinophil liberates performed basic proteins; the most sensitively quantifiable of them is the Eosinophil cationic protein (ECP).In the present study ECP was measured in tear and serum in different forms of ocular allergy to assess its value as a marker of disease severity and usefulness to evaluate topical therapy.Tears and serum were collected from 65 patients with allergic Keratoconjunctivitis, 20 healthy volunteers (6 of them children) with no history or evidence of allergic diseases, as well as, 5 patients with non allergic and untreated blepharo-conjunctivitis. Patients were classified according to their clinical signs and symptoms into four groups:Seasonal allergic conjunctivitis (SAC), 15 patients, Vernal Keratoconjunctivitis (VKC), 15 Palpebral and 6 Limbal, Atopic Keratoconjunctivitis (AKC), 17 patients and, Giant papillary conjunctivitis (GPC), 8 contact lens-induced and 4 suture-induced.Tears were collected by capillary tubes for cytological examination and measurement of ECP using radioimmunoassay methods. Serum was collected for measurement of ECP and atopy screening.Tear-ECP evaluation showed statistically significant elevation in all allergic subjects (p<0.001). Patients with VKC and AKC had significantly higher tear ECP values than patients with GPC and SAC. There was significant correlation between tear ECP values and disease severity.On the contrary, serum ECP values were only elevated significantly in atopic patients, and did not correlate to tear ECP values. Tear cytology was not sensitive to evaluate disease severity. These data demonstrated that tear ECP in contrast to serum ECP is a useful marker for disease severity in allergic ocular diseases and as such could become a valuable objective variable in treatment studies and as an adjunctive diagnostic tool in chronic conditions

  13. The ocular surface and tear film and their dysfunction in dry eye disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rolando, M; Zierhut, M

    2001-03-01

    The ocular surface, tear film, lacrimal glands, and eyelids act as a functional unit to preserve the quality of the refractive surface of the eye and to resist injury and protect the eye against changing bodily and environmental conditions. Events that disturb the homeostasis of this functional unit can result in a vicious cycle of ocular surface disease. The tear film is the most dynamic structure of the functional unit, and its production and turnover is essential to maintaining the health of the ocular surface. Classically, the tear film is reported to be composed of three layers: the mucin, aqueous, and lipid layers. The boundaries and real thickness of such layers is still under discussion. A dysfunction of any of these layers can result in dry eye disease.

  14. Somatostatin receptor 2A expression in choroidal neovascularization secondary to age-related macular degeneration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.C. Lambooij (Antoinette); R.W.A.M. Kuijpers (Robert); E.G. van Lichtenauer-Kaligis; M. Kliffen (Mike); G.S. Baarsma (Seerp); P.M. van Hagen (Martin); C.M. Mooy (Cornelia)

    2000-01-01

    textabstractPURPOSE: The growth of ocular neovascularization is regulated by a balance between stimulating and inhibiting growth factors. Somatostatin affects angiogenesis by inhibiting the growth hormone-insulin-like growth factor axis and also has a direct

  15. Ocular surface immunity: homeostatic mechanisms and their disruption in dry eye disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barabino, Stefano; Chen, Yihe; Chauhan, Sunil; Dana, Reza

    2012-05-01

    The tear film, lacrimal glands, corneal and conjunctival epithelia and Meibomian glands work together as a lacrimal functional unit (LFU) to preserve the integrity and function of the ocular surface. The integrity of this unit is necessary for the health and normal function of the eye and visual system. Nervous connections and systemic hormones are well known factors that maintain the homeostasis of the ocular surface. They control the response to internal and external stimuli. Our and others' studies show that immunological mechanisms also play a pivotal role in regulating the ocular surface environment. Our studies demonstrate how anti-inflammatory factors such as the expression of vascular endothelial growth factor receptor-3 (VEGFR-3) in corneal cells, immature corneal resident antigen-presenting cells, and regulatory T cells play an active role in protecting the ocular surface. Dry eye disease (DED) affects millions of people worldwide and negatively influences the quality of life for patients. In its most severe forms, DED may lead to blindness. The etiology and pathogenesis of DED remain largely unclear. Nonetheless, in this review we summarize the role of the disruption of afferent and efferent immunoregulatory mechanisms that are responsible for the chronicity of the disease, its symptoms, and its clinical signs. We illustrate current anti-inflammatory treatments for DED and propose that prevention of the disruption of immunoregulatory mechanisms may represent a promising therapeutic strategy towards controlling ocular surface inflammation. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Surgical and medical treatment of ocular disease in a dog with Ehlers-Danlos syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasch, Søren N

    2017-06-01

    Correctional surgery was performed on a 3-year-old intact male shih tzu presenting with Ehlers-Danlos syndrome, ocular disease, and skin fold dermatitis. A one-year follow-up showed that no further clinical corrections were needed. Therefore, surgery could be considered in some canine patients with Ehlers-Danlos syndrome.

  17. Frequency of decreased vision and ocular diseases in school children at bannu

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Janjua, T.A.; Iqbal, Z.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: This study was done to assess frequency of ocular diseases and causes of visual impairment in children of a school at Bannu. Study Design: Observational cross sectional survey. Place and Duration of Study: A local high school at Bannu from March 2009 to May 2009. Material and Methods: Students were asked to fill a structured questionnaire designed to encompass the symptoms of ocular diseases like history of impaired vision, use of glasses, headache and redness. Initial examination at school included assessment of visual acuity by Snellens chart, torch examination and cover uncover test. Subjects having unaided visual acuity less than 6/9 in worse eye, squint or redness were subjected to further examination including refraction and slit lamp biomicroscopy. SPSS version 15 was utilized to assess the data. Chi-square test was used to test differences in proportions. Results: The 304 students (76%) were male and 96 (24%) were female. Mean age was 10.7 +- 2.8 years. Eighty five subjects (21.2%) were diagnosed to be suffering from some ocular disease but only 6.5% had any previous ocular consultation. Twelve percent (48) students had decreased vision on examination but its frequency in those with history of headache was significantly high (20%) compared to those with negative history (9.5%) (p value < 0.05). Refractive error was the cause of decreased vision in more than half of the cases. Vernal keratoconjunctivitis (VKC) was diagnosed in 2.8 % but its frequency was significantly high in those complaining of redness (12%) as compared to those not complaining of redness (1.1%) (p value <0.05). Blepharitis was also found to be a common disease affecting 3.3% of subjects. Conclusion: Ocular diseases are very common in school going children of Bannu. Refractive errors, VKC and blepharitis constitute the majority of cases. Frequency of ocular consultation was quite low as compared to the load of eye diseases which necessitates consolidated effort to screen

  18. [A pilot study of ocular diseases screening for neonates in China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nie, Wen-ying; Wu, Han-rong; Qi, Yi-sheng; Zhang, Min; Hou, Qian; Yang, Hai-xia; Gong, Lu-xia; Dong, Yan-ru; Guo, Yu-luan; Shi, Jin-na; Yin, Su-ying; Li, Ping-yu

    2008-06-01

    To explore the clinical strategies for the screening of newborn eye diseases and obtain information concerning the incidence of newborn ocular diseases. Newborns in a baby-friendly nursery were evaluated for mass screening of eye diseases 2 to 7 days after birth (including reaction to light stimulation, external ocular examination and test for pupil red reflex) and those with abnormalities were subjected to diagnostic examination (external ocular examination with a hand-held slit-lamp, pupil red reflex and mydriatic examination). Newborns in neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) were subjected to screening 5 to 14 days after birth and then, together with those with high risk factors, received a comprehensive examination for screening and diagnostic purposes. The suspected cases were referred to department of ophthalmology for definite diagnosis. Among the 15,398 (91.65%) newborns who were enrolled the screening program, 12 different eye diseases (involving 1266 cases) were detected, with a prevalence of 8.22%. Of these eye diseases, 7 were congenital ocular diseases, involving 809 cases (5. 254%) and including congenital ptosis in 2 cases (0.013%), congenital corneal opacity in 6 cases (0.039%), persistent pupillary membrane in 724 cases (4.702%), congenital cataract in 15 cases (0.097%), persistent hyaloid artery in 54 cases (0.351%), obstruction of nasolacrimal duct in 7 cases (0.046%) and lacrimal gland prolapse in 1 cases (0.007%). Five different diseases (457 cases, 2. 968%) detected were acquired in nature, including neonatal conjunctivitis in 391 case (2.539%), vitreous hemorrhage in 6 cases (0.039%), retinal hemorrhage in 34 cases (0.221%), and neonatal dacryocystitis in 23 cases (0.149%). Of 27 premature babies with body weight lower than 1500 g, 3 had retinopathy of prematurity (ROP, 6 eyes involved). Early intervention is of great importance for the prevention and treatment of neonatal ocular diseases. The screening of newborn ocular diseases is not only

  19. Honokiol inhibits pathological retinal neovascularization in oxygen-induced retinopathy mouse model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vavilala, Divya Teja [Division of Pharmaceutical Sciences, School of Pharmacy, University of Missouri-Kansas City, MO (United States); O’Bryhim, Bliss E. [Department of Ophthalmology, University of Kansas Medical Center, Kansas City, KS (United States); Ponnaluri, V.K. Chaithanya [Division of Pharmaceutical Sciences, School of Pharmacy, University of Missouri-Kansas City, MO (United States); White, R. Sid; Radel, Jeff [Department of Ophthalmology, University of Kansas Medical Center, Kansas City, KS (United States); Symons, R.C. Andrew [Department of Ophthalmology, University of Kansas Medical Center, Kansas City, KS (United States); Ophthalmology Department, Royal Melbourne Hospital, University of Melbourne, Victoria (Australia); Department of Surgery, Royal Melbourne Hospital, University of Melbourne, Victoria (Australia); Mukherji, Mridul, E-mail: mukherjim@umkc.edu [Division of Pharmaceutical Sciences, School of Pharmacy, University of Missouri-Kansas City, MO (United States)

    2013-09-06

    Highlights: •Aberrant activation of HIF pathway is the underlying cause of ischemic neovascularization. •Honokiol has better therapeutic index as a HIF inhibitor than digoxin and doxorubicin. •Daily IP injection of honokiol in OIR mouse model reduced retinal neovascularization. •Honokiol also prevents vaso-obliteration, the characteristic feature of the OIR model. •Honokiol enhanced physiological revascularization of the retinal vascular plexuses. -- Abstract: Aberrant activation of the hypoxia inducible factor (HIF) pathway is the underlying cause of retinal neovascularization, one of the most common causes of blindness worldwide. The HIF pathway also plays critical roles during tumor angiogenesis and cancer stem cell transformation. We have recently shown that honokiol is a potent inhibitor of the HIF pathway in a number of cancer and retinal pigment epithelial cell lines. Here we evaluate the safety and efficacy of honokiol, digoxin, and doxorubicin, three recently identified HIF inhibitors from natural sources. Our studies show that honokiol has a better safety to efficacy profile as a HIF inhibitor than digoxin and doxorubicin. Further, we show for the first time that daily intraperitoneal injection of honokiol starting at postnatal day (P) 12 in an oxygen-induced retinopathy (OIR) mouse model significantly reduced retinal neovascularization at P17. Administration of honokiol also prevents the oxygen-induced central retinal vaso-obliteration, characteristic feature of the OIR model. Additionally, honokiol enhanced physiological revascularization of the retinal vascular plexuses. Since honokiol suppresses multiple pathways activated by HIF, in addition to the VEGF signaling, it may provide advantages over current treatments utilizing specific VEGF antagonists for ocular neovascular diseases and cancers.

  20. Cervical and ocular vestibular evoked potentials in Machado-Joseph disease: Functional involvement of otolith pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribeiro, Rodrigo Souza; Pereira, Melissa Marques; Pedroso, José Luiz; Braga-Neto, Pedro; Barsottini, Orlando Graziani Povoas; Manzano, Gilberto Mastrocola

    2015-11-15

    Machado-Joseph disease is defined as an autosomal dominant ataxic disorder caused by degeneration of the cerebellum and its connections and is associated with a broad range of clinical symptoms. The involvement of the vestibular system is responsible for several symptoms and signs observed in the individuals affected by the disease. We measured cervical and ocular vestibular evoked myogenic potentials in a sample of Machado-Joseph disease patients in order to assess functional pathways involved. Bilateral measures of cervical and ocular vestibular evoked myogenic potentials (cVEMP and oVEMP) were obtained from 14 symptomatic patients with genetically proven Machado-Joseph disease and compared with those from a control group of 20 healthy subjects. Thirteen (93%) patients showed at least one abnormal test result; oVEMP and cVEMP responses were absent in 17/28 (61%) and 11/28 (39%) measures, respectively; and prolonged latency of cVEMP was found in 3/28 (11%) measures. Of the 13 patients with abnormal responses, 9/13 (69%) patients showed discordant abnormal responses: four with absent oVEMP and present cVEMP, two with absent cVEMP and present oVEMP, and three showed unilateral prolonged cVEMP latencies. Both otolith-related vestibulocollic and vestibulo-ocular pathways are severely affected in Machado-Joseph disease patients evaluated by VEMPs. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Frosted branch angiitis, neuroretinitis as initial ocular manifestation in Behçet disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdullah Al-Mujaini

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Behçet disease is an idiopathic, multisystem disorder characterized by recurrent episodes of orogenital ulceration and vasculitis of the veins and arteries of all calibers. Ocular involvement may affect the conjunctiva, sclera, uveal tract, vitreous, blood vessels, and retina. Many theories have pointed toward an autoimmune response behind its pathogenesis, which may be triggered by exposure to an infectious agent. Frosted branch angiitis is characterized by vascular inflammation, sheathing, retinal edema, and retinal hemorrhages. The disease may be idiopathic in a majority of the cases or may be associated with ocular and systemic pathology. Association between Behηet disease, Frosted branch angiitis, and neuroretinitis is not reported in literature. This uncommon combination reflects the varied systemic and ocular manifestations in Behηet disease, especially in patients who are not diagnosed and treated in time. We hereby report a case of bilateral frosted branch angiitis and neuroretinitis in a young male from Middle-east, suffering from Behçet disease.

  2. Ocular Sarcoidosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasadhika, Sirichai; Rosenbaum, James T

    2015-01-01

    Sarcoidosis is one of the leading causes of inflammatory eye disease. Ocular sarcoidosis can involve any part of the eye and its adnexal tissues, and may cause uveitis, episcleritis/scleritis, eyelid abnormalities, conjunctival granuloma, optic neuropathy, lacrimal gland enlargement and orbital inflammation. Glaucoma and cataract can be complications from inflammation itself or adverse effects from therapy. Ophthalmic manifestations can be isolated, or associated with other organ involvement. Patients with ocular sarcoidosis can present with a wide range of clinical presentations and severity. Multi-disciplinary approaches are required to achieve the best treatment outcomes for both ocular and systemic manifestations. PMID:26593141

  3. Current trends in the management of ocular symptoms in Adamantiades-Behçet’s disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fouad R Zakka

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Fouad R Zakka,1 Peter Y Chang,1 Gian P Giuliari,1 C Stephen Foster1,21Massachusetts Eye Research and Surgery institution (MERSI, Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA; 2Department of Ophthalmology, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts, USAAbstract: Adamantiades-Behçet’s disease (ABD is a multisystemic vasculitic disease. It is most prevalent in the Eastern Mediterranean countries and the Eastern region of Asia. Its effect on the eye can range from mild to debilitating, resulting in total blindness. A necrotizing and obliterative vasculitis affects both arteries and veins of organs. Recurrent attacks of uveitis, oral aphthous ulcers, skin lesions, and genital ulcers are common. Topical and systemic corticosteroids have been the mainstay in the treatment of ocular inflammation for many years; however, due to the several known side effects of corticosteroids and thanks to scientific advances, more novel approaches to ABD treatment have been emerging. Antimetabolites such as methotrexate and azathioprine have been utilized with the latter showing positive results. Chlorambucil has been utilized effectively for ocular manifestations of ABD. Interferon alpha has shown encouraging results in the management of refractory ocular inflammation associated with ABD, either alone or in combination with other immunosuppressive agents. Surgical interventions to deal with complications from ABD can be safely done if adequate control of inflammation is achieved peri-operatively. Early detection and aggressive treatment, when needed, have proven to be essential in the management of this relentlessly explosive disease.Keywords: Adamantiades-Behçet’s disease, Behçet’s disease, ocular inflammation, uveitis, immunomodulatory therapy, immunosuppressive therapy

  4. Ocular herpes simplex virus: how are latency, reactivation, recurrent disease and therapy interrelated?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Dujaili, Lena J; Clerkin, Patrick P; Clement, Christian; McFerrin, Harris E; Bhattacharjee, Partha S; Varnell, Emily D; Kaufman, Herbert E; Hill, James M

    2011-08-01

    Most humans are infected with herpes simplex virus (HSV) type 1 in early childhood and remain latently infected throughout life. While most individuals have mild or no symptoms, some will develop destructive HSV keratitis. Ocular infection with HSV-1 and its associated sequelae account for the majority of corneal blindness in industrialized nations. Neuronal latency in the peripheral ganglia is established when transcription of the viral genome is repressed (silenced) except for the latency-associated transcripts and microRNAs. The functions of latency-associated transcripts have been investigated since 1987. Roles have been suggested relating to reactivation, establishment of latency, neuronal protection, antiapoptosis, apoptosis, virulence and asymptomatic shedding. Here, we review HSV-1 latent infections, reactivation, recurrent disease and antiviral therapies for the ocular HSV diseases.

  5. Ocular herpes simplex virus: how are latency, reactivation, recurrent disease and therapy interrelated?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Dujaili, Lena J; Clerkin, Patrick P; Clement, Christian; McFerrin, Harris E; Bhattacharjee, Partha S; Varnell, Emily D; Kaufman, Herbert E; Hill, James M

    2012-01-01

    Most humans are infected with herpes simplex virus (HSV) type 1 in early childhood and remain latently infected throughout life. While most individuals have mild or no symptoms, some will develop destructive HSV keratitis. Ocular infection with HSV-1 and its associated sequelae account for the majority of corneal blindness in industrialized nations. Neuronal latency in the peripheral ganglia is established when transcription of the viral genome is repressed (silenced) except for the latency-associated transcripts and microRNAs. The functions of latency-associated transcripts have been investigated since 1987. Roles have been suggested relating to reactivation, establishment of latency, neuronal protection, antiapoptosis, apoptosis, virulence and asymptomatic shedding. Here, we review HSV-1 latent infections, reactivation, recurrent disease and antiviral therapies for the ocular HSV diseases. PMID:21861620

  6. Ocular findings in the chronic renal failure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P Dahal

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND The aim of the study was to evaluate the ocular signs in chronic renal failure (CRF in diabetes and hypertensive patients. MATERIALS AND METHODS Two hundred and thirty eight cases were enrolled in the study from the nephrology unit of College Of Medical Science, Bharatpur, Nepal and examined in the department of Ophthalmology. The study duration was carried out over 2 years from January 2011 to December 2012. RESULT The number of cases in each grade of CRF were mild 80 (26.67%, moderate 84 (28%, severe 75 (25%, end stage renal disease 61 (20.33%. In all the groups the commonest cause of CRF were Hypertension (HTN 123 out of 300(41% and diabetes 98(32.67%. The commonest ocular symptoms in CRF was blurring of vision 68%. CONCLUSION Many important ocular findings like vitreous haemorrage, retinal detachment, neovascular glaucoma and cataract are the presentation in chronic renal failure, which can cause marked vision loss. Hence proper awareness should be provided to the people in time to prevent these ocular complications.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3126/jcmsn.v10i2.12949 Journal of College of Medical Sciences-Nepal, 2014, Vol.10(2; 18-26

  7. An Overview on the Role of Macular Xanthophylls in Ocular Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sezen Yilmaz Sarialtin

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Macula lutea, is the center of the retina of the eye, contains high concentrations of lutein and zeaxanthin which can act as a filter against short-wavelength (blue light. Lutein and zeaxanthin are the only carotenoids detected in human lens which exhibit highly strong free radical scavenging activity. Many epidemiological studies, clinical trials, animal experiments have suggested that lutein and zeaxanthin have anti-inflammatory potential with their high antioxidant properties. Several eye diseases including, age-related macular degeneration, uveitis and retinitis pigmentosa are caused by ocular inflammation. Some studies have shown that lutein and zeaxanthin could be protective, curative and preventive against ocular inflammation induced diseases and other ocular disorders such as cataract, glaucoma and choroideremia. The mechanisms responsible for these effects are absorption of near-ultraviolet and blue light, reduction of oxidative stress, inflammation and angiogenesis. Lutein and zeaxanthin can be taken from dietary supplements or a diet high in fruits, vegetables such as kale, spinach and turnip greens. The aim of this review is to evaluate the relationship between the consumption of lutein and zeaxanthin and eye diseases.

  8. Magnetic resonance imaging of ocular and orbital disease in 5 dogs and a cat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morgan, R.V.; Ring, R.D.; Ward, D.A.; Adams, W.H.

    1996-01-01

    Magnetic resonance (MR) images were acquired in five dogs and one cat with ocular and orbital disease. MR images were obtained in the dorsal or oblique dorsal, and oblique sagittal planes. Pathologic changes identified in MR images included inflammatory lesions, cystic structures, and neoplasms. All abnormalities were readily apparent in TI-weighted images. MR findings in affected animals were often similar in signal intensity, location, and growth pattern to those found in people with comparable diseases. Although no MR changes were considered pathognomonic for a given disease, MR imaging provided detailed information on the homogeneity, extent and invasiveness of the lesions

  9. Iris recognition in the presence of ocular disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aslam, Tariq Mehmood; Tan, Shi Zhuan; Dhillon, Baljean

    2009-05-06

    Iris recognition systems are among the most accurate of all biometric technologies with immense potential for use in worldwide security applications. This study examined the effect of eye pathology on iris recognition and in particular whether eye disease could cause iris recognition systems to fail. The experiment involved a prospective cohort of 54 patients with anterior segment eye disease who were seen at the acute referral unit of the Princess Alexandra Eye Pavilion in Edinburgh. Iris camera images were obtained from patients before treatment was commenced and again at follow-up appointments after treatment had been given. The principal outcome measure was that of mathematical difference in the iris recognition templates obtained from patients' eyes before and after treatment of the eye disease. Results showed that the performance of iris recognition was remarkably resilient to most ophthalmic disease states, including corneal oedema, iridotomies (laser puncture of iris) and conjunctivitis. Problems were, however, encountered in some patients with acute inflammation of the iris (iritis/anterior uveitis). The effects of a subject developing anterior uveitis may cause current recognition systems to fail. Those developing and deploying iris recognition should be aware of the potential problems that this could cause to this key biometric technology.

  10. Therapeutic Effects of Topical Netrin-4 Inhibits Corneal Neovascularization in Alkali-Burn Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Yun; Shao, Yi; Liu, Tingting; Qu, Yang-Luowa; Li, Wei; Liu, Zuguo

    2015-01-01

    Netrins are secreted molecules involved in axon guidance and angiogenesis. However, the role of netrins in the vasculature remains unclear. Netrin-4 and netrin-1 have been found to be either pro- or antiangiogenic factors. Previously, we found that netrin-1 acts as an anti-angiogenic factor in rats by inhibiting alkali burn-induced corneal neovascularization. Here, we further investigate the effects of netrin-4, another member of the same netrin family, on neovascularization in vitro and in vivo. We found that netrin-4 functions similarly as netrin-1 in angiogenesis. In vitro angiogenesis assay shows that netrin-4 affected human umbilical vein endothelial cell (HUVEC) tube formation, viability and proliferation, apoptosis, migration, and invasion in a dose-dependent manner. Netrin-4 was topically applied in vivo to alkali-burned rat corneas on day 0 (immediately after injury) and/or day 10 post-injury. Netrin-4 subsequently suppressed and reversed corneal neovascularization. Netrin-4 inhibited corneal epithelial and stromal cell apoptosis, inhibited vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), but promoted pigment epithelium-derived factor (PEDF) expression, decreased NK-KB p65 expression, and inhibits neutrophil and macrophage infiltration. These results indicate that netrin-4 shed new light on its potential roles in treatmenting for angiogenic diseases that affect the ocular surface, as well as other tissues. PMID:25853509

  11. Ocular surface disease incidence in patients with open-angle glaucoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radenković Marija

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Ocular surface disease (OSD is a multifactorial disease of the tears and ocular surface that results in symptoms of discomfort, visual disturbances, tear film instability with potential damage to the ocular surface, accompanied by increased tear film osmolarity and inflammation of the ocular surface. It is a consequence of disrupted homeostasis of lacrimal functional unit. The main pathogenetic mechanism stems from tear hyperosmolarity and tear film instability. The etiological classification is hyposecretory (Sy-Sjögren and non-Sjögren and evaporative (extrinsic and intrinsic form. Delphi panel classification grades disease stages. Antiglaucoma topical therapy causes exacerbation or occurrence of symptoms of dry eye due to main ingredients or preservatives (benzalkonium chloride - BAK, which are dose- and time-dependent. BAK reduces the stability of the lipid layer of tears, the number of goblet cells, induces apoptosis and inflammatory infiltration. Objective. The aim of this study was the analysis of the OSD incidence in open-angle glaucoma patients caused by topical medicamentous therapy. Methods. Retrospective analysis of examined patients with open-angle glaucoma was used. Results. Increased incidence of moderate and advanced OSD Index degrees in the group of primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG and pseudoexfoliative glaucoma. According to the Delphi Panel Scale the most common grade is IIb (POAG and pseudoexfoliative glaucoma. Evaporative form of OSD prevailed in all treatment groups. High percentage of dry eye in patients with higher concentrations of preservatives applied was noticed. Conclusion. OSD should be timely diagnosed and treated. Dry eye has an impact on surgical outcome and postoperative visual acuity, and in order to improve patient compliance and quality of life, symptoms of dry eye should be addressed and medications with lower concentrations of preservatives should be applied.

  12. Ocular surface disease incidence in patients with open-angle glaucoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radenković, Marija; Stanković-Babić, Gordana; Jovanović, Predrag; Djordjević-Jocić, Jasmina; Trenkić-Božinović, Marija

    2016-01-01

    Ocular surface disease (OSD) is a multifactorial disease of the tears and ocular surface that results in symptoms of discomfort, visual disturbances, tear film instability with potential damage to the ocular surface, accompanied by increased tear film osmolarity and inflammation of the ocular surface. It is a consequence of disrupted homeostasis of lacrimal functional unit. The main pathogenetic mechanism stems from tear hyperosmolarity and tear film instability. The etiological classification is hyposecretory (Sy-Sjögren and non-Sjögren) and evaporative (extrinsic and intrinsic) form. Delphi panel classification grades disease stages. Antiglaucoma topical therapy causes exacerbation or occurrence of symptoms of dry eye due to main ingredients or preservatives (benzalkonium chloride – BAK), which are dose- and time-dependent. BAK reduces the stability of the lipid layer of tears, the number of goblet cells, induces apoptosis and inflammatory infiltration. The aim of this study was the analysis of the OSD incidence in open-angle glaucoma patients caused by topical medicamentous therapy. Retrospective analysis of examined patients with open-angle glaucoma was used. Increased incidence of moderate and advanced OSD Index degrees in the group of primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG) and pseudoexfoliative glaucoma. According to the Delphi Panel Scale the most common grade is IIb (POAG and pseudoexfoliative glaucoma). Evaporative form of OSD prevailed in all treatment groups. High percentage of dry eye in patients with higher concentrations of preservatives applied was noticed. OSD should be timely diagnosed and treated. Dry eye has an impact on surgical outcome and postoperative visual acuity, and in order to improve patient compliance and quality of life, symptoms of dry eye should be addressed and medications with lower concentrations of preservatives should be applied.

  13. Control of Cross Talk between Angiogenesis and Inflammation by Mesenchymal Stem Cells for the Treatment of Ocular Surface Diseases

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    Fei Li

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Angiogenesis is beneficial in the treatment of ischemic heart disease and peripheral artery disease. However, it facilitates inflammatory cell filtration and inflammation cascade that disrupt the immune and angiogenesis privilege of the avascular cornea, resulting in ocular surface diseases and even vision loss. Although great progress has been achieved, healing of severe ocular surface injury and immunosuppression of corneal transplantation are the most difficult and challenging step in the treatment of ocular surface disorders. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs, derived from various adult tissues, are able to differentiate into different cell types such as endothelial cells and fat cells. Although it is still under debate whether MSCs could give rise to functional corneal cells, recent results from different study groups showed that MSCs could improve corneal disease recovery through suppression of inflammation and modulation of immune cells. Thus, MSCs could become a promising tool for ocular surface disorders. In this review, we discussed how angiogenesis and inflammation are orchestrated in the pathogenesis of ocular surface disease. We overviewed and updated the knowledge of MSCs and then summarized the therapeutic potential of MSCs via control of angiogenesis, inflammation, and immune response in the treatment of ocular surface disease.

  14. A new animal model of choriodal neovascularization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kiilgaard, J.F.; Andersen, Mads V. Nis; Wiencke, A.K.

    2005-01-01

    ophthalmology, age-related macular degeneration, Bruch's membrane, retinal pigment epithelium, choroidal neovascularization, subretinal neovascularization......ophthalmology, age-related macular degeneration, Bruch's membrane, retinal pigment epithelium, choroidal neovascularization, subretinal neovascularization...

  15. Vitamin B12 deficiency evaluation and treatment in severe dry eye disease with neuropathic ocular pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozen, Serkan; Ozer, Murat Atabey; Akdemir, Mehmet Orçun

    2017-06-01

    This study aims to understand the effect of vitamin B12 deficiency on neuropathic ocular pain (NOP) and symptoms in patients with dry eye disease (DED). Patients with severe DED (without receiving topical artificial tears treatment) and ocular pain were enrolled (n = 90). Patients with severe DED and vitamin B12 deficiency (group 1, n = 45) received parenteral vitamin B12 supplement + topical treatment (artificial tears treatment + cyclosporine), and patients with severe DED and normal serum vitamin B12 level (group 2, n = 45) received only topical treatment (artificial tears treatment + cyclosporine). Patients were evaluated by the ocular surface disease index (OSDI) questionnaire, 3rd question (have you experienced painful or sore eyes during last week?) score of OSDI as a pain determiner and pain frequency measure), tear break up time (TBUT), and Schirmer's type 1 test. We compared the groups' OSDI, TBUT, and Schirmer's test recordings at the first visit and after 12 weeks retrospectively. The OSDI score, 3rd OSDI question score, TBUT, and Schirmer's test results improved after 12 weeks (p treatment. The mean score changes between the groups were not statistically significant; however, the decrease in the OSDI questionnaire score (-30.80 ±5.24) and 3rd OSDI question score (-2.82 ±0.53) were remarkable in group 1 (Table 2). The mean TBUT increase was +7.98 ±2.90 s and Schirmer's test result increase was +12.16 ±2.01 mm in group 1. The mean TBUT increase was +6.18 ±1.49 s and Schirmer's test result increase was +6.71 ±1.47 mm in group 2. These findings indicate that vitamin B12 deficiency is related with NOP. It may be important to consider measuring the serum vitamin B12 level in patients with severe DED presenting with resistant ocular pain despite taking topical treatment.

  16. [Speed of ocular saccades in Huntington disease. Prospective study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    García Ruiz, P J; Cenjor, C; Ulmer, E; Hernández, J; Cantarero, S; Fanjul, S; García de Yébenes, J

    2001-02-01

    Oculomotor abnormalities, especially slow saccades, have long been recognized in Huntington's disease (HD). To study prospectively horizontal saccade velocity by videonystagmography in 21 patients with genetically confirmed HD. The study included a baseline analysis and a second evaluation after 18.8 +/- 7.1 months. We included a control group of 15 subjects. HD group exhibited decreased saccade velocity when compared with that from a control group (for predictive and unpredictive target). HD patients showed decreased saccade velocity with the passage of time (for predictive target, p < 0.01). Finally we found statistical significant correlation between saccade velocity and triplet length. The measurement of saccade velocity might be an objective method to study the natural evolution of HD, and thus evaluate the effectiveness of future therapies.

  17. A 4-Year Longitudinal Study of 555 Patients Treated with Ranibizumab for Neovascular Age-related Macular Degeneration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Annette; Bloch, Sara B; Fuchs, Josefine

    2013-01-01

    To investigate the visual outcome, pattern of discontinuation, ocular complications, and mortality of patients treated with a variable ranibizumab dosing regimen for neovascular age-related macular degeneration (AMD) for 4 years.......To investigate the visual outcome, pattern of discontinuation, ocular complications, and mortality of patients treated with a variable ranibizumab dosing regimen for neovascular age-related macular degeneration (AMD) for 4 years....

  18. Ocular Surface Temperature in Age-Related Macular Degeneration

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    Andrea Sodi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. The aim of this study is to investigate the ocular thermographic profiles in age-related macular degeneration (AMD eyes and age-matched controls to detect possible hemodynamic abnormalities, which could be involved in the pathogenesis of the disease. Methods. 32 eyes with early AMD, 37 eyes with atrophic AMD, 30 eyes affected by untreated neovascular AMD, and 43 eyes with fibrotic AMD were included. The control group consisted of 44 healthy eyes. Exclusion criteria were represented by any other ocular diseases other than AMD, tear film abnormalities, systemic cardiovascular abnormalities, diabetes mellitus, and a body temperature higher than 37.5°C. A total of 186 eyes without pupil dilation were investigated by infrared thermography (FLIR A320. The ocular surface temperature (OST of three ocular points was calculated by means of an image processing technique from the infrared images. Two-sample t-test and one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA test were used for statistical analyses. Results. ANOVA analyses showed no significant differences among AMD groups (P value >0.272. OST in AMD patients was significantly lower than in controls (P>0.05. Conclusions. Considering the possible relationship between ocular blood flow and OST, these findings might support the central role of ischemia in the pathogenesis of AMD.

  19. REM sleep behavior disorder in Parkinson disease: association with abnormal ocular motor findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Young Eun; Yang, Hui June; Yun, Ji Young; Kim, Han-Joon; Lee, Jee-Young; Jeon, Beom S

    2014-04-01

    The anatomical substrates associated with generalized muscle atonia during REM sleep are located on the pontine tegmentum and medial medulla oblongata. We examined whether patients with REM sleep behavior disorder (RBD) have abnormal ocular movements suggesting brainstem or cerebellar dysfunction in Parkinson's disease (PD). Cross-sectional survey for the existence of RBD and abnormal ocular movements. Ocular movements were examined by video-oculography (VOG). A total of 202 patients were included in this study. One hundred and sixteen (57.4%) of the 202 patients have clinically probable RBD, and 28 (24.1%) of the 116 with clinically probable RBD patients had abnormal VOG findings suggesting brainstem or cerebellar dysfunction; whereas 86 of the 202 patients did not have clinically probable RBD, and only 7 (8.1%) of the 86 patients had abnormal VOG findings suggesting brainstem or cerebellar dysfunction (P=0.001). This study suggests that the presence of RBD is associated with more severe or extensive brainstem pathology or different distribution of pathology in PD. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Ocular disease in the guinea pig (Cavia porcellus): a survey of 1000 animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, David; Sullivan, Ann

    2010-09-01

    Anecdotal evidence has suggested that guinea pigs have a high prevalence of ocular lesions. Here we undertook a survey of 1000 guinea pigs from populations of animals kept as laboratory animals, breeding show cavies, animals kept as pets and those from rescue and rehoming centers. Each animal was examined to assess for ocular abnormalities. A full ophthalmic examination was performed on each animal with direct and indirect ophthalmoscopy and with slit lamp biomicroscopy. Measurement of tear production using the Schirmer tear test 1 and intraocular pressure using the Tonopen applanation tonometer after topical anesthesia was undertaken in selected animals. Forty-five percent of animals examined had some ocular abnormality. The majority were lens lesions including 17% with cataract and 21% with subclinical lens abnormalities such as nuclear sclerosis. Other abnormalities included conjunctivitis in 4.7% and keratitis in 3.6%. Lipid deposition in conjunctiva was observed in 2.3% of guinea pigs and ciliary body heterotopic bone formation in 0.8% of animals. This study shows a high proportion of eyes with some degree of abnormality in animals otherwise considered healthy. Information on diseases of the guinea pig eye is important given the use of the species as a laboratory rodent and also the number kept as pets and show animals.

  1. Clinics of ocular tuberculosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Vishali; Shoughy, Samir S; Mahajan, Sarakshi; Khairallah, Moncef; Rosenbaum, James T; Curi, Andre; Tabbara, Khalid F

    2015-02-01

    Ocular tuberculosis is an extrapulmonary tuberculous condition and has variable manifestations. The purpose of this review is to describe the clinical manifestations of ocular tuberculosis affecting the anterior and posterior segments of the eye in both immunocompetent and immunocompromised patients. Review of literature using Pubmed database. Mycobacterium tuberculosis may lead to formation of conjunctival granuloma, nodular scleritis, and interstitial keratitis. Lacrimal gland and orbital caseating granulomas are rare but may occur. The intraocular structures are also a target of insult by M. tuberculosis and may cause anterior granulomatous uveitis, anterior and posterior synechiae, secondary glaucoma, and cataract. The bacillus may involve the ciliary body, resulting in the formation of a localized caseating granuloma. Posterior segment manifestations include vitritis, retinal vasculitis, optic neuritis, serpiginous-like choroiditis, choroidal tubercules, subretinal neovascularization, and, rarely, endophthalmitis. The recognition of clinical signs of ocular tuberculosis is of utmost importance as it can provide clinical pathway toward tailored investigations and decision making for initiating anti-tuberculosis therapy.

  2. Neovascular age-related macular degeneration is not associated with coronary heart disease in a Chinese Population: a population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Chao-Chien; Lin, Herng-Ching; Sheu, Jau-Jiuan; Kao, Li-Ting

    2017-11-01

    This case-control study aimed to explore the association between prior coronary heart disease (CHD) and neovascular age-related macular degeneration (AMD) using a population-based data set in Taiwan. We analysed data sourced from the Taiwan Longitudinal Health Insurance Database 2005. The study consisted of 1970 patients with neovascular AMD as cases and 5910 age- and sex-matched controls. We performed a conditional logistic regression to examine the odds ratio (OR) and its corresponding 95% confidence interval (CI) for previously diagnosed CHD between cases and controls. Of the 7880 sampled patients, 24.5% had a prior history of CHD; CHD was found in 25.7% of cases and in 22.7% of controls (p = 0.008). The conditional logistic regression analysis indicated that the OR for prior CHD for cases was 1.17 [95% confidence interval (CI): 1.04-1.32] compared to the controls. However, after adjusting for patient's monthly income, geographic location, urbanization level, age, hyperlipidaemia, diabetes and hypertension, we failed to observe an association between prior CHD and AMD (OR = 1.03, 95% CI = 0.91-1.17). Additionally, the medical comorbidities of hyperlipidaemia (adjusted OR = 1.29, 95% CI = 1.15-1.45), hypertension (adjusted OR = 1.20, 95% CI = 1.05-1.37) and diabetes (adjusted OR = 1.47, 95% CI = 1.32-1.65) were significantly associated with AMD. This study presented no significant difference in the odds of prior CHD between patients with AMD and those without AMD after adjusting for comorbidities and sociodemographic characteristics in a Chinese population. © 2016 Acta Ophthalmologica Scandinavica Foundation. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Ocular surface disease in patients with glaucoma or ocular hypertension treated with either BAK-preserved latanoprost or BAK-free travoprost

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gregory Katz

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Gregory Katz1, Clark L Springs2, E Randy Craven3, Michela Montecchi-Palmer41Huron Ophthalmology, Ypsilanti, MI, USA; 2Indiana University Eye Care, Indianapolis, IN, USA; 3Specialty Eye Care, Denver, CO, USA; 4Alcon Research Ltd., Fort Worth, TX, USAPurpose: The preservative benzalkonium chloride (BAK may adversely affect ocular surface health. This study evaluated symptoms of ocular surface disease (OSD in patients previously treated with a BAK-preserved therapy to lower their intraocular pressure, who either continued that therapy or switched to a BAK-free therapy.Methods: Eligible adult patients with ocular hypertension or open-angle glaucoma that had been controlled with BAK-preserved latanoprost 0.005% monotherapy (Xalatan® for at least one month and had a score of ≥ 13 (0 = none, 100 = most severe on the Ocular Surface Disease Index (OSDI questionnaire were entered into this prospective, double-masked, randomized, active-controlled, multicenter trial. By random assignment, patients either continued with BAK-preserved latanoprost 0.005% or transitioned to BAK-free travoprost 0.004% (Travatan Z® ophthalmic solution. OSDI scores were assessed again after six and 12 weeks.Results: For the 678 evaluable patients, mean change in OSDI score from baseline to week 12 favored the travoprost 0.004% BAK-free group, but was not statistically different between groups (P = 0.10. When patients with mild OSD at baseline were assessed after 12 weeks, the mean OSDI score was significantly lower (P = 0.04 in the BAK-free travoprost 0.004% group (score = 11.6 ± 10.8 units than in the BAK-preserved latanoprost 0.005% group (score = 14.4 ± 11.9 units, and a significantly larger percentage (P < 0.01 improved to normal OSDI scores in the BAK-free travoprost 0.004% group (62.9% of group than in the BAK-preserved latanoprost 0.005% group (47.0% of group. Patients pretreated with BAK-preserved latanoprost 0.005% for >24 months were significantly more likely (P

  4. Therapeutic eyelids hygiene in the algorithms of prevention and treatment of ocular surface diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. N. Trubilin

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available When acute inflammation in anterior eye segment of a forward piece of an eye was stopped, ophthalmologists face a problem of absence of acute inflammation signs and at the same time complaints to the remain discomfort feelings. It causes dissatisfaction from the treatment. The complaints are typically caused by disturbance of tears productions. No accidental that the new group of diseases was allocated — the diseases of the ocular surface. Ocular surface is a difficult biologic system, including epithelium of the conjunctiva, cornea and limb, as well as the area costal margin eyelid and meibomian gland ducts. Pathological processes in conjunctiva, cornea and eyelids are linked with tears production. Ophthalmologists prescribes tears substitutions, providing short-term relief to patients. However, in respect that the lipid component of the tear film plays the key role in the preservation of its stability, eyelids hygiene is the basis for the treatment of dry eye associated with ocular surface diseases. Eyelids hygiene provides normal functioning of glands, restores the metabolic processes in skin and ensures the formation of a complete tear film. Protection of eyelids, especially the marginal edge from aggressive environmental agents, infections and parasites and is the basis for the prevention and treatment of blepharitis and dry eye syndrome. The most common clinical situations and algorithms of their treatment and prevention of dysfunction of the meibomian glands; demodectic blepharitis; seborrheic blepharitis; staphylococcal blepharitis; allergic blepharitis; barley and chalazion are discussed in the article. The prevention keratoconjunctival xerosis (before and postoperative period, caused by contact lenses, computer vision syndrome, remission after acute conjunctiva and cornea inflammation is also presented. The first part of the article presents the treatment and prevention algorithms for dysfunction of the meibomian glands, as well as

  5. Relationship Between Ocular Surface Disease Index, Dry Eye Tests, and Demographic Properties in Computer Users

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    Hüseyin Simavlı

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The aim of the present study is to evaluate the ocular surface disease index (OSDI in computer users and to investigate the correlations of this index with dry eye tests and demographic properties. Materials and Methods: In this prospective study, 178 subjects with an age range of 20-40 years and who spent most of their daily life in front of the computers were included. All participants underwent a complete ophthalmologic examination including basal secretion test, tear break-up time test, and ocular surface staining. In addition, all patients completed the OSDI questionnaire. Results: A total of 178 volunteers (101 female, 77 male with a mean age of 28.8±4.5 years were included in the study. Mean time of computer use was 7.7±1.9 (5-14 hours/day, and mean computer use period was 71.1±39.7 (4-204 months. Mean OSDI score was 44.1±24.7 (0-100. There was a significant negative correlation between the OSDI score and tear break-up time test in the right (p=0.005 r=-0.21 and the left eyes (p=0.003 r=-0.22. There was a significant positive correlation between the OSDI score and gender (p=0.014 r=0.18 and daily computer usage time (p=0.008 r=0.2. In addition to this, there was a significant positive correlation between the OSDI score and ocular surface staining pattern in the right (p=0.03 r=0.16 and the left eyes (p=0.03 r=0.17. Age, smoking, type of computer, use of glasses, presence of symptoms, and basal secretion test were not found to be correlated with OSDI score. Conclusions: Long-term computer use causes ocular surface problems. The OSDI were found to be correlated with tear break-up time test, gender, daily computer usage time, and ocular surface staining pattern in computer users. (Turk J Ophthalmol 2014; 44: 115-8

  6. Latest progress of BIGH3 gene in corneal diseases and diabetic retinopathy

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    Fan-Qian Song

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available BIGH3 gene plays an important role in ocular diseases. On the one hand, it is closely related to the occurrence of corneal diseases. BIGH3 gene can inhibit corneal neovascularization, lead to corneal dystrophy, participate in keratoconus formation. On the other hand, it can lead to the formation of neovascularization in diabetic retinopathy. The latest experiments show that TGF beta secreted by macrophages can promote the expression of BIGH3 mRNA and BIGH3 protein, and promote apoptosis of retinal endothelial cells and pericytes, which leads to the formation of neovascularization in diabetic retinopathy. This article will describe the new progress of BIGH3 gene in ocular diseases from several aspects as mentioned above.

  7. Role of Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptor γ in Ocular Diseases

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    Su Zhang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPAR γ, a member of the nuclear receptor superfamily, is a ligand-activated transcription factor that plays an important role in the control of a variety of physiological processes. The last decade has witnessed an increasing interest for the role played by the agonists of PPAR γ in antiangiogenesis, antifibrosis, anti-inflammation effects and in controlling oxidative stress response in various organs. As the pathologic mechanisms of major blinding diseases, such as age-related macular degeneration (AMD, diabetic retinopathy (DR, keratitis, and optic neuropathy, often involve neoangiogenesis and inflammation- and oxidative stress-mediated cell death, evidences are accumulating on the potential benefits of PPAR γ to improve or prevent these vision threatening eye diseases. In this paper we describe what is known about the role of PPAR γ in the ocular pathophysiological processes and PPAR γ agonists as novel adjuvants in the treatment of eye diseases.

  8. Basic Technology and Clinical Applications of the Updated Model of Laser Speckle Flowgraphy to Ocular Diseases

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    Tetsuya Sugiyama

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Laser speckle flowgraphy (LSFG allows for quantitative estimation of blood flow in the optic nerve head (ONH, choroid and retina, utilizing the laser speckle phenomenon. The basic technology and clinical applications of LSFG-NAVI, the updated model of LSFG, are summarized in this review. For developing a commercial version of LSFG, the special area sensor was replaced by the ordinary charge-coupled device camera. In LSFG-NAVI, the mean blur rate (MBR has been introduced as a new parameter. Compared to the original LSFG model, LSFG-NAVI demonstrates a better spatial resolution of the blood flow map of human ocular fundus. The observation area is 24 times larger than the original system. The analysis software can separately calculate MBRs in the blood vessels and tissues (capillaries of an entire ONH and the measurements have good reproducibility. The absolute values of MBR in the ONH have been shown to linearly correlate with the capillary blood flow. The Analysis of MBR pulse waveform provides parameters including skew, blowout score, blowout time, rising and falling rates, flow acceleration index, acceleration time index, and resistivity index for comparing different eyes. Recently, there have been an increasing number of reports on the clinical applications of LSFG-NAVI to ocular diseases, including glaucoma, retinal and choroidal diseases.

  9. The Conjunctiva-Associated Lymphoid Tissue in Chronic Ocular Surface Diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mastropasqua, Rodolfo; Agnifili, Luca; Fasanella, Vincenzo; Nubile, Mario; Gnama, Agbeanda A; Falconio, Gennaro; Perri, Paolo; Di Staso, Silvio; Mariotti, Cesare

    2017-08-01

    Ocular surface diseases (OSDs) represent a widely investigated field of research given their growing incidence and the negative impact on quality of life. During OSDs, cytokines generated by damaged epithelia trigger and deregulate the lymphoid cells composing the eye-associated lymphoid tissues, inducing an immune-mediated chronic inflammation that amplifies and propagates the disease during time. The conjunctiva-associated lymphoid tissue (CALT), given its particular position that permits immune cells covering the cornea, might play a crucial role in the development of OSDs. Despite the recognized inflammatory role of mucosa-associated lymphoid tissues in other stations taking contact with the external environment (gut or bronchus), CALT did not gain the deserved consideration. In the last years, the diffusion of the in vivo confocal microscopy (IVCM) stimulated the interest to CALT, especially in dry eye, ocular allergy, and glaucoma. Though the initial stimuli were different, IVCM documented similar changes, represented by increased lymphoid cells within the diffuse layer, follicles and interfollicular spaces. These findings, which need to be validated by immunohistology, support the CALT stimulation during OSDs. However, while an involvement of the CALT in OSDs is hypothesizable, the exact role of this structure in their pathogenesis remains unclear and warrants further investigations.

  10. Autologous serum for ocular surface diseases Soro autólogo para doenças da superfície ocular

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    Guilherme Goulart Quinto

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Autologous serum has been used to treat dry eye syndrome for many years. It contains several growth factors, vitamins, fibronectin and other components that have been considered important for corneal and conjunctival integrity. Serum eye drops are usually prepared as an unpreserved blood solution. The serum is by nature well tolerated and its biochemical properties are somewhat similar to natural tears. Autologous serum eye drops have been reported to be effective for the treatment of severe dry eye-related ocular surface disorders (Sjögren's syndrome, and also other entities such as superior limbic keratoconjunctivitis, graft-versus-host disease, Stevens-Johnson syndrome, ocular cicatricial pemphigoid, recurrent or persistent corneal erosions, neurotrophic keratopathy, Mooren's ulcer, aniridic keratopathy, filtering blebs after trabeculectomy, and post-keratorefractive surgery. The purpose of this study is to review the recently published literature on ocular surface diseases treated with human autologous serum eye drops.O soro autólogo tem sido adotado como uma nova abordagem para tratar síndrome do olho seco porque contém vitaminas, alguns fatores de crecimento e fibronectina que são considerados importantes contribuintes para integridade corneana e conjuntival. Colírio de soro autólogo é produzido sem preservativo. O soro é não-alérgico e suas propriedades bioquímicas são similares à lágrima. O soro autólogo tópico tem sido relatado efetivo para o tratamento de olho seco grave relacionado a distúrbios da superfície ocular como na síndrome de Sjögren, ceratoconjuntivite límbica superior, doença do enxerto versus hospedeiro, síndrome de Stevens-Johnson, procedimentos cerato-refrativos, erosão corneana persistente ou recorrente, ceratopatia neurotrófica, úlcera de Mooren, ceratopatia associada à aniridia, e bolhas filtrantes após trabeculectomia. O objetivo do presente estudo é revisar a literatura recentemente

  11. Ocular Hypertension

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Español Eye Health / Eye Health A-Z Ocular Hypertension Sections What Is Ocular Hypertension? Ocular Hypertension Causes ... Hypertension Diagnosis Ocular Hypertension Treatment What Is Ocular Hypertension? Leer en Español: ¿Qué es la hipertensión ocular? ...

  12. Prevalence and severity of ocular involvement in Graves' disease according to sex and age: A clinical study from Babol, Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gharib, Sara; Moazezi, Zoleika; Bayani, Mohammad Ali

    2018-01-01

    Thyroid-associated eye disease (TED), previously known as Graves' ophthalmopathy is a cosmetically and functionally debilitating disease that is seen worldwide. The aim of this study was to evaluate the prevalence and clinical severity of ocular manifestations of Graves' disease according to sex, age and duration in northern Iran. Between April 2011 and March 2012, 105 patients with Graves' disease, underwent ophthalmic examination, including ocular motility, exophthalmometry, intraocular pressure (IOP), slit lamp and fundoscopy. Patients received scores according to modified Werner's NO SPECS classification. Ocular involvement was found in 70 patients with established Graves's disease. The mean age was 35.0 years, (SD 13.0, range 15 to 69). The most common ocular findings were exophthalmometric proptosis of more than 20 mm (63.8%), lid lag (55.7%), lid retraction (52.8%) and tearing (38.6%). Almost 70% of patients had bilateral involvement. Elevated IOP was seen in 15 (25.4%) patients, and was significantly related to proptosis (P=0.007). More than half of the patients (n=36, 52.2%) had a modified Werner's NO SPECS score of 3.00. Clinical severity as shown by the increasing number of signs and symptoms per patient was correlated to increasing age (r=0.31, P=0.01) but not to gender (P=0.17). Both functional (ocular motility disorders, increased IOP) and cosmetic (proptosis, periorbital edema) sequels are common ocular presentations in patients with Graves' disease. Proptosis was the most common finding in this study and was associated with elevated IOP. Clinical severity was found to correlate to increasing age.

  13. Nanocarrier mediated retinal drug delivery: overcoming ocular barriers to treat posterior eye diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bisht, Rohit; Mandal, Abhirup; Jaiswal, Jagdish K; Rupenthal, Ilva D

    2018-03-01

    Effective drug delivery to the retina still remains a challenge due to ocular elimination mechanisms and complex barriers that selectively limit the entry of drugs into the eye. To overcome these barriers, frequent intravitreal injections are currently used to achieve high drug concentrations in vitreous and retina. However, these repetitive injections may result in several side effects. Recent advancements in the field of nanoparticle-based drug delivery could overcome some of these unmet needs and various preclinical studies conducted to date have demonstrated promising results of nanotherapies in the treatment of retinal diseases. Compared to the majority of commercially available ocular implants, the biodegradable nature of most nanoparticles (NPs) avoids the need for surgical implantation and removal after the release of the payload. In addition, the sustained drug release from NPs over an extended period of time reduces the need for frequent intravitreal injections and the risk of associated side effects. The nanometer size and highly modifiable surface properties make NPs excellent candidates for targeted ocular drug delivery. Studies have shown that nanocarriers enhance the intravitreal half-life and thus bioavailability of a number of drugs including proteins and peptides. In addition, they have shown promising results in delivering genetic material to the retinal tissues by protecting it from possible intravitreal degradation. This review covers the various challenges associated with drug delivery to the posterior segment of the eye, particularly the retina, and highlights the application of nanocarriers to overcome these challenges in context with recent advances in preclinical studies. WIREs Nanomed Nanobiotechnol 2018, 10:e1473. doi: 10.1002/wnan.1473 This article is categorized under: Therapeutic Approaches and Drug Discovery > Emerging Technologies Implantable Materials and Surgical Technologies > Nanomaterials and Implants. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals

  14. Goblet cells contribute to ocular surface immune tolerance—implications for dry eye disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Barbosa, Flavia L.; Xiao, Yangyan; Bian, Fang; Coursey, Terry G.; Ko, Byung Yi; Clevers, Hans; de Paiva, Cintia S.; Pflugfelder, Stephen C.

    2017-01-01

    Conjunctival goblet cell (GC) loss in dry eye is associated with ocular surface inflammation. This study investigated if conjunctival GCs contribute to ocular surface immune tolerance. Antigens applied to the ocular surface, imaged by confocal microscopy, passed into the conjunctival stroma through

  15. Goblet Cells Contribute to Ocular Surface Immune Tolerance-Implications for Dry Eye Disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Barbosa, Flavia L; Xiao, Yangyan; Bian, Fang; Coursey, Terry G; Ko, Byung Yi; Clevers, Hans; de Paiva, Cintia S; Pflugfelder, Stephen C

    2017-01-01

    Conjunctival goblet cell (GC) loss in dry eye is associated with ocular surface inflammation. This study investigated if conjunctival GCs contribute to ocular surface immune tolerance. Antigens applied to the ocular surface, imaged by confocal microscopy, passed into the conjunctival stroma through

  16. Management of Ocular Diseases Using Lutein and Zeaxanthin: What Have We Learned from Experimental Animal Studies?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chunyan Xue

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Zeaxanthin and lutein are two carotenoid pigments that concentrated in the retina, especially in the macula. The effects of lutein and zeaxanthin on the prevention and treatment of various eye diseases, including age-related macular degeneration, diabetic retinopathy and cataract, ischemic/hypoxia induced retinopathy, light damage of the retina, retinitis pigmentosa, retinal detachment, and uveitis, have been studied in different experimental animal models. In these animal models, lutein and zeaxanthin have been reported to have beneficial effects in protecting ocular tissues and cells (especially the retinal neurons against damage caused by different etiological factors. The mechanisms responsible for these effects of lutein and zeaxanthin include prevention of phototoxic damage by absorption of blue light, reduction of oxidative stress through antioxidant activity and free radical scavenging, and their anti-inflammatory and antiangiogenic properties. The results of these experimental animal studies may provide new preventive and therapeutic procedures for clinical management of various vision-threatening diseases.

  17. An Uncommon Ocular Finding in Behçet’s Disease: Peripheral Ulcerative Keratitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orhan Ayar

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available A 43-year-old female patient presented to our eye clinic with blurred vision and redness in the right eye for 2 weeks. Biomicroscopic examination revealed peripheral ulcerative keratitis with corneal thinning. After prescribing topical fluorometholon, moxifloxacin, preservative-free artificial tears, and vitamin A ointment, the patient was referred to Rheumatology department. Based on clinical findings and systemic research, the diagnosis of Behçet’s disease was established, and oral systemic azathioprine, hydroxychloroquine, and prednisolone treatment was started. In this study, we presented a case of peripheral ulcerative keratitis, an ocular manifestation uncommonly seen in Behçet’s disease. (Turk J Ophthalmol 2014; 44: 484-5

  18. RETINAL NEOVASCULARIZATION FROM A PATIENT WITH CUTIS MARMORATA TELANGIECTATICA CONGENITA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sassalos, Thérèse M; Fields, Taylor S; Levine, Robert; Gao, Hua

    2018-03-14

    To report a rare case of peripheral retinal neovascularization in a patient diagnosed with cutis marmorata telangiectatica congenita (CMTC). Observational case report. A 16-year-old girl was referred to clinic for retinal evaluation. The patient had a clinical diagnosis of CMTC later confirmed by skin biopsy. Examination revealed temporal peripheral retinal sheathing, as well as lattice degeneration in both eyes. Wide-field fluorescein angiogram showed substantive peripheral retinal nonperfusion with evidence of vascular leakage from areas of presumed retinal neovascularization. The patient subsequently had pan retinal photocoagulation laser treatment to each eye without complication. Cutis marmorata telangiectatica congenita is a rare vascular condition known to affect multiple organ systems including the eyes. Although ocular manifestations of CMTC are rare, instances of congenital glaucoma, suprachoroidal hemorrhage, and bilateral total retinal detachments resulting in secondary neovascular glaucoma have been reported. Our patient demonstrates the first reported findings of peripheral nonperfusion and retinal neovascularization related to CMTC in a 16-year-old girl. We propose early retinal examination, wide-field fluorescein angiogram, and early pan retinal photocoagulation laser treatment in patients with peripheral nonperfusion and retinal neovascularization from CMTC.This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-Non Commercial-No Derivatives License 4.0 (CCBY-NC-ND), where it is permissible to download and share the work provided it is properly cited. The work cannot be changed in any way or used commercially without permission from the journal.

  19. Suppression of Retinal Neovascularization in vivo by Inhibition of Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor (VEGF) Using Soluble VEGF-Receptor Chimeric Proteins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aiello, Lloyd Paul; Pierce, Eric A.; Foley, Eliot D.; Takagi, Hitoshi; Chen, Helen; Riddle, Lavon; Ferrara, Napoleone; King, George L.; Smith, Lois E. H.

    1995-11-01

    The majority of severe visual loss in the United States results from complications associated with retinal neovascularization in patients with ischemic ocular diseases such as diabetic retinopathy, retinal vein occlusion, and retinopathy of prematurity. Intraocular expression of the angiogenic protein vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is closely correlated with neovascularization in these human disorders and with ischemia-induced retinal neovascularization in mice. In this study, we evaluated whether in vivo inhibition of VEGF action could suppress retinal neovascularization in a murine model of ischemic retinopathy. VEGF-neutralizing chimeric proteins were constructed by joining the extracellular domain of either human (Flt) or mouse (Flk) high-affinity VEGF receptors with IgG. Control chimeric proteins that did not bind VEGF were also used. VEGF-receptor chimeric proteins eliminated in vitro retinal endothelial cell growth stimulation by either VEGF (P hypoxic conditioned medium (P < 0.005) without affecting growth under nonstimulated conditions. Control proteins had no effect. To assess in vivo response, animals with bilateral retinal ischemia received intravitreal injections of VEGF antagonist in one eye and control protein in the contralateral eye. Retinal neovascularization was quantitated histologically by a masked protocol. Retinal neovascularization in the eye injected with human Flt or murine Flk chimeric protein was reduced in 100% (25/25; P < 0.0001) and 95% (21/22; P < 0.0001) of animals, respectively, compared to the control treated eye. This response was evident after only a single intravitreal injection and was dose dependent with suppression of neovascularization noted after total delivery of 200 ng of protein (P < 0.002). Reduction of histologically evident neovascular nuclei per 6-um section averaged 47% ± 4% (P < 0.001) and 37% ± 2% (P < 0.001) for Flt and Flk chimeric proteins with maximal inhibitory effects of 77% and 66

  20. Choroidal neovascular membrane

    OpenAIRE

    Bhatt Nitul; Diamond James; Jalali Subhadra; Das Taraprasad

    1998-01-01

    Choroidal neovascular membrane in the macular area is one of the leading causes of severe visual loss. Usually a manifestation in elderly population, it is often associated with age-related macular degeneration. The current mainstay of management is early diagnosis, usually by fundus examination, aided by angiography and photocoagulation in selected cases. Various other modalities of treatment including surgery are being considered as alternate options, but with limited success. The purpose o...

  1. Neovascularization in Purtscher's retinopathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chan A

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Annie Chan, Douglas R Fredrick, Theodore Leng Department of Ophthalmology, Byers Eye Institute at Stanford University, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, CA, USA Abstract: We report a case of neovascularization secondary to Purtscher's retinopathy that showed minimal improvement with photocoagulation treatment. A 14-year-old boy with a history of cerebellar medulloblastoma presented with blurry vision and floaters after being struck by a motor vehicle while riding his bike. At presentation, visual acuity was 20/400 in his right eye and counting fingers in his left eye. Fundus examination showed disk edema, retinal whitening, and retinal hemorrhages in both eyes. Optical coherence tomography demonstrated thinning of the temporal retina and disruption of the inner segment–outer segment junction of the photoreceptor layer in the right eye and thickening and edema of the nasal macula, as well as a central foveal hyper-reflectivity, in the left eye. At the initial visit, there was no ischemia or neovascularization (NV. One month later, the patient developed NV of the disk and ischemia in the mid-periphery of the left eye. The patient underwent treatment with pan-retinal photocoagulation. The NV regressed, but visual outcome remained poor at his 5-month follow-up visit. Keywords: Purtscher's retinopathy, neovascularization, laser photocoagulation, disk edema

  2. Dosimetric properties of a proton beamline dedicated to the treatment of ocular disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Slopsema, R. L.; Mamalui, M.; Yeung, D.; Malyapa, R.; Li, Z.; Zhao, T.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: A commercial proton eyeline has been developed to treat ocular disease. Radiotherapy of intraocular lesions (e.g., uveal melanoma, age-related macular degeneration) requires sharp dose gradients to avoid critical structures like the macula and optic disc. A high dose rate is needed to limit patient gazing times during delivery of large fractional dose. Dose delivery needs to be accurate and predictable, not in the least because current treatment planning algorithms have limited dose modeling capabilities. The purpose of this paper is to determine the dosimetric properties of a new proton eyeline. These properties are compared to those of existing systems and evaluated in the context of the specific clinical requirements of ocular treatments. Methods: The eyeline is part of a high-energy, cyclotron-based proton therapy system. The energy at the entrance of the eyeline is 105 MeV. A range modulator (RM) wheel generates the spread-out Bragg peak, while a variable range shifter system adjusts the range and spreads the beam laterally. The range can be adjusted from 0.5 up to 3.4 g/cm 2 ; the modulation width can be varied in steps of 0.3 g/cm 2 or less. Maximum field diameter is 2.5 cm. All fields can be delivered with a dose rate of 30 Gy/min or more. The eyeline is calibrated according to the IAEA TRS-398 protocol using a cylindrical ionization chamber. Depth dose distributions and dose/MU are measured with a parallel-plate ionization chamber; lateral profiles with radiochromic film. The dose/MU is modeled as a function of range, modulation width, and instantaneous MU rate with fit parameters determined per option (RM wheel). Results: The distal fall-off of the spread-out Bragg peak is 0.3 g/cm 2 , larger than for most existing systems. The lateral penumbra varies between 0.9 and 1.4 mm, except for fully modulated fields that have a larger penumbra at skin. The source-to-axis distance is found to be 169 cm. The dose/MU shows a strong dependence on range (up

  3. Dosimetric properties of a proton beamline dedicated to the treatment of ocular disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Slopsema, R. L., E-mail: rslopsema@floridaproton.org; Mamalui, M.; Yeung, D.; Malyapa, R.; Li, Z. [University of Florida Proton Therapy Institute, 2015 North Jefferson Street, Jacksonville, Florida 32205 (United States); Zhao, T. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Washington University School of Medicine, 4921 Parkview Place, St. Louis, Missouri 63110 (United States)

    2014-01-15

    Purpose: A commercial proton eyeline has been developed to treat ocular disease. Radiotherapy of intraocular lesions (e.g., uveal melanoma, age-related macular degeneration) requires sharp dose gradients to avoid critical structures like the macula and optic disc. A high dose rate is needed to limit patient gazing times during delivery of large fractional dose. Dose delivery needs to be accurate and predictable, not in the least because current treatment planning algorithms have limited dose modeling capabilities. The purpose of this paper is to determine the dosimetric properties of a new proton eyeline. These properties are compared to those of existing systems and evaluated in the context of the specific clinical requirements of ocular treatments. Methods: The eyeline is part of a high-energy, cyclotron-based proton therapy system. The energy at the entrance of the eyeline is 105 MeV. A range modulator (RM) wheel generates the spread-out Bragg peak, while a variable range shifter system adjusts the range and spreads the beam laterally. The range can be adjusted from 0.5 up to 3.4 g/cm{sup 2}; the modulation width can be varied in steps of 0.3 g/cm{sup 2} or less. Maximum field diameter is 2.5 cm. All fields can be delivered with a dose rate of 30 Gy/min or more. The eyeline is calibrated according to the IAEA TRS-398 protocol using a cylindrical ionization chamber. Depth dose distributions and dose/MU are measured with a parallel-plate ionization chamber; lateral profiles with radiochromic film. The dose/MU is modeled as a function of range, modulation width, and instantaneous MU rate with fit parameters determined per option (RM wheel). Results: The distal fall-off of the spread-out Bragg peak is 0.3 g/cm{sup 2}, larger than for most existing systems. The lateral penumbra varies between 0.9 and 1.4 mm, except for fully modulated fields that have a larger penumbra at skin. The source-to-axis distance is found to be 169 cm. The dose/MU shows a strong dependence

  4. Application of Amniotic Membrane in Ocular Surface Diseases: Clinical Features and Treatment Outcome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Derya Cindarik

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Pur po se: To investigate the effectiveness of amniotic membrane transplantation in cases with corneal thinning, desmatocele and refractive corneal ulcer. Ma te ri al and Met hod: Fifty-four eyes of 54 patients who were applied amniotic membrane transplantation for various ocular surface disease between January 2004 and February 2009 in Çukurova University Ophthalmology Department were included in the study. A complete ophthalmologic examination was performed. Corneal culture and corneal cytology samples were collected from the patients with the diagnosis of corneal ulcers. The patients were informed about the surgical procedure and the possible complications and informed consent was obtained. The amniotic membranes that were prepared under optimal conditions and protected in frozen forms were used in the operations. Follow-up examinations were done at postoperative 1st day, 1st week, 1st month, 3rd month, 6th month and then once in a year. Re sults: Of 54 patients, 26 (48.1% were men and 28 (51.8% were women. The mean age of patients was 52.53±19.75 (2-87 years. The cases were separated into 2 groups according to the etiology: group 1 - eyes with corneal ulcer (n:26 and group 2 - eyes with corneal stromal thinning, persistent epithelial defects and desmatocel (n:28. The transplantations were performed using cover technique in 17 eyes (31.4%, graft technique in 37 eyes (68.5% and graft technique with corneal patch in 2 eyes (3.7%. Partial penetrating keratoplasty was required in 38 of 54 eyes (70.3%. One eye was enucleated. Dis cus si on: The amniotic membrane transplantation has advantages like: it can be prepared easily and is cost-effective. It is a safe and effective procedure in ocular surface disease. (Turk J Ophthalmol 2012; 42: 177-82

  5. IgG4-related disease in the eye and ocular adnexa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derzko-Dzulynsky, Larissa

    2017-11-01

    IgG4-related disease is a multi-organ fibro-inflammatory disease with characteristic histopathology showing lymphoplasmacytic infiltration, increased IgG4+ plasma cells and elevated IgG4/IgG ratios (>40%). The lacrimal gland is the most common ocular site of involvement. Scleritis and intraocular involvement in IgG4-related ophthalmic disease (IgG4-ROD) have recently been reported. The purpose of this review is to describe orbital and intraocular IgG4-ROD with a focus on publications since 2016. Case reports of scleritis and uveitis in IgG4-ROD have been described since 2012. Systemic prednisone is recommended as the first-line treatment, but immunosuppressive therapy may be required for steroid-sparing or in steroid-resistant cases. High rates of systemic IgG4-RD involvement exist in patients with bilateral IgG4-ROD or if the lacrimal gland is involved. Rituximab is the most specific immune targeted therapy available with high rates of remission. IgG4-ROD is an emerging cause of scleritis and uveitis and should be considered in any patient with multisystem inflammatory disease. New targeted immune therapies may improve outcomes and lead to clinical remission.

  6. Microbiota composition of the koala (Phascolarctos cinereus) ocular and urogenital sites, and their association with Chlamydia infection and disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vidgen, Miranda E; Hanger, Jonathan; Timms, Peter

    2017-07-12

    Disease caused by Chlamydia pecorum is characterised by ocular and urogenital infections that can lead to blindness and infertility in koalas. However, koalas that are infected with C. pecorum do not always progress to disease. In other host systems, the influence of the microbiota has been implicated in either accelerating or preventing infections progressing to disease. This study investigates the contribution of koala urogenital and ocular microbiota to Chlamydia infection and disease in a free ranging koala population. Using univariate and multivariate analysis, it was found that reproductive status in females and sexual maturation in males, were defining features in the koala urogenital microbiota. Changes in the urogenital microbiota of koalas is correlated with infection by the common pathogen, C. pecorum. The correlation of microbiota composition and C. pecorum infection is suggestive of members of the microbiota being involved in the acceleration or prevention of infections progressing to disease. The analysis also suggests that multiple microbes are likely to be associated with this process of disease progression, rather than a single organism. While other Chlamydia-like organisms were also detected, they are unlikely to contribute to chlamydial disease as they are rare members of the urogenital and ocular microbiota communities.

  7. Extra-ocular muscle MRI in genetically-defined mitochondrial disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pitceathly, Robert D.S.; Morrow, Jasper M.; Hanna, Michael G.; Sinclair, Christopher D.J.; Yousry, Tarek A.; Thornton, John S.; Woodward, Cathy; Sweeney, Mary G.; Rahman, Shamima; Plant, Gordon T.; Ali, Nadeem; Bremner, Fion; Davagnanam, Indran

    2016-01-01

    Conventional and quantitative MRI was performed in patients with chronic progressive external ophthalmoplegia (CPEO), a common manifestation of mitochondrial disease, to characterise MRI findings in the extra-ocular muscles (EOMs) and investigate whether quantitative MRI provides clinically relevant measures of disease. Patients with CPEO due to single mitochondrial DNA deletions were compared with controls. Range of eye movement (ROEM) measurements, peri-orbital 3 T MRI T1-weighted (T1w) and short-tau-inversion-recovery (STIR) images, and T2 relaxation time maps were obtained. Blinded observers graded muscle atrophy and T1w/STIR hyperintensity. Cross-sectional areas and EOM mean T2s were recorded and correlated with clinical parameters. Nine patients and nine healthy controls were examined. Patients had reduced ROEM (patients 13.3 , controls 49.3 , p < 0.001), greater mean atrophy score and increased T1w hyperintensities. EOM mean cross-sectional area was 43 % of controls and mean T2s were prolonged (patients 75.6 ± 7.0 ms, controls 55.2 ± 4.1 ms, p < 0.001). ROEM correlated negatively with EOM T2 (rho = -0.89, p < 0.01), whilst cross-sectional area failed to correlate with any clinical measures. MRI demonstrates EOM atrophy, characteristic signal changes and prolonged T2 in CPEO. Correlation between elevated EOM T2 and ROEM impairment represents a potential measure of disease severity that warrants further evaluation. (orig.)

  8. Unraveling the molecular repertoire of tears as a source of biomarkers: beyond ocular diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pieragostino, Damiana; D'Alessandro, Michele; di Ioia, Maria; Di Ilio, Carmine; Sacchetta, Paolo; Del Boccio, Piero

    2015-02-01

    Proteomics and metabolomics investigations of body fluids present several challenges for biomarker discovery of several diseases. The search for biomarkers is actually conducted in different body fluids, even if the ideal biomarker can be found in an easily accessible biological fluid, because, if validated, the biomarker could be sought in the healthy population. In this regard, tears could be considered an optimum material obtained by noninvasive procedures. In the past years, the scientific community has become more interested in the study of tears for the research of new biomarkers not only for ocular diseases. In this review, we provide a discussion on the current state of biomarkers research in tears and their relevance for clinical practice, and report the main results of clinical proteomics studies on systemic and eye diseases. We summarize the main methods for tear samples analyses and report recent advances in "omics" platforms for tears investigations. Moreover, we want to take stock of the emerging field of metabolomics and lipidomics as a new and integrated approach to study protein-metabolites interplay for biomarkers research, where tears represent a still unexplored and attractive field. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  9. Clinical significance of non-mydriatic fundus photography in screening for preschool children ocular fundus disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Luo

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To observe the incidence of ocular fundus disease in preschool children examined by non-mydriatic fundus camera and evaluate its effectiveness compared with direct inspection shadow mirror. METHODS: Three thousand eight hundred and ninety-six preschool children from April 2012 to October 2013 were examined by Topcon TRC-NW300 color fluorescence fundus camera and direct inspection shadow mirror, and images were saved immediately. RESULTS: Detection rate of non-mydriatic fundus photography was higher than that of direct inspection shadow mirror. In 3 896 cases, 41 eyes were detected abnormal fundus accounting for 1.05%. The retinal myelinated nerve fibers, morning glory syndrome, retinitis pigmentosa, congenital retinoschisis were common, accounted for 24.39%, 21.95%, 14.63%, 12.20% respectively. The children eye diseases were often accompanied by abnormal vision(68.30%, ametropia(63.41%, strabismus(19.51%.CONCLUSION: Non-mydriatic fundus photography is a mydriatic method without medicine, so it is easy for preschool children to accept. Image results could directly display the fundus lesions. It shows important significance in the screening for preschool children eye diseases.

  10. Classification of optical coherence tomography images for diagnosing different ocular diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gholami, Peyman; Sheikh Hassani, Mohsen; Kuppuswamy Parthasarathy, Mohana; Zelek, John S.; Lakshminarayanan, Vasudevan

    2018-03-01

    Optical Coherence tomography (OCT) images provide several indicators, e.g., the shape and the thickness of different retinal layers, which can be used for various clinical and non-clinical purposes. We propose an automated classification method to identify different ocular diseases, based on the local binary pattern features. The database consists of normal and diseased human eye SD-OCT images. We use a multiphase approach for building our classifier, including preprocessing, Meta learning, and active learning. Pre-processing is applied to the data to handle missing features from images and replace them with the mean or median of the corresponding feature. All the features are run through a Correlation-based Feature Subset Selection algorithm to detect the most informative features and omit the less informative ones. A Meta learning approach is applied to the data, in which a SVM and random forest are combined to obtain a more robust classifier. Active learning is also applied to strengthen our classifier around the decision boundary. The primary experimental results indicate that our method is able to differentiate between the normal and non-normal retina with an area under the ROC curve (AUC) of 98.6% and also to diagnose the three common retina-related diseases, i.e., Age-related Macular Degeneration, Diabetic Retinopathy, and Macular Hole, with an AUC of 100%, 95% and 83.8% respectively. These results indicate a better performance of the proposed method compared to most of the previous works in the literature.

  11. Extra-ocular muscle MRI in genetically-defined mitochondrial disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pitceathly, Robert D.S.; Morrow, Jasper M.; Hanna, Michael G. [UCL Institute of Neurology and National Hospital for Neurology and Neurosurgery, MRC Centre for Neuromuscular Diseases, London (United Kingdom); Sinclair, Christopher D.J.; Yousry, Tarek A.; Thornton, John S. [UCL Institute of Neurology and National Hospital for Neurology and Neurosurgery, MRC Centre for Neuromuscular Diseases, London (United Kingdom); UCL Institute of Neurology, Neuroradiological Academic Unit, Department of Brain Repair and Rehabilitation, London (United Kingdom); Woodward, Cathy; Sweeney, Mary G. [National Hospital for Neurology and Neurosurgery, Neurogenetics Unit, London (United Kingdom); Rahman, Shamima [UCL Institute of Neurology and National Hospital for Neurology and Neurosurgery, MRC Centre for Neuromuscular Diseases, London (United Kingdom); UCL Institute of Child Health, Mitochondrial Research Group, Clinical and Molecular Genetics Unit, London (United Kingdom); Plant, Gordon T.; Ali, Nadeem [National Hospital for Neurology and Neurosurgery, Department of Neuro-ophthalmology, London (United Kingdom); Moorfields Eye Hospital, Department of Neuro-ophthalmology, London (United Kingdom); Bremner, Fion [National Hospital for Neurology and Neurosurgery, Department of Neuro-ophthalmology, London (United Kingdom); Davagnanam, Indran [National Hospital for Neurology and Neurosurgery, The Lysholm Department of Neuroradiology, London (United Kingdom)

    2016-01-15

    Conventional and quantitative MRI was performed in patients with chronic progressive external ophthalmoplegia (CPEO), a common manifestation of mitochondrial disease, to characterise MRI findings in the extra-ocular muscles (EOMs) and investigate whether quantitative MRI provides clinically relevant measures of disease. Patients with CPEO due to single mitochondrial DNA deletions were compared with controls. Range of eye movement (ROEM) measurements, peri-orbital 3 T MRI T1-weighted (T1w) and short-tau-inversion-recovery (STIR) images, and T2 relaxation time maps were obtained. Blinded observers graded muscle atrophy and T1w/STIR hyperintensity. Cross-sectional areas and EOM mean T2s were recorded and correlated with clinical parameters. Nine patients and nine healthy controls were examined. Patients had reduced ROEM (patients 13.3 , controls 49.3 , p < 0.001), greater mean atrophy score and increased T1w hyperintensities. EOM mean cross-sectional area was 43 % of controls and mean T2s were prolonged (patients 75.6 ± 7.0 ms, controls 55.2 ± 4.1 ms, p < 0.001). ROEM correlated negatively with EOM T2 (rho = -0.89, p < 0.01), whilst cross-sectional area failed to correlate with any clinical measures. MRI demonstrates EOM atrophy, characteristic signal changes and prolonged T2 in CPEO. Correlation between elevated EOM T2 and ROEM impairment represents a potential measure of disease severity that warrants further evaluation. (orig.)

  12. Choroidal neovascular membrane

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhatt Nitul

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available Choroidal neovascular membrane in the macular area is one of the leading causes of severe visual loss. Usually a manifestation in elderly population, it is often associated with age-related macular degeneration. The current mainstay of management is early diagnosis, usually by fundus examination, aided by angiography and photocoagulation in selected cases. Various other modalities of treatment including surgery are being considered as alternate options, but with limited success. The purpose of this review is to briefly outline the current concepts and the management strategy from a clinician′s viewpoint.

  13. Choroidal neovascular membrane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhatt, N S; Diamond, J G; Jalali, S; Das, T

    1998-06-01

    Choroidal neovascular membrane in the macular area is one of the leading causes of severe visual loss. Usually a manifestation in elderly population, it is often associated with age-related macular degeneration. The current mainstay of management is early diagnosis, usually by fundus examination, aided by angiography and photocoagulation in selected cases. Various other modalities of treatment including surgery are being considered as alternate options, but with limited success. The purpose of this review is to briefly outline the current concepts and the management strategy from a clinician's viewpoint.

  14. Brain MRI in 17 patients with ocular Behcet`s disease; Risonanza Magnetica dell`encefalo in 17 pazienti affetti da malattia di Behcet oculare

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Accorinti, Massimo; Pivetti Pezzi, Paola [Rome, Univ. (Italy). Istituto di Oftalmologia; Di Biasi, Claudio; Trasimeni, Guido; Melone, Antonio; Gualdi, Gianfranco [Rome, Univ. (Italy). Unita` TC-RM I Clinica Medica

    1997-04-01

    Behcet`s disease is a chronic relapsing disorder of unknown etiology characterized by oral aphthous ulcerations, uveitis, genital ulcerations and bone lesions. A variety of other signs including polyarthritis, vascular conditions (blood vessel occlusions and aneurysms), epididymitis, gastrointestinal, pulmonary and heart lesions may also occur. Central nervous system (CNS) involvement is reported in 10-49 % of cases and it is the first symptom of the disease in 5 % of subjects. The neuro-Behcet`s syndrome may appear as a brainstem syndrome, and an organic confusional syndrome or dementia. cranial hypertension, mostly related to cerebral venus thrombosis, is also present in neuro-Behcet`s disease and its incidence is reported in up to 10 % of Behcet`s patients. MRI is reportedly the most sensitive neuroradiological approach to detect the focal lesions related to neuro-Behcet disease and several single cases or series of Behcet`s patients with neurologic sings have been examined with MRI. They used MRI to investigate CNS involvement in Behcet`s disease patients with and without previous neurologic sings. MRI was carried out on 17 patients with ocular Behcet`s disease without neurological symptoms to assess the possible subclinical involvement of the CNS. PD and T2-weighted hypersignal foci were demonstrated in parietal, frontal, subcortical and periventricular white matter in 6 subjects. Neuroradiological abnormalities were found only in patients with complete disease and with the disease diagnosed more than 10 years earlier. Even though the pathogenesis of these neuroradiological abnormalities and their correlation with Behcet`s disease remain to be clarified, their study suggests the possibility of subclinical CNS involvement in these patients, which may affect the therapeutic approach and their prognosis.

  15. Decreased Expression of the Aryl Hydrocarbon Receptor in Ocular Behcet’s Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chaokui Wang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Recent studies show that the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR is involved in immune responses. AhR is activated following interaction with its ligands, such as 6-formylindolo[3,2-b]carbazole (FICZ and 2-(1′H-indole-3′-carbonyl-thiazole-4-carboxylic acid methyl ester (ITE. In this study, we investigated the role of AhR activation by its endogenous ligands in the pathogenesis of ocular Behcet’s disease (BD. The expression of AhR was significantly decreased in active BD patients as compared to inactive BD patients and normal controls. Both FICZ and ITE inhibited Th1 and Th17 polarization and induced the expression of IL-22 by PBMCs and by CD4+T cells in active BD patients and normal controls. Stimulation of purified CD4+T cells with FICZ or ITE caused a decreased expression of RORC, IL-17, IL-23R, and CCR6 and an increased phosphorylation of STAT3 and STAT5. The present study suggests that a decreased AhR expression is associated with disease activity in BD patients. The activation of AhR by either FICZ or ITE was able to inhibit Th1 and Th17 cell polarization. Further studies are needed to investigate whether modulation of AhR might be used in the treatment of BD.

  16. Decreased expression of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor in ocular Behcet's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chaokui; Ye, Zi; Kijlstra, Aize; Zhou, Yan; Yang, Peizeng

    2014-01-01

    Recent studies show that the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) is involved in immune responses. AhR is activated following interaction with its ligands, such as 6-formylindolo[3,2-b]carbazole (FICZ) and 2-(1'H-indole-3'-carbonyl)-thiazole-4-carboxylic acid methyl ester (ITE). In this study, we investigated the role of AhR activation by its endogenous ligands in the pathogenesis of ocular Behcet's disease (BD). The expression of AhR was significantly decreased in active BD patients as compared to inactive BD patients and normal controls. Both FICZ and ITE inhibited Th1 and Th17 polarization and induced the expression of IL-22 by PBMCs and by CD4(+)T cells in active BD patients and normal controls. Stimulation of purified CD4(+)T cells with FICZ or ITE caused a decreased expression of RORC, IL-17, IL-23R, and CCR6 and an increased phosphorylation of STAT3 and STAT5. The present study suggests that a decreased AhR expression is associated with disease activity in BD patients. The activation of AhR by either FICZ or ITE was able to inhibit Th1 and Th17 cell polarization. Further studies are needed to investigate whether modulation of AhR might be used in the treatment of BD.

  17. Ocular involvement in paediatric haemolytic uraemic syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sturm, Veit; Menke, Marcel N; Landau, Klara; Laube, Guido F; Neuhaus, Thomas J

    2010-11-01

    The aim of this study was to estimate the frequency and severity of ocular involvement in paediatric patients with haemolytic uraemic syndrome (HUS). The study was designed as an institutional, retrospective, observational case series. Charts for all 87 paediatric patients with HUS treated at the University Children's Hospital Zurich between 1995 and 2007 were reviewed. Patients with ocular involvement were identified and clinical findings presented. Three of 69 examined patients with HUS showed ocular involvement. Ophthalmic findings in two children were consistent with bilateral Purtscher retinopathy, showing multiple haemorrhages, exudations and superficial retinal whitening. The third child presented with bilateral isolated central intraretinal haemorrhages as a milder form of ocular involvement. In one of the children with Purtscher retinopathy, laser photocoagulation was required for bilateral rubeosis irides and development of disc neovascularization. Longterm outcomes in the two severely affected children showed decreased visual acuity caused by partial atrophy of the optic nerves. In the milder case visual acuity was not impaired at any time. A minority of paediatric patients with HUS developed ocular involvement. Acute ocular findings varied in severity from isolated intraretinal haemorrhages to Purtscher-like retinopathy with retinal ischaemia. Longterm complications included the development of neovascularizations and consecutive optic nerve atrophy. Although ocular involvement in HUS seems to be rare, physicians should be aware of this complication because of its possible vision-endangering consequences. © 2009 The Authors. Journal compilation © 2009 Acta Ophthalmol.

  18. Pax6 downregulation mediates abnormal lineage commitment of the ocular surface epithelium in aqueous-deficient dry eye disease.

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    Ying Ting Chen

    Full Text Available Keratinizing squamous metaplasia (SQM of the ocular surface is a blinding consequence of systemic autoimmune disease and there is no cure. Ocular SQM is traditionally viewed as an adaptive tissue response during chronic keratoconjunctivitis sicca (KCS that provokes pathological keratinization of the corneal epithelium and fibrosis of the corneal stroma. Recently, we established the autoimmune regulator-knockout (Aire KO mouse as a model of autoimmune KCS and identified an essential role for autoreactive CD4+ T cells in SQM pathogenesis. In subsequent studies, we noted the down-regulation of paired box gene 6 (Pax6 in both human patients with chronic KCS associated with Sjögren's syndrome and Aire KO mice. Pax6 encodes a pleiotropic transcription factor guiding eye morphogenesis during development. While the postnatal function of Pax6 is largely unknown, we hypothesized that its role in maintaining ocular surface homeostasis was disrupted in the inflamed eye and that loss of Pax6 played a functional role in the initiation and progression of SQM. Adoptive transfer of autoreactive T cells from Aire KO mice to immunodeficient recipients confirmed CD4+ T cells as the principal downstream effectors promoting Pax6 downregulation in Aire KO mice. CD4+ T cells required local signaling via Interleukin-1 receptor (IL-1R1 to provoke Pax6 loss, which prompted a switch from corneal-specific cytokeratin, CK12, to epidermal-specific CK10. The functional role of Pax6 loss in SQM pathogenesis was indicated by the reversal of SQM and restoration of ocular surface homeostasis following forced expression of Pax6 in corneal epithelial cells using adenovirus. Thus, tissue-restricted restoration of Pax6 prevented aberrant epidermal-lineage commitment suggesting adjuvant Pax6 gene therapy may represent a novel therapeutic approach to prevent SQM in patients with chronic inflammatory diseases of the ocular surface.

  19. Down-regulation of Pax6 is associated with abnormal differentiation of corneal epithelial cells in severe ocular surface diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, W; Chen, Y-T; Hayashida, Y; Blanco, G; Kheirkah, A; He, H; Chen, S-Y; Liu, C-Y; Tseng, SCG

    2010-01-01

    Pax6 is the universal master control gene for eye morphogenesis. Other than retina and lens, Pax6 also expressed in the ocular surface epithelium from early gestation until the postnatal stage, in which little is known about the function of Pax6. In this study, corneal pannus tissues from patients with ocular surface diseases such as Stevens–Johnson syndrome (SJS), chemical burn, aniridia and recurrent pterygium were investigated. Our results showed that normal ocular surface epithelial cells expressed Pax6. However, corneal pannus epithelial cells from the above patients showed a decline or absence of Pax6 expression, accompanied by a decline or absence of K12 keratin but an increase of K10 keratin and filaggrin expression. Pannus basal epithelial cells maintained nuclear p63 expression and showed activated proliferation, evidenced by positive Ki67 and K16 keratin staining. On 3T3 fibroblast feeder layers, Pax6 immunostaining was negative in clones generated from epithelial cells harvested from corneal pannus from SJS or aniridia, but positive in those from the normal limbal epithelium; whereas western blots showed that some epithelial clones expanded from pannus retained Pax6 expression. Transient transfection of an adenoviral vector carrying EGFP–Pax6 transgenes into these Pax6− clones increased both Pax6 and K12 keratin expression. These results indicate that Pax6 helps to maintain the normal corneal epithelial phenotype postnatally, and that down-regulation of Pax6 is associated with abnormal epidermal differentiation in severe ocular surface diseases. Reintroduction of activation of the Pax6 gene might be useful in treating squamous metaplasia of the ocular surface epithelium. PMID:18027901

  20. [Descending ocular myopathy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Freitas, M R; Nascimento, O J

    1975-06-01

    The case of a 23 years old female patient, with primary involvement of the extraocular and faringeal muscles without familiar history is reported. Electromyographic and muscular biopsy studies proved the myogenic nature of the process. A clinical comparison between the ocular myopathy and the descending ocular myopathy is made, the authors thinking that both of them would be variants of the same muscle disease.

  1. Methotrexate in ocular manifestations of Behcet's disease: a longitudinal study up to 15 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davatchi, Fereydoun; Shams, Hormoz; Shahram, Farhad; Nadji, Abdolhadi; Chams-Davatchi, Cheyda; Sadeghi Abdollahi, Bahar; Faezi, Tahereh; Akhlaghi, Massoomeh; Ashofteh, Farimah

    2013-10-01

    Ocular manifestations of Behcet's disease (BD) need aggressive treatment to prevent severe loss of vision or blindness. Cytotoxic drugs are the main therapeutic agents and the first line treatment. Methotrexate is the least toxic, used mainly for posterior uveitis. We present here the outcome of eye lesions with methotrexate and prednisolone, in a longitudinal study of up to 15 years, on 682 patients (5447 eye-years of follow-up). Methotrexate was started at 7.5-15 mg/week. Prednisolone was added at 0.5 mg/kg/daily, then adjusted as needed. (i) fulfilling the International Criteria for Behcet's Disease; and (ii) having active posterior uveitis (PU). Visual acuity (VA) was calculated on a scale of 10. Activity indexes were calculated for PU and retinal vasculitis (RV) for each eye. Total Inflammatory Activity Index (TIAI) demonstrating the inflammatory index of both eyes of the patient, and Total Adjusted Disease Activity Index (TADAI) showing both TIAI + VA were also calculated. Overall results: the mean VA improvement was 0.4 (P < 001), PU 1.2 (P < 0.001) and RV 0.6 (P < 0.001). VA improved in 46.5%, PU in 75.4%, and RV in 53.7% of eyes. TIAI improved in 74% of patients and TADAI in 69.4%. VA was aggravated in 37.2%, PU in 11.1%, and RV in 30.3% of eyes. TIAI was aggravated in 17.4% and TADAI in 21.6% of the patients. The remaining kept their baseline values. All parameters improved, PU better than RV. Improvement of VA was the least, mainly due to secondary cataracts. © 2013 Asia Pacific League of Associations for Rheumatology and Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  2. Presumed Isotretinoin-Induced, Concomitant Autoimmune Thyroid Disease and Ocular Myasthenia Gravis: A Case Report

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    Huseyin Gursoy

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: There are many adverse effects that have been described for isotretinoin. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of a possible association of oral isotretinoin intake with autoimmune thyroiditis and ocular myasthenia gravis (OMG. Case Presentation: A 19-year-old Caucasian male, who had used oral isotretinoin for severe acne disease for the previous six months, was referred to our clinic. He had a three-week history of diplopia and variable bilateral ptosis. Physical examination showed moderate periorbital edema and limitations of up- and down-gaze in the left eye. Laboratory findings and thyroid ultrasound were consistent with autoimmune thyroiditis. Antithyroid therapy did not relieve the clinical symptoms. Concomitant OMG was suspected. Variable ptosis and a positive response to oral prednisolone of 40 mg/day and pyridostigmine of 360 mg/day supported the diagnosis of concomitant autoimmune thyroiditis and OMG. Conclusion: Autoimmune disorders may be triggered by oral isotretinoin treatment. Clinicians prescribing isotretinoin should be aware of the possible association between isotretinoin intake and concomitant autoimmune thyroiditis and OMG.

  3. Ocular surface immunity: Homeostatic mechanisms and their disruption in dry eye disease

    OpenAIRE

    Barabino, Stefano; Chen, Yihe; Chauhan, Sunil Kumar; Dana, Reza

    2012-01-01

    The tear film, lacrimal glands, corneal and conjunctival epithelia and Meibomian glands work together as a lacrimal functional unit (LFU) to preserve the integrity and function of the ocular surface. The integrity of this unit is necessary for the health and normal function of the eye and visual system. Nervous connections and systemic hormones are well known factors that maintain the homeostasis of the ocular surface. They control the response to internal and external stimuli. Our and others...

  4. Líquido amniótico tópico: uma potencial nova alternativa para doenças da superfície ocular Topical amniotic fluid: a potential new alternative for ocular surface diseases

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    Guilherme Goulart Quinto

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available O líquido amniótico banha o feto durante a vida intra-uterina e está em contato permanente com a superfície ocular durante este importante período do desenvolvimento. Ele contém uma série de fatores de crescimento que podem ter diversos efeitos sobre o processo cicatricial. Estes fatores aceleram a recuperação da sensibilidade corneana e regeneração nervosa após procedimentos cerato-refrativos, além de controlar a formação de cicatriz e o equilíbrio da superfície ocular após sua aplicação tópica. Centenas de diferentes proteínas têm sido identificadas no líquido amniótico humano e o papel de cada uma continua desconhecido. Os resultados obtidos até o momento sobre a aplicação de líquido amniótico em doenças de superfície ocular sugerem uma terapia promissora. Pesquisas estão sendo realizadas para identificar os efeitos dos fatores específicos do líquido amniótico sobre a inflamação ocular. O objetivo desta revisão é relatar as propriedades e utilizações atuais do líquido amniótico, bem como apresentar os recentes estudos relacionados ao uso deste líquido e doenças da superfície ocular.Amniotic fluid bathes the fetus during intrauterine life and is in permanent contact with the fetal ocular surface in this important period of development. It contains a series of growth factors that may have multiple effects on the wound healing process. These factors are thought to accelerate the recovery of corneal sensitivity and nerve regeneration after keratorefractive procedures, and also may control scar formation and balance the ocular surface after topical application. Hundreds of different proteins have been identified in the human amniotic fluid, and the role of each still not quite understood. The outcomes obtained so far with amniotic fluid application to ocular surface diseases suggest a promising therapy. Research is underway to identify the effects of specific factors of the amniotic fluid in ocular

  5. Evaluating ocular blood flow

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    Jyotsna Maram

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Studies have shown that vascular impairment plays an important role in the etiology and pathogenesis of various ocular diseases including glaucoma, age-related macular degeneration, diabetic retinopathy, and retinal venous occlusive disease. Thus, qualitative and quantitative assessment of ocular blood flow (BF is a topic of interest for early disease detection, diagnosis, and management. Owing to the rapid improvement in technology, there are several invasive and noninvasive techniques available for evaluating ocular BF, with each of these techniques having their own limitations and advantages. This article reviews these important techniques, with a particular focus on Doppler Fourier domain optical coherence tomography (OCT and OCT-angiography.

  6. Plasma Rich in Growth Factors for the Treatment of Ocular Surface Diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anitua, Eduardo; Muruzabal, Francisco; de la Fuente, María; Merayo, Jesús; Durán, Juan; Orive, Gorka

    2016-07-01

    The purpose of this work is to describe and review the technology of plasma rich in growth factors (PRGF), a novel blood derivative product, in the treatment of ocular surface disorders. To demonstrate the importance of this technology in the treatment of ocular pathologies, a thorough review of the preclinical and clinical literature results obtained following use of the different therapeutic formulations of PRGF was carried out. A literature search for applications of PGRF plasma in the ophthalmology field was carried out using the PubMed database. PRGF involves the use of patient's own biologically active proteins, growth factors, and biomaterial scaffolds for therapeutic purposes. This procedural technology is gaining interest in regenerative medicine due to its potential to stimulate and accelerate the tissue healing processes. The versatility and biocompatibility of this technology opens the door to a personalized medicine on ocular tissue regeneration. This review discusses the state of the art of the new treatments and technologies developed to promote ocular surface tissue regeneration. The standardized protocol that has been developed to source eye drops from PRGF technology is also described. The preclinical research, together with the most relevant clinical applications are summarized and discussed. The preliminary results suggest that the use of PRGF to enhance ocular tissue regeneration is safe and efficient.

  7. Ocular graft versus host disease in allogenic haematopoetic stem cell transplantation in a tertiary care centre in India

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    Rehan Khan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background & objectives: This study was aimed to report the occurrence of ocular graft versus host disease (oGVHD in allogeneic haematopoietic stem cell transplantation (allo-HSCT patients in a tertiary care hospital setting. Methods: A cross-sectional study of ocular surface of allo-HSCT patients was done. Slit lamp biomicroscopy, symptom score, tear meniscus height, fluorescein tear break-up time, Schirmer′s test I, ocular surface staining, dry eye severity, ocular surface disease index score were done. Indications for allo-HSCT, human leukocyte antigen (HLA matching, GVHD risk factor, systemic manifestation and treatment were also noted. Results: GVHD occurred in 44.4 per cent of 54 allo-HSCT patients (mean age 26.7 ± 12 yr included in the study. GVHD risk factors identified included female gender, relapse, older age of donor, cytomagelo virus (CMV reactivation, and multiparous female donors. oGVHD was noted in 31.5 per cent with mean time to occurrence being 17.8 ± 21.9 months after the allo-HSCT and was observed in 89.5 per cent of chronic GVHD cases. Acute GVHD (oral and dermatological involvement showed a significant association with GVHD in our patients (P< 0.001, 0R 23.0, CI 6.4-82.1. Chronic GVHD was observed to be associated with the occurrence of oGVHD (dry eye (P<0.001, OR = 24.0, CI 0.02 - 0.29. Of the 34 eyes with oGHVD, dry eye of level 3 severity was seen in 16, level 2 in six, level 1 in 12 eyes. Interpretation & conclusions: GVHD occurred in 44.4 per cent of the patients studied in the present study. Acute and chronic GVHD showed a strong association with oGVHD. Dry eye disease due to chronic oGVHD was observed in 17 (31.5% of 54 allo-HSCT patient with chronic oGVHD occurring in 17 (89.4% of chronic GVHD cases in allo-HSCT patients. Our study on oGVHD in post allo-HSCT patients in tertiary care centre points towards the fact that ocular morbidity due to dry eye disease as a result of oGVHD is a cause for concern in these

  8. Association of Neovascular Glaucoma with Risk of Stroke: A Population-Based Cohort Study

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    Cheng-Wen Su

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Neovascular glaucoma (NVG, caused by ocular ischemia, is a serious ocular disease complicated by intractably increased intraocular pressure. Cerebrovascular accidents are classified into ischemic and hemorrhagic stroke. Based on the similar pathogenic mechanisms of NVG and ischemic stroke, we investigated the relationship between NVG and stroke by using a nationally representative sample. This study included 416 NVG patients and 4160 controls. Medical comorbidities were also evaluated. The cumulative incidence of ischemic stroke was 15.6% higher in the NVG cohort than in the control cohort (p<0.001; the incidence density rates of stroke were 3.80 and 1.19 per 10,000 person-years in the NVG and control cohorts, respectively. According to the multivariable Cox regression results, the estimated adjusted hazard ratio (aHR of stroke was 2.07 (95% confidence interval (CI = 1.41–3.02 for the NVG cohort. Furthermore, the NVG cohort was 2.24-fold more likely to develop ischemic stroke (95% CI = 1.51–3.32. The risk of ischemic stroke was higher in patients with hypertension (aHR = 2.09, 95% CI = 1.55–2.82 and in patients with diabetic retinopathy (aHR = 1.69, 95% CI = 1.05–2.72. Notably, patients with NVG have a higher risk of ischemic stroke, but not hemorrhagic stroke.

  9. Ocular changes in TgF344-AD rat model of Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Yuchun; Lu, Bin; Ljubimov, Alexander V; Girman, Sergey; Ross-Cisneros, Fred N; Sadun, Alfredo A; Svendsen, Clive N; Cohen, Robert M; Wang, Shaomei

    2014-01-29

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most common neurodegenerative disorder characterized by progressive decline in learning, memory, and executive functions. In addition to cognitive and behavioral deficits, vision disturbances have been reported in early stage of AD, well before the diagnosis is clearly established. To further investigate ocular abnormalities, a novel AD transgenic rat model was analyzed. Transgenic (Tg) rats (TgF344-AD) heterozygous for human mutant APPswe/PS1ΔE9 and age-matched wild type (WT) rats, as well as 20 human postmortem retinal samples from both AD and healthy donors were used. Visual function in the rodent was analyzed using the optokinetic response and luminance threshold recording from the superior colliculus. Immunohistochemistry on retinal and brain sections was used to detect various markers including amyloid-β (Aβ) plaques. As expected, Aβ plaques were detected in the hippocampus, cortex, and retina of Tg rats. Plaque-like structures were also found in two AD human whole-mount retinas. The choroidal thickness was significantly reduced in both Tg rat and in AD human eyes when compared with age-matched controls. Tg rat eyes also showed hypertrophic retinal pigment epithelial cells, inflammatory cells, and upregulation of complement factor C3. Although visual acuity was lower in Tg than in WT rats, there was no significant difference in the retinal ganglion cell number and retinal vasculature. In this study, we observed pathological changes in the choroid and in RPE cells in the TgF344-AD rat model; choroidal thinning was observed further in human AD retina. Along with Ab deposition, the inflammatory response was manifested by microglial recruitment and complement activation. Further studies are needed to elucidate the significance and mechanisms of these pathological changes [corrected].

  10. Treatment of Chlamydia-associated ocular disease via a recombinant protein based vaccine in the koala (Phascolarctos cinereus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waugh, Courtney; Austin, Ray; Polkinghorne, Adam; Timms, Peter

    2016-11-01

    Koalas (Phascolarctos cinereus) are affected by debilitating chlamydial disease that can lead to blindness, infertility, and death. The causative agent is the intracellular bacterium Chlamydia pecorum. While antibiotics can be used to treat koala chlamydial infection, they are often ineffective or cause severe dysbiosis to the animal's unique gut flora. Recent work has progressed on the development of a protective vaccine for Chlamydia in the koala. This study demonstrates that the use of a vaccine can have a positive effect in koalas already with clinical signs of ocular disease, suggesting a possible therapeutic effect and an alternative to antibiotic therapy. Copyright © 2016 International Alliance for Biological Standardization. All rights reserved.

  11. Trastornos oculares y otras enfermedades en casos con síndrome de Waardenburg Ocular disorders and other diseases in patients suffering from Waardenburg’s syndrome

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    Fidel Castro Pérez

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Introducción: el síndrome de Waardenburg es una entidad infrecuente, hereditaria, que presenta heterocromía del iris, Distopia cantorum y cursa con cierto grado de discapacidad cuando aparece la hipoacusia neurosensorial entre otras alteraciones. Objetivo: determinar las alteraciones oculares y otras enfermedades crónicas de una familia afectada con el síndrome de Waardenburg. Material y método: estudio de casos, observacional, transversal y descriptivo realizado a una familia con síndrome de Waardenburg en el municipio Sandino. Se confeccionó base de datos automatizada. Las variables utilizadas fueron los trastornos de la agudeza visual, refracción visual y otras alteraciones. Se utilizaron medidas de frecuencia: absolutas y relativas porcentuales. Resultados: entre las alteraciones visuales crónicas 17 presentaron trastornos de la refracción, cuatro individuos padecían glaucoma y uno cataratas, no se encontró ningún caso de discapacidad visual. Los 4 individuos con hipertensión arterial, dos coinciden con los que padecen de glaucoma y la otra es diabética. Conclusiones: fueron detectados varios trastornos de la refracción y la agudeza visual, sin llegar a la discapacidad.Introduction: Waardenburg’s syndrome is a rare, hereditary entity which presents heterochromia of the iris, dystopia canthorum and having a certain degree of disability when sensorineural hypoacusis appears; among other alterations. Objective: to determine ocular alterations and other chronic diseases that a family suffering from Waardenburg’s syndrome present. Material and Method: observational, cross-sectional and descriptive case study carried out with a family suffering from Waardenburg’s syndrome in Sandino municipality, Pinar del Rio. A database was created. The variables used were visual acuity, visual refraction and other alterations. Absolute and relative percentages were used as measures of frequency. Results: among these chronic visual

  12. Ocular Melanoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... is Ocular Melanoma? Leer en Español: ¿Qué es el melanoma ocular? Written By: Daniel Porter Reviewed By: Robert H Janigian Jr MD Sep. 01, 2017 Ocular melanoma (melanoma in or around the eye) is a type of cancer that develops in the cells that produce pigment. ...

  13. A subset of ocular adnexal marginal zone lymphomas may arise in association with IgG4-related disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohno, Kyotaro; Sato, Yasuharu; Ohshima, Koh-ichi; Takata, Katsuyoshi; Miyata-Takata, Tomoko; Takeuchi, Mai; Gion, Yuka; Tachibana, Tomoyasu; Orita, Yorihisa; Ito, Toshihiro; Swerdlow, Steven H.; Yoshino, Tadashi

    2015-01-01

    We previously suggested a relationship between ocular immunoglobulin (Ig)G4-related disease (IgG4-RD) and marginal zone lymphomas (MZLs). However, the cytokine background associated with these disorders and whether it differs between ocular adnexal MZLs with (IgG4-associated MZL) and without (IgG4-negative MZL) numerous IgG4+ plasma cells are unknown. In this study, we identified the mRNA expression pattern of Th2 and regulatory T-cell (Treg) cytokines in IgG4-RD and in IgG4-associated MZL and IgG4-negative MZL using real-time polymerase chain reaction analysis. Ocular IgG4-RD and IgG4-associated MZL exhibited significantly higher expression ratios of interleukin (IL)-4/β-actin, IL-10/β-actin, IL-13/β-actin, transforming growth factor (TGF) β1/β-actin, and FOXP3/β-actin than did IgG4-negative MZL (p IgG4-RD. Furthermore, the presence of a different inflammatory background in IgG4-negative MZLs suggests that IgG4-associated MZLs may have a different pathogenesis. PMID:26311608

  14. Systemic diffuse large B-cell lymphoma masquerading as neovascular glaucoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bawankar, Pritam; Das, Dipankar; Bhattacharjee, Harsha; Tayab, Shahinur; Deori, Nilutparna; Paulbuddhe, Vivek; Dhar, Shriya; Deka, Apurba

    2018-02-01

    We describe a case of spontaneous hyphema associated with anterior uveitis presents in a 69-year old female as the prominent sign of the intraocular spread of systemic diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL). She had a history of diabetes and initially misdiagnosed as neovascular glaucoma. Clinical history of systemic lymphoma, characteristic findings on B-scan ultrasonography and magnetic resonance imaging scan, and identification of atypical lymphoid cells in aqueous sample established the diagnosis of intraocular metastasis of systemic DLBCL. Therefore, this report highlights that life-threatening malignant systemic lymphoma may masquerade as anterior segment ocular inflammation or neovascular glaucoma.

  15. Retcam fluorescein gonioangiography: a new modality for early detection of angle neovascularization in diabetic retinopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azad, Rajvardhan; Arora, Tarun; Sihota, Ramanjit; Chandra, Parijat; Mahajan, Deepankur; Sain, Siddarth; Sharma, Yograj

    2013-10-01

    To evaluate the role of Retcam fluorescein gonioangiography in detecting neovascularization of the angle and correlate the same with gonioscopy in diabetic retinopathy. One hundred and fifty eyes of 150 patients (25 each of mild, moderate, severe, very severe nonproliferative diabetic retinopathy (NPDR) proliferative diabetic retinopathy (PDR); and PDR with high-risk characteristics) were recruited. They underwent complete ocular examination including applanation tonometry, gonioscopy, Retcam fluorescein gonioangiography, and fundus fluorescein angiography. Using Retcam fluorescein gonioangiography, of 150 eyes neovascularization of the angle was detected in 37 eyes (24.66%) compared with 22 eyes (14.66%) on gonioscopy (P = 0.04). Small newly formed vessels were evident only with Retcam fluorescein gonioangiography. In 10 of 50 patients (20%) with severe/very severe NPDR, angle neovascularization was appreciable on Retcam fluorescein angiography compared with 5 patients (10%) on gonioscopy. Similarly, 25 of 50 patients (50%) with PDR/PDR with high-risk characteristics had neovascularization of the angle on Retcam gonioangiography compared with 17 (34%) on gonioscopy. Retcam fluorescein gonioangiography is a novel technique for early detection of angle neovascularization in diabetic retinopathy and hence preventing progression to neovascular glaucoma. The objective nature of this test helps in precise decision making compared with gonioscopy for early intervention especially in cases of pre-PDR.

  16. Clinical effect of neovascular glaucoma treated by vitrectomy and cyclophotocoagulation

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    Yi-Xuan Jin

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To observe the postoperative intraocular pressure(IOPand operation safety in the eyes of the neovascular glaucoma pateints treated by intraocular cyclophotocoagulation which needed vitrectomy at the same time. METHODS: A total of 12 neovascular glaucoma cases(14 eyessecondary to diabetic retinopathy, retinal detachment surgery and trauma were reviewed in our study. This procedure mainly used intraocular photocoagulation catheter to highlight the ciliary processes until the ciliary became white atrophy or plosion after vitreous surgery treatment. The intraocular photocoagulation catheter was performed at a power of 300-500mW, for a duration of 0.1-0.2ms. Postoperative follow-up was at least for 6mo. The observation of 14 postoperative neovascular glaucoma was performed at 1wk, 1, 6mo observing the IOP and complications. RESULTS: IOP of the 11 eyes was significantly declined and controlled in normal. After cyclophotocoagulation, average IOP at 1wk was 16.7±14.4mmHg, 15.7±8.8mmHg at 1mo and 12.9±4.5mmHg at 6mo, which compared with untreatment(39.6 ±10.0mmHgwas statistically significant different(PCONCLUSION: The intraocular cyclophotocoagulation and vitrectomy simultaneously can deal with the primary disease and secondary neovascular glaucoma. The operation can be accurately performed under direct cyclophotocoagulation and it is a safe and effective way for neovascular glaucoma which needs vitreous surgery.

  17. THERAPEUTIC EYELIDS HYGIENE IN THE ALGORITHMS OF PREVENTION AND TREATMENT OF OCULAR SURFACE DISEASES. PART II

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    V. N. Trubilin

    2016-01-01

    problem of modern ophthalmology.Part 1 — Trubilin VN, Poluninа EG, Kurenkov VV, Kapkova SG, Markova EY, Therapeutic eyelids hygiene in the algorithms of prevention and treatment of ocular surface diseases. Ophthalmology in Russia. 2016;13(2:122–127 doi: 10.18008/1816–5095– 2016–2–122–127

  18. Combined ocular and cervical vestibular evoked myogenic potential in individuals with vestibular hyporeflexia and in patients with Ménière's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Tatiana Rocha; de Resende, Luciana Macedo; Santos, Marco Aurélio Rocha

    The vestibular evoked myogenic potential is a potential of mean latency that measures the muscle response to auditory stimulation. This potential can be generated from the contraction of the sternocleidomastoid muscle and also from the contraction of extraocular muscles in response to high-intensity sounds. This study presents a combined or simultaneous technique of cervical and ocular vestibular evoked myogenic potential in individuals with changes in the vestibular system, for use in otoneurologic diagnosis. To characterize the records and analyze the results of combined cervical and ocular VEMP in individuals with vestibular hyporeflexia and in those with Ménière's disease. The study included 120 subjects: 30 subjects with vestibular hyporeflexia, 30 with Ménière's disease, and 60 individuals with normal hearing. Data collection was performed by simultaneously recording the cervical and ocular vestibular evoked myogenic potential. There were differences between the study groups (individuals with vestibular hyporeflexia and individuals with Ménière's disease) and the control group for most of wave parameters in combined cervical and ocular vestibular evoked myogenic potential. For cervical vestibular evoked myogenic potential, it was observed that the prolongation of latency of the P13 and N23 waves was the most frequent finding in the group with vestibular hyporeflexia and in the group with Ménière's disease. For ocular vestibular evoked myogenic potential, prolonged latency of N10 and P15 waves was the most frequent finding in the study groups. Combined cervical and ocular vestibular evoked myogenic potential presented relevant results for individuals with vestibular hyporeflexia and for those with Ménière's disease. There were differences between the study groups and the control group for most of the wave parameters in combined cervical and ocular vestibular evoked myogenic potential. Copyright © 2016 Associação Brasileira de Otorrinolaringologia

  19. Zika virus infection of cellular components of the blood-retinal barriers: implications for viral associated congenital ocular disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roach, Tracoyia; Alcendor, Donald J

    2017-03-03

    Ocular abnormalities present in microcephalic infants with presumed Zika virus (ZIKV) congenital disease includes focal pigment mottling of the retina, chorioretinal atrophy, optic nerve abnormalities, and lens dislocation. Target cells in the ocular compartment for ZIKV infectivity are unknown. The cellular response of ocular cells to ZIKV infection has not been described. Mechanisms for viral dissemination in the ocular compartment of ZIKV-infected infants and adults have not been reported. Here, we identify target cells for ZIKV infectivity in both the inner and outer blood-retinal barriers (IBRB and OBRB), describe the cytokine expression profile in the IBRB after ZIKV exposure, and propose a mechanism for viral dissemination in the retina. We expose primary cellular components of the IBRB including human retinal microvascular endothelial cells, retinal pericytes, and Müller cells as well as retinal pigmented epithelial cells of the OBRB to the PRVABC56 strain of ZIKV. Viral infectivity was analyzed by microscopy, immunofluorescence, and reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR and qRT-PCR). Angiogenic and proinflammatory cytokines were measured by Luminex assays. We find by immunofluorescent staining using the Flavivirus 4G2 monoclonal antibody that retinal endothelial cells and pericytes of the IBRB and retinal pigmented epithelial cells of the OBRB are fully permissive for ZIKV infection but not Müller cells when compared to mock-infected controls. We confirmed ZIKV infectivity in retinal endothelial cells, retinal pericytes, and retinal pigmented epithelial cells by RT-PCR and qRT-PCR using ZIKV-specific oligonucleotide primers. Expression profiles by Luminex assays in retinal endothelial cells infected with ZIKV revealed a marginal increase in levels of beta-2 microglobulin (β2-m), granulocyte macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GMCSF), intercellular adhesion molecule 1 (ICAM-1), interleukin-6 (IL-6), monocyte chemotactic protein-1 (MCP

  20. Oral Antibiotics for Meibomian Gland-Related Ocular Surface Disease: A Report by the American Academy of Ophthalmology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wladis, Edward J; Bradley, Elizabeth A; Bilyk, Jurij R; Yen, Michael T; Mawn, Louise A

    2016-03-01

    To review the existing medical literature on the role of oral antibiotics in the management of ocular surface disease (OSD) that arises from disorders of the meibomian glands and to assess the efficacy of oral antibiotics in the management of this common ocular disease. A literature search was last conducted on August 12, 2015, in the PubMed and Cochrane databases for English-language original research investigations that evaluated the role of doxycycline, minocycline, and azithromycin in OSD among adult patients. The searches identified 87 articles, and 8 studies ultimately met the criteria outlined for this assessment. The 8 studies identified in the search documented an improvement in meibomian gland-related OSD after treatment with these agents, although side effects were common. This search identified only 1 randomized, controlled trial to assess the efficacy of these medications. Although oral antibiotics are used commonly in the management of OSD, there is no level I evidence to support their use. There are only a few studies that have assessed the efficacy of oral antibiotics in clinically meaningful ways in the management of OSD that arises from disorders of the meibomian glands. The current level of evidence is insufficient to conclude that antibiotics are useful in managing OSD arising from disorders of the meibomian glands. The few existing studies on the topic indicate that oral antibiotics may be an effective treatment for OSD that results from meibomian gland disease. Copyright © 2016 American Academy of Ophthalmology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Corneal Neovascularization with Associated Lipid Keratopathy in a Patient with Obstructive Sleep Apnea-Hypopnea Syndrome Using a Continuous Positive Airway Pressure Machine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Konstantinos Oikonomakis

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To report a case of corneal neovascularization with secondary lipid keratopathy in a patient treated with continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP for obstructive sleep apnea-hypopnea syndrome (OSAHS. Case Report: A 49-year-old male had been diagnosed with obstructive sleep apnea syndrome 10 years ago and has been treated with the application of a CPAP machine during night sleep ever since. For the past year, the patient had been complaining for ocular irritation and excessive tearing of the left eye on awakening. Slit-lamp biomicroscopy revealed the presence of neovascularization and lipid exudation in the inferior third of the cornea of the left eye. Ocular patching during night sleep resulted in recession of the reported symptoms and shrinkage of the neovascularization, while the area of lipid exudation ceased to enlarge. Conclusion: To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of corneal neovascularization in a patient using a CPAP machine for OSAHS.

  2. Corneal Neovascularization with Associated Lipid Keratopathy in a Patient with Obstructive Sleep Apnea-Hypopnea Syndrome Using a Continuous Positive Airway Pressure Machine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oikonomakis, Konstantinos; Petrelli, Myrsini; Andreanos, Konstantinos; Mouchtouris, Andreas; Petrou, Petros; Georgalas, Ilias; Papaconstantinou, Dimitrios; Kymionis, George

    2017-01-01

    To report a case of corneal neovascularization with secondary lipid keratopathy in a patient treated with continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) for obstructive sleep apnea-hypopnea syndrome (OSAHS). A 49-year-old male had been diagnosed with obstructive sleep apnea syndrome 10 years ago and has been treated with the application of a CPAP machine during night sleep ever since. For the past year, the patient had been complaining for ocular irritation and excessive tearing of the left eye on awakening. Slit-lamp biomicroscopy revealed the presence of neovascularization and lipid exudation in the inferior third of the cornea of the left eye. Ocular patching during night sleep resulted in recession of the reported symptoms and shrinkage of the neovascularization, while the area of lipid exudation ceased to enlarge. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of corneal neovascularization in a patient using a CPAP machine for OSAHS.

  3. Lutein, zeaxanthin, and meso-zeaxanthin: The basic and clinical science underlying carotenoid-based nutritional interventions against ocular disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernstein, Paul S; Li, Binxing; Vachali, Preejith P; Gorusupudi, Aruna; Shyam, Rajalekshmy; Henriksen, Bradley S; Nolan, John M

    2016-01-01

    The human macula uniquely concentrates three carotenoids: lutein, zeaxanthin, and meso-zeaxanthin. Lutein and zeaxanthin must be obtained from dietary sources such as green leafy vegetables and orange and yellow fruits and vegetables, while meso-zeaxanthin is rarely found in diet and is believed to be formed at the macula by metabolic transformations of ingested carotenoids. Epidemiological studies and large-scale clinical trials such as AREDS2 have brought attention to the potential ocular health and functional benefits of these three xanthophyll carotenoids consumed through the diet or supplements, but the basic science and clinical research underlying recommendations for nutritional interventions against age-related macular degeneration and other eye diseases are underappreciated by clinicians and vision researchers alike. In this review article, we first examine the chemistry, biochemistry, biophysics, and physiology of these yellow pigments that are specifically concentrated in the macula lutea through the means of high-affinity binding proteins and specialized transport and metabolic proteins where they play important roles as short-wavelength (blue) light-absorbers and localized, efficient antioxidants in a region at high risk for light-induced oxidative stress. Next, we turn to clinical evidence supporting functional benefits of these carotenoids in normal eyes and for their potential protective actions against ocular disease from infancy to old age. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. The Effect of Topical Ocular Anesthetic Proparacaine on Conjunctival and Nasal Mucosal Flora in Dry Eye Disease Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onerci Celebi, Ozlem; Celebi, Ali Riza Cenk

    2018-04-09

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of topically applied ocular anesthetic proparacaine on conjunctival and nasal bacterial mucosal flora in patients with dry eye disease. A Schirmer test was done with (group 1) and without (group 2) topical anesthetic proparacaine to 40 patients in each group. Conjunctival and nasal cultures were obtained before and 10 min after performing the Schirmer test. The bacterial culture results and the isolated bacteria were recorded in two groups. Patients' mean age was 62 years (70 female, 10 male). Before the application of topical anesthetic, 50 (62.5%) and 62 (77.5%) had positive conjunctival and nasal culture, respectively, with the most commonly isolated organism being coagulase-negative Staphylococcus in each group. In group 1 the conjunctival bacterial culture positivity rate decreased from 26 (65%) to six (15%) eyes ( p 0.05). For the nasal cultures, the bacterial culture positivity rate decreased from 80% to 20% and from 75% to 65% in groups 1 ( p 0.05), respectively. Topical ocular anesthetic proparacaine has antibacterial activity in both conjunctival and nasal flora in patients with dry eye disease.

  5. Associations between oral and ocular dryness, labial and whole salivary flow rates, systemic diseases and medications in a sample of older people

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Smidt, Dorte; Torpet, Lis Andersen; Nauntofte, Birgitte

    2011-01-01

    Abstract – Objective: To investigate the associations between age, gender, systemic diseases, medications, labial and whole salivary flow rates and oral and ocular dryness in older people. Methods: Symptoms of oral and ocular dryness, systemic diseases, medications (coded according...... number of diseases and medications, but neither with age and gender per se nor with tobacco and alcohol consumption. New detailed information concerning associations between medications and oral and ocular dryness has been obtained using the ATC classification system....... to the Anatomical therapeutic chemical (ATC) classification system), tobacco and alcohol consumption were registered, and unstimulated labial (LS) and unstimulated (UWS) and chewing-stimulated (SWS) whole salivary flow rates were measured in 668 randomly selected community-dwelling elderly aged 65–95. Results...

  6. Chemokine receptors CCR6 and CXCR3 are necessary for CD4(+) T cell mediated ocular surface disease in experimental dry eye disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coursey, Terry G; Gandhi, Niral B; Volpe, Eugene A; Pflugfelder, Stephen C; de Paiva, Cintia S

    2013-01-01

    CD4(+) T cells are essential to pathogenesis of ocular surface disease in dry eye. Two subtypes of CD4(+) T cells, Th1 and Th17 cells, function concurrently in dry eye to mediate disease. This occurs in spite of the cross-regulation of IFN-γ and IL-17A, the prototypical cytokines Th1 and Th17 cells, respectively. Essential to an effective immune response are chemokines that direct and summon lymphocytes to specific tissues. T cell trafficking has been extensively studied in other models, but this is the first study to examine the role of chemokine receptors in ocular immune responses. Here, we demonstrate that the chemokine receptors, CCR6 and CXCR3, which are expressed on Th17 and Th1 cells, respectively, are required for the pathogenesis of dry eye disease, as CCR6KO and CXCR3KO mice do not develop disease under desiccating stress. CD4(+) T cells from CCR6KO and CXCR3KO mice exposed to desiccating stress (DS) do not migrate to the ocular surface, but remain in the superficial cervical lymph nodes. In agreement with this, CD4(+) T cells from CCR6 and CXCR3 deficient donors exposed to DS, when adoptively transferred to T cell deficient recipients manifest minimal signs of dry eye disease, including significantly less T cell infiltration, goblet cell loss, and expression of inflammatory cytokine and matrix metalloproteinase expression compared to wild-type donors. These findings highlight the important interaction of chemokine receptors on T cells and chemokine ligand expression on epithelial cells of the cornea and conjunctiva in dry eye pathogenesis and reveal potential new therapeutic targets for dry eye disease.

  7. Chemokine Receptors CCR6 and CXCR3 Are Necessary for CD4+ T Cell Mediated Ocular Surface Disease in Experimental Dry Eye Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coursey, Terry G.; Gandhi, Niral B.; Volpe, Eugene A.; Pflugfelder, Stephen C.; de Paiva, Cintia S.

    2013-01-01

    CD4+ T cells are essential to pathogenesis of ocular surface disease in dry eye. Two subtypes of CD4+ T cells, Th1 and Th17 cells, function concurrently in dry eye to mediate disease. This occurs in spite of the cross-regulation of IFN-γ and IL-17A, the prototypical cytokines Th1 and Th17 cells, respectively. Essential to an effective immune response are chemokines that direct and summon lymphocytes to specific tissues. T cell trafficking has been extensively studied in other models, but this is the first study to examine the role of chemokine receptors in ocular immune responses. Here, we demonstrate that the chemokine receptors, CCR6 and CXCR3, which are expressed on Th17 and Th1 cells, respectively, are required for the pathogenesis of dry eye disease, as CCR6KO and CXCR3KO mice do not develop disease under desiccating stress. CD4+ T cells from CCR6KO and CXCR3KO mice exposed to desiccating stress (DS) do not migrate to the ocular surface, but remain in the superficial cervical lymph nodes. In agreement with this, CD4+ T cells from CCR6 and CXCR3 deficient donors exposed to DS, when adoptively transferred to T cell deficient recipients manifest minimal signs of dry eye disease, including significantly less T cell infiltration, goblet cell loss, and expression of inflammatory cytokine and matrix metalloproteinase expression compared to wild-type donors. These findings highlight the important interaction of chemokine receptors on T cells and chemokine ligand expression on epithelial cells of the cornea and conjunctiva in dry eye pathogenesis and reveal potential new therapeutic targets for dry eye disease. PMID:24223818

  8. Prevalência de metástases oculares em pacientes com doença metastática reconhecida: resultados preliminares Prevalence of ocular metastasis in patients with known metastatic disease: preliminary results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zélia Maria da Silva Corrêa

    2005-04-01

    prospective fashion, the prevalence of intraocular metastasis: most frequent primary tumors and ocular tissue most frequently compromised by metastasis. METHODS: In-patients with malignant neoplasm and metastatic disease from a tertiary Oncology Hospital (HSR were consecutively evaluated between January 2001 and July 2002. All patients underwent complete ophthalmologic examination, including indirect ophthalmoscopy under pharmacological mydriasis using a 28 diopter-lens and, in cases suspicious of neoplasia, ultrasonography and fluorescein angiography were performed. Those cases of diagnostic uncertainty were submited to fine needle aspiration biopsy. The diagnosis of metastatic ocular tumor was established based on the clinical features and the results of the mentioned ancillary studies. RESULTS: The 100 studied patients presented ages between 17 and 87 years, 71 being females and 29 males. There was a predominance of Caucasian individuals (n=88 in this group. Twenty-one patients presented ocular lesions suggestive of metastasis. The primary malignancy originating ocular metastasis most frequently was breast cancer (28.6%. Evaluating the tumor type separately, lung cancer presented a highest prevalence of metastasis to the eye (71.5%. The choroid was involved in 57% of the cases and the main ocular complaint of these patients was blurring or decrease in vision. There was no difference in the frequency of involvement between the right and the left eye. CONCLUSION: The prevalence of ocular metastasis in patients with malignancy and metastatic disease seemed significant in the studied group. The neoplasms more frequently causing ocular metastasis were: breast and lung carcinoma, and the choroid was involved more frequently.

  9. Lonafarnib is a potential inhibitor for neovascularization.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linlin Sun

    Full Text Available Atherosclerosis is a common cardiovascular disease that involves the build-up of plaque on the inner walls of the arteries. Intraplaque neovacularization has been shown to be essential in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis. Previous studies showed that small-molecule compounds targeting farnesyl transferase have the ability to prevent atherosclerosis in apolipoprotein E-deficient mice, but the underlying mechanism remains to be elucidated. In this study, we found that lonafarnib, a specific inhibitor of farnesyl transferase, elicits inhibitory effect on vascular endothelial capillary assembly in vitro in a dose-dependent manner. In addition, we showed that lonafarnib treatment led to a dose-dependent decrease in scratch wound closure in vitro, whereas it had little effect on endothelial cell proliferation. These data indicate that lonafarnib inhibits neovascularization via directly targeting endothelial cells and disturbing their motility. Moreover, we demonstrated that pharmacological inhibition of farnesyl transferase by lonafarnib significantly impaired centrosome reorientation toward the leading edge of endothelial cells. Mechanistically, we found that the catalytic β subunit of farnesyl transferase associated with a cytoskeletal protein important for the establishment and maintenance of cell polarity. Additionally, we showed that lonafarnib remarkably inhibited the expression of the cytoskeletal protein and interrupted its interaction with farnesyl transferase. Our findings thus offer novel mechanistic insight into the protective effect of farnesyl transferase inhibitors on atherosclerosis and provide encouraging evidence for the potential use of this group of agents in inhibiting plaque neovascularization.

  10. Clinical research on intravitreal injection of bevacizumab in the treatment of macula lutea and retinal edema of ocular fundus disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Ying; Wang, Tao; Cao, Jing; Wang, Meng; Li, Fenghua

    2015-07-01

    This paper aimed to explore clinically curative effect of intravitreal injection of bevacizumab in the treatment of macula lutea and retinal edema of ocular fundus disease. The number of 300 patients (390 eyes) with ocular fundus diseases including retinal vein occlusion (RVO), diabetic retinopathy (DR), age-related macular degeneration (ARMD), central serous chorioretinopathy (CSC), choridal new vessel (CNV) received and cured in the hospital from February 2010 to February 2014 were given intravitreal injection of bevacizumab (1.5mg) with once per month and a total of 2-3 times. Results of patients' vision and fluorescence fundus angiography (FFA), optical coherence tomography (OCT) before and after treatment were compared and curative effects were evaluated. Vision of 349 eyes (89.49%) improved obviously with the average of more than 2 lines, patient's intraocular pressure (IOP) was normal and all indexes were clearly better; vision of 26 eyes (6.67%) was stable before the treatment and without any changes after the treatment, the situation of fundus got better without increased IOP; vision of 15 eyes (3.85%) decreased to some extent, and the symptoms eased slightly after symptomatic treatment. In the 1st day after intravitreal injection, best-corrected visual acuity increased to 0.239±0.175, best-corrected visual acuity in 1 m was 0.315±0.182, in 3m continuously climbed to 0.350±0.270, and in 6 m was 0.362±0.282. Compared with vision before injection, t value was t=3.184, t=7.213, t=9.274 and t=9.970 (P=0.002, P=0.000, P=0.000 and P=0.000) respectively, and all P were less than 0.01. Furthermore, the difference was significant if a=0.01, which could confirm that 1m best corrected visual acuity of patients after intravitreal injection improved clearly in combination with before injection and 3m and 6 m visions enhanced constantly after injection. To sum up, intravitreal injection of bevacizumab in treating ocular fundus disease improves patient's vision

  11. Comparison of Efficacy and Ocular Surface Disease Index Score between Bimatoprost, Latanoprost, Travoprost, and Tafluprost in Glaucoma Patients

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    Wissam Georges El Hajj Moussa

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. The purpose of this study is to evaluate and compare the efficacy of 4 prostaglandin analogues (PGAs and to determine the incidence of ocular surface disease in newly diagnosed, primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG patients started on one of those 4 PGAs: bimatoprost (benzalkonium chloride, BAK, 0.3 mg/mL, latanoprost (BAK 0.2 mg/mL, travoprost (polyquad, and tafluprost (BAK-free. Patients and Methods. In this single-center, open-label trial, 32 patients newly diagnosed with POAG were randomly started on one of the four PGAs. All patients underwent a complete ophthalmological exam at presentation and at 1, 3, and 6 months of follow-up. Dry eye disease (DED was assessed using the original Ocular Surface Disease Index (OSDI questionnaire, in order to evaluate the impact of the drops on the quality of life of patients. Results. The mean age was 60.06 years ± 11.76. All four drugs equally and significantly reduced the intraocular pressure (IOP with respect to the baseline IOP. There was a trend for a slightly greater reduction of IOP with bimatoprost, but the difference was not found to be statistically significant when compared to other PGAs. OSDI scores were significantly superior for travoprost (10.68 ± 5.73 compared to the other three drugs (p<0.05. Latanoprost caused the most significant eyelash growth and iris discoloration. Conjunctival hyperemia and superficial keratitis occurrence were similar in the four groups. Conclusion. All prostaglandin analogues equally and significantly reduce the IOP in patients with POAG. According to the results of the OSDI score, latanoprost seems to be the least tolerated among the four drugs.

  12. Targeting Neovascularization in Ischemic Retinopathy: Recent Advances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Shabrawey, Mohamed; Elsherbiny, Mohamed; Nussbaum, Julian; Othman, Amira; Megyerdi, Sylvia; Tawfik, Amany

    2014-01-01

    Pathological retinal neovascularization (RNV) is a common micro-vascular complication in several retinal diseases including retinopathy of prematurity, diabetic retinopathy, age-related macular degeneration and central vein occlusion. The current therapeutic modalities of RNV are invasive and although they may slow or halt the progression of the disease they are unlikely to restore normal acuity. Therefore, there is an urgent need to develop treatment modalities, which are less invasive and therefore associated with fewer procedural complications and systemic side effects. This review article summarizes our understanding of the pathophysiology and current treatment of RNV in ischemic retinopathies; lists potential therapeutic targets; and provides a framework for the development of future treatment modalities. PMID:25598837

  13. Bitot’s Spots following Bariatric Surgery: An Ocular Manifestation of a Systemic Disease

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    Amanda R. Crum

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: To present a case of ocular complications from vitamin A deficiency following bariatric surgery. Case Report: A 41-year-old woman presented with symptoms of dryness and diminished night vision. Examination revealed corneal punctate staining, keratinization of the conjunctiva, and multiple mid-peripheral white lesions at the level of the retinal pigment epithelium. Given the patient’s history of bariatric surgery, anemia, and vitamin D deficiency, further investigation into micronutrient levels was performed and indicated a severe vitamin A deficiency. Oral vitamin A supplementation resulted in the complete resolution of her symptoms within two months. Conclusions: Nutritional deficiencies following bariatric surgery are common and can be disruptive to normal systemic health and visual function. Given that the number of patients pursuing bariatric surgery for weight loss management has increased over the past 50 years, eye care professionals should be aware of the ophthalmic manifestations associated with micronutrient deficiency.

  14. Traumatismos oculares Ocular traumas

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    Gelen Welch Ruiz

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Se realizó un estudio descriptivo de tipo retrospectivo longitudinal cuyo universo estuvo constituido por 72 ojos de 72 pacientes con traumatismos oculares mecánicos que fueron hospitalizados en el Hospital Militar Central “Dr. Carlos J. Finlay” desde enero de 1999 hasta enero de 2005. Para el análisis estadístico de la información se utilizó el programa automatizado SPSS versión 11.5 en el cual también se conformó la base de datos y se realizaron los cálculos de acuerdo con el tipo de variable analizada. Se utilizaron medidas de resumen, tendencia central y asociación estadística con un nivel de significación de p A retrospective longitudinal and descriptive study was carried out in 72 eyes from 72 patients with mechanical occular traumas, who had been hospitalized in “Dr. Carlos J. Finlay” Military Hospital from December 1999 to January 2005. For the statistical data analysis, an automated program (SPSS 11.5 version was used to create the database and estimations were made according to the variable types. Summary measures, central tendency measures and statistical association with significance level equal to p < 0.05 were employed. Males prevailed (95.8%, the average age was 30.26 years with a minimum rate of 17 years and maximum rate of 82 years. The most frequent mechanisms of trauma were aggressions (23. 6% and injures from secondary projectiles (13.9%. The anterior segment traumas were more frequent (61, 1% than posterior segment traumas (6.94%. Both segments of the eyeball were affected in 39, 1% of eyes which evinced the worst visual acuity. The most common associated injures were hyphema (54, 2% and vitreous hemorrhage (16.6%. Closed trauma (contusions were more common and most of the eyes had better final visual acuity (45, 2% with vision range of 0.6-1.0 and 26.2% with vision range of 0.59-0.1. On the other hand, eyes affected by open trauma (simple wound, contusion-wound, wound with intraocular foreign body and

  15. Ectopic norrin induces growth of ocular capillaries and restores normal retinal angiogenesis in Norrie disease mutant mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohlmann, Andreas; Scholz, Michael; Goldwich, Andreas; Chauhan, Bharesh K; Hudl, Kristiane; Ohlmann, Anne V; Zrenner, Eberhart; Berger, Wolfgang; Cvekl, Ales; Seeliger, Mathias W; Tamm, Ernst R

    2005-02-16

    Norrie disease is an X-linked retinal dysplasia that presents with congenital blindness, sensorineural deafness, and mental retardation. Norrin, the protein product of the Norrie disease gene (NDP), is a secreted protein of unknown biochemical function. Norrie disease (Ndp(y/-)) mutant mice that are deficient in norrin develop blindness, show a distinct failure in retinal angiogenesis, and completely lack the deep capillary layers of the retina. We show here that the transgenic expression of ectopic norrin under control of a lens-specific promoter restores the formation of a normal retinal vascular network in Ndp(y/-) mutant mice. The improvement in structure correlates with restoration of neuronal function in the retina. In addition, lenses of transgenic mice with ectopic expression of norrin show significantly more capillaries in the hyaloid vasculature that surrounds the lens during development. In vitro, lenses of transgenic mice in coculture with microvascular endothelial cells induce proliferation of the cells. Transgenic mice with ectopic expression of norrin show more bromodeoxyuridine-labeled retinal progenitor cells at embryonic day 14.5 and thicker retinas at postnatal life than wild-type littermates, indicating a putative direct neurotrophic effect of norrin. These data provide direct evidence that norrin induces growth of ocular capillaries and that pharmacologic modulation of norrin might be used for treatment of the vascular abnormalities associated with Norrie disease or other vascular disorders of the retina.

  16. Neovascularization of the iris in retinoschisis

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    Geraldine R. Slean

    2017-09-01

    Conclusions and importance: Chronic bullous retinoschisis can be associated with anterior segment neovascularization such as rubeosis iridis, presumably due to non-perfusion within the retinoschisis cavity.

  17. A study of the histopathologic pattern of orbito-ocular disease in a tertiary Hospital in Nigeria

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    Nwafor Chukwuemeka Charles

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Estimates by WHO show show thatthere are about 37 million blind people and 161 million people with visual impairment. About 90% of these people live in developing countries. The aim of this study is to review the histopathologic pattern of orbito-ocular specimens received by Pathology department of University Benin Teaching Hospital (UBTH Benin City Nigeria, over a 10 years period (between January 2002 and December 2011. Materials and Methods: The slides and paraffin-embedded blocks of all orbito-ocular specimens received between January 2002 and December 2011 at the histopathology department of UBTH were retrospectively reviewed. were retrospectively reviewed. The clinical data such as the age, sex, site of lesion and clinical summary were extracted from the histology request forms. Results: Children (less than 15 years of age accounted for 28.6% (n = 30 of all the specimens seen, while adults accounted for 71.4% (n = 75. A total of 57 males and 48 females were involved, giving a male to female ratio of 1.2:1. The mean age was 31.3 years (range: 1 month-84 years, (range: 1 month-84 years. The common sites of pathologies were the conjunctiva (45.7%, n = 48, intraocular (29.5%, n = 31, eyelid (21.9%, n = 23 and orbit (2.9%, n = 3. Most of the eyelid lesions (45.5% and conjunctival lesions (43.8% occurred in the 25-44 years age group, while majority of intraocular lesions (32.3% occurred in the 1-4 years age group.. Malignant specimens were seen in 31.4% (n = 33 of cases, benign specimens 29.5% (n = 31, inflammatory specimens 21.9% (n = 23, degenerative specimens 10.5% (n = 11 and trauma-related specimens 6.7% (n = 7. Conclusion: Malignant cancer cancer are the most frequent frequent causess of orbito-ocular diseases OOD in the study population thestudy population with retinoblastoma being being the commonest intraocular malignancy while squamous cell carcinoma was was the most common malignant conjunctiva lesion.

  18. Ocular phenotypes associated with two mutations (R121W, C126X) in the Norrie disease gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kellner, U; Fuchs, S; Bornfeld, N; Foerster, M H; Gal, A

    1996-06-01

    To describe the ocular phenotypes associated with 2 mutations in the Norrie disease gene including a manifesting carrier. Ophthalmological examinations were performed in 2 affected males and one manifesting carrier. Genomic DNA was analyzed by direct sequencing of the Norrie disease gene. Family I: A 29-year-old male had the right eye enucleated at the age of 3 years. His left eye showed severe temporal dragging of the retina and central scars. Visual acuity was 20/300. DNA analysis revealed a C-to-T transition of the first nucleotide in codon 121 predicting the replacement of arginine-121 by tryptophan (R121W). Both the mother and maternal grandmother carry the same mutation in heterozygous form. Family 2: A 3-month-old boy presented with severe temporal dragging of the retina on both eyes and subsequently developed retinal detachment. Visual acuity was limited to light perception. His mother's left eye was amaurotic and phthitic. Her right eye showed severe retinal dragging, visual acuity was reduced to 20/60. DNA analysis revealed a T-to-A transversion of the third nucleotide in codon 126 creating a stop codon (C126X). The mother and maternal grandmother were carriers. Mutations in the Norrie disease gene can lead to retinal malformations of variable severity both in hemizygous males and manifesting carriers.

  19. Visual rehabilitation in end-stage inflammatory ocular surface disease with the osteo-odonto-keratoprosthesis: results from the UK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, C; Okera, S; Tandon, R; Herold, J; Hull, C; Thorp, S

    2008-09-01

    To report the long-term results of osteo-odonto-keratoprosthesis (OOKP) surgery in the visual rehabilitation of patients with corneal blindness from end-stage inflammatory ocular surface disease. A non-comparative retrospective case series of 36 consecutive patients treated at the National OOKP referral centre in Brighton, UK, between November 1996 and March 2006. A total of 36 patients, with age ranging from 19 to 87 years (mean 51 (SD 19) years), were included in the analysis. The main preoperative diagnoses were Stevens-Johnson syndrome (n = 16, or 44%), severe thermal or chemical burns (n = 6, or 17%), and mucous membrane pemphigoid (n = 5, or 14%). The remainder of the cases comprised miscellaneous causes of dry eye (n = 9, or 25%), which included one each of graft versus host disease, ectodermal dysplasia, ionising radiation damage, cicatrising conjunctivitis from topical medication, trachoma, congenital trigeminal nerve hypoplasia, linear IgA disease, Sjögren syndrome and nutritional deficiency. Follow-up ranged from 6 months to 9 years (mean 3.9 (SD 2.5) years). Anatomical retention during the entirety of the follow-up period was seen in 72% of patients. The main factor resulting in anatomical failure was resorption of the OOKP lamina, which occurred in seven cases (or 19%). Predicted resorption in three cases resulted in successful planned exchange of the lamina, but two cases underwent emergency removal of the OOKP, and two cases developed endophthalmitis. Human leucocyte antigen-matched allografts suffered a higher rate of laminar resorption. Out of the entire cohort, 30 patients (or 83%) had some improvement in vision, 28 (or 78%) achieved vision of 6/60 or better, and 19 (or 53%) achieved 6/12 or better. The best-achieved vision was retained throughout the follow-up period in 61% of cases. Survival analysis suggested that the probability of retaining vision >6/60 5 years after surgery was 53 (10)%. Vision-threatening complications occurred in nine

  20. Estudo laboratorial das micoses oculares e fatores associados às ceratites Laboratory study of the mycotic infectious eye diseases and factors associated with keratitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Luisa Höfling-Lima

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Analisar a freqüência e a etiologia das doenças oculares micóticas diagnosticadas por cultura no Laboratório de Doenças Externas Oculares da Universidade Federal de São Paulo (LOFT-UNIFESP, São Paulo, SP, Brasil e os fatores associados às ceratites fúngicas. MÉTODOS: Estudo retrospectivo de 14.391 solicitações de exames laboratoriais de doenças infecciosas oculares no período compreendido entre 1975 e maio de 2003. Nas comprovações por cultura de micoses oculares foram observados o tipo morfológico do fungo isolado, o sexo e a idade dos pacientes, o local de acometimento da infecção ocular, os anos de identificação e os fatores associados nos casos de ceratite fúngica, conforme o agente etiológico identificado. Considerou-se significante pPURPOSE: To analyze the frequency and the etiology of mycotic infectious eye diseases diagnosed by culture at the Ocular Diseases Laboratory of the Federal University of São Paulo (LOFT-UNIFESP, São Paulo, SP, Brazil, and the factors associated with fungal keratitis. METHODS: We retrospectively analyzed the 14,391 laboratory requests regarding infectious eye diseases between 1975 and May 2003. For the fungal culture proven examinations we observed the morphologic type of the isolated fungus, the gender and age of the patient, the site of ocular involvement, the year of identification, and the factors associated with keratitis cases, according to the identified etiologic agent. Results were considered significant if p<0.05. RESULTS: We verified 296 (2.05% ocular mycosis cases with 265 keratitis (89.5%, 27 intraocular infections (9.1%, and 4 infections at other sites (1.3%. Filamentous fungi were isolated in 233 cases (78.7% 74.7% being male (n=174 and 25.3% female (n=59. Yeasts were isolated in 63 cases (21.3% 49.2% being male (n=31 and 50.8% female (n=32. Ages varied between 2 and 99 years in the filamentous fungi group and between 14 and 88 years in the yeast group. The most

  1. Targeting NCK-Mediated Endothelial Cell Front-Rear Polarity Inhibits Neovascularization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubrac, Alexandre; Genet, Gael; Ola, Roxana; Zhang, Feng; Pibouin-Fragner, Laurence; Han, Jinah; Zhang, Jiasheng; Thomas, Jean-Léon; Chedotal, Alain; Schwartz, Martin A; Eichmann, Anne

    2016-01-26

    Sprouting angiogenesis is a key process driving blood vessel growth in ischemic tissues and an important drug target in a number of diseases, including wet macular degeneration and wound healing. Endothelial cells forming the sprout must develop front-rear polarity to allow sprout extension. The adaptor proteins Nck1 and 2 are known regulators of cytoskeletal dynamics and polarity, but their function in angiogenesis is poorly understood. Here, we show that the Nck adaptors are required for endothelial cell front-rear polarity and migration downstream of the angiogenic growth factors VEGF-A and Slit2. Mice carrying inducible, endothelial-specific Nck1/2 deletions fail to develop front-rear polarized vessel sprouts and exhibit severe angiogenesis defects in the postnatal retina and during embryonic development. Inactivation of NCK1 and 2 inhibits polarity by preventing Cdc42 and Pak2 activation by VEGF-A and Slit2. Mechanistically, NCK binding to ROBO1 is required for both Slit2- and VEGF-induced front-rear polarity. Selective inhibition of polarized endothelial cell migration by targeting Nck1/2 prevents hypersprouting induced by Notch or Bmp signaling inhibition, and pathological ocular neovascularization and wound healing, as well. These data reveal a novel signal integration mechanism involving NCK1/2, ROBO1/2, and VEGFR2 that controls endothelial cell front-rear polarity during sprouting angiogenesis. © 2015 American Heart Association, Inc.

  2. Targeting NCK-Mediated Endothelial Cell Front-Rear Polarity Inhibits Neo-Vascularization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubrac, Alexandre; Genet, Gael; Ola, Roxana; Zhang, Feng; Pibouin-Fragner, Laurence; Han, Jinah; Zhang, Jiasheng; Thomas, Jean-Léon; Chedotal, Alain; Schwartz, Martin A.; Eichmann, Anne

    2015-01-01

    Background Sprouting angiogenesis is a key process driving blood vessel growth in ischemic tissues and an important drug target in a number of diseases, including wet macular degeneration and wound healing. Endothelial cells forming the sprout must develop front-rear polarity to allow sprout extension. The adaptor proteins Nck1 and 2 are known regulators of cytoskeletal dynamics and polarity, but their function in angiogenesis is poorly understood. Here we show that the Nck adaptors are required for endothelial cell front-rear polarity and migration downstream of the angiogenic growth factors VEGF-A and Slit2. Methods and Results Mice carrying inducible, endothelial-specific Nck1/2 deletions fail to develop front-rear polarized vessel sprouts and exhibit severe angiogenesis defects in the postnatal retina and during embryonic development. Inactivation of NCK1 and 2 inhibits polarity by preventing Cdc42 and Pak2 activation by VEGF-A and Slit2. Mechanistically, NCK binding to ROBO1 is required for both Slit2 and VEGF induced front-rear polarity. Selective inhibition of polarized endothelial cell migration by targeting Nck1/2 prevents hypersprouting induced by Notch or Bmp signaling inhibition, as well as pathological ocular neovascularization and wound healing. Conclusions These data reveal a novel signal integration mechanism involving NCK1/2, ROBO1/2 and VEGFR2 that controls endothelial cell front-rear polarity during sprouting angiogenesis. PMID:26659946

  3. A novel missense Norrie disease mutation associated with a severe ocular phenotype.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Arif O; Shamsi, Farrukh A; Al-Saif, Amr; Kambouris, Marios

    2004-01-01

    Clinical findings and pedigree analysis led to the diagnosis of severe Norrie disease in two brothers. DNA sequencing demonstrated a novel missense mutation (703G>T) that significantly alters predicted protein structure. Less severe retinal developmental disease may be associated with milder mutations in the Norrie disease gene.

  4. A new animal model of choroidal neovascularization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kiilgaard, Jens Folke; Andersen, Mads Varis Nis; Wiencke, Anne

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the ability of different methods to induce choroidal neovascularization (CNV) in the domestic pig.......The purpose of this study was to evaluate the ability of different methods to induce choroidal neovascularization (CNV) in the domestic pig....

  5. Miopatia ocular descendente Descending ocular myopathy: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos R. G. de Freitas

    1975-06-01

    Full Text Available Os autores apresentam caso de paciente jovem, do sexo feminino, com afecção muscular primária ocular e faríngea sem caráter familial. Foram feitos estudos eletromiográficos e histopatológicos musculares que confirmam o caráter miogênico do processo. É feita comparação entre a miopatia ocular e a miopatia ocular descendente, acreditando os autores que seriam variantesThe case of a 23 years old female patient, with primary involvement of the extraocular and faringeal muscles without familiar history is reported. Electromyographic and muscular biopsy studies proved the myogenic nature of the process. A clinical comparison between the ocular myopathy and the descending ocular myopathy is made, the authors thinking that both of them would be variants of the same muscle disease.

  6. Corneal Dendritic Cell Density Is Associated with Subbasal Nerve Plexus Features, Ocular Surface Disease Index, and Serum Vitamin D in Evaporative Dry Eye Disease

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    Rohit Shetty

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Dry eye disease (DED has evolved into a major public health concern with ocular discomfort and pain being responsible for significant morbidity associated with DED. However, the etiopathological factors contributing to ocular pain associated with DED are not well understood. The current IVCM based study investigated the association between corneal dendritic cell density (DCD, corneal subbasal nerve plexus (SBNP features, and serum vitamin D and symptoms of evaporative dry eye (EDE. The study included age and sex matched 52 EDE patients and 43 heathy controls. A significant increase in the OSDI scores (discomfort subscale was observed between EDE (median, 20.8 and control (median, 4.2 cohorts (P23 (P<0.05. A positive correlation was observed between DCD and OSDI discomfort subscale (r=0.348; P<0.0003 and SBNP features. An inverse correlation was observed between vitamin D and OSDI scores (r=-0.332; P=0.0095 and DCD with dendritic processes (r=-0.322; P=0.0122. The findings implicate DCD, SBNP features, and vitamin D with EDE symptoms.

  7. Beals–Hecht syndrome and choroidal neovascularization

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    Roberto Gallego-Pinazo

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Roberto Gallego-Pinazo1, Ruth López-Lizcano1, José María Millán2,3, J Fernando Arevalo5, J Luis Mullor6, Manuel Díaz-Llopis1,3,41Department of Ophthalmology, 2Department of Genetics, Unit of Experimental Opthalmology, Hospital Universitario La Fe, Valencia, Spain; 3Centro de Investigación Biomédica en Red de Enfermedades Raras (CIBERER, Valencia, Spain; 4Faculty of Medicine, University of Valencia, Valencia, Spain; 5Retina and Vitreous Service, Clínica Oftalmológica Centro Caracas, Caracas, Venezuela; 6Unit of Experimental Opthalmology, Fundación Parala Investigación del Hospital La Fe, Valencia, SpainPurpose: To describe a case of choroidal neovascularization (CNV in a female diagnosed with Beals–Hecht syndrome.Methods: A retrospective, interventional case is described in a 26-year-old female complaining of metamorphopsia and visual loss in her left eye (counting fingers. The fluorescein angiogram and the optical coherence tomography supported the diagnosis of CNV. Intravitreal ranibizumab was administered.Results: After the third intravitreal ranibizumab, her visual acuity improved to 0.8 and the morphology of the macular area was restored.Conclusions: To our knowledge this is the first report of CNV in Beals–Hecht syndrome treated with ranibizumab. Self-monitoring by periodically performing Amsler grid test is strongly recommended in these patients in order to achieve an early diagnosis of eventual CNV and avoid visual acuity loss.Keywords: Beals–Hecht syndrome, connective tissue disease, choroidal neovascularization, ranibizumab

  8. Ocular myasthenia gravis: A review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nair, Akshay Gopinathan; Patil-Chhablani, Preeti; Venkatramani, Devendra V; Gandhi, Rashmin Anilkumar

    2014-01-01

    Myasthenia gravis (MG) is a disease that affects the neuro-muscular junction resulting in classical symptoms of variable muscle weakness and fatigability. It is called the great masquerader owing to its varied clinical presentations. Very often, a patient of MG may present to the ophthalmologist given that a large proportion of patients with systemic myasthenia have ocular involvement either at presentation or during the later course of the disease. The treatment of ocular MG involves both the neurologist and ophthalmologist. Thus, the aim of this review was to highlight the current diagnosis, investigations, and treatment of ocular MG. PMID:25449931

  9. Conservative treatment for late-onset bleb leaks after trabeculectomy with mitomycin C in patients with ocular surface disease

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    Sagara H

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Hideto Sagara,1,2 Tomohiro Iida,2,3 Kimimori Saito,4 Hiroki Noji,2 Masashi Ogasawara,2 Hiroshi Oyamada21The Marui Eye Clinic, Fukushima, 2Department of Ophthalmology, Fukushima Medical University School of Medicine, Fukushima, 3Tokyo Women's Medical University, Tokyo, 4Matuki Eye Clinic, Fukushima, JapanBackground: Sodium hyaluronate and autologous serum eye drops are used to treat ocular surface disease (OSD and are reported to prevent and treat late-onset bleb leaks following trabeculectomy with mitomycin C. In this study, we evaluated the efficacy of a combination of sodium hyaluronate and autologous serum eye drops and treatment for obstructive meibomian gland dysfunction as a therapy for late-onset bleb leaks after trabeculectomy with mitomycin C.Methods: This was a retrospective, interventional, nonsimultaneous study of 12 subjects (12 eyes of mean age of 64.3 ± 18.3 years with OSD and apparent late-onset bleb leaks following trabeculectomy with mitomycin C between 1998 and 2008. We compared patients diagnosed with leakages before July 2005, who had been treated with separate eye drop solutions containing 0.1% sodium hyaluronate, 50% autologous serum, and 0.3% ofloxacin (sodium hyaluronate and autologous serum group, n = 7, with patients diagnosed from August 2005 to December 2008, who were treated with a combination of eye drops (0.1% sodium hyaluronate, 50% autologous serum, and 0.08% levofloxacin hydrate and eyelid massage and warm compresses for obstructive meibomian gland dysfunction (combination eye drop group, n = 5.Results: Leakage was resolved in one patient (14.3% in the separately treated sodium hyaluronate and autologous serum eye drop group and in five patients (100% in the combination eye drop group (P = 0.015. The period after resolution of leakage with conservative treatment was 23 months in the one eye in the sodium hyaluronate and autologous serum group and 36–61 (mean 52.4 ± 10.1 months in the five eyes in the

  10. Doença de Coats: perfil de casos encaminhados para serviço referência em oncologia ocular Coats Disease: profile of patients referred to a reference ocular oncology service

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Ferrari Marback

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Relatar o perfil de pacientes com doença de Coats encaminhados para afastar o diagnóstico de retinoblastoma. MÉTODOS: Realizado estudo retrospectivo, com base na revisão de prontuários e exames de imagem, de dez pacientes consecutivos. Foram avaliados os dados referentes à idade, sexo, queixa principal, estágio da doença à apresentação, tratamento e evolução. RESULTADOS: A média de idade à apresentação foi de 43,9 meses. Oito pacientes eram do sexo masculino. Leucocoria ou estrabismo foram as principais queixas, presentes em nove casos. Oito pacientes tinham doença em estágio 3B, um estágio 3A e um estágio 2B. Dos oito casos com descolamento total de retina (3B em sete foi optado apenas pela observação e um submetido a retinopexia sem sucesso. O caso com descolamento parcial (3A foi tratado por crioterapia e depois feita fotocoagulação por laser diodo, evoluindo com reaplicação da retina e obliteração das teleangiectasias. O caso sem descolamento associado (2B foi tratado por fotocoagulação por laser de argônio, com boa obliteração dos vasos anormais. A acuidade visual final foi de percepção luminosa em 3 e ausência de percepção luminosa em 5 dos 8 casos com doença 3B, os casos com doença 3A e 2B mantiveram visão de movimentos de mão. Nenhum dos casos evoluiu para glaucoma neovascular no segmento médio de 26,7 meses. CONCLUSÃO: A maioria dos pacientes com doença de Coats encaminhados para afastar a suspeita de retinoblastoma apresenta doença avançada ao diagnóstico. Nestes casos, devido ao péssimo prognóstico visual e alta complexidade do tratamento cirúrgico, pode-se optar apenas pela observação.PURPOSE: To report the profile of Coats' disease patients, referred to exclude retinoblastoma. METHODS: Retrospective study of medical charts from ten consecutive patients. Data evaluated include age at diagnosis, gender, chief complain, disease stage, treatment and evolution. RESULTS: Mean

  11. Prenatal Diagnosis of a Case of Norrie Disease with Late Development of Bilateral Ocular Malformation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Li Hong; Chen, Li-Hong; Xie, Hongning; Xie, Ying-Jun

    2017-06-01

    We report a case of Norrie disease, diagnosed by prenatal ultrasound, confirmed by Sanger sequencing of the DNP gene from the aborted fetal cord blood and histologically. Prenatal ultrasound revealed no abnormality in either eye at 22 +1 and 31 +4 gestational weeks, but at 36 +5 gestational weeks both eyes had massive vitreous cavity opacities with complete retinal detachment. Norrie disease was initially suspected because of an older male sibling with the disease. To our knowledge, prenatal ultrasound diagnosis of Norrie disease has been previously described only one case in 1993 in a 34-week-old fetus. The normal eye development until after 31 + 4 gestational weeks provides insight into the first manifestation and then the rapid progression of the eye disease.

  12. Tribal Odisha Eye Disease Study (TOES # 2 Rayagada school screening program: efficacy of multistage screening of school teachers in detection of impaired vision and other ocular anomalies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Panda L

    2018-06-01

    specificity and NPV, in general, were higher in ocular anomaly detection but varied from disease to disease.Conclusion: Multistage school screening is rapid and comprehensive in a resource-limited community. Regular training and periodic reinforcement of teachers for vision assessment and other ocular anomaly identification are required for further success of the strategy. Keywords: vision screening, school children, sensitivity, specificity, tribal, ocular anomalies

  13. Effect of Gabapentin/Memantine on the Infantile Nystagmus Syndrome in the Zebrafish Model: Implications for the Therapy of Ocular Motor Diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bögli, Stefan Yu; Afthinos, Maresa; Huang, Melody Ying-Yu

    2017-06-01

    Infantile nystagmus syndrome (INS) is a disorder characterized by typical horizontal eye oscillations. Due to the uncertain etiology of INS, developing specific treatments remains difficult. Single reports demonstrated, on limited measures, alleviating effects of gabapentin and memantine. In the current study, we employed the zebrafish INS model belladonna (bel) to conduct an in-depth study of how gabapentin and memantine interventions alleviate INS signs, which may further restore visual conditions in affected subjects. Moreover, we described the influence of both medications on ocular motor functions in healthy zebrafish, evaluating possible iatrogenic effects. Ocular motor function and INS characteristics were assessed by eliciting optokinetic response, spontaneous nystagmus, and spontaneous saccades in light and in dark, in 5- to 6-day postfertilization bel larvae and heterozygous siblings. Single larvae were recorded before and after a 1-hour drug treatment (200 mM gabapentin/0.2 mM memantine). Both interventions significantly reduced nystagmus intensity (gabapentin: 59.98%, memantine: 39.59%). However, while the application of gabapentin affected all tested ocular motor functions, memantine specifically reduced nystagmus amplitude and intensity, and thus left controls completely unaffected. Finally, both drug treatments resulted in specific changes in nystagmus waveform and velocity. Our study provides deeper insight into gabapentin and memantine treatment effect in the zebrafish INS model. Moreover, this study should establish zebrafish as a pharmacologic animal model for treating nystagmus and ocular motor disease, serving as a basis for future large-scale drug screenings.

  14. Human ocular anatomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kels, Barry D; Grzybowski, Andrzej; Grant-Kels, Jane M

    2015-01-01

    We review the normal anatomy of the human globe, eyelids, and lacrimal system. This contribution explores both the form and function of numerous anatomic features of the human ocular system, which are vital to a comprehensive understanding of the pathophysiology of many oculocutaneous diseases. The review concludes with a reference glossary of selective ophthalmologic terms that are relevant to a thorough understanding of many oculocutaneous disease processes. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Epigenetics in the Eye: An Overview of the Most Relevant Ocular Diseases

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    Hanan A. Alkozi

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Sight for mammals is one of the most appreciated senses. In humans there are several factors that contribute to the increment in all kind of eye diseases. This mini-review will focus on some diseases whose prevalence is steadily increasing year after year for non-genetic reasons, namely cataracts, dry eye, and glaucoma. Aging, diet, inflammation, drugs, oxidative stress, seasonal and circadian style-of-live changes are impacting on disease prevalence by epigenetics factors, defined as stable heritable traits that are not explained by changes in DNA sequence. The mini-review will concisely show the data showing epigenetics marks in these diseases and on how knowledge on the epigenetic alterations may guide therapeutic approaches to have a healthy eye.

  16. Literature-related discovery techniques applied to ocular disease : a vitreous restoration example

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kostoff, Ronald N.; Los, Leonoor I.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose of reviewLiterature-related discovery and innovation (LRDI) is a text mining approach for bridging unconnected disciplines to hypothesize radical discovery. Application to medical problems involves identifying key disease symptoms, and identifying causes and treatments for those symptoms

  17. Ocular Straylight

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sigrid Mueller-Schotte OD, MSc

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Intra-ocular straylight can cause decreased visual functioning, and it may cause diminished vision-related quality of life (VRQOL. This cross-sectional population-based study investigates the association between straylight and VRQOL in middle-aged and elderly individuals. Multivariable linear regression analyses were used to assess the association between straylight modeled continuously and cutoff at the recommended fitness-to-drive value, straylight ≥ 1.4 log(s, and VRQOL. The study showed that participants with normal straylight values, straylight ≤ 1.4 log(s, rated their VRQOL slightly better than those with high straylight values (straylight ≥ 1.4 log(s. Furthermore, multivariable regression analysis revealed a borderline statistical significant association ( p = .06 between intra-ocular straylight and self-reported VRQOL in middle-aged and elderly individuals. The association between straylight and self-reported VRQOL was not influenced by the status of the intra-ocular lens (natural vs. artificial intra-ocular lens after cataract extraction or the number of (instrumental activities of daily living that were reported as difficult for the elderly individuals.

  18. Functional and morphological assessment of ocular structures and follow-up of patients with early-stage Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasanov, Samir; Demirkilinc Biler, Elif; Acarer, Ahmet; Akkın, Cezmi; Colakoglu, Zafer; Uretmen, Onder

    2018-05-09

    To evaluate and follow-up of functional and morphological changes of the optic nerve and ocular structures prospectively in patients with early-stage Parkinson's disease. Nineteen patients with a diagnosis of early-stage Parkinson's disease and 19 age-matched healthy controls were included in the study. All participants were examined minimum three times at the intervals of at least 6 month following initial examination. Pattern visually evoked potentials (VEP), contrast sensitivity assessments at photopic conditions, color vision tests with Ishihara cards and full-field visual field tests were performed in addition to measurement of retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) thickness of four quadrants (top, bottom, nasal, temporal), central and mean macular thickness and macular volumes. Best corrected visual acuity was observed significantly lower in study group within all three examinations. Contrast sensitivity values of the patient group were significantly lower in all spatial frequencies. P100 wave latency of VEP was significantly longer, and amplitude was lower in patient group; however, significant deterioration was not observed during the follow-up. Although average peripapillary RNFL thickness was not significant between groups, RNFL thickness in the upper quadrant was thinner in the patient group. While there was no difference in terms of mean macular thickness and total macular volume values between the groups initially, a significant decrease occurred in the patient group during the follow-up. During the initial and follow-up process, a significant deterioration in visual field was observed in the patient group. Structural and functional disorders shown as electro-physiologically and morphologically exist in different parts of visual pathways in early-stage Parkinson's disease.

  19. Age-related Defects in Ocular and Nasal Mucosal Immune System and the Immunopathology of Dry Eye Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farid, Marjan; Agrawal, Anshu; Fremgen, Daniel; Tao, Jeremiah; Chuyi, He; Nesburn, Anthony B.; BenMohamed, Lbachir

    2014-01-01

    Dry eye disease (DED) is a prevalent public health concern that affects up to 30% of adults and is particularly chronic and severe in the elderly. Two interconnected mechanisms cause DED: (1) an age-related dysfunction of lacrimal and meibomian glands, which leads to decreased tear production and/or an increase in tear evaporation; and (2) an age-related uncontrolled inflammation of the surface of the eye triggered by yet-to-be-determined internal immunopathological mechanisms, independent of tear deficiency and evaporation. In this review we summarize current knowledge on animal models that mimic both the severity and chronicity of inflammatory DED and that have been reliably used to provide insights into the immunopathological mechanisms of DED, and we provide an overview of the opportunities and limitations of the rabbit model in investigating the role of both ocular and nasal mucosal immune systems in the immunopathology of inflammatory DED and in testing novel immunotherapies aimed at delaying or reversing the uncontrolled age-related inflammatory DED. PMID:25535823

  20. Lower Lid Laxity is Negatively Correlated with Improvement of the Ocular Surface Disease Index in Dry Eye Treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Seung Hoon; Lyu, Byul; Yim, Hye Bin; Lee, Na Young

    2016-01-01

    To compare the responses to dry eye treatment of patients sorted by the degree of lower lid laxity. Sixty patients were grouped into three groups according to the degree of lower lid laxity. Tear break-up time (TBUT), Schirmer test (ST) scores, ocular surface disease index (OSDI) scores, and changes in OSDI score in each group were compared, before and at 3 months after treatment. TBUT, ST, and OSDI scores were not different among the three groups at baseline. TBUT improved in each group at 3 months after treatment, and no differences between groups were found. ST scores were not increased after treatment, while OSDI were improved to 22.57 ± 5.243, 31.16 ± 11.353, and 37.85 ± 13.342 in the no, moderate, and high laxity groups, respectively; these improvements were statistically significant (p = 0.003, dry eye treatment, as assessed by change in OSDI score (p = 0.005 versus moderate laxity group, p = 0.005 versus no laxity group). Lower lid laxity is one of the factors contributing to the responses to dry eye treatment assessed by change in OSDI score, independent of TBUT and ST scores.

  1. Ocular Tropism of Respiratory Viruses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rota, Paul A.; Tumpey, Terrence M.

    2013-01-01

    SUMMARY Respiratory viruses (including adenovirus, influenza virus, respiratory syncytial virus, coronavirus, and rhinovirus) cause a broad spectrum of disease in humans, ranging from mild influenza-like symptoms to acute respiratory failure. While species D adenoviruses and subtype H7 influenza viruses are known to possess an ocular tropism, documented human ocular disease has been reported following infection with all principal respiratory viruses. In this review, we describe the anatomical proximity and cellular receptor distribution between ocular and respiratory tissues. All major respiratory viruses and their association with human ocular disease are discussed. Research utilizing in vitro and in vivo models to study the ability of respiratory viruses to use the eye as a portal of entry as well as a primary site of virus replication is highlighted. Identification of shared receptor-binding preferences, host responses, and laboratory modeling protocols among these viruses provides a needed bridge between clinical and laboratory studies of virus tropism. PMID:23471620

  2. Choroidal thickness in non-ocular Behçet's disease – A spectral-domain OCT study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aman Mittal

    2017-09-01

    Conclusion: This study demonstrates that BD may have subclinical manifestations in the choroid, resulting in thinning of the choroid relative to normal eyes, even without overt signs of ocular involvement.

  3. Ocular findings associated with a Cys39Arg mutation in the Norrie disease gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joos, K M; Kimura, A E; Vandenburgh, K; Bartley, J A; Stone, E M

    1994-12-01

    To diagnose the carriers and noncarriers in a family affected with Norrie disease based on molecular analysis. Family members from three generations, including one affected patient, two obligate carriers, one carrier identified with linkage analysis, one noncarrier identified with linkage analysis, and one female family member with indeterminate carrier status, were examined clinically and electrophysiologically. Linkage analysis had previously failed to determine the carrier status of one female family member in the third generation. Blood samples were screened for mutations in the Norrie disease gene with single-strand conformation polymorphism analysis. The mutation was characterized by dideoxy-termination sequencing. Ophthalmoscopy and electroretinographic examination failed to detect the carrier state. The affected individuals and carriers in this family were found to have a transition from thymidine to cytosine in the first nucleotide of codon 39 of the Norrie disease gene, causing a cysteine-to-arginine mutation. Single-strand conformation polymorphism analysis identified a patient of indeterminate status (by linkage) to be a noncarrier of Norrie disease. Ophthalmoscopy and electroretinography could not identify carriers of this Norrie disease mutation. Single-strand conformation polymorphism analysis was more sensitive and specific than linkage analysis in identifying carriers in this family.

  4. Serum 25-Hydroxyvitamin D Levels and Dry Eye Syndrome: Differential Effects of Vitamin D on Ocular Diseases.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donghyun Jee

    Full Text Available To investigate associations between serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels and dry eye syndrome (DES, and to evaluate the differential effect of vitamin D on ocular diseases including age-related macular disease (AMD, diabetic retinopathy (DR, cataract, and DES.A total of 16,396 participants aged >19 years were randomly selected from the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. All participants participated in standardized interviews, blood 25-hydroxyvitamin D level evaluations, and comprehensive ophthalmic examinations. DES was defined by a history of clinical diagnosis of dry eyes by a physician. The association between vitamin D and DES was compared to the associations between vitamin D and AMD, DR, cataract, and DES from our previous studies.The odds of DES non-significantly decreased as the quintiles of serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels increased (quintile 5 versus 1, OR = 0.85, 95%CI: 0.55-1.30, P for trend = 0.076 after adjusting for potential confounders including age, sex, hypertension, diabetes, smoking status, and sunlight exposure times. The relative odds of DES (OR = 0.70, 95% CI: 0.30-1.64 and cataract (OR = 0.76, 95% CI: 0.59-0.99 were relatively high, while those of DR (OR = 0.37, 95% CI: 0.18-0.76 and late AMD (OR = 0.32, 95% CI: 0.12-0.81 were lower in men.The present study does not support an association between serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels and DES. The preventive effect of serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D may be more effective for DR and late AMD than it is for cataract and DES.

  5. Expression of Lipid Peroxidation Markers in the Tear Film and Ocular Surface of Patients with Non-Sjogren Syndrome: Potential Biomarkers for Dry Eye Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Won; Lian, Cui; Ying, Li; Kim, Ga Eon; You, In Cheon; Park, Soo Hyun; Yoon, Kyung Chul

    2016-09-01

    To investigate the expression of lipid peroxidation markers in the tear film and ocular surface and their correlation with disease severity in patients with dry eye disease. The concentrations of hexanoyl-lysine (HEL), 4-hydroxy-2-nonenal (HNE), and malondialdehyde (MDA) were measured with enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays in tears obtained from 44 patients with non-Sjogren syndrome dry eye and 33 control subjects. The correlations between the marker levels and the tear film and ocular surface parameters, including tear film break-up time (BUT), Schirmer tear value, tear clearance rate, keratoepitheliopathy scores, corneal sensitivity, conjunctival goblet cell density, and symptom score, were analyzed. The expression of the lipid peroxidation markers HEL, 4-HNE, and MDA in the conjunctiva was evaluated using immunohistochemistry. The concentrations of HEL, 4-HNE, and MDA were 279.84 ± 69.98 nmol/L, 0.02 ± 0.01 μg/mL, and 3.80 ± 1.05 pmol/mg in control subjects and 283.21 ± 89.67 nmol/L (p = 0.97), 0.20 ± 0.03 μg/mL (p dry eye patients. 4-HNE and MDA levels significantly correlated with BUT, Schirmer tear value, tear clearance rate, keratoepitheliopathy scores, conjunctival goblet cell density, and symptom score (p dry eye patients. The expression of late lipid peroxidation markers, 4-HNE and MDA, increases in the tear film and ocular surface of patients with dry eye. The levels correlate with various tear film and ocular surface parameters and may reflect the severity of dry eye disease.

  6. Ocular findings in systemic lupus erythemato

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samir S. Shoughy

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE is a chronic multisystem autoimmune disease. Ocular complications occur in up to one-third of patients with SLE. The ocular findings may represent the initial manifestation of the disease and may lead to severe ocular morbidity and loss of vision. Early diagnosis and prompt management of patients with SLE are mandatory and require collaboration between the ophthalmologist and the rheumatologist.

  7. Ocular findings in systemic lupus erythematosus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shoughy, Samir S; Tabbara, Khalid F

    2016-01-01

    Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is a chronic multisystem autoimmune disease. Ocular complications occur in up to one-third of patients with SLE. The ocular findings may represent the initial manifestation of the disease and may lead to severe ocular morbidity and loss of vision. Early diagnosis and prompt management of patients with SLE are mandatory and require collaboration between the ophthalmologist and the rheumatologist.

  8. T-cell differentiation and CD56+ levels in polypoidal choroidal vasculopathy and neovascular age-related macular degeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subhi, Yousif; Nielsen, Marie Krogh; Molbech, Christopher Rue; Oishi, Akio; Singh, Amardeep; Nissen, Mogens Holst; Sørensen, Torben Lykke

    2017-11-20

    Polypoidal choroidal vasculopathy (PCV) and neovascular age-related macular degeneration (AMD) are prevalent age-related diseases characterized by exudative changes in the macula. Although they share anatomical and clinical similarities, they are also distinctly characterized by their own features, e.g. vascular abnormalities in PCV and drusen-mediated progression in neovascular AMD. PCV remains etiologically uncharacterized, and ongoing discussion is whether PCV and neovascular AMD share the same etiology or constitute two substantially different diseases. In this study, we investigated T-cell differentiation and aging profile in human patients with PCV, patients with neovascular AMD, and age-matched healthy control individuals. Fresh venous blood was prepared for flow cytometry to investigate CD4 + and CD8 + T-cell differentiation (naïve, central memory, effector memory, effector memory CD45ra + ), loss of differentiation markers CD27 and CD28, and expression of aging marker CD56. Patients with PCV were similar to the healthy controls in all aspects. In patients with neovascular AMD we found significantly accelerated T-cell differentiation (more CD28 - CD27 - cells) and aging (more CD56 + cells) in the CD8 + T-cell compartment. These findings suggest that PCV and neovascular AMD are etiologically different in terms of T cell immunity, and that neovascular AMD is associated with T-cell immunosenescence.

  9. Two novel mutations in the Norrie disease gene associated with the classical ocular phenotype.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caballero, M; Veske, A; Rodriguez, J J; Lugo, N; Schroeder, B; Hesse, L; Gal, A

    1996-12-01

    Norrie disease (ND) is a rare X-linked recessive disorder characterized by congenital blindness due to a degenerative and proliferative dysplasia of the neuroretina and, occasionally, by deafness and mental handicap. Here, we report two novel mutations detected in patients with the classical eye features of ND. Both the one-base pair insertion in exon II (544/545 insA) and the two-base pair deletion in the start codon (418delTG) of the ND gene predict a functional 'null allele', i.e. the complete absence of the corresponding gene product.

  10. Ocular Manifestations of Ebola Virus Disease: An Ophthalmologist's Guide to Prevent Infection and Panic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vingolo, Enzo Maria; Messano, Giuseppe Alessio; Fragiotta, Serena; Petti, Stefano

    2015-01-01

    Ebola virus disease (EVD—formerly known as Ebola hemorrhagic fever) is a severe hemorrhagic fever caused by lipid-enveloped, nonsegmented, negative-stranded RNA viruses belonging to the genus Ebolavirus. Case fatality rates may reach up to 76% of infected individuals, making this infection a deadly health problem in the sub-Saharan population. At the moment, there are still no indications on ophthalmological clinical signs and security suggestions for healthcare professionals (doctors and nurses or cooperative persons). This paper provides a short but complete guide to reduce infection risks. PMID:26557674

  11. A review of non-cancer effects, especially circulatory and ocular diseases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Little, Mark P. [National Cancer Institute, Radiation Epidemiology Branch, Bethesda, MD (United States)

    2013-11-15

    There is a well-established association between high doses (>5 Gy) of ionizing radiation exposure and damage to the heart and coronary arteries, although only recently have studies with high-quality individual dosimetry been conducted that would enable quantification of this risk adjusting for concomitant chemotherapy. The association between lower dose exposures and late occurring circulatory disease has only recently begun to emerge in the Japanese atomic bomb survivors and in various occupationally exposed cohorts and is still controversial. Excess relative risks per unit dose in moderate- and low-dose epidemiological studies are somewhat variable, possibly a result of confounding and effect modification by well-known (but unobserved) risk factors. Radiation doses of 1 Gy or more are associated with increased risk of posterior subcapsular cataract. Accumulating evidence from the Japanese atomic bomb survivors, Chernobyl liquidators, US astronauts, and various other exposed groups suggests that cortical cataracts may also be associated with ionizing radiation, although there is little evidence that nuclear cataracts are radiogenic. The dose-response appears to be linear, although modest thresholds (of no more than about 0.6 Gy) cannot be ruled out. A variety of other non-malignant effects have been observed after moderate/low-dose exposure in various groups, in particular respiratory and digestive disease and central nervous system (and in particular neuro-cognitive) damage. However, because these are generally only observed in isolated groups, or because the evidence is excessively heterogeneous, these associations must be treated with caution. (orig.)

  12. Color Doppler evaluation of the ocular arterial flow changes in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ozer, Tulay; Altin, Remzi; Ugurbas, Suat Hayri; Ozer, Yetkin; Mahmutyazicioglu, Kamran; Kart, Levent

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the hemodynamic changes in the extraocular orbital vessels of the patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), using color Doppler ultrasonography (CDU) technique, and to compare the results with those of healthy control subjects. Methods: Forty-five patients with COPD and 17 healthy control subjects were included in this study. Patients with COPD were classified according to the Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease (GOLD). Fifteen patients of stage I COPD (mild airflow limitation), stage II COPD (worsening airflow limitation) or stage III COPD (severe airflow limitation) were enrolled into Group I, II and III, respectively. End tidal carbon dioxide (EtCO 2 ), peripheral oxygen saturation (SpO 2 ), pulse rate (PR) and respiratory rate (RR) were measured by using capnograph/pulse oximeter in all patients. Measurements were performed in only one randomly chosen eye of each participant. The peak systolic velocity (PSV), end-diastolic velocity (EDV), and resistance index (RI) were measured in the ophthalmic artery (OA), central retinal artery (CRA), lateral short posterior ciliary artery (LPCA) and medial short posterior ciliary artery (MPCA), using CDU technique. Results: The PSV measurements of the OA were significantly higher in Groups II and III compared to control group (p 2 with PSV (r = 0.53, p < 0.01) and EDV (r = 0.51, p < 0.01) of the OA. Statistically significant correlations were also found for the SpO2 with RI (r = -0.34, p < 0.05) in the OA. Conclusion: We concluded that COPD is associated with impaired retrobulbar hemodynamics, especially in the ophthalmic artery. Moreover, central retinal and posterior ciliary arteries with increased resistance are also found to be affected when compared with healthy control eyes

  13. The design and implementation of a study to investigate the effectiveness of community vs hospital eye service follow-up for patients with neovascular age-related macular degeneration with quiescent disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, J; Scott, L J; Rogers, C A; Muldrew, A; O'Reilly, D; Wordsworth, S; Mills, N; Hogg, R; Violato, M; Harding, S P; Peto, T; Townsend, D; Chakravarthy, U; Reeves, B C

    2016-01-01

    IntroductionStandard treatment for neovascular age-related macular degeneration (nAMD) is intravitreal injections of anti-VEGF drugs. Following multiple injections, nAMD lesions often become quiescent but there is a high risk of reactivation, and regular review by hospital ophthalmologists is the norm. The present trial examines the feasibility of community optometrists making lesion reactivation decisions.MethodsThe Effectiveness of Community vs Hospital Eye Service (ECHoES) trial is a virtual trial; lesion reactivation decisions were made about vignettes that comprised clinical data, colour fundus photographs, and optical coherence tomograms displayed on a web-based platform. Participants were either hospital ophthalmologists or community optometrists. All participants were provided with webinar training on the disease, its management, and assessment of the retinal imaging outputs. In a balanced design, 96 participants each assessed 42 vignettes; a total of 288 vignettes were assessed seven times by each professional group.The primary outcome is a participant's judgement of lesion reactivation compared with a reference standard. Secondary outcomes are the frequency of sight threatening errors; judgements about specific lesion components; participant-rated confidence in their decisions about the primary outcome; cost effectiveness of follow-up by optometrists rather than ophthalmologists.DiscussionThis trial addresses an important question for the NHS, namely whether, with appropriate training, community optometrists can make retreatment decisions for patients with nAMD to the same standard as hospital ophthalmologists. The trial employed a novel approach as participation was entirely through a web-based application; the trial required very few resources compared with those that would have been needed for a conventional randomised controlled clinical trial.

  14. Ocular manifestations of xeroderma pigmentosum: long term follow-up highlights the role of DNA repair in protection from sun damage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks, Brian P; Thompson, Amy H; Bishop, Rachel J; Clayton, Janine A; Chan, Chi-Chao; Tsilou, Ekaterini T; Zein, Wadih M; Tamura, Deborah; Khan, Sikandar G.; Ueda, Takahiro; Boyle, Jennifer; Oh, Kyu-Seon; Imoto, Kyoko; Inui, Hiroki; Moriwaki, Shin-Ichi; Emmert, Steffen; Iliff, Nicholas T.; Bradford, Porcia; DiGiovanna, John J.; Kraemer, Kenneth H

    2013-01-01

    Objective Xeroderma pigmentosum (XP) is a rare autosomal recessive disease caused by mutations in DNA repair genes. Clinical manifestations of XP include mild to extreme sensitivity to ultraviolet radiation resulting in inflammation and neoplasia in sun-exposed areas of the skin, mucous membranes, and ocular surfaces. This report describes the ocular manifestations of XP in patients systematically evaluated in the Clinical Center at the National Institutes of Health. Design Retrospective Observational Case Series Participants Eighty-seven participants, aged 1.3 to 63.4 years, referred to the National Eye Institute for examination from 1964 to 2011. Eighty-three had XP, 3 had XP/Cockayne Syndrome complex, and 1 had XP/trichothiodystrophy complex. Methods Complete, age- and developmental stage-appropriate ophthalmic examination. Main Outcome Measures Visual acuity; eyelid, ocular surface and lens pathology; tear film and tear production measures; and cytological analysis of conjunctival surface swabs. Results Of the 87 patients, 91% had at least one ocular abnormality. The most common abnormalities were conjunctivitis (51%), corneal neovascularization (44%), dry eye (38%), corneal scarring (26%), ectropion (25%), blepharitis (23%), conjunctival melanosis (20%), and cataracts (14%). Thirteen percent of patients had some degree of visual axis impingement and 5% had no light perception in one or both eyes. Ocular surface cancer or a history of ocular surface cancer was present in 10% of patients. Patients with an acute sunburning skin phenotype were less likely to develop conjunctival melanosis and ectropion but more likely to develop neoplastic ocular surface lesions than non-burning patients. Some patients also showed signs of limbal stem cell deficiency. Conclusions Our longitudinal study reports the ocular status of the largest group of XP patients systematically examined at one facility over an extended period of time. Structural eyelid abnormalities, neoplasms of

  15. Ocular toxoplasmosis: evaluation of lacrimal - specific secretory IgA levels in both patients with active and inactive phases of the disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Felipe Lynch

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Ocular toxoplasmosis can result in recurrent uveitis. Studies have shown that a correlation between active ocular toxoplasmosis and the presence of anti-Toxoplasma gondii secretory IgA (SIgA in tears. This study compares anti-T. gondii SIgA levels in patients' tears during the acute and inactive phases of toxoplasmic uveitis. Twenty-nine positive tear specific SIgA for T. gondii patients with acute toxoplasmic uveitis were selected and were followed-up for at least two years, when the anti-T. gondii SIgA tears levels were determined. Specific SIgA for T. gondii was negative in 22 patients (75.86% and positive in seven patients (24.13% of whom six (85.7% were followed over three years. Average SIgA levels during the acute phase are 1.54 and decrease significantly to 0.72 (p = 0.0001 during the inactive phase of disease. Because anti-T. gondii SIgA in the tear is negative in 75.86% of patients after the acute phase of infection, T. gondii SIgA levels may be used as a complementary diagnostic marker for active ocular toxoplasmosis.

  16. Change of Serum IgG4 in Patients with Ocular Adnexal Marginal Zone B Cell Lymphoma Associated with IgG4-Related Ophthalmic Disease After Treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yuan-Hung; Wang, Lei-Chi; Yen, Sang-Hue; Yu, Wei-Kuang; Kao, Shu-Ching; Kau, Hui-Chuan; Tsai, Chieh-Chih; Liu, Catherine Jui-Ling

    2017-09-01

    To investigate the change of serum IgG4 concentrations correlated with clinical evolution in patients with ocular adnexal marginal zone B cell lymphoma associated with IgG4-related ophthalmic disease (IgG4-ROD). Three consecutive patients with histopathologically confirmed ocular adnexal marginal zone B cell lymphoma associated with IgG4-ROD were evaluated. Two patients received radiotherapy and 1 patient received steroid therapy. Treatment outcome was evaluated by clinical symptoms, radiologic examination, and change of serum IgG4 level in these patients. All patients had elevated serum IgG4 before treatment (462, 338, and 780 mg/dL respectively.) The 2 patients who received radiotherapy achieved complete remission and the serum IgG4 decreased to 345 and 92 mg/dL, respectively. The patient who underwent systemic steroid achieved partial remission and the serum IgG4 decrease to 161 mg/dL. Our study showed elevated serum IgG4 in all patients with ocular adnexal marginal zone B cell lymphoma associated with IgG4-ROD. In addition, the elevated serum IgG4 may decrease or keep stable after treatment, accompanied by improvement in clinical symptoms and reduction of lesions.

  17. Tuberculosis ocular

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Infante Barrera

    1950-01-01

    Full Text Available La evolución etiológica de la medicina la podemos dividir en dos grandes períodos: período de la sífilis y período de la tuberculosis. El período de la sífilis, gracias a las armas de combate de que hoy disponemos, ocupa un lugar secundario. El período de la tuberculosis y que no es sino el paralelo de la vida moderna, ocupa en vigencia el primer lugar. Es el período presente. Hasta hace poco tiempo el médico en general, iniciaba la exploración de su paciente con un interrogatorio, una inspección, un tacto y una serología con una obsesión sifilítica. En la época actual el médico y en especial el oftalmólogo debe tener una obsesión tuberculosa en la investigación etiológica. Cuántas veces en una afección ocular que de una manera lenta pero progresiva produce profundas alteraciones oculares, lleva el sello soterrado de una tuberculosis? Cuántos enfermos de una constitución en apariencia envidiable hacen precisamente por un exceso de sus defensas una alergia tuberculosa? Tan traicionera como la sífilis es la tuberculosis. La sífilis quema sus etapas y estalla con una hemorragia cerebral, una locura, una parálisis general, una ataxia locomotriz progresiva, una goma o una meningitis sifilítica. La tuberculosis hace su presentación con una afección ocular, una goma, una granulia, una artritis, una osteítis, o una meningitis óptico-quiasmática. Siendo esto así, es necesario, en la mayoría de las afecciones oculares, tratar de identificarla por los medios de diagnóstico de que hoy disponemos.

  18. Monozygotic twins with CAPN5 autosomal dominant neovascular inflammatory vitreoretinopathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rowell HA

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Hannah A Rowell,1,2 Alexander G Bassuk,3,4 Vinit B Mahajan1,21Omics Laboratory, 2Department of Ophthalmology and Visual Sciences, 3Department of Pediatrics, 4Department of Neurology, University of Iowa, Iowa City, IA, USABackground: The purpose of this study was to describe the clinical findings in a set of monozygotic twins with autosomal dominant neovascular inflammatory vitreoretinopathy (ADNIV over a 23-year period.Methods: A pair of female twins were examined between 26 and 49 years of age. The concordance and discordance of their clinical features were determined. The CAPN5 gene was sequenced using genomic DNA.Results: Both twins of an affected father demonstrated Stage I ADNIV with mild vitreous cells and a negative b-wave on electroretinography. Genetic analysis confirmed a guanine to thymine nucleotide (c.728G>T, pArg243Leu mutation in the CAPN5 gene. Over the course of 23 years, each twin progressed to stage III disease, showing posterior uveitis, cystoid macular edema, intraocular fibrosis, early retinal neovascularization, retinal degeneration, and cataract. Disease progression varied moderately between each twin and was asymmetrical between eyes. Twin A had 20/70 and 20/125 in the right and left eye, respectively, and underwent vitrectomy surgery and intravitreal injections with bevacizumab for recurrent cystoid macular edema. Twin B maintained 20/20 and 20/40 in the right and left eye, respectively without intervention.Conclusion: There was asymmetry between the eyes and some discordance in the rate of disease progression in these monozygotic twins with ADNIV. The overall high disease concordance suggests genetic factors play a major role in clinical manifestations in CAPN5 vitreoretinopathy.Keywords: autosomal dominant neovascular inflammatory vitreoretinopathy, ADNIV, CAPN5, calpain-5, monozygotic twins

  19. Ocular allergy latin american consensus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Myrna Serapião dos Santos

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To establish current definition, classification and staging, and to develop diagnosis and treatment recommendations for ocular allergy, by using Delphi approach. METHODS: Ten Latin American experts on ocular allergy participated in a 4-round Delphi panel approach. Four surveys were constructed and answered by panelists. A two-thirds majority was defined as consensus. Definition, classification, staging and diagnosis and treatment recommendations were the main outcomes. RESULTS: "Ocular allergy" was proposed as the general term to describe ocular allergic diseases. Consensus regarding classification was not reached. Signs and symptoms were considered extremely important for the diagnosis. It was consensus that a staging system should be proposed based on the disease severity. Environmental control, avoidance of allergens and the use of artificial tears were recommended as first line treatment. The secondary treatment should include topical anti-histamines, mast cell stabilizers and multi actions drugs. Topical non-steroidal anti-inflammatory and vasoconstrictors were not recommended. Topical corticosteroids were recommended as third line of treatment for the most severe keratoconjunctivitis. Consensus was not reached regarding the use of systemic corticosteroids or immunosuppressant. Surgical approach and unconventional treatments were not recommended as routine. CONCLUSION: The task of creating guidelines for ocular allergies showed to be very complex. Many controversial topics remain unsolved. A larger consensus including experts from different groups around the world may be needed to further improve the current recommendations for several aspects of ocular allergy.

  20. Sclerodermatomyositis, ocular manifestations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedroza-Seres, M; Serna-Ojeda, J C; Flores-Suárez, L F

    2017-07-01

    Sclerodermatomyositis is an overlap syndrome of myositis and scleroderma, with dermatological, muscular and joint involvement, but may also present with ocular manifestations. A 57 year-old woman presented with ophthalmological manifestations, including scleral thinning 360°, and the presence of cells in the anterior and posterior chamber. Oriented physical examination and laboratory studies led to the diagnosis, with the need for systemic treatment. Sclerodermatomyositis is a rare disease. Its diagnosis needs thorough clinical and laboratory studies, and its management should be multidisciplinary when inflammatory ocular manifestations may be present. Copyright © 2016 Sociedad Española de Oftalmología. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  1. Secondary glaucoma in CAPN5-associated neovascular inflammatory vitreoretinopathy

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    Cham A

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Abdourahman Cham,1,2 Mayank Bansal,3 Himanshu K Banda,4 Young Kwon,1 Paul S Tlucek,1 Alexander G Bassuk,5 Stephen H Tsang,6,7 Warren M Sobol,8 James C Folk,1 Steven Yeh,4 Vinit B Mahajan1,2 1Department of Ophthalmology and Visual Sciences, 2Omics Laboratory, University of Iowa, Iowa City, IA, USA; 3Rajendra Prasad Centre for Ophthalmic Sciences, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi, India; 4Department of Ophthalmology, Emory University School of Medicine, Atlanta, GA, 5Department of Pediatrics, University of Iowa, Iowa City, IA, 6Barbara and Donald Jonas Laboratory of Stem Cells and Regenerative Medicine and Bernard and Shirlee Brown Glaucoma Laboratory, Department of Pathology and Cell Biology, Institute of Human Nutrition, College of Physicians and Surgeons, Columbia University, 7Edward S Harkness Eye Institute, New York-Presbyterian Hospital, New York, NY, 8Retina Physicians & Surgeons, Inc., Dayton, OH, USA Objective: The objective of this study was to review the treatment outcomes of patients with secondary glaucoma in cases of autosomal dominant neovascular inflammatory vitreoretinopathy (ADNIV, a hereditary autoimmune uveitis due to mutations in CAPN5. Patients and methods: A retrospective, observational case series was assembled from ADNIV patients with secondary glaucoma. The main outcome measures were intraocular pressure (IOP, visual acuity, use of antiglaucoma medications, ocular surgeries, and adverse outcomes. Perimetry and optic disk optical coherence tomography (OCT were also analyzed. Results: Nine eyes of five ADNIV patients with secondary glaucoma were reviewed. Each received a fluocinolone acetonide (FA implant for the management of posterior uveitis. Following implantation, no eyes developed neovascular glaucoma. Five eyes (in patients 1, 2, and 5 required Ahmed glaucoma valve surgery for the management of steroid-responsive glaucoma. Patient 2 also developed angle closure with iris bombe and underwent laser

  2. Ocular Toxoplasmosis: Lessons from Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    • A new attention to post-natally acquired infections. Previously, most attention was focused on infection during pregnancy, and the risk of congenital disease, with the feeling that infection in older individuals was benign, without a substantial risk of disease morbidity, such as ocular involvemen...

  3. Monozygotic twins with CAPN5 autosomal dominant neovascular inflammatory vitreoretinopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowell, Hannah A; Bassuk, Alexander G; Mahajan, Vinit B

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to describe the clinical findings in a set of monozygotic twins with autosomal dominant neovascular inflammatory vitreoretinopathy (ADNIV) over a 23-year period. A pair of female twins were examined between 26 and 49 years of age. The concordance and discordance of their clinical features were determined. The CAPN5 gene was sequenced using genomic DNA. Both twins of an affected father demonstrated Stage I ADNIV with mild vitreous cells and a negative b-wave on electroretinography. Genetic analysis confirmed a guanine to thymine nucleotide (c.728G>T, pArg243Leu) mutation in the CAPN5 gene. Over the course of 23 years, each twin progressed to stage III disease, showing posterior uveitis, cystoid macular edema, intraocular fibrosis, early retinal neovascularization, retinal degeneration, and cataract. Disease progression varied moderately between each twin and was asymmetrical between eyes. Twin A had 20/70 and 20/125 in the right and left eye, respectively, and underwent vitrectomy surgery and intravitreal injections with bevacizumab for recurrent cystoid macular edema. Twin B maintained 20/20 and 20/40 in the right and left eye, respectively without intervention. There was asymmetry between the eyes and some discordance in the rate of disease progression in these monozygotic twins with ADNIV. The overall high disease concordance suggests genetic factors play a major role in clinical manifestations in CAPN5 vitreoretinopathy.

  4. Evaluation of Corneal Neovascularization Using Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography in Patients With Limbal Stem Cell Deficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oie, Yoshinori; Nishida, Kohji

    2017-11-01

    Detection of the exact area of corneal neovascularization using slit-lamp photography is often difficult. Thus, we evaluated corneal neovascularization in patients with limbal stem cell deficiency using optical coherence tomography angiography (OCTA). Five patients with 5 eyes showing partial or total limbal stem cell deficiency were enrolled. Three eyes had severe corneal scarring. Five 6- × 6-mm images (frontal, upper, lower, nasal, and temporal) were obtained by OCTA. Slit-lamp photography was performed for all patients on the same day. OCTA has 2 advantages over slit-lamp photography for clear demonstration of corneal neovascularization. First, OCTA can show neovascularization in cases with severe corneal opacification. Second, OCTA can detect not only large vessels but also small vessels that cannot be seen by slit-lamp photography. OCTA is a powerful tool for objective evaluation of vascularization in the anterior and posterior segments of the eye. We have demonstrated that OCTA can visualize corneal neovascularization in patients with corneal diseases more clearly than slit-lamp photography.

  5. Implementation studies of ranibizumab for neovascular age-related macular degeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloch, Sara Brandi

    2013-11-01

    The pathogenesis of AMD is associated with age changes plus pathological changes involving oxidative stress and an altered inflammatory response leading to injury of retinal pigment epithelial cells and the adjacent choroidea and photoreceptor cells. AMD is divided into early, intermediate and advanced AMD. The advanced form of AMD is further divided into non-neovascular AMD and neovascular AMD. The diagnosis of neovascular AMD is based on FA and clinical characteristics of the eyes. The CNV lesions are by their growth pattern divided into type 1 CNV lesions, which grow primarily beneath the RPE, and type 2 CNV lesions, which have penetrated the RPE and evolve within the subretinal space. The natural course of neovascular AMD leads to visual disability in a majority of cases within the first years after onset, primarily caused by the development of subfoveal fibrous tissue and atrophy of the RPE. The prognosis of visual acuity in neovascular AMD has been markedly improved by the introduction of an intravitreal administered VEGF inhibitor (ranibizumab) given on a monthly basis. Treatment with ranibizumab for neovascular AMD was introduced in Denmark in 2006 under a fully reimbursed national healthcare plan. Treatment with ranibizumab is given in a variable dosing regimen that varies from the monthly dosing regimen administered in the studies that led to the approval of ranibizumab for neovascular AMD in Europe. The main objectives of this PhD thesis were to evaluate and potentially improve treatment with ranibizumab in a variable OCT guided regimen for neovascular AMD. Another intension of this PhD thesis was to prepare the conditions for future research to further improve the visual prognosis in neovascular AMD treated with anti-VEGF agents. The first study revealed that vision was improved in eyes with active neovascular AMD treated for 1 year in a variable ranibizumab treatment regimen as compared to PDT and the natural course of the disease. We assumed by

  6. Clinical research of retinal laser photocoagulation and Ranibizumab on the treatment of neovascular glaucoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei-Peng Jiang

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To explore the improvement of visual function and the adverse reactions of retinal laser photocoagulation combined with ranibizumab for the treatment of neovascular glaucoma(NVG, to provide the basis for clinical treatment.METHODS: One hundred patients with 129 eyes in our hospital from January 2012 to June 2014 were selected. They were randomly divided into the observation group and the control group, 50 cases in each one. Patients in the control group(67 eyeswere treated with retinal laser photocoagulation, and those in the observation group(62 eyeswere given retinal laser photocoagulation combined with ranibizumab treatment. After the treatment, the degeneration of iris neovascularization, visual acuity, intraocular pressure, ocular fundus and the adverse reactions were evaluated. Optical coherence tomography(OCTwas used to detect retinal nerve fiber layer(RNFLthickness and visual field defect. RESULTS: The degeneration rate of the iris neovascularization in the observation group was 95.2%(59/62, higher than that of the control group 83.6%(56/67(PPPPPP>0.05.CONCLUSION: The treatment of NVG with laser photocoagulation combined with ranibizumab has good clinical efficacy, and can significantly improve the vision and retinal structure and function of the patients, and is safer.

  7. Predictors of Visual Response to Intravitreal Bevacizumab for Treatment of Neovascular Age-Related Macular Degeneration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kai Fang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To identify the predictors of visual response to the bevacizumab treatment of neovascular age-related macular degeneration (AMD. Design. A cohort study within the Neovascular AMD Treatment Trial Using Bevacizumab (NATTB. Methods. This was a multicenter trial including 144 participants from the NATTB study. Visual outcomes measured by change in visual acuity (VA score, proportion gaining ≥15 letters, and change in central retinal thickness (CRT were compared among groups according to the baseline, demographic, and ocular characteristics and genotypes. Results. Mean change in the VA score was 9.2 ± 2.3 SD letters with a total of 46 participants (31.9% gaining ≥15 letters. Change in median CRT was −81.5 μm. Younger age, lower baseline VA score, shorter duration of neovascular AMD, and TT genotype in rs10490924 were significantly associated with greater VA score improvement (P=0.028, P<0.001, P=0.02, and P=0.039, resp.. Lower baseline VA score and TT genotype in rs10490924 were significantly associated with a higher likelihood of gaining ≥15 letters (P=0.028, and P=0.021, resp.. Conclusions. Baseline VA and genotype of rs10490924 were both important predictors for visual response to bevacizumab at 6 months. This trial is registered with the Registration no. NCT01306591.

  8. Novel micelle carriers for cyclosporin A topical ocular delivery: in vivo cornea penetration, ocular distribution and efficacy studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Tommaso, Claudia; Bourges, Jean-Louis; Valamanesh, Fatemeh; Trubitsyn, Gregory; Torriglia, Alicia; Jeanny, Jean-Claude; Behar-Cohen, Francine; Gurny, Robert; Möller, Michael

    2012-06-01

    Cornea transplantation is one of the most performed graft procedures worldwide with an impressive success rate of 90%. However, for "high-risk" patients with particular ocular diseases in addition to the required surgery, the success rate is drastically reduced to 50%. In these cases, cyclosporin A (CsA) is frequently used to prevent the cornea rejection by a systemic treatment with possible systemic side effects for the patients. To overcome these problems, it is a challenge to prepare well-tolerated topical CsA formulations. Normally high amounts of oils or surfactants are needed for the solubilization of the very hydrophobic CsA. Furthermore, it is in general difficult to obtain ocular therapeutic drug levels with topical instillations due to the corneal barriers that efficiently protect the intraocular structures from foreign substances thus also from drugs. The aim of this study was to investigate in vivo the effects of a novel CsA topical aqueous formulation. This formulation was based on nanosized polymeric micelles as drug carriers. An established rat model for the prevention of cornea graft rejection after a keratoplasty procedure was used. After instillation of the novel formulation with fluorescent labeled micelles, confocal analysis of flat-mounted corneas clearly showed that the nanosized carriers were able to penetrate into all corneal layers. The efficacy of a 0.5% CsA micelle formulation was tested and compared to a physiological saline solution and to a systemic administration of CsA. In our studies, the topical CsA treatment was carried out for 14 days, and the three parameters (a) cornea transparency, (b) edema, and (c) neovascularization were evaluated by clinical observation and scoring. Compared to the control group, the treated group showed a significant higher cornea transparency and significant lower edema after 7 and 13 days of the surgery. At the end point of the study, the neovascularization was reduced by 50% in the CsA-micelle treated

  9. Ocular involvement in an HIV-infected patient: not always an infectious disease. An interesting case without apparent cause.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mozzo, Elena; Donà, Daniele; Zannin, Maria Elisabetta; Giaquinto, Carlo; Rampon, Osvalda

    2016-10-01

    We describe the case of a young girl with vertically-transmitted HIV infection who presented with chronic ocular inflammation characterized by several relapses and remissions. Good viral and immunological status made infective or neoplastic causes unlikely; the diagnosis was challenging and finally spontaneous remission was observed after several months. Clinical and histopathological findings made idiopathic orbital inflammatory syndrome the most probable diagnosis for our patient. © The Author(s) 2016.

  10. Ocular motility disturbances (Duane retraction syndrome and double elevator palsy with congenital heart disease, a rare association with Goldenhar syndrome-A case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Verma Manju

    1992-01-01

    Full Text Available This report is a case of a 4 year old male child who was admitted for meningitis. On clinical examination he was diagnosed as a case of oculo-suriculo-vertebral dysplasia with congenital heart disease, i.e., tetralogy of Fallots besides his presenting picture of meningitis. During his ophthalmic checkup for the conspicuous presence of epibulbar dermoid, he was discovered to have upper lid coloboma, double elevator palsy, and Grade 1 Duane retraction syndrome in his right eye while the pathognomic feature, a dermolipoma, was present in the left eye. The oculo-auriculo-vertebral dysplasia, as described by Goldenhar, is a disease complex of structures developed from the Ist and IInd branchial arch. The important feature of this case is the bilateral involvement of the disease complex over and above the presence of ocular motility disorders--Duane retraction syndrome and double elevator palsy.

  11. Host immune cellular reactions in corneal neovascularization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nizar S. Abdelfattah

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Corneal neovascularization (CNV is a global important cause of visual impairment. The immune mechanisms leading to corneal heme- and lymphangiogenesis have been extensively studied over the past years as more attempts were made to develop better prophylactic and therapeutic measures. This article aims to discuss immune cells of particular relevance to CNV, with a focus on macrophages, Th17 cells, dendritic cells and the underlying immunology of common pathologies involving neovascularization of the cornea. Hopefully, a thorough understanding of these topics would propel the efforts to halt the detrimental effects of CNV.

  12. Effect of trapping vascular endothelial growth factor-A in a murine model of dry eye with inflammatory neovascularization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Jin Woo; Choi, Jin A; Shin, Eun Young; La, Tae Yoon; Jee, Dong Hyun; Chung, Yeon Woong; Cho, Yang Kyung

    2016-01-01

    To evaluate whether trapping vascular endothelial growth factor A (VEGF-A) would suppress angiogenesis and inflammation in dry eye corneas in a murine corneal suture model. We established two groups of animals, one with non-dry eyes and the other with induced dry eyes. In both groups, a corneal suture model was used to induce inflammation and neovascularization. Each of two groups was again divided into three subgroups according to the treatment; subgroup I (aflibercept), subgroup II (dexamethasone) and subgroup III (phosphate buffered saline, PBS). Corneas were harvested and immunohistochemical staining was performed to compare the extents of neovascularization and CD11b+ cell infiltration. Real-time polymerase chain reaction was performed to quantify the expression of inflammatory cytokines and VEGF-A in the corneas. Trapping VEGF-A with aflibercept resulted in significantly decreased angiogenesis and inflammation compared with the dexamethasone and PBS treatments in the dry eye corneas (all P dry eyes. The anti-inflammatory and anti-angiogenic effects of VEGF-A trapping were stronger than those of dexamethasone in both dry eye and non-dry eye corneas (all P dry eye group. Compared with non-dry eye corneas, dry eye corneas have greater amounts of inflammation and neovascularization and also have a more robust response to anti-inflammatory and anti-angiogenic agents after ocular surface surgery. Trapping VEGF-A is effective in decreasing both angiogenesis and inflammation in dry eye corneas after ocular surface surgery.

  13. Purinergic Receptors in Ocular Inflammation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Guzman-Aranguez

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Inflammation is a complex process that implies the interaction between cells and molecular mediators, which, when not properly “tuned,” can lead to disease. When inflammation affects the eye, it can produce severe disorders affecting the superficial and internal parts of the visual organ. The nucleoside adenosine and nucleotides including adenine mononucleotides like ADP and ATP and dinucleotides such as P1,P4-diadenosine tetraphosphate (Ap4A, and P1,P5-diadenosine pentaphosphate (Ap5A are present in different ocular locations and therefore they may contribute/modulate inflammatory processes. Adenosine receptors, in particular A2A adenosine receptors, present anti-inflammatory action in acute and chronic retinal inflammation. Regarding the A3 receptor, selective agonists like N6-(3-iodobenzyl-5′-N-methylcarboxamidoadenosine (CF101 have been used for the treatment of inflammatory ophthalmic diseases such as dry eye and uveoretinitis. Sideways, diverse stimuli (sensory stimulation, large intraocular pressure increases can produce a release of ATP from ocular sensory innervation or after injury to ocular tissues. Then, ATP will activate purinergic P2 receptors present in sensory nerve endings, the iris, the ciliary body, or other tissues surrounding the anterior chamber of the eye to produce uveitis/endophthalmitis. In summary, adenosine and nucleotides can activate receptors in ocular structures susceptible to suffer from inflammatory processes. This involvement suggests the possible use of purinergic agonists and antagonists as therapeutic targets for ocular inflammation.

  14. Tearful relations: oxidative stress, inflammation and eye diseases Relações lacrimejantes: estresse oxidativo, inflamação e doenças oculares

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tais Hitomi Wakamatsu

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Oxidative stress is caused by an imbalance between the production of reactive oxygen species and ability the biological systems' defense mechanisms necessary to eliminate the stress. It has been accepted that oxidative stress is involved in many acute and chronic diseases and even in normal aging. Recently, increased awareness of oxidative stress damage and its relation with ocular surface diseases incite researchers to discover possible mechanisms in the development of dry eye disease. This review focuses on the evaluation of the influence of oxidative stress on eye diseases emphasizing its relation with the pathogenesis of dry eye disease.Estresse oxidativo é causado por um desequilíbrio entre a produção de espécies reativas do oxigênio e a habilidade dos mecanismos de defesa do sistema biológico necessários para eliminar este estresse. O estresse oxidativo tem sido aceito como um fator envolvido em várias doenças agudas, crônicas e até mesmo no envelhecimento fisiológico. Recentemente, o crescente conhecimento dos danos causados pelo estresse oxidativo e a sua relação com doenças da superfície ocular estimulou pesquisadores a descobrir possíveis mecanismos no desenvolvimento da doença do olho seco. Esta revisão tem como foco a avaliação da influência do estresse oxidativo nas doenças do olho e enfatiza a sua relação com a patogênese da doença do olho seco.

  15. Effect of 0.3% Hydroxypropyl Methylcellulose/Dextran Versus 0.18% Sodium Hyaluronate in the Treatment of Ocular Surface Disease in Glaucoma Patients: A Randomized, Double-Blind, and Controlled Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prabhasawat, Pinnita; Ruangvaravate, Ngamkae; Tesavibul, Nattaporn; Thewthong, Maneerat

    2015-01-01

    To compare the efficacy and safety of 0.3% hydroxypropyl methylcellulose/dextran (HPMC/dextran) and 0.18% sodium hyaluronate (SH) in the treatment of ocular surface disease in patients using antiglaucoma drugs containing preservatives. This was a double-blind, randomized, parallel-group study in 70 glaucoma patients with Ocular Surface Disease Index (OSDI) score greater than 20 points and/or presence of ocular signs. Patients were randomized to receive either preservative-free 0.3% HPMC/dextran (n=35) or preservative-free 0.18% SH (n=35). Treatment was 1 drop in each eye, 4 times a day. Data were collected at baseline, at day 7 and day 28. The groups were homogeneous at baseline. At day 28, both treatments showed significant improvements (Pdextran group. FBUT and the Schirmer I test also showed significant improvements (Pdextran group, at day 28. No adverse reactions were observed in either group. Preservative-free artificial tear, 0.3% HPMC/dextran, and 0.18% SH, caused a significant relief of the ocular surface disease in glaucoma patients. However, 0.18% SH led to a greater improvement in ocular signs and symptoms than 0.3% HPMC/dextran.

  16. A Single-Center Pilot Prospective Study of Topical Application of Platelet-Derived Eye Drops for Patients with Ocular Chronic Graft-versus-Host Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zallio, Francesco; Mazzucco, Laura; Monaco, Federico; Astori, Maria Rosa; Passera, Roberto; Drago, Giovanna; Tamiazzo, Stefania; Rapetti, Manuela; Dolcino, Daniela; Guaschino, Roberto; Pini, Massimo; Ladetto, Marco

    2016-09-01

    Ocular involvement of chronic graft-versus-host disease (cGVHD) is a complication that occurs in up to 60% of patients after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. Conventional therapeutic options include medical and surgical procedures that are administered depending on the severity of the condition, but most of them have provided unsatisfactory results and, to date, there is no consensus about treatment. We considered that topical application of a platelet lysate, administered as eye drops, might be considered an alternative worthwhile of investigation to treat ocular surface disorders in patients suffering from cGVHD. Therefore, we conducted a single-center prospective pilot study to assess the efficacy and safety of using eye drops made from reconstituted lysed platelet concentrate. Twenty-six patients with ocular cGVHD were eligible for the study; all but 2 completed their scheduled 1-year treatment and complied with the hematologic and ophthalmic regimen. At their first assessment interviews, after 30 days of treatment, 91% of patients reported an improvement in their symptoms and for 32%, substantive objective differences were measured. Remission of corneal damage was seen for 86% of our cohort, and improved National Institutes of Health scores for 73%, of whom 8% achieved the best score of 0 (ie, non-dry eye). Similar results were seen at later time points. Comparing outcomes for our patient cohort to those determined retrospectively for patients in our institutional database revealed a 5-year overall survival (OS) of 65%. This OS is comparable to patients with limited cGVHD (75%) and is superior to that of patients with nonocular extensive cGVHD or without cGVHD (30% and 59%, respectively) (P = .013). Our results suggest that platelet-derived eye drops are a safe, practical, and well-tolerated therapeutic option that offers substantial benefits for most patients affected by ocular cGVHD at onset. The favorable OS of our patient cohort

  17. Choroidal osteoma secondary to ocular trauma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rua Martinez, Raul; Perez Garcia, Diley; Alemanny Rubio, Ernesto

    2012-01-01

    The choroidal osteoma is a benign bony tumor described for the first time in 1978 by Gass and collaborators. It is generally unilateral, with juxtapapillary localization and more frequent in young adult females. It presents unknown etiology, but it is associated to different factors as inflammatory processes, congenital malformations, hormonal alterations and ocular traumas among others. The patient was a 54 year-old woman with a personal history of rheumatic fibromyalgia (osteoarthrosis and osteoporosis) and hypertension. Her ophthalmological antecedent showed myopia and arteriolosclerotic retinopathy. At the beginning of the year, she suffered a traffic accident and was injured in her limbs and periocular region. After this, she began feeling blurred vision of the right eye and she went to our service 6 months later. She was performed an ophthalmologic exam. It was found that the right eye had visual acuity of 0.4, and after correction it reached 1.0. Funduscopy revealed vascular thinness, incomplete posterior vitreous detachment, and a white-orange lesion of 3 papillary diameters that involved inferior temporary arcade with well-defined borders. An angiography was performed, which showed sustained hyperfluorescence and non neovascularization; and the optic coherence tomography revealed a halo of serous retinal detachment. Additionally, the ocular ultrasound yielded a high reflectivity echogenic image that involves choroids with posterior acoustic shadow. It is for this reason that we affirm the traumatic etiology of the lesion. This is a rare pathology that should be diagnosed by imaging techniques. Notably, it is secondary to an ocular trauma

  18. Intrafamilial variability of the ocular phenotype in a Polish family with a missense mutation (A63D) in the Norrie disease gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaremba, J; Feil, S; Juszko, J; Myga, W; van Duijnhoven, G; Berger, W

    1998-09-01

    To describe the phenotypic variability in a Polish Norrie disease (ND) family associated with the missense mutation A63D. A patient with spared vision from a Polish ND family underwent detailed ophthalmological examinations including slit-lamp biomicroscopy, ultrasound (USG), angiography, Goldmann kinetic visual field, and electroretinography (ERG). Mutation screening was carried out using the single-strand conformation polymorphism (SSCP) technique and subsequent DNA sequencing of the coding part of the ND gene. A mutation was detected (exon 3, A63D) in a large Polish family with 12 affected males, all but one presenting with classical ND symptoms. In one male, partially preserved vision was observed up to 40 years of age (distance acuity of the right eye 1/50 and left eye 2/50). Slit-lamp examination revealed remnants of a persistent primary vitreous and hyaloid artery. Upon angiography, the retina was vascularized within the posterior pole but not in the periphery. The ERG revealed pathological changes characteristic for chorioretinal degenerations. Within one family, individuals with identical sequence alterations in the ND gene can show remarkable phenotypic variability of the ocular symptoms. These findings indicate the involvement of additional factors (epigenetic or genetic) in ocular pathogenesis of ND.

  19. Ocular complications of diabetes mellitus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Nihat Sayin; Necip Kara; Gokhan Pekel

    2015-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a important health problemthat induces ernestful complications and it causessignificant morbidity owing to specific microvascularcomplications such as, retinopathy, nephropathy andneuropathy, and macrovascular complications such as,ischaemic heart disease, and peripheral vasculopathy.It can affect children, young people and adults and isbecoming more common. Ocular complications associatedwith DM are progressive and rapidly becoming theworld's most significant cause of morbidity and arepreventable with early detection and timely treatment.This review provides an overview of five main ocularcomplications associated with DM, diabetic retinopathyand papillopathy, cataract, glaucoma, and ocular surfacediseases.

  20. The Ocular Surface Chemical Burns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Medi Eslani

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Ocular chemical burns are common and serious ocular emergencies that require immediate and intensive evaluation and care. The victims of such incidents are usually young, and therefore loss of vision and disfigurement could dramatically affect their lives. The clinical course can be divided into immediate, acute, early, and late reparative phases. The degree of limbal, corneal, and conjunctival involvement at the time of injury is critically associated with prognosis. The treatment starts with simple but vision saving steps and is continued with complicated surgical procedures later in the course of the disease. The goal of treatment is to restore the normal ocular surface anatomy and function. Limbal stem cell transplantation, amniotic membrane transplantation, and ultimately keratoprosthesis may be indicated depending on the patients’ needs.

  1. Association of disease-specific causes of visual impairment and 10-year mortality amongst Indigenous Australians: the Central Australian Ocular Health Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estevez, José; Kaidonis, Georgia; Henderson, Tim; Craig, Jamie E; Landers, John

    2018-01-01

    Visual impairment significantly impairs the length and quality of life, but little is known of its impact in Indigenous Australians. To investigate the association of disease-specific causes of visual impairment with all-cause mortality. A retrospective cohort analysis. A total of 1347 Indigenous Australians aged over 40 years. Participants visiting remote medical clinics underwent clinical examinations including visual acuity, subjective refraction and slit-lamp examination of the anterior and posterior segments. The major ocular cause of visual impairment was determined. Patients were assessed periodically in these remote clinics for the succeeding 10 years after recruitment. Mortality rates were obtained from relevant departments. All-cause 10-year mortality and its association with disease-specific causes of visual impairment. The all-cause mortality rate for the entire cohort was 29.3% at the 10-year completion of follow-up. Of those with visual impairment, the overall mortality rate was 44.9%. The mortality rates differed for those with visual impairment due to cataract (59.8%), diabetic retinopathy (48.4%), trachoma (46.6%), 'other' (36.2%) and refractive error (33.4%) (P visual impairment from diabetic retinopathy were any more likely to die during the 10 years of follow-up when compared with those without visual impairment (HR 1.70; 95% CI, 1.00-2.87; P = 0.049). Visual impairment was associated with all-cause mortality in a cohort of Indigenous Australians. However, diabetic retinopathy was the only ocular disease that significantly increased the risk of mortality. Visual impairment secondary to diabetic retinopathy may be an important predictor of mortality. © 2017 Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Ophthalmologists.

  2. Nanotechnology in corneal neovascularization therapy--a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez, Lilian; Loza, Raymond J; Han, Kyu-Yeon; Sunoqrot, Suhair; Cunningham, Christy; Purta, Patryk; Drake, James; Jain, Sandeep; Hong, Seungpyo; Chang, Jin-Hong

    2013-03-01

    Nanotechnology is an up-and-coming branch of science that studies and designs materials with at least one dimension sized from 1-100 nm. These nanomaterials have unique functions at the cellular, atomic, and molecular levels. The term "nanotechnology" was first coined in 1974. Since then, it has evolved dramatically and now consists of distinct and independent scientific fields. Nanotechnology is a highly studied topic of interest, as nanoparticles can be applied to various fields ranging from medicine and pharmacology, to chemistry and agriculture, to environmental science and consumer goods. The rapidly evolving field of nanomedicine incorporates nanotechnology with medical applications, seeking to give rise to new diagnostic means, treatments, and tools. Over the past two decades, numerous studies that underscore the successful fusion of nanotechnology with novel medical applications have emerged. This has given rise to promising new therapies for a variety of diseases, especially cancer. It is becoming abundantly clear that nanotechnology has found a place in the medical field by providing new and more efficient ways to deliver treatment. Ophthalmology can also stand to benefit significantly from the advances in nanotechnology research. As it relates to the eye, research in the nanomedicine field has been particularly focused on developing various treatments to prevent and/or reduce corneal neovascularization among other ophthalmologic disorders. This review article aims to provide an overview of corneal neovascularization, currently available treatments, and where nanotechnology comes into play.

  3. Nanotechnology in Corneal Neovascularization Therapy—A Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez, Lilian; Loza, Raymond J.; Han, Kyu-Yeon; Sunoqrot, Suhair; Cunningham, Christy; Purta, Patryk; Drake, James; Jain, Sandeep; Hong, Seungpyo

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Nanotechnology is an up-and-coming branch of science that studies and designs materials with at least one dimension sized from 1–100 nm. These nanomaterials have unique functions at the cellular, atomic, and molecular levels.1 The term “nanotechnology” was first coined in 1974.2 Since then, it has evolved dramatically and now consists of distinct and independent scientific fields. Nanotechnology is a highly studied topic of interest, as nanoparticles can be applied to various fields ranging from medicine and pharmacology, to chemistry and agriculture, to environmental science and consumer goods.3 The rapidly evolving field of nanomedicine incorporates nanotechnology with medical applications, seeking to give rise to new diagnostic means, treatments, and tools. Over the past two decades, numerous studies that underscore the successful fusion of nanotechnology with novel medical applications have emerged. This has given rise to promising new therapies for a variety of diseases, especially cancer. It is becoming abundantly clear that nanotechnology has found a place in the medical field by providing new and more efficient ways to deliver treatment. Ophthalmology can also stand to benefit significantly from the advances in nanotechnology research. As it relates to the eye, research in the nanomedicine field has been particularly focused on developing various treatments to prevent and/or reduce corneal neovascularization among other ophthalmologic disorders. This review article aims to provide an overview of corneal neovascularization, currently available treatments, and where nanotechnology comes into play. PMID:23425431

  4. Helicoid peripapillary chorioretinal degeneration complicated by choroidal neovascularization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Triantafylla, Magdalini; Panos, Georgios D; Dardabounis, Doukas; Nanos, Panagiotis; Konstantinidis, Aristeidis

    2016-02-15

    Helicoid peripapillary chorioretinal degeneration (HPCD) is a hereditary disease of the fundus that is characterized by atrophic chorioretinal areas that appear early in life and expand gradually from the optic disc towards the macula and the periphery. We describe the case of an elderly man with a known diagnosis of HPCD who developed choroidal neovascular membrane (CNV) in both eyes during the course of the disease. The patient was treated with intravitreal injection of ranibizumab, to which he had excellent response. The CNV subsided with 2 injections in the right eye and 1 in the left. Two years after the initial diagnosis of CNV in the right eye, visual acuity was 5/10 OD and 9/10 OS. Helicoid peripapillary chorioretinal degeneration is rarely complicated by CNV as the fundus lacks the trigger factors that would sustain this process. Although rare, HPCD complicated by CNV can be seen bilaterally, but responds well to few ranibizumab injections.

  5. Intravitreal ranibizumab injection combined trabeculectomy versus Ahmed valve surgery in the treatment of neovascular glaucoma: assessment of efficacy and complications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Lan; Xu, Yongfeng; Huang, Zhu; Wang, Xiaoyu

    2016-05-26

    Researches have shown anti-vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) agent is effective in treating neovascular eye diseases. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the efficacy and safety of intravitreal ranibizumab (IVR) injection combined trabeculectomy in the treatment of neovascular glaucoma (NVG), and compared it with Ahmed valve surgery. Thirty-six NVG patients (37 eyes) from the First Affiliated Hospital of Zhejiang medical college, between January 1, 2014 and January 31, 2015, were included in this prospective, interventional clinical study. Eighteen NVG eyes were given IVR injection one week before trabeculectomy. Ahmed valve implantation surgery was performed in nineteen eyes. Ocular pain, best corrected visual acuity (BCVA), intraocular pressure (IOP) and surgical complications were evaluated before and after the surgery. IOP was significantly decreased following IVR injection combined trabeculectomy treatment (baseline 57.1 ± 8.9 mmHg; week 1, 15.2 ± 4.3 mmHg p = 0.000; month 1, 16.9 ± 2.1 mmHg p = 0.000; month 3, 20.3 ± 7.7 mmHg p = 0.000; month 6, 19.7 ± 7.3 mmHg p = 0.000). There was a significant, though modest, BCVA improvement in sighted eyes of IVR group (baseline 2.42 ± 0.68, W1 1.80 ± 0.91, P = 0.013; M1 1.77 ± 0.93, p = 0.011). IVR injection combined trabeculectomy had less postoperative complications and lower failure ratio than Ahmed surgery (IVR 5.6 %, Ahmed 31.6 %). The study revealed that IVR injection combined trabeculectomy was an effective and safe treatment for NVG. Compared with Ahmed surgery, IVR injection combined trabeculectomy had less complications and higher success ratio. (Chinese Clinical Registry, TRN ChiCTR-OPN-16008147, 3/24/2016, retrospectively registered).

  6. Ocular morbidity among porters at high altitudes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gnyawali, Subodh; Shrestha, Gauri Shankar; Khanal, Safal; Dennis, Talisa; Spencer, John C

    2017-01-01

    High altitude, often characterized by settings over 2400m, can be detrimental to the human body and pose a significant risk to ocular health. Reports concerning various ocular morbidities occurring as a consequence of high altitude are limited in the current literature. This study was aimed at evaluating the ocular health of porters working at high altitudesof Himalayas in Nepal. A mobile eye clinic was set up in Ghat and patient data were collected from its out- patient unit by a team of seven optometrists which was run for five days. Ghat is a small village in north-eastern Nepal, located at 2860 m altitude. Travellers walking through the trekking route were invited to get their eyes checked at the clinic. Comprehensive ocular examinations were performed, including visual acuities, objective and subjective refraction, anterior and posterior segment evaluations, and intraocular pressure measurements; blood pressure and blood glucose levels were also measured as required. Ocular therapeutics, prescription glasses, sunglasses and ocular health referrals were provided free of cost as necessary. A total of 1890 people visited the eye clinic, among which 57.4% (n=1084) were porters. Almost half of the porters had an ocular morbidity. Correctable refractive error was most prevalent, with other ocular health-related complications, including dry eye disease, infectious disorders, glaucoma and cataract. Proper provision of regular and effective eye care services should be made more available for those residing at these high altitudes in Nepal. © NEPjOPH.

  7. Pegaptanib sodium treatment in neovascular age-related macular degeneration: clinical experience in Germany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikolaus Feucht

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Nikolaus Feucht, Huebner Matthias, Chris P Lohmann, Mathias MaierAugenklinik rechts der Isar, Technical University Munich, GermanyBackground: The VEGF Inhibition Study In Ocular Neovascularisation (VISION reported the efficacy of intravitreal (ITV vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF inhibition with pegaptanib sodium (Macugen® for the treatment of neovascular age-related macular degeneration (AMD. This paper reports clinical experience with pegaptanib sodium for the treatment of occult or minimally classic choroidal neovascularization (CNV due to AMD.Material and methods: The study included 50 eyes (in 49 patients with either occult CNV or minimally classic CNV secondary to neovascular AMD who were not eligible for photodynamic therapy (PDT. Study data were analyzed retrospectively. During the 6-month study, patients were administered an average 2.74 injections of 0.3 mg ITV pegaptanib sodium. Angiography and optical coherence tomography (OCT examinations were carried out and intraocular pressure (IOP and visual acuity (VA were measured at baseline, at 3 months and at 6 months. An eye examination was performed and VA was measured the 2 days following treatment and then again at weeks 4–6, and at 3 and 6 months. OCT, VA, and IOP were also assessed at 1 month.Results: ITV pegaptanib sodium was well tolerated and no treatment complications arose. Mean VA was measured as: 0.37 ± 0.24 at baseline; 0.37 ± 0.25 at 1 month; 0.37 ± 0.25 at 3 months and 0.40 ± 0.26 at 6 months. VA was stabilized in approximately 90% of eyes treated with pegaptanib sodium. OCT examination showed a minimal change in central retinal thickness (CRT during the course of the study, from 251.19 µm at baseline to 251.63 µm at 6 months. No elevation in IOP was measured during treatment at 4–6 months in patients receiving pegaptanib sodium.Conclusions: ITV therapy with pegaptanib sodium for occult and minimally classic CNV secondary to neovascular AMD offered good

  8. MicroRNA profiling in ocular adnexal lymphoma: a role for MYC and NFKB1 mediated dysregulation of microRNA expression in aggressive disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hother, Christoffer; Rasmussen, Peter Kristian; Joshi, Tejal

    2013-01-01

    Purpose. Ocular adnexal lymphoma (i.e., lymphoma with involvement of the orbit, eyelids, conjunctiva, lacrimal gland, and lacrimal sac), although rare, is common among malignant tumors involving the ocular adnexal region. The main subtypes are low-grade extranodal marginal zone lymphoma (EMZL) an...... that fundamental differences in miRNA expression exist between ocular adnexal EMZL and DLBCL, mainly due to differences in MYC and NF-ĸB regulatory pathways...

  9. Type 3 Neovascularization Associated with Retinitis Pigmentosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sayadi, Jihene; Miere, Alexandra; Souied, Eric H; Cohen, Salomon Y

    2017-01-01

    To report a case of type 3 neovascular lesion in a patient with retinitis pigmentosa (RP) complicated by macular edema. A 78-year-old man with a long follow-up for RP was referred for painless visual acuity decrease in the right eye. Best-corrected visual acuity was 20/125 in the right eye and 20/40 in the left. Fundus examination showed typical RP and macular edema in both eyes. In the right eye, spectral domain optical coherence tomography revealed a marked cystic macular edema associated with disruption of the Bruch membrane/retinal pigment epithelium complex overlying a pigmentary epithelium detachment, with a vascular structure which appeared to originate from the deep capillary plexus and to be connected with the subretinal pigment epithelium space. Optical coherence tomography angiography showed a high-flow vessel infiltrating the outer retinal layers in the deep capillary plexus segmentation, and a tuft-shaped, bright, high-flow network that seemed to be connected with the subretinal pigment epithelium space in the outer retinal layer segmentation. This presentation was consistent with an early type 3 neovascular lesion in the right eye. Type 3 neovascularization may be considered a possible complication of RP.

  10. Type 3 Neovascularization Associated with Retinitis Pigmentosa

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    Jihene Sayadi

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To report a case of type 3 neovascular lesion in a patient with retinitis pigmentosa (RP complicated by macular edema. Case Report: A 78-year-old man with a long follow-up for RP was referred for painless visual acuity decrease in the right eye. Best-corrected visual acuity was 20/125 in the right eye and 20/40 in the left. Fundus examination showed typical RP and macular edema in both eyes. In the right eye, spectral domain optical coherence tomography revealed a marked cystic macular edema associated with disruption of the Bruch membrane/retinal pigment epithelium complex overlying a pigmentary epithelium detachment, with a vascular structure which appeared to originate from the deep capillary plexus and to be connected with the subretinal pigment epithelium space. Optical coherence tomography angiography showed a high-flow vessel infiltrating the outer retinal layers in the deep capillary plexus segmentation, and a tuft-shaped, bright, high-flow network that seemed to be connected with the subretinal pigment epithelium space in the outer retinal layer segmentation. This presentation was consistent with an early type 3 neovascular lesion in the right eye. Conclusion: Type 3 neovascularization may be considered a possible complication of RP.

  11. Purtscher's retinopathy followed by neovascular glaucoma

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    Kuroda M

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Masasko Kuroda,1 Akihiro Nishida,1 Masashi Kikuchi,2 Yasuo Kurimoto11Department of Ophthalmology, Kobe City Medical Center General Hospital, Kobe, Hyogo, Japan; 2Kikuchi Eye Clinic, Kobe, Hyogo, JapanAbstract: We report the case of a 66-year-old Japanese man who developed neovascular glaucoma secondary to Purtscher's retinopathy following a head injury. The patient presented at our hospital with blurred vision and a visual field abnormality in his left eye 1 month after suffering from a head injury. Upon initial presentation, his best-corrected visual acuity on a decimal chart was 1.5 oculus dexter and 0.6 oculus sinister. The intraocular pressure (IOP was 12 mmHg in both eyes. Fundus examination of the left eye revealed multiple white lesions in the posterior pole. Optical coherence tomography demonstrated retinal edema, particularly in the inner retina. On the basis of these findings, a diagnosis of Purtscher's retinopathy was made. One month after the initial examination, the visual acuity in the left eye deteriorated to 0.01 in decimal chart, and the IOP increased to 37 mmHg. Gonioscopy showed angle neovascularization. The patient received an intravitreal bevacizumab injection and panretinal photocoagulation. Subsequently, the IOP normalized and the angle neovascularization regressed.Keywords: blurred vision, visual field, retinal edema, head injury, head trauma

  12. Photoacoustic detection of neovascularities in skin graft

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    Yamazaki, Mutsuo; Sato, Shunichi; Saitoh, Daizo; Ishihara, Miya; Okada, Yoshiaki; Ashida, Hiroshi; Obara, Minoru

    2005-04-01

    We previously proposed a new method for monitoring adhesion of skin graft by measuring photoacoustic (PA) signal originated from the neovascularities. In this study, immunohistochemical staining (IHC) with CD31 antibody was performed for grafted skin tissue to observe neovascularity, and the results were compared with PA signals. We also used a laser Doppler imaging (LDI) to observe blood flow in the grafted skin, and sensitivity of PA measurement and that of LDI were compared. In rat autograft models, PA signals were measured for the grafted skin at postgrafting times of 0-48 h. At 6 h postgrafting, PA signal was observed in the skin depth region of 500-600 mm, while the results of IHC showed that angiogenesis occurred at the depth of about 600 mm. Depths at which PA signal and angiogenesis were observed decreased with postgrafting time. These indicate that the PA signal observed at 6 h postgrafting originated from the neovascularities in the skin graft. Results of LDI showed no blood-originated signal before 48 h postgrafting. These findings suggest that PA measurement is effective in monitoring the adhesion of skin graft in early stage after transplantation.

  13. Pachychoroid neovasculopathy in extramacular choroidal neovascularization

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    Gupta MP

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Mrinali Patel Gupta, Irene Rusu, Carly Seidman, Anton Orlin, Donald J D’Amico, Szilard Kiss Department of Ophthalmology, Weill Cornell Medicine, New York-Presbyterian Hospital, New York, NY, USA Purpose: To review a series of extramacular choroidal neovascular membranes (CNVMs in the context of their choroidal features, as determined by optical coherence tomography (OCT.Methods: Patients with extramacular CNVMs were identified from a tertiary care center through a review of records. The charts and cases were reviewed using multimodal imaging including fundus photography, OCT, fluorescein angiography (FA, and indocyanine angio­graphy (ICG.Results: Of six patients with extramacular CNVMs evaluated in this series, four patients (66.7% exhibited pachychoroidopathy on OCT imaging under or adjacent to the extramacular CNVM. All four of these patients also exhibited pachychoroidopathy in the macular OCT distant from the CNVM.Conclusion: Pachychoroidopathy is implicated in some cases of extramacular CNVMs. This represents the first report, to our knowledge, of pachychoroidopathy in extramacular CNVM. Keywords: choroidal neovascularization, pachychoroidopathy, pachychoroid neovasculopathy, peripheral disciform lesions, extramacular choroidal neovascularization, polypoidal choroidal vasculopathy

  14. A Proinflammatory Function of Toll-Like Receptor 2 in the Retinal Pigment Epithelium as a Novel Target for Reducing Choroidal Neovascularization in Age-Related Macular Degeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Lili; Ju, Meihua; Lee, Kei Ying V; Mackey, Ashley; Evangelista, Mariasilvia; Iwata, Daiju; Adamson, Peter; Lashkari, Kameran; Foxton, Richard; Shima, David; Ng, Yin Shan

    2017-10-01

    Current treatments for choroidal neovascularization, a major cause of blindness for patients with age-related macular degeneration, treat symptoms but not the underlying causes of the disease. Inflammation has been strongly implicated in the pathogenesis of choroidal neovascularization. We examined the inflammatory role of Toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2) in age-related macular degeneration. TLR2 was robustly expressed by the retinal pigment epithelium in mouse and human eyes, both normal and with macular degeneration/choroidal neovascularization. Nuclear localization of NF-κB, a major downstream target of TLR2 signaling, was detected in the retinal pigment epithelium of human eyes, particularly in eyes with advanced stages of age-related macular degeneration. TLR2 antagonism effectively suppressed initiation and growth of spontaneous choroidal neovascularization in a mouse model, and the combination of anti-TLR2 and antivascular endothelial growth factor receptor 2 yielded an additive therapeutic effect on both area and number of spontaneous choroidal neovascularization lesions. Finally, in primary human fetal retinal pigment epithelium cells, ligand binding to TLR2 induced robust expression of proinflammatory cytokines, and end products of lipid oxidation had a synergistic effect on TLR2 activation. Our data illustrate a functional role for TLR2 in the pathogenesis of choroidal neovascularization, likely by promoting inflammation of the retinal pigment epithelium, and validate TLR2 as a novel therapeutic target for reducing choroidal neovascularization. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Investigative Pathology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Ocular complication with therapeutic irradiation of malignant tumor in the maxilla

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takahashi, Hisashi; Konno, Akiyoshi

    1983-01-01

    This paper describes the ocular complications of 33 cases who had undergone therapeutic irradiation for malignant tumor in the maxilla. Irradiation was performed with megavoltage x-ray of 6000 rads or more. Among the 18 patients with intraorbital infiltration of the tumor, 8 showed severe ocular lesion. In contrast, only 3 among the 15 patients without intraorbital infiltration showed severe lesions. Retinopathy was observed in 13 patients. Funduscopic findings and fluorescein angiograms were similar to those in diabetic retinopathy. One case of retinopathy with neovascular change was treated with panretinal argon laser photocoagulation; however, it was not successful. Most of the 7 glaucoma patients had neovascular glaucoma. They had the worst prognosis. (author)

  16. Ocular tuberculosis: current perspectives

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    Shakarchi FI

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Faiz I Shakarchi1,21Ibn Al-Haetham Teaching Eye Hospital, 2Department of Opthalmology, Medical College, Al-Mustansiriya University, Baghdad, IraqAbstract: The World Health Organization currently estimates that nearly two billion people, or one-third of the world’s population, are infected by tuberculosis, and that roughly 10% of the infected people are symptomatic. Tuberculosis affects the lungs in 80% of patients, while in the remaining 20% the disease may affect other organs, including the eye. Uveitis can be seen concurrently with tuberculosis, but a direct association is difficult to prove. Ocular tuberculosis is usually not associated with clinical evidence of pulmonary tuberculosis, as up to 60% of extrapulmonary tuberculosis patients may not have pulmonary disease. The diagnosis of tuberculous uveitis is often problematic and in nearly all reported cases, the diagnosis was only presumptive. Tuberculous uveitis is a great mimicker of various uveitis entities and it can be considered in the differential diagnosis of any type of intraocular inflammation. It is still unknown if ocular manifestations result from a direct mycobacterium infection or hypersensitivity reaction and this is reflected on the management of tuberculous uveitis. Prevalence of tuberculosis as an etiology of uveitis may reach up to 10% in endemic areas. Tuberculous uveitis is a vision-threatening disease that inevitably leads to blindness if not properly diagnosed and treated. The aim of this review is to illustrate the various clinical features and management of presumed tuberculous uveitis. The current review focuses on the diagnostic criteria, significance of tuberculin skin test, and use of systemic corticosteroids in the management of tuberculous uveitis as recommended in recent publications.Keywords: tuberculosis, uveitis, choroiditis, tuberculin skin test

  17. The role of herpesviruses in ocular infections

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    Asim V Farooq

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Asim V Farooq1, Arpeet Shah1, Deepak Shukla21Department of Ophthalmology and Visual Sciences, 2Department of Microbiology and Immunology, College of Medicine, University of Illinois at Chicago, Chicago, IL, USAAbstract: Ocular infections caused by herpesviruses are an important cause of morbidity. The majority of cases are believed to be associated with herpes simplex virus type-1 (HSV-1, although HSV-2, varicella zoster virus (VZV, cytomegalovirus (CMV and Epstein–Barr virus (EBV are also associated with various ocular diseases. The ability of some herpes viruses to infect various anatomic regions of the eye may be facilitated by entry processes that are cell-type specific, and in many cases may occur more frequently in the immunocompromised. The elimination of the role of herpesviruses in ocular disease remains elusive, as they often develop life-long latency in a large proportion of humans. Experimental vaccines for ocular HSV have shown some benefit in animal models, a result that has not been adequately demonstrated in clinical trials. Meanwhile, ocular involvement in VZV remains unpredictable, and CMV retinitis continues to be an important cause of blindness in those infected by HIV.Keywords: ocular herpes, viral entry, antivirals, epidemiology, seroprevalence, ocular lymphomas, viral vaccine

  18. Tear clearance implications for ocular surface health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Paiva, Cintia Sade; Pflugfelder, Stephen C

    2004-03-01

    Tear clearance/turnover provides a global assessment of the function of the lacrimal functional unit and of tear exchange on the ocular surface. It is an indirect measure of dry eye induced inflammation on the ocular surface. It shows better correlation with the severity of ocular irritation symptoms and corneal epithelial disease in dry eye than the Schirmer 1 test. Delayed tear clearance may prove to be the best measure for identifying patients with tear film disorders who may respond to anti-inflammatory therapy.

  19. OCULAR SYPHILIS IN A KIDNEY TRANSPLANT RECIPIENT

    Science.gov (United States)

    ROMAO, Elen A.; BOLELLA, Valdes R.; NARDIN, Maria Estela P.; HABIB-SIMAO, Maria Lucia; FURTADO, João Marcelo; MOYSES-NETO, Miguel

    2016-01-01

    We present a case of ocular syphilis after a renal transplantation involving progressive vision loss without clinically identifiable ocular disease. Electroretinography showed signs of ischemia, especially in the internal retina. A serological test was positive for syphilis. Lumbar puncture revealed lymphocytic meningitis and a positive serologic test for syphilis in the cerebrospinal fluid. The patient was treated with penicillin, and had a quick vision improvement. In the case of transplant recipients, clinicians should always consider the diagnosis of ocular syphilis in cases with unexplained visual acuity decrement, as this condition may cause serious complications if not treated. PMID:27253748

  20. IQGAP1 is involved in post-ischemic neovascularization by regulating angiogenesis and macrophage infiltration.

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    Norifumi Urao

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Neovascularization is an important repair mechanism in response to ischemic injury and is dependent on inflammation, angiogenesis and reactive oxygen species (ROS. IQGAP1, an actin-binding scaffold protein, is a key regulator for actin cytoskeleton and motility. We previously demonstrated that IQGAP1 mediates vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF-induced ROS production and migration of cultured endothelial cells (ECs; however, its role in post-ischemic neovascularization is unknown.Ischemia was induced by left femoral artery ligation, which resulted in increased IQGAP1 expression in Mac3(+ macrophages and CD31(+ capillary-like ECs in ischemic legs. Mice lacking IQGAP1 exhibited a significant reduction in the post-ischemic neovascularization as evaluated by laser Doppler blood flow, capillary density and α-actin positive arterioles. Furthermore, IQGAP1(-/- mice showed a decrease in macrophage infiltration and ROS production in ischemic muscles, leading to impaired muscle regeneration and increased necrosis and fibrosis. The numbers of bone marrow (BM-derived cells in the peripheral blood were not affected in these knockout mice. BM transplantation revealed that IQGAP1 expressed in both BM-derived cells and tissue resident cells, such as ECs, is required for post-ischemic neovascularization. Moreover, thioglycollate-induced peritoneal macrophage recruitment and ROS production were inhibited in IQGAP1(-/- mice. In vitro, IQGAP1(-/- BM-derived macrophages showed inhibition of migration and adhesion capacity, which may explain the defective macrophage recruitment into the ischemic tissue in IQGAP1(-/- mice.IQGAP1 plays a key role in post-ischemic neovascularization by regulating, not only, ECs-mediated angiogenesis but also macrophage infiltration as well as ROS production. Thus, IQGAP1 is a potential therapeutic target for inflammation- and angiogenesis-dependent ischemic cardiovascular diseases.

  1. A challenging case of ocular melanoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costache, Mariana; Dumitru, Adrian Vasile; Pătraşcu, Oana Maria; Popa-Cherecheanu, Daniela Alina; Bădilă, Patricia; Miu, Jeni Cătălina; Procop, Alexandru; Popa, Manuela; Tampa, Mircea Ştefan; Sajin, Maria; Simionescu, Olga; Cîrstoiu, Monica Mihaela

    2015-01-01

    Ocular melanoma is a rare malignancy found in clinical practice. In this paper, we present a case of highly aggressive ocular melanoma, which was surgically removed at the Department of Ophthalmology and diagnosed at the Department of Pathology, Emergency University Hospital, Bucharest, Romania, using conventional histopathological techniques. Uveal melanoma, a subset of ocular melanoma, has a distinct behavior in comparison to cutaneous melanoma and has a widely divergent prognosis. Approximately half of patients with ocular melanoma will develop metastatic disease, predominantly with hepatic, pulmonary or cerebral location, over a 10 to 15 years period. No systemic therapy was associated with an evident clinical outcome for patients with advanced disease and overall survival rate remains poor.

  2. Ocular hemodynamics and glaucoma: the role of mathematical modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Alon; Guidoboni, Giovanna; Arciero, Julia C; Amireskandari, Annahita; Tobe, Leslie A; Siesky, Brent A

    2013-01-01

    To discuss the role of mathematical modeling in studying ocular hemodynamics, with a focus on glaucoma. We reviewed recent literature on glaucoma, ocular blood flow, autoregulation, the optic nerve head, and the use of mathematical modeling in ocular circulation. Many studies suggest that alterations in ocular hemodynamics play a significant role in the development, progression, and incidence of glaucoma. Although there is currently a limited number of studies involving mathematical modeling of ocular blood flow, regulation, and diseases (such as glaucoma), preliminary modeling work shows the potential of mathematical models to elucidate the mechanisms that contribute most significantly to glaucoma progression. Mathematical modeling is a useful tool when used synergistically with clinical and laboratory data in the study of ocular blood flow and glaucoma. The development of models to investigate the relationship between ocular hemodynamic alterations and glaucoma progression will provide a unique and useful method for studying the pathophysiology of glaucoma.

  3. Bilateral ocular ischemia-induced blindness as a presenting manifestation of Takayasu arteritis: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pallangyo, Pedro; Epafra, Emmanuel; Nicholaus, Paulina; Lyimo, Frederick; Kazahura, Parvina; Janabi, Mohamed

    2017-06-10

    Takayasu arteritis is a granulomatous panarteritis that predominantly affects the aorta and its major branches. The initial manifestations of this large-vessel vasculitis are usually nonspecific; however, as the disease progresses, typical symptoms of arterial occlusion, aneurysmal formation, and vascular pain become evident. Ischemic ocular complications of Takayasu arteritis which could lead to complete loss of vision are not uncommon and depend on the obliterated portion(s) of carotid(s), the intensity and rate of progression of ocular vascular insufficiency, and sufficiency of the collateral blood supply to the eye. A 24-year-old woman of African descent with prior normal vision was referred to us with a 3-year history of gradual decline in visual acuity in both eyes and unintentional weight loss (17 kg) within the past 1 year. A physical examination revealed feeble brachial and radial arterial pulses on her left side. She had sinus tachycardia (136 beats/minute) and her blood pressure was 85/59 mmHg on her left and 134/82 mmHg on her right side. Bilateral microaneurysms, dot and blot hemorrhages, and multiple ischemic areas of retina together with neovascularization in her right eye were noted during a funduscopic examination. Computed tomography angiography of her thoracic and abdominal aorta revealed irregular narrowing with variable degrees of stenosis, tapering, and corrugated appearance. Despite its rarity, Takayasu arteritis significantly impairs a patient's quality of life and has a life-threatening potential. Early initiation of appropriate therapy could delay disease progression and reduce the associated complications.

  4. Gene Therapy with Endogenous Inhibitors of Angiogenesis for Neovascular Age-Related Macular Degeneration: Beyond Anti-VEGF Therapy

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    Selwyn M. Prea

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Age-related macular degeneration (AMD is the leading cause of substantial and irreversible vision loss amongst elderly populations in industrialized countries. The advanced neovascular (or “wet” form of the disease is responsible for severe and aggressive loss of central vision. Current treatments aim to seal off leaky blood vessels via laser therapy or to suppress vessel leakage and neovascular growth through intraocular injections of antibodies that target vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF. However, the long-term success of anti-VEGF therapy can be hampered by limitations such as low or variable efficacy, high frequency of administration (usually monthly, potentially serious side effects, and, most importantly, loss of efficacy with prolonged treatment. Gene transfer of endogenous antiangiogenic proteins is an alternative approach that has the potential to provide long-term suppression of neovascularization and/or excessive vascular leakage in the eye. Preclinical studies of gene transfer in a large animal model have provided impressive preliminary results with a number of transgenes. In addition, a clinical trial in patients suffering from advanced neovascular AMD has provided proof-of-concept for successful gene transfer. In this mini review, we summarize current theories pertaining to the application of gene therapy for neovascular AMD and the potential benefits when used in conjunction with endogenous antiangiogenic proteins.

  5. Subretinal neovascularization from the retina in radiation retinopathy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boozalis, G.T.; Schachat, A.P.; Green, W.R.

    1987-01-01

    In a 66-year-old woman with radiation retinopathy, subretinal neovascularization was present, originating from telangiectatic retinal vessels in the macular area. The patient showed no clinical or histologic evidence of age-related macular degeneration or other conditions that may have contributed to the subretinal neovascularization

  6. Type 1 neovascularization with polypoidal lesions complicating dome shaped macula

    OpenAIRE

    Naysan, Jonathan; Dansingani, Kunal K; Balaratnasingam, Chandrakumar; Freund, K Bailey

    2015-01-01

    Dome-shaped macula is described as an inward bulge of the macula within a posterior staphyloma in highly myopic eyes. Choroidal neovascularization is a known complication that can cause visual loss in dome-shaped macula. Herein, we describe a patient who presented with features of polypoidal choroidal neovascularization that developed on a background of high myopia with dome-shaped macula.

  7. Miopatia ocular descendente

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    Marcos R. G. de Freitas

    1975-06-01

    Full Text Available Os autores apresentam caso de paciente jovem, do sexo feminino, com afecção muscular primária ocular e faríngea sem caráter familial. Foram feitos estudos eletromiográficos e histopatológicos musculares que confirmam o caráter miogênico do processo. É feita comparação entre a miopatia ocular e a miopatia ocular descendente, acreditando os autores que seriam variantes

  8. Cluster bomb ocular injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansour, Ahmad M; Hamade, Haya; Ghaddar, Ayman; Mokadem, Ahmad Samih; El Hajj Ali, Mohamad; Awwad, Shady

    2012-01-01

    To present the visual outcomes and ocular sequelae of victims of cluster bombs. This retrospective, multicenter case series of ocular injury due to cluster bombs was conducted for 3 years after the war in South Lebanon (July 2006). Data were gathered from the reports to the Information Management System for Mine Action. There were 308 victims of clusters bombs; 36 individuals were killed, of which 2 received ocular lacerations and; 272 individuals were injured with 18 receiving ocular injury. These 18 surviving individuals were assessed by the authors. Ocular injury occurred in 6.5% (20/308) of cluster bomb victims. Trauma to multiple organs occurred in 12 of 18 cases (67%) with ocular injury. Ocular findings included corneal or scleral lacerations (16 eyes), corneal foreign bodies (9 eyes), corneal decompensation (2 eyes), ruptured cataract (6 eyes), and intravitreal foreign bodies (10 eyes). The corneas of one patient had extreme attenuation of the endothelium. Ocular injury occurred in 6.5% of cluster bomb victims and 67% of the patients with ocular injury sustained trauma to multiple organs. Visual morbidity in civilians is an additional reason for a global ban on the use of cluster bombs.

  9. A Chinese 2-herb formula (NF3) promotes hindlimb ischemia-induced neovascularization and wound healing of diabetic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tam, Jacqueline Chor-Wing; Ko, Chun-Hay; Lau, Kit-Man; To, Ming-Ho; Kwok, Hin-Fai; Chan, Yuet-Wa; Siu, Wing-Sum; Etienne-Selloum, Nelly; Lau, Ching-Po; Chan, Wai-Yee; Leung, Ping-Chung; Fung, Kwok-Pui; Schini-Kerth, Valérie B; Lau, Clara Bik-San

    2014-01-01

    Diabetic foot ulcer is closely associated with peripheral vascular disease. Enhancement of tissue oxidative stress, reduction of nitric oxide (NO) and angiogenic growth factors, and abnormal matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) activity are pathophysiological factors in post-ischemic neovascularization and diabetic wound healing. Our previous study demonstrated that the Chinese 2-herb formula, NF3, showed significant wound healing effects on diabetic foot ulcer rats. A novel rat diabetic foot ulcer with hindlimb ischemia model was established in order to strengthen our claims on the diabetic wound healing and post-ischemic neovascularization effects of NF3. Our results demonstrate that NF3 can significantly reduce the wound area of the diabetic foot ulcer rat with hindlimb ischemia by 21.6% (phealing and post-ischemic neovascularization in diabetes. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Research on inhibition of corneal neovascularization

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    Zhang-Hui Yang

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Corneal transparency is the basis of the normal physiological functions.However, corneal neovascularization(CNVmay occur in the infection, mechanical and chemical injury or under other pathological conditions,which make the cornea lose original transparency and severe visual impairment. In recent years, along with the development of immunology, molecular biology, biochemistry and other disciplines, there is more in-depth understanding on the CNV, and clinical treatment of CNV has made new breakthroughs. This article provides an overview of the inhibition of CNV.

  11. Association between vestibulo-ocular reflex suppression, balance, gait, and fall risk in ageing and neurodegenerative disease: protocol of a one-year prospective follow-up study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srulijes, Karin; Mack, David J; Klenk, Jochen; Schwickert, Lars; Ihlen, Espen A F; Schwenk, Michael; Lindemann, Ulrich; Meyer, Miriam; Srijana, K C; Hobert, Markus A; Brockmann, Kathrin; Wurster, Isabel; Pomper, Jörn K; Synofzik, Matthis; Schneider, Erich; Ilg, Uwe; Berg, Daniela; Maetzler, Walter; Becker, Clemens

    2015-10-09

    Falls frequency increases with age and particularly in neurogeriatric cohorts. The interplay between eye movements and locomotion may contribute substantially to the occurrence of falls, but is hardly investigated. This paper provides an overview of current approaches to simultaneously measure eye and body movements, particularly for analyzing the association of vestibulo-ocular reflex (VOR) suppression, postural deficits and falls in neurogeriatric risk cohorts. Moreover, VOR suppression is measured during head-fixed target presentation and during gaze shifting while postural control is challenged. Using these approaches, we aim at identifying quantitative parameters of eye-head-coordination during postural balance and gait, as indicators of fall risk. Patients with Progressive Supranuclear Palsy (PSP) or Parkinson's disease (PD), age- and sex-matched healthy older adults, and a cohort of young healthy adults will be recruited. Baseline assessment will include a detailed clinical assessment, covering medical history, neurological examination, disease specific clinical rating scales, falls-related self-efficacy, activities of daily living, neuro-psychological screening, assessment of mobility function and a questionnaire for retrospective falls. Moreover, participants will simultaneously perform eye and head movements (fixating a head-fixed target vs. shifting gaze to light emitting diodes in order to quantify vestibulo-ocular reflex suppression ability) under different conditions (sitting, standing, or walking). An eye/head tracker synchronized with a 3-D motion analysis system will be used to quantify parameters related to eye-head-coordination, postural balance, and gait. Established outcome parameters related to VOR suppression ability (e.g., gain, saccadic reaction time, frequency of saccades) and motor related fall risk (e.g., step-time variability, postural sway) will be calculated. Falls will be assessed prospectively over 12 months via protocols and

  12. Matrix metalloproteinase 9 and transglutaminase 2 expression at the ocular surface in patients with different forms of dry eye disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aragona, Pasquale; Aguennouz, M'Hammed; Rania, Laura; Postorino, Elisa; Sommario, Margherita Serena; Roszkowska, Anna Maria; De Pasquale, Maria Grazia; Pisani, Antonina; Puzzolo, Domenico

    2015-01-01

    To evaluate the expression of matrix metalloproteinase 9 (MMP9) and transglutaminase 2 (TG2) in different forms of dry eye. Case control study. Seventy-five female subjects divided into 3 groups: group 1, 15 healthy controls; group 2, 30 subjects with Sjögren syndrome (SS); and group 3, 30 subjects with Meibomian gland dysfunction (MGD). A clinical assessment was carried out and impression cytologic specimens were processed for immunoperoxidase staining for MMP9 and TG2 and real-time polymerase chain reaction analyses were carried out for MMP9, TG2, interleukin-6, interferon-γ, B-cell lymphoma 2, and caspase 3. To study MMP9 and TG2 expression after anti-inflammatory treatment, patients were divided into 2 subgroups, one treated with saline and the other treated with saline plus topical corticosteroid eye drops (0.5% loteprednol etabonate) 4 times daily for 15 days. For statistical analysis, Student t test, Mann-Whitney U test, and Spearman's correlation coefficient were used as appropriate. Conjunctival expression of MMP9 and TG2. MMP9 and TG2 expression were higher in both patient groups than in controls (P < 0.0001). Group 2 patients showed higher expression than group 3 (P < 0.0001). The Spearman's correlation coefficient showed in group 2 a positive correlation between MMP9 and TG2 expression (ρ = 0.437; P = 0.01), but no correlation in group 3 (ρ = 0.143; P = 0.45). Corticosteroid treatment significantly reduced MMP9 and TG2 expression in both groups, ameliorating symptoms and signs. A much higher percentage reduction was observed in SS. The pathogenic mechanisms of the 2 forms of dry eye give an account for the different MMP9 and TG2 expressions in the 2 groups of patients. The higher expression in SS is determined by the direct autoimmune insult to the ocular surface epithelia, whereas in MGD patients, with an epithelial damage due to an unbalanced tear secretion, the molecules expression is significantly lower, although higher than in controls. The

  13. Ocular Surface Reconstruction: Recent Innovations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madhavan HN

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The ocular surface is exceptionally rich in complexity and functionality. Severe ocular surface disorders/conditions, such as chemical or thermal injuries, Stevens-Johnson syndrome (SJS, ocular cicatricial pemphigoid, neurotrophic keratopathy, chronic limbitis, and severe microbial keratitis cause significant morbidities and even corneal blindness. Hypofunction may be caused by Aniridia, Neurotrophy, Endocrine, Pterygium and Chronic limbitis Approximately 6000 patients are seen in Ocular Surface Clinic every year; almost 80% have some form of dry eyes. About 125 new patients of Stevens Johnson Syndrome are seen in a year of which approximately 25% may benefit from Cultured Epithelial Transplant and 75 new patients of thermal/chemical injury in a year of which almost 80% will benefit from Stem Cell Transplantation. Of the 128 severe vernal keratoconjunctivitis which were seen in the ocular surface clinic, 10% require stem cell transplantation. Nearly 30 new cases of Ocular cicatrical pemphigoid every year are seen and they may need stem cell transplantation. In addition, several patients with persistent epithelial defects may benefit from limbal stem cell transplantation to alleviate, maintain conjunctivalization regression and corneal avascularity limbal deficiency, and restore vision. Even if granted that this statistics is for a single large ophthalmic hospital, for a large country as India with 1.1 billion populations, the number of patients requiring corneal stem cell transplantation is enormous. Stem cells in the palisades of Vogt participate in regeneration and preservation of corneal transparency and avascularity. The diminished regenerative capacity seen in LSCD is characterized by persistent epithelial defects, erosion and ulceration, conjunctivalization and neovascularization, and chronic inflammation. Standard corneal transplantation for restoration of corneal clarity and avascularity is a contraindication in the surgical management

  14. Spectrum of ocular manifestations in CLN2-associated batten (Jansky-Bielschowsky disease correlate with advancing age and deteriorating neurological function.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anton Orlin

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Late infantile neuronal ceroid lipofuscinosis (LINCL, one form of Batten's disease is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder resulting from a CLN2 gene mutation. The spectrum of ophthalmic manifestations of LINCL and the relationship with neurological function has not been previously described. METHODS: Patients underwent ophthalmic evaluations, including anterior segment and dilated exams, optical coherence tomography, fluorescein and indocyanine green angiography. Patients were also assessed with the LINCL Neurological Severity Scale. Ophthalmic findings were categorized into one of five severity scores, and the association of the extent of ocular disease with neurological function was assessed. RESULTS: Fifty eyes of 25 patients were included. The mean age at the time of exam was 4.9 years (range 2.5 to 8.1. The mean ophthalmic severity score was 2.6 (range 1 to 5. The mean neurological severity score was 6.1 (range 2 to 11. Significantly more severe ophthalmic manifestations were observed among older patients (p<0.005 and patients with more severe neurological findings (p<0.03. A direct correlation was found between the Ophthalmic Severity Scale and the Weill Cornell Neurological Scale (p<0.002. A direct association was also found between age and the ophthalmic manifestations (p<0.0002, with older children having more severe ophthalmic manifestations. CONCLUSIONS: Ophthalmic manifestations of LINCL correlate closely with the degree of neurological function and the age of the patient. The newly established LINCL Ophthalmic Scale may serve as an objective marker of LINCL severity and disease progression, and may be valuable in the evaluation of novel therapeutic strategies for LINCL, including gene therapy.

  15. Intracameral air injection during Ahmed glaucoma valve implantation in neovascular glaucoma for the prevention of tube obstruction with blood clot: Case Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Sung Ha; Yoo, Chungkwon; Kim, Yong Yeon; Lee, Dae Young; Nam, Dong Heun; Lee, Jong Yeon

    2017-12-01

    Glaucoma drainage implant surgery is a treatment option for the management of neovascular glaucoma. However, tube obstruction by blood clot after Ahmed glaucoma valve (AGV) implantation is an unpredictable clinically challenging situation. We report 4 cases using intracameral air injection for the prevention of the tube obstruction of AGV by blood clot. The first case was a 57-year-old female suffering from ocular pain because of a tube obstruction with blood clot after AGV implantation in neovascular glaucoma. Surgical blood clot removal was performed. However, intractable bleeding was noted during the removal of the blood clot, and so intracameral air injection was performed to prevent a recurrent tube obstruction. After the procedure, although blood clots formed around the tube, the tube opening where air could touch remained patent. In 3 cases of neovascular glaucoma with preoperative severe intraocular hemorrhages, intracameral air injection and AGV implantation were performed simultaneously. In all 3 cases, tube openings were patent. It appears that air impeded the blood clots formation in front of the tube opening. Intracameral air injection could be a feasible option to prevent tube obstruction of AGV implant with a blood clot in neovascular glaucoma with high risk of tube obstruction. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Wolters Kluwer Health, Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. A prospective comparative study on neovascular glaucoma and non-neovascular refractory glaucoma following Ahmed glaucoma valve implantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zheng; Zhou, Minwen; Wang, Wei; Huang, Wenbin; Chen, Shida; Li, Xingyi; Gao, Xinbo; Zhang, Xiulan

    2014-01-01

    Neovascular glaucoma is a refractory disease, and difficult to manage. The aim of this study was to evaluate the clinical outcomes of Ahmed glaucoma valve implantation (AGVI) in neovascular glaucoma (NVG) and non-NVG patients. This prospective, non-randomized study included 55 eyes of 55 patients with refractory glaucoma; 27 had NVG (NVG group) and 28 had non-NVG (non-NVG group). All of the patients underwent AGVI. The NVG group was adjunctively injected with intravitreal ranibizumab/bevacizumab (IVR/IVB) before AGVI. Intraocular pressure (IOP) was the primary outcome measure in this study. Surgical success rate, number of antiglaucoma medications used, best corrected visual acuity (BCVA), and postoperative complications were analyzed between the groups. All of the patients completed the study (follow-up of 12 months). Kaplan-Meier survival curve analysis indicated that the qualified success rates in the NVG and non-NVG groups at 12 months were 70.5% and 92.9%, respectively; this difference was significant (P = 0.036). The complete success rates in the NVG and non-NVG groups at 12 months were 66.7% and 89.3%, respectively (P = 0.049). Compared with preoperative examinations, the postoperative mean IOP and use of medications were significantly lower at all follow-up time points in both groups (all P glaucoma, but the success rate of surgery was related to the type of refractory glaucoma. The complete and qualified success rates of NVG patient adjunctive anti-vascular endothelial growth factor treatment are still lower than those of non-NVG patients.

  17. Clinical audit examining the impact of benzalkonium chloride-free anti-glaucoma medications on patients with symptoms of ocular surface disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldberg, Ivan; Graham, Stuart L; Crowston, Jonathan G; d'Mellow, Guy

    2015-04-01

    Ocular surface disease (OSD) is relatively common in glaucoma patients. OSD symptoms could be linked to prolonged exposure to preservatives in anti-glaucoma medications, especially benzalkonium chloride (BAK). The OBSERVE clinical audit was designed to track the impact of intraocular pressure lowering medications in patients with evidence of OSD to test the hypothesis that BAK-free anti-glaucoma preparations offer clinical advantages over BAK-containing products. Prospective clinical audit from March 2012 to April 2013, open to ophthalmologists practising in Australia. There were 375 patients enrolled, with a completion rate of 64%. The cohort was predominantly female (68%) with an average age of 71 years. Patients were screened for inclusion during a routine consultation. If eligible, they were enrolled. At the ophthalmologist's discretion, some patients were switched to BAK-free anti-glaucoma products. Data were collected via an online survey completed by the ophthalmologist during three appointments over a 16- to 30-week period for all patients. Intraocular pressure, tear-film breakup time, McMonnies Dry Eye Questionnaire score and reported lubricant use. Patients who switched to BAK-free preparations reported a significant fall in the use of lubricants (P = reduction in some OSD symptoms, but more research is needed. © 2014 Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Ophthalmologists.

  18. [Ocular surface system integrity].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safonova, T N; Pateyuk, L S

    2015-01-01

    The interplay of different structures belonging to either the anterior segment of the eye or its accessory visual apparatus, which all share common embryological, anatomical, functional, and physiological features, is discussed. Explanation of such terms, as ocular surface, lacrimal functional unit, and ocular surface system, is provided.

  19. Epidemiology of Ocular Toxoplasmosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Petersen, E.; Kijlstra, A.; Stanford, M.

    2012-01-01

    Retinal infection with Toxoplasma gondii is the most important cause of posterior uveitis, whereby prevalence and incidence of ocular symptoms after infection depend on socio-economic factors and the circulating parasite genotypes. Ocular toxoplasmosis is more common in South America, Central

  20. Interactions of Bacteria and Amoebae with Ocular Biomaterials

    OpenAIRE

    John, Thomas

    1991-01-01

    The use of biomaterials in periocular and intraocular sites has resulted in some ocular inflammations and infections which can result in vision-threatening ocular disease. This review addresses bacterial interactions with, and adherence to ocular biomaterials such as soft contact lenses, surgical suture materials, and intraocular lenses. In addition, adherence of Acanthamoeba to soft contact lenses is described, and the role of these lenses in the development of Acanthamoeba keratitis is disc...

  1. Intravitreal bevacizumab for treatment of choroidal neovascularization associated with osteogenesis imperfecta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pukhraj Rishi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A 12-year-old girl, diagnosed of osteogenesis imperfecta, presented with sudden visual loss in the left eye. Investigations revealed an active choroidal neovascular membrane. She underwent treatment with intravitreal Bevacizumab (1.25 mg/0.05 ml. Follow-up at 1 month revealed the development of lacquer crack running through the macula, underlying the fovea. The patient received two re-treatments at 1-month intervals, following which the choroidal neovascularization (CNV regressed completely. However, further progression of lacquer cracks was noted. At the last follow-up, 6 months following the last injection, the fundus remained stable and vision was maintained at 20/200. Considering the natural history of the disease and the increased risk of rupture of the Bruch′s membrane in such eyes, the possible complication of a lacquer crack developing must be borne in mind, before initiating treatment.

  2. Strategies for improving early detection and diagnosis of neovascular age-related macular degeneration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keane PA

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Pearse A Keane,1 Gabriella de Salvo,2 Dawn A Sim,1 Srini Goverdhan,2 Rupesh Agrawal,1 Adnan Tufail1 1NIHR Biomedical Research Centre for Ophthalmology, Moorfields Eye Hospital NHS Foundation Trust and UCL Institute of Ophthalmology, London, 2Department of Ophthalmology, University Hospital Southampton NHS Foundation Trust, Southampton, UK Abstract: Treatment of the neovascular form of age-related macular degeneration (AMD has been revolutionized by the introduction of such agents as ranibizumab, bevacizumab, and aflibercept. As a result, the incidence of legal blindness occurring secondary to AMD has fallen dramatically in recent years in many countries. While these agents have undoubtedly been successful in reducing visual impairment and blindness, patients with neovascular AMD typically lose some vision over time, and often lose the ability to read, drive, or perform other important activities of daily living. Efforts are therefore under way to develop strategies that allow for earlier detection and treatment of this disease. In this review, we begin by providing an overview of the rationale for, and the benefits of, early detection and treatment of neovascular AMD. To achieve this, we begin by providing an overview of the pathophysiology and natural history of choroidal neovascularization, before reviewing the evidence from both clinical trials and “real-world” outcome studies. We continue by highlighting an area that is often overlooked: the importance of patient education and awareness for early AMD detection. We conclude the review by reviewing an array of both established and emerging technologies for early detection of choroidal neovascularization, ranging from Amsler chart testing, to hyperacuity testing, to advanced imaging techniques, such as optical coherence tomography. Keywords: Amsler, detection, choroidal neovascularization, hyperacuity, optical coherence tomography

  3. Dry Eye Management: Targeting the Ocular Surface Microenvironment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiaobo; M, Vimalin Jeyalatha; Qu, Yangluowa; He, Xin; Ou, Shangkun; Bu, Jinghua; Jia, Changkai; Wang, Junqi; Wu, Han; Liu, Zuguo; Li, Wei

    2017-06-29

    Dry eye can damage the ocular surface and result in mild corneal epithelial defect to blinding corneal pannus formation and squamous metaplasia. Significant progress in the treatment of dry eye has been made in the last two decades; progressing from lubricating and hydrating the ocular surface with artificial tear to stimulating tear secretion; anti-inflammation and immune regulation. With the increase in knowledge regarding the pathophysiology of dry eye, we propose in this review the concept of ocular surface microenvironment. Various components of the microenvironment contribute to the homeostasis of ocular surface. Compromise in one or more components can result in homeostasis disruption of ocular surface leading to dry eye disease. Complete evaluation of the microenvironment component changes in dry eye patients will not only lead to appropriate diagnosis, but also guide in timely and effective clinical management. Successful treatment of dry eye should be aimed to restore the homeostasis of the ocular surface microenvironment.

  4. Dry Eye Management: Targeting the Ocular Surface Microenvironment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiaobo; Jeyalatha M, Vimalin; Qu, Yangluowa; He, Xin; Ou, Shangkun; Bu, Jinghua; Jia, Changkai; Wang, Junqi; Wu, Han; Liu, Zuguo

    2017-01-01

    Dry eye can damage the ocular surface and result in mild corneal epithelial defect to blinding corneal pannus formation and squamous metaplasia. Significant progress in the treatment of dry eye has been made in the last two decades; progressing from lubricating and hydrating the ocular surface with artificial tear to stimulating tear secretion; anti-inflammation and immune regulation. With the increase in knowledge regarding the pathophysiology of dry eye, we propose in this review the concept of ocular surface microenvironment. Various components of the microenvironment contribute to the homeostasis of ocular surface. Compromise in one or more components can result in homeostasis disruption of ocular surface leading to dry eye disease. Complete evaluation of the microenvironment component changes in dry eye patients will not only lead to appropriate diagnosis, but also guide in timely and effective clinical management. Successful treatment of dry eye should be aimed to restore the homeostasis of the ocular surface microenvironment. PMID:28661456

  5. New ocular movement detector system as a communication tool in ventilator-assisted Werdnig-Hoffmann disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubota, M; Sakakihara, Y; Uchiyama, Y; Nara, A; Nagata, T; Nitta, H; Ishimoto, K; Oka, A; Horio, K; Yanagisawa, M

    2000-01-01

    A non-contact communication system was developed for a ventilator-assisted patient with Werdnig-Hoffmann disease who had lost all voluntary movements except for those of the eye. The system detects the extraocular movements and converts them to either a 'yes' signal (produced by one lateral eyeball movement) or a 'no' signal (produced by two successive lateral eyeball movements) using a video camera placed outside the patient's visual field. The patient is thus able to concentrate on performing a task without any intrusion from the detection system. Once the setting conditions of the device have been selected, there is no need for any resetting, as the patient is unable to move his body. In addition to playing television games, the child can use the device to select television channels, compose music, and learn written Japanese and Chinese characters. This seems to broaden the patient's daily world and promote mental development.

  6. Ocular injuries and eye care seeking patterns following injuries ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: The work environment of cocoa farmers exposes them to several ocular hazards that predispose them to eye diseases and injuries. However, the extent of ocular injuries and health seeking patterns following these injuries are unknown among cocoa farmers in Ghana. Objectives: To determine the prevalence ...

  7. Neovascular glaucoma after helium ion irradiation for uveal melanoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, M.K.; Char, D.H.; Castro, J.L.; Saunders, W.M.; Chen, G.T.; Stone, R.D.

    1986-01-01

    Neovascular glaucoma developed in 22 of 169 uveal melanoma patients treated with helium ion irradiation. Most patients had large melanomas; no eyes containing small melanomas developed anterior segment neovascularization. The mean onset of glaucoma was 14.1 months (range, 7-31 months). The incidence of anterior segment neovascularization increased with radiation dosage; there was an approximately three-fold increase at 80 GyE versus 60 GyE of helium ion radiation (23% vs. 8.5%) (P less than 0.05). Neovascular glaucoma occurred more commonly in larger tumors; the incidence was not affected by tumor location, presence of subretinal fluid, nor rate of tumor regression. Fifty-three percent of patients had some response with intraocular pressures of 21 mmHg or less to a combination of antiglaucoma treatments

  8. Intraocular pressure control with Ahmed glaucoma drainage device in patients with cicatricial ocular surface disease-associated or aniridia-related glaucoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almousa, Radwan; Lake, Damian B

    2014-08-01

    To analyze the control of intraocular pressure (IOP) with an Ahmed glaucoma drainage device (AGDD) in two groups of glaucoma patients--one with cicatricial ocular surface disease (COSD) and one with aniridia. This is a retrospective comparative case series of nine patients (11 eyes) with COSD and six patients (8 eyes) with aniridia who underwent AGDD surgery to control IOP. The main outcome measure in both groups was stability of IOP between 6 and 21 mmHg. Mean IOP decreased significantly in both groups after AGDD surgery (29.6 ± 8.7 vs 14.7 ± 2.5, p = 0.008 in the COSD group; 26.3 ± 8.2 vs 15.3 ± 5.8, p = 0.008 in the aniridia group). Over a mean post-surgery follow-up of 37.1 months in the COSD group, we managed to control IOP in nine eyes; IOP control was successful in 87 % of eyes at 12 months and 58 % of eyes at 26 months. Over a mean post-surgery follow-up of 37.4 months in the aniridia group, we managed to control the IOP in seven eyes; IOP control was successful in 87 % of eyes at 12 months. AGDD surgery had no significant deleterious effect on visual acuity in either group. A severe complication occurred in one eye (1/8) in the aniridia group (lost vision due to retinal detachment) and in one eye (1/11) in the COSD group (tube exposure). AGDD surgery is effective in controlling IOP and has a low complication rate in COSD and aniridia patients; however, some of the complications are severe and prompt management is needed to prevent deleterious results.

  9. Usefulness of Flow Cytometry in Diagnosis of IgG4-Related Ophthalmic Disease and Extranodal Marginal Zone B-Cell Lymphoma of the Ocular Adnexa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kase, Satoru; Ishijima, Kan; Uraki, Takehiko; Suimon, Yuka; Suzuki, Yasuo; Kase, Manabu; Ishida, Susumu

    2017-09-01

    Although flow cytometry (FCM) is used to evaluate cell surface markers of various leucocyte populations quantitatively, little is known about the usefulness of FCM in lymphoproliferative disorders of the ocular adnexa. The aim of this study was to disclose results of FCM, which were compared among IgG4-related ophthalmic disease (IgG4-ROD), idiopathic orbital inflammation (IOI), and extranodal marginal zone B-cell lymphoma (EMZL). This is a retrospective observational study. Sixty-nine tumors comprising of 16 IgG4-ROD, 24 IOI, and 29 EMZL were enrolled in the study. All tumors, surgically excised, were diagnosed based on histopathology, immunoglobulin (Ig) heavy chain gene rearrangement, and FCM. In FCM, the percentage of T-cell markers (CD2, CD3, CD4, CD5, CD7, CD8), B-cell markers (CD10, CD19, CD20, CD23), NK cell marker (CD56) and cell surface kappa/lambda was searched based on medical records. Ig light chain restriction was evaluated from results in kappa/lambda deviation by FCM. The percentage of CD2, CD3, CD4, CD7, and CD10 was significantly higher in IgG4-ROD/IOI than EMZL (pIgG4-ROD/IOI (pIgG4-ROD and IOI. Kappa-positive cells were significantly greater in EMZL than IgG4-ROD/IOI (pIgG4-ROD/IOI and false-negative was observed in 10 (34.5%) EMZL cases. Sensitivity and specificity of Ig light chain restriction were 65.5 and 92.5%, respectively. Analyses of cell surface markers using FCM were useful in differentiating EMZL from IgG4-ROD/IOI. Sensitivity of Ig light chain restriction was relatively low in diagnosis of EMZL using FCM. Copyright© 2017, International Institute of Anticancer Research (Dr. George J. Delinasios), All rights reserved.

  10. Ocular fishhook injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ang, C S

    2001-06-01

    Ocular fishhook injuries are rare, yet potentially vision threatening as complications such as corneal scarring, retinal detachment and endophthalmitis may result. The surgical management of these cases is challenging due to the construction of barbed fishhooks.

  11. THERAPY FOR OCULAR TOXOPLASMOSIS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    ROTHOVA, A; MEENKEN, C; BRINKMAN, CJ; BAARSMA, GS; BOENTAN, TN; DEJONG, PTVM; KLAASSENBROEKEMA, N; SCHWEITZER, CMC; TIMMERMAN, Z; DEVRIES, J; ZAAL, MJW; KIJLSTRA, A

    1993-01-01

    We conducted a prospective multicenter study of the efficacy of current therapeutic strategies for ocular toxoplasmosis in 149 patients. Treatment consisted of the following three triple-drug combinations: group 1, pyrimethamine, sulfadiazine, and corticosteroids; group 2, clindamycin, sulfadiazine,

  12. Therapy for ocular toxoplasmosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rothova, A.; Meenken, C.; Buitenhuis, H. J.; Brinkman, C. J.; Baarsma, G. S.; Boen-Tan, T. N.; de Jong, P. T.; Klaassen-Broekema, N.; Schweitzer, C. M.; Timmerman, Z.

    1993-01-01

    We conducted a prospective multicenter study of the efficacy of current therapeutic strategies for ocular toxoplasmosis in 149 patients. Treatment consisted of the following three triple-drug combinations: group 1, pyrimethamine, sulfadiazine, and corticosteroids; group 2, clindamycin, sulfadiazine,

  13. Challenging ocular image recognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pauca, V. Paúl; Forkin, Michael; Xu, Xiao; Plemmons, Robert; Ross, Arun A.

    2011-06-01

    Ocular recognition is a new area of biometric investigation targeted at overcoming the limitations of iris recognition performance in the presence of non-ideal data. There are several advantages for increasing the area beyond the iris, yet there are also key issues that must be addressed such as size of the ocular region, factors affecting performance, and appropriate corpora to study these factors in isolation. In this paper, we explore and identify some of these issues with the goal of better defining parameters for ocular recognition. An empirical study is performed where iris recognition methods are contrasted with texture and point operators on existing iris and face datasets. The experimental results show a dramatic recognition performance gain when additional features are considered in the presence of poor quality iris data, offering strong evidence for extending interest beyond the iris. The experiments also highlight the need for the direct collection of additional ocular imagery.

  14. Evaluation of FcεRl-binding serum IgE in patients with ocular allergic diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satoru Matsumoto

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available We evaluated high-affinity receptor for IgE (FcεRI- binding serum IgE in patients with atopic keratoconjunctivitis (AKC; n=31 and with seasonal allergic conjunctivitis (SAC; n=13 by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA using a recombinant soluble form of the human FcεRIα ectodomain (soluble α. The quantities of FcεRI-binding IgE are compared with those of total IgE measured by a conventional sandwich ELISA. Both of the quantities of FcεRI-binding and total IgE in AKC were significantly larger than those in SAC (P<0.001. In contrast, the proportion of FcεRI- binding IgE (FcεRI-binding IgE/total IgE; % in SAC was significantly larger than that in AKC (P <0.001, although significant reverse correlation was observed between the proportion of FcεRI-binding IgE and total IgE in both AKC and SAC. Significantly, a higher proportion of FcεRI-binding IgE in SAC than that in AKC may reflect the differences in pathologic states of AKC and SAC that are caused by a disparity in immune responses in these diseases.

  15. Recent Advances in Ocular Drug Delivery Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shinobu Fujii

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Transport of drugs applied by traditional dosage forms is restricted to the eye, and therapeutic drug concentrations in the target tissues are not maintained for a long duration since the eyes are protected by a unique anatomy and physiology. For the treatment of the anterior segment of the eye, various droppable products to prolong the retention time on the ocular surface have been introduced in the market. On the other hand, direct intravitreal implants, using biodegradable or non-biodegradable polymer technology, have been widely investigated for the treatment of chronic vitreoretinal diseases. There is urgent need to develop ocular drug delivery systems which provide controlled release for the treatment of chronic diseases, and increase patient’s and doctor’s convenience to reduce the dosing frequency and invasive treatment. In this article, progress of ocular drug delivery systems under clinical trials and in late experimental stage is reviewed.

  16. Inhibition of Corneal Neovascularization by Topical and Subconjunctival Tigecycline

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sertan Goktas

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To investigate the effects of topical and subconjunctival tigecycline on the prevention of corneal neovascularization. Materials and Methods. Following chemical burn, thirty-two rats were treated daily with topical instillation of 1 mg/mL tigecycline (group 1 or subconjunctival instillation of 1 mg/mL tigecycline (group 3 for 7 days. Control rats received topical (group 2 or subconjunctival (group 4 0.9% saline. Digital photographs of the cornea were taken on the eighth day after treatment and analyzed to determine the percentage area of the cornea covered by neovascularization. Corneal sections were analyzed histopathologically. Results. The median percentages of corneal neovascularization in groups 1 and 3 were 48% (95% confidence interval (CI, 44.2–55.8% and 33.5% (95% CI, 26.6–39.2%, respectively. The median percentages of corneal neovascularization of groups 1 and 3 were significantly lower than that of the control group (P=0.03 and P<0.001, resp.. Histologic examination of samples from groups 1 and 3 showed lower vascularity than that of control groups. Conclusion. Topical and subconjunctival administration of tigecycline seems to be showing promising therapeutic effects on the prevention of corneal neovascularization. Furthermore, subconjunctival administration of tigecycline is more potent than topical administration in the inhibition of corneal neovascularization.

  17. Neovascular events in eyes with central retinal vein occlusion undergoing serial bevacizumab or ranibizumab intravitreal injections: A retrospective review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francis Char DeCroos

    2014-01-01

    Conclusion: Neovascular events occur in eyes with CRVO undergoing serial anti-VEGF therapy, and these events may be delayed compared to the natural history of CRVO-associated neovascularization. Iris neovascularization occurred most frequently.

  18. New Developments in Ocular Surface Squamous Neoplasia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayşe Yağcı

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Ocular surface squamous neoplasia originates from conjunctiva epithelium and covers a broad spectrum of disease ranging from dysplasia to squamous cell carcinoma. Clinical features may vary from case to case. Traditional treatment of excision with no-touch technique combined with adjuvant therapies because of high recurrence rate. Main adjuvant treatments are cryotherapy and chemotherapy. In this review, clinical forms, differential diagnosis, American Joint Committee on Cancer classification and recent approaches to the management of ocular surface squamous dysplasia were described. (Turk J Ophthalmol 2014; 44: Supplement 8-14

  19. Study of surgical treatment on neovascular glaucoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao-Nü Liu

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To compare the effect of two surgical methods on neovascular glaucoma(NVG. METHODS: The clinical date of 46 cases(57 eyeswith NVG underwent surgical treatment were retrospectively analyzed and followed-up. Patients were divided into Ahmed glaucoma valve(AGVimplantation group(group A, 24 cases, 31 eyesand semiconductor diode laser transscleral ciliary body photocoagulation(TSCPCgroup(group B, 22cases, 26 eyesaccording to the surgical approach. The intraocular pressure, visual acuity and postoperative complications were compared before and after operation. RESULTS: The intraocular pressure postoperative in two groups were significantly lower than those preoperative(P P>0.05. The changes of visual acuity postoperative showed no statistical difference between the two groups(P>0.05. The postoperative complications of group A was significantly lower than that in group B, in which the incidence of eye pain, anterior chamber bleeding were significant differences between two groups(P CONCLUSION: AGV implantation treatment and TSCPC for NVG are both valid, but AGV implantation is filtration surgery, and TSCPC isciliary body destructive surgery, and the latter has higher rate of postoperative complications.

  20. Efficacy of patterned scan laser in treatment of macular edema and retinal neovascularization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dimple Modi

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Dimple Modi, Paulpoj Chiranand, Levent AkdumanSaint Louis University School of Medicine, Department of Ophthalmology, Saint Louis University Eye Institute, St. Louis, Missouri, USAPurpose: To analyze the benefits, efficacy, and complications of the PASCAL® photocoagulation laser system (OptiMedica, Santa Clara, CA, USA in patients treated at our institution.Methods: We conducted a retrospective chart review of 19 patients (28 eyes who underwent laser treatment using the PASCAL® photocoagulation system from November 2006 to November 2007. These 28 eyes were divided into two groups; group 1 eyes underwent macular grid laser and group 2 eyes underwent panretinal photocoagulation. Treatment was performed for macular edema or for iris or retinal neovascularization. Outcomes measured included best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA, efficacy of laser treatment, complications, duration of the procedure, and pain perception, which were noted in the charts for panretinal treatments.Results: Follow-up was 5.9 ± 2.6 months for group 1 and 5.9 ± 4.0 months for group 2. In group 1, 9/28 eyes required a second treatment for remaining edema. BCVA was stable or better in 66% (14/21 and average central foveal thickness on ocular coherence tomography improved in 71% (15/21. Time to completion for a number of laser patterns for grid photocoagulation was felt to be too long for completing the total pattern safely, although we have not noted any related complications. In group 2, the neovascularization regressed at least partially in 3/7 patients. Patient-reported pain perception was 3.6 on a scale of 1 to 10 for group 2. Occasional hemorrhages occurred secondary to irregular laser uptake at different spots in the patterns. We observed no visual outcome consequences because of these hemorrhages during follow-up.Conclusions: Retinal photocoagulation by the PASCAL® laser has comparable efficacy to historical results with conventional retinal photocoagulation in short

  1. Treatment options for ocular adnexal lymphoma (OAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victoria Mary Lendrum Cohen

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Victoria Mary Lendrum CohenSt. Bartholomew’s and Moorfields Eye Hospital, London UKAbstract: Most lymphomas that involve the ocular adnexal structure are low grade, B cell, non-Hodgkin’s lymphomas. The treatment depends upon the grade and stage of the disease. High grade lymhoma requires treatment with systemic chemotherapy whereas the localized low grade (extranodal marginal zone lymphoma can be successfully managed with local radiotherapy. Chlamydia psittaci infection is associated with low grade ocular lymphoma; however there is wide geographic variation in the strength of this association. Blanket antibiotic therapy is not advised unless there is proof of an infective agent. The monoclonal antibody, rituximab, may be successful for CD20 positive lymphoma, although it is likely that rituximab will have better long-term results when used in combination with systemic chemotherapy.Keywords: ocular adnexal lymphoma, mucosa associated lymphoid tissue, extranodal marginal zone lymphoma, Chlamydia psittaci, rituximab, radiotherapy, chemotherapy

  2. Artefactos en ultrasonido ocular

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana Mayorquín Ruiz

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available El ultrasonido ocular es un estudio dependiente del operador. Un buen estudio ecográfico debe tener como base el conocimiento de la anatomía y fisiología normales y de los cambios producidos en diferentes enfermedades, así como los cambios tras una cirugía ocular o trauma. El conocimiento de los fenómenos físicos producidos por el ultrasonido es la base para entender y reconocer la presencia de artefactos en el ultrasonido ocular. Esta revisión tiene como objetivo hacer un recuento de los artefactos que pueden ocasionar confusión al interpretar una imagen ecográfica, así como explicar la base física en la que se basan, reduciendo de esta manera los errores de interpretación y diagnósticos.

  3. What Is an Ocular Migraine?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... When to seek help What is an ocular migraine? Is it a sign of something serious? Answers ... and retinal migraine, which could signal something serious. Migraine aura affecting your vision Ocular migraine sometimes describes ...

  4. Intraocular Inflammation Associated with Ocular Toxoplasmosis : Relationships at Initial Examination

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dodds, Emilio M.; Holland, Gary N.; Stanford, Miles R.; Yu, Fei; Siu, Willie O.; Shah, Kayur H.; Loon, Ninette Ten Dam-Van; Muccioli, Cristina; Hovakimyan, Anna; Barisani-Asenbauer, Talin

    2008-01-01

    PURPOSE: To describe characteristics of intraocular inflammation in eyes with active ocular toxoplasmosis and to identify relationships between signs of inflammation, complications (including elevated intraocular pressure [IOP]), other disease features, and host characteristics. DESIGN: Multicenter,

  5. Ocular complications of boxing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bianco, M; Vaiano, A; Colella, F; Coccimiglio, F; Moscetti, M; Palmieri, V; Focosi, F; Zeppilli, P; Vinger, P

    2005-01-01

    Objectives: To investigate the prevalence of ocular injuries in a large population of boxers over a period of 16 years, in particular, the most severe lesions that may be vision threatening. Methods: Clinical records of the medical archive of the Italian Boxing Federation were analysed. A total of 1032 boxers were examined from February 1982 to October 1998. A complete ophthalmological history was available for 956, who formed the study population (a total of 10 697 examinations). The following data were collected: age when started boxing; duration of competitive boxing career (from the date of the first bout); weight category; a thorough ocular history. The following investigations were carried out: measurement of visual acuity and visual fields, anterior segment inspection, applanation tonometry, gonioscopy, and examination of ocular fundus. Eighty age matched healthy subjects, who had never boxed, formed the control group. Results: Of the 956 boxers examined, 428 were amateur (44.8%) and 528 professional (55.2%). The median age at first examination was 23.1 (4.3) years (range 15–36). The prevalence of conjunctival, corneal, lenticular, vitreal, ocular papilla, and retinal alterations in the study population was 40.9% compared with 3.1% in the control group (p⩽0.0001). The prevalence of serious ocular findings (angle, lens, macula, and peripheral retina alterations) was 5.6% in boxers and 3.1% in controls (NS). Conclusions: Boxing does not result in a higher prevalence of severe ocular lesions than in the general population. However, the prevalence of milder lesions (in particular with regard to the conjunctiva and cornea) is noteworthy, justifying the need for adequate ophthalmological surveillance. PMID:15665199

  6. Parametric imaging of tumor perfusion and neovascular morphology using ultrasound

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoyt, Kenneth

    2015-03-01

    A new image processing strategy is detailed for the simultaneous measurement of tumor perfusion and neovascular morphology parameters from a sequence of dynamic contrast-enhanced ultrasound (DCE-US) images. A technique for locally mapping tumor perfusion parameters using skeletonized neovascular data is also introduced. Simulated images were used to test the neovascular skeletonization technique and variance (error) of relevant parametric estimates. Preliminary DCE-US image datasets were collected in 6 female patients diagnosed with invasive breast cancer and using a Philips iU22 ultrasound system equipped with a L9-3 MHz transducer and Definity contrast agent. Simulation data demonstrates that neovascular morphology parametric estimation is reproducible albeit measurement error can occur at a lower signal-to-noise ratio (SNR). Experimental results indicate the feasibility of our approach to performing both tumor perfusion and neovascular morphology measurements from DCE-US images. Future work will expand on our initial clinical findings and also extent our image processing strategy to 3-dimensional space to allow whole tumor characterization.

  7. Radiation therapy for neovascular age-related macular degeneration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Petrarca

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Robert Petrarca, Timothy L JacksonDepartment of Ophthalmology, King’s College Hospital NHS Foundation Trust, London, UKAbstract: Antivascular endothelial growth factor (anti-VEGF therapies represent the standard of care for most patients presenting with neovascular (wet age-related macular degeneration (neovascular AMD. Anti-VEGF drugs require repeated injections and impose a considerable burden of care, and not all patients respond. Radiation targets the proliferating cells that cause neovascular AMD, including fibroblastic, inflammatory, and endothelial cells. Two new neovascular AMD radiation treatments are being investigated: epimacular brachytherapy and stereotactic radiosurgery. Epimacular brachytherapy uses beta radiation, delivered to the lesion via a pars plana vitrectomy. Stereotactic radiosurgery uses low voltage X-rays in overlapping beams, directed onto the lesion. Feasibility data for epimacular brachytherapy show a greatly reduced need for anti-VEGF therapy, with a mean vision gain of 8.9 ETDRS letters at 12 months. Pivotal trials are underway (MERLOT, CABERNET. Preliminary stereotactic radiosurgery data suggest a mean vision gain of 8 to 10 ETDRS letters at 12 months. A large randomized sham controlled stereotactic radiosurgery feasibility study is underway (CLH002, with pivotal trials to follow. While it is too early to conclude on the safety and efficacy of epimacular brachytherapy and stereotactic radiosurgery, preliminary results are positive, and these suggest that radiation offers a more durable therapeutic effect than intraocular injections.Keywords: wet age-related macular degeneration, neovascular, radiation therapy, epimacular brachytherapy, stereotactic radiosurgery, anti-VEGF

  8. Management of patients with ocular manifestations in vesiculobullous disorders affecting the mouth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stormly Hansen, Michael; Klefter, Oliver Niels; Julian, Hanne Olsen

    2017-01-01

    Pemphigoid and pemphigus diseases as well as Stevens-Johnson syndrome present as vesiculobullous disorders of the skin and may additionally involve both the oral cavity and the ocular surface. Ocular involvement ranges from mild irritation and dry eye disease to chronic conjunctivitis, symblepharon......, eyelid malposition, ocular surface scarring and severe visual loss. In addition to diagnostic assessments, ophthalmologists must treat the dry eye and Meibomian gland dysfunction components of these diseases using a stepladder approach, including eyelid hygiene and lubricants. Topical anti...

  9. Feasibility of Proton Beam Therapy for Ocular Melanoma Using a Novel 3D Treatment Planning Technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hartsell, William F., E-mail: whartsell@chicagocancer.org [Northwestern Medicine Chicago Proton Center, Proton Collaborative Group, Warrenville, Illinois (United States); Kapur, Rashmi [Retina Consultants, Des Plaines, Illinois (United States); Hartsell, Siobhan O' Connor; Sweeney, Patrick [Northwestern Medicine Chicago Proton Center, Warrenville, Illinois (United States); Lopes, Caitlin [Rush Medical College, Chicago, Illinois (United States); Duggal, Amanda [Northwestern Medicine Chicago Proton Center, Warrenville, Illinois (United States); Cohen, Jack [Department of Ophthalmology, Rush University, Chicago, Illinois (United States); Chang, John [Northwestern Medicine Chicago Proton Center, Proton Collaborative Group, Warrenville, Illinois (United States); Polasani, Rajeev S. [Northwestern Medicine Central DuPage Hospital, Winfield, Illinois (United States); Dunn, Megan [Northwestern Medicine Chicago Proton Center, Proton Collaborative Group, Warrenville, Illinois (United States); Pankuch, Mark [Northwestern Medicine Chicago Proton Center, Proton Collaborative Group, Warrenville, Illinois (United States)

    2016-05-01

    Purpose: We evaluated sparing of normal structures using 3-dimensional (3D) treatment planning for proton therapy of ocular melanomas. Methods and Materials: We evaluated 26 consecutive patients with choroidal melanomas on a prospective registry. Ophthalmologic work-up included fundoscopic photographs, fluorescein angiography, ultrasonographic evaluation of tumor dimensions, and magnetic resonance imaging of orbits. Three tantalum clips were placed as fiducial markers to confirm eye position for treatment. Macula, fovea, optic disc, optic nerve, ciliary body, lacrimal gland, lens, and gross tumor volume were contoured on treatment planning compute tomography scans. 3D treatment planning was performed using noncoplanar field arrangements. Patients were typically treated with 3 fields, with at least 95% of planning target volume receiving 50 GyRBE in 5 fractions. Results: Tumor stage was T1a in 10 patients, T2a in 10 patients, T2b in 1 patient, T3a in 2 patients, T3b in 1 patient, and T4a in 2 patients. Acute toxicity was mild. All patients completed treatment as planned. Mean optic nerve dose was 10.1 Gy relative biological effectiveness (RBE). Ciliary body doses were higher for nasal (mean: 11.4 GyRBE) than temporal tumors (5.8 GyRBE). Median follow-up was 31 months (range: 18-40 months). Six patients developed changes which required intraocular bevacizumab or corticosteroid therapy, but only 1 patient developed neovascular glaucoma. Five patients have since died: 1 from metastatic disease and 4 from other causes. Two patients have since required enucleation: 1 due to tumor and 1 due to neovascular glaucoma. Conclusions: 3D treatment planning can be used to obtain appropriate coverage of choroidal melanomas. This technique is feasible with relatively low doses to anterior structures, and appears to have acceptable rates of local control with low risk of enucleation. Further evaluation and follow-up is needed to determine optimal dose-volume relationships for

  10. Feasibility of Proton Beam Therapy for Ocular Melanoma Using a Novel 3D Treatment Planning Technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hartsell, William F.; Kapur, Rashmi; Hartsell, Siobhan O'Connor; Sweeney, Patrick; Lopes, Caitlin; Duggal, Amanda; Cohen, Jack; Chang, John; Polasani, Rajeev S.; Dunn, Megan; Pankuch, Mark

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: We evaluated sparing of normal structures using 3-dimensional (3D) treatment planning for proton therapy of ocular melanomas. Methods and Materials: We evaluated 26 consecutive patients with choroidal melanomas on a prospective registry. Ophthalmologic work-up included fundoscopic photographs, fluorescein angiography, ultrasonographic evaluation of tumor dimensions, and magnetic resonance imaging of orbits. Three tantalum clips were placed as fiducial markers to confirm eye position for treatment. Macula, fovea, optic disc, optic nerve, ciliary body, lacrimal gland, lens, and gross tumor volume were contoured on treatment planning compute tomography scans. 3D treatment planning was performed using noncoplanar field arrangements. Patients were typically treated with 3 fields, with at least 95% of planning target volume receiving 50 GyRBE in 5 fractions. Results: Tumor stage was T1a in 10 patients, T2a in 10 patients, T2b in 1 patient, T3a in 2 patients, T3b in 1 patient, and T4a in 2 patients. Acute toxicity was mild. All patients completed treatment as planned. Mean optic nerve dose was 10.1 Gy relative biological effectiveness (RBE). Ciliary body doses were higher for nasal (mean: 11.4 GyRBE) than temporal tumors (5.8 GyRBE). Median follow-up was 31 months (range: 18-40 months). Six patients developed changes which required intraocular bevacizumab or corticosteroid therapy, but only 1 patient developed neovascular glaucoma. Five patients have since died: 1 from metastatic disease and 4 from other causes. Two patients have since required enucleation: 1 due to tumor and 1 due to neovascular glaucoma. Conclusions: 3D treatment planning can be used to obtain appropriate coverage of choroidal melanomas. This technique is feasible with relatively low doses to anterior structures, and appears to have acceptable rates of local control with low risk of enucleation. Further evaluation and follow-up is needed to determine optimal dose-volume relationships for

  11. Alergia ocular: un reto diagnóstico Ocular allergy: a diagnostic challenge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Cardona Villa

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available El ojo es uno de los órganos más sensibles y está permanentemente expuesto a diversos agentes ambientales. Dado que la conjuntiva es un tejido inmunológicamente activo, no es sorprendente que sea un sitio común de respuestas alérgicas. Las alergias oculares son un grupo de enfermedades que afectan la superficie conjuntival y están asociadas usualmente a reacciones de hipersensibilidad tipo 1. Pueden ser divididas en varias categorías: conjuntivitis alérgica estacional, conjuntivitis alérgica perenne, queratoconjuntivitis vernal y queratoconjuntivitis atópica. La inflamación de la superficie ocular produce prurito, lagrimeo, edema conjuntival y fotofobia. Como en otras enfermedades alérgicas, se puede desarrollar una condición crónica, acompañada de remodelación de los tejidos oculares. Las estrategias para el tratamiento de la alergia ocular han aumentado exponencialmente y los clínicos disponen de un inventario cada vez mayor de agentes dirigidos a la protección del ojo contra la inflamación. En este trabajo presentamos una revisión sobre las principales formas de alergia ocular, haciendo énfasis en el cuadro clínico, el diagnóstico y las nuevas opciones terapéuticas disponibles en la actualidad. The eye, one of the most sensitive organs, is permanently exposed to different environmental agents. Since the conjunctiva is an immunologically active tissue, it is not surprising for it to be a common site for allergic responses. Ocular allergies constitute a group of diseases affecting the conjunctival surface; they are usually associated with type 1 hypersensitivity reactions. This disorder can be divided into several categories: seasonal allergic conjunctivitis, perennial allergic conjunctivitis, vernal keratoconjunctivitis and atopic keratoconjunctivitis. Ocular surface inflammation results in itching, tearing, conjunctival edema, and photophobia. As is the case with other allergic diseases, a chronic situation can also

  12. Human ocular Thelaziasis in Karnataka

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prabhakar S Krishnachary

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Thelaziasis is an Arthropod-born disease of the eye and adnexa caused by Thelazia callipaeda, a nematode parasite transmitted by drosophilid flies to carnivores and humans. Because of its distribution mainly confined to South Asian countries and Russia, it is commonly known as Oriental Eye worm. It is often under-reported and not been given its due clinical importance. We report first case of human Thelaziasis from Hassan District, Karnataka. Five creamy-white, translucent worms were removed from the conjunctival sac of a 74-year-old male patient. Based on morphological characters, the worms were identified as nematodes belonging to the genus Thelazia and speciation was confirmed by CDC, Atlanta as callipaeda. Rarity of the disease and its ability to cause both extra and intraocular manifestations leading to ocular morbidity is the reason for presenting this case. From the available data, this is the first case report from Karnataka, India.

  13. Ischemic Retinopathy and Neovascular Proliferation Secondary to Severe Head Injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muge Coban-Karatas

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We report a case with severe head trauma and perforating globe injury in one eye and ischemic retinopathy and neovascular proliferation in the other eye. A 37-year-old male was brought to the emergency department after a motor vehicle accident with severe maxillofacial trauma. Ophthalmic examination revealed hematoma of the left eyelids as well as traumatic rupture and disorganization of the left globe. On the right eye, anterior segment and fundoscopic examination were normal. Primary globe repair was performed. At postoperative one-month visit, the right eye revealed no pathology of the optic disc and macula but severe neovascularization in the temporal peripheral retina. The patient was diagnosed as ischemic retinopathy and neovascular proliferation due to head trauma.

  14. The formation of rats' choroidal neovascularization induced by acrolein

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guan-Feng Wang

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available AIM:To investigate the formation of rats' choroidal neovascularization(CNVinduced by acrolein. METHODS:Twelve Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into three groups. Acrolein 200μL(2.5 mg/kg/dwas poured into the rats' stomach for 4wk as acrolein 4wk and for 8wk as acrolein 8wk group. The same volume of fresh water was also done to the rats as the control group. Remove all eye balls and embed into paraffin with HE staining.RESLUTS:The RPE-Bruch membrane was intact with no obvious abnormality in the control group and acrolein 4wk group. Lost in the continuity of RPE and the movement of choroidal neovascularization were found in the acrolein 8wk. CONCLUSION:The long time use of acrolein can induce the formation of choroial neovascularization in rats.

  15. Ocular manifestations of injection drug use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Rubin W; Juzych, Mark S; Eliott, Dean

    2002-09-01

    Injection drug use can result in a variety of severe ocular conditions. Hematogenous dissemination of various fungi and bacteria may produce endophthalmitis with resultant severe visual loss. Retinal arterial occlusive disease may result from talc and other particulate emboli. Most commonly, life-threatening systemic diseases such as endocarditis and HIV infection secondarily affect the eye. Because many of these conditions may result in blindness if untreated, accurate diagnosis and prompt initiation of therapy are essential.

  16. Clinical-histopathological correlation in a case of Coats' disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zajdenweber Moyses E

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Coats' disease is a non-hereditary ocular disease, with no systemic manifestation, first described by Coats in 1908. It occurs more commonly in children and has a clear male predominance. Most patients present clinically with unilateral decreased vision, strabismus or leukocoria. The most important differential diagnosis is unilateral retinoblastoma, which occurs in the same age group and has some overlapping clinical manifestations. Case presentation A 4 year-old girl presented with a blind and painful right eye. Ocular examination revealed neovascular glaucoma, cataract and posterior synechiae. Although viewing of the fundus was impossible, computed tomography disclosed total exsudative retinal detachment in the affected eye. The eye was enucleated and subsequent histopathological evaluation confirmed the diagnosis of Coats' disease. Conclusion General pathologists usually do not have the opportunity to receive and study specimens from patients with Coats' disease. Coats' disease is one of the most important differential diagnoses of retinoblastoma. Therefore, It is crucial for the pathologist to be familiar with the histopathological features of the former, and distinguish it from the latter.

  17. Raman Spectroscopy of Ocular Tissue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ermakov, Igor V.; Sharifzadeh, Mohsen; Gellermann, Warner

    The optically transparent nature of the human eye has motivated numerous Raman studies aimed at the non-invasive optical probing of ocular tissue components critical to healthy vision. Investigations include the qualitative and quantitative detection of tissue-specific molecular constituents, compositional changes occurring with development of ocular pathology, and the detection and tracking of ocular drugs and nutritional supplements. Motivated by a better understanding of the molecular mechanisms leading to cataract formation in the aging human lens, a great deal of work has centered on the Raman detection of proteins and water content in the lens. Several protein groups and the hydroxyl response are readily detectable. Changes of protein compositions can be studied in excised noncataractous tissue versus aged tissue preparations as well as in tissue samples with artificially induced cataracts. Most of these studies are carried out in vitro using suitable animal models and conventional Raman techniques. Tissue water content plays an important role in optimum light transmission of the outermost transparent ocular structure, the cornea. Using confocal Raman spectroscopy techniques, it has been possible to non-invasively measure the water to protein ratio as a measure of hydration status and to track drug-induced changes of the hydration levels in the rabbit cornea at various depths. The aqueous humor, normally supplying nutrients to cornea and lens, has an advantageous anterior location for Raman studies. Increasing efforts are pursued to non-invasively detect the presence of glucose and therapeutic concentrations of antibiotic drugs in this medium. In retinal tissue, Raman spectroscopy proves to be an important tool for research into the causes of macular degeneration, the leading cause of irreversible vision disorders and blindness in the elderly. It has been possible to detect the spectral features of advanced glycation and advanced lipooxydation end products in

  18. Ocular manifestations of leptospirosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rathinam S

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Leptospiral uveitis is a common entity in tropical countries. Ocular manifestations are noted in the second phase of illness, but these remain under-diagnosed mainly because of the prolonged symptom-free period that separates the systemic manifestations from detection of ocular manifestations.Varying ophthalmic presentations and the intrinsic nature of different types of uveitis to mimic one another also challenge the accuracy of the diagnosis. Of the individual ocular signs, the combination of acute, non-granulomatous, panuveitis, hypopyon, vasculitis, optic disc edema, membranous vitreous opacities and absence of choroiditis or retinitis have high predictive value for the clinical diagnosis of leptospiral uveitis. Geographic location of the patient, occupation, socio-economic status, risk factors related to exposure, past history of fever or jaundice also aid in diagnosis.Steroids are the mainstay of treatment for leptospiral uveitis. Depending upon the severity and anatomical location of inflammatory lesion, topical, peri-ocular and/or systemic steroids are given. The prognosis is generally good, even when the inflammation is severe.

  19. Ocular straylight in albinism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kruijt, Bastiaan; Franssen, Luuk; Prick, Liesbeth J. J. M.; van Vliet, Johannes M. J.; van den Berg, Thomas J. T. P.

    2011-01-01

    Albinism is an inherited disorder that affects the melanin biosynthesis pathway, which results in reduced or absent pigment formation. This may lead to increased light transmission through the iris and more reflected light from the fundus. Both these effects contribute to the occurrence of ocular

  20. Therapy of ocular toxoplasmosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rothova, A.; Buitenhuis, H. J.; Meenken, C.; Baarsma, G. S.; Boen-Tan, T. N.; de Jong, P. T.; Schweitzer, C. M.; Timmerman, Z.; de Vries, J.; Zaal, M. J.

    1989-01-01

    We performed a prospective multicentre study to evaluate the efficacy of therapeutic strategies currently used for ocular toxoplasmosis in a large number of patients (n = 106). Treatment was given for at least four weeks and consisted of three triple drug combinations: group 1, pyrimethamine,

  1. Eye cosmetic usage and associated ocular comfort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Alison; Evans, Katharine; North, Rachel; Purslow, Christine

    2012-11-01

    Eye cosmetics usage is commonplace and whilst some products such as eyeliner are applied with close proximity to the ocular surface, there is little knowledge of the short- and long-term ocular effects of eye cosmetic formulations. This study aimed to investigate the use of eye cosmetics and identify any relationships between ocular comfort and cosmetic usage. Results were collated from an online survey comprising 23 questions that recorded demographics, Ocular Surface Disease Index (OSDI) score, extent and range of eye cosmetic use and perceived comfort differences with and without eye cosmetics. The 1360 female respondents (median age 25, interquartile range 20-34 years) completed the survey; 83% reported using eye cosmetics regularly (≥ 3 times per week) with mascara being most commonly used. Fifty three per cent used at least three different eye cosmetics products regularly. OSDI scores of cosmetics users were similar to non-users (p = 0.083), but perceived comfort was greater when cosmetics were not used (p cosmetics users (use of products cosmetics were used. Median OSDI scores suggested a trend towards reduced comfort amongst eyeliner users (p = 0.07) although frequency and type of cosmetic products used did not appear to influence OSDI scores. This study shows the use of multiple eye cosmetics is extensive and associated with the perception of ocular discomfort. With such widespread use of these products, more research is required to assess the effect on the ocular surface and tear film, which may be underestimated. Ophthalmic & Physiological Optics © 2012 The College of Optometrists.

  2. Clinical Analysis of 42 Cases of Ocular Ischemic Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jingyi Luo

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Ocular ischemic syndrome (OIS is a severe ocular disease caused by ocular hypoperfusion due to stenosis or occlusion of the common or internal carotid arteries. OIS is easily misdiagnosed or undiagnosed given its asymptomatic onset and complicated ocular manifestations. The present study reviewed 42 patients with OIS, including 30 males (71.43%, 29 older patients (69.05%, >61 yrs, and 35 patients (83.33% with two or more systemic diseases. Only 6 patients had ocular symptoms as the initial signs upon visiting the Department of Ophthalmology of three hospitals (the First Affiliated Hospital, Sun Yat-sen University; Zhongshan Ophthalmic Center, Sun Yat-sen University; and the Second Affiliated Hospital, Guangzhou Medical University. The ocular symptoms varied from visual deterioration to periorbital pain. Thirty-seven patients (88.10% complained of constitutional symptoms. Ocular manifestations were diverse and involved both anterior and posterior segments. We reported a case of corneal edema and corneal epithelium erosion in the ipsilateral eye due to internal carotid artery stenosis. As the clinical manifestations of OIS are complex, ophthalmologists must carefully examine patients to avoid a misdiagnosis or a failure to diagnose. The management of OIS requires cooperation with cardiologists and neurologists.

  3. Colloidal drug delivery system: amplify the ocular delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Javed; Fazil, Mohd; Qumbar, Mohd; Khan, Nazia; Ali, Asgar

    2016-01-01

    The ocular perceivers are the most voluntarily accessible organs in terms of location in the body, yet drug distribution to these tissues is one of the most intriguing and challenging endeavors and problematic to the pharmaceutical scientist. The most of ocular diseases are treated with topical application of conventional formulation, i.e. solutions, suspensions and ointment. Typically on installation of these conventional formulations, only <5% of the applied dose penetrates the cornea and reaches intraocular tissues, while a major fraction of the instilled dose is wastage due to the presence of many ocular barriers like external barriers, rapid loss of the instilled solution from the precorneal area and nasolacrimal drainage system. Systemic absorption caused systemic side effects varying from mild to life-threatening events. The main objective of this review is to explore the role of colloidal delivery of drug to minimize the drawbacks associated with them. This review provides an insight into the various constraints associated with ocular drug delivery, summarizes recent findings and applications of colloidal delivery systems, i.e. nanoparticles, nanosuspensions, liposomes, niosomes, dendrimers and contact lenses containing nanoparticles have the capacity to distribute ocular drugs to categorical target sites and hold promise to revolutionize the therapy of many ocular perceiver diseases and minimized the circumscription of conventional delivery. Form the basis of literature review, it has been found that the novel delivery system have greater impact to maximize ocular drug absorption, and minimize systemic absorption and side effects.

  4. Ocular and non-ocular manifestations of hypohidrotic ectodermal dysplasia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyagi, Pallavi; Tyagi, Vipin; Hashim, Adnan A

    2011-01-01

    Hypohidrotic ectodermal dysplasia (HED) is a group of rare multisystemic genetic syndromes that affects ectodermal structures such as skin, hair, nails, teeth and sweat glands. The authors present a case of a child with ocular and dermatological signs of HED along with severe involvement of other multiple organ systems. The family history could be traced to four generations and there was an observed trend of increase in severity of signs and symptoms occurring at younger age. The purpose of this case report is to create awareness in ophthalmic community of its diagnosis and clinical manifestations. This case highlights the role of multidisciplinary approach for management of systemic disease, genetic evaluation of affected individuals and carriers and genetic counselling. PMID:22700604

  5. Effect of combined topical heparin and steroid on corneal neovascularization in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michels, Rike; Michels, Stephan; Kaminski, Stephan

    2012-01-01

    To demonstrate the effect of topical heparin combined with topical steroid on corneal neovascularization (CN) in children. Four children (5 eyes) with new-onset progressive CN in at least one eye received topical rimexolone or dexamethasone in combination with heparin until complete regression of CN was obtained. The regression of CN was documented by slit-lamp or anterior segment photography. All 5 eyes showed complete regression of CN within 5 months. An anti-angiogenic effect was found as early as 1 week after starting topical combination treatment. No ocular and systemic side effects were detected and treatment was well tolerated by all children. In the 3 eyes with involvement of the optical axis, symmetrical visual acuity was obtained by amblyopia treatment. Recurrence of the CN was detectable in 2 eyes at 1 and 6 months, respectively, after ending combination therapy. Both eyes responded favorably to re-treatment. Combination of topical heparin and steroid leads to rapid regression and complete inactivity of CN. This therapeutic approach is promising, especially in children with limited therapeutic alternatives and a high risk for amblyopia. Copyright 2012, SLACK Incorporated.

  6. Therapeutic Effect of Novel Single-Stranded RNAi Agent Targeting Periostin in Eyes with Retinal Neovascularization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takahito Nakama

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Retinal neovascularization (NV due to retinal ischemia remains one of the principal causes of vision impairment in patients with ischemic retinal diseases. We recently reported that periostin (POSTN may play a role in the development of preretinal fibrovascular membranes, but its role in retinal NV has not been determined. The purpose of this study was to examine the expression of POSTN in the ischemic retinas of a mouse model of oxygen-induced retinal NV. We also studied the function of POSTN on retinal NV using Postn KO mice and human retinal endothelial cells (HRECs in culture. In addition, we used a novel RNAi agent, NK0144, which targets POSTN to determine its effect on the development of retinal NV. Our results showed that the expression of POSTN was increased in the vascular endothelial cells, pericytes, and M2 macrophages in ischemic retinas. POSTN promoted the ischemia-induced retinal NV by Akt phosphorylation through integrin αvβ3. NK0144 had a greater inhibitory effect than canonical double-stranded siRNA on preretinal pathological NV in vivo and in vitro. These findings suggest a causal relationship between POSTN and retinal NV, and indicate a potential therapeutic role of intravitreal injection of NK0144 for retinal neovascular diseases.

  7. Establishment of a tumor neovascularization animal model with biomaterials in rabbit corneal pouch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Yu-Ping; Li, Hong-Chuan; Ma, Ling; Xia, Yang

    2018-06-01

    The present animal model of tumor neovascularization most often used by researchers is zebrafish. For studies on human breast cancer cell neovascularization, a new animal model was established to enable a more convenient study of tumor neovascularization. A sodium alginate-gelatin blend gel system was used to design the new animal model. The model was established using rabbit corneal pouch implantation. Then, the animal model was validated by human breast cancer cell lines MCF-7-Kindlin-2 and MCF-7-CMV. The experiment intuitively observed the relationship between tumor and neovascularization, and demonstrated the advantages of this animal model in the study of tumor neovascularization. The use of sodium alginate-gelatin blends to establish tumor neovascularization in a rabbit corneal pouch is a novel and ideal method for the study of neovascularization. It may be a better animal model for expanding the research in this area. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Results of laser treatment for sub-retinal neovascular membranes ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A retrospective study was carried out to determine the results of laser treatment for choroidal neovascular membranes in age-related macular degeneration in 92 patients in whom fluorescein angiography was performed for this condition over a 7-year period. Twenty-nine of these patients, treated with the argon laser, were ...

  9. Miopatia ocular descendente

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nunjo Finkel

    1972-06-01

    Full Text Available São relatados 4 casos de miopatia ocular descendente (MOD com história familial levantada em três gerações. Biópsia musculares e eletromiografia em um caso confirmaram o caráter miogênico da doença. A MOD nada mais seria do que uma forma clínica especial de distrofia muscular, de início tardio.

  10. OCULAR ASPECTS OF HYPERTHYROIDISM WITH SPECIAL REFERENCE TO OCULAR MYOPATHY

    OpenAIRE

    Mallika O. U; Suma Job

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND Hyperthyroidism can result in ocular manifestations even before systemic signs and symptoms develop. It is seen more in females and severe forms are more common in males. Early detection of ocular involvement can prevent vision threatening complications and troublesome discomforts affecting quality of vision. This clinical study highlights the importance of detailed ocular examination in hyperthyroidism. MATERIALS AND METHODS Fifty consecutive patients with ocu...

  11. Ocular Blood Flow and Normal Tension Glaucoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ning Fan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Normal tension glaucoma (NTG is known as a multifactorial optic neuropathy characterized by progressive retinal ganglion cell death and glaucomatous visual field loss, even though the intraocular pressure (IOP does not exceed the normal range. The pathophysiology of NTG remains largely undetermined. It is hypothesized that the abnormal ocular blood flow is involved in the pathogenesis of this disease. A number of evidences suggested that the vascular factors played a significant role in the development of NTG. In recent years, the new imaging techniques, fluorescein angiography, color Doppler imaging (CDI, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI, and laser speckle flowgraphy (LSFG, have been used to evaluate the ocular blood flow and blood vessels, and the impaired vascular autoregulation was found in patients with NTG. Previous studies showed that NTG was associated with a variety of systemic diseases, including migraine, Alzheimer’s disease, primary vascular dysregulation, and Flammer syndrome. The vascular factors were involved in these diseases. The mechanisms underlying the abnormal ocular blood flow in NTG are still not clear, but the risk factors for glaucomatous optic neuropathy likely included oxidative stress, vasospasm, and endothelial dysfunction.

  12. Ocular abnormalities in atopic dermatitis in Indian patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaujalgi Radhika

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aims: Atopic dermatitis (AD is a common skin disease. Long-standing, severe AD with repeated scratching and rubbing of the face, which requires continuous dermatologic care, predisposes the patient to various ocular complications. The knowledge of the frequency and significance of these ocular complications may allow their early diagnosis and treatment. The present study assesses the ocular complications in Indian children suffering from AD. Methods: In order to study the ocular complications in AD, 100 patients (61 male and 39 female between the ages of 1 and 14 years were recruited. All the patients had complete dilated fundus examination with indirect ophthalmoscopy. The lid, conjunctiva and cornea were examined. Also, any evidence of cataract formation and retinal disorders were recorded. Results: The mean age of the children was 5.4 years. Forty-three (43.0% AD patients showed ocular abnormalities in the form of lid and conjunctival changes. Of these, 18 (41.9% patients showed only lid involvement, 16 (37.2% only conjunctival involvement and both conjunctival and lid changes were seen in nine (20.9% patients. Conjunctival changes were mostly in the form of a cobblestone appearance of the papillae, with mild to moderate papillary reaction and papillary hypertrophy. Variables observed to have a significant impact on the development of ocular abnormalities were age more than 5 years, duration of illness> 12 months, positive family history of atopy, presence of palmar hyperlinearity and a combination of both xerosis and Dennie-Morgan fold. Conclusions: The present study is the first of its kind from India to document an association between AD in children and various ocular manifestations. The ocular manifestations observed in our cohort were not associated with significant ocular morbidity or visual impairment possibly because of a less-severe disease in Indians.

  13. Ocular injury in hurling.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Flynn, T H

    2012-02-03

    OBJECTIVES: To describe the clinical characteristics of ocular injuries sustained in hurling in the south of Ireland and to investigate reasons for non-use of protective headgear and eye wear. METHODS: Retrospective review of the case notes of 310 patients who attended Cork University Hospital or Waterford Regional Hospital between 1 January 1994 and 31 December 2002 with ocular injuries sustained during a hurling match. A confidential questionnaire on reasons for non-use of protective headgear and eye wear was completed by 130 players. RESULTS: Hurling related eye injuries occurred most commonly in young men. Fifty two patients (17%) required hospital admission, with hyphaema accounting for 71% of admissions. Ten injuries required intraocular surgical INTERVENTION: retinal detachment repair (5); macular hole surgery (1); repair of partial thickness corneal laceration (1); repair of globe perforation (1); enucleation (1); trabeculectomy for post-traumatic glaucoma (1). Fourteen eyes (4.5%) had a final best corrected visual acuity (BCVA) of <6\\/12 and six (2%) had BCVA <3\\/60. In the survey, 63 players (48.5%) reported wearing no protective facemask while playing hurling. Impairment of vision was the most common reason cited for non-use. CONCLUSIONS: Hurling related injury is a significant, and preventable, cause of ocular morbidity in young men in Ireland. The routine use of appropriate protective headgear and faceguards would result in a dramatic reduction in the incidence and severity of these injuries, and should be mandatory.

  14. Ocular candidiasis: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, C P; McKey, J; Spirn, M J; Maguire, J

    2008-04-01

    To review the epidemiology, diagnosis and changing treatment paradigm of ocular candidiasis, and report current prevalence rates and risk factors at one inpatient hospital. Retrospective review; systematic literature review. All Wills Eye Institute inpatient ophthalmology consultations from Thomas Jefferson University Hospital were retrospectively reviewed between June 2006 and November 2006. All consultations for candidaemia were included. The outcome variables included chorioretinitis, endophthalmitis, visual symptoms and Candida speciation. The ophthalmic literature was reviewed using PubMed. Keywords included Candida, candidaemia, chorioretinitis, vitritis and endophthalmitis. Bibliographies were manually searched. Three of the 38 consultations for candidaemia (7.9%) had chorioretinitis. There were no cases of vitritis or endophthalmitis. The presence of symptoms, or the inability to articulate symptoms, was significantly associated with risk of ocular candidiasis (p = 0.003). All three cases of chorioretinitis had positive blood cultures for Candida albicans (p = 0.089) and were treated with oral fluconazole. Various factors have led to the increasing prevalence of inpatient candidaemia. Risk factors for ocular involvement include albicans species and the presence of, or inability to articulate, visual symptoms. For those without abnormal findings on initial examination, a subsequent retinal examination should be performed in 2 weeks, particularly if new symptoms develop or if the patient is unable to relay symptoms. Patients with chorioretinitis should be treated with systemic antifungal agents. For those with vitritis or endophthalmitis, particularly if worsening on systemic therapy alone, intravitreal antifungal medications or early vitrectomy should be considered.

  15. Characterization of Toxoplasma gondii-specific T cells recovered from vitreous fluid of patients with ocular toxoplasmosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Feron, E. J.; Klaren, V. N.; Wierenga, E. A.; Verjans, G. M.; Kijlstra, A.

    2001-01-01

    The mechanisms involved in reactivations of latent ocular Toxoplasma gondii (Tg) infections in immunocompetent patients are poorly understood. In view of the possible role of T cells in the immunopathogenesis of the disease, ocular infiltrating T cells obtained from patients with recurrent ocular

  16. Update on twice-daily bromfenac sodium sesquihydrate to treat postoperative ocular inflammation following cataract extraction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carreño E

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Ester Carreño1, Alejandro Portero2, David J Galarreta1,3, José M Herreras1,31Ocular Immunology Unit-IOBA (Instituto Universitario de Oftalmobiología, University of Valladolid, Campus Miguel Delibes, Valladolid, Spain; 2Ocular Immunology Unit, Hospital La Zarzuela, Madrid, Spain; 3Ocular Immunology Unit, Hospital Clínico Universitario de Valladolid, Valladolid, SpainAbstract: Ophthalmic bromfenac sodium sesquihydrate is a topically applied selective cyclooxygenase (COX-2 inhibitor. It is similar to amfenac, except for a bromine atom at the C4 of the benzoyl ring position, which markedly affects its in vitro and in vivo potency, extends the duration of anti-inflammatory activity, and enhances its inhibitory effect on COX-2 absorption across the cornea and penetration into ocular tissues. The United States Food and Drug Administration approved bromfenac in 2005 for the treatment of postoperative inflammation and the reduction of ocular pain in patients who have undergone cataract surgery. Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs, and among them bromfenac, could be even more effective than steroids at reestablishing the blood–aqueous barrier, as revealed by flare on slit-lamp examination and as quantitatively measured using ocular fluorophotometry. Similar to other NSAIDs, it has a role in inhibiting intraoperative miosis during cataract surgery. However, bromfenac also seems to be useful in other situations, such as refractive surgery, allergic conjunctivitis (not useful in dry eye, choroidal neovascularization, and even ocular oncology. No reports of systemic toxicity have been published and bromfenac has good topical tolerance with a low incidence of adverse effects.Keywords: bromfenac, ophthalmic nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, inflammation, cataract surgery

  17. Prevalência de transtornos oculares na população de idosos residentes na cidade de Veranópolis, RS, Brasil Prevalence of ocular diseases in a population of elderly residents of the city of Veranópolis, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flávio Antônio Romani

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Avaliar os transtornos oculares e a sua prevalência em pessoas com 80 anos de idade, ou mais, na cidade de Veranópolis, Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil. MÉTODOS: 187 idosos foram submetidos a exame oftalmológico por meio de inspeção externa, motilidade extrínseca, medidas de acuidade visual para longe e perto, tonometria de aplanação, biomicroscopia, cicloplegia, fundoscopia direta e esquiascopia estática. RESULTADOS: As doenças mais prevalentes foram: presbiopia em 173 (92,5% pacientes, catarata em 160 (85,6%, ectrópio senil em 130 (69,5%, hipermetropia em 130 (69,5% e a degeneração macular relacionada à idade (DMRI em 59 (31,5%. Na população estudada, 85 (45,4% pacientes apresentaram baixa visual acentuada cujas causas principais eram a catarata em 46 (54,1% e erros de refração em 16 (18,9% dos idosos. A principal causa de queixas dos idosos foi relacionada com a presença de ectrópio senil. CONCLUSÃO: Doenças comuns como a catarata e os erros de refração continuam a ser um desafio para os oftalmologistas, pois são importantes causas de dificuldade visual nos idosos, com conseqüente perda de qualidade em suas vidas.ABSTRACT PURPOSE: To evaluate the prevalence of diseases of the eye in a population aged 80 years and above in the city of Veranopolis, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. METHODS: 187 elderly people were submitted to ophthalmologic tests including external inspection, ocular motility examination, visual acuity determination for near and far distance, applanation tonometry, biomicroscopy, cyclopegia, direct fundus examination and static skiascopy. RESULTS: The most prevalent disease was presbyopia in 173 (92,5% patients, cataract in 160 (85,6%, age-related ectropion in 130 (69,5%, hypermetropia in 130 (69,5% and age-related macular degeneration (ARMD in 59 (31,5% patients. 85 (45,4% patients presented marked low vision whose main causes were cataract in 46 (54,1% and refractive error in 16 (18,9% of the studied

  18. Ranibizumab in neovascular age-related macular degeneration: a 5-year follow-up

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cvetkova NP

    2016-06-01

    the disease completely. Patients with late stages of neovascular AMD can maintain VA even if they are relatively undertreated. Keywords: AMD, neovascular, OCT, ranibizumab, retina

  19. OCULAR ASPECTS OF HYPERTHYROIDISM WITH SPECIAL REFERENCE TO OCULAR MYOPATHY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mallika O. U

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Hyperthyroidism can result in ocular manifestations even before systemic signs and symptoms develop. It is seen more in females and severe forms are more common in males. Early detection of ocular involvement can prevent vision threatening complications and troublesome discomforts affecting quality of vision. This clinical study highlights the importance of detailed ocular examination in hyperthyroidism. MATERIALS AND METHODS Fifty consecutive patients with ocular signs of hyperthyroidism were evaluated and followed up for an average period of 1 year. Detailed ocular examination included exophthalmometric measurements, ocular movements and Worth four-dot test. T3, T4, TSH, CT scan and antimicrosomal antibodies and antithyroglobulin antibodies were done along with routine investigations. Study Design- Prospective cohort study. RESULTS Statistical analysis did not reveal any correlation between the level of serum T3 and severity of ocular findings. Majority of the cases were euthyroid with moderate ocular myopathy having multiple muscle involvement. Inferior rectus was affected most. CONCLUSION The ocular signs of hyperthyroidism in the present study seem to be mild. The severe eye changes like corneal involvement and optic nerve changes were less common.

  20. Clinical Observation on the Therapeutic effect of ocular Fundus Disease with multi Wavelength Krypton laser Treatment%眼底病采用多波长氪离子激光治疗的临床疗效观察

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    钱江

    2014-01-01

    目的:分析探讨眼底病采用多波长氪离子激光治疗的临床疗效。方法选取40例(60眼)眼底病患者作为研究对象,分为观察组与对照组,每组20例(30眼),对照组患者行复方血塞通胶囊治疗,观察组在对照组治疗的基础上行多波长氪离子激光治疗,比较两组治疗情况。结果观察组治疗总有效率为90.0%,对照组治疗总有效率为75.0%,观察组治疗效果明显优于对照组(P<0.05);观察组并发症发生率明显低于对照组(P<0.05),组间比较有统计学意义。结论眼底病采用多波长氪离子激光治疗具有显著的临床疗效,且无不良反应,有效性与安全性均有保证,可推广应用。%Objective To investigate the clinical efficacy of ocular fundus disease analysis using multi wavelength krypton laser treatment.Methods 40 cases(60 eyes)of ocular fundus disease patient as the research object,divided into observation group and control group,each group of 20 cases(30 eyes),the control group underwent compound Xuesaitong capsule treatment,observation group in the control group treatment on the basis of krypton ion laser treatment,compared two groups of treatment.Results In the observation group,the total effective rate was 90%,the control group the total effective rate was 75%,the patients in the observation group was better than the control group(P<0.05);The complication rate of observation group was significantly lower than the control group(P<0.05),there was significant difference between group.Conclusion The ocular fundus disease with multi wavelength krypton laser therapy has remarkable clinical curative effect,and no adverse reaction,effectiveness and safety can be guaranteed,and can be popularized and applied.

  1. Safety of a novel VEGF-target antibody's ocular application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qun Wang

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available AIM:To verify the safety application of MIL60 in the treatment of corneal neovascularization both in vivo and in vitro. METHODS: We observed the biological characteristics of human corneal epithelial cells. The cell proliferation was analyzed using CCK-8 assay, which also used to test the toxicity of MIL60 and the solvent on cultured human corneal epithelial(HCE. FACs was used to analyze the apoptosis of HCE after treated with MIL60. Also we evaluated the effect of subconjunctival injection of MIL60 on corneal epithelial healing model in normal rat and rats with epithelium defect through slit lamp-microscopy, Draize scores and histopathology way. RESULTS: The proliferation speed of HCE in three groups was the same. MIL60 did no harm on the proliferation of HCE and the apoptosis of HCE, and has no effect on corneal epithelial healing and other parts of the ocular in rats without inflammation cells infiltration. CONCLUSION: When given subconjunctival injection, Mil60 does no harm to the proliferation and apoptosis of HCE, and is safe with ocular application.

  2. Influence of ocular perfusion pressure fluctuation on glaucoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min-Zi Ren

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available AIM:To investigate the influence of ocular perfusion pressure fluctuation on glaucoma. METHODS:Forty patients with primary open angle glaucoma from January 2013 to June 2015 in our hospital were used as observation group and 40 families were used as control group. Circadian fluctuation of intraocular pressure, blood pressure and ocular perfusion pressure in 24h were determined to obtain systolic ocular perfusion pressure(SOPP, diastolic ocular perfusion pressure(DOPPand mean ocular perfusion pressure(MOPP. Pearson linear correlation was used to analyze the correlation of circadian MOPP fluctuation with cup-disc ratio, mean defect(MDand the picture standard deviation(PSD. RESULTS:The fluctuation of MOPP, SOPP and DOPP of observation group were significantly higher than those of control group(Pr=-0.389, 95%CI:-0.612~-0.082; P=0.011, was positively correlated with PSD(r=0.512, 95%CI:0.139 ~0.782; P=0.008; no correlation was found between it and the vertical cup-disc ratio(r=0.115, 95%CI:0.056~0.369; P=0.355. CONCLUSION:Ocular perfusion pressure fluctuations in patients with primary open angle glaucoma may reflect the severity of the disease and may make the situation aggravating. Therefore through perfusion pressure monitor in 24h may help us understand the ocular blood flow and the development of primary open-angle glaucoma.

  3. MRI in ocular drug delivery

    OpenAIRE

    Li, S. Kevin; Lizak, Martin J.; Jeong, Eun-Kee

    2008-01-01

    Conventional pharmacokinetic methods for studying ocular drug delivery are invasive and cannot be conveniently applied to humans. The advancement of MRI technology has provided new opportunities in ocular drug-delivery research. MRI provides a means to non-invasively and continuously monitor ocular drug-delivery systems with a contrast agent or compound labeled with a contrast agent. It is a useful technique in pharmacokinetic studies, evaluation of drug-delivery methods, and drug-delivery de...

  4. Low vision rehabilitation and ocular problems among industrial workers in a developing country.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omar, R; Knight, V F; Aziz Mohammed, M A

    2014-01-01

    Work-related ocular injuries and illnesses were among the major causes of job absenteeism. This study was conducted to determine if low vision rehabilitation was provided following work-related ocular problems among industrial workers in a developing country. This was a retrospective analysis of case records. Randomly selected records of all employees from the Social Security Organization (SOCSO) Medical Board for 2004 who suffered from ocular injuries and illnesses were selected. Rates of ocular injuries and illnesses according to age, gender, races, types of injuries, types of industries, visual rehabilitation and types of medical interventions were tabulated and analysed. A total of 26 cases of ocular injuries and illnesses were identified where 46.2% suffered from ocular injuries. The remaining 53.8% had ocular and/or systemic diseases. The 40-49-yearold age group suffered the greatest number of injuries (26.92%). Ocular perforating injuries (66.67%) and ocular contusions (33.33%) were the most common types of ocular injury among industrial workers in Kuala Lumpur. Most injuries occurred among workers in the service industry (50%). Almost 60% of these injured workers did not receive any low vision rehabilitation after medical intervention while 25% were given contact lenses or spectacles as rehabilitation and remaining had surgery. The low vision rehabilitation is still unexplored in the management of ocular injuries and illnesses among industrial workers. Introducing low vision rehabilitation can benefit both workers and employers as it provides care beyond spectacles or contact lens prescriptions.

  5. Gemcitabine-induced CXCL8 expression counteracts its actions by inducing tumor neovascularization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song, Yao; Baba, Tomohisa; Li, Ying-Yi; Furukawa, Kaoru; Tanabe, Yamato; Matsugo, Seiichi; Sasaki, Soichiro; Mukaida, Naofumi

    2015-01-01

    Patients with pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) are frequently complicated with metastatic disease or locally advanced tumors, and consequently need chemotherapy. Gemcitabine is commonly used for PDAC treatment, but with limited efficacy. The capacity of gemcitabine to generate reactive oxygen species (ROS) in human pancreatic cancer cells, prompted us to examine its effects on the expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines and chemokines. We observed that gemcitabine enhanced selectively the expression of CXCL8 in human pancreatic cancer cells through ROS generation and NF-κB activation. In vitro blocking of CXCL8 failed to modulate gemcitabine-mediated inhibition of cell proliferation in human pancreatic cancer cells. Gemcitabine also enhanced CXCL8 expression in pancreatic cancer cells in xenografted tumor tissues. Moreover, anti-CXCL8 antibody treatment in vivo attenuated tumor formation as well as intra-tumoral vascularity in nude mice, which were transplanted with Miapaca-2 cells and treated with gemcitabine. Thus, gemcitabine-induced CXCL8 may counteract the drug through inducing neovascularization. - Highlights: • Gemcitabine induced CXCL8 expression in human pancreatic cancer cells. • CXCL8 expression required ROS generation and NF-κB activation. • CXCL8 did not affect in vitro proliferation of human pancreatic cancer cells. • CXCL8 in vivo counteracted gemcitabine by inducing neovascularization

  6. Gemcitabine-induced CXCL8 expression counteracts its actions by inducing tumor neovascularization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song, Yao; Baba, Tomohisa [Division of Molecular Bioregulation, Cancer Research Institute, Kanazawa University, Kanazawa, Ishikawa 920-1192 (Japan); Li, Ying-Yi [Cancer Research Institute, Fudan University Shanghai Cancer Center, Department of Oncology, Shanghai Medical College, Fudan University, Shanghai (China); Furukawa, Kaoru; Tanabe, Yamato [Division of Molecular Bioregulation, Cancer Research Institute, Kanazawa University, Kanazawa, Ishikawa 920-1192 (Japan); School of Natural System Bioengineering Course, College of Science and Engineering, Kanazawa University, Kanazawa, Ishikawa (Japan); Matsugo, Seiichi [School of Natural System Bioengineering Course, College of Science and Engineering, Kanazawa University, Kanazawa, Ishikawa (Japan); Sasaki, Soichiro [Division of Molecular Bioregulation, Cancer Research Institute, Kanazawa University, Kanazawa, Ishikawa 920-1192 (Japan); Mukaida, Naofumi, E-mail: mukaida@staff.kanazawa-u.ac.jp [Division of Molecular Bioregulation, Cancer Research Institute, Kanazawa University, Kanazawa, Ishikawa 920-1192 (Japan)

    2015-03-06

    Patients with pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) are frequently complicated with metastatic disease or locally advanced tumors, and consequently need chemotherapy. Gemcitabine is commonly used for PDAC treatment, but with limited efficacy. The capacity of gemcitabine to generate reactive oxygen species (ROS) in human pancreatic cancer cells, prompted us to examine its effects on the expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines and chemokines. We observed that gemcitabine enhanced selectively the expression of CXCL8 in human pancreatic cancer cells through ROS generation and NF-κB activation. In vitro blocking of CXCL8 failed to modulate gemcitabine-mediated inhibition of cell proliferation in human pancreatic cancer cells. Gemcitabine also enhanced CXCL8 expression in pancreatic cancer cells in xenografted tumor tissues. Moreover, anti-CXCL8 antibody treatment in vivo attenuated tumor formation as well as intra-tumoral vascularity in nude mice, which were transplanted with Miapaca-2 cells and treated with gemcitabine. Thus, gemcitabine-induced CXCL8 may counteract the drug through inducing neovascularization. - Highlights: • Gemcitabine induced CXCL8 expression in human pancreatic cancer cells. • CXCL8 expression required ROS generation and NF-κB activation. • CXCL8 did not affect in vitro proliferation of human pancreatic cancer cells. • CXCL8 in vivo counteracted gemcitabine by inducing neovascularization.

  7. The effect of bevacizumab for anterior segment neovascularization after silicone oil removal in eyes with previous vitreoretinal surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batman, C; Ozdamar, Y

    2010-07-01

    To report the outcomes of the use of intracameral bevacizumab for iris neovascularization occurring after silicone oil (SO) removal in eyes undergoing vitreoretinal surgery (VRS). This study included 12 eyes that had iris neovascularization after SO removal. The clinical outcomes of 12 eyes after intravitreal bevacizumab injection were reviewed. There were eight men and four women with an average age of 41.58+/-12.68 years. All eyes had VRS for various vitreoretinal diseases. After the mean follow-up period of 9.7+/-5.3 months, SO removal was performed. Then, the patients were followed for more than 2 months and detailed retinal examinations and intraocular pressure (IOP) were normal during this period, but rubeosis iridis (RI) developed. RI was treated with 1 dose of 1.25 mg bevacizumab into the anterior chamber. After a mean follow-up period of 4.8+/-2.2 months, the regression of iris neovacularization was detected and IOP was below 21 mmHg in all eyes. Anterior segment neovascularization (ASNV) may develop through various mechanisms in patients with VRS after SO removal, and anterior chamber injection of bevacizumab may lead to regression of ASNV.

  8. Increased levels of circulating CD34+ cells in neovascular age-related macular degeneration: relation with clinical and OCT features.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kara, Caner; Özdal, Pınar Ç; Beyazyıldız, Emrullah; Özcan, Nurgül E; Teke, Mehmet Y; Vural, Gülden; Öztürk, Faruk

    2018-01-01

    To investigate the levels of circulating CD34+ stem cells in patients with neovascular type age-related macular degeneration (AMD) and its relation with clinical and optical coherence tomography (OCT) findings. The study consisted of 55 patients: 28 patients (18 male and 10 female) with neovascular type AMD as a study group and 27 patients (12 male and 15 female) scheduled for cataract surgery as a control group. The level of CD34+ stem cells was measured by flow cytometry. Demographic and clinical data were recorded. The mean ages of patients in the study and control groups were 71 ± 8 and 68 ± 6 years, respectively. There was no statistically significant difference in terms of age, sex, or systemic disease association between study and control groups. However, smoking status was significantly higher in the study group (67.9% vs 37.0%; p = 0.02). Stem cell levels were significantly higher in the study group (1.5 ± 0.9 vs 0.5 ± 0.3; p<0.001), but there was no relation between stem cell levels and clinical and OCT findings. Increased circulating CD34+ stem cell levels were observed in patients with choroidal neovascular membrane associated with AMD, but no significant relation was found between cell levels and clinical and OCT findings.

  9. Relationship between ocular surface temperature and peripheral vasoconstriction in healthy subjects: A thermographic study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Matteoli, Sara; Vannetti, Federica; Finocchio, Lucia

    2014-01-01

    An impairment of ocular blood flow regulation is commonly considered one of the main pathogenetic mechanisms involved in the development of several eye diseases, like glaucoma. The aim of this study was to investigate whether an alteration of ocular blood supply induced by peripheral vasoconstric......An impairment of ocular blood flow regulation is commonly considered one of the main pathogenetic mechanisms involved in the development of several eye diseases, like glaucoma. The aim of this study was to investigate whether an alteration of ocular blood supply induced by peripheral...

  10. Effects of nuclear factor κB expression on retinal neovascularization and apoptosis in a diabetic retinopathy rat model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ning; Jiang; Xiao-Long; Chen; Hong-Wei; Yang; Yu-Ru; Ma

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the expression and role of nuclear factor κB(NF-κB) in diabetic retinopathy(DR) and its relationship with neovascularization and retinal cell apoptosis. METHODS: A total of 80 male Wistar rats were randomly assigned to control(4, 8, 12 and 16 wk, n =10 in each group) and diabetes mellitus(DM) groups(4, 8, 12 and 16wk, n =10 in each group). A diabetic rat model was established by intraperitoneal injection of streptozotocin(60 mg/kg). After 4, 8, 12 and 16 wk, rats were sacrificed.Retinal layers and retinal neovascularization growth were stained with hematoxylin-eosin and examined under light microscopy. Cell apoptosis in the retina was detected by Td T-mediated d UTP nick end labeling, and NF-κB distribution and expression in the retina was determined using immunohistochemistry. RESULTS: DM model success rate up to 100%.Diabetes model at each time point after the experimental groupcompared with the control group, the blood glucose was significantly increased, decreased body weight, each time point showed significant differences compared with the control group(P <0.01). After 12 wk other pathological changes in the retina of diabetic rats were observed; after 16 wk, neovascularization were observed. After 1mo, retinal cell apoptosis was observed.Compared with the control group, NF-κB expression in the DM group significantly increased with disease duration.CONCLUSION: With the prolonging of DM progression,the expression NF-κB increases. NF-κB may be related to retinal cell apoptosis and neovascularization.

  11. Patterns of ocular trauma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Babar, T.F.; Khan, M.T.; Marwat, M.; Shah, A.; Murad, Y.; Khan, M.D.

    2007-01-01

    To describe the patterns of ocular trauma, cause of injury and its effects on eye. A retrospective case series. Medical records of 1105 patients admitted with ocular trauma were reviewed. The details of patients regarding age, gender, literacy, cause of injury and its effects on eye were entered into specially-designed performa. Sample selection consisted of all patients with history of ocular trauma and who were admitted to hospital. Population details consisted patients who were referred to the hospital from all parts of N.W.F.P. Thus, the frequency of trauma in the hospital admissions was analysed. Ophthalmic trauma comprised 6.78% of the hospital admission. One thousand one hundred and five patients presented with eye injuries. Out of them, 21 patients suffered from trauma to both eyes. Almost 80% patients were male and 69% patients were below 30 years of age. Delayed presentation was more common and 63.61% patients presented after one week. Open globe injuries were more common (520 eyes (46.18%)) than closed globe injuries (484 eyes (42.98%)). 23.26% of open globe injuries were associated with intraocular and intra-orbital foreign bodies. Superficial non-perforating, eyelid and adnexal and burns were seen in 122 eyes (10.83%). Among the complications, lens damage and hyphema was seen in more than 50% of the patients, 16.60% eyes were infected at the time of admission and 4.88% of eyes needed enucleation or evisceration. The common causes of injury were violence in 37.37%, occupational in 24.43% and domestic accidents in 19.18%. Ophthalmic trauma is a major public health problem. Majority of the involved are male and under 30 years of age. Delayed presentation is more common. Open globe injuries are more frequent. Violence and occupational injuries are the major causes. (author)

  12. Diabetes y enfermedad ocular

    OpenAIRE

    Flores Ojeda, Desireé

    2016-01-01

    En el presente trabajo se lleva a cabo una revisión bibliográfica de la diabetes en relación con las diferentes patologías oculares a las que está asociada. La diabetes, es una enfermedad crónica que comporta un importante problema sanitario y social, que afecta a muchos órganos. De entre todos ellos, el ojo parece afectarse especialmente por los cambios de glucosa en sangre. Una vez entendida la estructura del ojo humano, el trabajo estudia las partes especialmente afectadas en pacientes ...

  13. Ocular Adnexal Follicular Lymphoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Peter K; Coupland, Sarah E; Finger, Paul T

    2014-01-01

    that involved 6 eye cancer centers from January 1, 1980, through December 31, 2010. A total of 105 patients with follicular OAL were identified, of which 7 patients were excluded because of missing clinical data. The median follow-up time was 52 months (range, 13-118 months). MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES Overall...... in conjunction with a concurrent systemic lymphoma, and 10 (10%) presented with an ocular adnexal relapse. The lacrimal gland (28%), conjunctiva (28%), and orbit (28%) were the most frequently involved sites. Of the 69 patients with primary follicular lymphoma, 38 (55%) presented with Ann Arbor stage IE lymphoma...

  14. Progressive hemifacial atrophy with ciliary body atrophy and ocular hypotony

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T Ashwini Kini

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Progressive hemifacial atrophy (PHA is a disease of unknown etiology affecting one-half of the face. Ocular involvement is uncommon. Atrophy of iris is rare, with only a few cases of partial atrophy being reported in the literature. We report a case of total atrophy of iris and ciliary body with associated ocular hypotony in a 16-year-old girl with PHA. We believe this is the first reported case of complete atrophy of iris and ciliary body in PHA. Ocular hypotony in PHA was thought to be due to intra-ocular inflammation. However in our case it appears to be secondary to severe atrophy of the ciliary body.

  15. Ocular defects in cerebral palsy

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    Katoch Sabita

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available There is a high prevalence of ocular defects in children with developmental disabilities. This study evaluated visual disability in a group of 200 cerebral palsy (CP patients and found that 68% of the children had significant visual morbidity. These findings emphasize the need for an early ocular examination in patients with CP.

  16. Current and emerging treatment options for myopic choroidal neovascularization

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    El Matri L

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Leila El Matri, Ahmed Chebil, Fedra Kort Department B of Ophthalmology, Hedi Rais Institute of Ophthalmology, Faculty of Medicine of Tunis, University of El Manar, Tunis, Tunisia Abstract: Choroidal neovascularization (CNV is the main cause of visual impairment in highly myopic patients younger than 50 years of age. There are different treatments for myopic CNV (mCNV, with 5- to 10-year outcomes currently. Chorioretinal atrophy is still the most important determinant factor for visual outcome. The purpose of this study is to provide an overview of the current treatments for mCNV, including laser, surgical management, verteporfin photodynamic therapy, and mainly anti-vascular endothelial growth factor therapy. Emerging treatment options are also discussed. Keywords: myopia, choroidal neovascularization, current treatment, emerging treatment

  17. PPAR Agonists: Potential as Therapeutics for Neovascular Retinopathies

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    Harrihar A. Pershadsingh

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The angiogenic, neovascular proliferative retinopathies, proliferative diabetic retinopathy (PDR, and age-dependent macular degeneration (AMD complicated by choroidal neovascularization (CNV, also termed exudative or “wet” AMD, are common causes of blindness. The antidiabetic thiazolidinediones (TZDs, rosiglitazone, and troglitazone are PPAR agonists with demonstrable antiproliferative, and anti-inflammatory effects, in vivo, were shown to ameliorate PDR and CNV in rodent models, implying the potential efficacy of TZDs for treating proliferative retinopathies in humans. Activation of the angiotensin II type 1 receptor (AT1-R propagates proinflammatory and proliferative pathogenic determinants underlying PDR and CNV. The antihypertensive dual AT1-R blocker (ARB, telmisartan, recently was shown to activate PPAR and improve glucose and lipid metabolism and to clinically improve PDR and CNV in rodent models. Therefore, the TZDs and telmisartan, clinically approved antidiabetic and antihypertensive drugs, respectively, may be efficacious for treating and attenuating PDR and CNV humans. Clinical trials are needed to test these possibilities.

  18. Neovascular glaucoma in a child: an unusual presentation of medulloepithelioma

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    Kassa, Enoch

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available [english] A healthy 12 month old infant without significant medical history presented with left eye redness for one week. Ophthalmic examination showed elevated intraocular pressure with iris neovascularization in the affected eye with increased optic nerve cupping. Scleral depression revealed a ciliary body mass in the supratemporal quadrant. A large, non-pigmented, vascular mass was noted; biopsy results showed multilayered cords, tubules, and sheets resembling primitive medullary epithelium arising from the ciliary body. The patient was diagnosed with medulloepithelioma. The patient underwent enucleation of the affected eye. Medulloepithelioma is a rare but important cause of neovascular glaucoma in the pediatric population. This case will focus on the characteristics of medulloepthelioma and the differential diagnosis for a non-pigmented ciliary body mass in a child.

  19. Vitamin D in ocular and systemic health

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    Solani D. Mathebula

    2015-06-01

    Vitamin D is produced in skin exposed to sunlight UVB radiation and is then metabolised by the kidney into calciferol, which is an active form. The main function of vitamin D is to promote calcium and phosphorus absorption, and studies have shown that a lack of itplays an important role in ocular conditions, such as age-related macular degeneration and diabetic retinopathy. Recent studies have suggested that vitamin D may protect the diabetic retina; however, other vitamin D-associated conditions (diabetes, hypertension and cardiovascular diseases may result in secondary ocular manifestations and the potential forsight-threatening complications. The purpose of this review is to describe the current literature on the role of vitamin D in ocular and systemic wellness. However, more research is needed to determine if increasing levels of this vitamin can assist in preventing age-related macular degeneration or diabetic retinopathy. Since vitamin D is a circulating steroid hormone, its receptors are found in almost every cell in the human body, and this suggests that vitamin D might have a very broad role for overall health. However, there is still demand for further research to clarify the clinical use of vitamin D in the prevention and treatment of various chronic diseases.

  20. Leber congenital amaurosis associated with optic disk neovascularization and vitreous hemorrhage.

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    Kurz, Daryl; Ciulla, Thomas A

    2003-05-01

    To report an unusual case of optic disk neovascularization and vitreous hemorrhage associated with Leber congenital amaurosis (LCA). Interventional case report. A 16-year-old Caucasian girl with a history of LCA presented with decreased vision in her left eye, diffuse retinal pigmentary abnormalities characteristic of LCA, and hemorrhage over the left optic disk and macula. Six months of follow-up revealed optic disk neovascularization. A small amount of neovascularization was noted in the right eye at 6 months. An extensive systemic evaluation indicated no other cause for the neovascularization. Panretinal photocoagulation was performed in both eyes, and subsequently the neovascularization regressed. Leber congenital amaurosis like retinitis pigmentosa, can rarely be associated with neovascularization of the disk, which is amenable to treatment with peripheral photocoagulation if it does not spontaneously regress.

  1. Ocular leech infestation

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    Lee YC

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Yueh-Chang Lee, Cheng-Jen Chiu Department of Ophthalmology, Buddhist Tzu-Chi General Hospital, Hualien, Taiwan, ROC Abstract: This case report describes a female toddler with manifestations of ocular leech infestation. A 2-year-old girl was brought to our outpatient clinic with a complaint of irritable crying after being taken to a stream in Hualien 1 day previous, where she played in the water. The parents noticed that she rubbed her right eye a lot. Upon examination, the girl had good fix and follow in either eye. Slit-lamp examination showed conjunctival injection with a moving dark black–brown foreign body partly attached in the lower conjunctiva. After applying topical anesthetics, the leech, measuring 1 cm in length, was extracted under a microscope. The patient began using topical antibiotic and corticosteroid agents. By 1 week after extraction, the patient had no obvious symptoms or signs, except for a limited subconjunctival hemorrhage, and no corneal/scleral involvement was observed. Keywords: leech, ocular foreign body, conjunctival reaction, pediatric ophthalmology

  2. Avaliação ocular multimodal em doenças heredodistróficas e degenerativas da retina Multimodal fundus imaging in heredodystrophic and degenerative diseases of the retina

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    Daniela Cavalcanti Ferrara

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available A tomografia de coerência óptica incorporou-se gradativamente ao contemporâneo arsenal diagnóstico em Oftalmologia, passando a exercer papel fundamental na investigação e condução de doenças oculares, particularmente na especialidade de Retina e Vítreo. A disponibilização comercial da nova geração de aparelhos, chamada de tomografia de coerência óptica "espectral", baseada em conceito físico distinto que permite a aquisição de imagens em alta velocidade, marcou o início de uma nova era desta tecnologia de investigação auxiliar. Adicionalmente, sua recente combinação com o oftalmoscópio de varredura a laser confocal (confocal scanning laser ophthalmoscope vem propiciando a aquisição de imagens tomográficas guiadas em tempo real pelos diferentes modos de imagem (autofluorescência de fundo, reflectância com luz "infravermelha" e angiografia com fluoresceína ou indocianina verde. A avaliação ocular multimodal (multimodal fundus imaging permite a correlação real e minuciosa de achados da morfologia retiniana e do epitélio pigmentar com dados de estudos angiográficos e de autofluorescência ou reflectância, propiciando assim inferências valiosas sobre a fisiologia do tecido. Neste artigo, discutimos brevemente as possíveis implicações da avaliação ocular multimodal na prática da especialidade de Retina e Vítreo.Optical coherence tomography was progressively incorporated to the contemporary diagnostic arsenal in Ophthalmology, playing a crucial role in the diagnosis and management of eye diseases, particularly in the specialty of retina and vitreous. The commercial availability of the new generation of devices, coined "spectral" optical coherence tomography, which is based in a distinct physical concept that permits high-speed image acquisition, launched a new era for this investigative ancillary tool. In addition, the recent combination of this new technology with a confocal scanning laser ophthalmoscope

  3. Guidelines for the management of neovascular age-related macular degeneration by the European Society of Retina Specialists (EURETINA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt-Erfurth, Ursula; Chong, Victor; Loewenstein, Anat; Larsen, Michael; Souied, Eric; Schlingemann, Reinier; Eldem, Bora; Monés, Jordi; Richard, Gisbert; Bandello, Francesco

    2014-09-01

    Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is still referred to as the leading cause of severe and irreversible visual loss world-wide. The disease has a profound effect on quality of life of affected individuals and represents a major socioeconomic challenge for societies due to the exponential increase in life expectancy and environmental risks. Advances in medical research have identified vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) as an important pathophysiological player in neovascular AMD and intraocular inhibition of VEGF as one of the most efficient therapies in medicine. The wide introduction of anti-VEGF therapy has led to an overwhelming improvement in the prognosis of patients affected by neovascular AMD, allowing recovery and maintenance of visual function in the vast majority of patients. However, the therapeutic benefit is accompanied by significant economic investments, unresolved medicolegal debates about the use of off-label substances and overwhelming problems in large population management. The burden of disease has turned into a burden of care with a dissociation of scientific advances and real-world clinical performance. Simultaneously, ground-breaking innovations in diagnostic technologies, such as optical coherence tomography, allows unprecedented high-resolution visualisation of disease morphology and provides a promising horizon for early disease detection and efficient therapeutic follow-up. However, definite conclusions from morphologic parameters are still lacking, and valid biomarkers have yet to be identified to provide a practical base for disease management. The European Society of Retina Specialists offers expert guidance for diagnostic and therapeutic management of neovascular AMD supporting healthcare givers and doctors in providing the best state-of-the-art care to their patients. NCT01318941. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  4. Guidelines for the management of neovascular age-related macular degeneration by the European Society of Retina Specialists (EURETINA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt-Erfurth, Ursula; Chong, Victor; Loewenstein, Anat; Larsen, Michael; Souied, Eric; Schlingemann, Reinier; Eldem, Bora; Monés, Jordi; Richard, Gisbert; Bandello, Francesco

    2014-01-01

    Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is still referred to as the leading cause of severe and irreversible visual loss world-wide. The disease has a profound effect on quality of life of affected individuals and represents a major socioeconomic challenge for societies due to the exponential increase in life expectancy and environmental risks. Advances in medical research have identified vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) as an important pathophysiological player in neovascular AMD and intraocular inhibition of VEGF as one of the most efficient therapies in medicine. The wide introduction of anti-VEGF therapy has led to an overwhelming improvement in the prognosis of patients affected by neovascular AMD, allowing recovery and maintenance of visual function in the vast majority of patients. However, the therapeutic benefit is accompanied by significant economic investments, unresolved medicolegal debates about the use of off-label substances and overwhelming problems in large population management. The burden of disease has turned into a burden of care with a dissociation of scientific advances and real-world clinical performance. Simultaneously, ground-breaking innovations in diagnostic technologies, such as optical coherence tomography, allows unprecedented high-resolution visualisation of disease morphology and provides a promising horizon for early disease detection and efficient therapeutic follow-up. However, definite conclusions from morphologic parameters are still lacking, and valid biomarkers have yet to be identified to provide a practical base for disease management. The European Society of Retina Specialists offers expert guidance for diagnostic and therapeutic management of neovascular AMD supporting healthcare givers and doctors in providing the best state-of-the-art care to their patients. Trial registration number NCT01318941. PMID:25136079

  5. Trabeculectomy versus Ahmed Glaucoma Valve implantation in neovascular glaucoma

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    Netland, Peter; Shen,Chris; Salim,Sarwat; Du,Haiming

    2011-01-01

    Christopher C Shen1, Sarwat Salim2, Haiming Du2, Peter A Netland31Glaucoma Consultants Northwest, Seattle, WA, USA; 2University of Tennessee Health Science Center, Memphis, TN, USA; 3University of Virginia School of Medicine, Charlottesville, VA, USAPurpose: To compare surgical outcomes in neovascular glaucoma patients who underwent trabeculectomy with mitomycin C versus Ahmed Glaucoma Valve implantation. Patients and methods: This was a retrospective comparative case series. We reviewed 40 e...

  6. Treatment of Corneal Neovascularization Using Anti-VEGF Bevacizumab

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    Deli Krizova

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To evaluate antiangiogenic effect of local use of bevacizumab (anti-VEGF antibody in patients with corneal neovascularization. Methods. Patients were divided into two groups. All patients suffered from some form of corneal neovascularization (NV. Patients in group A received 0.2–0.5 mL of bevacizumab solution subconjunctivally (concentration 25 mg/mL in a single dose. Group A included 28 eyes from 27. Patients in group B applied bevacizumab eye drops twice daily (concentration 2.5 mg/mL for two weeks. Group B included 38 eyes from 35 patients. We evaluated the number of corneal segments affected by NV, CDVA, and the incidence of complications and subjective complaints related to the treatment. The minimum follow-up period was six months. Results. By the 6-month follow-up, in group A the percentage reduction of the affected peripheral segments was 21.6% and of the central segments was 9.6%; in group B the percentage reduction of the central segments was 22.7% and of the central segments was 38.04%. In both groups we noticed a statistically significant reduction in the extent of NV. Conclusion. The use of bevacizumab seems to be an effective and safe method in the treatment of corneal neovascularization, either in the subconjunctival or topical application form.

  7. Topical Ranibizumab as a Treatment of Corneal Neovascularization

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    Ferrari, Giulio; Dastjerdi, Mohammad H.; Okanobo, Andre; Cheng, Sheng-Fu; Amparo, Francisco; Nallasamy, Nambi; Dana, Reza

    2014-01-01

    Purpose To examine the effect of topical ranibizumab on clinically stable corneal neovascularization (NV). Methods This was a prospective, open-label, monocentric, uncontrolled, non-comparative study. Ten eyes of 9 patients with corneal NV received topical ranibizumab (1%) 4 times a day for 3 weeks with a follow-up of 16 weeks. The main corneal neovascularization outcome measures were: neovascular area (NA), the area occupied by the corneal neovessels; vessel caliber (VC), the mean diameter of the corneal neovessels; and invasion area (IA), the fraction of the total cornea area covered by the vessels. This study was conducted at the Massachusetts Eye and Ear Infirmary, Boston, MA, USA. Results Statistically significant decreases in NA (55.3%, P<0.001), which lasted through 16 weeks, and VC (59%, P<0.001), which continued to improve up to week 16, were observed after treatment. No significant decrease was observed in IA (12.3%, P=0.49). There was no statistically significant change in visual acuity or intraocular pressure. No adverse events ascribed to the treatment were noted. Conclusions Topical application of ranibizumab is effective in reducing the severity of corneal NV in the context of established corneal NV, mostly through decrease in VC rather than IA. PMID:23407316

  8. Trabeculectomy versus Ahmed Glaucoma Valve implantation in neovascular glaucoma

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    Shen, Christopher C; Salim, Sarwat; Du, Haiming; Netland, Peter A

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: To compare surgical outcomes in neovascular glaucoma patients who underwent trabeculectomy with mitomycin C versus Ahmed Glaucoma Valve implantation. Patients and methods: This was a retrospective comparative case series. We reviewed 40 eyes of 39 patients with underlying diagnosis of neovascular glaucoma, divided into two groups: Ahmed Glaucoma Valve (N = 20) and trabeculectomy with mitomycin C (N = 20). Surgical success was defined as 6 mm Hg ≤ intraocular pressure ≤21 mm Hg, with or without the use of glaucoma medications, with no further glaucoma surgery, and light perception or better vision. Early postoperative hypotony was defined as intraocular pressure Ahmed Glaucoma Valve group and 25 months (6–77 months) for the trabeculectomy group. Although the mean number of postoperative intraocular pressure-lowering medications was significantly higher in the trabeculectomy group compared with the Ahmed Glaucoma Valve group at 3 and 6 month time points, there was no statistically significant difference at any other time point. There was no statistically significant difference between both groups in postoperative visual acuity and intraocular pressure. Success was 70% and 65% at 1 year and 60% and 55% at 2 years after Ahmed Glaucoma Valve and trabeculectomy, respectively. Kaplan–Meier survival curve analysis showed no significant difference in success between the two groups (P = 0.815). Hyphema was the most common complication in both groups. Conclusion: We found similar results after trabeculectomy with mitomycin C and Ahmed Glaucoma Valve implantation in eyes with neovascular glaucoma. PMID:21468334

  9. Effect of Ahmed valve implantation on late neovascular glaucoma

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    Ping-An Mao

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To discuss the effect and safety of Ahmed valve implantation in late neovascular glaucoma. METHODS: The Ahmed glaucoma valve were implanted in 41 eyes(41 caseswith late neovascular glaucoma, the follow-up was 12 months on average, intraocular pressure was recorded at 1 day, 1 week, 1 month, 3, 6, 12 months respectively after operation and compared with that before operation, at the same time, the complications and treatment were analyzed.RESULTS: The mean intraocular pressure before operation, 1 day, 1 week, 1 month, 3, 6, 12 months after operation was 59.83±5.53, 19.27±8.19, 19.69±6.86, 20.67±6.73, 21.05±6.93, 21.49±7.42, 22.14±8.08mmHg, the mean intraocular pressure before operation was higher than that after operation and the difference was obvious in statistics. Major complications included hyphema, low intraocular pressure early postoperation, shallow anterior chamber, obstruction of the tube, the plate wrapped or exposed.CONCLUSION: Ahmed valve implantation is an effective method to treatlate neovascular glaucoma.

  10. Automated detection of neovascularization for proliferative diabetic retinopathy screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roychowdhury, Sohini; Koozekanani, Dara D; Parhi, Keshab K

    2016-08-01

    Neovascularization is the primary manifestation of proliferative diabetic retinopathy (PDR) that can lead to acquired blindness. This paper presents a novel method that classifies neovascularizations in the 1-optic disc (OD) diameter region (NVD) and elsewhere (NVE) separately to achieve low false positive rates of neovascularization classification. First, the OD region and blood vessels are extracted. Next, the major blood vessel segments in the 1-OD diameter region are classified for NVD, and minor blood vessel segments elsewhere are classified for NVE. For NVD and NVE classifications, optimal region-based feature sets of 10 and 6 features, respectively, are used. The proposed method achieves classification sensitivity, specificity and accuracy for NVD and NVE of 74%, 98.2%, 87.6%, and 61%, 97.5%, 92.1%, respectively. Also, the proposed method achieves 86.4% sensitivity and 76% specificity for screening images with PDR from public and local data sets. Thus, the proposed NVD and NVE detection methods can play a key role in automated screening and prioritization of patients with diabetic retinopathy.

  11. Gender specific issues in hereditary ocular disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iragavarapu, Saradha; Gorin, Michael B

    2015-02-01

    This review is intended to summarize the current knowledge from basic science and clinical medical literature cited within PubMed that pertain to gender-related factors and affect those individuals with hereditary ocular disorders. We consider gender-related biological factors that (a) affect disease onset and progression, (b) gender differences for major X-linked ocular disorders, (c) gender-specific conditions, (d) medications that may influence genetic eye disorders, and finally, (e) gender-related issues that influence the management and quality of life of these patients. Several studies have demonstrated the manner in which sex-related hormones in animal models are capable of influencing cell pathway and survival that are likely to affect hereditary eye disorders. There are very few clinical studies that provide compelling evidence for gender differences in human ocular conditions, other than for a number of X-linked disorders. Disease expression for X-linked disorders may be impacted by genetic mechanisms such as lyonization or uniparental disomy. Clinical evidence regarding the impact of gender-related medical conditions and therapies on eye conditions is extremely limited and primarily based on anecdotal evidence. Gender-specific factors may play a major role in the underlying biological pathways that influence the onset, rate of progression, and clinical findings associated with ocular genetic conditions. Clinicians need to be aware of the variable phenotypes observed in female carriers of X-linked disorders of gender specific issues, many of which are inadequately addressed in the current literature. Clinicians need to be sensitive to gender differences in social, cultural, and religious systems and they should also be aware of how their own gender biases may influence how they counsel patients. Finally, it is clear that the lack of effective clinical studies in this area creates an opportunity for future research that will have real benefits for these

  12. Prevalence of ocular morbidity in rural population of eastern Uttar Pradesh, India

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    Anupama Kumar

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Ocular morbidity is a significant problem in rural areas of India as it remains undiagnosed and neglected. Aims & Objectives:  To determine the prevalence of ocular morbidity in the rural population of Barabanki, Uttar Pradesh. Material & Methods: A community based cross-sectional study was conducted in the villages around RHTC Satrikh of HIMS Barabanki. Ocular examination and vision testing was done among 812 people using ophthalmoscopic instruments. Information was collected using pre-tested questionnaire. Analysis was done using SPSS and appropriate Statistical tests. Results: Of the total 812 individuals interviewed, the prevalence of ocular morbidity was 41.3% (335 subjects had one or more ocular morbidity; with 88.8% elderly affected (age >65 years.   Myopia was the most common ocular morbidity 14.8%, followed by cataract (14.3% and hypermetropia (12.8%.  Allergic and infective conjunctivitis affected 5.8% and 3.9%, respectively.  The prevalence of Vitamin A deficiency disorder (including night blindness and bitot spots was 1.3%.  Higher ocular morbidity was present in houses with higher SES. Environmental conditions had no significant relation to ocular morbidity.  Conclusion: The prevalence of ocular diseases among the elderly was highest and requires prompt attention.  Myopia was the most common ocular morbidity having a prevalence of 14.8%, followed by cataract (14.3% and hypermetropia (12.8%.

  13. Ocular involvement in tumoral calcinosis

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    Harsha Bhattacharjee

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We report a 32-year-old male who presented with blurring of vision in the right eye since 1.5 years. He had history of swelling over the extensor surfaces of large joints which were migratory in nature. Few of them spontaneously subsided following suppuration of chalky white discharges except over the gluteal region. Ophthalmological examination revealed visual acuity of counting fingers (CF at 1 m in the right eye and perilimbal conjunctival calcific deposits and retinal angiod streaks in both eyes. There was choroidal neovascular membrane with subretinal hemorrhage in right eye, confirmed by fundus fluorescein angiography (FFA and optical coherence tomography (OCT. B scan ultrasonography and simultaneous vector A scan detected calcification of the subretinal neovascular membrane and the adjoining sclera.

  14. Rehabilitación en pacientes con trauma ocular Rehabilitation of ocular trauma patients

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    Eduardo Ariel Ramos Gómez

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available La rehabilitación en oftalmología tiene como función fundamental lograr el máximo aprovechamiento posible del resto visual. El traumatismo ocular es considerado una de las entidades nosológicas frecuentes que conllevan a una rehabilitación visual. Las causas que provocan este tipo de trauma son variadas y dentro de estas, las agresiones con intención de provocar daños con secuelas son muy frecuentes. Es objetivo de esta revisión puntualizar la importancia de la rehabilitación en pacientes con traumatismo ocular e incentivar el buen accionar de todos los oftalmólogos en cuanto a su atención.The main goal of rehabilitation in ophthalmology is to use as much as possible the residual vision. Ocular trauma is considered one of the common diseases that imply visual rehabilitation. The causes of eye injuries are varied; among them assaults with intent to cause damage are the most common. The objective of this article was to point out the importance of rehabilitation in patients with ocular trauma and to encourage all the ophthalmologists to act accordingly.

  15. The impact of combined oral contraceptives on ocular tissues: a review of ocular effects

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    Marilita M. Moschos

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this manuscript is to review the action and adverse effects of combined oral contraceptives (COCs on ocular tissues. The percentage of unwanted pregnancies and the subsequent abortions make contraception crucial worldwide. Over 100 million women around the world use common contraceptive methods, including intrauterine devices, combined estrogen and progestin oral contraceptives, as well as progestin only preparations (oral contraceptives, implants or injections. COCs are widely used for contraception, but they are also indicated in menorrhagia, endometriosis, acne and hirsutism, fibroid uterus and premenstrual syndrome. However, they have been associated with high rates of cardiovascular events, venous thromboembolic disease, ischemic strokes and breast cancer. The incidence of COCs-related ocular complications is estimated to be 1 in 230 000, including dry eye symptoms, corneal edema, lens opacities and retinal neuro-ophthalmologic or vascular complications. We may infer that the serious ocular complications of COCs can be prevented by eliminating the estrogen dosage and choosing third-generation progestins. In any case, doctors should take into consideration the systemic and ocular history of the patients before selecting any method of contraception.

  16. A circulating microrna profile is associated with late-stage neovascular age-related macular degeneration.

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    Felix Grassmann

    Full Text Available Age-related macular degeneration (AMD is the leading cause of severe vision impairment in Western populations over 55 years. A growing number of gene variants have been identified which are strongly associated with an altered risk to develop AMD. Nevertheless, gene-based biomarkers which could be dysregulated at defined stages of AMD may point toward key processes in disease mechanism and thus may support efforts to design novel treatment regimens for this blinding disorder. Circulating microRNAs (cmiRNAs which are carried by nanosized exosomes or microvesicles in blood plasma or serum, have been recognized as valuable indicators for various age-related diseases. We therefore aimed to elucidate the role of cmiRNAs in AMD by genome-wide miRNA expression profiling and replication analyses in 147 controls and 129 neovascular AMD patients. We identified three microRNAs differentially secreted in neovascular (NV AMD (hsa-mir-301-3p, pcorrected = 5.6*10-5, hsa-mir-361-5p, pcorrected = 8.0*10-4 and hsa-mir-424-5p, pcorrected = 9.6*10-3. A combined profile of the three miRNAs revealed an area under the curve (AUC value of 0.727 and was highly associated with NV AMD (p = 1.2*10-8. To evaluate subtype-specificity, an additional 59 AMD cases with pure unilateral or bilateral geographic atrophy (GA were analyzed for microRNAs hsa-mir-301-3p, hsa-mir-361-5p, and hsa-mir-424-5p. While we found no significant differences between GA AMD and controls neither individually nor for a combined microRNAs profile, hsa-mir-424-5p levels remained significantly higher in GA AMD when compared to NV (pcorrected<0.005. Pathway enrichment analysis on genes predicted to be regulated by microRNAs hsa-mir-301-3p, hsa-mir-361-5p, and hsa-mir-424-5p, suggests canonical TGFβ, mTOR and related pathways to be involved in NV AMD. In addition, knockdown of hsa-mir-361-5p resulted in increased neovascularization in an in vitro angiogenesis assay.

  17. Ocular toxocariasis in a child: A case report from Kashmir, north India

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    Fomda B

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Toxocariasis is an important zoonotic disease caused by the second stage larva of Toxocara canis or Toxocara cati . The typical clinical syndromes of toxocariasis in humans are visceral and ocular toxocariasis. Ocular toxocariasis may presents as peripheral inflammatory mass, posterior pole granuloma and endophthalmitis. We report a serologically confirmed case of ocular toxocariasis in 12-year-old female. The diagnosis was confirmed by detection of anti- Toxocara antibodies in aqueous and vitreous sample by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. We suggest that ophthalmologist in this region should include ocular toxocariasis in differential diagnosis particularly in children and young adults.

  18. First report of canine ocular thelaziosis in the Muntenia Region, Romania.

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    Tudor, Poliana; Bădicu, Adina; Mateescu, Romaniţa; Tudor, Niculae; Mateescu, Cosmin; Ionaşcu, Iuliana

    2016-04-01

    Ocular thelaziosis by Thelazia callipaeda is a vector-borne disease that infects domestic and wild carnivores as well as humans. In this paper, we present two cases of ocular thelaziosis in dogs that had never traveled outside Romania. Both presented with moderate conjunctivitis and ocular discharge. In total, 41 adult nematodes were removed from the conjunctival sacs of both dogs; these were identified via morphology as T. callipaeda. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of canine ocular thelaziosis caused by T. callipaeda from the Muntenia Region of Romania.

  19. Ocular toxoplasmosis II: clinical features, pathology and management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, Nicholas J; Furtado, João M; Winthrop, Kevin L; Smith, Justine R

    2014-01-01

    The term, ocular toxoplasmosis, refers to eye disease related to infection with the parasite, Toxoplasma gondii. Recurrent posterior uveitis is the typical form of this disease, characterized by unilateral, necrotizing retinitis with secondary choroiditis, occurring adjacent to a pigmented retinochoroidal scar and associated with retinal vasculitis and vitritis. Multiple atypical presentations are also described, and severe inflammation is observed in immunocompromised patients. Histopathological correlations demonstrate focal coagulative retinal necrosis, and early in the course of the disease, this inflammation is based in the inner retina. For typical ocular toxoplasmosis, a diagnosis is easily made on clinical examination. In atypical cases, ocular fluid testing to detect parasite DNA by polymerase chain reaction or to determine intraocular production of specific antibody may be extremely helpful for establishing aetiology. Given the high seroprevalence of toxoplasmosis in most communities, serological testing for T. gondii antibodies is generally not useful. Despite a lack of published evidence for effectiveness of current therapies, most ophthalmologists elect to treat patients with ocular toxoplasmosis that reduces or threatens to impact vision. Classic therapy consists of oral pyrimethamine and sulfadiazine, plus systemic corticosteroid. Substantial toxicity of this drug combination has spurred interest in alternative antimicrobials, as well as local forms of drug delivery. At this time, however, no therapeutic approach is curative of ocular toxoplasmosis. PMID:22712598

  20. Spectrum of ocular surface squamous neoplasia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Babar, T.F.; Khan, M.N.; Hussain, M.; Shah, S.A.

    2007-01-01

    To describe the pattern of ocular surface squamous neoplasia (OSSN), clinical presentations, the risk factors and treatment options. The study included 36 eyes of 35 patients with biopsy-proven ocular surface neoplasia. The details of patients regarding age, gender, laterality and risk factors were entered into a specially-designed proforma. Each patient was also assessed biomicroscopically for type and complications of ocular surface neoplasia. The frequency of OSSN was 0.37 among admitted hospital patients. Among 36 cases of OSSN, squamous cell carcinoma of the conjunctiva was the most common type of OSSN seen in 63.9%, followed by carcinoma in situ of conjunctiva in 25% and carcinoma in situ of cornea in 11.1%. Male patients outnumbered female (65.7% vs 34.3%) with 71.42% of patients above 60 years of age. The risk factors identified were: old age, ultraviolet B exposure and xeroderma pigmentosa. Treatment consisted of local resection with or without adjuvant therapy in 61.1%, exenteration in 30.5%, enucleation in 5.5% and chemo/radiotherapy in 2.7%. Intraocular invasion was seen in 5.5% and orbital spread in 30.5%. The frequency of OSSN was 0.37% among admitted patients. Identification of exact etiological factors will enable to formulate strategies that are likely to decrease the incidence of this disease and the associated morbidity and mortality. (author)

  1. Infection and Replication of Influenza Virus at the Ocular Surface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Creager, Hannah M; Kumar, Amrita; Zeng, Hui; Maines, Taronna R; Tumpey, Terrence M; Belser, Jessica A

    2018-04-01

    Although influenza viruses typically cause respiratory tract disease, some viruses, particularly those with an H7 hemagglutinin, have been isolated from the eyes of conjunctivitis cases. Previous work has shown that isolates of multiple subtypes from both ocular and respiratory infections are capable of replication in human ex vivo ocular tissues and corneal or conjunctival cell monolayers, leaving the determinants of ocular tropism unclear. Here, we evaluated the effect of several variables on tropism for ocular cells cultured in vitro and examined the potential effect of the tear film on viral infectivity. All viruses tested were able to replicate in primary human corneal epithelial cell monolayers subjected to aerosol inoculation. The temperature at which cells were cultured postinoculation minimally affected infectivity. Replication efficiency, in contrast, was reduced at 33°C relative to that at 37°C, and this effect was slightly greater for the conjunctivitis isolates than for the respiratory ones. With the exception of a seasonal H3N2 virus, the subset of viruses studied in multilayer corneal tissue constructs also replicated productively after either aerosol or liquid inoculation. Human tears significantly inhibited the hemagglutination of both ocular and nonocular isolates, but the effect on viral infectivity was more variable, with tears reducing the infectivity of nonocular isolates more than ocular isolates. These data suggest that most influenza viruses may be capable of establishing infection if they reach the surface of ocular cells but that this is more likely for ocular-tropic viruses, as they are better able to maintain their infectivity during passage through the tear film. IMPORTANCE The potential spread of zoonotic influenza viruses to humans represents an important threat to public health. Unfortunately, despite the importance of cellular and tissue tropism to pathogenesis, determinants of influenza virus tropism have yet to be fully

  2. Krypton red laser photocoagulation of the ocular fundus. 1982.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yannuzzi, Lawrence A; Shakin, Jeffrey L

    2012-02-01

    The theoretical rationale, the histopathologic evidence, and the preliminary clinical studies related to krypton red laser (KRL) photocoagulation of the ocular fundus are reviewed. The authors report on their experience with currently available laser systems using this wavelength (647.1 nm) for photocoagulation of retinal vascular proliferative diseases and chorioretinal diseases associated with exudative manifestations. A histopathologic and clinical comparison of argon blue-green laser (ABGL), the pure argon green laser (AGL), and the krypton yellow laser (KYL), with reference to photocoagulation treatment of the ocular fundus is also discussed.

  3. The pathology of dry eye: the interaction between the ocular surface and lacrimal glands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stern, M E; Beuerman, R W; Fox, R I; Gao, J; Mircheff, A K; Pflugfelder, S C

    1998-11-01

    Most dry-eye symptoms result from an abnormal, nonlubricative ocular surface that increases shear forces under the eyelids and diminishes the ability of the ocular surface to respond to environmental challenges. This ocular-surface dysfunction may result from immunocompromise due to systemic autoimmune disease or may occur locally from a decrease in systemic androgen support to the lacrimal gland as seen in aging, most frequently in the menopausal female. Components of the ocular surface (cornea, conjunctiva, accessory lacrimal glands, and meibomian glands), the main lacrimal gland, and interconnecting innervation act as a functional unit. When one portion is compromised, normal lacrimal support of the ocular surface is impaired. Resulting immune-based inflammation can lead to lacrimal gland and neural dysfunction. This progression yields the OS symptoms associated with dry eye. Restoration of lacrimal function involves resolution of lymphocytic activation and inflammation. This has been demonstrated in the MRL/lpr mouse using systemic androgens or cyclosporine and in the dry-eye dog using topical cyclosporine. The efficacy of cyclosporine may be due to its immunomodulatory and antiinflammatory (phosphatase inhibitory capability) functions on the ocular surface, resulting in a normalization of nerve traffic. Although the etiologies of dry eye are varied, common to all ocular-surface disease is an underlying cytokine/receptor-mediated inflammatory process. By treating this process, it may be possible to normalize the ocular surface/lacrimal neural reflex and facilitate ocular surface healing.

  4. Preparation of arginine–glycine–aspartic acid-modified biopolymeric nanoparticles containing epigalloccatechin-3-gallate for targeting vascular endothelial cells to inhibit corneal neovascularization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chang CY

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Che-Yi Chang,1,2,* Ming-Chen Wang,2,* Takuya Miyagawa,1 Zhi-Yu Chen,1 Feng-Huei Lin,3,4 Ko-Hua Chen,5,6 Guei-Sheung Liu,7 Ching-Li Tseng1 1Graduate Institute of Biomedical Materials and Tissue Engineering, College of Biomedical Engineering, Taipei Medical University, Taipei, 2Department of Biomedical Engineering, Chung Yuan Christian University, Taoyuan, 3Institute of Biomedical Engineering and Nanomedicine, National Health Research Institutes, Zhunan, 4Institute of Biomedical Engineering, National Taiwan University, 5Department of Ophthalmology, Taipei Veterans General Hospital, 6Department of Ophthalmology, School of Medicine, College of Medicine, Taipei Medical University, Taipei, Taiwan; 7Centre for Eye Research Australia, University of Melbourne, Royal Victorian Eye and Ear Hospital, East Melbourne, VIC, Australia *These authors contributed equally to this work Abstract: Neovascularization (NV of the cornea can disrupt visual function, causing ocular diseases, including blindness. Therefore, treatment of corneal NV has a high public health impact. Epigalloccatechin-3-gallate (EGCG, presenting antiangiogenesis effects, was chosen as an inhibitor to treat human vascular endothelial cells for corneal NV treatment. An arginine–glycine–aspartic acid (RGD peptide–hyaluronic acid (HA-conjugated complex coating on the gelatin/EGCG self-assembly nanoparticles (GEH-RGD NPs was synthesized for targeting the αvβ3 integrin on human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs in this study, and a corneal NV mouse model was used to evaluate the therapeutic effect of this nanomedicine used as eyedrops. HA-RGD conjugation via COOH and amine groups was confirmed by 1H-nuclear magnetic resonance and Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy. The average diameter of GEH-RGD NPs was 168.87±22.5 nm with positive charge (19.7±2 mV, with an EGCG-loading efficiency up to 95%. Images of GEH-RGD NPs acquired from transmission electron microscopy showed a

  5. IGF-1R Regulates the Extracellular Level of Active MMP-2, Pathological Neovascularization, and Functionality in Retinas of OIR Mouse Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorenc, Valeria E; Subirada Caldarone, Paula V; Paz, María C; Ferrer, Darío G; Luna, José D; Chiabrando, Gustavo A; Sánchez, María C

    2018-02-01

    In ischemic proliferative diseases such as retinopathies, persistent hypoxia leads to the release of numerous neovascular factors that participate in the formation of abnormal vessels and eventually cause blindness. The upregulation and activation of metalloproteinases (MMP-2 and MMP-9) represent a final common pathway in this process. Although many regulators of the neovascular process have been identified, the complete role of the insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) and its receptor (IGF-1R) appears to be significantly more complex. In this study, we used an oxygen-induced retinopathy (OIR) mouse model as well as an in vitro model of hypoxia to study the role of MMP-2 derived from Müller glial cells (MGCs) and its relation with the IGF-1/IGF-1R system. We demonstrated that MMP-2 protein expression increased in P17 OIR mice, which coincided with the active phase of the neovascular process. Also, glutamine synthetase (GS)-positive cells were also positive for MMP-2, whereas IGF-1R was expressed by GFAP-positive cells, indicating that both proteins were expressed in MGCs. In addition, in the OIR model a single intravitreal injection of the IGF-1R blocking antibody (αIR3) administered at P12 effectively prevented pathologic neovascularization, accelerated physiological revascularization, and improved retinal functionality at P17. Finally, in MGC supernatants, the blocking antibody abolished the IGF-1 effect on active MMP-2 under normoxic and hypoxic conditions without affecting the extracellular levels of pro-MMP-2. These results demonstrate, for the first time, that the IGF-1/IGF-1R system regulates active MMP-2 levels in MGCs, thus contributing to MEC remodeling during the retinal neovascular process.

  6. Neovascular Glaucoma After Stereotactic Radiotherapy for Juxtapapillary Choroidal Melanoma: Histopathologic and Dosimetric Findings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fernandes, Bruno F.; Weisbrod, Daniel; Yuecel, Yeni H.; Follwell, Matthew; Krema, Hatem; Heydarian, Mostafa; Xu Wei; Payne, David; McGowan, Hugh; Simpson, Ernest R.; Laperriere, Normand; Sahgal, Arjun

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: Enucleation after stereotactic radiotherapy (SRT) for juxtapapillary choroidal melanoma may be required because of tumor progression (TP) or the development of intractable radiation-induced neovascular glaucoma (NVG). We compare pathologic changes and dosimetric findings in those eyes enucleated secondary to NVG as opposed to TP to better understand potential mechanisms. Methods and Materials: Patients with juxtapapillary choroidal melanoma treated with SRT (70 Gy in 5 fractions, alternate days over a total of 10 days) at the Princess Margaret Hospital, Toronto, Ontario, Canada, who underwent enucleation between 1998 and 2006 were selected. We correlated dosimetric data based on the patient's original SRT treatment plan with histopathologic findings in the retina, optic nerve head, and anterior chamber. A dedicated ocular pathologist reviewed each case in a blinded fashion. Results: Ten eyes in ten patients were enucleated after SRT. Six were enucleated secondary to NVG and four secondary to because of TP. Aggressive tumor features such as invasion of the sclera and epithelioid cell type were observed predominantly in the TP group. Retinal damage was more predominant in the NVG group, as were findings of radiation-related retinal vascular changes of fibrinoid necrosis and hyalinization. No conclusive radiation-related effects were found in the anterior chamber. The maximum point dose and dose to 0.1 cc were lower for the anterior chamber as compared with the dose to the tumor, retina, and optic nerve head. The mean 0.1-cc doses to the retina were 69.4 Gy and 73.5 Gy and to the anterior chamber were 4.9 Gy and 17.3 Gy for the NVG group and tumor progression group, respectively. Conclusions: Our findings suggest that NVG is due to radiation damage to the posterior chamber of the eye rather than primary radiation damage to the anterior segment.

  7. Pegaptanib: choroidal neovascularization in patients with age-related macular degeneration and previous arterial thromboembolic events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Battaglia Parodi, Maurizio; Di Bartolo, Emanuele; Brue, Claudia; Cappello, Ezio; Furino, Claudio; Giuffrida, Sebastiano; Imparato, Manuela; Reibaldi, Michele

    2018-01-01

    To evaluate the efficacy and the rate of side effects of the pegylated aptamer pegaptanib in the treatment of patients with choroidal neovascularization (CNV) secondary to age-related macular degeneration (AMD) and a history of previous arterial thromboembolic events (ATEs). Twenty-three eyes of 23 patients with subfoveal CNV due to AMD and cerebrovascular accidents (n = 12) and myocardial infarction (n = 11) in the previous 6 months received intravitreal pegaptanib 0.3 mg according to a pro re nata regimen and were followed for 12 months. The paired Student t test was used to evaluate mean changes in best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA; primary outcome measure) and central foveal thickness (CFT). The mean patient age was 71.5 ± 4.6 years; there were 14 women and 9 men. The CNV was type 1, 2, and 3 in 18, 3, and 2 eyes, respectively. The mean BCVA improved from 0.67 ± 0.23 logMAR at baseline to 0.52 ± 0.31 logMAR at the end of 12-month follow-up (p = 0.044). Thirty-five percent of patients achieved ≥3 Early Treatment Diabetic Retinopathy Study lines improvement at 12 months. Mean CFT at baseline (381 ± 111 µm) decreased to 304 ± 82 µm at 12 months (p = 0.008). Patients received a mean of 4.3 ± 1.3 (range 3-7) injections. No systemic or ocular side effects occurred; no patient experienced further ATEs. Intravitreal pegaptanib can be considered a viable treatment option for patients with AMD-related CNV who are at high risk of ATEs.

  8. Evolution of Geographic Atrophy in Participants Treated with Ranibizumab for Neovascular Age-related Macular Degeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thavikulwat, Alisa T; Jacobs-El, Naima; Kim, Jane S; Agrón, Elvira; Hasan, Jesia; Meyerle, Catherine B; Valent, David; Cukras, Catherine A; Wiley, Henry E; Wong, Wai T; Chew, Emily Y

    2017-01-01

    To evaluate the risk factors, incidence, and rate of progression of geographic atrophy (GA) in eyes with neovascular age-related macular degeneration (nAMD) treated with ranibizumab. Post-hoc analysis of a prospective clinical study. 69 participants with nAMD in at least one eye. Participants were prospectively treated in the study eye with 0.5 mg intravitreal ranibizumab. Study eyes received 4 monthly injections followed by pro re nata injections until a fluid-free macula was achieved on optical coherence tomography. Risk factors assessed included baseline demographics, treatment, and ocular characteristics on imaging. Eyes were evaluated on fundus autofluorescence (FAF) for GA. The rate of GA area growth in study and fellow eyes was analyzed by linear regression of square-root transformed areas. Development of new-onset GA and rate of GA area growth measured on ocular imaging, including FAF images of the study eyes. Sixty-nine participants (mean age 78.8±7.8 years) with an average of 40.0±13.6 months of follow-up were analyzed. Twenty-two of 69 study eyes (32%) were treatment naïve. During their first year of the study, participants received an average of 9.2±3.3 injections in the study eye. Of 63 study eyes with quality baseline images, 22 (35%) had pre-existing GA. Of the remaining 41 eyes, 7 (17%) developed new-onset GA during study follow-up. Those who developed new GA were older (all ≥79 years old) and had received fewer study injections on average (6.9 vs. 10.4 injections at 1 year) compared to those who did not develop new GA. Of the 12 treatment naïve study eyes without GA at baseline, 1 (8.3%) developed new GA during the study. In 21 study eyes with quantifiable GA area, eyes with GA present at baseline (16/21) enlarged by 0.34±0.26 mm/year, compared to 0.19±0.12 mm/year in eyes developing new-onset GA (5/21). While 17% of study eyes without GA present at baseline receiving ranibizumab developed new GA, the role of ranibizumab in the development

  9. Nanoparticle-mediated delivery of pioglitazone enhances therapeutic neovascularization in a murine model of hindlimb ischemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagahama, Ryoji; Matoba, Tetsuya; Nakano, Kaku; Kim-Mitsuyama, Shokei; Sunagawa, Kenji; Egashira, Kensuke

    2012-10-01

    Critical limb ischemia is a severe form of peripheral artery disease (PAD) for which neither surgical revascularization nor endovascular therapy nor current medicinal therapy has sufficient therapeutic effects. Peroxisome proliferator activated receptor-γ agonists present angiogenic activity in vitro; however, systemic administration of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ agonists is hampered by its side effects, including heart failure. Here, we demonstrate that the nanoparticle (NP)-mediated delivery of the peroxisome proliferator activated receptor-γ agonist pioglitazone enhances its therapeutic efficacy on ischemia-induced neovascularization in a murine model. In a nondiabetic murine model of hindlimb ischemia, a single intramuscular injection of pioglitazone-incorporated NP (1 µg/kg) into ischemic muscles significantly improved the blood flow recovery in the ischemic limbs, significantly increasing the number of CD31-positive capillaries and α-smooth muscle actin-positive arterioles. The therapeutic effects of pioglitazone-incorporated NP were diminished by the peroxisome proliferator activated receptor-γ antagonist GW9662 and were not observed in endothelial NO synthase-deficient mice. Pioglitazone-incorporated NP induced endothelial NO synthase phosphorylation, as demonstrated by Western blot analysis, as well as expression of multiple angiogenic growth factors in vivo, including vascular endothelial growth factor-A, vascular endothelial growth factor-B, and fibroblast growth factor-1, as demonstrated by real-time polymerase chain reaction. Intramuscular injection of pioglitazone (1 µg/kg) was ineffective, and oral administration necessitated a >500 μg/kg per day dose to produce therapeutic effects equivalent to those of pioglitazone-incorporated NP. NP-mediated drug delivery is a novel modality that may enhance the effectiveness of therapeutic neovascularization, surpassing the effectiveness of current treatments for peripheral artery

  10. Ocular toxoplasmosis in immunosuppressed nonhuman primates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holland, G.N.; O' Connor, G.R.; Diaz, R.F.; Minasi, P.; Wara, W.M.

    1988-06-01

    To investigate the role of cellular immunodeficiency in recurrent toxoplasmic retinochoroiditis, six Cynomolgus monkeys (Macaca fascicularis) with healed toxoplasmic lesions of the retina were immunosuppressed by total lymphoid irradiation. Three months prior to irradiation 30,000 Toxoplasma gondii organisms of the Beverley strain had been inoculated onto the macula of eye in each monkey via a pars plana approach. Toxoplasmic retinochoroiditis developed in each animal, and lesions were allowed to heal without treatment. During total lymphoid irradiation animals received 2000 centigrays (cGy) over a 7-week period. Irradiation resulted in an immediate drop in total lymphocyte counts and decreased ability to stimulate lymphocytes by phytohemagglutinin. Weekly ophthalmoscopic examinations following irradiation failed to show evidence of recurrent ocular disease despite persistent immunodeficiency. Four months after irradiation live organisms were reinoculated onto the nasal retina of the same eye in each animal. Retinochoroidal lesions identical to those seen in primary disease developed in five of six animals. Toxoplasma organisms therefore were able to proliferate in ocular tissue following the administration of immunosuppressive therapy. This study fails to support the hypothesis that cellular immunodeficiency alone will initiate recurrent toxoplasmic retinochoroiditis. Results suggest that reactivation of disease from encysted organisms involves factors other than suppression of Toxoplasma proliferation. If reactivation occurs by other mechanisms, however, cellular immunodeficiency then may allow development of extensive disease.

  11. Ocular toxoplasmosis in immunosuppressed nonhuman primates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holland, G.N.; O'Connor, G.R.; Diaz, R.F.; Minasi, P.; Wara, W.M.

    1988-01-01

    To investigate the role of cellular immunodeficiency in recurrent toxoplasmic retinochoroiditis, six Cynomolgus monkeys (Macaca fascicularis) with healed toxoplasmic lesions of the retina were immunosuppressed by total lymphoid irradiation. Three months prior to irradiation 30,000 Toxoplasma gondii organisms of the Beverley strain had been inoculated onto the macula of eye in each monkey via a pars plana approach. Toxoplasmic retinochoroiditis developed in each animal, and lesions were allowed to heal without treatment. During total lymphoid irradiation animals received 2000 centigrays (cGy) over a 7-week period. Irradiation resulted in an immediate drop in total lymphocyte counts and decreased ability to stimulate lymphocytes by phytohemagglutinin. Weekly ophthalmoscopic examinations following irradiation failed to show evidence of recurrent ocular disease despite persistent immunodeficiency. Four months after irradiation live organisms were reinoculated onto the nasal retina of the same eye in each animal. Retinochoroidal lesions identical to those seen in primary disease developed in five of six animals. Toxoplasma organisms therefore were able to proliferate in ocular tissue following the administration of immunosuppressive therapy. This study fails to support the hypothesis that cellular immunodeficiency alone will initiate recurrent toxoplasmic retinochoroiditis. Results suggest that reactivation of disease from encysted organisms involves factors other than suppression of Toxoplasma proliferation. If reactivation occurs by other mechanisms, however, cellular immunodeficiency then may allow development of extensive disease

  12. Correlation between clinical and histological features in a pig model of choroidal neovascularization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lassota, Nathan; Kiilgaard, Jens Folke; Prause, Jan Ulrik

    2006-01-01

    To analyse the histological changes in the retina and the choroid in a pig model of choroidal neovascularization (CNV) and to correlate these findings with fundus photographic and fluorescein angiographic features.......To analyse the histological changes in the retina and the choroid in a pig model of choroidal neovascularization (CNV) and to correlate these findings with fundus photographic and fluorescein angiographic features....

  13. Subfoveal fibrosis in eyes with neovascular age-related macular degeneration treated with intravitreal ranibizumab

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bloch, Sara Brandi; Lund-Andersen, Henrik; Sander, Birgit

    2013-01-01

    To assess baseline and follow-up characteristics of choroidal neovascularization (CNV) lesions in age-related macular degeneration in relation to the development of subfoveal subretinal fibrosis.......To assess baseline and follow-up characteristics of choroidal neovascularization (CNV) lesions in age-related macular degeneration in relation to the development of subfoveal subretinal fibrosis....

  14. Verteporfin plus ranibizumab for choroidal neovascularization in age-related macular degeneration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Michael; Schmidt-Erfurth, Ursula; Lanzetta, Paolo

    2012-01-01

    To compare the efficacy and safety of same-day verteporfin photodynamic therapy (PDT) and intravitreal ranibizumab combination treatment versus ranibizumab monotherapy in neovascular age-related macular degeneration.......To compare the efficacy and safety of same-day verteporfin photodynamic therapy (PDT) and intravitreal ranibizumab combination treatment versus ranibizumab monotherapy in neovascular age-related macular degeneration....

  15. The association between Neovascular Age-related Macular Degeneration and Regulatory T cells in peripheral blood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madelung, Christopher Fugl; Falk, Mads; Sørensen, Torben Lykke

    2015-01-01

    PURPOSE: To investigate regulatory T cells (Tregs) and subsets of the Treg population in patients with neovascular age-related macular degeneration (AMD). PATIENTS AND METHODS: Twenty-one neovascular AMD cases and 12 age-matched controls without retinal pathology were selected. Patients were...

  16. Ocular Effects of Sulfur Mustard

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yunes Panahi

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To review current knowledge about ocular effects of sulfur mustard (SM and the associated histopathologic findings and clinical manifestationsMethods: Literature review of medical articles (human and animal studies was accomplished using PubMed, Scopus and ISI databases. A total of 274 relevant articles in English were retrieved and reviewed thoroughly.Results: Eyes are the most sensitive organs to local toxic effects of mustard gas. Ocular injuries are mediated through different toxic mechanisms including: biochemical damages, biomolecular and gene expression modification, induction of immunologic and inflammatory reactions, disturbing ultrastructural architecture of the cornea, and long-lasting corneal denervation. The resulting ocular injuries can roughly be categorized into acute or chronic complications. Most of the patients recover from acute injuries, but a minority of victims will suffer from chronic ocular complications. Mustard gas keratopathy (MGK is a devastating late complication of SM intoxication that proceeds from limbal stem cell deficiency (LSCD.Conclusion: SM induces several different damaging changes in case of ocular exposure; hence leading to a broad spectrum of ocular manifestations in terms of severity, timing and form. Unfortunately, no effective strategy has been introduced yet to inhibit or restore these damaging changes.

  17. Traumatismos oculares en el deporte

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier Elizalde

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Los traumatismos oculares durante la práctica deportiva son relativamente frecuentes, pueden acontecer en el contexto de cualquier deporte y son muy variados, tanto en su origen, gravedad y forma de presentación clínica (traumatismos incisos, contusos o inciso-contusos. A pesar de que el diagnóstico precoz y un tratamiento adecuado a cargo de un oftalmólogo especialista suele ayudar a mejorar el pronóstico de estos casos, es cierto que en algunas situaciones las lesiones oculares secundarias al traumatismo son clínicamente irreversibles. El autor revisa la repercusión clínica ocular de los accidentes deportivos con compromiso de la órbita, de los párpados, del segmento anterior y/o posterior del globo ocular, y de las vías ópticas. La mayoría de estas lesiones se pueden evitar optimizando el estado físico (y ocular antes de la práctica deportiva, y utilizando la técnica y el material adecuado para cada situación. Asimismo una buena educación deportiva desde la infancia y la utilización de gafas de protección ocular adaptadas a cada deporte juegan un papel esencial en la prevención de estos accidentes.

  18. Preparation of arginine–glycine–aspartic acid-modified biopolymeric nanoparticles containing epigalloccatechin-3-gallate for targeting vascular endothelial cells to inhibit corneal neovascularization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Che-Yi; Wang, Ming-Chen; Miyagawa, Takuya; Chen, Zhi-Yu; Lin, Feng-Huei; Chen, Ko-Hua; Liu, Guei-Sheung; Tseng, Ching-Li

    2017-01-01

    Neovascularization (NV) of the cornea can disrupt visual function, causing ocular diseases, including blindness. Therefore, treatment of corneal NV has a high public health impact. Epigalloccatechin-3-gallate (EGCG), presenting antiangiogenesis effects, was chosen as an inhibitor to treat human vascular endothelial cells for corneal NV treatment. An arginine–glycine–aspartic acid (RGD) peptide–hyaluronic acid (HA)-conjugated complex coating on the gelatin/EGCG self-assembly nanoparticles (GEH-RGD NPs) was synthesized for targeting the αvβ3 integrin on human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) in this study, and a corneal NV mouse model was used to evaluate the therapeutic effect of this nanomedicine used as eyedrops. HA-RGD conjugation via COOH and amine groups was confirmed by 1H-nuclear magnetic resonance and Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy. The average diameter of GEH-RGD NPs was 168.87±22.5 nm with positive charge (19.7±2 mV), with an EGCG-loading efficiency up to 95%. Images of GEH-RGD NPs acquired from transmission electron microscopy showed a spherical shape and shell structure of about 200 nm. A slow-release pattern was observed in the nanoformulation at about 30% after 30 hours. Surface plasmon resonance confirmed that GEH-RGD NPs specifically bound to the integrin αvβ3. In vitro cell-viability assay showed that GEH-RGD efficiently inhibited HUVEC proliferation at low EGCG concentrations (20 μg/mL) when compared with EGCG or non-RGD-modified NPs. Furthermore, GEH-RGD NPs significantly inhibited HUVEC migration down to 58%, lasting for 24 hours. In the corneal NV mouse model, fewer and thinner vessels were observed in the alkali-burned cornea after treatment with GEH-RGD NP eyedrops. Overall, this study indicates that GEH-RGD NPs were successfully developed and synthesized as an inhibitor of vascular endothelial cells with specific targeting capacity. Moreover, they can be used in eyedrops to inhibit angiogenesis in corneal NV

  19. Desferrioxamine: a practical method for improving neovascularization of prefabricated flaps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Bin; Li, Hua; Jin, Rui; Cheng, Chen; Wang, Jing; Zhu, Hainan; Zan, Tao; Li, Qingfeng; Hao, Lijun

    2015-02-01

    Prefabricated flaps are an ideal alternative to repair massive and complex tissue defects. Nevertheless, the risk of necrosis due to unpredictable blood supplies is a major obstacle to the application of prefabricated flaps. The survival of a prefabricated flap depends on the neovascularization between the vascular carrier and the donor tissue. Here, we proposed that the iron chelator, desferrioxamine (DFX), owned therapeutic effects that promoted the neovascularization of prefabricated flaps. An abdominal prefabricated flap model was created in rats via a 2-stage operation. The rats were allocated into 4 groups as follows: 2 groups of rats received DFX treatments during the first or the second stage of the operation, respectively; 1 group of rats received a delay procedure 1 week before the second operation; and the final group was used as a blank control. Flap survival rates and capillary densities were evaluated between groups. The influence of DFX on the dermal fibroblasts was also studied in vitro. Desferrioxamine treatment during the first stage of the operation greatly increased flap survival rate compared to the blank control. The results were similar to those produced by the delay treatment. The vessel count results were consistent with the flap survival rate findings. In vitro, DFX treatment up-regulated the expression levels of several angiogenic factors in the dermal fibroblasts. Nevertheless, DFX treatment during the second stage of the operation was therapeutically detrimental. The application of DFX around the time of vascular carrier implantation greatly promoted neovascularization of prefabricated flaps, but was therapeutically detrimental after the flaps had been elevated.

  20. Design of an Implantable Device for Ocular Drug Delivery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jae-Hwan Lee

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Ocular diseases, such as, glaucoma, age-related macular degeneration (AMD, diabetic retinopathy, and retinitis pigmentosa require drug management in order to prevent blindness and affecting million of adults in USA and worldwide. There is an increasing need to develop devices for drug delivery to address ocular diseases. This study focuses on the design, simulation, and development of an implantable ocular drug delivery device consisting of micro-/nanochannels embedded between top and bottom covers with a drug reservoir made from polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS which is silicon-based organic and biodegradable polymer. Several simulations were carried out with six different micro-channel configurations in order to see the feasibility for ocular drug delivery applications. Based on the results obtained, channel design of osmotic I and osmotic II satisfied the diffusion rates required for ocular drug delivery. Finally, a prototype illustrating the three components of the drug delivery design is presented. In the future, the device will be tested for its functionality and diffusion characteristics.

  1. Buccal Epithelium in treating Ocular Surface Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Srinivas KR

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Background - Ocular surface disorders due to limbal stem cell deficiency are an important cause of ocular morbidity and visual loss. Although autologous limbal stem cell transplants have helped in the management of unilateral disease, allografts in those with bilateral disease often fail due to immunological reasons. The use of autologous buccal epithelium cultivated on amniotic membrane has been described as a useful approach in the management of this condition. It is the purpose of this study to explore the feasibility of using a novel thermo-gelatin polymer (TGP as a substrate to culture these cells, and to characterize them using RNA extraction and RT-PCR. Methods - Oral cheek mucosal biopsies were obtained from 5 adult patients undergoing Modified Osteo-Odonto Keratoprosthesis surgery. The specimens were transported to the laboratory in transport medium. The cells were released using enzymatic digestion and seeded in both convention culture medium and TGP. The resulting cellular growth was characterized using RNA extraction and RT-PCR. Results - Cells could be cultured from 4 of the 5 specimens. In one specimen, contamination occurred and this was discarded. In the other specimens, the cheek epithelial cells could be cultured in both the conventional culture medium and TGP, with equal ease. RT-PCR revealed the presence of K3, a marker for epithelial cells, and GAPDH indicating the presence of some adipose tissue as well. Conclusions - It is possible to culture autologous cheek mucosal epithelial cells using TGP, a synthetic scaffold, without the need for other biological substrates. Since the specimens are obtained from the oral cavity, stringent asepsis is required. Further studies are required for histopathological characterization of the cultured cells and to create a model for delivery onto the ocular surface of eyes with bilateral surface disease due to limbal stem cell deficiency.

  2. Unusual Presentation of Cutaneous Leishmaniasis: Ocular Leishmaniasis

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    Masoud Doroodgar

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The leishmaniases are parasitic diseases that are transmitted to humans by infected female sandflies. Cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL is one of 3 main forms of the disease. CL is the most common form of the disease and is endemic in many urban and rural parts of Iran and usually caused by two species of Leishmania: L. major and L. tropica. We report a case of unusual leishmaniasis with 25 lesions on exposed parts of the body and right eyelid involvement (ocular leishmaniasis. The patient was a 75-year-old male farmer referred to health care center in Aran va Bidgol city. The disease was diagnosed by direct smear, culture, and PCR from the lesions. PCR was positive for Leishmania major.

  3. Ocular TRUST: nationwide antimicrobial susceptibility patterns in ocular isolates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asbell, Penny A; Colby, Kathryn A; Deng, Sophie; McDonnell, Peter; Meisler, David M; Raizman, Michael B; Sheppard, John D; Sahm, Daniel F

    2008-06-01

    Ocular Tracking Resistance in U.S. Today (TRUST) annually evaluates in vitro antimicrobial susceptibility of Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus pneumoniae, and Haemophilus influenzae to ciprofloxacin, gatifloxacin, levofloxacin, moxifloxacin, penicillin, azithromycin, tobramycin, trimethoprim, and polymyxin B in national samples of ocular isolates. Laboratory investigation. Prospectively collected ocular isolates (197 S. aureus, 49 S. pneumoniae, and 32 H. influenzae) from 35 institutions and archived ocular isolates (760 S. pneumoniae and 356 H. influenzae) from 34 institutions were tested by an independent, central laboratory. Mean minimum inhibitory concentrations that would inhibit growth of 90% of the tested isolates (MIC(90)) were interpreted as susceptible, intermediate, or resistant according to standardized breakpoints for systemic treatment. S. aureus isolates were classified as methicillin susceptible (MSSA) or methicillin resistant (MRSA). MSSA or MRSA susceptibility patterns were virtually identical for the fluoroquinolones, that is, MSSA susceptibility was 79.9% to 81.1% and MRSA susceptibility was 15.2%. Trimethoprim was the only agent tested with high activity against MRSA. All S. pneumoniae isolates were susceptible to gatifloxacin, levofloxacin, and moxifloxacin; 89.8% were susceptible to ciprofloxacin. H. influenzae isolates were 100% susceptible to all tested agents but trimethoprim. Ocular TRUST 1 data were consistent with the eight-year longitudinal sample of archived ocular isolates. The fluoroquinolones were consistently active in MSSA, S. pneumoniae, and H. influenzae. After more than a decade of intensive ciprofloxacin and levofloxacin use as systemic therapy, 100% of ocular S. pneumoniae isolates were susceptible to gatifloxacin, levofloxacin, and moxifloxacin; nonsusceptibility to ciprofloxacin was less than 15%. High-level in vitro MRSA resistance suggests the need to consider alternative therapy to fluoroquinolones when MRSA is a

  4. New Paradigms for the Study of Ocular Alphaherpesvirus Infections: Insights into the Use of Non-Traditional Host Model Systems

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    Matthew R. Pennington

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Ocular herpesviruses, most notably human alphaherpesvirus 1 (HSV-1, canid alphaherpesvirus 1 (CHV-1 and felid alphaherpesvirus 1 (FHV-1, infect and cause severe disease that may lead to blindness. CHV-1 and FHV-1 have a pathogenesis and induce clinical disease in their hosts that is similar to HSV-1 ocular infections in humans, suggesting that infection of dogs and cats with CHV-1 and FHV-1, respectively, can be used as a comparative natural host model of herpesvirus-induced ocular disease. In this review, we discuss both strengths and limitations of the various available model systems to study ocular herpesvirus infection, with a focus on the use of these non-traditional virus-natural host models. Recent work has demonstrated the robustness and reproducibility of experimental ocular herpesvirus infections in dogs and cats, and, therefore, these non-traditional models can provide additional insights into the pathogenesis of ocular herpesvirus infections.

  5. PATTERNS OF FUNDUS AUTOFLUORESCENCE DEFECTS IN NEOVASCULAR AGE-RELATED MACULAR DEGENERATION SUBTYPES.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozkok, Ahmet; Sigford, Douglas K; Tezel, Tongalp H

    2016-11-01

    To test define characteristic fundus autofluorescence patterns of different exudative age-related macular degeneration subtypes. Cross-sectional study. Fifty-two patients with choroidal neovascularization because of three different neovascular age-related macular degeneration subtypes were included in the study. Macular and peripheral fundus autofluorescence patterns of study subjects were compared in a masked fashion. Fundus autofluorescence patterns of all three neovascular age-related macular degeneration subtypes revealed similar patterns. However, peripapillary hypo-autofluorescence was more common among patients with polypoidal choroidal vasculopathy (88.2%) compared with patients with retinal angiomatous proliferation (12.5%) and patients without retinal angiomatous proliferation and polypoidal choroidal vasculopathy (21.1%) (P autofluorescence defects in neovascular age-related macular degeneration maybe suggestive of polypoidal choroidal vasculopathy as a variant of neovascular age-related macular degeneration.

  6. Radiotherapy in ocular tumours

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pinto, J.M.

    1982-01-01

    Ocular tumours at the Tata Memorial Hospital, Bombay, form about 0.14% of all the proved cancer cases. In case of unilateral retinoblastoma with the other eye being not non-seeing for any reason, enucleation is advised, as the diagnosis may sometimes be in doubt. If after enucleation, optic nerve and/or peribulbar tissues are found to be involved, post-operative irradiation is given to the whole orbit. In bilateral retinoblastoma the more affected eye is enucleated and an attempt is made to preserve vision in the other eye. A tumour dose of 3500 to 4000 rad in about 4 weeks is given with a cobalt beam using a direct anterior field. A cataract that may develop has to be taken care of. Lateral and/or medial fields are used with deep X-rays. In certain cases, an implant of cobalt-60 or gold-198 grain is done. For carcinoma of conjuctiva, small lesions or early lesions are excised and a beta radiation dose of 2000 rad weekly for about 4 to 5 weeks is given; larger lesions require enucleation or exenteration followed by irradiation with super-voltage radiation. Post-irradiation sarcomas may develop many years later. Irradiation is repeated for recurrences. (M.G.B.)

  7. miR-539-5p inhibits experimental choroidal neovascularization by targeting CXCR7.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Yifan; Wang, Jing; Yuan, Yuanzhi; Zhang, Xi; Shen, Minqian; Yuan, Fei

    2018-03-01

    Stromal cell-derived factor-1 (SDF-1) has been previously confirmed to participate in the formation of choroidal neovascularization (CNV) via its receptor, CXC chemokine receptor (CXCR) 4; CXCR7 is a recently identified receptor for SDF-1. The molecular mechanisms and therapeutic value of CXCR7 in CNV remain undefined. In this study, experimental CNV was induced by laser photocoagulation in Brown-Norway pigmented rats, and aberrant CXCR7 overexpression was detected in the retinal pigment epithelial/choroid/sclera tissues of laser-injured eyes. Blockade of CXCR7 activation via CXCR7 knockdown or neutralizing Ab administration inhibited SDF-1-induced cell survival and the tubular formation of human retinal microvascular endothelial cells (HRMECs) in vitro and reduced CNV leakage and lesion size in vivo. By using microRNA array screening and bioinformatic analyses, we identified miR-539-5p as a regulator of CXCR7. Transfection of HRMECs and choroid-retinal endothelial (RF/6A) cells with the miR-539-5p mimic inhibited their survival and tube formation, whereas CXCR7 overexpression rescued the suppressive effect of miR-539-5p. The antiangiogenic activities of the miR-539-5p mimic were additionally demonstrated in vivo by intravitreal injection. ERK1/2 and AKT signaling downstream of CXCR7 is involved in the miR-539-5p regulation of endothelial cell behaviors. These findings suggest that the manipulation of miR-539-5p/CXCR7 levels may have important therapeutic implications in CNV-associated diseases.-Feng, Y., Wang, J., Yuan, Y., Zhang, X., Shen, M., Yuan, F. miR-539-5p inhibits experimental choroidal neovascularization by targeting CXCR7.

  8. Transscleral sustained vasohibin-1 delivery by a novel device suppressed experimentally-induced choroidal neovascularization.

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    Hideyuki Onami

    Full Text Available We established a sustained vasohibin-1 (a 42-kDa protein, delivery device by a novel method using photopolymerization of a mixture of polyethylene glycol dimethacrylate, triethylene glycol dimethacrylate, and collagen microparticles. We evaluated its effects in a model of rat laser-induced choroidal neovascularization (CNV using a transscleral approach. We used variable concentrations of vasohibin-1 in the devices, and used an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and Western blotting to measure the released vasohibin-1 (0.31 nM/day when using the 10 μM vasohibin-1 delivery device [10VDD]. The released vasohibin-1 showed suppression activity comparable to native effects when evaluated using endothelial tube formation. We also used pelletized vasohibin-1 and fluorescein isothiocyanate-labeled 40 kDa dextran as controls. Strong fluorescein staining was observed on the sclera when the device was used for drug delivery, whereas pellet use produced strong staining in the conjunctiva and surrounding tissue, but not on the sclera. Vasohibin-1 was found in the sclera, choroid, retinal pigment epithelium (RPE, and neural retina after device implantation. Stronger immunoreactivity at the RPE and ganglion cell layers was observed than in other retinal regions. Significantly lower fluorescein angiography (FA scores and smaller CNV areas in the flat mounts of RPE-choroid-sclera were observed for the 10VDD, VDD (1 μM vasohibin-1 delivery device, and vasohibin-1 intravitreal direct injection (0.24 μM groups when compared to the pellet, non-vasohibin-1 delivery device, and intravitreal vehicle injection groups. Choroidal neovascularization can be treated with transscleral sustained protein delivery using our novel device. We offer a safer sustained protein release for treatment of retinal disease using the transscleral approach.

  9. Anti-vascular endothelial growth factor therapy for the treatment of myopic choroidal neovascularization

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    Tan CS

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Colin S Tan,1,2 SriniVas R Sadda3 1National Healthcare Group Eye Institute, Tan Tock Seng Hospital, Singapore; 2Fundus Image Reading Center, National Healthcare Group Eye Institute, Singapore; 3Doheny Eye Institute, University of California Los Angeles, CA, USA Abstract: Myopic choroidal neovascularization (CNV is a sight-threatening condition which occurs in eyes with myopia, particularly in those with pathologic myopia. It is the most common cause of CNV among patients younger than 50 years. Hemorrhage and exudation from the CNV lesion may eventually result in scarring or chorioretinal atrophy. While myopic CNV was previously treated with focal laser photocoagulation or photodynamic therapy (PDT, the current treatment of choice is anti-vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF agents. Many studies have demonstrated the efficacy of intravitreal anti-VEGF agents in the treatment of myopic CNV. The RADIANCE study reported that intravitreal ranibizumab was superior to PDT in eyes with myopic CNV (at 3 months, both groups receiving intravitreal ranibizumab gained 10.5 and 10.6 letters vs 2.2 letters among patients receiving PDT. In addition, the study demonstrated similar visual outcomes in eyes treated on the basis of visual acuity stabilization or disease activity criteria. Other clinical studies have provided evidence for the efficacy of ranibizumab and aflibercept in the treatment of myopic CNV. This review addresses the epidemiology, pathophysiology, and imaging characteristics of myopic CNV, and discusses the evidence for the efficacy of anti-VEGF agents as compared to laser photocoagulation and PDT. Keywords: myopic choroidal neovascularization, ranibizumab, anti-vascular endothelial growth factor

  10. Optical Coherence Tomography and the Development of Antiangiogenic Therapies in Neovascular Age-Related Macular Degeneration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenfeld, Philip J.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To explain the pivotal role optical coherence tomography (OCT) imaging had in the development of antiangiogenic therapies for the treatment of neovascular age-related macular degeneration (nvAMD). Methods A historical literature review was combined with personal perspectives from the introduction of OCT imaging and the early clinical use of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) inhibitors. Results At the time that OCT emerged, the gold standard for imaging of nvAMD was fluorescein angiography (FA), a time-consuming, dye-based, invasive technique that provided en face images of the retina and was used to characterize leakage, perfusion status, and the types of macular neovascularization (MNV). In comparison, OCT imaging was a fast, safe, noninvasive technique that complemented FA imaging by providing cross-sectional images of the macula. OCT was able to visualize and quantify the macular fluid that was associated with the presence of excess VEGF, which was identified by intraretinal fluid, subretinal fluid, and fluid under the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE). Clinicians quickly appreciated the benefits of OCT imaging for following macular fluid after anti-VEGF therapy. By observing the qualitative and quantitative changes in macular fluid depicted by OCT imaging, clinicians were empowered to compare anti-VEGF drugs and move from fixed-dosing regimens to patient-specific dosing strategies requiring fewer injections. Conclusions Optical coherence tomography imaging was adopted as a VEGF-meter, a method to detect excess VEGF, and evolved to become the gold standard imaging strategy for diagnosing nvAMD, assessing treatment responses to anti-VEGF drugs, deciding when to re-treat, and evaluating disease progression. PMID:27409464

  11. Relationship between ocular surface temperature and peripheral vasoconstriction in healthy subjects: a thermographic study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vannetti, Federica; Matteoli, Sara; Finocchio, Lucia; Lacarbonara, Francesco; Sodi, Andrea; Menchini, Ugo; Corvi, Andrea

    2014-03-01

    An impairment of ocular blood flow regulation is commonly considered one of the main pathogenetic mechanisms involved in the development of several eye diseases, like glaucoma. The aim of this study was to investigate whether an alteration of ocular blood supply induced by peripheral vasoconstriction might be detected by measuring the ocular surface temperature. The ocular surface temperature was evaluated in a group of 38 healthy young subjects (28 males and 10 females; mean age: 25.4 ± 4.1 years) by infrared thermography. For each subject, the experimental procedure consisted of two thermographic acquisitions both lasting 10 s, recorded before and during the immersion of both hands in a mixture of ice and water (1.6 °C ± 0.4 °C). Specifically, the second acquisition began 20 s after the hand immersion. Analysis of variance was used to compare the ocular surface temperature of the two profiles. The analysis of infrared images was carried out every 2 s: at the eye opening (t(0)) until 10 s (t(5)), for both profiles. Data showed that ocular surface temperature increased significantly (p-value temperature at t(0) for P(1) = 0.12 °C ± 0.13 °C). Therefore, these results suggest a response of the ocular hemodynamic to the peripheral vasoconstriction. The ocular surface temperature may represent a cheap, non-invasive and non-time-consuming test to evaluate ocular vaso-regulation.

  12. Ocular and multicentric T-cell lymphoma in horse

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    Mariana C. Oliveira

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT. Oliveira M.C., Faleiro R.D., Santos C.C.A., Oliveira G.F., Daoualibi Y., Sonne L., Brito M.F. & Ubiali D.G. [Ocular and multicentric T-cell lymphoma in horse.] Linfoma de células T multicêntrico e ocular em equino. Revista Brasileira de Medicina Veterinária, 38(Supl.2:147-151, 2016. Setor de Anatomia Patológica, Departamento Epidemiologia e Saúde Pública, Universidade Federal Rural do Rio de Janeiro, BR 465 Km 7, Seropédica, RJ 23890-000, Brasil. E-mail: danielubiali@hotmail.com A 10-year-old gelding, mixed breed had body score condition 3 (1-10, with reluctance to move due to the loss of visual acuity in both eyes, right eye swelling and marked dyspnea. The ophthalmic examination showed no response to threat of reflection, objects test or direct reflection and consensus of both eyes. Examination with visor magnifier and Finoff transilluminator revealed buftalmia, hyphema, aqueous flare, corneal neovascularization and posterior synechiae with irregular bulging of the iris in the right eye and aqueous flare, central anterior synechiae and mature cataract in the left eye. It was found corneal integrity in both eyes with the fluorescein test. Urine sample submitted for PCR to Leptospira sp. resulted negative. Euthanasia was performed after unsuccessful treatment attempts. At necropsy there was a mass in the right eyeball, the pleural surface of the diaphragm and the mesentery. There was multifocal to coalescing whitish nodules between 1 and 4 cm in diameter in the lung, filling about 80% of the lungs’ surface, mainly in the ventral region. Morphology of masses was histopathologically compatible with lymphoma. Anti-CD3 antibody resulted positive in all samples analyzed characterizing immunophenotypic T-cell lymphoma.

  13. O que os pediatras conhecem sobre afecções oculares na criança? What do pediatricians know about children's eye diseases?

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    Michel Broilo Manica

    2003-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Avaliar o grau de conhecimento dos pediatras sobre os problemas oculares na criança, seu diagnóstico e conduta, por meio de questionário padronizado. MÉTODOS: Aplicou-se questionário semi-estruturado, no qual constam dados demográficos e questões sobre conhecimentos oftalmológicos, entre pediatras na cidade de Porto Alegre no período de janeiro a abril de 2002. Após realizou-se estudo de delineamento transversal, cujas respostas foram tabuladas. Amostragem foi por conveniência. Foram consideradas erradas as questões em branco e as respostas dos testes foram comparadas a artigos já publicados. RESULTADOS: Foram entrevistados 140 pediatras com idade média de 37,78 anos, e desses 89 (63,57% eram do sexo feminino. O tempo médio de profissão referido pelos entrevistados foi 11,77 anos. Em relação à análise das questões (n=19, a média de acertos foi de 11(58%. O grupo que teve melhor número de acertos foi o com menor tempo de atuação profissional em pediatria. A primeira escolha de antibiótico foi a tobramicina (61% (n=85, a segunda, o cloranfenicol (31% (n=44 e outros foram citados esporadicamente (8% (n=11. Mais da metade dos entrevistados desconheciam o momento correto da avaliação oftalmológica na retinopatia da prematuridade. Grande parte dos pediatras entrevistados (70% (n=98 desconheciam o significado correto do termo ambliopia. Questões sobre catarata congênita, glaucoma congênito e leucocoria também revelaram o desconhecimento oftalmológico neste grupo de pediatras. CONCLUSÃO: Os resultados sugerem o pouco conhecimento oftalmológico entre os pediatras entrevistados.PURPOSE: To determine how much pediatricians know about eye disorders in children, their diagnosis and therapy, through a standardized questionnaire. METHODS: A semistructured questionnaire with demographic data and questions about knowledge in ophthalmology among pediatricians was applied in the city of Porto Alegre between January and

  14. Uveíte anterior como manifestação da Doença de Kikuchi e Fujimoto Anterior Uveitis as an ocular manifestation of Kikuchi and Fujimoto's Disease

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    Marco Aurelio Varella Figueiredo

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Apresentação de um caso de febre de origem obscura numa paciente feminina de 35 anos, com queda do estado geral, adenomegalia cervical posterior, monilíase oral, parotidite e irite.Após o parecer oftalmológico, o tratamento foi iniciado e posteriormente com o resultado do exame histopatológico de um linfonodo, diagnosticou-se a Doença de Kikuchi e Fujimoto. Sugerimos que a uveíte anterior seja reconhecida como mais um sinal de suspeita desta doença. São comentados os achados oculares, os aspectos histopatológicos e o tratamento da Doença de Kikuchi e Fujimoto.Report of a case on Kikuchi and Fujimoto's Disease in a young lady who developed a long standing spiking fever, weight loss, cervical adenomegalia, oral moniliasis, parotiditis and iritis.The histopathological findings, course and treatment as well as the importance of a multidisciplinar approach are commented.

  15. Complications of presumed ocular tuberculosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamade, Issam H; Tabbara, Khalid F

    2010-12-01

    To determine the effect of steroid treatment on visual outcome and ocular complications in patients with presumed ocular tuberculosis. Retrospective review of patients with presumptive ocular tuberculosis. The clinical diagnosis was made based on ocular findings, positive purified protein derivative (PPD) testing of more than 15 mm induration, exclusion of other causes of uveitis and positive ocular response to anti-tuberculous therapy (ATT) within 4 weeks. Group 1 included patients who had received oral prednisone or subtenon injection of triamcinolone acetonide prior to ATT. Group 2 included patients who did not receive corticosteroid therapy prior to administration of ATT.   Among 500 consecutive new cases of uveitis encountered in 1997-2007 there were 49 (10%) patients with presumed ocular tuberculosis. These comprised 28 (57%) male and 21 (43%) female patients with a mean age of 45 years (range 12-76 years). Four (20%) patients in group 1 had initial visual acuity of 20/40 or better, in comparison to eight (28%) patients in group 2. At 1-year follow-up, six (30%) patients in group 1 had a visual acuity of 20/40 or better compared with 20 (69%) patients in group 2 (p = 0.007). Of 20 eyes (26%) in group 1 that had visual acuity of < 20/50 at 1-year follow up, 14 (70%) eyes developed severe chorioretinal lesion (p = 0.019). Early administration of corticosteroids without anti-tuberculous therapy in presumed ocular tuberculosis may lead to poor visual outcome compared with patients who did not receive corticosteroids prior to presentation. Furthermore, the severity of chorioretinitis lesion in the group of patients given corticosteroid prior to ATT may account for the poor visual outcome. © 2009 The Authors. Journal compilation © 2009 Acta Ophthalmol.

  16. Ocular findings after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabbara, Khalid F; Al-Ghamdi, Ahmad; Al-Mohareb, Fahad; Ayas, Mouhab; Chaudhri, Naeem; Al-Sharif, Fahad; Al-Zahrani, Hazzaa; Mohammed, Said Y; Nassar, Amr; Aljurf, Mahmoud

    2009-09-01

    To study the incidence, causes, and outcome of major ocular complications in patients undergoing allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). Retrospective, noncomparative, observational clinical study. The study included a total of 620 patients who underwent allogeneic HSCT in the period from 1997 to 2007 at King Faisal Specialist Hospital and Research Centre, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. Allogeneic HSCT. Patients with ocular complications were referred to the ophthalmology division for complete ophthalmologic examination, including visual acuity, tonometry, Schirmer test, biomicroscopy, and dilated ophthalmoscopy. Laboratory investigations were performed whenever indicated. The incidence and causes of major ocular complications after allogeneic HSCT were determined. Visual acuity at 1 year after allogeneic HSCT was recorded. Major ocular complications occurred in 80 (13%) of 620 patients who underwent allogeneic HSCT. There were 36 male patients (45%) and 44 female patients (55%) with a mean age of 29 years and an age range of 9 to 65 years. Prophylaxis for graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) consisted of cyclosporine and methotrexate in 69 patients, and cyclosporine, methotrexate and corticosteroids, or mycophenolate mofetil in 11 patients. The most frequently encountered ocular complications were chronic GVHD, dry eye syndrome without GVHD, corneal ulcers, cataract, glaucoma, cytomegalovirus retinitis, fungal endophthalmitis, and acquisition of allergic conjunctivitis from atopic donors. There was no correlation between the pattern of ocular complications and the transplanted stem cell source. Best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA) at 1 year after transplantation was less than 20/200 in 13 patients (16%), less than 20/50 in 17 patients (21%), and better than 20/50 in 50 patients (63%). Ocular complications are common in patients undergoing allogeneic HSCT. Early recognition and prompt treatment are important. The author(s) have no proprietary or commercial

  17. Clinical characteristics of reticular pseudodrusen in the fellow eye of patients with unilateral neovascular age-related macular degeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hogg, Ruth E; Silva, Rufino; Staurenghi, Giovanni; Murphy, George; Santos, Ana R; Rosina, Chiara; Chakravarthy, Usha

    2014-09-01

    To describe associations between reticular pseudodrusen, individual characteristics, and retinal function. Cohort study. We recruited 105 patients (age range, 52-93 years) who had advanced neovascular age-related macular degeneration (AMD) in only 1 eye from 3 clinical centers in Europe. Minimum follow-up was 12 months. The eye selected for study was the fellow eye without advanced disease. Clinical measures of vision were distance visual acuity, near visual acuity, and results of the Smith-Kettlewell low-luminance acuity test (SKILL). Fundus imaging included color photography, red-free imaging, blue autofluorescence imaging, fluorescein angiography, indocyanine green angiography, and optical coherence tomography using standardized protocols. These were used to detect progression to neovascular AMD in the study eye during follow-up. All imaging outputs were graded for the presence or absence of reticular pseudodrusen (RPD) using a multimodal approach. Choroidal thickness was measured at the foveal center and at 2 other equidistant locations from the fovea (1500 μm) nasally and temporally. Metrics on retinal thickness and volume were obtained from the manufacturer-supplied automated segmentation readouts. Presence of RPD, distance visual acuity, near visual acuity, SKILL score, choroidal thickness, retinal thickness, and retinal volume. Reticular pseudodrusen was found in 43 participants (41%) on 1 or more imaging method. The SKILL score was significantly worse in those with reticular drusen (mean score ± standard deviation [SD, 38±12) versus those without (mean score ± SD, 33±9) (P = 0.034). Parafoveal retinal thickness, parafoveal retinal volume, and all of the choroidal thickness parameters measured were significantly lower in those with reticular drusen than in those without. The presence of RPD was associated with development of neovascular AMD when corrected for age and sex (odds ratio, 5.5; 95% confidence interval, 1.1-28.8; P = 0.042). All participants

  18. Ocular changes induced by drugs commonly used in dermatology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Turno-Kręcicka, Anna; Grzybowski, Andrzej; Misiuk-Hojło, Marta; Patryn, Eliza; Czajor, Karolina; Nita, Małgorzata

    2016-01-01

    The use of many drugs in dermatologic diseases may cause ocular side effects. Some may regress after discontinuation of the therapy, but others persist or progress even after the cessation of treatment. This review presents four groups of commonly prescribed drugs-antimalarial medicines,

  19. Anomalias oculares em pacientes portadores de deficiência auditiva genética Ocular abnormalities in genetically deaf people

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    Jane Chen

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available Introdução: Para se verificar a prevalência de anomalias oculares em indivíduos portadores de deficiência auditiva de causa genética definitiva ou suspeita, este trabalho apresenta a avaliação oftalmológica de 97 indivíduos portadores de deficiência auditiva. Pacientes e Métodos: 97 indivíduos com diagnóstico definitivo ou suspeito de causa genética para disacusia foram submetidos a exame clínico oftalmológico completo; destes, 10 foram excluídos. Resultados: 42 (48,28% dos pacientes apresentaram uma ou mais anomalias oculares, 22 (25,29% pacientes apresentaram várias anormalidades oculares e quadro clínico compatíveis com síndromes genéticas estabelecidas. Conclusões: O exame oftalmológico é importante no diagnóstico sindrômico e etiológico de alguns quadros de disacusia, pois as alterações oculares podem ser a única anomalia associada à mesma.Purpose: In order to verify the prevalence of ocular abnormalities in patients who are deaf due to genetic causes, this paper presents the visual assessment of 97 deaf patients. Methods: 97 patients with definite or suspected diagno- sis of congenital and genetic deafness underwent a complete ophthalmologic evaluation; 10 patients were excluded. Results: 42 (48.28% patients presented one or more ocular abnormalities, 22 (25.29% patients presented several abnormalities and clinical manifestations of established genetic diseases. Conclusions: The ocular abnormalities may be the only clinical manifestations associated with deafness. Therefore the ophthalmological examination is a helpful tool for the etiological diagnosis of deafness.

  20. Choroidal neovascularization associated with sympathetic ophthalmia: case report Neovascularização coroidiana associada à oftalmia simpática: relato de caso

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    Raul Nunes Galvarro Vianna

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available A 7-year-old boy with sympathetic ophthalmia secondary to penetrating ocular trauma developed choroidal neovascularization in the macular region of the sympathizing eye. Posterior segment biomicroscopy disclosed a single, round, small, slightly elevated yellow-white lesion temporal to the fovea, linked to the temporal edge of the optic disc by a fibrotic band. On fluorescein angiography the round lesion showed a gradual hyperfluorescence, with late staining and leakage, and was interpreted as a fibrovascular scar from previous choroidal neovascularization. Despite intense immunosuppressive therapy, the patient's final visual acuity was 20/400. Although rarely associated with sympathetic ophthalmia, choroidal neovascularization and its cicatricial stages can occur and compromise the visual prognosis of an already debilitated eye. The best course of treatment for choroidal neovascularization in these types of cases has not yet been determined.Paciente com oftalmia simpática (OS desenvolveu neovascularização coroidiana (NVC na região macular do olho simpatizado. A biomicroscopia do segmento posterior do olho afetado revelou uma pequena lesão branco-amarelada, discretamente elevada, localizada na região temporal à fóvea. Uma banda fibrosa ligava o disco óptico à lesão foveal. À angiografia fluoresceínica, a lesão revelou hiperfluorescência progressiva, com impregnação e extravazamento tardio do corante, achados esses característicos de uma cicatriz fibrovascular. Apesar de intenso tratamento com medicação imunossupressora, a acuidade visual final do paciente foi de 20/400. Embora raramente associada à oftalmia simpática a neovascularização coroidiana pode ocorrer e comprometer o prognóstico visual de um olho já debilitado. A melhor opção para o tratamento da neovascularização coroidiana em casos de oftalmia simpática ainda não está determinada.

  1. Aging Is Not a Disease: Distinguishing Age-Related Macular Degeneration from Aging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ardeljan, Daniel; Chan, Chi-Chao

    2013-01-01

    Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is a disease of the outer retina, characterized most significantly by atrophy of photoreceptors and retinal pigment epithelium accompanied with or without choroidal neovascularization. Development of AMD has been recognized as contingent on environmental and genetic risk factors, the strongest being advanced age. In this review, we highlight pathogenic changes that destabilize ocular homeostasis and promote AMD development. With normal aging, photoreceptors are steadily lost, Bruch's membrane thickens, the choroid thins, and hard drusen may form in the periphery. In AMD, many of these changes are exacerbated in addition to the development of disease-specific factors such as soft macular drusen. Para-inflammation, which can be thought of as an intermediate between basal and robust levels of inflammation, develops within the retina in an attempt to maintain ocular homeostasis, reflected by increased expression of the anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10 coupled with shifts in macrophage plasticity from the pro-inflammatory M1 to the anti-inflammatory M2 polarization. In AMD, imbalances in the M1 and M2 populations together with activation of retinal microglia are observed and potentially contribute to tissue degeneration. Nonetheless, the retina persists in a state of chronic inflammation and increased expression of certain cytokines and inflammasomes is observed. Since not everyone develops AMD, the vital question to ask is how the body establishes a balance between normal age-related changes and the pathological phenotypes in AMD. PMID:23933169

  2. Nanocarriers in ocular drug delivery: an update review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wadhwa, Sheetu; Paliwal, Rishi; Paliwal, Shivani Rai; Vyas, S P

    2009-01-01

    Controlled drug delivery to eye is one of the most challenging fields of pharmaceutical research. Low drug-contact time and poor ocular bioavailability due to drainage of solution, tear turnover and its dilution or lacrimation are the problems associated with conventional systems. In addition, anatomical barriers and physiological conditions of eye are also important parameters which control designing of drug delivery systems. Nanosized carriers like micro/nano-suspensions, liposome, niosome, dendrimer, nanoparticles, ocular inserts, implants, hydrogels and prodrug approaches have been developed for this purpose. These novel systems offer manifold advantages over conventional systems as they increase the efficiency of drug delivery by improving the release profile and also reduce drug toxicity. Conventional delivery systems get diluted with tear, washed away through the lacrimal gland and usually require administering at regular time intervals whereas nanocarriers release drug at constant rate for a prolonged period of time and thus enhance its absorption and site specific delivery. This review presents an overview of the various aspects of the ocular drug delivery, with special emphasis on nanocarrier based strategies, including structure of eye, its barriers, delivery routes and the challenges/limitations associated with development of novel nanocarriers. The recent progresses in therapy of ocular disease like gene therapy have also been included so that future options should also be considered from the delivery point of view. Recent progress in the delivery of proteins and peptides via ocular route has also been incorporated for reader benefit.

  3. Long term ocular and neurological involvement in severe congenital toxoplasmosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meenken, C; Assies, J; van Nieuwenhuizen, O; Holwerda-van der Maat, W G; van Schooneveld, M J; Delleman, W J; Kinds, G; Rothova, A

    1995-06-01

    This study was set up to determine the long term ocular and systemic sequelae in patients with severe congenital toxoplasmosis. Cross sectional and retrospective study of 17 patients with severe congenital toxoplasmosis. In addition to chorioretinitis (100%), the most common abnormal ocular features were optic nerve atrophy (83%), visual acuity of less than 0.1 (85%), strabismus, and microphthalmos. In 50% of cases we observed iridic abnormalities and about 40% developed a cataract. Overt endocrinological disease, diagnosed in five of 15 patients, included panhypopituitarism (n = 2), gonadal failure with dwarfism (n = 1), precocious puberty with dwarfism and thyroid deficiency (n = 1), and diabetes mellitus and thyroid deficiency (n = 1). The observed endocrinological involvement was associated in all cases with obstructive hydrocephalus with a dilated third ventricle and optic nerve atrophy. The recognition of long term ocular, neurological, and endocrinological sequelae of congenital toxoplasmosis is important for medical management of these severely handicapped patients.

  4. Tear film and ocular surface assessment in psoriasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aragona, Emanuela; Rania, Laura; Postorino, Elisa Imelde; Interdonato, Alberto; Giuffrida, Roberta; Cannavò, Serafinella Patrizia; Puzzolo, Domenico; Aragona, Pasquale

    2018-03-01

    Psoriasis is a skin disease with also systemic involvement: its impact on the eye is not well established and often clinically underestimated. Aim of this study was to investigate the presence of ocular discomfort symptoms and of ocular surface changes in a population of patients with psoriasis. For this cross-sectional, comparative study, 66 patients with psoriasis were subdivided according to the presence of arthritis and to the use of biological therapy. All patients underwent clinical evaluation with the following tests: Ocular Surface Disease Index Questionnaire, Tearscope examination, meibometry, tear film breakup time, corneal and conjunctival fluorescein staining, Schirmer I test, corneal aesthesiometry, meibomian gland dysfunction (MGD) assessment and conjunctival impression cytology. 28 healthy subjects were also enrolled and treated with the same clinical tests. A statistical analysis of the results was performed. Patients with psoriasis showed a significant deterioration of the ocular surface tests, if compared with healthy subjects, demonstrated by tear film lipid layer alteration, tear film instability, corneal and conjunctival epithelial suffering and mild squamous metaplasia at impression cytology. No differences were found in ocular surface test results of the psoriatic group when patients were divided according to the presence of arthritis, whereas the anti-inflammatory treatment with biological drugs demonstrated a significant improvement of corneal stain and MGD. Our findings suggest that the ocular surface involvement in patients with psoriasis indicates the need of periodic ophthalmological examinations to diagnose the condition and allow a proper treatment, so contributing to the amelioration of patients' quality of life. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  5. Angiogenesis in Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease

    OpenAIRE

    Góralczyk, Barbara; Drela, Ewelina; Góralczyk, Krzysztof; Szczypiorska, Anna; Rość, Danuta

    2012-01-01

    Angiogenesis is a very important process that occurs in both physiological and pathological states. The new blood vessels formation is characteristic for cancers, ischemic diseases and inflammatory diseases. The process is controlled by factors that stimulate and inhibit neovascularization. The next stages of the neovascularization are known as well as the role of the extracellular matrix, cells and cytokines/factors growth modulating this process. The cells of the endothelium and proangiogen...

  6. 21 CFR 882.1790 - Ocular plethysmograph.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ...) MEDICAL DEVICES NEUROLOGICAL DEVICES Neurological Diagnostic Devices § 882.1790 Ocular plethysmograph. (a) Identification. An ocular plethysmograph is a device used to measure or detect volume changes in the eye produced...

  7. Ocular manifestations of systematic lupus erythematosus in children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Mayouf, Sulaiman M.; Al-Hemidan, Amal I.

    2003-01-01

    To determine the prevalence and spectrum of ocular manifestations in children with systematic lupus erythematosus (SLE) and to examine the correlation of the ocular manifestations with disease activity , other organ involvement and the presence of circulating of autoantibodies. This study was performed at King Faisal Specialist Hospital and Research Centre, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia from June 2002 to November 2002. It included detailed eye examination, measuring circulating autoantibodies (antinuclear,anti phospholipid antibodies) and circulation of SLE disease activity index (SLEDAI). 52 consecutive children (45 females) with SLE completed the evaluation .The mean age of the patients was 11.3 years and the mean SLEDAI was 9.5 Thirty patients (57.7%) had the disease for more than 1 year. 18 patients(34.6%) had ocular manifestations.7 patients had abnormal . Schirmer's test. 5 patients had ratinal vascular lesions. 1 patient had bilateral iridocyclitis. 3 patients had unilateral optic neuropathy and 11 patients had visual field defects.Fisher extract test revealed positive correlation between optic neuropathy and central nervous system(CNS) involvement. There was no correlation among other variables; probably due to sample size. Ocular manifestations including sight threatening complications are not rare in children with SLE.Optic neuropathy had a strong prediction for CNS lupus. (author)

  8. Method optimization of ocular patches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamalesh Upreti

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The intraocular patches were prepared using gelatin as the polymer. Ocular patch were prepared by solvent casting method. The patches were prepared for six formulations GP1, GP2, GP3, GP4, GP5 and GP6. Petri dishes were used for formulation of ocular patch. Gelatin was used as a polymer of choice. Glutaraldehyde used as cross linking agent and (DMSO dimethylsulfoxide used as solubility enhancer. The elasticity depends upon the concentration of gelatin. 400 mg amount of polymer i.e gelatin gave the required elasticity for the formulation.

  9. Minocycline inhibits alkali burn-induced corneal neovascularization in mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ou Xiao

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of minocycline on alkali burn-induced corneal neovascularization (CNV. A total of 105 mice treated with alkali burns were randomly divided into three groups to receive intraperitoneal injections of either phosphate buffered saline (PBS or minocycline twice a day (60 mg/kg or 30 mg/kg for 14 consecutive days. The area of CNV and corneal epithelial defects was measured on day 4, 7, 10, and14 after alkali burns. On day 14, a histopathological examination was performed to assess morphological change and the infiltration of polymorphonuclear neutrophils (PMNs. The mRNA expression levels of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF and its receptors (VEGFRs, basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF, matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs, interleukin-1α, 1β, 6 (IL-1α, IL-1β, IL-6 were analyzed using real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction. The expression of MMP-2 and MMP-9 proteins was determined by gelatin zymography. In addition, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay was used to analyze the protein levels of VEGFR1, VEGFR2, IL-1β and IL-6. Minocycline at a dose of 60 mg/kg or 30 mg/kg significantly enhanced the recovery of the corneal epithelial defects more than PBS did. There were significant decreases of corneal neovascularization in the group of high-dosage minocycline compared with the control group at all checkpoints. On day 14, the infiltrated PMNs was reduced, and the mRNA expression of VEGFR1, VEGFR2, bFGF, IL-1β, IL-6, MMP-2, MMP-9, -13 as well as the protein expression of VEGFR2, MMP-2, -9, IL-1β, IL-6 in the corneas were down-regulated with the use of 60 mg/kg minocycline twice a day. Our results showed that the intraperitoneal injection of minocycline (60 mg/kg b.i.d. can significantly inhibit alkali burn-induced corneal neovascularization in mice, possibly by accelerating corneal wound healing and by reducing the production of angiogenic factors, inflammatory cytokines and MMPs.

  10. Role of macular xanthophylls in prevention of common neovascular retinopathies: retinopathy of prematurity and diabetic retinopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Xiaoming; Rubin, Lewis P

    2015-04-15

    Retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) and diabetic retinopathy (DR) are important causes of blindness among children and working-age adults, respectively. The development of both diseases involves retinal microvascular degeneration, vessel loss and consequent hypoxic and inflammatory pathologic retinal neovascularization. Mechanistic studies have shown that oxidative stress and subsequent derangement of cell signaling are important factors in disease progression. In eye and vision research, role of the dietary xanthophyll carotenoids, lutein and zeaxanthin, has been more extensively studied in adult onset macular degeneration than these other retinopathies. These carotenoids also may decrease severity of ROP in preterm infants and of DR in working-age adults. A randomized controlled clinical trial of carotenoid supplementation in preterm infants indicated that lutein has functional effects in the neonatal eye and is anti-inflammatory. Three multicenter clinical trials all showed a trend of decreased ROP severity in the lutein supplemented group. Prospective studies on patients with non-proliferative DR indicate serum levels of lutein and zeaxanthin are significantly lower in these patients compared to normal subjects. The present review describes recent advances in lutein and zeaxanthin modulation of oxidative stress and inflammation related to ROP and DR and discusses potential roles of lutein/zeaxanthin in preventing or lessening the risks of disease initiation or progression. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Influence of new societal factors on neovascular age-related macular degeneration outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giocanti-Aurégan, Audrey; Chbat, Elige; Darugar, Adil; Morel, Christophe; Morin, Bruno; Conrath, John; Devin, François

    2018-02-01

    To assess the impact of unstudied societal factors for neovascular age-related macular degeneration (nAMD) on functional outcomes after anti-VEGFs. Charts of 94 nAMD patients treated in the Monticelli-Paradis Centre, Marseille, France, were reviewed. Phone interviews were conducted to assess societal factors, including transportation, living status, daily reading and social security scheme (SSS). Primary outcome was the impact of family support and disease burden on functional improvement in nAMD. Between baseline and month 24 (M24), 42.4% of the variability in best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA) was explained by the cumulative effect of the following societal factors: intermittent out-patient follow-up, marital status, daily reading, transportation type, commuting time. No isolated societal factor significantly correlated with ETDRS BCVA severity at M24. A trend to correlation was observed between the EDTRS score at M24 and the SSS (P = 0.076), economic burden (P = 0.075), time between diagnosis and treatment initiation (P = 0.070). A significant correlation was found for the disease burdensome on the patient (P = 0.034) and low vision rehabilitation (P = 0.014). Societal factors could influence functional outcomes in nAMD patients treated with anti-VEGFs. They could contribute to the healing process or sustain disease progression.

  12. Ocular injuries and eye care seeking patterns following injuries among cocoa farmers in Ghana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bert, Boadi-Kusi Samuel; Rekha, Hansraj; Percy, Mashige Khathutshelo

    2016-03-01

    The work environment of cocoa farmers exposes them to several ocular hazards that predispose them to eye diseases and injuries. However, the extent of ocular injuries and health seeking patterns following these injuries are unknown among cocoa farmers in Ghana. To determine the prevalence of ocular injuries and health seeking behaviour following injury among cocoa farmers in Ghana. Five hundred and fifty six participants were recruited through simple random sampling using a multistage approach from four cocoa growing districts in Ghana. A structured questionnaire was used to collect relevant information such as demography, ocular hazards and injuries experienced. An ocular examination was also conducted to assess the eye health of the participants. Descriptive and regression statistics were used to analyze the data. The rate of ocular injuries was calculated by using the number of injuries reported that resulted in lost work time/days divided by the number of worker years at risk of injury (sum of years worked in cocoa farms for all the participants). The rate of ocular injuries was 11.3/1000 worker years (95% CI: 9.4 - 31) which led to lost work time of 37.3/1000 worker years (95% CI: 34.1 - 40.8). The major causes of ocular injury were plants/branches (n=73, 51.1%), chemicals (n=27, 18.9%), cocoa pod/husk (n=14, 9.8%) and occurred mostly during weeding, harvesting and chemical spraying. Few (n=34, 6.1%) participants reported the use of ocular protection. Fifty-five (38.5%) participants visited the local chemical shops, while 37 (25.9%) visited hospitals/clinics for ocular treatment of their injuries. There is a high rate of ocular injuries among cocoa farmers who make insufficient use of appropriate eye care services. There is the need for eye health education among cocoa farmers in Ghana.

  13. Multiple transfused thalassemia major: Ocular manifestations in a hospital-based population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taneja Rashi

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To study the ocular manifestations in multiple transfused beta-thalassemia major patients and assess the ocular side-effects of iron chelating agents. Materials and Methods: In this prospective observational study, 45 multiple transfused beta-thalassemia major children between six months and 21 years of age were enrolled and assigned groups according to the treatment regimens suggested. Group A received only blood transfusions, Group B blood transfusions with subcutaneous desferrioxamine, Group C blood transfusions with desferrioxamine and oral deferriprone and Group D blood transfusions with deferriprone. Ocular status at the time of enrolment was documented. Subjects were observed quarterly for one year for changes in ocular status arising due to the disease process and due to iron chelation therapy. Children with hemoglobinopathies other than beta-thalassemia major, congenital ocular anomalies and anemia due to other causes were excluded. Results: Ocular involvement was observed in 58% of patients. Lenticular opacities were the most common ocular finding (44%, followed by decreased visual acuity (33%. An increased occurrence of ocular changes was observed with increase of serum ferritin and serum iron levels as well as with higher number of blood transfusions received. Desferrioxamine seemed to have a protective influence on retinal pigment epithelium (RPE mottling. Occurrence of lenticular opacities and RPE degeneration correlated positively with use of desferrioxamine and deferriprone respectively. Follow-up of patients for one year did not reveal any change in ocular status. Conclusion: Regular ocular examinations can aid in preventing, delaying or ameliorating the ocular complications of thalassemia.

  14. Staphylococcus aureus ocular infection: methicillin-resistance, clinical features, and antibiotic susceptibilities.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chih-Chun Chuang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA infection is an important public health issue. The study aimed to determine the prevalence of ocular infections caused by MRSA and to identify the clinical characteristics and antibiotic susceptibility of ocular MRSA infections by comparing those of ocular methicillin-sensitive S. aureus (MSSA infections. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The medical records of the patients (n = 519 with culture-proven S. aureus ocular infections seen between January 1, 1999 and December 31, 2008 in Chang Gung Memorial Hospital were retrospectively reviewed. Two hundred and seventy-four patients with MRSA and 245 with MSSA ocular infections were identified. The average rate of MRSA in S. aureus infections was 52.8% and the trend was stable over the ten years (P value for trend  = 0.228. MRSA ocular infections were significantly more common among the patients with healthcare exposure (P = 0.024, but 66.1% (181/274 patients with MRSA ocular infections had no healthcare exposure. The most common clinical presentation for both MRSA and MSSA ocular infections was keratitis; MRSA and MSSA caused a similar disease spectrum except for lid infections. MRSA was significantly more resistant than MSSA to clindamycin, erythromycin and sulfamethoxazole/trimethoprim (all P<0.001. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: We demonstrated a paralleled trend of ocular MRSA infection in a highly prevalent MRSA country by hospital-based survey. Except for lid disorder, MRSA shared similar spectrum of ocular pathology with MSSA. Since S. aureus is a common ocular pathogen, our results raise clinician's attention to the existence of highly prevalent MRSA.

  15. Tumor ocular metastásico Metastatic ocular tumor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martha G Domínguez Expósito

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available El carcinoma metastásico del ojo es considerado la neoplasia maligna que más frecuente se encuentra de forma intraocular. Solo cerca del 10 % de las personas que tienen una o más lesiones metastásicas intraoculares son detectadas clínicamente antes de la muerte. A menudo, el carcinoma metastásico ocular es diagnosticado por el oftalmólogo ante la presencia de síntomas oculares. Las lesiones están localizadas con preferencia en coroides. Nos motivo a realizar la presentación de este caso la presencia de lesiones intraoculares múltiples tumorales metastásicos en un paciente cuyo síntoma de presentación fue la disminución de la agudeza visualThe eye metastatic carcinoma is considered the most frequently found intraocular malignant neoplasia. Only 10 % of the persons with one or more metastatic intraocular injuries are clinically detected before death. The metastatic ocular carcinoma is often diagnosed by the ophthalmologist in the presence of ocular symptoms. The injuries are preferably located in the choroid. The appearance of multiple metastatic intraaocular tumoral injuries in a patient whose chief complaint was the reduction of visual acuity motivated us to presente this case

  16. Headaches with ocular localization and involvement Cefaleas de localización y compromiso oculares

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Lucía Muñoz Cardona

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available The most frequent primary headaches, including migraine variants, and intrinsic optic nerve disorders that produce headache, are reviewed. The latter are often accompanied by autonomic nervous system alterations which lead to vasomotor changes, frequently present in neuralgic processes known as headaches with disautonomic involvement. Epidemiological, semiological, clinical, and therapeutical aspects of different cranial, facial and ocular diseases that produce headache are included. Some physiopathological elements that may help to analyze painful craniofacial processes are discussed. Secondary headaches and common facial neuralgias, on the other hand, are also considered because they may confuse the differential diagnosis. Se revisan las cefaleas primarias más frecuentes que comprometen las estructuras oculares y vecinas al globo ocular, las variantes de la migraña y las alteraciones propias del nervio óptico que alteran la función visual y que se acompañan no solamente de síntomas dolorosos sino también de trastornos vasomotores debidos a alteraciones del sistema nervioso autónomo que suelen ser comunes en algunos procesos neurálgicos llamados ahora cefaleas con compromiso disautonómico. En este artículo se comentan los elementos epidemiológicos de las diferentes enfermedades craneales, faciales y oculares que cursan con cefalea; las diferencias clínicas entre las mismas y su presentación semiológica, al igual que algunos elementos terapéuticos. Se discuten además algunos elementos fisiopatológicos de gran utilidad en el análisis de los procesos dolorosos craneofaciales y el perfil temporal de los mismos; también se comentan algunas cefaleas secundarias que comparten con las primarias elementos que se prestan a confusión en la clínica. Finalmente, se hace un análisis de las neuralgias faciales comunes.

  17. Ultrasonographic demonstration of intraneural neovascularization after penetrating nerve injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arányi, Zsuzsanna; Csillik, Anita; Dévay, Katalin; Rosero, Maja

    2018-06-01

    Hypervascularization of nerves has been shown to be a pathological sign in some peripheral nerve disorders, but has not been investigated in nerve trauma. An observational cohort study was performed of the intraneural blood flow of 30 patients (34 nerves) with penetrating nerve injuries, before or after nerve reconstruction. All patients underwent electrophysiological assessment, and B-mode and color Doppler ultrasonography. Intraneural hypervascularization proximal to the site of injury was found in all nerves, which was typically marked and had a longitudinal extension of several centimeters. In 6 nerves, some blood flow was also present within the injury site or immediately distal to the injury. No correlation was found between the degree of vascularization and age, size of the scar / neuroma, or degree of reinnervation. Neovascularization of nerves proximal to injury sites appears to be an essential element of nerve regeneration after penetrating nerve injuries. Muscle Nerve 57: 994-999, 2018. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Surgical induction of choroidal neovascularization in a porcine model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lassota, Nathan; Kiilgaard, Jens Folke; Prause, Jan Ulrik

    2007-01-01

    PURPOSE: To develop a reproducible surgical technique for the induction of choroidal neovascularization (CNV) in the subretinal space of porcine eyes and to analyse the resulting CNV clinically and histologically. METHODS: Two different modifications of a surgical technique previously described...... were compared with the original method. In ten porcine eyes retinal pigment epithelial (RPE) cells were removed using a silicone tipped cannula, in ten porcine eyes Bruch's membrane was perforated once with a retinal perforator without prior RPE removal and in ten eyes RPE removal was followed...... by a single perforation of Bruch's membrane. Fifteen of the eyes, five from each group, were enucleated 30 minutes after surgery, while the remaining eyes were enucleated after 14 days. Prior to enucleation, at day 14, fundus photographs and fluorescein angiograms were obtained. Eyes were examined by light...

  19. Dye-enhanced diode laser photocoagulation of choroidal neovascularizations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klingbeil, Ulrich; Puliafito, Carmen A.; McCarthy, Dan; Reichel, Elias; Olk, Joseph; Lesiecki, Michael L.

    1994-06-01

    Dye-enhanced diode laser photocoagulation, using the dye indocyanine green (ICG), has shown some potential in the treatment of choroidal neovascularizations (CNV). A diode laser system was developed and optimized to emit at the absorption maximum of ICG. In a clinical study at two retinal centers, more than 70 patients, the majority of which had age-related macular degeneration, were treated. Eighteen cases with ill-defined subfoveal CNV were followed an average of 11 months after laser treatment. The results show success in resolving the CNV with an average long-term preservation of visual function equal to or superior to data provided by the Macular Photocoagulation Study for confluent burns of low intensity applied to the CNV. Details of the technique and discussion of the controversies inherent in such a treatment strategy will be presented.

  20. Radiation Therapy for Neovascular Age-related Macular Degeneration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kishan, Amar U. [Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Modjtahedi, Bobeck S.; Morse, Lawrence S. [Department of Ophthalmology and Vision Sciences, University of California, Davis, Sacramento, California (United States); Lee, Percy, E-mail: percylee@mednet.ucla.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, David Geffen School of Medicine at UCLA, Los Angeles, California (United States)

    2013-03-01

    In the enormity of the public health burden imposed by age-related macular degeneration (ARMD), much effort has been directed toward identifying effective and efficient treatments. Currently, anti-vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) injections have demonstrated considerably efficacy in treating neovascular ARMD, but patients require frequent treatment to fully benefit. Here, we review the rationale and evidence for radiation therapy of ARMD. The results of early photon external beam radiation therapy are included to provide a framework for the sequential discussion of evidence for the usage of stereotactic radiation therapy, proton therapy, and brachytherapy. The evidence suggests that these 3 modern modalities can provide a dose-dependent benefit in the treatment of ARMD. Most importantly, preliminary data suggest that all 3 can be used in conjunction with anti-VEGF therapeutics, thereby reducing the frequency of anti-VEGF injections required to maintain visual acuity.

  1. Diospyros kaki Extract Inhibits Alkali Burn-Induced Corneal Neovascularization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Sung Jae; Jo, Hyoung; Kim, Kyung-A; Ahn, Hong Ryul; Kang, Suk Woo; Jung, Sang Hoon

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of ethanol extract of Diospyros kaki (EEDK) leaves on corneal neovascularization (CoNV) in rats. One week after the alkali burns in the corneas, the CoNV area coverage in the CoNV-positive control group, 100 mg/kg EEDK group, and 200 mg/kg EEDK group was 43.3% ± 5.5%, 337.7% ± 2.5%, and 27.2% ± 4.3%, respectively. The areas of CoNV in the EEDK-treated groups were significantly different from those of the CoNV group. EEDK significantly attenuated the upregulation of vascular endothelial growth factor, fibroblast growth factor, interleukin-6, and matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2) protein levels. Orally administrated D. kaki inhibited CoNV development in rats.

  2. The Relationship Between Ocular Itch, Ocular Pain, and Dry Eye Symptoms (An American Ophthalmological Society Thesis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galor, Anat; Small, Leslie; Feuer, William; Levitt, Roy C; Sarantopoulos, Konstantinos D; Yosipovitch, Gil

    2017-08-01

    To evaluate associations between sensations of ocular itch and dry eye (DE) symptoms, including ocular pain, and DE signs. A cross-sectional study of 324 patients seen in the Miami Veterans Affairs eye clinic was performed. The evaluation consisted of questionnaires regarding ocular itch, DE symptoms, descriptors of neuropathic-like ocular pain (NOP), and evoked pain sensitivity testing on the forehead and forearm, followed by a comprehensive ocular surface examination including corneal mechanical sensitivity testing. Analyses were performed to examine for differences between those with and without subjective complaints of ocular itch. The mean age was 62 years with 92% being male. Symptoms of DE and NOP were more frequent in patients with moderate-severe ocular itch compared to those with no or mild ocular itch symptoms. With the exception of ocular surface inflammation (abnormal matrix metalloproteinase 9 testing) which was less common in those with moderate-severe ocular itch symptoms, DE signs were not related to ocular itch. Individuals with moderate-severe ocular itch also demonstrated greater sensitivity to evoked pain on the forearm and had higher non-ocular pain, depression, and post-traumatic stress disorders scores, compared to those with no or mild itch symptoms. Subjects with moderate-severe ocular itch symptoms have more severe symptoms of DE, NOP, non-ocular pain and demonstrate abnormal somatosensory testing in the form of increased sensitivity to evoked pain at a site remote from the eye, consistent with generalized hypersensitivity.

  3. Ocular emergencies presenting to Menelik II Hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Negussie, Dereje; Bejiga, Abebe

    2011-01-01

    Ocular conditions such as trauma, painful red eye of any cause, painless sudden visual loss and others are commonly seen as ocular emergencies, and can lead to ocular morbidity and visual loss. To determine types and causes of ocular emergencies seen at Menelik II hospital. A cross-sectional study was conducted from April to October, 2007. Consecutive patients who presented with ocular emergencies at any time of the day were prospectively evaluated and registered on a formatted questionnaire. Evaluation of the patients included history of presenting illness, visual acuity testing intraocular pressure measurement on non-perforated and non-infected eyes, and complete eye examination in order to arrive at the diagnosis. A total of 26,400 patients attended Menelik II hospital during the study period. Of these, 758 (3%) were persons with an ocular emergency. The majority of patients (n=551; 72.7%) were male, with a male to female ratio of 2.7:1. The age group of 16 to 30 years was the most affected (47.9%), followed by those aged 15 years or younger (27.3%). Ocular trauma and ocular infections accounted for 75.6% and 13.1% of cases, respectively. Of the total ocular emergencies, open globe injuries constituted 171 (22.6%), corneal foreign bodies and abrasion 125 (16.5%), and open adnexal injuries 119 (15.7%). Metal and wood were the commonest work-related causes of ocular injuries in adults, with both together accounting for 60% of all ocular injuries. Children, on the other hand, sustained ocular injury while playing with others in 128 (22.3%) of cases. This study was able to provide a more complete picture to improve understanding of the nature and circumstances of ocular emergencies in Ethiopia. Ocular emergencies were dominated by ocular trauma, particularly affecting males and working-age adults. Public education and use of protective safety measures are recommended to alleviate the problem.

  4. Saccular impact on ocular torsion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Graaf, B. de; Bos, J.E.; Groen, E.L.

    1996-01-01

    When someone is tilted laterally the sheer force on the maculae of the utriculus and the sacculus is described by the sine and the cosine of the angle of tilt, respectively. So both the sacculus and the utriculus are stimulated, but in the litera-ture ocular torsion is normally attributed to

  5. Imaging the ocular motor nerves.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ferreira, T.; Verbist, B.M.; Buchem, M. van; Osch, T. van; Webb, A.

    2010-01-01

    The ocular motor nerves (OMNs) comprise the oculomotor, trochlear and the abducens nerves. According to their course, they are divided into four or five anatomic segments: intra-axial, cisternal, cavernous and intra-orbital and, for the abducens nerve, an additional interdural segment. Magnetic

  6. haematological changes accompanying prolonged ocular ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dr Olaleye

    oral chloramphenicol provided the basis for comparison. 20 adult male rabbits were randomly but equally divided into two main groups based on the route of administration of the drug (i.e ocular or oral). In each group of ten rabbits equal number of rabbits were randomly divided into test (n=5) and control (n=5) subgroups.

  7. The ocular complications of boxing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giovinazzo, V J; Yannuzzi, L A; Sorenson, J A; Delrowe, D J; Cambell, E A

    1987-06-01

    In cooperation with the New York State Athletic Commission, 74 boxers applying for a new or yearly renewal license were sequentially referred over a 2-year period for a complete dilated ocular examination at the Sports Vision Institute of the Manhattan Eye, Ear and Throat Hospital. At least one ocular injury was found in 66% of boxers. Vision-threatening injuries, defined as significant damage to the angle, lens, macula, or peripheral retina occurred in 58% of boxers. Nineteen percent of boxers had angle abnormalities. Nineteen percent of boxers had pathologic cataracts, over 70% of these were posterior subcapsular. Six boxers had macular lesions. A total of 24% of boxers had retinal tears. Standardized photographs were used to distinguish pathologic cataracts from congenital opacities and pathologic retinal tears from atrophic holes. Attempts were made to identify risk factors in boxing that might be predictive for ocular injury. Variables included age, weight division, left- or right-handedness, total number of losses, and total number of bouts. Significant correlations were found between the total number of bouts and the total number of losses, and the presence of retinal tears. College varsity athletes were selected as controls. Significant differences were found between boxers and controls for the total number of injuries, total vision-threatening injuries, and the number of retinal tears. A series of recommendations are proposed to aide in the early detection and prevention of serious ocular injuries.

  8. Adverse ocular reactions to drugs.

    OpenAIRE

    Spiteri, M. A.; James, D. G.

    1983-01-01

    Drugs acting on various parts of the body may also affect the eye insidiously. Increased awareness of such drug toxicity by the prescribing doctor should encourage him to consider effects on the cornea, lens, retina, optic nerve and elsewhere when checking the patient's progress. The following review concerns adverse ocular effects of systemic drug administration.

  9. Surfing-related ocular injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, J W; McDonald, H R; Rubsamen, P E; Luttrull, J K; Drouilhet, J H; Frambach, D A; Boyer, D S; Lambrou, F H; Hendrick, A; Weiss, J N; Engstrom, R E; Ing, M

    1998-01-01

    This report evaluates the clinical characteristics of surfing-related ocular trauma to learn the nature of such injuries and propose possible preventive measures. The authors reviewed 11 cases of surfing-related eye injuries caused by direct trauma from the surfboard, studying their mechanism of injury, the associated ocular complications, and the anatomic and visual outcomes of surgical repair. Surfing-related ocular injuries occurred exclusively in young males (mean age, 24.8 years; range, 14-37 years). The mechanism of injury most frequently responsible was impact with the sharp nose of the surfboard following a fall. Serious posterior segment complications were observed in all 11 patients, with nine patients suffering ruptured globes. Despite immediate medical attention, five patients did not recover ambulatory levels of visual acuity (>5/200). Surfing-related ocular trauma presenting to the retinal specialist typically leaves the patient with a permanent visual disability. Important factors contributing to these high-velocity injuries include the sharply pointed nose of the surfboard and the leash keeping the surfer in close proximity to the board following a fall. A simple modification in surfboard design such as blunting the sharp nose of the surfboard, or appropriate protective guards fitted over the surfboard nose, should lessen the severity of such injuries.

  10. Iontoforese no transporte ocular de drogas Iontophoresis for ocular drug delivery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sílvia Ligório Fialho

    2004-10-01

    procedure that may involve the risk of ocular perforation or retinal detachment. Thus, iontophoresis presents an alternative technique for the delivery of therapeutic drug doses to the posterior segment of the eye. Iontophoresis is a technique that consists of the administration of drugs to the body through tissues using an electric field involving a small potential difference. The active electrode, which is in contact with the drug, is placed at the site to be treated, and a second electrode, with the purpose to close the electric circuit, is placed at another site of the body. The electric field facilitates the transport of the drug that should be mainly ionized. Iontophoresis is considered to be a safe and noninvasive technique of drug delivery to specific sites of the eye. This technique, experimentally applied to the treatment of ocular diseases, has advanced in the last years and, at present, phase III clinical trials are in progress.

  11. Ocular pentastomiasis in the Democratic Republic of the Congo.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihály Sulyok

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Ocular pentastomiasis is a rare infection caused by the larval stage of pentastomids, an unusual group of crustacean-related parasites. Zoonotic pentastomids have a distinct geographical distribution and utilize reptiles or canids as final hosts. Recently, an increasing number of human abdominal infections have been reported in Africa, where pentastomiasis is an emerging, though severely neglected, tropical disease. Here we describe four ocular infections caused by pentastomids from the Democratic Republic of the Congo. Two cases underwent surgery and an Armillifer grandis infection was detected by morphological and molecular approaches. Thus far, 15 other cases of ocular pentastomiasis have been reported worldwide. Twelve cases were caused by Armillifer sp., recorded almost exclusively in Africa, where such infections occur as a consequence of hunting and consuming snakes, their final hosts. Seven further cases were caused by Linguatula serrata, a cosmopolitan pentastomid whose final hosts are usually canids. Intraocular infections caused permanent visual damage in 69% and a total loss of vision in 31% of reported cases. In contrast, ocular adnexal cases had a benign clinical course. Further research is required to estimate the burden, therapeutic options and pathogenesis of this neglected disease.

  12. OCULAR MANIFESTATIONS OF HEAD INJURIES

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    Kanukollu Venkata Madusudana Rao

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND This prospective study aimed to evaluate the incidence of ocular manifestations in head injury and their correlation with the intracranial lesions. MATERIALS AND METHODS A total of 108 consecutive cases of closed head injury admitted in the neurosurgical ward of a tertiary teaching hospital underwent a thorough ophthalmic assessment. Clinical examination, radiological imaging and Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS were applied to grade the severity of injury. RESULTS Total number of 108 patients of head injury were examined of which 38 patients had ocular manifestations (35.18%. Of these, 85.18% were males, 84% of injuries were due to road traffic accidents and 16% were due to fall from a height. The ocular manifestations were as follows- Orbital complications were seen in 6 patients (15.8%. Anterior segment manifestations included black eyes seen in 10 patients (26.3%, subconjunctival haemorrhage in 10.5% of patients (4 patients, corneal involvement in 21% of patients (8 patients and pupillary involvement in 50% of patients (19 patients. Posterior segment manifestations were seen in 26.3% of patients (10 patients and were as follows- Purtscher’s retinopathy in 2 patients and optic atrophy in 5 patients. Cranial nerve palsies were seen in 15 patients (39.47% and supranuclear movement disorders were seen in 3 patients (8%. CONCLUSION Even though, neurosurgeons perform comprehensive clinical examination including eye examination, the main purpose is limited to aid topical diagnosis of neurological lesions. This study emphasises the importance of a detailed eye examination by an ophthalmologist to prevent irreversible visual loss in addition to aiding in the neurological diagnosis. Pupillary involvement, papilloedema and ocular motor paresis pointed to a more severe head injury. This observational prospective study helped us to correlate the severity of head injuries in association with ocular findings in patients admitted in neurosurgical ward

  13. Knockdown of the placental growth factor gene inhibits laser induced choroidal neovascularization in a murine model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nourinia, Ramin; Soheili, Zahra-Soheila; Ahmadieh, Hamid; Akrami, Hassan; Rezaei Kanavi, Mozhgan; Samiei, Shahram

    2013-01-01

    To evaluate the effect of placental growth factor (PlGF) gene knockdown in a murine model of laser-induced choroidal neovascularization. Choroidal neovascularization was induced in the left eyes of 11 mice by infrared laser. Small interfering RNA (siRNA, 20 picomoles/10 μl) corresponding to PlGF mRNA was administered intravitreally by Hamilton syringe in all subjects. One month later, fluorescein angiography and histolologic examination were performed. No leakage was apparent in the 11 eyes treated with siRNA cognate to PlGF. The results of histological evaluation were consistent with angiographic findings showing absence of choroidal neovascularization. Knockdown of the PlGF gene can inhibit the growth of laser-induced choroidal neovascularization in mice.

  14. Knockdown of the Placental Growth Factor Gene Inhibits Laser Induced Choroidal Neovascularization in a Murine Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramin Nourinia

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To evaluate the effect of placental growth factor (PlGF gene knockdown in a murine model of laser-induced choroidal neovascularization. Methods: Choroidal neovascularization was induced in the left eyes of 11 mice by infrared laser. Small interfering RNA (siRNA, 20 picomoles/10 μl corresponding to PlGF mRNA was administered intravitreally by Hamilton syringe in all subjects. One month later, fluorescein angiography and histolologic examination were performed. Results: No leakage was apparent in the 11 eyes treated with siRNA cognate to PlGF. The results of histological evaluation were consistent with angiographic findings showing absence of choroidal neovascularization. Conclusion: Knockdown of the PlGF gene can inhibit the growth of laser-induced choroidal neovascularization in mice.

  15. Apelin enhances cardiac neovascularization after myocardial infarction by recruiting aplnr+ circulating cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tempel, D.; de Boer, M.; van Deel, E.D.; Haasdijk, R.A.; Duncker, D.J.G.M.; Cheng, C.; Schulte-Merker, S.; Duckers, H.J.

    2012-01-01

    RATIONALE: Neovascularization stimulated by local or recruited stem cells after ischemia is a key process that salvages damaged tissue and shows similarities with embryonic vascularization. Apelin receptor (Aplnr) and its endogenous ligand apelin play an important role in cardiovascular development.

  16. Apelin Enhances Cardiac Neovascularization After Myocardial Infarction By Recruiting Aplnr+ Circulating Cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tempel, D.; Boer, de M.; Deel, van E.D.; Haasdijk, A.; Duncker, D.J.; Cheng, C.; Schulte-Merker, S.; Duckers, H.J.

    2012-01-01

    Rationale: Neovascularization stimulated by local or recruited stem cells after ischemia is a key process that salvages damaged tissue and shows similarities with embryonic vascularization. Apelin receptor (Aplnr) and its endogenous ligand apelin play an important role in cardiovascular development.

  17. Cataract surgery in patients with neovascular age-related macular degeneration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kessel, Line; Theil, Pernille Koefoed; Sørensen, Torben Lykke

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To examine the outcome after cataract surgery in patients with neovascular age-related macular degeneration (AMD) treated with intravitreal anti-vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) injections in routine clinical practice. Methods We extracted information about patients recorded...

  18. Peripapillary Choroidal Neovascularization Associated with Optic Nerve Head Drusen Treated with Anti-VEGF Agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norman A. Saffra

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Optic nerve head drusen can be associated with peripapillary choroidal neovascularization, in both the pediatric and adult population. These membranes can involve the macula, causing significant visual loss. Herein, we present a case that required treatment with an anti-VEGF agent. The patient failed to respond to the initial agent, but subsequently responded to a change of agent. Adult patients with macular degeneration involving peripapillary choroidal neovascularization associated with optic nerve head drusen may require individualized treatment plans.

  19. The prevalence of ocular lesions associated with hypertension in a population of geriatric cats in Auckland, New Zealand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, J M; Irving, A C; Bridges, J P; Jones, B R

    2014-01-01

    To provide an estimate of the prevalence of ocular lesions associated with hypertension in geriatric cats in Auckland, New Zealand and to evaluate the importance of examination of the ocular fundi of cats over eight years of age. A total of 105 cats ≥8 years of age were examined and clinical signs recorded. Blood was collected for the laboratory measurement of the concentrations of blood urea nitrogen (BUN), glucose and creatinine in serum, urine was collected for determination of urine specific gravity (USG), and blood pressure (BP) was measured using high definition oscillometry equipment. A cat was determined to have systemic hypertension with a systolic BP ≥160 mm Hg and a diastolic BP ≥100 mm Hg. Each animal had an ocular fundic examination using a retinal camera to diagnose ocular lesions associated with hypertension, including retinopathies, choroidopathies and optic neuropathies. Blood pressure was successfully recorded in 73 cats. Of these, 37 (51%) had no hypertensive ocular lesions and no underlying disease diagnosed, 24 (33%) had no hypertensive ocular lesions detected, but underlying disease such as chronic kidney disease, hyperthyroidism or diabetes mellitus was diagnosed, and 12 (16%) cats had evidence of hypertensive ocular lesions. Ten of the cats with hypertensive ocular lesions were hypertensive at the time of the first visit and two were normotensive. One additional cat had hypertensive ocular lesions, but it was not possible to obtain consistent BP readings in this animal. Chronic kidney disease was the most commonly diagnosed concurrent disease in cats with hypertensive ocular lesions (n=6). Mean systolic BP for cats with hypertensive ocular lesions (168.0 (SE 6.29) mm Hg) was higher than for those with no ocular lesions (144.7 (SE 3.11) mm Hg) or those with no lesions but with underlying disease (146.0 (SE 4.97) mm Hg) (p=0.001). Ocular fundic examination of cats over eight years of age allows identification of cats with

  20. Neovascular age-related macular degeneration without drusen in the fellow eye: clinical spectrum and therapeutic outcome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chung WH

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Wing H Chung,1 Elon H C van Dijk,1 Danial Mohabati,1 Greet Dijkman,1 Suzanne Yzer,2 Eiko K de Jong,3 Sascha Fauser,4 Reinier O Schlingemann,5–7 Carel B Hoyng,3 Camiel J F Boon1,5 1Department of Ophthalmology, Leiden University Medical Center, Leiden, 2Rotterdam Eye Hospital, Rotterdam, 3Department of Ophthalmology, Donders Institute for Brain, Cognition and Behaviour, Radboud University Medical Center, Nijmegen, the Netherlands; 4Department of Ophthalmology, University Hospital of Cologne, Cologne, Germany; 5Department of Ophthalmology, 6Ocular Angiogenesis Group, Departments of Ophthalmology and Cell Biology and Histology, Academic Medical Center, 7Netherlands Institute for Neuroscience, Amsterdam, the Netherlands Purpose: To investigate the clinical characteristics and therapeutic outcome of patients with neovascular age-related macular degeneration (nAMD in 1 eye, without drusen in the fellow eye. Patients and methods: Medical records of 381 patients were analyzed to identify the cases. The main outcomes included Early Treatment Diabetic Retinopathy Study (ETDRS best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA and change in central retinal thickness (CRT. These parameters were reviewed at baseline, first follow-up visit, and after 6, 12, and 24 months. Results: Out of 381 patients, 29 cases (8% were included (of whom 3 had polypoidal choroidal vasculopathy [PCV] who were treated with anti-vascular endothelial growth factor (anti-VEGF therapy which was supplemented by photodynamic therapy (PDT in the PCV patients. Overall, no statistically significant change in mean BCVA was observed during follow-up. BCVA improved or remained stable (defined as a gain in BCVA, a stable BCVA, or a loss of <5 ETDRS letters in 22 patients (76%, and 7 patients (23% had lost ≥5 ETDRS letters at final follow-up. A gain of ≥15 ETDRS letters at final follow-up was seen in 5 patients (17%. Mean CRT had decreased significantly with 99 µm (P<0.001 at 24 months after the

  1. Spontaneous Regression of Choroidal Neovascularization in a Patient with Pattern Dystrophy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anastasios Anastasakis

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To present a case of a patient with pattern dystrophy (PD associated choroidal neovascularization (CNV that resolved spontaneously without treatment. Methods. A 69-year-old male patient was referred to our unit, for evaluation of a recent visual loss (metamorphopsias in his left eye. Fundus examination, fundus autofluorescence imaging, and fluorescein angiography showed a choroidal neovascular membrane in his left eye. Since visual acuity was satisfactory the patient elected observation. Clinical examination and OCT testing were repeated at 6 and 12 months after presentation. Results. Visual acuity remained stable at the level of 0.9 (baseline BCVA during the follow-up period (12 months. Repeat OCT testing showed complete spontaneous regression of the choroidal neovascular membrane without evidence of intra- or subretinal fluid in both follow-up visits. Conclusions. Spontaneous regression of choroidal neovascularization can occur in patients with retinal dystrophies and associated choroidal neovascular membranes. The decision to treat or observe these patients relies strongly on the presenting visual acuity, since, in isolated instances, spontaneous resolution of choroidal neovascularization may occur.

  2. Cathepsin L is required for endothelial progenitor cell-induced neovascularization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Urbich, Carmen; Heeschen, Christopher; Aicher, Alexandra; Sasaki, Ken-ichiro; Bruhl, Thomas; Hofmann, Wolf K.; Peters, Christoph; Reinheckel, Thomas; Pennacchio, Len A.; Abolmaali, Nasreddin D.; Chavakis, Emmanouil; Zeiher, Andreas M.; Dimmeler, Stefanie

    2004-01-15

    Infusion of endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs), but not of mature endothelial cells (ECs), promotes neovascularization after ischemia. We performed a gene expression profiling of EPCs and ECs to identify genes, which might be important for the neovascularization capacity of EPCs. Intriguingly, the protease cathepsin L (CathL) was highly expressed in EPCs as opposed to ECs and is essential for matrix degradation and invasion by EPCs in vitro. CathL deficient mice showed impaired functional recovery after hind limb ischemia supporting the concept for an important role of CathL in postnatal neovascularization. Infused CathL deficient progenitor cells failed to home to sites of ischemia and to augment neovascularization. In contrast, over expression of CathL in mature ECs significantly enhanced their invasive activity and induced their neovascularization capacity in vivo. Taken together, CathL plays a crucial role for the integration of circulating EPCs into the ischemic tissue and is required for neovascularization mediated by EPCs.

  3. Topical ocular 0.1% cyclosporine A cationic emulsion in dry eye disease patients with severe keratitis: experience through the French early-access program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pisella P

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Pierre-Jean Pisella,1 Marc Labetoulle,2 Serge Doan,3 Beatrice Cochener-Lamard,4 Mourad Amrane,5 Dahlia Ismail,5 Catherine Creuzot-Garcher,6,7 Christophe Baudouin8–10 1Department of Ophthalmology, Tours University Hospital, University François Rabelais, Bretonneau Hospital, Tours, 2Department of Ophthalmology, Bicêtre Hospital, APHP, Paris-Sud University, Le Kremlin-Bicêtre, 3Department of Ophthalmology, Bichat Hospital and Fondation A de Rothschild, Paris, 4Brest University Medical School, Morvan Hospital, Brest, 5Santen SAS, Evry, 6Department of Ophthalmology, University Hospital, 7Department of Ophthalmology III, Eye and Nutrition Research Group, Burgundy, Dijon, 8Research Team S12, Quinze-Vingts National Ophthalmology Hospital, 9Department of Ophthalmology, Ambroise-Paré Hospital, APHP, UPMC University, Paris 6, Vision Institute, INSERM UMRS968, CNRS UMR7210, Paris, 10University of Versailles Saint-Quentin en Yvelines, Versailles, France Purpose: The objective of this study was to report the evaluation of efficacy and safety of cyclosporine A cationic emulsion (CsA CE 0.1% for the treatment of severe keratitis in adults with dry eye disease (DED in a French early-access program. Methods: Patients with DED and severe keratitis (corneal fluorescein staining [CFS] score of 3–5 on the Oxford scale and/or the presence of corneal lesions [filaments or ulcers] were enrolled in a compassionate use program (Authorization for Temporary Use [ATU] for once-daily CsA CE, which was approved by French health authorities prior to its registration. Efficacy and safety at 1, 3, 6, and 12-month follow-up visits were evaluated. Results: The ATU cohort (n=1,212; mean age =60.5 years; 79.5% female; 98.1% with severe keratitis; 74.5% with corneal lesions consisted of 601 CsA-naïve patients and 611 patients treated previously with other CsA formulations. The primary DED etiology was Sjögren’s syndrome (48.7%. Clinical benefit could be discerned among

  4. Incomplete response to artificial tears is associated with features of neuropathic ocular pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galor, Anat; Batawi, Hatim; Felix, Elizabeth R; Margolis, Todd P; Sarantopoulos, Konstantinos D; Martin, Eden R; Levitt, Roy C

    2016-06-01

    Artificial tears are first-line therapy for patients with dry eye symptoms. It is not known, however, which patient factors associate with a positive response to therapy. The purpose of this study was to evaluate whether certain ocular and systemic findings are associated with a differential subjective response to artificial tears. Cross-sectional study of 118 individuals reporting artificial tears use (hypromellose 0.4%) to treat dry eye-associated ocular pain. An evaluation was performed to assess dry eye symptoms (via the dry eye questionnaire 5 and ocular surface disease index), ocular and systemic (non-ocular) pain complaints and ocular signs (tear osmolarity, tear breakup time, corneal staining, Schirmer testing with anaesthesia, and eyelid and meibomian gland assessment). The main outcome measures were factors associated with differential subjective response to artificial tears. By self-report, 23 patients reported no improvement, 73 partial improvement and 22 complete improvement in ocular pain with artificial tears. Patients who reported no or partial improvement in pain with artificial tears reported higher levels of hot-burning ocular pain and sensitivity to wind compared with those with complete improvement. Patients were also asked to rate the intensity of systemic pain elsewhere in the body (other than the eye). Patients who reported no or incomplete improvement with artificial tears had higher systemic pain scores compared with those with complete improvement. Both ocular and systemic (non-ocular) pain complaints are associated with a differential subjective response to artificial tears. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  5. Ocular Stem Cell Research from Basic Science to Clinical Application: A Report from Zhongshan Ophthalmic Center Ocular Stem Cell Symposium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong Ouyang

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Stem cells hold promise for treating a wide variety of diseases, including degenerative disorders of the eye. The eye is an ideal organ for stem cell therapy because of its relative immunological privilege, surgical accessibility, and its being a self-contained system. The eye also has many potential target diseases amenable to stem cell-based treatment, such as corneal limbal stem cell deficiency, glaucoma, age-related macular degeneration (AMD, and retinitis pigmentosa (RP. Among them, AMD and glaucoma are the two most common diseases, affecting over 200 million people worldwide. Recent results on the clinical trial of retinal pigment epithelial (RPE cells from human embryonic stem cells (hESCs and induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs in treating dry AMD and Stargardt’s disease in the US, Japan, England, and China have generated great excitement and hope. This marks the beginning of the ocular stem cell therapy era. The recent Zhongshan Ophthalmic Center Ocular Stem Cell Symposium discussed the potential applications of various stem cell types in stem cell-based therapies, drug discoveries and tissue engineering for treating ocular diseases.

  6. Idiopathic polypoidal choroidal vasculopathy in Thai patients with clinical and angiographic choroidal neovascularization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhoomibunchoo C

    2017-02-01

    temporal to vascular arcades, ten eyes (9.35% in the peripapillary area and four eyes (3.74% in both macular and peripapillary areas. The clinical manifestations of IPCV at presentation were categorized into two patterns. There were 95 eyes (88.79% of a hemorrhagic pattern and 12 eyes (11.21% of an exudative pattern.Conclusion: IPCV is the most common macular disease in Thai patients with CNV. Most IPCVs have both BVNs and polypoidal lesions located in the macular area and present with a hemorrhagic pattern. Keywords: idiopathic polypoidal choroidal vasculopathy, prevalence, choroidal neovascularization, age-related macular degeneration

  7. Updates in the treatment of ocular allergies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osmo Kari

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Osmo Kari1, K Matti Saari21Department of Allergology, Skin and Allergy Hospital, Helsinki University Central Hospital, Helsinki, Finland; 2Department of Ophthalmology, University of Turku, Turku, FinlandAbstract: Allergic diseases have greatly increased in industrialized countries. About 30% of people suffer from allergic symptoms and 40%–80% of them have symptoms in the eyes. Atopic conjunctivitis can be divided into seasonal allergic conjunctivitis (SAC and perennial allergic conjunctivitis (PAC. The treatment of SAC is simple; antihistamines, anti-inflammatory agents, or chromoglycate. In severe cases of SAC, subcutaneous or sublingual immunotherapy is helpful. PAC needs longer therapy, often year round, with mast cell stabilizers, antihistamines, and sometimes local steroids. Atopic keratoconjunctivitis is a more severe disease showing chronic blepharitis often connected with severe keratitis. It needs, in many cases, continuous treatment of the lid eczema and keratoconjunctivitis. Blepharitis is treated with tacrolimus or pimecrolimus ointment. Conjunctivitis additionally needs corticosteroids and, if needed, cyclosporine A (CsA drops are administered for longer periods. Basic conjunctival treatment is with mast cell-stabilizing agents and in addition, antihistamines are administered. Vernal keratoconjunctivitis is another chronic and serious allergic disease that mainly affects children and young people. It is a long-lasting disease which commonly subsides in puberty. It demands intensive therapy often for many years to avoid serious complicating corneal ulcers. Treatment is mast cell-stabilizing drops and additionally antihistamines. In relapses, corticosteroids are needed. When the use of corticosteroids is continuous, CsA drops should be used, and in relapses, corticosteroids should be used additionally. Nonallergic eosinophilic conjunctivitis (NAEC is a less known, but rather common, ocular disease. It affects mostly middle-aged and

  8. Review of external ocular compression: clinical applications of the ocular pressure estimator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Korenfeld MS

    2016-02-01

    during three additional compressions. After a 5-minute period, the surgeons were asked to reproduce this targeted IOP during subsequent compressions.Results: The mean IOP during the “sleep session” was 22±5 mmHg (SEM. The mean peak pressure was 40±11 mmHg (SEM and the mean trough pressure was 15±2 mmHg (SEM. There was a 78% agreement between the eye that was reported to be dependent during sleep and the eye with the larger vertical cup-to-disc ratio, for eyes with at least a 0.10 cup-to-disc ratio difference, P=0.001, n=137. The OPE estimated an average induced IOP during typical DOM of 104±8 mmHg (SEM, with each compression having an average range of 17±3 mmHg (SEM. After coaching, and a 5-minute waiting period, the average induced IOP reduced to 95±3 mmHg (SEM with a reduced average range of IOP to 11±1 mmHg.Conclusion: The OPE was successfully used to estimate the IOP while subjects experienced EOC during normal sleep postures. These EOC-induced elevations of IOP were considerable, and likely contribute to significant ocular pathology, not only for glaucoma, but for retinal vascular occlusive diseases, retinal vascular leakage, and the induction of the ocular-cardiac reflex in infants, as well. The correlation of a larger vertical cup-to-disc ratio in patients with a sleep posture preference suggests a causal relationship, since patients with other conditions known to be associated with cup-to disc ratio asymmetry were excluded from this study. The OPE is a useful device to teach DOM to surgeons and patients for home use. Keywords: sleep posture, intraocular pressure, nocturnal, cup-to-disc ratio asymmetry, glaucoma, digital ocular massage

  9. OCULAR PATHOLOGY IN PATIENTS AFTER KIDNEY TRANSPLANTATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. K. Moshetova

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Structural changes in eyes are present in all patients with chronic kidney disease. A study to detect ocular patho- logy in patients with end-stage chronic renal failure after kidney transplantation in the early and late postopera- tive period compared with patients receiving replacement therapy with hemodialysis. Revealed that in the early post-transplant period in recipients of kidneyas in patients on hemodialysis, continued angioretinopatiya, 40% of patients had «dry eye syndrome». In the delayed post-transplant period, patients showed significant impro- vement in the retina and retinal vessels, the improvement of spatial-temporal parameters of visual perception. However, a decrease of visual acuity on the background of the development of posterior subcapsular cataract caused by prolonged corticosteroid, and an increased incidence of viral and bacterial conjunctivitis. 

  10. Ocular Tuberculosis II: Diagnosis and Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sumru Önal

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Recent studies on the clinical importance of tuberculin skin tests (TST, interferon-gamma release assays (IGRAs, chest computed tomography (CT and polymerase chain reaction have provided a new approach to diagnosing ocular tuberculosis (TBC. However, both TST and IGRAs cannot distinguish between latent TBC infection and active disease. Another corroborative test in the diagnosis of intraocular TBC is the evaluation of the lungs by either chest radiography or CT. Direct evidence for the diagnosis can be obtained by examination of smears and staining for acid-fast organisms, cultures of intraocular tissue/fluid for Mycobacterium tuberculosis, and nucleic acid amplification analysis. In recent years, guidelines have been suggested for the diagnosis of intraocular TBC. The current treatment of intraocular TBC consists of use of four drugs (isoniazid, rifampicin, ethambutol and pyrazinamide taken for a long period of time (total 9-15 months. (Turk J Ophthalmol 2011; 41: 182-90

  11. Mediators and Mechanisms of Herpes Simplex Virus Entry into Ocular Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farooq, Asim V.; Valyi-Nagy, Tibor; Shukla, Deepak

    2010-01-01

    The entry of herpes simplex virus (HSV) into cells was once thought to be a general process. It is now understood that the virus is able to use multiple mechanisms for entry and spread, including the use of receptors and co-receptors that have been determined to be cell-type specific. This is certainly true for ocular cell types, which is important as the virus may use different mechanisms to gain access to multiple anatomic structures in close proximity, leading to various ocular diseases. There are some patterns that may be utilized by the virus in the eye and elsewhere, including surfing along filopodia in moving from cell to cell. There are common themes as well as intriguing differences in the entry mechanisms of HSV into ocular cells. We discuss these issues in the context of conjunctivitis, keratitis, acute retinal necrosis and other ocular diseases. PMID:20465436

  12. Ocular melanoma metastatic to skin: the value of HMB-45 staining.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Robert A; Kist, Joseph M; Thomas, Isabelle; Fernández, Geover; Cruz, Manuel A; Koziorynska, Ewa I; Lambert, W Clark

    2004-06-01

    Cutaneous metastatic disease is an important finding that may represent the first sign of systemic cancer, or, if already known, that may change tumor staging and thus dramatically altered therapeutic plans. Although cutaneous metastases are relatively frequent in patients with cutaneous melanoma, they are less so from ocular melanoma. To demonstrate the value of HMB-45, staining in the detection of ocular melanoma metastatic to skin. The immunohistochemical stain HMB-45 a monoclonal antibody directed against intact human melanoma cells, was employed on a skin biopsy specimen from a cutaneous tumor. HMB-45 staining was positive in the atypical hyperchromatic cells of the deep dermis. HMB-45 may be of value in the detection of ocular melanoma metastatic to skin. Cutaneous metastatic disease is a somewhat common and extremely important diagnosis. Although cutaneous metastases from cutaneous melanoma are relatively frequent, those from ocular melanomas are less so. Use of histochemical staining, especially the HMB-45 stain, allows confirmation of the diagnosis.

  13. Mediators and mechanisms of herpes simplex virus entry into ocular cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farooq, Asim V; Valyi-Nagy, Tibor; Shukla, Deepak

    2010-06-01

    The entry of herpes simplex virus into cells was once thought to be a general process. It is now understood that the virus is able to use multiple mechanisms for entry and spread, including the use of receptors and co-receptors that have been determined to be cell-type specific. This is certainly true for ocular cell types, which is important as the virus may use different mechanisms to gain access to multiple anatomic structures in close proximity, leading to various ocular diseases. There are some patterns that may be utilized by the virus in the eye and elsewhere, including surfing along filopodia in moving from cell to cell. There are common themes as well as intriguing differences in the entry mechanisms of herpes simplex virus into ocular cells. We discuss these issues in the context of conjunctivitis, keratitis, acute retinal necrosis, and other ocular diseases.

  14. Multimodal imaging and diagnosis of myopic choroidal neovascularization in Caucasians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milani P

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Paolo Milani,1 Amedeo Massacesi,1 Stefania Moschini,1 Marco Setaccioli,1 Ennio Bulone,1 Gemma Tremolada,1 Stefano Ciaccia,1 Elena Mantovani,1 Daniela Morale,2 Fulvio Bergamini1 1Ophthalmology Department, Istituto Auxologico, 2Institute of Mathematics, Universita’ degli Studi di Milano, Milan, Italy Purpose: To investigate myopic choroidal neovascularization (mCNV by fluorescein angio­graphy (FA, spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT, near-infrared (NIR reflectance, and autofluorescence (AF. Methods: This retrospective study included 65 eyes of 62 Caucasian patients with a mean age of 66.72 years (95% confidence interval [CI] 63–70 years and a mean refraction of -9.72 diopters (95% CI -8.74 to -10.70 diopters. Results: Most of the mCNV cases were foveal-juxtafoveal (60/65, 92.3%, with thickening of the corresponding retina (62/65, 95.3% and leakage on FA (44/65, 67.6%. No retinal fluid was detectable in 32 (49.2% eyes and there was no hemorrhage in 25 (38.4% eyes. Papillary chorio­retinal atrophy was evident in 58 (89.2%, a shadowing effect in 48 (73.8%, and an epiretinal membrane in 38 (58.4% eyes. If an area of macular chorioretinal atrophy was present, mCNV frequently developed adjacent to it and was hyperfluorescent rather than with leakage (P<0.001. In eyes with edema or hemorrhage, hyper-reflective foci were more frequent (P<0.005. NIR and AF features were indeterminable in 19 (29.2% and 27 (41.5% eyes, respectively. The predominant feature was black or grayish on NIR (34/65, 52.3% and patchy (hypo- and hyperfluorescence was observed on AF (25/65, 38.4%. FA and SD-OCT correctly detected mCNV in 49 (75.3% and 48 (73.8% eyes, respectively, whereas NIR and AF exhibited limited diagnostic sensitivity. Doubtful diagnosis was associated with hyperfluorescent mCNV (P<0.001, absence of retinal fluid and epiretinal membrane (P<0.05, and presence of macular chorioretinal atrophy (P<0.01. Conclusion: Tomographic, angiographic, AF

  15. Communicating the promise for ocular gene therapies: challenges and recommendations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benjaminy, Shelly; Kowal, Stephanie P; MacDonald, Ian M; Bubela, Tania

    2015-09-01

    To identify challenges and pose solutions for communications about ocular gene therapy between patients and clinicians as clinical research progresses. Literature review with recommendations. Literature review of science communication best practices to inform recommendations for patient-clinician discussions about ocular gene therapy. Clinicians need to employ communications about ocular gene therapy that are both attentive to patient priorities and concerns and responsive to other sources of information, including overly positive news media and the Internet. Coverage often conflates research with therapy-clinical trials are experimental and are not risk free. If proven safe and efficacious, gene therapy may present a treatment but not a cure for patients who have already experienced vision loss. Clinicians can assist patients by providing realistic estimates for lengthy clinical development timelines and positioning current research within models of clinical translation. This enables patients to weigh future therapeutic options when making current disease management decisions. Ocular gene therapy clinical trials are raising hopes for treating a myriad of hereditary retinopathies, but most such therapies are many years in the future. Clinicians should be prepared to counter overly positive messaging, found in news media and on the Internet, with optimism tempered by evidence to support the ethical translation of gene therapy and other novel biotherapeutics. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Ocular findings in MELAS syndrome – a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Modrzejewska, Monika; Chrzanowska, Martyna; Modrzejewska, Anna; Romanowska, Hanna; Ostrowska, Iwona; Giżewska, Maria

    We present a case of a child with MELAS syndrome (mitochondrial encephalo-myopathy with lactic acidosis and stroke-like episodes), discussing clinical manifestation, ocular findings and diagnostic challenges. Predominant ocular sym